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Sample records for acid treatment enhances

  1. Enhanced blood compatibility of metallocene polyethylene subjected to hydrochloric acid treatment for cardiovascular implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Mohandas, Hemanth; Sivakumar, Gunalan; Kasi, Palaniappan; Sudheer, Theertha; Avineri Veetil, Sruthi; Murugesan, Selvakumar; Supriyanto, Eko

    2014-01-01

    Blood compatibility of metallocene polyethylene (mPE) was investigated after modifying the surface using hydrochloric acid. Contact angle of the mPE exposed to HCl poses a decrease in its value which indicates increasing wettability and better blood compatibility. Surface of mPE analyzed by using FTIR revealed no significant changes in its functional groups after treatment. Furthermore, scanning electron microscope images supported the increasing wettability through the modifications like pit formations and etching on the acid rendered surface. To evaluate the effect of acid treatment on the coagulation cascade, prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were measured. Both PT and APTT were delayed significantly (P < 0.05) after 60 min exposure implying improved blood compatibility of the surfaces. Hemolysis assay of the treated surface showed a remarkable decrease in the percentage of lysis of red blood cells when compared with untreated surface. Moreover, platelet adhesion assay demonstrated that HCl exposed surfaces deter the attachment of platelets and thereby reduce the chances of activation of blood coagulation cascade. These results confirmed the enhanced blood compatibility of mPE after HCl exposure which can be utilized for cardiovascular implants like artificial vascular prostheses, implants, and various blood contacting devices. PMID:24955370

  2. Methylseleninic Acid Enhances Paclitaxel Efficacy for the Treatment of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Yanfeng; Fu, Xueqi; Xiong, Zhenggang; Zhang, Haitao; Hill, Steven. M.; Rowan, Brian G.; Dong, Yan

    2012-01-01

    A major challenge in breast cancer therapy is the lack of an effective therapeutic option for a particularly aggressive subtype of breast cancer, triple-negative breast cancer. Here we provide the first preclinical evidence that a second-generation selenium compound, methylseleninic acid, significantly enhances the anticancer efficacy of paclitaxel in triple-negative breast cancer. Through combination-index value calculation, we demonstrated that methylseleninic acid synergistically enhanced ...

  3. Osteoconduction of porous Ti metal enhanced by acid and heat treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Toshiyuki; Takemoto, Mitsuru; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Pattanayak, Deepak K; Doi, Kenji; Matsushita, Tomiharu; Nakamura, Takashi; Kokubo, Tadashi; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2013-07-01

    Bone ingrowth into porous Ti metal is important for stable fixation of Ti metal implants to surrounding bone. However, without surface treatment this is limited to only a thin region of the outer surface of the Ti metal. In the present study, a porous Ti metal with a porosity of ~60 % and interpore connections of 70-200 micrometers in diameter was investigated in terms of its chemical and heat treatments, by implanting it into rabbit femur for periods varying from 3 to 12 weeks. The porous Ti metal subjected to heat treatment at 600 °C after H2SO4/HCl mixed acid treatment showed the largest bone ingrowth in comparison with those subjected to no treatment, only acid treatment, and only heat treatment even at an early stage after implantation, and remained as such even 12 weeks after implantation. Their bone ingrowths were well interpreted in terms of apatite-forming abilities of the Ti metals in body environment. Their apatite-forming abilities did not depend upon their surface roughness nor type of crystalline phase, but upon the positive surface charge. PMID:23532383

  4. Enhanced Blood Compatibility of Metallocene Polyethylene Subjected to Hydrochloric Acid Treatment for Cardiovascular Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Saravana Kumar Jaganathan; Hemanth Mohandas; Gunalan Sivakumar; Palaniappan Kasi; Theertha Sudheer; Sruthi Avineri Veetil; Selvakumar Murugesan; Eko Supriyanto

    2014-01-01

    Blood compatibility of metallocene polyethylene (mPE) was investigated after modifying the surface using hydrochloric acid. Contact angle of the mPE exposed to HCl poses a decrease in its value which indicates increasing wettability and better blood compatibility. Surface of mPE analyzed by using FTIR revealed no significant changes in its functional groups after treatment. Furthermore, scanning electron microscope images supported the increasing wettability through the modifications like pit...

  5. Enhanced Photocatalytic Performance of ZnS for Reversible Amination of ?-oxo Acids by Hydrothermal Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Qiliang; Liu, Xiaoyang; Yang, Yanqiang; Su, Wenhui

    2012-08-01

    To understand how life could have originated on early Earth, it is essential to know what biomolecules and metabolic pathways are shared by extant organisms and what organic compounds and their chemical reaction channels were likely to have been primordially available during the initial phase of the formation of prebiotic metabolism. In a previous study, we demonstrated for the first time the reversible amination of ?-oxo acids on the surface of photo-illuminated ZnS. The sulfide mineral is a typical component at the periphery of submarine hydrothermal vents which has been frequently argued as a very attractive venue for the origin of life. In this work, in order to simulate more closely the precipitation environments of ZnS in the vent systems, we treated newly-precipitated ZnS with hydrothermal conditions and found that its photocatalytic power was significantly enhanced because the relative crystallinity of the treated sample was markedly increased with increasing temperature. Since the reported experimental conditions are believed to have been prevalent in shallow-water hydrothermal vents of early Earth and the reversible amination of ?-oxo acids is a key metabolic pathway in all extant life forms, the results of this work provide a prototypical model of the prebiotic amino acid redox metabolism. The amino acid dehydrogenase-like chemistry on photo-irradiated ZnS surfaces may advance our understanding of the establishment of archaic non-enzymatic metabolic systems.

  6. Enhanced suppression of tumor growth by concomitant treatment of human lung cancer cells with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid and arsenic trioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficacy of arsenic trioxide (ATO) against acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and relapsed APL has been well documented. ATO may cause DNA damage by generating reactive oxygen intermediates. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, modulates gene and protein expression via histone-dependent or -independent pathways that may result in chromatin decondensation, cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis. We investigated whether ATO and SAHA act synergistically to enhance the death of cancer cells. Our current findings showed that combined treatment with ATO and SAHA resulted in enhanced suppression of non-small-cell lung carcinoma in vitro in H1299 cells and in vivo in a xenograft mouse model. Flow cytometric analysis of annexin V+ cells showed that apoptotic cell death was significantly enhanced after combined treatment with ATO and SAHA. At the doses used, ATO did not interfere with cell cycle progression, but SAHA induced p21 expression and led to G1 arrest. A Comet assay demonstrated that ATO, but not SAHA, induced DNA strand breaks in H1299 cells; however, co-treatment with SAHA significantly increased ATO-induced DNA damage. Moreover, SAHA enhanced acetylation of histone H3 and sensitized genomic DNA to DNase I digestion. Our results suggest that SAHA may cause chromatin relaxation and increase cellular susceptibility to ATO-induced DNA damage. Combined administration of SAHA and ATO may be an effective approach to the treatment of lung cancer. -- Highlights: ? ATO and SAHA are therapeutic agents with different action modes. ? Combination of ATO and SAHA synergistically inhibits tumor cell growth. ? SAHA loosens chromatin structure resulting in increased sensitivity to DNase I. ? ATO-induced DNA damage and apoptosis are enhanced by co-treatment with SAHA.

  7. Enhanced suppression of tumor growth by concomitant treatment of human lung cancer cells with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid and arsenic trioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, Chia-Wen [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 11490, Taiwan (China); Yao, Ju-Hsien [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Institute of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan (China); Chang, Shih-Yu [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Lee, Pei-Chih [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Institute of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan (China); Lee, Te-Chang, E-mail: bmtcl@ibms.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Institute of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan (China)

    2011-11-15

    The efficacy of arsenic trioxide (ATO) against acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and relapsed APL has been well documented. ATO may cause DNA damage by generating reactive oxygen intermediates. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, modulates gene and protein expression via histone-dependent or -independent pathways that may result in chromatin decondensation, cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis. We investigated whether ATO and SAHA act synergistically to enhance the death of cancer cells. Our current findings showed that combined treatment with ATO and SAHA resulted in enhanced suppression of non-small-cell lung carcinoma in vitro in H1299 cells and in vivo in a xenograft mouse model. Flow cytometric analysis of annexin V+ cells showed that apoptotic cell death was significantly enhanced after combined treatment with ATO and SAHA. At the doses used, ATO did not interfere with cell cycle progression, but SAHA induced p21 expression and led to G1 arrest. A Comet assay demonstrated that ATO, but not SAHA, induced DNA strand breaks in H1299 cells; however, co-treatment with SAHA significantly increased ATO-induced DNA damage. Moreover, SAHA enhanced acetylation of histone H3 and sensitized genomic DNA to DNase I digestion. Our results suggest that SAHA may cause chromatin relaxation and increase cellular susceptibility to ATO-induced DNA damage. Combined administration of SAHA and ATO may be an effective approach to the treatment of lung cancer. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATO and SAHA are therapeutic agents with different action modes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination of ATO and SAHA synergistically inhibits tumor cell growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SAHA loosens chromatin structure resulting in increased sensitivity to DNase I. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATO-induced DNA damage and apoptosis are enhanced by co-treatment with SAHA.

  8. O-6-methylguanine-deoxyribonucleic acid methyltransferase methylation enhances response to temozolomide treatment in esophageal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifat Hasina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: World-wide, esophageal cancer is a growing epidemic and patients frequently present with advanced disease that is surgically inoperable. Hence, chemotherapy is the predominate treatment. Cytotoxic platinum compounds are mostly used, but their efficacy is only moderate. Newer alkylating agents have shown promise in other tumor types, but little is known about their utility in esophageal cancer. Methods: We utilized archived human esophageal cancer samples and esophageal cancer cell lines to evaluate O-6-methylguanine-deoxyribonucleic acid methyltransferase (MGMT hypermethylation status and determined sensitivity to the alkylating drug temozolomide (TMZ. Immunoblot analysis was performed to determine MGMT protein expression in cell lines. To assess and confirm the effect of TMZ treatment in a methylated esophageal cancer cell line in vivo, a mouse flank xenograft tumor model was utilized. Results: Nearly 71% (12/17 of adenocarcinoma and 38% (3/8 of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC patient samples were MGMT hypermethylated. Out of four adenocarcinoma and nine SCC cell lines tested, one of each histology was hypermethylated. Immunoblot analyses confirmed that hypermethylated cell lines did not express the MGMT protein. In vitro cell viability assays showed the methylated Kyse-140 and FLO cells to be sensitive to TMZ at an IC 50 of 52-420 ?M, whereas unmethylated cells Kyse-410 and SKGT-4 did not respond. In an in vivo xenograft tumor model with Kyse-140 cells, which are MGMT hypermethylated, TMZ treatment abrogated tumor growth by more than 60%. Conclusion: MGMT methylation may be an important biomarker in subsets of esophageal cancers and targeting by TMZ may be utilized to successfully treat these patients.

  9. Plasma treatment induces internal surface modifications of electrospun poly(L-lactic) acid scaffold to enhance protein coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced biomaterials should also be bioactive with regard to desirable cellular responses, such as selective protein adsorption and cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. To enhance cell-material interactions, surface modifications have commonly been performed. Among the various surface modification approaches, atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma has been used to change a hydrophobic polymer surface to a hydrophilic surface. Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA)-derived scaffolds lack cell recognition signals and the hydrophobic nature of PLLA hinders cell seeding. To make PLLA surfaces more conducive to cell attachment and spreading, surface modifications may be used to create cell-biomaterial interfaces that elicit controlled cell adhesion and maintain differentiated phenotypes. In this study, (He) gaseous atmospheric plasma glow discharge was used to change the characteristics of a 3D-type polymeric scaffold from hydrophobic to hydrophilic on both the outer and inner surfaces of the scaffold and the penetration efficiency with fibronectin was investigated. Field-emission scanning electron microscope images showed that some grooves were formed on the PLLA fibers after plasma treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data also showed chemical changes in the PLLA structure. After plasma treatment, -CN (285.76 eV) was increased in C1s and -NH2 (399.70 eV) was increased significantly and –N=CH (400.80 eV) and –NH3+ (402.05 eV) were newly appeared in N1s. These changes allowed fibronectin to penetrate into the PLLA scaffold; this could be observed by confocal microscopy. In conclusion, helium atmospheric pressure plasma treatment was effective in modifying the polymeric scaffold, making it hydrophilic, and this treatment can also be used in tissue engineering research as needed to make polymers hydrophilic

  10. Plasma treatment induces internal surface modifications of electrospun poly(L-lactic) acid scaffold to enhance protein coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Seo, Hyok; Hee Lee, Mi; Kwon, Byeong-Ju; Kim, Hye-Lee; Park, Jong-Chul [Cellbiocontrol Laboratory, Department of Medical Engineering, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Jin Lee, Seung [Department of Industrial Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bong-Jin; Wang, Kang-Kyun; Kim, Yong-Rok [Department of Chemistry, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-21

    Advanced biomaterials should also be bioactive with regard to desirable cellular responses, such as selective protein adsorption and cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. To enhance cell-material interactions, surface modifications have commonly been performed. Among the various surface modification approaches, atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma has been used to change a hydrophobic polymer surface to a hydrophilic surface. Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA)-derived scaffolds lack cell recognition signals and the hydrophobic nature of PLLA hinders cell seeding. To make PLLA surfaces more conducive to cell attachment and spreading, surface modifications may be used to create cell-biomaterial interfaces that elicit controlled cell adhesion and maintain differentiated phenotypes. In this study, (He) gaseous atmospheric plasma glow discharge was used to change the characteristics of a 3D-type polymeric scaffold from hydrophobic to hydrophilic on both the outer and inner surfaces of the scaffold and the penetration efficiency with fibronectin was investigated. Field-emission scanning electron microscope images showed that some grooves were formed on the PLLA fibers after plasma treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data also showed chemical changes in the PLLA structure. After plasma treatment, -CN (285.76 eV) was increased in C1s and -NH{sub 2} (399.70 eV) was increased significantly and –N=CH (400.80 eV) and –NH{sub 3}{sup +} (402.05 eV) were newly appeared in N1s. These changes allowed fibronectin to penetrate into the PLLA scaffold; this could be observed by confocal microscopy. In conclusion, helium atmospheric pressure plasma treatment was effective in modifying the polymeric scaffold, making it hydrophilic, and this treatment can also be used in tissue engineering research as needed to make polymers hydrophilic.

  11. The xenobiotic ?-aminobutyric acid enhances Arabidopsis thermotolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerli, Laurent; Hou, Bi-Huei; Tsai, Chia-Hong; Jakab, Gabor; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Somerville, Shauna

    2009-01-01

    The non-protein amino acid ?-aminobutyric acid (BABA) primes Arabidopsis to respond more quickly and strongly to pathogen and osmotic stress. Here, we report that BABA also significantly enhances acquired thermotolerance in Arabidopsis. This thermotolerance was dependent on heat shock protein 101, a critical component of the normal heat-shock response. BABA did not enhance basal thermotolerance under a severe heat-shock treatment. No roles for the hormones ethylene and salicylic acid in BABA-...

  12. Facile, room-temperature pre-treatment of rice husks with tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide: Enhanced enzymatic and acid hydrolysis yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, B B Y; Luis, E T; Hossain, M M; Hart, W E S; Cencia-Lay, B; Black, J J; To, T Q; Aldous, L

    2015-12-01

    Aqueous solutions of tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide have been evaluated as pretreatment media for rice husks, prior to sulphuric acid hydrolysis or cellulase enzymatic hydrolysis. Varying the water:tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide ratio varied the rate of delignification, as well as silica, lignin and cellulose solubility. Pre-treatment with 60wt% hydroxide dissolved the rice husk and the regenerated material was thus heavily disrupted. Sulphuric acid hydrolysis of 60wt%-treated samples yielded the highest amount of glucose per gram of rice husk. Solutions with good lignin and silica solubility but only moderate to negligible cellulose solubility (10-40wt% hydroxide) were equally effective as pre-treatment media for both acid and enzymatic hydrolysis. However, pre-treatment with 60wt% hydroxide solutions was incompatible with downstream enzymatic hydrolysis. This was due to significant incorporation of phosphonium species in the regenerated biomass, which significantly inhibited the activity of the cellulase enzymes. PMID:26342336

  13. Combined free nitrous acid and hydrogen peroxide pre-treatment of waste activated sludge enhances methane production via organic molecule breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Wang, Qilin; Ye, Liu; Batstone, Damien; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-11-01

    This study presents a novel pre-treatment strategy using combined free nitrous acid (FNA i.e. HNO2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to enhance methane production from WAS, with the mechanisms investigated bio-molecularly. WAS from a full-scale plant was treated with FNA alone (1.54?mg N/L), H2O2 alone (10–80?mg/g TS), and their combinations followed by biochemical methane potential tests. Combined FNA and H2O2 pre-treatment substantially enhanced methane potential of WAS by 59–83%, compared to 13–23% and 56% with H2O2 pre-treatment alone and FNA pre-treatment alone respectively. Model-based analysis indicated the increased methane potential was mainly associated with up to 163% increase in rapidly biodegradable fraction with combined pre-treatment. The molecular weight distribution and chemical structure analyses revealed the breakdown of soluble macromolecules with the combined pre-treatment caused by the deamination and oxidation of the typical functional groups in proteins, polysaccharides and phosphodiesters. These changes likely improved the biodegradability of WAS.

  14. Combined free nitrous acid and hydrogen peroxide pre-treatment of waste activated sludge enhances methane production via organic molecule breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Wang, Qilin; Ye, Liu; Batstone, Damien; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a novel pre-treatment strategy using combined free nitrous acid (FNA i.e. HNO2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to enhance methane production from WAS, with the mechanisms investigated bio-molecularly. WAS from a full-scale plant was treated with FNA alone (1.54?mg N/L), H2O2 alone (10–80?mg/g TS), and their combinations followed by biochemical methane potential tests. Combined FNA and H2O2 pre-treatment substantially enhanced methane potential of WAS by 59–83%, compared to 13–23% and 56% with H2O2 pre-treatment alone and FNA pre-treatment alone respectively. Model-based analysis indicated the increased methane potential was mainly associated with up to 163% increase in rapidly biodegradable fraction with combined pre-treatment. The molecular weight distribution and chemical structure analyses revealed the breakdown of soluble macromolecules with the combined pre-treatment caused by the deamination and oxidation of the typical functional groups in proteins, polysaccharides and phosphodiesters. These changes likely improved the biodegradability of WAS. PMID:26565653

  15. Sec61alpha synthesis is enhanced during translocation of nascent chains of collagen type IV in F9 teratocarcinoma cells after retinoic acid treatment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L.R., Ferreira; C.E.E., Velano; E.C., Braga; C.C., Paula; H., Martéli Junior; J.J., Sauk.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nascent procollagen peptides and other secretory proteins are transported across the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane through a protein-conducting channel called translocon. Sec61alpha, a multispanning membrane translocon protein, has been implicated as being essential for translocation of polype [...] ptide chains into the cisterns of the ER. Sec61alpha forms a protein complex with collagen and Hsp47, an ER-resident heat shock protein that binds specifically to collagen. However, it is not known whether Sec61alpha is ubiquitously produced in collagen-producing F9 teratocarcinoma cells or under heat shock treatment. Furthermore, the production and utilization of Sec61alpha may depend on the stage of cell differentiation. Cultured F9 teratocarcinoma cells are capable of differentiation in response to low concentrations of retinoic acid. This differentiation results in loss of tumorigenicity. Mouse F9 cells were grown in culture medium at 37ºC and 43ºC (heat shock treatment) treated or not with retinoic acid, and labeled in certain instances with 35S-methionine. Membrane-bound polysomes of procollagen IV were then isolated. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis were performed using polyclonal antibodies against collagen IV, Hsp47 and Sec61alpha. Under retinoic acid-untreated conditions, F9 cells produced undetectable amounts of Sec61alpha. Sec61alpha, Hsp47 and type IV collagen levels were increased after retinoic acid treatment. Heat shock treatment did not alter Sec61alpha levels, suggesting that Sec61alpha production is probably not affected by heat shock. These data indicate that the enhanced production of Sec61alpha in retinoic acid-induced F9 teratocarcinoma cells parallels the increased synthesis of Hsp47 and collagen type IV.

  16. Evaluation of seed and seedling emergence enhancement of some population of Sahandy savory (Satureja sahendica) by gibberlic acid, potasium nitrate, pre-cooling, physical and chemical scarification treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, M A; Arab, H A; Tabaie, R; Nasiri, M

    2013-10-15

    In greenhouse experiment, the seed samples of 3 populations were treated with treatments including: cold stratification, Gibberlic Acid (50 ppm and 100 ppm), Potassium nitrate (0.2%, 0.4%), physical scarification (sand paper), chemical scarification (Ethylic alcohol 70%) and distilled water (control), then these treated seed samples were sown in pots as randomize design with three replication. The germination characteristics including: germination percentage, speed of germination, length of root and shoot, seedling length, ratio of root length by shoot length, vigor index, fresh weight arid dry weight, ratio of dry weight by fresh weight were evaluated during 45 days of experiment. Comparing between three populations of Sahandy savory, seed germination characteristics of the Ghazvin population was higher than the other two populations. According to effect of treatment on germination seed characteristics, the species of savory and their population, it was concluded that effect of Gibberlic Acid and Potassium nitrate was higher than physical scarification and chemical scarification comparing with control. With more effective of gibberlic acid and KNO3 and cold treatment on seed germination enhancement of the population, it was clarified that the type of dormancy of some population of Sahandy savory was physiological dormancy. PMID:24506025

  17. Evaluation of Seed and Seedling Emergence Enhancement of Some Population of Sahandy Savory (Satureja sahendica by Gibberlic Acid, Potasium Nitrate, Pre-cooling, Physical and Chemical Scarification Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tabaie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In greenhouse experiment, the seed samples of 3 populations were treated with treatments including: cold stratification, Gibberlic Acid (50 ppm and 100 ppm, Potassium nitrate (0.2%, 0.4%, physical scarification (sand paper, chemical scarification (Ethylic alcohol 70% and distilled water (control, then these treated seed samples were sown in pots as randomize design with three replication. The germination characteristics including: germination percentage, speed of germination, length of root and shoot, seedling length, ratio of root length by shoot length, vigor index, fresh weight and dry weight, ratio of dry weight by fresh weight were evaluated during 45 days of experiment. Comparing between three populations of Sahandy savory, seed germination characteristics of the Ghazvin population was higher than the other two populations. According to effect of treatment on germination seed characteristics, the species of savory and their population, it was concluded that effect of Gibberlic Acid and Potassium nitrate was higher than physical scarification and chemical scarification comparing with control. With more effective of gibberlic acid and KNO3 and cold treatment on seed germination enhancement of the population, it was clarified that the type of dormancy of some population of Sahandy savory was physiological dormancy.

  18. Bile acids in treatment of ocular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Boatright, Jeffrey H.; Nickerson, John M.; Moring, Anisha G.; Pardue, Machelle T

    2009-01-01

    Bear bile has been included in Asian pharmacopeias for thousands of years in treatment of several diseases, ranging from sore throat to hemorrhoids. The hydrophilic bile acids tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) are the major bile acids of bear bile. Both of these are available as synthetic formulations and are approved by the health administrations of several countries for treatment of cirrhosis and gallstones. This review briefly covers the use of bear bile in ...

  19. Bacterial lipoteichoic acid enhances cryosurvival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Charles V; Middaugh, Amy; Wickham, Jason R; Friedline, Anthony; Thomas, Kieth J; Scull, Erin; Johnson, Karen; Zachariah, Malcolm; Garimella, Ravindranth

    2015-03-01

    Antifreeze proteins in fish, plants, and insects provide protection to a few degrees below freezing. Microbes have been found to survive at even lower temperatures, and with a few exceptions, antifreeze proteins are missing. We show that lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a biopolymer in the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria, can be added to B. subtilis cultures and increase freeze tolerance. At 1 % w/v, LTA enables a 50 % survival rate, similar to the results obtained with 1 % w/v glycerol as measured with the resazurin cell viability assay. In the absence of added LTA or glycerol, a very small number of B. subtilis cells survive freezing. This suggests that an innate freeze tolerance mechanism exists. While cryoprotection can be provided by extracellular polymeric substances, our data demonstrate a role for LTA in cryoprotection. Currently, the exact mode of action for LTA cryoprotection is unknown. With a molecular weight of 3-5 kDa, it is unlikely to enter the cell cytoplasm. However, low temperature microscopy data show small ice crystals aligned along channels of liquid water. Our observations suggest that teichoic acids could protect liquid water within biofilms and planktonic bacteria, augmenting the role of brine while also raising the possibility for survival without brine present. PMID:25477208

  20. Enhanced acid tolerance of Rhizopus oryzae during fumaric acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Lv, Chunwei; Xu, Qing; Li, Shuang; Huang, He; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2015-02-01

    Ensuring a suitable pH in the culture broth is a major problem in microorganism-assisted industrial fermentation of organic acids. To address this issue, we investigated the physiological changes in Rhizopus oryzae at different extracellular pH levels and attempted to solve the issue of cell shortage under low pH conditions. We compared various parameters, such as membrane fatty acids' composition, intracellular pH, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration. It was found that the shortage of intracellular ATP might be the main reason for the low rate of fumaric acid production by R. oryzae under low pH conditions. When 1 g/l citrate was added to the culture medium at pH 3.0, the intracellular ATP concentration increased from 0.4 to 0.7 µmol/mg, and the fumaric acid titer was enhanced by 63% compared with the control (pH 3.0 without citrate addition). The final fumaric acid concentration at pH 3.0 reached 21.9 g/l after 96 h of fermentation. This strategy is simple and feasible for industrial fumaric acid production under low pH conditions. PMID:25190324

  1. Surgical Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux Shawnee Mission Medical Center Shawnee Mission, Kansas May 21, 2009 Welcome ... OR-Live” webcast presentation live from Shawnee Mission Medical Center in Merriam, Kansas. During the program it’s ...

  2. Surgical Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Live Surgical Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux Shawnee Mission Medical Center Shawnee Mission, Kansas May 21, 2009 Welcome to this “OR-Live” webcast presentation live from Shawnee Mission ...

  3. [Injection treatment with hyaluronic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerosch, J

    2015-11-01

    This article presents the spectrum of indications for the use of hyaluronic acid (HA) based on the recommendations of the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR), the American College of Rheumatology (ACR), the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI), the International Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) and the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) taking the reality of patient care in Europe into account. PMID:26431953

  4. Enhancing adolescent substance abuse treatment engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Paula T

    2008-06-01

    Trends in adolescent drug use are encouraging and suggest the importance of preventative programs for youth. Yet, among those who become involved with illicit substances and seek treatment, only a fraction report positive outcomes. This article describes an approach to enhance adolescent participation in substance abuse treatment. Aspects of the transtheoretical model are integrated into a treatment program designed to meet the unique developmental needs of adolescent alcohol and marijuana abusers. The result is a treatment that better engages adolescents in participation, thereby increasing the likelihood for treatment success. PMID:18720667

  5. Effect of Enhancing Urea-Humic Acid Mixture with Refined Acid Sulphate Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd T.M. Yusuff

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Acid Sulphate Soil (ASS is a problem soil partly because of its high acidity. This low pH could be exploited to reduce ammonia loss from urea by reducing soil microsite pH. The use Humic Acid (HA to control ammonia loss from urea has been reported but the cost of this material is high. This laboratory study compared the effect of enhancing urea-humic acid mixtures with acid sulphate soil on NH3 loss, pH, exchangeable ammonium and available nitrate contents. Approach: Humic acid, acid sulfate soil and soil used in the incubation study were analyzed for selected soil physical-chemical properties using standard procedures. Urea-HA-ASS mixtures were prepared and ammonia volatilization of the mixtures was evaluated by the closed-dynamic air flow system. The treatments were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Standard procedures were used to determine ammonia loss, soil pH, exchangeable ammonium and available nitrate at 22 days of incubation. Data obtained were analyzed using analysis of variance and Duncan's test using Statistical Analysis System (SAS version 9.2. Results: Urea amended with 0.75 g ASS significantly reduced ammonia volatilization. Although the use of appropriate amount of acid sulphate soil to control ammonia loss is possible, excessive use of this material is not recommended because of Fe in it. Conclusion: Urea amended with 0.75 g ASS reduced ammonia.

  6. Bacterial Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase for Water Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Sujin; Mutlu, Baris R; Aksan, Alptekin; Wackett, Lawrence P

    2015-10-01

    Di- and trichloroisocyanuric acids are widely used as water disinfection agents, but cyanuric acid accumulates with repeated additions and must be removed to maintain free hypochlorite for disinfection. This study describes the development of methods for using a cyanuric acid-degrading enzyme contained within nonliving cells that were encapsulated within a porous silica matrix. Initially, three different bacterial cyanuric acid hydrolases were compared: TrzD from Acidovorax citrulli strain 12227, AtzD from Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP, and CAH from Moorella thermoacetica ATCC 39073. Each enzyme was expressed recombinantly in Escherichia coli and tested for cyanuric acid hydrolase activity using freely suspended or encapsulated cell formats. Cyanuric acid hydrolase activities differed by only a 2-fold range when comparing across the different enzymes with a given format. A practical water filtration system is most likely to be used with nonviable cells, and all cells were rendered nonviable by heat treatment at 70°C for 1 h. Only the CAH enzyme from the thermophile M. thermoacetica retained significant activity under those conditions, and so it was tested in a flowthrough system simulating a bioreactive pool filter. Starting with a cyanuric acid concentration of 10,000 ?M, more than 70% of the cyanuric acid was degraded in 24 h, it was completely removed in 72 h, and a respike of 10,000 ?M cyanuric acid a week later showed identical biodegradation kinetics. An experiment conducted with water obtained from municipal swimming pools showed the efficacy of the process, although cyanuric acid degradation rates decreased by 50% in the presence of 4.5 ppm hypochlorite. In total, these experiments demonstrated significant robustness of cyanuric acid hydrolase and the silica bead materials in remediation. PMID:26187963

  7. Organic acids enhanced decoloration of azo dye in gas phase surface discharge plasma system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiecheng; Qu, Guangzhou; Ren, Jingyu; Sun, Qiuhong; Liang, Dongli; Hu, Shibin

    2016-01-25

    A gas phase surface discharge plasma combined with organic acids system was developed to enhance active species mass transfer and dye-containing wastewater treatment efficacy, with Acid Orange II (AO7) as the model pollutant. The effects of discharge voltage and various organic acid additives (acetic acid, lactic acid and nonoic acid) on AO7 decoloration efficiency were evaluated. The experimental results showed that an AO7 decoloration efficiency of approximately 69.0% was obtained within 4min of discharge plasma treatment without organic acid addition, which was improved to 82.8%, 83.5% and 88.6% within the same treatment time with the addition of acetic acid, lactic acid and nonoic acid, respectively. The enhancement effects on AO7 decoloration efficiency could be attributed to the decrease in aqueous surface tension, improvement in bubble distribution and shape, and increase in ozone equivalent concentration. The AO7 wastewater was biodegradable after discharge plasma treatment with the addition of organic acid. AO7 decomposition intermediates were analyzed by UV-vis spectrometry and GC-MS; 2-naphthol, 1,4-benzoquinone, phthalic anhydride, coumarin, 1,2-naphthoquinone, and 2-formyl-benzoic acid were detected. A possible pathway for AO7 decomposition in this system was proposed. PMID:26444488

  8. Multifunctional Nucleic Acids for Tumor Cell Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pofahl, Monika; Wengel, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    We report on a multifunctional nucleic acid, termed AptamiR, composed of an aptamer domain and an antimiR domain. This composition mediates cell specific delivery of antimiR molecules for silencing of endogenous micro RNA. The introduced multifunctional molecule preserves cell targeting, anti-proliferative and antimiR function in one 37-nucleotide nucleic acid molecule. It inhibits cancer cell growth and induces gene expression that is pathologically damped by an oncomir. These findings will have a strong impact on future developments regarding aptamer- and antimiR-related applications for tumor targeting and treatment.

  9. Enhancing pitting corrosion resistance of AlxCrFe1.5MnNi0.5 high-entropy alloys by anodic treatment in sulfuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-entropy alloys are a newly developed family of multi-component alloys that comprise various major alloying elements. Each element in the alloy system is present in between 5 and 35 at.%. The crystal structures and physical properties of high-entropy alloys differ completely from those of conventional alloys. The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) of the AlxCrFe1.5MnNi0.5 (x = 0, 0.3, 0.5) alloys, obtained in 0.1 M HCl solution, clearly revealed that the corrosion resistance values were determined to increase from 21 to 34 ?cm2 as the aluminum content increased from 0 to 0.5 mol, and were markedly lower than that of 304 stainless steel (243 ?cm2). At passive potential, the corresponding current declined with the anodizing time accounting, causing passivity by the growth of the multi-component anodized film in H2SO4 solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses revealed that the surface of anodized Al0.3CrFe1.5MnNi0.5 alloy formed aluminum and chromium oxide film which was the main passivating compound on the alloy. This anodic treatment increased the corrosion resistance in the EIS measurements of the CrFe1.5MnNi0.5 and Al0.3CrFe1.5MnNi0.5 alloys by two orders of magnitude. Accordingly, the anodic treatment of the AlxCrFe1.5MnNi0.5 alloys optimized their surface structures and minimized their susceptibility to pitting corrosion

  10. Cognitive enhancers for the treatment of anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Stefan G; Fang, Angela; Gutner, Cassidy A

    2014-01-01

    Traditional treatments for anxiety disorders include cognitive-behavioral therapy and anxiolytic medications. Although these treatments are more effective than placebo, there is still considerable room for further improvement. Unfortunately, combining these different modalities is generally not substantially better than monotherapies. Recently, researchers have turned their attention toward translating preclinical research on the neural circuitry underlying fear extinction to clinical applications for the treatment of anxiety disorders with the goal to augment the learning process during exposure-based procedures with cognitive enhancers. This review examines d-cycloserine, cortisol, catecholamines, yohimbine, oxytocin, modafinil, as well as nutrients and botanicals as agents to augment treatment for anxiety disorders. D-cycloserine shows the most empirical support. Other promising agents include cortisol, catecholamines, yohimbine, and possibly oxytocin. Less support comes from studies that examined nutrients and botanicals, such as caffeine, nicotine, and omega-3 fatty acid. Limitations of the exiting literature and future research directions are discussed. PMID:23542909

  11. Ethacrynic acid: a novel radiation enhancer in human carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Because agents that interfere with thiol metabolism and glutathione S-transferase (GST) functions have been shown to enhance antitumor effects of alkylating agents in vitro and in vivo, the present study was conceived on the basis that an inhibitor of GST would enhance the radiation response of some selected human carcinoma cells. Ethacrynic acid (EA) was chosen for the study because it is an effective inhibitor of GST and is a well known diuretic in humans. Methods and Materials: Experiments were carried out with well-established human tumor cells in culture growing in Eagle's minimum essential medium (MEM) supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS). Cell lines used were MCF-7, MCF-7 adriamycin resistant (AR) cells (breast carcinoma), HT-29 cells (colon carcinoma), DU-145 cells (prostate carcinoma), and U-373 cells (malignant glioma). Cell survival following the exposure of cells to drug alone, radiation alone, and a combined treatment was assayed by determining the colony-forming ability of single plated cells in culture to obtain dose-survival curves. The drug enhancement ratio was correlated with levels of GST. Results: The cytotoxicity of EA was most pronounced in MCF-7, U-373, and DU-145 cells compared to MCF-7 AR and HT-29 cells. The levels of GST activity were found to be lower in those EA-sensitive cells. A significant radiation enhancement was obtained with EA-sensitive cells exposed to nontoxic concentrations of the drug immediately before or after irradiation. The sensitizer enhancement ratio (SER) of MCF-7 cells was 1.55 with EA (20 ?g/ml), while the SER of MCF-7 AR was less than 1.1. Based on five different human tumor cells, a clear inverse relationship was demonstrated between the magnitude of SER and GST levels of tumor cells prior to the combined treatment. Conclusion: The present results suggest that EA, which acts as both a reversible and irreversible inhibitor of GST activity, could significantly enhance the radiation response of human cancer cells and the level of GST in tumor cells may predict the magnitude of radiation enhancement with EA. Ethacrynic acid would be an excellent drug as a radiosensitizer for further in vivo tumor study

  12. Enhanced integrated nonthermal treatment system study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biagi, C.; Schwinkendorf, B.; Teheranian, B.

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of the Enhanced Nonthermal Treatment Systems (ENTS) study is to evaluate alternative configurations of one of the five systems evaluated in the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) study. Five alternative configurations are evaluated. Each is designed to enhance the final waste form performance by replacing grout with improved stabilization technologies, or to improve system performance by improving the destruction efficiency for organic contaminants. AU enhanced systems are alternative configurations of System NT-5, which has the following characteristics: Nonthermal System NT-5: (1) catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) to treat organic material including organic liquids, sludges, and soft (or combustible) debris, (2) thermal desorption of inorganic sludge and process residue, (3) washing of soil and inorganic debris with treatment by CWO of removed organic material, (4) metal decontamination by abrasive blasting, (5) stabilization of treated sludge, soil, debris, and untreated debris with entrained contamination in grout, and (6) stabilization of inorganic sludge, salts and secondary waste in polymer. System NT-5 was chosen because it was designed to treat combustible debris thereby minimizing the final waste form volume, and because it uses grout for primary stabilization. The enhanced nonthermal systems were studied to determine the cost and performance impact of replacing grout (a commonly used stabilization agent in the DOE complex) with improved waste stabilization methods such as vitrification and polymer.

  13. Enhanced integrated nonthermal treatment system study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Enhanced Nonthermal Treatment Systems (ENTS) study is to evaluate alternative configurations of one of the five systems evaluated in the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) study. Five alternative configurations are evaluated. Each is designed to enhance the final waste form performance by replacing grout with improved stabilization technologies, or to improve system performance by improving the destruction efficiency for organic contaminants. AU enhanced systems are alternative configurations of System NT-5, which has the following characteristics: Nonthermal System NT-5: (1) catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) to treat organic material including organic liquids, sludges, and soft (or combustible) debris, (2) thermal desorption of inorganic sludge and process residue, (3) washing of soil and inorganic debris with treatment by CWO of removed organic material, (4) metal decontamination by abrasive blasting, (5) stabilization of treated sludge, soil, debris, and untreated debris with entrained contamination in grout, and (6) stabilization of inorganic sludge, salts and secondary waste in polymer. System NT-5 was chosen because it was designed to treat combustible debris thereby minimizing the final waste form volume, and because it uses grout for primary stabilization. The enhanced nonthermal systems were studied to determine the cost and performance impact of replacing grout (a commonly used stabilization agent in the DOE complex) with improved waste stabilization methods such as vitrification and polymer

  14. Salicylic acid enhances Staphylococcus aureus extracellular adhesin protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Lucía P; Barbagelata, María S; Cheung, Ambrose L; Sordelli, Daniel O; Buzzola, Fernanda R

    2011-11-01

    One of the virulence factors required by Staphylococcus aureus at the early stages of infection is Eap, a secreted adhesin that binds many host proteins and is upregulated by the two-component regulatory system saeRS. The S. aureus Newman strain harbors a mutation in saeS that is thought to be responsible for the high level of Eap expression in this strain. This study was designed to ascertain whether salicylic acid (SAL) affects the expression of Eap and the internalization of S. aureus into epithelial cells. The strain Newman treated with SAL exhibited increased levels of eap transcription and protein expression. Furthermore, SAL treatment increased the eap promoter activity. SAL treatment enhanced Eap expression in the Newman and in other S. aureus strains that do not carry the mutation in saeS. Internalization of S. aureus eap and sae mutants into the MAC-T epithelial cells was significantly decreased compared with the wild-type counterparts. In conclusion, we demonstrated that a low concentration of SAL increased S. aureus Eap expression possibly due to enhancement of sae. SAL may create the conditions for S. aureus persistence in the host, not only by decreasing the capsular polysaccharide expression as shown before, but also by enhancing Eap expression. PMID:21714946

  15. Enhanced high temperature thermoelectric response of sulphuric acid treated conducting polymer thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Sarath

    2015-11-24

    We report the high temperature thermoelectric properties of solution processed pristine and sulphuric acid treated poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (or PEDOT:PSS) films. The acid treatment is shown to simultaneously enhance the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of the metal-like films, resulting in a five-fold increase in thermoelectric power factor (0.052 W/m. K ) at 460 K, compared to the pristine film. By using atomic force micrographs, Raman and impedance spectra and using a series heterogeneous model for electrical conductivity, we demonstrate that acid treatment results in the removal of PSS from the films, leading to the quenching of accumulated charge-induced energy barriers that prevent hopping conduction. The continuous removal of PSS with duration of acid treatment also alters the local band structure of PEDOT:PSS, resulting in simultaneous enhancement in Seebeck coefficient.

  16. Removal of coagulant aluminum from water treatment residuals by acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Tetsuji; Nishijima, Wataru; Sugimoto, Mayo; Saka, Naoyuki; Nakai, Satoshi; Tanabe, Kazuyasu; Ito, Junki; Takenaka, Kenji; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2014-09-01

    Sediment sludge during coagulation and sedimentation in drinking water treatment is called "water treatment residuals (WTR)". Polyaluminum chloride (PAC) is mainly used as a coagulant in Japan. The recycling of WTR has been desired; one method for its reuse is as plowed soil. However, WTR reuse in this way is inhibited by the aluminum from the added PAC, because of its high adsorption capacity for phosphate and other fertilizer components. The removal of such aluminum from WTR would therefore be advantageous for its reuse as plowed soil; this research clarified the effect of acid washing on aluminum removal from WTR and on plant growth in the treated soil. The percentage of aluminum removal from raw WTR by sulphuric acid solution was around 90% at pH 3, the percentage decreasing to 40% in the case of a sun-dried sample. The maximum phosphate adsorption capacity was decreased and the available phosphorus was increased by acid washing, with 90% of aluminum removal. The enhancement of Japanese mustard spinach growth and the increased in plant uptake of phosphates following acid washing were observed. PMID:24835954

  17. Thermal and acid treatment of diatom frustules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gulturk

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Diatoms, belonging to Bacilariophyta family, are single-celled microscopic (1-100 micron plants living in aquatic environment. The diatom cell is protected inside a shell (frustule constructed from amorphous nano-silica particles. It is proposed that the frustules and purified silica powders obtained from frustules can be used to reinforce composites. In this study, microstructural properties of two diatom frustules were determined and different methods were investigated for silica powder processing from diatom frustules.Design/methodology/approach: Natural (ND and calcined (CD diatom frustules were used in this study. The chemical and microscopic properties of the diatom frustules were determined using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR and energy dispersive X-Ray Florescence spectrometer (XRF. Two different processing routes were applied to process silica powder from diatom frustules. These included (i leaching the frustules directly in HF, (ii incorporating thermally treated frustules in to the liquid nitrogen.Findings: At increasing HF concentrations, the variety of shapes, nanopores and open voids were seen on the surface of frustules as silica particles were removed from the surface. SEM micrograph results showed that HF significantly etched inside the existing pore structure of the diatom frustules. HF concentration was found more effective in mass loss than the leaching time. Thermal treatment induced several cracks propagated between macro pores and nanopores of the frustules.Practical implications: Results show that thermal and acid treatments were not effective for obtaining silica powder from frustules. Ball milling can be used for silica powder processing from frustules in the further study.Originality/value: In this paper, the microstructural properties of ND and CD frustules were determined. The effect of thermal and acid treatment on frustules was investigated with SEM.

  18. Ursolic acid enhances pentobarbital-induced sleeping behaviors via GABAergic neurotransmission in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Se Jin; Park, Ho Jae; Gao, Qingtao; Pena, Irene Joy Dela; Park, Se Jin; Lee, Hyung Eun; Woo, Hyun; Kim, Hee Jin; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Hong, Eunyoung; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2015-09-01

    Prunella vulgaris is widely used as a herbal medicine for cancers, inflammatory diseases, and other infections. Although it has long been used, few studies have examined its effects on central nervous system function. Here, we first observed that ethanolic extracts of P. vulgaris (EEPV) prolonged pentobarbital-induced sleep duration in mice. It is known that EEPV consists of many active components including triterpenoid (ursolic acid and oleanolic acid), which have many biological activities. Therefore, we evaluated which EEPV components induced sleep extension in pentobarbital-mediated sleeping model in mice. Surprisingly, despite their structural similarity and other common functions such as anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, and tissue protection, only ursolic acid enhanced sleep duration in pentobarbital-treated mice. These results were attenuated by bicuculline treatment, which is a GABAA receptor antagonist. The present results suggest that ursolic acid from P. vulgaris enhances sleep duration through GABAA receptor activation and could be a therapeutic candidate for insomnia treatment. PMID:26102564

  19. Acid mine water treatment using engineered wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinmann, Robert L. P.

    1990-03-01

    During the last two decades, the United States mining industry has greatly increased the amount it spends on pollution control. The application of biotechnology to mine water can reduce the industry's water treatment costs (estimated at over a million dollars a day) and improve water quality in streams and rivers adversely affected by acidic mine water draining from abandoned mines. Biological treatment of mine waste water is typically conducted in a series of small excavated ponds that resemble, in a superficial way, a small marsh area. The ponds are engineered to first facilitate bacterial oxidation of iron; ideally, the water then flows through a composted organic substrate that supports a population of sulfate-reducing bacteria. The latter process raises the pH. During the past four years, over 400 wetland water treatment systems have been built on mined lands as a result of research by the U.S. Bureau of Mines. In general, mine operators find that the wetlands reduce chemical treatment costs enough to repay the cost of wetland construction in less than a year. Actual rates of iron removal at field sites have been used to develop empirical sizing criteria based on iron loading and pH. If the pH is 6 or above, the wetland area (m2) required is equivalent to the iron load (grams/day) divided by 10. Theis requirement doubles at a pH of 4 to 5. At a pH below 4, the iron load (grams/day) should be divided by 2 to estimate the area required (m2).

  20. Organic acid enhanced electrodialytic extraction of lead from contaminated soil fines in suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2007-01-01

    The implementation of soil washing technology for the treatment of heavy metal contaminated soils is limited by the toxicity and unwieldiness of the remaining heavy metal contaminated sludge. In this work, the feasibility of combining electrodialytic remediation with heterotrophic leaching for decontamination of the sludge was investigated. The ability of 11 organic acids to extract Pb from the fine fraction of contaminated soil (grains <63 mu m) was investigated, and application of the acids as enhancing reagents during electrodialytic remediation (EDR) of Pb-contaminated soil fines in suspension was tested. Five of the acids showed the ability to extract Ph from the soil fines in excess of the effect caused solely by pH changes. Addition of the acids, however, severely impeded EDR, hence promotion of EDR by combination with heterotrophic leaching was rejected. In contrast, enhancement of EDR with nitric acid gave promising results.

  1. Separation of amino acid enantiomers by micelle-enhanced ultrafiltration

    OpenAIRE

    Bruin, T.J.M., de; Marcelis, A.T.M.; Zuilhof, H.; Rodenburg, L.M.; Overdevest, P.E.M.; Padt, A., van der; Sudhölter, E.J.R.

    2000-01-01

    A Micelle-enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF) separation process was investigated that can potentially be used for large-scale enantioseparations. Copper(II)-amino acid derivatives dissolved in nonionic surfactant micelles were used as chiral selectors for the separation of dilute racemic amino acids solutions. For the ?-amino acids phenylalanine, phenylglycine, O- methyltyrosine, isoleucine, and leucine good separation was obtained using cholesteryl L-glutamate and Cu(II) ions as chiral selector...

  2. Evaluation of Seed and Seedling Emergence Enhancement of Some Population of Sahandy Savory (Satureja sahendica) by Gibberlic Acid, Potasium Nitrate, Pre-cooling, Physical and Chemical Scarification Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    R. Tabaie; H.A. Arab; M.A. Alizadeh; M NASIRI

    2013-01-01

    In greenhouse experiment, the seed samples of 3 populations were treated with treatments including: cold stratification, Gibberlic Acid (50 ppm and 100 ppm), Potassium nitrate (0.2%, 0.4%), physical scarification (sand paper), chemical scarification (Ethylic alcohol 70%) and distilled water (control), then these treated seed samples were sown in pots as randomize design with three replication. The germination characteristics including: germination percentage, speed of germination, lengt...

  3. Effect of the treatment by slightly acidic electrolyzed water on the accumulation of ?-aminobutyric acid in germinated brown millet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingfeng; Hao, Jianxiong; Liu, Xianggui; Liu, Haijie; Ning, Yawei; Cheng, Ruhong; Tan, Bin; Jia, Yingmin

    2015-11-01

    The accumulation of ?-aminobutyric acid and the microbial decontamination are concerned increasingly in the production of sprouts. In this work, the effect of the treatment by slightly acidic electrolyzed water on the accumulation of ?-aminobutyric acid in the germinated brown millet was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography during germination. The results showed that slightly acidic electrolyzed water with appropriate available chlorine (15 or 30 mg/L) could promote the accumulation of ?-aminobutyric acid by up to 21% (P acidic electrolyzed water could not enhance the sprouts growth of the germinated brown millet. The catalase and peroxidase activities of the germinated brown millet during germination were in agreement with the sprouts growth. Our results suggested that the accumulation of ?-aminobutyric acid was independent of the length of sprouts in germinated grains. Moreover, the treatment with slightly acidic electrolyzed water significantly reduced the microbial counts in the germinated millet (P acidic electrolyzed water is an available approach to improve the accumulation of ?-aminobutyric acid and anti-infection potential in the germinated brown millet, and it can avoid too long millet sprouts. PMID:25976818

  4. Towards energy positive wastewater treatment by sludge treatment using free nitrous acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qilin; Hao, Xiaodi; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-02-01

    Free nitrous acid (FNA i.e. HNO2) was revealed to be effective in enhancing biodegradability of secondary sludge. Also, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria were found to be more susceptible to FNA than ammonium-oxidizing bacteria. Based on these findings, a novel FNA-based sludge treatment technology is proposed to enhance energy recovery from wastewater/sludge. Energy analysis indicated that the FNA-based technology would make wastewater treatment become an energy generating process (yielding energy at 4 kWh/PE/y; kWh/PE/y: kilowatt hours per population equivalent per year), rather than being a large energy consumer that it is today (consuming energy at 24 kWh/PE/y). Importantly, FNA required for the sludge treatment could be produced as a by-product of wastewater treatment. This proposed FNA-based technology is economically and environmentally attractive, and can be easily implemented in any wastewater treatment plants. It only involves the installation of a simple sludge mixing tank. This article presents the concept of the FNA-based technology. PMID:26539712

  5. Pharmacological enhancement of treatment for amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashad MA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad A RashadOphthalmology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, EgyptBackground: The purpose of this study was to compare a weight-adjusted dose of carbidopa-levodopa as treatment adjunctive to occlusion therapy with occlusion therapy alone in children and adults with different types of amblyopia.Methods: This prospective study included 63 patients with amblyopia classified into two groups, ie, an occlusion group which included 35 patients who received occlusion therapy only and a pharmacological enhancement group which included 28 patients who received oral carbidopa-levodopa together with occlusion therapy for 6 weeks.Results: The mean logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR of the eyes with amblyopia was not significantly different in the occlusion group (0.52, 0.52, and 0.51 than in the pharmacological enhancement group (0.58, 0.49, and 0.56 at three follow-up visits (at months 1, 3, and 12, respectively. There was a highly significant improvement in mean logMAR of amblyopic eyes compared with baseline in both occlusion groups (from 0.68 to 0.52, from 0.68 to 0.52, and from 0.68 to 0.51 and in the pharmacological enhancement group (from 0.81 to 0.58, from 0.81 to 0.49, and from 0.81 to 0.56 at the month 1, 3, and 12 visits (P = 0.01, P = 0.01, and P = 0.001, respectively. The improvement of mean logMAR in the subgroup of patients older than 12 years was greater in the pharmacological enhancement group (42.5% than in the occlusion group (30%. The improvement of mean logMAR in the subgroup of patients with severe amblyopia was greater in the pharmacological enhancement group (34.3% than in the occlusion group (22%.Conclusion: Significant improvement was reported in both groups at all follow-up visits over 1 year. Regardless of the etiology of amblyopia, levodopa-carbidopa may be added to part-time occlusion in older patients as a means of increasing the plasticity of the visual cortex. Levodopa may add to the effect of occlusion in severe amblyopia and bilateral amblyopia.Keywords: amblyopia, levodopa, carbidopa, occlusion

  6. Acid adaptation of Listeria monocytogenes can enhance survival in acidic foods and during milk fermentation.

    OpenAIRE

    Gahan, C G; O'Driscoll, B; Hill, C.

    1996-01-01

    We have previously shown that tolerance to severe acid stress (pH 3.5) can be induced in Listeria monocytogenes following a 1-h adaptation to mild acid (pH 5.5), a phenomenon termed the acid tolerance response (ATR) (B. O'Driscoll, C. G. M. Gahan, and C. Hill, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62:1693-1698, 1966). In an attempt to determine the industrial significance of the ATR, we have examined the survival of adapted and nonadapted cells in a variety of acidic foods. Acid adaptation enhanced the s...

  7. Slagment Cement Improve the Cement Resistance Toward Acids Attack During Acidizing Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Nik Khairul Irfan Bin Nik Ab. Lah.; Sonny Irawan

    2013-01-01

    Acidizing treatment in past experience shows several zonal isolation problems after the treatment. This study presents the effect of the acid treatment toward class G cement and slagment cement as the improvement method to improve the cement resistance toward the acid. Lab experiments were conducted by immerge the respective cement cubes into 12% HCl/3% HF solution for 40 min before several analysis were conducted. Based on the result, the mass loss and compressive strength loss of the cement...

  8. Peripheral Amino Acid Levels in Schizophrenia and Antipsychotic Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Luca, Vincenzo; VIGGIANO, EMANUELA; Messina, Giovanni; Viggiano, Alessandro; Borlido, Carol; Viggiano, Andrea; Monda, Marcellino

    2008-01-01

    Abnormal levels of amino acids have been reported in patients with schizophrenia and have also been investigated as a biomarker to monitor antipsychotic treatment, however results have been inconsistent. The purpose of the present review is to summarize the evidence in the literature of whether amino acid levels can be a biomarker and predict the treatment outcome in schizophrenia. The current review does not support amino acid concentration as a useful biomarker for monitoring antipsychotic ...

  9. Treatment for Acid Mine Drainage Utilizing Dimension Stone Waste

    OpenAIRE

    V. Sheoran; R.P. Choudhary; Sheoran, A. S.

    2012-01-01

    When large quantities of rocks containing sulphide minerals are excavated from mines, they react with water and oxygen to create sulphuric acid. When this water reaches a certain level of acidity it also starts leaching traces of metals, this wastewater is termed as Acid Mine Drainage (AMD), affects the surface and subsurface hydrology and extends its impact to the surrounding land. Although, several AMD treatment techniques and methods exist, lime treatment is the most common approach which ...

  10. THE USE OF FATTY ACID-ESTERS TO ENHANCE FREE ACID SOPHOROLIPID SYNTHESIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acid esters were prepared by transesterification of soy oil with methanol (methyl-soyate, Me-Soy), ethanol (ethyl-soyate, Et-Soy) and propanol (propyl-soyate, Pro-Soy) and used with glycerol as fermentation substrates to enhance production of free-acid sophorolipids (SLs). Fed-batch fermentat...

  11. Magnetization Enhancement in Magnetite Nanoparticles Capped with Alginic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzejewski, B.; Bednarski, W.; Kazmierczak, M.; Pogorzelec-Glaser, K.; Hilczer, B.; S. Jurga; Matczak, M.; Leska, B.; Pankiewicz, R.; L. Kepinski

    2013-01-01

    We report on the effect of organic acid capping on the behavior of magnetite nanoparticles. The nanoparticles of magnetite were obtained using microwave activated process, and the magnetic properties as well as the electron magnetic resonance behavior were studied for the Fe3O4 nanoparticles capped with alginic acid. The capped nanoparticles exhibit improved crystalline structure of the surface which leads to an enhanced magnetization. The saturation magnetization Ms increas...

  12. Enhancing Treatment Integrity Maintenance through Fading with Indiscriminable Contingencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Thomas J.; Duhon, Gary J.; Doerksen-Klopp, Bethany

    2014-01-01

    School psychologists are often asked to develop treatment to remediate students' academic skills or social behavior problems. When teachers implement treatment recommendations with high levels of treatment integrity, students benefit. Treatment integrity has been enhanced by use of direct training, performance feedback, and negative…

  13. Enhancement of arachidonic acid signaling pathway by nicotinic acid receptor HM74A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HM74A is a G protein-coupled receptor for nicotinic acid (niacin), which has been used clinically to treat dyslipidemia for decades. The molecular mechanisms whereby niacin exerts its pleiotropic effects on lipid metabolism remain largely unknown. In addition, the most common side effect in niacin therapy is skin flushing that is caused by prostaglandin release, suggesting that the phospholipase A2 (PLA2)/arachidonic acid (AA) pathway is involved. Various eicosanoids have been shown to activate peroxisome-proliferator activated receptors (PPAR) that play a diverse array of roles in lipid metabolism. To further elucidate the potential roles of HM74A in mediating the therapeutic effects and/or side effects of niacin, we sought to explore the signaling events upon HM74A activation. Here we demonstrated that HM74A synergistically enhanced UTP- and bradykinin-mediated AA release in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner in A431 cells. Activation of HM74A also led to Ca2+-mobilization and enhanced bradykinin-promoted Ca2+-mobilization through Gi protein. While HM74A increased ERK1/2 activation by the bradykinin receptor, it had no effects on UTP-promoted ERK1/2 activation.Furthermore, UTP- and bradykinin-mediated AA release was significantly decreased in the presence of both MAPK kinase inhibitor PD 098059 and PKC inhibitor GF 109203X. However, the synergistic effects of HM74A were not dramatically affected by co-treatment with both inhibitors, indicating the cross-talk occurred at the receptor level. Finally, stimulation of A431 cells transiently transfected with PPRE-luciferase with AA significantly induced luciferase activity, mimicking the effects of PPAR? agonist rosiglitazone, suggesting that alteration of AA signaling pathway can regulate gene expression via endogenous PPARs

  14. Surface modification of activated carbon for enhanced adsorption of perfluoroalkyl acids from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Yue; Liu, Jinxia

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the research was to examine the effect of increasing carbon surface basicity on uptake of perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS) and carboxylic acids (PFOA) by activated carbon. Granular activated carbons made from coal, coconut shell, wood, and phenolic-polymer-based activated carbon fibers were modified through high-temperature and ammonia gas treatments to facilitate systematical evaluation of the impact of basicity of different origins. Comparison of adsorption isotherms and adsorption distribution coefficients showed that the ammonia gas treatment was more effective than the high-temperature treatment in enhancing surface basicity. The resultant higher point of zero charges and total basicity (measured by total HCl uptake) correlated with improved adsorption affinity for PFOS and PFOA. The effectiveness of surface modification to enhance adsorption varied with carbon raw material. Wood-based carbons and activated carbon fibers showed enhancement by one to three orders of magnitudes while other materials could experience reduction in adsorption towards either PFOS or PFOA. PMID:26469934

  15. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and nucleic acids encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Kimberly; Harris, Paul; Zaretsky, Elizabeth; Re, Edward; Vlasenko, Elena; McFarland, Keith; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo

    2014-09-30

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  16. Hepatic arachidonic acid metabolism is disrupted after hexachlorobenzene treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hexaclorobenzene (HCB), one of the most persistent environmental pollutants, can cause a wide range of toxic effects including cancer in animals, and hepatotoxicity and porphyria both in humans and animals. In the present study, liver microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism, hepatic PGE production, and cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) activity were investigated in an experimental model of porphyria cutanea tarda induced by HCB. Female Wistar rats were treated with a single daily dose of HCB (100 mg kg-1 body weight) for 5 days and were sacrificed 3, 10, 17, and 52 days after the last dose. HCB treatment induced the accumulation of hepatic porhyrins from day 17 and increased the activities of liver ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (MROD), and aminopyrine N-demethylase (APND) from day 3 after the last dose. Liver microsomes from control and HCB-treated rats generated, in the presence of NADPH, hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs), epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), 11,12-Di HETE, and ?-OH/?-1-OH AA. HCB treatment caused an increase in total NADPH CYP-dependent AA metabolism, with a higher response at 3 days after the last HCB dose than at the other time points studied. In addition, HCB treatment markedly enhanced PGE production and release in liver slices. This HCB effect was time dependent and reached its highest level after 10 days. At this time cPLA2 activity was shown to be increased. Unexpectedly, HCB produced a significant decrease in cPLA2 activity on the 17th and 52nd day. Our results demonstrated for the first time that HCB induces both the cyclooxygenase and CYP-dependent AA metabolism. The effects of HCB on AA metabolism were previous to the onset of a marked porphyria and might contribute to different aspects of HCB-induced liver toxicity such as alterations of membrane fluidity and membrane-bound protein function. Observations also suggested that a possible role of cPLA2 in the early increase of AA metabolism cannot be excluded. However, the existence of other pathway(s) for metabolizable AA generation different from cPLA2 activation is also proposed

  17. Removal of PAHs and pesticides from polluted soils by enhanced electrokinetic-Fenton treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocos, Elvira; Fernández-Costas, Carmen; Pazos, Marta; Sanromán, M Ángeles

    2015-04-01

    In this study, electrokinetic-Fenton treatment was used to remediate a soil polluted with PAHs and the pesticide pyrimethanil. Recently, this treatment has emerged as an interesting alternative to conventional soil treatments due to its peculiar advantages, namely the capability of treating fine and low-permeability materials, as well as that of achieving a high yield in the removals of salt content and inorganic and organic pollutants. In a standard electrokinetic-Fenton treatment, the maximum degradation of the pollutant load achieved was 67%, due to the precipitation of the metals near the cathode chamber that reduces the electro-osmotic flow of the system and thus the efficiency of the treatment. To overcome this problem, different complexing agents and pH control in the cathode chamber were evaluated to increase the electro-osmotic flux as well as to render easier the solubilization of the metal species present in the soil. Four complexing agents (ascorbic acid, citric acid, oxalic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) in the Fenton-like treatment were evaluated. Results revealed the citric acid as the most suitable complexing agent. Thereby its efficiency was tested as pH controller by flushing it in the cathode chamber (pH 2 and 5). For the latter treatments, near total degradation was achieved after 27 d. Finally, phytotoxicity tests for polluted and treated samples were carried out. The high germination levels of the soil treated under enhanced conditions concluded that nearly complete restoration was achieved. PMID:25577698

  18. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section provides a description of the Hanford Site, identifies the proposed method of 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) closure, and briefly summarizes the contents of each chapter of this plan

  19. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This section provides a description of the Hanford Site, identifies the proposed method of 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) closure, and briefly summarizes the contents of each chapter of this plan.

  20. TREATMENT TANK CORROSION STUDIES FOR THE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B.

    2011-08-24

    Radioactive waste is stored in high level waste tanks on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is aggressively seeking to close the non-compliant Type I and II waste tanks. The removal of sludge (i.e., metal oxide) heels from the tank is the final stage in the waste removal process. The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed and investigated by SRR to aid in Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) as an option for sludge heel removal. Corrosion rate data for carbon steel exposed to the ECC treatment tank environment was obtained to evaluate the degree of corrosion that occurs. These tests were also designed to determine the effect of various environmental variables such as temperature, agitation and sludge slurry type on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel. Coupon tests were performed to estimate the corrosion rate during the ECC process, as well as determine any susceptibility to localized corrosion. Electrochemical studies were performed to develop a better understanding of the corrosion mechanism. The tests were performed in 1 wt.% and 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with HM and PUREX sludge simulants. The following results and conclusions were made based on this testing: (1) In 1 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, carbon steel corroded at a rate of less than 25 mpy within the temperature and agitation levels of the test. No susceptibility to localized corrosion was observed. (2) In 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, the carbon steel corrosion rates ranged between 15 and 88 mpy. The most severe corrosion was observed at 75 C in the HM/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. Pitting and general corrosion increased with the agitation level at this condition. No pitting and lower general corrosion rates were observed with the PUREX/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. The electrochemical and coupon tests both indicated that carbon steel is more susceptible to localized corrosion in the HM/oxalic acid environment than in the PUREX/oxalic acid environment. (3) The corrosion rates for PUREX/8 wt.% oxalic acid were greater than or equal to those observed for the PUREX/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid. No localized corrosion was observed in the tests with the 8 wt.% oxalic acid. Testing with HM/8 wt.% oxalic acid simulant was not performed. Thus, a comparison with the results with 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid, where the corrosion rate was 88 mpy and localized corrosion was observed at 75 C, cannot be made. (4) The corrosion rates in 1 and 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid solutions were temperature dependent: (a) At 50 C, the corrosion rates ranged between 90 to 140 mpy over the 30 day test period. The corrosion rates were higher under stagnant conditions. (b) At 75 C, the initial corrosion rates were as high as 300 mpy during the first day of exposure. The corrosion rates increased with agitation. However, once the passive ferrous oxalate film formed, the corrosion rate decreased dramatically to less than 20 mpy over the 30 day test period. This rate was independent of agitation. (5) Electrochemical testing indicated that for oxalic acid/sludge simulant mixtures the cathodic reaction has transport controlled reaction kinetics. The literature suggests that the dissolution of the sludge produces a di-oxalatoferrate ion that is reduced at the cathodic sites. The cathodic reaction does not appear to involve hydrogen evolution. On the other hand, electrochemical tests demonstrated that the cathodic reaction for corrosion of carbon steel in pure oxalic acid involves hydrogen evolution. (6) Agitation of the oxalic acid/sludge simulant mixtures typically resulted in a higher corrosion rates for both acid concentrations. The transport of the ferrous ion away from the metal surface results in a less protective ferrous oxalate film. (7) A mercury containing species along with aluminum, silicon and iron oxides was observed on the interior of the pits formed in the HM/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant at 75 C. The pitting rates in the agitated and non-agitated solution were 2 mils/day and 1 mil/day, respectively. A mechanism

  1. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LUKE, S.N.

    1999-05-17

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOERL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion includes closure plan documentation submitted for individual, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units undergoing closure, such as the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Whenever appropriate, 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. This 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System Closure Plan (Revision 2) includes a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Part A, Form 3. Information provided in this closure plan is current as of April 1999.

  2. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOERL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion includes closure plan documentation submitted for individual, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units undergoing closure, such as the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Whenever appropriate, 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. This 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System Closure Plan (Revision 2) includes a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Part A, Form 3. Information provided in this closure plan is current as of April 1999

  3. Surgical Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and he says, “Gosh, you know, let’s try something to decrease the amount of acid that’s in ... in the abdomen. In order to avoid spearing something with that suture, if you try to keep ...

  4. Nucleic acid molecules conferring enhanced ethanol tolerance and microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven; Guss, Adam; Yang, Shihui; Karpinets, Tatiana; Lynd, Lee; Shao, Xiongjun

    2014-01-14

    The present invention provides isolated nucleic acid molecules which encode a mutant acetaldehyde-CoA/alcohol dehydrogenase or mutant alcohol dehydrogenase and confer enhanced tolerance to ethanol. The invention also provides related expression vectors, genetically engineered microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to ethanol, as well as methods of making and using such genetically modified microorganisms for production of biofuels based on fermentation of biomass materials.

  5. Surgical Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... upper GI series and sometimes a 24-hour PH study. Typically, medical treatments can be just elevating ... causing the problem. And so a 24-hour PH is commonly done. That’s a study performed by ...

  6. Surgical Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... good one. That is another excellent option for controlling vessels. The other option, obviously, is to use ... that that’s kind of one of the golden standards for treatment is it so closely reproduces the ...

  7. Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who are trying to end their addiction to marijuana can benefit from a treatment program that combines motivational incentives with cognitive-behavioral therapy. "Marijuana remains one of the most widely used drugs ...

  8. Femtosecond laser treatment enhances DNA transfection efficiency in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Hung Chien-Fu; Pai Sara I; Meneshian Avedis; Wu Chao-Yi; Tsen Shaw-Wei D; T-C Wu

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Gene therapy with plasmid DNA is emerging as a promising strategy for the treatment of many diseases. One of the major obstacles to such therapy is the poor transfection efficiency of DNA in vivo. Methods In this report, we employed a very low power, near-infrared femtosecond laser technique to enhance the transfection efficiency of intradermally and intratumorally administered DNA plasmid. Results We found that femtosecond laser treatment can significantly enhance the del...

  9. Appearance of hepatocellular adenomas on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denecke, Timm; Steffen, Ingo G.; Kroencke, Thomas; Haenninen, Enrique Lopez; Hamm, Bernd; Grieser, Christian [Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Klinik fuer Radiologie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany); Agarwal, Sheela; Saini, Sanjay [Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Seehofer, Daniel; Neuhaus, Peter [Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Klinik fuer Allgemein, Viszeral- und Transplantationschirurgie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany); Kramme, Incken-Birthe [Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Institut fuer Pathologie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate enhancement characteristics of hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs) using gadoxetic acid as a hepatocyte-specific MR contrast agent. Twenty-four patients with histopathologically proven HCAs were retrospectively identified. MRI consisted of T1- and T2-weighted (w) sequences with and without fat saturation (fs), multiphase dynamic T1-w images, and fs T1-w images during the hepatobiliary phase. Standard of reference was surgical resection (n = 19) or biopsy (n = 5). Images were analysed for morphology and contrast behaviour including signal intensity (SI) measurement on T1-w images normalised to the pre-contrast base line. In total 34 HCAs were evaluated. All HCAs showed enhancement in the arterial phase; 38 % of HCAs showed reduced contrast enhancement (''wash-out'') in the venous phase. All HCAs showed enhancement (SI increase, 56 {+-} 53 %; P <0.001) in the hepatobiliary phase, although liver uptake was stronger (96 {+-} 58 %). Thus, 31 of all HCAs (91 %) appeared hypointense to the surrounding liver in the hepatobiliary phase, while 3 out of 34 lesions were iso-/hyperintense. Gadoxetic acid accumulates in HCAs in the hepatobiliary phase, although significantly less than in surrounding liver. Thus, HCA appears in the vast majority of cases as a hypointense lesion on hepatobiliary phase images. (orig.)

  10. Appearance of hepatocellular adenomas on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate enhancement characteristics of hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs) using gadoxetic acid as a hepatocyte-specific MR contrast agent. Twenty-four patients with histopathologically proven HCAs were retrospectively identified. MRI consisted of T1- and T2-weighted (w) sequences with and without fat saturation (fs), multiphase dynamic T1-w images, and fs T1-w images during the hepatobiliary phase. Standard of reference was surgical resection (n = 19) or biopsy (n = 5). Images were analysed for morphology and contrast behaviour including signal intensity (SI) measurement on T1-w images normalised to the pre-contrast base line. In total 34 HCAs were evaluated. All HCAs showed enhancement in the arterial phase; 38 % of HCAs showed reduced contrast enhancement (''wash-out'') in the venous phase. All HCAs showed enhancement (SI increase, 56 ± 53 %; P <0.001) in the hepatobiliary phase, although liver uptake was stronger (96 ± 58 %). Thus, 31 of all HCAs (91 %) appeared hypointense to the surrounding liver in the hepatobiliary phase, while 3 out of 34 lesions were iso-/hyperintense. Gadoxetic acid accumulates in HCAs in the hepatobiliary phase, although significantly less than in surrounding liver. Thus, HCA appears in the vast majority of cases as a hypointense lesion on hepatobiliary phase images. (orig.)

  11. Surgical Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... GI series and sometimes a 24-hour PH study. Typically, medical treatments can be just elevating the ... 24-hour PH is commonly done. That’s a study performed by Dr. Tom DeMeester originally in which ...

  12. Treatment of menorrhagia during menstruation: randomised controlled trial of ethamsylate, mefenamic acid, and tranexamic acid.

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnar, J; Sheppard, B L

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and acceptability of ethamsylate, mefenamic acid, and tranexamic acid for treating menorrhagia. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. SETTING: A university department of obstetrics and gynaecology. SUBJECTS: 76 women with dysfunctional uterine bleeding. INTERVENTIONS: Treatment for five days from day 1 of menses during three consecutive menstrual periods. 27 patients were randomised to take ethamsylate 500 mg six hourly, 23 patients to take mefenamic acid 500...

  13. Characterization of Unye bentonite after treatment with sulfuric acid

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bulent, Caglar; Beytullah, Afsin; Engin, Koksal; Ahmet, Tabak; Erdal, Eren.

    Full Text Available Unye bentonite was found to consist predominantly of a dioctahedral smectite along with quartz, tridymite, cristobalite, and minor fractions of feldspar and anatase. A considerable amount of Al was retained as a constituent in acid-resistant impurities following the decomposition of the montmorillon [...] ite via acid treatment at an acid/clay ratio of 0.4. These impurities were mesoporous with a maximum surface area of 303.9±0.4 m² g-1. A sharp decrease in the d001 lattice spacing of the montmorillonite to 15.33 Å reflected the reduction of the crystallinity in the activated products. In addition, the increase in the ease with which newly formed hydroxyl groups were lost paralleled the severity of the acid treatment.

  14. Cognitive enhancers for the treatment of ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Bidwell, L. Cinnamon; McClernon, F. Joseph; Kollins, Scott H.

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with multiple cognition-related phenotypic features in both children and adults. This review aims to clarify the role of cognition in ADHD and how prevailing treatments, which are often highly effective at reducing the clinical symptoms of the disorder, fare in modulating ADHD-related cognitive processes. First, we consider how the broad construct of cognition can be conceptualized in the context of ADHD. Second, we review the avai...

  15. Amoxycillin and clavulanic acid in the treatment of urinary infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Al Roomi, L G; Sutton, A M; Cockburn, F; McAllister, T. A.

    1984-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of amoxycillin combined with clavulanic acid in the treatment of 32 children with urinary tract infection were studied. Twenty one (80%) of 26 children with proved urinary tract infection showed a favourable clinical and bacteriological response. Fifteen of these children had amoxycillin resistant organisms and were treated successfully. In 20 children the serum and urine concentrations of amoxycillin and clavulanic acid were measured after the first...

  16. The use of fatty acid esters to enhance free acid sophorolipid synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Richard D; Solaiman, Daniel K Y; Foglia, Thomas A

    2006-02-01

    Fatty acid esters were prepared by transesterification of soy oil with methanol (methyl-soyate, Me-Soy), ethanol (ethyl-soyate, Et-Soy) and propanol (propyl-soyate, Pro-Soy) and used with glycerol as fermentation substrates to enhance production of free-acid sophorolipids (SLs). Fed-batch fermentations of Candida bombicola resulted in SL yields of 46 +/- 4 g/l, 42 +/- 7 g/l and 18 +/- 6 g/l from Me-Soy, Et-Soy, and Pro-Soy, respectively. Liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (LC/API-MS) showed that Me-Soy resulted in 71% open-chain SLs with 59% of those molecules remaining esterified at the carboxyl end of the fatty acids. Et-Soy and Pro-Soy resulted in 43% and 80% open-chain free-acid SLs, respectively (containing linoleic acid and oleic acid as the principal fatty acid species linked to the sophorose sugar at the omega-1 position), with no evidence of residual esterification. PMID:16555009

  17. Incorporation of a Michael acceptor enhances the antitumor activity of triterpenoic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Lucie; Schwarz, Stefan; Perl, Vincent; Köwitsch, Alexander; Siewert, Bianka; Csuk, René

    2015-08-28

    Finding and developing drugs for the treatment of cancer has been challenging scientists for many decades, and using compounds of natural origin represents one of several strategies. Triterpenoic acids are a very promising class of secondary metabolites being able to induce apoptosis while their cytotoxicity is low. Therefore, derivatizations have to be conducted to improve cytotoxicity while retaining their ability to induce programmed cell death. The incorporation of a Michael acceptor into molecules resulted very often in drugs of improved cytotoxicity. Thus, in this study we synthesized and evaluated several Michael acceptor substituted compounds derived from glycyrrhetinic, ursolic, oleanolic and platanic acid. The influence of the presence of such a functional group onto the cytotoxicity was investigated in colorimetric sulforhodamine B assays employing several human cancer cell lines. EC50 values in the single-digit micromolar range were measured. Thus, the incorporation of a Michael acceptor unit into triterpenoic acids enhances the cytotoxicity of these compounds significantly. PMID:26177446

  18. Cyclosporine A and palmitic acid treatment synergistically induce cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yi, E-mail: yi.luo@pfizer.com; Rana, Payal; Will, Yvonne

    2012-06-01

    Immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment can cause severe side effects. Patients taking immunosuppressant after organ transplantation often display hyperlipidemia and obesity. Elevated levels of free fatty acids have been linked to the etiology of metabolic syndromes, nonalcoholic fatty liver and steatohepatitis. The contribution of free fatty acids to CsA-induced toxicity is not known. In this study we explored the effect of palmitic acid on CsA-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells. CsA by itself at therapeutic exposure levels did not induce detectible cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Co-treatment of palmitic acid and CsA resulted in a dose dependent increase in cytotoxicity, suggesting that fatty acid could sensitize cells to CsA-induced cytotoxicity at the therapeutic doses of CsA. A synergized induction of caspase-3/7 activity was also observed, indicating that apoptosis may contribute to the cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that CsA reduced cellular oxygen consumption which was further exacerbated by palmitic acid, implicating that impaired mitochondrial respiration might be an underlying mechanism for the enhanced toxicity. Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) attenuated palmitic acid and CsA induced toxicity, suggesting that JNK activation plays an important role in mediating the enhanced palmitic acid/CsA-induced toxicity. Our data suggest that elevated FFA levels, especially saturated FFA such as palmitic acid, may be predisposing factors for CsA toxicity, and patients with underlying diseases that would elevate free fatty acids may be susceptible to CsA-induced toxicity. Furthermore, hyperlipidemia/obesity resulting from immunosuppressive therapy may aggravate CsA-induced toxicity and worsen the outcome in transplant patients. -- Highlights: ? Palmitic acid and cyclosporine (CsA) synergistically increased cytotoxicity. ? The impairment of mitochondrial functions may contribute to the enhanced toxicity. ? Inhibition of JNK activity attenuated palmitate/ CsA induced toxicity. ? Palmitate sensitizes cells to the toxicity induced by CsA at therapeutic exposure. ? Elevated free fatty acids may predispose the patients to CsA-induced toxicity.

  19. Cyclosporine A and palmitic acid treatment synergistically induce cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment can cause severe side effects. Patients taking immunosuppressant after organ transplantation often display hyperlipidemia and obesity. Elevated levels of free fatty acids have been linked to the etiology of metabolic syndromes, nonalcoholic fatty liver and steatohepatitis. The contribution of free fatty acids to CsA-induced toxicity is not known. In this study we explored the effect of palmitic acid on CsA-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells. CsA by itself at therapeutic exposure levels did not induce detectible cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Co-treatment of palmitic acid and CsA resulted in a dose dependent increase in cytotoxicity, suggesting that fatty acid could sensitize cells to CsA-induced cytotoxicity at the therapeutic doses of CsA. A synergized induction of caspase-3/7 activity was also observed, indicating that apoptosis may contribute to the cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that CsA reduced cellular oxygen consumption which was further exacerbated by palmitic acid, implicating that impaired mitochondrial respiration might be an underlying mechanism for the enhanced toxicity. Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) attenuated palmitic acid and CsA induced toxicity, suggesting that JNK activation plays an important role in mediating the enhanced palmitic acid/CsA-induced toxicity. Our data suggest that elevated FFA levels, especially saturated FFA such as palmitic acid, may be predisposing factors for CsA toxicity, and patients with underlying diseases that would elevate free fatty acids may be susceptible to CsA-induced toxicity. Furthermore, hyperlipidemia/obesity resulting from immunosuppressive therapy may aggravate CsA-induced toxicity and worsen the outcome in transplant patients. -- Highlights: ? Palmitic acid and cyclosporine (CsA) synergistically increased cytotoxicity. ? The impairment of mitochondrial functions may contribute to the enhanced toxicity. ? Inhibition of JNK activity attenuated palmitate/ CsA induced toxicity. ? Palmitate sensitizes cells to the toxicity induced by CsA at therapeutic exposure. ? Elevated free fatty acids may predispose the patients to CsA-induced toxicity.

  20. Long term acid suppressing treatment in general practice.

    OpenAIRE

    Ryder, S.D.; O Reilly, S.; Miller, R. J.; Ross, J; Jacyna, M. R.; Levi, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the current practice in selected general practices for prescribing long term (> 6 months) treatment to suppress gastric acid secretion. SETTING--Seven general practices in the Harrow area that always or usually refer to Northwick Park Hospital. SUBJECTS--60,148 patients on lists of the general practices. DESIGN--Identification of patients receiving long term treatment through repeat prescribing data, followed by a manual and computer survey of patients' notes for indic...

  1. Cytogenetic and biochemical effects induced by the treatment with ascorbic acid and citric acid on Picea abies (L.) Karst.

    OpenAIRE

    Vlad Artenie; Ioana-Anca Ieremie

    2008-01-01

    This paper present the influence of ascorbic acid and citric acid upon the mitotic division, and to the activity of some antioxidant enzymes to Picea abies (L.) Karst. The treatment was made through the germination of seeds in ascorbic acid and citric acid. We observed the stimulator or inhibitor effect of ascorbic acid and citric acid to the mitotic index and estimated the aberrations appearance. Comparative the control, the mitotic index increased at 0.1 % concentration ascorbic acid and de...

  2. Isomerization of fatty acids in sunflower oil during heat treatment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L.E., Mateos; G.M., Tonetto; G.H., Crapiste.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Pilot-scale treatments of sunflower oil similar to deodorization were carried out by applying steam stripping at different temperatures ranging from 179 to 282°C for 5 h. Samples were taken every half hour, and fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. The results showed an increa [...] se in the relative percentage of trans linoleic acid with an increase in either time or temperature. The formation of trans linoleic acid isomers followed a zero-order reaction and the kinetic constants varied according to the Arrhenius' law. The activation energies for the formation of the acids C18:2ct, C18:2tc and C18:2tt were calculated as 147.4, 147.8 and 146.6 kJ/mol, respectively.

  3. Treatment of alpha-bearing combustible wastes using acid digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid digestion has been developed at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) in Richland, Washington to reduce the volume of combustible nuclear waste materials, while converting them to an inert, noncombustible residue. A 100 kg/day test unit has recently been constructed to demonstrate the process using radioactively contaminated combustible wastes. The unit, called the Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) was completed in September 1977 and is currently undergoing cold shakedown tests. Hot operation is expected in May 1978. Features of RADTU include: storage and transfer station for incoming wastes, a feed preparation station, an extrusion feed mechanism for transfer of the waste to the acid digester, the acid digester, a residue recovery system, and an off-gas treatment system

  4. Treatment of alpha-bearing combustible wastes using acid digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid digestion has been developed at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) in Richland, Washington to reduce the volume of combustible nuclear waste materials, while converting them to an inert, noncombustible residue. A 100 kg/day test unit has recently been constructed to demonstrate the process using radioactively contaminated combustible wastes. The unit, called the Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) was completed in September 1977 and is currently undergoing cold shakedown tests. Hot operation is expected in May 1978. Features of RADTU include: storage and transfer station for incoming wastes, a feed preparation station, an extrusion feed mechanism for transfer of the waste to the acid digester, the acid digester a residue recovery system, and an off-gas treatment system

  5. Comparison of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced MRI for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y.K., E-mail: jmyr@dreamwiz.co [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chonbuk National University Hospital and Medical School, Keum Am Dong, JeonJu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, C.S.; Han, Y.M.; Park, G.; Hwang, S.B. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chonbuk National University Hospital and Medical School, Keum Am Dong, JeonJu (Korea, Republic of); Yu, H.C. [Department of General Surgery, Chonbuk National University Hospital and Medical School, Keum Am Dong, JeonJu (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Aim: To compare the diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and methods: Eighty-nine patients (118 HCCs) who underwent three-dimensional gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and SPIO-enhanced MRI with a mean interval of 4.7 days (range 3-7 days), were included in this study. Two observers reviewed the gadoxetic acid set (unenhanced, early dynamic, 10 and 20 min hepatocyte-phase images) and SPIO set [unenhanced and ferucarbotran-enhanced T1-, T2-turbo spin-echo (TSE), and T2* weighted imaging (WI)] in consensus. Diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity were evaluated using the alternative-free response receiver operator characteristic (ROC) method. Results: The area under ROC curve (Az value) and sensitivity of the gadoxetic acid set (Az 0.964; sensitivity 90.7%) were significantly higher than those of the SPIO set (Az 0.830; sensitivity 84.7%; p < 0.05). There were 14 and seven lesions that were verified only on the gadoxetic acid set and only on the SPIO set, respectively. Four HCCs were clearly revealed as hypointense only on gadoxetic acid-enhanced hepatocyte phase imaging, but were occult on other sequences, including the SPIO set. Conclusion: Gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI is better than SPIO-enhanced MRI for the detection of HCCs.

  6. Effect of acid concentration and treatment time on acid-alcohol modified jackfruit seed starch properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Himjyoti; Paul, Sanjib Kumar; Kalita, Dipankar; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2011-09-15

    The properties of starch extracted from jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) seeds, collected from west Assam after acid-alcohol modification by short term treatment (ST) for 15-30min with concentrated hydrochloric acid and long term treatment (LT) for 1-15days with 1M hydrochloric acid, were investigated. Granule density, freeze thaw stability, solubility and light transmittance of the treated starches increased. A maximum decrease in the degree of polymerisation occurred in ST of 30min (2607.6). Jackfruit starch had 27.1±0.04% amylose content (db), which in ST initially decreased and then increased with the severity of treatment; in LT the effect was irregular. The pasting profile and granule morphology of the treated samples were severely modified. Native starch had the A-type crystalline pattern and crystalline structure increased on treatment. FTIR spectra revealed slight changes in bond stretching and bending. Colour measurement indicated that whiteness increased on treatment. Acid modified jackfruit seed starch can have applications in the food industry. PMID:25212133

  7. Role of acidic chemistries in steam treatment of aluminium alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2015-01-01

    The effect of acidic chemistry on the accelerated growth of oxide on aluminium alloys Peraluman 706TM and AA6060 under exposure to high temperature steam was investigated. Studied chemistries were based on citrates and phosphates. Results showed that the presence of citrate and phosphate anions initiate doxide growth at the intermetallic particles while growth and corrosion performance of oxide was found tobe a function of anions type and their concentration. Further, steam treatment with phosphates exhibited better performance under acetic acid salt spray and filiform corrosion test whereas delay in powder coating resulted in 1.5–3 times inferior performance.

  8. Lewis acid enhanced switching of the 1,1-dicyanodihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene photo/thermoswitch.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Christian Richard; Tortzen, Christian Gregers

    2011-01-01

    Mild Lewis acids enhance the rate of the thermal conversion of vinylheptafulvene (VHF) to dihydroazulene (DHA). In the absence of light, stronger Lewis acids promote the otherwise photoinduced DHA to VHF conversion.

  9. Enhancement of surface properties of oil fly ash by chemical treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawabkeh, Reyad; Khan, Muhammad J.; Al-Juhani, Abdulhadi A.; Al-Abdul Wahhab, Hamad I.; Hussein, Ibnelwaleed A.

    2011-12-01

    In this study, surface modification of oil fly ash (OFA), a by-product generated by oil power plants, was achieved by chemical treatment. A mixture of sulfuric and nitric acids was used to modify the surface in order to attach a carboxylic functional group to the surface of OFA. The goal of surface modification of OFA is to make its surface more compatible with nonpolar polymers in order to produce OFA/polymer composite materials with improved dispersion of OFA, and to increase OFA surface area in order to support its use as adsorbent materials in adsorptive separation and purification applications. Different acid compositions were used for treatment by gradually increasing the nitric acid concentration from 0 to 20%. Also, the effect of oxidation on surface modification was examined by introducing air to enhance the oxidation of OFA. FTIR analysis was performed to identify the different functional groups attached to OFA surface before and after the chemical treatment. Evaluation of different structural changes during the surface modification was investigated by XRD analysis. Surface morphology and spot analysis was studied by SEM technique to identify the composition of different elements present in the OFA such as carbon, oxygen and sulfur. BET analysis showed major increase in surface area after modification as well as pore size and micropore volume of OFA particles. The maximum increase in surface area was obtained with 15 vol.% HNO 3. Also, carboxylic functionalization of OFA was enhanced when air was injected.

  10. [Characteristics of acid red 3R wastewater treatment by ozone microbubbles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Du, Ya-Wei; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Zhou, Yu-Wen; Liu, Chun; Yang, Jing-Liang; Zhang, Lei

    2015-02-01

    The application of microbubble technology for ozonation wastewater treatment could enhance ozone mass transfer, improve ozonation performance and increase ozone utilization efficiency. The ozone microbubbles were used to treat synthetic acid red 3R wastewater in the present study, and compared to ozone conventional bubbles. The ozone mass transfer and ozonation characteristics of acid red 3R were investigated when ozone microbubbles and ozone conventional bubbles were applied. The results confirmed the enhanced ozone mass transfer using microbubbles. The ozone mass transfer coefficient using microbubbles was 3.6 times higher than that using conventional bubbles under the same conditions. Simultaneously, the ozone decomposition coefficient using microbubbles was 6.2 times higher than that using conventional bubbles, which would be favorable for *OH generation. The ozonation rate and mineralization efficiency of acid red 3R could be improved significantly using ozone microbubbles. A TOC removal efficiency of 78.0% was achieved using ozone microbubbles, which was about 2 times higher than that using ozone conventional bubbles. The ozone utilization efficiency using microbubbles was much higher that using conventional bubbles during ozonation treatment of acid red 3R. The average ozone utilization efficiencies were 97.8% and 69.3% when microbubbles and conventional bubbles were used, respectively. The oxidative ability of ozone microbubbles could be increased by enhancing *OH generation, and as a result, the oxidative reaction of degradation intermediates was accelerated by ozone microbubbles. Especially, the mineralization ability of small organic acid intermediates using ozone microbubbles was about 1.6 times higher than that using ozone conventional bubbles. PMID:26031086

  11. Treatment of hydrofluoric acid exposure to the eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Atley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To review the current evidence of the treatment of hydrofluoric acid (HF exposure to the human cornea. METHODS: A comprehensive manual search of the literature was conducted through the Ovid interface to assess the mechanism and efficacy of each irrigator through a variety of clinical cases and experimental studies. RESULTS: Ocular exposure to HF is extremely damaging to the eye and swift recognition and decontamination with an appropriate agent forms the basis of treatment. Although there are various decontamination solutions that have efficacy against the corrosive action of HF, irrigation with Hexafluorine proved to be the most safe and effective treatment for the eye. CONCLUSION: In conclusion emergency departments could benefit from the availability of Hexafluorine for the treatment of HF ocular burns in patients.

  12. Organising pneumonia associated with fumaric acid ester treatment for psoriasis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Deegan, Alexander Paul

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: We present the case of a 49-year old male who presented with dyspnoea, cough, weight loss, night sweats and general malaise. He had been on treatment with oral fumaric acid esters (FAE, Fumaderm(R); Biogen Idec GmbH, Ismaning, Germany) for 6 months. METHODS: Report of a case. RESULTS: His chest X-ray showed patchy infiltrates in the left upper lobe which failed to resolve under empiric antibiotic therapy. A computed tomography of thorax revealed bilateral, mostly peripheral foci of consolidation with air bronchograms. Transbronchial biopsies showed a pattern of organising pneumonia (OP). CONCLUSIONS: Therapy with oral prednisolone (40 mg\\/day) resulted in a rapid clinical and radiological improvement. An association of FAE and OP has not previously been reported. Please cite this paper as: Deegan AP, Kirby B, Rogers S, Crotty TB and McDonnell TJ. Organising pneumonia associated with fumaric acid ester treatment for psoriasis.

  13. Zoledronic acid infusion for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    John A Sunyecz

    2010-01-01

    John A SunyeczLaurel Highlands Ob/Gyn, Hopwood, Pennsylvania, USA and MenopauseRx, Inc., Uniontown, PA, USAAbstract: Osteoporotic fractures are associated with significant morbidity, reduced quality of life, increased mortality, and high health care costs. Bisphosphonates are standard therapy for treatment of osteoporosis. However, patient compliance and persistence with oral weekly or monthly bisphosphonate therapy are suboptimal and may lead to reduced effectiveness. Zoledronic acid (ZOL) i...

  14. Valproic acid enhances tubulin acetylation and apoptotic activity of paclitaxel on anaplastic thyroid cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Maria G; Poli, Roberta; Pugliese, Mariateresa; Fortunati, Nicoletta; Boccuzzi, Giuseppe

    2007-09-01

    The introduction of paclitaxel into multimodal therapy for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma has failed to improve overall survival. Toxicity rules out the high doses required, especially in older patients. The search for strategies to enhance paclitaxel antineoplastic activity and reduce its side effects is thus advisable. The study aimed to determine whether the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) improves the anticancer action of paclitaxel and elucidate the mechanisms underlying the effects of combined treatment. We examined the effect of VPA on the sensitivity to paclitaxel of two anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines (CAL-62 and ARO), and the ability of the drug to determine tubulin acetylation and enhance paclitaxel-induced acetylation. The addition of as little as 0.7 mM VPA to paclitaxel enhances both cytostatic and cytotoxic effects of paclitaxel alone. Increased apoptosis explains the enhancement of the cytotoxic effect. The mechanism underlying this effect is through inhibition of HDAC6 activity, which leads to tubulin hyperacetylation. The results suggest a mechanistic link between HDAC6 inhibition, tubulin acetylation, and the VPA-induced enhancement of paclitaxel effects, and provide the rationale for designing future combination therapies. PMID:17914112

  15. Mechanisms of enhanced total organic carbon elimination from oxalic acid solutions by electro-peroxone process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huijiao; Yuan, Shi; Zhan, Juhong; Wang, Yujue; Yu, Gang; Deng, Shubo; Huang, Jun; Wang, Bin

    2015-09-01

    Electro-peroxone (E-peroxone) is a novel electrocatalytic ozonation process that combines ozonation and electrolysis process to enhance pollutant degradation during water and wastewater treatment. This enhancement has been mainly attributed to several mechanisms that increase O3 transformation to ·OH in the E-peroxone system, e.g., electro-generation of H2O2 from O2 at a carbon-based cathode and its subsequent peroxone reaction with O3 to ·OH, electro-reduction of O3 to ·OH at the cathode, and O3 decomposition to ·OH at high local pH near the cathode. To get more insight how these mechanisms contribute respectively to the enhancement, this study investigated total organic carbon (TOC) elimination from oxalic acid (OA) solutions by the E-peroxone process. Results show that the E-peroxone process significantly increased TOC elimination rate by 10.2-12.5 times compared with the linear addition of the individual rates of corresponding ozonation and electrolysis process. Kinetic analyses reveal that the electrochemically-driven peroxone reaction is the most important mechanism for the enhanced TOC elimination rate, while the other mechanisms contribute minor to the enhancement by a factor of 1.6-2.5. The results indicate that proper selection of electrodes that can effectively produce H2O2 at the cathode is critical to maximize TOC elimination in the E-peroxone process. PMID:25989593

  16. Plasma surface treatments of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surfaces of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) were modified by oxygen and nitrogen plasma treatments. The physical and chemical surface characteristics were evaluated by contact angle tests, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The plasma treatments caused an increase in both contact angle and roughening, altered the surface morphology, inserted polar groups, and, consequently, enhanced the hydrophilicity for both PLLA and PHBV polymers.

  17. Enhancement of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on all-trans retinoic acid-induced differentiation in human leukemia HL-60 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) induces complete remission in a high proportion of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL); however, the response is sometimes very slow. Furthermore, relapse and resistance to treatment often occur despite continued treatment with ATRA. Thereafter, combination treatment strategies have been suggested to circumvent these problems. The present study demonstrates that caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a major component of honeybee propolis, enhanced ATRA-induced granulocytic differentiation in HL-60, a human promyelocytic cell line. The differentiation was assessed by Wright-Giemsa stain, nitroblue tetrazolium reduction, and membrane differentiation marker CD11b. In addition, CAPE enhanced ATRA-induced cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase by decreasing the association of cdk2-cyclin E complex. Finally, it was demonstrated that CAPE promoted the ATRA-mediated nuclear transcription activation of RAR? assessed by EMSA assay and enhanced the expression of target genes including RAR?, C/EBP?, and p21 protein resulting in the differentiation development of leukemia. It is suggested that CAPE possesses the potential to enhance the efficiency of ATRA in the differentiation therapy of APL

  18. Slagment Cement Improve the Cement Resistance Toward Acids Attack During Acidizing Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Khairul Irfan Bin Nik Ab. Lah.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Acidizing treatment in past experience shows several zonal isolation problems after the treatment. This study presents the effect of the acid treatment toward class G cement and slagment cement as the improvement method to improve the cement resistance toward the acid. Lab experiments were conducted by immerge the respective cement cubes into 12% HCl/3% HF solution for 40 min before several analysis were conducted. Based on the result, the mass loss and compressive strength loss of the cement cubes decrease as the curing temperature and pressure increase due to more evenly distributed cement chemical composition crystal in high curing condition as shown in Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM analysis. From X-Ray Diffraction (XRD and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF analysis, only the first layer of the cement cubes shows chemical component change due to the reaction between the acid. This study found that, replacing class G cement to slagment cement can reduce the mass loss and compressive strength loss up to 72% and 82%, respectively.

  19. [Hyaluronic Acid (hyalgan(r)) in the treatment of gonarthritis.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelka, K; Vlasáková, V; Vítová, J; Stehlíková, H; Slanský, J

    1995-01-01

    The authors made an open multicentre clinical study with the administration of hyaluronic acid (Hyalgan(R) - Fidia) in patients with gonarthritis. The study comprised 31 patients with gonarthritis grade II-III according to Kellgren, 30 of whom completed the study. Hyalgan was administered to the patients - vials á 2 ml in five injections in weekly intervals by the intraarticular route. The patients were followed up for another three months after completed treatment. A significant decline of pain on the visual analogue scale (VAS) was recorded already two weeks after onset of treatment (p = 0.001) and this decline persisted for another 13 weeks after termination of treatment. The algofunctional indices (Lequesne, Jezek) also declined after the first injection, whereby a statistically significant reduction was recorded still after 12 weeks, as compared with values before the onset of treatment (p = 0.001). Similar results were obtained also in objective evaluations (effusion, temperature above joint, tenderness). Already after the second injection a significantly shorter time was required for a 20 m walk. The mean daily paracetamol consumption declined from a mean value of 1496 +/- 777 mg before administration to 670 6 661 mg at the end of the investigation (p = 0.00006). Undesirable effects (increased intensity of pain after puncture) was recorded in one patient (3.3%). Evidence was provided that Hyalgan(R) belongs as to its profile of effectiveness among so-called SYSADOAs (symptomatic slow acting drugs for OA). Treatment is quite safe. Key words: knee osteoarthritis, hyaluronic acid, i. a. treatment. PMID:20470530

  20. CT CONTRAST ENHANCEMENT FOLLOWING RENAL CRYOABLATION – ARTEFACT OR TREATMENT FAILURE?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tommy Kjærgaard; Østraat, Øyvind

    Introduction and objective: Renal cryoablation is a valid treatment option for localized pT1a renal cancer. Treatment success is typically defined as absence of contrast enhancement (CE) and a decrease in size of the cryoablated renal mass (i.e. cryolesion) on follow-up imaging. We investigated the CT characteristics and treatment outcome of renal cryolesions demonstrating CE during postoperative follow-up. Material and methods: A retrospective review of Aarhus Cryoablation Register identified 113 patients with a pT1a biopsy verified malignant renal lesion who underwent primary laparoscopic (LCA) or percutaneous cryoablation (PCA) from August 2005 to August 2012 at Aarhus University Hospital. Six patients were excluded from analysis due to MRI follow-up. During routine postoperative CT follow-up, contrast enhancement of the cryolesion was identified in 34 of the 107 patients (32%). Results: Mean patient age was 64 (45:79) yr. Mean tumour size was 24 (10:43) mm. RCC- subtypes: Clear cell (79 %), Papillary (12 %), Chromophobe (6%), Collecting duct carcinoma (3%). Treatment modalities was: LCA 53% and PCA 47%. A total of 31 patients (29%) were found to have CE on the initial follow-up CT and additional 3 patients had delayed CE (defined as no CE on prior CT). No significant difference in patient characteristics between patients with or without CE lesions was found. Spontaneous resolution of the CE was observed in 15 of the 34 patients (44%). Ten patients (29%) with CE lesions underwent re-ablation, with a median time to re-ablation of 12 months (1-27) after initial procedure. Other salvage procedures was: partial nephrectomy (1 pts), nephrectomy (2 pts) and oncological treatment (4 pts). Stratified on final outcome (spontaneous resolution vs. salvage therapy) age, tumour size, PADUA- score and level of contrast enhancement was significantly (p<0,05) lower among patients experiencing spontaneous resolution. Histology, change in cryolesion size, contrast enhancement pattern and number of cryoprobes used were not significantly different between the two groups. In patients where attenuation levels excited 39 HU it was found that only 13% experienced spontaneous resolution compared to 39% of patients with lower attenuation levels (p=0.004). None of the tumours with a high PADUA-score (?10) resulted in spontaneous resolution. Conclusion: Early re-treatment prior to 12 months should be carefully evaluated, as spontaneous resolution is commonly observed during postoperative follow-up. The importance of change in cryolesion size remains controversial and requires further research. If the PADUA score is ?10 and attenuation levels exceed 39 HU on contrast enhancement CT, residual unablated tumor should be considered.

  1. Electroacupuncture enhances spermatogenesis in rats after scrotal heat treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Jing; Zuo, Yan; So, Kam-Hei; Yeung, William S. B.; Ng, Ernest H Y; Lee, Kai-Fai

    2012-01-01

    Spermatogenesis is regulated by a cascade of steroid regulated genes in the testis. Recent studies suggested that acupuncture may improve fertility in men with abnormal semen parameters. Yet, the underlying mechanisms in which acupuncture enhances spermatogenesis remain largely unknown. Here we used a scrotal heat-treated rat model to study the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on recovery of spermatogenesis. In this model, spermatogenesis was disrupted by 30 min scrotal heat treatment at 43°...

  2. Influence of reducing carbohydrates on (6S)-5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid degradation during thermal treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinde, Philippe H C J; Oey, Indrawati; Lemmens, Lien; Deborggraeve, Wim M; Hendrickx, Marc E; Van Loey, Ann M

    2010-05-26

    The mechanism and kinetics of the degradation of (6S)5-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolic acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of reducing carbohydrates such as glucose and fructose were investigated for thermal treatments. Preliminary experiments indicated that the presence of reducing carbohydrates, especially fructose (1.6 mM-1.5 M), strongly enhanced folate degradation at moderate temperatures (50-90 degrees C, 0-60 min). Identification of the predominant folate degradation products by LC-MS and NMR pointed to the formation of N(2alpha)-[1-(carboxyethyl)]-5-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolic acid diastereomers besides other folate degradation products upon prolonged heating (24 h, 100 degrees C) of (6S)5-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolic acid in fructose or dihydroxyacetone solutions. Using a Bayesian multiresponse kinetic modeling approach, kinetic characterization and elucidation of the degradation mechanism in the presence of equimolar amounts of dihydroxyacetone, fructose, and glucose were achieved. On the basis of the established degradation mechanism for (6S)5-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolic acid oxidation in the literature, it was shown that nonenzymatic glycation occurred due to reaction of dihydroxyacetone with 5-methyl-7,8-dihydrofolic acid. During thermal treatments (85-110 degrees C, 0-60 min), the nonenzymatic glycation reaction was characterized by an activation energy of 61.3 +/- 9.3 and 77.6 +/- 7.8 kJ mol(-1) in the presence of, respectively, dihydroxyacetone and fructose. Addition of L-ascorbic acid (1.13 mM) to folate samples (0.04 mM) with equimolar amounts of fructose prior to heating (100 degrees C, 0-45 min) was shown to retard the formation of 5-methyl-7,8-dihydrofolic acid and hence prevented the formation of the carboxyethylated derivatives under the investigated conditions. PMID:20423084

  3. Psychosocial Treatments for Bipolar Depression: A 1-Year Randomized Trial From the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program

    OpenAIRE

    Miklowitz, DJ; Otto, MW; Frank, E.; Reilly-Harrington, NA; Wisniewski, SR; Kogan, JN; Nierenberg, AA; Calabrese, JR; Marangell, LB; Gyulai, L; Araga, M; Gonzalez, JM; Shirley, ER; Thase, ME; Sachs, GS

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: Psychosocial interventions have been shown to enhance pharmacotherapy outcomes in bipolar disorder. OBJECTIVE: To examine the benefits of 4 disorder-specific psychotherapies in conjunction with pharmacotherapy on time to recovery and the likelihood of remaining well after an episode of bipolar depression. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Fifteen clinics affiliated with the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder. Patients A total of 293 referred out...

  4. Enhancing pitting corrosion resistance of Al{sub x}CrFe{sub 1.5}MnNi{sub 0.5} high-entropy alloys by anodic treatment in sulfuric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.P.; Chen, Y.Y.; Hsu, C.Y.; Yeh, J.W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Shih, H.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Chinese Culture University, Taipei 111, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: hcshih@mx.nthu.edu.tw

    2008-12-01

    High-entropy alloys are a newly developed family of multi-component alloys that comprise various major alloying elements. Each element in the alloy system is present in between 5 and 35 at.%. The crystal structures and physical properties of high-entropy alloys differ completely from those of conventional alloys. The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) of the Al{sub x}CrFe{sub 1.5}MnNi{sub 0.5} (x = 0, 0.3, 0.5) alloys, obtained in 0.1 M HCl solution, clearly revealed that the corrosion resistance values were determined to increase from 21 to 34 {omega}cm{sup 2} as the aluminum content increased from 0 to 0.5 mol, and were markedly lower than that of 304 stainless steel (243 {omega}cm{sup 2}). At passive potential, the corresponding current declined with the anodizing time accounting, causing passivity by the growth of the multi-component anodized film in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses revealed that the surface of anodized Al{sub 0.3}CrFe{sub 1.5}MnNi{sub 0.5} alloy formed aluminum and chromium oxide film which was the main passivating compound on the alloy. This anodic treatment increased the corrosion resistance in the EIS measurements of the CrFe{sub 1.5}MnNi{sub 0.5} and Al{sub 0.3}CrFe{sub 1.5}MnNi{sub 0.5} alloys by two orders of magnitude. Accordingly, the anodic treatment of the Al{sub x}CrFe{sub 1.5}MnNi{sub 0.5} alloys optimized their surface structures and minimized their susceptibility to pitting corrosion.

  5. Mechanism involved in enhancement of osteoblast differentiation by hyaluronic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: ? In this study was to investigate the effects of HA on osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. ? MG63 cells were incubated with BMP-2 and HA for various time periods. ? Phosphorylation of Smad 1/5/8, p38, and ERK proteins was determined by western blot analysis. To elucidate the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated Smad 1/5/8, stimulated cells were subjected to immunofluorescence microscopy. ? HA enhanced BMP-2 induces osteoblastic differentiation in MG63 cells via down-regulation of BMP-2 antagonists and ERK phosphorylation. -- Abstract: Objectives: Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is expected to be utilized to fill bone defects and promote healing of fractures. However, it is unable to generate an adequate clinical response for use in bone regeneration. Recently, it was reported that glycosaminoglycans, including heparin, heparan sulfate, keratan sulfate, dermatan sulfate, chondroitin-4-sulfate, chondroitin-6-sulfate, and hyaluronic acid (HA), regulate BMP-2 activity, though the mechanism by which HA regulates osteogenic activities has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HA on osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. Materials and methods: Monolayer cultures of osteoblastic lineage MG63 cells were incubated with BMP-2 and HA for various time periods. To determine osteoblastic differentiation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the cell lysates was quantified. Phosphorylation of Smad 1/5/8, p38, and ERK proteins was determined by Western blot analysis. To elucidate the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated Smad 1/5/8, stimulated cells were subjected to immunofluorescence microscopy. To further elucidate the role of HA in enhancement of BMP-2-induced Smad signaling, mRNA expressions of the BMP-2 receptor antagonists noggin and follistatin were detected using real-time RT-PCR. Results: BMP-2-induced ALP activation, Smad 1/5/8 phosphorylation, and nuclear translocation were up-regulated when MG63 cells were cultured with both BMP-2 and HA. Western blot analysis revealed that phosphorylation of ERK protein was diminished by HA. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of noggin and follistatin induced by BMP-2 were preferentially blocked by HA. Conclusions: These results indicate that HA enhanced BMP-2 induces osteoblastic differentiation in MG63 cells via down-regulation of BMP-2 antagonists and ERK phosphorylation.

  6. Mechanism involved in enhancement of osteoblast differentiation by hyaluronic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Michinao [Division of Maxillofacial Diagnostic and Surgical Science, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Department of Health Promotion, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Ariyoshi, Wataru [Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Department of Health Promotion, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Iwanaga, Kenjiro [Division of Maxillofacial Diagnostic and Surgical Science, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Okinaga, Toshinori [Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Department of Health Promotion, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Habu, Manabu [Division of Maxillofacial Diagnostic and Surgical Science, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Yoshioka, Izumi [Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Medicine of Sensory and Motor Organs, University of Miyazaki, Kiyotake, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan); Tominaga, Kazuhiro [Division of Maxillofacial Diagnostic and Surgical Science, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Oral Bioresearch Center, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Nishihara, Tatsuji, E-mail: tatsujin@kyu-dent.ac.jp [Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Department of Health Promotion, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Oral Bioresearch Center, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan)

    2011-02-25

    Research highlights: {yields} In this study was to investigate the effects of HA on osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. {yields} MG63 cells were incubated with BMP-2 and HA for various time periods. {yields} Phosphorylation of Smad 1/5/8, p38, and ERK proteins was determined by western blot analysis. To elucidate the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated Smad 1/5/8, stimulated cells were subjected to immunofluorescence microscopy. {yields} HA enhanced BMP-2 induces osteoblastic differentiation in MG63 cells via down-regulation of BMP-2 antagonists and ERK phosphorylation. -- Abstract: Objectives: Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is expected to be utilized to fill bone defects and promote healing of fractures. However, it is unable to generate an adequate clinical response for use in bone regeneration. Recently, it was reported that glycosaminoglycans, including heparin, heparan sulfate, keratan sulfate, dermatan sulfate, chondroitin-4-sulfate, chondroitin-6-sulfate, and hyaluronic acid (HA), regulate BMP-2 activity, though the mechanism by which HA regulates osteogenic activities has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HA on osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. Materials and methods: Monolayer cultures of osteoblastic lineage MG63 cells were incubated with BMP-2 and HA for various time periods. To determine osteoblastic differentiation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the cell lysates was quantified. Phosphorylation of Smad 1/5/8, p38, and ERK proteins was determined by Western blot analysis. To elucidate the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated Smad 1/5/8, stimulated cells were subjected to immunofluorescence microscopy. To further elucidate the role of HA in enhancement of BMP-2-induced Smad signaling, mRNA expressions of the BMP-2 receptor antagonists noggin and follistatin were detected using real-time RT-PCR. Results: BMP-2-induced ALP activation, Smad 1/5/8 phosphorylation, and nuclear translocation were up-regulated when MG63 cells were cultured with both BMP-2 and HA. Western blot analysis revealed that phosphorylation of ERK protein was diminished by HA. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of noggin and follistatin induced by BMP-2 were preferentially blocked by HA. Conclusions: These results indicate that HA enhanced BMP-2 induces osteoblastic differentiation in MG63 cells via down-regulation of BMP-2 antagonists and ERK phosphorylation.

  7. Hydrothermal-acid treatment for effectual extraction of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-abundant lipids from Nannochloropsis salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ilgyu; Han, Jong-In

    2015-09-01

    Hydrothermal acid treatment, was adopted to extract eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) from wet biomass of Nannochloropsis salina. It was found that sulfuric acid-based treatment increased EPA yield from 11.8 to 58.1 mg/g cell in a way that was nearly proportional to its concentration. Nitric acid exhibited the same pattern at low concentrations, but unlike sulfuric acid its effectiveness unexpectedly dropped from 0.5% to 2.0%. The optimal and minimal conditions for hydrothermal acid pretreatment were determined using a statistical approach; its maximum EPA yield (predicted: 43.69 mg/g cell; experimental: 43.93 mg/g cell) was established at a condition of 1.27% of sulfuric acid, 113.34 °C of temperature, and 36.71 min of reaction time. Our work demonstrated that the acid-catalyzed cell disruption, accompanied by heat, can be one potentially promising option for ?-3 fatty acids extraction. PMID:25966023

  8. Flaxseed Soluble Dietary Fibre Enhances Lactic Acid Bacterial Survival and Growth in Kefir and Possesses High Antioxidant Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Mehri HadiNezhad; Camille Duc; Nam Fong Han; Farah Hosseinian

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the capability and efficiency of flaxseed soluble dietary fibre /mucilage to enhance bacterial survival and growth in kefir as well as the antioxidant activity of the mucilage. Crude flaxseed mucilage was extracted using a microwave method, followed by enzymatic and dialysis treatments to obtain pure mucilage. The antioxidant activities of the pure and crude mucilage were measured using different assays. Microbial analyses, pH and total titratable acidity (TTA) were me...

  9. Contrast-enhanced microwave detection and treatment of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fuqiang

    Contrast agents and heating agents have been proposed for microwave breast tumor imaging and treatment, respectively. The dielectric properties of the tumor are altered with contrast agents or heating agents that locally accumulate in the tumor. The resulting change in dielectric properties of the tumor has the potential to enhance the sensitivity of microwave imaging of breast tumors and increase the efficiency and selectivity of microwave thermal therapy of breast tumors. This dissertation addresses several key challenges in contrast-enhanced microwave imaging and treatment of breast tumors. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been shown to enhance both the relative permittivity and effective conductivity of the host medium, and are promising as theranostic (integrated therapeutic and diagnostic) agents. Thus, our properties characterization work focuses on CNT dispersions. We performed in vitro microwave dielectric properties and heating response characterization of dispersions of CNTs treated by different functionalization methods and identified a CNT formulation that is very promising as a microwave theranostic agent. Stable dispersions of CNTs with concentrations up to 20 mg/ml are obtained with this formulation, and the enhanced microwave properties of these dispersions are extraordinary compared to the control. We also conducted in vivo dielectric properties characterization of mouse tumors with intra-tumoral injections of CNT dispersions and confirmed that the presence of CNTs increases the dielectric properties of the tumor. In parallel, we developed a contrast-enhanced microwave breast tumor imaging algorithm using sparse reconstruction methods. We demonstrated that this algorithm accurately localizes small tumors in 3D numerical breast phantoms. We also demonstrated the experimental feasibility of this method using physical breast phantoms. Lastly, we studied the sensitivity of the distorted Born iterative method (DBIM) to initial guesses and developed a straightforward method for computing a reliable initial guess. DBIM is an iterative algorithm for solving the microwave inverse scattering problem and is used to initialize the sparse reconstruction algorithm developed in this research.

  10. Docosahexaenoic acid attenuates hyperglycemia-enhanced hemorrhagic transformation after transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y; Xu, M; Wan, J; Wen, S; Sun, J; Zhao, H; Lou, M

    2015-08-20

    Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is a feared complication of cerebral ischemic infarction, especially following the use of thrombolytic therapy. In this study, we examined whether docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), an omega-3 essential fatty acid family member, can protect the brain from injury and whether DHA can decrease the risk of HT enhanced by hyperglycemia after focal ischemic injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with 50% dextrose (6ml/kg intraperitoneally) to induce hyperglycemia 10min before 1.5h of filament middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was performed. Treatment with DHA (10mg/kg) 5min before reperfusion reduced HT and further improved the 7-day neurological outcome. It also reduced infarct volume, which is consistent with the restricted DWI and T2WI hyperintensive area. Reduced Evans Blue extravasation and increased expression of collagen IV indicated the improved integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in DHA-treated rats. Moreover, DHA reduced the expression of the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the ischemic injured brain. Therefore, we conclude that DHA attenuated hyperglycemia-enhanced HT and improved neurological function by preserving the integrity of BBB and reducing inflammation. PMID:26102005

  11. Enhanced antimicrobial effect of organic acid washing against foodborne pathogens on broccoli by vacuum impregnation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun-Won; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-01-18

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of vacuum impregnation applied to the washing process for removal of Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes from broccoli surfaces. Broccoli was inoculated with the two foodborne pathogens and treated with simple dipping washing or with vacuum impregnation in 2% malic acid for 5, 10, 20, or 30min. There were two methods of vacuum impregnation: continuous and intermittent. After 30min of 101.3kPa (=14.7psi, simple dipping), 61.3kPa (=8.9psi), and 21.3kPa (=3.1psi) of continuous vacuum impregnation treatment, there were 1.6, 2.0, and 2.4log10CFU/g reductions of S. Typhimurium and 1.5, 1.7, and 2.3log10CFU/g reductions of L. monocytogenes, respectively. After 30min of 101.3, 61.3, and 21.3kPa of intermittent vacuum impregnation treatment, there were 1.5, 2.3, and 3.7log10CFU/g reductions of S. Typhimurium and 1.6, 2.1, and 3.2log10CFU/g reductions of L. monocytogenes, respectively. Scanning electron photomicrographs showed that bacteria tend to attach to or become entrapped in protective sites after simple wash processing (dipping). However, most bacteria were washed out of protective sites after intermittent treatment. Direct treatment of cell suspensions with vacuum impregnation showed that it had no inactivation capacity in itself since there were no significant differences (P?0.05) between the reduction rates of non- and vacuum impregnation treatment. These results demonstrate that the increased antimicrobial effect of vacuum impregnation can be attributed to increased accessibility of sanitizer and an enhanced washing effect in protected sites on produce. Color, texture and titratable acidity values of broccoli treated with intermittent vacuum impregnation in 2% malic acid for 30min were not significantly (P?0.05) different from those of untreated samples even though a storage interval was needed for titratable acidity values to be reduced to levels comparable to those of untreated controls. PMID:26496412

  12. Methane sulfonic acid-enhanced formation of molecular clusters of sulfuric acid and dimethyl amine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bork, N.; Elm, J.; Olenius, T.; Vehkamäki, H.

    2014-11-01

    Over oceans and in coastal regions, methane sulfonic acid (MSA) is present in substantial concentrations in aerosols and in the gas phase. We present an investigation into the effect of MSA on sulfuric acid- and dimethyl amine (DMA)-based cluster formation rates. From systematic conformational scans and well-tested ab initio methods, we optimise the structures of all MSAx (H2SO4)yDMAz clusters where x + y ≤ 3 and z ≤ 2. The resulting thermodynamic data are used in the Atmospheric Cluster Dynamics Code, and the effect of MSA is evaluated by comparing ternary MSA-H2SO4-DMA cluster formation rates to binary H2SO4-DMA cluster formation rates. Within the range of atmospherically relevant MSA concentrations, we find that MSA may increase cluster formation rates by up to 1 order of magnitude, although typically, the increase will be less than 300 % at 258 K, less than 100 % at 278 K and less than 15 % at 298 K. The results are rationalised by a detailed analysis of the main growth paths of the clusters. We find that MSA-enhanced clustering involves clusters containing one MSA molecule, while clusters containing more than one MSA molecule do not contribute significantly to the growth.

  13. Methane sulfonic acid enhanced formation of molecular clusters of sulfuric acid and dimethyl amine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bork, N.; Elm, J.; Olenius, T.; Vehkamäki, H.

    2014-07-01

    Over oceans and in coastal regions methane sulfonic acid (MSA) is present in substantial concentrations in aerosols and in the gas phase. We present an investigation of the effect of MSA on sulfuric acid and dimethyl amine (DMA) based cluster formation rates. From systematic conformational scans and well tested ab initio methods, we optimize structures of all MSAx (H2SO4)yDMAz clusters where x + y ≤ 3 and z ≤ 2. The resulting thermodynamic data is used in the Atmospheric Cluster Dynamics Code and the effect of MSA is evaluated by comparing ternary MSA-H2SO4-DMA cluster formation rates to binary H2SO4-DMA cluster formation rates. Within the range of atmospherically relevant MSA concentrations, we find that MSA may increase cluster formation rates by up to one order of magnitude, although typically, the increase will be less than 300% at 258 K, less than 100% at 278 K and less than 15% at 298 K. The results are rationalized by a detailed analysis of the the main growth paths of the clusters. We find that MSA enhanced clustering involves clusters containing one MSA molecule, while clusters containing more than one MSA molecule do not contribute significantly to the growth.

  14. An optimized probucol microencapsulated formulation integrating a secondary bile acid (deoxycholic acid as a permeation enhancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mooranian A

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Armin Mooranian,1 Rebecca Negrulj,1 Nigel Chen-Tan,2 Gerald F Watts,3 Frank Arfuso,4 Hani Al-Salami11Biotechnology and Drug Development Research Laboratory, School of Pharmacy, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Biosciences Research Precinct, Curtin University, 2Faculty of Science and Engineering, Curtin University, 3School of Medicine and Pharmacology, Royal Perth Hospital, University of Western Australia, 4School of Biomedical Science, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Biosciences Research Precinct, Curtin University, Perth, AustraliaAbstract: The authors have previously designed, developed, and characterized a novel microencapsulated formulation as a platform for the targeted delivery of therapeutics in an animal model of type 2 diabetes, using the drug probucol (PB. The aim of this study was to optimize PB microcapsules by incorporating the bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA, which has good permeation-enhancing properties, and to examine its effect on microcapsules’ morphology, rheology, structural and surface characteristics, and excipients’ chemical and thermal compatibilities. Microencapsulation was carried out using a BÜCHI-based microencapsulating system established in the authors’ laboratory. Using the polymer sodium alginate (SA, two microencapsulated formulations were prepared: PB-SA (control and PB-DCA-SA (test at a constant ratio (1:30 and 1:3:30, respectively. Complete characterization of the microcapsules was carried out. The incorporation of DCA resulted in better structural and surface characteristics, uniform morphology, and stable chemical and thermal profiles, while size and rheological parameters remained similar to control. In addition, PB-DCA-SA microcapsules showed good excipients’ compatibilities, which were supported by data from differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray studies, suggesting microcapsule stability. Hence, PB-DCA-SA microcapsules have good rheological and compatibility characteristics and may be suitable for the oral delivery of PB in type 2 diabetes.Keywords: artificial cell microencapsulation, diabetes, bile acids, probucol, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, BÜCHI B390

  15. Enhancement of radiotherapy by ceria nanoparticles modified with neogambogic acid in breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Zhang, Xiao Hong; Hu, Xiao Dan; Zhang, Wei; Lou, Zhi Chao; Xie, Li Hua; Liu, Pei Dang; Zhang, Hai Qian

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the main strategies for cancer treatment but has significant challenges, such as cancer cell resistance and radiation damage to normal tissue. Radiosensitizers that selectively increase the susceptibility of cancer cells to radiation can enhance the effectiveness of radiotherapy. We report here the development of a novel radiosensitizer consisting of monodispersed ceria nanoparticles (CNPs) covered with the anticancer drug neogambogic acid (NGA-CNPs). These were used in conjunction with radiation in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, and the efficacy and mechanisms of action of this combined treatment approach were evaluated. NGA-CNPs potentiated the toxic effects of radiation, leading to a higher rate of cell death than either treatment used alone and inducing the activation of autophagy and cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, while pretreatment with NGA or CNPs did not improve the rate of radiation-induced cancer cells death. However, NGA-CNPs decreased both endogenous and radiation-induced reactive oxygen species formation, unlike other nanomaterials. These results suggest that the adjunctive use of NGA-CNPs can increase the effectiveness of radiotherapy in breast cancer treatment by lowering the radiation doses required to kill cancer cells and thereby minimizing collateral damage to healthy adjacent tissue. PMID:26316742

  16. Zoledronic acid infusion for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Sunyecz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available John A SunyeczLaurel Highlands Ob/Gyn, Hopwood, Pennsylvania, USA and MenopauseRx, Inc., Uniontown, PA, USAAbstract: Osteoporotic fractures are associated with significant morbidity, reduced quality of life, increased mortality, and high health care costs. Bisphosphonates are standard therapy for treatment of osteoporosis. However, patient compliance and persistence with oral weekly or monthly bisphosphonate therapy are suboptimal and may lead to reduced effectiveness. Zoledronic acid (ZOL is an intravenous bisphosphonate that is given once yearly for the treatment of osteoporosis via a medically supervised 15-minute infusion. This ensures compliance for a full 12 months. In clinical trials, an annual infusion of ZOL 5 mg has shown sustained efficacy in reducing hip and spine fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. It has also been shown to increase bone density in postmenopausal women with osteopenia (low bone mass and in men with osteoporosis. Transient flu-like symptoms are the most common adverse effects following ZOL infusion, and these can generally be managed with acetaminophen. The availability of an intravenous bisphosphonate that ensures compliance over a long dosing interval may help to overcome barriers to efficacy resulting from poor long-term compliance with oral agents.Keywords: fractures, intravenous bisphosphonate, osteoporosis, zoledronic acid

  17. Action of successive heat treatments in bovine milk fatty acids

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edvaldo N., Costa; Ellen C. Q., Lacerda; Suian M. S., Santos; Carilan M. S., Santos; Marcelo, Franco; Robério R., Silva; Julliana I., Simionato.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available O estudo mostra a ação sucessiva dos tratamentos térmicos de pasteurização (75 ºC por 15 s) e esterilização comercial por troca indireta de calor (140 ºC for 6 s) sobre o perfil lipídico de leite bovino. Amostras de leite cru foram submetidas à pasteurização e então, à esterilização comercial (ultra [...] -alta temperatura, UHT). A gordura de amostras de leite cru, de leite pasteurizado e de leite esterilizados comercialmente foi extraída. Após transesterificação, os ésteres metílicos dos ácidos graxos (FAMEs) foram analisados por cromatografia gasosa com detecção por ionização de chama (GC-FID). A quantificação revelou que para a maioria dos ácidos graxos (FA) encontrados não houve diferença significativa (p > 0,05) entre as amostras de leite cru e leite pasteurizado. Entretanto, foram encontradas diferenças significativas para 21 dos 26 ácidos graxos analisados (p > 0,05) para as amostras de leite cru e de leite esterilizado, incluindo o isômero predominante no leite do ácido linoléico conjugado (CLA-c9t11). Este fato evidencia a ação sucessiva dos tratamentos térmicos no perfil lipídico do leite. Abstract in english The action of successive pasteurization thermal treatments (75 ºC for 15 s) and commercial sterilization by indirect heat exchange (140 ºC for 6 s) was analyzed on the lipid profile of bovine milk. Raw milk samples were submitted to pasteurization and then were submitted to sterilization (ultra-high [...] temperature, UHT). The fat of raw milk, pasteurized milk and commercially sterilized milk samples was extracted. After transesterification, the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The quantification of fatty acids (FA) revealed that for most of the found fatty acids there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between raw milk and pasteurized milk. However, it was found significant differences for 21 of the 26 analyzed fatty acids (p > 0.05) for the raw and sterilized milks, including the predominant isomer of the conjugated linoleic acid (CLAc9t11) of the milk. This fact evidences the successive action of heat treatments on milk lipid profile.

  18. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid synergistically enhances the antitumor activity of etoposide in Ewing sarcoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unland, Rebekka; Clemens, Dagmar; Heinicke, Ulrike; Potratz, Jenny C; Hotfilder, Marc; Fulda, Simone; Wardelmann, Eva; Frühwald, Michael C; Dirksen, Uta

    2015-09-01

    Ewing sarcomas (ES) are highly malignant tumors arising in bone and soft tissues. Given the poor outcome of affected patients with primary disseminated disease or at relapse, there is a clear need for new targeted therapies. The HDAC inhibitor (HDACi) suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, Vorinostat) inhibits ES tumor growth and induces apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Thus, SAHA may be considered a novel treatment. However, it is most likely that not a single agent but a combination of agents with synergistic mechanisms will help improve the prognosis in high-risk ES patients. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess a putative synergistic effect of SAHA in combination with conventional chemotherapeutic agents. The antitumor activity of SAHA in combination with conventional chemotherapeutics (doxorubicin, etoposide, rapamycin, topotecan) was assessed using an MTT cell proliferation assay on five well-characterized ES cell lines (CADO-ES-1, RD-ES, TC-71, SK-ES-1, SK-N-MC) and a newly established ES cell line (DC-ES-15). SAHA antagonistically affected the antiproliferative effect of doxorubicin and topotecan in the majority of the ES cell lines, but synergistically enhanced the antiproliferative activity of etoposide. In functional analyses, pretreatment with SAHA significantly increased the effects of etoposide on apoptosis and clonogenicity. The in-vitro analyses presented in this work show that SAHA synergistically enhances the antitumor activity of etoposide in ES cells. Sequential treatment with etoposide combined with SAHA may represent a new therapeutic approach in ES. PMID:26053276

  19. Hippocampal adult neurogenesis is enhanced by chronic eszopiclone treatment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methippara, Melvi; Bashir, Tariq; Suntsova, Natalia; Szymusiak, Ron; McGinty, Dennis

    2010-09-01

    The adult hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) exhibits cell proliferation and neurogenesis throughout life. We examined the effects of daily administration of eszopiclone (Esz), a commonly used hypnotic drug and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist, compared with vehicle, on DG cell proliferation and neurogenesis, and on sleep-wake patterns. Esz was administered during the usual sleep period of rats, to mimic typical use in humans. Esz treatment for 7 days did not affect the rate of cell proliferation, as measured by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunostaining. However, twice-daily Esz administration for 2 weeks increased survival of newborn cells by 46%. Most surviving cells exhibited a neuronal phenotype, identified as BrdU-neuronal nuclei (NeuN) double-labeling. NeuN is a marker of neurons. Non-rapid eye movement sleep was increased on day 1, but not on days 7 or 14 of Esz administration. Delta electroencephalogram activity was increased on days 1 and 7 of treatment, but not on day 14. There is evidence that enhancement of DG neurogenesis is a critical component of the effects of antidepressant treatments of major depressive disorder (MDD). Adult-born DG cells are responsive to GABAergic stimulation, which promotes cell maturation. The present study suggests that Esz, presumably acting as a GABA agonist, has pro-neurogenic effects in the adult DG. This result is consistent with evidence that Esz enhances the antidepressant treatment response of patients with MDD with insomnia. PMID:20408925

  20. Enhancement of food safety – antimicrobial effectiveness of cold plasma treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina SMEU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cold plasma treatment proved to be a flexible, efficient, chemical-free antimicrobial process and it can represent an easy to use sanitizing method for the food industry that does not require special temperature, humidity or pressure conditions. This paper reviews the classification of plasma and the main cold plasma generating devices used in the recent years to enhance food safety. A research of available literature was also conducted to identify the antimicrobial mode of action of cold plasma treatment as well as advantages and key limitations of this technique when applied to different food products such as fruits, vegetables, meat and milk. The study revealed that further development of this method will have to be carried out, allowing better understanding of the complex interactions during applications and its restrictions, as well as practice outlook.

  1. Enhanced physicochemical-biological sewage treatment process in cold regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guoren; Jia, Chao; Zhang, Zhao; Jiang, Yunlong

    2014-01-01

    Biological treatment processes give relatively poor pollutant removal efficiencies in cold regions because microbial activity is inhibited at low temperatures. We developed an enhanced physicochemical-biological wastewater treatment process that involves micro-membrane filtration, anaerobic biofilter, and aerobic biofilter to improve the pollutant removal efficiencies that can be achieved under cold conditions. Full-scale experiments using the process were carried out in the northeast of China, at outdoor temperatures of around -30 °C. The average removal efficiencies achieved for chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus, ammonia nitrogen, and suspended solids were 89.8, 92.9, 94.3, and 95.8%, respectively, using a polyaluminium chloride dosage of 50 mg L?¹. We concluded that the process is effective to treat sewage in cold regions. PMID:25401308

  2. Retinoic acid and glycolic acid combination in the treatment of acne scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B S Chandrashekar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acne is a prevalent condition in society affecting nearly 80-90% of adolescents often resulting in secondary damage in the form of scarring. Retinoic acid (RA is said to improve acne scars and reduce postinflammatory hyperpigmentation while glycolic acid (GA is known for its keratolytic properties and its ability to reduce atrophic acne scars. There are studies exploring the combined effect of retinaldehyde and GA combination with positive results while the efficacy of retinoic acid and GA (RAGA combination remains unexplored. Aim: The aim of this study remains to retrospectively assess the efficacy of RAGA combination on acne scars in patients previously treated for active acne. Materials and Methods: A retrospective assessment of 35 patients using topical RAGA combination on acne scars was done. The subjects were 17-34 years old and previously treated for active acne. Case records and photographs of each patient were assessed and the acne scars were graded as per Goodman and Baron?s global scarring grading system (GSGS, before the start and after 12 weeks of RAGA treatment. The differences in the scar grades were noted to assess the improvement. Results: At the end of 12 weeks, significant improvement in acne scars was noticed in 91.4% of the patients. Conclusion: The RAGA combination shows efficacy in treating acne scars in the majority of patients, minimizing the need of procedural treatment for acne scars.

  3. Excimer surface treatment to enhance bonding in coated steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert E.; Olfert, M.; Duley, Walter W.; North, T.; Hood, J.; Sakai, D.

    1996-04-01

    Zinc coated sheet steel in the form of temper rolled galvanize and galvanneal are used extensively in the automotive industry. Through a process of excimer laser surface treatment, we have succeeded in significantly enhancing the adhesion characteristics of these coated steels. The laser treatment is performed by scanning focused excimer laser radiation in a raster pattern over the surface to be bonded. Adhesion tests have been carried out in the form of T peel tests, using either a hot melt nylon resin or an epoxy as the adhesive. An increase in bond strength was observed over a substantial range of surface treatment conditions. The largest improvement observed was more than a factor of three greater than for untreated surfaces. With the improved surface condition, the bond strength became limited by the cohesive strength of the adhesive. The physical structure and chemical composition of the parent and excimer treated surfaces have been examined using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to determine the nature and extent of the changes caused by the surface treatment. The effects of the observed changes on the bonding performance will be discussed. Surfaces have been processed under an inert atmosphere to isolate the effects of physical surface modification and surface oxidation. An attempt will be made to correlate the surface changes with the bonding characteristics and thereby indicate which changes are most beneficial. The ultimate goal is to optimize the surface condition for bonding and maximize the process rate.

  4. Solar enhanced wastewater treatment in waste stabilization ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agunwamba, J C; Utsev, J T; Okonkwo, W I

    2009-05-01

    One of the most popular off-site wastewater treatment plants used in the tropics is the waste stabilization pond (WSP). Although it has several advantages, its use in urban areas is limited because of its large land area requirement. Hence, this research is aimed at investigating if a solar-enhanced WSP (SEWSP) can increase treatment efficiency and consequently reduce the land area requirement. The SEWSPs of varying sizes, made of a metallic tank with inlet and outlet valves and a solar reflector, were constructed to increase the incident sunlight intensity. Wastewater samples collected from the inlet and outlet of the SEWSPs were examined for physio-chemical and biological characteristics for a period of 2 months. The parameters examined were total suspended solids, dissolved oxygen, 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), coliform, and Escherichia coli. The efficiencies of the SEWSPs, with respect to these parameters, fluctuated with temperature variation, with the shallowest SEWSP giving the highest treatment efficiency. The research revealed that the cost of treating wastewater using SEWSPs was approximately 2 times lower than the conventional WSP for the same treatment efficiencies. PMID:19472946

  5. Peptide Nucleic Acids Having Enhanced Binding Affinity and Sequence Specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA strand, and exhibit increased sequence specificity and binding affinity. Methods of increasing binding affinity and sequence specificity of peptide nucleic acids are provided wherein some peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from a group consisting of naturally-occurring nucleobases and non-naturally-occurring nucleobases attached to a polyamide bac...

  6. Enhancing Anaerobic Treatment of Wastewaters Containing Oleic Acid.

    OpenAIRE

    Ching-Shyung, H.

    1997-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONLipids are one of the major organic pollutants in municipal and industrial wastewaters. Although domestic sewage typically contains about 40-100 mg/I lipids (Forster, 1992; Quéméneur and Marty, 1994), it is industrial wastewaters that are of greater concern when considering the higher lipid concentrations in the discharged effluents. Typical industries that generate lipids-containing wastewaters are dairy, edible oil and fat refinery, slaughterhouse and meatprocessing, rendering a...

  7. Acridine yellow as solar photocatalyst for enhancing biodegradability and eliminating ferulic acid as model pollutant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amat, Ana M.; Arques, Antonio; Santos-Juanes, Lucas; Vercher, Rosa F.; Vicente, R. [Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, EPSA-UPV, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Paseo Viaducto 1, E-03801 Alcoy (Spain); Galindo, Francisco [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica y Organica, Universitat Jaume I, E-12071 Castellon (Spain); Miranda, Miguel A. [Departamento de Quimica e Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica UPV-CSIC, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Apartado 22012, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2007-05-11

    The possibility of using acridine yellow G (AYG) as solar photocatalyst for wastewater treatment has been examined in this paper. A phenolic compound, namely ferulic acid, has been employed as target pollutant. The effect of pH, concentration of the substrate and photocatalyst has been investigated. Control of pH is critical in the process, as rate constants obtained at pH 3 (k = 0.020 min{sup -1}) were one order of magnitude higher than in basic media (k = 0.002 min{sup -1} at pH 9), due to differences in the absorption spectrum in the UVA-vis region. Under acidic conditions, 80% removal of the substrate was achieved after 3 h irradiation, although TOC decrease was moderate (around 20%). Nevertheless important detoxification of the solution was measured, and the remaining organic matter showed an enhanced biodegradability. For this reason, a combination of AYG-driven solar photocatalysis with biological treatment seems a good approach to deal with these effluents. Experimental data are consistent with an electron transfer mechanism between the excited photocatalyst and the substrate: involvement of hydroxyl radicals can be ruled out, and photophysical measurements indicate a quenching of the fluorescence of AYG in the presence of ferulic acid. The rate constant for this process was obtained from the Stern-Volmer equation (k{sub q} = 4.4 x 10{sup 9} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}). Finally, based on the Rehm-Weller equation, a {delta}G = -22.8 kcal/mol was calculated, indicating that the process is thermodynamically favourable. (author)

  8. Enhancing Arabidopsis salt and drought stress tolerance by chemical priming for its abscisic acid responses

    OpenAIRE

    Jakab, Gabor; Ton, Jurriaan; Flors, Victor; Zimmerli, Laurent; Métraux, Jean-Pierre; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte

    2006-01-01

    Drought and salt stress tolerance of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants increased following treatment with the nonprotein amino acid ?-aminobutyric acid (BABA), known as an inducer of resistance against infection of plants by numerous pathogens. BABA-pretreated plants showed earlier and higher expression of the salicylic acid-dependent PR-1 and PR-5 and the abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent RAB-18 and RD-29A genes following salt and drought stress. However, non-expressor of pathogenesis-re...

  9. Enhanced expression of aconitase raises acetic acid resistance in Acetobacter aceti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Shigeru; Fukaya, Masahiro; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2004-06-15

    Acetobacter spp. are used for industrial vinegar production because of their high ability to oxidize ethanol to acetic acid and high resistance to acetic acid. Two-dimensional gel electrophoretic analysis of a soluble fraction of Acetobacter aceti revealed the presence of several proteins whose production was enhanced, to various extents, in response to acetic acid in the medium. A protein with an apparent molecular mass of 100 kDa was significantly enhanced in amount by acetic acid and identified to be aconitase by NH2-terminal amino acid sequencing and subsequent gene cloning. Amplification of the aconitase gene by use of a multicopy plasmid in A. aceti enhanced the enzymatic activity and acetic acid resistance. These results showed that aconitase is concerned with acetic acid resistance. Enhancement of the aconitase activity turned out to be practically useful for acetic acid fermentation, because the A. aceti transformant harboring multiple copies of the aconitase gene produced a higher concentration of acetic acid with a reduced growth lag-time. PMID:15183880

  10. The 300 area waste acid treatment system closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) is located within operable units 300-FF-2 (source) and 300-FF-5 (groundwater), as designated in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) . Operable units 300-FF-2 and 300-FF-5 are scheduled to be remediated using the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) process. Thus, any remediation of the 300 Area WATS with respect to contaminants not produced by those facilities and soils and groundwater will be deferred to the CERCLA RI/FS process. Final closure activities will be completed in 3 phases and certified in accordance with the 300 Area WATS closure plan by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It is anticipated that the 300 Area WATS closure would take 2 years to complete

  11. Polyamino acid display on cell surfaces enhances salt and alcohol tolerance of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hirokazu; Ishii, Jun; Kondo, Akihiko; Yoshida, Ken-Ichi

    2015-02-01

    Microbes employ cell membranes for reducing exogenous stresses. Polyamino acid display on microbial cell surfaces and their effects on microbial chemical stress tolerance were examined. Growth analysis revealed that displays of polyarginine, polyaspartate and polytryptophan substantially enhanced tolerance of Escherichia coli to NaCl. A titration assay indicated that polyarginine and polyaspartate altered cell surface charges, implying tolerance enhancement via ion atmosphere and/or ionic bond network formations for electrostatic ion repulsion. The enhancement by polytryptophan may have arisen from surface hydrophobicity increase for hydrophobic ion exclusion, because of a strong correlation between hydrophobic characters of amino acids and their effects on tolerance enhancement. The display also enhanced tolerance to other salts and/or alcohols in E. coli and to NaCl in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Thus polyamino acid display has the potential as an approach for conferring chemical stress tolerance on various microbes. PMID:25588810

  12. Effects of gas atmospheres on poly(lactic acid) film in acrylic acid plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yun; Fina, Alberto; Venturello, Alberto; Geobaldo, Francesco

    2013-10-01

    Plasma polymerized acrylic acid (AA) coatings were deposited on poly(lactic acid) (PLA) films in various gas atmospheres during the pre-treatment of PLA and the deposition of AA, respectively. Therefore, this work was twofold: the argon pretreated PLA films followed by a deposition in argon were investigated against the mixture of argon and oxygen pretreated ones under the same deposition conditions; the plasma deposition of AA operating in different atmospheres (argon, oxygen and nitrogen) was employed to modify the pretreated PLA in oxygen. Chemical and physical changes on the plasma-treated surfaces were examined using contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-FTIR) analysis. The results showed that the discharge gas can have a significant influence on the chemical composition of the PLA surfaces: oxygen plasmas introduced oxygen-containing groups in company with surface etching in pretreatment and deposition, while argon discharges was able to achieve much better hydrophilic behavior and high retention ratio of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) coating before and after washing in water.

  13. Effects of gas atmospheres on poly(lactic acid) film in acrylic acid plasma treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yun, E-mail: yun.zhaotju@yahoo.com [Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy); Fina, Alberto [Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino – sede di Alessandria, V. T. Michel 5, 15121 Alessandria (Italy); Venturello, Alberto; Geobaldo, Francesco [Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Plasma polymerized acrylic acid (AA) coatings were deposited on poly(lactic acid) (PLA) films in various gas atmospheres during the pre-treatment of PLA and the deposition of AA, respectively. Therefore, this work was twofold: the argon pretreated PLA films followed by a deposition in argon were investigated against the mixture of argon and oxygen pretreated ones under the same deposition conditions; the plasma deposition of AA operating in different atmospheres (argon, oxygen and nitrogen) was employed to modify the pretreated PLA in oxygen. Chemical and physical changes on the plasma-treated surfaces were examined using contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-FTIR) analysis. The results showed that the discharge gas can have a significant influence on the chemical composition of the PLA surfaces: oxygen plasmas introduced oxygen-containing groups in company with surface etching in pretreatment and deposition, while argon discharges was able to achieve much better hydrophilic behavior and high retention ratio of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) coating before and after washing in water.

  14. Effects of gas atmospheres on poly(lactic acid) film in acrylic acid plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma polymerized acrylic acid (AA) coatings were deposited on poly(lactic acid) (PLA) films in various gas atmospheres during the pre-treatment of PLA and the deposition of AA, respectively. Therefore, this work was twofold: the argon pretreated PLA films followed by a deposition in argon were investigated against the mixture of argon and oxygen pretreated ones under the same deposition conditions; the plasma deposition of AA operating in different atmospheres (argon, oxygen and nitrogen) was employed to modify the pretreated PLA in oxygen. Chemical and physical changes on the plasma-treated surfaces were examined using contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-FTIR) analysis. The results showed that the discharge gas can have a significant influence on the chemical composition of the PLA surfaces: oxygen plasmas introduced oxygen-containing groups in company with surface etching in pretreatment and deposition, while argon discharges was able to achieve much better hydrophilic behavior and high retention ratio of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) coating before and after washing in water.

  15. EVALUATION OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE ACID HYDROLYZATE TREATMENTS FOR XYLITOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. GURGEL

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Acid sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzate was submitted to pH shifts in order to remove toxic compounds from the medium. The hydrolyzate was treated with bases containing mono-, di- or tri-valent cations and H2SO4, and its performance as a fermentation medium was evaluated by the production of xylitol by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037. The use of bases containing mono-valent cations was not an efficient method of detoxification, and the use of a tri-valent cation did not show any detectable improvement in detoxification. The treated hydrolyzate recovery (in volume is greatly affected by the utilized base. Treatment using Al(OH3 and NaOH showed the best hydrolyzate recovery (87.5%, while the others presented a recovery of about 45% of the original hydrolyzate volume. Considering the whole process, best results were achieved by treatment using Al(OH3 and NaOH which allowed 0.55 g of xylitol produced from each gram of xylose in the raw hydrolyzate.

  16. Organic Crop Management Enhances Chicoric Acid Content in Lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Channa B. Rajashekar; Myung-Min Oh; Edward E. Carey

    2012-01-01

    L- chicoric acid is a dominant phenolic compound in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and has been shown to accumulate in response to many abiotic stresses and crop management practices. It is a potent inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) integrase needed for the replication of this virus and for the productive infection of the host cell. L- chicoric acid has been found to act synergistically in combination with anti-HIV drugs used for treating acquired immuno-deficiency disorder (AIDS...

  17. Uranium extraction enhancement form phosphoric acid by emulsion liquid membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is mainly concerned with the uranium extraction from phosphoric acid commercially produced by Abu Zaabal Fertilizers and Chemical Co., Egypt. This target would realize a dual purpose where the phosphate ore is considered as an alternative source of uranium besides eliminating its environmental contamination. The applied procedures are that of the new technology of emulsion liquid membrane. Authors have indeed pointed out that the variables explored still leave open to question the roles of stripping at the internal interface as well as the bulk transfer of uranium in the internal phase. For this purpose, two reducing agents are studied as additives to two organic solvent systems; namely the organophosphorous synergistic mixture of D2EHPA/TOPO as well as the tridodecyl amine. The relevant factors have first been optimized upon synthetic uraniferous phosphoric acid solution followed by the application upon the commercial acid after purification. These factors include the concentration of solvent system and the used emulsifier, acid concentration of the external and internal phases besides the nature and concentration of the reductant added to the internal phase. In addition, the permeation time as well as the oxidation state of the external phase was studied. All these factors have indeed been studied under different mixing speeds ranging from 300 up to 1,000 rpm. Ascorbic acid concentration, 1 % as an additive to the internal phosphoric acid phase (40 % P2O5) resulted in 95 % uranium extraction efficiency at the lower speed of 600 rpm. (author)

  18. Betaine and Beet Molasses Enhance L-Lactic Acid Production by Bacillus coagulans

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Ke; Xu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important chemical with various industrial applications, and it can be efficiently produced by fermentation, in which Bacillus coagulans strains present excellent performance. Betaine can promote lactic acid fermentation as an effective osmoprotectant. Here, positive effect of betaine on fermentation by B. coagulans is revealed. Betaine could enhance lactic acid production by protecting l-LDH activity and cell growth from osmotic inhibition, especially under high glucose con...

  19. Amino Acids Enhance Adaptive Behaviour of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa in the Cystic Fibrosis Lung Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Dinesh Diraviam Sriramulu

    2010-01-01

    Sputum of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is a nutrient-rich environment. Higher amino acid content of CF sputum compared to normal sputum plays a major role in the CF-specific phenotype of P. aeruginosa. Presence of amino acids in the sputum-like environment influenced P. aeruginosa quorum-sensing activity and the formation of an unknown exopolysaccharide in the biofilm. Lipopolysaccharides isolated from P. aeruginosa grown in the presence of amino acids enhanced the release of cytokine IL-8 b...

  20. Electroacupuncture enhances spermatogenesis in rats after scrotal heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jing; Zuo, Yan; So, Kam-Hei; Yeung, William S.B.; Ng, Ernest H.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Spermatogenesis is regulated by a cascade of steroid regulated genes in the testis. Recent studies suggested that acupuncture may improve fertility in men with abnormal semen parameters. Yet, the underlying mechanisms in which acupuncture enhances spermatogenesis remain largely unknown. Here we used a scrotal heat-treated rat model to study the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on recovery of spermatogenesis. In this model, spermatogenesis was disrupted by 30 min scrotal heat treatment at 43°C. Ten sessions of EA were given at Baihui (GV20), Guanyuan (CV4), Zusanli (ST36) and Sanyinjiao (SP6) from day 9 to day 36 post-treatment. Sperm motility and production, morphology of the germinal epithelium by Johnsen’s scoring, germ cell apoptosis by TUNEL staining, proliferation by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining, as well as serum testosterone and inhibin B levels by immunoassays were evaluated on day 0, 1, 9, 25, 37, 46, 56 and 79. When compared with the heat-treated (H) group, the heat-treated plus EA (H+EA) group showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in PCNA-positive cells and inhibin B levels on days 37 and 46, and a higher Johnsen’s score till day 56. On day 79, motile spermatozoa could be found in the vas deferens of H+EA group only. Consistently, there was a trend of improved motility and increased number of motile epididymal spermatozoa in the H+EA group than the H group; while apoptosis of germ cells and serum testosterone levels were similar between the two groups. Taken together, EA enhanced germ cell proliferation through improvement of Sertoli cell functions. This may facilitate the recovery of spermatogenesis and may restore normal semen parameters in subfertile patients. PMID:22553490

  1. Comparative study of trichloroacetic acid versus glycolic acid chemical peels in the treatment of melasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Melasma is a common cause of facial hyperpigmentation with significant cosmetic deformity. Many modalities of treatment are available, but none is satisfactory. Aim: This study was designed to compare the therapeutic response of melasma in Indian women to glycolic acid (GA 20-35% versus trichloroacetic acid (TCA 10-20% for chemical peeling. Methods: Forty nonpregnant female patients with a minimum melasma area and severity index (MASI of 10 were recruited in the study. After a detailed history and clinical examination under natural light, MASI was calculated and color photographs were taken of all the patients. The patients were advised to carry out a prepeel program of daily application of 12% GA cream or 0.1% tretinoin at night for 2 weeks. They were then treated with graded concentrations of 20-35% GA facial peel every 15 days in GA group and 10-20% TCA in the second group. Results: Objective response to treatment evaluated by reduction in MASI scoring after 12 weeks was by 79% reduction (from 26.6 to 5.6 in GA group and by 73% reduction in TCA group (from 29.1 to 8.2 but this difference was not significant. Patients with epidermal-type melasma showed a better response to treatment than those with mixed-type melasma (P < 0.05. Subjective response, as graded by the patient, showed good or very good response in 75% in GA group and 65% in TCA group. No relation of treatment response to age and duration of melasma could be established in this study. Conclusions: A prepeel program of daily application of 12% GA cream at night for 2 weeks, followed by graded increase in GA and TCA concentrations proved to be an equally effective treatment modality for epidermal and mixed melasma. There are hardly any major side effects, and regular use of sunscreens prevents chances of postpeel hyperpigmentation. GA peel is associated with fewer side effects than TCA and has the added advantage of facial rejuvenation.

  2. Separation of phenolic acids from monosaccharides by low-pressure nanofiltration integrated with laccase pre-treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Jianquan; Zeuner, Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    Separation of phenolic acids from monosaccharides is required for detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. For the first time, a low-pressure nanofiltration (NF) process was used to retain phenolic acids (vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid) and at the same time permeate monosaccharides (xylose, arabinose, glucose). Four commercial NF membranes (NF270, NP030, NTR7450 and NP010) were evaluated at different pH values and with various laccase pre-treatments (for polymerization of phenolic acids). The results showed that with increasing pH, the retentions of phenolic acids by NF increased, reaching 86–88% for NTR7450 and 90–94% for NF270 at pH 9.55. The retentions of monosaccharides kept almost constant (<10%) for NP030, NTR7450 and NP010 membranes at different pH but significantly increased at pH 9.55 for the NF270 membrane due to enhancement of solute interactions. Phenolic acids could be polymerized by laccase and then completely retained by the NF membranes via size exclusion at pH 5.15. The formation of large polymeric products by laccase could alleviate the irreversible fouling in/on a NF membrane and decrease the monosaccharide retention, while the small polymeric products (e.g. dimers and trimers) were mainly responsible for the adsorption fouling. Free laccase treatment was preferred since it was prone to produce large polymeric products while the biocatalytic membrane with immobilized laccase was not suitable as it generated smaller polymers by in-situ product removal. Furthermore, the NF membranes with more charge and higher hydrophilicity were more resistant to the irreversible fouling caused by hydrophobic adsorption of phenolic acids and their polymers. This work not only provides fundamental data for removal of phenolic acids from lignocellulosic hydrolysates, but also opens a new gate for separation of small solutes with similar molecular weight by NF integrated with enzymatic conversion.

  3. Determination of residues in honey after treatments with formic and oxalic acid under field conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanov, Stefan; Charrière, Jean-Daniel; IMDORF, Anton; KILCHENMANN, Verena; Fluri, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Formic acid and oxalic acid field trials for control of Varroa destructor were carried out in autumn according to the Swiss prescriptions during three successive years in different apiaries in Switzerland. The following parameters were determined in honey that was harvested the year after treatment: formic acid, oxalic acid and free acidity. The following range of values were found in honeys of untreated colonies: formic acid, from 17 to 284 mg/kg, n = 34; oxalic acid, from 11 to 119 mg/kg, n...

  4. Enhanced endothelialization guided by fibronectin functionalized plasma polymerized acrylic acid film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plasma polymerized acrylic acid (PPAA) films with high carboxyl concentration were fabricated by low temperature plasma polymerization technology. Vacuum thermal treatment was used to modify the PPAA films. The stability of the PPAA film was evidenced by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The result of toluidine blue-O (TBO) method showed that the –COOH concentration on the surface of the PPAA films decreased from 20.73 nM to17.90 nM after vacuum thermal treatment. Fibronectin (Fn) was successfully covalently immobilized onto the modified surface PPAA via a covalent bond reacted with carboxyl groups. Diffuse reflectance Fourier infrared transform spectroscopy (DRFTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were utilized to characterize the layer-by-layer PPAA surface modification. From the evaluation of immunostaining for actin and Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), the surface of Fn-immobilized thermal treated PPAA films could be used to enhance the adhesion and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Especially, the exposure of RGD domain existing in the immobilized Fn was ascertained by ELISA, which was one of main improvement factors of HUVEC's adhesion and proliferation. This study demonstrated a promising surface modification used for vascular devices.

  5. Treatment of odorous volatile fatty acids using a biotrickling filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Y F; Chua, H; Sin, S N; Chan, S Y

    2008-02-01

    In this study, a novel fibrous bioreactor was developed for treating odorous compounds present in contaminated air. The first stage of this work was a preliminary study which aimed at investigating the feasibility of using the fibrous bioreactor for the removal of malodorous volatile fatty acids (VFA) that is a common odorous contaminant generated from anaerobic degradation of organic compounds. The kinetics of microbial growth and VFA degradation in the selected culture, and the performance of the submerged bioreactor at different VFA mass loadings were studied. Above 95% of VFA removal efficiencies were achieved at mass loadings up to 22.4 g/m(3)/h. In the second stage, the odour treatment process was scaled up with system design and operational considerations. A trickling biofilter with synthetic fibrous packing medium was employed. The effects of inlet VFA concentration and empty bed retention time (EBRT) on the process performance were investigated. The bioreactor was effective in removing VFA at mass loadings up to 32 g/m(3)/h, beyond which VFA started to accumulate in the recirculation liquid, indicating the biofilm was unable to degrade all of the VFA introduced. Although VFA accumulated in the liquid phase, the removal efficiency remained above 99%. This suggested that the biochemical reaction rather than gas-liquid mass transfer was the limiting step of the treatment process. In addition, the biotrickling filter was stable for long-term operation with relatively low and steady pressure drop, no clogging and degeneration of the packing material occurred during the four-month study. PMID:17321131

  6. Lactic acid bacteria: promising supplements for enhancing the biological activities of kombucha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nguyen Khoi; Dong, Ngan Thi Ngoc; Nguyen, Huong Thuy; Le, Phu Hong

    2015-01-01

    Kombucha is sweetened black tea that is fermented by a symbiosis of bacteria and yeast embedded within a cellulose membrane. It is considered a health drink in many countries because it is a rich source of vitamins and may have other health benefits. It has previously been reported that adding lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus) strains to kombucha can enhance its biological functions, but in that study only lactic acid bacteria isolated from kefir grains were tested. There are many other natural sources of lactic acid bacteria. In this study, we examined the effects of lactic acid bacteria from various fermented Vietnamese food sources (pickled cabbage, kefir and kombucha) on kombucha's three main biological functions: glucuronic acid production, antibacterial activity and antioxidant ability. Glucuronic acid production was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, antibacterial activity was assessed by the agar-well diffusion method and antioxidant ability was evaluated by determining the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity. Four strains of food-borne pathogenic bacteria were used in our antibacterial experiments: Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19111, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 and Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778. Our findings showed that lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from kefir are superior to those from other sources for improving glucuronic acid production and enhancing the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of kombucha. This study illustrates the potential of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from kefir as biosupplements for enhancing the bioactivities of kombucha. PMID:25763303

  7. Enhancement of brown fat thermogenesis using chenodeoxycholic acid in mice.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Teodoro, J.S.; Zouhar, Petr; Flachs, Pavel; Bardová, Kristina; Janovská, Petra; Gomes, A.P.; Duarte, F.V.; Varela, A.T.; Rolo, A.P.; Palmeira, C.M.; Kopecký, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 38, ?. 8 (2014), s. 1027-1034. ISSN 0307-0565 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E12073; GA ?R(CZ) GA13-00871S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : white adipose tissue * uncoupling protein 1 * energy expenditure * bile acids Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 5.004, year: 2014

  8. The vitamin-like dietary supplement para-aminobenzoic acid enhances the antitumor activity of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine whether para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) alters the sensitivity of tumor cells to ionizing radiation in vitro and in vivo. Methods and Materials: Cellular proliferation was assessed by WST-1 assays. The effects of PABA and radiation on tumor growth were examined with chick embryo and murine models. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were used to quantify p21CIP1 and CDC25A levels. Results: Para-aminobenzoic acid enhanced (by 50%) the growth inhibitory activity of radiation on B16F10 cells, whereas it had no effect on melanocytes. Para-aminobenzoic acid enhanced (50-80%) the antitumor activity of radiation on B16F10 and 4T1 tumors in vivo. The combination of PABA and radiation therapy increased tumor apoptosis. Treatment of tumor cells with PABA increased expression of CDC25A and decreased levels of p21CIP1. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that PABA might represent a compound capable of enhancing the antitumor activity of ionizing radiation by a mechanism involving altered expression of proteins known to regulate cell cycle arrest

  9. Case Report: Valproic Acid and Risperidone Treatment Leading to Development of Hyperammonemia and Mania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Teri; Reynolds, Charles A.; Caplan, Rochelle

    2007-01-01

    This case report describes two children who developed hyperammonemia together with frank manic behavior during treatment with a combination of valproic acid and risperidone. One child had been maintained on valproic acid for years and risperidone was added. In the second case, valproic acid was introduced to a child who had been treated with…

  10. An endogenous factor enhances ferulic acid decarboxylation catalyzed by phenolic acid decarboxylase from Candida guilliermondii

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Hui-Kai; Chen, Li-Fan; Tokashiki, Masamichi; Ozawa, Tadahiro; Taira, Toki; Ito, Susumu

    2012-01-01

    The gene for a eukaryotic phenolic acid decarboxylase of Candida guilliermondii was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli for the first time. The structural gene contained an open reading frame of 504 bp, corresponding to 168 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 19,828 Da. The deduced amino sequence exhibited low similarity to those of functional phenolic acid decarboxylases previously reported from bacteria with 25-39% identity and to those of PAD1 and FDC1 proteins...

  11. Arachidonic acid enhances reproduction in Daphnia magna and mitigates changes in sex ratios induced by pyriproxyfen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginjupalli, Gautam K; Gerard, Patrick D; Baldwin, William S

    2015-03-01

    Arachidonic acid is 1 of only 2 unsaturated fatty acids retained in the ovaries of crustaceans and an inhibitor of HR97g, a nuclear receptor expressed in adult ovaries. The authors hypothesized that, as a key fatty acid, arachidonic acid may be associated with reproduction and potentially environmental sex determination in Daphnia. Reproduction assays with arachidonic acid indicate that it alters female:male sex ratios by increasing female production. This reproductive effect only occurred during a restricted Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata diet. Next, the authors tested whether enriching a poorer algal diet (Chlorella vulgaris) with arachidonic acid enhances overall reproduction and sex ratios. Arachidonic acid enrichment of a C. vulgaris diet also enhances fecundity at 1.0?µM and 4.0?µM by 30% to 40% in the presence and absence of pyriproxyfen. This indicates that arachidonic acid is crucial in reproduction regardless of environmental sex determination. Furthermore, the data indicate that P. subcapitata may provide a threshold concentration of arachidonic acid needed for reproduction. Diet-switch experiments from P. subcapitata to C. vulgaris mitigate some, but not all, of arachidonic acid's effects when compared with a C. vulgaris-only diet, suggesting that some arachidonic acid provided by P. subcapitata is retained. In summary, arachidonic acid supplementation increases reproduction and represses pyriproxyfen-induced environmental sex determination in D. magna in restricted diets. A diet rich in arachidonic acid may provide protection from some reproductive toxicants such as the juvenile hormone agonist pyriproxyfen. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:527-535. © 2014 SETAC. PMID:25393616

  12. Efficacy of 15% trichloroacetic acid and 50% glycolic acid peel in the treatment of frictional melanosis: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sacchidanand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Frictional dermal melanosis is aesthetically displeasing. Various modalities ranging from depigmenting agents to lasers have been tried but it continues to be a difficult problem to treat. Objective: To study and compare the efficacy of 15% trichloroacetic acid (TCA and 50% glycolic acid in the treatment of frictional melanosis of the forearm. Materials and Methods: 40 patients of frictional melanosis of the forearm were included in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two equal groups A and B. Pre-peel priming was carried out with 12% glycolic acid and sunscreen for 2 weeks. Group A was treated with trichloroacetic acid (TCA-15% peel and Group B with glycolic acid (GA-50% peel. Four peels were done one every 15 days. Clinical photographs were taken to assess the response. Response to therapy was evaluated by both objective and subjective methods. The patients were followed up for 3 months after the last peel to note any relapse. Results: Both TCA and glycolic acid peels were effective in frictional melanosis. TCA showed better response compared to glycolic acid at the end of the treatment, both by subjective and objective methods. However, this difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05. No permanent side effects were seen in any of the treated patients and the improvement was sustained without any relapse at 3 months. Conclusion: Chemical peeling with both tricholoroacetic acid (15% and glycolic acid (50% is safe and effective for the treatment of frictional dermal melanosis. Tricholoroacetic acid was found to be marginally superior to glycolic acid.

  13. CHF enhancement in flow boiling system with TSP and boric acid solutions under atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Juno, E-mail: nezads@kaist.ac.k [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yong Hoon, E-mail: jeongyh@kaist.ac.k [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Soon Heung, E-mail: shchang@kaist.ac.k [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    In this study, the effects of tri-sodium phosphate (TSP) and boric acid on CHF enhancement were studied. Both TSP and boric acid are used to control pH in nuclear power plants. TSP is a kind of surfactant, and several surfactants, include TSP, have been reported to have an effect on enhancement of heat transfer. Nothing has yet been reported for the case of boric acid. CHF experiments were performed with mass flux ranging from 100-500 kg/m2 s and inlet subcooling temperature of 50 {sup o}C under atmospheric pressure. The test section was a vertical circular SS316 tube having an inner diameter of 10.98 mm. Its heated length was 224 mm, and it was heated by a heat flux control system using DC electricity. Fluids in the test loop were plain water, TSP solutions, and boric acid solutions. TSP solutions had three concentrations (0.2, 0.4, 0.6%), and boric acid solutions had four concentrations (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8%). In the case of TSP, 21.4% enhancement of CHF was observed at the inlet subcooling temperature of 50 {sup o}C and extremely low mass flux (100 kg/m2 s). In the case of boric acid, 12.4% enhancement of CHF was observed at inlet subcooling temperature of 50 {sup o}C and extremely low mass flux 100 kg/m{sup 2} s.

  14. Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in an aquatic liverwort as possible bioindicators of enhanced UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined, under laboratory conditions, the physiological responses of the aquatic liverwort Jungermannia exsertifolia subsp. cordifolia to artificially enhanced ultraviolet (UV) radiation for 82 days, especially considering the responses of five hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. This species lives in mountain streams, where it is exposed to low temperatures and high UV levels, and this combination is believed to increase the adverse effects of UV. Enhanced UV radiation hardly caused any change in several physiological variables indicative of vitality, such as Fv/Fm and chlorophylls/phaeopigments ratio (OD430/OD410). Thus, this liverwort seemed to be tolerant to UV radiation, probably due to the accumulation of three UV-absorbing hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives: p-coumaroylmalic acid, 5''-(7'',8''-dihydroxycoumaroyl)-2-caffeoylmalic acid, and 5''-(7'',8''-dihydroxy-7-O-?-glucosyl-coumaroyl)-2-caffeoylmalic acid. These compounds might serve as bioindicators of enhanced UV radiation. - Several hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives of an aquatic liverwort are induced by enhanced UV radiation and might serve as bioindicators of changes in UV levels

  15. 13-cis retinoic acid in combination with interferon-? enhances radiation sensitivity of human squamous cell carcinoma cells of the oral cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Preclinical and clinical trials demonstrated the antiproliferative and chemopreventive potential of 13-cis retinoic acid in combination with interferon-?. The present study was designed to determine the radiosensitizing potential of both drugs after single and combined treatment of human squamous-cell carcinoma cells of the oral cavity in vitro. Material and methods: The study was performed using the human squamous-cell carcinoma cell line SCC4, which was originally established from a tumor of the overal cavity. Based on clonogenic assays, the inhibition of clonogenic activity and radiosensitizing potential of 13-cis retinoic acid and interferon-? after single or combined treatment without and with subsequent irradiation was determined. Results: 13-cis retinoic acid (10 ?M) and interferon-? (50 IU/ml) showed significant inhibition of clonogenic activity after single treatment. A combined treatment protocol resulted at least in a highly significant additive inhibition of clonogenicity. Treatment with both drugs (5 ?M 13-cis retinoic acid, 25 IU/ml IFN-?) prior and post irradiation of the cells resulted in a pronounced enhancement of radiation toxicity resulting in significantly decreased SF2- and ?-values. Combined treatment with both drugs was significantly more effective than single drug treatment. Conclusions: The data presented indicate that pre- and post-irradiation treatment with 13-cis retinoic acid and interferon-? significantly enhance the radiosensitivity on human squamous-cell carcinoma cells, SCC4, in vitro. Therefore, they support the initiation of clinical trials to test the radio-oncological value of such a treatment regime for squamous-cell carcinomas. (orig.)

  16. Fucoxanthin Enhances Chain Elongation and Desaturation of Alpha-Linolenic Acid in HepG2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Ting; Su, Hui-Min; Cui, Yi; Windust, Anthony; Chou, Hong-Nong; Huang, Ching-Jang

    2015-10-01

    Dietary fucoxanthin (FX), a carotenoid compound from brown algae, was found to increase docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6) in the liver of mice. DHA and ARA are known to be biosynthesized from the respective precursor ?-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) and linoleic acid (LNA, 18:2n-6), through desaturation and chain elongation. We examined the effect of FX on the fatty acid metabolism in HepG2 cells (Hepatocellular carcinoma, human). In the first experiment, cells were co-treated with ALA (100 ?M) and FX (0-100 ?M) or vehicle for 48 h. FX increased eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5n-3), DHA at concentrations of ?50 ?M. To clarify the change in the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), in the second experiment, cells were co-treated with universally-[(13)C]-labeled (U-[(13)C]-) ALA (100 ?M) and FX (100 ?M) for 0.5, 3, 6, 24 and 48 h. [(13)C] labeled-EPA, DPA and DHA content in HepG2 cells were all increased by FX after 48 h treatment. Furthermore, estimated delta-5 desaturase (D5D) but not delta-6 desaturase (D6D) activity index was increased at 48 h. These results suggested that FX may enhance the conversion of ALA to longer chain n-3 PUFA through increasing D5D activity in the liver. PMID:26271617

  17. Enhanced phagocytosis of group A streptococci M type 6 by oleic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M protein, located on the surface fimbriae of group A streptococci, is antiphagocytic by unknown means. It is known that oleic acid kills group A streptococci and distorts the fimbriae. The effect of oleic acid on phagocytosis of group A streptococci was examined. Phagocytosis of a strain possessing M protein (M+) and its M- variant was assessed by uptake of radiolabeled bacteria and by chemiluminescence. The M- but not the M+ streptococci were well phagocytized and induced chemiluminescence. Oleic acid-killed and heat-killed streptococci (both M+ and M-) were readily phagocytized and induced sustained chemiluminescence. M+ streptococci killed by ultraviolet irradiation were inefficiently phagocytized and did not induce chemiluminescence. Oleic acid-killed M+ streptococci absorbed type-specific antibody. An extract of M protein reduced the bactericidal capacity of oleic acid. It is proposed that oleic acid may bind to and alter the M protein of group A streptococci and thereby enhance phagocytosis

  18. Enhancing effect of dimethylamine in sulfuric acid nucleation in the presence of water – a computational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Loukonen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the hydration of sulfuric acid – ammonia and sulfuric acid – dimethylamine clusters using quantum chemistry. We calculated the formation energies and thermodynamics for clusters of one ammonia or one dimethylamine molecule together with 1–2 sulfuric acid and 0–5 water molecules. The results indicate that dimethylamine enhances the addition of sulfuric acid to the clusters much more efficiently than ammonia when the number of water molecules in the cluster is either zero, or greater than two. Further hydrate distribution calculations reveal that practically all dimethylamine-containing two-acid clusters will remain unhydrated in tropospherically relevant circumstances, thus strongly suggesting that dimethylamine assists atmospheric sulfuric acid nucleation much more effectively than ammonia.

  19. Constrained layer damping treatments with actively enhanced actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanning

    2001-11-01

    This thesis studies self-contained constrained layer treatments with active-passive hybrid damping. In particular, two shortcomings of traditional active constrained layer (ACL) configurations, the low active control authority and weak constraining action of the active cover sheet, are addressed. The objective is to design a treatment with the best combination of open-loop (for fail-safe property) and closed-loop (for performance) damping. A comprehensive study of enhanced active constrained layer (EACL) treatments is first performed to understand the effects of using edge elements to increase the control authority for different host structure strain distributions. It is found that to select the best stiffness distribution of the edge elements for damping performance, various system parameters including the host structure strain field need to be considered. When multiple strain fields exist at the same time, the EACL is still possible to provide higher open-loop and closed-loop damping by selecting proper edge element stiffness compared to ACL. A new configuration, active-passive hybrid constrained layer (HCL), is proposed to improve the constraining action of the ACL cover sheet while maintaining its active action. Instead of using a purely active constraining layer, active and passive materials are connected together to form a hybrid cover sheet. It is shown analytically and experimentally that by selecting a stiffer passive constraining material and assigning appropriate active material coverage ratio, the HCL can outperform the ACL, both in terms of its open-loop and closed-loop damping performance. The effects of the active and passive materials distribution in the constraining layer and the strain distribution in the host structure are also investigated. A better open-loop and closed-loop damping combination can be obtained by integrating the EACL and HCL. The hybrid constraining layer will create significant shear deformation in the viscoelastic layer even when stiff edge elements are used for a uniform strain field. This configuration offers considerable open-loop damping while maintaining strong closed-loop damping. Compared to the individual EACL or HCL design, the integrated EACL-HCL system provides more flexibility to meet different open-loop and closed-loop damping requirements.

  20. Fractionation of sugarcane bagasse using a combined process of dilute acid and ionic liquid treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedericks, Danie; van Rensburg, Eugéne; Görgens, Johann F

    2012-08-01

    Biorefineries processing lignocellulose will produce chemicals and fuels from chemical constituents, cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin to replace fossil-derived products. Fractionation of sugarcane bagasse into three pure streams of chemical constituents was addressed through dissolution of constituents with the ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMiM]CH(3)COO) or 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methyl sulfate ([BMiM]MeSO(4)). Constituents were isolated from the reaction mixture with the anti-solvents acetone (?), acetone-water (AW), and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Delignification was enhanced by NaOH, although resulting in impure product streams. Xylose pre-extraction (75 % w/w) by dilute acid pretreatment, prior to ionic liquid treatment, improved lignin purity after anti-solvent separation. Fractionation efficiency of the combined process was maximized (84 %) by ionic liquid treatment at 125 °C for 120 min, resulting in 80.2 % (w/w) lignin removal and 76.5 % (w/w) lignin recovery. Ionic liquids achieved similar degrees of delignification, although fully digestible cellulose-rich solids were produced only by [EMiM]CH(3)COO treatment. PMID:22639365

  1. Mild alkaline pre-treatments loosen fibre structure enhancing methane production from biomass crops and residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three ligno-cellulosic substrates representing varying levels of biodegradability (giant reed, GR; fibre sorghum, FS; barley straw, BS) were combined with mild alkaline pre-treatments (NaOH 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 N at 25 °C for 24 h) plus untreated controls, to study pre-treatment effects on physical-chemical structure, anaerobic digestibility and methane output of the three substrates. In a batch anaerobic digestion (AD) assay (58 days; 35 °C; 4 g VS l?1), the most recalcitrant substrate (GR) staged the highest increase in cumulative methane yield: +30% with NaOH 0.15 N over 190 ml CH4 g?1 VS in untreated GR. Conversely, the least recalcitrant substrate (FS) exhibited the lowest gain (+10% over 248 ml CH4 g?1 VS), while an intermediate behaviour was shown by BS (+15% over 232 ml CH4 g?1 VS). Pre-treatments speeded AD kinetics and reduced technical digestion time (i.e., the time needed to achieve 80% methane potential), which are the premises for increased production capacity of full scale AD plants. Fibre components (cellulose, hemicellulose and acid insoluble lignin determined after acid hydrolysis) and substrate structure (Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy) outlined reductions of the three fibre components after pre-treatments, supporting claims of loosened binding of lignin with cellulose and hemicellulose. Hence, mild alkaline pre-treatments were shown to improve the biodegradability of ligno-cellulosic substrates to an extent proportional to their recalcitrance. In turn, this contributes to mitigate the food vs. fuel controversy raised by the use of whole plant cereals (namely, maize) as feedstocks for biogas production. - Highlights: • Three ligno-cellulosic substrates were pre-treated with mild alkaline methods. • Giant reed pre-treated with NaOH 0.15 N showed highest increase in CH4 yield (30%). • Alkaline pre-treatments speeded process kinetics, cutting technical digestion time. • Changes in fibre structure support enhanced biodegradability due to pre-treatments

  2. Novel prodrugs for the treatment of colonic diseases based on 5-aminosalicylic acid, 4'-geranyloxyferulic acid, and auraptene: biological activities and analytical assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epifano, Francesco; Genovese, Salvatore; Carlucci, Giuseppe; Locatelli, Marcello

    2012-03-01

    A pro-drug is a substance administered in a pharmacologically inactive structure that, once administered, is metabolised in vivo into the corresponding active principle. The rationale for the design of prodrugs is the optimisation of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME). Moreover these compounds are frequently synthesized to improve bioavailability. 5-Amino salicylic acid (5-ASA) represents one of the most efficient agents for ColoRectal Cancer (CRC) treatment. Its inclusion in natural or semi-synthetic cyclodextrins (CDs) has been extensively studied to enhance drug properties as solubility, stability, and bioavailability. On the other hand, very recently naturally occurring 4'- geranyloxyferulic acid and auraptene were found as novel promising agents for the treatment of colon diseases, like adenomas and adenocarcinomas. In this review we will focus our attention on the reported pharmacological activity and analytical assays for the most representative 5-ASA pro-drugs already in a therapy for the treatment of CRC and on novel prodrugs of 4'-geranyloxyferulic acid and auraptene that were shown to be efficient in vivo as dietary feeding colon cancer chemopreventers in mice. PMID:22283649

  3. Clinical management of boric acid ingestion: pharmacokinetic assessment of efficacy of hemodialysis for treatment of acute boric acid poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshima, D; Morishita, K; Ueda, Y; Futagami, K; Higuchi, S; Komoda, T; Nanishi, F; Taniyama, T; Yoshitake, J; Aoyama, T

    1992-06-01

    Seven hours after suicidal ingestion of about 21 g of boric acid, a 26-year-old female admitted to our hospital in a state of slightly impaired consciousness, with frequent vomiting, shivering, fever and skin flush. Immediately, gastric lavage, followed by administration of activated charcoal and laxative (MgSO4), was performed. In order to ensure her urination, fluid infusion therapy was conducted with the aid of diuretics (furosemide). Since the serum concentrations of boric acid was very high, hemodialysis was carried out twice during the first 39 h. She responded well to the above mentioned treatment and was discharged 12 d post-admission without any sequelae. The concentrations of boric acid in serum and urine were measured in appropriate intervals with our modified Miyamoto's method, and the pharmacokinetics of boric acid were analyzed. The concentration of boric acid in serum and urine at the beginning of treatment was 465 micrograms/ml and 3.40 mg/ml, respectively. The half-life of boric acid in serum was 13.46 h, whereas it was shortened to 3.76 h during hemodialysis. The total body clearance was 0.99 l/h, while it increased to 3.53 l/h by hemodialysis. The additional removal of boric acid by hemodialysis was estimated to be about 5 g. It was concluded that the hemodialysis was very useful in the treatment of boric acid poisoning, because it accelerated the elimination of boric acid about four times faster than with conventional treatment. PMID:1432568

  4. Composition of acid tars from sulfuric acid treatment of petroleum oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frolov, A.F.; Denisova, T.L.; Karpova, I.V.; Titova, T.S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper examines the composition of freshly produced acid tars and pond tars, gives an analysis of the acid part of the tars, and obtains data on the change in composition of the acid tar in the course of storage--data that are needed in developing methods for utilizing the tar. The acid-pond tars consist of a mixture of hydrocarbons with a very low content of acids, whereas the freshly produced acid tars consist mainly of sulfuric acid, sulfonic acids, and carboxylic acids. In the course of storage, hardening of acid tars in the volume proceeds through reactions of polymerization, condensation, and oxidation of the surface layer that is in contact with air.

  5. Ferulic Acid Enhances Peripheral Nerve Regeneration across Long Gaps

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng-Chi Lee; Chin-Chuan Tsai; Chun-Hsu Yao; Yueh-Sheng Chen; Ming-Chang Wu

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of ferulic acid (FA) on peripheral nerve injury. In the in vitro test, the effect of FA on viability of Schwann cells was studied. In the in vivo test, right sciatic nerves of the rats were transected, and a 15?mm nerve defect was created. A nerve conduit made of silicone rubber tube filled with FA (5 and 25??g/mL), or saline (control), was implanted into the nerve defect. Results show that the number of proliferating Schwann cells increased significantly in...

  6. Integrated basic treatment of activated carbon for enhanced CO{sub 2} selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelodun, Adedeji Adebukola; Jo, Young-Min, E-mail: ymjo@khu.ac.kr

    2013-12-01

    We attempted the use of three chemical agents viz nitric acid (HN), calcium nitrate (CaN) and calcium ethanoate (CaEt) to achieve enhanced CO{sub 2} selective adsorption by activated carbon (AC). In dry phase treatment, microporous coconut shell-based carbon (CS) exhibits higher CO{sub 2} capacity than coal-based. However, upon wet-phase pre-treatment, modified CS samples showed lesser CO{sub 2} adsorption efficiency. Surface characterization with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the presence of calcium and amine species on the samples with integrated treatment (A-CaN). These samples recorded the highest low-level CO{sub 2} capture despite calcinated CaEt-doped samples (C-CaEt) showing the highest value for pure and high level CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities. The slope and linearity values of isobaric desorption were used to estimate the proportion of CO{sub 2} chemisorbed and heterogeneity of the adsorbents’ surfaces respectively. Consequently, integrated basic impregnation provides the most efficient adsorbents for selective adsorption of both indoor and outdoor CO{sub 2} levels.

  7. Integrated basic treatment of activated carbon for enhanced CO2 selectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We attempted the use of three chemical agents viz nitric acid (HN), calcium nitrate (CaN) and calcium ethanoate (CaEt) to achieve enhanced CO2 selective adsorption by activated carbon (AC). In dry phase treatment, microporous coconut shell-based carbon (CS) exhibits higher CO2 capacity than coal-based. However, upon wet-phase pre-treatment, modified CS samples showed lesser CO2 adsorption efficiency. Surface characterization with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the presence of calcium and amine species on the samples with integrated treatment (A-CaN). These samples recorded the highest low-level CO2 capture despite calcinated CaEt-doped samples (C-CaEt) showing the highest value for pure and high level CO2 adsorption capacities. The slope and linearity values of isobaric desorption were used to estimate the proportion of CO2 chemisorbed and heterogeneity of the adsorbents’ surfaces respectively. Consequently, integrated basic impregnation provides the most efficient adsorbents for selective adsorption of both indoor and outdoor CO2 levels.

  8. Enhancing fatty acid production by the expression of the regulatory transcription factor FadR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fuzhong; Ouellet, Mario; Batth, Tanveer S; Adams, Paul D; Petzold, Christopher J; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Keasling, Jay D

    2012-11-01

    Fatty acids are important precursors to biofuels. The Escherichia coli FadR is a transcription factor that regulates several processes in fatty acid biosynthesis, degradation, and membrane transport. By tuning the expression of FadR in an engineered E. coli host, we were able to increase fatty acid titer by 7.5-fold over our previously engineered fatty acid-producing strain, reaching 5.2±0.5g/L and 73% of the theoretical yield. The mechanism by which FadR enhanced fatty acid yield was studied by whole-genome transcriptional analysis (microarray) and targeted proteomics. Overexpression of FadR led to transcriptional changes for many genes, including genes involved in fatty acid pathways. The biggest transcriptional changes in fatty acid pathway genes included fabB, fabF, and accA. Overexpression of any of these genes alone did not result in a high yield comparable to fadR expression, indicating that FadR enhanced fatty acid production globally by tuning the expression levels of many genes to optimal levels. PMID:23026122

  9. Elucidating the role of ferrous ion cocatalyst in enhancing dilute acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hui

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently developed iron cocatalyst enhancement of dilute acid pretreatment of biomass is a promising approach for enhancing sugar release from recalcitrant lignocellulosic biomass. However, very little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this enhancement. In the current study, our aim was to identify several essential factors that contribute to ferrous ion-enhanced efficiency during dilute acid pretreatment of biomass and to initiate the investigation of the mechanisms that result in this enhancement. Results During dilute acid and ferrous ion cocatalyst pretreatments, we observed concomitant increases in solubilized sugars in the hydrolysate and reducing sugars in the (insoluble biomass residues. We also observed enhancements in sugar release during subsequent enzymatic saccharification of iron cocatalyst-pretreated biomass. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy showed that major peaks representing the C-O-C and C-H bonds in cellulose are significantly attenuated by iron cocatalyst pretreatment. Imaging using Prussian blue staining indicated that Fe2+ ions associate with both cellulose/xylan and lignin in untreated as well as dilute acid/Fe2+ ion-pretreated corn stover samples. Analyses by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed structural details of biomass after dilute acid/Fe2+ ion pretreatment, in which delamination and fibrillation of the cell wall were observed. Conclusions By using this multimodal approach, we have revealed that (1 acid-ferrous ion-assisted pretreatment increases solubilization and enzymatic digestion of both cellulose and xylan to monomers and (2 this pretreatment likely targets multiple chemistries in plant cell wall polymer networks, including those represented by the C-O-C and C-H bonds in cellulose.

  10. Pretreatment of corn stover with diluted acetic acid for enhancement of acidogenic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Wang, Lijuan; Lu, Xuebin; Zhang, Shuting

    2014-04-01

    A Box-Behnken design of response surface method was used to optimize acetic acid-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment of corn stover, in respect to acid concentration (0.05-0.25%), treatment time (5-15 min) and reaction temperature (180-210°C). Acidogenic fermentations with different initial pH and hydrolyzates were also measured to evaluate the optimal pretreatment conditions for maximizing acid production. The results showed that pretreatment with 0.25% acetic acid at 191°C for 7.74 min was found to be the most optimal condition for pretreatment of corn stover under which the production of acids can reach the highest level. Acidogenic fermentation with the hydrolyzate of pretreatment at the optimal condition at the initial pH=5 was shown to be butyric acid type fermentation, producing 21.84 g acetic acid, 7.246 g propionic acid, 9.170 butyric acid and 1.035 g isovaleric acid from 100g of corn stover in 900 g of water containing 2.25 g acetic acid. PMID:24583209

  11. Enhancement of ribosomal ribonucleic acid synthesis by deoxyribonucleic acid gyrase activity in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostra, B A; van Vliet, A J; Ab, G; Gruber, M

    1981-12-01

    The effect of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) gyrase inhibitors coumermycin A1, novobiocin, and oxolinic acid on ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthesis in Escherichia coli was studied in vivo and in vitro. Preferential inhibition of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis was observed. No effect of oxolinic acid and coumermycin on rRNA synthesis was seen in mutants having a DNA gyrase which is resistant to these inhibitors. In a temperature-sensitive DNA gyrase mutant rRNA synthesis was decreased at nonpermissive temperatures. Thus, a functional DNA gyrase is required for rRNA synthesis. Purified DNA gyrase had no effect on rRNA synthesis in a purified system. However, DNA gyrase does show preferential stimulation of rRNA synthesis in a system supplemented with other proteins. Apparently, DNA gyrase stimulation of rRNA synthesis requires another protein. PMID:6171557

  12. Methane sulfonic acid enhanced formation of molecular clusters of sulfuric acid and dimethyl amine

    OpenAIRE

    Bork, N.; Elm, J.; Olenius, T.; Vehkamäki, H.

    2014-01-01

    Over oceans and in coastal regions methane sulfonic acid (MSA) is present in substantial concentrations in aerosols and in the gas phase. We present an investigation of the effect of MSA on sulfuric acid and dimethyl amine (DMA) based cluster formation rates. From systematic conformational scans and well tested ab initio methods, we optimize structures of all MSAx (H2SO4)yDMAz clusters where x + y ≤ 3 and z ≤ 2. The resulting thermodynamic data is us...

  13. Enhancing the efficacy of photodynamic cancer therapy by radicals from plant auxin (indole-3-acetic acid).

    OpenAIRE

    Folkes, LK; Wardman, P

    2003-01-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid (plant auxin) has low toxicity but dramatically enhances the killing of mammalian cells on illuminating phenothiazinium dyes with red light. Suitable dyes include toluidine blue, used in cancer diagnosis because of localization in tumors, and methylene blue, used in experimental photodynamic therapy of cancer. The photosensitized oxidation of indole acetic acid forms a free radical that fragments in microseconds, forming reactive cytotoxins. Unlike conventional photodynam...

  14. Lactic acid bacteria: promising supplements for enhancing the biological activities of kombucha

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Nguyen Khoi; Dong, Ngan Thi Ngoc; Nguyen, Huong Thuy; Le, Phu Hong

    2015-01-01

    Kombucha is sweetened black tea that is fermented by a symbiosis of bacteria and yeast embedded within a cellulose membrane. It is considered a health drink in many countries because it is a rich source of vitamins and may have other health benefits. It has previously been reported that adding lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus) strains to kombucha can enhance its biological functions, but in that study only lactic acid bacteria isolated from kefir grains were tested. There are many other na...

  15. DNA Diagnostics: Nanotechnology-enhanced Electrochemical Detection of Nucleic Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Fang; Lillehoj, Peter B.; Ho, Chih-ming

    2010-01-01

    The detection of mismatched base pairs in DNA plays a crucial role in the diagnosis of genetic-related diseases and conditions, especially for early stage treatment. Among the various biosensors that have been employed for DNA detection, electrochemical sensors show great promise since they are capable of precise DNA recognition and efficient signal transduction. Advancements in micro- and nanotechnologies, specifically fabrication techniques and new nanomaterials, have enabled for the develo...

  16. Citric acid enhances the phytoextraction of manganese and plant growth by alleviating the ultrastructural damages in Juncus effusus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najeeb, U.; Xu, L.; Ali, Shafaqat [Institute of Crop Science, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Jilani, Ghulam, E-mail: jilani@uaar.edu.pk [Department of Soil Science, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Punjab 46300 (Pakistan); Gong, H.J. [Institute of Crop Science, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Shen, W.Q. [The University of Nottingham at Ningbo, Ningbo 315100 (China); Zhou, W.J., E-mail: wjzhou@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Crop Science, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

    2009-10-30

    Chelate-assisted phytoextraction by high biomass producing plant species enhances the removal of heavy metals from polluted environments. In this regard, Juncus effusus a wetland plant has great potential. This study evaluated the effects of elevated levels of manganese (Mn) on the vegetative growth, Mn uptake and antioxidant enzymes in J. effusus. We also studied the role of citric acid and EDTA on improving metal accumulation, plant growth and Mn toxicity stress alleviation. Three-week-old plantlets of J. effusus were subjected to various treatments in the hydroponics as: Mn (50, 100 and 500 {mu}M) alone, Mn (500 {mu}M) + citric acid (5 mM), and Mn (500 {mu}M) + EDTA (5 mM). After 2 weeks of treatment, higher Mn concentrations significantly reduced the plant biomass and height. Both citric acid and EDTA restored the plant height as it was reduced at the highest Mn level. Only the citric acid (but not EDTA) was able to recover the plant biomass weight, which was also obvious from the microscopic visualization of mesophyll cells. There was a concentration dependent increase in Mn uptake in J. effusus plants, and relatively more deposition in roots compared to aerial parts. Although both EDTA and citric acid caused significant increase in Mn accumulation; however, the Mn translocation was enhanced markedly by EDTA. Elevated levels of Mn augmented the oxidative stress, which was evident from changes in the activities of antioxidative enzymes in plant shoots. Raised levels of lipid peroxidation and variable changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes were recorded under Mn stress. Electron microscopic images revealed several modifications in the plants at cellular and sub-cellular level due to the oxidative damage induced by Mn. Changes in cell shape and size, chloroplast swelling, increased number of plastoglobuli and disruption of thylakoid were noticed. However, these plants showed a high degree of tolerance against Mn toxicity stress, and it removed substantial amounts of Mn from the media. The EDTA best enhanced the Mn uptake and translocation, while citric acid best recovered the plant growth.

  17. Citric acid enhances the phytoextraction of manganese and plant growth by alleviating the ultrastructural damages in Juncus effusus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelate-assisted phytoextraction by high biomass producing plant species enhances the removal of heavy metals from polluted environments. In this regard, Juncus effusus a wetland plant has great potential. This study evaluated the effects of elevated levels of manganese (Mn) on the vegetative growth, Mn uptake and antioxidant enzymes in J. effusus. We also studied the role of citric acid and EDTA on improving metal accumulation, plant growth and Mn toxicity stress alleviation. Three-week-old plantlets of J. effusus were subjected to various treatments in the hydroponics as: Mn (50, 100 and 500 ?M) alone, Mn (500 ?M) + citric acid (5 mM), and Mn (500 ?M) + EDTA (5 mM). After 2 weeks of treatment, higher Mn concentrations significantly reduced the plant biomass and height. Both citric acid and EDTA restored the plant height as it was reduced at the highest Mn level. Only the citric acid (but not EDTA) was able to recover the plant biomass weight, which was also obvious from the microscopic visualization of mesophyll cells. There was a concentration dependent increase in Mn uptake in J. effusus plants, and relatively more deposition in roots compared to aerial parts. Although both EDTA and citric acid caused significant increase in Mn accumulation; however, the Mn translocation was enhanced markedly by EDTA. Elevated levels of Mn augmented the oxidative stress, which was evident from changes in the activities of antioxidative enzymes in plant shoots. Raised levels of lipid peroxidation and variable changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes were recorded under Mn stress. Electron microscopic images revealed several modifications in the plants at cellular and sub-cellular level due to the oxidative damage induced by Mn. Changes in cell shape and size, chloroplast swelling, increased number of plastoglobuli and disruption of thylakoid were noticed. However, these plants showed a high degree of tolerance against Mn toxicity stress, and it removed substantial amounts of Mn from the media. The EDTA best enhanced the Mn uptake and translocation, while citric acid best recovered the plant growth.

  18. Continuous butyric acid fermentation coupled with REED technology for enhanced productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroi, George Nabin; Skiadas, Ioannis

    A major step towards the development of a sustainable industrial society is a shift from petroleum-based resources to renewable resources. An ongoing effort is focused on developing bio-refineries as an alternative way of producing fuels and chemical building-blocks from renewable resources. Thus, today’s organic residues and wastes may become tomorrow’s platform for a variety of products for industrial use. Butyric acid fermentation has long been discussed in the last decade due to the wide application of butyric acid in chemical, pharmaceutical and food industries. Compared to other microbial strains, C.tyrobutyricum seems the most promising for biological production of butyric acid as it is characterised by higher selectivity and higher tolerance to butyric acid. However, studies on fermentative butyric production from lignocellulosic biomasses are scarce in the international literature. The present study focuses on butyric acid fermentation of Pre-treated (by wet explosion) and enzymatically Hydrolysed Wheat Straw (PHWS) by an adapted C. tyrobutyricum strain. The strain could grow in up to 80% (v/v) PHWS in batch mode and it was capable of fermenting both glucose and xylose producing butyric acid at a high yield (0,32-0,46 g/g sugars) and selectivity (0,78-1 g/g acids). However, batch fermentations exhibited low sugars uptake rates, which resulted to long fermentation durations and low butyric acid productivities, especially at increasing concentrations of PHWS. The combination of continuous fermentation mode and in-situ acids removal by Reverse Enhanced Electro Dialysis (REED) resulted to enhanced sugars consumption rates when 60% PHWS was fermented. Specifically, glucose and xylose consumption rate increased by a factor of 6 and 39, respectively, while butyric acid productivity reached 0,88 g/l/h compared to 0,55 g/L/h butyric acid when REED was not applied

  19. Successful treatment of gallstones with bile acids in obese adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podda, M; Zuin, M; Dioguardi, M L; Festorazzi, S

    1982-01-01

    Six obese adolescents (4 girls, 2 boys) with radiolucent gallstones were treated with bile acids (chenodeoxycholic or ursodeoxycholic acid). Each had lithogenic bile and no predisposing factors for pigment stone formation. Within 12 months, the bile became unsaturated with cholesterol and the gallstones had disappeared in 4 cases and were decreased in size in two. PMID:7181529

  20. Successful treatment of gallstones with bile acids in obese adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Podda, M.; Zuin, M.; Dioguardi, M L; Festorazzi, S

    1982-01-01

    Six obese adolescents (4 girls, 2 boys) with radiolucent gallstones were treated with bile acids (chenodeoxycholic or ursodeoxycholic acid). Each had lithogenic bile and no predisposing factors for pigment stone formation. Within 12 months, the bile became unsaturated with cholesterol and the gallstones had disappeared in 4 cases and were decreased in size in two.

  1. Magnetic microparticles post-synthetically coated by hyaluronic acid as an enhanced carrier for microfluidic bioanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubova, Lucie; Knotek, Petr; Palarcik, Jiri; Cadkova, Michaela; Belina, Petr; Vlcek, Milan; Korecka, Lucie; Bilkova, Zuzana

    2014-11-01

    Iron oxide based particles functionalized by bioactive molecules have been utilized extensively in biotechnology and biomedicine. Despite their already proven advantages, instability under changing reaction conditions, non-specific sorption of biomolecules on the particles' surfaces, and iron oxide leakage from the naked particles can greatly limit their application. As confirmed many times, surface treatment with an appropriate stabilizer helps to minimize these disadvantages. In this work, we describe enhanced post-synthetic surface modification of superparamagnetic microparticles varying in materials and size using hyaluronic acid (HA) in various chain lengths. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, phase analysis light scattering and laser diffraction are the methods used for characterization of HA-coated particles. The zeta potential and thickness of HA-layer of HA-coated Dynabeads M270 Amine were -50 mV and 85 nm, respectively, and of HA-coated p(GMA-MOEAA)-NH2 were -38 mV and 140 nm, respectively. The electrochemical analysis confirmed the zero leakage of magnetic material and no reactivity of particles with hydrogen peroxide. The rate of non-specific sorption of bovine serum albumin was reduced up to 50% of the naked ones. The coating efficiency and suitability of biopolymer-based microparticles for magnetically active microfluidic devices were confirmed. PMID:25280714

  2. Primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumor: gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, Soo-heui; Yoon, Jung-Hee; Kim, Kwan-woo

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of a 71-year-old man with prostate cancer who had no prior underlying liver disease. During metastatic evaluation, a solid mass in the liver was identified by computed tomography and ultrasound. Gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a well-defined, peripheral enhancing hepatic mass containing small cystic component. This lesion was diagnosed as hepatic neuroendocrine tumor. Primary neuroendocrine tumors of the liver are extremely rare....

  3. Enhancing neural stem cell response to SDF-1? gradients through hyaluronic acid-laminin hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addington, C P; Heffernan, J M; Millar-Haskell, C S; Tucker, E W; Sirianni, R W; Stabenfeldt, S E

    2015-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) initiates an expansive biochemical insult that is largely responsible for the long-term dysfunction associated with TBI; however, current clinical treatments fall short of addressing these underlying sequelae. Pre-clinical investigations have used stem cell transplantation with moderate success, but are plagued by staggeringly low survival and engraftment rates (2-4%). As such, providing cell transplants with the means to better dynamically respond to injury-related signals within the transplant microenvironment may afford improved transplantation survival and engraftment rates. The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1? (SDF-1?) is a potent chemotactic signal that is readily present after TBI. In this study, we sought to develop a transplantation vehicle to ultimately enhance the responsiveness of neural transplants to injury-induced SDF-1?. Specifically, we hypothesize that a hyaluronic acid (HA) and laminin (Lm) hydrogel would promote 1. upregulated expression of the SDF-1? receptor CXCR4 in neural progenitor/stem cells (NPSCs) and 2. enhanced NPSC migration in response to SDF-1? gradients. We demonstrated successful development of a HA-Lm hydrogel and utilized standard protein and cellular assays to probe NPSC CXCR4 expression and NPSC chemotactic migration. The findings demonstrated that NPSCs significantly increased CXCR4 expression after 48 h of culture on the HA-Lm gel in a manner critically dependent on both HA and laminin. Moreover, the HA-Lm hydrogel significantly increased NPSC chemotactic migration in response to SDF-1? at 48 h, an effect that was critically dependent on HA, laminin and the SDF-1? gradient. Therefore, this hydrogel serves to 1. prime NPSCs for the injury microenvironment and 2. provide the appropriate infrastructure to support migration into the surrounding tissue, equipping cells with the tools to more effectively respond to the injury microenvironment. PMID:26340314

  4. The Effects of Different Acid Treatment and Stratification Duration on Germination of Cercis siliquastrum L. Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat ZENC?RK?RAN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of acid (H2SO4 treatment and moist stratification duration on the properties of seed coat, germination rate and duration of the Cercis siliquastrum L. were investigated. The rupture force and firmness of seed coat decrease during the acid treatment and moist stratification, stratification was for more than 30 minutes of these applications. Up to this treatment, rupture force and firmness were highly decreased. Contrary to this decrease, the germination rate was increased. The decrease in rupture force and firmness of seed coat were changed limitedly after 45 minutes and over acid treatments. From the results of this study, we conclude that eight weeks of moist stratification duration was optimal after 30 minutes of acid treatment to remove the physical and physiological dormancy of the seeds of the C. siliquastrum L.

  5. Effect of acidic treatment on carbon nano tubes for immobilization of cellulase enzyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The effect of acidic treatment on MWCNTs functionalization was studied by mixing different ratios (1:1, 1:2, and 1:3 v/v %) of nitric acid and sulphuric acid, respectively. The effect of these treatments on the structure of MWCNTs was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Filed emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Results showed that the optimum ratio 1:3 (v/v %) is best suitable in imparting carboxylic acid and hydroxyl groups which are required for immobilization of cellulase enzyme on functionalized CNTs. (author)

  6. Enhanced production of polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid by thraustochytrid protists

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jain, R.; Raghukumar, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    , thraustochytrids are considered among the most promising. These marine eukaryotic, straminopilan protests have been extensively studied in recent years for DHA production. This paper examines methods to enhance DHA production in thraustochytrids. A cold shock...

  7. Gadoxetic acid enhanced MRI for differentiation of FNH and HCA: a single centre experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieser, Christian; Steffen, Ingo G.; Perez Fernandez, Carmen Maria; Hamm, Bernd; Denecke, Timm [Klinik fuer Radiologie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Kramme, Incken-Birthe; Blaeker, Hendrik; Kilic, Ergin [Institut fuer Pathologie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Seehofer, Daniel [Klinik fuer Allgemein, Viszeral- und Transplantationschirurgie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Schott, Eckart [Medizinische Klinik m.S. Hepatologie und Gastroenterologie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    Evaluation of enhancement characteristics of histopathologically confirmed focal nodular hyperplasias (FNHs) and hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs) with gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI. Sixty-eight patients with 115 histopathologically proven lesions (FNHs, n = 44; HCAs, n = 71) examined with gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI were retrospectively enrolled (standard of reference: surgical resection, n = 53 patients (lesions: FNHs, n = 37; HCAs, n = 53); biopsy, n = 15 (lesions: FNHs, n = 7; HCAs, n = 18)). Two radiologists evaluated all MR images regarding morphological features as well as the vascular and hepatocyte-specific enhancement in consensus. For the hepatobiliary phase, relative enhancement of the lesions and lesion to liver enhancement were significantly lower for HCAs (mean, 48.7 (±48.4) % and 49.4 (±33.9) %) compared to FNHs (159.3 (±92.5) %; and 151.7 (±79) %; accuracy of 89 % and 90 %, respectively; P < 0.001). Visual strong uptake of FNHs vs. hypointensity of HCAs in the hepatobiliary phase resulted in an accuracy of 92 %. This parameter was superior to all other morphological and dynamic vascular criteria alone and in combination (accuracy, 54-85 %). For differentiation of FNHs and HCAs by means of MRI, gadoxetic acid uptake in the hepatobiliary phase was found to be superior to all other criteria alone and in combination. (orig.)

  8. Gadoxetic acid enhanced MRI for differentiation of FNH and HCA: a single centre experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of enhancement characteristics of histopathologically confirmed focal nodular hyperplasias (FNHs) and hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs) with gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI. Sixty-eight patients with 115 histopathologically proven lesions (FNHs, n = 44; HCAs, n = 71) examined with gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI were retrospectively enrolled (standard of reference: surgical resection, n = 53 patients (lesions: FNHs, n = 37; HCAs, n = 53); biopsy, n = 15 (lesions: FNHs, n = 7; HCAs, n = 18)). Two radiologists evaluated all MR images regarding morphological features as well as the vascular and hepatocyte-specific enhancement in consensus. For the hepatobiliary phase, relative enhancement of the lesions and lesion to liver enhancement were significantly lower for HCAs (mean, 48.7 (±48.4) % and 49.4 (±33.9) %) compared to FNHs (159.3 (±92.5) %; and 151.7 (±79) %; accuracy of 89 % and 90 %, respectively; P < 0.001). Visual strong uptake of FNHs vs. hypointensity of HCAs in the hepatobiliary phase resulted in an accuracy of 92 %. This parameter was superior to all other morphological and dynamic vascular criteria alone and in combination (accuracy, 54-85 %). For differentiation of FNHs and HCAs by means of MRI, gadoxetic acid uptake in the hepatobiliary phase was found to be superior to all other criteria alone and in combination. (orig.)

  9. The Effect of Fiber Bleaching Treatment on the Properties of Poly(lactic acid)/Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Marwah Rayung; Nor Azowa Ibrahim; Norhazlin Zainuddin; Wan Zuhainis Saad; Nur Inani Abdul Razak; Buong Woei Chieng

    2014-01-01

    In this work, biodegradable composites from poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber were prepared by melt blending method. Prior to mixing, the fiber was modified through bleaching treatment using hydrogen peroxide. Bleached fiber composite showed an improvement in mechanical properties as compared to untreated fiber composite due to the enhanced fiber/matrix interfacial adhesion. Interestingly, fiber bleaching treatment also improved the physical appearance of th...

  10. Enhancement in extraction rates by addition of organic acids to aqueous phase in solvent extraction of rare earth metals in presence of diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, H. [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan); Azis, A.; Fujita, M.; Teramoto, M. [Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto (Japan)

    1996-02-01

    It is well known that the selectivity of rare earth metals by solvent extraction is increased by the addition of a chelating agent such as diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) in the aqueous phase. One of the disadvantages of this method is the decrease in extraction rates due to complexation in the aqueous phase. In this paper, further addition of organic acids to the aqueous phase was examined for the purpose of enhancing the extraction rates in solvent extraction with DTPA. The addition of several kind of organic acids such as formic acid, acetic acid, malonic acid, lactic acid and citric acid was investigated for a Er/Y separation system. A remarkable enhancement in extraction rates ryas observed with a slight decrease in the selectivity by the addition of citric acid or lactic acid. Extraction rates in the presence of both DTPA and citric acid increased with the increase in citric acid concentration and with the increase in proton concentration. A 150 times enhancement in extraction rates was found in the low proton concentration condition. In order to analyze the extraction rates and selectivities obtained, mass transfer equations were presented by considering both the dissociation reaction or rare earth metal-DTPA completes and the complex formation between rare earth metal and organic acid in the aqueous phase. The experimental data were analyzed by these equations. 30 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Enhancement in extraction rates by addition of organic acids to aqueous phase in solvent extraction of rare earth metals in presence of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that the selectivity of rare earth metals by solvent extraction is increased by the addition of a chelating agent such as diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) in the aqueous phase. One of the disadvantages of this method is the decrease in extraction rates due to complexation in the aqueous phase. In this paper, further addition of organic acids to the aqueous phase was examined for the purpose of enhancing the extraction rates in solvent extraction with DTPA. The addition of several kind of organic acids such as formic acid, acetic acid, malonic acid, lactic acid and citric acid was investigated for a Er/Y separation system. A remarkable enhancement in extraction rates was observed with a slight decrease in the selectivity by the addition of citric acid or lactic acid. Extraction rates in the presence of both DTPA and citric acid increased with the increase in citric acid concentration and with the increase in proton concentration. A 150 times enhancement in extraction rates was found in the low proton concentration condition. In order to analyze the extraction rates and selectivities obtained, mass transfer equations were presented by considering both the dissociation reaction of rare earth metal-DTPA complexes and the complex formation between rare earth metal and organic acid in the aqueous phase. The experimental data were analyzed by these equations. (author)

  12. Enhanced uptake of water by oxidatively processed oleic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Asad

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available A quartz crystal microbalance apparatus has been used to measure the room temperature uptake of water vapour by thin films of oleic acid as a function of relative humidity, both before and following exposure of the films to various partial pressures of gas phase ozone. A rapid increase in the water-sorbing ability of the film is observed as its exposure to ozone is increased, followed by a plateau region in which no additional water is taken up. In this fully-processed region the mass of water taken up by the film is about 4 times that of the unprocessed film. Infrared spectra of the films, measured after variable exposures to ozone, show dramatic increases in both the "free" and hydrogen-bonded O-H stretching regions, and a decrease in the intensity of olefinic features. These results are consistent with the formation of an oxygenated polymeric product or products, as well as the gas phase products previously identified.

  13. Enhanced crystallization of poly (lactic acid) through reactive aliphatic bisamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanthananon, P.; Seadan, M.; Pivsa-Art, S.; Suttiruengwong, S.

    2015-07-01

    The poor crystallization rate of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) is a major drawback in terms of controlling the properties of final products. To overcome this, a nucleating agent is normally applied. In this work, the aliphatic bisamide, N, N'-(1,3-propylene) bis(10-undecenamide) (PBU), having reactive functional groups is used as a crystallization promoter for PLA by adding PBU in various concentration (0.1-0.7 wt%) into PLA together with peroxide via reactive melt blending. The conventional ethylene bis-stearamide(EBS) is used for a comparison. The extruded samples are characterized for gel content and FT-IR spectroscopy. The crystallization behaviour and rate, and spherulites morphology are investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarized optical microscopy (POM), respectively. It is found that the addition of PBU into PLA results in the dramatic increase in crystallinity and crystallization rate of PLA compared with neat PLA and PLA added EBS. The crystallinity increases to 24.9-28.3% higher than neat PLA under even cooling rate of 7°C/min. The addition of 0.7 wt% PBU shows the fastest crystallization rate with t1/2 value isothermally crystallized at 130°C of only 6 min. POM images indicate the increase in the nucleation density and very fine spherulitesof PLA added PBU, promoting the fast crystallization.

  14. Efficacious intestinal permeation enhancement induced by the sodium salt of 10-undecylenic acid, a medium chain fatty acid derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayden, David J; Walsh, Edwin

    2014-09-01

    10-undecylenic acid (UA) is an OTC antifungal therapy and a nutritional supplement. It is an unsaturated medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) derivative, so our hypothesis was that its 11-mer sodium salt, uC11, would improve intestinal permeation similar to the established enhancer, sodium caprate (C10), but without the toxicity of the parent saturated MCFA, decylenic acid (C11). MTT assay and high-content screening (HCS) confirmed a cytotoxicity ranking in Caco-2 cells: C11?>?C10?=?uC11. Five to ten millimolars of the three agents reduced TEER and increased the Papp of [(14)C]-mannitol across Caco-2 monolayers and rat intestinal mucosae, a concentration that matched increases in plasma membrane permeability seen in HCS. Although C11 was the most efficacious enhancer in vitro, it damaged monolayers and tissue mucosae more than the other two agents at similar concentrations and exposure times and was therefore not pursued further. Rat jejunal and colonic in situ intestinal instillations of 100 mM C10 or uC11 with FITC-dextran 4000 (FD4) solutions yielded comparable regional enhancement ratios of ~10 and 30%, respectively, for each agent with acceptable tissue histology. Mini-tablets of uC11 and FD4 however delivered more FD4 compared to C10-FD-4 mini-tablets in both regions, as reflected by a statistically higher AUC, and with no evidence of membrane perturbation. The unsaturated bond in uC11 therefore confers a reduction in lipophilicity and cytotoxicity compared to C11, and the resulting permeation enhancement is on a par with or superior to that of C10, a key component of formulations in current phase II oral peptide clinical trials. PMID:24961919

  15. Changes in Growth, Auxin- and Ribonucleic Acid Metabolism in Wheat Coleoptile Sections Following Pulse Treatment with Indole-3-Acetic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, T.A.; Galston, A.W.

    1966-01-01

    Growth reactions of wbeat coleoptile sections following a brief pretreament in indole-3-acetic acid (LAA) were studied. The growth versus concentration curves 24 hours after the treatment showed a minimum value surrounded by bigber values. The minimum was never at concentrations lower than 10-5M lAA but it could be found at higher concentrations after short pretreatment periods. The growth versus time curves reveated that the hormone treatment cansed the growth rate initially to increase but lat...

  16. Enhanced lignin monomer production caused by cinnamic Acid and its hydroxylated derivatives inhibits soybean root growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Rogério Barbosa; Salvador, Victor Hugo; dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Bubna, Gisele Adriana; Finger-Teixeira, Aline; Soares, Anderson Ricardo; Marchiosi, Rogério; Ferrarese, Maria de Lourdes Lucio; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamic acid and its hydroxylated derivatives (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids) are known allelochemicals that affect the seed germination and root growth of many plant species. Recent studies have indicated that the reduction of root growth by these allelochemicals is associated with premature cell wall lignification. We hypothesized that an influx of these compounds into the phenylpropanoid pathway increases the lignin monomer content and reduces the root growth. To confirm this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids on soybean root growth, lignin and the composition of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) monomers. To this end, three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in nutrient solution with or without allelochemical (or selective enzymatic inhibitors of the phenylpropanoid pathway) in a growth chamber for 24 h. In general, the results showed that 1) cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids reduced root growth and increased lignin content; 2) cinnamic and p-coumaric acids increased p-hydroxyphenyl (H) monomer content, whereas p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids increased guaiacyl (G) content, and sinapic acid increased sinapyl (S) content; 3) when applied in conjunction with piperonylic acid (PIP, an inhibitor of the cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, C4H), cinnamic acid reduced H, G and S contents; and 4) when applied in conjunction with 3,4-(methylenedioxy)cinnamic acid (MDCA, an inhibitor of the 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, 4CL), p-coumaric acid reduced H, G and S contents, whereas caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids reduced G and S contents. These results confirm our hypothesis that exogenously applied allelochemicals are channeled into the phenylpropanoid pathway causing excessive production of lignin and its main monomers. By consequence, an enhanced stiffening of the cell wall restricts soybean root growth. PMID:24312480

  17. Enhanced Lignin Monomer Production Caused by Cinnamic Acid and Its Hydroxylated Derivatives Inhibits Soybean Root Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Rogério Barbosa; Salvador, Victor Hugo; dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Bubna, Gisele Adriana; Finger-Teixeira, Aline; Soares, Anderson Ricardo; Marchiosi, Rogério; Ferrarese, Maria de Lourdes Lucio; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamic acid and its hydroxylated derivatives (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids) are known allelochemicals that affect the seed germination and root growth of many plant species. Recent studies have indicated that the reduction of root growth by these allelochemicals is associated with premature cell wall lignification. We hypothesized that an influx of these compounds into the phenylpropanoid pathway increases the lignin monomer content and reduces the root growth. To confirm this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids on soybean root growth, lignin and the composition of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) monomers. To this end, three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in nutrient solution with or without allelochemical (or selective enzymatic inhibitors of the phenylpropanoid pathway) in a growth chamber for 24 h. In general, the results showed that 1) cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids reduced root growth and increased lignin content; 2) cinnamic and p-coumaric acids increased p-hydroxyphenyl (H) monomer content, whereas p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids increased guaiacyl (G) content, and sinapic acid increased sinapyl (S) content; 3) when applied in conjunction with piperonylic acid (PIP, an inhibitor of the cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, C4H), cinnamic acid reduced H, G and S contents; and 4) when applied in conjunction with 3,4-(methylenedioxy)cinnamic acid (MDCA, an inhibitor of the 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, 4CL), p-coumaric acid reduced H, G and S contents, whereas caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids reduced G and S contents. These results confirm our hypothesis that exogenously applied allelochemicals are channeled into the phenylpropanoid pathway causing excessive production of lignin and its main monomers. By consequence, an enhanced stiffening of the cell wall restricts soybean root growth. PMID:24312480

  18. The Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Valproic Acid Enhances Acquisition, Extinction, and Reconsolidation of Conditioned Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredy, Timothy W.; Barad, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Histone modifications contribute to the epigenetic regulation of gene expression, a process now recognized to be important for the consolidation of long-term memory. Valproic acid (VPA), used for many years as an anticonvulsant and a mood stabilizer, has effects on learning and memory and enhances the extinction of conditioned fear through its…

  19. PROCEEDINGS: EPA'S INDUSTRY BRIEFING ON THE ADIPIC ACID ENHANCED LIMESTONE FGD PROCESS (JULY 1981)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The proceedings document presentations made during an EPA-sponsored industry briefing, July 15, 1981, in Springfield, MO. The briefing dealt with the status of EPA's research activities on the adipic-acid-enhanced limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process. Subjects covered...

  20. Ferulic acid enhances IgE binding to peanut allergens in western blots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because phenolic compounds can precipitate or complex with proteins, we postulated that interactions of phenolics with IgE antibodies help enhance IgE binding to peanut allergens in Western blots. Three different phenolics, such as, ferulic, caffeic and chlorogenic acids were examined. Each was mixe...

  1. Organic acid enhanced electrodialytic extraction of lead from contaminated soil fines in suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2007-01-01

    The implementation of soil washing technology for the treatment of heavy metal contaminated soils is limited by the toxicity and unwieldiness of the remaining heavy metal contaminated sludge. In this work, the feasibility of combining electrodialytic remediation with heterotrophic leaching for decontamination of the sludge was investigated. The ability of 11 organic acids to extract Pb from the fine fraction of contaminated soil (grains <63 mu m) was investigated, and application of the acids as...

  2. Organic acid enhanced electrodialytic extraction of lead from contaminated soil fines in suspension

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2007-01-01

    The implementation of soil washing technology for the treatment of heavy metal contaminated soils is limited by the toxicity and unwieldiness of the remaining heavy metal contaminated sludge. In this work, the feasibility of combining electrodialytic remediation with heterotrophic leaching for decontamination of the sludge was investigated. The ability of 11 organic acids to extract Pb from the fine fraction of contaminated soil (grains < 63 mu m) was investigated, and application of the acid...

  3. Light quality treatments enhance somatic seedling production in three southern pine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Scott A; Montello, Paul M; Xia, Xiuqin; Upchurch, Bruce L; Smith, Dale R

    2006-02-01

    Embryogenic cultures of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.), longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) and slash pine x longleaf pine hybrids were initiated from immature seeds on an initiation medium containing 13.57 microM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2.22 microM benzylaminopurine. Embryogenic cultures proliferated and somatic embryos developed, matured and germinated following a modified protocol and media originally developed for radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don.) somatic seedling production. A discrete, light-sensitive pre-germination stage and a later germination (radicle emergence) stage were identified by the differential response of somatic embryos to light of different wavelengths. Different light quality treatments were applied during the pre-germination and germination steps, using cool white fluorescent bulbs or light-emitting diodes (LEDs), or both. In general, red wavelengths provided by LEDs during these steps resulted in higher frequencies of somatic embryo germination (up to 64%) and conversion (up to 50%), longer tap roots and more first-order lateral roots than the standard cool white fluorescent treatments or treatment with blue wavelengths from LEDs. In addition, exposure to red light allowed germination of somatic embryos of some clones that failed to produce germinants under fluorescent light. Germination and conversion were further enhanced by sequential application of cool white fluorescent light and red light, resulting in up to 100% germination and conversion in one experiment. Longleaf pine somatic embryos were especially responsive to the light quality treatments, resulting in the first report of somatic seedling production for this species. PMID:16356915

  4. Examining the Effect of the Life Enhancement Treatment for Substance Use (LETS ACT) on Residential Substance Abuse Treatment Retention

    OpenAIRE

    Magidson, Jessica F.; Gorka, Stephanie M; MacPherson, Laura; Hopko, Derek R.; Blanco, Carlos; Lejuez, C.W.; Daughters, Stacey B.

    2011-01-01

    Effective, parsimonious behavioral interventions that target reinforcement are needed for substance users with depression to improve mood as well as treatment retention. The Life Enhancement Treatment for Substance Use (LETS ACT; Daughters et al., 2008) is a behavioral activation-based approach tailored to increase levels of positive reinforcement among depressed substance users while in substance abuse treatment. The current study tested the efficacy of LETS ACT compared to a contact-time ma...

  5. Peracetic acid oxidation as an alternative pre-treatment for the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appels, Lise; Van Assche, Ado; Willems, Kris; Degrève, Jan; Van Impe, Jan; Dewil, Raf

    2011-03-01

    Anaerobic digestion is generally considered to be an economic and environmentally friendly technology for treating waste activated sludge, but has some limitations, such as the time it takes for the sludge to be digested and also the ineffectiveness of degrading the solids. Various pre-treatment technologies have been suggested to overcome these limitations and to improve the biogas production rate by enhancing the hydrolysis of organic matter. This paper studies the use of peracetic acid for disintegrating sludge as a pre-treatment of anaerobic digestion. It has been proved that this treatment effectively leads to a solubilisation of organic material. A maximum increase in biogas production by 21% is achieved. High dosages of PAA lead to a decrease in biogas production. This is due to the inhibition of the anaerobic micro-organisms by the high VFA-concentrations. The evolution of the various VFAs during digestion is studied and the observed trends support this hypothesis. PMID:21227687

  6. Operational Lessons Leaned During bioreactor Demonstrations for Acid Rock Drainage Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) has emphasized the development of biologically-based treatment technologies for acid rock drainage (ARD). Progressively evolving technology demonstrations have resulted in significant advances in sulf...

  7. Operational Lessons Learned During Bioreactor Demonstrations for Acid Rock Drainage Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) has emphasized the development of biologically-based treatment technologies for acid rock drainage (ARD). Progressively evolving technology demonstrations have resulted in significant advances in sul...

  8. Enhancing Lipid Stability in Irradiated Beef Mince by Oleoresins and/ or Ascorbic Acid during Chilling Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipid Oxidation, fatty acids profile and sensory properties of irradiated beef mince (2.5 kGy) treated with oleoresins (rosemary or ginger), ascorbic acid, or combination of ascorbic acid and oleoresins were investigated during 30 days of chilled storage. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) as an indication of lipid oxidation, of irradiated control samples were significantly higher than those of non irradiated control and samples treated with rosemary and ginger oleoresins. By GC-MS analysis, it was found that the relative percentage of total saturated fatty acids (TSFA) increased in all treatments. However, the highest increase was recorded in irradiated control samples compared to non irradiated control samples. Beef mince samples treated with oleoresins (rosemary or ginger) had the best scores for discoloration and off odour. Thus, the addition of oleoresins (rosemary or ginger) to beef mince before irradiation could be an easily applied method to minimize oxidative degradation of irradiated meat

  9. Thermochemical pretreatments for enhancing succinic acid production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi; Kuglarz, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient thermochemical method for treatment of industrial hemp biomass, in order to increase its bioconversion to succinic acid. Industrial hemp was subjected to various thermochemical pretreatments using 0-3% H2SO4, NaOH or H2O2 at 121-180°C prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. The influence of the different pretreatments on hydrolysis and succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z was investigated in batch mode, using anaerobic bottles and bioreactors. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of hemp material pretreated with 3% H2O2 resulted in the highest overall sugar yield (73.5%), maximum succinic acid titer (21.9gL-1), as well as the highest succinic acid yield (83%). Results obtained clearly demonstrated the impact of different pretreatments on the bioconversion efficiency of industrial hemp into succinic acid.

  10. Cognitive deficits in marijuana users: effects on motivational enhancement therapy plus cognitive behavioral therapy treatment outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Aharonovich, Efrat; Brooks, Adam C.; Nunes, Edward V.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2008-01-01

    Clinical variables that affect treatment outcome for marijuana dependent individuals are not yet well understood, including the effects of cognitive functioning. To address this, level of cognitive functioning and treatment outcome were investigated. Twenty marijuana-dependent outpatients were administered a neuropsychological battery at treatment entry. All patients received 12 weekly individual sessions of combined motivational enhancement therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. The Wilco...

  11. Acetic acid enhanced purification of crude cellulose from sugarcane bagasse: Structural and morphological characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Bian; Feng Peng; Xiao-Peng Peng; Pai Peng; Feng Xu,; Run-Cang Sun

    2012-01-01

    Crude cellulose prepared from alkali-extracted sugarcane bagasse was subjected to a rapid purification treatment with a mixture of 80% acetic acid-68% nitric acid (10/1, v/v) at 120 °C for 15 min. The yields of the preparations decreased slightly from 57.3%-58.6% in the crude cellulose preparations to 50.3%-51.9% in the purified cellulose samples. The purification treatment removed large amounts of resistant hemicelluloses strongly associated to the cellulose. XRD analysis revealed that the s...

  12. The Unexpected Uses of Urso- and Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid in the Treatment of Non-liver Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Vang, Sheila; Longley, Katie; Steer, Clifford J.; Low, Walter C

    2014-01-01

    Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is the taurine conjugate of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a US Food and Drug Administration–approved hydrophilic bile acid for the treatment of certain cholestatic liver diseases. There is a growing body of research on the mechanism(s) of TUDCA and its potential therapeutic effect on a wide variety of non-liver diseases. Both UDCA and TUDCA are potent inhibitors of apoptosis, in part by interfering with the upstream mitochondrial pathway of cell death, inhibit...

  13. Aneurysmal wall enhancement and perianeurysmal edema after endovascular treatment of unruptured cerebral aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, I. Chang [Toronto Western Hospital, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Taipei Cathay General Hospital, Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Taipei (China); Willinsky, Robert A.; Agid, Ronit [Toronto Western Hospital, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Fanning, Noel F. [Cork University Hospital, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Cork (Ireland)

    2014-06-15

    Perianeurysmal edema and aneurysm wall enhancement are previously described phenomenon after coil embolization attributed to inflammatory reaction. We aimed to demonstrate the prevalence and natural course of these phenomena in unruptured aneurysms after endovascular treatment and to identify factors that contributed to their development. We performed a retrospective analysis of consecutively treated unruptured aneurysms between January 2000 and December 2011. The presence and evolution of wall enhancement and perianeurysmal edema on MRI after endovascular treatment were analyzed. Variable factors were compared among aneurysms with and without edema. One hundred thirty-two unruptured aneurysms in 124 patients underwent endovascular treatment. Eighty-five (64.4 %) aneurysms had wall enhancement, and 9 (6.8 %) aneurysms had perianeurysmal brain edema. Wall enhancement tends to persist for years with two patterns identified. Larger aneurysms and brain-embedded aneurysms were significantly associated with wall enhancement. In all edema cases, the aneurysms were embedded within the brain and had wall enhancement. Progressive thickening of wall enhancement was significantly associated with edema. Edema can be symptomatic when in eloquent brain and stabilizes or resolves over the years. Our study demonstrates the prevalence and some appreciation of the natural history of aneurysmal wall enhancement and perianeurysmal brain edema following endovascular treatment of unruptured aneurysms. Aneurysmal wall enhancement is a common phenomenon while perianeurysmal edema is rare. These phenomena are likely related to the presence of inflammatory reaction near the aneurysmal wall. Both phenomena are usually asymptomatic and self-limited, and prophylactic treatment is not recommended. (orig.)

  14. Oral Low-Molecular Weight Hyaluronic Acid in the Treatment of Atrophic Vaginitis

    OpenAIRE

    Tindara La Galia; Antonio Micali; Domenico Puzzolo; Francesco Cancellieri

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of low molecular weight hyaluronic acid oral tablets for the treatment of atrophic vaginitis. 12 women with atrophic vaginitis were recruited for this double blind, placebo-controlled study. Patients were randomized to receive either low molecular weight hyaluronic acid (HA) oral tablets or placebo for three months. Vaginal biopsies were taken at baseline and after three months of treatment, and vagina...

  15. Tranexamic acid for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding: efficacy and safety

    OpenAIRE

    Leminen, Henri; Hurskainen, Ritva

    2012-01-01

    Tranexamic acid has proven to be an effective treatment for heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB). It reduces menstrual blood loss (MBL) by 26%–60% and is significantly more effective than placebo, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, oral cyclical luteal phase progestins, or oral etamsylate, while the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system reduces MBL more than tranexamic acid. Other treatments used for HMB are oral contraceptives, danazol, and surgical interventions (endometrial ablation an...

  16. Enhancing the efficacy of cisplatin in ovarian cancer treatment – could arsenic have a role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helm C William

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ovarian cancer affects more than 200,000 women each year around the world. Most women are not diagnosed until the disease has already metastasized from the ovaries with a resultant poor prognosis. Ovarian cancer is associated with an overall 5 year survival of little more than 50%. The mainstay of front-line therapy is cytoreductive surgery followed by chemotherapy. Traditionally, this has been by the intravenous route only but there is more interest in the delivery of intraperitoneal chemotherapy utilizing the pharmaco-therapeutic advantage of the peritoneal barrier. Despite three large, randomized clinical trials comparing intravenous with intraperitoneal chemotherapy showing improved outcomes for those receiving at least part of their chemotherapy by the intraperitoneal route. Cisplatin has been the most active drug for the treatment of ovarian cancer for the last 4 decades and the prognosis for women with ovarian cancer can be defined by the tumor response to cisplatin. Those whose tumors are innately platinum-resistant at the time of initial treatment have a very poor prognosis. Although the majority of patients with ovarian cancer respond to front-line platinum combination chemotherapy the majority will develop disease that becomes resistant to cisplatin and will ultimately succumb to the disease. Improving the efficacy of cisplatin could have a major impact in the fight against this disease. Arsenite is an exciting agent that not only has inherent single-agent tumoricidal activity against ovarian cancer cell lines but also multiple biochemical interactions that may enhance the cytotoxicity of cisplatin including inhibition of deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA repair. In vitro studies suggest that arsenite may enhance the activity of cisplatin in other cell types. Arsenic trioxide is already used clinically to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia demonstrating its safety profile. Further research in ovarian cancer is warranted to define its possible role in this disease.

  17. Synthesis of Peptide-Based Hybrid Nanobelts with Enhanced Color Emission by Heat Treatment or Water Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingcen; Zhu, Pengli; Fei, Jinbo; Zhao, Jie; Yan, Xuehai; Li, Junbai

    2015-06-22

    We demonstrate that an inorganic lanthanide ion (Tb(3+)) or organic dye molecules were encapsulated in situ into diphenylalanine (FF) organogels by a general, simple, and efficient co-assembly process, which generated peptide-based hybrid nanobelts with a range of colored emissions. In the presence of a photosensitizer (salicylic acid), the organogel can serve as an excellent molecular-donor scaffold to investigate FRET to Tb(3+). More importantly, heat treatment or water induction instigated a morphology transition from nanofibers to nanobelts, after which the participation of guest molecules in the FF assembly was promoted and the stability and photoluminescence emission of the composite organogels were enhanced. PMID:25965918

  18. Cognitive Enhancement as a Treatment for Drug Addictions

    OpenAIRE

    Sofuoglu, Mehmet; DeVito, Elise E; Waters, Andrew J; Carroll, Kathleen M.(*)

    2012-01-01

    Drug addiction continues to be an important public health problem, with an estimated 22.6 million current illicit drug users in the United States alone. For many addictions, including cocaine, methamphetamine, and marijuana addiction, there are no approved pharmacological treatments. Behavioral treatments are effective but effects vary widely across individuals. Treatments that are effective across multiple addictions are greatly needed, and accumulating evidence suggests that one such approa...

  19. Zoledronic acid in the treatment of osteoporosis: indications for use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Vladimirovna Toroptsova

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of action of the third-generation bisphosphonate zoledronic acid (Aclasta is described; the data of randomized clinical trials of its efficacy and tolerability are given. It is concluded that zoledronic acid intravenously administered once a year may be the drug of choice for increasing patients' adherence to therapy, particularly in polypharmacy that is common in the elderly and in cognitive disorders. In addition, the drug may be given to postmenopausal women once every 2 years for the prevention of osteoporosis.

  20. Electrochemical treatment of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in groundwater impacted by aqueous film forming foams (AFFFs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Charles E; Andaya, Christina; Urtiaga, Ana; McKenzie, Erica R; Higgins, Christopher P

    2015-09-15

    Laboratory experiments were performed to evaluate the use of electrochemical treatment for the decomposition of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), as well as other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), in aqueous film forming foam (AFFF)-impacted groundwater collected from a former firefighter training area and PFAA-spiked synthetic groundwater. Using a commercially-produced Ti/RuO2 anode in a divided electrochemical cell, PFOA and PFOS decomposition was evaluated as a function of current density (0-20 mA/cm(2)). Decomposition of both PFOA and PFOS increased with increasing current density, although the decomposition of PFOS did not increase as the current density was increased above 2.5 mA/cm(2). At a current density of 10 mA/cm(2), the first-order rate constants, normalized for current density and treatment volume, for electrochemical treatment of both PFOA and PFOS were 46 × 10(-5) and 70 × 10(-5) [(min(-1)) (mA/cm(2))(-1) (L)], respectively. Defluorination was confirmed for both PFOA and PFOS, with 58% and 98% recovery as fluoride, respectively (based upon the mass of PFOA and PFOS degraded). Treatment of other PFAAs present in the groundwater also was observed, with shorter chain PFAAs generally being more recalcitrant. Results highlight the potential for electrochemical treatment of PFAAs, particularly PFOA and PFOS, in AFFF-impacted groundwater. PMID:25909497

  1. Changes in Growth, Auxin- and Ribonucleic Acid Metabolism in Wheat Coleoptile Sections Following Pulse Treatment with Indole-3-Acetic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, T.A.; Galston, A.W.

    1966-01-01

    Growth reactions of wbeat coleoptile sections following a brief pretreament in indole-3-acetic acid (LAA) were studied. The growth versus concentration curves 24 hours after the treatment showed a minimum value surrounded by bigber values. The minimum was never at concentrations lower than 10-5M lAA but it could be found at higher concentrations after short pretreatment periods. The growth versus time curves reveated that the hormone treatment cansed the growth rate initially to increase but later on to decrease. The decrease was followed by a second increase for some treatments. Analysis of IAA content after the pretreatment showed that the attered growth patterns could be ascribed to declining auxin content with time, but not to thc actual concentration in the sections. The results indicate that the metabolic activation brought about by IAA leads to its own disappearance. Such a phenomenon was mirroretl in effects of IAA on hte net synthesis of ribonucleic acid.

  2. Resistant starch improvement of rice starches under a combination of acid and heat-moisture treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Pham Van; Vien, Ngo Lam; Lan Phi, Nguyen Thi

    2016-01-15

    The effects of a combination of acid and heat-moisture treatment on formation of resistant starch (RS) and characteristics of high-amylose, normal and waxy rice starches were investigated in this study. The degrees of polymerization of the rice starches treated with citric acid, lactic acid or acetic acid were significantly reduced as compared to the native starches. The RS contents of acid and heat-moisture treated rice starches were in a range of 30.1-39.0%, significantly higher than those of native rice starches (6.3-10.2%) and those of heat-moisture treated rice starches (18.5-23.9%). The acid and heat-moisture treatments reduced swelling power and viscosity, but increased solubility of the starches, while the crystalline structure did not change. Among the organic acids used, citric acid had the most impact on starch characteristics and RS formation, followed by lactic acid and acetic acid. The results are useful in production of RS for functional food application. PMID:26258703

  3. L-FOLINIC ACID VERSUS FOLIC ACID FOR THE TREATMENT OF HYPERHOMOCYSTEINEMIA IN HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hyperhomocysteinemia found in most hemodialysis patients is refractory to combined oral B-vitamin supplementation featuring supraphysiological doses of folic acid (FA). We evaluated whether a high-dose L-folinic acid- based regimen provided improved total homocysteine (tHcy)-lowering efficacy in...

  4. MODULAR FIELD-BIOREACTOR FOR ACID MINE DRAINAGE TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation focuses on the improvements to engineered features of a passive technology that has been used for remediation of acid rock drainage (ARD). This passive remedial technology, a sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) bioreactor, takes advantage of the ability of SRB that,...

  5. Dynamic peracetic acid (PAA) exposure, a treatment strategy against ectoparasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    The search for alternative therapeutic agents is a difficult and laborious task. The use of peracetic acid (PAA) has recently been evaluated as an alternative compound for disinfection (Gustavino et al., 2005). In addition to having a broad antimicrobial spectrum, PAA does not contribute to the form...

  6. Could peracetic acid be an alternative treatment in aquaculture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is an antimicrobial disinfectant used in agriculture, food processing and medical facilities. It has recently been tested as a means to control infestations of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Saprolegnia parasitica. Free-swimming theronts of I. multifiliis can be eliminated u...

  7. Enhanced Extracorporeal CO2 Removal by Regional Blood Acidification: Effect of Infusion of Three Metabolizable Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaravilli, Vittorio; Kreyer, Stefan; Linden, Katharina; Belenkiy, Slava; Pesenti, Antonio; Zanella, Alberto; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Batchinsky, Andriy I

    2015-01-01

    Acidification of blood entering a membrane lung (ML) with lactic acid enhances CO2 removal (VCO2ML). We compared the effects of infusion of acetic, citric, and lactic acids on VCO2ML. Three sheep were connected to a custom-made circuit, consisting of a Hemolung device (Alung Technologies, Pittsburgh, PA), a hemofilter (NxStage, NxStage Medical, Lawrence, MA), and a peristaltic pump recirculating ultrafiltrate before the ML. Blood flow was set at 250 ml/min, gas flow (GF) at 10 L/min, and recirculating ultrafiltrate flow at 100 ml/min. Acetic (4.4 M), citric (0.4 M), or lactic (4.4 M) acids were infused in the ultrafiltrate at 1.5 mEq/min, for 2 hours each, in randomized fashion. VCO2ML was measured by the Hemolung built-in capnometer. Circuit and arterial blood gas samples were collected at baseline and during acid infusion. Hemodynamics and ventilation were monitored. Acetic, citric, or lactic acids similarly enhanced VCO2ML (+35%), from 37.4 ± 3.6 to 50.6 ± 7.4, 49.8 ± 5.6, and 52.0 ± 8.2 ml/min, respectively. Acids similarly decreased pH, increased pCO2, and reduced HCO3 of the post-acid extracorporeal blood sample. No significant effects on arterial gas values, ventilation, or hemodynamics were observed. In conclusion, it is possible to increase VCO2ML by more than one-third using any one of the three metabolizable acids. PMID:26273934

  8. Enhanced washing durability of hydrophobic coating on cellulose fabric using polycarboxylic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenqi; Xing, Yanjun; Yu, Yunyi; Shang, Songmin; Dai, Jinjin

    2011-02-01

    Nine polycarboxylic acids were used to improve washing durability of hydrophobic cellulose fabric finished by sol-gel method. By simultaneous forming ester-bridge between cellulose and silica layer by ester bond, polycarboxylic acids could anchor silica coating onto cellulose fabric to strengthen the adhesion of organic-inorganic hybrid coating. The wettability of treated fabrics was characterized by water contact angle, spray test and hydrostatic pressure test. The results showed that all investigated polycarboxylic acids could improve the durability. The polycarboxylic acid with proper distance between terminal carboxylic acid groups and number of carboxylic acid groups showed the highest durability. 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) led to the best durability of hydrophobic cellulose fabric with water contact angle of 137.6° (recovery percentage of 94.2%) after 30 washing times. The effect of BTCA on durability was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. This study demonstrated that the surface treatment using polycarboxylic acids and mixed organosilanes is a promising alternative for achieving durable hydrophobic fabrics.

  9. Enhanced washing durability of hydrophobic coating on cellulose fabric using polycarboxylic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Wenqi [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Xing Yanjun, E-mail: yjxing@dhu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Key Laboratory of Science and Technology of Eco-Textile (Donghua University), Ministry of Education, Shanghai 201620 (China); Yu Yunyi [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Shang Songmin [Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Hong Kong); Dai Jinjin [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Nine polycarboxylic acids were used to improve washing durability of hydrophobic cellulose fabric finished by sol-gel method. By simultaneous forming ester-bridge between cellulose and silica layer by ester bond, polycarboxylic acids could anchor silica coating onto cellulose fabric to strengthen the adhesion of organic-inorganic hybrid coating. The wettability of treated fabrics was characterized by water contact angle, spray test and hydrostatic pressure test. The results showed that all investigated polycarboxylic acids could improve the durability. The polycarboxylic acid with proper distance between terminal carboxylic acid groups and number of carboxylic acid groups showed the highest durability. 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) led to the best durability of hydrophobic cellulose fabric with water contact angle of 137.6{sup o} (recovery percentage of 94.2%) after 30 washing times. The effect of BTCA on durability was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. This study demonstrated that the surface treatment using polycarboxylic acids and mixed organosilanes is a promising alternative for achieving durable hydrophobic fabrics.

  10. Enhanced washing durability of hydrophobic coating on cellulose fabric using polycarboxylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nine polycarboxylic acids were used to improve washing durability of hydrophobic cellulose fabric finished by sol-gel method. By simultaneous forming ester-bridge between cellulose and silica layer by ester bond, polycarboxylic acids could anchor silica coating onto cellulose fabric to strengthen the adhesion of organic-inorganic hybrid coating. The wettability of treated fabrics was characterized by water contact angle, spray test and hydrostatic pressure test. The results showed that all investigated polycarboxylic acids could improve the durability. The polycarboxylic acid with proper distance between terminal carboxylic acid groups and number of carboxylic acid groups showed the highest durability. 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) led to the best durability of hydrophobic cellulose fabric with water contact angle of 137.6o (recovery percentage of 94.2%) after 30 washing times. The effect of BTCA on durability was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. This study demonstrated that the surface treatment using polycarboxylic acids and mixed organosilanes is a promising alternative for achieving durable hydrophobic fabrics.

  11. Enhanced-effect of hypertonic saline, acetic acid and their mixture on hepatic radiofrequency ablation: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the effects of hypertonic saline, acetic acid and acetic acid- hypertonic saline (AAHS) solution on the ablated volume produced by hepatic radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in rabbits in vivo, and to determine the optimal synergist for radiofrequency ablation. Methods: Thirty big-ear white rabbits were equally divided into group A (RFA alone), group B (RFA with 36% NaCl injection), group C (RFA with 50% acetic acid injection), group D (RFA with 50% AAHS injection), group E (50% AAHS injection alone), and group F (36% NaC1 injection alone), with five rabbits in each group. Follow-up exam with CT scanning was made. The experimental rabbits were sacrificed by stages. The livers were collected and fixed in 10% formalin. Both the longitudinal and transverse diameter of the necrosis lesion produced by radiofrequency ablation were measured, the results were compared among groups. Results: The difference in the lowest impedance value between group A and other groups was statistically significant (P0.997). The persistent time of group A was significantly shorter than that of both group B and group D (P<0.05), while significant difference in persistent time existed between group C and group B or group D (P<0.05). The coagulation necrosis area in group B, C and D was significantly larger than that in group A (P<0.05). The transverse coagulation necrosis area of group D was the largest (P<0.05). Marked enhancement at the rim of coagulation necrosis lesions was observed on enhanced CT scans one week after the procedure. The coagulation necrosis lesions were obviously contracted three weeks after the treatment. Operation-related complications occurred in six rabbits (50%, 6/12). Peritoneal adhesion and ascites occurred in 4 rabbits receiving acetic acid (50%, 4/6) and in two rabbits not receiving acetic acid (33%, 2/ 6). Conclusions: Combination of RFA with 50% acetic acid-hypertonic saline injection can produce larger hepatic coagulation necrosis volume in experimental rabbits, the synergy of 50% acetic acid-hypertonic saline is superior to single pharmaceutical solution. (authors)

  12. Genetic analysis of pathway regulation for enhancing branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis in plants

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Hao

    2010-08-01

    The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) valine, leucine and isoleucine are essential amino acids that play critical roles in animal growth and development. Animals cannot synthesize these amino acids and must obtain them from their diet. Plants are the ultimate source of these essential nutrients, and they synthesize BCAAs through a conserved pathway that is inhibited by its end products. This feedback inhibition has prevented scientists from engineering plants that accumulate high levels of BCAAs by simply over-expressing the respective biosynthetic genes. To identify components critical for this feedback regulation, we performed a genetic screen for Arabidopsis mutants that exhibit enhanced resistance to BCAAs. Multiple dominant allelic mutations in the VALINE-TOLERANT 1 (VAT1) gene were identified that conferred plant resistance to valine inhibition. Map-based cloning revealed that VAT1 encodes a regulatory subunit of acetohydroxy acid synthase (AHAS), the first committed enzyme in the BCAA biosynthesis pathway. The VAT1 gene is highly expressed in young, rapidly growing tissues. When reconstituted with the catalytic subunit in vitro, the vat1 mutant-containing AHAS holoenzyme exhibits increased resistance to valine. Importantly, transgenic plants expressing the mutated vat1 gene exhibit valine tolerance and accumulate higher levels of BCAAs. Our studies not only uncovered regulatory characteristics of plant AHAS, but also identified a method to enhance BCAA accumulation in crop plants that will significantly enhance the nutritional value of food and feed. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Novel Signal-Enhancing Approaches for Optical Detection of Nucleic Acids—Going beyond Target Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Miotke

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Detection of low-abundance nucleic acids is a challenging task, which over the last two decades has been solved using enzymatic target amplification. Enzymatic synthesis enhances the signal so that diverse, scientifically and clinically relevant molecules can be identified and studied, including cancer DNA, viral nucleic acids, and regulatory RNAs. However, using enzymes increases the detection time and cost, not to mention the high risk of mistakes with amplification and data alignment. These limitations have stimulated a growing interest in enzyme-free methods within researchers and industry. In this review we discuss recent advances in signal-enhancing approaches aimed at nucleic acid diagnostics that do not require target amplification. Regardless of enzyme usage, signal enhancement is crucial for the reliable detection of nucleic acids at low concentrations. We pay special attention to novel nanomaterials, fluorescence microscopy, and technical advances in detectors for optical assessment. We summarize sensitivity parameters of the currently available assays and devices which makes this review relevant to the broad spectrum of researchers working in fields from biophysics, to engineering, to synthetic biology and bioorganic chemistry.

  14. CT Contrast Enhancement Following Renal Cryoablation - Does it Represent Treatment Failure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tommy Kjærgaard; Østraat, Øyvind

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: For minimal invasive treatment of small renal masses, cryoablation has gained popularity. Treatment success is defined as absence of contrast enhancement on postoperative imaging of the cryoablated lesion, but contrast enhancement does not necessary equal treatment failure. This present study investigates the proportion of spontaneous resolutions after initial contrast enhancement in relation to cryoablation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were collected from a prospectively maintained clinical database containing all patients treated with primary laparoscopic and percutaneous cryoablation between August 2005 and December 2013. All images were evaluated with regard to PADUA-score, cryolesion size, contrast enhancement pattern and tissue density. RESULTS: A total of 107 patients with a biopsy verified malignant tumor were included in the study. On postoperative imaging 33 (31%) patients presented with contrast enhancement. Spontaneous resolution was observed in 15 (45%) patients after a mean follow-uptime of 14 months. Patients with cryolesions that resolved spontaneously were found to have less anatomical complex tumor compared to patients with treatment failure (PADUA 7.8 vs. 9.5, p<0.01). A total of 7 patients with a PADUA-score ? 10 and contrast enhancing cryolesions were diagnosed as treatment failure. No association was found between BMI, histology, treatment modality, enhancement pattern, number of applied cryoprobes and resolution. CONCLUSION: Postoperative contrast enhancement is commonly observed after cryoablation and a large portion of these lesions often resolve spontaneously, thus not representing treatment failure. In patients with a high preoperative PADUA score and postoperative contrast enhancement of the cryolesion, treatment failure or recurrent disease should be suspected.

  15. Enhanced Synthesis of Alkyl Amino Acids in Miller's 1958 H2S Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Eric T.; Cleaves, H. James; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, James P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Lazcano, Antonio; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    Stanley Miller's 1958 H2S-containing experiment, which included a simulated prebiotic atmosphere of methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) produced several alkyl amino acids, including the alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers of aminobutyric acid (ABA) in greater relative yields than had previously been reported from his spark discharge experiments. In the presence of H2S, aspariic and glutamic acids could yield alkyl amino acids via the formation of thioimide intermediates. Radical chemistry initiated by passing H2S through a spark discharge could have also enhanced alkyl amino acid synthesis by generating alkyl radicals that can help form the aldehyde and ketone precursors to these amino acids. We propose mechanisms that may have influenced the synthesis of certain amino acids in localized environments rich in H2S and lightning discharges, similar to conditions near volcanic systems on the early Earth, thus contributing to the prebiotic chemical inventory of the primordial Earth.

  16. Enhanced L-(+)-lactic acid production by an adapted strain of Rhizopus oryzae using corncob hydrolysate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bai, Dongmei; Li, S.Z.

    2008-01-01

    Corncob is an economic feedstock and more than 20 million tons of corncobs are produced annually in China. Abundant xylose can be potentially converted from the large amount of hemicellulosic materials in corncobs, which makes the crop residue an attractive alternative substrate for a value-added production of a variety of bioproducts. Lactic acid can be used as a precursor for poly-lactic acid production. Although current industrial lactic acid is produced by lactic acid bacteria using enriched medium, production by Rhizopus oryzae is preferred due to its exclusive formation of the-isomer and a simple nutrition requirement by the fungus. Production of-L-(+)-lactic acid by R. oryzae using xylose has been reported; however, its yield and conversion rate are poor compared with that of using glucose. In this study, we report an adapted R. oryzae strain HZS6 that significantly improved efficiency of substrate utilization and enhanced production of L-(+)-lactic acid from corncob hydrolysate. It increased L-(+)-lactic acid final concentration, yield, and volumetric productivity more than twofold compared with its parental strain. The optimized growth and fermentation conditions for Strain HZS6 were defined.

  17. Clinical effects of enhanced external counterpulsation treatment in patients with ischemic heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ender Emre

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP is a noninvasive treatment that is proven safe and effective in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD and heart failure (HF. The aims of this study are to investigate the clinical effects of EECP therapy in patients with symptomatic CAD and chronic HF, and to find out an answer to the question: Does EECP therapy have any effect on the prognostic markers of HF? Methods: This study was designed as a prospective cohort study. A total of 68 consecutive patients with symptomatic CAD and chronic HF referred to EECP therapy were enrolled in this study between November 2007 and December 2010; 47 patients (39 males and 8 females, 65±7, years, have undergone EECP treatment, and 21 patients (20 males and 1 female, 62±10 years, who did not want to participate in the EECP program comprised the control group. Statistical analysis was performed using t tests for dependent and independent samples, Mann-Whitney U test, Chi-square and Fischer exact tests. Results: EECP therapy resulted in significant improvement in post-intervention New York Heart Association functional class (p<0.001, left ventricular ejection fraction (p<0.001, B-type natriuretic peptide levels (p<0.003, uric acid levels (p<0.05, free-T3/free-T4 ratio (p<0.034 and mitral annular E (p<0.05 velocity, compared with baseline, a finding not evident in the control group. Conclusion: EECP treatment significantly improved clinical and some biochemical parameters, which are mostly prognostic markers in patients with symptomatic CAD and chronic HF.

  18. Enhancing fluorescence intensity of Ellagic acid in Borax-HCl-CTAB micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Guokui; Li, Kexiang; Tang, Bo

    2011-03-01

    Ellagic acid (C 14H 6O 8), a naturally occurring phytochemical, found mainly in berries and some nuts, has anticarcinogenic and antioxidant properties. It is found that fluorescence of Ellagic acid (EA) is greatly enhanced by micelle of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant. Based on this effect, a sensitive proposed fluorimetric method was applied for the determination of Ellagic acid in aqueous solution. In the Borax-HCl buffer, the fluorescence intensity of Ellagic acid in the presence of CTAB is proportional to the concentration of Ellagic acid in range from 8.0 × 10 -10 to 4.0 × 10 -5 mol L -1; and the detection limits are 3.2 × 10 -10 mol L -1 and 5.9 × 10 -10 mol L -1 excited at 266 nm and 388 nm, respectively. The actual samples of pomegranate rinds are simply manipulated and satisfactorily determined. The interaction mechanism studies argue that the negative EA-Borax complex is formed and solubilized in the cationic surfactant CTAB micelle in this system. The fluorescence intensity of EA enhances because the CTAB micelle provides a hydrophobic microenvironment for EA-Borax complex, which can prevent collision with water molecules and decrease the energy loss of EA-Borax complex.

  19. Surfactant enhanced disinfection of the human norovirus surrogate, tulane virus with organic acids and surfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human infection with foodborne viruses can occur following consumption of contaminated food, person-to-person body contact, or release of aerosols. Combinatorial treatments of surfactants and organic acids may have synergistic or additive mechanisms to inactivate foodborne viruses and prevent outbr...

  20. Diphosphonic acid complexing agents: Basic solution chemistry and potential uses in actinide waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a class of metal ion chelating agents, gem-diphosphonic acids are unusual in their ability to form remarkably strong complexes with polyvalent metal ions in acidic solutions. Ligands with this characteristic have the potential to aid in strategies for the dramatic reduction of the volume of radioactive wastes which must be disposed of in a deep geological repository. The relationship between complex stability, ligand acidity and structure, the nature of the phosphonic acid group, and the thermodynamics, stoichiometry and hydration of metal complexes are discussed. Some examples of their potential applications in radioactive waste treatment are presented

  1. Biomineralization of arsenate to arsenic sulfides is greatly enhanced at mildly acidic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Freire, Lucia; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Root, Robert; Chorover, Jon; Field, James A

    2014-12-01

    Arsenic (As) is an important water contaminant due to its high toxicity and widespread occurrence. Arsenic-sulfide minerals (ASM) are formed during microbial reduction of arsenate (As(V)) and sulfate (SO4(2-)). The objective of this research is to study the effect of the pH on the removal of As due to the formation of ASM in an iron-poor system. A series of batch experiments was used to study the reduction of SO4(2-) and As(V) by an anaerobic biofilm mixed culture in a range of pH conditions (6.1-7.2), using ethanol as the electron donor. Total soluble concentrations and speciation of S and As were monitored. Solid phase speciation of arsenic was characterized by x-ray adsorption spectroscopy (XAS). A marked decrease of the total aqueous concentrations of As and S was observed in the inoculated treatments amended with ethanol, but not in the non-inoculated controls, indicating that the As-removal was biologically mediated. The pH dramatically affected the extent and rate of As removal, as well as the stoichiometric composition of the precipitate. The amount of As removed was 2-fold higher and the rate of the As removal was up to 17-fold greater at pH 6.1 than at pH 7.2. Stoichiometric analysis and XAS results confirmed the precipitate was composed of a mixture of orpiment and realgar, and the proportion of orpiment in the sample increased with increasing pH. The results taken as a whole suggest that ASM formation is greatly enhanced at mildly acidic pH conditions. PMID:25222328

  2. Production of ?-Amino Butyric Acid in Tea Leaves wit Treatment of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuko; Hayakawa, Kiyoshi; Ueno, Hiroshi

    Lactic acid bacteria was searched for producing termented tea that contained a lot of ?-amino butyric acid(GABA). Also examined were the growth condition, GABA production and changes in catechin contents in the tea leaves. Lactobacillus brevis L12 was found to be suitable for the production of fermented tea since it gave as much GABA as gabaron tea when tea leaves being suspended with water at 10% and incubated for 4 days at 25°C. The amount of GABA produced was more than calculated based upon the content of glutamic acid in tea leaves. It is probable to assume that glutamate derived from glutamine and theanine is converted into GABA.

  3. In vitro evaluation of copaiba oil as a kojic acid skin enhancer

    OpenAIRE

    Robson Vicente Machado de Oliveira; Mitsuko Taba Ohara; Marta Maria Duarte Carvalho Vila; Marcos Moisés Gonçalves

    2010-01-01

    The capacity of copaíba oil to act as a skin penetration enhancer for the depigmenting agent kojic acid was evaluated using an in vitro diffusion system with static flux and shed rattlesnake skin membrane, Crotalus durissus terrificus, in saline solution at 34±2 ºC as the fluid receptor. The quantities of kojic acid liberated into the fluid receptor were determined by spectrophotometry at 268 nm with intervals of one and a half hours. The membranes, pretreated with copaíba oil at 25% and 50% ...

  4. Plasma Treatment to Enhance Fuel Cell Water Management Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to further define the potential for plasma treatment technology, developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to modify and...

  5. Acid Treatment effects on the stable isotopic signature of fossils

    OpenAIRE

    NICHOLAS, CHRISTOPHER JOHN

    2012-01-01

    Prior to geochemical analyses, fossil bones and teeth are often extracted from any surrounding lithified sediments using chemical techniques such as immersion in acid. As stable isotope analysis becomes more commonplace in palaeoecological investigations, it is important to consider what effects these chemical preparation techniques may have on any subsequent isotopic data and to constrain these effects as quantitatively as possible. This study aims to elucidate these effects, as it is vital ...

  6. Ascorbic acid: Chemistry, biology and the treatment of cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Juan; Cullen, Joseph J; BUETTNER, GARRY R.

    2012-01-01

    Since the discovery of vitamin C, the number of its known biological functions is continually expanding. Both the names ascorbic acid and vitamin C reflect its antiscorbutic properties due to its role in the synthesis of collagen in connective tissues. Ascorbate acts as an electron-donor keeping iron in the ferrous state thereby maintaining the full activity of collagen hydroxylases; parallel reactions with a variety of dioxygenases affect the expression of a wide array of genes, for example ...

  7. Improving Outcome of Psychosocial Treatments by Enhancing Memory and Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, Allison G.; LEE, JASON; Williams, Joseph; Hollon, Steven D.; Walker, Matthew P; Thompson, Monique A.; Smith, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Mental disorders are prevalent and lead to significant impairment. Progress toward establishing treatments has been good. However, effect sizes are small to moderate, gains may not persist, and many patients derive no benefit. Our goal is to highlight the potential for empirically-supported psychosocial treatments to be improved by incorporating insights from cognitive psychology and research on education. Our central question is: If it were possible to improve memory for content of sessions ...

  8. Culturing oil sands microbes as mixed species communities enhances ex situ model naphthenic acid degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeter, Marc A; Lemire, Joseph A; Yue, Gordon; Ceri, Howard; Turner, Raymond J

    2015-01-01

    Oil sands surface mining for bitumen results in the formation of oil sands process water (OSPW), containing acutely toxic naphthenic acids (NAs). Potential exists for OSPW toxicity to be mitigated by aerobic degradation of the NAs by microorganisms indigenous to the oil sands tailings ponds, the success of which is dependent on the methods used to exploit the metabolisms of the environmental microbial community. Having hypothesized that the xenobiotic tolerant biofilm mode-of-life may represent a feasible way to harness environmental microbes for ex situ treatment of OSPW NAs, we aerobically grew OSPW microbes as single and mixed species biofilm and planktonic cultures under various conditions for the purpose of assaying their ability to tolerate and degrade NAs. The NAs evaluated were a diverse mixture of eight commercially available model compounds. Confocal microscopy confirmed the ability of mixed and single species OSPW cultures to grow as biofilms in the presence of the NAs evaluated. qPCR enumeration demonstrated that the addition of supplemental nutrients at concentrations of 1 g L(-1) resulted in a more numerous population than 0.001 g L(-1) supplementation by approximately 1 order of magnitude. GC-FID analysis revealed that mixed species cultures (regardless of the mode of growth) are the most effective at degrading the NAs tested. All constituent NAs evaluated were degraded below detectable limits with the exception of 1-adamantane carboxylic acid (ACA); subsequent experimentation with ACA as the sole NA also failed to exhibit degradation of this compound. Single species cultures degraded select few NA compounds. The degradation trends highlighted many structure-persistence relationships among the eight NAs tested, demonstrating the effect of side chain configuration and alkyl branching on compound recalcitrance. Of all the isolates, the Rhodococcus spp. degraded the greatest number of NA compounds, although still less than the mixed species cultures. Overall, these observations lend support to the notion that harnessing a community of microorganisms as opposed to targeted isolates can enhance NA degradation ex situ. Moreover, the variable success caused by NA structure related persistence emphasized the difficulties associated with employing bioremediation to treat complex, undefined mixtures of toxicants such as OSPW NAs. PMID:26388865

  9. Culturing oil sands microbes as mixed species communities enhances ex situ model naphthenic acid degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeter, Marc A.; Lemire, Joseph A.; Yue, Gordon; Ceri, Howard; Turner, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    Oil sands surface mining for bitumen results in the formation of oil sands process water (OSPW), containing acutely toxic naphthenic acids (NAs). Potential exists for OSPW toxicity to be mitigated by aerobic degradation of the NAs by microorganisms indigenous to the oil sands tailings ponds, the success of which is dependent on the methods used to exploit the metabolisms of the environmental microbial community. Having hypothesized that the xenobiotic tolerant biofilm mode-of-life may represent a feasible way to harness environmental microbes for ex situ treatment of OSPW NAs, we aerobically grew OSPW microbes as single and mixed species biofilm and planktonic cultures under various conditions for the purpose of assaying their ability to tolerate and degrade NAs. The NAs evaluated were a diverse mixture of eight commercially available model compounds. Confocal microscopy confirmed the ability of mixed and single species OSPW cultures to grow as biofilms in the presence of the NAs evaluated. qPCR enumeration demonstrated that the addition of supplemental nutrients at concentrations of 1 g L-1 resulted in a more numerous population than 0.001 g L-1 supplementation by approximately 1 order of magnitude. GC-FID analysis revealed that mixed species cultures (regardless of the mode of growth) are the most effective at degrading the NAs tested. All constituent NAs evaluated were degraded below detectable limits with the exception of 1-adamantane carboxylic acid (ACA); subsequent experimentation with ACA as the sole NA also failed to exhibit degradation of this compound. Single species cultures degraded select few NA compounds. The degradation trends highlighted many structure-persistence relationships among the eight NAs tested, demonstrating the effect of side chain configuration and alkyl branching on compound recalcitrance. Of all the isolates, the Rhodococcus spp. degraded the greatest number of NA compounds, although still less than the mixed species cultures. Overall, these observations lend support to the notion that harnessing a community of microorganisms as opposed to targeted isolates can enhance NA degradation ex situ. Moreover, the variable success caused by NA structure related persistence emphasized the difficulties associated with employing bioremediation to treat complex, undefined mixtures of toxicants such as OSPW NAs. PMID:26388865

  10. Determination of filtration beds in carbonate section from repeated pulse neutron logging data in acid treatment (on example of Orenburg field)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In hydrodynamic tests of carbonate deposits the strata are in most cases treated with hydrochloric acid to intensify the oil and gas inflow. Pulsed neutron logging can be employed to reveal the intervals of hydrochloric acid inflows into the section, since hydrochloric acid possesses abnormal neutron properties. The intervals relate to effective thicknesses as two-phase filtration (the displacement of oil (gas) by the acid) occurs within them. On assumptions a method has been developed for localizing filtration thicknesses from the results obtained through observations of the inflows of HCl into the strata by well logging before and after the acid treatments. It will enhance the data validity on carbonate deposits and reduce the volume of intrainterval samplings by using them only for checking the quantitative estimations on the efficiency of the strata (uniform in filtration-capacity properties)

  11. Effect of salicylic acid treatment on cadmium toxicity and leaf lipid composition in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradkhani S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The ameliorative effect of salicylic acid (SA on cadmium (Cd toxicity in sunflower plants was studied by investigating plant growth and fatty acid composition. Sunflower plants in two leaves stage were exposed to CdCl2 treatment (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 µM and then were treated with salicylic acid (0, 250 and 500 µM as foliage spraying. One week after the last salicylic acid treatment,plants were harvested and growth parameters were measured . Oil of leaf was extracted in a Soxhlet system and fatty acid composition were measured by gas chromatography (GC. Statistical analyses showed excess Cd reduced growth parameters (fresh weight and length of stems and roots, fresh weight and number of leavesand SA increased them compared with the control. Maximum reduction in these parameters was at 200 µmol Cd and 0µmol of SA. Cd caused a shift in fatty acids composition, resulting in a lower degree of their unsaturation and an increase in saturated fatty acids in sunflower leaves,whereas SA improved them. SA, particularly increased the percentage of linolenic acid and lowered that of palmitic acid by the same proportion. These results sugg membrane integrity due to lipids est that SA could be used as a potential growth regulator and a stabilizer ofprotection of cadmium-induced oxidative stress to improve plant resistance to Cd stress

  12. Effects of Enhanced Depression Treatment on Diabetes Self-Care

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Elizabeth H. B.; KATON, WAYNE; Rutter, Carolyn; Simon, Greg E; Evette J. Ludman; VON KORFF, Michael; Young, Bessie; Oliver, Malia; Ciechanowski, Paul C.; Kinder, Leslie; Walker, Edward

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE Among patients with diabetes, major depression is associated with more diabetic complications, lower medication adherence, and poorer self-care of diabetes. We reported earlier that enhanced depression care reduces depression symptoms but not hemoglobin A1c level. This study examined effects of depression interventions on self-management among depressed diabetic patients.

  13. Comparison of trichostatin A and valproic acid treatment regimens in a mouse model of kidney fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Beneden, Katrien, E-mail: kvbenede@vub.ac.be [Department of Human Anatomy, Liver Cell Biology Lab, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Geers, Caroline [Department of Pathology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Pauwels, Marina [Department of Human Anatomy, Liver Cell Biology Lab, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Mannaerts, Inge [Department of Cell Biology, Liver Cell Biology Lab, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Wissing, Karl M. [Department of Nephrology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Van den Branden, Christiane [Department of Human Anatomy, Liver Cell Biology Lab, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Grunsven, Leo A. van, E-mail: lvgrunsv@vub.ac.be [Department of Cell Biology, Liver Cell Biology Lab, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-09-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are promising new compounds for the therapy of fibrotic diseases. In this study we compared the effect of two HDAC inhibitors, trichostatin A and valproic acid, in an experimental model of kidney fibrosis. In mice, doxorubicin (adriamycin) can cause nephropathy characterized by chronic proteinuria, glomerular damage and interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, as seen in human focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Two treatment regimens were applied, treatment was either started prior to the doxorubicin insult or delayed until a significant degree of proteinuria and fibrosis was present. Pre-treatment of trichostatin A significantly hampered glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, as did the pre-treatment with valproic acid. In contrast, the development of proteinuria was only completely inhibited in the pre-treated valproic acid group, and not in the pre-treated trichostatin A animals. In the postponed treatment with valproic acid, a complete resolution of established doxorubicin-induced proteinuria was achieved within three days, whereas trichostatin A could not correct proteinuria in such a treatment regimen. However, both postponed regimens have comparable efficacy in maintaining the kidney fibrosis to the level reached at the start of the treatments. Moreover, not only the process of fibrosis, but also renal inflammation was attenuated by both HDAC inhibitors. Our data confirm a role for HDACs in renal fibrogenesis and point towards a therapeutic potential for HDAC inhibitors. The effect on renal disease progression and manifestation can however be different for individual HDAC inhibitors. - Highlights: • Valproic acid is a potent antiproteinuric drug, whereas trichostatin A is not. • Trichostatin A and valproic acid reduce kidney fibrosis in doxorubicin nephropathy. • Both valproic acid and trichostatin A attenuate renal inflammation.

  14. Comparison of trichostatin A and valproic acid treatment regimens in a mouse model of kidney fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are promising new compounds for the therapy of fibrotic diseases. In this study we compared the effect of two HDAC inhibitors, trichostatin A and valproic acid, in an experimental model of kidney fibrosis. In mice, doxorubicin (adriamycin) can cause nephropathy characterized by chronic proteinuria, glomerular damage and interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, as seen in human focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Two treatment regimens were applied, treatment was either started prior to the doxorubicin insult or delayed until a significant degree of proteinuria and fibrosis was present. Pre-treatment of trichostatin A significantly hampered glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, as did the pre-treatment with valproic acid. In contrast, the development of proteinuria was only completely inhibited in the pre-treated valproic acid group, and not in the pre-treated trichostatin A animals. In the postponed treatment with valproic acid, a complete resolution of established doxorubicin-induced proteinuria was achieved within three days, whereas trichostatin A could not correct proteinuria in such a treatment regimen. However, both postponed regimens have comparable efficacy in maintaining the kidney fibrosis to the level reached at the start of the treatments. Moreover, not only the process of fibrosis, but also renal inflammation was attenuated by both HDAC inhibitors. Our data confirm a role for HDACs in renal fibrogenesis and point towards a therapeutic potential for HDAC inhibitors. The effect on renal disease progression and manifestation can however be different for individual HDAC inhibitors. - Highlights: • Valproic acid is a potent antiproteinuric drug, whereas trichostatin A is not. • Trichostatin A and valproic acid reduce kidney fibrosis in doxorubicin nephropathy. • Both valproic acid and trichostatin A attenuate renal inflammation

  15. Kinetics of salivary pH after acidic beverage intake by patients undergoing orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turssi, Cecilia P; Silva, Carolina S; Bridi, Enrico C; Amaral, Flavia Lb; Franca, Fabiana Mg; Basting, Roberta T

    2015-01-01

    The saliva of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances can potentially present a delay in the diluting, clearing, and buffering of dietary acids due to an increased number of retention areas. The aim of this clinical trial was to compare salivary pH kinetics of patients with and without orthodontic treatment, following the intake of an acidic beverage. Twenty participants undergoing orthodontic treatment and 20 control counterparts had their saliva assessed for flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity. There was no significant difference between salivary parameters in participants with or without an orthodontic appliance. Salivary pH recovery following acidic beverage intake was slower in the orthodontic subjects compared to controls. Patients with fixed orthodontic appliances, therefore, seem to be at higher risk of dental erosion, suggesting that dietary advice and preventive care need to be implemented during orthodontic treatment. PMID:25945760

  16. Primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumor: gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Soo-heui; Yoon, Jung-Hee; Kim, Kwan-woo

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of a 71-year-old man with prostate cancer who had no prior underlying liver disease. During metastatic evaluation, a solid mass in the liver was identified by computed tomography and ultrasound. Gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a well-defined, peripheral enhancing hepatic mass containing small cystic component. This lesion was diagnosed as hepatic neuroendocrine tumor. Primary neuroendocrine tumors of the liver are extremely rare. This case is interesting because of the rarity of this neoplasm and the unique radiologic findings despite its small size. Reviews of previously reported cases in the literature are also presented. PMID:23986857

  17. Synergistic Effect of Elicitors in Enhancement of Ganoderic Acid Production: Optimization and Gene Expression Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motaharehsadat Heydarian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractGanoderma lucidum is one of the most well-known fungi, and has many applications in medicine. Ganoderic acid is among the valuable secondary metabolites of Ganoderma lucidum, and responsible for the inhibition of the tumor cell growth and cancer treatment. Application of ganoderic acid has been limited because of low yields of its production from Ganoderma lucidum. The present study aims to investigate the synergistic effect of elicitors including methyl jasmonate and aspirin on the production of ganoderic acid derived from Ganoderma lucidum mushroom in a shaken flasks using response surface methodology. The results showed that the optimal dose of methyl jasmonate and asprin significantly impacts on the amount of ganoderic acid production as a response (p<0.05. The proposed model predicted the maximum ganoderic acid production as 0.085 mg/ml in which the optimal concentrations obtained for methyl jasmonate and asprin were 250mM and 4.4mM, respectively. Also the influence of ganoderic acid production on the expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase and squalene synthase (two important metabolic pathway genes in ganoderic acid was investigated, and the results showed that these genes’ expression has increased by 10 and 11 folds, respectively.  

  18. Enhancing photoresist performance with an adhesion promoting photo-acid generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shalini; Meagley, Robert P.

    2007-03-01

    Concentration gradients of photoacid generator through the thickness of the photoresist film can profoundly affect the material's performance. To engineer the acid concentration through resist thickness, we have developed a new type of resist adhesion promoting layer that incorporates photo acid generator chemistry. These adhesion promoting photo acid generators, called as a class "APPAG" enhance acid concentration at interface between the resist and the substrate. We will provide an overview on the preparation and characterization of two siloxane based APPAG materials along with a performance comparison of commercial DUV, EUV and E-beam photoresists on APPAG. Nonaflate analog (APPAG 6) with shorter acid diffusion length was found to have a mild impact on 250nm node DUV lithography. However the triflate analog (APPAG 9), owing to the larger acid diffusion length, was shown to provide a greater influence. APPAG 9 was found to give nearly a 50% improvement in depth of focus. For EUV lithography, both APPAG 6 and APPAG 9 will be shown to substantially improve performance envelope for 100nm dense lines and spaces and at reduced post exposure bake (PEB) temperatures. This indicates that this approach can be used to gain margin at reduced PEB which is desirable to minimize thermally driven diffusion effects. Thus the materials represent an important new approach to extending photoresist performance margins.

  19. RGD functionalized polymeric nanoparticles targeting periodontitis epithelial cells for the enhanced treatment of periodontitis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wenxin; Xu, Peicheng; Zhao, Jingjing; Ling, Li; Li, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Bo; Cheng, Nengneng; Pang, Zhiqing

    2015-11-15

    Long term retention of antimicrobials with effective drug concentration in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) is of vital importance for the treatment of chronic periodontitis. In this study, a novel epithelial cell-targeting nanoparticle drug delivery system by conjugating minocycline-loaded poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid) (PEG-PLA) nanoparticles (NP-MIN) with RGD peptide were developed and administrated locally for targeting periodontitis epithelial cells and enhancing the treatment of periodontitis in dogs. Biodegradable NP-MIN was made with an emulsion/solvent evaporation technique. RGD peptide was conjugated to the surface of nanoparticles via Maleimide group reaction with hydrosulfide in RGD peptide (RGD-NP-MIN). Transmission electron microscopy examination and dynamic light scattering results revealed that RGD-NP-MIN had a sphere shape, with a mean diameter around 106nm. In vitro release of minocycline from RGD-NP-MIN showed that RGD modification did not change the remarkable sustained releasing characteristic of NP-MIN. To elucidate the interaction of RGD-NP and epithelial cells, RGD-NP binding, uptake and cellular internalization mechanisms by calu-3 cells were investigated. It was shown RGD modification significantly enhanced nanoparticles binding and uptake by Calu-3 cells, and RGD-NP uptake was an energy-dependent process through receptor-mediated endocytosis. Both clathrin-associated endocytosis and caveolae-dependent endocytosis pathway were involved in the RGD-NP uptake, and the intracellular transport of RGD-NP was related to lysosome and Golgi apparatus. Finally, in vivo pharmacokinetics of minocycline in the periodontal pockets and anti-periodontitis effects of RGD-NP-MIN on periodontitis-bearing dogs were evaluated. After local administration of RGD-NP-MIN, minocycline concentration in gingival crevicular fluid decreased slowly and maintained an effective drug concentration for a longer time than that of NP-MIN. Anti-periodontitis effects demonstrated that RGD-NP-MIN could significantly decrease symptoms of periodontitis, which was better than any other control group. These findings suggested that these epithelial cell-targeting nanoparticles offered a novel and effective local delivery system for the treatment of periodontitis. PMID:26197107

  20. Fatty acids in treatment and prevention of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilczy?ska, Agnieszka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The increase of incident rates for depression and other psychiatric disorders is a serious threat for all communities.The study presents data verifying the relationship between the level of omega-3 PUFAs in the blood and an increased risk of depression, including the parallel standard therapy with antidepressants or not.There is an increasing number of evidences that fatty acids like DHA, AA and EPA are linked to depression. In epidemiological studies and clinical trials a correlation between the decline of omega-3 PUFA intake and an increasing risk for developing depression is considered.

  1. EVALUATION OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE ACID HYDROLYZATE TREATMENTS FOR XYLITOL PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    P.V. GURGEL; FURLAN S.A.; MARTINEZ S.E.R.; I.M. De Mancilha

    1998-01-01

    Acid sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzate was submitted to pH shifts in order to remove toxic compounds from the medium. The hydrolyzate was treated with bases containing mono-, di- or tri-valent cations and H2SO4, and its performance as a fermentation medium was evaluated by the production of xylitol by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037. The use of bases containing mono-valent cations was not an efficient method of detoxification, and the use of a tri-valent cation did not show any detectable improv...

  2. The Dynamics of the Treatment-enhancement Distinction: ADHD as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maartje Schermer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A central issue in the ethical debate on psychopharmacological enhancers concerns the distinction between therapy and enhancement. Although from a theoretical point of view it is difficult to make a clear-cut distinction between treatment (of disease on the one hand, and enhancement (of normal functioning on the other, in medical practice and policy debates the counter-positioning of therapy to enhancement is clearly at work. Especially pharmaceutical companies have an interest in occupying the "grey" area between normal and abnormal, treatment and enhancement. This article discusses the dynamics of the treatment-enhancement distinction, and argues that practices that could be labelled "enhancement" can also be understood in terms of medicalisation and "disease mongering". The argument is supported by results from a qualitative empirical study into the experiences and opinions of adults diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. Patients are ambivalent about how to understand ADHD: as a disease, a disorder or a normal variation. Intervention with psychopharmacological means can also be understood in different ways. From an insider perspective it is conceived of as a "normalising" of functioning, whereas from an outsider perspective it can be understood as medicalisation of underperformance, or indeed as performance enhancement. This draws attention to new moral issues which are important but under-recognised in the enhancement debate, and which are related to medicalisation.

  3. Systematic Procedure for Integrated Process Operation: Reverse Electro-Enhanced Dialysis (REED) during Lactic Acid Fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado Rubio, Oscar Andres; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2011-01-01

    The integration of lactic acid fermentation and Reverse Electro-Enhanced Dialysis (REED) is investigated based upon previously developed mathematical models. A goal driven process and operation design procedure is proposed and partially investigated. The conceptual analysis of the processes integration shows the need for an additional pH controller in the fermenten A PI controller is implemented and tested. The complete control structure for the integrated system consists of this PI controller i...

  4. Fatty-Acid Binding Proteins Modulate Sleep and Enhance Long-Term Memory Consolidation in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Gerstner, Jason R.; Vanderheyden, William M; Shaw, Paul J.; LANDRY, CHARLES F.; Yin, Jerry C.P.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep is thought to be important for memory consolidation, since sleep deprivation has been shown to interfere with memory processing. However, the effects of augmenting sleep on memory formation are not well known, and testing the role of sleep in memory enhancement has been limited to pharmacological and behavioral approaches. Here we test the effect of overexpressing the brain-type fatty acid binding protein (Fabp7) on sleep and long-term memory (LTM) formation in Drosophila melanogaster. ...

  5. 5-Aminolevulinic acid enhances cancer radiotherapy in a mouse tumor model

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Junko; Misawa, Masaki; Murakami, Mami; Mori, Takashi; Nomura, Kazuki; Iwahashi, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is a photosensitizer used in photodynamic therapy (PDT) because it causes preferential accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in tumor cells, where it forms singlet oxygen upon light irradiation and kills the tumor cells. Our previous study demonstrated that PpIX enhances generation of reactive oxygen species by physicochemical interaction with X-rays. We investigated the effect of ALA administration with X-ray irradiation of mouse B16-BL6 melanoma cells in vitro...

  6. Lactic Acid Recovery in Electro-Enhanced Dialysis: Modelling and Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado Rubio, Oscar Andres; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2009-01-01

    A dynamic model is derived for simultaneous transport of multiple ions through anion exchange membranes based on an irreversible thermodynamics approach. This model accounts for the convective transport of the dissociated and undissociated species in the module channels, and the diffusion and migration across the boundary layers and membranes. The model is validated for Donnan dialysis recovery of different monoprotic carboxylic acids. Simulations are used to evaluate the potential enhancement o...

  7. Reduction of Endogenous Kynurenic Acid Formation Enhances Extracellular Glutamate, Hippocampal Plasticity, and Cognitive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Potter, Michelle C; Elmer, Greg I.; Bergeron, Richard; Albuquerque, Edson X.; Guidetti, Paolo; Wu, Hui-Qiu; Schwarcz, Robert

    2010-01-01

    At endogenous brain concentrations, the astrocyte-derived metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA) antagonizes the ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and, possibly, the glycine co-agonist site of the NMDA receptor. The functions of these two receptors, which are intimately involved in synaptic plasticity and cognitive processes, may, therefore, be enhanced by reductions in brain KYNA levels. This concept was tested in mice with a targeted deletion of kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II), a major ...

  8. Intraluminal duodenal diverticulum: CT and gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Myeong; Lee, Nam Kyung; Kim, Suk; Kim, Dong Uk; Kim, Tae Un [Dept. of Radiology, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    Intraluminal duodenal diverticulum (IDD) is a rare congenital anomaly. IDD can become symptomatic in 20% to 25% of cases when complicated by intestinal obstruction, pancreatitis, or hemorrhage. We report the case of a 21-year-old female presenting with IDD mimicking duodenoduodenal intussusception. We describe the imaging features of IDD on the gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance image as well as computed tomography.

  9. Enhanced Disease Susceptibility 1 and Salicylic Acid Act Redundantly to Regulate Resistance Gene-Mediated Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Venugopal, Srivathsa C; Jeong, Rae-Dong; Mandal, Mihir K.; Zhu, Shifeng; Chandra-Shekara, A. C.; Xia, Ye; Hersh, Matthew; Arnold J. Stromberg; Navarre, Duroy; Kachroo, Aardra; Kachroo, Pradeep

    2009-01-01

    Resistance (R) protein–associated pathways are well known to participate in defense against a variety of microbial pathogens. Salicylic acid (SA) and its associated proteinaceous signaling components, including enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1), non–race-specific disease resistance 1 (NDR1), phytoalexin deficient 4 (PAD4), senescence associated gene 101 (SAG101), and EDS5, have been identified as components of resistance derived from many R proteins. Here, we show that EDS1 and SA fulf...

  10. Intraluminal duodenal diverticulum: CT and gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intraluminal duodenal diverticulum (IDD) is a rare congenital anomaly. IDD can become symptomatic in 20% to 25% of cases when complicated by intestinal obstruction, pancreatitis, or hemorrhage. We report the case of a 21-year-old female presenting with IDD mimicking duodenoduodenal intussusception. We describe the imaging features of IDD on the gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance image as well as computed tomography.

  11. NIR sensitivity enhancement by laser treatment for Si detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The light absorption coefficient of silicon is high in the short wavelengths, but much lower in the long wavelengths (longer than 900 nm). Thus it is necessary to use thicker silicon wafers to manufacture high-sensitivity light sensors for long wavelength applications. However, this imposes constraints on applied voltage, dark current, response speed, and cost. This then leads to limitations on device characteristics and possible applications. As an alternative to using thicker silicon wafers to enhance the NIR sensitivity of silicon photodiodes, we used an ultra-short pulse laser to form 'black silicon' structures on the surface of silicon photodiodes. At 1064 nm, QE was improved from 25% to 72%. Future research will determine how this technology can also be applied to enhancing the NIR sensitivity of image sensors such as CCDs.

  12. Sialic acid changes in Dalton's lymphoma-bearing mice after cyclophosphamide and cisplatin treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicol B.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Sialic acid changes in Dalton's lymphoma cells and other tissues of 10-12-week-old Swiss albino mice were investigated in relation to tumour growth in vivo and following cyclophosphamide (ip, 200 mg/kg body weight or cisplatin (ip, 8 mg/kg body weight treatment. Three to four animals of both sexes were used in each experimental group. The sialic acid level of tumour cells (0.88 µmol/g increased with tumour progression (1.44-1.59 µmol/g; P<=0.05 in mice. Sialic acid concentration in other tissues (liver, kidney, testes and brain also increased (~40, 10, 30 and 58%, respectively in the tumour-bearing hosts as compared with that in the respective tissues of normal mice. In vivo cyclophosphamide or cisplatin treatment resulted in an overall decrease of sialic acid contents in the tissues. Cyclophosphamide was more efficient in lowering tissue sialic acid than cisplatin (P<=0.01, ANOVA. It is suggested that sialic acid residues could be an important factor contributing to the manifestation of malignant properties in cancer cells in general and Dalton's lymphoma cells in particular. A significant decrease in the sialic acid content of Dalton's lymphoma cells after cisplatin or cyclophosphamide treatment may bring about specific changes in tumour cells which could be associated with tumour regression.

  13. Efficacy of topical azelaic acid gel in the treatment of mild-moderate acne vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraji Fariba

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Twenty percent azelaic acid gel is recommended as a topical treatment for acne due to its favorable profile. Aim: Our objective in this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 20% azelaic acid gel in the treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris. Methods: This was a double blind, randomized clinical trial. Sixty patients with mild to moderate acne vulgaris were selected randomly to receive either azelaic acid gel or the vehicle gel alone. Patients were followed up every 15 days for a period of 45 days. The number of lesions and the acne severity index (ASI were recorded and compared using Student?s t-test. Results: Total lesion count was reduced by 60.6% and 19.9% by azelaic acid gel and the placebo respectively (P =0.002. ASI was reduced by 65.2% and 21.3% by azelaic acid gel and the placebo respectively (P =0.001, i.e., azelaic acid gel was 3.06 times more effective than the placebo in reducing ASI. Conclusion: Azelaic acid gel can be used as an effective treatment in mild to moderate acne vulgaris.

  14. Diagnostic efficacy of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI for hepatocellular carcinoma and dysplastic nodule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Saito

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the relationship between the signal intensity of hepatobiliary phase images on gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and histological grade. METHODS: Fifty-nine patients with 82 hepatocellular lesions were evaluated retrospectively. Hepatobiliary phase images on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI were classified into 3 groups: low, iso or high. Angiography-assisted computed tomography (CT findings were also classified into 3 groups: CT during arterial portography, and CT hepatic arteriography: A: iso, iso or low; B: slightly low, iso or low; and C: low, high. We correlated angiography-assisted CT, hepatobiliary phase findings during gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and histological grades. Furthermore, correlations between MRI findings and histological grade for each hemodynamic pattern were performed. Correlations among radiological and pathological findings were statistically evaluated using the chi-square test and Fisher’ s exact test. RESULTS: There was a significant correlation between histological grade and hemodynamic pattern (P < 0.05. There was a significant correlation between histological grade and signal intensity in the hepatobiliary phase (P < 0.05 in group A lesions. There was no significant correlation between histological grade and signal intensity in the hepatobiliary phase in group B or C lesions (P > 0.05. CONCLUSION: Signal intensity in the hepatobiliary phase correlated with histological grade in the lesions that maintained portal blood flow, but did not correlate in lesions that showed decreased or defective portal blood flow.

  15. Enhanced amino acid utilization sustains growth of cells lacking Snf1/AMPK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicastro, Raffaele; Tripodi, Farida

    2015-01-01

    The metabolism of proliferating cells shows common features even in evolutionary distant organisms such as mammals and yeasts, for example the requirement for anabolic processes under tight control of signaling pathways. Analysis of the rewiring of metabolism, which occurs following the dysregulation of signaling pathways, provides new knowledge about the mechanisms underlying cell proliferation.The key energy regulator in yeast Snf1 and its mammalian ortholog AMPK have earlier been shown to have similar functions at glucose limited conditions and here we show that they also have analogies when grown with glucose excess. We show that loss of Snf1 in cells growing in 2% glucose induces an extensive transcriptional reprogramming, enhances glycolytic activity, fatty acid accumulation and reliance on amino acid utilization for growth. Strikingly, we demonstrate that Snf1/AMPK-deficient cells remodel their metabolism fueling mitochondria and show glucose and amino acids addiction, a typical hallmark of cancer cells.

  16. ENHANCED MOBILITY OF DENSE NONAQUEOUS-PHASE LIQUIDS (DNAPLs) USING DISSOLVED HUMIC ACIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EDWIN S. OLSON; JOHN R. GALLAGHER; MARC D. KURZ

    1998-10-01

    The specific objectives of this subtask are as follows: ? Evaluate the suitability of using humic acids to enhance the solubility and mobility of DNAPL contaminants sorbed to soils. ? Evaluate the toxicity and bioavailablity of the DNAPLs to biodegrading microorganisms. To meet the first objective, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) evaluated a set of humic acids (two) with different chemical compositions and polarities for the following: ? Ability of the humates to mobilize/solubilize selected (three) DNAPLs ? Mobilization/solubilization in batch soil?water experiments (one soil) ? Removal rate via biotreatment with a well-established active microbial culture. The second objective was met by evaluating the inhibiting effects of a leonardite-derived humic acid on active microbial populations.

  17. Acid mine drainage as an important mechanism of natural radiation enhancement in mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a world wide problem that occurs whenever sulfidic material is present in association to the mined ore. The acidic waters generated by the process of sulfide minerals oxidation can mobilize important amounts of pollutants and cause significant environmental impacts. The composition of the drainage will depend, on a very large extent, on the mineralogy of the rocks. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that acid mine drainage has the potential to enhance the natural levels of environmental radioactivity. The paper revises some strategies to be used in the diagnostic of the problem. General mathematical formulations that can assist on the prediction of the duration of the problem, and the definition of the size of the oxidizing zones in a waste dump are given. A study case on a waste dump of the Pocos de Caldas Uranium Mining Site, Brazil is also presented. (author)

  18. Phospholipids that Contain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Enhance Neuronal Cell Mechanics and Touch Sensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Vásquez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanoelectrical transduction (MeT channels embedded in neuronal cell membranes are essential for touch and proprioception. Little is understood about the interplay between native MeT channels and membrane phospholipids, in part because few techniques are available for altering plasma membrane composition in vivo. Here, we leverage genetic dissection, chemical complementation, and optogenetics to establish that arachidonic acid (AA, an omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid, enhances touch sensation and mechanoelectrical transduction activity while incorporated into membrane phospholipids in C. elegans touch receptor neurons (TRNs. Because dynamic force spectroscopy reveals that AA modulates the mechanical properties of TRN plasma membranes, we propose that this polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA is needed for MeT channel activity. These findings establish that polyunsaturated phospholipids are crucial determinants of both the biochemistry and mechanics of mechanoreceptor neurons and reinforce the idea that sensory mechanotransduction in animals relies on a cellular machine composed of both proteins and membrane lipids.

  19. Valproic acid enhances the efficacy of radiation therapy by protecting normal hippocampal neurons and sensitizing malignant glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thotala, Dinesh; Karvas, Rowan M; Engelbach, John A; Garbow, Joel R; Hallahan, Andrew N; DeWees, Todd A; Laszlo, Andrei; Hallahan, Dennis E

    2015-10-27

    Neurocognitive deficits are serious sequelae that follow cranial irradiation used to treat patients with medulloblastoma and other brain neoplasms. Cranial irradiation causes apoptosis in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus leading to cognitive deficits. Valproic acid (VPA) treatment protected hippocampal neurons from radiation-induced damage in both cell culture and animal models. Radioprotection was observed in VPA-treated neuronal cells compared to cells treated with radiation alone. This protection is specific to normal neuronal cells and did not extend to cancer cells. In fact, VPA acted as a radiosensitizer in brain cancer cells. VPA treatment induced cell cycle arrest in cancer cells but not in normal neuronal cells. The level of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was increased and the pro-apoptotic protein Bax was reduced in VPA treated normal cells. VPA inhibited the activities of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK3?), the latter of which is only inhibited in normal cells. The combination of VPA and radiation was most effective in inhibiting tumor growth in heterotopic brain tumor models. An intracranial orthotopic glioma tumor model was used to evaluate tumor growth by using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (DCE MRI) and mouse survival following treatment with VPA and radiation. VPA, in combination with radiation, significantly delayed tumor growth and improved mouse survival. Overall, VPA protects normal hippocampal neurons and not cancer cells from radiation-induced cytotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo. VPA treatment has the potential for attenuating neurocognitive deficits associated with cranial irradiation while enhancing the efficiency of glioma radiotherapy. PMID:26413814

  20. Effect of the Acid Treatment of Montmorillonite Clay in the Oleic Acid Esterification Reaction

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexsandra Rodrigues do, Nascimento; José Antônio Barros Leal Reis, Alves; Marcus Antônio de Freitas, Melo; Dulce Maria de Araújo, Melo; Marcelo José Barros de, Souza; Anne Michelle Garrido, Pedrosa.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a fuel renewable, biodegradable and environmentally correct fuel, which can be obtained from the esterification reactions, transesterification and pyrolisis. Montmorillonite is a clay mineral of the smectite group and are of great interest for industrial processes such as catalysis and [...] adsorption. Acid activation of clay minerals is one of the most effective methods proposed to produce active materials. In this work, montmorillonite clay was treated with H2SO4 in different concentrations (0.2 – 0.8 mol L–1), characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and applied in the catalytic esterification of oleic acid. The results reveal that the clay treated with aqueous solutions 0.8 mol L–1 H2SO4 shows promising catalytic activity toward the studied reaction, with maximum conversion of oleic acid of 65% at 30 °C.

  1. Alcohol Treatment and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: Enhancing Effectiveness by Incorporating Spirituality and Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective modality for the treatment of alcoholism. Given widespread interest in incorporating spirituality into professional treatment, this article orients practitioners to spiritually modified CBT, an approach that may enhance outcomes with some spiritually motivated clients. More specifically, by…

  2. Thermochemical pretreatments for enhancing succinic acid production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi; Kuglarz, Mariusz; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient thermochemical method for treatment of industrial hemp biomass, in order to increase its bioconversion to succinic acid. Industrial hemp was subjected to various thermochemical pretreatments using 0-3% H2SO4, NaOH or H2O2 at 121-180°C prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. The influence of the different pretreatments on hydrolysis and succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z was investigated in batch mode, using anaerobic bottles and ...

  3. Ursodeoxycholic Acid for the Treatment of Cholesterol Gallstones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholesterol is the principal constituent of more than three quarters of gallstones. Pure cholesterol crystals are quite soft, and protein contributes importantly to the strength of cholesterol stones. The risk of gallstones does not correlate with total serum cholesterol levels, but it does correlate with decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased triglyceride levels. At least 10 percent of adults have gallstones where female: male ratio of about 2:1 in the younger age groups with increasing prevalence with age. Nine patients with gallstones (6 females and 3 males) were included in the study. Patients were treated with ursodeoxycholic acids tablets in two oral doses, one after breakfast, and the other after dinner for 9 months. Ultrasound examination was repeated every 3 months. Re-examination by abdominal ultrasonography revealed that gallstone 1 cm or less in diameter disappeared within 6 months, and the largest stone 3.06 cm in diameter disappeared within 9 months.

  4. Omega-3 fatty acids for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Nicola Dario Di Minno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has been recognized as a major health burden. It is the most important cause of chronic liver disease and a major independent cardiovascular risk factor. Lacking a definite treatment for NAFLD, a specific diet and an increase in physical activity represent the most commonly used therapeutic approaches. In this review, major literature data about the use of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs as a potential treatment of NAFLD have been described. n-3 PUFAs, besides having a beneficial impact on most of the cardio-metabolic risk factors (hypertension, hyperlipidemia, endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis by regulating gene transcription factors [i.e., peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR ?, PPAR?, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1, carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein], impacts both lipid metabolism and on insulin sensitivity. In addition to an enhancement of hepatic beta oxidation and a decrease of the endogenous lipid production, n-3 PUFAs are able to determine a significant reduction of the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules (tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-6 and of oxygen reactive species. Further strengthening the results of the in vitro studies, both animal models and human intervention trials, showed a beneficial effect of n-3 PUFAs on the severity of NAFLD as expressed by laboratory parameters and imaging measurements. Despite available results provided encouraging data about the efficacy of n-3 PUFAs as a treatment of NAFLD in humans, well-designed randomized controlled trials of adequate size and duration, with histological endpoints, are needed to assess the long-term safety and efficacy of PUFA, as well as other therapies, for the treatment of NAFLD and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis patients. It is worthwhile to consider that n-3 PUFAs cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be derived from exogenous sources (fish oil, flaxseeds, olive oil which are typical foods of the Mediterranean diet, known for its beneficial effects in preventing obesity, diabetes and, in turn, cardiovascular events. According to these data, it is important to consider that most of the beneficial effects of n-3 PUFAs can also be obtained by an equilibrate nutrition program.

  5. Reversible tuning of chemical structure of Nafion cast film by heat and acid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Nancy; Datta, Anindya

    2015-02-12

    Effects of annealing have been studied on the chemical structure, water uptake, and acidity of the cast Nafion thin film of thickness ? 6 ?m using a fluorescent probe, 2-(3'-pyridyl)benzimidazole (3PBI), and attenuated total reflactance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy. Nonannealed films and thick Nafion 117 membrane have been used as reference materials, in order to develop a complete understanding of the effect. Annealing has been found to cause a decrease in acidity of otherwise highly acidic ionomer, as sensed by the fluorescent probe and loss of water, as reflected in the ATR-IR spectrum. This observation is surprising and cannot be explained in the light of previous reports of physical changes. Our ATR-IR study has revealed changes in the chemical structure of the hydrophilic part of the ionomer, leading to the formation of sulfonic acid anhydrides. This phenomenon can rationalize the decreased acidity reported in our fluorescence study. Interestingly, acid treatment of the annealed film restores the acidity of the unannealed films. This cannot be rationalized simply by a greater proton uptake from the solution, as the film has to be electroneutral. It appears that the anhydrides formed during the annealing process undergo acid hydrolysis, leading to an increase in the number of SO3(-) groups and, consequently, an increase in the number of H3O(+) ions in the water channels. Besides, the films can be hydrated to an extent that is much greater than Nafion membranes, but the water uptake of acid treated annealed film is slightly less than that of nonannealed films. Hence, we conclude that, along with annealing, acid treatment, a procedure that is generally not performed on the cast films, is an important pretreatment procedure to improve the acidity and hence the transport properties of the cast film. PMID:25275923

  6. Treatment feasibility of the acidic intermediate level radioactive liquid waste - a laboratory scale study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acidic ILW from PREFRE-2 have higher concentrations of U, Fe, Mn and TBP degraded products. During the pretreatment of this acidic ILW prior to ion exchange process, there was formation of large volumes of precipitate having poor settling characteristics. This was reducing the throughput of the processing plant. Laboratory scale studies were carried out to remove the precipitating constituents by solvent extraction using Di - 2 -Ethyl Hexyl Phosporic acid (D2EHPA). In single contact almost 99 % of U and Fe got extracted in D2EHPA in 0.2 M acidic condition. After making alkaline the aqueous part forms only small quantities of Mn(OH)2 precipitate. Decant of this is amenable for conventional ion exchange treatment. The low active effluent from RF resin column is amenable for chemical co-precipitation treatment. (author)

  7. Lymphatic Pump Treatment Repeatedly Enhances the Lymphatic and Immune Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Schander, Artur; Padro, David; King, Hollis H.; Downey, H. Fred; Hodge, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Osteopathic practitioners utilize manual therapies called lymphatic pump techniques (LPT) to treat edema and infectious diseases. While previous studies examined the effect of a single LPT treatment on the lymphatic system, the effect of repeated applications of LPT on lymphatic output and immunity has not been investigated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to measure the effects of repeated LPT on lymphatic flow, lymph leukocyte numbers, and inflammatory mediator concentr...

  8. Oil production enhancement through a standardized brine treatment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adewumi, A.; Watson, R.; Tian, S.; Safargar, S.; Heckman, S.; Drielinger, I.

    1995-08-01

    In order to permit the environmentally safe discharge of brines produced from oil wells in Pennsylvania to the surface waters of the Commonwealth and to rapidly brings as many wells as possible into compliance with the law, the Pennsylvania Oil and Gas Association (POGAM) approached the Pennsylvania State University to develop a program designed to demonstrate that a treatment process to meet acceptable discharge conditions and effluent limitations can be standardized for all potential stripper wells brine discharge. After the initial studies, the first phase of this project was initiated. A bench-scale prototype model was developed for conducting experiments in laboratory conditions. The experiments pursued in the laboratory conditions were focused on the removal of ferrous iron from synthetically made brine. Iron was selected as the primary heavy metals for studying the efficiency of the treatment process. The results of a number of experiments in the lab were indicative of the capability of the proposed brine treatment process in the removal of iron. Concurrent with the laboratory experiments, a comprehensive and extensive kinetic study was initiated. This study was necessary to provide the required data base for process modeling. This study included the investigation of the critical pH as well as the rate and order of reactions of the studied elements: aluminum, lead, zinc, and copper. In the second phase of this project, a field-based prototype was developed to evaluate and demonstrate the treatment process effectiveness. These experiments were conducted under various conditions and included the testing on five brines from different locations with various dissolved constituents. The outcome of this research has been a software package, currently based on iron`s reactivity, to be used for design purposes. The developed computer program was refined as far as possible using the results from laboratory and field experiments.

  9. Ion beam surface treatment: A new capability for surface enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emerging capability to produce high average power (5--350 kW) pulsed ion beams at 0.2--2 MeV energies is enabling the authors to develop a new, commercial-scale thermal surface treatment technology called Ion Beam Surface Treatment (IBEST). This new technique uses high energy, pulsed (?250 ns) ion beams to directly deposit energy in the top 2--20 micrometers of the surface of any material. The depth of treatment is controllable by varying the ion energy and species. Deposition of the energy with short pulses in a thin surface layer allows melting of the layer with relatively small energies and allows rapid cooling of the melted layer by thermal diffusion into the underlying substrate. Typical cooling rates of this process (109--1010 K/sec) cause rapid resolidification, resulting in the production of non-equilibrium microstructures (nano-crystalline and metastable phases) that have significantly improved corrosion, wear, and hardness properties. The authors conducted IBEST feasibility experiments with results confirming surface hardening, noncrystalline grain formation, metal surface polishing, controlled melt of ceramic surfaces, and surface cleaning using pulsed ion beams

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF ENHANCED FIELD EMISSION SITES ON NIOBIUM SURFACES DUE TO HEAT TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Sankarraman, N.; Niedermann, Ph.; Noer, R; Fischer, O

    1986-01-01

    The study of enhanced field emission from broad area niobium cathodes, and the characterization of individual sites are presented. This experiment was built [1] in a UHV surface analysis system which included a SEM, a scanning Auger microscopy facility and also an in situ heat treatment unit where the samples could be annealed up to 2000°C. Upon heat treatment of the niobium samples, it is observed that the density of field emitting sites increases with the heat treatment temperature up to 90...

  11. Study of the influence of acid etching treatments on the superficial characteristics of Ti

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bruno Ramos, Chrcanovic; Maximiliano Delany, Martins.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Modifications in texture and surface chemistry are commonly used to increase the biologic response to implants. We evaluated the influence of five different acid etching treatments on the chemical and topographical superficial characteristics of cpTi grade IV discs (test groups). One group of sample [...] s were only polished (control group). The samples were analyzed by electron microscopy (SEM, EDS), atomic force microscopy, and grazing incidence XRD. The acid etching treatments which produced higher values for the amplitude roughness parameters showed a combination of strong acids (HF and HCl/H2SO4) at high concentrations, with a relatively high temperature (? 60 °C) for a considerable time (? 60 min). Titanium and oxygen were the only elements detected by EDS on the surface in all groups, whereas titanium hydride was detected when the samples were analyzed by GIXRD. Only the group subjected to thermal treatment showed presence of rutile phase on the surface.

  12. Some biochemical reactions of strawberry plants to infection with Botrytis cinerea and salicylic acid treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Ma?olepsza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The reactions of strawberry plants to infection with B. cinerea and treatment with salicylic acid has been studied. Infection of leaves with B. cinerea resulted in early increases in active oxygen species generation, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities and phenolic compounds content. Some increases of the above reactions were noticed in plants treated with salicylic acid but not in the plants treated with SA and then later infected with B. cinerea.

  13. Treatment of Active Acne Vulgaris by Chemical Peeling Using 88% Lactic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Khalifa E Sharquie; Adil A. Noaimi; Entesar A. Al-Janabi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The etiopathogenesis of acne vulgaris is multifactorial, and its therapy is prolonged course that might be not accepted by many patients. Most recently TCA 35% one session peeling gave complete clearance and full remission for active acne vulgaris. Lactic acid has been used effectively as therapeutic topical agents for many skin diseases. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of chemical peeling using 88% lactic acid solution in the treatment of active acne vulgaris. ...

  14. The effects of various chemical treatments on the pyrolytic pattern of peat humic acid

    OpenAIRE

    G. Almendros; Martín Martínez, Francisco; González-Vila, Francisco Javier; Río Andrade, José Carlos del

    1993-01-01

    The present study describes the pyrolytic patterns of a series of humic preparations obtained from a peat humic acid subjected to chemical modifications, such as methylation, oximation, sulphonation, nitration, amidation, ammonia fixation, acetylation, acid and alkaline hydrolysis, hydrogen peroxide treatment, etc. Some diagnostic pyrolysis compounds were found which can be useful in studying N speciation in humic substances. In addition, the noticeable differences in the distribution pattern...

  15. SULFUR HEXAFLUORIDE TREATMENT OF USED NUCLEAR FUEL TO ENHANCE SEPARATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, J.; Torres, R.; Korinko, P.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Becnel, J.; Garcia-Diaz, B.; Adams, T.

    2012-09-25

    Reactive Gas Recycling (RGR) technology development has been initiated at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), with a stretch-goal to develop a fully dry recycling technology for Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF). This approach is attractive due to the potential of targeted gas-phase treatment steps to reduce footprint and secondary waste volumes associated with separations relying primarily on traditional technologies, so long as the fluorinators employed in the reaction are recycled for use in the reactors or are optimized for conversion of fluorinator reactant. The developed fluorination via SF{sub 6}, similar to the case for other fluorinators such as NF{sub 3}, can be used to address multiple fuel forms and downstream cycles including continued processing for LWR via fluorination or incorporation into a aqueous process (e.g. modified FLUOREX) or for subsequent pyro treatment to be used in advanced gas reactor designs such metal- or gas-cooled reactors. This report details the most recent experimental results on the reaction of SF{sub 6} with various fission product surrogate materials in the form of oxides and metals, including uranium oxides using a high-temperature DTA apparatus capable of temperatures in excess of 1000{deg}C . The experimental results indicate that the majority of the fission products form stable solid fluorides and sulfides, while a subset of the fission products form volatile fluorides such as molybdenum fluoride and niobium fluoride, as predicted thermodynamically. Additional kinetic analysis has been performed on additional fission products. A key result is the verification that SF{sub 6} requires high temperatures for direct fluorination and subsequent volatilization of uranium oxides to UF{sub 6}, and thus is well positioned as a head-end treatment for other separations technologies, such as the volatilization of uranium oxide by NF{sub 3} as reported by colleagues at PNNL, advanced pyrochemical separations or traditional full recycle approaches. Based on current results of the research at SRNL on SF{sub 6} fluoride volatility for UNF separations, SF{sub 6} treatment renders all anticipated volatile fluorides studied to be volatile, and all non-volatile fluorides studied to be non-volatile, with the notable exception of uranium oxides. This offers an excellent opportunity to use this as a head-end separations treatment process because: 1. SF{sub 6} can be used to remove volatile fluorides from a UNF matrix while leaving behind uranium oxides. Therefore an agent such as NF{sub 3} should be able to very cleanly separate a pure UF{sub 6} stream, leaving compounds in the bottoms such as PuF{sub 4}, SrF{sub 2} and CsF after the UNF matrix has been pre-treated with SF{sub 6}. 2. Due to the fact that the uranium oxide is not separated in the volatilization step upon direct contact with SF{sub 6} at moderately high temperatures (? 1000{deg}C), this fluoride approach may be wellsuited for head-end processing for Gen IV reactor designs where the LWR is treated as a fuel stock, and it is not desired to separate the uranium from plutonium, but it is desired to separate many of the volatile fission products. 3. It is likely that removal of the volatile fission products from the uranium oxide should simplify both traditional and next generation pyroprocessing techniques. 4. SF{sub 6} treatment to remove volatile fission products, with or without treatment with additional fluorinators, could be used to simplify the separations of traditional aqueous processes in similar fashion to the FLUOREX process. Further research should be conducted to determine the separations efficiency of a combined SF{sub 6}/NF{sub 3} separations approach which could be used as a stand-alone separations technology or a head-end process.

  16. Performance Enhancement and Immunity Profile of Broiler Treated Feed Additive Containing Lactic Acid Bacteria and Ganoderma lucidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sofyan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of feed additive containing lactic acid bacteria (LAB and Ganoderma lucidum (GL on body weight gain (BWG, feed efficiency (FE, performance index (PI, antibody titer (AT against Newcastle disease and histopathology of broilers. Bacteria used were Lactobacillus salivarius and Pediococcus pentosaceus, which were isolated from broiler’s intestine. A number of 195 unsexed day old chicks (Cobb strain were arranged in a completely randomized design and consisted of 5 treatments, each in 3 equal replicates. The treatments were as followed T0: control/without-feed additive, T1: 1% LAB (109 cfu g-1, T2: 1% GL, T3: 1% of LAB 109 cfu g-1 + GL (1:1, T4: commercial antibiotic. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and conti-nued to Duncan’s multiple range test. The results showed that T2, T3, T4 treatments significantly improved (P<0.05 BWG, FE and PI of broilers. Broilers fed T3 had the highest PI, followed by T4, T1, T2 and T0. Broilers fed T3 had the highest AT value followed by T0, T2, T4, and T1. Histopathology profile showed that broiler fed T3 had no lesion on liver and intestine compared to others. The result of this experiment indicated that additive containing 0.25% L. salivarius, 0.25% P. pentosaceus, and 0.5% G. lucidum was able to enhance broiler performance.

  17. Discovery of TUG-770 : A Highly Potent Free Fatty Acid Receptor 1 (FFA1/GPR40) Agonist for Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Elisabeth; Hansen, Steffen V F

    2013-01-01

    Free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1 or GPR40) enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic ?-cells and currently attracts high interest as a new target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. We here report the discovery of a highly potent FFA1 agonist with favorable physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. The compound efficiently normalizes glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese mice, an effect that is fully sustained after 29 days of chronic dosing.

  18. Efficacy of salicylic acid in the treatment of digital dermatitis in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, N.; Capion, N.

    2013-01-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is one of the most important causes of lameness in dairy cattle worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of salicylic acid in the treatment of the disease. A total of 201 DD lesions from 173 cows from four commercial dairy herds were evaluated at day 0 during routine hoof trimming and were allocated into two groups, namely, a control group given chlortetracycline spray, and a treatment group given 10 g of salicylic acid powder applied topically ...

  19. Ras Isoprenylation and pAkt Inhibition by Zoledronic Acid and Fluvastatin Enhances Paclitaxel Activity in T24 Bladder Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaojuan Li

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bisphosphonates interfere with the mevalonate pathway and inhibit the prenylation of small GTP-binding proteins such as ras and rap. We hypothesized that zoledronic acid would synergistically inhibit T24 bladder cancer cell growth in combination with fluvastatin and paclitaxel. Methods: Increasing doses of fluvastatin, zoledronic acid, and paclitaxel were investigated as single agents and in combination, and synergistic interactions were evaluated by the Chou-Talalay method. Western blots were used to assess effects on signal transduction pathways. Results: Growth of T24 was significantly inhibited with IC50 values of 2.67 ± 0.61 mM for fluvastatin and 5.35 ± 1.35 mM for zoledronic acid after 72 hours treatment. Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate and farnesyl pyrophosphate was able to block, in part, this inhibitory activity. The combinations of zoledronic acid and paclitaxel, zoledronic acid and fluvastatin, and fluvastatin and paclitaxel were all synergistic. Both fluvastatin and zoledronic acid inhibited Ras and Rap prenylation, and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and AKT. The degree of inhibition of phosphorylation of these key signaling transduction pathways appears to closely correlate with their synergistic interactions. Conclusions: Zoledronic acid enhances fluvastatin and paclitaxel activity against T24 in a synergistic manner and this is mediated largely by inhibition of both the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways via isoprenylation inhibition.

  20. Citric acid enhances the phytoextraction of chromium, plant growth, and photosynthesis by alleviating the oxidative damages in Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshan, Sehar; Ali, Shafaqat; Bharwana, Saima Aslam; Rizwan, Muhammad; Farid, Mujahid; Abbas, Farhat; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Mehmood, Muhammad Aamer; Abbasi, Ghulam Hasan

    2015-08-01

    Chromium (Cr) toxicity is widespread in crops grown on Cr-contaminated soils and has become a serious environmental issue which requires affordable strategies for the remediation of such soils. This study was performed to assess the performance of citric acid (CA) through growing Brassica napus in the phytoextraction of Cr from contaminated soil. Different Cr (0, 100, and 500 ?M) and citric acid (0, 2.5, and 5.0 mM) treatments were applied alone and in combinations to 4-week-old seedlings of B. napus plants in soil under wire house condition. Plants were harvested after 12 weeks of sowing, and the data was recorded regarding growth characteristics, biomass, photosynthetic pigments, malondialdehyde (MDA), electrolytic leakage (EL), antioxidant enzymes, and Cr uptake and accumulation. The results showed that the plant growth, biomass, chlorophyll contents, and carotenoid as well as soluble protein concentrations significantly decreased under Cr stress alone while these adverse effects were alleviated by application of CA. Cr concentration in roots, stem, and leaves of CA-supplied plant was significantly reduced while total uptake of Cr increased in all plant parts with CA application. Furthermore, in comparison with Cr treatments alone, CA supply reduced the MDA and EL values in both shoots and roots. Moreover, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in shoots and roots markedly increased by 100 ?M Cr exposure, while decreased at 500 ?M Cr stress. CA application enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes compared to the same Cr treatment alone. Thus, the data indicate that exogenous CA application can increase Cr uptake and can minimize Cr stress in plants and may be beneficial in accelerating the phytoextraction of Cr through hyper-accumulating plants such as B. napus. PMID:25850739

  1. Organic acids enhance bioavailability of tetracycline in water to Escherichia coli for uptake and expression of antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingjie; Boyd, Stephen A; Teppen, Brian J; Tiedje, James M; Li, Hui

    2014-11-15

    Tetracyclines are a large class of antimicrobials used most extensively in livestock feeding operations. A large portion of tetracyclines administered to livestock is excreted in manure and urine which is collected in waste lagoons. Subsequent land application of these wastes introduces tetracyclines into the soil environment, where they could exert selective pressure for the development of antibiotic resistance genes in bacteria. Tetracyclines form metal-complexes in natural waters, which could reduce their bioavailability for bacterial uptake. We hypothesized that many naturally-occurring organic acids could effectively compete with tetracyclines as ligands for metal cations, hence altering the bioavailability of tetracyclines to bacteria in a manner that could enhance the selective pressure. In this study, we investigated the influence of acetic acid, succinic acid, malonic acid, oxalic acid and citric acid on tetracycline uptake from water by Escherichia coli bioreporter construct containing a tetracycline resistance gene which induces the emission of green fluorescence when activated. The presence of the added organic acid ligands altered tetracycline speciation in a manner that enhanced tetracycline uptake by E. coli. Increased bacterial uptake of tetracycline and concomitant enhanced antibiotic resistance response were quantified, and shown to be positively related to the degree of organic acid ligand complexation of metal cations in the order of citric acid > oxalic acid > malonic acid > succinic acid > acetic acid. The magnitude of the bioresponse increased with increasing aqueous organic acid concentration. Apparent positive relation between intracellular tetracycline concentration and zwitterionic tetracycline species in aqueous solution indicates that (net) neutral tetracycline is the species which most readily enters E. coli cells. Understanding how naturally-occurring organic acid ligands affect tetracycline speciation in solution, and how speciation influences tetracycline uptake by bacteria, allows more accurate assessment of the selective pressure from trace levels of antibiotics in the environment on microbial communities for preserving and developing antibiotic resistance. PMID:25100186

  2. Omega-3 fatty acids as treatments for mental illness: which disorder and which fatty acid?

    OpenAIRE

    Sieswerda Lee E; Seguin Jennifer; Ross Brian M

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background A growing number of observational and epidemiological studies have suggested that mental illness, in particular mood disorders, is associated with reduced dietary intake and/or cellular abundance of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). This has prompted researchers to test the efficacy of omega-3 PUFA in a range of different psychiatric disorders. We have critically reviewed the double blind placebo controlled clinical trials published prior to April 2007 to determi...

  3. Optimisation of dilute acid pre-treatment of artisan rice hulls for ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice hulls are potential low-cost feedstocks for fuel ethanol production in many countries. In this work, the dilute-acid pre-treatment of artisan rice hulls was investigated using a central composite rotatable experimental design. The experimental variables were temperature (140-210 C), biomass load (5-20%) and sulphuric acid concentration (0.5-1.5 g per 100 g of reaction mixture). A total of 16 experimental runs, including a 23-plan, two replicates at the central point and six star points, were carried out. Low temperatures were found to be favourable for the hydrolysis of xylan and of the easily hydrolyzable glucan fraction. High glucose formation (up to 15.3 g/100 g), attributable to starch hydrolysis, was detected in the hydrolysates obtained under the least severe pre-treatment conditions. Using the experimental results, several models for predicting the effect of the operational conditions on the yield of pretreated solids, xylan and glucan conversion upon pre-treatment, and on enzymatic convertibility of cellulose were developed. Optimum results were predicted for the conversion of easily-hydrolyzable glucan in the material pretreated at 140.7 C, and for the enzymatic saccharification of cellulose in the material pretreated at 169 C. These results suggested the use of two-step acid hydrolysis as future pre-treatment strategy for artisan rice hulls. Key words: Dilute acid hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis, pre-treatment, rice hulls. (author)

  4. Physicochemical properties of corn stalk after treatment using steam explosion coupled with acid or alkali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong-Gang; Ma, Yu-Long; Wang, Li-Qiong; Wang, Feng-Zhi; Wu, Qian-Qian; Pan, Guan-Yu

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate comparatively the effects of different pretreatments including steam explosion, acid, and alkali, alone or in combination, on the structural properties and thermal stability of corn stalk. All of the treated treatments decreased the contents of hemicellulose and lignin and thereby increased the content of cellulose in corn stalks. But the combined treatments with alkali and steam explosion under 0.4-0.6 MPa were better as compared with other treatments based on the removals of hemicellulose and lignin, and about 71.58-79.59% of hemicellulose and 64.32-71.83% of lignin were removed. Treatment with steam explosion coupled with acid or alkali changed the bonding distribution and surface morphology and increased the crystallinity and thermal stability of corn stalks, and the degradation temperature reached over 350 °C. These results suggest that steam explosion coupled with alkali is a better method for the depolymerization of corn stalk polymer. PMID:25498662

  5. Enhancement of temozolomide-induced apoptosis by valproic acid in human glioma cell lines through redox regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Hsein; Chang, Yu-Jia; Ku, Maurice S B; Chung, King-Thom; Yang, Jen-Tsung

    2011-03-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ) is an oral alkylating agent that has been widely used in the treatment of refractory glioma, although inherent and acquired resistance to this drug is common. The clinical use of valproic acid (VPA) as an anticonvulsant and mood-stabilizing drug has been reported primarily for the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder and less commonly for major depression. VPA is also used in the treatment of glioma-associated seizures with or without intracranial operation. In this study, we evaluated the potential synergistic effect of TMZ and VPA in human glioma cell lines. Compared with the use of TMZ or VPA alone, concurrent treatment with both drugs synergistically induced apoptosis in U87MG cells as evidenced by p53 and Bax expression, mitochondrial transmembrane potential loss, reactive oxygen species production, and glutathione depletion. This synergistic effect correlated with a decrease in nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor and corresponded with reduced heme oxygenase-1 and ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase expression. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine partially recovered the apoptotic effect of the TMZ/VPA combination treatment. The same degree of synergism is also seen in p53-mutant Hs683 cells, which indicates that p53 may not play a major role in the increased proapoptotic effect of the TMZ/VPA combination. In conclusion, VPA enhanced the apoptotic effect of TMZ, possibly through a redox regulation mechanism. The TMZ/VPA combination may be effective for treating glioma cancer and may be a powerful agent against malignant glioma. This drug combination should be further explored in the clinical setting. PMID:21340685

  6. Atypical Findings of Focal Nodular Hyperplasia with Gadoxetic Acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Jung-Hee; Kim, Ji-Yeon

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of focal nodular hyperplasia in patients following gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging confirmed with histopathology. These cases showed an atypical pattern during the delayed-hepatobiliary phase after the injection of gadoxetic acid. One case showed a total defect, and the other showed a peripheral ring-like enhancement without a visible central scar, mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma. The pathologic examination demonstrated that the two lesi...

  7. Atypical Findings of Focal Nodular Hyperplasia with Gadoxetic Acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jung-Hee; Kim, Ji-Yeon

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of focal nodular hyperplasia in patients following gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging confirmed with histopathology. These cases showed an atypical pattern during the delayed-hepatobiliary phase after the injection of gadoxetic acid. One case showed a total defect, and the other showed a peripheral ring-like enhancement without a visible central scar, mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma. The pathologic examination demonstrated that the two lesions were focal nodular hyperplasia. PMID:24693305

  8. Atypical Findings of Focal Nodular Hyperplasia with Gadoxetic Acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report two cases of focal nodular hyperplasia in patients following gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging confirmed with histopathology. These cases showed an atypical pattern during the delayed-hepatobiliary phase after the injection of gadoxetic acid. One case showed a total defect, and the other showed a peripheral ring-like enhancement without a visible central scar, mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma. The pathologic examination demonstrated that the two lesions were focal nodular hyperplasia

  9. Lactic acid enhancement can improve the fresh and cooked color of dark-cutting beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, J K; Sawyer, J T; Meullenet, J-F; Yancey, J W S; Wharton, M D

    2011-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to compare the effects of enhancing dark-cutting (DC) strip loins with lactic acid (LAC) on fresh and cooked beef color, as well as sensory attributes, with nonenhanced, normal pH strip loins (CH). Strip loins, with an average ultimate pH of 6.70 ± 0.11 (Exp. 1) and 6.78 ± 0.11 (Exp. 2), were cut into 2 equal-length sections, and DC sections were randomly assigned as either nonenhanced DC or DC enhanced with 0.15 (Exp. 1), 0.35 (Exp. 1 and 2), or 0.50% (Exp. 2) LAC at a target of either 105 (Exp. 1) or 112% (Exp. 2) of the raw product weight. Enhancement with 0.15 and 0.35% LAC did not (P > 0.05) affect postenhancement pH of DC strip loins when enhanced at a target of 105% (Exp. 1); however, postenhancement pH was reduced (P 0.05) to those of CH strip loin sections (Exp. 2). In Exp. 1, raw steaks from CH strip loins had greater (P Japanese beef color scores compared with steaks from nonenhanced and LAC-enhanced DC strip loins across the first 3 d of simulated retail display (LAC enhancement × retail display duration; P Japanese color scores than did steaks from DC sections, regardless of LAC enhancement; however, mean Japanese color scores of CH steaks were only 0.7 and 0.4 units greater (P 0.05) differ when cooked to 71°C in Exp. 2. Fresh and cooked color of DC beef was only minimally altered when enhanced with 0.35% LAC at 105% of the fresh product weight; however, when DC beef was enhanced with 0.35 and 0.50% LAC at a target of 112%, fresh and cooked color were improved close to that of CH beef. Because the persistent red or pink cooked color of DC was virtually eliminated by 0.50% LAC enhancement, LAC-enhanced DC beef may be suitable for food-service markets; however, the raw or fresh color results of Exp. 2 suggested that the fresh color of DC beef can be improved to the color of normal pH beef by postmortem acidification, leading to the possible recoupment of most, if not all, of the lost value associated with DC beef. PMID:21856894

  10. The effects of different thermal treatments and organic acid levels on nutrient digestibility in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Mader, A; Knorr, F; Ruhnke, I; Röhe, I; Hafeez, A; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2014-05-01

    Poultry feed is a potential vector for pathogens. Heat processing and organic acid treatments may decontaminate feed and can affect bird performance as well as feed digestibility. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of different thermal treatments including pelleting (P), long-term conditioning at 85°C for 3 min (L), or expanding at 110°C (E110) and 130°C for 3 to 5 s (E130) without or with 0.75 and 1.5% organic acid supplementation (63.75% formic acid, 25.00% propionic acid, and 11.25% water) on performance, nutrient digestibility, and organ weights of broilers. In total, 960 one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 8 replicates using a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement. Performance variables were determined, and the relative organ weights and ileal and total amino acid (AA) digestibilities were measured at d 35. The organic acid inclusion linearly improved feed efficiency in the first week (P ? 0.05). The acid inclusion levels and thermal treatments had no significant effect on the performance variables at later intervals of the growing period of the birds. The L group showed the lowest ileal AA and CP digestibility. The inclusion of organic acids had a quadratic effect on total and ileal digestibility of isoleucine (P ? 0.05), whereas it had no significant effect on the ileal digestibility of other AA and nutrients. The relative weights of the jejunum and small intestine were significantly higher in the E130 group compared with P and L (P ? 0.05). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that long-term heat conditioning can decrease ileal nutrient digestibility, whereas pelleting and expansion, independently of organic acid addition, seemed to have no negative impact on broiler performance and nutrient digestibilities. Moreover, adding a blend of organic acids to broiler diets had neither positive nor negative effects on nutrient digestibility and final broiler performance. This indicates the feasibility of short-term thermal treatment and acid supplementation for hygienization of broiler feed without negatively influencing performance. PMID:24795308

  11. Zoledronic acid in the treatment of bone metastases by hepatocellular carcinoma: a case series

    OpenAIRE

    MONTELLA, LILIANA; ADDEO, RAFFAELE; Palmieri, Giovannella; Caraglia, Michele; Cennamo, Gregorio; Vincenzi, Bruno; Guarrasi, Rosario; Mamone, Rosanna; Faiola, Vincenzo; Frega, Nicola; Capasso, Elena; Maiorino, Luigi; Leopardo, Davide; Pizza, Carmine; Montesarchio, Vincenzo

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Purpose The survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has improved with advancements in various diagnostic tools and treatment modalities. Consequently, bone metastases from HCC are diagnosed more frequently. The aims of the present study was to describe the clinical features and treatment of HCC patients presenting with bone metastases. In particular, we evaluated the role of zoledronic acid in these patients especially with regar...

  12. Omega-3 fatty acids for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    OpenAIRE

    Matteo Nicola Dario Di Minno; Anna Russolillo; Roberta Lupoli; Pasquale Ambrosino; Alessandro Di Minno; Giovanni Tarantino (ed.)

    2012-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been recognized as a major health burden. It is the most important cause of chronic liver disease and a major independent cardiovascular risk factor. Lacking a definite treatment for NAFLD, a specific diet and an increase in physical activity represent the most commonly used therapeutic approaches. In this review, major literature data about the use of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) as a potential treatment of NAFLD have been desc...

  13. Use of zoledronic acid in the treatment of Paget’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Seton, Margaret P.; Krane, Stephen Martin

    2007-01-01

    This review examines the use of zoledronic acid in the treatment of Paget’s disease of bone. It begins with a brief discussion of the theories of pathogenesis of Paget’s disease, its clinical manifestations, and the history of bisphosphonate treatment in this disorder. Risk of oversuppression of bone by the more potent bisphosphonates and their association with avascular necrosis of the jaw are noted.

  14. Effect of quarantine treatments on the carbohydrate and organic acid content of mangoes (cv. Tommy Atkins)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil is one of the largest mango producers and the third largest mango exporter worldwide. Irradiation treatment and its commercial feasibility have been studied in our country to make it possible to develop new markets and, consequently, to compete with the major exporters of mangoes, Mexico and India. This work was designed to compare irradiation treatment with the hot water dip treatment in mangoes cv. Tommy Atkins for export and to verify that the main attributes for acceptance, color and texture, as well as carbohydrate and organic acid contents, were maintained. In this study, the fruit was divided into groups: control, hot water dip-treated (46 °C for 90 min), and irradiation-treated at doses of 0.4 kGy and 1.0 kGy. The fruit was stored at low temperature (11 °C±2) for 14 days and then at room temperature (23 °C±2) until the end of the study. The results indicated that the fruit given a dose of 1.0 kGy remained in a less advanced stage of ripening (stage 3) throughout the storage period, but experienced a greater loss of texture in the beginning of the experiment. It was noted that only the control group had higher levels of citric acid and succinic acid on the last day of the experiment. There were no significant differences in the total sugar content between any treatment groups. Gamma radiation can be used as a quarantine treatment and does not interfere negatively with the quality attributes of mangoes. - Highlights: ? In Brazil, one of the largest producers and exporters of mangoes, tropical fruits are routinely treated with a hot water dip. ? Results from this study demonstrate that irradiation is a good alternative to this conventional quarantine treatment. ? Carbohydrate and organic acid results are presented for irradiation and hot water dip treatments. ? Texture measurements are shown as a function of storage time for each of these treatments.

  15. Nucleic acid carrier systems based on polyethylenimine conjugates for the treatment of metastatic tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaffert, David; Ogris, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Nucleic acid (NA) based drugs offer the potential of highly selective treatments for malignant diseases. They act as an initially inactive pro-drug being activated at the intended site of action, either by translation into a protein in case of plasmid DNA or through expression shutdown by interfering specifically with messenger RNA (RNAi technology). In case of already metastasized cancer, systemic treatment via the blood stream is often inevitable to reach the lesion. This makes it necessary to...

  16. Conductivity enhancement of conjugated polymer after HCl-methanol treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymer conductivity is key factor to improve the performance of the electronic and photonic devices. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) films were soaked into 0.03, 0.14, 0.41, and 1.13 M concentrations of HCl-methanol solution for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 min. The resulting films were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, conductivity measurements, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The characteristic FTIR absorption peaks of poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) of the films decreased as the soaking time increased. While PSS absorption peaks appeared in the HCl-methanol soaking solution and increased with the soaking time. The conductivity of PEDOT:PSS film was approximately 1.20 x 10-6 S/cm before soaking in the HCl-methanol solution. The conductivity of PEDOT:PSS was enhanced nearly three orders of magnitude after soaking the films into the HCl-methanol solvent. The surface of PEDOT:PSS film was initially very smooth. However, numerous humps appeared on the surface of the films after soaking PEDOT:PSS film into the HCl-methanol solution for 10, 20, and 30 min. The number of humps was reduced and disappeared thereafter.

  17. Excimer laser treatment for aluminium alloy mechanical property enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sicard, E.; Boulmer-Leborgne, C. [Orleans Univ. (France). GREMI; Andreazza-Vignolle, C.; Andreazza, P. [CRMD, Universite d`Orleans, BP 6752, 45067, Orleans, cedex2 (France); Langlade, C.; Vannes, B. [IFOS, Ecole centrale de Lyon, 36 avenue de collongue, BP 163, 69131, Ecully, cedex (France)

    1998-03-01

    An excimer laser beam is focused (1-3 Jcm{sup 2}) on to an aluminium alloy (AlSi7Mg) surface target in a nitrogen atmosphere (760 Torr). A nitride layer (5 mm{sup 2} area per laser spot) is obtained by nitrogen diffusion in the bulk with a depth of several micrometres during the induced laser-plasma time interaction on the surface. For chemical, structural and tribological analyses, 1 x 1 cm{sup 2} samples are processed by scanning the laser beam on the surface, either by locating the laser-plasma spots side by side or by overlapping them. Different experimental conditions are investigated (laser fluence, laser pulse number, overlapping rate of laser-plasma spots), and then various analysis such as NRA, XRD, GIXD, SEM, EDS are performed. When a step-by-step process is used, the nitrogen concentration appears to be inhomogeneous depending on the surface location, and the surface roughness is too high for further applications. Nevertheless, the overlapping process yields homogeneous chemical composition layers with smooth surfaces. Tests are performed to characterise the friction behaviour of the treated surface under fretting conditions, and tribological results clearly indicate the best experimental conditions to be used for the enhancement of mechanical properties. (orig.) 16 refs.

  18. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? enhances fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? PPAR? activation increased mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes and GPDH activity in human adipocytes. ? PPAR? activation also increased insulin-dependent glucose uptake in human adipocytes. ? PPAR? activation did not affect lipid accumulation in human adipocytes. ? PPAR? activation increased fatty acid oxidation through induction of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in human adipocytes. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) is a key regulator for maintaining whole-body energy balance. However, the physiological functions of PPAR? in adipocytes have been unclarified. We examined the functions of PPAR? using human multipotent adipose tissue-derived stem cells as a human adipocyte model. Activation of PPAR? by GW7647, a potent PPAR? agonist, increased the mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes such as PPAR?, adipocyte-specific fatty acid-binding protein, and lipoprotein lipase and increased both GPDH activity and insulin-dependent glucose uptake level. The findings indicate that PPAR? activation stimulates adipocyte differentiation. However, lipid accumulation was not changed, which is usually observed when PPAR? is activated. On the other hand, PPAR? activation by GW7647 treatment induced the mRNA expression of fatty acid oxidation-related genes such as CPT-1B and AOX in a PPAR?-dependent manner. Moreover, PPAR? activation increased the production of CO2 and acid soluble metabolites, which are products of fatty acid oxidation, and increased oxygen consumption rate in human adipocytes. The data indicate that activation of PPAR? stimulates both adipocyte differentiation and fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes, suggesting that PPAR? agonists could improve insulin resistance without lipid accumulation in adipocytes. The expected effects of PPAR? activation are very valuable for managing diabetic conditions accompanied by obesity, because PPAR? agonists, usually used as antidiabetic drugs, induce excessive lipid accumulation in adipocytes in addition to improvement of insulin resistance.

  19. Task 1.16 - Enhanced Mobility of Dense Nonaqueoius-Phase Liquids (DNAPLs) Using Dissolved Humic Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc D. Kurz

    1997-08-01

    Chlorinated solvent contamination is widespread across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex and other industrial facilities. Because of the physical properties of dense nonaqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs), current treatment technologies are generally incapable of completely removing contamination from the source area. Incomplete removal means that the residual DNAPL will persist as a long-term source of groundwater contamination. When DNALPs occur in the subsurface, they resist remediation, owing to low water volubility, high viscosity and interracial tension, and microbial recalcitrance. Because of their high density and polarity, they are usually found sorbed to aquifer solids or in pools on impermeable materials. Surfactants have been used with some success to reduce interracial tension between the aqueous and organic phases and improve volubility of DNAPLs. However, surfactants are expensive and toxic and exhibit an oxygen demand. An alternative is the use of dissolved humic acids in improving DNAPL mobilization and solubilization. Humic acids, a. natural form of organic carbon, are abundant, inexpensive, and nontoxic; biodegrade slowly (low oxygen demand); and have excellent mobilization properties. The present work is to establish the feasibility of using humates for enhancing DNAPL remediation.

  20. Task 1.16 - Enhanced Mobility of Dense Nonaqueous-Phase Liquids (DNAPLs) Using Dissolved Humic Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwin S. Olson; Marc D. Kurz

    1998-02-01

    Chlorinated solvent contamination is widespread across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex and other industrial facilities. Because of the physical properties of dense nonaqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs), current treatment technologies are generally incapable of completely removing contamination from the source area. Incomplete removal means that the residual DNAPL WN persist as a long-term source of groundwater contamination. When DNALPs occur in the subsurface, they resist remediation, owing to low water volubility, high viscosity and interracial tension, and microbial recalcitrance. Because of their high density and polarity, they are usually found sorbed to aquifer solids or in pools on impermeable materials. Surfactants have been used with some success to reduce interracial tension between the aqueous and organic phases and improve volubility of DNAPLs. However, surfactants are expensive and toxic and exhibit an oxygen demand. An alternative is the use of dissolved humic acids in improving DNAPL mobilization and solubilization. Humic acids, a natural form of organic carbon, are abundant, inexpensive, and nontoxic; biodegrade slowly (low oxygen demand); and have excellent mobilization properties. The present work is to establish the feasibility of using hurnates for enhancing DNAPL remediation.

  1. Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acid in Treatment of Patients with Moderate Gingival Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloufar Jenabian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Gingivitis is a common periodontal disease which involves different parts of gingiva to various degrees and severity. Unsaturated fatty acids have the potential to decrease the inflammation and can be effective in treatment of gingivitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids in treatment of moderate gingivitis.Materials and methods. This evaluation is a double blind clinical trial which was performed on 50 patients, 20 to 40 years old, with moderate gingivitis. Patient with same oral hygiene were assessed during 28 days and divided in to two groups. The test group received omega3 unsaturated fatty acids and the control group got the placebo for 10 days. Gingival Index (GI; Loe & Silness and bleeding On Probing (BOP; Barnet were recorded on the ramfjord teeth in the day of the prescription and the 5, 10 and 20 days after that. Data were analyzed by Friedman and Man-Whitney statistical tests.Results. The indices showed decrease in both groups significantly (p<0.0001, but the omega3 unsaturated fatty acid was more effective (GI and BOP =p<0.0001 compared to the placebo group.Conclusion. Results of present study showed that good oral hygiene and using omega-3 unsaturated fatty acid are effective in treatment of gingivitis.

  2. Pharmacological enhancement of exposure-based treatment in PTSD: a qualitative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rianne A. de Kleine

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a good amount of evidence that exposure therapy is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Notwithstanding its efficacy, there is room for improvement, since a large proportion of patients does not benefit from treatment. Recently, an interesting new direction in the improvement of exposure therapy efficacy for PTSD emerged. Basic research found evidence of the pharmacological enhancement of the underlying learning and memory processes of exposure therapy. The current review aims to give an overview of clinical studies on pharmacological enhancement of exposure-based treatment for PTSD. The working mechanisms, efficacy studies in PTSD patients, and clinical utility of four different pharmacological enhancers will be discussed: D-cycloserine, MDMA, hydrocortisone, and propranolol.

  3. Pharmacological enhancement of exposure-based treatment in PTSD: a qualitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kleine, Rianne A; Rothbaum, Barbara O; van Minnen, Agnes

    2013-01-01

    There is a good amount of evidence that exposure therapy is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Notwithstanding its efficacy, there is room for improvement, since a large proportion of patients does not benefit from treatment. Recently, an interesting new direction in the improvement of exposure therapy efficacy for PTSD emerged. Basic research found evidence of the pharmacological enhancement of the underlying learning and memory processes of exposure therapy. The current review aims to give an overview of clinical studies on pharmacological enhancement of exposure-based treatment for PTSD. The working mechanisms, efficacy studies in PTSD patients, and clinical utility of four different pharmacological enhancers will be discussed: d-cycloserine, MDMA, hydrocortisone, and propranolol. PMID:24147208

  4. Enhanced fumaric acid production from brewery wastewater and insight into the morphology of Rhizopus oryzae 1526.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ratul Kumar; Brar, Satinder Kaur

    2014-03-01

    The present work explores brewery wastewater as a novel substrate for fumaric acid production employing the filamentous fungal strain Rhizopus oryzae 1526 through submerged fermentation. The effects of different parameters such as substrate total solid concentrations, fermentation pH, incubation temperature, flask shaking speed, and inoculum size on the fungal morphologies were investigated. Different morphological forms (mycelium clumps, suspended mycelium, and solid/hairy pellets) of R. oryzae 1526 were obtained at different applied fermentation pH, incubation temperature, flask shaking speed, and inoculum size. Among all the obtained morphologies, pellet morphology was found to be the most favorable for enhanced production of fumaric acid for different studied parameters. Scanning electron microscopic investigation was done to reveal the detailed morphologies of the pellets formed under all optimized conditions. With all the optimized growth conditions (pH 6, 25 °C, 200 rpm, 5% (v/v) inoculum size, 25 g/L total solid concentration, and pellet diameter of 0.465 ± 0.04 mm), the highest concentration of fumaric acid achieved was 31.3 ± 2.77 g/L. The results demonstrated that brewery wastewater could be used as a good substrate for the fungal strain R. oryzae 1526 in submerged fermentation for the production of fumaric acid. PMID:24469587

  5. TiO2 nanobelts: Acid corrosion, enhanced photocatalytic activity and CeO2 deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Haiyan; Jia, Changchao; Yang, Ping

    2014-12-01

    TiO2 nanobelts are synthesized via a hydrothermal procedure. The rough surface can be obtained by sulfuric acid corrosion and TiO2 nanoparticles were attached on the surface of the nanobelts. The concentration of sulfuric acid and corrosion temperature play important roles on the morphology and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanobelts. The TiO2 nanoparticles on the nanobelts enhanced the photocatalytic activity. TiO2 nanobelts etched with sulfuric acid of 0.03 M at 120°C show the highest photocatalytic activity and the degradation rate of methyl orange reaches 84.64% after irradiated by the UV light for 2.5 h. With high concentration of sulfuric acid and corrosion temperature treated, belt-like structure would be broken, and even aggregated together, which weaken the photocatalytic activity. In addition, CeO2/TiO2 nanobelt heterostructure is prepared through the process of chemical coprecipitation. The rough surface provides the nucleation sites for CeO2, and the nanoparticles with small size can distribute on the surface of TiO2 nanobelts.

  6. Optimization of substrate concentration for enhanced citric acid production by aspergillus niger M-101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studying the effect of different sugar concentration of beet molasses on citric acid accumulation in batch fermentation, 150 g/litre sugar concentration was found to be optimal for maximum citric acid production (27.25+-2.35 g/litre) using Aspergillus niger M-101. Y/sup p/x/ value for product formation increased with increase in sugar concentration through out the study. Qp value for citric acid production also increased with increase in sugar concentration and reached the maximum (0.141 g/litre/h) at 150 g/litre sugar concentration but with further increase in sugar concentration, the value decreased. When culture was grown at different substrate concentrations, the kinetic parameters monitored for Y/sub x/s/, Y/sub p/s/ and Y/sub p/x/, Q/sub p/, Q/sub s/ and q/sub p/ showed significant enhancement (p <= 0.05) in citric acid production as well as biomass growth. (author)

  7. Influence of Gibberellic Acid on Enhancement Growth of Aspergillus Niger for Chitosan Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitosan is obtained by chemical conversion of chitin, which is a constituent of the exoskeleton of crustacean and insects. An alternative source of chitosan is the cell wall of fungi. The waste biomass of Aspergillus niger, following citric acid production, was used as a source for fungal chitosan extraction. In this research we study the effect of different production media, different concentrations of molass, the effect of addition of gibberellic acid at different concentrations (1-5 mg/l) on mycelial growth and chitosan production from Aspergillus niger. Studying the effect of different incubation time. The results showed that, the best production medium was molass salt medium (MSM) with molass concentration 50 g/l and incubation time 48h. Maximum enhancement was observed at 2 mg gibberellic acid. Gibberellic acid at high concentrations inhibit both growth and chitosan content. The produced fungal chitosan was characterized with deacetylation degree of 81.3%, a molecular weight of 24.2 kDa and their FT-IR spectra were compared with that of shrimp chitosan.

  8. Novel biopolymer matrices for microencapsulation of phages: enhanced protection against acidity and protease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, Cecilia; Islan, Germán A; de Urraza, Patricio J; Castro, Guillermo R

    2012-09-01

    Phage therapy by oral administration requires enhanced resistance of phages to the harsh gastric conditions. The aim of this work is the microencapsulation of phages in natural biopolymeric matrices as a protective barrier against the gastric environment. Alginate and pectin are used as base polymers. Further emulsification with oleic acid or coating with a different biopolymer is also studied. Emulsified pectin shows the maximum encapsulation efficiency and the highest protection against acidity, leaving more than 10(3) active phages after 30 min exposure at pH = 1.6, and protects phage from pepsin activity (4.2 mg mL(-1)). Non-encapsulated phages are fully inactivated at pH = 1.6 or with pepsin (0.5 mg mL(-1)) after 10 min. PMID:22847825

  9. Dithiol amino acids can structurally shape and enhance the ligand-binding properties of polypeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiyu; Gopalakrishnan, Ranganath; Schaer, Tifany; Marger, Fabrice; Hovius, Ruud; Bertrand, Daniel; Pojer, Florence; Heinis, Christian

    2014-11-01

    The disulfide bonds that form between two cysteine residues are important in defining and rigidifying the structures of proteins and peptides. In polypeptides containing multiple cysteine residues, disulfide isomerization can lead to multiple products with different biological activities. Here, we describe the development of a dithiol amino acid (Dtaa) that can form two disulfide bridges at a single amino acid site. Application of Dtaas to a serine protease inhibitor and a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor inhibitor that contain disulfide constraints enhanced their inhibitory activities 40- and 7.6-fold, respectively. X-ray crystallographic and NMR structure analysis show that the peptide ligands containing Dtaas have retained their native tertiary structures. We furthermore show that replacement of two cysteines by Dtaas can avoid the formation of disulfide bond isomers. With these properties, Dtaas are likely to have broad application in the rational design or directed evolution of peptides and proteins with high activity and stability.

  10. Enhanced production of fatty acids and astaxanthin in Aurantiochytrium sp. by the expression of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Yung Lee; Tang, Hongmei; Huang, Junchao; Chen, Feng

    2014-12-24

    Dissolved oxygen is a critical factor for heterotrophic cell growth and metabolite production. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an oxygen-involved protein on cell growth and fatty acid and astaxanthin production in the biologically important thraustochytrid Aurantiochytrium sp. The hemoglobin of the Vitreoscilla stercoraria (VHb) gene was fused upstream with a zeocin resistance gene (ble) and driven by the Aurantiochytrium tubulin promoter. The expression construct was introduced into two strains of Aurantiochytrium sp. by electroporation. Transgenic Aurantiochytrium sp. strains MP4 and SK4 expressing the heterologous VHb achieved significantly higher maximum biomass than their corresponding controls in microaerobic conditions. Furthermore, the transformants of Aurantiochytrium sp. SK4 produced 44% higher total fatty acid and 9-fold higher astaxanthin contents than the wild type control in aerobic conditions. The present study highlights the biotechnological application of VHb in high-cell density fermentation for enhanced biomass production as well as high-value metabolites. PMID:25420960

  11. COMPOST-FREE BIOREACTOR TREATMENT OF ACID ROCK DRAINAGE LEVIATHAN MINE, CALIFORNIA INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program, an evaluation of the compost-free bioreactor treatment of acid rock drainage (ARD) from the Aspen Seep was conducted at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site located in a remote, high altitude area of Alpine Co...

  12. COMPOST-FREE BIOREACTOR TREATMENT OF ACID ROCK DRAINAGE - TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program, an evaluation of the compost-free bioreactor treatment of acid rock drainage (ARD) from the Aspen Seep was conducted at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site located in a remote, high altitude area of Alpine Co...

  13. Sanitizing with peracetic acid (PAA)- An alternative treatment to use in aquaculture ...?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because of the lack of approved treatments for fish disease, disinfectants were tested to treat fish pathogens. One of these substances is peracetic acid (PAA). PAA is an agent used for disinfection in aquaculture, but it must be investigated thoroughly in order to mitigate diseases without harmful ...

  14. Evaluation of continuous 4 day exposure to peracetic acid as a treatment for Ichthyophthirius multifiliis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The parasitic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infests all species of freshwater fish and can cause severe economic losses in fish breeding. The most effective treatment, malachite green, has been banned in Europe and North America for use in food-fish production. Peracetic acid (PAA) was foun...

  15. Anaerobic waste water treatment: influencing parameters on the acid formation of citric acid production waste - investigation in lab scale and on a large treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the biochemical background of anaerobic waste water treatment processes and on the kinetic criteria the problems of acid formation in one and two stage fermentations are discussed. Chemical analytics play an important role on the control of anaerobic processes. In a separate chapter the significance of different parameters and their application for the control of acidification processes is discussed. Of special importance is an early information on process disturbances and considerations concerning the balancing of the relevant processes. Analytical problems that occur in practice are also dealt with. The practical experience with the large scale wastewater treatment plant, where the described procedures were applied are the main purpose of the thesis. The main influencing parameters on both the lab scale and large scale processes are compared and the influence of important process variables like temperature, pH, load, waste water composition and addition of aerobic and anaerobic sludges on the acid formation is investigated. The results of the work are discussed and compared with results from the literature. In addition a mathematical model dealing with the main pH-dependent equilibrium conditions for acidification reactions was developed on basis of existing models for anaerobic waste water treatment processes. (author)

  16. Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of amorphous polyethylene terephthalate for enhanced heatsealing properties

    OpenAIRE

    Dowling, Denis P; Tynan, J.; Ward, P.; et. al.

    2012-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure plasma system has been used to treat amorphous polyethylene terephthalate (APET) to enhance its heatseal properties to a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film. The plasma treated APET sheet material was thermoformed into trays for use in the food packaging industry and heatsealed to a PET film. The heatsealing properties of the resulting package were assessed using the burst test technique. It was found that the plasma treatment significantly enhanced the adhesive prop...

  17. Design and evaluation of Lumefantrine – Oleic Acid Self Nanoemulsifying Ionic Complex for Enhanced Dissolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Vavia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:Lumefantrine, an antimalarial molecule has very low and variable bioavailability owing to its extremely poor solubility in water. It is recommended to be taken with milk to enhance its solubility and bioavailability. The aim of present study was to develop a Self Nanoemulsifying Delivery system (SNEDs of lumefantrine (LF to achieve rapid and complete dissolution independent of food-fat and surfactant in dissolution media.Methods:Solubility of LF in oil, co-solvent/co-surfactant and surfactant solution and emulsification efficiency of surfactant were analyzed to optimize the LF loaded self nanoemulsifying preconcentrate. Effect of LF-oleic acid complexation on emulsification, droplet size, zeta potential and dissolution were investigated. Effect of milk concentration and fat content on saturation solubility and dissolution of LF was investigated. Dissolution of marketed formulation and LF-SNEDs was carried out in pH 1.2 and pH 6.8 phosphate buffer.Results:LF exhibited very high solubility in oleic acid owing to complexation between tertiary amine of LF and carboxyl group of oleic acid (OA. Cremophore EL and medium chain monoglyceride were selected surfactant and co-surfactant, respectively. Significantly smaller droplet size (37 nm, shift in zeta potential from negative to positive value, very high drug loading in lipid based system (> 10%, no precipitation after dissolution are the major distinguish characteristics contributed by LF-OA complex in the SNED system. Saturation solubility and dissolution study in milk containing media pointed the significant increment in solubility of LF in the presence of milk-food fat. LF-SNEDs showed > 90% LF release within 30 min in pH 1.2 while marketed tablet showed almost 0% drug release.Conclusion:Self nanoemulsification promoting ionic complexation between basic drug and oleic acid hold great promise in enhancing solubility of hydrophobic drugs.

  18. Hypertonic saline reduces inflammation and enhances the resolution of oleic acid induced acute lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costello Joseph F

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertonic saline (HTS reduces the severity of lung injury in ischemia-reperfusion, endotoxin-induced and ventilation-induced lung injury. However, the potential for HTS to modulate the resolution of lung injury is not known. We investigated the potential for hypertonic saline to modulate the evolution and resolution of oleic acid induced lung injury. Methods Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used in all experiments. Series 1 examined the potential for HTS to reduce the severity of evolving oleic acid (OA induced acute lung injury. Following intravenous OA administration, animals were randomized to receive isotonic (Control, n = 12 or hypertonic saline (HTS, n = 12, and the extent of lung injury assessed after 6 hours. Series 2 examined the potential for HTS to enhance the resolution of oleic acid (OA induced acute lung injury. Following intravenous OA administration, animals were randomized to receive isotonic (Control, n = 6 or hypertonic saline (HTS, n = 6, and the extent of lung injury assessed after 6 hours. Results In Series I, HTS significantly reduced bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL neutrophil count compared to Control [61.5 ± 9.08 versus 102.6 ± 11.89 × 103 cells.ml-1]. However, there were no between group differences with regard to: A-a O2 gradient [11.9 ± 0.5 vs. 12.0 ± 0.5 KPa]; arterial PO2; static lung compliance, or histologic injury. In contrast, in Series 2, hypertonic saline significantly reduced histologic injury and reduced BAL neutrophil count [24.5 ± 5.9 versus 46.8 ± 4.4 × 103 cells.ml-1], and interleukin-6 levels [681.9 ± 190.4 versus 1365.7 ± 246.8 pg.ml-1]. Conclusion These findings demonstrate, for the first time, the potential for HTS to reduce pulmonary inflammation and enhance the resolution of oleic acid induced lung injury.

  19. Comparative study of 15% TCA peel versus 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Puri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemical peels are the mainstay of a cosmetic practitioner?s armamentarium because they can be used to treat some skin disorders and can provide aesthetic benefit. Objectives: To compare 15% TCA peel and 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma. Material and Methods: We selected 30 participants of melasma aged between 20 and 50 years from the dermatology outpatient department and treated equal numbers with 15% TCA and 35% glycolic acid. Results: Subjective response as graded by the patient showed good or very good response in 70% participants in the glycolic acid group and 64% in the TCA group. Conclusions: There was statistically insignificant difference in the efficacy between the two groups for the treatment of melasma.

  20. Transcriptome analysis of acetic-acid-treated yeast cells identifies a large set of genes whose overexpression or deletion enhances acetic acid tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeji; Nasution, Olviyani; Choi, Eunyong; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Wankee; Choi, Wonja

    2015-08-01

    Acetic acid inhibits the metabolic activities of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, a better understanding of how S. cerevisiae cells acquire the tolerance to acetic acid is of importance to develop robust yeast strains to be used in industry. To do this, we examined the transcriptional changes that occur at 12 h post-exposure to acetic acid, revealing that 56 and 58 genes were upregulated and downregulated, respectively. Functional categorization of them revealed that 22 protein synthesis genes and 14 stress response genes constituted the largest portion of the upregulated and downregulated genes, respectively. To evaluate the association of the regulated genes with acetic acid tolerance, 3 upregulated genes (DBP2, ASC1, and GND1) were selected among 34 non-protein synthesis genes, and 54 viable mutants individually deleted for the downregulated genes were retrieved from the non-essential haploid deletion library. Strains overexpressing ASC1 and GND1 displayed enhanced tolerance to acetic acid, whereas a strain overexpressing DBP2 was sensitive. Fifty of 54 deletion mutants displayed enhanced acetic acid tolerance. Three chosen deletion mutants (hsps82?, ato2?, and ssa3?) were also tolerant to benzoic acid but not propionic and sorbic acids. Moreover, all those five (two overexpressing and three deleted) strains were more efficient in proton efflux and lower in membrane permeability and internal hydrogen peroxide content than controls. Individually or in combination, those physiological changes are likely to contribute at least in part to enhanced acetic acid tolerance. Overall, information of our transcriptional profile was very useful to identify molecular factors associated with acetic acid tolerance. PMID:26062532

  1. Electron beam combined with hydrothermal treatment for enhancing the enzymatic convertibility of sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of microbial cellulolytic enzymes is the most efficient process to liberate glucose from cellulose in biomass without the formation of fermentation inhibitors. A combination of pretreatment technologies is an alternative way to increase the access of enzymes to cellulose, and consequently, the conversion yield. In this way, the present study reports on the enzymatic hydrolysis of SCB submitted to three kinds of pretreatment: electron beam processing (EBP), and EBP followed by hydrothermal (TH) and diluted acid (AH) treatment. SCB samples were irradiated using a radiation dynamics electron beam accelerator, and then submitted to thermal and acid (0.1% sulfuric acid) hydrolysis for 40 and 60 min at 180 °C. These samples were submitted to enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) using commercial preparations, including Celluclast 1.5 L and beta-glycosidase. The addition of diluted acid improved TH treatment allowing for a shorter application time. EBP with 50 kGy increased the enzymatic hydrolysis yield of cellulose by 20% after TH and 30% after AH. - Highlights: ? We study the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose in sugarcane bagasse. ? We study the combination of three pretreatments: electron beam processing, EBP followed by hydrothermal and by diluted acid treatment. ? The electron beam processing increased the enzymatic hydrolysis from 8% to 15% with 20 kGy. ? The enzymes used were commercial preparations, as Celluclast 1.5 L and ?-glycosidase. ? The EBP with 50 kGy increased on 20% the yield of EH of cellulose after TH and 30% after AH.

  2. Using Laboratory Activities Enhanced with Concept Cartoons to Support Progression in Students' Understanding of Acid-Base Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Haluk; Demircioglu, Gokhan; Burhan, Yasemin; Naseriazar, Akbar; Demircioglu, Hulya

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of an intervention based on a series of laboratory activities enhanced with concept cartoons. The purpose of the intervention was to enhance students' understanding of acid-base chemistry for eight grade students' from two classes in a Turkish primary school. A pretest-posttest non-equivalent…

  3. Enhanced light absorption and scattering by carbon soot aerosol internally mixed with sulfuric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalizov, Alexei F; Xue, Huaxin; Wang, Lin; Zheng, Jun; Zhang, Renyi

    2009-02-12

    Light absorption by carbon soot increases when the particles are internally mixed with nonabsorbing materials, leading to increased radiative forcing, but the magnitude of this enhancement is a subject of great uncertainty. We have performed laboratory experiments of the optical properties of fresh and internally mixed carbon soot aerosols with a known particle size, morphology, and the mixing state. Flame-generated soot aerosol is size-selected with a double-differential mobility analyzer (DMA) setup to eliminate multiply charged particle modes and then exposed to gaseous sulfuric acid (10(9)-10(10) molecule cm(-3)) and water vapor (5-80% relative humidity, RH). Light extinction and scattering by fresh and internally mixed soot aerosol are measured at 532 nm wavelength using a cavity ring-down spectrometer and an integrating nephelometer, respectively, and the absorption is derived as the difference between extinction and scattering. The optical properties of fresh soot are independent of RH, whereas soot internally mixed with sulfuric acid exhibits significant enhancement in light absorption and scattering, increasing with the mass fraction of sulfuric acid coating and relative humidity. For soot particles with an initial mobility diameter of 320 nm and a 40% H(2)SO(4) mass coating fraction, absorption and scattering are increased by 1.4- and 13-fold at 80% RH, respectively. Also, the single scattering albedo of soot aerosol increases from 0.1 to 0.5 after coating and humidification. Additional measurements with soot particles that are first coated with sulfuric acid and then heated to remove the coating show that both scattering and absorption are enhanced by irreversible restructuring of soot aggregates to more compact globules. Depending on the initial size and density of soot aggregates, restructuring acts to increase or decrease the absorption cross-section, but the combination of restructuring and encapsulation always results in an increased absorption for internally mixed soot. Mass absorption cross-sections (MAC) for fresh soot aggregates are size dependent, increasing from 6.7 +/- 0.7 m(2) g(-1) for 155 nm particles to 8.7 +/- 0.1 m(2) g(-1) for 320 nm particles. After exposure of soot to sulfuric acid, MAC is as high as 12.6 m(2) g(-1) for 320 nm particles at 80% RH. Our results imply that optical properties of soot are significantly altered within its atmospheric lifetime, leading to greater impact on visibility, local air quality, and radiative climate forcing. PMID:19146408

  4. Omega-3 fatty acids as treatments for mental illness: which disorder and which fatty acid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sieswerda Lee E

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing number of observational and epidemiological studies have suggested that mental illness, in particular mood disorders, is associated with reduced dietary intake and/or cellular abundance of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. This has prompted researchers to test the efficacy of omega-3 PUFA in a range of different psychiatric disorders. We have critically reviewed the double blind placebo controlled clinical trials published prior to April 2007 to determine whether omega-3 PUFA are likely to be efficacious in these disorders. Results Most trials involved a small number of participants but were largely well designed. Omega-3 PUFA were well tolerated by both children and adults with mild gastrointestinal effects being the only consistently reported adverse event. For schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder we found little evidence of a robust clinically relevant effect. In the case of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and related disorders, most trials showed at most small benefits over placebo. A limited meta-analysis of these trials suggested that benefits of omega-3 PUFA supplementation may be greater in a classroom setting than at home. Some evidence indicates that omega-3 PUFA may reduce symptoms of anxiety although the data is preliminary and inconclusive. The most convincing evidence for beneficial effects of omega-3 PUFA is to be found in mood disorders. A meta-analysis of trials involving patients with major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder provided evidence that omega-3 PUFA supplementation reduces symptoms of depression. Furthermore, meta-regression analysis suggests that supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid may be more beneficial in mood disorders than with docosahexaenoic acid, although several confounding factors prevented a definitive conclusion being made regarding which species of omega-3 PUFA is most beneficial. The mechanisms underlying the apparent efficacy of omega-3 PUFA in mood disorders compared to schizophrenia are discussed as is a rational for the possibly greater efficacy of EPA compared to DHA. Conclusion While it is not currently possible to recommend omega-3 PUFA as either a mono- or adjunctive-therapy in any mental illness, the available evidence is strong enough to justify continued study, especially with regard to attentional, anxiety and mood disorders.

  5. Acidity enhancement of unsaturated bases of group 15 by association with borane and beryllium dihydride. Unexpected boron and beryllium Brønsted acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sómer, Ana; Mó, Otilia; Yáñez, Manuel; Guillemin, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-21

    The intrinsic acidity of CH2[double bond, length as m-dash]CHXH2, HC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CXH2 (X = N, P, As, Sb) derivatives and of their complexes with BeH2 and BH3 has been investigated by means of high-level density functional theory and molecular orbital ab initio calculations, using as a reference the ethyl saturated analogues. The acidity of the free systems steadily increases down the group for the three series of derivatives, ethyl, vinyl and ethynyl. The association with both beryllium dihydride and borane leads to a very significant acidity enhancement, being larger for BeH2 than for BH3 complexes. This acidity enhancement, for the unsaturated compounds, is accompanied by a change in the acidity trends down the group, which do not steadily decrease but present a minimum value for both the vinyl- and the ethynyl-phosphine. When the molecule acting as the Lewis acid is beryllium dihydride, the ?-type complexes in which the BeH2 molecules interact with the double or triple bond are found, in some cases, to be more stable, in terms of free energies, than the conventional complexes in which the attachment takes place at the heteroatom, X. The most important finding, however, is that P, As, and Sb ethynyl complexes with BeH2 do not behave as P, As, or Sb Brønsted acids, but unexpectedly as Be acids. PMID:25415658

  6. The Effect of Fiber Bleaching Treatment on the Properties of Poly(lactic acid)/Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayung, Marwah; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Zainuddin, Norhazlin; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Razak, Nur Inani Abdul; Chieng, Buong Woei

    2014-01-01

    In this work, biodegradable composites from poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber were prepared by melt blending method. Prior to mixing, the fiber was modified through bleaching treatment using hydrogen peroxide. Bleached fiber composite showed an improvement in mechanical properties as compared to untreated fiber composite due to the enhanced fiber/matrix interfacial adhesion. Interestingly, fiber bleaching treatment also improved the physical appearance of the composite. The study was extended by blending the composites with commercially available masterbatch colorant. PMID:25153628

  7. The Effect of Fiber Bleaching Treatment on the Properties of Poly(lactic acid/Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwah Rayung

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, biodegradable composites from poly(lactic acid (PLA and oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB fiber were prepared by melt blending method. Prior to mixing, the fiber was modified through bleaching treatment using hydrogen peroxide. Bleached fiber composite showed an improvement in mechanical properties as compared to untreated fiber composite due to the enhanced fiber/matrix interfacial adhesion. Interestingly, fiber bleaching treatment also improved the physical appearance of the composite. The study was extended by blending the composites with commercially available masterbatch colorant.

  8. Changes underlying the dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI response to treatment in rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of patients with rheumatoid arthritis has shown a decrease in the early enhancement rate (EER) of synovitis after treatment. The purpose of this work was to investigate the underlying changes. 3D dynamic contrast-enhanced images were acquired from 13 patients before and 1-2 weeks after anti-TNF? treatment. The EER of the inflamed synovium was measured. The T1 relaxation time of the synovitis was calculated from images at different flip angles. The time course of the arrival of gadolinium at the radial artery was determined. The gadolinium enhancement of the inflamed synovium was modeled to calculate the fractional plasma volume (vp), the fractional extravascular, extracellular fluid volume (ve), and the volume transfer constant (Ktrans). Pre- and post-treatment values were compared and the dependence of the EER on each parameter was assessed. There was a decrease in the EER measured over 26 s after treatment (29%, p = 0.002). Reductions in T1 (12%, p = 0.001), Ktrans (31%, p = 0.002), and vp (43%, p = 0.01) contributed to this; however, the EER was relatively insensitive to changes in ve. The decrease in EER after anti-TNF? treatment is largely caused by reductions in the volume transfer constant Ktrans, the fractional plasma volume vp, and the T1 relaxation time. Only the contributions from Ktrans and vp directly reflect synovial vascularity. (orig.)

  9. Evaluation of the efficacy of 50% citric acid solution in plane wart treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vali Anahita

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Treatment of plane warts is problematic, methods such as cryotherapy and cauterization is associated with high recurrence rate, risk of scar, pain and high cost. Topical tretinoin causes irritant contact dermatitis that limited its use. Citric acid was used in treatment of warts in traditional medicine of Iran. We evaluated the efficacy of 50% citric acid solution in water in treatment of plane warts and compared it with 0.05% tretinoin lotion. Materials and Methods : This study was a double blind; prospective, case-control study.Seventy-five patients with bilateral plane warts who signed informed consent were included. Exclusion criteria were pregnancy, breast-feeding, suffering from any systemic disease and the use of any other drug due to treatment of warts in past six weeks. The patients randomly used citric acid or Tretinoin lotion to lesions at each side of the body. Randomization was performed by coin-flipping. Patients were examined at three weeks interval for six weeks and number of warts were recorded in the proforma, which included the name, sex, address and code of the drug that was used in each side of the body and side effects. The results were analyzed by Chi-square test statistically. Results: After six weeks 64.4% of the lesions in citric acid treated group disappeared versus 53.7% of the lesions in tretinoin treated group. This difference was significant ( P value Conclusion: On the basis of this study, the treatment of plane warts by 50% citric acid is strongly suggested. This modality is superior to tretinoin lotion due to higher efficacy and low incidence of side-effects and lower cost.

  10. Therapeutic value of serum uric acid levels increasing in the treatment of multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ton?ev Goran

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Uric acid was successfully used in both, prevention and treatment of the animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS. Recently it has been shown that inosine, a ribosylated precursor of uric acid, might be used to elevate serum uric acid levels in MS patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of oral inosine as a single drug treatment in patients with MS. Methods. We administered inosine orally to 32 MS patients from 2001-2004 year at doses from 1-2 g daily (given twice depending on the pretreatment serum uric acid levels. The mean follow-up interval was 37.69±6.55 months. The other 32 MS patients, without any treatment except for a relapse period (matched by age, sex, duration of disease and functional disability, were used as controls. The follow-up interval of these patients was 36.39±2.68 months. The neurological disability was evaluated by the Expanded Disability Status Scale score (EDSS. Results. During the observed period the treated MS patients were found to have the lower relapses rate than the non-treated MS patients (Chi-square test, p=0.001. None of the patients have showed any adverse effect of inosine treatment. The non-treated MS patients were found to have a higher increasing in the mean EDSS score than the treated ones (two-way ANOVA repeated measures/factor times, p=0.025. Conclusion. Our results suggested that the treatment approaches based on the elevation of serum uric acid levels might prove beneficial for some MS patients.

  11. Enhanced zero-valent metal permeable wall treatment of contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On-going research at the University of Central Florida, supported by NASA, is investigating the use of sonicated zero-valent metal permeable treatment walls to remediate chlorinated solvent contaminated groundwater. Use of ultrasound within the treatment wall is proposed to enhance and/or restore the activity of the zero-valent metal. Batch studies designed to evaluate the destruction of chlorinated hydrocarbons using enhanced zero-valent metal reduction found a nearly three-fold increase in reaction rates after ultrasound treatment. Column studies substantiated these results. It is hypothesized that ultrasound serves to remove corrosion products from the iron surface and will prolong the reactive life and efficiency of the permeable treatment wall, thus decreasing long-term costs of wall construction and maintenance

  12. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal - results of experiences in three large waste water treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within a scientific project especially the operation of four real-size sewage treatment plants with different processes of enhanced biological phosphorus removal is investigated under the aspect of efficiency, stability, practicability and costs of the enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Three plants and first results are explained and compared as well with one another as with data, which are generally regarded as favourable conditions for the enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Between the plants there are significant differences in the degree of P-elimination mainly due to different characteristics of the wastewater. An important influence on P-effluent concentrations may be exacted by P-resolution in the final clarifier. (orig.)

  13. Desire for Penile Girth Enhancement and the Effects of the Self-Injection of Hyaluronic Acid Gel

    OpenAIRE

    Coskuner, Enis Rauf; Canter, Halil Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Penile girth enhancement is a controversial subject but demands for enhancement are increasing steadily. Although various fillers have been widely used for soft tissue augmentation, there is no reliable material for this particular situation. Here we report a case of an acute hypersensitivity reaction in a man after his first self-injection of a filler material, which, he claimed, was hyaluronic acid gel for penile girth enhancement and glans penis augmentation.

  14. Desire for penile girth enhancement and the effects of the self-injection of hyaluronic acid gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enis Rauf Coskuner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile girth enhancement is a controversial subject but demands for enhancement are increasing steadily. Although various fillers have been widely used for soft tissue augmentation, there is no reliable material for this particular situation. Here we report a case of an acute hypersensitivity reaction in a man after his first self-injection of a filler material, which, he claimed, was hyaluronic acid gel for penile girth enhancement and glans penis augmentation.

  15. Combined ?-ray irradiation-activated sludge treatment of humic acid solution from landfill leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humic acid, which is a typical microbially refractory organic substance, was extracted from a landfill leachate. The humic acid solution (COD=367 mg 1-1; TOC=293 mg 1-1; BOD=27 mg 1-1) was applied to a batch scale activated sludge treatment after the modification of its biodegradability by ?-ray irradiation. The BOD increased to 64 mg 1-1 by irradiation of 15 kGy (1.5 Mrad), while the COD and TOC decreased to 231 and 230 mg 1-1, respectively. When the irradiated sample was treated with an activated sludge, the BOD decreased rapidly to a similar value as the unirradiated sample. The elimination efficiency of TOC by the sludge treatment was approximately equal to that obtained by irradiation of 15 kGy. These facts suggest a utility of applying microbial processes after radiation treatment of microbially refractory wastewaters. (author)

  16. Tangential Flow Ultrafiltration Allows Purification and Concentration of Lauric Acid-/Albumin-Coated Particles for Improved Magnetic Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaloga, Jan; Stapf, Marcus; Nowak, Johannes; Pöttler, Marina; Friedrich, Ralf P.; Tietze, Rainer; Lyer, Stefan; Lee, Geoffrey; Odenbach, Stefan; Hilger, Ingrid; Alexiou, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are frequently used for drug targeting, hyperthermia and other biomedical purposes. Recently, we have reported the synthesis of lauric acid-/albumin-coated iron oxide nanoparticles SEONLA-BSA, which were synthesized using excess albumin. For optimization of magnetic treatment applications, SPION suspensions need to be purified of excess surfactant and concentrated. Conventional methods for the purification and concentration of such ferrofluids often involve high shear stress and low purification rates for macromolecules, like albumin. In this work, removal of albumin by low shear stress tangential ultrafiltration and its influence on SEONLA-BSA particles was studied. Hydrodynamic size, surface properties and, consequently, colloidal stability of the nanoparticles remained unchanged by filtration or concentration up to four-fold (v/v). Thereby, the saturation magnetization of the suspension can be increased from 446.5 A/m up to 1667.9 A/m. In vitro analysis revealed that cellular uptake of SEONLA-BSA changed only marginally. The specific absorption rate (SAR) was not greatly affected by concentration. In contrast, the maximum temperature Tmax in magnetic hyperthermia is greatly enhanced from 44.4 °C up to 64.9 °C by the concentration of the particles up to 16.9 mg/mL total iron. Taken together, tangential ultrafiltration is feasible for purifying and concentrating complex hybrid coated SPION suspensions without negatively influencing specific particle characteristics. This enhances their potential for magnetic treatment. PMID:26287178

  17. Pharmacological enhancement of exposure-based treatment in PTSD: a qualitative review

    OpenAIRE

    de Kleine, Rianne A.; Rothbaum, Barbara O.; van Minnen, Agnes

    2013-01-01

    There is a good amount of evidence that exposure therapy is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Notwithstanding its efficacy, there is room for improvement, since a large proportion of patients does not benefit from treatment. Recently, an interesting new direction in the improvement of exposure therapy efficacy for PTSD emerged. Basic research found evidence of the pharmacological enhancement of the underlying learning and memory processes of exposure therapy. Th...

  18. Enhancement of Micropollutant Degradation at the Outlet of Small Wastewater Treatment Plants

    OpenAIRE

    ROSSI, Luca; Queloz, Pierre; Brovelli, Alessandro; Margot, Jonas; Barry, David Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate low-cost and easy-to-operate engineering solutions that can be added as a polishing step to small wastewater treatment plants to reduce the micropollutant load to water bodies. The proposed design combines a sand filter/constructed wetland with additional and more advanced treatment technologies (UV degradation, enhanced adsorption to the solid phase, e.g., an engineered substrate) to increase the elimination of recalcitrant compounds. The removal of five ...

  19. Usefulness of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in determining treatment efficacy and outcome after pancreatic cancer chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Atsushi Sofuni, Takao Itoi, Fumihide Itokawa, Takayoshi Tsuchiya, Toshio Kurihara, Kentaro Ishii, Syujiro Tsuji, Nobuhito Ikeuchi, Fuminori Moriyasu

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate if contrast-enhanced ultrasono-graphy (CE-US) is useful for determining treatment efficacy and outcome in the early stages of pancreatic cancer chemotherapy by assessing changes in intratumor hemodynamics using CE-US with a contrast agent.METHODS: The subjects were 34 patients with unresectable advanced pancreatic cancer treated by chemotherapy. CE-US was assessed after every treatment (course) completion under the same conditions, and patients were divided into two groups...

  20. Anti-p19 Antibody Treatment Exacerbates Lyme Arthritis and Enhances Borreliacidal Activity?

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Sara Heil; Nardelli, Dean T.; Warner, Thomas F; Callister, Steven M; Torrealba, Jose R.; Schell, Ronald F.

    2007-01-01

    Considerable effort has been made to elucidate the mechanism of Lyme arthritis. We focused on p19, a cell cycle-regulating molecule, because it is known to inhibit cell cycle division of T lymphocytes which may be responsible for the induction of arthritis. We show that anti-p19 antibody treatment enhances the inflammatory response normally detected at the tibiotarsal joints of Borrelia burgdorferi-vaccinated and Borrelia bissettii-challenged mice. Specifically, anti-p19 antibody treatment au...

  1. Efficacy of salicylic acid in the treatment of digital dermatitis in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, N.; Capion, N.

    2013-01-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is one of the most important causes of lameness in dairy cattle worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of salicylic acid in the treatment of the disease. A total of 201 DD lesions from 173 cows from four commercial dairy herds were evaluated at day 0 during routine hoof trimming and were allocated into two groups, namely, a control group given chlortetracycline spray, and a treatment group given 10 g of salicylic acid powder applied topically within a bandage. Pain, lesion size and clinical appearance (scored MO to M4) were evaluated on days 3, 14 and 34 post-treatment. A change to MO was defined as healing, while changes of M2 or M4 to M1 or M3 were classified as clinical improvements. Healing rates did not differ significantly between treatment groups at days 3 and 14. By day 34 the healing rate was fivefold better (P = 0.01) for the treatment vs. the control group, with healing rates of 13.6% and 3.1 respectively. By day 3, the rate of improvement was 2.5-fold better (P = 0.02) for the controls. By day 34 the overall positive effect (i.e. healing and improvement) was 1.75-fold better (P = 0.05) for the treatment group. Lesions from the control group were 2.2 times more likely (P = 0.09) to have a pain score equal to 2 by day 14. The proportion of lesions getting smaller by days 14 and 34 was 2.5 times higher (P <0.08) for the treatment vs. the control group. The findings suggest salicylic acid should be considered as an alternative to chlortetracycline for the treatment of DD as it appears more efficacious and would assist in reducing antibiotic use. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bile acid malabsorption investigated by selenium-75-homocholic acid taurine ((75)SeHCAT) scans : causes and treatment responses to cholestyramine in 298 patients with chronic watery diarrhoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghede, Märta K; Schlütter, Jacob MØrup

    2011-01-01

    The liver produces and secretes bile acids into the small intestine. In the small intestine, most of the bile acids are absorbed in the distal ileum with portal vein transportation back to the liver and resecretion (enterohepatic recycling). Increased spillover of bile acids from the small intestine into the colon (bile acid malabsorption) may affect the secretion of colonic water and electrolytes and result in watery diarrhoea. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of bile acid malabsorption and treatment responses to cholestyramine with (75)SeHCAT scanning among patients suffering from chronic watery diarrhoea.

  3. Effect of combination treatment of gamma irradiation and ascorbic acid on physicochemical and microbial quality of minimally processed eggplant (Solanum melongena L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma irradiation alone and in combination with ascorbic acid was tested for preventing the surface browning and maintaining the quality attributes of minimally processed eggplant. Eggplant samples after preparation were subjected to treatment of gamma irradiation in the dose range of 0.25–1.0 kGy and to combination treatments of ascorbic acid dip at a concentration of 2.0% w/v and gamma irradiation (dose range 0.5–2.0 kGy) followed by storage at 3±1 °C, RH 80%. Studies revealed inverse correlation (r=?0.93) between the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, browning index and the treatments of ascorbic acid and gamma irradiation. Combinatory treatment of 2.0% w/v ascorbic acid and 1.0 kGy gamma irradiation proved to be significantly (p?0.05) effective in inhibiting the PPO activity, preventing the surface browning and maintaining the creamy white color and other quality attributes of minimally processed eggplant up to 6 days of refrigerated storage. Sensory evaluation revealed that control and 0.25 kGy irradiated samples were unacceptable only after 3 days of storage. Samples irradiated at 0.5 kGy and 0.75 kGy were unacceptable after 6 days of storage. Microbial analysis revealed that radiation processing of minimally processed eggplant at 1.0 kGy with and without ascorbic acid resulted in around 1 and 1.5 log reduction in yeast and mold count as well as bacterial count just after treatment and 6 days of storage therefore, enhances the microbial safety. - Highlights: • 2.0% ascorbic acid and 1.0 kGy inhibited PPO activity in minimally processed eggplant. • Above treatment maintained creamy white color and storage quality up to 6 days at 3±1 °C. • The treatment gave 1.5 log reductions in microbial counts, thus enhancing microbial safety. • The treatment can provide convenience to consumer and will reduce spoilage during storage

  4. CITOGENETICS EFFECTS INDUCED BY THE ASCORBIC ACID TREATMENT OF LARIX DECIDUA MILL. SSP. CARPATICA AND PICEA ABIES (L. KARST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Bara

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper present the influence of ascorbic acid upon the mitotic division of Larix decidua Mill ssp. carpatica and Picea abies (L. Karst. The treatment is applied of two variants, germinated seed in ascorbic acid (variantAand germinated seeds in disttilate water, than treated with ascorbic acid in 3 concentrations (variant B.

  5. Characterization of N/sub 2/-fixing bacteria and their role in plant growth under humic acid treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diazo trophic bacteria isolated from rice belonged to the six genera i.e. Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Xanthobacter, Flavobacterium and Zoogloea. During reinoculation studies it was observed that the rice roots grow well under humic acid treatment. The maximum root length 49.5 cm, was recorded at 10 ppm in plants inoculated with Azospirillum strain K-1. The total plant dry weight increase was also observed with the same organism at the similar humic acid concentration. In wheat the bacterial inoculation or humic acid treatment separately increased the dry weight of plant, however the humic acid treatment followed by inoculation of bacteria always cause decrease in total dry weight of plants. (author)

  6. Effects of gamma irradiation and ozone treatment on microbial decontamination and fatty acid compositions of aloe and pollen powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comparative effects of gamma irradiation and ozone treatment on the microbial inactivation and fatty acid composition were investigated for improving hygienic quality of aloe and pollen powders. Gamma irradiation at 10 kGy resulted in sterilizing total aerobic bacteria, molds and coliforms below detective levels, while ozone treatment for 8 hours up to 18 ppm did not sufficiently eliminate the microorganisms of aloe and pollen powders. The compositions of fatty acid were not significantly changed by gamma irradiation up to 10 kGy. However, ozone treatment markedly decreased unsaturated fatty acids by approximately 20-80% in contents, whereas it significantly increased saturated fatty acids (p<0.05)

  7. Retinoic Acid Syndrome in Patients following the Treatment of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia with All-trans Retinoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Cheng Su

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Retinoic acid syndrome (RAS is a potentially lethal complication during alltransretinoic acid (ATRA treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia(APL. The incidence and risk factors have been shown to vary in differentseries. In this study we want to establish the incidence of RAS in our hospitaland try to elucidate factors that increase its risk.Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 102 patients diagnosed with APL betweenAugust 1993 and December 2007 at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital,Taiwan. All patients received ATRA as an induction regimen with or withoutconventional chemotherapy.Results: Eight of the 102 patients (7.8% experienced RAS which developed after amedian of 9 days (range: 2 to 23 days of ATRA treatment. Respiratory distressand fever were the most common presentations, occurring in 7 of 8patients (87.5%. Age, gender, morphological or molecular subtypes, an initialwhite blood cell (WBC count of more than 10 x 109/L and concurrentchemotherapy did not statistically attribute to the occurrence of RAS. Onepatient developed RAS manifesting with pulmonary hemorrhage but experienceda complete recovery after administration of high-dose dexamethasone.The RAS-related mortality was 12.5% (1 out of 8 patients.Conclusion: The incidence of RAS in this study was similar to those of other series withATRA and concurrent chemotherapy. Age, gender, morphological or molecularsubtypes, an initial leukocyte count of more than 10 x 109/L or the presenceof concurrent chemotherapy is not significantly associated with theoccurrence of the RAS.

  8. Bias-enhanced post-treatment process for enhancing the electron field emission properties of ultrananocrystalline diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanan, A.; Huang, B. R. [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering and Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Sankaran, K. J.; Tai, N. H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Dong, C. L. [Scientific Research Division, National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Lin, I. N., E-mail: inanlin@mail.tku.edu.tw [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui 251, Taiwan (China)

    2015-03-16

    The electron field emission (EFE) properties of ultrananocrystalline diamond films were markedly improved via the bias-enhanced plasma post-treatment (bep) process. The bep-process induced the formation of hybrid-granular structure of the diamond (bep-HiD) films with abundant nano-graphitic phase along the grain boundaries that increased the conductivity of the films. Moreover, the utilization of Au-interlayer can effectively suppress the formation of resistive amorphous-carbon (a-C) layer, thereby enhancing the transport of electrons crossing the diamond-to-Si interface. Therefore, bep-HiD/Au/Si films exhibit superior EFE properties with low turn-on field of E{sub 0}?=?2.6?V/?m and large EFE current density of J{sub e}?=?3.2?mA/cm{sup 2} (at 5.3?V/?m)

  9. Genetic engineering of Ketogulonigenium vulgare for enhanced production of 2-keto-L-gulonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lei; Yuan, Mei-Qing; Li, Zheng-Jun; Chen, Jin-Chun; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2012-01-20

    Folate derivatives are crucial growth factors for Ketogulonigenium vulgare which is used in mixed culture with Bacillus megaterium for the industrial production of 2-keto-L-gulonic acid (2-KGA), the precursor of L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) or vitamin C (Vc). To improve the growth and 2-KGA production, five genes involved in folate biosynthesis identified in a folate gene cluster from Lactococcus lactis MG1363, including folB, folKE, folP, folQ and folC, were over-expressed in K. vulgare. Intracellular folate concentration in the recombinant strain harboring folate biosynthesis genes cluster under the control of P(sdh) (sorbose dehydrogenase gene sdh promoter from K. vulgare) was 8 times higher than that of the wildtype K. vulgare DSM 4025 (P<0.001). In shake flask studies, the cell density and 2-KGA production of the recombinant K. vulgare Rif (pMCS2PsdhfolBC) were increased by 18% (P<0.001) and 14% (P<0.001), respectively, under a relatively stable pH 7 condition. In fermentor studies, enhancements around 25% cell density (P<0.001) and approximately 35% 2-KGA productivity (P<0.001) were observed in comparison with the controls without over-expressing the folate biosynthesis genes. This was the first successful study of metabolic engineering on K. vulgare for enhanced 2-KGA production. PMID:22192513

  10. Ethyl lactate enhances ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid solution removal of copper from contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongyan; Wang, Wei; Sun, Yuanyuan; Li, Hui; Ai, Fuxun; Xie, Li; Wang, Xiaorong

    2010-02-15

    A new approach using aqueous ethyl lactate-modified [S,S]-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS) washing solutions for the removal of Cu from field-contaminated soils was examined in the laboratory. At pH 7 the maximum extraction efficiencies of Cu were about 41% by EDDS solution (EDDS:Cu molar ratio=8), and <2% by ethyl lactate solution. However, greater extraction efficiencies of up to 50% were achieved by amending the EDDS solution with ethyl lactate (EDDS:Cu molar ratio=2, ethyl lactate:Cu molar ratio=25). The pH of the extraction solution did not have a significant effect on the extraction of Cu. The washing agent could also be regenerated quite effectively for economy of use. Sequential extraction results showed that the two most bioavailable Cu fractions, i.e., the acid extractable and reducible fractions, were significantly reduced. The mechanism responsible for the enhanced extraction efficiency in the presence of ethyl lactate is the increased the stability constant of Cu-EDDS complexes in the presence of ethyl lactate, which enhanced desorption of Cu from soil. PMID:19783092

  11. Effects of acid treatment on structure, properties and biocompatibility of carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Incubation of carbon nanotubes in an acid mixture changes their chemical and physical properties as shown using spectroscopy and microscopy assays. ? Acid incubation of single-walled carbon nanotubes reduces their intrinsic cytotoxicity in relation to human epithelial cells. ? Multi-walled carbon nanotubes with user-controlled physical and chemical properties serve as platforms for the next generation of biosensors. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising to be the next generation of viable tools for bioapplications. Further advances in such bioapplications may depend on improved understanding of CNTs physical and chemical properties as well as control over their biocompatibility. Herein we performed a systematic study to show how acid oxidation treatment changes CNTs physical and chemical properties and leads to improved CNTs biocompatibility. Specifically, by incubating CNTs in a strong acid mixture we created a user-defined library of CNTs samples with different characteristics as recorded using Raman energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, or solubility tests. Systematically characterized CNTs were subsequently tested for their biocompatibility in relation to human epithelial cells or enzymes. Such selected examples are building pertinent relationships between CNTs biocompatibility and their intrinsic properties by showing that acid oxidation treatment lowers CNTs toxicity providing feasible platforms to be used for biomedical applications or the next generation of biosensors.

  12. Disruption of Crosstalk Between the Fatty Acid Synthesis and Proteasome Pathways Enhances Unfolded Protein Response Signaling and Cell Death

    OpenAIRE

    Little, Joy L.; Wheeler, Frances B.; Koumenis, Constantinos; Kridel, Steven J.

    2008-01-01

    Fatty Acid Synthase (FASN) is the terminal enzyme responsible for fatty acid synthesis and is upregulated in tumors of various origins to facilitate their growth and progression. Because of several reports linking the fatty acid synthase and proteasome pathways, we asked whether FASN inhibitors could combine with bortezomib, the FDA-approved proteasome inhibitor, to amplify cell death. Indeed, bortezomib treatment augmented sub-optimal FASN inhibitor concentrations to reduce clonogenic surviv...

  13. ASPIRIN AND NICOTINIC ACID AS TWO FACES OF SAME COIN IN THE TREATMENT OF DYSLIPIDEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RK Mohamed Mutahar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Globally cardiovascular diseases are believed to be the no.1 cause of death. According to the current estimates of World Health Organisation, approximately one-third of all deaths (16.7 million people around the globe resulted from cardiovascular diseases. Eighty percent of these deaths were reported from low and middle income countries. The main intention of writing this review article is that, India being the second most highly populated country characterized by a majority of low and middle income population, the need for an effective treatment for this devastating disease both cost and efficacy wise is most desired. Since a long time, antidislipidemic agent nicotinic acid has been continuously under consideration to tackle the cardiovascular diseases by treating dyslipidemia. But its use has been limited due to its notorious yet harmless side effect of flushing. Now the focus of attention would be to use nicotinic acid by cleverly handling the flush. At this adjuncture the entry of acetyl salicylic acid (Aspirin has been taken to give the best result. No doubt the major intention to take aspirin (low dose with the combination of major drug nicotinic acid is to reduce nicotinic acid -induced flushing, but its associated properties or remedies as you may tell are more equally supportive to the very treatment of cardiovascular diseases itself. Hence it may be construed that aspirin and nicotinic acid are nothing but the two sides of the same coin in the treatment of dyslipidemia. Hence the hypothesis “People with heart disease should be on aspirin anyway”.

  14. Critical appraisal of the use of alpha lipoic acid (thioctic acid in the treatment of symptomatic diabetic polyneuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIlduff CE

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Courtney E McIlduff, Seward B RutkoveDepartment of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USABackground: The most common of the neuropathies associated with diabetes mellitus, diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN is a syndrome of diffuse, length-dependent, symmetric nerve dysfunction. The condition is linked with substantial morbidity, frequent healthcare utilization, and compromised quality of life due to related discomfort. Correspondingly, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and opioids are regularly prescribed with the goal of pain control. However, the agents rarely provide complete pain relief and fail to address progression of the disorder. Whereas strict blood glucose control can slow the onset and worsening of DSPN, near-normoglycemia is not easily attainable. Evidence implicating oxidative processes in the pathogenesis of DSPN offers one potentially important therapeutic avenue. Due to its properties as a potent antioxidant, alpha lipoic acid (ALA could mitigate the development of DSPN and attenuate resultant symptoms and signs. Approved for treatment of DSPN in Germany, the agent is not more widely used due to uncertainty about its efficacy and reported adverse effects. Here we review the effectiveness and tolerability of ALA in the treatment of symptomatic DSPN.Methods: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for English-language literature on the topic. Randomized, blinded studies comparing parenteral and oral ALA with placebo in the treatment of peripheral neuropathy in diabetic adults were selected. Analysis included studies with a level of evidence of at least 2b.Results: The current appraisal summarizes data from 1160 participants in the ALADIN, SYDNEY, ORPIL, SYDNEY 2, and ALADIN III trials. In four of the studies, ALA provided significant improvement in manifestations of DSPN.Conclusion: Treatment with ALA 600 mg iv daily for 3 weeks represents a well-tolerated and effective therapy for DSPN. An oral dose of 600 mg daily administered for up to 5 weeks could offer benefits in symptoms and signs of DSPN without significant side effects.Keywords: alpha lipoic acid, antioxidant, diabetes mellitus, neuropathy, thioctic acid

  15. Studying Pellet Formation of a Filamentous Fungus Rhizopus oryzae to Enhance Organic Acid Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei; Liu, Yan; Chen, Shulin

    Using pelletized fungal biomass can effectively improve the fermentation performance for most of fugal strains. This article studied the effects of inoculum and medium compositions such as potato dextrose broth (PDB) as carbon source, soybean peptone, calcium carbonate, and metal ions on pellet formation of Rhizopus oryzae. It has been found that metal ions had significantly negative effects on pellet formation whereas soybean peptone had positive effects. In addition PDB and calcium carbonate were beneficial to R. oryzae for growing small smooth pellets during the culture. The study also demonstrated that an inoculum size of less than 1.5×109 spores/L had no significant influence on pellet formation. Thus, a new approach to form pellets has been developed using only PDB, soybean peptone, and calcium carbonate. Meanwhile, palletized fungal fermentation significantly enhanced organic acid production. Lactic acid concentration reached 65.0 g/L in 30 h using pelletized R. oryzae NRRL 395, and fumeric acid concentration reached 31.0 g/L in 96 h using pelletized R. oryzae ATCC 20344.

  16. Hypotonic stimuli enhance proton-gated currents of acid-sensing ion channel-1b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are strong candidates for mammalian mechanoreceptors. We investigated whether mouse acid-sensing ion channel-1b (ASIC1b) is sensitive to mechanical stimuli using oocyte electrophysiology, because ASIC1b is located in the mechanosensory stereocilia of cochlear hair cells. Hypotonic stimuli that induced membrane stretch of oocytes evoked no significant current in ASIC1b-expressing oocytes at pH 7.5. However, acid (pH 4.0 or 5.0)-evoked currents in the oocytes were substantially enhanced by the hypotonicity, showing mechanosensitivity of ASIC1b and possible mechanogating of the channel in the presence of other components. Interestingly, the ASIC1b channel was permeable to K+ (a principal charge carrier for cochlear sensory transduction) and the affinity of the channel for amiloride (IC50 (inhibition constant) = approximately 48.3 ?M) was quite similar to that described for the mouse hair cell mechanotransducer current. Taken together, these data raise the possibility that ASIC1b participates in cochlear mechanoelectrical transduction

  17. Genetic engineering of Yarrowia lipolytica for enhanced production of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been extensively studied for decades because of its health benefits including cancer prevention, anti-atherogenic and anti-obesity effects, and modulation of the immune system. We previously described the production of trans-10, cis-12 CLA in Yarrowia lipolytica by expressing the gene coding for linoleic acid isomerase from Propionibacterium acnes (pai). However the stable strain produced CLA at about 0.08% of dry cell weight (DCW), a level of production which was not high enough for practical applications. The goal of the present study was to enhance production of CLA by genetic engineering of Y. lipolytica strains. Results We have now co-expressed the delta 12-desaturase gene (FADS12, d12) from Mortierella alpina together with the codon-optimized linoleic acid isomerase (opai) gene in Y. lipolytica, expressed under the control of promoter hp16d modified by fusing 12 copies of UAS1B to the original promoter hp4d. A multi-copy integration plasmid was used to further enhance the expression of both genes. Using glucose as the sole carbon source, the genetically-modified Y. lipolytica produced trans-10, cis-12-CLA at a level of up to 10% of total fatty acids and 0.4% of DCW. Furthermore, when the recombinant yeast was grown with soybean oil, trans-10, cis-12-CLA now accumulated at a level of up to 44% of total fatty acids, which represented 30% of DCW after 38.5 h of cultivation. In addition, trans-10, cis-12-CLA was also detected in the growth medium up to 0.9 g/l. Conclusions We have successfully produced trans-10, cis-12-CLA with a titre of 4 g/l of culture (3.1 g/l in cells and 0.9 g/l in culture medium). Our results demonstrate the potential use of Y. lipolytica as a promising microbial cell factory for trans-10, cis-12-CLA production. PMID:23866108

  18. Biochar enhances Aspergillus niger rock phosphate solubilization by increasing organic acid production and alleviating fluoride toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Gilberto de Oliveira; Zafra, David Lopez; Vassilev, Nikolay Bojkov; Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Ribeiro, José Ivo; Costa, Maurício Dutra

    2014-05-01

    During fungal rock phosphate (RP) solubilization, a significant quantity of fluoride (F(-)) is released together with phosphorus (P), strongly inhibiting the process. In the present study, the effect of two F(-) adsorbents [activated alumina (Al2O3) and biochar] on RP solubilization by Aspergillus niger was examined. Al2O3 adsorbed part of the F(-) released but also adsorbed soluble P, which makes it inappropriate for microbial RP solubilization systems. In contrast, biochar adsorbed only F(-) while enhancing phosphate solubilization 3-fold, leading to the accumulation of up to 160 mg of P per liter. By comparing the values of F(-) measured in solution at the end of incubation and those from a predictive model, it was estimated that up to 19 mg of F(-) per liter can be removed from solution by biochar when added at 3 g liter(-1) to the culture medium. Thus, biochar acted as an F(-) sink during RP solubilization and led to an F(-) concentration in solution that was less inhibitory to the process. In the presence of biochar, A. niger produced larger amounts of citric, gluconic, and oxalic acids, whether RP was present or not. Our results show that biochar enhances RP solubilization through two interrelated processes: partial removal of the released F(-) and increased organic acid production. Given the importance of organic acids for P solubilization and that most of the RPs contain high concentrations of F(-), the proposed solubilization system offers an important technological improvement for the microbial production of soluble P fertilizers from RP. PMID:24610849

  19. Titania doped triaxial porcelain: Enhancement of strength by controlled heat treatment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sunipa Bhattacharyya; Swapan Kumar Das; Kausik Dana; Nirendra Krishna Mitra

    2007-06-01

    Titania doped vitrified triaxial porcelain samples were subjected to controlled heat treatment at different temperatures of 600, 800 and 1000°C with a specific heating schedule. The results revealed that flexural strength of 800°C heat treated sample was significantly enhanced to 60 MPa from its original value of 40 MPa. XRD pattern revealed the formation of mullite in the system both before and after heat treatment and the differences in their growth was ascertained through SEM analysis. The present heat treatment process may be useful to produce high strength porcelain body from a common triaxial system.

  20. Using Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing To Enhance Treatment of Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protinsky, Howard; Sparks, Jennifer; Flemke, Kimberly

    2001-01-01

    Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) as a clinical technique may enhance treatment effectiveness when applied in couple therapy that is emotionally and experientially oriented. Clinical experience indicates EMDR-based interventions are useful for accessing and reprocessing intense emotions in couple interactions. EMDR can amplify…

  1. Enhanced Case Management versus Substance Abuse Treatment Alone among Substance Abusers with Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striley, Catherine W.; Nattala, Prasanthi; Ben Abdallah, Arbi; Dennis, Michael L.; Cottler, Linda B.

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of enhanced case management for substance abusers with comorbid major depression, which was an integrated approach to care. One hundred and 20 participants admitted to drug treatment who also met Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule criteria for major depression at baseline were randomized to…

  2. Aneurysmal wall enhancement and perianeurysmal edema after endovascular treatment of unruptured cerebral aneurysms.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Su, I-Chang

    2014-06-01

    Perianeurysmal edema and aneurysm wall enhancement are previously described phenomenon after coil embolization attributed to inflammatory reaction. We aimed to demonstrate the prevalence and natural course of these phenomena in unruptured aneurysms after endovascular treatment and to identify factors that contributed to their development.

  3. Sialic acid changes in Dalton's lymphoma-bearing mice after cyclophosphamide and cisplatin treatment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    B.M., Nicol; S.B., Prasad.

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Sialic acid changes in Dalton's lymphoma cells and other tissues of 10-12-week-old Swiss albino mice were investigated in relation to tumour growth in vivo and following cyclophosphamide (ip, 200 mg/kg body weight) or cisplatin (ip, 8 mg/kg body weight) treatment. Three to four animals of both sexes [...] were used in each experimental group. The sialic acid level of tumour cells (0.88 µmol/g) increased with tumour progression (1.44-1.59 µmol/g; P

  4. Topical steroid treatment reduces arachidonic acid and leukotriene B4 in lesional skin of psoriasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, E.; Barr, R M; Cunningham, F. M.; Mistry, K.; Woollard, P M; Mallet, A. I.; Greaves, M. W.

    1986-01-01

    Topical clobetasol propionate or vehicle ointment was applied daily for 3 days to psoriatic plaques on eight patients. Skin chamber exudates from untreated, steroid and vehicle treated lesions were assayed for arachidonic acid (AA), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and 12-hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) before, and at 24 h and 72 h after treatment. Significant reductions in AA and LTB4 were observed at 72 h in steroid treated lesions. The reduction in 12-HETE l...

  5. Structural transformation and field emission enhancement of carbon nanofibers by energetic argon plasma post-treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (CNFs) grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) were transformed into cone-shaped nanostructures after treatment by argon (Ar) plasma. Significant enhancement of field emission characteristics of the post-treated CNFs has been achieved. Analysis by electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) suggests that the structural transformation is a result of a cosputtering/deposition process by energetic plasma ions. The enhancements can be attributed to the combining effects of an additional Si/C layer coverage, catalytic nanoparticles removal and the sharpening of CNFs tips. The argon plasma post-treatment processes developed here can be easily extended to in situ PECVD processes for fabricating CNFs based emitters

  6. Enhanced external counter pulsation in treatment of refractory angina pectoris : two year outcome and baseline factors associated with treatment failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdling, André; Bondesson, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Enhanced external counter pulsation (EECP) is a non-invasive treatment option for patients with refractory angina pectoris ineligible to further traditional treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of EECP on patients at a Scandinavian medical centre and to investigate if outcome can be predicted by analysing baseline factors. METHODS: 86 consecutive patients (70 male, 16 female) were treated with EECP and followed for two years post treatment. Canadian cardiovascular society (CCS) class was analysed, and medication and adverse clinical events were researched prior to EECP, at the end of the treatment, and at six, 12 and 24 months thereafter. Patients responding to therapy by improving at least one CCS class were compared with those who failed to respond. Any differences in background factors were recorded and analysed. RESULTS: 79% of the patients responded to therapy by improving at least one CCS class. In general, the CCS class improved by one class after EECP treatment (3.05 before versus 2.14 after treatment). A total of 61.5% of the initial responders showed sustained improvement at the 12 month follow-up while 29% presented sustained improvement after 24 months. Treatment was most effective among patients suffering from CCS class III-IV angina pectoris, while patients suffering from CCS class II angina pectoris improved transiently but failed to show sustained improvement after the 12 month follow-up. Diabetes mellitus and calcium channel antagonists were more common among the non-responders (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: This study confirms the safety and efficiency of EECP as a treatment option for patients suffering from refractory angina pectoris. The therapy is most beneficial in patients suffering from severe angina (CCS III-IV) while sustained response to therapy could not be verified among patients suffering from CCS class II angina pectoris.

  7. Endoplasmic reticulum-located PDAT1-2 from castor bean enhances hydroxy fatty acid accumulation in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Go, Young Sam; Jung, Jin Hee; Suh, Mi-Chung; Kim, Jong Bum

    2011-06-01

    Ricinoleic acid (12-hydroxy-octadeca-9-enoic acid) is a major unusual fatty acid in castor oil. This hydroxy fatty acid is useful in industrial materials. This unusual fatty acid accumulates in triacylglycerol (TAG) in the seeds of the castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), even though it is synthesized in phospholipids, which indicates that the castor plant has an editing enzyme, which functions as a phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT) that is specific to ricinoleic acid. Transgenic plants containing fatty acid ?12-hydroxylase encoded by the castor bean FAH12 gene produce a limited amount of hydroxy fatty acid, a maximum of around 17% of TAGs present in Arabidopsis seeds, and this unusual fatty acid remains in phospholipids of cell membranes in seeds. Identification of ricinoleate-specific PDAT from castor bean and manipulation of the phospholipid editing system in transgenic plants will enhance accumulation of the hydroxy fatty acid in transgenic seeds. The castor plant has three PDAT genes; PDAT1-1 and PDAT2 are homologs of PDAT, which are commonly found in plants; however, PDAT1-2 is newly grouped as a castor bean-specific gene. PDAT1-2 is expressed in developing seeds and localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, similar to FAH12, indicating its involvement in conversion of ricinoleic acid into TAG. PDAT1-2 significantly enhances accumulation of total hydroxy fatty acid up to 25%, with a significant increase in castor-like oil, 2-OH TAG, in seeds of transgenic Arabidopsis, which is an identification of the key gene for oilseed engineering in production of unusual fatty acids. PMID:21659329

  8. Enhancement of carvedilol solubility by solid dispersion technique using cyclodextrins, water soluble polymers and hydroxyl acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvaraja, K; Khanam, Jasmina

    2014-08-01

    Aim of the present work is to enhance aqueous solubility of carvedilol (CV) by solid dispersion technique using wide variety of carriers such as: ?-cyclodextrin (?CD), hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP?CD), tartaric acid (TA), polyvinyl pyrrolidone K-30 (PVP K-30) and poloxamer-407 (PLX-407). Various products of 'CV-solid dispersion' had been studied extensively in various pH conditions to check enhancement of solubility and dissolution characteristics of carvedilol. Any physical change upon interaction between CV and carriers was confirmed by instrumental analysis: XRD, DSC, FTIR and SEM. Negative change of Gibb's free energy and complexation constants (Kc, 75-240M(-1), for cyclodextrins and 1111-20,365M(-1), for PVP K-30 and PLX-407) were the evidence of stable nature of the binding between CV and carriers. 'Solubility enhancement factor' of ionized-CV was found high enough (340 times) with HP?CD in presence of TA. TA increases the binding efficiency of cyclodextrin and changing the pH of microenvironment in dissolution medium. In addition, ionization process was used to increase the apparent intrinsic solubility of drug. In vitro, dissolution time of CV was remarkably reduced in the solid dispersion system compared to that of pure drug. This may be attributed to increased wettability, dispersing ability and transformation of crystalline state of drug to amorphous one. PMID:24705456

  9. [Chemical adsorption of thiosalicylic acid on silver surface investigated by surface-enhanced Raman scattering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-han; Yuan, Rong-hui; Teng, Yuan-jie; Qin, Yan-ping; Pan, Zai-fa; Ma, Chun-an

    2013-09-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of thiosalicylic acid (TSA) with sulfydryl group was investigated on the surface of electrochemically roughed silver electrode. The result shows that SERS enhancement effect was relative to the concentration and pH, and 1 x 10(-3) mol x L(-1) and pH 4 were the optimal condition. While the concentration increased, the enhancement effect decreased quickly because of steric hindrance. S--Ag peak position by the absorption of TSA was basically consistent, but pH significantly affected its intensity. The distribution and mechanism of TSA at different pH were further investigated. It was showed that TSA was adsorbed on the active silver surface via the sulfydryl group without H of neutral C4H4 (COOH)SH molecule. Competitive adsorption of negative valence C4H4 (COO-) SH and OH- may bring non-SERS under the strong base condition. At the same time, the sulfydryl group significantly influenced the carboxyl vibration peak's change and the distribution of electron cloud of benzene ring conjugate system. PMID:24369647

  10. [Enhancing 2-keto-L-gulonic acid production under hyperosmotic stress by adding sucrose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kejie; Zhou, Jingwen; Liu, Liming; Liu, Jie; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2010-11-01

    This study aimed to further enhance 2-keto-L-gulonic acid (2-KLG) production efficiency. A strategy for enhancing Ketogulonigenium vulgare growth and 2-KLG production by improving B. megaterium growth with sucrose was developed based on the time course of osmolality during 2-KLG industrial scale fermentation and effects of osmolality on cells growth and 2-KLG production. Results showed that the accumulation of 2-KLG and the feeding of alkaline matter led to an osmolality rise of 832 mOsmol/kg in the culture broth. High osmotic stress (1 250 mOsmol/kg) made the growth ofB. megaterium and K. vulgare decreased 15.4% and 31.7%, respectively, and consequently the titer and productivity of 2-KLG reduced 67.5% and 69.3%, respectively. When supplement sucrose under high osmotic condition (1 250 mOsmol/kg), B. megaterium growth was significantly improved, with the result that 2-KLG production was increased 87%. Furthermore, by applying this sucrose addition strategy further to batch fermentation in 3 L fermentor, the productivity of 2-KLG increased 10.4%, and the duration of fermentation declined 10.8%. The results presented here provide a potential strategy for enhancing the target metabolites produced by mixed strains at environmental stress. PMID:21284211

  11. Lysophosphatidic acid enhances survival of human CD34+ cells in ischemic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostic, Ivana; Fidalgo-Carvalho, Isabel; Aday, Sezin; Vazão, Helena; Carvalheiro, Tiago; Grãos, Mário; Duarte, António; Cardoso, Carla; Gonçalves, Lino; Carvalho, Lina; Paiva, Artur; Ferreira, Lino

    2015-01-01

    Several clinical trials are exploring therapeutic effect of human CD34+ cells in ischemic diseases, including myocardial infarction. Unfortunately, most of the cells die few days after delivery. Herein we show that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-treated human umbilical cord blood-derived CD34+ cells cultured under hypoxic and serum-deprived conditions present 2.2-fold and 1.3-fold higher survival relatively to non-treated cells and prostaglandin E2-treated cells, respectively. The pro-survival effect of LPA is concentration- and time-dependent and it is mediated by the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor ? (PPAR?) and downstream, by the activation of pro-survival ERK and Akt signaling pathways and the inhibition of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. In hypoxia and serum-deprived culture conditions, LPA induces CD34+ cell proliferation without maintaining the their undifferentiating state, and enhances IL-8, IL-6 and G-CSF secretion during the first 12?h compared to non-treated cells. LPA-treated CD34+ cells delivered in fibrin gels have enhanced survival and improved cardiac fractional shortening at 2 weeks on rat infarcted hearts as compared to hearts treated with placebo. We have developed a new platform to enhance the survival of CD34+ cells using a natural and cost-effective ligand and demonstrated its utility in the preservation of the functionality of the heart after infarction. PMID:26553339

  12. Addition of alkali to the hydrothermal-mechanochemical treatment of Eucalyptus enhances its enzymatic saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Maki; Endo, Takashi

    2014-02-01

    The effects of alkali on hydrothermal-mechanochemical treatment (hydrothermal treatment combined with wet-milling) were examined with the aim of improving pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass before enzymatic saccharification. After enzymatic saccharification, the highest glucose yield was obtained by autoclaving at 170°C in the presence of 20% NaOH per substrate weight. The wood fiber was unraveled into finer nanofibers by hydrothermal-mechanochemical treatment, thus increasing the specific surface area of the substrate from 11 to 132m(2)/g. Adding 20% NaOH to the treatment further increased the specific surface area of the already fibrillated substrate by 76% (232m(2)/g) due to lignin removal and ester bond cleavage between lignin and hemicellulose. This increase in specific surface area was closely related to the increase in enzymatic digestibility; therefore, NaOH addition may have enhanced the effect of hydrothermal-mechanochemical treatment. PMID:24378778

  13. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} enhances fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joo-Young; Hashizaki, Hikari; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Sakamoto, Tomoya; Takahashi, Nobuyuki [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kawada, Teruo, E-mail: fat@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes and GPDH activity in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation also increased insulin-dependent glucose uptake in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation did not affect lipid accumulation in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased fatty acid oxidation through induction of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in human adipocytes. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) is a key regulator for maintaining whole-body energy balance. However, the physiological functions of PPAR{alpha} in adipocytes have been unclarified. We examined the functions of PPAR{alpha} using human multipotent adipose tissue-derived stem cells as a human adipocyte model. Activation of PPAR{alpha} by GW7647, a potent PPAR{alpha} agonist, increased the mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes such as PPAR{gamma}, adipocyte-specific fatty acid-binding protein, and lipoprotein lipase and increased both GPDH activity and insulin-dependent glucose uptake level. The findings indicate that PPAR{alpha} activation stimulates adipocyte differentiation. However, lipid accumulation was not changed, which is usually observed when PPAR{gamma} is activated. On the other hand, PPAR{alpha} activation by GW7647 treatment induced the mRNA expression of fatty acid oxidation-related genes such as CPT-1B and AOX in a PPAR{alpha}-dependent manner. Moreover, PPAR{alpha} activation increased the production of CO{sub 2} and acid soluble metabolites, which are products of fatty acid oxidation, and increased oxygen consumption rate in human adipocytes. The data indicate that activation of PPAR{alpha} stimulates both adipocyte differentiation and fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes, suggesting that PPAR{alpha} agonists could improve insulin resistance without lipid accumulation in adipocytes. The expected effects of PPAR{alpha} activation are very valuable for managing diabetic conditions accompanied by obesity, because PPAR{gamma} agonists, usually used as antidiabetic drugs, induce excessive lipid accumulation in adipocytes in addition to improvement of insulin resistance.

  14. Retinoic acid enhances skeletal muscle progenitor formation and bypasses inhibition by bone morphogenetic protein 4 but not dominant negative ?-catenin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamboulas Christina

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding stem cell differentiation is essential for the future design of cell therapies. While retinoic acid (RA is the most potent small molecule enhancer of skeletal myogenesis in stem cells, the stage and mechanism of its function has not yet been elucidated. Further, the intersection of RA with other signalling pathways that stimulate or inhibit myogenesis (such as Wnt and BMP4, respectively is unknown. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the molecular mechanisms by which RA enhances skeletal myogenesis and interacts with Wnt and BMP4 signalling during P19 or mouse embryonic stem (ES cell differentiation. Results Treatment of P19 or mouse ES cells with low levels of RA led to an enhancement of skeletal myogenesis by upregulating the expression of the mesodermal marker, Wnt3a, the skeletal muscle progenitor factors Pax3 and Meox1, and the myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs MyoD and myogenin. By chromatin immunoprecipitation, RA receptors (RARs bound directly to regulatory regions in the Wnt3a, Pax3, and Meox1 genes and RA activated a ?-catenin-responsive promoter in aggregated P19 cells. In the presence of a dominant negative ?-catenin/engrailed repressor fusion protein, RA could not bypass the inhibition of skeletal myogenesis nor upregulate Meox1 or MyoD. Thus, RA functions both upstream and downstream of Wnt signalling. In contrast, it functions downstream of BMP4, as it abrogates BMP4 inhibition of myogenesis and Meox1, Pax3, and MyoD expression. Furthermore, RA downregulated BMP4 expression and upregulated the BMP4 inhibitor, Tob1. Finally, RA inhibited cardiomyogenesis but not in the presence of BMP4. Conclusion RA can enhance skeletal myogenesis in stem cells at the muscle specification/progenitor stage by activating RARs bound directly to mesoderm and skeletal muscle progenitor genes, activating ?-catenin function and inhibiting bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signalling. Thus, a signalling pathway can function at multiple levels to positively regulate a developmental program and can function by abrogating inhibitory pathways. Finally, since RA enhances skeletal muscle progenitor formation, it will be a valuable tool for designing future stem cell therapies.

  15. SU-E-T-56: Brain Metastasis Treatment Plans for Contrast-Enhanced Synchrotron Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obeid, L; Adam, J [Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, La Tronche, Rhone-Alpes (France); Tessier, A [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, La Tronche, Rhone-Alpes (France); Vautrin, M; Benkebil, M [DOSIsoft, Cachan, Ile de France (France); Sihanath, R [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, La Tronche, Rhone- Alpes (France)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Iodine-enhanced radiotherapy is an innovative treatment combining the selective accumulation of an iodinated contrast agent in brain tumors with irradiations using monochromatic medium energy x-rays. The aim of this study is to compare dynamic stereotactic arc-therapy and iodineenhanced SSRT. Methods: Five patients bearing brain metastasis received a standard helical 3D-scan without iodine. A second scan was acquired 13 min after an 80 g iodine infusion. Two SSRT treatment plans (with/without iodine) were performed for each patient using a dedicated Monte Carlo (MC) treatment planning system (TPS) based on the ISOgray TPS. Ten coplanar beams (6×6 cm2, shaped with collimator) were simulated. MC statistical error objective was less than 5% in the 50% isodose. The dynamic arc-therapy plan was achieved on the Iplan Brainlab TPS. The treatment plan validation criteria were fixed such that 100% of the prescribed dose is delivered at the beam isocentre and the 70% isodose contains the whole target volume. The comparison elements were the 70% isodose volume, the average and maximum doses delivered to organs at risk (OAR): brainstem, optical nerves, chiasma, eyes, skull bone and healthy brain parenchyma. Results: The stereotactic dynamic arc-therapy remains the best technique in terms of dose conformation. Iodine-enhanced SSRT presents similar performances to dynamic arc-therapy with increased brainstem and brain parenchyma sparing. One disadvantage of SSRT is the high dose to the skull bone. Iodine accumulation in metastasis may increase the dose by 20–30%, allowing a normal tissue sparing effect at constant prescribed dose. Treatment without any iodine enhancement (medium-energy stereotactic radiotherapy) is not relevant with degraded HDVs (brain, parenchyma and skull bone) comparing to stereotactic dynamic arc-therapy. Conclusion: Iodine-enhanced SSRT exhibits a good potential for brain metastasis treatment regarding the dose distribution and OAR criteria.

  16. SU-E-T-56: Brain Metastasis Treatment Plans for Contrast-Enhanced Synchrotron Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Iodine-enhanced radiotherapy is an innovative treatment combining the selective accumulation of an iodinated contrast agent in brain tumors with irradiations using monochromatic medium energy x-rays. The aim of this study is to compare dynamic stereotactic arc-therapy and iodineenhanced SSRT. Methods: Five patients bearing brain metastasis received a standard helical 3D-scan without iodine. A second scan was acquired 13 min after an 80 g iodine infusion. Two SSRT treatment plans (with/without iodine) were performed for each patient using a dedicated Monte Carlo (MC) treatment planning system (TPS) based on the ISOgray TPS. Ten coplanar beams (6×6 cm2, shaped with collimator) were simulated. MC statistical error objective was less than 5% in the 50% isodose. The dynamic arc-therapy plan was achieved on the Iplan Brainlab TPS. The treatment plan validation criteria were fixed such that 100% of the prescribed dose is delivered at the beam isocentre and the 70% isodose contains the whole target volume. The comparison elements were the 70% isodose volume, the average and maximum doses delivered to organs at risk (OAR): brainstem, optical nerves, chiasma, eyes, skull bone and healthy brain parenchyma. Results: The stereotactic dynamic arc-therapy remains the best technique in terms of dose conformation. Iodine-enhanced SSRT presents similar performances to dynamic arc-therapy with increased brainstem and brain parenchyma sparing. One disadvantage of SSRT is the high dose to the skull bone. Iodine accumulation in metastasis may increase the dose by 20–30%, allowing a normal tissue sparing effect at constant prescribed dose. Treatment without any iodine enhancement (medium-energy stereotactic radiotherapy) is not relevant with degraded HDVs (brain, parenchyma and skull bone) comparing to stereotactic dynamic arc-therapy. Conclusion: Iodine-enhanced SSRT exhibits a good potential for brain metastasis treatment regarding the dose distribution and OAR criteria

  17. Geochemistry of rare earth elements in a passive treatment system built for acid mine drainage remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudêncio, Maria Isabel; Valente, Teresa; Marques, Rosa; Sequeira Braga, Maria Amália; Pamplona, Jorge

    2015-11-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) were used to assess attenuation processes in a passive system for acid mine drainage treatment (Jales, Portugal). Hydrochemical parameters and REE contents in water, soils and sediments were obtained along the treatment system, after summer and winter. A decrease of REE contents in the water resulting from the interaction with limestone after summer occurs; in the wetlands REE are significantly released by the soil particles to the water. After winter, a higher water dynamics favors the AMD treatment effectiveness and performance since REE contents decrease along the system; La and Ce are preferentially sequestered by ochre sludge but released to the water in the wetlands, influencing the REE pattern of the creek water. Thus, REE fractionation occurs in the passive treatment systems and can be used as tracer to follow up and understand the geochemical processes that promote the remediation of AMD. PMID:26247412

  18. Increased saccharification yields from aspen biomass upon treatment with enzymatically generated peracetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Shona; Jing, Qing; Katona, Adrian; Kazlauskas, Romas J; Schilling, Jonathan; Tschirner, Ulrike; Aldajani, Waleed Wafa

    2010-03-01

    The recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass to enzymatic release of sugars (saccharification) currently limits its use as feedstock for biofuels. Enzymatic hydrolysis of untreated aspen wood releases only 21.8% of the available sugars due primarily to the lignin barrier. Nature uses oxidative enzymes to selectively degrade lignin in lignocellulosic biomass, but thus far, natural enzymes have been too slow for industrial use. In this study, oxidative pretreatment with commercial peracetic acid (470 mM) removed 40% of the lignin (from 19.9 to 12.0 wt.% lignin) from aspen and enhanced the sugar yields in subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis to about 90%. Increasing the amount of lignin removed correlated with increasing yields of sugar release. Unfortunately, peracetic acid is expensive, and concentrated forms can be hazardous. To reduce costs and hazards associated with using commercial peracetic acid, we used a hydrolase to catalyze the perhydrolysis of ethyl acetate generating 60-70 mM peracetic acid in situ as a pretreatment to remove lignin from aspen wood. A single pretreatment was insufficient, but multiple cycles (up to eight) removed up to 61.7% of the lignin enabling release of >90% of the sugars during saccharification. This value corresponds to a predicted 581 g of fermentable sugars from 1 kg of aspen wood. Improvements in the enzyme stability are needed before the enzymatically generated peracetic acid is a commercially viable alternative. PMID:19484411

  19. RESPONSE OF SPECKLED SPUR-FLOWER TO SALINITY STRESS AND SALICYLIC ACID TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Salachna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the limitations to using ornamental plants in green areas is too high salinity and alkalization of the soil. The adverse effect of salinity on plant growth and development may be effectively reduced by application of salicylic acid. Plectranthus ciliatus is an attractive bed plant with ornamental leaves, recommended for growing in containers, hanging baskets, or sunny borders. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of P. ciliatus to salicylic acid and calcium chloride. The plants were grown in pots in a glasshouse and were sprayed with solution of 0.5 mM salicylic acid and watered with 200 mM calcium chloride. The application of salicylic acid resulted in an increased weight of the aboveground parts, higher stomatal conductance and leaf greenness index and enhanced leaf content of nitrogen, potassium, iron and zinc. Salinity-exposed plants were characterized by reduced weight, stomatal conductance and leaf greenness index. Salt stress caused also a drop in leaf content of nitrogen, potassium and iron, and an increase in calcium, sodium, chlorine, copper and manganese concentration. Salicylic acid seemed to relieve salinity-mediated plant stress.

  20. The role of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the treatment of dyslipidemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuliani, G; Galvani, M; Leitersdorf, E; Volpato, S; Cavalieri, M; Fellin, R

    2009-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are a family of lipids including some subgroups identified by the position of the last double bond in their structure. PUFA n-3 include alpha linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), while PUFA n-6 include linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA). Since PUFA n-3 consumption has been shown to be inversely correlated with coronary heart diseases (CHD) incidence, clinical trials have been principally conducted by administering fish oil supplements or purified PUFA n-3. The relationship between dietary PUFA n-3 and CHD is believed to be only partially mediated by their effects on plasma lipoprotein profile. PUFA n-3 have shown to reduce only slightly total and LDL cholesterol, probably as they crowd saturated fatty acids out of diet. Data on HDL cholesterol suggest that PUFA n-3 produce only a small increase in this fraction. The effect of PUFA n-3 supplementation on plasma triglycerides (TG) is much more important, with a reduction of about 25% in normolipidemic subjects and about 50% in hypertriglyceridemic patients. This effect seems to be mediated by an inhibition of hormone-sensitive lipase, and VLDL secretion, and an increase in apo B liver degradation. They also increase lipoprotein lipase activity resulting in a reduction of post-prandial TG. PUFA n-3 might be used as second line therapy, additional or alternative to fibrates and nicotinic acid, in the treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia. Furthermore, the addition of PUFA n-3 to statin therapy might contribute to normalize TG levels in patients with combined hyperlipidemia. PMID:20041810

  1. Enhancement of lipid production and fatty acid profiling in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CC1010 for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpagam, R; Preeti, R; Ashokkumar, B; Varalakshmi, P

    2015-11-01

    Lipid from microalgae is one of the putative oil resources to facilitate the biodiesel production during this era of energy dissipation and environmental pollution. In this study, the key parameters such as biomass productivity, lipid productivity and lipid content were evaluated at the early stationary phase of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CC1010 cultivated in nutrient starved (nitrogen, phosphorous), glucose (0.05%, 0.1%, 0.15% and 0.2%) and vitamin B12 supplementation (0.001%, 0.002% and 0.003%) in Tris-Acetate-Phosphate (TAP) medium. The lipid content in nitrogen starved media was 61% which is 2.34 folds higher than nutrient sufficient TAP medium. Glucose supplementation has lead to proportional increase in biomass productivity with the increasing concentration of glucose whereas vitamin B12 supplementations had not shown any influence in lipid and biomass production. Further, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling of C. reinhardtii, CC 1010 has revealed more than 80% of total SFA (saturated fatty acid) and MUFA (mono unsaturated fatty acid) content. Quality checking parameters of biodiesel like cetane number, saponification value, iodine number and degree of unsaturation were analyzed and the biodiesel fuel properties were found to be appropriate as per the international standards, EN 14214 and ASTM D6751. Conclusively, among all the treatments, nitrogen starvation with 0.1% glucose supplementation had yielded high lipid content in C. reinhardtii, CC 1010. PMID:25838071

  2. Effect of combination treatment of gamma irradiation and ascorbic acid on physicochemical and microbial quality of minimally processed eggplant (Solanum melongena L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Peerzada R.; Omeera, A.; Suradkar, Prashant P.; Dar, Mohd A.

    2014-10-01

    Gamma irradiation alone and in combination with ascorbic acid was tested for preventing the surface browning and maintaining the quality attributes of minimally processed eggplant. Eggplant samples after preparation were subjected to treatment of gamma irradiation in the dose range of 0.25-1.0 kGy and to combination treatments of ascorbic acid dip at a concentration of 2.0% w/v and gamma irradiation (dose range 0.5-2.0 kGy) followed by storage at 3±1 °C, RH 80%. Studies revealed inverse correlation (r=-0.93) between the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, browning index and the treatments of ascorbic acid and gamma irradiation. Combinatory treatment of 2.0% w/v ascorbic acid and 1.0 kGy gamma irradiation proved to be significantly (p?0.05) effective in inhibiting the PPO activity, preventing the surface browning and maintaining the creamy white color and other quality attributes of minimally processed eggplant up to 6 days of refrigerated storage. Sensory evaluation revealed that control and 0.25 kGy irradiated samples were unacceptable only after 3 days of storage. Samples irradiated at 0.5 kGy and 0.75 kGy were unacceptable after 6 days of storage. Microbial analysis revealed that radiation processing of minimally processed eggplant at 1.0 kGy with and without ascorbic acid resulted in around 1 and 1.5 log reduction in yeast and mold count as well as bacterial count just after treatment and 6 days of storage therefore, enhances the microbial safety.

  3. Decontamination and inspection plan for phase 2 closure of the 300 Area waste acid treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This decontamination and inspection plan (DIP) describes decontamination and verification activities in support of Phase 2 closure of the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS). Phase 2, the second phase of three proposed phases of closure for WATS, provides for closure of all WATS portions of the 334-A Building and some, but not all, WATS portions of the 333 and 303-F Buildings. Closure of the entire unit will not occur until all three closure phases have been completed. The DIP also describes the designation and management-process for waste and debris generated during Phase 2 closure activities. Information regarding the decontamination and verification methods for Phase 1 closure can be found in Decontamination and Inspection Plan, for Phase 1 closure of the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System, 21 WHC-SD-ENV-AP-001. Information regarding Phase 3 closure will be provided in later documents

  4. Easy synthesis of graphene sheets from alfalfa plants by treatment of nitric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jiao, E-mail: qujiao@bhu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); School of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Luo, Chunqiu, E-mail: fplj_lcq@163.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Zhang, Qian; Cong, Qiao [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Yuan, Xing [School of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)

    2013-04-01

    Highlights: ? An easy method for synthesis of graphene sheets using alfalfa plants was introduced. ? An novelty formation mechanism of graphene sheets using alfalfa plants was proposed. ? This method exploits a new carbon source and provides a novel idea to synthesize graphene sheets. -- Abstract: This letter focuses on synthesis of graphene sheets from alfalfa plants by treatment of nitric acid. The transmission electron microscopy image (TEM) demonstrates that the graphene sheets are agglomerated and overlapped, the energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) indicates that the products are pure, and the Raman spectrum shows the graphene sheets are well graphitized. In addition, the formation mechanism of the graphene sheets from alfalfa plants by treatment nitric acid is discussed. These findings inspire the search for a new strategy for synthesis of graphene sheets from renewable natural products, and the lower cost of this new process and carbon source may facilitate industrial production.

  5. Easy synthesis of graphene sheets from alfalfa plants by treatment of nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? An easy method for synthesis of graphene sheets using alfalfa plants was introduced. ? An novelty formation mechanism of graphene sheets using alfalfa plants was proposed. ? This method exploits a new carbon source and provides a novel idea to synthesize graphene sheets. -- Abstract: This letter focuses on synthesis of graphene sheets from alfalfa plants by treatment of nitric acid. The transmission electron microscopy image (TEM) demonstrates that the graphene sheets are agglomerated and overlapped, the energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) indicates that the products are pure, and the Raman spectrum shows the graphene sheets are well graphitized. In addition, the formation mechanism of the graphene sheets from alfalfa plants by treatment nitric acid is discussed. These findings inspire the search for a new strategy for synthesis of graphene sheets from renewable natural products, and the lower cost of this new process and carbon source may facilitate industrial production

  6. Effect of Steam and Acid Treatment on the Feed Value of Lentil Straw

    OpenAIRE

    Kalkan, Hatice; KARABULUT, Ali

    2003-01-01

    This research was carried out to determine the possibilities of improving the feed value of lentil straw with steam and acid treatment. Lentil straw (Lens culinaris M.) was used as feed material and three 3-year-old, K?v?rc?k rams fitted with rumen cannula were used as the animal material. Lentil straw was impregnated with different concentrated H2SO4 solutions, and then autoclaved at different periods and temperatures. After these treatments, the nutrient contents and cell wall components o...

  7. Diagnosis of hydroxyl radicals and the treatment of Acid Orange ? in negative pulsed discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A kind of device supplied with negative pulsed high voltage was designed for water treatment. The nozzle discharge electrode was supplied with high voltage and the cylinder wall of the treatment chamber was grounded. Since the non-thermal plasma, especially, hydroxyl radicals played the dominant role in removing pollutants in the water by discharge plasma, hydroxyl radicals were measured in the negative pulsed discharge process by the optical emission spectroscopy (OES) effects of the repetition rate and the peak value of the pulsed discharge on the hydroxyl radicals' production and the decomposition rate of the Acid Orange ? solution were studied.

  8. Effect of Chronic Valproic Acid Treatment on Hepatic Gene Expression Profile in Wfs1 Knockout Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Marite Punapart; Mall Eltermaa; Julia Oflijan; Silva Sütt; Anne Must; Sulev Kõks; Leonard C. Schalkwyk; Catherine Fernandes; Eero Vasar; Ursel Soomets; Anton Terasmaa

    2014-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is a widely used anticonvulsant and mood-stabilizing drug whose use is often associated with drug-induced weight gain. Treatment with VPA has been shown to upregulate Wfs1 expression in vitro. Aim of the present study was to compare the effect of chronic VPA treatment in wild type (WT) and Wfs1 knockout (KO) mice on hepatic gene expression profile. Wild type, Wfs1 heterozygous, and homozygous mice were treated with VPA for three months (300?mg/kg i.p. daily) and gene expre...

  9. Treatment of acid mine drainage using anaerobic constructed treatment wetlands: predicting longevity with substrate neutralization potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R.C.; Romanek, C.S.; Coughlin, D.P.; Crowe, D.E. [University of Georgia, Aiken, SC (USA). Department of Geology

    1999-07-01

    The prediction of the longevity of an anaerobic constructed treatment wetland (CTW) was tested in a column study. The prediction method is based on the total neutralization potential of a given volume of organic substrate. The results are evaluated and suggest that a minimum life expectancy for an anaerobic CTW can be predicted by this method. Overestimations of longevity will occur at extremely high loading rates and low residence times. The findings suggest that the dominant anaerobic community within the CWT can be used to evaluate CWT health. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Oxidation of fatty acid may be enhanced by a combination of pomegranate fruit phytochemicals and acetic acid in HepG2 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ji Yeon; Ok, Elly; Kim, You Jin; Choi, Kyoung-Sook; Kwon, Oran

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether the combination of phytochemicals and acetic acid in the form of fruit vinegar provides an additive effect on changes of mRNA levels related to fatty acid oxidation in human hepatocyte (HepG2). Among the seven fruit vinegars (Rubuscoreanus, Opuntia, blueberry, cherry, red ginseng, mulberry, and pomegranate) studied, treatment of HepG2 with pomegranate vinegar (PV) at concentrations containing 1 mM acetic acid showed the highest in vitro potentiating effect on the mRNA ...

  11. Chromate enhanced visible light driven TiO2 photocatalytic mechanism on Acid Orange 7 photodegradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Photocatalysis of Cr(VI) and TiO2 were studied by ESR analysis on DMPO-OH signals. • Mechanism of Cr(VI)-enhanced by visible light was different from that by UV. • O2 adsorbed on TiO2 surfaces could react with Cr(VI) to lower photoenergy needed. • Even by UV, no TiO2 photocatalysis was observed without O2 solution. • Visible light and Cr(VI) redox reaction could activate TiO2 and would yield ·OH. - Abstract: When hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is added to a TiO2 photocatalytic reaction, the decolorization and mineralization efficiencies of azo dyes Acid Orange 7 (AO7) are enhanced even though the mechanism is unclear. This study used 5,5-dimethyl-L-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) as the scavenger and the analysis of Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) to investigate this enhancement effect by observing the hydroxyl radical (·OH) generation of the Cr(VI)/TiO2 system under UV and visible light (Vis) irradiation. With Cr(VI), the decolorization efficiencies were approximately 95% and 62% under UV and Vis, and those efficiencies were 25% less in the absence of Cr(VI). The phenomena of the DMPO-OH signals during the ESR analysis under Vis 405 and 550 nm irradiation were obviously the enhancement effects of Cr(VI) in aerobic conditions. In anoxic conditions, the catalytic effects of Cr(VI) could not be achieved due to the lack of a redox reaction between Cr(VI) and the adsorbed oxygen at the oxygen vacancy sites on the TiO2 surfaces. The results suggest that by introducing the agents of redox reactions such as chromate ions, we could lower the photoenergy of TiO2 needed and allow Vis irradiation to activate photocatalysis

  12. Surface plasma treatment of poly(caprolactone) micro, nano, and multiscale fibrous scaffolds for enhanced osteoconductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Deepthi; Shalumon, K T; Chennazhi, K P; Menon, Deepthy; Jayakumar, R

    2014-06-01

    In this study, poly(caprolactone) (PCL) was electrospun to nano, micro, and multiscale (micro-nano) fibers, which were then subjected to low pressure argon and nitrogen plasma treatment. The electrospun fibers contain microfibers of diameter 8-10??m and nanofibers of diameter 200-300?nm. Characterization of the plasma-treated fibers showed that treatment using less oxidizing gas like nitrogen and inert gas like argon functionalize the surface with polar groups that significantly modify the properties of the scaffold. Highly hydrophobic PCL fibrous scaffolds were rendered hydrophilic, with significantly improved biomineralization after the plasma treatment. While plasma treatment on micro and multiscale fibers enhanced their protein adsorption, cell attachment, spreading, elongation, and proliferation, nanofibers showed remarkably improved cell attachment. The applicability of plasma-treated electrospun fibers for differentiation of mesenchymal stem cell toward osteogenic lineage was also studied. Accelerated differentiation toward osteoblast lineage, with maximum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in 14 days was achieved in plasma-treated fibers. Another remarkable outcome was the enhanced ALP activity of the microfibers after plasma treatment, compared with multiscale and nanofibers. Alizarin red staining further confirmed the mineralization of the plasma-treated scaffolds, indicative of maturation of the differentiated cells. This work thus concentrates on harnessing the potential of plasma treatment, for improving the osteoconductivity of fibrous scaffolds, which could be used for bone tissue engineering/regenerative medicine. PMID:24377950

  13. Enhancement of heat transfer for thermal energy storage application using stearic acid nanocomposite with multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A latent heat storage nanocomposite made of stearic acid (SA) and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) is prepared for thermal energy storage application. The thermal properties of the SA/MWCNT nanocomposite are characterized by SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and DSC (differential scanning calorimeter) analysis techniques, and the effects of different volume fractions of MWCNT on the heat transfer enhancement and thermal performance of stearic acid are investigated during the charging and discharging phases. The SEM analysis shows that the additive of MWCNT is uniformly distributed in the phase change material of stearic acid, and the DSC analysis reveals that the melting point of SA/MWCNT nanocomposite shifts to a lower temperature during the charging phase and the freezing point shifts to a higher temperature during the discharging phase when compared with the pure stearic acid. The experimental results show that the addition of MWCNT can improve the thermal conductivity of stearic acid effectively, but it also weakens the natural convection of stearic acid in liquid state. In comparison with the pure stearic acid, the charging rate can be decreased by about 50% while the discharging rate can be improved by about 91% respectively by using the SA/5.0% MWCNT nanocomposite. It appears that the MWCNT is a promising candidate for enhancing the heat transfer performance of latent heat thermal energy storage system. - Highlights: • A nanocomposite made of stearic acid and multi-walled carbon nanotube is prepared for thermal energy storage application. • Effects of multi-walled carbon nanotube on the thermal performance of the nanocomposite are investigated. • Multi-walled carbon nanotube enhances the thermal conductivity but weakens the natural convection of stearic acid. • Discharging/charging rates of stearic acid are increased/decreased by using multi-walled carbon nanotube

  14. The use of fusidic acid gel in pilonidal abscess treatment: cure, recurrence and failure rates.

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, S. P.; Merlin, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Eighty one consecutive patients with pilonidal abscesses were treated by incision, curettage and primary closure with local instillation of 2% fusidic acid gel (Fucidin Caviject). Normal activity was resumed early (mean 13 days) with a low recurrence rate (13%). The regimen allows treatment as an outpatient, healing time is short and there is an early return to work. These features provide potential financial benefits to the Health Service, employee and employer.

  15. Peptide-Targeted Polyglutamic Acid Doxorubicin Conjugates for the Treatment of ?v?6-Positive Cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Huili; McGuire, Michael J.; Li, Shunzi; Brown, Kathlynn C

    2008-01-01

    Most chemotherapeutics exert their effects on tumor cells as well as their healthy counterparts, resulting in dose limiting side effects. Cell-specific delivery of therapeutics can increase the therapeutic window for treatment by maintaining the therapeutic efficacy while decreasing the untoward side effects. We have previously identified a peptide, named H2009.1, which binds to the integrin ?v?6. Here, we report the synthesis of a peptide targeted polyglutamic acid polymer in which the high ...

  16. Core acid treatment influence on well reservoir properties in Kazan oil-gas condensate field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janishevskii, A.; Ezhova, A.

    2015-11-01

    The research involves investigation of the influence of hydrochloric acid (HCI-12%) and mud acid (mixture: HCl - 10% and HF - 3%) treatment on the Upper-Jurassic reservoir properties in Kazan oil-gas condensate field wells. The sample collection included three lots of core cylinders from one and the same depth (all in all 42). Two lots of core cylinders were distributed as following: first lot - reservoir properties were determined, and, then thin sections were cut off from cylinder faces; second lot- core cylinders were exposed to hydrochloric acid treatment, then, after flushing the reservoir properties were determined, and thin sections were prepared. Based on the quantitative petrographic rock analysis, involvin 42 thin sections, the following factors were determined: granulometric mineral composition, cement content, intergranular contacts and pore space structure. According to the comparative analysis of initial samples, the following was determined: content decrease of feldspar, clay and mica fragments, mica, clay and carbonate cement; increase of pore spaces while in the investigated samples- on exposure of rocks to acids effective porosity and permeability value range is ambiguous.

  17. Relation between Omega 3 Fatty Acid, Iron, Zinc and Treatment of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Shalileh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In some studies, it is suggested that a number of dietary factors including essential fatty acid, iron and zinc deficiency, may be linked to attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD. However, the exact mechanism of this relationship is yet unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between omega-3 fatty acids, zinc, and iron in etiopathology and management of ADHD. For the purpose of this study, Science Direct, PubMed, and Medline databases were explored and thirty-four relevant articles in english language were collected. Eighteen out of twenty-two studies confirmed the relationship between omega-3 fatty acid and ADHD. In addition, the role of insufficient store of iron in developing ADHD symptoms and the positive effect of iron supplement in improvement of ADHD behavioral symptoms have been shown. Also, plasma zinc concentration in children with ADHD was lower than the normal population, and the effect of zinc supplement on reducing on attentive-deficit symptoms was contradictory. Although polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and iron supplements are not suggested as main treatment for ADHD, but if future studies confirm the positive results of that, use of these supplements as complementary treatment will affect ADHD symptoms. Considering the little amount of studies on zinc, more research is necessary.

  18. Ursodeoxycholic acid for treatment of cholestasis in patients with hepatic amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faust Dominik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Amyloidosis represents a group of different diseases characterized by extracellular accumulation of pathologic fibrillar proteins in various tissues and organs. Severe amyloid deposition in the liver parenchyma has extrahepatic involvement predominantly in the kidney or heart. We evaluated the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid, in four patients with severe hepatic amyloidosis of different etiologies, who presented with increased alkaline phosphatase and ?-glutamyl transferase. Case report. The study included four patients who presented with amyloidosis-associated intrahepatic cholestasis. Three of them had renal amyloidosis which developed 1-3 years before cholestasis occurred, the remaining one having intrahepatic cholestasis as the primary sign of the disease. Amyloidosis was identified from liver biopsies in all patients by its specific binding to Congo red and green birefringence in polarized light. The biochemical nature and the class of amyloid deposits were identified immunohistochemically. In addition to their regular treatment, the patients received 750 mg ursodeoxycholic acid per day. After 2-4 weeks all patients had a significant decrease of serum alkaline phosphatase and ?-glutamyl transferase, and their general status significantly improved. Conclusion. Treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid may be beneficial in patients with hepatic amyloidosis, and do extend indications for the use of ursodeoxycholic acid in amyloidotic cholestatic liver disease.

  19. Improvement of Haramay Fiber by Pre-treatment of Retting Process withPhosphoric Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haramay as bast fiber contains of cellulose fiber as the main part, mixedwith hemi cellulose, pectin, and lignin as binding material for cellulosefiber to keep it together in the bundle form. For textile material, this bastfiber has to be freed from its binding material, called as retting process,before subjecting to scouring, dyeing and finishing process in textileindustry. In the retting process the dissolve of binding material can be doneeither by using enzyme in bio technology or extraction with strong alkalinecondition in common technology. Using sodium hydroxide for dissolving thebinding material can be carried out easily with good dissolving ability, butcan render the strength retention of the cellulose fiber. Pre-treatment ofthe bast fiber with phosphoric acid (H3PO4), is expected to hydrolyze someof the binding materials that can not be dissolved in alkaline condition,including natural pigment that colored the fiber with creamy white. In thisstudy, the pre-treatment process before retting with phosphoric acid wascarried out in various condition, such as concentration of phosphoric acid (5ml/l- 25 ml/l), time and temperature of pre-treatment (1-3 hours at 50 oC or12-24 hours at room temperature), followed by neutralization in dilutealkaline. The retting process was carried out by means of scouring in variousconcentration of sodium hydroxide (NaOH 38oBe, 10 ml/l-30 m/l), and then wascontinued with bleaching process in hydrogen peroxide solution. Aftercarrying out those experiment, the bast fiber that called haramay wassubjected to testing for weight reduction, strength retention and degree ofwhiteness. From the testing results it is concluded that pre-treatment withphosphoric acid can increase the weight reduction, strength retention ortenacity and degree of whiteness of haramay fiber compared to the oneswithout pre-treatment with phosphoric acid. The best result was obtained bypre-treatment with 5 ml/l H3PO4 at 50 oC for 2 hours, continued by rettingprocess with 20 ml/l NaOH 38oBe at boiling temperature for one hour. (author)

  20. Enhanced specific capacitance of modified needle cokes by controlling oxidation treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Sunhye; Kim, Ick-Jun; Choi, In-Sik; Soo Kim, Hyun [Battery Research Group, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, 28-1 Sungju-dong, Changwon 641-120 (Korea, Republic of); Tack Kim, Yu [219-8, Gasnadong, Gumchum-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-01

    The electric double-layer performance of needle cokes can be affected by the morphology of structures. Hence, we introduce modified needle cokes by using simple oxidation treatment. The degree of graphitization with high specific capacitance is controlled by acid and heat treatment. The active sites of cokes are increased with increasing oxidation time. Dilute nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) and sodium chlorate (NaClO{sub 3}) are used for the activation of cokes. In this case, the interlayer distance is dramatically increased from 3.5 to 8.9 A. The specific capacitances are 33 F g{sup -1} and 30 F ml{sup -1}, respectively, on a two-electrode system with a potential range of 0-2.5 V. The behaviors of double-layer capacitance are demonstrated by the charge-discharge process and the morphologies of modified needle cokes are analyzed by XRD, FE-SEM, BET and elemental analysis.

  1. Symptomatic Hypocalcemia Associated with Zoledronic Acid Treatment for Osteoporosis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmohsen H. Al Elq

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous bisphosphonates are widely used in the management of solid tumors, metastatic bone disease, metabolic bone diseases and hypercalcemia of malignancies. Recently, yearly intravenous injections of zoledronic acid, one of the potent nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates, have also been approved for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Although infrequently observed, asymptomatic hypocalcemia mainly due to intravenous bisphosphonates has been documented. Here we report a female patient who exhibited profound symptomatic hypocalcemia after receiving intravenous zoledronic acid as treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The patient was not assessed for calcium status prior to the intravenous bisphosphonate therapy, and she was later found to have severe vitamin D deficiency. To our knowledge, this is the first patient with symptomatic hypocalcemia to be reported after zoledronic acid was approved for the management of osteoporosis. We highlight the importance of evaluating calcium and vitamin D levels before initiating intravenous bisphosphonate treatment, particularly in the presence of widespread vitamin D deficiency and the likelihood of future increases in the prescription of intravenous bisphosphonates.

  2. Experimental investigation of an enhanced self-sensing active constrained layer damping treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kwok Ming; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2001-07-01

    In a self-sensing actuator, a single piece of piezoelectric element is used simultaneously as a sensor and an actuator. Since the sensor and actuator are placed at the same location, they are truly collocated. Recently, a self-sensing active constrained layer (ACL) damping treatment has been introduced. This work has shown that a self-sensing ACL will eliminate system instability. However, while the viscoelastic layer of the ACL treatment will enhance damping, it will also reduce the control authority from the active source to the host structure. In this study, an enhanced self-sensing ACL treatment is proposed. The viscoelastic layer is still sandwiched between the host structure and the piezoelectric constraining layer. The single piezoelectric element is used as an actuator and a sensor simultaneously. By adding two edge elements onto the boundaries of the piezoelectric cover sheet, the actuator authority can be increased due to the direct transmissibility from the piezoelectric layer to the host structure. On the other hand, the sensing capability of the piezoelectric element can also be increased because the converse transmissibility from the host structure to the piezoelectric layer is enhanced. A beam structure with a partially covered enhanced self-sensing ACL is implemented to investigate the system characteristics. Both actuating and sensing abilities are evaluated. Their concurrent sensing/actuating performance is also investigated. Experimental results show that the two-way bypass effect via the edge elements can significantly improve the piezoelectric actuating/sensing abilities, and the overall performance. Therefore, this enhanced self-sensing ACL damping treatment can provide an effective means for structural vibration control.

  3. 46 CFR 54.25-20 - Low temperature operation-ferritic steels with properties enhanced by heat treatment (modifies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... properties enhanced by heat treatment (modifies UHT-5(c), UHT-6, UHT-23, and UHT-82). 54.25-20 Section 54.25...—ferritic steels with properties enhanced by heat treatment (modifies UHT-5(c), UHT-6, UHT-23, and UHT-82... section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR...

  4. Enhanced optoelectronic quality of perovskite thin films with hypophosphorous acid for planar heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Pathak, Sandeep; Sakai, Nobuya; Stergiopoulos, Thomas; Nayak, Pabitra K.; Noel, Nakita K.; Haghighirad, Amir A.; Burlakov, Victor M.; deQuilettes, Dane W.; Sadhanala, Aditya; Li, Wenzhe; Wang, Liduo; Ginger, David S.; Friend, Richard H.; Snaith, Henry J.

    2015-01-01

    Solution-processed metal halide perovskite semiconductors, such as CH3NH3PbI3, have exhibited remarkable performance in solar cells, despite having non-negligible density of defect states. A likely candidate is halide vacancies within the perovskite crystals, or the presence of metallic lead, both generated due to the imbalanced I/Pb stoichiometry which could evolve during crystallization. Herein, we show that the addition of hypophosphorous acid (HPA) in the precursor solution can significantly improve the film quality, both electronically and topologically, and enhance the photoluminescence intensity, which leads to more efficient and reproducible photovoltaic devices. We demonstrate that the HPA can reduce the oxidized I2 back into I?, and our results indicate that this facilitates an improved stoichiometry in the perovskite crystal and a reduced density of metallic lead. PMID:26615763

  5. Non-invasive visualization of in vivo drug delivery of poly(L-glutamic acid) using contrast enhanced MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Furong; Ke, Tianyi; JEONG, EUN-KEE; Wang, Xuli; Sun, Yongen; Johnson, Melody; Lu, Zheng-Rong

    2006-01-01

    Biomedical imaging is valuable for non-invasive investigation of in vivo drug delivery with polymer conjugates. It can provide real-time information on pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and drug delivery efficiency of the conjugates. Non-invasive visualization of in vivo drug delivery of polymer conjugates with contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was studied with paramagnetically labeled poly(L-glutamic acid) in an animal tumor model. Poly(L-glutamic acid) is a biocompatible an...

  6. Optimization of date syrup for enhancement of the production of citric acid using immobilized cells of Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    Yasser S. Mostafa; Saad A. Alamri

    2012-01-01

    Date syrup as an economical source of carbohydrates and immobilized Aspergillus niger J4, which was entrapped in calcium alginate pellets, were employed for enhancing the production of citric acid. Maximum production was achieved by pre-treating date syrup with 1.5% tricalcium phosphate to remove heavy metals. The production of citric acid using a pretreated medium was 38.87% higher than an untreated one that consumed sugar. The appropriate presence of nitrogen, phosphate and magnesium appear...

  7. Cocaine abstinence following chronic treatment alters cerebral metabolism in dopaminergic reward regions. Bromocriptine enhances recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2-[14C]deoxyglucose autoradiography was used to determine local cerebral glucose utilization (lCGU) in rats following chronic cocaine treatment and subsequent abstinence. lCGU was examined in 43 discrete brain regions in animals which had received daily injections of cocaine for 14 days (10 mg/kg) followed by 3 days of saline or bromocriptine (10 mg/kg) treatment. Cocaine abstinence following chronic treatment significantly reduced lCGU in several regions including mesocorticolimbic structures such as ventral tegmental area, medial prefrontal cortex, and nucleus accumbens (NAc). Within the NAc, however, only the rostral pole showed significant reduction. In contrast, when bromocriptine treatment accompanied abstinence, lCGU was no longer reduced in mesocorticolimbic and most other regions, implying that metabolic recovery was enhanced by bromocriptine treatment during early abstinence following chronic cocaine treatment. These data suggest that cerebral metabolism is decreased during cocaine abstinence following chronic treatment in critical brain regions, and that this alteration can be prevented by treatment with direct-acting dopamine agonists such as bromocriptine

  8. Cocaine abstinence following chronic treatment alters cerebral metabolism in dopaminergic reward regions. Bromocriptine enhances recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clow, D.W.; Hammer, R.P. Jr. (Univ. of Hawaii School of Medicine, Honolulu (USA))

    1991-01-01

    2-(14C)deoxyglucose autoradiography was used to determine local cerebral glucose utilization (lCGU) in rats following chronic cocaine treatment and subsequent abstinence. lCGU was examined in 43 discrete brain regions in animals which had received daily injections of cocaine for 14 days (10 mg/kg) followed by 3 days of saline or bromocriptine (10 mg/kg) treatment. Cocaine abstinence following chronic treatment significantly reduced lCGU in several regions including mesocorticolimbic structures such as ventral tegmental area, medial prefrontal cortex, and nucleus accumbens (NAc). Within the NAc, however, only the rostral pole showed significant reduction. In contrast, when bromocriptine treatment accompanied abstinence, lCGU was no longer reduced in mesocorticolimbic and most other regions, implying that metabolic recovery was enhanced by bromocriptine treatment during early abstinence following chronic cocaine treatment. These data suggest that cerebral metabolism is decreased during cocaine abstinence following chronic treatment in critical brain regions, and that this alteration can be prevented by treatment with direct-acting dopamine agonists such as bromocriptine.

  9. Endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux with polyacrylate polyalcohol copolymer and dextranomer/hyaluronic acid in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akif Turk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer and polyacrylate polyalcohol copolymer in endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux disease in adult patients with and without chronic renal failure. Materials and Methods Thirty two patients (12 female, 20 male with a total of 50 renal units were treated for vesicoureteral reflux. There were 26 (81% chronic renal failure patients. The success of treatment was evaluated by voiding cystouretrography at 3rd and 12th months after subureteric injection. The persistence of reflux was considered as failure. Patients were divided into two groups according to injected material. Age, sex, grade of reflux and treatment results were recorded and evaluated. Results Reflux was scored as grade 1 in seven (14%, grade 2 in 16 (32%, grade 3 in 21 (42% and grade 4 in six (12% renal units. There was not patient with grade 5 reflux. Fourteen renal units (28% were treated with dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (group 1 and 36 renal units (72% were treated with polyacrylate polyalcohol copolymer (group 2. The overall treatment success was achieved at 40 renal units (80%. The treatment was successful at 11 renal units (79% in group 1 and 29 renal units (81% in group 2 (p = 0.71. There was not statistically significant difference between two groups with patients with chronic renal failure in terms of treatment success (p = 1.00. Conclusions The effectiveness of two bulking agents was similar in treatment of vesicoureteral reflux disease in adult patients and patients with chronic renal failure.

  10. Endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux with polyacrylate polyalcohol copolymer and dextranomer/hyaluronic acid in adults

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Akif, Turk; Ahmet, Selimoglu; Kadir, Demir; Osman, Celik; Erkin, Saglam; Fatih, Tarhan.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer and polyacrylate polyalcohol copolymer in endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux disease in adult patients with and without chronic renal failure. Materials and Methods Thirty two patients [...] (12 female, 20 male) with a total of 50 renal units were treated for vesicoureteral reflux. There were 26 (81%) chronic renal failure patients. The success of treatment was evaluated by voiding cystouretrography at 3rd and 12th months after subureteric injection. The persistence of reflux was considered as failure. Patients were divided into two groups according to injected material. Age, sex, grade of reflux and treatment results were recorded and evaluated. Results Reflux was scored as grade 1 in seven (14%), grade 2 in 16 (32%), grade 3 in 21 (42%) and grade 4 in six (12%) renal units. There was not patient with grade 5 reflux. Fourteen renal units (28%) were treated with dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (group 1) and 36 renal units (72%) were treated with polyacrylate polyalcohol copolymer (group 2). The overall treatment success was achieved at 40 renal units (80%). The treatment was successful at 11 renal units (79%) in group 1 and 29 renal units (81%) in group 2 (p = 0.71). There was not statistically significant difference between two groups with patients with chronic renal failure in terms of treatment success (p = 1.00). Conclusions The effectiveness of two bulking agents was similar in treatment of vesicoureteral reflux disease in adult patients and patients with chronic renal failure.

  11. Mobilization of Cr(VI) from chromite ore processing residue through acid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinjum, James M; Benson, Craig H; Edil, Tuncer B

    2008-02-25

    Batch leaching studies on chromite ore processing residue (COPR) were performed using acids to investigate leaching of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), with respect to particle size, reaction time, and type of acid (HNO(3) and H(2)SO(4)). Aqueous Cr(VI) is maximized at approximately 0.04 mol Cr(VI) per kg of dry COPR at pH 7.6-8.1. Cr(VI) mobilized more slowly for larger particles, and the pH increased with time and increased more rapidly for smaller particles, suggesting that rate limitations occur in the solid phase. With H(2)SO(4), the pH stabilized at a higher value (8.8 for H(2)SO(4) vs. 8.0 for HNO(3)) and more rapidly (16 h vs. 30 h), and the differences in pH for different particle sizes were smaller. The acid neutralization capacity (ANC) of COPR is very large (8 mol HNO(3) per kg of dry COPR for a stable eluate pH of 7.5). Changes to the elemental and mineralogical composition and distribution in COPR particles after mixing with acid indicate that Cr(VI)-bearing solids dissolved. However, concentrations of Cr(VI) >2800 mg kg(-1) (>50% of the pre-treatment concentration) were still found after mixing with acid, regardless of the particle size, reaction time, or type of acid used. The residual Cr(VI) appears to be partially associated with poorly-ordered Fe and Al oxyhydroxides that precipitated in the interstitial areas of COPR particles. Remediation strategies that use HNO(3) or H(2)SO(4) to neutralize COPR or to maximize Cr(VI) in solution are likely to require extensive amounts of acid, may not mobilize all of the Cr(VI), and may require extended contact time, even under well-mixed conditions. PMID:18067949

  12. Postoperative ileus: Impact of pharmacological treatment, laparoscopic surgery and enhanced recovery pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knut Magne Augestad, Conor P Delaney

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Almost all patients develop postoperative ileus (POI after abdominal surgery. POI represents the single largest factor influencing length of stay (LOS after bowel resection, and has great implications for patients and resource utilization in health care. New methods to treat and decrease the length of POI are therefore of great importance. During the past decade, a substantial amount of research has been performed evaluating POI, and great progress has been made in our understanding and treatment of POI. Laparoscopic procedures, enhanced recovery pathways and pharmacologic treatment have been introduced. Each factor has substantially contributed to decreasing the length of POI and thus LOS after bowel resection. This editorial outlines resource utilization of POI, normal physiology of gut motility and pathogenesis of POI. Pharmacological treatment, fast track protocols and laparoscopic surgery can each have significant impact on pathways causing POI. The optimal integration of these treatment options continues to be assessed in prospective studies.

  13. Strategies and techniques to enhance constructed wetland performance for sustainable wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiming; Fan, Jinlin; Zhang, Jian; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Liang, Shuang; Hu, Zhen; Liu, Hai

    2015-10-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been used as an alternative to conventional technologies for wastewater treatment for more than five decades. Recently, the use of various modified CWs to improve treatment performance has also been reported in the literature. However, the available knowledge on various CW technologies considering the intensified and reliable removal of pollutants is still limited. Hence, this paper aims to provide an overview of the current development of CW strategies and techniques for enhanced wastewater treatment. Basic information on configurations and characteristics of different innovations was summarized. Then, overall treatment performance of those systems and their shortcomings were further discussed. Lastly, future perspectives were also identified for specialists to design more effective and sustainable CWs. This information is used to inspire some novel intensifying methodologies, and benefit the successful applications of potential CW technologies. PMID:26268626

  14. Enhancement of Biobutanol Production by Butyric Acid Addition Using Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 (ATCC 13564

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Butanol is an important industrial chemical and has gained attention as an important fuel because of its advantages of being less corrosive and water tolerant as compared to the ethanol. This study revealed the effects of butyric acid as an additive on growth and Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE production using batch culture of Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4. Different combinations of glucose and butyric acid were studied to finalize the best productive ratio for ABE and butanol production. The highest ABE and butanol production was obtained when 4 g L-1 of butyric acid was used in the presence of 30 g L-1 of glucose. The inhibitory effects of butyric acid on bacterial growth were also investigated using C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 and mild inhibitory effects were found at high butyric acid concentration. On the other hand, no linear correlation between butyric acid and butanol production was observed. Production of 17.76 g L-1 butanol with a productivity of 0.15 g L-1 h-1 from 4 g L-1 of butyric acid proved the ability of C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 to be tolerant to the certain concentration of butyric acid for the enhanced butanol production. Butyric acid was not only contributing as an additive or stimulating agent to the butanol pathway but also was being utilized as a co-substrate. Enhanced butanol production using growing cells of C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 in the presence of specific concentration of butyric acid (4 g L-1 butyric acid as a co-substrate with glucose can be carried out without any remarkable inhibition to bacterial growth.

  15. Utilizing Intrinsic Properties of Polyaniline to Detect Nucleic Acid Hybridization through UV-Enhanced Electrostatic Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Partha Pratim; Gloria, Jared N; Amato, Dahlia N; Amato, Douglas V; Patton, Derek L; Murali, Beddhu; Flynt, Alex S

    2015-10-12

    Detection of specific RNA or DNA molecules by hybridization to "probe" nucleic acids via complementary base-pairing is a powerful method for analysis of biological systems. Here we describe a strategy for transducing hybridization events through modulating intrinsic properties of the electroconductive polymer polyaniline (PANI). When DNA-based probes electrostatically interact with PANI, its fluorescence properties are increased, a phenomenon that can be enhanced by UV irradiation. Hybridization of target nucleic acids results in dissociation of probes causing PANI fluorescence to return to basal levels. By monitoring restoration of base PANI fluorescence as little as 10(-11) M (10 pM) of target oligonucleotides could be detected within 15 min of hybridization. Detection of complementary oligos was specific, with introduction of a single mismatch failing to form a target-probe duplex that would dissociate from PANI. Furthermore, this approach is robust and is capable of detecting specific RNAs in extracts from animals. This sensor system improves on previously reported strategies by transducing highly specific probe dissociation events through intrinsic properties of a conducting polymer without the need for additional labels. PMID:26388289

  16. Ultrasensitive immunoassay for CA125 detection using acid site compound as signal and enhancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiang; Wang, Huan; Wu, Dan; Fan, Dawei; Zhang, Yong; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin

    2015-11-01

    A novel sensitive electrochemical immunosensor was proposed for detection of CA125 based on ferrocenecarboxylic acid (FA), HCl-doped polyaniline (H-PANI) and chitosan hydrochloride (CS-HCl), which were used as substrate materials to generate signal and to enlarge specific surface area. The composite of these three materials (acid center compound, FA@H-PANI@CS-HCl) can be connected by hydrogen (H) in each molecule. Ag@Co3O4 nanosheets were used in the immunosensor to amplify the antibody capacity and to enhance the sensitivity of the immunoassay. This kind of sensor was novel, concise and it is the first time to be used in the detection of CA125. The biosensor exhibited low detection limit (0.25pg/mL) and wide linear range (0.001-25ng/mL). The stability, selectivity and reproducibility were acceptable. Serum sample analysis proved that the proposed sensor owned well precision and it might be used in potential clinic testing application in the future. PMID:26452859

  17. Can biliary–cyst communication be predicted by Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR cholangiography before treatment for hepatic hydatid disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To evaluate the role of gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) in the evaluation of biliary–cyst communication (BCC) before treatment for hepatic hydatid disease (HHD). Material and methods: Thirty-one patients with clinical and laboratory follow-up for HHD with suspected diagnosis of BCC underwent three-dimensional (3D) T2-weighted MRC and T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRC, dynamic 3D gradient echo (GRE) sequences, using Gd-EOB-DTPA to identify the presence or absence of BCC. A total of 45 hepatic hydatid cysts in the 31 patients were evaluated for cyst diameter, BCC, and the time to contrast-enhancement of the hydatid cyst after Gd-EOB-DTPA injection. The surgical and interventional radiological procedures and imaging findings were compared. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of both techniques in identification of BCC were calculated. Results: The accuracy of contrast-enhanced MRC for identifying BCC was superior with a sensitivity of 87.4% and accuracy of 90.5% (p < 0.05). A diameter of ?10 cm was associated with significantly increased risk of BCC on contrast-enhanced MRC images (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The use of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRC yields information that complements T2-weighted MRC findings and improves identification of BCC. The use of T2-weighted MRC, in addition to contrast-enhanced MRC, is recommended to increase preoperative accuracy of identifying BCC

  18. In vitro evaluation of copaiba oil as a kojic acid skin enhancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Vicente Machado de Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of copaíba oil to act as a skin penetration enhancer for the depigmenting agent kojic acid was evaluated using an in vitro diffusion system with static flux and shed rattlesnake skin membrane, Crotalus durissus terrificus, in saline solution at 34±2 ºC as the fluid receptor. The quantities of kojic acid liberated into the fluid receptor were determined by spectrophotometry at 268 nm with intervals of one and a half hours. The membranes, pretreated with copaíba oil at 25% and 50% v/v, gave flux values of 8.0 and 12.7 µg/cm²/h, permeability values of 2.0 and 3.3 cm×10-4/h, and promotion factors of 4.1 and 3.7, respectively. These results indicate that copaíba oil, at the two concentrations studied, has the capacity to promote penetration of kojic acid.A propriedade do óleo de copaíba como agente promotor de penetração cutânea do despigmentante ácido kójico foi avaliada utilizando-se sistema de difusão in vitro com fluxo estático, membrana de pele da serpente cascavel - Crotalus durissus terrificus e solução salina a 34±2 ºC como fluido receptor. As quantidades liberadas do ácido kójico no fluido receptor foram determinadas por espectrofotometria em 268 nm em intervalos de 1:30 h. As membranas pré-tratadas com óleo de copaíba a 25 e 50% v/v apresentaram valores de fluxo de 8,0 e 12,7 µg/cm²/h, permeabilidade de 2,0 e 3,3 cm×10-4/h, e fatores de promoção de 4,1 e 3,7, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que o óleo de copaíba, nas duas concentrações estudadas, apresentou capacidade de promoção da penetração do ácido kójico.

  19. In vitro evaluation of copaiba oil as a kojic acid skin enhancer

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Robson Vicente Machado de, Oliveira; Mitsuko Taba, Ohara; Marta Maria Duarte Carvalho, Vila; Marcos Moisés, Gonçalves.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A propriedade do óleo de copaíba como agente promotor de penetração cutânea do despigmentante ácido kójico foi avaliada utilizando-se sistema de difusão in vitro com fluxo estático, membrana de pele da serpente cascavel - Crotalus durissus terrificus e solução salina a 34±2 ºC como fluido receptor. [...] As quantidades liberadas do ácido kójico no fluido receptor foram determinadas por espectrofotometria em 268 nm em intervalos de 1:30 h. As membranas pré-tratadas com óleo de copaíba a 25 e 50% v/v apresentaram valores de fluxo de 8,0 e 12,7 µg/cm²/h, permeabilidade de 2,0 e 3,3 cm×10-4/h, e fatores de promoção de 4,1 e 3,7, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que o óleo de copaíba, nas duas concentrações estudadas, apresentou capacidade de promoção da penetração do ácido kójico. Abstract in english The capacity of copaíba oil to act as a skin penetration enhancer for the depigmenting agent kojic acid was evaluated using an in vitro diffusion system with static flux and shed rattlesnake skin membrane, Crotalus durissus terrificus, in saline solution at 34±2 ºC as the fluid receptor. The quantit [...] ies of kojic acid liberated into the fluid receptor were determined by spectrophotometry at 268 nm with intervals of one and a half hours. The membranes, pretreated with copaíba oil at 25% and 50% v/v, gave flux values of 8.0 and 12.7 µg/cm²/h, permeability values of 2.0 and 3.3 cm×10-4/h, and promotion factors of 4.1 and 3.7, respectively. These results indicate that copaíba oil, at the two concentrations studied, has the capacity to promote penetration of kojic acid.

  20. Statistical optimization for improved indole-3-acetic acid (iaa production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and demonstration of enhanced plant growth promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sasirekha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to study the statistical optimization of medium components for improved Indole-3- acetic acid (IAA production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Colorimetric analysis showed maximum IAA (132 ìg mL-1 in the medium supplemented with tryptophan (0.5 g L-1. The maximum production was achieved after 96 h of incubation. Yeast extract, tryptophan and EDTA were identified as significant components influencing IAA production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, using the Plackett- Burman method. The statistical optimization approach led to the production of 318 ìg mL-1 of IAA within 24 h of incubation. Statistical approach was found to be very effective in optimizing the medium components in a manageable number of experimental runs with overall 2.4 fold increase in IAA production. TLC and GC- MS analysis further confirmed the IAA production in the cell filtrates of the strain. GC-MS analysis and tryptophan side chain oxidase confirmed the existence of atleast 2 possible pathways for IAA by this strain. Inoculation of P. aeruginosa culture filtrate enhanced seed germination (82.4% and increase in root length and shoot length (~ 2.6 and ~ 1.1 folds over the control of cowpea seeds over the control treatment under pot culture conditions.

  1. Statistical optimization for improved indole-3-acetic acid (iaa) production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and demonstration of enhanced plant growth promotion

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    B, Sasirekha; S, Shivakumar.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to study the statistical optimization of medium components for improved Indole-3- acetic acid (IAA) production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Colorimetric analysis showed maximum IAA (132 ìg mL-1) in the medium supplemented with tryptophan (0.5 g L-1). The maximum produc [...] tion was achieved after 96 h of incubation. Yeast extract, tryptophan and EDTA were identified as significant components influencing IAA production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, using the Plackett- Burman method. The statistical optimization approach led to the production of 318 ìg mL-1 of IAA within 24 h of incubation. Statistical approach was found to be very effective in optimizing the medium components in a manageable number of experimental runs with overall 2.4 fold increase in IAA production. TLC and GC- MS analysis further confirmed the IAA production in the cell filtrates of the strain. GC-MS analysis and tryptophan side chain oxidase confirmed the existence of atleast 2 possible pathways for IAA by this strain. Inoculation of P. aeruginosa culture filtrate enhanced seed germination (82.4%) and increase in root length and shoot length (~ 2.6 and ~ 1.1 folds over the control) of cowpea seeds over the control treatment under pot culture conditions.

  2. Treatment with the Hyaluronic Acid Synthesis Inhibitor 4-Methylumbelliferone Suppresses SEB-Induced Lung Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga N. Uchakina

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to bacterial superantigens, such as staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB, can lead to the induction of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS. To date, there are no known effective treatments for SEB-induced inflammation. In the current study we investigated the potential use of the hyaluronic acid synthase inhibitor 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU on staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB induced acute lung inflammation. Culturing SEB-activated immune cells with 4-MU led to reduced proliferation, reduced cytokine production as well as an increase in apoptosis when compared to untreated cells. Treatment of mice with 4-MU led to protection from SEB-induced lung injury. Specifically, 4-MU treatment led to a reduction in SEB-induced HA levels, reduction in lung permeability, and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Taken together, these results suggest that use of 4-MU to target hyaluronic acid production may be an effective treatment for the inflammatory response following exposure to SEB.

  3. Treatment of bacillary dysentery in Vietnamese children: two doses of ofloxacin versus 5-days nalidixic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinh, H; Wain, J; Chinh, M T; Tam, C T; Trang, P T; Nga, D; Echeverria, P; Diep, T S; White, N J; Parry, C M

    2000-01-01

    Nalidixic acid (NA: 55 mg/kg daily for 5 days) is the recommended treatment for uncomplicated bacillary dysentery in areas where multidrug-resistant Shigella are prevalent. An open randomized comparison of this NA regimen with 2 doses of ofloxacin (total 15 mg/kg) was conducted in 1995/96 in 135 Vietnamese children with fever and bloody diarrhoea. Sixty-six children with a bacterial pathogen isolated were eligible for analysis. Of the 63 Shigella isolates, 39 (62%) were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Resolution times for fever and diarrhoea were similar in the 2 groups, but excretion time of stool pathogen was significantly longer in the NA recipients [median (range) days 1 (1-9) vs 1 (1-2), P = 0.001]. There were 9 (25%) treatment failures in the NA regimen and 3 (10%) in the ofloxacin group; P = 0.1. Two patients had NA-resistant Shigella flexneri. One of these isolates was selected during NA treatment. From a clinical and public health standpoint a 2-dose regimen of ofloxacin is preferable to nalidixic acid in the treatment of bacillary dysentery. PMID:10975012

  4. Correlation of liver parenchymal gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid enhancement and liver function in humans with hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kubota, Kei; TAMURA, TAIJI; AOYAMA, NOBUTAKA; Nogami, Munenobu; HAMADA, NORIHIKO; Nishioka, Akihito; OGAWA, YASUHIRO

    2012-01-01

    Animal studies have demonstrated that liver function parameters affect the degree of liver enhancement by gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA). The present study prospectively investigated whether liver function parameters and liver damage scores similarly correlate with the degree of liver enhancement by Gd-EOB-DTPA in humans with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A total of 41 patients (32 males, 9 females; mean age, 71.9 years; range, 38–86 years) with sus...

  5. A Stability Enhancement Method for Centrifugal Compressors using Active Control Casing Treatment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuanyang; Xiao, Jun; Li, Liansheng; Yang, Qichao; Liu, Guangbin; Wang, Le

    2015-08-01

    The centrifugal compressors are widely used in many fields. When the centrifugal compressors operate at the edge of the surge line, the compressor will be unstable. In addition, if the centrifugal compressor runs at this situation long time, the damage will be occurred on compressor. There are some kinds of method to improve and enlarge the range of the centrifugal compressors, such as inlet guide vane, and casing treatment. For casing treatment method, some structures have been researched, such as holed recirculation, basic slot casing treatment and groove casing treatment. All these researches are the passive methods. This paper present a new stability enhancement method based Active Control Casing Treatment (ACCT). All parts of this new method are introduced in detail. The control strategy of the system is mentioned in the paper. As a research sample, a centrifugal compressor having this system is researched using CFD method. The study focuses on the effect of the active control system on the impeller flow. The vortex in impeller is changed by the active control system. And this leads to the suppression of the extension of vortex blockage in impeller and to contribute to the enhancement of the compressor operating range.

  6. Treatment of murine tumors using acoustic droplet vaporization-enhanced high intensity focused ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Meili; Jiang, Lixing; Fabiilli, Mario L.; Zhang, Aili; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Xu, Lisa X.

    2013-09-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) can be applied focally and noninvasively to thermally ablate solid tumors. Long treatment times are typically required for large tumors, which can expose patients to certain risks while potentially decreasing the therapeutic efficacy of the treatment. Acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) is a promising modality that can enhance the efficacy of tumor treatment using HIFU. In this study, the therapeutic effects of combined HIFU and ADV was evaluated in mice bearing subcutaneously-implanted 4T1 tumors. Histological examination showed that the combination of HIFU and ADV generated a mean necrotic area in the tumor that was 2.9-fold larger than with HIFU alone. A significant enhancement of necrosis was found in the periphery of the tumor, where the blood supply was abundant. Seven days after treatment, the tumors treated with combined HIFU and ADV were 30-fold smaller in volume than tumors treated with HIFU alone. The study demonstrates the potential advantage of combining HIFU and ADV in tumor treatment.

  7. Treatment of murine tumors using acoustic droplet vaporization-enhanced high intensity focused ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) can be applied focally and noninvasively to thermally ablate solid tumors. Long treatment times are typically required for large tumors, which can expose patients to certain risks while potentially decreasing the therapeutic efficacy of the treatment. Acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) is a promising modality that can enhance the efficacy of tumor treatment using HIFU. In this study, the therapeutic effects of combined HIFU and ADV was evaluated in mice bearing subcutaneously-implanted 4T1 tumors. Histological examination showed that the combination of HIFU and ADV generated a mean necrotic area in the tumor that was 2.9-fold larger than with HIFU alone. A significant enhancement of necrosis was found in the periphery of the tumor, where the blood supply was abundant. Seven days after treatment, the tumors treated with combined HIFU and ADV were 30-fold smaller in volume than tumors treated with HIFU alone. The study demonstrates the potential advantage of combining HIFU and ADV in tumor treatment. (paper)

  8. Endohyphal bacterium enhances production of indole-3-acetic acid by a foliar fungal endophyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Michele T; Gunatilaka, Malkanthi K; Wijeratne, Kithsiri; Gunatilaka, Leslie; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Numerous plant pathogens, rhizosphere symbionts, and endophytic bacteria and yeasts produce the important phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), often with profound effects on host plants. However, to date IAA production has not been documented among foliar endophytes -- the diverse guild of primarily filamentous Ascomycota that live within healthy, above-ground tissues of all plant species studied thus far. Recently bacteria that live within hyphae of endophytes (endohyphal bacteria) have been detected, but their effects have not been studied previously. Here we show not only that IAA is produced in vitro by a foliar endophyte (here identified as Pestalotiopsis aff. neglecta, Xylariales), but that IAA production is enhanced significantly when the endophyte hosts an endohyphal bacterium (here identified as Luteibacter sp., Xanthomonadales). Both the endophyte and the endophyte/bacterium complex appear to rely on an L-tryptophan dependent pathway for IAA synthesis. The bacterium can be isolated from the fungus when the symbiotic complex is cultivated at 36°C. In pure culture the bacterium does not produce IAA. Culture filtrate from the endophyte-bacterium complex significantly enhances growth of tomato in vitro relative to controls and to filtrate from the endophyte alone. Together these results speak to a facultative symbiosis between an endophyte and endohyphal bacterium that strongly influences IAA production, providing a new framework in which to explore endophyte-plant interactions. PMID:24086270

  9. Peracetic acid-ionic liquid pretreatment to enhance enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uju; Abe, Kojiro; Uemura, Nobuyuki; Oshima, Toyoji; Goto, Masahiro; Kamiya, Noriho

    2013-06-01

    To enhance enzymatic saccharification of pine biomass, the pretreatment reagents peracetic acid (PAA) and ionic liquid (IL) were validated in single reagent pretreatments or combination pretreatments with different sequences. In a 1h saccharification, 5-25% cellulose conversion was obtained from the single pretreatment of PAA or IL. In contrast, a marked enhancement in conversion rates was achieved by PAA-IL combination pretreatments (45-70%). The PAA followed by IL (PAA+IL) pretreatment sequence was the most effective for preparing an enzymatic digestible regenerated biomass with 250-fold higher glucose formation rates than untreated biomass and 2- to 12-fold higher than single pretreatments with PAA or IL alone. Structural analysis confirmed that this pretreatment resulted in biomass with highly porous structural fibers associated with the reduction of lignin content and acetyl groups. Using the PAA+IL sequence, biomass loading in the pretreatment step can be increased from 5% to 15% without significant decrease in cellulose conversion. PMID:23612165

  10. Enhanced Photolysis of Nucleic Acid Monomers by Pyrophosphate in the Simulated Primitive Soup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongjiang, Wang; Zhifang, Chai; Xianming, Pan

    1999-05-01

    In our simulation of the photochemistry of the primitive soup, it was found that yield of chromophore loss of some nucleic acid bases, nucleosides and nucleotides [NA] undergoing ultraviolet radiation by medium pressure mercury lamp [MPML] was enhanced by pyrophosphate and triphosphate whether O2 is present or not. The yield of chromophore loss of guanosine, uracil, 5' CMP, and the derivatives of adenine and thymine was observed to rise with the increase of molar concentration of pyrophosphate in N2-saturated systems. In air-saturated samples, increase in yield of chromophore loss was observed when the concentration of pyrophosphate reaches 5×10-4 M, relative yield of chromophore loss (CLrel) coming to maximum in the range from 0.01 to 0.1 M, followed by a slight decline with the further increase of pyrophosphate concentration. The enhancement of photolysis of NA by pyrophosphate was due to the interaction between NA and pyrophosphate radicals photoionized by UV quanta of wavelength less than about 210 nm in the emission spectrum of a MPML. The relevance of this phenomenon to the origin of life has been discussed as well.

  11. Selection of enhanced antimicrobial activity posing lactic acid bacteria characterised by (GTG)5-PCR fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šalomskien?, Joana; Abraitien?, Asta; Jonkuvien?, Dovil?; Ma?ionien?, Irena; Repe?kien?, J?rat?

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was a detail evaluation of genetic diversity among the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains having an advantage of a starter culture in order to select genotypically diverse strains with enhanced antimicrobial effect on some harmfull and pathogenic microorganisms. Antimicrobial activity of LAB was performed by the agar well diffusion method and was examined against the reference strains and foodborne isolates of Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Typhimurium. Antifungal activity was tested against the foodborne isolates of Candida parapsilosis, Debaromyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Pichia guilliermondii, Yarowia lipolytica, Aspergillus brasiliensis, Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium herbarum, Penicillium chrysogenum and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. A total 40 LAB strains representing Lactobacillus (23 strains), Lactococcus (13 strains) and Streptococcus spp. (4 strains) were characterised by repetitive sequence based polymerase chain reaction fingerprinting which generated highly discriminatory profiles, confirmed the identity and revealed high genotypic heterogeneity among the strains. Many of tested LAB demonstrated strong antimicrobial activity specialised against one or few indicator strains. Twelve LAB strains were superior in suppressing growth of the whole complex of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. These results demonstrated that separate taxonomic units offered different possibilities of selection for novel LAB strains could be used as starter cultures enhancing food preservation. PMID:26139877

  12. PPAR{delta} is a fatty acid sensor, which enhances mitochondrial oxidation in insulin : secreting cells and protects against fatty acid induced dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnskjaer, Kim; Frigerio, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARdelta) is implicated in regulation of mitochondrial processes in a number of tissues, and PPARdelta activation is associated with decreased susceptibility to ectopic lipid deposition and metabolic disease. Here we show that PPARdelta is the PPAR subtype expressed at the highest level in insulinoma cells and rat pancreatic islets. Furthermore, PPARdelta displays high transcriptional activity and acts in pronounced synergy with RXR. Interestingly, unsaturated fatty acids mimic the effects of synthetic PPARdelta agonists. Using shRNA-mediated knockdown we demonstrate that the ability of unsaturated fatty acids to stimulate fatty acid metabolism is dependent on PPARdelta. Activation of PPARdelta increases the fatty acid oxidation potential in INS-1E beta-cells, enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from islets, and protects GSIS against adverse effects on GSIS associated with prolonged fatty acid exposure. The presented results indicate thatthe nuclear receptor PPARdelta is a fatty acid sensor that adapts beta-cell mitochondrial function to long-term changes in unsaturated fatty acid levels. As maintenance of mitochondrial metabolism is essential to preserve beta-cell function, these data indicate that dietary or pharmacological activation of PPARdelta and RXR may be beneficial in the prevention of beta-cell dysfunction.

  13. [Enhancing treatment efficiency of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis by regional lymphotropic therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uba?dullaev, A M; Belotserkovski?, V G

    1999-01-01

    To reduce the duration of treatment, to reduce the incidence of adverse effects, to enhance the total efficiency of chemotherapy in the complex treatment of 95 patients with different forms of pulmonary tuberculosis, lymphotropic therapy was used with subcutaneous 10% isoniazid in combination with heparin, lazix or lidase. Lymphotropic therapy caused no side effects in response to isoniazid. Lymphotropic therapy was found to substantially accelerate abacillation, the cessation of intoxication symptoms, the closure of decay cavities and to reduce hospital stay by 1.0-1.5 months. PMID:10715948

  14. CyberKnife SRS: new technologies that enhance the treatment of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CyberKnife Robotic Radiosurgery System (Accuracy Incorporated, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) is used worldwide to treat tumors and neurological disorders anywhere in the body with sub-millimetre beam delivery accuracy. Accuracy has developed a number of new technologies in recent years to enhance the treatment of cancer patients. Such new technologies include a fast Monte Carlo Dose Calculation algorithm, Sequential Optimization dose planning, the IrisTM Variable Aperture Collimator, an 800 MU/min Linear Accelerator, and Optimized Path Traversal. These technologies enable physicists and physicians to plan treatments quickly and easily and deliver them with unrivalled accuracy and precision

  15. Adsorption and Vibrational Study of Folic Acid on Gold Nanopillar Structures Using Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, John J.; Rindzevicius, Tomas; Rozo, Ciro E.; Boisen, Anja

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study of adsorption and vibrational features of folic acid, using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). A gold-capped silicon nanopillar (Au NP) with a height of 600 nm and a width of 120 nm was utilized to study the vibrational features of FA molecules adsorbed on the nanopillars within the high electromagnetic field areas. The adsorption behaviour of folic acid and the band assignment of the main vibrations together with the optimized geometry of folic acid and folic ...

  16. Postharvest Propionic Acid and Hot Water Treatment for the Control of Black Spot ntrol of Black Spot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Black spot disease caused by Alternaria alternata (Fr. is one of the main postharvest diseases of Chinese Ya pears and causes serious economic loss during storage. The fungi-toxicity of postharvest propionic acid and hot water treatment at different concentrations and temperatures was investigated in vitro and directly on Ya pears. The in vitro results showed that A. alternata was susceptible to propionic acid solutions at all tested temperatures. The toxicity of propionic acid increased linearly and the LC 99 decreased from 13.43 to 4.31 g/L with an increase in temperature from 20 to 45?C. The results in Ya pears showed that propionic acid and hot water treatment dramatically controlled black spot disease and 99% inhibition was achieved upon treatment with 9 g/L propionic acid solution for 30 min at 45?C. Furthermore, the treatment inhibited the respiration of fruits and did not cause any adverse effects on other quality parameters; however, slight surface injury was noted at 9 g/L. The safety of propionic acid treatment was further confirmed by residue analysis. The results of this study suggest that postharvest propionic acid and hot water treatment is an alternative method for the control of black spot disease in Ya pears.

  17. Properties enhancement of Al-Zn-Mg alloy by retrogression and re-aging heat treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid H.R.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The higher strength 7xxx aluminum alloys exhibited low resistance to stress corrosion cracking (SCC when aged to the peak hardness (T6 temper. The overaged alloys (T7 temper developed to enhance the SCC with loss in the strength of the alloy. Recently, retrogression and re-aging (RRA heat treatments are used for improving the SCC behavior for alloys in T6 tempers such as 7075, 7475 and 8090. In this study, an application of retrogression and re-aging heat treatment processes are carried out to enhance toughness properties of the 7079-T651 aluminum alloy, while maintaining the higher strength of T651-temper. The results of charpy impact energy and electrical conductivity tests show a significantly increases in absorbed energy and electrical conductivity values, when the alloys are exposed to various retrogression temperatures (190, 200, 210°C and times (20, 40, 60 minutes, and then re-aged at 160°C for 18 hours.

  18. Src family kinase inhibitor PP2 enhances differentiation of acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line induced by combination of all-trans-retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yun Seok; Cheong, Hee-Jeong; Kim, Sook-Ja; Kim, Kyoung Ha; Lee, Namsu; Park, Hee Sook; Won, Jong-Ho

    2014-08-01

    An all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO) combination yields high-quality remission and survival in newly-diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). For subsequent similar data, NCCN guidelines indicate that ATRA plus ATO is one of the recommended regimens for the treatment of patients with APL. We demonstrated SFK (Src family kinase) inhibitor PP2-enhanced APL cell differentiation when combined with either ATRA or ATO with difference in activation of RA-induced genes. In this study, we investigated whether SFK inhibitor PP2 could enhance the differentiation of NB4 APL cells when combined with ATRA and ATO and the changes in the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) derived from the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) target gene. Treatment of NB4 cells with 1 ?M of ATRA, 0.5 ?M of ATO, or 10 ?M of PP2 for 72 h induced expression of CD11b-positive cells by 13.01%, 11.53% or 13.28%, respectively. However, the combination of ATRA and ATO and the combination of three agents (ATRA, ATO, and PP2) led to a significantly higher expression of CD11b-positive cells (30.96% and 63.17%, respectively). The synergistic effect of the combination of three agents was more significant than the combination of ATRA and ATO. These results were confirmed with NBT staining. These effects were not related to apoptosis. Annexin-V-fluorescein staining revealed that a combination of ATRA and ATO and combination of the three agents did not induce apoptosis in NB4 cells. The expression of ICAM-1 markedly increased in cells treated with the combination of the three agents. These findings suggest that the SFK inhibitor can enhance differentiation of APL cells combined with ATRA and ATO. FDA approved SFK inhibitors, such as dasatinib and bosutinib, may be beneficial for the treatment of APL with a combination of ATRA and ATO. PMID:24953245

  19. Antioxidative Peptides Derived from Enzyme Hydrolysis of Bone Collagen after Microwave Assisted Acid Pre-Treatment and Nitrogen Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Sun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the preparation method of antioxidant peptides by enzymatic hydrolysis of bone collagen after microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection. Phosphoric acid showed the highest ability of hydrolysis among the four other acids tested (hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and/or citric acid. The highest degree of hydrolysis (DH was 9.5% using 4 mol/L phosphoric acid with a ratio of 1:6 under a microwave intensity of 510 W for 240 s. Neutral proteinase gave higher DH among the four protease tested (Acid protease, neutral protease, Alcalase and papain, with an optimum condition of: (1 ratio of enzyme and substrate, 4760 U/g; (2 concentration of substrate, 4%; (3 reaction temperature, 55 °C and (4 pH 7.0. At 4 h, DH increased significantly (P < 0.01 under nitrogen protection compared with normal microwave assisted acid pre-treatment hydrolysis conditions. The antioxidant ability of the hydrolysate increased and reached its maximum value at 3 h; however DH decreased dramatically after 3 h. Microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection could be a quick preparatory method for hydrolyzing bone collagen.

  20. Image-Guided Convection-Enhanced Delivery Platform in the Treatment of Neurological Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Massimo S. Fiandaca; Forsayeth, John R.; Dickinson, Peter J.; Krystof S. Bankiewicz

    2008-01-01

    Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of substances within the human brain is becoming a more frequent experimental treatment option in the management of brain tumors, and more recently in Phase 1 trials for gene therapy in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Benefits of this intracranial drug-transfer technology include a more efficient delivery of large volumes of therapeutic agent to the target region when compared to more standard delivery approaches (biopolymers, local infusion). In this article we d...

  1. Using pretreatment and posttreatment assessments to enhance and evaluate existing treatment packages.

    OpenAIRE

    Richman, D M; Berg, W K; Wacker, D P; Stephens, T; Rankin, B; Kilroy, J.

    1997-01-01

    Pretreatment assessment data were used to enhance an existing treatment package to reduce aggression and to increase positive social interactions between a young boy and his peers. Based on the results of pretreatment assessments, additional reinforcement (differential reinforcement of alternative behavior with adult attention) and punishment (performing a nonpreferred task during time-out) components were added to an existing nonresetting differential reinforcement of other behavior (access ...

  2. Neuraminidase treatment of respiratory syncytial virus-infected cells or virions, but not target cells, enhances cell-cell fusion and infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection of HeLa cells induces fusion, but transient expression of the three viral glycoproteins induces fusion poorly, if at all. We found that neuraminidase treatment of RSV-infected cells to remove sialic acid (SA) increases fusion dramatically and that the same treatment of transiently transfected cells expressing the three viral glycoproteins, or even cells expressing the fusion (F) protein alone, results in easily detectable fusion. Neuraminidase treatment of the effector cells, expressing the viral glycoproteins, enhanced fusion while treatment of the target cells did not. Likewise, infectivity was increased by treating virions with neuraminidase, but not by treating target cells. Reduction of charge repulsion by removal of the negatively charged SA is unlikely to explain this effect, since removal of negative charges from either membrane would reduce charge repulsion. Infection with neuraminidase-treated virus remained heparan-sulfate-dependent, indicating that a novel attachment mechanism is not revealed by SA removal. Interestingly, neuraminidase enhancement of RSV infectivity was less pronounced in a virus expressing both the G and the F glycoproteins, compared to virus expressing only the F glycoprotein, possibly suggesting that the G protein sterically hinders access of the neuraminidase to its fusion-enhancing target

  3. Bio-physicochemical effects of gamma irradiation treatment for naphthenic acids in oil sands fluid fine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudens, Ryan; Reid, Thomas; VanMensel, Danielle; Prakasan M R, Sabari; Ciborowski, Jan J H; Weisener, Christopher G

    2016-01-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are persistent compounds that are components of most petroleum, including those found in the Athabasca oil sands. Their presence in freshly processed tailings is of significant environmental concern due to their toxicity to aquatic organisms. Gamma irradiation (GI) was used to reduce the toxicity and concentration of NAs in oil sands process water (OSPW) and fluid fine tailings (FFT). This investigation systematically studied the impact of GI on the biogeochemical development and progressive reduction of toxicity using laboratory incubations of fresh and aged tailings under anoxic and oxic conditions. GI reduced NA concentrations in OSPW by up to 97% in OSPW and in FFT by 85%. The GI-treated FFT exhibited increased rates of biogeochemical change, dependent on the age of the tailings source. Dissolved oxygen (DO) flux was enhanced in GI-treated FFT from fresh and aged source materials, whereas hydrogen sulfide (HS(-)) flux was stimulated only in the fresh FFT. Acute toxicity to Vibrio fischeri was immediately reduced following GI treatment of fresh OSPW. GI treatment followed by 4-week incubation reduced toxicity of aged OSPW to V. fischeri. PMID:26356184

  4. Retinoic acid and cAMP inhibit rat hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation and enhance cell differentiation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Ionta; M.C., Rosa; R.B., Almeida; V.M., Freitas; P., Rezende-Teixeira; G.M., Machado-Santelli.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third highest cause of cancer death worldwide. In general, the disease is diagnosed at an advanced stage when potentially curative therapies are no longer feasible. For this reason, it is very important to develop new therapeutic approaches. Retinoic acid (RA) i [...] s a natural derivative of vitamin A that regulates important biological processes including cell proliferation and differentiation. In vitro studies have shown that RA is effective in inhibiting growth of HCC cells; however, responsiveness to treatment varies among different HCC cell lines. The objective of the present study was to determine if the combined use of RA (0.1 µM) and cAMP (1 mM), an important second messenger, improves the responsiveness of HCC cells to RA treatment. We evaluated the proliferative behavior of an HCC cell line (HTC) and the expression profile of genes related to cancer signaling pathway (ERK and GSK-3?) and liver differentiation (E-cadherin, connexin 26 (Cx26), and Cx32). RA and cAMP were effective in inhibiting the proliferation of HTC cells independently of combined use. However, when a mixture of RA and cAMP was used, the signals concerning the degree of cell differentiation were increased. As demonstrated by Western blot, the treatment increased E-cadherin, Cx26, Cx32 and Ser9-GSK-3? (inactive form) expression while the expression of Cx43, Tyr216-GSK-3? (active form) and phosphorylated ERK decreased. Furthermore, telomerase activity was inhibited along treatment. Taken together, the results showed that the combined use of RA and cAMP is more effective in inducing differentiation of HTC cells.

  5. Enhancement of fatty acid-based polyurethanes cytocompatibility by non-covalent anchoring of chondroitin sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Paz, Rodolfo J; Lligadas, Gerard; Ronda, Juan C; Galià, Marina; Ferreira, Ana M; Boccafoschi, Francesca; Ciardelli, Gianluca; Cádiz, Virginia

    2012-12-01

    For tissue engineering purpose biopolymer chondroitin sulfate (CS), one of the major components of cartilage and bone extracellular matrix, was immobilized onto the surface of amino-functionalized polyurethane (PU) films derived from naturally occurring oleic and 10-undecenoic acids. The amino-functionalized PUs were prepared by aminolysis with 1,6-hexamethylenediamine of synthesized PUs containing methyl ester groups. FTIR-ATR, XPS, SEM, and water contact angle measurements were used to confirm the surface changes at each step of treatment, both in morphologies and chemical composition. Cytotoxicity and cell morphology analysis using osteoblast cell line MG63 showed that PU-CS films are suitable materials for cell growth, spreading, and differentiation. PMID:23077104

  6. Insulin treatment restores glutamate (?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) receptor function in the hippocampus of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswaprakash, Nilmini; Vaithianathan, Thirumalini; Viswaprakash, Ajitan; Judd, Robert; Parameshwaran, Kodeeswaran; Suppiramaniam, Vishnu

    2015-09-01

    Type 1 diabetes is associated with cognitive dysfunction. Cognitive processing, particularly memory acquisition, depends on the regulated enhancement of expression and function of glutamate receptor subtypes in the hippocampus. Impairment of memory was been detected in rodent models of type 1 diabetes induced by streptozotocin (STZ). This study examines the functional properties of synaptic ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors and the expression of synaptic molecules that regulate glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the hippocampus of STZ-diabetic rats. The AMPA receptor-mediated miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) and single-channel properties of synaptosomal AMPA receptors were examined after 4 weeks of diabetes induction. Results show that amplitude and frequency of mEPSCs recorded from CA1 pyramidal neurons were decreased in diabetic rats. In addition, the single-channel properties of synaptic AMPA receptors from diabetic rat hippocampi were different from those of controls. These impairments in synaptic currents gated by AMPA receptors were accompanied by decreased protein levels of AMPA receptor subunit GluR1, the presynaptic protein synaptophysin, and the postsynaptic anchor protein postsynaptic density protein 95 in the hippocampus of diabetic rats. Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), an extracellular matrix molecule abundantly expressed in the brain, and the polysialic acid (PSA) attached to NCAM were also downregulated in the hippocampus of diabetic rats. Insulin treatment, when initiated at the onset of diabetes induction, reduced these effects. These findings suggest that STZ-induced diabetes may result in functional deteriorations in glutamatergic synapses in the hippocampus of rats and that these effects may be reduced by insulin treatment. PMID:25807926

  7. Gliding arc surface treatment of glass-fiber-reinforced polyester enhanced by ultrasonic irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Norrman, Kion

    2011-01-01

    A gliding arc is a plasma generated between diverging electrodes and extended by a high speed gas flow. It can be operated in air at atmospheric pressure. It potentially enables selective chemical processing with high productivity, and is useful for adhesion improvement of material surfaces. The efficiency of such a plasma treatment at atmospheric pressure can be further improved by ultrasonic irradiation onto the surface during the treatment. In the present work glass fiber reinforced polyester (GFRP) plates are treated using an atmospheric pressure gliding arc with and without ultrasonic irradiation to study adhesion improvement. The airflow at the arc ignition directed the GFRP surface at a grazing angle of approximately 30°. The ultrasonic waves of the frequency range between 20 and 40 kHz were introduced vertically to the GFRP surface through a cylindrical waveguide. It is found that ultrasonic irradiation reduced the OH rotational temperature of the gliding arc. The wettability of the GFRP surface was significantly improved by the plasma treatment without ultrasonic irradiation, and tended to improve furthermore at higher power to the plasma. Ultrasonic irradiation during the plasma treatment consistently improved the wettability. It is seen that polar functional groups were introduced at the surface by the gliding arc treatment, and that the treatment efficiency was enhanced by the ultrasonic irradiation, indicating that the adhesive property would be improved. TOF-SIMS ion images indicate that oxygen and nitrogen are uniformly attached at the treated surfaces with and without ultrasonic irradiation. The principal effect of the ultrasonic irradiation is attributed to enhanced oxidation during the plasma treatment.

  8. DEPOSITION TANK CORROSION TESTING FOR ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING POST OXALIC ACID DESTRUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.

    2011-08-29

    An Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed to aid in the high level waste tank closure at the Savannah River Site. The ECC process uses an advanced oxidation process (AOP) to destroy the oxalic acid that is used to remove residual sludge from a waste tank prior to closure. The AOP process treats the dissolved sludge with ozone to decompose the oxalic acid through reactions with hydroxyl radicals. The effluent from this oxalic acid decomposition is to be sent to a Type III waste tank and may be corrosive to these tanks. As part of the hazardous simulant testing that was conducted at the ECC vendor location, corrosion testing was conducted to determine the general corrosion rate for the deposition tank and to assess the susceptibility to localized corrosion, especially pitting. Both of these factors impact the calculation of hydrogen gas generation and the structural integrity of the tanks, which are considered safety class functions. The testing consisted of immersion and electrochemical testing of A537 carbon steel, the material of construction of Type III tanks, and 304L stainless steel, the material of construction for transfer piping. Tests were conducted in solutions removed from the destruction loop of the prototype ECC set up. Hazardous simulants, which were manufactured at SRNL, were used as representative sludges for F-area and H-area waste tanks. Oxalic acid concentrations of 1 and 2.5% were used to dissolve the sludge as a feed to the ECC process. Test solutions included the uninhibited effluent, as well as the effluent treated for corrosion control. The corrosion control options included mixing with an inhibited supernate and the addition of hydroxide. Evaporation of the uninhibited effluent was also tested since it may have a positive impact on reducing corrosion. All corrosion testing was conducted at 50 C. The uninhibited effluent was found to increase the corrosion rate by an order of magnitude from less than 1 mil per year (mpy) for an inhibited waste to a range of 5 to 23.4 mpy, depending on sludge chemistry. F-area-based effluents were, in general, more corrosive. Effective corrosion control measures included evaporation, hydroxide additions and mixing with supernates containing a representative supernate chemistry (5 M hydroxide and 1.5 M nitrite). Corrosion rates with these measures were generally 0.2 mpy. The A537 carbon steel was found to be susceptible to pitting when the corrosion control measure involved mixing the ECC effluent with a supernate chemistry having minimal inhibitor concentrations (0.5 M hydroxide and 0.3 M nitrite). Corrosion rates in this case were near 1 mpy.

  9. Acid treatments of montmorillonite-rich clay for Fe removal using a factorial design method

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lindiane, Bieseki; Francine, Bertell; Helen, Treichel; Fabio G., Penha; Sibele B. C., Pergher.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Montmorillonite clays are of great interest for industrial processes such as catalysis and adsorption. The textural properties of clays can be modified in an attempt to increase their uses. This paper describes the acid treatment of natural montmorillonite clay. The materials were characterized usin [...] g X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AA) and BET surface area measurements. Three different acids (HCl, HNO3 and H2SO4) were tested, and HCl and H2SO4 were more efficient for removing Fe from the clay. The results indicate that HCl better preserves the material structure because less Al is removed. A central composite design (CCD) 2² was applied to evaluate the treatment using HCl. The temperature and concentration presented positive effects on the removal of Fe, Al and Mg. Combinations of the HCl acid solution concentration and temperature, such as 4 mol.L-1/50 °C and 1 mol.L-1/75 °C, assured that Fe was removed with less damage to the structure.

  10. Endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux with dextranomer/ hyaluronic acid-our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Mylarappa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We report our experience with subureteral submucosal injection therapy for vesicoureteral reflux and determine the safety and efficacy in patients treated with dextranomer/ hyaluronic acid co-polymer. Background: Vesicoureteral reflux affects 1% of children and increases the chances of urinary tract infection, pyelonephritis, hypertension and chronic renal insufficiency. The aim of identifying and treating vesicoureteral reflux in children is to prevent occurrence of long term complications. Method: A total of sixty three patients aged between 1-21 years with grade III – V vesicoureteral reflux, who had failed on conservative treatment were considered for this study during February 2004 to May 2012.Vesicoureteral reflux was diagnosed by voiding cysto-urethrogram (VCUG. They underwent subureteral injection of dextranomer/ hyaluronic acid co-polymer. Results: Among the sixty three patients treated, 51(81% were cured with single injection while a second injection raised the cure rate to 60(95%. Conclusion: The minimally invasive treatment of vesicoureteral reflux with deflux (dextranomer/ hyaluronic acid co-polymer is an effective alternative procedure to open surgical technique requiring minimal operating time with low morbidity.

  11. In Vivo Treatment of Propionibacterium acnes Infection with Liposomal Lauric Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornpattananangkul, Dissaya; Fu, Victoria; Thamphiwatana, Soracha; Zhang, Li; Chen, Michael; Vecchio, James; Gao, Weiwei; Huang, Chun-Ming; Zhang, Liangfang

    2013-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is a Gram-positive bacterium strongly associated with acne infection. While many antimicrobial agents have been used in clinic to treat acne infection by targeting P. acnes, these existing anti-acne agents usually produce considerable side effects. Herein, we report the development and evaluation of liposomal lauric acids (LipoLA) as a new, effective and safe therapeutic agent for the treatment of acne infection. By incorporating lauric acids into the lipid bilayer of liposomes, we observed that the resulting LipoLA readily fused with bacterial membranes, causing effective killing of P. acnes by disrupting bacterial membrane structures. Using a mouse ear model, we demonstrated that the bactericidal property of LipoLA against P. acne was well preserved at physiological conditions. Topically applying LipoLA in a gel form onto the infectious sites led to eradication of P. acnes bacteria in vivo. Further skin toxicity studies showed that LipoLA did not induce acute toxicity to normal mouse skin tissues, while benzoyl peroxide and salicylic acid, the two most popular over-the-counter acne medications, generated moderate to severe skin irritation within 24 h. These results suggest that LipoLA hold a high therapeutic potential for the treatment of acne infection and other P. acnes related diseases. PMID:23495239

  12. Hypoxia treatment on germinating faba bean (Vicia faba L. seeds enhances GABA-related protection against salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runqiang Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA is a non-protein amino acid with some functional properties for human health. Its content is usually lower in plant seeds. Hypoxia or salt (NaCl stress is an effective way for accumulating GABA during seed germination. However, NaCl stress on GABA accumulation under hypoxia is currently infrequent. The effect of NaCl on GABA accumulation in germinating faba bean (Vicia faba L. under hypoxia was therefore investigated in this study. Faba bean seeds were steeped in citric acid buffer (pH 3.5 containing NaCl with a final O2 concentration of 5.5 mg L-1 and germinated for 5 d. Results showed that 60 mmol L-1 NaCl was the optimum concentration for GABA accumulation in germinating faba beans under hypoxia. Germination for 5 d under hypoxia-NaCl stress was less beneficial for GABA accumulation than only hypoxia (control. Polyamine degradation pathway played a more important role for accumulating GABA in germinating faba bean as an adaptive response to NaCl stress. Removing NaCl significantly increased GABA content, while it decreased glutamate decarboxylase (GAD activity. Simultaneously, polyamine was accumulated, which might be related to the enhancement of physiological activity after recovery. When treated with aminoguanidine (AG for 3 d, GABA content decreased by 29.82%. These results indicated that the tolerance ability of GABA shunt to NaCl stress was weaker than that of polyamine degradation pathway. The NaCl treatment for 3 d under hypoxia could raise the contribution ratio of polyamine degradation pathway for GABA accumulation. The contribution ratio of polyamine degradation pathway for GABA formation was 29.82% when treated for at least 3 d

  13. Correction: Bisphosphonate-functionalized hyaluronic acid showing selective affinity for osteoclasts as a potential treatment for osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kootala, Sujit; Ossipov, Dmitri; van den Beucken, Jeroen J J P; Leeuwenburgh, Sander; Hilborn, Jöns

    2015-10-15

    Correction for 'Bisphosphonate-functionalized hyaluronic acid showing selective affinity for osteoclasts as a potential treatment for osteoporosis' by Sujit Kootala et al., Biomater. Sci., 2015, 3, 1197-1207. PMID:26247158

  14. The Unexpected Uses of Urso- and Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid in the Treatment of Non-liver Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vang, Sheila; Longley, Katie

    2014-01-01

    Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is the taurine conjugate of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a US Food and Drug Administration–approved hydrophilic bile acid for the treatment of certain cholestatic liver diseases. There is a growing body of research on the mechanism(s) of TUDCA and its potential therapeutic effect on a wide variety of non-liver diseases. Both UDCA and TUDCA are potent inhibitors of apoptosis, in part by interfering with the upstream mitochondrial pathway of cell death, inhibiting oxygen-radical production, reducing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and stabilizing the unfolded protein response (UPR). Several studies have demonstrated that TUDCA serves as an anti-apoptotic agent for a number of neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease. In addition, TUDCA plays an important role in protecting against cell death in certain retinal disorders, such as retinitis pigmentosa. It has been shown to reduce ER stress associated with elevated glucose levels in diabetes by inhibiting caspase activation, up-regulating the UPR, and inhibiting reactive oxygen species. Obesity, stroke, acute myocardial infarction, spinal cord injury, and a long list of acute and chronic non-liver diseases associated with apoptosis are all potential therapeutic targets for T/UDCA. A growing number of pre-clinical and clinical studies underscore the potential benefit of this simple, naturally occurring bile acid, which has been used in Chinese medicine for more than 3000 years. PMID:24891994

  15. New developments in the treatment of hyperammonemia: emerging use of carglumic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Daniotti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Marta Daniotti1, Giancarlo la Marca2, Patrizio Fiorini1, Luca Filippi11Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Department of Perinatal Medicine, “A. Meyer” University Children’s Hospital, Florence, Italy; 2Mass Spectrometry, Clinical Chemistry and Pharmacology Laboratory, Neuroscience Department, “A. Meyer” University Children’s Hospital, Florence, ItalyAbstract: Hyperammonemia is a true neonatal emergency with high toxicity for the central nervous system and developmental delay. The causes of neonatal hyperammonemia are genetic defects of urea cycle enzymes, organic acidemias, lysinuric protein intolerance, hyperammonemia–hyperornithinemia–homocitrullinemia syndrome, transient hyperammonemia of the newborn, and congenital hyperinsulinism with hyperammonemia. In some of these conditions the high blood ammonia levels are due to the reduction of N-acetylglutamate, an essential cofactor necessary for the function of the urea cycle, or to the reduction of carbamoyl-phosphate synthase-I activity. In these cases, N-carbamylglutamate (carglumic acid can be administered together with the conventional therapy. Carglumic acid is an analog of N-acetylglutamate that has a direct action on carbamoyl-phosphate synthase-I. Its effects are reactivation of the urea cycle and reduction of plasma ammonia levels. As a consequence it improves the traditional treatment, avoiding the need of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. In this review we evaluate the possible field of application of carglumic acid and its effectiveness and safety.Keywords: hyperammonemia, N-carbamylglutamate, carglumic acid, urea cycle disorder, metabolic disorders

  16. Decontamination of polluted water by treatment with a crude humic acid blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yates, L.M. III; Wandruszka, R. von (Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States))

    1999-06-15

    The use of humic acid for contaminant extraction from environmental matrices is an attractive concept because of the natural origin of the material and its low pollution potential. The problem of availability and the need for alkaline extraction were circumvented by the use of an unrefined leonardite humic acid (LHA) material used as received. This mined product has a high humic acid content, is inexpensive, and is available in bulk. LHA, applied without alkaline extraction, was used in the decontamination of water containing organic and inorganic test pollutants. The former included pyrene, difenzoquat, and rhodamine B base, while the latter were comprised of Pb[sup 2+], Zn[sup 2+], Ni[sup 2+], Cu[sup 2+], Sr[sup 2+], Cd[sup 2+], As[sup 3+], Ag[sup +], and Mg[sup 2+]. Simulated acidic waste solutions were treated by both batch precipitation and column extraction, with the pollutants applied singly and as mixtures. In the precipitation procedure, commercial lime was used as the coagulant, and virtually complete removal of the metals was achieved. Pyrene and difenzoquat were also removed, but rhodamine B base was not. With LHA column elution, all three organic compounds were fully extracted from waste solutions, including those containing mixed contaminants. Removal of metals by column treatment gave encouraging results, with Pb[sup 2+], Cu[sup 2+], and Sr[sup 2+] being extracted most effectively.

  17. The Unexpected Uses of Urso- and Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid in the Treatment of Non-liver Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vang, Sheila; Longley, Katie; Steer, Clifford J; Low, Walter C

    2014-05-01

    Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is the taurine conjugate of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a US Food and Drug Administration-approved hydrophilic bile acid for the treatment of certain cholestatic liver diseases. There is a growing body of research on the mechanism(s) of TUDCA and its potential therapeutic effect on a wide variety of non-liver diseases. Both UDCA and TUDCA are potent inhibitors of apoptosis, in part by interfering with the upstream mitochondrial pathway of cell death, inhibiting oxygen-radical production, reducing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and stabilizing the unfolded protein response (UPR). Several studies have demonstrated that TUDCA serves as an anti-apoptotic agent for a number of neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease. In addition, TUDCA plays an important role in protecting against cell death in certain retinal disorders, such as retinitis pigmentosa. It has been shown to reduce ER stress associated with elevated glucose levels in diabetes by inhibiting caspase activation, up-regulating the UPR, and inhibiting reactive oxygen species. Obesity, stroke, acute myocardial infarction, spinal cord injury, and a long list of acute and chronic non-liver diseases associated with apoptosis are all potential therapeutic targets for T/UDCA. A growing number of pre-clinical and clinical studies underscore the potential benefit of this simple, naturally occurring bile acid, which has been used in Chinese medicine for more than 3000 years. PMID:24891994

  18. Rat Tumor Response to the Vascular-Disrupting Agent 5,6-Dimethylxanthenone-4-Acetic Acid as Measured by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Plasma 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid Levels, and Tumor Necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley D. McPhail

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The dose-dependent effects of 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA on rat GH3 prolactinomas were investigated in vivo. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI was used to assess tumor blood flow/permeability pretreatment and 24 hours posttreatment with 0, 100, 200, or 350 mg/kg DMXAA. DCE-MRI data were analyzed using Ktrans and the integrated area under the gadolinium time curve (IAUGC as response biomarkers. Highperformance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to determine the plasma concentration of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA following treatment to provide an index of increased vessel permeability and vascular damage. Finally, tumor necrosis was assessed by grading hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections cut from the same tumors investigated by MRI. Both tumor Ktrans and IAUGC were significantly reduced 24 hours posttreatment with 350 mg/kg DMXAA only, with no evidence of dose response. HPLC demonstrated a significant increase in plasma 5-HIAA 24 hours posttreatment with 200 and 350 mg/kg DMXAA. Histologic analysis revealed some evidence of tumor necrosis following treatment with 100 or 200 mg/kg DMXAA, reaching significance with 350 mg/kg DMXAA. The absence of any reduction in Ktrans or IAUGC following treatment with 200 mg/kg, despite a significant increase in 5-HIAA, raises concerns about the utility of established DCE-MRI biomarkers to assess tumor response to DMXAA.

  19. Integrated phospholipidomics and transcriptomics analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with enhanced tolerance to a mixture of acetic acid, furfural, and phenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    A mixture of acetic acid, furfural and phenol (AFP), three representative lignocellulose derived inhibitors, significantly inhibited the growth and bioethanol production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In order to uncover mechanisms behind the enhanced tolerance of an inhibitor-tolerant S.cerevisiae s...

  20. Gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging for the detection of colorectal liver metastases after neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Mi Hye [Konkuk University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung-Ihn [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hur, Bo Yun [Boramae Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae-You [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Seung-Yong; Yi, Nam-Joon; Suh, Kyung-Suk [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    To investigate the diagnostic performance of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for the detection of colorectal liver metastases (CRLMs) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Our study population comprised 77 patients with 140 CRLMs who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI within 1 month prior to surgery: group A (without NAC, n = 38) and group B (with NAC, n = 39). Two radiologists independently assessed all MR images and graded their diagnostic confidence for CRLM on a 5-point scale. Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and positive predictive values (PPV) were calculated and compared between the two groups. Diagnostic accuracy of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI in group B was slightly lower than in group A, but a statistically significant difference was not observed (observer 1: A{sub z}, 0.926 in group A, 0.905 in group B; observer 2: A{sub z}, 0.944 in group A, 0.885 in group B; p > 0.05). Sensitivity and PPV of group B were comparable to those of group A (observer 1: sensitivity = 93.5 % vs. 93.6 %, PPV = 95.1 % vs. 86.9 %; observer 2: sensitivity = 96.8 % vs. 91.0 %; PPV = 90.0 % vs. 89.7 %; all p > 0.05). Gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI including DWI provided good diagnostic performance with high sensitivity (>90 %) for the detection of CRLMs, regardless of the influence of NAC. (orig.)

  1. Serum ?-1 acid glycoprotein and serum amyloid A concentrations in cats receiving antineoplastic treatment for lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Valter M; Pavan, Tatiana L R; Wirthl, Vera A B F; Alves, Ana L N; Lucas, Silvia R R

    2015-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize serum ?-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) concentrations at diagnosis and during treatment in cats with lymphoma. ANIMALS 16 cats with various anatomic forms of lymphoma and 25 healthy cats. PROCEDURES Blood samples were collected from healthy cats once and from cats with lymphoma at diagnosis and 2-week intervals until the 12th week of antineoplastic treatment. Serum harvested from blood samples was assessed for AGP and SAA concentrations. Differences in serum AGP and SAA values were investigated between healthy cats and cats with lymphoma (at diagnosis) and, for cats with lymphoma, between diagnosis and various points during treatment. RESULTS Serum AGP and SAA concentrations were higher in cats with lymphoma at diagnosis (median, 832.60 and 1.03 ?g/mL, respectively), compared with those in healthy cats (median, 269.85 and 0.10 ?g/mL). Treatment resulted in a gradual decrease in serum AGP concentration after 4 weeks and in SAA concentration after 8 weeks of treatment, and these concentrations returned to values comparable with those of healthy cats by 12 weeks of treatment, by which point all cats had achieved complete remission of the disease. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Serum AGP and SAA concentrations in cats with lymphoma were higher at diagnosis than after antineoplastic treatment. Decreases to values established for healthy cats corresponded with achievement of complete disease remission. Serum AGP and SAA may be useful protein markers for monitoring of antineoplastic treatment in cats with lymphoma. PMID:26512544

  2. Relationship between amino acid properties and functional parameters in olfactory receptors and discrimination of mutants with enhanced specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gromiha M Michael

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Olfactory receptors are key components in signal transduction. Mutations in olfactory receptors alter the odor response, which is a fundamental response of organisms to their immediate environment. Understanding the relationship between odorant response and mutations in olfactory receptors is an important problem in bioinformatics and computational biology. In this work, we have systematically analyzed the relationship between various physical, chemical, energetic and conformational properties of amino acid residues, and the change of odor response/compound's potency/half maximal effective concentration (EC50 due to amino acid substitutions. Results We observed that both the characteristics of odorant molecule (ligand and amino acid properties are important for odor response and EC50. Additional information on neighboring and surrounding residues of the mutants enhanced the correlation between amino acid properties and EC50. Further, amino acid properties have been combined systematically using multiple regression techniques and we obtained a correlation of 0.90-0.98 with odor response/EC50 of goldfish, mouse and human olfactory receptors. In addition, we have utilized machine learning methods to discriminate the mutants, which enhance or reduce EC50 values upon mutation and we obtained an accuracy of 93% and 79% for self-consistency and jack-knife tests, respectively. Conclusions Our analysis provides deep insights for understanding the odor response of olfactory receptor mutants and the present method could be used for identifying the mutants with enhanced specificity.

  3. AMMONOX-Ammonia for enhancing biogas yield and reducing NOx. Optimisation of Aqueous Ammonia Treatment.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lymperatou, Anna; Gavala, Hariklia N.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have shown that Aqueous Ammonia Soaking (AAS) is a very promising treatment for increasing the methane yield of the solid fraction of manure (fibers). AMMONOX is a new concept based on the sustainable use of ammonia for enhancing biogas production at biogas plants digesting manure. The proposed process is based on an optimized AAS treatment of manure fibers in combination with an efficient ammonia recovery step. The enhancement of biogas production is achieved by enriching manure with AAS-treated fibers or other lignocellulosic residues while the ammonia recovered can be used for fulfilling the needs of the treatment. Furthermore, excess of ammonia could be produced when ammonia is recovered from both the treated fibers and the digester effluent, which could be used for the reduction of NOx when the biogas produced is used for electricity generation by gas engines. In this study, the importance of different factors affecting the performance of AAS of digested manure fibers was investigated in order to conclude on the variables to optimize. Principal Component Analysis of the experimental data obtained so far was used for a preliminary analysis of effects. The temperature and the ammonia concentration during AAS were pointed out as the most influencing variables in terms of methane yield under the conditions tested. Further experiments should be conducted in order to investigate the effect of AAS duration at lower values than the ones tested (lower than 24 hours) and for assessing the importance of the solids to liquid ratio in the treatment mixture.

  4. Using sorbent waste materials to enhance treatment of micro-point source effluents by constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Verity; Surridge, Ben; Quinton, John; Matthews, Mike

    2014-05-01

    Sorbent materials are widely used in environmental settings as a means of enhancing pollution remediation. A key area of environmental concern is that of water pollution, including the need to treat micro-point sources of wastewater pollution, such as from caravan sites or visitor centres. Constructed wetlands (CWs) represent one means for effective treatment of wastewater from small wastewater producers, in part because they are believed to be economically viable and environmentally sustainable. Constructed wetlands have the potential to remove a range of pollutants found in wastewater, including nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and carbon (C), whilst also reducing the total suspended solids (TSS) concentration in effluents. However, there remain particular challenges for P and N removal from wastewater in CWs, as well as the sometimes limited BOD removal within these treatment systems, particularly for micro-point sources of wastewater. It has been hypothesised that the amendment of CWs with sorbent materials can enhance their potential to treat wastewater, particularly through enhancing the removal of N and P. This paper focuses on data from batch and mesocosm studies that were conducted to identify and assess sorbent materials suitable for use within CWs. The aim in using sorbent material was to enhance the combined removal of phosphate (PO4-P) and ammonium (NH4-N). The key selection criteria for the sorbent materials were that they possess effective PO4-P, NH4-N or combined pollutant removal, come from low cost and sustainable sources, have potential for reuse, for example as a fertiliser or soil conditioner, and show limited potential for re-release of adsorbed nutrients. The sorbent materials selected for testing were alum sludge from water treatment works, ochre derived from minewater treatment, biochar derived from various feedstocks, plasterboard and zeolite. The performance of the individual sorbents was assessed through preliminary desorption studies, isotherm and kinetic adsorption studies, as well as through final desorption studies. Batch studies demonstrated that alum sludge and ochre effectively removed PO4-P from solution (maximum sorption capacity up to 45 mg/g), whilst biochar from both bamboo and rice feedstocks demonstrated effective removal of NH4-N from solution. The potential benefit of using combined reactive media in conjunction with wastewater recirculation to enhance N, P and C treatment was examined using mesocosm studies, and we report initial data from these mesocosm studies.

  5. Copper-Sulfate Pentahydrate as a Product of the Waste Sulfuric Acid Solution Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovi?, Radmila; Stevanovi?, Jasmina; Avramovi?, Ljiljana; Nedeljkovi?, Dragutin; Jugovi?, Branimir; Staji?-Troši?, Jasna; Gvozdenovi?, Milica

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study is synthesis of copper-sulfate pentahydrate from the waste sulfuric acid solution-mother liquor generated during the regeneration process of copper bleed solution. Copper is removed from the mother liquor solution in the process of the electrolytic treatment using the insoluble lead anodes alloyed with 6 mass pct of antimony on the industrial-scale equipment. As the result of the decopperization process, copper is removed in the form of the cathode sludge and is precipitated at the bottom of the electrolytic cell. By this procedure, the content of copper could be reduced to the 20 mass pct of the initial value. Chemical characterization of the sludge has shown that it contains about 90 mass pct of copper. During the decopperization process, the very strong poison, arsine, can be formed, and the process is in that case terminated. The copper leaching degree of 82 mass pct is obtained using H2SO4 aqueous solution with the oxygen addition during the cathode sludge chemical treatment at 80 °C ± 5 °C. Obtained copper salt satisfies the requirements of the Serbian Standard for Pesticide, SRPS H.P1. 058. Therefore, the treatment of waste sulfuric acid solutions is of great economic and environmental interest.

  6. [Tienilic acid in the treatment of arterial hypertension and congestive cardiac insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariello, R; Agabiti-Rosei, E; Alicandri, C; Corea, L; Oldoni, T; Muiesan, G

    1979-01-01

    Tienilic acid (TA) is a common new diuretic agent with a potent uricosuric action. In a double-blind cross-over study its antihypertensive effect was compared to that of hydrochlorothiazide (HCT). 20 patients with essential hypertension were studied: after I weeks of placebo wash-out 10 patients received TA (dose range 250-750 mg/die) and 10 HCT (dose range 50-150 mg/die), for 5 weeks. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly and equally reduced (p tryglicerides, unchanged after HCT, showed a slight tendency to reduction on TA treatment. Ten patients with congestive heart failure, on full digitalis treatment, were given TA (dose range 250-1000 mg/die): in each patient a prompt diuretic effect was observed, associated to a significant reduction of body weight and to a marked improvement of the clinical signs of heart failure. Therefore, TA is an effective diuretic agent which may be conveniently used in the treatment of arterial hypertension and congestive heart failure, as it induces a diuretic effect comparable to that obtained with HCT, reducing at the same time, serum uric acid levels. PMID:549782

  7. Diclofenac in hyaluronic acid gel: an alternative treatment for actinic cheilitis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Giana da Silveira, Lima; Gabriela Ferrari da, Silva; Ana Paula Neutzling, Gomes; Lenita Maria Aver de, Araújo; Fernanda Gonçalves, Salum.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Actinic cheilitis (AC) is a precancerous lesion of the lip vermillion caused by prolonged exposure to ultraviolet light. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 3% diclofenac in 2.5% hyaluronic acid gel in the treatment of AC. METHODS: Thirty-four patients with chronic AC were [...] treated twice a day with topical diclofenac during a period of 30 to 180 days. The individuals were followed up every 15 days by means of clinical examination and digital photographic documentation. RESULTS: Of the 27 patients that completed the study, 12 (44%) showed complete remission of the whitish plaques and exfoliative areas, and 15 (56%) had partial remission of the clinical picture of cheilitis. The latter group was submitted to excision of the leukoplakic areas which diagnosis varied from mild to moderate epithelial dysplasia. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest a promising role for diclofenac in hyaluronic acid gel in the treatment of AC. This treatment has the advantages of not being invasive and showing few side effects.

  8. Ferulic acid chronic treatment exerts antidepressant-like effect: role of antioxidant defense system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Juliana; Rodrigues, Andre Felipe; Rós, Adriana de Sousa; de Castro, Bianca Blanski; de Lima, Daniela Delwing; Magro, Débora Delwing Dal; Zeni, Ana Lúcia Bertarello

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative stress has been claimed a place in pathophysiology of depression; however, the details of the neurobiology of this condition remains incompletely understood. Recently, treatments employing antioxidants have been thoroughly researched. Ferulic acid (FA) is a phenolic compound with antioxidant and antidepressant-like effects. Herein, we investigated the involvement of the antioxidant activity of chronic oral FA treatment in its antidepressant-like effect using the tail suspension test (TST) and the forced swimming test (FST) in mice. The modulation of antioxidant system in blood, hippocampus and cerebral cortex was assessed after stress induction through TST and FST. Our results show that FA at the dose of 1 mg/kg has antidepressant-like effect without affecting locomotor activity. The stress induced by despair tests was able to decrease significantly the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the blood, catalase (CAT) in the blood and cerebral cortex and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the cerebral cortex. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS) levels were increased significantly in the cerebral cortex. Furthermore, the results show that FA was capable to increase SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activities and decrease TBA-RS levels in the blood, hippocampus and cerebral cortex. These findings demonstrated that FA treatment in low doses is capable to exert antidepressant-like effect with the involvement of the antioxidant defense system modulation. PMID:26340979

  9. Properties Enhancement of TPNR-MWNTs-OMMT Hybrid Nano composites by Using Ultrasonic Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main goal of this paper was to study the effect of ultrasonic treatment time on the mechanical properties of thermoplastic natural rubber (TPNR) reinforced with hybrid MWNTs-OMMT. The intercalation of TPNR enhancement into layers of clay by increasing the d-spacing was found using X-ray diffraction. The tensile properties of nano composites treated with ultrasonic increased when compared with untreated nano composites. The optimum ultrasonic treatment time was obtained at 3 h. The transmission electron microscope micrograph showed a combination of intercalated-exfoliated structure of the TPNR composites with organic clay and dispersion of MWNTs. The ultrasonic treatment can promote the dispersion of MWNTs-OMMT in TPNR and also improved the compatibility of hybrid filler and the TPNR matrix. (author)

  10. Enhancement of in vitro high-density polyethylene (HDPE) degradation by physical, chemical, and biological treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, V; Natarajan, K; Rajeshkannan, V; Perumal, P

    2014-11-01

    Partially degraded high-density polyethylene (HDPE) was collected from plastic waste dump yard for biodegradation using fungi. Of various fungi screened, strain MF12 was found efficient in degrading HDPE by weight loss and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrophotometric analysis. Strain MF12 was selected as efficient HDPE degraders for further studies, and their growth medium composition was optimized. Among those different media used, basal minimal medium (BMM) was suitable for the HDPE degradation by strain MF12. Strain MF12 was subjected to 28S rRNA sequence analysis and identified as Aspergillus terreus MF12. HDPE degradation was carried out using combinatorial physical and chemical treatments in conjunction to biological treatment. The high level of HDPE degradation was observed in ultraviolet (UV) and KMnO4/HCl with A. terreus MF12 treatment, i.e., FT10. The abiotic physical and chemical factors enhance the biodegradation of HDPE using A. terreus MF12. PMID:24946709

  11. Application of nanofiltration to the treatment of acid mine drainage waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the separation of uranium and other elements in high concentrations from acid mine waters at Caldas Uranium Mining, in the southeast of Brazil, using nanofiltration membranes. Nanofiltrarion is widely used in water treatment due to the lower energy requirements and higher yields than reverse osmosis. Separation characteristics are dependent on both the molecular size and charge of the dissolved species in the feed solution as well as membrane properties. In this investigation the potential of nanofiltration to removed dissolved species like uranium from acid mine water drainage was measured. Two composite aromatic polyamide commercially membranes of FilmTec/Dow were tested and it found that uranium rejections of greater than 90% and also showed potential for the separation of aluminum and manganese. (author)

  12. Evaluation of the Magnesium Hydroxide Treatment Process for Stabilizing PFP Plutonium/Nitric Acid Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Mark A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Baker, Aaron B.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2000-09-28

    This document summarizes an evaluation of the magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] process to be used at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) for stabilizing plutonium/nitric acid solutions to meet the goal of stabilizing the plutonium in an oxide form suitable for storage under DOE-STD-3013-99. During the treatment process, nitric acid solutions bearing plutonium nitrate are neutralized with Mg(OH)2 in an air sparge reactor. The resulting slurry, containing plutonium hydroxide, is filtered and calcined. The process evaluation included a literature review and extensive laboratory- and bench-scale testing. The testing was conducted using cerium as a surrogate for plutonium to identify and quantify the effects of key processing variables on processing time (primarily neutralization and filtration time) and calcined product properties.

  13. Development of Smart Semisolid Formulations to Enhance Retinoic Acid Topical Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perioli, Luana; Pagano, Cinzia; Nocchetti, Morena; Latterini, Loredana

    2015-11-01

    Retinoids play a very important role in the topical treatment of acne vulgaris. However, their use is restricted because of the limited photostability responsible for local adverse effects as erythema, dryness, itching, and stinging. In this way, the therapeutic efficacy of such molecules is strongly reduced, resulting, at the same time, harmful for the patient upon light exposure. Thus, a suitable technological strategy is necessary to increase retinoid stability in order to have a product both safe and efficacious. With this aim, new inorganic-organic hybrids based on tretinoin (retinoic acid, RET) and hydrotalcite-like compounds (HTlc) have been prepared and well characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, inductively coupled plasma spectrometry, thermal analyses, scanning electron microscopy, and UV-Vis spectrophotometric measurements. Such hybrids, namely, ZnAl-HTlc-RET and MgAl-HTlc-RET, were formulated as simple gels for topical use and submitted to further studies in order to evaluate their rheological properties, photostability, and RET release capability. The RET photostability resulted improved upon intercalation into HTlc, both in MgAl-HTlc and ZnAl-HTlc, as proved by the data acquired during irradiation of the sample at 366 nm. This strategy is suitable for the realization of safe, efficacious, and compliant topical formulations for acne treatment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:3904-3912, 2015. PMID:26280093

  14. High pressure treatment of brine enhanced pork affects endopeptidase activity, protein solubility, and peptide formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Alberto Blak; Gkarane, Vasiliki

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the effect of high-pressure (HP) treatment and two different methods of brine addition (important for lysosomal membrane destabilisation) on lysosomal enzymes activity and protein degradation, pork semitendinosus muscle was brine enhanced by injection or tumbling, and HP treated at 600 MPa following storage at 2 °C for up to 8 weeks. In this report a novel protocol for SDS gelatin zymography was established, and an increase of cathepsin B and L activity after HP treatment was shown followed by a decrease during storage. No calpain activity was detected following HP treatment. HP treatment was shown to induce a decrease in protein solubility in both myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic fractions. LC–MS analysis of these fractions showed changes in the peptide pattern during storage. Western blot analysis showed that troponin-T was indeed degraded during storage after HP treatment. The results therefore suggest that HP treatment induced an increase in cathepsin activity, which subsequently affected the myofibrillar protein degradation pattern in pork meat.

  15. Going their own way : fundamental research into froth treatment creates options for bitumen enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, P.

    2010-01-15

    CANMET Energy of Natural Resources Canada has been actively involved in finding new and improved ways to process bitumen. The effort has resulted in major advancements in 2 key technologies used for froth treatment. The consortium for froth treatment research was initially developed in 1993 between CANMET Energy and Syncrude. Suncor joined shortly thereafter. In 1996 Royal Dutch Shell Plc joined the consortium. Each member company also worked with CANMET Energy independent of the consortium to develop their respective approach to froth treatment. The joint effort was so successful that the researchers involved were awarded the Alberta Science and Technology award for oilsands research for the commercialization of the new froth treatment. In conventional froth treatment, naphtha is used as a solvent at a relatively low solvent-to-bitumen ratio. The separation is enhanced by addition of chemicals to destabilize the emulsion. Typical diluted bitumen products from this process contain 1 or 2 per cent water and about 0.5 per cent mineral solids, and are therefore not suitable for pipelining or refining. Heat is used to upgrade the bitumen to a synthetic crude oil. The second technology is paraffinic solvent froth treatment (PSFT ) which produces a bitumen product with lower levels of contaminants. The content of asphaltenes can also be lowered, thereby upgrading the bitumen quality. The ultimate objective was to minimize industry's energy footprint and also minimize environmental impacts. 1 ref., 5 figs.

  16. Enhanced Hydrophilicity and Biocompatibility of Dental Zirconia Ceramics by Oxygen Plasma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chou Wu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface properties play a critical role in influencing cell responses to a biomaterial. The objectives of this study were (1 to characterize changes in surface properties of zirconia (ZrO2 ceramic after oxygen plasma treatment; and (2 to determine the effect of such changes on biological responses of human osteoblast-like cells (MG63. The results indicated that the surface morphology was not changed by oxygen plasma treatment. In contrast, oxygen plasma treatment to ZrO2 not only resulted in an increase in hydrophilicity, but also it retained surface hydrophilicity after 5-min treatment time. More importantly, surface properties of ZrO2 modified by oxygen plasma treatment were beneficial for cell growth, whereas the surface roughness of the materials did not have a significant efficacy. It is concluded that oxygen plasma treatment was certified to be effective in modifying the surface state of ZrO2 and has the potential in the creation and maintenance of hydrophilic surfaces and the enhancement of cell proliferation and differentiation.

  17. Two-stage combined treatment of acid mine drainage and municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dongyang; Lin, Lian-Shin

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility of the combined treatment of field-collected acid mine drainages (AMD, pH = 4.2 ± 0.9, iron = 112 ± 118 mg/L, sulfate = 1,846 ± 594 mg/L) and municipal wastewater (MWW, avg. chemical oxygen demand (COD) = 234-333 mg/L) using a two-stage process. The process consisted of batch mixing of the two wastes to condition the mixture solutions, followed by anaerobic biological treatment. The mixings performed under a range of AMD/MWW ratios resulted in phosphate removal of 9 to ?100%, the mixture pH of 6.2-7.9, and COD/sulfate concentration ratio of 0.05-5.4. The biological treatment consistently removed COD and sulfate by >80% from the mixture solutions for COD/sulfate ratios of 0.6-5.4. Alkalinity was produced in the biological treatment causing increased pH and further removal of metals from the solutions. Scanning electron microscopy of produced sludge with energy dispersion analysis suggested chemical precipitation and associated adsorption and co-precipitation as the mechanisms for metal removal (Fe: >99%, Al: ?100%, Mn: 75 to ?100%, Ca: 52-81%, Mg: 13-76%, and Na: 56-76%). The study showed promising results for the treatment method and denoted the potential of developing innovative technologies for combined management of the two wastes in mining regions. PMID:23416591

  18. Influence of moist heat treatment on ruminal and intestinal disappearance of amino acids from canola meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshtaghi Nia, S A; Ingalls, J R

    1995-07-01

    Three mature Angus steers fitted with large ruminal cannulas and three Holstein steers each fitted with T-shaped cannulas in the proximal duodenum and reentrant cannulas in the terminal ileum were used to study the effect of moist heat treatment on AA digestion of canola meal in each segment of the digestive tract. Canola meal was treated with moist heat at 127 degrees C for 15 or 45 min. Degradation of AA in the rumen was estimated using small nylon bags incubated for .1, 8, 16, and 24 h in the rumen. Digestion of AA in the small and large intestines and total tract were estimated using separate sets of bags in a sequence of ruminal in situ incubation, in vitro incubation in an acid-pepsin solution, and a mobile bag technique. Heat treatment for 15 or 45 min reduced concentrations of Lys by 15.9 and 29.2% and Arg by 8.0 and 15.2%, respectively. Heat treatment for 15 or 45 min significantly reduced the degradation of AA in the rumen; the availability of AA in the small intestine increased in proportion to the decreased ruminal degradation. Digestion of AA in the large intestine was 5 percentage points higher after heat treatment for 45 min than with no heat treatment. Apparent digestion of AA in the total tract was unaffected by 15 min of heating; however, 45 min of heating reduced digestion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7593848

  19. Enhanced mucosal re-epithelialization induced by short chain fatty acids in experimental colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar-Nascimento J.E.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The short chain fatty acids (SCFA are the best nutrients for the colonocytes. Glucose is poorly used as a fuel but may be transformed into SCFA by colonic bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SCFA or glucose on experimental colitis. Colitis was induced in 30 Wistar rats by colonic instillation of 4% acetic acid. Five days later they were randomized to receive twice a day colonic lavage containing saline (controls, N = 10, 10% hypertonic glucose (N = 10 or SCFA (N = 10 until day 8 when they were killed. At autopsy, the colon was removed and weighed and the mucosa was evaluated macro- and microscopically and stripped out for DNA assay. Data are reported as mean ± SD or median [range] as appropriate. All animals lost weight but there was no difference between groups. Colon weight was significantly lower in the SCFA group (3.8 ± 0.5 g than in the control (5.3 ± 2.1 g and glucose (5.2 ± 1.3 g groups (P<0.05. Macroscopically, the severity of inflammation was less in SCFA (grade 2 [1-5] than in control (grade 9 [4-10] and glucose-treated (grade 9 [2-10] animals (P<0.01. Microscopically, ulceration of the mucosa was more severe in the glucose and control groups than in the SCFA group. The DNA content of the mucosa of SCFA-treated animals (8.2 [5.0-20.2] mg/g of tissue was higher than in glucose-treated (5.1 [4.2-8.5] mg/g of tissue; P<0.01 and control (6.2 [4.5-8.9] mg/g of tissue; P<0.05 animals. We conclude that SCFA may enhance mucosal re-epithelialization in experimental colitis, whereas hypertonic glucose is of no benefit.

  20. Properties of TiO2 prepared by acid treatment of BaTiO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TiO3 powders were prepared by acid treatment of BaTiO3 and their properties were investigated. The BaTiO3 powder was subjected to HNO3 in concentrations ranging from 10-3 to 8 M at 90 deg. C for 0.5-6 h. Dissolution of BaTiO3 and precipitation of TiO2 occurred at acid concentrations of 2-5 M. BaTiO3 dissolves completely to form a clear solution at reaction times of 0.5-1 h, but a rutile precipitate is formed after 2 h of acid treatment. By contrast, anatase is precipitated by adjusting the pH of the clear solution to 2-3 using NaOH or NH4OH solution. The rutile crystals were small and rod-shaped, consisting of many small coherent domains connected by grain boundaries with small inclination angles and edge dislocations, giving them a high specific surface area (SBET). With increasing HNO3 concentration, the SBET value increased from 100 to 170 m2/g while the crystallite size decreased from 25 to 11 nm. The anatase crystals obtained here were very small equi-axial particles with a smaller crystallite size than the rutile and SBET values of about 270 m2/g (higher than the rutile samples). The photocatalytic activity of these TiO2 was determined from the decomposition rate of Methylene Blue under ultraviolet irradiation. Higher decomposition rates were obtained with larger crystallite sizes resulting from heat treatment. The maximum decomposition rates were obtained in samples heated at 500-600 deg. C. The photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 was found to depend more strongly on the sample crystallite size than on SBET