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1

Enhancement of cell viability after treatment with polyunsaturated fatty acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly prevalent in children and adolescents and both environmental and genetic factors play major roles. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are postulated to contribute to the development of the infant brain and an imbalance in these may increase the risk of ADHD. In recent clinical studies, supplementation with PUFAs improved symptoms of ADHD in some cases. Similarly, some beneficial effects were observed with PUFA treatment in neuronal cell cultures. Therefore, in this study, we hypothesized that a specific PUFA combination (available on the market as Equazen™ [Vifor Pharma, Switzerland]) along with iron, zinc, or vitamin B5 (vitB5) would produce an additive beneficial effect on the viability of rat pheochromocytoma-12 dopaminergic cells. The specific PUFA combination alone, as well as added to each of the three nutrients, was tested in a dose-response manner. The specific PUFAs significantly improved cell viability, starting at very low doses (100pM) from 60h up to 90h; while the combined treatment with vitB5 and minerals did not provide additional benefit. Our results confirmed the beneficial effect of the specific PUFAs on neuronal cell viability; although supplementation with minerals and vitB5 did not enhance this effect. PMID:24269370

Bartl, J; Walitza, S; Grünblatt, E

2014-01-24

2

Acid and alkaline treatments for enhancing the growth of rhizobia in sludge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wastewater treatment processes produce large amounts of sludge. The application of sludge to agricultural soils improves the soil's physical and biological properties because it contains organic matter and plant nutrients. Wastewater sludge has been used for producing certain bacteria. It has also been proposed as an effective method for the production of rhizobia. Although the amount of sludge required for the production of bacterial inoculum is low, this new application constitutes an additional and suitable alternative for wastewater sludge recycling. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential of using acid or alkaline pre-treatments in sludges having different solid concentrations, to increase the biodegradability of organic material, thereby to enhance the growth of rhizobia, while using sludge as a culture medium. Results of the experiment show that both acid and alkaline treatments improved the rhizobial cell count and reduced mean generation time in primary and secondary sludges, but the efficiency of the treatment was also dependent on the total suspended solids (TSS) concentration. The highest cell count was obtained with primary sludge at 0.65 per cent TSS under alkaline treatment. For secondary sludge, the highest cell count was reached under acid hydrolysis. The mean generation time was reduced by both pre-treatments, with best values obtained for alkaline treatment in primary sludge. 31 refs., 6 tabs.

Rebah, F. B.; Tyagi, R. D. [Quebec Univ., Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Sainte Foy, PQ (Canada); Prevost, D. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Centre de recherche et de developpement sur les sols et les grandes cultures, Sainte Foy, PQ (Canada)

2001-06-01

3

Enhancing ethanol fermentability of an artificial acid hydrolyzate with anion exchange resin treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

To assess the effectiveness of anion exchange resins (Dowex M43 and Dowex monosphere 66) in neutralization and detoxification of an acid hydrolyzate solution, a fermentation medium containing inhibitors was inoculated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When treated with resins at a 1:1 ratio (vol:wt) for up to 20 min, 55-67% of furan and more than 95% of phenolic compounds were removed. Ethanol fermentation activity in resin-treated fermentation medium was the same as the control. There was 21-43% of the total sugar loss after one resin treatment, depending on the sugar concentration. Additional treatments increased sugar retention rate to 95%. PMID:18320470

Zhang, Yi; Gao, Jun; Ntoni, Jennifer; Begonia, Maria F T; Lee, Ken S; Hwang, Huey-Min

2008-01-01

4

Enhanced Photocatalytic Performance of ZnS for Reversible Amination of ?-oxo Acids by Hydrothermal Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

To understand how life could have originated on early Earth, it is essential to know what biomolecules and metabolic pathways are shared by extant organisms and what organic compounds and their chemical reaction channels were likely to have been primordially available during the initial phase of the formation of prebiotic metabolism. In a previous study, we demonstrated for the first time the reversible amination of ?-oxo acids on the surface of photo-illuminated ZnS. The sulfide mineral is a typical component at the periphery of submarine hydrothermal vents which has been frequently argued as a very attractive venue for the origin of life. In this work, in order to simulate more closely the precipitation environments of ZnS in the vent systems, we treated newly-precipitated ZnS with hydrothermal conditions and found that its photocatalytic power was significantly enhanced because the relative crystallinity of the treated sample was markedly increased with increasing temperature. Since the reported experimental conditions are believed to have been prevalent in shallow-water hydrothermal vents of early Earth and the reversible amination of ?-oxo acids is a key metabolic pathway in all extant life forms, the results of this work provide a prototypical model of the prebiotic amino acid redox metabolism. The amino acid dehydrogenase-like chemistry on photo-irradiated ZnS surfaces may advance our understanding of the establishment of archaic non-enzymatic metabolic systems.

Wang, Wei; Li, Qiliang; Liu, Xiaoyang; Yang, Yanqiang; Su, Wenhui

2012-08-01

5

Enhancing decomposition rate of perfluorooctanoic acid by carbonate radical assisted sonochemical treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a recalcitrant organic pollutant in wastewater because of its wide range of applications. Technologies for PFOA treatment have recently been developed. In this study, PFOA decomposition by sonochemical treatment was investigated to determine the effects of NaHCO3 concentrations, N2 saturation, and pH on decomposition rates and defluorination efficiencies. The results showed that PFOA decomposition by ultrasound treatment only (150 W, 40 kHz), with or without saturated N2, was PFOA decomposition and defluorination efficiencies of PFOA, however, greatly increased with the addition of carbonate radical reagents. PFOA was completely decomposed after 4h of sonochemical treatment with a carbonate radical oxidant and saturated N2. Without saturated N2, PFOA was also decomposed to a high (98.81%) degree. The highest PFOA decomposition and defluorination efficiencies occurred in N2 saturated solution containing an initial NaHCO3 concentration of 30 mM. Sonodecomposition of PFOA with CO3(-) radical was most favorable in a slightly alkaline environment (pH=8.65). There isn't any shorter-chain perfluorinated carboxylic acids detected except fluorine ions in final reaction solution. PMID:24751291

Phan Thi, Lan-Anh; Do, Huu-Tuan; Lo, Shang-Lien

2014-09-01

6

Enhanced suppression of tumor growth by concomitant treatment of human lung cancer cells with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid and arsenic trioxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The efficacy of arsenic trioxide (ATO) against acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and relapsed APL has been well documented. ATO may cause DNA damage by generating reactive oxygen intermediates. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, modulates gene and protein expression via histone-dependent or -independent pathways that may result in chromatin decondensation, cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis. We investigated whether ATO and SAHA act synergistically to enhance the death of cancer cells. Our current findings showed that combined treatment with ATO and SAHA resulted in enhanced suppression of non-small-cell lung carcinoma in vitro in H1299 cells and in vivo in a xenograft mouse model. Flow cytometric analysis of annexin V+ cells showed that apoptotic cell death was significantly enhanced after combined treatment with ATO and SAHA. At the doses used, ATO did not interfere with cell cycle progression, but SAHA induced p21 expression and led to G1 arrest. A Comet assay demonstrated that ATO, but not SAHA, induced DNA strand breaks in H1299 cells; however, co-treatment with SAHA significantly increased ATO-induced DNA damage. Moreover, SAHA enhanced acetylation of histone H3 and sensitized genomic DNA to DNase I digestion. Our results suggest that SAHA may cause chromatin relaxation and increase cellular susceptibility to ATO-induced DNA damage. Combined administration of SAHA and ATO may be an effective approach to the treatment of lung cancer. -- Highlights: ? ATO and SAHA are therapeutic agents with different action modes. ? Combination of ATO and SAHA synergistically inhibits tumor cell growth. ? SAHA loosens chromatin structure resulting in increased sensitivity to DNase I. ? ATO-induced DNA damage and apoptosis are enhanced by co-treatment with SAHA.

7

Enhanced suppression of tumor growth by concomitant treatment of human lung cancer cells with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid and arsenic trioxide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The efficacy of arsenic trioxide (ATO) against acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and relapsed APL has been well documented. ATO may cause DNA damage by generating reactive oxygen intermediates. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, modulates gene and protein expression via histone-dependent or -independent pathways that may result in chromatin decondensation, cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis. We investigated whether ATO and SAHA act synergistically to enhance the death of cancer cells. Our current findings showed that combined treatment with ATO and SAHA resulted in enhanced suppression of non-small-cell lung carcinoma in vitro in H1299 cells and in vivo in a xenograft mouse model. Flow cytometric analysis of annexin V+ cells showed that apoptotic cell death was significantly enhanced after combined treatment with ATO and SAHA. At the doses used, ATO did not interfere with cell cycle progression, but SAHA induced p21 expression and led to G1 arrest. A Comet assay demonstrated that ATO, but not SAHA, induced DNA strand breaks in H1299 cells; however, co-treatment with SAHA significantly increased ATO-induced DNA damage. Moreover, SAHA enhanced acetylation of histone H3 and sensitized genomic DNA to DNase I digestion. Our results suggest that SAHA may cause chromatin relaxation and increase cellular susceptibility to ATO-induced DNA damage. Combined administration of SAHA and ATO may be an effective approach to the treatment of lung cancer. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATO and SAHA are therapeutic agents with different action modes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination of ATO and SAHA synergistically inhibits tumor cell growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SAHA loosens chromatin structure resulting in increased sensitivity to DNase I. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATO-induced DNA damage and apoptosis are enhanced by co-treatment with SAHA.

Chien, Chia-Wen [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 11490, Taiwan (China); Yao, Ju-Hsien [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Institute of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan (China); Chang, Shih-Yu [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Lee, Pei-Chih [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Institute of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan (China); Lee, Te-Chang, E-mail: bmtcl@ibms.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Institute of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan (China)

2011-11-15

8

Chemical treatment of poly(lactic acid) fibers to enhance the rate of thermal depolymerization.  

Science.gov (United States)

When heated, poly(lactic acid) (PLA) fibers depolymerize in a controlled manner, making them potentially useful as sacrificial fibers for microchannel fabrication. Catalysts that increase PLA depolymerization rates are explored and methods to incorporate them into commercially available PLA fibers by a solvent mixture impregnating technique are tested. In the present study, the most active catalysts are identified that are capable of lowering the depolymerization temperature of modified PLA fibers by ca. 100 °C as compared to unmodified ones. Lower depolymerization temperatures allow PLA fibers to be removed from a fully cured epoxy thermoset resin without causing significant thermal damage to the epoxy. For 500 ?m diameter PLA fibers, the optimized treatment involves soaking the fibers for 24 h in a solvent mixture containing 60% trifluoroethanol (TFE) and 40% H(2)O dispersed with 10 wt % tin(II) oxalate and subsequent air-drying of the fibers. PLA fibers treated with this procedure are completely removed when heated to 180 °C in vacuo for 20 h. The time evolution of catalytic depolymerization of PLA fiber is investigated by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Channels fabricated by vaporization of sacrificial components (VaSC) are subsequently characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray microtomography (Micro CT) to show the presence of residual catalysts. PMID:22008224

Dong, Hefei; Esser-Kahn, Aaron P; Thakre, Piyush R; Patrick, Jason F; Sottos, Nancy R; White, Scott R; Moore, Jeffrey S

2012-02-01

9

Treatment with ?-lipoic acid enhances the bone healing after femoral fracture model of rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the fracture-healing effects of ?-lipoic acid (?-LA), which was applied orally once daily in preventive treatment mode during 1 month after fracture induction. Rats were randomly divided into sham-operated group (group 1), femoral fracture control (group 2), femoral fracture?+?25 mg/kg ?-LA (group 3), and femoral fracture?+?50 mg/kg ?-LA (group 4). Rats in the experimental groups were orally administered 25 or 50 mg/kg ?-LA once daily for 30 days starting from postoperative day 1. Thirty days postoperatively, the rats underwent X-ray imaging and were then euthanized for blood and tissue collection. Histopathological, biochemical, molecular, computed tomography (CT), and mechanical strength tests were performed on samples. The serum levels of osteocalcin (OC), osteopontin (OP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) did not differ significantly between groups 2 and 3. Serum OC, OP, TNF-?, and IL-6 levels in group 4 were significantly lower than those in group 3. From X-ray images, staging for fracture healing was scored as 2 in group 3, and >3 in group 4. In group 2, the average score of less than 2 suggests insufficient fracture healing; those of both the ?-LA groups were >2, indicating progression of healing. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were significantly higher in the sham group than in the femoral fracture control. Both doses of ?-LA increased TGF-? mRNA expression compared to the fracture group. CT results and biomechanical testing at 4 week after fracture demonstrated that ?-LA has fastened bone healing, which was confirmed by stereological analyses in which 50 mg/kg ?-LA increased the number of osteoclasts. Our findings indicate that ?-LA supplementation promotes healing of femoral fractures in rats. PMID:25038619

Aydin, Ali; Halici, Zekai; Akoz, Ayhan; Karaman, Adem; Ferah, Irmak; Bayir, Yasin; Aksakal, A Murat; Akpinar, Erol; Selli, Jale; Kovaci, Halim

2014-11-01

10

Plasma treatment induces internal surface modifications of electrospun poly(L-lactic) acid scaffold to enhance protein coating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Advanced biomaterials should also be bioactive with regard to desirable cellular responses, such as selective protein adsorption and cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. To enhance cell-material interactions, surface modifications have commonly been performed. Among the various surface modification approaches, atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma has been used to change a hydrophobic polymer surface to a hydrophilic surface. Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA)-derived scaffolds lack cell recognition signals and the hydrophobic nature of PLLA hinders cell seeding. To make PLLA surfaces more conducive to cell attachment and spreading, surface modifications may be used to create cell-biomaterial interfaces that elicit controlled cell adhesion and maintain differentiated phenotypes. In this study, (He) gaseous atmospheric plasma glow discharge was used to change the characteristics of a 3D-type polymeric scaffold from hydrophobic to hydrophilic on both the outer and inner surfaces of the scaffold and the penetration efficiency with fibronectin was investigated. Field-emission scanning electron microscope images showed that some grooves were formed on the PLLA fibers after plasma treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data also showed chemical changes in the PLLA structure. After plasma treatment, -CN (285.76 eV) was increased in C1s and -NH2 (399.70 eV) was increased significantly and –N=CH (400.80 eV) and –NH3+ (402.05 eV) were newly appeared in N1s. These changes allowed fibronectin to penetrate into the PLLA scaffold; this could be observed by confocal microscopy. In conclusion, helium atmospheric pressure plasma treatment was effective in modifying the polymeric scaffold, making it hydrophilic, and this treatment can also be used in tissue engineering research as needed to make polymers hydrophilic

11

Plasma treatment induces internal surface modifications of electrospun poly(L-lactic) acid scaffold to enhance protein coating  

Science.gov (United States)

Advanced biomaterials should also be bioactive with regard to desirable cellular responses, such as selective protein adsorption and cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. To enhance cell-material interactions, surface modifications have commonly been performed. Among the various surface modification approaches, atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma has been used to change a hydrophobic polymer surface to a hydrophilic surface. Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA)-derived scaffolds lack cell recognition signals and the hydrophobic nature of PLLA hinders cell seeding. To make PLLA surfaces more conducive to cell attachment and spreading, surface modifications may be used to create cell-biomaterial interfaces that elicit controlled cell adhesion and maintain differentiated phenotypes. In this study, (He) gaseous atmospheric plasma glow discharge was used to change the characteristics of a 3D-type polymeric scaffold from hydrophobic to hydrophilic on both the outer and inner surfaces of the scaffold and the penetration efficiency with fibronectin was investigated. Field-emission scanning electron microscope images showed that some grooves were formed on the PLLA fibers after plasma treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data also showed chemical changes in the PLLA structure. After plasma treatment, -CN (285.76 eV) was increased in C1s and -NH2 (399.70 eV) was increased significantly and -N=CH (400.80 eV) and -NH3+ (402.05 eV) were newly appeared in N1s. These changes allowed fibronectin to penetrate into the PLLA scaffold; this could be observed by confocal microscopy. In conclusion, helium atmospheric pressure plasma treatment was effective in modifying the polymeric scaffold, making it hydrophilic, and this treatment can also be used in tissue engineering research as needed to make polymers hydrophilic.

Jin Seo, Hyok; Hee Lee, Mi; Kwon, Byeong-Ju; Kim, Hye-Lee; Jin Lee, Seung; Kim, Bong-Jin; Wang, Kang-Kyun; Kim, Yong-Rok; Park, Jong-Chul

2013-08-01

12

Amino acid treatment enhances protein recovery from sediment and soils for metaproteomic studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Characterization of geomicrobial protein expression provides information necessary to better understand the unique biological pathways that occur within soil microbial communities and the role they play in regulating atmospheric CO2 levels and the Earth’s climate. A significant challenge in studying soil microbial proteins is their initial dissociation from the complex mixture of particles found in natural soil. Due to bias of the most robust cells, the removal of intact bacterial cells limits the characterization of the complete representation of a microbial community. However, in-situ lysis of bacterial cells leads to the expulsion of proteins to the soil surface, which can lead to potentially high levels of adsorption due to the physicochemical properties of both the protein and the soil. We investigated various compounds for their ability to block protein adsorption soil sites prior to in-situ lysis of bacterial cells, as well as their compatibility with both tryptic digestion and mass spectrometric analysis. The treatments were tested by adding lysed Escherichia coli proteins to representative treated and untreated soil samples. The results show that it is possible to significantly increase protein identifications through blockage of binding sites on a variety of soil textures; use of an optimized desorption buffer further increases the number of identifications.

Nicora, Carrie D.; Anderson, Brian J.; Callister, Stephen J.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Jansson, Janet K.; Mason, Olivia U.; David, Maude; Jurelevicius, Diogo D.; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.

2013-10-01

13

Chemical changes in Ulmus minor xylem tissue after salicylic acid or carvacrol treatments are associated with enhanced resistance to Ophiostoma novo-ulmi.  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of endogenous plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) or essential oil component carvacrol (CA) in elms enhances tree resistance to the Dutch elm disease pathogen, although the effect of these compounds on tree metabolism is unknown. The chemical changes induced by SA or CA treatments in Ulmus minor were studied through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of xylem tissues. Treatments consisted of fortnightly irrigating seedlings with water, SA or CA at 600 mg L?¹. The chemical composition of the xylem tissues sampled from treated trees was significantly altered depending on the treatment type. SA treatment induced an accumulation of the sinapyl alcohol, a precursor of lignin and other phenylpropanoid-derived products. CA treatment induced an accumulation of the methyl esters of palmitic, linoleic and stearic acids. Both treatments resulted in early bud burst and SA significantly reduced sapwood radial growth, possibly as a consequence of a trade-off between tree growth and tree defence. The enhanced resistance provided by these treatments is discussed. PMID:22910373

Martín, Juan A; Solla, Alejandro; García-Vallejo, María C; Gil, Luis

2012-11-01

14

Diagnostic significance of gadolinium-DTPA (diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in thrombolytic treatment for acute myocardial infarction: its potential in assessing reperfusion.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The diagnostic value of gadolinium-DTPA (diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in patients treated by thrombolysis for acute myocardial infarction was assessed in 27 consecutive patients who had a first acute myocardial infarction (14 anterior, 13 inferior) and who underwent thrombolytic treatment and coronary arteriography within 4 hours of the onset of symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed 93 hours (range 15-241) after the onset of symptoms. ...

Wall, E. E.; Dijkman, P. R.; Roos, A.; Doornbos, J.; Laarse, A.; Manger Cats, V.; Voorthuisen, A. E.; Matheijssen, N. A.; Bruschke, A. V.

1990-01-01

15

Enhanced industrial wastewater treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate (SS/FS) process is a treatment technology for the reduction of hexavalent chromium and precipitation of heavy metals in industrial wastewater treatment plants (IWTP). When the ferrous ion, as ferrous sulfate, is mixed with sulfide, the hexavalent chromium is rapidly reduced to its trivalent state at a neutral pH and then precipitated. SS/FS technology can be used to replace the current hydroxide treatment chemistry in Navy IWTPs. This paper will present the results and lessons learned from full-scale implementation of SS/FS at Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC) Keyport, Washington. The SS/FS treatment process reduced the chemical cost by fifty nine percent and sludge disposal cost by thirty one percent. On an annual basis total cost savings amounted to $31,950 or thirty four percent. The SS/FS treatment process lowered the amount of treatment chemicals used in the IWTP. Furthermore, metal sulfides tend to be two to three orders of magnitude less soluble than their corresponding metal hydroxides. This allows for cleaner effluent, which will help the facility meet environmental discharge requirements. Further benefits include the removal from the shop area of the high pressure sulfur dioxide cylinder (used in the hydroxide process), a faster and more reliable chrome reduction method, neutral pH operation that extends tank and equipment life, and less acid and caustic chemicals stored on the shop floor. As Navy activities respond to the ever increasing pressures to do more with less, the SS/FS process can help them meet the increasingly stringent standards.

Nachabe, A.H.; Durlak, E. [Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, CA (United States)

1997-12-31

16

Sec61alpha synthesis is enhanced during translocation of nascent chains of collagen type IV in F9 teratocarcinoma cells after retinoic acid treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nascent procollagen peptides and other secretory proteins are transported across the endoplasmic reticulum (ER membrane through a protein-conducting channel called translocon. Sec61alpha, a multispanning membrane translocon protein, has been implicated as being essential for translocation of polypeptide chains into the cisterns of the ER. Sec61alpha forms a protein complex with collagen and Hsp47, an ER-resident heat shock protein that binds specifically to collagen. However, it is not known whether Sec61alpha is ubiquitously produced in collagen-producing F9 teratocarcinoma cells or under heat shock treatment. Furthermore, the production and utilization of Sec61alpha may depend on the stage of cell differentiation. Cultured F9 teratocarcinoma cells are capable of differentiation in response to low concentrations of retinoic acid. This differentiation results in loss of tumorigenicity. Mouse F9 cells were grown in culture medium at 37ºC and 43ºC (heat shock treatment treated or not with retinoic acid, and labeled in certain instances with 35S-methionine. Membrane-bound polysomes of procollagen IV were then isolated. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis were performed using polyclonal antibodies against collagen IV, Hsp47 and Sec61alpha. Under retinoic acid-untreated conditions, F9 cells produced undetectable amounts of Sec61alpha. Sec61alpha, Hsp47 and type IV collagen levels were increased after retinoic acid treatment. Heat shock treatment did not alter Sec61alpha levels, suggesting that Sec61alpha production is probably not affected by heat shock. These data indicate that the enhanced production of Sec61alpha in retinoic acid-induced F9 teratocarcinoma cells parallels the increased synthesis of Hsp47 and collagen type IV.

Ferreira L.R.

2003-01-01

17

Sec61alpha synthesis is enhanced during translocation of nascent chains of collagen type IV in F9 teratocarcinoma cells after retinoic acid treatment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Nascent procollagen peptides and other secretory proteins are transported across the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane through a protein-conducting channel called translocon. Sec61alpha, a multispanning membrane translocon protein, has been implicated as being essential for translocation of polype [...] ptide chains into the cisterns of the ER. Sec61alpha forms a protein complex with collagen and Hsp47, an ER-resident heat shock protein that binds specifically to collagen. However, it is not known whether Sec61alpha is ubiquitously produced in collagen-producing F9 teratocarcinoma cells or under heat shock treatment. Furthermore, the production and utilization of Sec61alpha may depend on the stage of cell differentiation. Cultured F9 teratocarcinoma cells are capable of differentiation in response to low concentrations of retinoic acid. This differentiation results in loss of tumorigenicity. Mouse F9 cells were grown in culture medium at 37ºC and 43ºC (heat shock treatment) treated or not with retinoic acid, and labeled in certain instances with 35S-methionine. Membrane-bound polysomes of procollagen IV were then isolated. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis were performed using polyclonal antibodies against collagen IV, Hsp47 and Sec61alpha. Under retinoic acid-untreated conditions, F9 cells produced undetectable amounts of Sec61alpha. Sec61alpha, Hsp47 and type IV collagen levels were increased after retinoic acid treatment. Heat shock treatment did not alter Sec61alpha levels, suggesting that Sec61alpha production is probably not affected by heat shock. These data indicate that the enhanced production of Sec61alpha in retinoic acid-induced F9 teratocarcinoma cells parallels the increased synthesis of Hsp47 and collagen type IV.

L.R., Ferreira; C.E.E., Velano; E.C., Braga; C.C., Paula; H., Martéli Junior; J.J., Sauk.

18

Post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 using aerobic moving bed biofilm process: enhanced removal of aromatic amines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The application of aerobic moving bed biofilm process as post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 was investigated in this study. The main objective of this work was to enhance removal of anaerobically formed the dye aromatic metabolites. Three separate sequential treatment systems were operated with different initial dye concentrations of 100, 500 and 1000 mg/L. Each treatment system consisted of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (An-SBR) followed by an aerobic moving bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor (MB-SBBR). Up to 98% of the dye decolorization and more than 80% of the COD removal occurred anaerobically. The obtained results suggested no significant difference in COD removal as well as the dye decolorization efficiency using three An-SBRs receiving different initial dye concentrations. Monitoring the dye metabolites through HPLC suggested that more than 80% of anaerobically formed 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate was completely removed in the aerobic biofilm reactors. Based on COD analysis results, at least 65-72% of the dye total metabolites were mineralized during the applied treatment systems. According to the measured biofilm mass and also based on respiration-inhibition test results, increasing the initial dye concentration inhibited the growth and final mass of the attached-growth biofilm in MB-SBBRs. PMID:21880425

Koupaie, E Hosseini; Moghaddam, M R Alavi; Hashemi, S H

2011-11-15

19

Post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 using aerobic moving bed biofilm process: Enhanced removal of aromatic amines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Biofilm process was applied as post-treatment of anaerobically degraded an azo dye. ? More than 65% of the dye total metabolites was completely mineralized. ? Based on HPLC analysis, more than 80% of 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate was removed. ? Inhibition of biofilm growth was increased with increasing the initial dye concentration. ? Considerable porous morphology was observed in the SEM photographs of the biofilm. - Abstract: The application of aerobic moving bed biofilm process as post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 was investigated in this study. The main objective of this work was to enhance removal of anaerobically formed the dye aromatic metabolites. Three separate sequential treatment systems were operated with different initial dye concentrations of 100, 500 and 1000 mg/L. Each treatment system consisted of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (An-SBR) followed by an aerobic moving bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor (MB-SBBR). Up to 98% of the dye decolorization and more than 80% of the COD removal occurred anaerobically. The obtained results suggested no significant difference in COD removal as well as the dye decolorization efficiency using three An-SBRs receiving different initial dye concentrations. Monitoring the dye metabolites through HPLC suggested that more than 80% of anaerobically formed 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate was completely removed in the aerobic biofilm reactors. Based on COD analysis resultss. Based on COD analysis results, at least 65-72% of the dye total metabolites were mineralized during the applied treatment systems. According to the measured biofilm mass and also based on respiration-inhibition test results, increasing the initial dye concentration inhibited the growth and final mass of the attached-growth biofilm in MB-SBBRs.

20

Post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 using aerobic moving bed biofilm process: Enhanced removal of aromatic amines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: {yields} Biofilm process was applied as post-treatment of anaerobically degraded an azo dye. {yields} More than 65% of the dye total metabolites was completely mineralized. {yields} Based on HPLC analysis, more than 80% of 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate was removed. {yields} Inhibition of biofilm growth was increased with increasing the initial dye concentration. {yields} Considerable porous morphology was observed in the SEM photographs of the biofilm. - Abstract: The application of aerobic moving bed biofilm process as post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 was investigated in this study. The main objective of this work was to enhance removal of anaerobically formed the dye aromatic metabolites. Three separate sequential treatment systems were operated with different initial dye concentrations of 100, 500 and 1000 mg/L. Each treatment system consisted of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (An-SBR) followed by an aerobic moving bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor (MB-SBBR). Up to 98% of the dye decolorization and more than 80% of the COD removal occurred anaerobically. The obtained results suggested no significant difference in COD removal as well as the dye decolorization efficiency using three An-SBRs receiving different initial dye concentrations. Monitoring the dye metabolites through HPLC suggested that more than 80% of anaerobically formed 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate was completely removed in the aerobic biofilm reactors. Based on COD analysis results, at least 65-72% of the dye total metabolites were mineralized during the applied treatment systems. According to the measured biofilm mass and also based on respiration-inhibition test results, increasing the initial dye concentration inhibited the growth and final mass of the attached-growth biofilm in MB-SBBRs.

Hosseini Koupaie, E., E-mail: ehssan.hosseini.k@gmail.com [Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology (AUT), Hafez Ave., Tehran 15875-4413 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alavi Moghaddam, M.R., E-mail: alavim@yahoo.com [Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology (AUT), Hafez Ave., Tehran 15875-4413 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi, S.H., E-mail: h_hashemi@sbu.ac.ir [Environmental Science Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-11-15

 
 
 
 
21

Enhancement of colposcopic image by sulphosalicylic acid.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Acetic acid is used conventionally for enhancement of the colposcopic image. We used sulphosalicylic acid instead of acetic acid in 50 normal cases. The normal appearance was enhanced in all cases. The image was also enhanced in 70% cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 90% cases of cervical condyloma accuminata. The image was not inferior to that with acetic acid in any of the cases.

Khilnani P

1993-01-01

22

Treatment of acid mine wastewaters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Acid mine drainage often results from the oxidation sulfide minerals to form sulfuric acid. As a consequence, high concentrations of metals in the both the suspended and dissolved state result from the low pH water. This paper discusses several of the more common treatment methods for acid mine drainage including the use of chemical precipitation agents, pH correction agents, filtration methods, and biodegradation methods. Advanced treatment technologies are also briefly described and include microfiltration, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, and electrodialysis

23

Gemstone enhancement by radiation treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the discovery of radioactivity, investigations on the effects of atomic rays on precious stones began and Crookes established that alpha rays from radium produced green colour in diamonds. Gamma rays, x-rays, electrons, neutrons, protons etc. are effective in producing colour in precious stone like topaz and corundum. Some of these also produce considerable amount of radioactivity which is not acceptable if the radioactivity exceeds permissible limits. Colour enhancement by radiation treatment, different radiations, safety of irradiated gem stones and market related aspects are discussed. (author)

24

Sulfuric acid treatment for Artemia cyst decapsulation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study, sulfuric acid was used for Artemia cysts decapsulation. Cysts of Artemia franciscana were hatched out in regular manner or following hypochlorite or acid decapsulation. Two acid concentrations (1 and 5%, three acid immersion times (10, 30 and 50 min were used and hatching rates were recorded after 15, 18 and 24 h incubation. Hatching rates increased but hatching time decreased in line with acid concentration and acid immersion time increment. Hypochlorite-treated cysts had significantly higher hatching rate (97% compared to other groups. However, among the acid- treated cysts, the best hatching rate (92.4% was achieved in cysts treated with 1% acid over 50 min. Acid treatment could be used as a decapsulation method which saves cost and labor because of increasing the  hatching rate and speed.

Seyyed Morteza Hoseini

2013-04-01

25

Surgical Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux Shawnee Mission Medical Center Shawnee Mission, Kansas May 21, 2009 Welcome ... OR-Live” webcast presentation live from Shawnee Mission Medical Center in Merriam, Kansas. During the program it’s ...

26

Surgical Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Live Surgical Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux Shawnee Mission Medical Center Shawnee Mission, Kansas May 21, 2009 Welcome to this “OR-Live” webcast presentation live from Shawnee Mission Medical Center ...

27

Surgical Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Live Surgical Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux Shawnee Mission Medical Center Shawnee Mission, Kansas May 21, 2009 Welcome to this “OR-Live” webcast presentation live from Shawnee Mission ...

28

Model application for acid mine drainage treatment processes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the utilization of the geochemical model, PHREEQC, to investigate the chemical treatment system for Acid Mine Drainage (AMD prior to the discharge. The selected treatment system consists of treatment processes commonly used for AMD including settling pond, vertical flow pond (VFP and caustic soda pond were considered in this study. The use of geochemical model for the treatment process analysis enhances the understanding of the changes in AMD’s chemistry (precipitation, reduction of metals, etc. in each process, thus, the chemical requirements (i.e., CaCO3 and NaOH for the system and the system’s treatment efficiency can be determined. The selected treatment system showed that the final effluent meet the discharge standard. The utilization of geochemical model to investigate AMD treatment processes can assist in the process design.

Nantaporn Noosai, Vineeth Vijayan, Khokiat Kengskool

2014-01-01

29

Enhanced integrated nonthermal treatment system study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the Enhanced Nonthermal Treatment Systems (ENTS) study is to evaluate alternative configurations of one of the five systems evaluated in the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) study. Five alternative configurations are evaluated. Each is designed to enhance the final waste form performance by replacing grout with improved stabilization technologies, or to improve system performance by improving the destruction efficiency for organic contaminants. AU enhanced systems are alternative configurations of System NT-5, which has the following characteristics: Nonthermal System NT-5: (1) catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) to treat organic material including organic liquids, sludges, and soft (or combustible) debris, (2) thermal desorption of inorganic sludge and process residue, (3) washing of soil and inorganic debris with treatment by CWO of removed organic material, (4) metal decontamination by abrasive blasting, (5) stabilization of treated sludge, soil, debris, and untreated debris with entrained contamination in grout, and (6) stabilization of inorganic sludge, salts and secondary waste in polymer. System NT-5 was chosen because it was designed to treat combustible debris thereby minimizing the final waste form volume, and because it uses grout for primary stabilization. The enhanced nonthermal systems were studied to determine the cost and performance impact of replacing grout (a commonly used stabilization agent in the DOE complex) with improved waste stabilization methods such as vitrification and polymer

30

Enhancing pitting corrosion resistance of AlxCrFe1.5MnNi0.5 high-entropy alloys by anodic treatment in sulfuric acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High-entropy alloys are a newly developed family of multi-component alloys that comprise various major alloying elements. Each element in the alloy system is present in between 5 and 35 at.%. The crystal structures and physical properties of high-entropy alloys differ completely from those of conventional alloys. The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) of the AlxCrFe1.5MnNi0.5 (x = 0, 0.3, 0.5) alloys, obtained in 0.1 M HCl solution, clearly revealed that the corrosion resistance values were determined to increase from 21 to 34 ?cm2 as the aluminum content increased from 0 to 0.5 mol, and were markedly lower than that of 304 stainless steel (243 ?cm2). At passive potential, the corresponding current declined with the anodizing time accounting, causing passivity by the growth of the multi-component anodized film in H2SO4 solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses revealed that the surface of anodized Al0.3CrFe1.5MnNi0.5 alloy formed aluminum and chromium oxide film which was the main passivating compound on the alloy. This anodic treatment increased the corrosion resistance in the EIS measurements of the CrFe1.5MnNi0.5 and Al0.3CrFe1.5MnNi0.5 alloys by two orders of magnitude. Accordingly, the anodic treatment of the AlxCrFe1.5MnNi0.5 alloys optimized thb>MnNi0.5 alloys optimized their surface structures and minimized their susceptibility to pitting corrosion

31

Induction of system A amino acid transport activity through long-term treatment with ouabain: possible correlation with enhanced (Na+/K+)ATPase activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mouse embryo fibroblast cells (C3H-10T1/2) and the methylcholanthrene-transformed derivative (MCA-10T1/2) were treated with basal modified Eagles medium at varying ouabain concentrations ranging from 0.05 mM to 0.5 mM for 16 h in culture. After replacing the ouabain-containing medium with BME, System A (3H-AlB uptake) and the (Na+/K+)ATPase pump activity (ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake) was increased 10-fold and 3-fold, respectively (at 0.4 mM ouabain) in confluent C3H-10T1/2 cells. System A and the (Na+/K+)ATPase activity was increased 15-fold and 5-fold, respectively in confluent MCA-10T1/2 cells but the increase was maximal at 0.2 mM ouabain. This treatment with ouabain increased the [Na+]/sub i//[K+]/sub i/ as measured by atomic absorption, and thereby decreased the Na+ and K+ electrochemical gradients. Their data show that the transformed cells were more sensitive to the internal ion inversion by ouabain than the C3H-10T1/2 cells. It appears, from data on hypertonicity and lipophilic cations that neither the chemical Na+ gradient nor the negative membrane potential are the primary driving forces of System A transport

32

Fenton-enhanced ?-radiolysis of cyanuric acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Degradation of cyanuric acid (OOOT), a stable end product of oxidative decomposition of atrazine, is investigated in a combined field of gamma radiolysis and fenton reaction. The reaction of hydroxyl radical (·OH) at pH 6 was carried out by irradiating N2O saturated aqueous solutions containing OOOT (1 x 10-3 mol dm-3), and this resulted only a marginal degradation (20%). However, when the same reaction was carried out in the presence of varying concentrations of ferrous sulfate ((5-10) x 10-5 mol dm-3), the decay of OOOT has been enhanced to more than 80%. This decay followed a first order kinetics. Nearly similar effects were observed with another triazine derivative, 2,4-dioxohexahydro-1,3,5-triazine (DHT). Two major reaction mechanisms are proposed for the enhanced decay of OOOT. The formation of unstable hydroxyl radical adducts from the reaction of ·OH which is the result of gamma radiolysis and the Fenton reaction (resulting from the reaction of the added Fe(II) and of the H2O2 from the radiolysis of water), is proposed as the first mechanism. The second mechanism, which is likely the major contributor to degradation, is proposed as the reaction of a nucleophilic adduct, Fe(II)OOH, which could directly react with the electron deficient triazine ring. It is highlighted that such degradation reactions must be explored for the complete degradation of the byproducts of the oxidative deco of the byproducts of the oxidative decomposition of atrazine

33

Ethacrynic acid: a novel radiation enhancer in human carcinoma cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Because agents that interfere with thiol metabolism and glutathione S-transferase (GST) functions have been shown to enhance antitumor effects of alkylating agents in vitro and in vivo, the present study was conceived on the basis that an inhibitor of GST would enhance the radiation response of some selected human carcinoma cells. Ethacrynic acid (EA) was chosen for the study because it is an effective inhibitor of GST and is a well known diuretic in humans. Methods and Materials: Experiments were carried out with well-established human tumor cells in culture growing in Eagle's minimum essential medium (MEM) supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS). Cell lines used were MCF-7, MCF-7 adriamycin resistant (AR) cells (breast carcinoma), HT-29 cells (colon carcinoma), DU-145 cells (prostate carcinoma), and U-373 cells (malignant glioma). Cell survival following the exposure of cells to drug alone, radiation alone, and a combined treatment was assayed by determining the colony-forming ability of single plated cells in culture to obtain dose-survival curves. The drug enhancement ratio was correlated with levels of GST. Results: The cytotoxicity of EA was most pronounced in MCF-7, U-373, and DU-145 cells compared to MCF-7 AR and HT-29 cells. The levels of GST activity were found to be lower in those EA-sensitive cells. A significant radiation enhancement was obtained with EA-sensitive cells exposed to nontoxic concentrations of the drug immediately before or aftions of the drug immediately before or after irradiation. The sensitizer enhancement ratio (SER) of MCF-7 cells was 1.55 with EA (20 ?g/ml), while the SER of MCF-7 AR was less than 1.1. Based on five different human tumor cells, a clear inverse relationship was demonstrated between the magnitude of SER and GST levels of tumor cells prior to the combined treatment. Conclusion: The present results suggest that EA, which acts as both a reversible and irreversible inhibitor of GST activity, could significantly enhance the radiation response of human cancer cells and the level of GST in tumor cells may predict the magnitude of radiation enhancement with EA. Ethacrynic acid would be an excellent drug as a radiosensitizer for further in vivo tumor study

34

Cognitive enhancers for the treatment of anxiety disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditional treatments for anxiety disorders include cognitive-behavioral therapy and anxiolytic medications. Although these treatments are more effective than placebo, there is still considerable room for further improvement. Unfortunately, combining these different modalities is generally not substantially better than monotherapies. Recently, researchers have turned their attention toward translating preclinical research on the neural circuitry underlying fear extinction to clinical applications for the treatment of anxiety disorders with the goal to augment the learning process during exposure-based procedures with cognitive enhancers. This review examines d-cycloserine, cortisol, catecholamines, yohimbine, oxytocin, modafinil, as well as nutrients and botanicals as agents to augment treatment for anxiety disorders. D-cycloserine shows the most empirical support. Other promising agents include cortisol, catecholamines, yohimbine, and possibly oxytocin. Less support comes from studies that examined nutrients and botanicals, such as caffeine, nicotine, and omega-3 fatty acid. Limitations of the exiting literature and future research directions are discussed. PMID:23542909

Hofmann, Stefan G; Fang, Angela; Gutner, Cassidy A

2014-01-01

35

Amoxycillin-clavulanic acid treatment of melioidosis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Melioidosis is a serious infection with high acute mortality, and a high rate of relapse despite protracted antimicrobial treatment. The current recommended conventional oral treatment regimen is a 4-drug combination of high-dose chloramphenicol, doxycycline and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole given for between 6 weeks and 6 months. We have evaluated prospectively the use of amoxycillin-clavulanic acid, to which Pseudomonas pseudomallei is consistently sensitive in vitro, for the oral maintena...

Suputtamongkol, Y.; Dance, Da; Chaowagul, W.; Wattanagoon, Y.; Wuthiekanun, V.; White, Nj

1991-01-01

36

Acid Cleavable Surface enhanced Raman Tagging for Protein Detection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dye conjugation is a common strategy improving the surface enhanced Raman detection sensitivity of biomolecules. Reported is a proof-of-concept study of a novel surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic tagging strategy termed as acid-cleavable SERS tag (ACST) method. Using Rhodamine B as the starting material, we prepared the first ACST prototype that consisted of, from the distal end, a SERS tag moiety (STM), an acid-cleavable linker, and a protein reactive moiety. Complete acid cleavage of the ...

Zhang, Dongmao; Vangala, Karthikeshwar; Li, Shaoyong; Yanney, Michael; Xia, Hao; Zou, Sige; Sygula, Andrzej

2011-01-01

37

Multifunctional Nucleic Acids for Tumor Cell Treatment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We report on a multifunctional nucleic acid, termed AptamiR, composed of an aptamer domain and an antimiR domain. This composition mediates cell specific delivery of antimiR molecules for silencing of endogenous micro RNA. The introduced multifunctional molecule preserves cell targeting, anti-proliferative and antimiR function in one 37-nucleotide nucleic acid molecule. It inhibits cancer cell growth and induces gene expression that is pathologically damped by an oncomir. These findings will have a strong impact on future developments regarding aptamer- and antimiR-related applications for tumor targeting and treatment.

Pofahl, Monika; Wengel, Jesper

2014-01-01

38

Abscisic acid enhances resistance to Alternaria solani in tomato seedlings.  

Science.gov (United States)

The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is an important regulator in many aspects of plant growth and development, as well as stress resistance. Here, we investigated the effects of exogenous ABA application on the interaction between tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) and Alternaria solani (early blight). Foliar spraying of 7.58 ?M ABA was effective in reducing disease severity in tomato plants. Previously, increased activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) were observed in exogenous ABA-treated tomato leaves. Moreover, these enzyme activities were maintained at higher levels in ABA-pretreated and A. solani challenged tomato plants. Tomato defense genes, such as PR1, ?-1, 3-glucanase (GLU), PPO, POD, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), were rapidly and significantly up-regulated by exogenous ABA treatment. Furthermore, a subsequent challenge of ABA-pretreated plants with the pathogen A. solani resulted in higher expression of defense genes, compared to water-treated or A. solani inoculated plants. Therefore, our results suggest that exogenous ABA could enhance disease resistance against A. solani infection in tomato through the activation of defense genes and via the enhancement of defense-related enzymatic activities. PMID:21530290

Song, Weiwei; Ma, Xinrong; Tan, Hong; Zhou, Jinyan

2011-07-01

39

Acid mine drainage treatment: an evaluation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper explains why water management and research into new treatment processes are key concerns for Anglo Coal, South Africa. Anglo Coal operates seven large collieries in Mpumalanga province where the Witbank Highveld coalfield is located. The article explains how it controls the impact of acid mine drainage and salination on water resources associated with the Olifants River catchment which includes opencast, underground and bord and pillar operations. New processes evaluated at the Landau colliery are described - these are the GYP-CIX ion exchange process, the ECODOSE electrochemical process and the CSIROSURE and THIOPAQ biological sulphate removal processes. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

van Zyl, H.C.; Gunther, P.; van Niekerk, A.M.

2001-08-01

40

Styrene maleic acid neocarzinostatin treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

A variety of treatments have recently been introduced to improve the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). These anticancer therapies include the oily carcinostatic agent styrene maleic acid neocarzinostatin (SMANCS). SMANCS is a chemical conjugate of a synthetic copolymer of styrene maleic acid (SMA) and the proteinaceous anti-cancer agent neocarzinostatin (NCS), which dissolves in organic solvents such as pyridine and acetone, and particularly in Lipiodol. NCS is a simple protein capable of inhibiting DNA synthesis and inducing DNA degradation. Lipiodol is an ethyl ester of iodinated poppy seed oil in which most of the unsaturated double bonds in oleic, linoleic and linolenic acid are almost completely iodinated. When a homogeneous suspension of SMANCS with Lipiodol (SMANCS/Lipiodol) is administered intra-arterially, Lipiodol acts as a carrier of SMANCS. Many studies have demonstrated the clinical efficacy of SMANCS/Lipiodol in the treatment of HCC. We have shown that transcatheter arterial infusion (TAI) with SMANCS/Lipiodol has a more favorable focal therapeutic effect than does epirubicin in Lipiodol in the initial treatment of HCC. However, recent clinical studies have indicated that SMANCS causes severe adverse reactions and complications. We have also reported a case of HCC in which multifocal hepatic infarction developed after TAI with SMANCS/Lipiodol. Arterial administration of SMANCS/Lipiodol, therefore, should be given as peripherally as possible via the tumor feeding arteries, to enhance the efficacy of the agent and to reduce the adverse effects. PMID:12678722

Abe, Shintaro; Otsuki, Makoto

2002-11-01

 
 
 
 
41

Organic acid enhanced electrodialytic extraction of lead from contaminated soil fines in suspension  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The implementation of soil washing technology for the treatment of heavy metal contaminated soils is limited by the toxicity and unwieldiness of the remaining heavy metal contaminated sludge. In this work, the feasibility of combining electrodialytic remediation with heterotrophic leaching for decontamination of the sludge was investigated. The ability of 11 organic acids to extract Pb from the fine fraction of contaminated soil (grains <63 mu m) was investigated, and application of the acids as enhancing reagents during electrodialytic remediation (EDR) of Pb-contaminated soil fines in suspension was tested. Five of the acids showed the ability to extract Ph from the soil fines in excess of the effect caused solely by pH changes. Addition of the acids, however, severely impeded EDR, hence promotion of EDR by combination with heterotrophic leaching was rejected. In contrast, enhancement of EDR with nitric acid gave promising results.

Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

2007-01-01

42

Evaluation of Seed and Seedling Emergence Enhancement of Some Population of Sahandy Savory (Satureja sahendica) by Gibberlic Acid, Potasium Nitrate, Pre-cooling, Physical and Chemical Scarification Treatment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In greenhouse experiment, the seed samples of 3 populations were treated with treatments including: cold stratification, Gibberlic Acid (50 ppm and 100 ppm), Potassium nitrate (0.2%, 0.4%), physical scarification (sand paper), chemical scarification (Ethylic alcohol 70%) and distilled water (control), then these treated seed samples were sown in pots as randomize design with three replication. The germination characteristics including: germination percentage, speed of germination, lengt...

Tabaie, R.; Arab, H. A.; Alizadeh, M. A.; Nasiri, M.

2013-01-01

43

Gamma ray treatment enhances bioactivity and osseointegration capability of titanium.  

Science.gov (United States)

The time-dependent degradation of titanium bioactivity (i.e., the biological aging of titanium) has been reported in previous studies. This phenomenon is caused by the loss of hydrophilicity and the inevitable occurrence of progressive contamination of titanium surfaces by hydrocarbons. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that gamma ray treatment, owing to its high energy to decompose and remove organic contaminants, enhances the bioactivity and osteoconductivity of titanium. Titanium disks were acid-etched and stored for 4 weeks. Rat bone marrow-derived osteoblasts (BMOs) were cultured on titanium disks with or without gamma ray treatment (30 kGy) immediately before experiments. The cell density at day 2 increased by 50% on gamma-treated surfaces, which reflected the 25% higher rate of cell proliferation. Osteoblasts on gamma-treated surfaces showed 30% higher alkaline phosphatase activity at day 5 and 60% higher calcium deposition at day 20. The strength of in vivo bone-implant integration increased by 40% at the early healing stage of week 2 for gamma-treated implants. Gamma ray-treated surfaces regained hydrophilicity and showed a lower percentage of carbon (35%) as opposed to 48% on untreated aged surfaces. The data indicated that gamma ray pretreatment of titanium substantially enhances its bioactivity and osteoconductivity, in association with the significant reduction in surface carbon and the recovery of hydrophilicity. The results suggest that gamma ray treatment could be an effective surface enhancement technology to overcome biological aging of titanium and improve the biological properties of titanium implants. PMID:22987777

Ueno, Takeshi; Takeuchi, Masato; Hori, Norio; Iwasa, Fuminori; Minamikawa, Hajime; Igarashi, Yoshimasa; Anpo, Masakazu; Ogawa, Takahiro

2012-11-01

44

Acid mine water treatment using engineered wetlands  

Science.gov (United States)

During the last two decades, the United States mining industry has greatly increased the amount it spends on pollution control. The application of biotechnology to mine water can reduce the industry's water treatment costs (estimated at over a million dollars a day) and improve water quality in streams and rivers adversely affected by acidic mine water draining from abandoned mines. Biological treatment of mine waste water is typically conducted in a series of small excavated ponds that resemble, in a superficial way, a small marsh area. The ponds are engineered to first facilitate bacterial oxidation of iron; ideally, the water then flows through a composted organic substrate that supports a population of sulfate-reducing bacteria. The latter process raises the pH. During the past four years, over 400 wetland water treatment systems have been built on mined lands as a result of research by the U.S. Bureau of Mines. In general, mine operators find that the wetlands reduce chemical treatment costs enough to repay the cost of wetland construction in less than a year. Actual rates of iron removal at field sites have been used to develop empirical sizing criteria based on iron loading and pH. If the pH is 6 or above, the wetland area (m2) required is equivalent to the iron load (grams/day) divided by 10. Theis requirement doubles at a pH of 4 to 5. At a pH below 4, the iron load (grams/day) should be divided by 2 to estimate the area required (m2).

Kleinmann, Robert L. P.

1990-03-01

45

Nano-proniosomes enhancing the transdermal delivery of mefenamic acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Mefenamic acid (MA) is a BCS II class NSAID drug. It is available only in the form of tablets, capsules, and pediatric suspensions. Oral administration of MA is associated with severe gastrointestinal side effects. The aim of this study was to develop a convenient and low-cost transdermal drug delivery system for MA using proniosome as a novel carrier without the addition of penetration enhancers. The formulation factors, such as the presence of cholesterol, types of lecithin, and surfactants were investigated for their influence on the entrapment efficiency, rate of hydration, vesicle size, and zeta potential, in vitro drug release and skin permeation in order to optimize the proniosomal formulations with the minimum dose of the drug. Furthermore, the in vivo anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated on a formalin-induced rat paw edema model. The results showed that the type of surfactants had higher impact on the entrapment efficiency than the type of lecithins, with the highest in Span 80 (82.84%). The release of MA from Span 80 proniosomal gel was significantly affected by the type of lecithin used. The addition of cholesterol significantly increased both the drug release and the skin permeation flux of MA. Zeta potential showed a stable A4 noisomal suspension. DSC revealed the molecular dispersion of MA into the loaded proniosomes. In vivo study of the treatment group with MA proniosome gel showed a significant inhibition of rat paw edema compared with the same gel without the drug (control). The results of this study suggest that proniosomes are promising nano vesicular carriers and safe alternatives to enhance the transdermal delivery of MA. PMID:24779560

Wen, Ming Ming; Farid, Ragwa M; Kassem, Abeer A

2014-12-01

46

Ascorbic Acid Efficiently Enhances Neuronal Synthesis of Norepinephrine from Dopamine  

Science.gov (United States)

Ascorbic acid enhances synthesis of norepinephrine from dopamine in adrenal chromaffin cells by serving as a co-factor for chromaffin granule dopamine ?-hydroxylase (D?H). However, there is controversy regarding in situ kinetics of the ascorbate effect in chromaffin cells, as well as whether they apply to neuronal cells. In this study we evaluated the stimulation of norepinephrine synthesis from dopamine in cultured SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. These cells contained neither ascorbate nor norepinephrine in culture, but when provided with dopamine, they generated intracellular norepinephrine at rates that were stimulated several fold by intracellular ascorbate. Ascorbate-induced increases in norepinephrine synthesis in dopamine-treated cells were linear over 60 minutes, despite saturation of intracellular ascorbate. Norepinephrine accumulation after 60 minutes of incubation with 100 ?M dopamine was half-maximal at intracellular ascorbate concentrations of 0.2 – 0.5 mM, which fits well with the literature Km for ascorbate of D?H using dopamine as a substrate. Moreover, these ascorbate concentrations were generated by initial extracellular ascorbate concentrations of less than 25 ?M due to concentrative accumulation by the ascorbate transporter. Treatment with 100 ?M dopamine acutely increased cellular superoxide generation, which was prevented by ascorbate loading, but associated with a decrease in intracellular ascorbate when the latter was present at concentrations under 1 mM. These results show that ascorbate promptly enhances norepinephrine synthesis from dopamine by neuronal cells, that it does so at physiologic intracellular concentrations in accord with the kinetics of D?H, and that it both protects cells from superoxide and by providing electrons to D?H. PMID:23022576

May, James M.; Qu, Zhi-chao; Nazarewicz, Rafal; Dikalov, Sergey

2012-01-01

47

Enhancing Treatment Integrity Maintenance through Fading with Indiscriminable Contingencies  

Science.gov (United States)

School psychologists are often asked to develop treatment to remediate students' academic skills or social behavior problems. When teachers implement treatment recommendations with high levels of treatment integrity, students benefit. Treatment integrity has been enhanced by use of direct training, performance feedback, and negative…

Gross, Thomas J.; Duhon, Gary J.; Doerksen-Klopp, Bethany

2014-01-01

48

Acidic priming enhances metastatic potential of cancer cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metabolic acidosis is a common feature of tumor microenvironment and may affect the phenotype of tumor cells, including invasive capacity and formation of metastases. We tested whether previous exposure to an acidic environment alters metastatic potential of two rat carcinoma cell lines in the animal model. In addition, we determined the effect of an acidic environment on motility and invasive capacity of AT-1 prostate carcinoma cells in culture. Exposure of tumor cells to an acidic environment (pH 6.6, 5 % CO2, 6 h) prior to tail vein injection in rats enhanced formation of lung metastases significantly. In culture, acidosis increased cellular motility of AT-1 cells. When the tumor cells were transferred back to pH 7.4, enhanced motility persisted for at least 3 h but vanished after longer periods (24 h), therefore presenting a "short-term memory effect." Although acidosis augmented phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38, and inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation or of p38 kinase activity reduced basal motility at pH 7.4, acidosis-induced increase in motility was not dependent on ERK1/2 or p38 kinase. Src family kinases were not involved either. By contrast, scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS), known to be increased in AT-1 cells under acidic conditions, blunted acidosis-induced motility increase. Our data indicate that tumor cells may acquire enhanced motility in an acidic micromilieu, at least in part due to enhanced ROS formation. Because enhanced motility persists for at least 3 h after leaving the acidic environment, this may promote metastasis formation, as observed in our in vivo model. PMID:24531759

Riemann, Anne; Schneider, Bettina; Gündel, Daniel; Stock, Christian; Thews, Oliver; Gekle, Michael

2014-11-01

49

Biodegradability enhancement of purified terephthalic acid wastewater by coagulation-flocculation process as pretreatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, the coagulation-flocculation process was used as pretreatment for purified terephthalic acid (PTA) wastewater with the objective of improving its overall biodegradability. PTA production generates wastewaters with toxicants p-xylene [1,4-dimethyl-benzene (C8H10)], a major raw material used in the production process, along with some of the intermediates, viz., p-toluic acid, benzoic acid, 4-carboxybenzaldehyde, phthalic acid and terephthalic acid. These compounds affect the bio-oxidation process of wastewater treatment; hence removal of these constituents is necessary, prior to conventional aerobic treatment. This paper addresses the application of coagulation-flocculation process using chemical coagulants, viz., aluminium sulphate (alum), polyaluminium chloride (PAC), ferrous sulphate and ferric chloride in combination with anionic polyelectrolyte. Polyaluminium chloride (PAC) in conjunction with lime and polyelectrolyte removed about 63.1% chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 45.2% biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) from PTA wastewater. Coagulation-flocculation process coupled with aerobic bio-oxidation treatment of PTA wastewater achieved, COD & BOD removals of 97.4% and 99.4%, respectively. The biodegradability enhancement evaluated in terms of the BOD5/COD ratio, increased from 0.45 to 0.67 at the optimum conditions. The results obtained from these studies indicate that the coagulation-flocculation process could be a suitable pretreatment method in reducing toxicity of PTA wastewater whilst enhancing biodegradability for aerobic biological treatment scheme. PMID:18054427

Karthik, Manikavasagam; Dafale, Nishant; Pathe, Pradyumna; Nandy, Tapas

2008-06-15

50

Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and nucleic acids encoding same  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

Brown, Kimberly; Harris, Paul; Zaretsky, Elizabeth; Re, Edward; Vlasenko, Elena; McFarland, Keith; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo

2014-09-30

51

ORGANIC ACIDS CAN ENHANCE WET LIMESTONE FLUE GAS SCRUBBING  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper is an overview of organic acid use to enhance the limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process, and describes the application of the technology in operating FGD systems. The case studies illustrate the potential economic benefits of converting FGD systems to organic...

52

Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and nucleic acids encoding same  

Science.gov (United States)

The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

Brown, Kimberly; Harris, Paul; Zaretsky, Elizabeth; Re, Edward; Vlasenko, Elena; McFarland, Keith; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo

2012-10-16

53

Ellagic acid enhances morphine analgesia and attenuates the development of morphine tolerance and dependence in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

According to our previous study, ellagic acid has both dose-related central and peripheral antinociceptive effect through the opioidergic and l-arginine-NO-cGMP-ATP sensitive K(+) channel pathways. In the present study, the systemic antinociceptive effects of ellagic acid in animal models of pain, and functional interactions between ellagic acid and morphine in terms of analgesia, tolerance and dependence were investigated. Ellagic acid (1-30mg/kg; i.p.) showed significant and dose-dependent antinociceptive effects in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. Intraperitoneal ellagic acid acutely interacted with morphine analgesia in a synergistic manner in this assay. Ellagic acid (1-10mg/kg; i.p.) also exerted analgesic activity in the hot-plate test. Pre-treatment with naloxone (1mg/kg; i.p.) significantly reversed ellagic acid, morphine as well as ellagic acid-morphine combination-induced antinociceptin in these two tests. More importantly, when co-administered with morphine, ellagic acid (1-10mg/kg) effectively blocked the development of tolerance to morphine analgesia in the hot-plate test. Likewise, ellagic acid dose-dependently prevented naloxone-precipitated withdrawal signs including jumping and weight loss. Ellagic acid treatment (1-30mg/kg; i.p.) had no significant effect on the locomotion activity of animals using open-field task. Therefore, these results showed that ellagic acid has notable systemic antinociceptive activity for both tonic and phasic pain models. Altogether, ellagic acid might be used in pain relief alone or in combination with opioid drugs because of enhancing morphine analgesia and preventing morphine-induced tolerance to analgesia and dependence. PMID:25179576

Mansouri, Mohammad Taghi; Naghizadeh, Bahareh; Ghorbanzadeh, Behnam

2014-10-15

54

Lignor process for acidic rock drainage treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The process using lignosulfonates for acidic rock drainage (ARD) treatment is referred to as the Lignor process. Lignosulfonates are waste by-products produced in the sulfite pulping process. The present study has shown lignosulfonates are able to protect lime from developing an external surface coating, and hence to favor its dissociation. Further, the addition of lignosulfonates to ARD solutions increased the dotting and settling rate of the formed sludge. The capability of lignosulfonates to form stable metal-lignin complexes makes them very useful in retaining metal ions and thus improving the long-term stability of the sludge against leaching. The Lignor process involves metal sorption with lignosulfonates, ARD neutralization by lime to about pH 7, pH adjustment with caustic soda to 9.4 - 9.6, air oxidation to lower the pH to a desired level, and addition of a minimum amount of FeCl3 for further removal of dissolved metals. The Lignor process removes all concerned metals (especially Al and Mn) from the ARD of the Britannia Mine (located at Britannia Beach, British Columbia, Canada) to a level lower than the limits of the B.C. Regulations. Compared with the high-density sludge (HDS) process, the Lignor process has many advantages, such as considerable savings in lime consumption, greatly reduced sludge volume, and improved sludge stability. PMID:15515269

Zhuang, J M; Walsh, T

2004-09-01

55

Nucleic acid molecules conferring enhanced ethanol tolerance and microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to ethanol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention provides isolated nucleic acid molecules which encode a mutant acetaldehyde-CoA/alcohol dehydrogenase or mutant alcohol dehydrogenase and confer enhanced tolerance to ethanol. The invention also provides related expression vectors, genetically engineered microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to ethanol, as well as methods of making and using such genetically modified microorganisms for production of biofuels based on fermentation of biomass materials.

Brown, Steven; Guss, Adam; Yang, Shihui; Karpinets, Tatiana; Lynd, Lee; Shao, Xiongjun

2014-01-14

56

Oleic acid-enhanced transdermal delivery pathways of fluorescent nanoparticles  

Science.gov (United States)

Transdermal delivery of nanocarriers provides an alternative pathway to transport therapeutic agents, alleviating pain, improving compliance of patients, and increasing overall effectiveness of delivery. In this work, enhancement of transdermal delivery of fluorescent nanoparticles and sulforhodamine B with assistance of oleic acid was visualized utilizing multiphoton microscopy (MPM) and analyzed quantitatively using multi-photon excitation-induced fluorescent signals. Results of MPM imaging and MPM intensity-based spatial depth-dependent analysis showed that oleic acid is effective in facilitating transdermal delivery of nanoparticles.

Lo, Wen; Ghazaryan, Ara; Tso, Chien-Hsin; Hu, Po-Sheng; Chen, Wei-Liang; Kuo, Tsung-Rong; Lin, Sung-Jan; Chen, Shean-Jen; Chen, Chia-Chun; Dong, Chen-Yuan

2012-05-01

57

Acidity adjustment of HZSM-5 zeolites by dealumination and realumination with steaming and citric acid treatments.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes a novel method for acidity adjustment of HZSM-5 zeolites with steaming and citric acid treatments and demonstrates the realumination effect of citric acid on HZSM-5 zeolites dealuminated by steaming. A series of modified HZSM-5 zeolites were prepared by streaming and/or acid treatments and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), (27)Al MAS NMR spectroscopy, hydroxyl infrared spectroscopy (OH-IR), pyridine-adsorbed infrared spectroscopy, and N(2) adsorption in the present investigation. The results showed that compared with single HCl or citric acid treatment, steaming treatment, and steaming/HCl treatments, citric acid treatment after steaming exclusively increased the amount of framework Al due to reinsertion of extraframework Al into the defective sites of the steamed HZSM-5 framework. This realumination effect of the citric acid treatment on the steamed HZSM-5 zeolite, which is reported here for the first time to the best of our knowledge, could nearly recover the pore structure of the steamed zeolite to that of the parent HZSM-5 zeolite and appropriately tailor the amount and strength of different acid sites, which sheds light on optimizing the physicochemical properties of HZSM-5 zeolites. It was also found that the steaming treatment prior to the citric acid treatment was the precondition of the realumination of HZSM-5 zeolites, suggesting that the lattice defect sites generated during steaming were necessary for citric acid to work. PMID:16884262

Fan, Yu; Bao, Xiaojun; Lin, Xiuying; Shi, Gang; Liu, Haiyan

2006-08-10

58

Apparent Enhanced Solubility of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes in a Deuterated Acid Mixture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An apparent enhanced solubility of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs in the deuterated form of the standard 3 : 1 sulfuric (H2SO4 to nitric (HNO3 acid mixture treatment is reported and attributed to the stronger interaction of deuterium bonds with the single-wall carbon nanotube surface. UV-Visible spectroscopy was used to characterize the apparent enhanced solubility of the SWNTs treated in deuterated forms of the acid mixture in comparison to the standard acid mix, while FTIR was used to analyze the nature of the functional groups generated on the SWNTs as a result of the different acid treatments. The apparent enhanced solubility reported here is consistent with the limited number of computational and experimental results published in the literature regarding the interaction of carbon nanotubes with deuterated solvents; however, a detailed understanding of the underlying mechanism responsible for this observation is currently lacking. The apparent increased solubility observed here could potentially be utilized in many applications where carbon nanotube dispersion is required.

L. Catherine Brinson

2008-04-01

59

Appearance of hepatocellular adenomas on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate enhancement characteristics of hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs) using gadoxetic acid as a hepatocyte-specific MR contrast agent. Twenty-four patients with histopathologically proven HCAs were retrospectively identified. MRI consisted of T1- and T2-weighted (w) sequences with and without fat saturation (fs), multiphase dynamic T1-w images, and fs T1-w images during the hepatobiliary phase. Standard of reference was surgical resection (n = 19) or biopsy (n = 5). Images were analysed for morphology and contrast behaviour including signal intensity (SI) measurement on T1-w images normalised to the pre-contrast base line. In total 34 HCAs were evaluated. All HCAs showed enhancement in the arterial phase; 38 % of HCAs showed reduced contrast enhancement (''wash-out'') in the venous phase. All HCAs showed enhancement (SI increase, 56 ± 53 %; P <0.001) in the hepatobiliary phase, although liver uptake was stronger (96 ± 58 %). Thus, 31 of all HCAs (91 %) appeared hypointense to the surrounding liver in the hepatobiliary phase, while 3 out of 34 lesions were iso-/hyperintense. Gadoxetic acid accumulates in HCAs in the hepatobiliary phase, although significantly less than in surrounding liver. Thus, HCA appears in the vast majority of cases as a hypointense lesion on hepatobiliary phase images. (orig.)

60

Dynamic hydroxymethylation of deoxyribonucleic acid marks differentiation-associated enhancers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enhancers are developmentally controlled transcriptional regulatory regions whose activities are modulated through histone modifications or histone variant deposition. In this study, we show by genome-wide mapping that the newly discovered deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) modification 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is dynamically associated with transcription factor binding to distal regulatory sites during neural differentiation of mouse P19 cells and during adipocyte differentiation of mouse 3T3-L1 cells. Functional annotation reveals that regions gaining 5hmC are associated with genes expressed either in neural tissues when P19 cells undergo neural differentiation or in adipose tissue when 3T3-L1 cells undergo adipocyte differentiation. Furthermore, distal regions gaining 5hmC together with H3K4me2 and H3K27ac in P19 cells behave as differentiation-dependent transcriptional enhancers. Identified regions are enriched in motifs for transcription factors regulating specific cell fates such as Meis1 in P19 cells and PPAR? in 3T3-L1 cells. Accordingly, a fraction of hydroxymethylated Meis1 sites were associated with a dynamic engagement of the 5-methylcytosine hydroxylase Tet1. In addition, kinetic studies of cytosine hydroxymethylation of selected enhancers indicated that DNA hydroxymethylation is an early event of enhancer activation. Hence, acquisition of 5hmC in cell-specific distal regulatory regions may represent a major event of enhancer progression toward an active state and participate in selective activation of tissue-specific genes. PMID:22730288

Sérandour, Aurélien A; Avner, Stéphane; Oger, Frédérik; Bizot, Maud; Percevault, Frédéric; Lucchetti-Miganeh, Céline; Palierne, Gaëlle; Gheeraert, Céline; Barloy-Hubler, Frédérique; Péron, Christine Le; Madigou, Thierry; Durand, Emmanuelle; Froguel, Philippe; Staels, Bart; Lefebvre, Philippe; Métivier, Raphaël; Eeckhoute, Jérôme; Salbert, Gilles

2012-09-01

 
 
 
 
61

How Surface Treatments Enhance Ground Handling  

Science.gov (United States)

Several runway surface treatments developed in recent years are described in terms of how aircraft tire landing and takeoff friction requirements are met, particularly during adverse weather conditions. Changing the surface texture with grooving, grinding and shot peening, use of chemicals to remove or prevent accumulation of natural or man-made contaminants, and the use of new techniques and materials are discussed as means of improving surface friction performance. Test data are presented to illustrate the effects of runway conditions on aircraft ground performance. The severity of the problem of operating on runway surfaces which cannot provide sufficient aircraft tire friction capability is also illustrated from documented aircraft accident/incident reports. The paper concludes with recommendations for future pavement research activities.

Yager, Thomas J.

2002-01-01

62

Hepatic arachidonic acid metabolism is disrupted after hexachlorobenzene treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hexaclorobenzene (HCB), one of the most persistent environmental pollutants, can cause a wide range of toxic effects including cancer in animals, and hepatotoxicity and porphyria both in humans and animals. In the present study, liver microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism, hepatic PGE production, and cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) activity were investigated in an experimental model of porphyria cutanea tarda induced by HCB. Female Wistar rats were treated with a single daily dose of HCB (100 mg kg-1 body weight) for 5 days and were sacrificed 3, 10, 17, and 52 days after the last dose. HCB treatment induced the accumulation of hepatic porhyrins from day 17 and increased the activities of liver ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (MROD), and aminopyrine N-demethylase (APND) from day 3 after the last dose. Liver microsomes from control and HCB-treated rats generated, in the presence of NADPH, hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs), epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), 11,12-Di HETE, and ?-OH/?-1-OH AA. HCB treatment caused an increase in total NADPH CYP-dependent AA metabolism, with a higher response at 3 days after the last HCB dose than at the other time points studied. In addition, HCB treatment markedly enhanced PGE production and release in liver slices. This HCB effect was time dependent and reached its highest level after 10 days. At this time cPLA2 activity was shown to be increased. Unexpectedly, HCB produced a significant decrease in cPLA2 activity on the 17th and 52nd day. Our results demonstrated for the first time that HCB induces both the cyclooxygenase and CYP-dependent AA metabolism. The effects of HCB on AA metabolism were previous to the onset of a marked porphyria and might contribute to different aspects of HCB-induced liver toxicity such as alterations of membrane fluidity and membrane-bound protein function. Observations also suggested that a possible role of cPLA2 in the early increase of AA metabolism cannot be excluded. However, the existence of other pathway(s) for metabolizable AA generation different from cPLA2 activation is also proposed

63

Water Adsorption and Surface Acidity of Nano-Ball Allophane as Affected by Heat Treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effect of heat treatment on the water adsorption and surface acidity of two nano-ball allophane samples with varying Si/Al ratio under different relative humidities (RHs was studied. The water vapor adsorption of two allophane samples under various relative humidities, decreased with preheating treatment up to 400 °C for 2 h. The decrease in water adsorption at monolayer level (RH≤0.45 was greater for KnP sample than for KyP sample, whereas the decrease in water adsorption due to capillary condensation between allophane unit particles (RH≥0.6 was greater for KyP sample. These indicate that allophane hollow spherical particles in KyP sample were directly connected each other with the preheating, but those in KnP sample were not. Heat treatment caused the enhancement in the surface acidity of nano-ball allophane samples. The enhancement in the surface acidity after heat treatment is attributed to the inductive effect on the Si-OH groups present at the pore region of the hollow sphere. The results showed that surface acidity of the allophane with higher Si/Al ratio (KnP was stronger than the (KyP sample having lower Si/Al ratio. This trend was observed under RH between 0 and 75%; then the acid strength for the two samples was the same at RH of 98%. After the heat treatment at lower level of RH, the surface acidity of KnP was higher than KyP. The presence of polymerized silicate tails exposed outside of hollow spherical allophane particles (KnP, causes the enhancement of the BrØnsted acidity and also prevent direct connection between the particles after heating.

Hamayoon Khan

2009-01-01

64

Acid mine water aeration and treatment system  

Science.gov (United States)

An in-line system is provided for treating acid mine drainage which basically comprises the combination of a jet pump (or pumps) and a static mixer. The jet pump entrains air into the acid waste water using a Venturi effect so as to provide aeration of the waste water while further aeration is provided by the helical vanes of the static mixer. A neutralizing agent is injected into the suction chamber of the jet pump and the static mixer is formed by plural sections offset by 90 degrees.

Ackman, Terry E. (Finleyville, PA); Place, John M. (Bethel Park, PA)

1987-01-01

65

Citric Acid Treatment of Chronic Wounds in Animals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chronic wound infections in animals not responding to conventional treatment modality are the important cause of morbidity. Infection is responsible for delayed wound healing. In the present study, an attempt was made to develop simple and effective treatment modality by using citric acid as a sole antimicrobial agent to control chronic wound infections in animals. Thirty eight cases of chronic wounds not responding to conventional treatment modalities were divided into two groups. Each group included 19 cases. In group 1, 3% citric acid solution and in group 2, 5% citric acid solution was used for local application to find out its efficacy in the treatment of chronic wound infections in animals. Citric acid was found effective in the control of all 38 cases in 7 to 20 applications. In group 1, the wounds healed in 10-20 applications. In group 2, the wounds healed in 7-15 applications. Citric acid treatment was found most effective and economical approach for the successful treatment of chronic infected wounds in animals not responding to conventional antibiotic treatment and local wound care. These results suggest that when healing of chronic wounds in animals is a matter of great concern, the value of topical agents like citric acid should not be forgotten.

B.S. Nagoba,

2011-02-01

66

Enhanced production of docosahexaenoic acid in mammalian cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), one of the important polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with pharmaceutical and nutraceutical effects, may be obtained through diet or synthesized in vivo from dietary a-linolenic acid (ALA). However, the accumulation of DHA in human body or other mammals relies on the intake of high dose of DHA for a certain period of time, and the bioconversion of dietary ALA to DHA is very limited. Therefore the mammalian cells are not rich in DHA. Here, we report a new technology for increased production of DHA in mammalian cells. By using transient transfection method, Siganus canaliculatus ?4 desaturase was heterologously expressed in chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, and simultaneously, mouse ?6-desaturase and ?5-desaturase were overexpressed. The results demonstrated that the overexpression of ?6/?5-desaturases significantly enhanced the ability of transfected cells to convert the added ALA to docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) which in turn get converted into DHA directly and efficiently by the heterologously expressed ?4 desaturase. This technology provides the basis for potential utility of these gene constructs in the creation of transgenic livestock for increased production of DHA/related products to meet the growing demand of this important PUFA. PMID:24788769

Zhu, Guiming; Jiang, Xudong; Ou, Qin; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Mingfu; Sun, Guozhi; Wang, Zhao; Sun, Jie; Ge, Tangdong

2014-01-01

67

300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan. Revision 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This section provides a description of the Hanford Site, identifies the proposed method of 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) closure, and briefly summarizes the contents of each chapter of this plan

68

300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan. Revision 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This section provides a description of the Hanford Site, identifies the proposed method of 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) closure, and briefly summarizes the contents of each chapter of this plan.

NONE

1996-03-01

69

Surgical Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... see that that’s kind of one of the golden standards for treatment is it so closely reproduces ... audience. He would like to know what the number of the needle is that you’re using ...

70

Surgical Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... upper GI series and sometimes a 24-hour PH study. Typically, medical treatments can be just elevating ... causing the problem. And so a 24-hour PH is commonly done. That’s a study performed by ...

71

300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOERL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion includes closure plan documentation submitted for individual, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units undergoing closure, such as the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Whenever appropriate, 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. This 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System Closure Plan (Revision 2) includes a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Part A, Form 3. Information provided in this closure plan is current as of April 1999

72

Surfactant enhanced ricinoleic acid production using Candida rugosa lipase.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, ricinoleic acid was produced on surfactant enhanced castor oil hydrolysis using Candida rugosa lipase. The most effective surfactant was Span 80. Employing fractional factorial design, the most suitable temperature and surfactant concentration were found to be 31 degrees C and 0.257% (w/w in buffer) respectively whereas pH, enzyme concentration, buffer concentration and agitation were identified as the most significant independent variables. A 2(4) full factorial central composite design was applied and the optimal conditions were found to be pH 7.0, enzyme concentration 7.42 mg/g oil, buffer concentration 0.20 g/g oil and agitation 1400 rpm with the maximum response of 76% in 4 h. The most important variable was pH, whereas enzyme and buffer concentrations also showed pronounced effect on response. This is the first report on the application of response surface methodology for optimizing surfactant enhanced ricinoleic acid production using C. rugosa lipase. PMID:19717301

Goswami, Debajyoti; Sen, Ramkrishna; Basu, Jayanta Kumar; De, Sirshendu

2010-01-01

73

Comparison Effects of Citric Acid and Synthetic Chelators In Enhancing Phytoremediation of Cadmium  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the effects of enhancing synthetic chelators (HEDTA, EGTA and low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA such as citric acid were compared on cadmium (Cd solution in soils that were artificially contaminated. Also Cd phytoextraction capability by radish (Raphanus Sativus L. was studied. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete factorial design where each treatment was replicated three times. Concentration treatments of cadmium using CdCl2 were 0(control, 5, 20, 60 and 100 mg Cd kg-1. After complete growth of plants, 6, 20 and 20 mMkg-1 soil HEDTA, EGTA and Citric Acid were added per pot, keeping a control without any chelator application. In order to determine cadmium concentration ten days after adding chelates, samples were taken from the plants and soil of pots. The results showed that in all treatments the concentration of soluble Cd in soil was higher than the control. Also the results showed that synthetic chelators as compared with LMWOA (Citric Acid have increased the solution remarkably. Among the other chelates, HEDTA had significant effects on Cd solution. In the current study, Cd concentration in shoot and root of (Raphanus Sativus L. was increased with enhancement of Cd concentration in soil. Cd concentrations in shoots of radish were higher than those in roots. This could refer to higher bioavailability and solubility of Cd. In the current study, in all the treatments with HEDTA Cd concentrations in shoot and root of (Raphanus Sativus L. were increased as compared with other chelates..

Z. Arabi

2011-01-01

74

Enhanced plant regeneration in lemna minor by amino acids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In present study we investigated the effects of different L-amino acids on the plant regeneration from callus of Lemna minor, and established an efficient protocol. Among the 20 L-amino acids, only L-Ser and L-Gly showed significant improving effect, with the optimal concentration being 1 mM and 1.5 mM, respectively. A regeneration frequency of 46% was observed when the callus transferred to the regeneration medium with addition of 1 mM L-Ser for 11 days. After 26 days of cultivation, the frond regeneration achieved 100% and 94% for 1 mM L-Ser and 1.5 mM L-Gly treatment, respectively. (author)

75

Alleviation of postharvest chilling injury of tomato fruit by salicylic acid treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tomato fruit at the mature green stage were treated with salicylic acid at different concentration (0, 1 and 2 mM) and analyzed for chilling injury (CI), electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline contents and phospholipase D (PLD) and lipoxygenase (LOX) activities during cold storage. PLD and LOX activities were significantly reduced by salicylic acid treatment. Compared with the control fruit, salicylic acid treatment alleviated chilling injury, reduced electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde content and increased proline content. Our result suggest that the reduce activity of PLD and LOX, by salicylic acid may be a chilling tolerance strategy in tomato fruit. Inhibition of PLD and LOX activity during low temperature storage could ameliorate chilling injury and oxidation damage and enhance membrane integrity in tomato fruit. PMID:25328231

Aghdam, Morteza Soleimani; Asghari, Mohammadreza; Khorsandi, Orojali; Mohayeji, Mehdi

2014-10-01

76

Carbonate interlayered hydrotalcites-enhanced peroxynitrous acid chemiluminescence for high selectivity sensing of ascorbic acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, Mg-Al-carbonate layered double hydroxides (denoted as Mg-Al-CO(3) LDHs) were found to catalyze the chemiluminescence (CL) emission from peroxynitrous acid (ONOOH). The enhanced CL signals resulted from the concentration of peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) onto the LDHs surface by electrostatic attraction, meaning that ONOO(-) can interact with the intercalated carbonate easily and effectively. Moreover, ascorbic acid can react with ONOO(-), or its decomposition products (e.g., ?OH and ?NO(2)), resulting in a decrease in the CL intensity from the Mg-Al-CO(3) LDHs-catalyzed ONOOH reaction. Based on these findings, a sensitive, selective and rapid CL method was developed for the determination of ascorbic acid using Mg-Al-CO(3) LDHs-catalyzed ONOOH as a novel CL system. The CL intensity was proportional to the concentration of ascorbic acid in the range from 5.0 to 5000 nM. The detection limit (S/N = 3) was 0.5 nM and the relative standard deviation (RSD) for nine repeated measurements of 0.1 ?M ascorbic acid was 2.6%. This method has been successfully applied to determine ascorbic acid in commercial liquid fruit juices with recoveries of 97-107%. This work is not only of importance for a better understanding of the unique properties of LDHs-catalyzed CL but also of great potential for extensive applications in many fields, such as luminescence devices, bioanalysis, and labeling probes. PMID:22382556

Wang, Zhihua; Teng, Xu; Lu, Chao

2012-04-21

77

Comparison of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced MRI for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aim: To compare the diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and methods: Eighty-nine patients (118 HCCs) who underwent three-dimensional gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and SPIO-enhanced MRI with a mean interval of 4.7 days (range 3-7 days), were included in this study. Two observers reviewed the gadoxetic acid set (unenhanced, early dynamic, 10 and 20 min hepatocyte-phase images) and SPIO set [unenhanced and ferucarbotran-enhanced T1-, T2-turbo spin-echo (TSE), and T2* weighted imaging (WI)] in consensus. Diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity were evaluated using the alternative-free response receiver operator characteristic (ROC) method. Results: The area under ROC curve (Az value) and sensitivity of the gadoxetic acid set (Az 0.964; sensitivity 90.7%) were significantly higher than those of the SPIO set (Az 0.830; sensitivity 84.7%; p < 0.05). There were 14 and seven lesions that were verified only on the gadoxetic acid set and only on the SPIO set, respectively. Four HCCs were clearly revealed as hypointense only on gadoxetic acid-enhanced hepatocyte phase imaging, but were occult on other sequences, including the SPIO set. Conclusion: Gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI is better than SPIO-enhanced MRI for the detection of HCCs.

78

Randomized trial of enhanced profiling in substance abuse treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

A randomized trial of substance abuse treatment programs tested whether "enhanced profiles," consisting of feedback and coaching about performance indicators, improved the performance of residential, methadone, and detoxification programs. These enhanced profiles were reviewed during quarterly on-site visits between October 2005 and July 2007. The performance indicators were the percentage of clients completing referrals to a lower level of care, and the percentage of clients admitted to a higher level of care within 30 days of discharge. Control programs received only "basic profiles," consisting of emailed quarterly printouts of these performance indicators. Effectiveness was evaluated using hierarchical linear models with client-level information nested within agencies and regions of the state. Treatment programs receiving enhanced profiles (n = 74) did not perform significantly differently from those receiving only basic profiles (n = 29) on either performance measure. To improve performance, interventions with greater scope and incentives may be needed. PMID:20680676

Daley, Marilyn; Shepard, Donald S; Tompkins, Christopher; Dunigan, Robert; Reif, Sharon; Perloff, Jennifer; Siembab, Lauren; Horgan, Constance

2011-03-01

79

Enhanced lipid extraction from algae using free nitrous acid pretreatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lipid extraction has been identified as a major bottleneck for large-scale algal biodiesel production. In this work free nitrous acid (FNA) is presented as an effective and low cost pretreatment to enhance lipid recovery from algae. Two batch tests, with a range of FNA additions, were conducted to disrupt algal cells prior to lipid extraction by organic solvents. Total accessible lipid content was quantified by the Bligh and Dyer method, and was found to increase with pretreatment time (up to 48 h) and FNA concentration (up to 2.19 mg HNO2-N/L). Hexane extraction was used to study industrially accessible lipids. The mass transfer coefficient (k) for lipid extraction using hexane from algae treated with 2.19 mg HNO2-N/L FNA was found to be dramatically higher than for extraction from untreated algae. Consistent with extraction results, cell disruption analysis indicated the disruption of the cell membrane barrier. PMID:24632439

Bai, Xue; Naghdi, Forough Ghasemi; Ye, Liu; Lant, Paul; Pratt, Steven

2014-05-01

80

Treatment of menorrhagia during menstruation: randomised controlled trial of ethamsylate, mefenamic acid, and tranexamic acid.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and acceptability of ethamsylate, mefenamic acid, and tranexamic acid for treating menorrhagia. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. SETTING: A university department of obstetrics and gynaecology. SUBJECTS: 76 women with dysfunctional uterine bleeding. INTERVENTIONS: Treatment for five days from day 1 of menses during three consecutive menstrual periods. 27 patients were randomised to take ethamsylate 500 mg six hourly, 23 patients to take mefenamic acid 500...

Bonnar, J.; Sheppard, B. L.

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Pregnancy-secreted Acid phosphatase, uteroferrin, enhances fetal erythropoiesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Uteroferrin (UF) is a progesterone-induced acid phosphatase produced by uterine glandular epithelia in mammals during pregnancy and targeted to sites of hematopoiesis throughout pregnancy. The expression pattern of UF is coordinated with early fetal hematopoietic development in the yolk sac and then liver, spleen, and bone to prevent anemia in fetuses. Our previous studies suggested that UF exerts stimulatory impacts on hematopoietic progenitor cells. However, the precise role and thereby the mechanism of action of UF on hematopoiesis have not been investigated previously. Here, we report that UF is a potent regulator that can greatly enhance fetal erythropoiesis. Using primary fetal liver hematopoietic cells, we observed a synergistic stimulatory effect of UF with erythropoietin and other growth factors on both burst-forming unit-erythroid and colony-forming unit-erythroid formation. Further, we demonstrated that UF enhanced erythropoiesis at terminal stages using an in vitro culture system. Surveying genes that are crucial for erythrocyte formation at various stages revealed that UF, along with erythropoietin, up-regulated transcription factors required for terminal erythrocyte differentiation and genes required for synthesis of hemoglobin. Collectively, our results demonstrate that UF is a cytokine secreted by uterine glands in response to progesterone that promotes fetal erythropoiesis at various stages of pregnancy, including burst-forming unit-erythroid and colony-forming unit-erythroid progenitor cells and terminal stages of differentiation of hematopoietic cells in the erythroid lineage. PMID:25093463

Ying, Wei; Wang, Haiqing; Bazer, Fuller W; Zhou, Beiyan

2014-11-01

82

Citric Acid-based Hydroxyapatite Composite Scaffolds Enhance Calvarial Regeneration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Citric acid-based polymer/hydroxyapatite composites (CABP-HAs) are a novel class of biomimetic composites that have recently attracted significant attention in tissue engineering. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of using two different CABP-HAs, poly (1,8-octanediol citrate)-click-HA (POC-Click-HA) and crosslinked urethane-doped polyester-HA (CUPE-HA) as an alternative to autologous tissue grafts in the repair of skeletal defects. CABP-HA disc-shaped scaffolds (65 wt.-% HA with 70% porosity) were used as bare implants without the addition of growth factors or cells to renovate 4?mm diameter rat calvarial defects (n = 72, n = 18 per group). Defects were either left empty (negative control group), or treated with CUPE-HA scaffolds, POC-Click-HA scaffolds, or autologous bone grafts (AB group). Radiological and histological data showed a significant enhancement of osteogenesis in defects treated with CUPE-HA scaffolds when compared to POC-Click-HA scaffolds. Both, POC-Click-HA and CUPE-HA scaffolds, resulted in enhanced bone mineral density, trabecular thickness, and angiogenesis when compared to the control groups at 1, 3, and 6 months post-trauma. These results show the potential of CABP-HA bare implants as biocompatible, osteogenic, and off-shelf-available options in the repair of orthopedic defects. PMID:25372769

Sun, Dawei; Chen, Yuhui; Tran, Richard T; Xu, Song; Xie, Denghui; Jia, Chunhong; Wang, Yuchen; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Zhongmin; Guo, Jinshan; Yang, Jian; Jin, Dadi; Bai, Xiaochun

2014-01-01

83

Characterization of Unye bentonite after treatment with sulfuric acid  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Unye bentonite was found to consist predominantly of a dioctahedral smectite along with quartz, tridymite, cristobalite, and minor fractions of feldspar and anatase. A considerable amount of Al was retained as a constituent in acid-resistant impurities following the decomposition of the montmorillon [...] ite via acid treatment at an acid/clay ratio of 0.4. These impurities were mesoporous with a maximum surface area of 303.9±0.4 m² g-1. A sharp decrease in the d001 lattice spacing of the montmorillonite to 15.33 Å reflected the reduction of the crystallinity in the activated products. In addition, the increase in the ease with which newly formed hydroxyl groups were lost paralleled the severity of the acid treatment.

Bulent, Caglar; Beytullah, Afsin; Engin, Koksal; Ahmet, Tabak; Erdal, Eren.

84

Adhesion enhancement of polymer surfaces by atmospheric plasma treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasma (APNEP) developed in the UK by EA Technology Ltd is currently being investigated in collaboration with the University of Surrey. Of the many applications of surface modification that can be induced using plasmas, adhesion enhancement is one of the most commercially important. In this paper, we illustrate the use of an atmospheric plasma to enhance the adhesion characteristics of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). The polymers were treated in the remote afterglow region of an atmospheric pressure plasma to avoid the thermal effects that can cause degradation for thermally sensitive materials when placed in direct contact with the plasma. Reactive (oxygen containing) and inert (oxygen free) atmospheric plasmas rapidly impart adhesion enhancement by a factor of two to ten as measured by 180 deg. peel tests. However, extended exposure to the atmospheric plasma does not impart additional adhesion enhancement as the surface is ablated revealing the underlying polymer with poor adhesive characteristics. In contrast, vacuum plasma treated LDPE and PET show increased adhesion with extended plasma treatment. An adhesion enhancement in excess of two to three orders of magnitude was found to be achievable for vacuum plasma treatment times greater than 10 min. (author)

85

Enhancement of phloem exudation from Fraxinus uhdei Wenz. (evergreen ash) using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) enhanced the exudation of 14C-labeled assimilates from excised leaflets and whole plant specimens of Fraxinus uhdei Wenz. A 2 millimolar EDTA concentration was found to be most effective in promoting exudation from excised leaflets, while 10 millimolar EDTA was most effective in whole plants experiments. Exudation rate reached a maximum after 24 hours in both experiments. The continuous presence of EDTA throughout the treatment period was required for maximum exudation from excised leaflets. Stachyose, raffinose, verbascose, and sucrose were the principal compounds found to occur in exudate samples. These compounds are typically transported in sieve elements of various Fraxinus species suggesting the exudate was of phloem orgin. Electron microscope studies of petiolule sieve plate pores from excisd leaflets showed substantially less callose appearing after treatment with EDTA than after H2O treatment. It is suggested that EDTA enhances phloem exudation by inhibiting or reducing callose formation in sieve plate pores. The exudation enhancement technique described for whole plant specimens is suggested as a useful means of collecting phloem sap and studying translocation in woody plants

86

Lewis acid enhanced switching of the 1,1-dicyanodihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene photo/thermoswitch.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mild Lewis acids enhance the rate of the thermal conversion of vinylheptafulvene (VHF) to dihydroazulene (DHA). In the absence of light, stronger Lewis acids promote the otherwise photoinduced DHA to VHF conversion.

Parker, Christian Richard; Tortzen, Christian Gregers

2011-01-01

87

Enhancement of surface properties of oil fly ash by chemical treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, surface modification of oil fly ash (OFA), a by-product generated by oil power plants, was achieved by chemical treatment. A mixture of sulfuric and nitric acids was used to modify the surface in order to attach a carboxylic functional group to the surface of OFA. The goal of surface modification of OFA is to make its surface more compatible with nonpolar polymers in order to produce OFA/polymer composite materials with improved dispersion of OFA, and to increase OFA surface area in order to support its use as adsorbent materials in adsorptive separation and purification applications. Different acid compositions were used for treatment by gradually increasing the nitric acid concentration from 0 to 20%. Also, the effect of oxidation on surface modification was examined by introducing air to enhance the oxidation of OFA. FTIR analysis was performed to identify the different functional groups attached to OFA surface before and after the chemical treatment. Evaluation of different structural changes during the surface modification was investigated by XRD analysis. Surface morphology and spot analysis was studied by SEM technique to identify the composition of different elements present in the OFA such as carbon, oxygen and sulfur. BET analysis showed major increase in surface area after modification as well as pore size and micropore volume of OFA particles. The maximum increase in surface area was obtained with 15 vol.% HNO 3. Also, carboxylic functionalization of OFA was enhanced when air was injected.

Shawabkeh, Reyad; Khan, Muhammad J.; Al-Juhani, Abdulhadi A.; Al-Abdul Wahhab, Hamad I.; Hussein, Ibnelwaleed A.

2011-12-01

88

Elucidating the role of ferrous ion cocatalyst in enhancing dilute acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Recently developed iron cocatalyst enhancement of dilute acid pretreatment of biomass is a promising approach for enhancing sugar release from recalcitrant lignocellulosic biomass. However, very little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this enhancement. In the current study, our aim was to identify several essential factors that contribute to ferrous ion-enhanced efficiency during dilute acid pretreatment of biomass and to initiate the investigat...

Wei Hui; Donohoe Bryon S; Vinzant Todd B; Ciesielski Peter N; Wang Wei; Gedvilas Lynn M; Zeng Yining; Johnson David K; Ding Shi-You; Himmel Michael E; Tucker Melvin P

2011-01-01

89

Erythropoietin treatment enhances muscle mitochondrial capacity in humans  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Erythropoietin (Epo) treatment has been shown to induce mitochondrial biogenesis in cardiac muscle along with enhanced mitochondrial capacity in mice. We hypothesized that recombinant human Epo (rhEpo) treatment enhances skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity in humans. In six healthy volunteers rhEpo was administered by sub-cutaneous injection over 8?weeks with oral iron (100?mg) supplementation taken daily. Mitochondrial OXPHOS was quantified by high-resolution respirometry in saponin-permeabilized muscle fibers obtained from biopsies of the vastus lateralis before and after rhEpo treatment. OXPHOS was determined with the mitochondrial complex I substrates malate, glutamate, pyruvate, and complex II substrate succinate in the presence of saturating ADP concentrations, while maximal electron transport capacity (ETS) was assessed by addition of an uncoupler. rhEpo treatment increased OXPHOS (from 92?±?5 to 113?±?7?pmol·s(-1)·mg(-1)) and ETS (107?±?4 to 143?±?14?pmol·s(-1)·mg(-1), p?treatment induces an upregulation of OXPHOS and ETS in human skeletal muscle.

Plenge, Ulla; Belhage, Bo

2012-01-01

90

Theobromine Inhibits Uric Acid Crystallization. A Potential Application in the Treatment of Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose To assess the capacity of methylxanthines (caffeine, theophylline, theobromine and paraxanthine) to inhibit uric acid crystallization, and to evaluate their potential application in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis. Materials and Methods The ability of methylxathines to inhibit uric acid nucleation was assayed turbidimetrically. Crystal morphology and its modification due to the effect of theobromine were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ability of theobromine to inhibit uric acid crystal growth on calculi fragments resulting from extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was evaluated using a flow system. Results The turbidimetric assay showed that among the studied methylxanthines, theobromine could markedly inhibit uric acid nucleation. SEM images showed that the presence of theobromine resulted in thinner uric acid crystals. Furthermore, in a flow system theobromine blocked the regrowth of post-ESWL uric acid calculi fragments. Conclusions Theobromine, a natural dimethylxanthine present in high amounts in cocoa, acts as an inhibitor of nucleation and crystal growth of uric acid. Therefore, theobromine may be clinically useful in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis. PMID:25333633

Grases, Felix; Rodriguez, Adrian; Costa-Bauza, Antonia

2014-01-01

91

A study to determine the efficacy of treatments for hydrofluoric acid burns.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrofluoric acid burns are characterized by progressive tissue destruction and severe pain. Fluoride ion chelators, such as salts of calcium and magnesium, have been used to treat these burns. This study was designed to compare the efficacy of several treatment methods that involve the use of these salts. Standard hydrofluoric acid burns were produced on the shaved hindquarters of rats. After being rinsed with water, the chemical burns were treated by one of seven experimental methods. The progress of the chemical burn damage was observed for 1 week by measuring the surface areas of the burns. Calcium gluconate burn jelly, 20% calcium gluconate in water, and 50% aqueous dimethyl sulfoxide did not significantly slow the spread of the burn area. However, subcutaneous injections of calcium gluconate or magnesium sulfate and topical applications of calcium gluconate in a solution of dimethyl sulfoxide significantly slowed the progress of the burns during the first 24 hours and enhanced tissue recovery for the remainder of the observation period. These results indicate that subcutaneous injections of magnesium or calcium salts appear to be more effective than conventional topical applications in the treatment of hydrofluoric acid burns. More significantly, topically applied calcium gluconate combined with a penetration enhancer, such as dimethyl sulfoxide, is as effective as injection treatments in reducing damage caused by hydrofluoric acid. PMID:7673304

Seyb, S T; Noordhoek, L; Botens, S; Mani, M M

1995-01-01

92

Structural-phase transformations in bentonite after acid treatment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The methods of X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray microanalysis, electron microscopy, BET and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were used for investigation of the structural-phase transformations in bentonite under the influence of hydrochloric acid and temperature treatment (100-800ºC). It is established that in HCl medium during temperature treatment, dehydration and dehydroxilation of montmorillonite occur. The presence of gypsum and barium chloride res...

Vlasova M.; Dominguez-Patiño G.; Kakazey N.; Dominguez-Patiño M.; Juarez-Romero D.; Méndez Enríquez Y.

2003-01-01

93

Effect of Ultrasound on Enhanced Permeability During Membrane Water Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

Ultrasound of 28 kHz frequency in the range of 8-33 watt (W) was used to study the effect of ultrasound on permeate flux of peptone solution during ultrafiltration treatment of polysulfone (PS) membrane. Ultrasound irradiation enhanced the permeation flux through the membrane with increasing ultrasound power. The correlation between ultrasound power and solute permeability suggests that ultrasound was useful for cleaning membranes fouled by rejected peptone layer.

Kobayashi, Takaomi; Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi; Fujii, Nobuyuki

2000-05-01

94

Cyclosporine A and palmitic acid treatment synergistically induce cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment can cause severe side effects. Patients taking immunosuppressant after organ transplantation often display hyperlipidemia and obesity. Elevated levels of free fatty acids have been linked to the etiology of metabolic syndromes, nonalcoholic fatty liver and steatohepatitis. The contribution of free fatty acids to CsA-induced toxicity is not known. In this study we explored the effect of palmitic acid on CsA-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells. CsA by itself at therapeutic exposure levels did not induce detectible cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Co-treatment of palmitic acid and CsA resulted in a dose dependent increase in cytotoxicity, suggesting that fatty acid could sensitize cells to CsA-induced cytotoxicity at the therapeutic doses of CsA. A synergized induction of caspase-3/7 activity was also observed, indicating that apoptosis may contribute to the cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that CsA reduced cellular oxygen consumption which was further exacerbated by palmitic acid, implicating that impaired mitochondrial respiration might be an underlying mechanism for the enhanced toxicity. Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) attenuated palmitic acid and CsA induced toxicity, suggesting that JNK activation plays an important role in mediating the enhanced palmitic acid/CsA-induced toxicity. Our data suggest that elevated FFA levels, especially saturated FFA such as palmitic acid, may be predisposing factors for CsA toxicity, and patients with underlying diseases that would elevate free fatty acids may be susceptible to CsA-induced toxicity. Furthermore, hyperlipidemia/obesity resulting from immunosuppressive therapy may aggravate CsA-induced toxicity and worsen the outcome in transplant patients. -- Highlights: ? Palmitic acid and cyclosporine (CsA) synergistically increased cytotoxicity. ? The impairment of mitochondrial functions may contribute to the enhanced toxicity. ? Inhibition of JNK activity attenuated palmitate/ CsA induced toxicity. ? Palmitate sensitizes cells to the toxicity induced by CsA at therapeutic exposure. ? Elevated free fatty acids may predispose the patients to CsA-induced toxicity.

Luo, Yi, E-mail: yi.luo@pfizer.com; Rana, Payal; Will, Yvonne

2012-06-01

95

Cyclosporine A and palmitic acid treatment synergistically induce cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment can cause severe side effects. Patients taking immunosuppressant after organ transplantation often display hyperlipidemia and obesity. Elevated levels of free fatty acids have been linked to the etiology of metabolic syndromes, nonalcoholic fatty liver and steatohepatitis. The contribution of free fatty acids to CsA-induced toxicity is not known. In this study we explored the effect of palmitic acid on CsA-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells. CsA by itself at therapeutic exposure levels did not induce detectible cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Co-treatment of palmitic acid and CsA resulted in a dose dependent increase in cytotoxicity, suggesting that fatty acid could sensitize cells to CsA-induced cytotoxicity at the therapeutic doses of CsA. A synergized induction of caspase-3/7 activity was also observed, indicating that apoptosis may contribute to the cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that CsA reduced cellular oxygen consumption which was further exacerbated by palmitic acid, implicating that impaired mitochondrial respiration might be an underlying mechanism for the enhanced toxicity. Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) attenuated palmitic acid and CsA induced toxicity, suggesting that JNK activation plays an important role in mediating the enhanced palmitic acid/CsA-induced toxicity. Our data suggest that elevated FFA levels, especially saturated FFA such as palmitic acid, may be predisposing factors for CsA toxicity, and patients with underlying diseases that would elevate free fatty acids may be susceptible to CsA-induced toxicity. Furthermore, hyperlipidemia/obesity resulting from immunosuppressive therapy may aggravate CsA-induced toxicity and worsen the outcome in transplant patients. -- Highlights: ? Palmitic acid and cyclosporine (CsA) synergistically increased cytotoxicity. ? The impairment of mitochondrial functions may contribute to the enhanced toxicity. ? Inhibition of JNK activity attenuated palmitate/ CsA induced toxicity. ? Palmitate sensitizes cells to the toxicity induced by CsA at therapeutic exposure. ? Elevated free fatty acids may predispose the patients to CsA-induced toxicity.

96

Enhanced oxidative stress by L-ascorbic acid within cells challenged by hydrogen peroxide.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been amply documented that L-ascorbic acid added to the medium of a cell culture increases oxidative damage, and this effect of L-ascorbic acid has been ascribed to the generation of reactive oxygen intermediates in the medium during its auto-oxidation. We have here questioned whether such an effect is exerted inside the cell as well, and if so, what its mechanism is. To assess thiol oxidation in the cell, we manipulated CHO cells so that they could express bacterial alkaline phosphatase in the cytoplasm. Alkaline phosphatase activity, which requires the formation of intramolecular disulfide bridges, was shown to appear when the cells were exposed to H2O2. This H2O2-induced activity increased more than 1.5 fold when L-ascorbic acid had been loaded in the cells by incubation with L-ascorbic acid-2-O-phosphate. Similar enhancing effects were also observed by assessing oxidation of glutathione, formation of protein carbonyls, and generation of reactive oxygen intermediates. Interestingly, the effects by the L-ascorbic acid-2-O-phosphate treatment were totally suppressed by addition of the membrane-permeable chelator deferoxamine to the medium, indicating the involvement of iron ions. Because the apoprotein of conalbumin, which binds iron ions with a high affinity, had no effect and because the same deferoxamine effect was observed with the cells incubated in balanced salt solution with no metal salts added, it was concluded that L-ascorbic acid acts as a pro-oxidant within the cell suffering oxidative stress, and that this effect is elicited through increased redox-cycling of iron in combination with L-ascorbic acid. PMID:16521698

Inai, Yoko; Bi, Wenxiang; Shiraishi, Noriyuki; Nishikimi, Morimitsu

2005-12-01

97

An adult case of cerebral malakoplakia successfully cured by treatment with antibiotics, bethanechol and ascorbic acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cerebral malakoplakia is a very rare chronic inflammatory disease. We herein report the case of a 49-year-old female who presented with a slowly progressive speech disturbance and right hemiparesis. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed irregular enhanced mass lesions with numerous scattered areas of calcification in the left insula, thalamus and basal ganglia. Histopathologically, the biopsy specimen showed basophilic laminated inclusion bodies and intracellular and extracellular calculospherules, usually with a typical targetoid appearance (Michaelis-Gutmann bodies). Treatment with antibiotics, bethanechol and ascorbic acid improved her symptoms in association with a decrease in the abnormal calcification and enhancement. The cerebral malakoplakia mimicked a brain tumor in terms of the patient's clinical course and neuroradiological image findings; however, it was successfully cured with medical treatment. This case provides evidence that the pathogenesis of cerebral malakoplakia is deeply tied to bacterial infection and that medical treatment is effective in cases of this disease. PMID:24863007

Fudaba, Hirotaka; Ooba, Hiroshi; Abe, Tatsuya; Kamida, Tohru; Wakabayashi, Yukihiro; Nagatomi, Hirofumi; Fujiki, Minoru

2014-07-15

98

Mechanism involved in enhancement of osteoblast differentiation by hyaluronic acid  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research highlights: {yields} In this study was to investigate the effects of HA on osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. {yields} MG63 cells were incubated with BMP-2 and HA for various time periods. {yields} Phosphorylation of Smad 1/5/8, p38, and ERK proteins was determined by western blot analysis. To elucidate the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated Smad 1/5/8, stimulated cells were subjected to immunofluorescence microscopy. {yields} HA enhanced BMP-2 induces osteoblastic differentiation in MG63 cells via down-regulation of BMP-2 antagonists and ERK phosphorylation. -- Abstract: Objectives: Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is expected to be utilized to fill bone defects and promote healing of fractures. However, it is unable to generate an adequate clinical response for use in bone regeneration. Recently, it was reported that glycosaminoglycans, including heparin, heparan sulfate, keratan sulfate, dermatan sulfate, chondroitin-4-sulfate, chondroitin-6-sulfate, and hyaluronic acid (HA), regulate BMP-2 activity, though the mechanism by which HA regulates osteogenic activities has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HA on osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. Materials and methods: Monolayer cultures of osteoblastic lineage MG63 cells were incubated with BMP-2 and HA for various time periods. To determine osteoblastic differentiation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the cell lysates was quantified. Phosphorylation of Smad 1/5/8, p38, and ERK proteins was determined by Western blot analysis. To elucidate the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated Smad 1/5/8, stimulated cells were subjected to immunofluorescence microscopy. To further elucidate the role of HA in enhancement of BMP-2-induced Smad signaling, mRNA expressions of the BMP-2 receptor antagonists noggin and follistatin were detected using real-time RT-PCR. Results: BMP-2-induced ALP activation, Smad 1/5/8 phosphorylation, and nuclear translocation were up-regulated when MG63 cells were cultured with both BMP-2 and HA. Western blot analysis revealed that phosphorylation of ERK protein was diminished by HA. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of noggin and follistatin induced by BMP-2 were preferentially blocked by HA. Conclusions: These results indicate that HA enhanced BMP-2 induces osteoblastic differentiation in MG63 cells via down-regulation of BMP-2 antagonists and ERK phosphorylation.

Kawano, Michinao [Division of Maxillofacial Diagnostic and Surgical Science, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Department of Health Promotion, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Ariyoshi, Wataru [Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Department of Health Promotion, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Iwanaga, Kenjiro [Division of Maxillofacial Diagnostic and Surgical Science, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Okinaga, Toshinori [Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Department of Health Promotion, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Habu, Manabu [Division of Maxillofacial Diagnostic and Surgical Science, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Yoshioka, Izumi [Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Medicine of Sensory and Motor Organs, University of Miyazaki, Kiyotake, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan); Tominaga, Kazuhiro [Division of Maxillofacial Diagnostic and Surgical Science, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Oral Bioresearch Center, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Nishihara, Tatsuji, E-mail: tatsujin@kyu-dent.ac.jp [Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Department of Health Promotion, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Oral Bioresearch Center, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan)

2011-02-25

99

Mechanism involved in enhancement of osteoblast differentiation by hyaluronic acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? In this study was to investigate the effects of HA on osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. ? MG63 cells were incubated with BMP-2 and HA for various time periods. ? Phosphorylation of Smad 1/5/8, p38, and ERK proteins was determined by western blot analysis. To elucidate the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated Smad 1/5/8, stimulated cells were subjected to immunofluorescence microscopy. ? HA enhanced BMP-2 induces osteoblastic differentiation in MG63 cells via down-regulation of BMP-2 antagonists and ERK phosphorylation. -- Abstract: Objectives: Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is expected to be utilized to fill bone defects and promote healing of fractures. However, it is unable to generate an adequate clinical response for use in bone regeneration. Recently, it was reported that glycosaminoglycans, including heparin, heparan sulfate, keratan sulfate, dermatan sulfate, chondroitin-4-sulfate, chondroitin-6-sulfate, and hyaluronic acid (HA), regulate BMP-2 activity, though the mechanism by which HA regulates osteogenic activities has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HA on osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. Materials and methods: Monolayer cultures of osteoblastic lineage MG63 cells were incubated with BMP-2 and HA for various time periods. To determine osteoblastic differentiation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the cell lysates was quantified. Phosphorylation of Smad 1/5/8, p38, and ERK proteins was determined by Western blot analysis. To elucidate the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated Smad 1/5/8, stimulated cells were subjected to immunofluorescence microscopy. To further elucidate the role of HA in enhancement of BMP-2-induced Smad signaling, mRNA expressions of the BMP-2 receptor antagonists noggin and follistatin were detected using real-time RT-PCR. Results: BMP-2-induced ALP activation, Smad 1/5/8 phosphorylation, and nuclear translocation were up-regulated when MG63 cells were cultured with both BMP-2 and HA. Western blot analysis revealed that phosphorylation of ERK protein was diminished by HA. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of noggin and follistatin induced by BMP-2 were preferentially blocked by HA. Conclusions: These results indicate that HA enhanced BMP-2 induces osteoblastic differentiation in MG63 cells via down-regulation of BMP-2 antagonists and ERK phosphorylation.

100

Structural-phase transformations in bentonite after acid treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The methods of X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray microanalysis, electron microscopy, BET and cation exchange capacity (CEC were used for investigation of the structural-phase transformations in bentonite under the influence of hydrochloric acid and temperature treatment (100-800ºC. It is established that in HCl medium during temperature treatment, dehydration and dehydroxilation of montmorillonite occur. The presence of gypsum and barium chloride results in an intercalation of interlayer space of montmorillonite by Ca and Ba ions Temperature treatment of intercalated montmorillonite leads to the formation of pores.

Vlasova M.

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Psychosocial Treatments for Bipolar Depression: A 1-Year Randomized Trial From the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program  

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CONTEXT: Psychosocial interventions have been shown to enhance pharmacotherapy outcomes in bipolar disorder. OBJECTIVE: To examine the benefits of 4 disorder-specific psychotherapies in conjunction with pharmacotherapy on time to recovery and the likelihood of remaining well after an episode of bipolar depression. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Fifteen clinics affiliated with the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder. Patients A total of 293 referred out...

Miklowitz, Dj; Otto, Mw; Frank, E.; Reilly-harrington, Na; Wisniewski, Sr; Kogan, Jn; Nierenberg, Aa; Calabrese, Jr; Marangell, Lb; Gyulai, L.; Araga, M.; Gonzalez, Jm; Shirley, Er; Thase, Me; Sachs, Gs

2007-01-01

102

Isomerization of fatty acids in sunflower oil during heat treatment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english Pilot-scale treatments of sunflower oil similar to deodorization were carried out by applying steam stripping at different temperatures ranging from 179 to 282°C for 5 h. Samples were taken every half hour, and fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. The results showed an increa [...] se in the relative percentage of trans linoleic acid with an increase in either time or temperature. The formation of trans linoleic acid isomers followed a zero-order reaction and the kinetic constants varied according to the Arrhenius' law. The activation energies for the formation of the acids C18:2ct, C18:2tc and C18:2tt were calculated as 147.4, 147.8 and 146.6 kJ/mol, respectively.

L.E., Mateos; G.M., Tonetto; G.H., Crapiste.

103

Modulating protein adsorption onto hydroxyapatite particles using different amino acid treatments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a material of choice for bone grafts owing to its chemical and structural similarities to the mineral phase of hard tissues. The combination of osteogenic proteins with HA materials that carry and deliver the proteins to the bone-defective areas will accelerate bone regeneration. The study investigated the treatment of HA particles with different amino acids such as serine (Ser), asparagine (Asn), aspartic acid (Asp) and arginine (Arg) to enhance the adsorption ability of HA carrier for delivering therapeutic proteins to the body. The crystallinity of HA reduced when amino acids were added during HA preparation. Depending on the types of amino acid, the specific surface area of the amino acid-functionalized HA particles varied from 105 to 149 m(2) g(-1). Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme were used as model proteins for adsorption study. The protein adsorption onto the surface of amino acid-functionalized HA depended on the polarities of HA particles, whereby, compared with lysozyme, BSA demonstrated higher affinity towards positively charged Arg-HA. Alternatively, the binding affinity of lysozyme onto the negatively charged Asp-HA was higher when compared with BSA. The BSA and lysozyme adsorptions onto the amino acid-functionalized HA fitted better into the Freundlich than Langmuir model. The amino acid-functionalized HA particles that had higher protein adsorption demonstrated a lower protein-release rate. PMID:21957116

Lee, Wing-Hin; Loo, Ching-Yee; Van, Kim Linh; Zavgorodniy, Alexander V; Rohanizadeh, Ramin

2012-05-01

104

Coupling enhanced water solubilization with cyclodextrin to indirect electrochemical treatment for pentachlorophenol contaminated soil remediation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study undertakes to examine, at laboratory scale, the technical feasibility, mechanisms and performances provided by coupling the enhanced flushing abilities of cyclodextrin solutions for pentachlorophenol (PCP) removal from contaminated soil with indirect electrochemical treatment for the final disposal of soil extract solutions containing high PCP loads (0.77mmolL(-1)). The hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) solution increased the aqueous concentration of PCP in soil extract effluents to as much as 3.5 times the concentrations obtained during the water flush of the soil. PCP was treated with electrochemically generated Fenton's reagent in an aqueous medium. The increase in PCP water solubility in the presence of HPCD is balanced by the corresponding decrease in PCP degradation rate under indirect electrochemical treatment. This is due to the high carbon content (HPCD and dissolved natural organic matter) in the soil extract solutions, which compete for the non-selective hydroxyl radical reaction to PCP. However, our results indicate that HPCD has a beneficial effect on the degradation rates of PCP. This relative improvement in PCP degradation could be explained by the formation of the ternary complex (PCP-cyclodextrin-iron) which may direct hydroxyl reaction to PCP and which would, in any case, justify the use of a Fenton -like process for the final treatment of soil extract solutions. Total disappearance of PCP and 90% abatement of the chemical oxygen demand were achieved within an 11h electrolysis treatment time. Elucidation of the PCP degradation pathway indicates that after successive PCP hydroxylations, oxidative opening of the PCP aromatic ring quickly occurred, leading to small unstable non-chlorinated or partially chlorinated short chain carboxylic acids, such as monochloroacetic and dichloromaleic acid. Determination of the concentration of these acids shows that indirect electrochemical treatment leads to oxalic acid accumulation in aqueous solutions treated. A decrease in toxicity was observed at the end of the treatment time. PMID:15975622

Hanna, Khalil; Chiron, Serge; Oturan, Mehmet A

2005-07-01

105

Comparison of clindamycin 1% and benzoyl peroxide 5% gel to a novel composition containing salicylic acid, capryloyl salicylic acid, HEPES, glycolic acid, citric acid, and dioic acid in the treatment of acne vulgaris.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the tolerance and efficacy of 2 facial skin products in subjects with acne using the following acne treatments: 1) treatment A, a combination of salicylic acid, capryloyl salicylic acid, HEPES, glycolic acid, citric acid, and dioic acid, and 2) treatment B (BenzaClin®, clindamycin 1% and benzoyl peroxide 5% gel). The treatment design included the split-face application of treatment A and treatment B and the full-face application of the cleanser, moisturizer, and sunscreen. Data were collected through physician visual assessments, subject irritation questionnaires and assessments, along with clinical photography. Results showed similar tolerance and efficacy for both treatments. PMID:23545907

Baumann, Leslie S; Oresajo, Christian; Yatskayer, Margarita; Dahl, Amanda; Figueras, Kristian

2013-03-01

106

Parameters affecting the formation of perfluoroalkyl acids during wastewater treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the fate and behaviour of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in liquid and solid samples from five different wastewater treatment types: facultative and aerated lagoons, chemically assisted primary treatment, secondary aerobic biological treatment, and advanced biological nutrient removal treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest data set from a single study available in the literature to date for PFAAs monitoring study in wastewater treatment. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the predominant PFAA in wastewater with levels from 2.2 to 150ng/L (influent) and 1.9 to 140ng/L (effluent). Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) was the predominant compound in primary sludge, waste biological sludge, and treated biosolids with concentrations from 6.4 to 2900ng/g dry weight (dw), 9.7 to 8200ng/gdw, and 2.1 to 17,000ng/gdw, respectively. PFAAs were formed during wastewater treatment and it was dependant on both process temperature and treatment type; with higher rates of formation in biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) operating at longer hydraulic retention times and higher temperatures. PFAA removal by sorption was influenced by different sorption tendencies; median log values of the solid-liquid distribution coefficient estimated from wastewater biological sludge and final effluent were: PFOS (3.73)>PFDA (3.68)>PFNA (3.25)>PFOA (2.49)>PFHxA (1.93). Mass balances confirmed the formation of PFAAs, low PFAA removal by sorption, and high PFAA levels in effluents. PMID:24691135

Guerra, P; Kim, M; Kinsman, L; Ng, T; Alaee, M; Smyth, S A

2014-05-15

107

Rapid acid treatment of Escherichia coli: transcriptomic response and recovery  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Many E. coli genes show pH-dependent expression during logarithmic growth in acid (pH 5–6 or in base (pH 8–9. The effect of rapid pH change, however, has rarely been tested. Rapid acid treatment could distinguish between genes responding to external pH, and genes responding to cytoplasmic acidification, which occurs transiently following rapid external acidification. It could reveal previously unknown acid-stress genes whose effects are transient, as well as show which acid-stress genes have a delayed response. Results Microarray hybridization was employed to observe the global gene expression of E. coli K-12 W3110 following rapid acidification of the external medium, from pH 7.6 to pH 5.5. Fluorimetric observation of pH-dependent tetR-YFP showed that rapid external acidification led to a half-unit drop in cytoplasmic pH (from pH 7.6 to pH 6.4 which began to recover within 20 s. Following acid treatment, 630 genes were up-regulated and 586 genes were down-regulated. Up-regulated genes included amino-acid decarboxylases (cadA, adiY, gadA, succinate dehydrogenase (sdhABCD, biofilm-associated genes (bdm, gatAB, and ymgABC, and the Gad, Fur and Rcs regulons. Genes with response patterns consistent with cytoplasmic acid stress were revealed by addition of benzoate, a membrane-permeant acid that permanently depresses cytoplasmic pH without affecting external pH. Several genes (yagU, ygiN, yjeI, and yneI were up-regulated specifically by external acidification, while other genes (fimB, ygaC, yhcN, yhjX, ymgABC, yodA presented a benzoate response consistent with cytoplasmic pH stress. Other genes (the nuo operon for NADH dehydrogenase I, and the HslUV protease showed delayed up-regulation by acid, with expression rising by 10 min following the acid shift. Conclusion Transcriptomic profiling of E. coli K-12 distinguished three different classes of change in gene expression following rapid acid treatment: up-regulation with or without recovery, and delayed response to acid. For eight genes showing acid response and recovery (fimB, ygaC, yhcN, yhjX, ymgABC, yodA, responses to the permeant acid benzoate revealed expression patterns consistent with sensing of cytoplasmic pH. The delayed acid response of nuo genes shows that NADH dehydrogenase I is probably induced as a secondary result of acid-associated metabolism, not as a direct response to cytoplasmic acidification.

Jones Brian D

2008-02-01

108

Enhancement of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on all-trans retinoic acid-induced differentiation in human leukemia HL-60 cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) induces complete remission in a high proportion of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL); however, the response is sometimes very slow. Furthermore, relapse and resistance to treatment often occur despite continued treatment with ATRA. Thereafter, combination treatment strategies have been suggested to circumvent these problems. The present study demonstrates that caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a major component of honeybee propolis, enhanced ATRA-induced granulocytic differentiation in HL-60, a human promyelocytic cell line. The differentiation was assessed by Wright-Giemsa stain, nitroblue tetrazolium reduction, and membrane differentiation marker CD11b. In addition, CAPE enhanced ATRA-induced cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase by decreasing the association of cdk2-cyclin E complex. Finally, it was demonstrated that CAPE promoted the ATRA-mediated nuclear transcription activation of RAR? assessed by EMSA assay and enhanced the expression of target genes including RAR?, C/EBP?, and p21 protein resulting in the differentiation development of leukemia. It is suggested that CAPE possesses the potential to enhance the efficiency of ATRA in the differentiation therapy of APL

109

?-Mangostin Enhances Betulinic Acid Cytotoxicity and Inhibits Cisplatin Cytotoxicity on HCT 116 Colorectal Carcinoma Cells  

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Full Text Available Despite the progress in colon cancer treatment, relapse is still a major obstacle. Hence, new drugs or drug combinations are required in the battle against colon cancer. ?-Mangostin and betulinic acid (BA are cytotoxic compounds that work by inducing the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, and cisplatin is one of the most potent broad spectrum anti-tumor agents. This study aims to investigate the enhancement of BA cytotoxicity by ?-mangostin, and the cytoprotection effect of ?-mangostin and BA on cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity on HCT 116 human colorectal carcinoma cells. Cytotoxicity was investigated by the XTT cell proliferation test, and the apoptotic effects were investigated on early and late markers including caspases-3/7, mitochondrial membrane potential, cytoplasmic shrinkage, and chromatin condensation. The effect of ?-mangostin on four signalling pathways was also investigated by the luciferase assay. ?-Mangostin and BA were more cytotoxic to the colon cancer cells than to the normal colonic cells, and both compounds showed a cytoprotective effect against cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity. On the other hand, ?-mangostin enhanced the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of BA. Combination therapy hits multiple targets, which may improve the overall response to the treatment, and may reduce the likelihood of developing drug resistance by the tumor cells. Therefore, ?-mangostin and BA may provide a novel combination for the treatment of colorectal carcinoma. The cytoprotective effect of the compounds against cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity may find applications as chemopreventive agents against carcinogens, irradiation and oxidative stress, or to neutralize cisplatin side effects.

Amin Malik Shah Abdul Majid

2012-03-01

110

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine enhances kainic acid convulsive susceptibility.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kainic acid (KA) causes seizures and neuronal loss in the hippocampus. The present study investigated whether a recreational schedule of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) favours the development of a seizure state in a model of KA-induced epilepsy and potentiates the toxicity profile of KA (20 or 30mg/kg). Adolescent male C57BL/6 mice received saline or MDMA t.i.d. (s.c. every 3h), on 1day a week, for 4 consecutive weeks. Twenty-four hours after the last MDMA exposure, the animals were injected with saline or KA (20 or 30mg/kg). After this injection, we evaluated seizures, hippocampal neuronal cell death, microgliosis, astrogliosis, and calcium binding proteins. MDMA pretreatment, by itself, did not induce neuronal damage but increased seizure susceptibility in all KA treatments and potentiated the presence of Fluoro-Jade-positive cells in CA1. Furthermore, MDMA, like KA, significantly decreased parvalbumin levels in CA1 and dentate gyrus, where it potentiated the effects of KA. The amphetamine derivative also promoted a transient decrease in calbindin and calretinin levels, indicative of an abnormal neuronal discharge. In addition, treatment of cortical neurons with MDMA (10-50?M) for 6 or 48h significantly increased basal Ca(2+), reduced basal Na(+) levels and potentiated kainate response. These results indicate that MDMA potentiates KA-induced neurodegeneration and also increases KA seizure susceptibility. The mechanism proposed includes changes in Calcium Binding Proteins expression, probably due to the disruption of intracellular ionic homeostasis, or/and an indirect effect through glutamate release. PMID:24977329

Abad, Sónia; Junyent, Fèlix; Auladell, Carme; Pubill, David; Pallàs, Mercè; Camarasa, Jorge; Escubedo, Elena; Camins, Antonio

2014-10-01

111

Intestinal permeability enhancement of levothyroxine sodium by straight chain fatty acids studied in MDCK epithelial cell line.  

Science.gov (United States)

Levothyroxine sodium (T4), administered orally, is used for the treatment of hypothyroidism. T4 is a narrow therapeutic index drug with highly variable bioavailability (40-80%). The purpose of the present study was to increase the transepithelial transport of T4 using straight chain fatty acids across Madin-Darby Canine kidney (MDCK) cell line. Capric acid (C10), lauric acid (C12) and oleic acid (C18) were studied in molar ratios of 1:0.5, 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 (T4:fatty acid). Transport of the hydrophilic marker, Lucifer yellow, was also studied. All three fatty acids proved to significantly increase T4 transport and the order of enhancement was to the effect of C12 approximately C18>C10. This Increase in transport was accompanied by reductions in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) values, which indicates an opening of tight junctions. Cytotoxic effects of the fatty acids were evaluated by TEER measurements, lactate dehydrogenase release, percent viability and propidium iodide staining of the cells. At the lower molar concentrations of 1:1, the fatty acids did not show any toxicity. However, C12 and C18 when added, to T4:fatty acid molar ratio of 1:2 and 1:3, respectively showed severe toxicity with irreversible damage to the cells. Hence, addition of fatty acids to T4 formulations at low concentrations can significantly improve intestinal permeability of T4 without any toxicity potentially leading to improved bioavailability. PMID:20580671

Pabla, Dimple; Akhlaghi, Fatemeh; Zia, Hossein

2010-08-11

112

Accumulation of eicosapolyenoic acids enhances sensitivity to abscisic acid and mitigates the effects of drought in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.  

Science.gov (United States)

IgASE1, a C?? ?(9)-specific polyunsaturated fatty acid elongase from the marine microalga Isochrysis galbana, is able to convert linoleic acid and ?-linolenic acid to eicosadienoic acid and eicosatrienoic acid in Arabidopsis. Eicosadienoic acid and eicosatrienoic acid are precursors of arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid, which are synthesized via the ?(8) desaturation biosynthetic pathways. This study shows that the IgASE1-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis exhibited altered morphology (decreased leaf area and biomass) and enhanced drought resistance compared to wild-type plants. The transgenic Arabidopsis were hypersensitive to abscisic acid (ABA) during seed germination, post-germination growth, and seedling development. They had elevated leaf ABA levels under well-watered and dehydrated conditions and their stomata were more sensitive to ABA. Exogenous application of eicosadienoic acid and eicosatrienoic acid can mimic ABA and drought responses in the wild type plants, similar to that found in the transgenic ones. The transcript levels of genes involved in the biosynthesis of ABA (NCED3, ABA1, AAO3) as well as other stress-related genes were upregulated in this transgenic line upon osmotic stress (300 mM mannitol). Taken together, these results indicate that these two eicosapolyenoic acids or their derived metabolites can mitigate the effects of drought in transgenic Arabidopsis, at least in part, through the action of ABA. PMID:24609499

Yuan, Xiaowei; Li, Yaxiao; Liu, Shiyang; Xia, Fei; Li, Xinzheng; Qi, Baoxiu

2014-04-01

113

Lactic Acid--The Latest Performance Enhancing Drug  

Science.gov (United States)

Accumulation of lactic acid has long been considered to contribute to muscle fatigue, a major limitation to improvement of athletic performance. However, recent findings have shed new light on the role of lactic acid in muscle fatigue.

David Allen (University of Sydney;Institute of Biomedical Research); HÃÂ¥kan Westerblad (The Karolinska Institute;)

2004-08-20

114

Novel Zirconia Surface Treatments for Enhanced Osseointegration: Laboratory Characterization  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate three novel surface treatments intended to improve osseointegration of zirconia implants: selective infiltration etching treatment (SIE), fusion sputtering (FS), and low pressure particle abrasion (LPPA). The effects of surface treatments on roughness, topography, hardness, and porosity of implants were also assessed. Materials and Methods. 45 zirconia discs (19?mm in diameter × 3?mm in thickness) received 3 different surface treatments: selective infiltration etching, low pressure particle abrasion with 30?µm alumina, and fusion sputtering while nontreated surface served as control. Surface roughness was evaluated quantitatively using profilometery, porosity was evaluated using mercury prosimetry, and Vickers microhardness was used to assess surface hardness. Surface topography was analyzed using scanning and atomic force microscopy (? = 0.05). Results. There were significant differences between all groups regarding surface roughness (F = 1678, P < 0.001), porosity (F = 3278, P < 0.001), and hardness (F = 1106.158, P < 0.001). Scanning and atomic force microscopy revealed a nanoporous surface characteristic of SIE, and FS resulted in the creation of surface microbeads, while LPPA resulted in limited abrasion of the surface. Conclusion. Within the limitations of the study, changes in surface characteristics and topography of zirconia implants have been observed after different surface treatment approaches. Thus possibilities for enhanced osseointegration could be additionally offered. PMID:25349610

Ewais, Ola H.; Al Abbassy, Fayza; Ghoneim, Mona M.; Aboushelib, Moustafa N.

2014-01-01

115

Laser Treatment of Sintered Silicon Carbide Surface for Enhanced Hydrophobicity  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, laser treatment of sintered SiC surfaces is carried out to enhance the surface hydrophobicity. Morphological and metallurgical changes of the treated surfaces are evaluated using optical and scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Microhardness and fracture toughness are measured using indentation tests. The residual stresses present are determined using the XRD technique. The wetting characteristics of the treated surfaces are assessed through contact angle measurements. It is found that the laser-treated surfaces consist of fine grooves and pillars and that the resulting surface roughness enhances the surface hydrophobicity. The fracture toughness of the treated surface is reduced possibly because of the microhardness increase at the surface. The residual stress formed in the surface region is on the order of 1.8 GPa, and it is compressive.

Yilbas, Bekir Sami; Bhushan, Bharat

2014-01-01

116

Omega-3 fatty acids as a putative treatment for traumatic brain injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a global public health epidemic. In the US alone, more than 3 million people sustain a TBI annually. It is one of the most disabling injuries as it may cause motor and sensory deficits and lead to severe cognitive, emotional, and psychosocial impairment, crippling vital areas of higher functioning. Fueled by the recognition of TBI as the "signature injury" in our wounded soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan, and its often devastating impact on athletes playing contact sports, interest in TBI and TBI research has increased dramatically. Unfortunately, despite increased awareness of its detrimental consequences, there has been little progress in developing effective TBI interventions. Recent evidence, however, strongly indicates that nutritional intervention may provide a unique opportunity to enhance the neuronal repair process after TBI. To date, two omega-3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), have the most promising laboratory evidence for their neuro-restorative capacities in TBI. Although both animal models and human studies of brain injuries suggest they may provide benefits, there has been no clinical trial evaluating the effects of n-3 fatty acids on resilience to, or treatment, of TBI. This article reviews the known functions of n-3 fatty acids in the brain and their specific role in the cellular and biochemical pathways underlying neurotraumatic injury. We also highlight recent studies on the therapeutic impact of enhanced omega 3 intake in vivo, and how this may be a particularly promising approach to improving functional outcome in patients with TBI. PMID:23363551

Hasadsri, Linda; Wang, Bonnie H; Lee, James V; Erdman, John W; Llano, Daniel A; Barbey, Aron K; Wszalek, Tracey; Sharrock, Matthew F; Wang, Huan John

2013-06-01

117

Methane sulfonic acid enhanced formation of molecular clusters of sulfuric acid and dimethyl amine  

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Over oceans and in coastal regions methane sulfonic acid (MSA) is present in substantial concentrations in aerosols and in the gas phase. We present an investigation of the effect of MSA on sulfuric acid and dimethyl amine (DMA) based cluster formation rates. From systematic conformational scans and well tested ab initio methods, we optimize structures of all MSAx (H2SO4)yDMAz clusters where x + y ≤ 3 and z ≤ 2. The resulting thermodynamic data is used in the Atmospheric Cluster Dynamics Code and the effect of MSA is evaluated by comparing ternary MSA-H2SO4-DMA cluster formation rates to binary H2SO4-DMA cluster formation rates. Within the range of atmospherically relevant MSA concentrations, we find that MSA may increase cluster formation rates by up to one order of magnitude, although typically, the increase will be less than 300% at 258 K, less than 100% at 278 K and less than 15% at 298 K. The results are rationalized by a detailed analysis of the the main growth paths of the clusters. We find that MSA enhanced clustering involves clusters containing one MSA molecule, while clusters containing more than one MSA molecule do not contribute significantly to the growth.

Bork, N.; Elm, J.; Olenius, T.; Vehkamäki, H.

2014-07-01

118

Methane sulfonic acid enhanced formation of molecular clusters of sulfuric acid and dimethyl amine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over oceans and in coastal regions methane sulfonic acid (MSA is present in substantial concentrations in aerosols and in the gas phase. We present an investigation of the effect of MSA on sulfuric acid and dimethyl amine (DMA based cluster formation rates. From systematic conformational scans and well tested ab initio methods, we optimize structures of all MSAx (H2SO4yDMAz clusters where x + y ≤ 3 and z ≤ 2. The resulting thermodynamic data is used in the Atmospheric Cluster Dynamics Code and the effect of MSA is evaluated by comparing ternary MSA-H2SO4-DMA cluster formation rates to binary H2SO4-DMA cluster formation rates. Within the range of atmospherically relevant MSA concentrations, we find that MSA may increase cluster formation rates by up to one order of magnitude, although typically, the increase will be less than 300% at 258 K, less than 100% at 278 K and less than 15% at 298 K. The results are rationalized by a detailed analysis of the the main growth paths of the clusters. We find that MSA enhanced clustering involves clusters containing one MSA molecule, while clusters containing more than one MSA molecule do not contribute significantly to the growth.

N. Bork

2014-07-01

119

Lowering of phytic acid content by enhancement of phytase and acid phosphatase activities during sunflower germination  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a germinação de girassóis híbridos BRS 191 e C11 com finalidade de reduzir o teor de AF e aumentar as atividades de phytases e fosfatases endógenas. A concentração do AF nos aquênios de girassóis híbridos variou de 2,16 a 2,83 g /100g de amostra (p[...] s atividades de fitases e fosfatases de girassóis BRS191 e C11 foram elevadas no 4º e 5º dia de germinação, respectivamente, com liberação do fósforo necessário para o desenvolvimento da semente. Estes resultados indicam que o AF do girassol hibrido reduz e a atividade de phytase aumenta em períodos distintos da germinação, possibilitando assim a aplicação desta enzima no controle do teor de AF em cereais, melhorando o seu valor nutricional. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to investigate the germination of hybrid sunflowers BRS191 and C11 as a means of lowering phytic acid (PA) content by enhancing the activity of endogenous phytase and acid phosphatase. The concentration of PA in hybrid sunflower achenes varied from 2.16 to 2.83g/100g o [...] f sample (p

Juliana da Silva, Agostini; Rosicler Balduíno, Nogueira; Elza Iouko, Ida.

2010-08-01

120

Lowering of phytic acid content by enhancement of phytase and acid phosphatase activities during sunflower germination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the germination of hybrid sunflowers BRS191 and C11 as a means of lowering phytic acid (PA content by enhancing the activity of endogenous phytase and acid phosphatase. The concentration of PA in hybrid sunflower achenes varied from 2.16 to 2.83g/100g of sample (p O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a germinação de girassóis híbridos BRS 191 e C11 com finalidade de reduzir o teor de AF e aumentar as atividades de phytases e fosfatases endógenas. A concentração do AF nos aquênios de girassóis híbridos variou de 2,16 a 2,83 g /100g de amostra (p< 0,005. As atividades de fitases e fosfatases de girassóis BRS191 e C11 foram elevadas no 4º e 5º dia de germinação, respectivamente, com liberação do fósforo necessário para o desenvolvimento da semente. Estes resultados indicam que o AF do girassol hibrido reduz e a atividade de phytase aumenta em períodos distintos da germinação, possibilitando assim a aplicação desta enzima no controle do teor de AF em cereais, melhorando o seu valor nutricional.

Juliana da Silva Agostini

2010-08-01

 
 
 
 
121

An optimized probucol microencapsulated formulation integrating a secondary bile acid (deoxycholic acid) as a permeation enhancer  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors have previously designed, developed, and characterized a novel microencapsulated formulation as a platform for the targeted delivery of therapeutics in an animal model of type 2 diabetes, using the drug probucol (PB). The aim of this study was to optimize PB microcapsules by incorporating the bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA), which has good permeation-enhancing properties, and to examine its effect on microcapsules’ morphology, rheology, structural and surface characteristics, and excipients’ chemical and thermal compatibilities. Microencapsulation was carried out using a BÜCHI-based microencapsulating system established in the authors’ laboratory. Using the polymer sodium alginate (SA), two microencapsulated formulations were prepared: PB-SA (control) and PB-DCA-SA (test) at a constant ratio (1:30 and 1:3:30, respectively). Complete characterization of the microcapsules was carried out. The incorporation of DCA resulted in better structural and surface characteristics, uniform morphology, and stable chemical and thermal profiles, while size and rheological parameters remained similar to control. In addition, PB-DCA-SA microcapsules showed good excipients’ compatibilities, which were supported by data from differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray studies, suggesting microcapsule stability. Hence, PB-DCA-SA microcapsules have good rheological and compatibility characteristics and may be suitable for the oral delivery of PB in type 2 diabetes. PMID:25302020

Mooranian, Armin; Negrulj, Rebecca; Chen-Tan, Nigel; Watts, Gerald F; Arfuso, Frank; Al-Salami, Hani

2014-01-01

122

An optimized probucol microencapsulated formulation integrating a secondary bile acid (deoxycholic acid as a permeation enhancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Armin Mooranian,1 Rebecca Negrulj,1 Nigel Chen-Tan,2 Gerald F Watts,3 Frank Arfuso,4 Hani Al-Salami11Biotechnology and Drug Development Research Laboratory, School of Pharmacy, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Biosciences Research Precinct, Curtin University, 2Faculty of Science and Engineering, Curtin University, 3School of Medicine and Pharmacology, Royal Perth Hospital, University of Western Australia, 4School of Biomedical Science, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Biosciences Research Precinct, Curtin University, Perth, AustraliaAbstract: The authors have previously designed, developed, and characterized a novel microencapsulated formulation as a platform for the targeted delivery of therapeutics in an animal model of type 2 diabetes, using the drug probucol (PB. The aim of this study was to optimize PB microcapsules by incorporating the bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA, which has good permeation-enhancing properties, and to examine its effect on microcapsules’ morphology, rheology, structural and surface characteristics, and excipients’ chemical and thermal compatibilities. Microencapsulation was carried out using a BÜCHI-based microencapsulating system established in the authors’ laboratory. Using the polymer sodium alginate (SA, two microencapsulated formulations were prepared: PB-SA (control and PB-DCA-SA (test at a constant ratio (1:30 and 1:3:30, respectively. Complete characterization of the microcapsules was carried out. The incorporation of DCA resulted in better structural and surface characteristics, uniform morphology, and stable chemical and thermal profiles, while size and rheological parameters remained similar to control. In addition, PB-DCA-SA microcapsules showed good excipients’ compatibilities, which were supported by data from differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray studies, suggesting microcapsule stability. Hence, PB-DCA-SA microcapsules have good rheological and compatibility characteristics and may be suitable for the oral delivery of PB in type 2 diabetes.Keywords: artificial cell microencapsulation, diabetes, bile acids, probucol, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, BÜCHI B390

Mooranian A

2014-09-01

123

Organising pneumonia associated with fumaric acid ester treatment for psoriasis.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

INTRODUCTION: We present the case of a 49-year old male who presented with dyspnoea, cough, weight loss, night sweats and general malaise. He had been on treatment with oral fumaric acid esters (FAE, Fumaderm(R); Biogen Idec GmbH, Ismaning, Germany) for 6 months. METHODS: Report of a case. RESULTS: His chest X-ray showed patchy infiltrates in the left upper lobe which failed to resolve under empiric antibiotic therapy. A computed tomography of thorax revealed bilateral, mostly peripheral foci of consolidation with air bronchograms. Transbronchial biopsies showed a pattern of organising pneumonia (OP). CONCLUSIONS: Therapy with oral prednisolone (40 mg\\/day) resulted in a rapid clinical and radiological improvement. An association of FAE and OP has not previously been reported. Please cite this paper as: Deegan AP, Kirby B, Rogers S, Crotty TB and McDonnell TJ. Organising pneumonia associated with fumaric acid ester treatment for psoriasis.

Deegan, Alexander Paul

2012-02-01

124

Acid sphingomyelinase overexpression enhances the antineoplastic effects of irradiation in vitro and in vivo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure of cells or animals to stress frequently induces acid sphingomyelinase (ASM)-mediated ceramide production that leads to cell death. Consistent with this, overexpression of ASM in subcutaneous B16-F10 mouse melanomas, in combination with irradiation, resulted in tumors that were up to 12-fold smaller than irradiated control melanomas. Similarly, when irradiated melanomas were pretreated with a single, peritumoral injection of recombinant ASM (rhASM), the tumors were up to threefold smaller. The in vivo effect of ASM was likely due to enhanced cell death of the tumor cells themselves, as well as the surrounding microvascular endothelial cells. In vitro, rhASM had little or no effect on the growth of tumor cells, even in combination with irradiation. However, when the culture media was acidified to mimic the acidic microenvironment of solid tumors, rhASM-mediated cell death was markedly enhanced when combined with irradiation. Microscopic analysis suggested that this was associated with an increase in autophagy. rhASM has been produced for the treatment of the lysosomal storage disorder, type B Niemann-Pick disease, and is currently being evaluated in a phase-1 clinical trial. Based on the data presented in this article, we propose that further investigation of this protein and gene as antineoplastic agents also is warranted. PMID:18628757

Smith, Eric L; Schuchman, Edward H

2008-09-01

125

Flaxseed Soluble Dietary Fibre Enhances Lactic Acid Bacterial Survival and Growth in Kefir and Possesses High Antioxidant Capacity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study investigated the capability and efficiency of flaxseed soluble dietary fibre /mucilage to enhance bacterial survival and growth in kefir as well as the antioxidant activity of the mucilage. Crude flaxseed mucilage was extracted using a microwave method, followed by enzymatic and dialysis treatments to obtain pure mucilage. The antioxidant activities of the pure and crude mucilage were measured using different assays. Microbial analyses, pH and total titratable acidity (TTA) were...

Nam Fong Han; Camille Duc; Mehri HadiNezhad; Farah Hosseinian

2013-01-01

126

Exogenous jasmonic acid can enhance tolerance of wheat seedlings to salt stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Jasmonic acid (JA) is regarded as endogenous regulator that plays an important role in regulating stress responses, plant growth and development. To investigate the physiological mechanisms of salt stress mitigated by exogenous JA, foliar application of 2mM JA was done to wheat seedlings for 3days and then they were subjected to 150mM NaCl. Our results showed that 150mM NaCl treatment significantly decreased plant height, root length, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, the concentration of glutathione (GSH), chlorophyll b (Chl b) and carotenoid (Car), the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), enhanced the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the rate of superoxide radical (O2•-) generation in the wheat seedlings when compared with the control. However, treatments with exogenous JA for 3 days significantly enhanced salt stress tolerance in wheat seedlings by decreasing the concentration of MDA and H2O2, the production rate of O2•- and increasing the transcript levels and activities of SOD, POD, CAT and APX and the contents of GSH, Chl b and Car, which, in turn, enhanced the growth of salt stressed seedlings. These results suggested that JA could effectively protect wheat seedlings from salt stress damage by enhancing activities of antioxidant enzymes and the concentration of antioxidative compounds to quench the excessive reactive oxygen species caused by salt stress and presented a practical implication for wheat cultivation in salt-affected soils. PMID:24726929

Qiu, ZongBo; Guo, JunLi; Zhu, AiJing; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, ManMan

2014-06-01

127

Ferulic acid enhances the vasorelaxant effect of epigallocatechin gallate in tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced inflammatory rat aorta.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previously, we demonstrated synergistic enhancement of vasorelaxation by combination treatment with Trp-His and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) in intact rat aorta. The aim of the present study was to determine whether this vasorelaxant synergy could be recapitulated in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?)-induced inflammatory rat aorta, and to determine the extent of its modulation by anti-inflammatory phenolic acids. Synergistic enhancement of vasorelaxation in rat aorta by Trp-His and EGCg was significantly attenuated in the presence of TNF-?, an effect that was reversed by the addition of ferulic acid (FA, 250 ?M). Moreover, FA markedly enhanced EGCg-induced vasorelaxation, but not Trp-His-induced vasorelaxation, in TNF-?-treated aorta. Structure-activity analysis showed that the unsaturated 2-propenoic moiety and the methoxy group of FA were important for the enhancement of vasorelaxation by EGCg. The stimulation of EGCg-induced vasorelaxation by FA was antagonized by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine acetate, while FA enhanced vasorelaxant properties of the endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase activator acetylcholine in TNF-?-treated inflammatory aorta. Moreover, the EGCg-stimulated NO production was also enhanced by FA in TNF-?-treated aorta. These data indicate that stimulation of NO production by FA enhances the vasorelaxant properties of EGCg in TNF-?-induced inflammatory aorta. PMID:24794014

Zhao, Jian; Suyama, Aki; Tanaka, Mitsuru; Matsui, Toshiro

2014-07-01

128

Enhancement of Focused Ultrasound Treatment by Acoustically Generated Microbubbles  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbubbles, whether introduced from outside the body or ultrasonically generated in situ, are known to significantly enhance the biological effects of ultrasound, including the mechanical, thermal, and sonochemical effects. Phase-change nanodroplets, which selectively accumulate in tumor tissue and whose phase changes to microbubbles can be induced by ultrasonic stimulation, have been proposed for high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) tumor treatment with enhanced selectivity and efficiency. In this paper, a purely acoustic approach to generate microbubble clouds in the tissue to be treated is proposed. Short pulses of focused ultrasound with extremely high intensity, named trigger pulses, are used for exposure. They are immediately followed by focused ultrasound for heating with an intensity similar to or less than that of normal HIFU treatment. The localized generation of microbubble clouds by the trigger pulses is observed in a polyarylamide gel by a high-speed camera, and the effectiveness of the generated clouds in accelerating ultrasonically induced thermal coagulation is confirmed in excised chicken breast tissue. The use of second-harmonic superimposed waves as the trigger pulses is also proposed. The highly reproducible initiation of cavitation by waves with the negative peak pressure emphasized and the efficient expansion of the generated microbubble clouds by waves with the positive peak pressure emphasized are also observed by a high-speed camera in partially degassed water.

Umemura, Shin-ichiro; Yoshizawa, Shin; Takagi, Ryo; Inaba, Yuta; Yasuda, Jun

2013-07-01

129

Ascorbic acid does not enhance hypoxia-induced vasodilation in healthy older men.  

Science.gov (United States)

In response to hypoxia, a net vasodilation occurs in the limb vasculature in young healthy humans and this is referred to as "hypoxia-induced vasodilation". We performed two separate experiments to determine (1) if hypoxia-induced forearm vasodilation is impaired in older men (n = 8) compared to young men (n = 7) and (2) if acute systemic infusion of ascorbic acid would enhance hypoxia-induced vasodilation in older men (n = 8). Heart rate, mean arterial pressure, oxygen saturation, minute ventilation, forearm vascular conductance (FVC, Doppler ultrasound), and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC, laser Doppler flowmetry) were recorded continuously while subjects breathed 10% oxygen for 5 min. Changes from baseline were compared between groups and between treatments. The older adults had a significantly attenuated increase in FBF (13 ± 4 vs. 30 ± 7%) and FVC (16 ± 4 vs. 30 ± 7%) in response to 5 min of hypoxia. However, skin blood flow responses were comparable between groups (young: 35 ± 9, older: 30 ± 6%). In Experiment 2, FVC responses to 5 min of breathing 10% oxygen were not significantly different following saline (3 ± 10%) and ascorbic acid (8 ± 10%) in the older men. Ascorbic acid also had no physiological effects in the young men. These findings advance our basic understanding of how aging influences vascular responses to hypoxia and suggest that, in healthy humans, hypoxia-induced vasodilation is not restrained by reactive oxygen species. PMID:25052494

Pollock, Jonathan P; Patel, Hardikkumar M; Randolph, Brittney J; Heffernan, Matthew J; Leuenberger, Urs A; Muller, Matthew D

2014-07-01

130

Ethylene-Enhanced 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid Synthase Activity in Ripening Apples.  

Science.gov (United States)

Apples (Malus sylvestris Mill, cv Golden Delicious) were treated before harvest with aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). AVG is presumed to reversibly inhibit 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) activity, but not the formation of ACC synthase. AVG treatment effectively blocked initiation of autocatalytic ethylene production and ripening of harvested apples. Exogenous ethylene induced extractable ACC synthase activity and ripening in AVG-treated apples. Removal of exogenous ethylene caused a rapid decline in ACC synthase activity and in CO(2) production. The results with ripened, AVG-treated apples indicate (a) a dose-response relationship between ethylene and enhancement of ACC synthase activity with a half-maximal response at approximately 0.8 mul/l ethylene; (b) reversal of ethylene-enhanced ACC synthase activity by CO(2); (c) enhancement of ACC synthase activity by the ethylene-activity analog propylene.Induction of ACC synthase activity, autocatalytic ethylene production, and ripening of preclimacteric apples not treated with AVG were delayed by 6 and 10% CO(2), but not by 1.25% CO(2). However, each of these CO(2) concentrations reduced the rate of increase of ACC synthase activity. PMID:16663569

Bufler, G

1984-05-01

131

Polystyrene sulphonic acid resins with enhanced acid strength via macromolecular self-assembly within confined nanospace  

Science.gov (United States)

Tightening environmental legislation is driving the chemical industries to develop efficient solid acid catalysts to replace conventional mineral acids. Polystyrene sulphonic acid resins, as some of the most important solid acid catalysts, have been widely studied. However, the influence of the morphology on their acid strength—closely related to the catalytic activity—has seldom been reported. Herein, we demonstrate that the acid strength of polystyrene sulphonic acid resins can be adjusted through their reversible morphology transformation from aggregated to swelling state, mainly driven by the formation and breakage of hydrogen bond interactions among adjacent sulphonic acid groups within the confined nanospace of hollow silica nanospheres. The hybrid solid acid catalyst demonstrates high activity and selectivity in a series of important acid-catalysed reactions. This may offer an efficient strategy to fabricate hybrid solid acid catalysts for green chemical processes.

Zhang, Xiaomin; Zhao, Yaopeng; Xu, Shutao; Yang, Yan; Liu, Jia; Wei, Yingxu; Yang, Qihua

2014-01-01

132

POROSITY ENHANCEMENT IN SOME BAKED CLAY SAMPLES UNDER HYDROTHERMAL TREATMENTS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english This paper demonstrates the chemically assisted enhancement in porosity of l °Cal clay samples activated at a temperature of 150 ºC. Aluminosilicates enriched baked clay samples were used and hydro thermally treated with NaOH, KOH, Ba (OH)2 & ZrO. Pore size and surface area analyzer was used for the [...] determination of surface area. Average pore width, pore volume and surface area were calculated. Treatment with NaOH and KOH has shown to be a very good activation pr °Cedure for high surface area development. Zirconium oxide has caused no pronounced effect on the development of surface area while barium hydroxide showed adverse effect and caused a decline in porosity

IMTIAZ, AHMAD; M, SHAKIRULLAH; M, ISHAQ; M, ARSALA KHAN; HABIB, UR REHMAN; MUHAMMAD, OMER; HAMEED, ULLAH.

133

POROSITY ENHANCEMENT IN SOME BAKED CLAY SAMPLES UNDER HYDROTHERMAL TREATMENTS  

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Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the chemically assisted enhancement in porosity of l °Cal clay samples activated at a temperature of 150 ºC. Aluminosilicates enriched baked clay samples were used and hydro thermally treated with NaOH, KOH, Ba (OH2 & ZrO. Pore size and surface area analyzer was used for the determination of surface area. Average pore width, pore volume and surface area were calculated. Treatment with NaOH and KOH has shown to be a very good activation pr °Cedure for high surface area development. Zirconium oxide has caused no pronounced effect on the development of surface area while barium hydroxide showed adverse effect and caused a decline in porosity

IMTIAZ AHMAD

2007-06-01

134

Influence of Fenofibrate Treatment on Triacylglycerides, Diacylglycerides and Fatty Acids in Fructose Fed Rats  

Science.gov (United States)

Fenofibrate (FF) lowers plasma triglycerides via PPAR? activation. Here, we analyzed lipidomic changes upon FF treatment of fructose fed rats. Three groups with 6 animals each were defined as control, fructose-fed and fructose-fed/FF treated. Male Wistar Unilever Rats were subjected to 10% fructose-feeding for 20 days. On day 14, fenofibrate treatment (100 mg/kg p.o.) was initiated and maintained for 7 days. Lipid species in serum were analyzed using mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS; LC-FT-MS, GC-MS) on days 0, 14 and 20 in all three groups. In addition, lipid levels in liver and intestine were determined. Short-chain TAGs increased in serum and liver upon fructose-feeding, while almost all TAG-species decreased under FF treatment. Long-chain unsaturated DAG-levels (36:1, 36:2, 36:4, 38:3, 38:4, 38:5) increased upon FF treatment in rat liver and decreased in rat serum. FAs, especially short-chain FAs (12:0, 14:0, 16:0) increased during fructose-challenge. VLDL secretion increased upon fructose-feeding and together with FA-levels decreased to control levels during FF treatment. Fructose challenge of de novo fatty acid synthesis through fatty acid synthase (FAS) may enhance the release of FAs ?16:0 chain length, a process reversed by FF-mediated PPAR?-activation. PMID:25198467

Kopf, Thomas; Schaefer, Hans-Ludwig; Troetzmueller, Martin; Koefeler, Harald; Broenstrup, Mark; Konovalova, Tatiana; Schmitz, Gerd

2014-01-01

135

Enhancing Arabidopsis salt and drought stress tolerance by chemical priming for its abscisic acid responses  

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Drought and salt stress tolerance of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants increased following treatment with the nonprotein amino acid ?-aminobutyric acid (BABA), known as an inducer of resistance against infection of plants by numerous pathogens. BABA-pretreated plants showed earlier and higher expression of the salicylic acid-dependent PR-1 and PR-5 and the abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent RAB-18 and RD-29A genes following salt and drought stress...

Jakab, Gabor; Ton, Jurriaan; Flors, Victor; Zimmerli, Laurent; Me?traux, Jean-pierre; Mauch-mani, Brigitte

2006-01-01

136

Enhancing Arabidopsis Salt and Drought Stress Tolerance by Chemical Priming for Its Abscisic Acid Responses  

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Drought and salt stress tolerance of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants increased following treatment with the nonprotein amino acid -aminobutyric acid (BABA), known as an inducer of resistance against infection of plants by numerous pathogens. BABA-pretreated plants showed earlier and higher expression of the salicylic acid-dependent PR-1 and PR-5 and the abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent RAB-18 and RD-29A genes following salt and drought stress. However...

Jakab, Gabor; Ton, Jurriaan; Flors, Victor; Zimmerli, Laurent; Me?traux, Jean-pierre; Mauch-mani, Brigitte

2011-01-01

137

ENHANCING SOLUBILITY AND DISSOLUTION OF MEFENAMIC ACID BY FREEZE DRYING USING ?-CYCLODEXTRIN  

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Mefenamic acid, an anti-inflammatory drug, exhibits poor water solubility, dissolution and flow properties. Thus, the aim of the present study was to improve the solubility and dissolution rate of Mefenamic acid by preparing microparticle by Freeze drying technique. Mefenamic acid microparticle containing different ratio of ?-cyclodextrin were produced by Freeze drying using water and Isopropyl alcohol as solvent system to enhance solubility and dissolution rate. The prepared formulations co...

Dixit Mudit; Yoshita Bhardwaj; Kulkarni Parthasarathi Keshavarao; Panner Selvam

2011-01-01

138

Topical Boswellic acids for treatment of photoaged skin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Boswellic acids (BAs) are pentacyclic triterpenes extracted from the gum resins of the tropical tree Boswellia serrata. They are orally administered in traditional Indian medicine for the treatment of several inflammatory disease and cancer because of their anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities as well as stimulatory effects on fibroblasts. The present authors have investigated efficacy, tolerability, and safety of a base cream containing 0.5% BAs in the treatment of clinical manifestations of photoaging of facial skin with a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, split-face study. Fifteen female volunteers applied the creams with or without BAs on the half sides of the face once daily for 30 days. Significant improvements of the Dover's global score for photoaging, tactile roughness, and fine lines, as well as, with noninvasive diagnostic techniques, an increase of elasticity, a decrease of sebum excretion, and a change of echographic parameters were observed with topical BAs in comparison with placebo. The treatment was always well tolerated without adverse effects. The present findings seem to indicate that topical application of BAs may represent a suitable treatment option for selected features of skin photoaging. PMID:20136919

Calzavara-Pinton, Piergiacomo; Zane, Cristina; Facchinetti, Elena; Capezzera, Rossana; Pedretti, Alessandra

2010-01-01

139

Action of successive heat treatments in bovine milk fatty acids  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O estudo mostra a ação sucessiva dos tratamentos térmicos de pasteurização (75 ºC por 15 s) e esterilização comercial por troca indireta de calor (140 ºC for 6 s) sobre o perfil lipídico de leite bovino. Amostras de leite cru foram submetidas à pasteurização e então, à esterilização comercial (ultra [...] -alta temperatura, UHT). A gordura de amostras de leite cru, de leite pasteurizado e de leite esterilizados comercialmente foi extraída. Após transesterificação, os ésteres metílicos dos ácidos graxos (FAMEs) foram analisados por cromatografia gasosa com detecção por ionização de chama (GC-FID). A quantificação revelou que para a maioria dos ácidos graxos (FA) encontrados não houve diferença significativa (p > 0,05) entre as amostras de leite cru e leite pasteurizado. Entretanto, foram encontradas diferenças significativas para 21 dos 26 ácidos graxos analisados (p > 0,05) para as amostras de leite cru e de leite esterilizado, incluindo o isômero predominante no leite do ácido linoléico conjugado (CLA-c9t11). Este fato evidencia a ação sucessiva dos tratamentos térmicos no perfil lipídico do leite. Abstract in english The action of successive pasteurization thermal treatments (75 ºC for 15 s) and commercial sterilization by indirect heat exchange (140 ºC for 6 s) was analyzed on the lipid profile of bovine milk. Raw milk samples were submitted to pasteurization and then were submitted to sterilization (ultra-high [...] temperature, UHT). The fat of raw milk, pasteurized milk and commercially sterilized milk samples was extracted. After transesterification, the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The quantification of fatty acids (FA) revealed that for most of the found fatty acids there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between raw milk and pasteurized milk. However, it was found significant differences for 21 of the 26 analyzed fatty acids (p > 0.05) for the raw and sterilized milks, including the predominant isomer of the conjugated linoleic acid (CLAc9t11) of the milk. This fact evidences the successive action of heat treatments on milk lipid profile.

Edvaldo N., Costa; Ellen C. Q., Lacerda; Suian M. S., Santos; Carilan M. S., Santos; Marcelo, Franco; Robério R., Silva; Julliana I., Simionato.

140

Action of successive heat treatments in bovine milk fatty acids  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O estudo mostra a ação sucessiva dos tratamentos térmicos de pasteurização (75 ºC por 15 s) e esterilização comercial por troca indireta de calor (140 ºC for 6 s) sobre o perfil lipídico de leite bovino. Amostras de leite cru foram submetidas à pasteurização e então, à esterilização comercial (ultra [...] -alta temperatura, UHT). A gordura de amostras de leite cru, de leite pasteurizado e de leite esterilizados comercialmente foi extraída. Após transesterificação, os ésteres metílicos dos ácidos graxos (FAMEs) foram analisados por cromatografia gasosa com detecção por ionização de chama (GC-FID). A quantificação revelou que para a maioria dos ácidos graxos (FA) encontrados não houve diferença significativa (p > 0,05) entre as amostras de leite cru e leite pasteurizado. Entretanto, foram encontradas diferenças significativas para 21 dos 26 ácidos graxos analisados (p > 0,05) para as amostras de leite cru e de leite esterilizado, incluindo o isômero predominante no leite do ácido linoléico conjugado (CLA-c9t11). Este fato evidencia a ação sucessiva dos tratamentos térmicos no perfil lipídico do leite. Abstract in english The action of successive pasteurization thermal treatments (75 ºC for 15 s) and commercial sterilization by indirect heat exchange (140 ºC for 6 s) was analyzed on the lipid profile of bovine milk. Raw milk samples were submitted to pasteurization and then were submitted to sterilization (ultra-high [...] temperature, UHT). The fat of raw milk, pasteurized milk and commercially sterilized milk samples was extracted. After transesterification, the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The quantification of fatty acids (FA) revealed that for most of the found fatty acids there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between raw milk and pasteurized milk. However, it was found significant differences for 21 of the 26 analyzed fatty acids (p > 0.05) for the raw and sterilized milks, including the predominant isomer of the conjugated linoleic acid (CLAc9t11) of the milk. This fact evidences the successive action of heat treatments on milk lipid profile.

Edvaldo N., Costa; Ellen C. Q., Lacerda; Suian M. S., Santos; Carilan M. S., Santos; Marcelo, Franco; Robério R., Silva; Julliana I., Simionato.

2115-21-01

 
 
 
 
141

Peripheral serotonin enhances lipid metabolism by accelerating bile acid turnover.  

Science.gov (United States)

Serotonin is synthesized by two distinct tryptophan hydroxylases, one in the brain and one in the periphery. The latter is known to be unable to cross the blood-brain barrier. These two serotonin systems have apparently independent functions, although the functions of peripheral serotonin have yet to be fully elucidated. In this study, we have investigated the physiological effect of peripheral serotonin on the concentrations of metabolites in the circulation and in the liver. After fasting, mice were ip injected with 1 mg serotonin. The plasma glucose concentration was significantly elevated between 60 and 270 min after the injection. In contrast, plasma triglyceride, cholesterol, and nonesterified fatty acid concentrations were decreased. The hepatic glycogen synthesis and concentrations were significantly higher at 240 min. At the same time, the hepatic triglyceride content was significantly lower than the basal levels noted before the serotonin injection, whereas the hepatic cholesterol content was significantly higher by 60 min after the injection. Furthermore, serotonin stimulated the contraction of the gallbladder and the excretion of bile. After the serotonin injection, there was a significant induction of apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter expression, resulting in a decrease in the concentration of bile acids in the feces. Additionally, data are presented to show that the functions of serotonin are mediated through diverse serotonin receptor subtypes. These data indicate that peripheral serotonin accelerates the metabolism of lipid by increasing the concentration of bile acids in circulation. PMID:20685881

Watanabe, Hitoshi; Akasaka, Daisuke; Ogasawara, Hideki; Sato, Kan; Miyake, Masato; Saito, Kazuki; Takahashi, Yu; Kanaya, Takashi; Takakura, Ikuro; Hondo, Tetsuya; Chao, Guozheng; Rose, Michael T; Ohwada, Shyuichi; Watanabe, Kouichi; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Aso, Hisashi

2010-10-01

142

Overexpression of malate dehydrogenase in transgenic alfalfa enhances organic acid synthesis and confers tolerance to aluminum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Al toxicity is a severe impediment to production of many crops in acid soil. Toxicity can be reduced through lime application to raise soil pH, however this amendment does not remedy subsoil acidity, and liming may not always be practical or cost-effective. Addition of organic acids to plant nutrient solutions alleviates phytotoxic Al effects, presumably by chelating Al and rendering it less toxic. In an effort to increase organic acid secretion and thereby enhance Al tolerance in alfalfa (Medicago sativa), we produced transgenic plants using nodule-enhanced forms of malate dehydrogenase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase cDNAs under the control of the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. We report that a 1.6-fold increase in malate dehydrogenase enzyme specific activity in root tips of selected transgenic alfalfa led to a 4.2-fold increase in root concentration as well as a 7.1-fold increase in root exudation of citrate, oxalate, malate, succinate, and acetate compared with untransformed control alfalfa plants. Overexpression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase enzyme specific activity in transgenic alfalfa did not result in increased root exudation of organic acids. The degree of Al tolerance by transformed plants in hydroponic solutions and in naturally acid soil corresponded with their patterns of organic acid exudation and supports the concept that enhancing organic acid synthesis in plants may be an effective strategy to cope with soil acidity and Al toxicity. PMID:11743127

Tesfaye, M; Temple, S J; Allan, D L; Vance, C P; Samac, D A

2001-12-01

143

Afferent signalling from the acid-challenged rat stomach is inhibited and gastric acid elimination is enhanced by lafutidine  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Lafutidine is a histamine H2 receptor antagonist, the gastroprotective effect of which is related to its antisecretory activity and its ability to activate a sensory neuron-dependent mechanism of defence. The present study investigated whether intragastric administration of lafutidine (10 and 30 mg/kg modifies vagal afferent signalling, mucosal injury, intragastric acidity and gastric emptying after gastric acid challenge. Methods Adult rats were treated with vehicle, lafutidine (10 – 30 mg/kg or cimetidine (10 mg/kg, and 30 min later their stomachs were exposed to exogenous HCl (0.25 M. During the period of 2 h post-HCl, intragastric pH, gastric volume, gastric acidity and extent of macroscopic gastric mucosal injury were determined and the activation of neurons in the brainstem was visualized by c-Fos immunocytochemistry. Results Gastric acid challenge enhanced the expression of c-Fos in the nucleus tractus solitarii but caused only minimal damage to the gastric mucosa. Lafutidine reduced the HCl-evoked expression of c-Fos in the NTS and elevated the intragastric pH following intragastric administration of excess HCl. Further analysis showed that the gastroprotective effect of lafutidine against excess acid was delayed and went in parallel with facilitation of gastric emptying, measured indirectly via gastric volume changes, and a reduction of gastric acidity. The H2 receptor antagonist cimetidine had similar but weaker effects. Conclusion These observations indicate that lafutidine inhibits the vagal afferent signalling of a gastric acid insult, which may reflect an inhibitory action on acid-induced gastric pain. The ability of lafutidine to decrease intragastric acidity following exposure to excess HCl cannot be explained by its antisecretory activity but appears to reflect dilution and/or emptying of the acid load into the duodenum. This profile of actions emphasizes the notion that H2 receptor antagonists can protect the gastric mucosa from acid injury independently of their ability to suppress gastric acid secretion.

Holzer Peter

2009-06-01

144

Enzyme-entrapped mesoporous silica for treatment of uric acid disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gout is an abnormality in the body resulting in the accumulation of uric acid mainly in joints. Dissolution of uric acid crystals into soluble allantoin by the enzyme uricase might provide a better alternative for the treatment of gout. This work aims to investigate the feasibility of a transdermal patch loaded with uricase for better patient compliance. Mesoporous silica (SBA-15) was chosen as the matrix for immobilisation of uricase. Highly oriented mesoporous SBA-15 was synthesized, characterized and uricase was physisorbed in the mesoporous material. The percentage adsorption and release of enzyme in borate buffer was monitored. The release followed linear kinetics and greater than 80% enzyme activity was retained indicating the potential of this system as an effective enzyme immobilization matrix. The enzyme permeability was studied with Wistar rat skin and human cadaver skin. It was found that in case of untreated rat skin 10% of enzyme permeated through skin in 100 h. The permeation increased by adding permeation enhancer (combination of oleic acid in propylene glycol (OA in PG)). The permeation enhancement was studied under two concentrations of OA in PG (1%, 5%) in both rat and human cadaver skin and it was found that 1% OA in PG showed better result in rat skin and 5% OA in PG showed good results in human cadaver skin. PMID:23802423

Muthukoori, Shanthini; Narayanan, Naagarajan; Chandra, Manuguri Sesha Sarath; Sethuraman, Swaminathan; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari

2013-05-01

145

Chronomodulation of topotecan or X-radiation treatment increases treatment efficacy without enhancing acute toxicity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Topotecan (TPT), a camptothecin analog, is currently used to treat human ovarian and small-cell lung cancer and is in clinical trials for other tumor sites. However, it is unknown whether chronomodulation of TPT treatment is beneficial. We examined the effects of administering TPT or X-radiation (XR) alone at different times of the day or night. Methods: We treated mice bearing human colorectal tumor xenografts at four different times representing the early rest period (9 AM or 3 HALO [hours after light onset]), late rest period (3 PM or 9 HALO), early active period (9 PM or 15 HALO), and late active period (3 AM or 21 HALO) of the mice. We gave either TPT (12 mg/kg, injected i.p.) or XR (4 Gy, directed to the tumor) twice weekly on Days 0, 4, 7, 10 within 2 weeks. Results: Treatment with either TPT or XR at 3 AM demonstrated the greatest efficacy (measured by a tumor regrowth assay) without significantly increasing acute toxicity (assessed by a decrease in leukocyte counts or body weight). Conversely, treatment at 3 PM, in particular, showed increased toxicity without any enhanced efficacy. Conclusions: Our study provided the first evidence that chronomodulation of TPT treatments, consistent with the findings of other camptothecin analogs, is potentially clinically beneficial. Additionally, our findings suggest that chronomodulation of fractionated XR treatments is also potentially clinically beneficial

146

Enhanced photoluminescence emission of 3-aminobenzoic acid by complexation with M cations [M = cobalt, zinc  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: •Novel complexes have been synthesized by a simple refluxing reaction. •This approach is expected to prepare other inorganic organic hybrid complexes. •These complexes could show huge photoluminescence emission enhancement. -- Abstract: Novel M (M = zinc or cobalt)-3-aminobenzoic acid complexes have been synthesized by a simple refluxing reaction using M (acetate) and 3-aminobenzoic acid for the precursors. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), UV–Vis spectra and photoluminescence (PL). And the results confirmed that the complexes could show huge photoluminescence emission enhancement. The formation mechanism of the morphologies and the superstructures of the complexes were proposed based on the time-dependent evolution process. Because of the promotion to transfer energy between the metal and 3-aminobenzoic acid, these interlayer complexes could show huge photoluminescence emission enhancement in the near-UV region (410 nm) compared with pure 3-aminobenzoic acid.

Min, Yu Lin, E-mail: ahaqmylin@126.com [College of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, ShangHai University of Electric Power, ShangHai 200090 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anqing Normal University, Anqing 246011 (China); He, Guang Qiang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anqing Normal University, Anqing 246011 (China); Xu, Qun Jie, E-mail: xuqunjie@shiep.edu.cn [College of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, ShangHai University of Electric Power, ShangHai 200090 (China); Chen, You Cun [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anqing Normal University, Anqing 246011 (China)

2013-11-25

147

Abscisic acid: a role in shoot enhancement from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) cotyledon explants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enhancement of shoot regeneration from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) cotyledon explants was studied by addition of abscisic acid (ABA) to Gresshoff-Doy (GD) shoot induction medium containing benzylaminopurine (BA) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Addition of ABA (10(-7) M) doubled the morphogenic area of cotyledons and increased the fresh weight of cotyledon explants by 40 to 45% after 4 weeks. A 4-week exposure to ABA resulted in a larger morphogenic area per cotyledon than 3, 2, or 1 week(s) respectively. The enhancement by ABA was related to the explant seed source and was not increased by prolonged exposure. Compared to controls, shoot number was enhanced by 31% and 56% with 2 and 4 weeks of ABA (10(-7) M) exposure, respectively. Abscisic acid has a role in enhancing shoot morphogenesis in loblolly pine. PMID:24233133

Sen, S; Newton, R J; Fong, F; Neuman, P

1989-04-01

148

Sumatra success : acid tunnelling succeeded where conventional acid treatments, proppant frac failed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article described an acid-tunneling technology developed by BJ Services which provides an economic and efficient stimulation alternative for wells completed openhole in carbonate reservoirs. The patented process, called StimTunnel, uses coiled tubing to convey a jointed nozzle that jets acid at the formation rock, dissolving it to create several mechanically stable, stimulated tunnels in the formation. These tunnels, and a range of wormholes and expanded pores, increase reservoir contact and improve productivity by distributing inflow across more surface area. The process has been used to get more oil out of a mature field in the Indonesian province of South Sumatra. The oil pools in the Ogan Komering Block were discovered in 1988 but have resisted efforts at well stimulation. Drill bits are not used in the StimTunnel concept. Instead, hydrochloric acid is used to dissolve the carbonate rock. Prior to StimTunnel treatment, the 9 wells in the Ogan Komering Block were averaging 638 bbls of oil per day. One year following treatment, the wells averaged 1,494 bbls of oil per day, a sustained increase in production of 134 per cent. 1 ref., 3 figs.

Roche, P.

2009-03-15

149

Enhanced endothelialization guided by fibronectin functionalized plasma polymerized acrylic acid film  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The plasma polymerized acrylic acid (PPAA) films with high carboxyl concentration were fabricated by low temperature plasma polymerization technology. Vacuum thermal treatment was used to modify the PPAA films. The stability of the PPAA film was evidenced by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The result of toluidine blue-O (TBO) method showed that the -COOH concentration on the surface of the PPAA films decreased from 20.73 nM to17.90 nM after vacuum thermal treatment. Fibronectin (Fn) was successfully covalently immobilized onto the modified surface PPAA via a covalent bond reacted with carboxyl groups. Diffuse reflectance Fourier infrared transform spectroscopy (DRFTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were utilized to characterize the layer-by-layer PPAA surface modification. From the evaluation of immunostaining for actin and Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), the surface of Fn-immobilized thermal treated PPAA films could be used to enhance the adhesion and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Especially, the exposure of RGD domain existing in the immobilized Fn was ascertained by ELISA, which was one of main improvement factors of HUVEC's adhesion and proliferation. This study demonstrated a promising surface modification used for vascular devices.

He Tingting; Yang Zhilu; Chen Rui; Wang Jin, E-mail: jinxxwang@263.net; Leng Yongxiang; Sun Hong; Huang Nan

2012-07-01

150

Treatment of warts with salicyclic acid and lactic acid in flexible collodion wart paint  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One hundred patients with warts (Verruca vulgaris of hands-33; feet-16, hands and feet 10; palmar warts-17 and plantar warts-24 were treated with salicylic acid (16.5% and lactic acid (16.5% in flexible collodion wart (SAL paint. The wart paint was applied twice a week for 3 months. Good response was seen in 82.1% of warts on hands. 46.7% of palmar warts, 54.5% of warts on feet, 84.2% of plantar warts and 57.1% of warts on hands and feet. Overall success rate was 70%. Eighty percent patients completed the study. No adverse effects were observed. During 6 months post treatment follow up recurrence of warts occurred in 11.7% of patients.

Dhar Sandipan

1994-01-01

151

Dietary enhancement of selected fatty acid biosynthesis in the digestive gland of Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fatty acid composition of the digestive gland from the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis subjected to three different dietary regimens for 30 days was analyzed. Samples were collected at the beginning and end of the trial to obtain a comprehensive picture of fatty acid dynamics. Group A was unfed; group B received a diet consisting of 100% Thalassiosira weissflogii and, thus, similar to natural food; and group C received a diet consisting of 100% wheat germ conferring a 18:2?-6 abundance. Results indicate that fatty acid composition of lipid and phospholipid classes was affected by dietary treatments. However, adult mussel homeostatic skills minimized effects, and thus, only wheat germ diet deeply modified the fatty acid composition. Furthermore, in group C, the occurrence of the non-methylene-interrupted trienoic fatty acids was indicative of de novo fatty acid synthesis presumably because of active fatty acid elongation and ?5 desaturation system, also supported by the general ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid decrease. PMID:23298257

Ventrella, Vittoria; Pagliarani, Alessandra; Nesci, Salvatore; Trombetti, Fabiana; Pirini, Maurizio

2013-01-30

152

Water-dispersible ascorbic-acid-coated magnetite nanoparticles for contrast enhancement in MRI  

Science.gov (United States)

Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles of size ~5 nm surface functionalized with ascorbic acid (vitamin C) form a stable dispersion in water with a hydrodynamic size of ~30 nm. The anti-oxidant property of ascorbic acid is retained after capping, as evidenced from the capability of converting methylene blue to its reduced leuco form. NMR relaxivity studies show that the ascorbic-acid-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide aqueous nanofluid is suitable as a contrast enhancement agent for MRI applications, coupled with the excellent biocompatibility and medicinal values of ascorbic acid.

Sreeja, V.; Jayaprabha, K. N.; Joy, P. A.

2014-07-01

153

Solution-processed PEDOT:PSS films with conductivities as indium tin oxide through a treatment with mild and weak organic acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

New transparent conductive materials are urgently needed for optoelectronic devices. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) will be a promising next-generation transparent electrode material if its conductivity is comparable to that of indium tin oxide (ITO). To enhance significantly the conductivity of PEDOT:PSS with mild compounds has practical significance. In this work, significant conductivity enhancements are achieved on PEDOT:PSS films after treatment with mild and weak organic acids. The treated PEDOT:PSS films exibit metallic behavior at room temperature. Their conductivity increases to about 3300 S cm(-1) after they are treated with 8 M methanesulfonic acid. The conductivity enhancement depends on the acidity and physical properties of the organic acids. The mechanism for the conductivity enhancement is ascribed to proton transfer from the mild or weak organic acids to PSS(-) of PEDOT:PSS. There are two factors for the proton transfer from mild or weak organic acids to PSS. One factor is the high acid concentration during the treatment, particularly after the vaporization of the water solvent. Another factor is the phase segregation of PSSH from PEDOT:PSS, because PSSH is hydrophilic, whereas PEDOT is hydrophobic. This method is better than that using very strong and corrosive acids like sulfuric acid. These highly conductive and highly transparent PEDOT:PSS films are promising for use as next-generation transparent electrodes. PMID:24308924

Ouyang, Jianyong

2013-12-26

154

The vitamin-like dietary supplement para-aminobenzoic acid enhances the antitumor activity of ionizing radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To determine whether para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) alters the sensitivity of tumor cells to ionizing radiation in vitro and in vivo. Methods and Materials: Cellular proliferation was assessed by WST-1 assays. The effects of PABA and radiation on tumor growth were examined with chick embryo and murine models. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were used to quantify p21CIP1 and CDC25A levels. Results: Para-aminobenzoic acid enhanced (by 50%) the growth inhibitory activity of radiation on B16F10 cells, whereas it had no effect on melanocytes. Para-aminobenzoic acid enhanced (50-80%) the antitumor activity of radiation on B16F10 and 4T1 tumors in vivo. The combination of PABA and radiation therapy increased tumor apoptosis. Treatment of tumor cells with PABA increased expression of CDC25A and decreased levels of p21CIP1. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that PABA might represent a compound capable of enhancing the antitumor activity of ionizing radiation by a mechanism involving altered expression of proteins known to regulate cell cycle arrest

155

The 300 area waste acid treatment system closure plan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) is located within operable units 300-FF-2 (source) and 300-FF-5 (groundwater), as designated in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) . Operable units 300-FF-2 and 300-FF-5 are scheduled to be remediated using the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) process. Thus, any remediation of the 300 Area WATS with respect to contaminants not produced by those facilities and soils and groundwater will be deferred to the CERCLA RI/FS process. Final closure activities will be completed in 3 phases and certified in accordance with the 300 Area WATS closure plan by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It is anticipated that the 300 Area WATS closure would take 2 years to complete

156

Ursodeoxycholic acid treatment improves hepatocyte ultrastructure in rat liver fibrosis  

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Full Text Available AIM: To examine the ultrastructural changes after ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA treatment in hepatocytes from experimentally induced fibrotic livers.METHODS: Liver fibrosis was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats with CCl4 for 12 wk, and the rats were divided into two groups. Group I was treated with saline and group II with UDCA (25 mg/kg per day for 4 wk. All the rats were killed at wk 16. Mitochondria, nuclei, rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER of hepatocytes were evaluated according to a scoring system.RESULTS: Mitochondria, nuclei, RER and SER injury scores in group II were significantly lower than those in groupI(P < 0.001.CONCLUSION: UDCA alleviates hepatocyte organelle injury in CCl4-induced liver fibrosis.

Nuket Mas, Ilker Tasci, Bilgin Comert, Ramazan Ocal, Mehmet Refik Mas

2008-02-01

157

Diameter sensitive effect in singlewalled carbon nanotubes upon acid treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Singlewalled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) exhibit very unique properties. As an electronic system they undergo amphoteric doping effects (n-type and p-type) which can be reversed. These processes affect the optical and vibronic properties of the carbon nanotubes. The most common and widely used procedure which changes the properties of the SWCNT is acid treatment applied as a purification procedure. This effect has been widely studied but not fully understood so far. Here, we present a study, in which a diameter sensitive effect has been observed. Therefore, two kinds of SWCNT samples have been studied: (i) produced via chemical vapour deposition with a broad diameter distribution, and (ii) synthesised by the laser ablation technique which is commonly known to result in narrow diameter distribution bulk SWCNT samples. Resonance Raman spectroscopy, optical absorption spectroscopy, and Fourier transform middle-infrared spectroscopy have been applied for the characterisation of the samples.

158

Diameter sensitive effect in singlewalled carbon nanotubes upon acid treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Singlewalled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) exhibit very unique properties. As an electronic system they undergo amphoteric doping effects (n-type and p-type) which can be reversed. These processes affect the optical and vibronic properties of the carbon nanotubes. The most common and widely used procedure which changes the properties of the SWCNT is acid treatment applied as a purification procedure. This effect has been widely studied but not fully understood so far. Here, we present a study, in which a diameter sensitive effect has been observed. Therefore, two kinds of SWCNT samples have been studied: (i) produced via chemical vapour deposition with a broad diameter distribution, and (ii) synthesised by the laser ablation technique which is commonly known to result in narrow diameter distribution bulk SWCNT samples. Resonance Raman spectroscopy, optical absorption spectroscopy, and Fourier transform middle-infrared spectroscopy have been applied for the characterisation of the samples.

Costa, S., E-mail: scosta@zut.edu.p [Centre of Knowledge Based Nanomaterials and Technologies, Institute of Chemical and Environment Engineering, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin (Poland); Borowiak-Palen, E. [Centre of Knowledge Based Nanomaterials and Technologies, Institute of Chemical and Environment Engineering, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin (Poland)

2009-11-03

159

77 FR 57545 - Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule: Public Meeting on Monitoring Data Analysis...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule...Environmental Protection Agency (EPA...Environmental Protection Agency (EPA...Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule...enhanced analytical methods. The third...

2012-09-18

160

Stearidonic acid as a supplemental source of ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to enhance status for improved human health.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is substantial evidence to show that consumption and increased blood levels of the very long-chain (VLC) ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (?-3 PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are associated with health benefits. The consumption of oily fish is an effective way of increasing EPA and DHA intake and status, but intake in most Western countries remains below the levels recommended for optimal health. The reasons for this include not liking the taste, a concern about sustainability of fish supplies, or potential chemical and heavy metal contamination. Alternative dietary sources of ?-3 fatty acids to enhance EPA and DHA status in the body would therefore be beneficial. There are many non-fish food sources of the essential plant-derived ?-3 fatty acid ?-linolenic acid, but conversion from this to longer-chain EPA and especially to DHA is poor. Stearidonic acid (SDA) is an intermediate fatty acid in the biosynthetic pathway from ?-linolenic acid to VLC ?-3 PUFAs and the conversion from SDA is more efficient than from ?-linolenic acid. However, there are few food sources rich in SDA. Oil crops naturally rich in SDA or enriched through genetic modification may offer an alternative supplemental oil to boost the population status of VLC ?-3 PUFAs. This review discusses the currently available evidence that increased SDA consumption can increase red blood cell EPA content, although this is less than the effect of supplementation directly with EPA. There is now a need for trials specifically designed to assess whether an increased SDA consumption would translate into improved human health outcomes. PMID:23102888

Walker, Celia G; Jebb, Susan A; Calder, Philip C

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
161

Selective enhancement and suppression of frog gustatory responses to amino acids  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Properties of the receptor sites for L-amino acids in taste cells of the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) were examined by measuring the neural activities of the glossopharyngeal nerve under various conditions. (a) The frogs responded to 12 amino acids, but the responses to the amino acids varied with individual frogs under natural conditions. The frog tongues, however, exhibited similar responses after an alkaline treatment that removes Ca2+ from the tissue. The variation in the responses under n...

1981-01-01

162

Enhanced sonochemical degradation of perfluorooctanoic acid by sulfate ions.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the effects of sulfate ions on the decomposition of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) by ultrasonic (US) irradiation at various pHs, sulfate doses, powers and temperatures. The removal of PFOA was augmented with an increased sulfate ion concentration, with PFOA being almost completely decomposed in 90min at 25°C with a sulfate dose of 117mM. The two major mechanisms in the sulfate-assisted sonochemical system are the direct destruction of PFOA by cavitation and the indirect destruction of PFOA by sulfate free radicals. The decomposition of PFOA followed pseudo-first-order kinetics and was not influenced by pH. The reaction rate constants decreased with increases in temperature due to decreases in the surface tension of the solution. PMID:24970115

Lin, Jo-Chen; Lo, Shang-Lien; Hu, Ching-Yao; Lee, Yu-Chi; Kuo, Jeff

2015-01-01

163

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF SUMATRIPTAN SUCCINATE NASAL IN-SITU GEL USING FULVIC ACID AS NOVEL PERMEATION ENHANCER  

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Full Text Available Sumatriptan succinate is a 5-HT1D (5-hydroxy tryptamine 1D-receptor agonist, used in the treatment of migraine and cluster headache Sumatriptan succinate has been shown to have a low oral bioavailability in human volunteers (15% because of high first pass metabolism.. Subcutaneous administration is an alternative; however, dislike of injections or inability to self-administer by this route makes subcutaneous treatment unacceptable to some individuals. These all above things justify a need of nasal drug delivery. To improve the nasal retention time of Sumatriptan succinate, it has been formulated as in situ mucoadhesive gel by using Pluronic PF127 and carbopol 974P. The objective of this work was to improve the nasal bioavailability of Sumatriptan succinate by increasing its nasal retention time as well as by means of nasal permeation. Nasal permeation of Sumatriptan succinate was improved by using fulvic acid extracted from Shilajit as a novel permeation enhancer. For the same the nasal in situ gel of Sumatriptan succinate and its complex with fulvic acid extracted from shilajit was made by cold method. The prepared in-situ gel was evaluated for gelation temperature, drug content, mucoadhesive force, gel strength and viscosity measurement. Further insitu gels prepared with and without permeation enhancer (Fulvic acid were evaluated for its In vitro drug diffusion study by Fran’s Diffusion Cell. The data of In vitro drug diffusion study of insitu gel prepared with and without permeation enhancer showed non Fickian or anomalous diffusion mechanism. The optimized batch C3 and F3 of insitu gel prepared with and without permeation enhancer respectively shows drug release in a controlled manner with higher permeation rate for 250min.. The drug permeation study across sheep nasal mucosa was conducted using C3 and F3 batch. The study showed that the insitu gel having fulvic acid have a significantly higher permeability as compared to the insitu gel which do not contain the fulvic acid. The higher permeation rate of C3 formulation as compare to F3 formulation is might be due to polymeric polyphenolic nature of fulvic acid because of which it have a tendency to interact with number of component resulting in higher permeation rate.

Shyam D. Badgujar

2010-10-01

164

Enhanced phagocytosis of group A streptococci M type 6 by oleic acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

M protein, located on the surface fimbriae of group A streptococci, is antiphagocytic by unknown means. It is known that oleic acid kills group A streptococci and distorts the fimbriae. The effect of oleic acid on phagocytosis of group A streptococci was examined. Phagocytosis of a strain possessing M protein (M+) and its M- variant was assessed by uptake of radiolabeled bacteria and by chemiluminescence. The M- but not the M+ streptococci were well phagocytized and induced chemiluminescence. Oleic acid-killed and heat-killed streptococci (both M+ and M-) were readily phagocytized and induced sustained chemiluminescence. M+ streptococci killed by ultraviolet irradiation were inefficiently phagocytized and did not induce chemiluminescence. Oleic acid-killed M+ streptococci absorbed type-specific antibody. An extract of M protein reduced the bactericidal capacity of oleic acid. It is proposed that oleic acid may bind to and alter the M protein of group A streptococci and thereby enhance phagocytosis

165

EVALUATION OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE ACID HYDROLYZATE TREATMENTS FOR XYLITOL PRODUCTION  

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Full Text Available Acid sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzate was submitted to pH shifts in order to remove toxic compounds from the medium. The hydrolyzate was treated with bases containing mono-, di- or tri-valent cations and H2SO4, and its performance as a fermentation medium was evaluated by the production of xylitol by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037. The use of bases containing mono-valent cations was not an efficient method of detoxification, and the use of a tri-valent cation did not show any detectable improvement in detoxification. The treated hydrolyzate recovery (in volume is greatly affected by the utilized base. Treatment using Al(OH3 and NaOH showed the best hydrolyzate recovery (87.5%, while the others presented a recovery of about 45% of the original hydrolyzate volume. Considering the whole process, best results were achieved by treatment using Al(OH3 and NaOH which allowed 0.55 g of xylitol produced from each gram of xylose in the raw hydrolyzate.

GURGEL P.V.

1998-01-01

166

Successful treatment of recalcitrant cutaneous sarcoidosis with fumaric acid esters  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease of unknown origin characterized by the formation of noncaseating granulomas, in particular in the lungs, lymph nodes, eyes, and skin. Systemic treatment for cutaneous sarcoidosis can be used for large disfiguring lesions, generalized involvement, or recalcitrant lesions that did not respond to topical therapy. Case presentations We report three patients with recalcitrant cutaneous sarcoidosis who were treated with oral fumaric acid esters (FAE. Three female patients presented with cutaneous sarcoidosis that have proved to be refractory to various therapies, including corticosteroids and chloroquine. We treated the patients with FAE in tablet form using two formulations differing in strength (Fumaderm® initial, Fumaderm®. Dosage of FAE was performed according to the standard therapy regimen for psoriasis patients. After treatment with FAE (4–12 months, a complete clearance of skin lesions was achieved in the three patients. The side effects observed in this trial correspond to the well-known spectrum of adverse effects of FAE (flush, minor gastrointestinal complaints, lymphopenia. Conclusions On the basis of our findings FAE therapy seems to be a safe and effective regimen for patients with recalcitrant cutaneous sarcoidosis. Nevertheless further investigations are necessary to confirm our preliminary results.

Hanefeld Christoph

2002-12-01

167

Fluorescence enhancement of yttrium(III)-rutin by nucleic acids in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide  

Science.gov (United States)

It is found that nucleic acids can enhance the fluorescence intensity of yttrium(III) (Y 3+)-rutin in presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMAB) system. In hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA)-HCl buffer, the maximum enhanced fluorescence is produced, with maximum excitation and emission wavelengths at 452 and 520 nm, respectively. Based on this, a new fluorimetric method of determination of nucleic acids is proposed. Under optimum conditions, the enhanced fluorescence intensity is proportion to the concentration of nucleic acids in the range of 1.0 × 10 -7 to 1.0 × 10 -5 g/ml for fish sperm DNA (fsDNA), 1.0 × 10 -7 to 4.6 × 10 -6 g/ml for yeast RNA (yRNA), their detection limits (S/N = 3) are 7.5 × 10 -8, 8.0 × 10 -8 g/ml, respectively. The interaction mechanism is also studied.

Wu, Xia; Guo, Changying; Wang, Fei; Yang, Jinghe; Ran, Dehuan; Zheng, Jinhua; Wu, Jinbo

2006-11-01

168

Cytogenetic and biochemical effects induced by the treatment with ascorbic acid and citric acid on Picea abies (L. Karst.  

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Full Text Available This paper present the influence of ascorbic acid and citric acid upon the mitotic division, and to the activity of some antioxidant enzymes to Picea abies (L. Karst. The treatment was made through the germination of seeds in ascorbic acid and citric acid. We observed the stimulator or inhibitor effect of ascorbic acid and citric acid to the mitotic index and estimated the aberrations appearance. Comparative the control, the mitotic index increased at 0.1 % concentration ascorbic acid and decreased at 0.25 % and 0.5 % concentration of the same substance. The citric acid induced a decrease in the dynamics of mitotic index comparative the control. Also, we observed an increase of aberrations appearance to the treatment with citric acid. We established the activity of catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and the influence of ascorbic acid and citric acid to the activity of these antioxidant enzymes. After statistical interpretation emerged that these substances (except 0.25 % ascorbic acid induced an inhibition of catalase activity and a stimulation of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity.

Vlad Artenie

2008-05-01

169

Evidence for enhanced mineral dissolution in organic acid-rich shallow ground water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total concentrations of formate, acetate, and isobutyrate varied from less than 5 to greater than 9,000 ?mol/l over distances of < 3 m in ground water from a shallow hydrocarbon contaminated aquifer. Laboratory incubations of aquifer material indicate that organic acid concentrations were dependent on the amount of hydrocarbon loading in the sediment and the relative rates of microbial organic acid production and consumption. In heavily contaminated sediments, production greatly exceeded consumption and organic acid concentrations increased. In lightly contaminated sediments rates were essentially equal and organic acid concentrations remained low. Concentrations of dissolved Ca, Mg, and Fe generally were 1--2 orders of magnitude higher in organic acid-rich ground water than in ground water having low organic acid concentrations. Carbonate and Fe(III)-oxyhydroxide minerals were the likely sources of these elements. Similarly, concentrations of dissolved silica, derived from quartz and K-feldspar, were higher in organic acid-rich ground water than in other waters. The positive relation between concentrations of silica and organic acids suggests that the microbially mediated buildup of organic acids in ground water enhanced quartz/K-feldspar dissolution in the aquifer, although it was not the only factor influencing their dissolution. A model indicated that competition between silica and cations for complexation sites on organic acids also influenced quartz/K-feldspar dissolution. Physical evidence for enhanced mineral dissolution in organic acid-rich waters included SEM images of highly corroded quartz and K-feldspar grains from portions of the aquifer containing organic acid-rich ground water. Microporosity generated in hydrocarbon contaminated sediments may adversely affect remediation efforts that depend on the efficient injection of electron acceptors into an aquifer or on the recovery of solutes from an aquifer

170

Enhancing the mechanical properties of electrospun polyester mats by heat treatment  

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Full Text Available Microfibrous materials with a targeted design based on poly(L-lactic acid (PLA and poly(?-caprolactone (PCL were prepared by electrospinning and by combining electrospinning and electrospraying. Several approaches were used: (i electrospinning of a common solution of the two polymers, (ii simultaneous electrospinning of two separate solutions of PLA and PCL, (iii electrospinning of PLA solution in conjunction with electrospraying of PCL solution, and (iv alternating layer-by-layer deposition by electrospinning of separate PLA and PCL solutions. The mats were heated at the melting temperature of PCL (60°", thus achieving melting of PCL fibers/particles and thermal sealing of the fibers. The mats subjected to thermal treatment were characterized by greater mean fiber diameters and reduced values of the water contact angle compared to the pristine mats. Heat treatment of the mats affected their thermal stability and led to an increase in the crystallinity degree of PLA incorporated in the mats, whereas that of PCL was reduced. All mats were characterized by enhanced mechanical properties after thermal treatment as compared to the non-treated fibrous materials.

M. Kancheva

2015-01-01

171

Enhanced peripheral nerve regeneration by acidic fibroblast growth factor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transection of peripheral nerves may cause permanent denervation with paralysis and disability in humans and represents a challenging problem in microsurgery. Physiologic repair at increasing intervals after the acute phase of injury results in progressively worse recovery, emphasizing the importance of rapid and timely reinnervation to optimize endorgan viability. Despite recent advances in microsurgical techniques, imperfect reinnervation results in partial return of neuromuscular function, even in the mildest neuropraxias. Axonal repair of mature neurons involves a complex interaction of molecular events, suggesting that the presence of specific neuronotropic factors might enhance the regeneration process. Recombinant human fibroblast growth factor (FGF-1) has been shown to induce both rapid angiogenesis and neurogenesis through a synthetic conduit across a 15-mm surgical gap in the peripheral nerve of the rat. Evidence of newly formed neural structures was confirmed postoperatively by histological examination in a temporal fashion over a 24-week interval. Functional motor recovery of regenerated nerves was evaluated by determining the amplitude and latency of compound muscle action potentials in treated animals. Electrophysiology studies demonstrated consistent return of motor function in 43 and 57% of animals harboring an FGF-1 conduit at 8- and 24-week intervals, respectively. None of the control animals exhibited restoration of motor function. Collectively, these data suggest that FGF may serve as an important mediator of controlled growth during peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:7688578

Walter, M A; Kurouglu, R; Caulfield, J B; Vasconez, L O; Thompson, J A

1993-06-01

172

Tauroursodeoxycholic acid enhances the pre-implantation embryo development by reducing apoptosis in pigs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Apoptosis is an important determinant of the normal development of pre-implantation embryos in vitro. Recently, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis has been extensively investigated in a wide variety of diseases. Efficient functioning of the ER is essential for most cellular activities and survival. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), an endogenous bile acid, has been reported to attenuate ER stress-mediated cell death by interrupting the classic pathways of apoptosis. Therefore, in this study, the anti-apoptotic effect of TUDCA on ER stress-induced apoptosis was examined in pre-implantation pig embryos. Also, tunicamycin was used to investigate the effects of ER stress on pig embryo development. After in vitro maturation and fertilization, presumptive pig embryos were cultured in NCSU-23 medium supplemented with TUDCA or TM for 6 days at 39 °C, 5% CO(2) in air. All data were analysed using one-way anova and Duncan's multiple range test in the statistical analysis system (SAS). In addition, we also determined the optimal TM and TUDCA concentrations. Samples were treated with TM at concentrations of 0, 1, 2 or 5 ?m and with TUDCA at concentrations of 0, 100, 200 or 300 ?m. When TM was used during in vitro culture, only 8.2% (8/97) of the embryos developed to the blastocyst stage when the treatment concentration was 1 ?m compared with 27.4% (28/102) of the embryos in the control group (p TUDCA compared with the control group (32.8% and 39.5 vs 22.2% and 35.6, p TUDCA was not significantly different from that of the control group (17.8%, 26/142 vs 24.9%, 36/145). Furthermore, the blastocyst cell number was enhanced (31.9 vs 36.9) and apoptosis reduced (TUNEL-positive nuclei number, 6.0 vs 3.2) by TUDCA treatment in pig embryos. In the real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis, the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-XL gene was shown to be increased in the blastocyst stage because of TUDCA treatment, whereas expression of pro-apoptotic Bax was decreased. In addition, we also found that TUDCA decreased the rate of TM-induced apoptosis in the pre-implantation stage. Taken together, our results indicate that TUDCA improves the developmental competence of pig embryos by modulating ER stress-induced apoptosis during the pre-implantation stage. PMID:22151574

Kim, J-S; Song, B-S; Lee, K-S; Kim, D-H; Kim, S-U; Choo, Y-K; Chang, K-T; Koo, D-B

2012-10-01

173

Gadoxetic Acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-Enhanced MRI versus Gadobenate Dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA)-Enhanced MRI for Preoperatively Detecting Hepatocellular Carcinoma: an Initial Experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was designed to compare the diagnostic performance of gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI for preoperatively detecting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Eighteen consecutive patients (17 men and one woman, age range: 31-73 years) with 22 HCCs underwent examinations with gadoxetic acid enhanced MRI and gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI on a 3.0-Tesla unit. The diagnosis of HCC was established after surgical resection and pathological conformation. Three observers independently reviewed each MR image in a random order on a tumor-by-tumor basis. The diagnostic accuracy of these techniques for the detection of HCC was assessed by performing an alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The sensitivity and positive predictive values were evaluated. The average value of the area under the ROC curve (Az) for gadoxetic acid enhanced MRI (0.887) was not significantly different from the Az (0.899) for gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI (p > 0.05). The overall sensitivities of gadoxetic acid enhanced MRI and gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI were 80% and 83%, respectively, with no significant difference (p > 0.05). The differences of the positive predictive values for the two contrast agents for each observer were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The diagnostic performance of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI for preoperatively deglumine-enhanced MRI for preoperatively detecting HCC is quite similar

174

Continuous butyric acid fermentation coupled with REED technology for enhanced productivity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A major step towards the development of a sustainable industrial society is a shift from petroleum-based resources to renewable resources. An ongoing effort is focused on developing bio-refineries as an alternative way of producing fuels and chemical building-blocks from renewable resources. Thus, today’s organic residues and wastes may become tomorrow’s platform for a variety of products for industrial use. Butyric acid fermentation has long been discussed in the last decade due to the wide application of butyric acid in chemical, pharmaceutical and food industries. Compared to other microbial strains, C.tyrobutyricum seems the most promising for biological production of butyric acid as it is characterised by higher selectivity and higher tolerance to butyric acid. However, studies on fermentative butyric production from lignocellulosic biomasses are scarce in the international literature. The present study focuses on butyric acid fermentation of Pre-treated (by wet explosion) and enzymatically Hydrolysed Wheat Straw (PHWS) by an adapted C. tyrobutyricum strain. The strain could grow in up to 80% (v/v) PHWS in batch mode and it was capable of fermenting both glucose and xylose producing butyric acid at a high yield (0,32-0,46 g/g sugars) and selectivity (0,78-1 g/g acids). However, batch fermentations exhibited low sugars uptake rates, which resulted to long fermentation durations and low butyric acid productivities, especially at increasing concentrations of PHWS. The combination of continuous fermentation mode and in-situ acids removal by Reverse Enhanced Electro Dialysis (REED) resulted to enhanced sugars consumption rates when 60% PHWS was fermented. Specifically, glucose and xylose consumption rate increased by a factor of 6 and 39, respectively, while butyric acid productivity reached 0,88 g/l/h compared to 0,55 g/L/h butyric acid when REED was not applied

Baroi, George Nabin; Skiadas, Ioannis

175

Gadoxetic acid enhanced MRI for differentiation of FNH and HCA: a single centre experience  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Evaluation of enhancement characteristics of histopathologically confirmed focal nodular hyperplasias (FNHs) and hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs) with gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI. Sixty-eight patients with 115 histopathologically proven lesions (FNHs, n = 44; HCAs, n = 71) examined with gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI were retrospectively enrolled (standard of reference: surgical resection, n = 53 patients (lesions: FNHs, n = 37; HCAs, n = 53); biopsy, n = 15 (lesions: FNHs, n = 7; HCAs, n = 18)). Two radiologists evaluated all MR images regarding morphological features as well as the vascular and hepatocyte-specific enhancement in consensus. For the hepatobiliary phase, relative enhancement of the lesions and lesion to liver enhancement were significantly lower for HCAs (mean, 48.7 (±48.4) % and 49.4 (±33.9) %) compared to FNHs (159.3 (±92.5) %; and 151.7 (±79) %; accuracy of 89 % and 90 %, respectively; P < 0.001). Visual strong uptake of FNHs vs. hypointensity of HCAs in the hepatobiliary phase resulted in an accuracy of 92 %. This parameter was superior to all other morphological and dynamic vascular criteria alone and in combination (accuracy, 54-85 %). For differentiation of FNHs and HCAs by means of MRI, gadoxetic acid uptake in the hepatobiliary phase was found to be superior to all other criteria alone and in combination. (orig.)

Grieser, Christian; Steffen, Ingo G.; Perez Fernandez, Carmen Maria; Hamm, Bernd; Denecke, Timm [Klinik fuer Radiologie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Kramme, Incken-Birthe; Blaeker, Hendrik; Kilic, Ergin [Institut fuer Pathologie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Seehofer, Daniel [Klinik fuer Allgemein, Viszeral- und Transplantationschirurgie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Schott, Eckart [Medizinische Klinik m.S. Hepatologie und Gastroenterologie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

2014-06-15

176

Gadoxetic acid enhanced MRI for differentiation of FNH and HCA: a single centre experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Evaluation of enhancement characteristics of histopathologically confirmed focal nodular hyperplasias (FNHs) and hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs) with gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI. Sixty-eight patients with 115 histopathologically proven lesions (FNHs, n = 44; HCAs, n = 71) examined with gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI were retrospectively enrolled (standard of reference: surgical resection, n = 53 patients (lesions: FNHs, n = 37; HCAs, n = 53); biopsy, n = 15 (lesions: FNHs, n = 7; HCAs, n = 18)). Two radiologists evaluated all MR images regarding morphological features as well as the vascular and hepatocyte-specific enhancement in consensus. For the hepatobiliary phase, relative enhancement of the lesions and lesion to liver enhancement were significantly lower for HCAs (mean, 48.7 (±48.4) % and 49.4 (±33.9) %) compared to FNHs (159.3 (±92.5) %; and 151.7 (±79) %; accuracy of 89 % and 90 %, respectively; P < 0.001). Visual strong uptake of FNHs vs. hypointensity of HCAs in the hepatobiliary phase resulted in an accuracy of 92 %. This parameter was superior to all other morphological and dynamic vascular criteria alone and in combination (accuracy, 54-85 %). For differentiation of FNHs and HCAs by means of MRI, gadoxetic acid uptake in the hepatobiliary phase was found to be superior to all other criteria alone and in combination. (orig.)

177

Comparative study of trichloroacetic acid versus glycolic acid chemical peels in the treatment of melasma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Melasma is a common cause of facial hyperpigmentation with significant cosmetic deformity. Many modalities of treatment are available, but none is satisfactory. Aim: This study was designed to compare the therapeutic response of melasma in Indian women to glycolic acid (GA 20-35% versus trichloroacetic acid (TCA 10-20% for chemical peeling. Methods: Forty nonpregnant female patients with a minimum melasma area and severity index (MASI of 10 were recruited in the study. After a detailed history and clinical examination under natural light, MASI was calculated and color photographs were taken of all the patients. The patients were advised to carry out a prepeel program of daily application of 12% GA cream or 0.1% tretinoin at night for 2 weeks. They were then treated with graded concentrations of 20-35% GA facial peel every 15 days in GA group and 10-20% TCA in the second group. Results: Objective response to treatment evaluated by reduction in MASI scoring after 12 weeks was by 79% reduction (from 26.6 to 5.6 in GA group and by 73% reduction in TCA group (from 29.1 to 8.2 but this difference was not significant. Patients with epidermal-type melasma showed a better response to treatment than those with mixed-type melasma (P < 0.05. Subjective response, as graded by the patient, showed good or very good response in 75% in GA group and 65% in TCA group. No relation of treatment response to age and duration of melasma could be established in this study. Conclusions: A prepeel program of daily application of 12% GA cream at night for 2 weeks, followed by graded increase in GA and TCA concentrations proved to be an equally effective treatment modality for epidermal and mixed melasma. There are hardly any major side effects, and regular use of sunscreens prevents chances of postpeel hyperpigmentation. GA peel is associated with fewer side effects than TCA and has the added advantage of facial rejuvenation.

Kumari Rashmi

2010-01-01

178

Para-Aminobenzoic Acid (PABA) Synthase Enhances Thermotolerance of Mushroom Agaricus bisporus  

Science.gov (United States)

Most mushrooms are thermo-sensitive to temperatures over 23°C, which greatly restricts their agricultural cultivation. Understanding mushroom’s innate heat-tolerance mechanisms may facilitate genetic improvements of their thermotolerance. Agaricus bisporus strain 02 is a relatively thermotolerant mushroom strain, while strain 8213 is quite thermo-sensitive. Here, we compared their responses at proteomic level to heat treatment at 33°C. We identified 73 proteins that are differentially expressed between 02 and 8213 or induced upon heat stress in strain 02 itself, 48 of which with a known identity. Among them, 4 proteins are constitutively more highly expressed in 02 than 8213; and they can be further upregulated in response to heat stress in 02, but not in 8213. One protein is encoded by the para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) synthase gene Pabs, which has been shown to scavenge the reactive oxygen species in vitro. Pabs mRNA and its chemical product PABA show similar heat stress induction pattern as PABA synthase protein and are more abundant in 02, indicating transcriptional level upregulation of Pabs upon heat stress. A specific inhibitor of PABA synthesis impaired thermotolerance of 02, while exogenous PABA or transgenic overexpression of 02 derived PABA synthase enhanced thermotolerance of 8213. Furthermore, compared to 8213, 02 accumulated less H2O2 but more defense-related proteins (e.g., HSPs and Chitinase) under heat stress. Together, these results demonstrate a role of PABA in enhancing mushroom thermotolerance by removing H2O2 and elevating defense-related proteins. PMID:24614118

Lu, Zhonglei; Kong, Xiangxiang; Lu, Zhaoming; Xiao, Meixiang; Chen, Meiyuan; Zhu, Liang; Shen, Yuemao; Hu, Xiangyang; Song, Siyang

2014-01-01

179

Enhanced Cytotoxic Effects of Combined Valproic Acid and the Aurora Kinase Inhibitor VE465 on Gynecologic Cancer Cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing evidence shows that targeting epigenetic changes including acetylation and deacetylation of core nucleosomal histones as well as Aurora kinases hold promise for improving the treatment of human cancers including ovarian cancer. We investigated whether the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, valproic acid (VPA), and the Aurora kinase inhibitor VE465 can have additive or synergistic effects on gynecologic cancer cells. We tested the in vitro antitumor activity of VPA and VE465, alone and in combination, in gynecologic cancer cells and assessed potential mechanisms of action. 3-[4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) analysis revealed that 72?h of treatment with VPA or VE465 alone induced dose-dependent cytotoxic effects in nine gynecologic cancer cell lines (ovarian: 2008/C13, OVCAR3, SKOV3, and A2780; cervical: ME180 and CaSki; endometrial: HEC-1B; and uterine sarcoma: MES-SA and MES-SA/D×5). Co-treatment with VPA and VE465 enhanced cytotoxic effects on five of these cell lines: ovarian: 2008/C13, A2780, and OVCAR3; endometrial: HEC-1B; and cervical: ME180. In ovarian 2008/C13 cells, co-treatment with VPA (2?mM) and VE465 (1??M) induced more apoptosis than either VPA or VE465 alone. Western blot analysis showed that VPA alone increased the expression of cleaved PARP and p21 in a dose-dependent manner in 2008/C13 cells, while co-treatment with VPA and VE465 induced more cleaved PARP than treatment with VPA or VE465 alone did. The combined use of VPA and VE465 enhanced cytotoxic effects in some ovarian cancer cells, via enhanced induction of apoptosis. Targeting epigenetics with the HDAC inhibitor, in combination with Aurora kinase inhibitors, holds promise for more effective therapy of ovarian cancer. PMID:23519775

Li, Yanfang; Liu, Tao; Ivan, Cristina; Huang, Jie; Shen, De-Yu; Kavanagh, John J; Bast, Robert C; Fu, Siqing; Hu, Wei; Sood, Anil K

2013-01-01

180

Enhanced cytotoxic effects of the combined valproic acid and the Aurora kinase inhibitor VE465 on gynecologic cancer cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increasing evidence shows that targeting epigenetic changes including acetylation and deacetylation of core nucleosomal histones as well as Aurora kinases hold promise for improving the treatment of human cancers including ovarian cancer. We investigated whether the histone deacetylase inhibitor, valproic acid (VPA and the Aurora kinase inhibitor VE465 can have additive or synergistic effects on gynecologic cancer cells. We tested the in vitro antitumor activity of VPA and VE465, alone and in combination, in gynecologic cancer cells and assessed potential mechanisms of action. 3-[4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT analysis revealed that 72 hours of treatment with VPA or VE465 alone induced dose-dependent cytotoxic effects in nine gynecologic cancer cell lines (ovarian: 2008/C13, OVCAR3, SKOV3, and A2780; cervical: ME180 and CaSki; endometrial: HEC-1B; and uterine sarcoma: MES-SA and MES-SA/D×5. Co-treatment with VPA and VE465 enhanced cytotoxic effects on five of these cell lines: ovarian: 2008/C13, A2780, and OVCAR3; endometrial: HEC-1B; and cervical: ME180. In ovarian 2008/C13 cells, co-treatment with VPA (2 mM and VE465 (1?M induced more apoptosis than either VPA or VE465 alone. Western blot analysis showed that VPA alone increased the expression of cleaved PARP and p21 in a dose-dependent manner in 2008/C13 cells, while co-treatment with VPA and VE465 induced more cleaved PARP than treatment with VPA or VE465 alone did. The combined use of VPA and VE465 enhanced cytotoxic effects in some ovarian cancer cells, via enhanced induction of apoptosis. Targeting epigenetics with the histone deacetylase inhibitor, in combination with Aurora kinase inhibitors, holds promise for more effective therapy of ovarian cancer.

WeiHu

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
181

Enterobacteria-mediated deconjugation of taurocholic acid enhances ileal farnesoid X receptor signaling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enterobacteria are known to deconjugate amino acid-conjugated bile acids in the intestine. Administration of ampicillin (ABPC; 3 days, 100mg/kg) decreased the expression of ileal farnesoid X receptor (Fxr) target genes, and increased the levels of total bile acids in the intestinal lumen. The primary tauro-conjugates of cholic acid (TCA) and beta-muricholic acid (T?MCA) levels were increased, whereas the primary unconjugates, cholic acid (CA) and beta-muricholic acid (?MCA), levels decreased to below detectable levels (<0.01?mol) in ABPC-treated mice. The effects of individual bile acid on expression of the ileal farnesoid X receptor target genes were examined in ABPC-treated mice. The expression of ileal farnesoid X receptor target genes in ABPC-treated mice was clearly enhanced after CA (500mg/kg), but not TCA (500mg/kg) cotreatment. Their levels in control mice were enhanced after either CA or TCA-cotreatment. Unconjugated CA levels in the intestinal lumen and portal vein were increased in both ABPC-treated and control mice. Reduced ileal Fgf15 and Shp mRNA levels in ABPC-treated mice were also increased after CA (100mg/kg) cotreatment at which luminal CA levels was restored to the level in controls, but was unaffected by ?MCA (100mg/kg) cotreatment. In addition, no increase in ileal Shp, Ibabp or Ost? mRNA levels was observed even after CA (500mg/kg) cotreatment in ABPC-treated farnesoid X receptor-null mice despite increased CA levels in the intestinal lumen. These results suggest the role of enterobacteria in bile acid-mediated enhancement of ileal farnesoid X receptor signaling by TCA deconjugation. PMID:23051670

Kuribayashi, Hideaki; Miyata, Masaaki; Yamakawa, Hiroki; Yoshinari, Kouichi; Yamazoe, Yasushi

2012-12-15

182

Activation of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid by a 940?nm diode laser for enhanced removal of smear layer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Laser enhancement of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid with cetrimide (EDTAC) has previously been shown to increase removal of smear layer, for middle-infrared erbium lasers. This study evaluated the efficiency of EDTAC activation using a near-infrared-pulsed 940?nm laser delivered by plain fibre tips into 15% EDTAC or 3% hydrogen peroxide. Root canals in 4 groups of 10 single roots were prepared using rotary files, with controls for the presence and absence of smear layer. After laser treatment (80?mJ?pulse(-1) , 50?Hz, 6 cycles of 10?s), roots were split and the apical, middle and coronal thirds of the canal were examined using scanning electron microscopy, with the area of dentine tubules determined by a validated quantitative image analysis method. Lasing EDTAC considerably improved smear layer removal, while lasing into peroxide gave minimal smear layer removal. The laser protocol used was more effective for smear layer removal than the 'gold standard' protocol using EDTAC with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). In addition, lasers may also provide a benefit through photothermal disinfection. Further research is needed to optimise irrigant activation protocols using near-infrared diode lasers of other wavelengths. PMID:25244221

Lagemann, Manfred; George, Roy; Chai, Lei; Walsh, Laurence J

2014-08-01

183

Reducing cannabinoid abuse and preventing relapse by enhancing endogenous brain levels of kynurenic acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the reward circuitry of the brain, ?-7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (?7nAChRs) modulate effects of ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), marijuana's main psychoactive ingredient. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous negative allosteric modulator of ?7nAChRs. Here we report that the kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) inhibitor Ro 61-8048 increases brain KYNA levels and attenuates cannabinoid-induced increases in extracellular dopamine in reward-related brain areas. In the self-administration model of drug abuse, Ro 61-8048 reduced the rewarding effects of THC and the synthetic cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 in squirrel monkeys and rats, respectively, and it also prevented relapse to drug-seeking induced by reexposure to cannabinoids or cannabinoid-associated cues. The effects of enhancing endogenous KYNA levels with Ro 61-8048 were prevented by positive allosteric modulators of ?7nAChRs. Despite a clear need, there are no medications approved for treatment of marijuana dependence. Modulation of KYNA offers a pharmacological strategy for achieving abstinence from marijuana and preventing relapse. PMID:24121737

Justinova, Zuzana; Mascia, Paola; Wu, Hui-Qiu; Secci, Maria E; Redhi, Godfrey H; Panlilio, Leigh V; Scherma, Maria; Barnes, Chanel; Parashos, Alexandra; Zara, Tamara; Fratta, Walter; Solinas, Marcello; Pistis, Marco; Bergman, Jack; Kangas, Brian D; Ferré, Sergi; Tanda, Gianluigi; Schwarcz, Robert; Goldberg, Steven R

2013-11-01

184

Magnetic microparticles post-synthetically coated by hyaluronic acid as an enhanced carrier for microfluidic bioanalysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Iron oxide based particles functionalized by bioactive molecules have been utilized extensively in biotechnology and biomedicine. Despite their already proven advantages, instability under changing reaction conditions, non-specific sorption of biomolecules on the particles' surfaces, and iron oxide leakage from the naked particles can greatly limit their application. As confirmed many times, surface treatment with an appropriate stabilizer helps to minimize these disadvantages. In this work, we describe enhanced post-synthetic surface modification of superparamagnetic microparticles varying in materials and size using hyaluronic acid (HA) in various chain lengths. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, phase analysis light scattering and laser diffraction are the methods used for characterization of HA-coated particles. The zeta potential and thickness of HA-layer of HA-coated Dynabeads M270 Amine were -50mV and 85nm, respectively, and of HA-coated p(GMA-MOEAA)-NH2 were -38mV and 140nm, respectively. The electrochemical analysis confirmed the zero leakage of magnetic material and no reactivity of particles with hydrogen peroxide. The rate of non-specific sorption of bovine serum albumin was reduced up to 50% of the naked ones. The coating efficiency and suitability of biopolymer-based microparticles for magnetically active microfluidic devices were confirmed. PMID:25280714

Holubova, Lucie; Knotek, Petr; Palarcik, Jiri; Cadkova, Michaela; Belina, Petr; Vlcek, Milan; Korecka, Lucie; Bilkova, Zuzana

2014-11-01

185

A Sustainable Approach for Acid Rock Drainage Treatment using Clinoptilolite  

Science.gov (United States)

Problems related to acid rock drainage (ARD) occur along many highways of British Columbia. The ARD problem at Pennask Creek along Highway 97C in the Thompson-Okanagan region is an ideal site for pilot study to investigate a possible remediation solution. The highway was opened in 1991. An ARD problem was identified in 1997. Both sides of Highway 97C are producing acidified runoff from both cut rock surface and a fractured ditch. This runoff eventually enters Pennask Creek, the largest spawning source of rainbow trout in British Columbia. The current remediation technique using limestone for ARD treatment appears to be unnecessarily expensive, to generate additional solid waste and to not be optimally effective. A soil mineral natural zeolite - clinoptilolite - which is inexpensive and locally available, has a high metal adsorption capacity and a significant buffering capacity. Moreover, the clinoptilolite materials could be back-flushed and reused on site. An earlier batch adsorption study from our laboratory demonstrated that clinoptilolite has a high adsorption capacity for Cu, Zn, Al, with adsorption concentrations 131, 158 and 215 mg/kg clinoptilolite, respectively, from ARD of pH 3.3. Removal of metals from the loaded clinoptilolite by back-flushing was found to depend on the pH, with an optimum pH range for extraction of 2.5 to 4.0 for a contact time of one hour. The rank of desorption effectiveness was EDTA > NaCl > NaNO3 > NaOAC > NaHCO3 > Na2CO3 > NaOH > Ca(OH)2. A novel process involving cyclic adsorption on clinoptilolite followed by regeneration of the sorbent by desorption is examined for the removal of heavy metals from acid rock drainage. Experimental results show that the adsorption of zinc and copper depends on the pH and on external mass transfer. Desorption is assisted by adding NaCl to the water. A slurry bubble column was able to significantly reduce the time required for both adsorption and desorption in batch tests. XRD analysis indicated that the original structure of the sorbent is retained over multiple adsorption/ desorption cycles. Clinoptilolite in a slurry bubble column appears to be a promising sorbent for treatment of ARD leachate.

Li, L. Y.; Xu, W.; Grace, J. R.

2009-04-01

186

Enhancing essential amino acids and health benefit components in grain crops for improved nutritional values.  

Science.gov (United States)

Improving essential amino acids or protein content, along with other phytonutrients in the food crops, will affect a great portion of the world population, especially in developing countries where rice grain is the main source of protein. Malnutrition, including deficiencies in protein/energy, iron/zinc, vitamin A, and iodine, causes a total 24,000 deaths per day worldwide. The problem is severe where rice is the major staple food. Protein deficiency involves both the quantity (amount) and quality (the content in essential amino acids) of the dietary protein. Various interventions, such as distribution, fortification, dietary diversification, and measures against infectious diseases, have been applied to reduce deficiency disorders. The problem, however, remains unsolved. Developing genetically novel lines with elevated content of essential amino acids together with other health benefit components becomes more feasible for the enhancement of breeding techniques, genomics, molecular manipulations, and genetic engineering. Advancement in basic genetic and genetic engineering has resulted in successful enrichment of some essential amino acids, such as lysine (Lys), tryptophan (Trp), and methionine (Met). Successful genetic enhancement has been largely restricted to the maize crop through enrichment of grain Lys and to some extends Trp. Since rice is the main source of calories and protein intake for billions of people, enhancing essential amino acids in rice represents a tremendous challenge. This paper will discuss and review the current status in basic genetics, molecular genetics, and genetic engineering associated with the enhancement of amino acids and other health benefit components in major grain crop improvement. Patents and future efforts associated with enhancing nutritional quality of the grain will also be reviewed as a concerted effort to solve the malnutrition problem and improve the quality of life worldwide. PMID:19673700

Wenefrida, Ida; Utomo, Herry S; Blanche, Sterling B; Linscombe, S D

2009-01-01

187

Poly-gamma-glutamate capsule-degrading enzyme treatment enhances phagocytosis and killing of encapsulated Bacillus anthracis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The poly-gamma-d-glutamic acid capsule confers antiphagocytic properties on Bacillus anthracis and is essential for virulence. In this study, we showed that CapD, a gamma-polyglutamic acid depolymerase encoded on the B. anthracis capsule plasmid, degraded purified capsule and removed the capsule from the surface of anthrax bacilli. Treatment with CapD induced macrophage phagocytosis of encapsulated B. anthracis and enabled human neutrophils to kill encapsulated organisms. A second glutamylase, PghP, a gamma-polyglutamic acid hydrolase encoded by Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage PhiNIT1, had minimal activity in degrading B. anthracis capsule, no effect on macrophage phagocytosis, and only minimal enhancement of neutrophil killing. Thus, the levels of both phagocytosis and killing corresponded to the degree of enzyme-mediated capsule degradation. The use of enzymes to degrade the capsule and enable phagocytic killing of B. anthracis offers a new approach to the therapy of anthrax. PMID:17074794

Scorpio, Angelo; Chabot, Donald J; Day, William A; O'brien, David K; Vietri, Nicholas J; Itoh, Yoshifumi; Mohamadzadeh, Mansour; Friedlander, Arthur M

2007-01-01

188

The acid pocket: a target for treatment in reflux disease?  

Science.gov (United States)

The nadir esophageal pH of reflux observed during pH monitoring in the postprandial period is often more acidic than the concomitant intragastric pH. This paradox prompted the discovery of the "acid pocket", an area of unbuffered gastric acid that accumulates in the proximal stomach after meals and serves as the reservoir for acid reflux in healthy individuals and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients. However, there are differentiating features between these populations in the size and position of the acid pocket, with GERD patients predisposed to upward migration of the proximal margin onto the esophageal mucosa, particularly when supine. This upward migration of acid, sometimes referred to as an "acid film", likely contributes to mucosal pathology in the region of the squamocolumnar junction. Furthermore, movement of the acid pocket itself to a supradiaphragmatic location with hiatus hernia increases the propensity for acid reflux by all conventional mechanisms. Consequently, the acid pocket is an attractive target for GERD therapy. It may be targeted in a global way with proton pump inhibitors that attenuate acid pocket development, or with alginate/antacid combinations that colocalize with the acid pocket and displace it distally, thereby demonstrating the potential for selective targeting of the acid pocket in GERD. PMID:23629599

Kahrilas, Peter J; McColl, Kenneth; Fox, Mark; O'Rourke, Lisa; Sifrim, Daniel; Smout, Andre J P M; Boeckxstaens, Guy

2013-07-01

189

Betaine and beet molasses enhance L-lactic acid production by Bacillus coagulans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lactic acid is an important chemical with various industrial applications, and it can be efficiently produced by fermentation, in which Bacillus coagulans strains present excellent performance. Betaine can promote lactic acid fermentation as an effective osmoprotectant. Here, positive effect of betaine on fermentation by B. coagulans is revealed. Betaine could enhance lactic acid production by protecting l-LDH activity and cell growth from osmotic inhibition, especially under high glucose concentrations and with poor organic nitrogen nutrients. The fermentation with 0.05 g/L betaine could produce 17.9% more lactic acid compared to the fermentation without betaine. Beet molasses, which is rich in sucrose and betaine, was utilized in a co-feeding fermentation and raised the productivity by 22%. The efficient lactic acid fermentation by B. coagulans is thus developed by using betaine and beet molasses. PMID:24956474

Xu, Ke; Xu, Ping

2014-01-01

190

Citric acid enhances the phytoextraction of manganese and plant growth by alleviating the ultrastructural damages in Juncus effusus L  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chelate-assisted phytoextraction by high biomass producing plant species enhances the removal of heavy metals from polluted environments. In this regard, Juncus effusus a wetland plant has great potential. This study evaluated the effects of elevated levels of manganese (Mn) on the vegetative growth, Mn uptake and antioxidant enzymes in J. effusus. We also studied the role of citric acid and EDTA on improving metal accumulation, plant growth and Mn toxicity stress alleviation. Three-week-old plantlets of J. effusus were subjected to various treatments in the hydroponics as: Mn (50, 100 and 500 {mu}M) alone, Mn (500 {mu}M) + citric acid (5 mM), and Mn (500 {mu}M) + EDTA (5 mM). After 2 weeks of treatment, higher Mn concentrations significantly reduced the plant biomass and height. Both citric acid and EDTA restored the plant height as it was reduced at the highest Mn level. Only the citric acid (but not EDTA) was able to recover the plant biomass weight, which was also obvious from the microscopic visualization of mesophyll cells. There was a concentration dependent increase in Mn uptake in J. effusus plants, and relatively more deposition in roots compared to aerial parts. Although both EDTA and citric acid caused significant increase in Mn accumulation; however, the Mn translocation was enhanced markedly by EDTA. Elevated levels of Mn augmented the oxidative stress, which was evident from changes in the activities of antioxidative enzymes in plant shoots. Raised levels of lipid peroxidation and variable changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes were recorded under Mn stress. Electron microscopic images revealed several modifications in the plants at cellular and sub-cellular level due to the oxidative damage induced by Mn. Changes in cell shape and size, chloroplast swelling, increased number of plastoglobuli and disruption of thylakoid were noticed. However, these plants showed a high degree of tolerance against Mn toxicity stress, and it removed substantial amounts of Mn from the media. The EDTA best enhanced the Mn uptake and translocation, while citric acid best recovered the plant growth.

Najeeb, U.; Xu, L.; Ali, Shafaqat [Institute of Crop Science, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Jilani, Ghulam, E-mail: jilani@uaar.edu.pk [Department of Soil Science, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Punjab 46300 (Pakistan); Gong, H.J. [Institute of Crop Science, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Shen, W.Q. [The University of Nottingham at Ningbo, Ningbo 315100 (China); Zhou, W.J., E-mail: wjzhou@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Crop Science, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

2009-10-30

191

Citric acid enhances the phytoextraction of manganese and plant growth by alleviating the ultrastructural damages in Juncus effusus L.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chelate-assisted phytoextraction by high biomass producing plant species enhances the removal of heavy metals from polluted environments. In this regard, Juncus effusus a wetland plant has great potential. This study evaluated the effects of elevated levels of manganese (Mn) on the vegetative growth, Mn uptake and antioxidant enzymes in J. effusus. We also studied the role of citric acid and EDTA on improving metal accumulation, plant growth and Mn toxicity stress alleviation. Three-week-old plantlets of J. effusus were subjected to various treatments in the hydroponics as: Mn (50, 100 and 500 microM) alone, Mn (500 microM) + citric acid (5 mM), and Mn (500 microM) + EDTA (5 mM). After 2 weeks of treatment, higher Mn concentrations significantly reduced the plant biomass and height. Both citric acid and EDTA restored the plant height as it was reduced at the highest Mn level. Only the citric acid (but not EDTA) was able to recover the plant biomass weight, which was also obvious from the microscopic visualization of mesophyll cells. There was a concentration dependent increase in Mn uptake in J. effusus plants, and relatively more deposition in roots compared to aerial parts. Although both EDTA and citric acid caused significant increase in Mn accumulation; however, the Mn translocation was enhanced markedly by EDTA. Elevated levels of Mn augmented the oxidative stress, which was evident from changes in the activities of antioxidative enzymes in plant shoots. Raised levels of lipid peroxidation and variable changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes were recorded under Mn stress. Electron microscopic images revealed several modifications in the plants at cellular and sub-cellular level due to the oxidative damage induced by Mn. Changes in cell shape and size, chloroplast swelling, increased number of plastoglobuli and disruption of thylakoid were noticed. However, these plants showed a high degree of tolerance against Mn toxicity stress, and it removed substantial amounts of Mn from the media. The EDTA best enhanced the Mn uptake and translocation, while citric acid best recovered the plant growth. PMID:19541411

Najeeb, U; Xu, L; Ali, Shafaqat; Jilani, Ghulam; Gong, H J; Shen, W Q; Zhou, W J

2009-10-30

192

Citric acid enhances the phytoextraction of manganese and plant growth by alleviating the ultrastructural damages in Juncus effusus L  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chelate-assisted phytoextraction by high biomass producing plant species enhances the removal of heavy metals from polluted environments. In this regard, Juncus effusus a wetland plant has great potential. This study evaluated the effects of elevated levels of manganese (Mn) on the vegetative growth, Mn uptake and antioxidant enzymes in J. effusus. We also studied the role of citric acid and EDTA on improving metal accumulation, plant growth and Mn toxicity stress alleviation. Three-week-old plantlets of J. effusus were subjected to various treatments in the hydroponics as: Mn (50, 100 and 500 ?M) alone, Mn (500 ?M) + citric acid (5 mM), and Mn (500 ?M) + EDTA (5 mM). After 2 weeks of treatment, higher Mn concentrations significantly reduced the plant biomass and height. Both citric acid and EDTA restored the plant height as it was reduced at the highest Mn level. Only the citric acid (but not EDTA) was able to recover the plant biomass weight, which was also obvious from the microscopic visualization of mesophyll cells. There was a concentration dependent increase in Mn uptake in J. effusus plants, and relatively more deposition in roots compared to aerial parts. Although both EDTA and citric acid caused significant increase in Mn accumulation; however, the Mn translocation was enhanced markedly by EDTA. Elevated levels of Mn augmented the oxidative stress, which was evident from changes in the activities of antioxidative enzymes in plant shoots. Raised levels of ymes in plant shoots. Raised levels of lipid peroxidation and variable changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes were recorded under Mn stress. Electron microscopic images revealed several modifications in the plants at cellular and sub-cellular level due to the oxidative damage induced by Mn. Changes in cell shape and size, chloroplast swelling, increased number of plastoglobuli and disruption of thylakoid were noticed. However, these plants showed a high degree of tolerance against Mn toxicity stress, and it removed substantial amounts of Mn from the media. The EDTA best enhanced the Mn uptake and translocation, while citric acid best recovered the plant growth.

193

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) treatment enhances tumor cell antigenicity  

Science.gov (United States)

Several groups, including our own, have reported that PDT enhances the host anti-tumor immune response and it is known that the enhanced immune response plays a role in the overall tumor response to PDT. The mechanism behind this enhancement is unknown, however it has been shown that the initiation of an inflammatory response and the infiltration of neutrophils into the tumor bed is critical to the tumor response. We have shown that PDT induces the expression of chemokines that play a critical role in neutrophil infiltration. Recent studies in our laboratory have shown that in addition to affecting the inflammatory and chemokine/cytokine response, PDT also alters the immunogenicity of the tumor, either through changes in antigen structure or enhancement of presentation of tumor associated antigens by host antigen presenting cells to tumor specific T cells. These recent studies and the underlying mechanisms will be discussed.

Gollnick, Sandra O.; Mazzacua, Andrea; Vaughan, Lurine A.; Owczarczak, Barbara; Maier, Patricia; Henderson, Barbara W.

2001-07-01

194

Immunomodulation with eicosapentaenoic acid supports the treatment of autoimmune small-vessel vasculitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Small-vessel vasculitis is a life-threatening autoimmune disease that is frequently associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs). Conventional immunotherapy including steroids and cyclophosphamide can cause serious adverse events, limiting the efficacy and safety of treatment. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a key component of fish oil, is an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid widely known to be cardioprotective and beneficial for vascular function. We report two elderly patients with systemic ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) in whom the administration of EPA in concert with steroids safely induced and maintained remission, without the use of additioal immunosuppressants. To explore the mechanisms by which EPA enhances the treatment of AAV, we employed SCG/Kj mice as a spontaneous murine model of AAV. Dietary enrichment with EPA significantly delayed the onset of crescentic glomerulonephritis and prolonged the overall survival. EPA-derived anti-inflammatory lipid mediators and their precursors were present in the kidney, plasma, spleen, and lungs in the EPA-treated mice. Furthermore, a decrease in ANCA production and CD4/CD8-double negative T cells, and an increase in Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells in the lymph nodes of the kidney were observed in the EPA-treated mice. These clinical and experimental observations suggest that EPA can safely support and augment conventional therapy for treating autoimmune small-vessel vasculitis. PMID:25230773

Hirahashi, Junichi; Kawahata, Kimito; Arita, Makoto; Iwamoto, Ryo; Hishikawa, Keiichi; Honda, Mie; Hamasaki, Yoshifumi; Tanaka, Mototsugu; Okubo, Koshu; Kurosawa, Miho; Takase, Osamu; Nakakuki, Masanori; Saiga, Kan; Suzuki, Kazuo; Kawachi, Shoji; Tojo, Akihiro; Seki, George; Marumo, Takeshi; Hayashi, Matsuhiko; Fujita, Toshiro

2014-01-01

195

Flaxseed Soluble Dietary Fibre Enhances Lactic Acid Bacterial Survival and Growth in Kefir and Possesses High Antioxidant Capacity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated the capability and efficiency of flaxseed soluble dietary fibre /mucilage to enhance bacterial survival and growth in kefir as well as the antioxidant activity of the mucilage. Crude flaxseed mucilage was extracted using a microwave method, followed by enzymatic and dialysis treatments to obtain pure mucilage. The antioxidant activities of the pure and crude mucilage were measured using different assays. Microbial analyses, pH and total titratable acidity (TTA were measured in kefir samples, supplemented with probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis and pure or crude flaxseed mucilage during 28 cold storage periodat 4 ºC. The results showed that for all kefir samples, the total bacteria counts were above7.9 log cfu/mL at the end of cold storage period. However, kefir samples supplemented with pure flaxseed mucilage enhanced significantly (P < 0.05 higher viability of bacteria (9.5 log cfu/mL and acidity (0.78% TTA. An overall pH decline of 0.2 was observed during cold storage period. The total phenolic content (TPC in crude mucilage was significantly (P < 0.05 higher than pure mucilage (10.5 ± 0.2 and 5.7 ± 0.1 mg Gallic acid equivalent /g flaxseed, respectively. The mucilage from crude flaxseed exhibited strong antioxidant activity; Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC value of 51.2 ± 3.3 ?mol Trolox equivalent /g, 53.7 ± 2.8% discoloration for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and 68.3 ± 9.2% Beta-Carotene bleaching which was well in agreement with high TPC. This study demonstrated that flaxseed mucilage acts as a good source of prebiotic, enhancing lactic acid bacteria growth in kefir model in addition of their high antioxidant beneficiary.

Mehri HadiNezhad

2013-07-01

196

Hyaluronic acid-gold nanoparticle/interferon ? complex for targeted treatment of hepatitis C virus infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been extensively investigated as an emerging delivery carrier of various biopharmaceuticals. Instead of nonspecific polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugated interferon ? (IFN?) for the clinical treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, in this work, a target-specific long-acting delivery system of IFN? was successfully developed using the hybrid materials of AuNP and hyaluronic acid (HA). The HA-AuNP/IFN? complex was prepared by chemical binding of thiolated HA and physical binding of IFN? to AuNP. According to antiproliferation tests in Daudi cells, the HA-AuNP/IFN? complex showed a comparable biological activity to PEG-Intron with a highly enhanced stability in human serum. Even 7 days postinjection, HA-AuNP/IFN? complex was target-specifically delivered and remained in the murine liver tissue, whereas IFN? and PEG-Intron were not detected in the liver. Accordingly, HA-AuNP/IFN? complex significantly enhanced the expression of 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1) for innate immune responses to viral infection in the liver tissue, which was much higher than those by IFN?, PEG-Intron, and AuNP/IFN? complex. Taken together, the target-specific HA-AuNP/IFN? complex was thought to be successfully applied to the systemic treatment of HCV infection. PMID:23092111

Lee, Min-Young; Yang, Jeong-A; Jung, Ho Sang; Beack, Songeun; Choi, Jung Eun; Hur, Wonhee; Koo, Heebeom; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Yoon, Seung Kew; Hahn, Sei Kwang

2012-11-27

197

Effect of Co-sensitization and acid treatment on TiO2 photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells  

Science.gov (United States)

The performance of dye-sensitized solar cells is improved by simple formic acid treatment of TiO2 photoanodes. The treatment increases number of hydroxyl groups at TiO2 surface and thereby result in enhanced dye-loading and device efficiency. The best device showed an open circuit voltage of 0.62V, short-circuit current density 6.34mA/cm2, fill factor of 60%, and a power conversion efficiency of ˜12 % under 20mW/cm2 white light illumination.

Veerender, P.; Saxena, Vibha; Gusain, Abhay; Jha, P.; Koiry, S. P.; Chauhan, A. K.; Aswal, D. K.; Gupta, S. K.

2013-02-01

198

[Treatment of cholesterol gallstones with ursodesoxycholic acid (author's transl)].  

Science.gov (United States)

A double-blind clinical trial comparing ursodesoxycholic acid and chenodesoxycholic acid in patients with cholesterol stones in the gall-bladder showed that ursodesoxycholic acid was superior to the older drug not so much in percentage of biliary calculi dissolved but in dosage reduction (50%) and improved clinical and biological tolerance. PMID:7041086

Bernades, P; Bertrand, L; Bouvry, M; Colin, R; Geffroy, Y; Hecht, Y; Klepping, C; Lambert, R; Levy, V G; Michel, H; Paliard, P; Paris, J; Quinton, A

1982-02-20

199

The Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Valproic Acid Enhances Acquisition, Extinction, and Reconsolidation of Conditioned Fear  

Science.gov (United States)

Histone modifications contribute to the epigenetic regulation of gene expression, a process now recognized to be important for the consolidation of long-term memory. Valproic acid (VPA), used for many years as an anticonvulsant and a mood stabilizer, has effects on learning and memory and enhances the extinction of conditioned fear through its…

Bredy, Timothy W.; Barad, Mark

2008-01-01

200

Aneurysmal wall enhancement and perianeurysmal edema after endovascular treatment of unruptured cerebral aneurysms  

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Perianeurysmal edema and aneurysm wall enhancement are previously described phenomenon after coil embolization attributed to inflammatory reaction. We aimed to demonstrate the prevalence and natural course of these phenomena in unruptured aneurysms after endovascular treatment and to identify factors that contributed to their development. We performed a retrospective analysis of consecutively treated unruptured aneurysms between January 2000 and December 2011. The presence and evolution of wall enhancement and perianeurysmal edema on MRI after endovascular treatment were analyzed. Variable factors were compared among aneurysms with and without edema. One hundred thirty-two unruptured aneurysms in 124 patients underwent endovascular treatment. Eighty-five (64.4 %) aneurysms had wall enhancement, and 9 (6.8 %) aneurysms had perianeurysmal brain edema. Wall enhancement tends to persist for years with two patterns identified. Larger aneurysms and brain-embedded aneurysms were significantly associated with wall enhancement. In all edema cases, the aneurysms were embedded within the brain and had wall enhancement. Progressive thickening of wall enhancement was significantly associated with edema. Edema can be symptomatic when in eloquent brain and stabilizes or resolves over the years. Our study demonstrates the prevalence and some appreciation of the natural history of aneurysmal wall enhancement and perianeurysmal brain edema following endovascular treatment of unruptured aneurysms. Aneurysmal wall enhancement is a common phenomenon while perianeurysmal edema is rare. These phenomena are likely related to the presence of inflammatory reaction near the aneurysmal wall. Both phenomena are usually asymptomatic and self-limited, and prophylactic treatment is not recommended. (orig.)

Su, I. Chang [Toronto Western Hospital, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Taipei Cathay General Hospital, Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Taipei (China); Willinsky, Robert A.; Agid, Ronit [Toronto Western Hospital, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Fanning, Noel F. [Cork University Hospital, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Cork (Ireland)

2014-06-15

 
 
 
 
201

Enhancement of acidic gases in biomass burning impacted air masses over Canada  

Science.gov (United States)

Biomass-burning impacted air masses sampled over central and eastern Canada during the summer of 1990 as part of ABLE 3B contained enhanced mixing ratios of gaseous HNO3, HCOOH, CH3COOH, and what appears to be (COOH)2. These aircraft-based samples were collected from a variety of fresh burning plumes and more aged haze layers from different source regions. Values of the enhancement factor, ?X/?CO, where X represents an acidic gas, for combustion-impacted air masses sampled both near and farther away from the fires, were relatively uniform. However, comparison of carboxylic acid emission ratios measured in laboratory fires to field plume enhancement factors indicates significant in-plume production of HCOOH. Biomass-burning appears to be an important source of HNO3, HCOOH, and CH3COOH to the troposphere over subarctic Canada.

Lefer, B. L.; Talbot, R. W.; Harriss, R. H.; Bradshaw, J. D.; Sandholm, S. T.; Olson, J. O.; Sachse, G. W.; Collins, J.; Shipham, M. A.; Blake, D. R.; Klemm, K. I.; Klemm, O.; Gorzelska, K.; Barrick, J.

1994-01-01

202

Cognitive Treatment of Obsessions: Enhancing Dissemination with Video Components  

Science.gov (United States)

Contemporary cognitive treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) dates back to 1985, and rests on the premise that infrequent unwanted intrusions are essentially universal. As such, it is not the intrusion that is the focus of treatment but rather the interpretation or appraisal placed upon the intrusion. A number of cognitive domains are…

Whittal, Maureen L.; Robichaud, Melisa; Woody, Sheila R.

2010-01-01

203

SEM comparison of acid-etched, CO2 laser-irradiated, and combined treatment on dentin surfaces.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research into polymer systems capable of bonding to dentin and enamel have resulted in improved bond strengths that allow more conservative restoration and strengthening of teeth. However, pretreatment of the dentin and enamel of various sorts, including exposure to laser energy, have been espoused to enhance this bonding. This study investigated the effects of two pretreatments, acid and CO2 laser exposure, both alone and in combination, on the surface topography of prepared dentin specimens as observed by scanning electron microscopy. Eighteen dentin specimens were flat-sanded with 600 grit sandpaper and exposed to 10% maleic acid and CO2 laser both alone and in combination. SEM observation suggested that laser treatment prior to acid etching could increase the resistance of the smear layer to acid removal, that laser exposure after acid treatment could expose a porous topography suggestive of the underlying dentin inorganic structure by way of vaporization of the collagen surface left after acid demineralization, and that these effects varied in degree with the laser exposure energy. PMID:7830472

Silberman, J J; Dederich, D N; Vargas, M; Denehy, G E

1994-01-01

204

Could Radiotherapy Effectiveness Be Enhanced by Electromagnetic Field Treatment?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the main goals in radiobiology research is to enhance radiotherapy effectiveness without provoking any increase in toxicity. In this context, it has been proposed that electromagnetic fields (EMFs, known to be modulators of proliferation rate, enhancers of apoptosis and inductors of genotoxicity, might control tumor recruitment and, thus, provide therapeutic benefits. Scientific evidence shows that the effects of ionizing radiation on cellular compartments and functions are strengthened by EMF. Although little is known about the potential role of EMFs in radiotherapy (RT, the radiosensitizing effect of EMFs described in the literature could support their use to improve radiation effectiveness. Thus, we hypothesized that EMF exposure might enhance the ionizing radiation effect on tumor cells, improving the effects of RT. The aim of this paper is to review reports of the effects of EMFs in biological systems and their potential therapeutic benefits in radiotherapy.

Núñez María Isabel

2013-07-01

205

Enhanced rosmarinic acid production by Lavandula vera MM cell suspension culture through elicitation with vanadyl sulfate.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of elicitation on rosmarinic acid biosynthesis by Lavandula vera MM cell suspension culture was investigated using vanadyl sulfate as an abiotic elicitor. It was established that 12 h after treatment with 25 mg/l vanadyl sulfate the rosmarinic acid production was increased up to 3.92 g/l (2.8 times higher compared to the control cultivation). No significant amounts of rosmarinic acid were detected in the culture medium in comparison with its intracellular content. However, it was observed that the extracellular content of rosmarinic acid is 3.3 times higher compared to the control variant (4 h after treatment at elicitor concentration 25 mg/l). PMID:16729583

Georgiev, Milen; Kuzeva, Sonya; Pavlov, Atanas; Kovacheva, Elena; Ilieva, Mladenka

2006-01-01

206

Cognitive deficits in marijuana users: effects on motivational enhancement therapy plus cognitive behavioral therapy treatment outcome  

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Clinical variables that affect treatment outcome for marijuana dependent individuals are not yet well understood, including the effects of cognitive functioning. To address this, level of cognitive functioning and treatment outcome were investigated. Twenty marijuana-dependent outpatients were administered a neuropsychological battery at treatment entry. All patients received 12 weekly individual sessions of combined motivational enhancement therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. The Wilco...

Aharonovich, Efrat; Brooks, Adam C.; Nunes, Edward V.; Hasin, Deborah S.

2008-01-01

207

Enhancement in extraction rates by addition of organic acids to aqueous phase in solvent extraction of rare earth metals in presence of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is well known that the selectivity of rare earth metals by solvent extraction is increased by the addition of a chelating agent such as diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) in the aqueous phase. One of the disadvantages of this method is the decrease in extraction rates due to complexation in the aqueous phase. In this paper, further addition of organic acids to the aqueous phase was examined for the purpose of enhancing the extraction rates in solvent extraction with DTPA. The addition of several kind of organic acids such as formic acid, acetic acid, malonic acid, lactic acid and citric acid was investigated for a Er/Y separation system. A remarkable enhancement in extraction rates was observed with a slight decrease in the selectivity by the addition of citric acid or lactic acid. Extraction rates in the presence of both DTPA and citric acid increased with the increase in citric acid concentration and with the increase in proton concentration. A 150 times enhancement in extraction rates was found in the low proton concentration condition. In order to analyze the extraction rates and selectivities obtained, mass transfer equations were presented by considering both the dissociation reaction of rare earth metal-DTPA complexes and the complex formation between rare earth metal and organic acid in the aqueous phase. The experimental data were analyzed by these equations. (author)

208

Organic acid enhanced electrodialytic extraction of lead from contaminated soil fines in suspension  

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The implementation of soil washing technology for the treatment of heavy metal contaminated soils is limited by the toxicity and unwieldiness of the remaining heavy metal contaminated sludge. In this work, the feasibility of combining electrodialytic remediation with heterotrophic leaching for decontamination of the sludge was investigated. The ability of 11 organic acids to extract Pb from the fine fraction of contaminated soil (grains < 63 mu m) was investigated, and application of the acid...

Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

2008-01-01

209

Treatment of severe cholestasis in neonatal Dubin-Johnson syndrome with ursodeoxycholic acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a case of Dubin-Johnson Syndrome in a neonate presenting with severe direct hyperbilirubinemia, which failed to respond to phenobarbital treatment. Ursodeoxycholic Acid added to therapy was well tolerated, and resulted in declining bilirubin concentration. We suggest ursodeoxycholic acid in treatment for Dubin-Johnson Syndrome with severe direct hyperbilirubinemia presenting in the neonatal age. PMID:12012642

Regev, Rivka H; Stolar, Orit; Raz, Aryeh; Dolfin, Tzipora

2002-01-01

210

Effects of Enhanced Depression Treatment on Diabetes Self-Care  

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PURPOSE Among patients with diabetes, major depression is associated with more diabetic complications, lower medication adherence, and poorer self-care of diabetes. We reported earlier that enhanced depression care reduces depression symptoms but not hemoglobin A1c level. This study examined effects of depression interventions on self-management among depressed diabetic patients.

Lin, Elizabeth H. B.; Katon, Wayne; Rutter, Carolyn; Simon, Greg E.; Ludman, Evette J.; Von Korff, Michael; Young, Bessie; Oliver, Malia; Ciechanowski, Paul C.; Kinder, Leslie; Walker, Edward

2006-01-01

211

Enhancing Lipid Stability in Irradiated Beef Mince by Oleoresins and/ or Ascorbic Acid during Chilling Storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lipid Oxidation, fatty acids profile and sensory properties of irradiated beef mince (2.5 kGy) treated with oleoresins (rosemary or ginger), ascorbic acid, or combination of ascorbic acid and oleoresins were investigated during 30 days of chilled storage. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) as an indication of lipid oxidation, of irradiated control samples were significantly higher than those of non irradiated control and samples treated with rosemary and ginger oleoresins. By GC-MS analysis, it was found that the relative percentage of total saturated fatty acids (TSFA) increased in all treatments. However, the highest increase was recorded in irradiated control samples compared to non irradiated control samples. Beef mince samples treated with oleoresins (rosemary or ginger) had the best scores for discoloration and off odour. Thus, the addition of oleoresins (rosemary or ginger) to beef mince before irradiation could be an easily applied method to minimize oxidative degradation of irradiated meat

212

[Treatment of Chagas disease with benznidazole and thioctic acid].  

Science.gov (United States)

A multicenter, randomized, triple blind and controlled trial was designed to determine whether the combination with thioctic acid (TA), an antioxidant agent, can reduce the intolerance rate to Benznidazol (BZ) in patients infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Four regimens were assigned randomly for 3 age intervals, administrating placebo or TA orally at daily doses of 50 to 100 mg in association with BZ at a dose of 5 mg/k/day for 30 days. In some, medication was given during a run-in period. Safety controls were carried out on days 10, 20, 37 and 52 days after therapy initiation. A total of 249 patients between 15 and 44 years old were enrolled. At the end of the trial, 70.3% of the patients had completed the treatment, while 17.7% required its suspension due to BZ related adverse reactions. The proportion of individuals affected with at least one side effect ranged from 54.8% to 58%; however, none were serious. Reported side effects included: cutaneous maculopapular rush (28%), pruritus (13.6%), headache (8%), epigastralgia (6.2%), fever (6.2%), fatigue (4.3%), nausea (4%), myalgias (4.3%), others (21.5%). The incidence of these reactions did not differ significantly among the 4 therapeutic regimens, nor even among the age intervals considered. It can be concluded that the association with TA did not prevent the occurrence of adverse reactions related to BZ administration. However, a single month cycle of this parasiticide permitted a high compliance rate to therapy among infected outpatients. PMID:15034949

Sosa-Estani, Sergio; Armenti, Alejandro; Araujo, Graciela; Viotti, Rodolfo; Lococo, Bruno; Ruiz Vera, Basilio; Vigliano, Carlos; de Rissio, Ana M; Segura, Elsa L

2004-01-01

213

Essential fatty acids in the treatment of dry eye syndrome: A myth or reality?  

Science.gov (United States)

Dry eye is a common condition that can severely impair the quality of life. Systemic and topical omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids have been used as treatment for patients with dry eye disease and showed promising results. Further multicenter randomized controlled trials are required in order to establish a standardized protocol for the treatment of dry eye syndrome with those essential fatty acids.

Al Mahmood, Ammar M.; Al-Swailem, Samar A.

2014-01-01

214

Amino Acids Enhance Adaptive Behaviour of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa in the Cystic Fibrosis Lung Environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sputum of cystic fibrosis (CF patients is a nutrient-rich environment. Higher amino acid content of CF sputum compared to normal sputum plays a major role in the CF-specific phenotype of P. aeruginosa. Presence of amino acids in the sputum-like environment influenced P. aeruginosa quorum-sensing activity and the formation of an unknown exopolysaccharide in the biofilm. Lipopolysaccharides isolated from P. aeruginosa grown in the presence of amino acids enhanced the release of cytokine IL-8 by human kidney and lung epithelial cells. The results of this study provide additional evidence on the role of amino acids towards adaptation of P. aeruginosa to the CF lung environment.

Dinesh Diraviam Sriramulu

2010-04-01

215

Enhancement of arachidonic acid signaling pathway by nicotinic acid receptor HM74A  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

cally affected by co-treatment with both inhibitors, indicating the cross-talk occurred at the receptor level. Finally, stimulation of A431 cells transiently transfected with PPRE-luciferase with AA significantly induced luciferase activity, mimicking the effects of PPAR? agonist rosiglitazone, suggesting that alteration of AA signaling pathway can regulate gene expression via endogenous PPARs

216

Sebum free fatty acids enhance the innate immune defense of human sebocytes by upregulating beta-defensin-2 expression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Various sebum free fatty acids (FFAs) have shown antibacterial activity against a broad range of gram-positive bacteria, resulting in the suggestion that they are accountable, at least partially, for the direct antimicrobial activity of the skin surface. In this study, we examined the effects of sebum FFAs on the antimicrobial peptide (AMP)-mediated innate immune defense of human sebocytes. Incubation of lauric acid, palmitic acid, or oleic acid (OA) with human sebocytes dramatically enhanced their expression of human beta-defensin (hBD)-2, one of the predominant AMPs found in the skin, whereas remarkable increases in hBD-1, hBD-3, and human cathelicidin LL-37 were not observed. Secreted hBD-2 was detectable by western blotting in the supernatant of sebocyte culture incubated with each FFA, but not with a vehicle control. The supernatant of FFA-incubated sebocyte culture showed antimicrobial activity against Propionibacterium acnes, whereas the enhanced antimicrobial activity of human sebocytes was neutralized by anti-hBD-2 IgG. In addition, the FFA-induced hBD-2 expression was suppressed by blocking the cluster of differentiation (CD)36 fatty acid translocase on the surface of sebocytes with anti-human CD36 IgG or blocking the NF-kappaB signaling pathway with BMS-345541, a highly selective inhibitor of inhibitory kappaB kinase. These data suggest that sebum FFAs upregulate the expression of hBD-2 in human sebocytes, which may enhance the disinfecting activity of the human sebaceous gland. The FFA-induced upregulation of hBD-2 is facilitated by CD36-mediated FFA uptake and NF-kappaB-mediated transactivation. The upregulation of mouse beta-defensin 4, a mouse ortholog for hBD-2, was also observed in the hair follicle sebaceous glands of mouse ear skin after an epicutaneous application of OA, the most hBD-2-inducible FFA tested. This report highlights the potential of using FFAs as a multifunctional antimicrobial therapy agent for acne vulgaris treatment; FFAs may provide direct antibacterial activities against P. acnes and enhance the skin's innate antibacterial defense by inducing the expression of hBD-2 in sebocytes as well. PMID:20032992

Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Kao, Mandy C; Zhang, Liangfang; Zouboulis, Christos C; Gallo, Richard L; Huang, Chun-Ming

2010-04-01

217

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering of hydroxybenzoic acids adsorbed on silver nanoparticles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of hydroxybenzoic acids has been studied on silver sols in H(2)O and D(2)O solutions. The adsorption behavior of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4HBA) is different from that of salicylic (2HBA) and 3-hydroxybenzoic (3HBA) acids. It was concluded that 4HBA is adsorbed on silver nanoparticles (Ag(n)) as either oxidobenzoate (A(2-)) or hydroxybenzoate (A(-)), depending on the pH of the solution, given rise to a flat orientation. Both 2HBA and 3HBA acids are always adsorbed as hydroxybenzoates anions (A(-)) at pH >or=5 and link to the metal through the carboxylate group (Ag(n)--A(-)), standing more or less perpendicular to the metal surface. In the case of these monoanions, the selective enhancement of the bands is due mainly to a resonant electron or charge transfer process (ET or CT) from the metallic nanoparticles to the adsorbates, yielding the transient formation of the respective radical dianions (Ag(+)(n)--A(2-)). It is found that the enhanced bands, and especially the mode 8a;nu(ring), are related to the difference between the equilibrium structures of the adsorbate in its ground (A(-)) and CT-excited (A(2-)) states. In the SERS spectrum of 4HBA dianion, the contribution of CT mechanism is not observed. PMID:19167008

Castro, J L; Arenas, J F; López-Ramírez, M R; Peláez, D; Otero, J C

2009-04-01

218

Histone deacetylase inhibitors valproic acid and sodium butyrate enhance prostaglandins release in lipopolysaccharide-activated primary microglia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Modifications of histone deacetylases (HDACs) may be involved in microglia-driven neuroinflammatory responses. Recent studies suggest that several inflammatory molecules can regulate the extent of neurodegeneration and regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS). In the present study, we investigated the effects of HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) valproic acid (VPA) and sodium butyrate (NaBut) on the release of prostaglandins (PGs) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglia. We found that VPA and NaBut significantly enhanced LPS-induced release of PGE2, PGD2 and 8-iso-PGF2?. In addition, both compounds increased cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase immunoreactivity and gene expression in LPS-stimulated microglia. Interestingly, treatment of activated microglia with HDACi also enhanced the gene expression and the release of different pro-inflammatory cytokines. Microglia activation with LPS leads to I?B-? degradation, as well as p38, ERK1/2 and JNK MAPKs phosphorylation and thus activation, which is not affected by treatment with VPA and NaBut. Furthermore, VPA and NaBut treatment induced histone acetylation at H3-K18 in microglia. We suggest that VPA and NaBut-driven increase in PGs release in LPS-activated microglia might be regulated at the transcriptional level and involves histone hyperacetylation. Our data demonstrate that VPA and NaBut are able to modulate microglia responses to inflammatory insults and thus possibly can regulate the CNS degenerative and regenerative processes. PMID:24480366

Singh, V; Bhatia, H S; Kumar, A; de Oliveira, A C P; Fiebich, B L

2014-04-18

219

alpha-Mangostin enhances betulinic acid cytotoxicity and inhibits cisplatin cytotoxicity on HCT 116 colorectal carcinoma cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the progress in colon cancer treatment, relapse is still a major obstacle. Hence, new drugs or drug combinations are required in the battle against colon cancer. ?-Mangostin and betulinic acid (BA) are cytotoxic compounds that work by inducing the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, and cisplatin is one of the most potent broad spectrum anti-tumor agents. This study aims to investigate the enhancement of BA cytotoxicity by ?-mangostin, and the cytoprotection effect of ?-mangostin and BA on cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity on HCT 116 human colorectal carcinoma cells. Cytotoxicity was investigated by the XTT cell proliferation test, and the apoptotic effects were investigated on early and late markers including caspases-3/7, mitochondrial membrane potential, cytoplasmic shrinkage, and chromatin condensation. The effect of ?-mangostin on four signalling pathways was also investigated by the luciferase assay. ?-Mangostin and BA were more cytotoxic to the colon cancer cells than to the normal colonic cells, and both compounds showed a cytoprotective effect against cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity. On the other hand, ?-mangostin enhanced the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of BA. Combination therapy hits multiple targets, which may improve the overall response to the treatment, and may reduce the likelihood of developing drug resistance by the tumor cells. Therefore, ?-mangostin and BA may provide a novel combination for the treatment of colorectal carcinoma. The cytoprotective effect of the compounds against cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity may find applications as chemopreventive agents against carcinogens, irradiation and oxidative stress, or to neutralize cisplatin side effects. PMID:22402764

Aisha, Abdalrahim F A; Abu-Salah, Khalid M; Ismail, Zhari; Majid, Amin Malik Shah Abdul

2012-01-01

220

Maximizing the electromagnetic and chemical resonances of surface-enhanced Raman scattering for nucleic acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has previously been performed with nucleic acids, the measured intensities for each nucleic acid have varied significantly depending on the SERS substrate and excitation wavelength. We have demonstrated that the charge-transfer (CT) mechanism, also known as the chemical enhancement of SERS, is responsible for the discrepancies previously reported in literature. The electronic states of cytosine and guanine attached to silver atoms are computationally calculated and experimentally measured to be in the visible range, which leads to a resonance Raman effect at the corresponding maximum wavelengths. The resulting SERS measurements are in good agreement with the simulated values, in which cytosine-silver shows stronger enhancement at 532 nm and guanine-silver shows stronger enhancement at 785 nm. An atomic layer of aluminum oxide is deposited on substrates to prevent charge-transfer, and corresponding measurements show weaker Raman signals caused by the suppression of the chemical resonance. These findings suggest the optimal SERS signal can be achieved by tuning the excitation wavelength to match both the electromagnetic and chemical resonances, paving the way for future single molecule detection of nucleic acids other than adenine. PMID:25065837

Freeman, Lindsay M; Pang, Lin; Fainman, Yeshaiahu

2014-08-26

 
 
 
 
221

Enhanced incorporation of fatty acid into phosphatidyl choline that parallels histamine discharge in mast cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purified rat peritoneal and pleural mast cells preincubated briefly with radioactively labeled fatty acid were treated with A23187, which bypasses primary receptors in stimulating exocytosis. An enhanced incorporation of fatty acid into phosphatidyl choline (PC) that occurred in parallel with histamine release at 24-25 degrees C was observed and was initially proportional to the total amount of histamine discharged. Enhanced PC labeling and histamine secretion were also proportional at temperatures ranging from 17-37 degrees C. Both radioactive linoleic and palmitic acids were incorporated selectively at the beta-position of the glycerol backbone of PC. PC labeling by [3H]choline was not detectably different in control and stimulated cells, and phosphatidic acid did not exhibit selectively enhanced beta-acylation. Thus, the stimulated labeling in A23187-treated cells may occur secondary to the action of a phospholipase A2 that favors PC as a substrate. Other peritoneal cell types exhibit a very similar A23187-stimulated selective labeling of PC. Therefore, autoradiography has been used to provide a direct demonstration that in purified preparations, mast cells are the principal cell type engaged in A23187-elicited incorporation of fatty acid into PC. The efficacy of this approach has relied on special procedures devised to obtain significantly different autoradiographic grain densities between control and stimulated preparations that can be attributed to differences in the level of [3H]palmitate-labeled PC. Preliminary tests using compound 48/80 as a secretory stimulus for mast cells have identified a similar selectively enhanced PC labeling. In either case, however, consideration of possible relationships between PC metabolism and the secretory process are premature since they have not been tested directly

222

NIR sensitivity enhancement by laser treatment for Si detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The light absorption coefficient of silicon is high in the short wavelengths, but much lower in the long wavelengths (longer than 900 nm). Thus it is necessary to use thicker silicon wafers to manufacture high-sensitivity light sensors for long wavelength applications. However, this imposes constraints on applied voltage, dark current, response speed, and cost. This then leads to limitations on device characteristics and possible applications. As an alternative to using thicker silicon wafers to enhance the NIR sensitivity of silicon photodiodes, we used an ultra-short pulse laser to form 'black silicon' structures on the surface of silicon photodiodes. At 1064 nm, QE was improved from 25% to 72%. Future research will determine how this technology can also be applied to enhancing the NIR sensitivity of image sensors such as CCDs.

223

Post treatment method for the recovery of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the process of uranium recovery from wet-process phosphoric acid, post treatment of the raffinate phosphoric acid is very important to prevent damage to the rubber linings of the acid evaporators and to recover the solvent for reuse. A simple and continuous method using an inclined parallel-corrugated-plate separator to remove the organic solvent entrainment from the raffinate phosphoric acid is established herein

224

Partial reverse of the TCA cycle is enhanced in Taenia crassiceps experimental neurocysticercosis after in vivo treatment with anthelminthic drugs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common helminthic infection and neglected disease of the central nervous system. It is the leading cause of acquired epilepsy and seizures worldwide. Therefore, to study this important neglected disease, it is important to use experimental models. There is no report in the literature on how the parasite's metabolism reacts to antihelminthic treatment when it is still within the central nervous system of the host. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the energetic metabolism of cysticerci experimentally inoculated in the encephala of BALB/c mice after treatment with low dosages (not sufficient to kill the parasite) of albendazole (ABDZ) and praziquantel (PZQ). BALB/c mice were intracranially inoculated with Taenia crassiceps cysticerci and, after 30 days, received treatment with low dosages of ABDZ and PZQ. After 24 h of treatment, the mice were euthanized, and the cysticerci were removed and analyzed through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the organic acids related to the energetic metabolism of the parasite. The partial reverse of the TCA cycle was enhanced by the ABDZ and PZQ treatments both with the higher dosage, as the organic acids of this pathway were significantly increased when compared to the control group and to the other dosages. In conclusion, it was possible to detect the increase of this pathway in the parasites that were exposed to low dosages of ABDZ and PZQ, as it is a mechanism that would amplify the energy production in a hostile environment. PMID:24481905

de Almeida Leandro, Leticia; Fraga, Carolina Miguel; de Souza Lino, Ruy; Vinaud, Marina Clare

2014-04-01

225

Enhancement of seed vigour following insecticide and phenolic elicitor treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thiamethoxam (CGA 293'343) is a novel broad-spectrum neonicotinoid insecticide. It is commercially used as a seed treatment under the trademark Cruiser (CRZ). Although many reports detail its insecticidal, plant-protecting properties, there are minimal reports concerning the effect on seed germination activities which can be key control points of seedling vigour. In this report, we investigated the effect of CRZ, fish protein hydrolysates (FPH; a known elicitor of pentose-phosphate pathway) and the combination of CRZ and FPH (CF) on seed vigour of pea, soybean and corn. Seed vigour was investigated by estimating germination percentage, shoot height, shoot weight, total soluble phenolic content, antioxidant content, G6PDH (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) activity, and GPX (guaiacol peroxidase) activity. Addition of FPH to CRZ (CF) seemed to have a slightly positive effect on seed vigour, especially, CF and FPH treatment for corn and FPH treatment for pea, suggesting that pre-sowing treatments may cause positive/negative effects on seed vigour, depending on the concentration of treatments. Further research will be needed to determine their effects and the optimal concentration for seed priming. PMID:16581243

Horii, A; McCue, P; Shetty, K

2007-02-01

226

Emergency esophagogastrectomy for treatment of hydrochloric acid injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eight patients with severe hydrochloric acid injury of the esophagus and stomach had early esophagogastrectomy. Four patients survived and 6 to 8 weeks later underwent successful substernal colon replacement. The value of early diagnosis and subsequent aggressive surgical management of patients who have ingested hydrochloric acid is stressed. PMID:2069470

Horváth, O P; Oláh, T; Zentai, G

1991-07-01

227

Reductions of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium on beef trim by lactic acid, levulinic acid, and sodium dodecyl sulfate treatments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies were done at 21 °C to determine the bactericidal activity of lactic acid, levulinic acid, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) applied individually and in combination on Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in pure culture and to compare the efficacy of lactic acid and levulinic acid plus SDS treatments applied by spray or immersion to inactivate STEC and Salmonella (10(7) CFU/cm2) on beef trim pieces (10 by 10 by 7.5 cm). Application of 3% lactic acid for 2 min to pure cultures was shown to reduce E. coli O26:H11, O45:H2, O111:H8, O103:H2, O121:H2, O145:NM, and O157:H7 populations by 2.1, 0.4, 0.3, 1.4, 0.3, 2.1, and 1.7 log CFU/ml, respectively. Treatment with 0.5% levulinic acid plus 0.05% SDS for 6 log/ml reduction). Beef surface temperature was found to affect the bactericidal activity of treatment with 3 % levulinic acid plus 2% SDS (LV-SDS). Treating cold (4 °C) beef trim with LV-SDS at 21, 62, or 81 °C for 30 s reduced E. coli O157:H7 by 1.0, 1.1, or 1.4 log CFU/cm2, respectively, whereas treating beef trim at 8 °C with LV-SDS at 12 °C for 0.1, 1, 3, or 5 min reduced E. coli O157:H7 by 1.4, 2.4, 2.5, or 3.3 log CFU/cm(2), respectively. Spray treatment of beef trim at 4 °C with 5 % lactic acid only reduced the E. coli O157:H7 population by 1.3 log CFU/cm2. Treating beef trim at 8 °C with LV-SDS for 1, 2, or 3 min reduced Salmonella Typhimurium by 2.1, 2.6, and >5.0 log CFU/cm2, respectively. Hand massaging the treated beef trim substantially reduced contamination of both pathogens, with no detectable E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella Typhimurium (trim pieces treated with LV-SDS. Reduction of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium populations was enhanced, but bactericidal activity was affected by the meat temperature. PMID:24680063

Zhao, Tong; Zhao, Ping; Chen, Dong; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh; Hung, Yen-Con; Doyle, Michael P

2014-04-01

228

Enhanced L-(+)-lactic acid production by an adapted strain of Rhizopus oryzae using corncob hydrolysate  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Corncob is an economic feedstock and more than 20 million tons of corncobs are produced annually in China. Abundant xylose can be potentially converted from the large amount of hemicellulosic materials in corncobs, which makes the crop residue an attractive alternative substrate for a value-added production of a variety of bioproducts. Lactic acid can be used as a precursor for poly-lactic acid production. Although current industrial lactic acid is produced by lactic acid bacteria using enriched medium, production by Rhizopus oryzae is preferred due to its exclusive formation of the-isomer and a simple nutrition requirement by the fungus. Production of-L-(+)-lactic acid by R. oryzae using xylose has been reported; however, its yield and conversion rate are poor compared with that of using glucose. In this study, we report an adapted R. oryzae strain HZS6 that significantly improved efficiency of substrate utilization and enhanced production of L-(+)-lactic acid from corncob hydrolysate. It increased L-(+)-lactic acid final concentration, yield, and volumetric productivity more than twofold compared with its parental strain. The optimized growth and fermentation conditions for Strain HZS6 were defined.

Bai, Dongmei

2008-01-01

229

Behavioral activation: a strategy to enhance treatment response.  

Science.gov (United States)

Behavioral activation is an empirically validated treatment for depression pioneered in 1973 by Ferster, based on B.F. Skinner's behavioral principles. After publication of Beck's work on cognitive therapy, the boundaries of behavioral and cognitive therapies were blurred and the two now overlap substantially. Behavioral activation is also used as a stand-alone treatment and can also be effective in conjunction with antidepressant medication. Case conceptualization in behavioral activation entails an assessment of the behaviors that the patient has stopped that produce pleasure or are of importance, as well as behaviors essential to self-care. Activity monitoring, which provides treatment targets and leads to the case conceptualization in behavioral activation, consists of using charts, forms, or other prompts to track the relationship between activities and other variables (e.g., mood, enjoyment). That technique is also used to target rumination, procrastination, and avoidance and may also be helpful for patients with psychosis. PMID:25036582

Sudak, Donna M; Majeed, Muhammad H; Youngman, Branden

2014-07-01

230

Enhancing fluorescence intensity of Ellagic acid in Borax-HCl-CTAB micelles  

Science.gov (United States)

Ellagic acid (C 14H 6O 8), a naturally occurring phytochemical, found mainly in berries and some nuts, has anticarcinogenic and antioxidant properties. It is found that fluorescence of Ellagic acid (EA) is greatly enhanced by micelle of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant. Based on this effect, a sensitive proposed fluorimetric method was applied for the determination of Ellagic acid in aqueous solution. In the Borax-HCl buffer, the fluorescence intensity of Ellagic acid in the presence of CTAB is proportional to the concentration of Ellagic acid in range from 8.0 × 10 -10 to 4.0 × 10 -5 mol L -1; and the detection limits are 3.2 × 10 -10 mol L -1 and 5.9 × 10 -10 mol L -1 excited at 266 nm and 388 nm, respectively. The actual samples of pomegranate rinds are simply manipulated and satisfactorily determined. The interaction mechanism studies argue that the negative EA-Borax complex is formed and solubilized in the cationic surfactant CTAB micelle in this system. The fluorescence intensity of EA enhances because the CTAB micelle provides a hydrophobic microenvironment for EA-Borax complex, which can prevent collision with water molecules and decrease the energy loss of EA-Borax complex.

Wang, Feng; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Guokui; Li, Kexiang; Tang, Bo

2011-03-01

231

77 FR 12227 - Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule: Uncovered Finished Water Reservoirs; Public...  

Science.gov (United States)

...The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA...uncovered finished water reservoir requirement...Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule...Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania...focused on analytical methods for...

2012-02-29

232

Enhanced washing durability of hydrophobic coating on cellulose fabric using polycarboxylic acids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nine polycarboxylic acids were used to improve washing durability of hydrophobic cellulose fabric finished by sol-gel method. By simultaneous forming ester-bridge between cellulose and silica layer by ester bond, polycarboxylic acids could anchor silica coating onto cellulose fabric to strengthen the adhesion of organic-inorganic hybrid coating. The wettability of treated fabrics was characterized by water contact angle, spray test and hydrostatic pressure test. The results showed that all investigated polycarboxylic acids could improve the durability. The polycarboxylic acid with proper distance between terminal carboxylic acid groups and number of carboxylic acid groups showed the highest durability. 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) led to the best durability of hydrophobic cellulose fabric with water contact angle of 137.6o (recovery percentage of 94.2%) after 30 washing times. The effect of BTCA on durability was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. This study demonstrated that the surface treatment using polycarboxylic acids and mixed organosilanes is a promising alternative for achieving durable hydrophobic fabrics.

233

[Serum-treatment in the rubella hi-test by menas of silicic acid (author's transl)].  

Science.gov (United States)

The serum treatment for the removal of nonspecific inhibitors in the Rubella HI-test with silicic acid was investigated by means of isolated lipoproteins and after a micromethod by means of Sindbis-virus. Reduction of the three classes of lipoproteins after treatment with silicic acid was good. In the Sindbis HI-test only 2% of the sera showed low titers after treatment. The method proved to be a reliable tool as removal of unspecific inhibitory activity is concerned. PMID:201128

Steinmann, J

1977-10-01

234

Enhancement of skin wound healing with decellularized scaffolds loaded with hyaluronic acid and epidermal growth factor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Current therapy for skin wound healing still relies on skin transplantation. Many studies were done to try to find out ways to replace skin transplantation, but there is still no effective alternative therapy. In this study, decellularized scaffolds were prepared from pig peritoneum by a series of physical and chemical treatments, and scaffolds loaded with hyaluronic acid (HA) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were tested for their effect on wound healing. MTT assay showed that EGF increased NIH3T3 cell viability and confirmed that EGF used in this study was biologically active in vitro. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that HA stably attached to scaffolds even after soaking in PBS for 48h. ELISA assay showed that HA increased the adsorption of EGF to scaffolds and sustained the release of EGF from scaffolds. Animal study showed that the wounds covered with scaffolds containing HA and EGF recovered best among all 4 groups and had wound healing rates of 49.86%, 70.94% and 87.41% respectively for days 10, 15 and 20 post-surgery compared to scaffolds alone with wound healing rates of 29.26%, 42.80% and 70.14%. In addition, the wounds covered with scaffolds containing EGF alone were smaller than no EGF scaffolds on days 10, 15 and 20 post-surgery. Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) staining confirmed these results by showing that on days 10, 15 and 20 post-surgery, the thicker epidermis and dermis layers were observed in the wounds covered with scaffolds containing HA and EGF than scaffolds alone. In addition, the thicker epidermis and dermis layers were also observed in the wounds covered with scaffolds containing EGF than scaffolds alone. Skin appendages were observed on day 20 only in the wound covered with scaffolds containing HA and EGF. These results demonstrate that the scaffolds containing HA and EGF can enhance wound healing. PMID:25280726

Su, Zhongchun; Ma, Huan; Wu, Zhengzheng; Zeng, Huilan; Li, Zhizhong; Wang, Yuechun; Liu, Gexiu; Xu, Bin; Lin, Yongliang; Zhang, Peng; Wei, Xing

2014-11-01

235

Biomineralization of arsenate to arsenic sulfides is greatly enhanced at mildly acidic conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arsenic (As) is an important water contaminant due to its high toxicity and widespread occurrence. Arsenic-sulfide minerals (ASM) are formed during microbial reduction of arsenate (As(V)) and sulfate (SO4(2-)). The objective of this research is to study the effect of the pH on the removal of As due to the formation of ASM in an iron-poor system. A series of batch experiments was used to study the reduction of SO4(2-) and As(V) by an anaerobic biofilm mixed culture in a range of pH conditions (6.1-7.2), using ethanol as the electron donor. Total soluble concentrations and speciation of S and As were monitored. Solid phase speciation of arsenic was characterized by x-ray adsorption spectroscopy (XAS). A marked decrease of the total aqueous concentrations of As and S was observed in the inoculated treatments amended with ethanol, but not in the non-inoculated controls, indicating that the As-removal was biologically mediated. The pH dramatically affected the extent and rate of As removal, as well as the stoichiometric composition of the precipitate. The amount of As removed was 2-fold higher and the rate of the As removal was up to 17-fold greater at pH 6.1 than at pH 7.2. Stoichiometric analysis and XAS results confirmed the precipitate was composed of a mixture of orpiment and realgar, and the proportion of orpiment in the sample increased with increasing pH. The results taken as a whole suggest that ASM formation is greatly enhanced at mildly acidic pH conditions. PMID:25222328

Rodriguez-Freire, Lucia; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Root, Robert; Chorover, Jon; Field, James A

2014-12-01

236

Lactic Acid Recovery in Electro-Enhanced Dialysis: Modelling and Validation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A dynamic model is derived for simultaneous transport of multiple ions through anion exchange membranes based on an irreversible thermodynamics approach. This model accounts for the convective transport of the dissociated and undissociated species in the module channels, and the diffusion and migration across the boundary layers and membranes. The model is validated for Donnan dialysis recovery of different monoprotic carboxylic acids. Simulations are used to evaluate the potential enhancement of lactate fluxes under current load conditions, referred as Electro-Enhanced Dialysis operation. This model is a useful tool to understand the transport mechanism in such electrochemical system.

Prado Rubio, Oscar Andres; JØrgensen, Sten Bay

2009-01-01

237

Arabidopsis ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 promotes systemic acquired resistance via azelaic acid and its precursor 9-oxo nonanoic acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a form of inducible disease resistance that depends on salicylic acid and its upstream regulator ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1). Although local Arabidopsis thaliana defence responses activated by the Pseudomonas syringae effector protein AvrRpm1 are intact in eds1 mutant plants, SAR signal generation is abolished. Here, the SAR-specific phenotype of the eds1 mutant is utilized to identify metabolites that contribute to SAR. To this end, SAR bioassay-assisted fractionation of extracts from the wild type compared with eds1 mutant plants that conditionally express AvrRpm1 was performed. Using high-performance liquid chromatography followed by mass spectrometry, systemic immunity was associated with the accumulation of 60 metabolites, including the putative SAR signal azelaic acid (AzA) and its precursors 9-hydroperoxy octadecadienoic acid (9-HPOD) and 9-oxo nonanoic acid (ONA). Exogenous ONA induced SAR in systemic untreated leaves when applied at a 4-fold lower concentration than AzA. The data suggest that in planta oxidation of ONA to AzA might be partially responsible for this response and provide further evidence that AzA mobilizes Arabidopsis immunity in a concentration-dependent manner. The AzA fragmentation product pimelic acid did not induce SAR. The results link the C9 lipid peroxidation products ONA and AzA with systemic rather than local resistance and suggest that EDS1 directly or indirectly promotes the accumulation of ONA, AzA, or one or more of their common precursors possibly by activating one or more pathways that either result in the release of these compounds from galactolipids or promote lipid peroxidation. PMID:25114016

Wittek, Finni; Hoffmann, Thomas; Kanawati, Basem; Bichlmeier, Marlies; Knappe, Claudia; Wenig, Marion; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Parker, Jane E; Schwab, Wilfried; Vlot, A Corina

2014-11-01

238

Arabidopsis ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 promotes systemic acquired resistance via azelaic acid and its precursor 9-oxo nonanoic acid  

Science.gov (United States)

Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a form of inducible disease resistance that depends on salicylic acid and its upstream regulator ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1). Although local Arabidopsis thaliana defence responses activated by the Pseudomonas syringae effector protein AvrRpm1 are intact in eds1 mutant plants, SAR signal generation is abolished. Here, the SAR-specific phenotype of the eds1 mutant is utilized to identify metabolites that contribute to SAR. To this end, SAR bioassay-assisted fractionation of extracts from the wild type compared with eds1 mutant plants that conditionally express AvrRpm1 was performed. Using high-performance liquid chromatography followed by mass spectrometry, systemic immunity was associated with the accumulation of 60 metabolites, including the putative SAR signal azelaic acid (AzA) and its precursors 9-hydroperoxy octadecadienoic acid (9-HPOD) and 9-oxo nonanoic acid (ONA). Exogenous ONA induced SAR in systemic untreated leaves when applied at a 4-fold lower concentration than AzA. The data suggest that in planta oxidation of ONA to AzA might be partially responsible for this response and provide further evidence that AzA mobilizes Arabidopsis immunity in a concentration-dependent manner. The AzA fragmentation product pimelic acid did not induce SAR. The results link the C9 lipid peroxidation products ONA and AzA with systemic rather than local resistance and suggest that EDS1 directly or indirectly promotes the accumulation of ONA, AzA, or one or more of their common precursors possibly by activating one or more pathways that either result in the release of these compounds from galactolipids or promote lipid peroxidation. PMID:25114016

Wittek, Finni; Hoffmann, Thomas; Kanawati, Basem; Bichlmeier, Marlies; Knappe, Claudia; Wenig, Marion; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Parker, Jane E.; Schwab, Wilfried; Vlot, A. Corina

2014-01-01

239

Enhanced-effect of hypertonic saline, acetic acid and their mixture on hepatic radiofrequency ablation: an experimental study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To compare the effects of hypertonic saline, acetic acid and acetic acid- hypertonic saline (AAHS) solution on the ablated volume produced by hepatic radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in rabbits in vivo, and to determine the optimal synergist for radiofrequency ablation. Methods: Thirty big-ear white rabbits were equally divided into group A (RFA alone), group B (RFA with 36% NaCl injection), group C (RFA with 50% acetic acid injection), group D (RFA with 50% AAHS injection), group E (50% AAHS injection alone), and group F (36% NaC1 injection alone), with five rabbits in each group. Follow-up exam with CT scanning was made. The experimental rabbits were sacrificed by stages. The livers were collected and fixed in 10% formalin. Both the longitudinal and transverse diameter of the necrosis lesion produced by radiofrequency ablation were measured, the results were compared among groups. Results: The difference in the lowest impedance value between group A and other groups was statistically significant (P0.997). The persistent time of group A was significantly shorter than that of both group B and group D (P<0.05), while significant difference in persistent time existed between group C and group B or group D (P<0.05). The coagulation necrosis area in group B, C and D was significantly larger than that in group A (P<0.05). The transverse coagulation necrosis area of group D was the largest (P<0.05). Marked enhancement at the rim of coagulation necrosis lesions was observed on enhanced CT scans one week after the procedure. The coagulation necrosis lesions were obviously contracted three weeks after the treatment. Operation-related complications occurred in six rabbits (50%, 6/12). Peritoneal adhesion and ascites occurred in 4 rabbits receiving acetic acid (50%, 4/6) and in two rabbits not receiving acetic acid (33%, 2/ 6). Conclusions: Combination of RFA with 50% acetic acid-hypertonic saline injection can produce larger hepatic coagulation necrosis volume in experimental rabbits, the synergy of 50% acetic acid-hypertonic saline is superior to single pharmaceutical solution. (authors)

240

Low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids produced from hydrothermal treatment of organic wastes.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports production of low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids from the hydrothermal treatment of representative organic wastes and compounds (i.e. domestic sludge, proteinaceous, cellulosic and plastic wastes) with or without oxidant (H(2)O(2)). Organic acids such as acetic, formic, propionic, succinic and lactic acids were obtained in significant amounts. At 623 K (16.5 MPa), acetic acid of about 26 mg/g dry waste fish entrails was obtained. This increased to 42 mg/g dry waste fish entrails in the presence of H(2)O(2). Experiments on glucose to represent cellulosic wastes were also carried out, getting acetic acid of about 29 mg/g glucose. The study was extended to terephthalic acid and glyceraldehyde, reaction intermediates of hydrothermal treatment of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic wastes and glucose, respectively. In addition, production of lactic acid, one of the interesting low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids, was discussed on the viewpoint of resources recovery. Studies on temperature dependence of formation of organic acids showed thermal stability of acetic acid, whereas, formic acid decomposed readily under hydrothermal conditions. In general, results demonstrated that the presence of oxidants favored formation of organic acids with acetic acid being the major product. PMID:12117467

Quitain, Armando T; Faisal, Muhammad; Kang, Kilyoon; Daimon, Hiroyuki; Fujie, Koichi

2002-07-22

 
 
 
 
241

The Dynamics of the Treatment-enhancement Distinction: ADHD as a Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A central issue in the ethical debate on psychopharmacological enhancers concerns the distinction between therapy and enhancement. Although from a theoretical point of view it is difficult to make a clear-cut distinction between treatment (of disease on the one hand, and enhancement (of normal functioning on the other, in medical practice and policy debates the counter-positioning of therapy to enhancement is clearly at work. Especially pharmaceutical companies have an interest in occupying the "grey" area between normal and abnormal, treatment and enhancement. This article discusses the dynamics of the treatment-enhancement distinction, and argues that practices that could be labelled "enhancement" can also be understood in terms of medicalisation and "disease mongering". The argument is supported by results from a qualitative empirical study into the experiences and opinions of adults diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. Patients are ambivalent about how to understand ADHD: as a disease, a disorder or a normal variation. Intervention with psychopharmacological means can also be understood in different ways. From an insider perspective it is conceived of as a "normalising" of functioning, whereas from an outsider perspective it can be understood as medicalisation of underperformance, or indeed as performance enhancement. This draws attention to new moral issues which are important but under-recognised in the enhancement debate, and which are related to medicalisation.

Maartje Schermer

2007-01-01

242

Transgenic tomato plants overexpressing tyramine N-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase exhibit elevated hydroxycinnamic acid amide levels and enhanced resistance to Pseudomonas syringae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydroxycinnamic acid amides (HCAA) are secondary metabolites involved in plant development and defense that have been widely reported throughout the plant kingdom. These phenolics show antioxidant, antiviral, antibacterial, and antifungal activities. Hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:tyramine N-hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (THT) is the key enzyme in HCAA synthesis and is induced in response to pathogen infection, wounding, or elicitor treatments, preceding HCAA accumulation. We have engineered transgenic tomato plants overexpressing tomato THT. These plants displayed an enhanced THT gene expression in leaves as compared with wild type (WT) plants. Consequently, leaves of THT-overexpressing plants showed a higher constitutive accumulation of the amide coumaroyltyramine (CT). Similar results were found in flowers and fruits. Moreover, feruloyltyramine (FT) also accumulated in these tissues, being present at higher levels in transgenic plants. Accumulation of CT, FT and octopamine, and noradrenaline HCAA in response to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato infection was higher in transgenic plants than in the WT plants. Transgenic plants showed an enhanced resistance to the bacterial infection. In addition, this HCAA accumulation was accompanied by an increase in salicylic acid levels and pathogenesis-related gene induction. Taken together, these results suggest that HCAA may play an important role in the defense of tomato plants against P. syringae infection. PMID:25014592

Campos, Laura; Lisón, Purificación; López-Gresa, María Pilar; Rodrigo, Ismael; Zacarés, Laura; Conejero, Vicente; Bellés, José María

2014-10-01

243

Enhancement of root hydraulic conductivity by methyl jasmonate and the role of calcium and abscisic acid in this process.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of jasmonic acid in the induction of stomatal closure is well known. However, its role in regulating root hydraulic conductivity (L) has not yet been explored. The objectives of the present research were to evaluate how JA regulates L and how calcium and abscisic acid (ABA) could be involved in such regulation. We found that exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) increased L of Phaseolus vulgaris, Solanum lycopersicum and Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Tomato plants defective in JA biosynthesis had lower values of L than wild-type plants, and that L was restored by addition of MeJA. The increase of L by MeJA was accompanied by an increase of the phosphorylation state of the aquaporin PIP2. We observed that MeJA addition increased the concentration of cytosolic calcium and that calcium channel blockers inhibited the rise of L caused by MeJA. Treatment with fluoridone, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis, partially inhibited the increase of L caused by MeJA, and tomato plants defective in ABA biosynthesis increased their L after application of MeJA. It is concluded that JA enhances L and that this enhancement is linked to calcium and ABA dependent and independent signalling pathways. PMID:24131347

Sánchez-Romera, Beatriz; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel; Li, Guowei; Luu, Doan-Trung; Martínez-Ballesta, Maria del Carmen; Carvajal, Micaela; Zamarreño, Angel María; García-Mina, Jose María; Maurel, Christophe; Aroca, Ricardo

2014-04-01

244

Leveraging technology to enhance addiction treatment and recovery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Technology such as the Internet and mobile phones offers considerable promise for affecting the assessment, prevention, and treatment of and recovery from substance use disorders. Technology may enable entirely new models of behavioral health care within and outside of formal systems of care. This article reviews the promise of technology-based therapeutic tools for affecting the quality and reach of addiction treatment and recovery support systems, as well as the empirical support to date for this approach. Potential models for implementing technology-based interventions targeting substance use disorders are described. Opportunities to optimize the effectiveness and impact of technology-based interventions targeting addiction and recovery, along with outstanding research needs, are discussed. PMID:22873192

Marsch, Lisa A

2012-01-01

245

Optimizing treatment parameters for enhanced hydrocarbon production by hydraulic fracturing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An integrated model to optimize hydraulic fracturing of tight gas formation in terms of a set of design variables and a versatile design objective function is presented. The design integrates reservoir properties, operational limitations, fracture growth control requirements, reservoir production behaviour, and investment-return cash flow behaviour in deciding the optimum values of various treatment parameters. The model is capable of formulating an explicit option and satisfy constraints so that the designed treatments become formation-compatible, thus avoiding uncontrolled fracture growth and excessive fluid loss. The robustness of the model in relation to tight gas formation is demonstrated and the benefits of multi-objective-trade-off analysis in decision-making are highlighted. 28 refs., 5 tabs., 12 figs.

Rahman, M. M. [Adelaide Univ., (Australia); Rahman, M. K. [Western Australian Univ., (Australia); Rahman, S. S. [New South Wales Univ., (Australia)

2003-06-01

246

Oil production enhancement through a standardized brine treatment. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to permit the environmentally safe discharge of brines produced from oil wells in Pennsylvania to the surface waters of the Commonwealth and to rapidly brings as many wells as possible into compliance with the law, the Pennsylvania Oil and Gas Association (POGAM) approached the Pennsylvania State University to develop a program designed to demonstrate that a treatment process to meet acceptable discharge conditions and effluent limitations can be standardized for all potential stripper wells brine discharge. After the initial studies, the first phase of this project was initiated. A bench-scale prototype model was developed for conducting experiments in laboratory conditions. The experiments pursued in the laboratory conditions were focused on the removal of ferrous iron from synthetically made brine. Iron was selected as the primary heavy metals for studying the efficiency of the treatment process. The results of a number of experiments in the lab were indicative of the capability of the proposed brine treatment process in the removal of iron. Concurrent with the laboratory experiments, a comprehensive and extensive kinetic study was initiated. This study was necessary to provide the required data base for process modeling. This study included the investigation of the critical pH as well as the rate and order of reactions of the studied elements: aluminum, lead, zinc, and copper. In the second phase of this project, a field-based prototype was developed to evaluate and demonstrate the treatment process effectiveness. These experiments were conducted under various conditions and included the testing on five brines from different locations with various dissolved constituents. The outcome of this research has been a software package, currently based on iron`s reactivity, to be used for design purposes. The developed computer program was refined as far as possible using the results from laboratory and field experiments.

Adewumi, A.; Watson, R.; Tian, S.; Safargar, S.; Heckman, S.; Drielinger, I.

1995-08-01

247

Ion beam surface treatment: A new capability for surface enhancement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The emerging capability to produce high average power (5--350 kW) pulsed ion beams at 0.2--2 MeV energies is enabling the authors to develop a new, commercial-scale thermal surface treatment technology called Ion Beam Surface Treatment (IBEST). This new technique uses high energy, pulsed (?250 ns) ion beams to directly deposit energy in the top 2--20 micrometers of the surface of any material. The depth of treatment is controllable by varying the ion energy and species. Deposition of the energy with short pulses in a thin surface layer allows melting of the layer with relatively small energies and allows rapid cooling of the melted layer by thermal diffusion into the underlying substrate. Typical cooling rates of this process (109--1010 K/sec) cause rapid resolidification, resulting in the production of non-equilibrium microstructures (nano-crystalline and metastable phases) that have significantly improved corrosion, wear, and hardness properties. The authors conducted IBEST feasibility experiments with results confirming surface hardening, noncrystalline grain formation, metal surface polishing, controlled melt of ceramic surfaces, and surface cleaning using pulsed ion beams

248

Essential amino acid and carbohydrate ingestion before resistance exercise does not enhance postexercise muscle protein synthesis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ingestion of an essential amino acid-carbohydrate (EAA + CHO) solution following resistance exercise enhances muscle protein synthesis during postexercise recovery. It is unclear whether EAA + CHO ingestion before resistance exercise can improve direct measures of postexercise muscle protein synthesis (fractional synthetic rate; FSR). We hypothesized that EAA + CHO ingestion before a bout of resistance exercise would prevent the exercise-induced decrease in muscle FSR and would result in an e...

Fujita, Satoshi; Dreyer, Hans C.; Drummond, Micah J.; Glynn, Erin L.; Volpi, Elena; Rasmussen, Blake B.

2009-01-01

249

HIV-1 Enhancing Effect of Prostatic Acid Phosphatase Peptides Is Reduced in Human Seminal Plasma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We recently reported that HIV-1 infection can be inhibited by innate antimicrobial components of human seminal plasma (SP). Conversely, naturally occurring peptidic fragments from the SP-derived prostatic acid phosphatase ( PAP) have been reported to form amyloid fibrils called "SEVI'' and enhance HIV-1 infection in vitro. In order to understand the biological consequence of this proviral effect, we extended these studies in the presence of human SP. PAP-derived peptides were agi...

Martellini, Julie A.; Cole, Amy L.; Svoboda, Pavel; Stuchlik, Olga; Chen, Li-mei; Chai, Karl X.; Gangrade, Bhushan K.; Sørensen, Ole E.; Pohl, Jan; Cole, Alexander M.

2011-01-01

250

The Effects of Different Acid Treatment and Stratification Duration on Germination of Cercis siliquastrum L. Seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the effects of acid (H2SO4 treatment and moist stratification duration on the properties of seed coat, germination rate and duration of the Cercis siliquastrum L. were investigated. The rupture force and firmness of seed coat decrease during the acid treatment and moist stratification, stratification was for more than 30 minutes of these applications. Up to this treatment, rupture force and firmness were highly decreased. Contrary to this decrease, the germination rate was increased. The decrease in rupture force and firmness of seed coat were changed limitedly after 45 minutes and over acid treatments. From the results of this study, we conclude that eight weeks of moist stratification duration was optimal after 30 minutes of acid treatment to remove the physical and physiological dormancy of the seeds of the C. siliquastrum L.

Halil ÜNAL

2010-06-01

251

CHF enhancement in flow boiling system with TSP and boric acid solutions under atmospheric pressure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In several studies, it was demonstrated that surfactant affects the heat transfer with the change of fluid property related with bubble formation and behavior due to the decrease of surface tension. G. Hetsroni et al. showed in their experiments with Habon G surfactant that the heat transfer of the boiling process is enhanced considerably by the addition of a small amount of surfactant. It was also experimented by Rozenblit et al. on how flow changes in surfactant solution. It showed that gas bubbles in air-water solution with surfactant are smaller in size but much larger in number than in pure air-water mixture, at all flow regimes. In recent, an experiment was performed by Jeong et al. which was on flow boiling CHF enhancement with TSP surfactant solutions under atmospheric pressure in SS316 circular tube. It was represented that the addition of TSP surfactant helps to increase wettability by reducing surface tension and the increment is vary with the concentration of TSP, mass flux, and subcooling. Tri-sodium phosphate (TSP, Na3PO4·12H2O) and boric acid (H3BO3) are used in nuclear power plant for maintaining high pH level during accidents. It is noticed that boric acid concentration is about 2000 ppm at normal condition and about 4000 ppm in IRWST. In this study, the variation of the CHF is observed in water with TSP or boric acid at circular tube of flow boiling water system under atmospheric pressure. Same procedure of the experiment is performed on several concentrations of TSP or boric acid, and it was shown that TSP and boric acid are effective for the CHF enhancement from the results of the experiment

252

ENHANCING SOLUBILITY AND DISSOLUTION OF MEFENAMIC ACID BY FREEZE DRYING USING ?-CYCLODEXTRIN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mefenamic acid, an anti-inflammatory drug, exhibits poor water solubility, dissolution and flow properties. Thus, the aim of the present study was to improve the solubility and dissolution rate of Mefenamic acid by preparing microparticle by Freeze drying technique. Mefenamic acid microparticle containing different ratio of ?-cyclodextrin were produced by Freeze drying using water and Isopropyl alcohol as solvent system to enhance solubility and dissolution rate. The prepared formulations containing different ratio of drug and polymer were evaluated for in vitro dissolution and solubility. The prepared formulations were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimeter, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Dissolution profile of the Freeze dried microparticle was compared with its physical mixture and pure sample. Freeze dried microparticle exhibited decreased crystallinity and the solubility and dissolution of the microparticle containing different ratio of drug and ?-cyclodextrin were significant improved compared with its physical mixture and pure sample of Mefenamic acid. Dissolution of microparticle containing 1:3 w/w (FD 3 showed higher % release i.e. 98.6 % in 60 min compare to other formulation. Consequently, hence, from the above result it can be conclude that Freeze dried microparticle of Mefenamic acid is a useful technique to improve the solubility and dissolution of poorly water soluble drug like Mefenamic acid.

Dixit Mudit

2011-09-01

253

Investigation of enhancement of solubility of norfloxacin beta-cyclodextrin in presence of acidic solubilizing additives.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study is aimed at improving the solubility of a poorly water-soluble drug, norfloxacin by incorporating solubilizing additives such as ascorbic acid and citric acid into the beta-cyclodextrin complexes. Norfloxacin, being amphoteric in nature, exhibits a higher solubility at pH below 4 and above 8. Addition of substances like ascorbic acid and citric acid in beta-cyclodextrin complexes reduces the pH of the immediate microenvironment of the drug below pH 4. In the present work, beta-cyclodextrin complexes of norfloxacin were prepared along with solubilizing additives such as citric acid and ascorbic acid in various proportion and the dissolution profile was performed in both HCl buffer, pH 1.2 and phosphate buffer, pH 7.4. The results have shown an enhanced dissolution rate in both media. DSC and IR spectral studies performed on the solid complexes have shown that there is no interaction of the drug with the additives and beta-cyclodextrin. Disc diffusion studies have shown larger diameters of zone of inhibition indicating a greater diffusivity of the drug into the agar medium. PMID:17269914

Dua, Kamal; Ramana, M V; Sara, U V Singh; Himaja, M; Agrawal, Abhinav; Garg, Vaibhav; Pabreja, Kavita

2007-01-01

254

[The investigation of humic acid by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy].  

Science.gov (United States)

Humic acid (HA), which are organic compounds widely existing in the oceans, rivers and soil, has important significance for the environmental monitoring of soil and water. In this paper, ai ming at the problem of Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) applying for HA detection in water, the characteristics of the humic acid on silver colloids was studied by means of SERS. The influence of laser irradiation time, HA concentrations and pH value on the surface-enhanced effects of HA were investigated. The experimental results show that the SERS spectra of HA is ideal when the laser irradiation time between 20-30 min. The SERS of different HA concentrations was detected. It was found that the relative intensity at 1 379 cm(-1) increased as a linear function of the concentration of HA with correlation coefficient R2 of 0.993. The SERS of HA was found to be very sensitive to pH, the SERS spectra of HA was very weak at neutral pH, but at acidic pH and alkaline pH a remarkable increase of SERS intensity occurred. The SERS of HA in running water was detected too. The experimental results show that it is feasible to detect HA in natural water by means of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. PMID:23905329

Zhang, Wen-Juan; Li, Ying; Guo, Jin-Jia; Xiao, Qiong; Yu, Li

2013-05-01

255

A Dysfunctional Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Enhances Fitness of Staphylococcus epidermidis During ?-Lactam Stress  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT A recent controversial hypothesis suggested that the bactericidal action of antibiotics is due to the generation of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS), a process requiring the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid [TCA] cycle). To test this hypothesis, we assessed the ability of oxacillin to induce ROS production and cell death in Staphylococcus epidermidis strain 1457 and an isogenic citric acid cycle mutant. Our results confirm a contributory role for TCA-dependent ROS in enhancing susceptibility of S. epidermidis toward ?-lactam antibiotics and also revealed a propensity for clinical isolates to accumulate TCA cycle dysfunctions presumably as a way to tolerate these antibiotics. The increased protection from ?-lactam antibiotics could result from pleiotropic effects of a dysfunctional TCA cycle, including increased resistance to oxidative stress, reduced susceptibility to autolysis, and a more positively charged cell surface. PMID:23963176

Chittezham Thomas, Vinai; Kinkead, Lauren C.; Janssen, Ashley; Schaeffer, Carolyn R.; Woods, Keith M.; Lindgren, Jill K.; Peaster, Jonathan M.; Chaudhari, Sujata S.; Sadykov, Marat; Jones, Joselyn; Mohamadi AbdelGhani, Sameh M.; Zimmerman, Matthew C.; Bayles, Kenneth W.; Somerville, Greg A.; Fey, Paul D.

2013-01-01

256

ENHANCED MOBILITY OF DENSE NONAQUEOUS-PHASE LIQUIDS (DNAPLs) USING DISSOLVED HUMIC ACIDS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The specific objectives of this subtask are as follows: ? Evaluate the suitability of using humic acids to enhance the solubility and mobility of DNAPL contaminants sorbed to soils. ? Evaluate the toxicity and bioavailablity of the DNAPLs to biodegrading microorganisms. To meet the first objective, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) evaluated a set of humic acids (two) with different chemical compositions and polarities for the following: ? Ability of the humates to mobilize/solubilize selected (three) DNAPLs ? Mobilization/solubilization in batch soil?water experiments (one soil) ? Removal rate via biotreatment with a well-established active microbial culture. The second objective was met by evaluating the inhibiting effects of a leonardite-derived humic acid on active microbial populations.

EDWIN S. OLSON; JOHN R. GALLAGHER; MARC D. KURZ

1998-10-01

257

Target specific hyaluronic acid-interferon alpha conjugate for the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interferon alpha (IFN?) conjugated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been widely used for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection as a once-a-week injection formulation. However, the PEGylated IFN? has a low efficacy of ca. 39% and a side effect after repeated injections possibly due to the non-specific delivery with PEGylation. In this work, target specific long-acting hyaluronic acid-interferon alpha (HA-IFN?) conjugate was successfully developed for the treatment of HCV infection. HA-IFN? conjugate was synthesized by coupling reaction between aldehyde modified HA and the N-terminal group of IFN?. The IFN? content could be controlled in the range of 2-9 molecules per single HA chain with a bioconjugation efficiency higher than 95%. According to in vitro anti-proliferation assay using Daudi cells, HA-IFN? conjugate showed a comparable biological activity to PEG-Intron. In vivo real-time bioimaging confirmed the target specific delivery of near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) dye labeled HA-IFN? conjugate to the liver in mice. In addition, pharmacokinetic analysis revealed the enhanced residence time longer than 4 days. After tail-vein injection, HA-IFN? conjugate induced ca. 60% higher expression of 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS 1) for innate immune responses to viral infection in the murine liver tissues than IFN? and PEG-Intron. PMID:21872329

Yang, Jeong-A; Park, Kitae; Jung, Hyuntae; Kim, Hyemin; Hong, Sung Woo; Yoon, Seung Kew; Hahn, Sei Kwang

2011-11-01

258

Gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid enhanced magnetic resonance imagings in cardiomyopathic hamsters. Histopathologic correlation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the significance of gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, the findings were correlated with histopathological findings in cardiomyopathic hamsters (Bio 14.6). In hamsters given 1 mBq of Gd-DTPA, autoradiography revealed uptake of Gd-DTPA corresponding to the fibrotic tissue. According to the degree of fibrosis and inflammation, the tissue was graded into three. The ratio of contrast enhancement in the fibrotic area to that in the normal area was significantly higher in grade 1 than grades 2 and 3, and in grade 2 than grade 3. Next, hamsters in various age groups were given 0.2 mmol/kg intravenously. In the age group of 2-5 month, contrast enhancement was homogeneously observed in the entire myocardium. In the age group of 8-10 years, it was entirely observed, partly with heterogeneous enhancement. In the age group of 11-12 years, contrast enhancement was not different from that in the normal hamsters. Histological examination revealed that fibrosis changed from grade 1 through grade 3 with advancing age. In conclusion, MR imaging for myocardiopathy showed signal intensity reflecting the fibrotic tissue. Contrast enhancement of MR imaging was stronger when much more inflammatory cells were involved and fibrotic tissues were filled with much more blood vessels. Thus MR imaging may be a promising tool for evaluating the severity of myocardiopathy. (N.K.)

259

Imaging features of small hepatocellular carcinomas with microvascular invasion on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objectives: Detection of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) before microvascular invasion (MVI) occurs is important due to the poor outcomes associated with MVI. We retrospectively investigated the imaging features of small HCCs with MVI on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging. Methods: Fifty patients (40 men and 10 women; mean age, 54 years) with 58 surgically proven small (2 cm or less) HCCs were evaluated by gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI. Signal intensities on imaging sequences and the presence of the typical dynamic enhancement pattern (arterial enhancement and washout) were assessed. Fisher's exact tests were performed to evaluate the relationships between the presence of MVI, tumor size, and imaging findings. Results: None of the 12 small HCCs with diameters of 1 cm or less had MVI, while 15 (33%) of the 46 small HCCs with diameters of 1.1–2.0 cm had MVI (p = 0.025, Fisher's exact test). Among the small HCCs with diameters of 1.1–2.0 cm, all HCCs with MVI showed the typical dynamic pattern and hyperintensity on T2- and diffusion-weighted images. Most HCCs (54 lesions, 93%) were hypointense on hepatobiliary phase images regardless of the presence of MVI. Conclusions: All small HCCs with MVI showed typical dynamic pattern and hyperintensity on T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted images, while atypical dynamic pattern and size of less than 1 cm in diameter may suggest absence of MVI

260

Phosphorus removal by acid mine drainage sludge from secondary effluents of municipal wastewater treatment plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acid mine drainage (AMD) sludge, a waste product from coal mine water treatment, was used in this study as an adsorbent to develop a cost-effective treatment approach to phosphorus removal from municipal secondary effluents. Batch tests were carried out to study the effects of pH, temperature, concentration, and contact time for phosphorus removal from wastewater. Batch tests were followed by continuous flow tests using a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Adsorption of orthophosphate onto AMD sludge particles followed the Freundlich isotherm model with an adsorption capacity ranging from 9.89 to 31.97 mg/g when the final effluent concentration increased from 0.21 to 13.61 mg P/L. P adsorption was found to be a rather rapid process and neutral or acidic pH enhanced phosphorus removal. Based on a thermodynamic assessment, P adsorption by AMD sludge was found to be endothermic; consequently, an increase in temperature could also favor phosphorus adsorption. Results from batch tests showed that leaching of metals common to AMD sludges was not likely to be a major issue of concern over the typical pH range (6-8) of secondary wastewater effluents. CSTR tests with three types of water (synthetic wastewater, river water, and municipal secondary effluent) illustrated that P adsorption by AMD sludge was relatively independent of the presence of other ionic species. In treating municipal secondary effluent, a phosphorus removal efficiency in excess of 98% was obtained. Results of this study indicated that it was very promising to utilize AMD sludge for phosphorus removal from secondary effluents and may be relevant to future efforts focused on the control of eutrophication in surface waters. PMID:18490048

Wei, Xinchao; Viadero, Roger C; Bhojappa, Shilpa

2008-07-01

 
 
 
 
261

Omega-3 free fatty acids suppress macrophage inflammasome activation by inhibiting NF-?B activation and enhancing autophagy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The omega-3 (?3) fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can suppress inflammation, specifically IL-1? production through poorly understood molecular mechanisms. Here, we show that DHA reduces macrophage IL-1? production by limiting inflammasome activation. Exposure to DHA reduced IL-1? production by ligands that stimulate the NLRP3, AIM2, and NAIP5/NLRC4 inflammasomes. The inhibition required Free Fatty Acid Receptor (FFAR) 4 (also known as GPR120), a G-protein coupled receptor (GPR) known to bind DHA. The exposure of cells to DHA recruited the adapter protein ?-arrestin1/2 to FFAR4, but not to a related lipid receptor. DHA treatment reduced the initial inflammasome priming step by suppressing the nuclear translocation of NF-?B. DHA also reduced IL-1? levels by enhancing autophagy in the cells. As a consequence macrophages derived from mice lacking the essential autophagy protein ATG7 were partially resistant to suppressive effects of DHA. Thus, DHA suppresses inflammasome activation by two distinct mechanisms, inhibiting the initial priming step and by augmenting autophagy, which limits inflammasome activity. PMID:24911523

Williams-Bey, Yolanda; Boularan, Cedric; Vural, Ali; Huang, Ning-Na; Hwang, Il-Young; Shan-Shi, Chong; Kehrl, John H

2014-01-01

262

Omega-3 Free Fatty Acids Suppress Macrophage Inflammasome Activation by Inhibiting NF-?B Activation and Enhancing Autophagy  

Science.gov (United States)

The omega-3 (?3) fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can suppress inflammation, specifically IL-1? production through poorly understood molecular mechanisms. Here, we show that DHA reduces macrophage IL-1? production by limiting inflammasome activation. Exposure to DHA reduced IL-1? production by ligands that stimulate the NLRP3, AIM2, and NAIP5/NLRC4 inflammasomes. The inhibition required Free Fatty Acid Receptor (FFAR) 4 (also known as GPR120), a G-protein coupled receptor (GPR) known to bind DHA. The exposure of cells to DHA recruited the adapter protein ?-arrestin1/2 to FFAR4, but not to a related lipid receptor. DHA treatment reduced the initial inflammasome priming step by suppressing the nuclear translocation of NF-?B. DHA also reduced IL-1? levels by enhancing autophagy in the cells. As a consequence macrophages derived from mice lacking the essential autophagy protein ATG7 were partially resistant to suppressive effects of DHA. Thus, DHA suppresses inflammasome activation by two distinct mechanisms, inhibiting the initial priming step and by augmenting autophagy, which limits inflammasome activity. PMID:24911523

Williams-Bey, Yolanda; Boularan, Cedric; Vural, Ali; Huang, Ning-Na; Hwang, Il-Young; Shan-Shi, Chong; Kehrl, John H.

2014-01-01

263

Biotechnological production of xylitol: enhancement of monosaccharide production by post-hydrolysis of dilute acid sugarcane hydrolysate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dilute-acid hydrolysis pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse resulted in release of 48% (18.4 g/L) of the xylan in the hemicellulose fraction into the hydrolysate as monomeric xylose. In order to enhance the recuperation of this monomer, a post-hydrolysis stage consisted of thermal treatment was carried out. This treatment resulted in an increase in xylose release of 62% (23.5 g/L) of the hemicellulose fraction. Original and post-hydrolysates were concentrated to the same levels of monomeric xylose in the fermentor feed. During the fermentation process, cellular growth was observed to be higher in the post-hydrolysate (3.5 g/L, Y(x/s) = 0.075 g cells/g xylose) than in the original hydrolysate (2.9 g/L, Y(x/s) = 0.068 g cells/g xylose). The post-treated hydrolysate required less concentration of sugars resulting in a lower concentration of fermentation inhibitors, which were formed primarily in the dilute acid hydrolysis step. Post-hydrolysis step led to a high xylose-xylitol conversion efficiency of 76% (0.7 g xylitol/g xylose) and volumetric productivity of 0.68 g xylitol/L h when compared to 71% (0.65 g xylitol/g xylose and productivity of 0.61 g xylitol/L h) for the original hemicellulosic hydrolysate. PMID:19214792

Sarrouh, Boutros Fouad; de Freitas Branco, Ricardo; da Silva, Silvio Silvério

2009-05-01

264

Acid pre-treatment method for in situ ore leaching  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An acid leaching method is described for the recovery of a desired element from a subterranean rubblized body of primary ore containing the element and also having associated therewith a carbonate mineral wherein the rubblized ore body is flooded with an aqueous acidic solution in order to release carbon dioxide from the associated carbonate mineral. After a substantial portion of the available carbon dioxide is released and removed from the ore body, as by venting to the atmosphere, an oxidizing gas is introduced into the flooded, rubblized ore to oxidize the ore and form an acid leach solution effective in the presence of the dissolved oxidizing gas to dissolve the ore and cause the desired element to go into solution. The leach solution is then circulated to the surface where the metal values are recovered therefrom

265

[FTIR, FT-Raman and surface enhanced Raman study of shikimic acid].  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors reported the FT-infrared, and FT-Raman spectra of shikimic acid in solid state and in saturated liquid state in the present article. The vibrational peaks of each group in the molecular structure of shikimic acid were obtained and assigned, and furthermore, the Raman and IR vibrational shifts of the corresponding groups in the molecular structure of shikimic acid were analyzed and speculated especially. As shikimic acid mixed with silver nanoparticle the SERS-active substrate, and was adsorbed on the surface of the silver nanoparticle, we also obtained the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of shikimic acid at different concentrations from 1.0 x 10(-1) to 1.0 x 10(-5) mol x L(-1), further more the adsorption state and the adsorption characteristics of shikimic acid, adsorbed on the surface of the silver nanoparticle, were studied and speculated with the SERS method and the surface selective rule together. Strong Raman signals were detected in the experiments and each group's vibrations in the molecular structure of shikimic acid were resolved with the combination of FT-infrared and FT-Raman spectroscopy. From the experiment data, the ideal optimized concentrations range is lower than 1 x 10(-3) mol x L, among which we could obtain better SERS spectra. Still, the experimental results suggested that the groups in the molecule structure of shikimic acid, such as COO-, OH-, CH2 and so on, can interact and be absorbed tightly with the surface of silver nanoparticle, and this interaction and absorption were mainly through the SERS charge transfer process mechanism of hydroxyl and carboxyl, and SERS electromagnetic process mechanism of methylene and hypomethyl together with the surface of silver nanopartical. The vibrations of alkene's C=C bond on the ring of cyclohexene in the molecule structure of shikimic showed no obvious enhancement in SERS spectra, which indicated that alkene's C=C bond on the ring of cyclohexene in the molecule structure of shikimic acid had no effective interaction and adsorption on the surface of silver nanoparticle according to the surface selective rule. PMID:18844160

Yu, Dan-Ni; Zhou, Guang-Ming; Li, Si; Yang, Da-Cheng

2008-07-01

266

Enhanced conductivity of aluminum doped ZnO films by hydrogen plasma treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films prepared by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering at various RF power were treated by hydrogen plasma to enhance the characteristics for transparent electrode applications. The hydrogen plasma treatment was carried out at 300 oC in a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that all AZO films have a (002) preferred orientation and film crystallinity seems no significant change after plasma treatment. The plasma treatment not only significantly decreases film resistivity but enhances electrical stability as aging in air ambient. The improved electrical properties are due to desorption of weakly bonded oxygen species, formation of Zn-H type species and passivation of deep-level defects during plasma treatment.

267

Operational Lessons Learned During Bioreactor Demonstrations for Acid Rock Drainage Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) has emphasized the development of biologically-based treatment technologies for acid rock drainage (ARD). Progressively evolving technology demonstrations have resulted in significant advances in sul...

268

Operational Lessons Leaned During bioreactor Demonstrations for Acid Rock Drainage Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) has emphasized the development of biologically-based treatment technologies for acid rock drainage (ARD). Progressively evolving technology demonstrations have resulted in significant advances in sulf...

269

Anacardic acid enhances the anticancer activity of liposomal mitoxantrone towards melanoma cell lines – in vitro studies  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes a novel formulation of antineoplastic drug: mitoxantrone loaded into liposomal carriers enriched with encapsulated anacardic acid in the liposomal bilayer using a vitamin C gradient. Anacardic acid is a potent epigenetic agent with anticancer activity. This is the first liposomal formulation to combine an actively encapsulated drug and anacardic acid. The liposomes were characterized in terms of basic parameters, such as size, zeta potential, optimal drug-to-lipid ratio, loading time and temperature, and stability at 4°C and in human plasma in vitro. The formulation was found to be stable, and the loading process was rapid and efficient (drug-to-lipid ratio of up to 0.3 with over 90% efficiency in 5 minutes). The cytotoxicity of these formulations was assessed using the human melanoma cell lines A375 and Hs294T and the normal human dermal fibroblast line. The results showed that anacardic acid and to a smaller extent vitamin C significantly increased the cytotoxicity of the drug towards melanoma compared to ammonium sulfate liposomes. On the other hand, vitamin C and anacardic acid both protected normal cells from damage caused by the drug. The formulation combining anacardic acid, vitamin C, and mitoxantrone showed promising results in terms of cytotoxicity and cytoprotection. Therefore, it has potential for anticancer treatment. PMID:24489469

Legut, Mateusz; Lipka, Dominik; Filipczak, Nina; Piwoni, Adriana; Kozubek, Arkadiusz; Gubernator, Jerzy

2014-01-01

270

MODULAR FIELD-BIOREACTOR FOR ACID MINE DRAINAGE TREATMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

The presentation focuses on the improvements to engineered features of a passive technology that has been used for remediation of acid rock drainage (ARD). This passive remedial technology, a sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) bioreactor, takes advantage of the ability of SRB that,...

271

Supplementation With Highly Purified Docosahexaenoic Acid Ethyl Ester Was Associated With Enhancement of Hepatic Fatty Acid Oxidation and Greater Apparent Absorption of Docosahexaenoic Acid in Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fish oil-derived fatty acid ethyl ester (EE has been widely utilized as a supplement in Europe and United States. However, few studies have assessed the apparent absorption of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA between non-purified DHA-EE (L-DHAEE and highly purified DHA-EE (H-DHAEE. This study evaluated the effects of L-DHAEE and H-DHAEE on lipid metabolism and apparent absorption of DHA in rats. Groups of male Wistar rats were fed AIN93G diet containing 2.8% L-DHAEE or 1.0% H-DHAEE for 4 or 8 weeks. As parameters of lipid metabolism and apparent absorption of DHA-EE, serum and liver lipid contents, fecal EE excretion, lipid-metabolizing enzyme activities, and organ fatty acid composition were measured. The L-DHAEE diet increased fecal DHA-EE and total EE excretion compared with the H-DHAEE diet. In rats fed DHA-EE for 4 weeks, H-DHAEE was more efficacious than L-DHAEE at increasing liver DHA content, partly owing to the enhancement of apparent absorption. In addition, rats fed the H-DHAEE diet had higher fatty acid ?-oxidation activity in peroxisomes than rats fed the L-DHAEE diet for 8 weeks. These results suggest that H-DHAEE supplementation may have beneficial functions in the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases as compared with L-DHAEE supplementation.

Kenji Fukunaga

2013-07-01

272

Regeneration of spent hydrodesulfurization catalysts employing presulfiding treatment and heteropoly acids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The removal of metals, especially vanadium, from spent hydrofining catalyst is accomplished by a two-step process. Treatment with a gaseous sulfur-containing reagent brings the metals to the surface of the catalyst and converts them to sulfides, which are then efficiently removed by contact with a heteropoly acid such as molybdophosphoric acid. Treatment of deactivated hydrodesulfurization catalysts such as Co-Mo supported on alumina by this process results in substantially complete regeneration of catalytic activity.

Mohan, R. R.; Silbernagel, B. G.; Singhal, G. H.

1981-06-09

273

Anacardic acid enhances the anticancer activity of liposomal mitoxantrone towards melanoma cell lines – in vitro studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mateusz Legut, Dominik Lipka, Nina Filipczak, Adriana Piwoni, Arkadiusz Kozubek, Jerzy GubernatorDepartment of Lipids and Liposomes, Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Wroc?aw, Wroc?aw, PolandAbstract: This paper describes a novel formulation of antineoplastic drug: mitoxantrone loaded into liposomal carriers enriched with encapsulated anacardic acid in the liposomal bilayer using a vitamin C gradient. Anacardic acid is a potent epigenetic agent with anticancer activity. This is the first liposomal formulation to combine an actively encapsulated drug and anacardic acid. The liposomes were characterized in terms of basic parameters, such as size, zeta potential, optimal drug-to-lipid ratio, loading time and temperature, and stability at 4°C and in human plasma in vitro. The formulation was found to be stable, and the loading process was rapid and efficient (drug-to-lipid ratio of up to 0.3 with over 90% efficiency in 5 minutes. The cytotoxicity of these formulations was assessed using the human melanoma cell lines A375 and Hs294T and the normal human dermal fibroblast line. The results showed that anacardic acid and to a smaller extent vitamin C significantly increased the cytotoxicity of the drug towards melanoma compared to ammonium sulfate liposomes. On the other hand, vitamin C and anacardic acid both protected normal cells from damage caused by the drug. The formulation combining anacardic acid, vitamin C, and mitoxantrone showed promising results in terms of cytotoxicity and cytoprotection. Therefore, it has potential for anticancer treatment.Keywords: anacardic acid, vitamin C, ascorbic acid, liposomes, mitoxantrone, melanoma

Legut M

2014-01-01

274

Changes in Growth, Auxin- and Ribonucleic Acid Metabolism in Wheat Coleoptile Sections Following Pulse Treatment with Indole-3-Acetic Acid  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Growth reactions of wbeat coleoptile sections following a brief pretreament in indole-3-acetic acid (LAA) were studied. The growth versus concentration curves 24 hours after the treatment showed a minimum value surrounded by bigber values. The minimum was never at concentrations lower than 10-5M lAA but it could be found at higher concentrations after short pretreatment periods. The growth versus time curves reveated that the hormone treatment cansed the growth rate initially to increase but later on to decrease. The decrease was followed by a second increase for some treatments. Analysis of IAA content after the pretreatment showed that the attered growth patterns could be ascribed to declining auxin content with time, but not to thc actual concentration in the sections. The results indicate that the metabolic activation brought about by IAA leads to its own disappearance. Such a phenomenon was mirroretl in effects of IAA on hte net synthesis of ribonucleic acid.

Truelsen, T.A.; Galston, A.W.

1966-01-01

275

Mechanism for the enhanced peroxidation of linoleic acid by a titanium dioxide/hypochlorite system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nanosized titanium dioxide (TiO?) is a common component of sunscreen preparations and cosmetics as it reflects UV and visible light in accordance to Rayleigh's law. However, in aqueous environments, TiO? is an efficient photocatalyst, producing superoxide O??· and hydroxyl (HO·) radicals, which are highly damaging to biomolecules. We investigated the role of TiO? in promoting the peroxidation of linoleic acid (LA) alone and in the presence of hypochlorous acid (HOCl). TiO? significantly enhanced peroxidation of LA, which was further enhanced in the presence of HOCl. This latter finding involved the formation of singlet molecular oxygen in a Russell-type mechanism appearing to involve preformed lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH). In addition to lipid peroxidation, HOCl also mediated formation of 18:1 monochlorohydrins, which in the presence of TiO? appeared to decompose to kinetic products which supplemented peroxidation of linoleic acid. We present a theoretical mechanism which fits the available experimental data and may partially explain the dichotomy associated with HOCls role in lipid modification. PMID:23178466

McPherson, Peter A C; Boyle, Peter M; Türemen, Bryn T

2013-01-01

276

Oleic acid induces smooth muscle foam cell formation and enhances atherosclerotic lesion development via CD36  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated plasma free fatty acid (FFA levels have been linked to the development of atherosclerosis. However, how FFA causes atherosclerosis has not been determined. Because fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36 is responsible for the uptake of FFA, we hypothesized that the atherogenic effects of FFA may be mediated via CD36. Results We tested this hypothesis using cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs treated with oleic acid (OA. We found that OA induces lipid accumulation in SMCs in a dose dependent manner. Rat aortic SMCs treated for 48 hours with OA (250 ?mol/L became foam cells based on morphological (Oil Red O staining and biochemical (5 times increase in cellular triglyceride criteria. Moreover, specific inhibition of CD36 by sulfo-N-succinimidyl oleate significantly attenuated OA induced lipid accumulation and foam cell formation. To confirm these results in vivo, we used ApoE-deficient mice fed with normal chow (NC, OA diet, NC plus lipolysis inhibitor acipimox or OA plus acipimox. OA-fed mice showed increased plasma FFA levels and enhanced atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic sinus compared to the NC group (both p 5 ?m2 vs. OA plus acipimox: 2.60 ± 0.10 ×105 ?m2, p p Conclusions These findings suggest that OA induces smooth muscle foam cell formation and enhances atherosclerotic lesions in part though CD36. Furthermore, these findings provide a novel model for the investigation of atherosclerosis.

Tang Bing

2011-04-01

277

Poly-?-Glutamate Capsule-Degrading Enzyme Treatment Enhances Phagocytosis and Killing of Encapsulated Bacillus anthracis?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The poly-?-d-glutamic acid capsule confers antiphagocytic properties on Bacillus anthracis and is essential for virulence. In this study, we showed that CapD, a ?-polyglutamic acid depolymerase encoded on the B. anthracis capsule plasmid, degraded purified capsule and removed the capsule from the surface of anthrax bacilli. Treatment with CapD induced macrophage phagocytosis of encapsulated B. anthracis and enabled human neutrophils to kill encapsulated organisms. A second glutamylase, PghP...

Scorpio, Angelo; Chabot, Donald J.; Day, William A.; O Brien, David K.; Vietri, Nicholas J.; Itoh, Yoshifumi; Mohamadzadeh, Mansour; Friedlander, Arthur M.

2007-01-01

278

[Injuries caused by acids and bases - emergency treatment].  

Science.gov (United States)

Emergency medical care for injuries caused by acids and bases is challenging for rescue services. They have to deal with operational safety, detection of the toxic agent, emergency medical care of the patient and handling of the rescue mission. Because of the rareness of such situations experience and routine are largely missing. This article highlights some basic points for the therapy and provides support for such rescue missions. PMID:25004381

Reifferscheid, Florian; Stuhr, Markus; Kaiser, Guido; Freudenberg, Matthias; Kerner, Thoralf

2014-06-01

279

[Enhancing treatment of burn wounds is an important measure for prevention and treatment of complications].  

Science.gov (United States)

Burn wound repair is an eternal issue for burn treatment. Ischemia and hypoxia caused by stress and wound inflammatory reactions to burn injuries are key factors of sepsis and organ complications. Therefore, the treatment of burn wound is not only relevant to repair of burn wound itself; early extensive escharectomy and wound coverage are also important measures for prevention and treatment of complications, such as sepsis and organ dysfunction. Besides the good vital supportive treatment such as circulation maintenance, coverage of open wounds with reliable skin substitutes is also the key point to ensure success of early extensive escharectomy. PMID:25174377

Huang, Yuesheng

2014-06-01

280

The uptake transporter OATP8 expression decreases during multistep hepatocarcinogenesis: correlation with gadoxetic acid enhanced MR imaging  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To clarify the changes in organic anion-transporting polypeptide 8 (OATP8) expression and enhancement ratio on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging in hepatocellular nodules during multistep hepatocarcinogenesis. In imaging analysis, we focused on 71 surgically resected hepatocellular carcinomas (well, moderately and poorly differentiated HCCs) and 1 dysplastic nodule (DN). We examined the enhancement ratio in the hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic acid enhanced MR imaging [(1/postcontrast T1 value-1/precontrast T1 value)/(1/precontrast T1 value)], then analysed the correlation among the enhancement ratio, tumour differentiation grade and intensity of immunohistochemical OATP8 expression. In pathological analysis, we focused on surgically resected 190 hepatocellular nodules: low-grade DNs, high-grade DNs, early HCCs, well-differentiated, moderately differentiated and poorly differentiated HCCs, including cases without gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging. We evaluated the correlation between the immunohistochemical OATP8 expression and the tumour differentiation grade. The enhancement ratio of HCCs decreased in accordance with the decline in tumour differentiation (P < 0.0001, R = 0.28) and with the decline of OATP8 expression (P < 0.0001, R = 0.81). The immunohistochemical OATP8 expression decreased from low-grade DNs to poorly differentiated HCCs (P < 0.0001, R = 0.15). The immunohistochemical expression of OATP8 significantly decreases during multistep hepatocarcinogenesis, which may explain the decrease in enhancement ratio on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging. (orig.)

Kitao, Azusa; Matsui, Osamu; Yoneda, Norihide; Kozaka, Kazuto; Shinmura, Rieko; Koda, Wataru; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Gabata, Toshifumi [Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Department of Radiology, Kanazawa (Japan); Zen, Yoh [Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Human Pathology, Kanazawa (Japan); King' s College Hospital, Institute of Liver Studies, London (United Kingdom); Yamashita, Tatsuya; Kaneko, Shuichi [Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Gastroenterology, Kanazawa (Japan); Nakanuma, Yasuni [Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Human Pathology, Kanazawa (Japan)

2011-10-15

 
 
 
 
281

Transdermal delivery of salicylic acid in the treatment of viral papillomas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Healthy adult (New Zealand, Dutch Belt, and Wild) rabbits were infected with rabbit papilloma virus (Shope variety). The resultant papillomas were treated with salicylic acid in a new transdermal drug delivery system utilizing a karaya gum glycol matrix. Biopsy samples of treated papillomas were taken at 1, 2, and 3 weeks after initiation of treatment and examined by electron microscopy. The observed changes during the course of treatment indicated that the karaya gum glycol matrix effectively released salicylic acid into the stratum corneum. Further, the rate of delivery of salicylic acid was such that the desired keratolytic activity was achieved with minimal inflammatory response. PMID:2463230

Mottaz, J H; McKeever, P J; Neveaux, J L; Zelickson, A S

1988-10-01

282

Effect of electric field treatment on unsaturated fatty acid in crude avocado oil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of the fatty acids in avocado oil when the product is subjected to different conditions of electric field treatment (voltage: 5 kV cm(-1); frequency: 720 Hz; treatment time: 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 min). Fatty acids were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the mid-infrared region. Electric field is a suitable method to preserve the oil quality and composition with minimal modifications in unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:25069856

Ariza-Ortega, José Alberto; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Díaz-Reyes, Joel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly del Socorro

2014-09-01

283

Organic acids enhance bioavailability of tetracycline in water to Escherichia coli for uptake and expression of antibiotic resistance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tetracyclines are a large class of antimicrobials used most extensively in livestock feeding operations. A large portion of tetracyclines administered to livestock is excreted in manure and urine which is collected in waste lagoons. Subsequent land application of these wastes introduces tetracyclines into the soil environment, where they could exert selective pressure for the development of antibiotic resistance genes in bacteria. Tetracyclines form metal-complexes in natural waters, which could reduce their bioavailability for bacterial uptake. We hypothesized that many naturally-occurring organic acids could effectively compete with tetracyclines as ligands for metal cations, hence altering the bioavailability of tetracyclines to bacteria in a manner that could enhance the selective pressure. In this study, we investigated the influence of acetic acid, succinic acid, malonic acid, oxalic acid and citric acid on tetracycline uptake from water by Escherichia coli bioreporter construct containing a tetracycline resistance gene which induces the emission of green fluorescence when activated. The presence of the added organic acid ligands altered tetracycline speciation in a manner that enhanced tetracycline uptake by E. coli. Increased bacterial uptake of tetracycline and concomitant enhanced antibiotic resistance response were quantified, and shown to be positively related to the degree of organic acid ligand complexation of metal cations in the order of citric acid > oxalic acid > malonic acid > succinic acid > acetic acid. The magnitude of the bioresponse increased with increasing aqueous organic acid concentration. Apparent positive relation between intracellular tetracycline concentration and zwitterionic tetracycline species in aqueous solution indicates that (net) neutral tetracycline is the species which most readily enters E. coli cells. Understanding how naturally-occurring organic acid ligands affect tetracycline speciation in solution, and how speciation influences tetracycline uptake by bacteria, allows more accurate assessment of the selective pressure from trace levels of antibiotics in the environment on microbial communities for preserving and developing antibiotic resistance. PMID:25100186

Zhang, Yingjie; Boyd, Stephen A; Teppen, Brian J; Tiedje, James M; Li, Hui

2014-11-15

284

Pharmacological enhancement of exposure-based treatment in PTSD: a qualitative review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a good amount of evidence that exposure therapy is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Notwithstanding its efficacy, there is room for improvement, since a large proportion of patients does not benefit from treatment. Recently, an interesting new direction in the improvement of exposure therapy efficacy for PTSD emerged. Basic research found evidence of the pharmacological enhancement of the underlying learning and memory processes of exposure therapy. The current review aims to give an overview of clinical studies on pharmacological enhancement of exposure-based treatment for PTSD. The working mechanisms, efficacy studies in PTSD patients, and clinical utility of four different pharmacological enhancers will be discussed: D-cycloserine, MDMA, hydrocortisone, and propranolol.

Rianne A. de Kleine

2013-10-01

285

Application of ceramic membranes to SAGD produced water treatment for enhanced recycle and reuse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Drivers for using ceramic membranes in steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) include reduced investment cost; alternative treatment technologies that reduce energy and greenhouse gas emissions; and ceramic membranes can be chemically and steam cleaned. This presentation discussed the application of ceramic membranes to SAGD produced water treatment for enhanced recycle and reuse. The presentation illustrated conventional ceramic membranes as well as surface enhanced membranes and provided background information on oil separation. Other topics that were discussed included issues regarding desalter bottoms de-oiling; challenges in de-oiling oil sands produced water; CeraMem surface enhanced membranes; surface facilities and ceramic membrane opportunities; and water treatment using ceramic membranes. The presentation concluded with a discussion of the application of ceramic membranes to SAGD next steps such as a demonstration test of industrial prototype membranes for de-oiling, and pilot testing of ceramic desilication. tabs., figs.

Minnich, K. [Veolia Water Solutions and Technologies, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

2009-07-01

286

Resveratrol enhances fatty acid oxidation capacity and reduces resistin and Retinol-Binding Protein 4 expression in white adipocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Resveratrol is a naturally occurring polyphenol known to affect energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity in mice and lipogenic gene expression in adipocytes. Here, we sought to get further insight into the impact of resveratrol on adipocyte biology by studying its effects on oxidative metabolism and the expression of the insulin resistance-related adipokines resistin and Retinol-Binding Protein 4 (RBP4) in mature adipocytes. Effects were assessed in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in adipocytes derived from primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF). Besides reducing triacylglycerol content and the mRNA levels of lipogenic genes, resveratrol treatment resulted in both models in increased mRNA levels of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (a rate-limiting enzyme in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation), reduced mRNA levels of receptor interacting protein 140 (a suppressor of oxidative metabolism), and signs of enhanced flux through the fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway. In primary MEF-derived adipocytes, the treatment also increased mitochondrial DNA content and the mRNA levels of subunit II of cytochrome oxidase (a component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain) and of uncoupling protein 1. Expression of resistin and RBP4 was reduced in both adipocyte models following resveratrol treatment. The results indicate that resveratrol directly acts in mature white adipocytes to favor a remodeling toward increased oxidative capacity and reduced lipogenesis, while down-regulating two putative insulin resistance factors. These results constitute novel insights into resveratrol action in adipocytes that add to the potential of this food phytochemical and its synthetic analogues for the control of obesity and related metabolic disorders. PMID:21109418

Mercader, Josep; Palou, Andreu; Bonet, M Luisa

2011-09-01

287

Cholesterol-derived bile acids enhance the chaperone activity of ?-crystallins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human lens membranes contain the highest cholesterol concentration of any known biological membranes, but it significantly decreases with age. Oxygenation of cholesterol generates numerous forms of oxysterols (bile acids). We previously showed that two forms of the bile acid components--ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA)--suppressed lens epithelial cell death and alleviated cataract formation in galactosemic rat lenses. We investigated whether these compounds also suppress the thermal aggregation of human lens crystallins. Total water-soluble (WS) proteins were prepared from human lenses, and recombinant human crystallins (?A-, ?B-, ?B2-, and ?C-crystallin) were generated by a prokaryotic expression system and purified by liquid chromatography. The light scattering of proteins in the presence or absence of UDCA or TUDCA was measured using a spectrofluorometer set at Ex/Em = 400/400 nm. Protein blot analysis was conducted for detection of ?-crystallins in the human lens WS proteins. High concentrations of UDCA and TUDCA significantly suppressed thermal aggregation of total lens WS proteins, which contained a low level of ?A-/?B-crystallin. Spectroscopic analysis with each recombinant human lens crystallin indicated that the bile acids did not suppress the thermal aggregation of ?C-, ?B2-, ?A-, or ?B-crystallin. Combination of ?-crystallin and bile acid (either UDCA or TUDCA) suppressed thermal aggregation of each individual crystallin as well as a non-crystallin protein, insulin. These results suggest that UDCA or TUDCA protects the chaperone activity of ?-crystallin. It is believed that these two naturally occurring intermediate waste products in the lens enhance the chaperone activity of ?-crystallin. This finding may lead to the development of UDCA and TUDCA as anticataract agents. PMID:21380614

Song, Shuhua; Liang, Jack J N; Mulhern, Michael L; Madson, Christian J; Shinohara, Toshimichi

2011-09-01

288

Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? enhances fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? PPAR? activation increased mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes and GPDH activity in human adipocytes. ? PPAR? activation also increased insulin-dependent glucose uptake in human adipocytes. ? PPAR? activation did not affect lipid accumulation in human adipocytes. ? PPAR? activation increased fatty acid oxidation through induction of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in human adipocytes. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) is a key regulator for maintaining whole-body energy balance. However, the physiological functions of PPAR? in adipocytes have been unclarified. We examined the functions of PPAR? using human multipotent adipose tissue-derived stem cells as a human adipocyte model. Activation of PPAR? by GW7647, a potent PPAR? agonist, increased the mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes such as PPAR?, adipocyte-specific fatty acid-binding protein, and lipoprotein lipase and increased both GPDH activity and insulin-dependent glucose uptake level. The findings indicate that PPAR? activation stimulates adipocyte differentiation. However, lipid accumulation was not changed, which is usually observed when PPAR? is activated. On the other hand, PPAR? activation by GW7647 treatment induced the mRNA expression of fatty acid oxidation-related genes such as CPT-1B and AOX in a PPAR?-dependent manner. Moreover, PPAR? activation increased the production of CO2 and acid soluble metabolites, which are products of fatty acid oxidation, and increased oxygen consumption rate in human adipocytes. The data indicate that activation of PPAR? stimulates both adipocyte differentiation and fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes, suggesting that PPAR? agonists could improve insulin resistance without lipid accumulation in adipocytes. The expected effects of PPAR? activation are very valuable for managing diabetic conditions accompanied by obesity, because PPAR? agonists, usually used as antidiabetic drugs, induce excessive lipid accumulation in adipocytes in addition to improvement of insulin resistance.

289

Dithiol amino acids can structurally shape and enhance the ligand-binding properties of polypeptides  

Science.gov (United States)

The disulfide bonds that form between two cysteine residues are important in defining and rigidifying the structures of proteins and peptides. In polypeptides containing multiple cysteine residues, disulfide isomerization can lead to multiple products with different biological activities. Here, we describe the development of a dithiol amino acid (Dtaa) that can form two disulfide bridges at a single amino acid site. Application of Dtaas to a serine protease inhibitor and a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor inhibitor that contain disulfide constraints enhanced their inhibitory activities 40- and 7.6-fold, respectively. X-ray crystallographic and NMR structure analysis show that the peptide ligands containing Dtaas have retained their native tertiary structures. We furthermore show that replacement of two cysteines by Dtaas can avoid the formation of disulfide bond isomers. With these properties, Dtaas are likely to have broad application in the rational design or directed evolution of peptides and proteins with high activity and stability.

Chen, Shiyu; Gopalakrishnan, Ranganath; Schaer, Tifany; Marger, Fabrice; Hovius, Ruud; Bertrand, Daniel; Pojer, Florence; Heinis, Christian

2014-11-01

290

Chemical Synthesis Pharmaceutical Wastewater Containing Sulfadiazine (SD and Ketoprofen(KP Treatment by Acid Separating  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Containing sulfadiazine (SD and ketoprofen (KP on the synthesis of pharmaceutical wastewater has a stronger effect on treatment of microbes. It is not used to be dealt with by wastewater treatment. This study shows that acid separation can improve bio-chemistry catabolism of the synthesis of pharmaceutical wastewater clearly. The acid separation to increase the biodegradability of waste water is conducive to aerobic and anaerobic bacteria domesticated, screened and compound treatment. Aerobic and anaerobic wastewater treatment can be done well after acid separated. Analysis of experimentation has proved that COD (chemical oxygen demand of original wastewater falls below 150 mg·L-1 from 2 52 5 mg·L-1, at last reaches to 145 mg·L-1 finally. The total removal rate of COD is about 94%. According to test it can be gotten that acid separation of the best conditions is :pH=2, acid sparating process time is 40 minut. Tests show that pretreatment of acid separation to high concentration of chemical synthesis is the key to pharmaceutical wastewater which is done by aerobic and anaerobic bacteria after acid separation.

CHEN Xi

2009-06-01

291

Combination treatment with ethyl pyruvate and aspirin enhances neuroprotection in the postischemic brain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethyl pyruvate (EP), a simple aliphatic ester of pyruvic acid, has been shown to act as an anti-inflammatory molecule in various pathological conditions, which include sepsis or hemorrhagic shock. Recently, we showed that ethyl pyruvate has a neuroprotective effect in the postischemic brain and also in KA-induced pathogenesis in the brain. In this study, we examined whether aspirin augments neuroprotective effect of ethyl pyruvate in transient focal ischemia model by complementing the neuroprotective effects of ethyl pyruvate. Although, most of neuroprotective effect of aspirin has been attributed to the anti-platelet action, aspirin also has direct neuroprotective effects, including NF-kappaB inhibition. Ethyl pyruvate dose-dependently suppressed infarct formation in the postischemic brain, wherein intravenous administration of 5 mg/kg ethyl pyruvate 30 min after the occlusion reduced infarct volume to 34.5 +/- 15.5% (n = 6, P ethyl pyruvate and aspirin extended to 9 h post-MCAO. The synergistic reduction in infarct volume was accompanied by suppression of the clinical manifestations associated with cerebral ischemia including motor impairment and neurological deficits. Inflammatory processes including microglial activation and proinflammatory cytokine expression were notably suppressed by the combination treatment in the postischemic brain and in primary microglia cultures, wherein ethyl pyruvate and aspirin modulate NF-kappaB signaling differentially. Aspirin interferes with IkappaB phosphorylation and degradation in the cytoplasm, possibly by specifically inhibiting IkappaB kinase-beta, whereas, the effect of ethyl pyruvate seems to occur in the nucleus, where it may interfere with the binding of NF-kappaB to responsive promoter elements in the target genes. Similar enhancement in neuroprotective effect was also observed in primary cortical cultures after NMDA or Zn(2+) treatment or oxygen-glucose deprivation. Together, these results indicate that combination treatment of ethyl pyruvate and aspirin affords synergistic neuroprotection in the postischemic brain with a wide therapeutic window, in part via differential modulation of the NF-kappaB signaling pathway. PMID:19636661

Kim, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Ji-Young; Kim, Hyun Ji; Seo, Ji-Seon; Han, Pyung-Lim; Yoon, Sung-Hwa; Lee, Ja-Kyeong

2010-01-01

292

Effect of nitric acid on pretreatment and fermentation for enhancing ethanol production of rice straw.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, nitric acid (HNO?) was evaluated as an acid catalyst for rice straw pretreatment, and, after neutralization, as a sole nitrogen source for subsequent fermentation. Response surface methodology was used to obtain optimal pretreatment condition with respect to HNO? concentration (0.2-1.0%), temperature (120-160 °C) and reaction time (1-20 min). In a condition of 0.65% HNO?, 158.8 °C and 5.86 min, a maximum xylose yield of 86.5% and an enzymatic digestibility of 83.0% were achieved. The sugar solution that contained nitrate derived from the acid catalyst supported the enhancement of ethanol yield by Pichia stipitis from 10.92 g/L to 14.50 g/L. The results clearly reveal that nitric acid could be used not only as a pretreatment catalyst, but also as a nitrogen source in the fermentation process for bioethanol production. It is anticipated that the HNO?-based pretreatment can reduce financial burden on the cellulosic bioethanol industry by simplifying after-pretreatment-steps as well as providing a nitrogen source. PMID:24274544

Kim, Ilgook; Lee, Bomi; Park, Ji-Yeon; Choi, Sun-A; Han, Jong-In

2014-01-01

293

Optimization of substrate concentration for enhanced citric acid production by aspergillus niger M-101  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studying the effect of different sugar concentration of beet molasses on citric acid accumulation in batch fermentation, 150 g/litre sugar concentration was found to be optimal for maximum citric acid production (27.25+-2.35 g/litre) using Aspergillus niger M-101. Y/sup p/x/ value for product formation increased with increase in sugar concentration through out the study. Qp value for citric acid production also increased with increase in sugar concentration and reached the maximum (0.141 g/litre/h) at 150 g/litre sugar concentration but with further increase in sugar concentration, the value decreased. When culture was grown at different substrate concentrations, the kinetic parameters monitored for Y/sub x/s/, Y/sub p/s/ and Y/sub p/x/, Q/sub p/, Q/sub s/ and q/sub p/ showed significant enhancement (p <= 0.05) in citric acid production as well as biomass growth. (author)

294

Flocculation of Ag nanoparticles elucidating adsorbed p-mercaptobenzoic acid by surface enhanced Raman scattering  

Science.gov (United States)

Flocculates of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) were formed using p-mercaptobenzoic acid (PMBA) to utilize coupled localized surface plasmon, providing enormous enhancement in surface enhanced Raman scattering. Electrostatic interaction between dissociated PMBA and counter ions, as well as van der Waals force between protonated PMBAs on AgNPs plays a crucial role in the flocculation. Dissociation of PMBA on AgNPs is determined not only by pH in solutions but also by surface coverage of PMBA. Mono- and divalent cations modified the ?COO- band at 1420 cm-1 by 20 cm-1 indicating distinct interaction of the cations with dissociated carboxylate anions of PMBA on AgNPs.

Yu, Yingying; Handa, Saori; Yajima, Toru; Futamata, Masayuki

2013-02-01

295

Synergistic permeability enhancing effect of lysophospholipids and fatty acids on lipid membranes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The permeability-enhancing effects of the two surfactants, 1-paltnitoyl-2-lyso-sn-gycero-3-pllosplloclloline (lysoPPC) and palmitic acid (PA), on lipid membranes that at physiological temperatures are in the gel, fluid, and liquid-ordered phases were determined using the concentration-dependent self-quenching properties of the hydrophilic marker, calcein. Adding lysoPPC to lipid membranes in the gel-phase induced a time-dependent calcein release curve that can be described by the sum of two exponentials, whereas RA induces a considerably more complex release curve. However, when lysoPPC and PA were added simultaneously in equimolar concentrations, a dramatic synergistic permeability-enhancing effect was observed. In contrast, when both lysoPPC and PA are added to liposomal membranes that are in the fluid or liquid-ordered phases, no effect on the transmembrane permeation of calcein was observed.

Davidsen, Jesper; JØrgensen, K.

2002-01-01

296

Exogenous Abscisic Acid Enhances Sugar Accumulation in Rice (Oryza sativa L. under Drought Stress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of exogenous ABA on growth and carbohydrate metabolism in rice seedlings cv. Khao Dawk Mali 105 under drought stress. Rice seedlings were grown for 10 days and subjected to water restriction for 7 days. Drought stress caused significant reduction in shoot as well as root growth and biomass. Leaf relative water content and chlorophyll contents were reduced by drought stress. Application of exogenous ABA helps the plants by improving leaf relative water content. Drought stress also caused significant increases in sugar accumulation, accompanied by increases in sucrose phosphate synthase activities. Application of exogenous ABA enhanced sugar accumulation but decreased starch content in the leaf. The results indicated that sugar accumulation is associated with drought stress and exogenous abscisic acid can improve plant water status as well as enhances sugar accumulation under drought stress.

Wattana Pattanagul

2011-01-01

297

Ascorbic acid for the treatment of methemoglobinemia: the experience of a large tertiary care pediatric hospital.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of reporting this series of patients is to illustrate the role of ascorbic acid in the treatment of severe acquired methemoglobinemia (metHb), especially when methylene blue is not available. Medical records of affected patients were reviewed to collect history of exposures, food ingestion, physical examination, pulse oximetry, blood gas, and co-oximetry results, and outcomes. Five cases of acquired metHb are presented here, all of whom received treatment with ascorbic acid and fully recovered after 24 hours of treatment. Our series emphasizes that ascorbic acid is an effective alternative in the management of acquired metHb if methylene blue is unavailable and suggests that ascorbic acid infusion may be indicated in patients with glucose-6-phosphatase dehydrogenase deficiency. PMID:24914501

Rino, Pedro Bonifacio; Scolnik, Dennis; Fustiñana, Ana; Mitelpunkt, Alexis; Glatstein, Miguel

2014-01-01

298

Diphosphonic acid complexing agents: Basic solution chemistry and potential uses in actinide waste treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a class of metal ion chelating agents, gem-diphosphonic acids are unusual in their ability to form remarkably strong complexes with polyvalent metal ions in acidic solutions. Ligands with this characteristic have the potential to aid in strategies for the dramatic reduction of the volume of radioactive wastes which must be disposed of in a deep geological repository. The relationship between complex stability, ligand acidity and structure, the nature of the phosphonic acid group, and the thermodynamics, stoichiometry and hydration of metal complexes are discussed. Some examples of their potential applications in radioactive waste treatment are presented

299

Bimetallic alloy Pt/Ag nanoparticles with enhanced catalytic activity for formic acid oxidation  

Science.gov (United States)

Here, we report the synthesis of Pt/Ag bimetallic alloy catalyst through combining the ion implantation and electrodeposition method. Ag nanoparticles are employed as the seeds for the growth of Pt nanoparticles. Pt/Ag alloy catalyst demonstrates much higher catalytic activity than pure Pt catalyst, which is about three times more active on the basis of equivalent Pt electrochemically active surface area than that of the pure Pt catalyst. The ion implantation of Ag efficiently enhances the catalytic activity of Pt catalyst for formic acid oxidation.

Guo, Chunmei; Hu, Jingbo

2014-05-01

300

Surface enhanced Raman scattering of trans-3-hydroxycinnamic acid adsorbed on silver nanoparticles  

Science.gov (United States)

SERS of trans-3-hydroxycinnamic acid adsorbed on silver colloids have been analyzed in order to detect resonant charge transfer processes similar to a resonance Raman mechanism, involving the photoinduced transfer of an electron from the metal to the adsorbate (SERS-CT). Theoretical SERS-CT intensities for the neutral, anionic and dianionic forms have been calculated and it was found that the active SERS species corresponds to cinnamate ion linked to the metal through its carboxylate group. Moreover, it has been shown that the SERS-CT mechanism is operating in the SERS, explaining the strong enhancement of the band at ca. 1600 cm -1, assigned to the 8a mode.

Sardo, Mariana; Ruano, Cristina; Castro, José Luis; López-Tocón, Isabel; Ribeiro-Claro, Paulo J. A.; Otero, Juan C.

2008-12-01

 
 
 
 
301

Design and evaluation of Lumefantrine – Oleic Acid Self Nanoemulsifying Ionic Complex for Enhanced Dissolution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background:Lumefantrine, an antimalarial molecule has very low and variable bioavailability owing to its extremely poor solubility in water. It is recommended to be taken with milk to enhance its solubility and bioavailability. The aim of present study was to develop a Self Nanoemulsifying Delivery system (SNEDs of lumefantrine (LF to achieve rapid and complete dissolution independent of food-fat and surfactant in dissolution media.Methods:Solubility of LF in oil, co-solvent/co-surfactant and surfactant solution and emulsification efficiency of surfactant were analyzed to optimize the LF loaded self nanoemulsifying preconcentrate. Effect of LF-oleic acid complexation on emulsification, droplet size, zeta potential and dissolution were investigated. Effect of milk concentration and fat content on saturation solubility and dissolution of LF was investigated. Dissolution of marketed formulation and LF-SNEDs was carried out in pH 1.2 and pH 6.8 phosphate buffer.Results:LF exhibited very high solubility in oleic acid owing to complexation between tertiary amine of LF and carboxyl group of oleic acid (OA. Cremophore EL and medium chain monoglyceride were selected surfactant and co-surfactant, respectively. Significantly smaller droplet size (37 nm, shift in zeta potential from negative to positive value, very high drug loading in lipid based system (> 10%, no precipitation after dissolution are the major distinguish characteristics contributed by LF-OA complex in the SNED system. Saturation solubility and dissolution study in milk containing media pointed the significant increment in solubility of LF in the presence of milk-food fat. LF-SNEDs showed > 90% LF release within 30 min in pH 1.2 while marketed tablet showed almost 0% drug release.Conclusion:Self nanoemulsification promoting ionic complexation between basic drug and oleic acid hold great promise in enhancing solubility of hydrophobic drugs.

Pradeep Vavia

2013-03-01

302

The physiological response of Artemisia annua L. to salt stress and salicylic acid treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salinity has a great influence on plant growth and distribution. A few existing reports on Artemisia annua L. response to salinity are concentrated on plant growth and artemisinin content; the physiological response and salt damage mitigation are yet to be understood. In this study, the physiological response of varying salt stresses (50, 100, 200, 300, or 400 mM NaCl) on A. annua L. and the effect of exogenous salicylic acid (0.05 or 0.1 mM) at 300-mM salt stress were investigated. Plant growth, antioxidant enzyme activity, proline, and mineral element level were determined. In general, increasing salt concentration significantly reduced plant growth. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) were stimulated by salt treatment to a higher enzyme activity in treated plants than those in untreated plants. Content of proline had a visible range of increment in the salt-treated plants. Distribution of mineral elements was in inconformity: Na(+) and Ca(2+) were mainly accumulated in the roots; K(+) and Mg(2+) were concentrated in leaves and stems, respectively. Alleviation of growth arrest was observed with exogenous applications of salicylic acid (SA) under salt stress conditions. The activity of SOD and POD was notably enhanced by SA, but the CAT action was suppressed. While exogenous SA had no discernible effect on proline content, it effectively inhibited excessive Na(+) absorption and promoted Mg(2+) absorption. Ca(2+) and K(+) contents showed a slight reduction when supplemented with SA. Overall, the positive effect of SA towards resistance to the salinity of A. annua will provide some practical basis for A. annua cultivation. PMID:24757320

Li, Lin; Zhang, Haihui; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Yonghong; Yang, Ruiwu; Ding, Chunbang; Wang, Xiaoli

2014-04-01

303

The importance of chain length for the polyphosphate enhancement of acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sodium polyphosphate is commonly used to enhance chemiluminescence reactions with acidic potassium permanganate through a dual enhancement mechanism, but commercially available polyphosphates vary greatly in composition. We have examined the influence of polyphosphate composition and concentration on both the dual enhancement mechanism of chemiluminescence intensity and the stability of the reagent under analytically useful conditions. The average chain length (n) provides a convenient characterisation, but materials with similar values can exhibit markedly different distributions of phosphate oligomers. There is a minimum polyphosphate chain length (?6) required for a large enhancement of the emission intensity, but no further advantage was obtained using polyphosphate materials with much longer average chain lengths. Providing there is a sufficient average chain length, the optimum concentration of polyphosphate is dependent on the analyte and in some cases, may be lower than the quantities previously used in routine detection. However, the concentration of polyphosphate should not be lowered in permanganate reagents that have been partially reduced to form high concentrations of the key manganese(III) co-reactant, as this intermediate needs to be stabilised to prevent formation of insoluble manganese(IV). PMID:25127649

Holland, Brendan J; Adcock, Jacqui L; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Peristyy, Anton; Stevenson, Paul G; Barnett, Neil W; Conlan, Xavier A; Francis, Paul S

2014-09-01

304

Enhanced biological phosphorus removal - results of experiences in three large waste water treatment plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Within a scientific project especially the operation of four real-size sewage treatment plants with different processes of enhanced biological phosphorus removal is investigated under the aspect of efficiency, stability, practicability and costs of the enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Three plants and first results are explained and compared as well with one another as with data, which are generally regarded as favourable conditions for the enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Between the plants there are significant differences in the degree of P-elimination mainly due to different characteristics of the wastewater. An important influence on P-effluent concentrations may be exacted by P-resolution in the final clarifier. (orig.)

305

Nanofiltration and granular activated carbon treatment of perfluoroalkyl acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are of concern because of their persistence in the environment and the potential toxicological effects on humans exposed to PFAAs through a variety of possible exposure routes, including contaminated drinking water. This study evaluated the efficacy of nanofiltration (NF) and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption in removing a suite of PFAAs from water. Virgin flat-sheet NF membranes (NF270, Dow/Filmtec) were tested at permeate fluxes of 17-75 Lm(-2)h(-1) using deionized (DI) water and artificial groundwater. The effects of membrane fouling by humic acid on PFAA rejection were also tested under constant permeate flux conditions. Both virgin and fouled NF270 membranes demonstrated >93% removal for all PFAAs under all conditions tested. GAC efficacy was tested using rapid small-scale columns packed with Calgon Filtrasorb300 (F300) carbon and DI water with and without dissolved organic matter (DOM). DOM effects were also evaluated with F600 and Siemens AquaCarb1240C. The F300 GAC had 20% breakthrough of all PFAAs by 10,000 BVs was observed for all carbons. PMID:23846124

Appleman, Timothy D; Dickenson, Eric R V; Bellona, Christopher; Higgins, Christopher P

2013-09-15

306

BONE MEAL AS ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT FOR ACIDIC AND METAL CONTAMINATED ACID MINE DRAINAGE WATER EFFLUENT: LAB SCALE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The typical methods of treatment for acidic and metal contaminated water effluent such as the Acid Mine Drainage (AMD will always focus on either civil engineering methods, such as disposal, excavation, drainage and encapsulation or process based technologies such as effluent washing and treatment. These techniques are not environmental friendly, costly and unsustainable, thus environmental damaging. Nowadays, there is a growing need for an alternative remediation treatment that is innovative and more natural in order to prevent pollution in the environment. Therefore, in this study, a new alternative treatment, that is more organic, biodegradable and cost effective, using bone meal was presented. In this research, bone meal comprising of chicken bones were used as an alternative passive treatment to determine its potential in neutralizing and removing heavy metals from the abandoned cooper mine, Mamut Acid Mine Drainage (AMD waste water effluent. A pretreatment process for bone meal was performed by incineration process where it was heated up in the furnace at 500°C for 24 h after it was cleaned, crushed, boiled and dried. Batch experiment test has been carried out to test whether the selected bone meal sizes 45, 75 and 150 µm was able to neutralize the AMD Mamut water samples. Inductive Plasma Couple-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES test was carried out to test the concentration of the heavy metals before and after the treatment. The surface morphology of bone meal was examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Enlargement of pores after the neutralization treatment was seen on the surface morphology of the bone meal by SEM analyses. A significant rising of pH from 2.98 to 5.69 within 6 h 30 min was observed during neutralization process and 99% removal of Fe, Zn, Al, Cu and 36% removal of Mg concentration was achieved after the treatment through the neutralization treatment of the AMD waste water effluent. The results from this study conclude that bone meal has the potential to neutralize and remove heavy metals from acidic and metal contaminated AMD waste water effluent.

Carolyn Payus

2014-01-01

307

Using Laboratory Activities Enhanced with Concept Cartoons to Support Progression in Students' Understanding of Acid-Base Concepts  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of an intervention based on a series of laboratory activities enhanced with concept cartoons. The purpose of the intervention was to enhance students' understanding of acid-base chemistry for eight grade students' from two classes in a Turkish primary school. A pretest-posttest non-equivalent…

Ozmen, Haluk; Demircioglu, Gokhan; Burhan, Yasemin; Naseriazar, Akbar; Demircioglu, Hulya

2012-01-01

308

Effect of salicylic acid treatment on cadmium toxicity and leaf lipid composition in sunflower  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ameliorative effect of salicylic acid (SA on cadmium (Cd toxicity in sunflower plants was studied by investigating plant growth and fatty acid composition. Sunflower plants in two leaves stage were exposed to CdCl2 treatment (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 µM and then were treated with salicylic acid (0, 250 and 500 µM as foliage spraying. One week after the last salicylic acid treatment,plants were harvested and growth parameters were measured . Oil of leaf was extracted in a Soxhlet system and fatty acid composition were measured by gas chromatography (GC. Statistical analyses showed excess Cd reduced growth parameters (fresh weight and length of stems and roots, fresh weight and number of leavesand SA increased them compared with the control. Maximum reduction in these parameters was at 200 µmol Cd and 0µmol of SA. Cd caused a shift in fatty acids composition, resulting in a lower degree of their unsaturation and an increase in saturated fatty acids in sunflower leaves,whereas SA improved them. SA, particularly increased the percentage of linolenic acid and lowered that of palmitic acid by the same proportion. These results sugg membrane integrity due to lipids est that SA could be used as a potential growth regulator and a stabilizer ofprotection of cadmium-induced oxidative stress to improve plant resistance to Cd stress

Moradkhani S.

2012-11-01

309

Enhanced zero-valent metal permeable wall treatment of contaminated groundwater  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On-going research at the University of Central Florida, supported by NASA, is investigating the use of sonicated zero-valent metal permeable treatment walls to remediate chlorinated solvent contaminated groundwater. Use of ultrasound within the treatment wall is proposed to enhance and/or restore the activity of the zero-valent metal. Batch studies designed to evaluate the destruction of chlorinated hydrocarbons using enhanced zero-valent metal reduction found a nearly three-fold increase in reaction rates after ultrasound treatment. Column studies substantiated these results. It is hypothesized that ultrasound serves to remove corrosion products from the iron surface and will prolong the reactive life and efficiency of the permeable treatment wall, thus decreasing long-term costs of wall construction and maintenance

310

Spontaneous remodeling of HDL particles at acidic pH enhances their capacity to induce cholesterol efflux from human macrophage foam cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

HDL particles may enter atherosclerotic lesions having an acidic intimal fluid. Therefore, we investigated whether acidic pH would affect their structural and functional properties. For this purpose, HDL(2) and HDL(3) subfractions were incubated for various periods of time at different pH values ranging from 5.5 to 7.5, after which their protein and lipid compositions, size, structure, and cholesterol efflux capacity were analyzed. Incubation of either subfraction at acidic pH induced unfolding of apolipoproteins, which was followed by release of lipid-poor apoA-I and ensuing fusion of the HDL particles. The acidic pH-modified HDL particles exhibited an enhanced ability to promote cholesterol efflux from cholesterol-laden primary human macrophages. Importantly, treatment of the acidic pH-modified HDL with the mast cell-derived protease chymase completely depleted the newly generated lipid-poor apoA-I, and prevented the acidic pH-dependent increase in cholesterol efflux. The above-found pH-dependent structural and functional changes were stronger in HDL(3) than in HDL(2). Spontaneous acidic pH-induced remodeling of mature spherical HDL particles increases HDL-induced cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells, and therefore may have atheroprotective effects. PMID:22855736

Nguyen, Su Duy; Öörni, Katariina; Lee-Rueckert, Miriam; Pihlajamaa, Tero; Metso, Jari; Jauhiainen, Matti; Kovanen, Petri T

2012-10-01

311

Spontaneous remodeling of HDL particles at acidic pH enhances their capacity to induce cholesterol efflux from human macrophage foam cells[S  

Science.gov (United States)

HDL particles may enter atherosclerotic lesions having an acidic intimal fluid. Therefore, we investigated whether acidic pH would affect their structural and functional properties. For this purpose, HDL2 and HDL3 subfractions were incubated for various periods of time at different pH values ranging from 5.5 to 7.5, after which their protein and lipid compositions, size, structure, and cholesterol efflux capacity were analyzed. Incubation of either subfraction at acidic pH induced unfolding of apolipoproteins, which was followed by release of lipid-poor apoA-I and ensuing fusion of the HDL particles. The acidic pH-modified HDL particles exhibited an enhanced ability to promote cholesterol efflux from cholesterol-laden primary human macrophages. Importantly, treatment of the acidic pH-modified HDL with the mast cell-derived protease chymase completely depleted the newly generated lipid-poor apoA-I, and prevented the acidic pH-dependent increase in cholesterol efflux. The above-found pH-dependent structural and functional changes were stronger in HDL3 than in HDL2. Spontaneous acidic pH-induced remodeling of mature spherical HDL particles increases HDL-induced cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells, and therefore may have atheroprotective effects. PMID:22855736

Nguyen, Su Duy; Oorni, Katariina; Lee-Rueckert, Miriam; Pihlajamaa, Tero; Metso, Jari; Jauhiainen, Matti; Kovanen, Petri T.

2012-01-01

312

Task 1.16 - Enhanced Mobility of Dense Nonaqueous-Phase Liquids (DNAPLs) Using Dissolved Humic Acids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chlorinated solvent contamination is widespread across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex and other industrial facilities. Because of the physical properties of dense nonaqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs), current treatment technologies are generally incapable of completely removing contamination from the source area. Incomplete removal means that the residual DNAPL WN persist as a long-term source of groundwater contamination. When DNALPs occur in the subsurface, they resist remediation, owing to low water volubility, high viscosity and interracial tension, and microbial recalcitrance. Because of their high density and polarity, they are usually found sorbed to aquifer solids or in pools on impermeable materials. Surfactants have been used with some success to reduce interracial tension between the aqueous and organic phases and improve volubility of DNAPLs. However, surfactants are expensive and toxic and exhibit an oxygen demand. An alternative is the use of dissolved humic acids in improving DNAPL mobilization and solubilization. Humic acids, a natural form of organic carbon, are abundant, inexpensive, and nontoxic; biodegrade slowly (low oxygen demand); and have excellent mobilization properties. The present work is to establish the feasibility of using hurnates for enhancing DNAPL remediation.

Edwin S. Olson; Marc D. Kurz

1998-02-01

313

[Valproate-induced hyperammonemic encephalopathy in a neonate: Treatment with carglumic acid].  

Science.gov (United States)

Valproate-induced hyperammonemic encephalopathy (VHE) is an unusual and serious complication of valproate (VA) treatment. When an early diagnosis is made, it can be reversed with VA withdrawal and early treatment for hyperammonemia. We describe the case of a 20 days old male, who developed a serious VHE after receiving VA for refractory neonatal seizures. The VHE was resolved with VA withdrawal in association with carglumic acid and other measures for hyperammonemia treatment. PMID:24315420

Fernández Colomer, B; Rekarte García, S; García López, J E; Pérez González, C; Montes Granda, M; Coto Cotallo, G D

2014-10-01

314

Metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum for enhanced production of butyric acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clostridium acetobutylicum has been considered as an attractive platform host for biorefinery due to its metabolic diversity. Considering its capability to overproduce butanol through butyrate, it was thought that butyric acid can also be efficiently produced by this bacterium through metabolic engineering. The pta-ctfB-deficient C. acetobutylicum CEKW, in which genes encoding phosphotransacetylase and CoA-transferase were knocked out, was assessed for its potential as a butyric acid producer in fermentations with four controlled pH values at 5.0, 5.5, 6.0, and 6.4. Butyric acid could be best produced by fermentation of the CEKW at pH 6.0, resulting in the highest titer of 26.6 g/l, which is 6.4 times higher than that obtained with the wild type. However, due to the remaining solventogenic ability of the CEKW, 3.6 g/l solvents were also produced. Thus, the CEKW was further engineered by knocking out the adhE1-encoding aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase to prevent solvent production. Batch fermentation of the resulting C. acetobutylicum HCEKW at pH 6.0 showed increased butyric acid production to 30.8 g/l with a ratio of butyric-to-acetic acid (BA/AA) of 6.6 g/g and a productivity of 0.72 g/l/h from 86.9 g/l glucose, while negligible solvent (0.8 g/l ethanol only) was produced. The butyric acid titer, BA/AA ratio, and productivity obtained in this study were the highest values reported for C. acetobutylicum, and the BA/AA ratio and productivity were also comparable to those of native butyric acid producer Clostridium tyrobutyricum. These results suggested that the simultaneous deletion of the pta-ctfB-adhE1 in C. acetobutylicum resulted in metabolic switch from biphasic to acidogenic fermentation, which enhanced butyric acid production. PMID:24013291

Jang, Yu-Sin; Woo, Hee Moon; Im, Jung Ae; Kim, In Ho; Lee, Sang Yup

2013-11-01

315

Enhancement of micropollutant degradation at the outlet of small wastewater treatment plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this work was to evaluate low-cost and easy-to-operate engineering solutions that can be added as a polishing step to small wastewater treatment plants to reduce the micropollutant load to water bodies. The proposed design combines a sand filter/constructed wetland with additional and more advanced treatment technologies (UV degradation, enhanced adsorption to the solid phase, e.g., an engineered substrate) to increase the elimination of recalcitrant compounds. The removal of five ...

Rossi, Luca; Queloz, Pierre; Brovelli, Alessandro; Margot, Jonas; Barry, David Andrew

2013-01-01

316

Photoalignment efficiency enhancement of polyimide alignment layers by alkyl-amine vapor treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

We have succeeded in enhancing the photoalignment efficiency of polyimide containing azobenzene in the backbone structure by exposing the corresponding precursor (polyamic acid: Azo-PAA) film to alkyl-amine vapor prior to photoalignment. The Azo-PAA film absorbed alky-amines and swelled by 300%. The photoinduced rotation of the Azo-PAA backbone structure occurred more easily in the swollen film. Most of the alkyl-amines in the swollen film desorbed during thermal imidization. As a result of the photoalignment efficiency enhancement, we also succeeded in expanding the controllable pretilt angle range of liquid crystals up to 38° without the appearance of threadlike disclination loops.

Sakamoto, Kenji; Usami, Kiyoaki; Miki, Kazushi

2014-08-01

317

76 FR 71560 - Notice of a Public Meeting on Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule: Initiate...  

Science.gov (United States)

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...Enhanced Surface Water Treatment...Analytical Method Improvements...Environmental Protection Agency...Environmental Protection Agency...analytical methods for Cryptosporidium...the source water monitoring...Enhanced Surface Water...

2011-11-18

318

Treatment of focal epithelial hyperplasia with trichloroacetic acid  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a benign disease which has a chronic course that manifests as characteristic multiple small papules or nodules. They are predominantly found in the oral mucosa, gingiva and tongue. The surface of the lesions is smooth and it varies in size. It is an asymptomatic disea [...] se caused by human papillomavirus, affecting mainly children and adolescents. In this report, we describe four cases referred to the Stomatology and Oral Surgery Department of the Faculty of Dentistry, Cartagena University with a diagnosis of focal epithelial hyperplasia. Clinical features and histopathological characteristics of the patients were recorded. We also describe the properties and advantages of trichloroacetic acid as a therapeutic method.

J, Harris Ricardo; M, Carmona Lorduy; A, Díaz Caballero.

319

Treatment of focal epithelial hyperplasia with trichloroacetic acid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a benign disease which has a chronic course that manifests as characteristic multiple small papules or nodules. They are predominantly found in the oral mucosa, gingiva and tongue. The surface of the lesions is smooth and it varies in size. It is an asymptomatic disease caused by human papillomavirus, affecting mainly children and adolescents. In this report, we describe four cases referred to the Stomatology and Oral Surgery Department of the Faculty of Dentistry, Cartagena University with a diagnosis of focal epithelial hyperplasia. Clinical features and histopathological characteristics of the patients were recorded. We also describe the properties and advantages of trichloroacetic acid as a therapeutic method.

J Harris Ricardo

2012-12-01

320

Comparison of trichostatin A and valproic acid treatment regimens in a mouse model of kidney fibrosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are promising new compounds for the therapy of fibrotic diseases. In this study we compared the effect of two HDAC inhibitors, trichostatin A and valproic acid, in an experimental model of kidney fibrosis. In mice, doxorubicin (adriamycin) can cause nephropathy characterized by chronic proteinuria, glomerular damage and interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, as seen in human focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Two treatment regimens were applied, treatment was either started prior to the doxorubicin insult or delayed until a significant degree of proteinuria and fibrosis was present. Pre-treatment of trichostatin A significantly hampered glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, as did the pre-treatment with valproic acid. In contrast, the development of proteinuria was only completely inhibited in the pre-treated valproic acid group, and not in the pre-treated trichostatin A animals. In the postponed treatment with valproic acid, a complete resolution of established doxorubicin-induced proteinuria was achieved within three days, whereas trichostatin A could not correct proteinuria in such a treatment regimen. However, both postponed regimens have comparable efficacy in maintaining the kidney fibrosis to the level reached at the start of the treatments. Moreover, not only the process of fibrosis, but also renal inflammation was attenuated by both HDAC inhibitors. Our data confirm a role for HDACs in renal fibrogenesis and point towards a therapeutic potential for HDAC inhibitors. The effect on renal disease progression and manifestation can however be different for individual HDAC inhibitors. PMID:23707763

Van Beneden, Katrien; Geers, Caroline; Pauwels, Marina; Mannaerts, Inge; Wissing, Karl M; Van den Branden, Christiane; van Grunsven, Leo A

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
321

Enhancement of domoic acid neurotoxicity on Diptera larvae bioassay by marine fungal metabolites.  

Science.gov (United States)

Peptaibols are small linear fungal peptides which are produced in the marine environment. They exhibit neurotoxicity by forming pores in neuronal membranes. This work describes their combine effect with domoic acid, a neurotoxic phycotoxin, on Diptera larvae. The Acute toxicity bioassay on this biological model was tested with a panel of different toxins (microbial, algal or fungal). It allowed the discrimination of neurotoxins and non-neurotoxic toxins, and an evaluation of the toxicity level (MED and ED(50)) which were correlated with published LD(50) in mice for neurotoxins tested. The highest activities on this test were found for Na(+) channel blockers tetrodotoxin (ED(50) = 0.026 mg/kg) and saxitoxin (ED(50) = 0.18 mg/kg). Domoic acid was less active with an ED(50) = 7.6 mg/kg. For synergism study, longibrachin-A-I, a 20-mer peptaibol isolated from cultures of a marine-derived strain of Trichoderma longibrachiatum Rifai was chosen. Bioassay results confirmed its neuroactivity. Its level of toxicity (ED(50) = 270 mg/kg) was lower than those of phycotoxins tested but higher than mycotoxin ones. Injected together, longibrachin-A-I and domoic acid exhibited an increase of their activities. With doses of longibrachin-A-I below its Minimal Effective Dose (MED), the synergism factor which expresses the enhancement of domoic acid toxicity could reach 34.5. Both domoic acid and longibrachin-A-I are acting on ion channels and pores in neuronal membranes which contribute to the intake of Ca(2+) into cells. PMID:19941880

Ruiz, Nicolas; Petit, Karina; Vansteelandt, Marieke; Kerzaon, Isabelle; Baudet, Joseph; Amzil, Zouher; Biard, Jean-François; Grovel, Olivier; Pouchus, Yves François

2010-04-01

322

Enhanced electrokinetic treatment of different marine sediments contaminated by heavy metals.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present work, the application of an assisted electrokinetic process for the removal of heavy metals from real contaminated sediments was investigated. The process made use of both chemical and physical methods, including addition of chelating and acid agents, as well as application of a hydraulic gradient. Lab-scale electrokinetic runs were applied on two different dredged sediments varying the applied voltage gradient and the treatment duration. The use of EDTA significantly improved the overall performance of the electrokinetic treatment for sediment V (more than 60% mobilized for each metal), while only aggressive acid conditioning with nitric acid was able to remove significant amounts of heavy metals (up to 40.5% for Pb) from sediment S due to the strong buffering capacity of this material. This clearly assesses that the specific characteristics of the materials under concern and the reactions occurring at the electrodes must be carefully evaluated when applying an electroremediation process. PMID:18569295

De Gioannis, Giorgia; Muntoni, Aldo; Polettini, Alessandra; Pomi, Raffaella

2008-07-01

323

Effect and mechanism of penetration enhancement of organic base and alcohol on glycyrrhetinic acid in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of organic bases and alcohols on the percutaneous absorption of Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA). GA is a metabolite of Glycyrrhizic acid (GL), a major active ingredient of Glycyrrhizae (Gancao) Radices. Skin penetration parameters of GA were obtained via in vitro penetration experiments using intact and stripped mice back skin. Non-aqueous solvent comprising isopropyl myristate (IPM) and alcohols (ethanol, butanol, octanol and dodecanol) loaded with organic base (triethanolamine or triethylamine) were applied to improve the penetration of GA. In order to further confirm the mechanism by which the organic bases enhanced the penetration of GA, conductivity measurement, (1)H NMR spectroscopy and FT-IR analysis were used to observe the formation of ion pair between GA and organic base. The formation of ion pair increased the solubility of GA in the stratum corneum (SC) and its partition into the viable skin, and therefore enhanced the penetration of GA in skin. PMID:20713139

Hao, Jiajia; Sun, Yuming; Wang, Qing; Tong, Xiao; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Qing

2010-10-31

324

Detection of amino acid neurotransmitters by surface enhanced Raman scattering and hollow core photonic crystal fiber  

Science.gov (United States)

The present work explores the feasibility of using surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for detecting the neurotransmitters such as glutamate (GLU) and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA). These amino acid neurotransmitters that respectively mediate fast excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in the brain, are important for neuroendocrine control, and upsets in their synthesis are also linked to epilepsy. Our SERS-based detection scheme enabled the detection of low amounts of GLU (10-7 M) and GABA (10-4 M). It may complement existing techniques for characterizing such kinds of neurotransmitters that include high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or mass spectrography (MS). This is mainly because SERS has other advantages such as ease of sample preparation, molecular specificity and sensitivity, thus making it potentially applicable to characterization of experimental brain extracts or clinical diagnostic samples of cerebrospinal fluid and saliva. Using hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) further enhanced the Raman signal relative to that in a standard cuvette providing sensitive detection of GLU and GABA in micro-litre volume of aqueous solutions.

Tiwari, Vidhu S.; Khetani, Altaf; Monfared, Ali Momenpour T.; Smith, Brett; Anis, Hanan; Trudeau, Vance L.

2012-03-01

325

Analysis of selected diphosphonic acid derivatives used in treatment of osteoporosis. Part I. Complexometric determination of diphosphonic acid derivatives.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the study was to develop a simple method for determination of diphosphonic acid derivatives in pharmaceutical preparations used in treatment of osteoporosis: disodium etidronate, disodium clodronate, disodium tiludronate, disodium pamidronate, sodium alendronate. The analysis performed by the visual end point titration method with complexing reagent Th(DCTA) in presence of xylenol orange used the ability of these compounds to form complexes. PMID:9511454

Podolska, M; Bia?ecka, W; Kwiatkowska-Puchniarz, B; Tuszy?ska, E

1997-01-01

326

Efficacy of topical azelaic acid gel in the treatment of mild-moderate acne vulgaris  

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Full Text Available Background: Twenty percent azelaic acid gel is recommended as a topical treatment for acne due to its favorable profile. Aim: Our objective in this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 20% azelaic acid gel in the treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris. Methods: This was a double blind, randomized clinical trial. Sixty patients with mild to moderate acne vulgaris were selected randomly to receive either azelaic acid gel or the vehicle gel alone. Patients were followed up every 15 days for a period of 45 days. The number of lesions and the acne severity index (ASI were recorded and compared using Student?s t-test. Results: Total lesion count was reduced by 60.6% and 19.9% by azelaic acid gel and the placebo respectively (P =0.002. ASI was reduced by 65.2% and 21.3% by azelaic acid gel and the placebo respectively (P =0.001, i.e., azelaic acid gel was 3.06 times more effective than the placebo in reducing ASI. Conclusion: Azelaic acid gel can be used as an effective treatment in mild to moderate acne vulgaris.

Iraji Fariba

2007-01-01

327

Treatment of osteoporosis with annual iv zoledronic acid: effects on hip fracture  

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Full Text Available Roland D ChapurlatINSERM U831, Université de Lyon, Division of Rheumatology, Hôpital E Herriot, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, FranceBackground: Several treatments for postmenopausal osteoporosis have been available in the past decade, but adherence to these treatments has been judged inadequate. The prevention of hip fracture by these medications is still modest.Methods: A literature search was performed for treatment with zoledronic acid for the prevention of hip fracture.Results: In the The Health Outcomes and Reduced Incidence with Zoledronic Acid Once Yearly (HORIZON Pivotal Fracture Trial, involving 7765 postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density or with prevalent vertebral fracture, women taking zoledronic acid had a 41% relative risk reduction for hip fracture, at 3 years, compared to placebo. In the HORIZON Recurrent Fracture Trial, 2127 patients (76% were women were randomized to receive either zoledronic acid or placebo after sustaining a first hip fracture. A reduction of 30% in the second hip fracture risk was observed, but it did not reach statistical significance. Zoledronic acid was generally safe in these trials, although a slightly increased rate of severe atrial fibrillations was observed in the HORIZON Prevention Fracture Trial, but not in the HORIZON Recurrent Fracture Trial.Conclusion: Yearly zoledronic acid reduces the risk of hip fracture, both in postmenopausal osteoporotic women with and without prevalent vertebral fracture and in men and women with a recent first hip fracture.Keywords: osteoporosis, bisphosphonates, hip fracture, zoledronic acid

Rol

2009-01-01

328

Palladium nanoparticles synthesized by reducing species generated during a successive acidic/alkaline treatment of sucrose  

Science.gov (United States)

Uniform spherical palladium nanoparticles with an average particle size of 4.3 ± 0.5 nm were successfully synthesized by reducing H2PdCl4 with intermediates in situ generated during a successive acidic/alkaline treatment of sucrose. A successive acidic/alkaline treatment plays an important role on converting the non-reducing sucrose into efficient reducing species containing aldehyde functionality. The Benedict's test corroborates the development and vanishing of the in situ generated reducing species upon prolonged degradation. An increase in alkalinity drastically improves the reduction efficiency. ATR FT-IR spectroscopy indicated spontaneous development of carboxylate after the alkaline treatment. Under the employed condition, small organic species with carbonyl groups (aldehyde, acid, and acid salt) were generated through the sucrose degradation before being oxidized to carbonate after an hour of the treatment. Sucrose was completely decomposed into carbonate after a 24-h successive acidic/alkaline treatment. The synthesized palladium nanoparticles express a good catalytic activity in the decolorization process of Congo red by sodium borohydride.

Amornkitbamrung, Lunjakorn; Pienpinijtham, Prompong; Thammacharoen, Chuchaat; Ekgasit, Sanong

2014-03-01

329

Enhanced acetic acid and succinic acid production under microaerobic conditions by Corynebacterium glutamicum harboring Escherichia coli transhydrogenase gene pntAB.  

Science.gov (United States)

Some microorganisms, such as Escherichia coli, harbor transhydrogenases that catalyze the interconversion between NADPH and NADH. However, such transhydrogenase genes have not been found in the genome of a glutamic acid-producing bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum. In this study, the E. coli transhydrogenase genes udhA and pntAB were introduced into the C. glutamicum wild-type strain ATCC 13032, and the metabolic characteristics of the recombinant strains under aerobic and microaerobic conditions were examined. No major metabolic changes were observed following the introduction of the E. coli transhydrogenase genes under aerobic conditions. Under microaerobic conditions, significant metabolic change was not observed following the introduction of the udhA gene. However, the specific production rates of lactic acid, acetic acid, and succinic acid, and the overall production levels of acetic acid and succinic acid were increased by introducing the E. coli pntAB gene. Moreover, the NADH/NAD(+) ratio was increased by introduction of pntAB. Our results suggest that the E. coli PntAB transhydrogenase enhances the conversion of NADPH to NADH in C. glutamicum under microaerobic conditions, and the increased NADH/NAD(+) ratio results in increased succinic acid production. In addition, acetic acid production might be enhanced to supply ATP to the anaplerotic reaction catalyzed by pyruvate carboxylase. PMID:25008167

Yamauchi, Yuto; Hirasawa, Takashi; Nishii, Masato; Furusawa, Chikara; Shimizu, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

330

Aneurysmal wall enhancement and perianeurysmal edema after endovascular treatment of unruptured cerebral aneurysms.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Perianeurysmal edema and aneurysm wall enhancement are previously described phenomenon after coil embolization attributed to inflammatory reaction. We aimed to demonstrate the prevalence and natural course of these phenomena in unruptured aneurysms after endovascular treatment and to identify factors that contributed to their development.

Su, I-Chang

2014-06-01

331

Using Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing To Enhance Treatment of Couples.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) as a clinical technique may enhance treatment effectiveness when applied in couple therapy that is emotionally and experientially oriented. Clinical experience indicates EMDR-based interventions are useful for accessing and reprocessing intense emotions in couple interactions. EMDR can amplify…

Protinsky, Howard; Sparks, Jennifer; Flemke, Kimberly

2001-01-01

332

Omega-3 fatty acids for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease  

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Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has been recognized as a major health burden. It is the most important cause of chronic liver disease and a major independent cardiovascular risk factor. Lacking a definite treatment for NAFLD, a specific diet and an increase in physical activity represent the most commonly used therapeutic approaches. In this review, major literature data about the use of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs as a potential treatment of NAFLD have been described. n-3 PUFAs, besides having a beneficial impact on most of the cardio-metabolic risk factors (hypertension, hyperlipidemia, endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis by regulating gene transcription factors [i.e., peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR ?, PPAR?, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1, carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein], impacts both lipid metabolism and on insulin sensitivity. In addition to an enhancement of hepatic beta oxidation and a decrease of the endogenous lipid production, n-3 PUFAs are able to determine a significant reduction of the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules (tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-6 and of oxygen reactive species. Further strengthening the results of the in vitro studies, both animal models and human intervention trials, showed a beneficial effect of n-3 PUFAs on the severity of NAFLD as expressed by laboratory parameters and imaging measurements. Despite available results provided encouraging data about the efficacy of n-3 PUFAs as a treatment of NAFLD in humans, well-designed randomized controlled trials of adequate size and duration, with histological endpoints, are needed to assess the long-term safety and efficacy of PUFA, as well as other therapies, for the treatment of NAFLD and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis patients. It is worthwhile to consider that n-3 PUFAs cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be derived from exogenous sources (fish oil, flaxseeds, olive oil which are typical foods of the Mediterranean diet, known for its beneficial effects in preventing obesity, diabetes and, in turn, cardiovascular events. According to these data, it is important to consider that most of the beneficial effects of n-3 PUFAs can also be obtained by an equilibrate nutrition program.

Matteo Nicola Dario Di Minno

2012-01-01

333

Biochar enhances Aspergillus niger rock phosphate solubilization by increasing organic acid production and alleviating fluoride toxicity.  

Science.gov (United States)

During fungal rock phosphate (RP) solubilization, a significant quantity of fluoride (F(-)) is released together with phosphorus (P), strongly inhibiting the process. In the present study, the effect of two F(-) adsorbents [activated alumina (Al2O3) and biochar] on RP solubilization by Aspergillus niger was examined. Al2O3 adsorbed part of the F(-) released but also adsorbed soluble P, which makes it inappropriate for microbial RP solubilization systems. In contrast, biochar adsorbed only F(-) while enhancing phosphate solubilization 3-fold, leading to the accumulation of up to 160 mg of P per liter. By comparing the values of F(-) measured in solution at the end of incubation and those from a predictive model, it was estimated that up to 19 mg of F(-) per liter can be removed from solution by biochar when added at 3 g liter(-1) to the culture medium. Thus, biochar acted as an F(-) sink during RP solubilization and led to an F(-) concentration in solution that was less inhibitory to the process. In the presence of biochar, A. niger produced larger amounts of citric, gluconic, and oxalic acids, whether RP was present or not. Our results show that biochar enhances RP solubilization through two interrelated processes: partial removal of the released F(-) and increased organic acid production. Given the importance of organic acids for P solubilization and that most of the RPs contain high concentrations of F(-), the proposed solubilization system offers an important technological improvement for the microbial production of soluble P fertilizers from RP. PMID:24610849

Mendes, Gilberto de Oliveira; Zafra, David Lopez; Vassilev, Nikolay Bojkov; Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Ribeiro, José Ivo; Costa, Maurício Dutra

2014-05-01

334

Treatment of disseminated granuloma annulare with fumaric acid esters  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Granuloma annulare is a granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. Various therapies have been tried in disseminated granuloma annulare (DGA, including corticosteroids, several variants of psoralen plus ultraviolet-A radiation, ultraviolet- A1 radiation, systemic retinoids, and dapsone, with variable success. We report a patient with recalcitrant DGA who was treated with fumaric acid esters (FAE. Case presentation A 40-year old Caucasian woman presented with a 25-year history of recalcitrant DGA. On both legs and the abdomen there were erythematous annular plaques. She was treated with FAE in tablet form using two formulations differing in strength (low strength tablets: 30 mg dimethylfumarate, 67 mg monoethylfumarate Ca salt, 5 mg monoethylfumarate Mg salt, 3 mg monoethylfumarate Zn salt; high strength tablets: 120 mg dimethylfumarate, 87 mg monoethylfumarate Ca salt, 5 mg monoethylfumarate Mg salt, 3 mg monoethylfumarate Zn salt. After three-month therapy, an almost complete clearance of skin lesions was achieved. With the exception of temporary lymphopenia, no adverse effects were observed. The patient remained in remission during a six-month follow up period. Conclusions Our observation has demonstrated that FAE is a potentially beneficial therapeutic option for patients with recalcitrant DGA. However controlled trials are necessary to fully explore the efficacy, optimal dosage, and safety of FAE in the management of DGA.

Altmeyer Peter

2002-03-01

335

Enhanced acidity, photophysical properties and liposome binding of perfluoroalkylated phthalocyanines lacking C-H bonds.  

Science.gov (United States)

The acid-base, spectroscopic, photophysical and liposome-binding properties of the recently synthesized free base, 29H,31H,1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octafluoro-2,3,9,10,16,17,23, 24-octakisperfluoro(isopropyl) phthalocyanine, F64PcH2, are reported. The perfluoroalkylation of the phthalocyanine core renders the hydrogen atoms acidic, with a pK(a) = 6. The F64Pc(-2) dianion is detected already at pH 3, by singular-value decomposition analysis of electronic spectra. F64Pc(-2) generates 1O2 with quantum yields phi(delta) = 0.252 (in MeOH) and 0.019 in liposomes. Metallation of the Pc macrocycle to yield F64PcZn increases phi(delta) to 0.606 and 0.126 in MeOH and liposomes, respectively. Surprisingly, F64Pc(-2) (but not F64PcH2 or F64PcZn) binds strongly to liposomes, with a binding constant K(b) = 25 (mg/mL)(-1). The fully protonated F64PcH2, but not the zwitterionic F64Pc(-2), might favor hydrogen bonding, thus reducing its lipophilicity. Similarly, the Lewis acidity of Zn in F64PcZn, and thus its ability to bind water within a hydrophobic perfluoroalkyl pocket, is significantly enhanced by the fluorinated substituents. PMID:16613518

Minnes, Refael; Weitman, Hana; Lee, Hyun-Jin; Gorun, Sergiu M; Ehrenberg, Benjamin

2006-01-01

336

Inhibition of fatty acid oxidation enhances oxidative protein folding and protects hepatocytes from endoplasmic reticulum stress.  

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The unfolded protein response (UPR) signals protein misfolding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to effect gene expression changes and restore ER homeostasis. Although many UPR-regulated genes encode ER protein processing factors, others, such as those encoding lipid catabolism enzymes, seem unrelated to ER function. It is not known whether UPR-mediated inhibition of fatty acid oxidation influences ER function or, if so, by what mechanism. Here we demonstrate that pharmacological or genetic inhibition of fatty acid oxidation renders liver cells partially resistant to ER stress-induced UPR activation both in vitro and in vivo. Reduced stress sensitivity appeared to be a consequence of increased cellular redox potential as judged by an elevated ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione and enhanced oxidative folding in the ER. Accordingly, the ER folding benefit of inhibiting fatty acid (FA) oxidation could be phenocopied by manipulating glutathione recycling during ER stress. Conversely, preventing cellular hyperoxidation with N-acetyl cysteine partially negated the stress resistance provided by blocking FA oxidation. Our results suggest that ER stress can be ameliorated through alteration of the oxidizing environment within the ER lumen, and they provide a potential logic for the transient regulation of metabolic pathways by the UPR during stress. PMID:22262455

Tyra, Heather M; Spitz, Douglas R; Rutkowski, D Thomas

2012-03-01

337

Hypotonic stimuli enhance proton-gated currents of acid-sensing ion channel-1b  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are strong candidates for mammalian mechanoreceptors. We investigated whether mouse acid-sensing ion channel-1b (ASIC1b) is sensitive to mechanical stimuli using oocyte electrophysiology, because ASIC1b is located in the mechanosensory stereocilia of cochlear hair cells. Hypotonic stimuli that induced membrane stretch of oocytes evoked no significant current in ASIC1b-expressing oocytes at pH 7.5. However, acid (pH 4.0 or 5.0)-evoked currents in the oocytes were substantially enhanced by the hypotonicity, showing mechanosensitivity of ASIC1b and possible mechanogating of the channel in the presence of other components. Interestingly, the ASIC1b channel was permeable to K+ (a principal charge carrier for cochlear sensory transduction) and the affinity of the channel for amiloride (IC50 (inhibition constant) = approximately 48.3 ?M) was quite similar to that described for the mouse hair cell mechanotransducer current. Taken together, these data raise the possibility that ASIC1b participates in cochlear mechanoelectrical transduction

338

Feeding fish meal and extruded soybeans enhances the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twelve multiparous Holstein cows averaging 65 (33 to 122) DIM were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square for 4-wk periods to determine whether feeding fish oil as fish meal would stimulate increased amounts of milk conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9, trans-11 C18:2; CLA) and transvaccenic acid (trans-11 C18:1; TVA) when the cows were fed extruded soybeans to supply additional linoleic acid. Treatment diets were 1) control; 2) 0.5% fish oil from fish meal; 3) 2.5% soybean oil from extruded soybeans; and 4) 0.5% fish oil from fish meal and 2% soybean oil from extruded soybeans. Diets were formulated to contain 18% crude protein and were composed (dry basis) of 50% concentrate mix, 25% corn silage, and 25% alfalfa hay. Intake of DM was not affected by diet. Milk production was increased by diets 2, 3, and 4 compared with diet 1 (control). Milk fat and milk protein percentages decreased with diets 3 and 4. Milk fat yield was not affected by treatments, but yield of milk protein was increased with supplemental fish meal and extruded soybeans or their blend. When diets 2, 3, or 4 were fed, concentrations of cis-9, trans-11 CLA in milk fat increased by 0.4-, 1.4-, and 3.2-fold, and TVA concentrations in milk fat increased by 0.4-, 1.8-, and 3.5-fold compared with the control milk fat. Increases in TVA and cis-9, trans-11 CLA were 91 to 109% greater when a blend of fish meal and extruded soybeans was fed than the additive effect of fish meal and extruded soybeans. This suggested that fish oil increased the production of CLA and TVA from other dietary sources of linoleic acid such as extruded soybeans. PMID:11949867

Abu-Ghazaleh, A A; Schingoethe, D J; Hippen, A R; Whitlock, L A

2002-03-01

339

All-trans retinoic acid and sodium butyrate enhance natriuretic peptide receptor a gene transcription: role of histone modification.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the present study was to delineate the mechanisms of GC-A/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (GC-A/NPRA) gene (Npr1) expression in vivo. We used all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, sodium butyrate (NaBu) to examine the expression and function of Npr1 using gene-disrupted heterozygous (1-copy; +/-), wild-type (2-copy; +/+), and gene-duplicated heterozygous (3-copy; ++/+) mice. Npr1(+/-) mice exhibited increased renal HDAC and reduced histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity; on the contrary, Npr1(++/+) mice showed decreased HDAC and enhanced HAT activity compared with Npr1(+)(/+) mice. ATRA and NaBu promoted global acetylation of histones H3-K9/14 and H4-K12, reduced methylation of H3-K9 and H3-K27, and enriched accumulation of active chromatin marks at the Npr1 promoter. A combination of ATRA-NaBu promoted recruitment of activator-complex containing E26 transformation-specific 1, retinoic acid receptor ?, and HATs (p300 and p300/cAMP response element-binding protein-binding protein-associated factor) at the Npr1 promoter, and significantly increased renal NPRA expression, GC activity, and cGMP levels. Untreated 1-copy mice showed significantly increased systolic blood pressure and renal expression of ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) compared with 2- and 3-copy mice. Treatment with ATRA and NaBu synergistically attenuated the expression of ?-SMA and PCNA and reduced systolic blood pressure in Npr1(+/-) mice. Our findings demonstrate that epigenetic upregulation of Npr1 gene transcription by ATRA and NaBu leads to attenuation of renal fibrotic markers and systolic blood pressure in mice with reduced Npr1 gene copy number, which will have important implications in prevention and treatment of hypertension-related renal pathophysiological conditions. PMID:24714214

Kumar, Prerna; Periyasamy, Ramu; Das, Subhankar; Neerukonda, Smitha; Mani, Indra; Pandey, Kailash N

2014-06-01

340

Flow-injection chemiluminescence determination of acetylsalicylic acid based on its enhancing effect on the lucigenin–hydrogen peroxide system.  

Science.gov (United States)

A sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescence method for the determination of acetylsalicylic acid is described. It is based on the enhanced chemiluminescent emission of the alkaline lucigenin–H2O2 system by acetylsalicylic acid. The difference in chemiluminescent intensity of alkaline lucigenin–H2O2 in the presence of acetylsalicylic acid from that in the absence of acetylsalicylic acid was linear at acetylsalicylic acid concentrations in the range of 0.0029–47.37 ?g/mL, with detection and quantification limits of 0.0011 and 0.0029 ?g/mL, respectively. The correlation coefficient of the working curve was 0.9983. The relative standard deviation (n = 10) for 25 ?g/mL acetylsalicylic acid is 1.95%. All experimental parameters were optimized. The method was successfully applied to the determination of acetylsalicylic acid in pharmaceutical preparations. The recovery results obtained by the method were satisfactory. PMID:25337618

Wabaidur, S M; Alam, S M; Alothmana, Z A; Eldesokya, Gaber

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
341

[Chemical adsorption of thiosalicylic acid on silver surface investigated by surface-enhanced Raman scattering].  

Science.gov (United States)

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of thiosalicylic acid (TSA) with sulfydryl group was investigated on the surface of electrochemically roughed silver electrode. The result shows that SERS enhancement effect was relative to the concentration and pH, and 1 x 10(-3) mol x L(-1) and pH 4 were the optimal condition. While the concentration increased, the enhancement effect decreased quickly because of steric hindrance. S--Ag peak position by the absorption of TSA was basically consistent, but pH significantly affected its intensity. The distribution and mechanism of TSA at different pH were further investigated. It was showed that TSA was adsorbed on the active silver surface via the sulfydryl group without H of neutral C4H4 (COOH)SH molecule. Competitive adsorption of negative valence C4H4 (COO-) SH and OH- may bring non-SERS under the strong base condition. At the same time, the sulfydryl group significantly influenced the carboxyl vibration peak's change and the distribution of electron cloud of benzene ring conjugate system. PMID:24369647

Liu, Wen-han; Yuan, Rong-hui; Teng, Yuan-jie; Qin, Yan-ping; Pan, Zai-fa; Ma, Chun-an

2013-09-01

342

Enhancement of carvedilol solubility by solid dispersion technique using cyclodextrins, water soluble polymers and hydroxyl acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim of the present work is to enhance aqueous solubility of carvedilol (CV) by solid dispersion technique using wide variety of carriers such as: ?-cyclodextrin (?CD), hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP?CD), tartaric acid (TA), polyvinyl pyrrolidone K-30 (PVP K-30) and poloxamer-407 (PLX-407). Various products of 'CV-solid dispersion' had been studied extensively in various pH conditions to check enhancement of solubility and dissolution characteristics of carvedilol. Any physical change upon interaction between CV and carriers was confirmed by instrumental analysis: XRD, DSC, FTIR and SEM. Negative change of Gibb's free energy and complexation constants (Kc, 75-240M(-1), for cyclodextrins and 1111-20,365M(-1), for PVP K-30 and PLX-407) were the evidence of stable nature of the binding between CV and carriers. 'Solubility enhancement factor' of ionized-CV was found high enough (340 times) with HP?CD in presence of TA. TA increases the binding efficiency of cyclodextrin and changing the pH of microenvironment in dissolution medium. In addition, ionization process was used to increase the apparent intrinsic solubility of drug. In vitro, dissolution time of CV was remarkably reduced in the solid dispersion system compared to that of pure drug. This may be attributed to increased wettability, dispersing ability and transformation of crystalline state of drug to amorphous one. PMID:24705456

Yuvaraja, K; Khanam, Jasmina

2014-08-01

343

Chromate enhanced visible light driven TiO? photocatalytic mechanism on Acid Orange 7 photodegradation.  

Science.gov (United States)

When hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is added to a TiO2 photocatalytic reaction, the decolorization and mineralization efficiencies of azo dyes Acid Orange 7 (AO7) are enhanced even though the mechanism is unclear. This study used 5,5-dimethyl-l-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) as the scavenger and the analysis of Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) to investigate this enhancement effect by observing the hydroxyl radical (OH) generation of the Cr(VI)/TiO2 system under UV and visible light (Vis) irradiation. With Cr(VI), the decolorization efficiencies were approximately 95% and 62% under UV and Vis, and those efficiencies were 25% less in the absence of Cr(VI). The phenomena of the DMPO-OH signals during the ESR analysis under Vis 405 and 550 nm irradiation were obviously the enhancement effects of Cr(VI) in aerobic conditions. In anoxic conditions, the catalytic effects of Cr(VI) could not be achieved due to the lack of a redox reaction between Cr(VI) and the adsorbed oxygen at the oxygen vacancy sites on the TiO2 surfaces. The results suggest that by introducing the agents of redox reactions such as chromate ions, we could lower the photoenergy of TiO2 needed and allow Vis irradiation to activate photocatalysis. PMID:24806871

Wang, Yeoung-Sheng; Shen, Jyun-Hong; Horng, Jao-Jia

2014-06-15

344

High sensitivity surface enhanced Raman scattering detection of organic molecules and amino acids  

Science.gov (United States)

Surface enhanced Raman scattering is a promising technique for high sensitivity analytical applications. However, there are issues which have to be addressed in order to make SERS a reliable technique such as the optimization of conditions for any given analyte, understanding the kinetic processes of binding of the target molecules to the nanostructures and understanding the evolution and coagulation of the nanostructures, in the case of colloidal solutions. The background electrolyte is a very important factor in SERS experiments. Here we report a detailed study of the influence of the addition of different types of electrolytes on the amplitude and kinetics of the SERS signal in silver colloids. Different amino acids and organic dyes were used as test molecules in the concentration range of 10-8 to 10-4 M. We found that a new proposed electrolyte containing HCO3, CO3, Cl and SO4 ions provides very high enhancement of Raman signal in organic molecules we studied. The advantages of the composite electrolyte are especially noticeable at low concentration of tryptophan where we observed 108 enhancement of Raman signal, approximately 300 times larger than for the case of commonly used electrolyte sodium chloride.

Kandakkathara, A.; Utkin, I.; Fedosejevs, R.

345

Flow Boiling Critical Heat Flux Enhancement with Tri Sodium Phosphate and Boric Acid Solution in the Tube  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a nuclear power plant, the cooling water is used to remove the decay heat and the safety system such as safety injection system (SIS) and cavity flooding system (CFS) has the cooling water including boric acid. During severe accident, tri sodium phosphate (TSP, Na3PO4·12H2O) is utilized to maintain pH in water within reactor containment. In this study, the purpose is to investigate the critical heat flux (CHF) characteristic of boric acid and TSP solution. In previous studies, Lee et al. and Jeong et al. have reported that boric acid and TSP solution can enhance CHF on a tube. This study examines CHF enhancement on a tube with mixture solution of boric acid and TSP as well as boric acid and TSP solution

346

Update on marine omega-3 fatty acids: management of dyslipidemia and current omega-3 treatment options.  

Science.gov (United States)

Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is currently the primary target in the management of dyslipidemia, and statins are first-line pharmacologic interventions. Adjunct therapy such as niacins, fibrates, bile acid sequestrants, or cholesterol absorption inhibitors may be considered to help reduce cardiovascular risk. This review discusses the need for alternative adjunct treatment options and the potential place for omega-3 fatty acids as such. The cardiovascular benefits of fish consumption are attributed to the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and a variety of omega-3 fatty acid products are available with varied amounts of EPA and DHA. The product types include prescription drugs, food supplements, and medical foods sourced from fish, krill, algal and plant oils or purified from these oils. Two prescription omega-3 fatty acids are currently available, omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters (contains both EPA and DHA ethyl esters), and icosapent ethyl (IPE; contains high-purity EPA ethyl ester). A pharmaceutical containing free fatty acid forms of omega-3 is currently in development. Omega-3 fatty acid formulations containing EPA and DHA have been shown to increase LDL-C levels while IPE has been shown to lower triglyceride levels without raising LDL-C levels, alone or in combination with statin therapy. In addition, recent studies have not been able to demonstrate reduced cardiovascular risk following treatment with fibrates, niacins, cholesterol absorption inhibitors, or omega-3 fatty acid formulations containing both EPA and DHA in statin-treated patients; thus, there remains a need for further cardiovascular outcomes studies for adjunct therapy. PMID:24075771

Weintraub, Howard

2013-10-01

347

Regeneration of membrane sialic acid after neuraminidase treatment of leukemic granulocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Granulocytes from patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) were studied for their ability to regenerate surface sialic acid following treatment with Vibrio cholera neuraminidase (VCN) in vitro. Immediately after neuraminidase treatment, CML and normal granulocytes showed similar incorporation of radioactivity after surface labelling with sodium periodate/potassium-H3-borohydride (PI/BH3(4)). CML granulocytes treated with neuraminidase then incubated for 18 h in nutrient medium showed strikingly increased PI/BH3(4) labelling, usually greater than initial pretreatment values, consistent with a rapid reappearance of sialic acid in the cell membrane. This pattern was not seen in normal granulocytes. The aberrant regeneration of sialic acid in CML granulocytes in vitro could be inhibited by addition of 3 X 10(-6) M retinoic acid, suggesting either a direct effect on membrane glycoconjugate synthesis or an association with granulocyte differentiation. PMID:3858613

Taub, R N; Hindenburg, A A; Baker, M A

1985-01-01

348

Skeletal Cell Differentiation Is Enhanced by Atmospheric Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

Enhancing chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation is of paramount importance in providing effective regenerative therapies and improving the rate of fracture healing. This study investigated the potential of non-thermal atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge plasma (NT-plasma) to enhance chondrocyte and osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. Although the exact mechanism by which NT-plasma interacts with cells is undefined, it is known that during treatment the atmosphere is ionized generating extracellular reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) and an electric field. Appropriate NT-plasma conditions were determined using lactate-dehydrogenase release, flow cytometric live/dead assay, flow cytometric cell cycle analysis, and Western blots to evaluate DNA damage and mitochondrial integrity. We observed that specific NT-plasma conditions were required to prevent cell death, and that loss of pre-osteoblastic cell viability was dependent on intracellular ROS and RNS production. To further investigate the involvement of intracellular ROS, fluorescent intracellular dyes Mitosox (superoxide) and dihydrorhodamine (peroxide) were used to assess onset and duration after NT-plasma treatment. Both intracellular superoxide and peroxide were found to increase immediately post NT-plasma treatment. These increases were sustained for one hour but returned to control levels by 24 hr. Using the same treatment conditions, osteogenic differentiation by NT-plasma was assessed and compared to peroxide or osteogenic media containing ?-glycerolphosphate. Although both NT-plasma and peroxide induced differentiation-specific gene expression, neither was as effective as the osteogenic media. However, treatment of cells with NT-plasma after 24 hr in osteogenic or chondrogenic media significantly enhanced differentiation as compared to differentiation media alone. The results of this study show that NT-plasma can selectively initiate and amplify ROS signaling to enhance differentiation, and suggest this technology could be used to enhance bone fusion and improve healing after skeletal injury. PMID:24349203

Zhang, Jun; Kurpad, Deepa S.; Fridman, Gregory; Fridman, Alexander; Freeman, Theresa A.

2013-01-01

349

Enhanced tumor control following sequential treatments of photodynamic therapy (PDT) and localized microwave hyperthermia in vivo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Photodynamic therapy (PDT), or photoradiation therapy (PRT), utilizing hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) as photosensitizer and an argon-dye laser system as the light source, was used alone and in combination with localized microwave hyperthermia (2450 MHz) to treat axillary tumors of the SMT-F mammary carcinoma in mice. Thirty-minute heat treatments were applied either immediately before or immediately after a standard PDT treatment of 630 nm light at 75 mW/cm2 for 30 min (135 J/cm2) given 24 hr post-7.5 mg/kg HPD, intraperitoneally (i.p.). Tumor control as judged by lack of tumor regrowth 35 days or longer after the combined treatments was compared to that following each treatment when given alone. Little or no enhancement of tumor control was seen when sublethal temperatures of 37.5, 38.5, and 39.5 degrees C were applied for 30 min immediately following the PDT treatment. However, increasing levels of enhancement were seen when heat treatments of 40.5 and 41.5 degrees C or 44.5 degrees C, given for 30 min, were applied immediately before or after the photodynamic treatment. PMID:6235420

Waldow, S M; Henderson, B W; Dougherty, T J

1984-01-01

350

Phytic acid as a potential treatment for Alzheimer's pathology: evidence from animal and in vitro models  

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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) causes progressive age-dependent cortical and hippocampal dysfunctions leading to abnormal intellectual capacity and memory. We propose a novel protective treatment for AD pathology with phytic acid (inositol hexakisphosphate), a phytochemical found in food grains and a key signaling molecule in mammalian cells. We evaluated the protective and beneficial effects of phytic acid against amyloid beta pathology in MC65 cells and the Tg2576 mouse model. In MC65 cells, 48...

Anekonda, Thimmappa S.; Wadsworth, Teri L.; Sabin, Robert; Frahler, Kate; Harris, Christopher; Petriko, Babett; Ralle, Martina; Woltjer, Randy; Quinn, Joseph F.

2011-01-01

351

Some biochemical reactions of strawberry plants to infection with Botrytis cinerea and salicylic acid treatment  

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Full Text Available The reactions of strawberry plants to infection with B. cinerea and treatment with salicylic acid has been studied. Infection of leaves with B. cinerea resulted in early increases in active oxygen species generation, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities and phenolic compounds content. Some increases of the above reactions were noticed in plants treated with salicylic acid but not in the plants treated with SA and then later infected with B. cinerea.

Urszula Ma?olepsza

1994-12-01

352

Salicylic acid in karaya gum patch as a treatment for verruca vulgaris.  

Science.gov (United States)

A clinical study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a new delivery system for administering salicylic acid for the treatment of verruca vulgaris. The study compared wart resolution among volunteers who used karaya gum patches. The cure rate was 69% for warts treated with patches containing salicylic acid, which was significantly higher (p less than 0.01) than for warts treated with control patches (35%). PMID:2643641

Bart, B J; Biglow, J; Vance, J C; Neveaux, J L

1989-01-01

353

Tranexamic acid for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding: efficacy and safety.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tranexamic acid has proven to be an effective treatment for heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB). It reduces menstrual blood loss (MBL) by 26%-60% and is significantly more effective than placebo, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, oral cyclical luteal phase progestins, or oral etamsylate, while the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system reduces MBL more than tranexamic acid. Other treatments used for HMB are oral contraceptives, danazol, and surgical interventions (endometrial ablation and hysterectomy). Medical therapy is usually considered a first-line treatment for idiopathic HMB. Tranexamic acid significantly improves the quality of life of women treated for HMB. The recommended oral dosage is 3.9-4 g/day for 4-5 days starting from the first day of the menstrual cycle. Adverse effects are few and mainly mild. No evidence exists of an increase in the incidence of thrombotic events associated with its use. An active thromboembolic disease is a contraindication. In the US, a history of thrombosis or thromboembolism, or an intrinsic risk for thrombosis or thromboembolism are considered contraindications as well. This review focuses on the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid in the treatment of idiopathic HMB. We searched for medical literature published in English on tranexamic acid from Ovid Medline, PubMed, and Cinahl. Additional references were identified from the reference lists of articles. Ovid Medline, PubMed, and Cinahl search terms were "tranexamic acid" and "menorrhagia" or "heavy menstrual bleeding." Searches were last updated on March 25, 2012. Studies with women receiving tranexamic acid for HMB were included; randomized controlled studies with a description of appropriate statistical methodology were preferred. Relevant data on the physiology of menstruation and the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of tranexamic acid are also included. PMID:22956886

Leminen, Henri; Hurskainen, Ritva

2012-01-01

354

Discovery of TUG-770: A Highly Potent Free Fatty Acid Receptor 1 (FFA1/GPR40) Agonist for Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1 or GPR40) enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic ?-cells and currently attracts high interest as a new target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. We here report the discovery of a highly potent FFA1 agonist with favorable physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. The compound efficiently normalizes glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese mice, an effect that is fully sustained after 29 days of chronic dosing. PMID:23687558

Christiansen, Elisabeth; Hansen, Steffen V F; Urban, Christian; Hudson, Brian D; Wargent, Edward T; Grundmann, Manuel; Jenkins, Laura; Zaibi, Mohamed; Stocker, Claire J; Ullrich, Susanne; Kostenis, Evi; Kassack, Matthias U; Milligan, Graeme; Cawthorne, Michael A; Ulven, Trond

2013-05-01

355

Discovery of TUG-770 : A Highly Potent Free Fatty Acid Receptor 1 (FFA1/GPR40) Agonist for Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1 or GPR40) enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic ?-cells and currently attracts high interest as a new target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. We here report the discovery of a highly potent FFA1 agonist with favorable physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. The compound efficiently normalizes glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese mice, an effect that is fully sustained after 29 days of chronic dosing.

Christiansen, Elisabeth; Hansen, Steffen V F

2013-01-01

356

Comparative study of thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic treatment of purified terephthalic acid (PTA wastewater  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper provides a critical comparison between mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic treatment of PTA wastewater through diagnosis of a case study. Aspects covered are bioavailability, biodegradability, microbial population, thermodynamics, kinetics involved and bio-reactor design for PTA wastewater treatment. The results of the case study suggests that one- stage thermophilic anaerobic reactor coupled with coagulation-flocculation pre-treatment unit and an aerobic post treatment unit could be techno-economically viable for PTA wastewater treatment to ensure that the final effluent quality conforms to the international standard. The in-formation emanated from this study could be useful and thought provoking to the professionals and academia in the area of PTA wastewater treatment and can serve as impetus toward the development of research lines in similar problems like the treatment of other petrochemical wastewater such as phenol-con- taining wastewater, benzene/benzoic acid-con- taining wastewater or wastewater from other similar industrial settings.

Adeniyi G. Adeogun

2011-05-01

357

Retinoic acid enhances skeletal muscle progenitor formation and bypasses inhibition by bone morphogenetic protein 4 but not dominant negative ?-catenin  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding stem cell differentiation is essential for the future design of cell therapies. While retinoic acid (RA is the most potent small molecule enhancer of skeletal myogenesis in stem cells, the stage and mechanism of its function has not yet been elucidated. Further, the intersection of RA with other signalling pathways that stimulate or inhibit myogenesis (such as Wnt and BMP4, respectively is unknown. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the molecular mechanisms by which RA enhances skeletal myogenesis and interacts with Wnt and BMP4 signalling during P19 or mouse embryonic stem (ES cell differentiation. Results Treatment of P19 or mouse ES cells with low levels of RA led to an enhancement of skeletal myogenesis by upregulating the expression of the mesodermal marker, Wnt3a, the skeletal muscle progenitor factors Pax3 and Meox1, and the myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs MyoD and myogenin. By chromatin immunoprecipitation, RA receptors (RARs bound directly to regulatory regions in the Wnt3a, Pax3, and Meox1 genes and RA activated a ?-catenin-responsive promoter in aggregated P19 cells. In the presence of a dominant negative ?-catenin/engrailed repressor fusion protein, RA could not bypass the inhibition of skeletal myogenesis nor upregulate Meox1 or MyoD. Thus, RA functions both upstream and downstream of Wnt signalling. In contrast, it functions downstream of BMP4, as it abrogates BMP4 inhibition of myogenesis and Meox1, Pax3, and MyoD expression. Furthermore, RA downregulated BMP4 expression and upregulated the BMP4 inhibitor, Tob1. Finally, RA inhibited cardiomyogenesis but not in the presence of BMP4. Conclusion RA can enhance skeletal myogenesis in stem cells at the muscle specification/progenitor stage by activating RARs bound directly to mesoderm and skeletal muscle progenitor genes, activating ?-catenin function and inhibiting bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signalling. Thus, a signalling pathway can function at multiple levels to positively regulate a developmental program and can function by abrogating inhibitory pathways. Finally, since RA enhances skeletal muscle progenitor formation, it will be a valuable tool for designing future stem cell therapies.

Karamboulas Christina

2009-10-01

358

Inhibition of acid hydrolase activity in human granulocytes by PUVA treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The activity of acid hydrolases in peripheral blood granulocytes was determined. No significant differences could be revealed between healthy and psoriatic donors. During PUVA therapy of psoriasis patients the activity of acid hydrolases in granulocytes was moderately decreased in most cases, but the differences were not significant (high individual variability). Isolated granulocytes were treated in vitro with doses of 8-methoxypsoralen and UVA light as can be achieved in situ in the epidermis during PUVA therapy. A reduced acid hydrolases activity was found in the cells after the treatment, which was not due to secretion of the enzyme or cytotoxic damage. The presence of reduced glutathione prevented this effect. Free extracellular acid hydrolases were not inactivated by PUVA. PUVA-treated granulocytes showed an unimpaired superoxide generation after phagocytic stimulation. These results show that an intracellular inactivation of acid hydrolases and possibly other lysosomal enzymes in granulocytes infiltrating the psoriatic epidermis contribute to the antipsoriatic effects of PUVA therapy. (author)

359

Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} enhances fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes and GPDH activity in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation also increased insulin-dependent glucose uptake in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation did not affect lipid accumulation in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased fatty acid oxidation through induction of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in human adipocytes. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) is a key regulator for maintaining whole-body energy balance. However, the physiological functions of PPAR{alpha} in adipocytes have been unclarified. We examined the functions of PPAR{alpha} using human multipotent adipose tissue-derived stem cells as a human adipocyte model. Activation of PPAR{alpha} by GW7647, a potent PPAR{alpha} agonist, increased the mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes such as PPAR{gamma}, adipocyte-specific fatty acid-binding protein, and lipoprotein lipase and increased both GPDH activity and insulin-dependent glucose uptake level. The findings indicate that PPAR{alpha} activation stimulates adipocyte differentiation. However, lipid accumulation was not changed, which is usually observed when PPAR{gamma} is activated. On the other hand, PPAR{alpha} activation by GW7647 treatment induced the mRNA expression of fatty acid oxidation-related genes such as CPT-1B and AOX in a PPAR{alpha}-dependent manner. Moreover, PPAR{alpha} activation increased the production of CO{sub 2} and acid soluble metabolites, which are products of fatty acid oxidation, and increased oxygen consumption rate in human adipocytes. The data indicate that activation of PPAR{alpha} stimulates both adipocyte differentiation and fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes, suggesting that PPAR{alpha} agonists could improve insulin resistance without lipid accumulation in adipocytes. The expected effects of PPAR{alpha} activation are very valuable for managing diabetic conditions accompanied by obesity, because PPAR{gamma} agonists, usually used as antidiabetic drugs, induce excessive lipid accumulation in adipocytes in addition to improvement of insulin resistance.

Lee, Joo-Young; Hashizaki, Hikari; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Sakamoto, Tomoya; Takahashi, Nobuyuki [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kawada, Teruo, E-mail: fat@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

2011-04-22

360

Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB for the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB is a short-chain fatty acid structurally similar to the inhibitory neurotransmitter ?-aminobutyric acid. Clinical trials have demonstrated that 50-100 mg/kg of GHB fractioned into three or six daily doses is able to suppress alcohol withdrawal symptoms and facilitates the maintenance of abstinence from alcohol. These studies have also shown that GHB craving episodes are a very limited phenomenon (about 10-15%. Thus, physicians with access should consider the clinical efficacy of GHB as a valid pharmacological tool for the treatment of alcohol addiction.

Mauro Bernardi

2009-06-01

 
 
 
 
361

Effect of thermal, chemical and thermo-chemical pre-treatments to enhance methane production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The rise in oil price triggered the exploration and enhancement of various renewable energy sources. Producing biogas from organic waste is not only providing a clean sustainable indigenous fuel to the number of on-farm digesters in Europe, but also reducing the ecological and environmental deterioration. The lignocellulosic substrates are not completely biodegraded in anaerobic digesters operating at commercial scale due to their complex physical and chemical structure, which result in meager energy recovery in terms of methane yield. The focus of this study is to investigate the effect of pre-treatments: thermal, thermo-chemical and chemical pre-treatments on the biogas and methane potential of dewatered pig manure. A laboratory scale batch digester is used for these pre-treatments at different temperature range (25 degrees C-150 degrees C). Results showed that thermo-chemical pretreatment has high effect on biogas and methane potential in the temperature range (25-100 degrees C). Maximum enhancement is observed at 70 degrees C with increase of 78% biogas and 60% methane production. Thermal pretreatment also showed enhancement in the temperature range (50-10 degrees C), with maximum enhancement at 100 degrees C having 28% biogas and 25% methane increase. Crown Copyright (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Rafique, Rashad; Poulsen, Tjalfe

2010-01-01

362

Disruption of Crosstalk Between the Fatty Acid Synthesis and Proteasome Pathways Enhances Unfolded Protein Response Signaling and Cell Death  

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Fatty Acid Synthase (FASN) is the terminal enzyme responsible for fatty acid synthesis and is upregulated in tumors of various origins to facilitate their growth and progression. Because of several reports linking the fatty acid synthase and proteasome pathways, we asked whether FASN inhibitors could combine with bortezomib, the FDA-approved proteasome inhibitor, to amplify cell death. Indeed, bortezomib treatment augmented sub-optimal FASN inhibitor concentrations to reduce clonogenic surviv...

Little, Joy L.; Wheeler, Frances B.; Koumenis, Constantinos; Kridel, Steven J.

2008-01-01

363

Endoplasmic reticulum-located PDAT1-2 from castor bean enhances hydroxy fatty acid accumulation in transgenic plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ricinoleic acid (12-hydroxy-octadeca-9-enoic acid) is a major unusual fatty acid in castor oil. This hydroxy fatty acid is useful in industrial materials. This unusual fatty acid accumulates in triacylglycerol (TAG) in the seeds of the castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), even though it is synthesized in phospholipids, which indicates that the castor plant has an editing enzyme, which functions as a phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT) that is specific to ricinoleic acid. Transgenic plants containing fatty acid ?12-hydroxylase encoded by the castor bean FAH12 gene produce a limited amount of hydroxy fatty acid, a maximum of around 17% of TAGs present in Arabidopsis seeds, and this unusual fatty acid remains in phospholipids of cell membranes in seeds. Identification of ricinoleate-specific PDAT from castor bean and manipulation of the phospholipid editing system in transgenic plants will enhance accumulation of the hydroxy fatty acid in transgenic seeds. The castor plant has three PDAT genes; PDAT1-1 and PDAT2 are homologs of PDAT, which are commonly found in plants; however, PDAT1-2 is newly grouped as a castor bean-specific gene. PDAT1-2 is expressed in developing seeds and localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, similar to FAH12, indicating its involvement in conversion of ricinoleic acid into TAG. PDAT1-2 significantly enhances accumulation of total hydroxy fatty acid up to 25%, with a significant increase in castor-like oil, 2-OH TAG, in seeds of transgenic Arabidopsis, which is an identification of the key gene for oilseed engineering in production of unusual fatty acids. PMID:21659329

Kim, Hyun Uk; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Go, Young Sam; Jung, Jin Hee; Suh, Mi-Chung; Kim, Jong Bum

2011-06-01

364

Stimulation of G protein-coupled bile acid receptor enhances vascular endothelial barrier function via activation of protein kinase A and Rac1.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bile acids are end products of cholesterol metabolism, and they constantly exist at high concentrations in the blood. Since vascular endothelial cells express G protein-coupled bile acid receptor (GPBAR), bile acids potentially modulate endothelial function. Here, we investigated whether and how GPBAR agonism affects endothelial barrier function. In bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs), treatment with a GPBAR agonist, taurolithocholic acid (TLCA) increased the transendothelial electrical resistance. In addition, TLCA suppressed the thrombin-induced dextran infiltration through the endothelial monolayer. Knockdown of GPBAR abolished the inhibitory effect of TLCA on hyperpermeability. These results indicate that stimulation of GPBAR enhances endothelial barrier function. TLCA increased intracellular cAMP production in BAECs. Inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) or Rac1 significantly attenuated the TLCA-induced endothelial barrier protection. TLCA induced cortical actin polymerization, which was attenuated by a Rac1 inhibitor. In vivo, local administration of TLCA into the mouse ear significantly inhibited vascular leakage and edema formation induced by croton oil or vascular endothelial growth factor. These results indicate that stimulation of GPBAR enhances endothelial barrier function by cAMP/PKA/Rac1-dependent cytoskeletal rearrangement. PMID:24144793

Kida, Taiki; Omori, Keisuke; Hori, Masatoshi; Ozaki, Hiroshi; Murata, Takahisa

2014-01-01

365

Surface plasma treatment of poly(caprolactone) micro, nano, and multiscale fibrous scaffolds for enhanced osteoconductivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, poly(caprolactone) (PCL) was electrospun to nano, micro, and multiscale (micro-nano) fibers, which were then subjected to low pressure argon and nitrogen plasma treatment. The electrospun fibers contain microfibers of diameter 8-10??m and nanofibers of diameter 200-300?nm. Characterization of the plasma-treated fibers showed that treatment using less oxidizing gas like nitrogen and inert gas like argon functionalize the surface with polar groups that significantly modify the properties of the scaffold. Highly hydrophobic PCL fibrous scaffolds were rendered hydrophilic, with significantly improved biomineralization after the plasma treatment. While plasma treatment on micro and multiscale fibers enhanced their protein adsorption, cell attachment, spreading, elongation, and proliferation, nanofibers showed remarkably improved cell attachment. The applicability of plasma-treated electrospun fibers for differentiation of mesenchymal st