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1

Enhancement of the ferromagnetic order of graphite after sulphuric acid treatment  

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We have studied the changes in the ferromagnetic behavior of graphite powder and graphite flakes after treatment with diluted sulphuric acid. We show that this kind of acid treatment enhances substantially the ferromagnetic magnetization of virgin graphite micrometer size powder as well as in graphite flakes. The anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) amplitude at 300 K measured in a micrometer size thin graphite flake after acid treatment reaches values comparable to polycryst...

Barzola-quiquia, J.; Bo?hlmann, W.; Esquinazi, P.; Schadewitz, A.; Ballestar, A.; Dusari, S.; Schultze-nobre, L.; Kersting, B.

2011-01-01

2

Enhancement of the ferromagnetic order of graphite after sulphuric acid treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

We have studied the changes in the ferromagnetic behavior of graphite powder and graphite flakes after treatment with diluted sulphuric acid. We show that this kind of acid treatment enhances substantially the ferromagnetic magnetization of virgin graphite micrometer size powder as well as in graphite flakes. The anisotropic magnetoresistance amplitude at 300 K measured in a micrometer size thin graphite flake after acid treatment reaches values comparable to polycrystalline cobalt.

Barzola-Quiquia, J.; Böhlmann, W.; Esquinazi, P.; Schadewitz, A.; Ballestar, A.; Dusari, S.; Schultze-Nobre, L.; Kersting, B.

2011-05-01

3

Enhancement of polyunsaturated fatty acid production by cerulenin treatment in polyunsaturated fatty acid-producing bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

When docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-producing Moritella marina strain MP-1 was cultured in the medium containing 0.5 microg cerulenin ml-1, an inhibitor for fatty acid biosynthesis, the cells grew normally, but the content of DHA in the total fatty acids increased from 5.9-19.4%. The DHA yield of M. marina strain MP-1 cells also increased from 4 to 13.7 mg l-1 by cerulenin treatment. The same effect of cerulenin was observed in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-producing Shewanella marinintestina strain IK-1 grown in the medium containing 7.5 microg cerulenin ml-1, and the cerulenin treatment increased the EPA yield from 1.6 to 8 mg l-1. The use of cerulenin is, therefore, advantageous to increase the content of intracellular polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in particular PUFA-containing phospholipids in bacterial cells. PMID:15834803

Morita, Naoki; Nishida, Takanori; Tanaka, Mika; Yano, Yutaka; Okuyama, Hidetoshi

2005-03-01

4

Differentiation enhances aminolevulinic acid-dependent photodynamic treatment of LNCaP prostate cancer cells  

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Photodynamic therapy using 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) may be applied to the treatment of neoplasms in a variety of organs. In order to enhance existing regimens of photodynamic therapy, we investigated the effects of adding differentiation therapy to photodynamic therapy in human prostate cancer cells in vitro. The objective of differentiation therapy per se is to reverse the lack of differentiation in cancer cells using pharmacological agents. The motivation...

Ortel, B.; Sharlin, D.; O Donnell, D.; Sinha, A. K.; Maytin, E. V.; Hasan, T.

2002-01-01

5

Carbon nanotube fibers for electrochemical applications: effect of enhanced interfaces by an acid treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemical treatment using concentrated nitric acid (16 M) not only induced significant improvement of mechanical and electrical properties of carbon nanotube fibers due to the enhanced interfacial interaction but also allowed much more efficient deposition of polyaniline for developing fiber-shaped supercapacitors. After the 2 h treatment, the acidized fiber had a tensile strength of 1.52 GPa and an electrical conductivity of 1050 S cm(-1), increased by 52% and 128%, respectively, compared with the untreated one. By depositing polyaniline for 10 min around the fiber, the composite fiber had a volumetric capacitance of 239 F cm(-3), 17% higher than that without the acid treatment. For a long time treatment up to 6 h, although the strength and conductivity decreased slightly, the composite fiber had a super high volumetric capacitance up to 299 F cm(-3). The improvement of electrochemical performance is attributed to the increased deposition rate and structural change of polyaniline due to the existence of functional groups on the fiber surface. PMID:23093201

Meng, Fancheng; Zhao, Jingna; Ye, Yuting; Zhang, Xiaohua; Li, Qingwen

2012-12-01

6

Enhanced blood compatibility of metallocene polyethylene subjected to hydrochloric acid treatment for cardiovascular implants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Blood compatibility of metallocene polyethylene (mPE) was investigated after modifying the surface using hydrochloric acid. Contact angle of the mPE exposed to HCl poses a decrease in its value which indicates increasing wettability and better blood compatibility. Surface of mPE analyzed by using FTIR revealed no significant changes in its functional groups after treatment. Furthermore, scanning electron microscope images supported the increasing wettability through the modifications like pit formations and etching on the acid rendered surface. To evaluate the effect of acid treatment on the coagulation cascade, prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were measured. Both PT and APTT were delayed significantly (P < 0.05) after 60 min exposure implying improved blood compatibility of the surfaces. Hemolysis assay of the treated surface showed a remarkable decrease in the percentage of lysis of red blood cells when compared with untreated surface. Moreover, platelet adhesion assay demonstrated that HCl exposed surfaces deter the attachment of platelets and thereby reduce the chances of activation of blood coagulation cascade. These results confirmed the enhanced blood compatibility of mPE after HCl exposure which can be utilized for cardiovascular implants like artificial vascular prostheses, implants, and various blood contacting devices. PMID:24955370

Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Mohandas, Hemanth; Sivakumar, Gunalan; Kasi, Palaniappan; Sudheer, Theertha; Avineri Veetil, Sruthi; Murugesan, Selvakumar; Supriyanto, Eko

2014-01-01

7

Enhanced Blood Compatibility of Metallocene Polyethylene Subjected to Hydrochloric Acid Treatment for Cardiovascular Implants  

Science.gov (United States)

Blood compatibility of metallocene polyethylene (mPE) was investigated after modifying the surface using hydrochloric acid. Contact angle of the mPE exposed to HCl poses a decrease in its value which indicates increasing wettability and better blood compatibility. Surface of mPE analyzed by using FTIR revealed no significant changes in its functional groups after treatment. Furthermore, scanning electron microscope images supported the increasing wettability through the modifications like pit formations and etching on the acid rendered surface. To evaluate the effect of acid treatment on the coagulation cascade, prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were measured. Both PT and APTT were delayed significantly (P < 0.05) after 60?min exposure implying improved blood compatibility of the surfaces. Hemolysis assay of the treated surface showed a remarkable decrease in the percentage of lysis of red blood cells when compared with untreated surface. Moreover, platelet adhesion assay demonstrated that HCl exposed surfaces deter the attachment of platelets and thereby reduce the chances of activation of blood coagulation cascade. These results confirmed the enhanced blood compatibility of mPE after HCl exposure which can be utilized for cardiovascular implants like artificial vascular prostheses, implants, and various blood contacting devices. PMID:24955370

Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Mohandas, Hemanth; Sivakumar, Gunalan; Kasi, Palaniappan; Sudheer, Theertha; Avineri Veetil, Sruthi; Murugesan, Selvakumar; Supriyanto, Eko

2014-01-01

8

Methylseleninic Acid Enhances Paclitaxel Efficacy for the Treatment of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer  

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A major challenge in breast cancer therapy is the lack of an effective therapeutic option for a particularly aggressive subtype of breast cancer, triple-negative breast cancer. Here we provide the first preclinical evidence that a second-generation selenium compound, methylseleninic acid, significantly enhances the anticancer efficacy of paclitaxel in triple-negative breast cancer. Through combination-index value calculation, we demonstrated that methylseleninic acid synergistically enhanced ...

Qi, Yanfeng; Fu, Xueqi; Xiong, Zhenggang; Zhang, Haitao; Hill, Steven M.; Rowan, Brian G.; Dong, Yan

2012-01-01

9

Enhanced Photocatalytic Performance of ZnS for Reversible Amination of ?-oxo Acids by Hydrothermal Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

To understand how life could have originated on early Earth, it is essential to know what biomolecules and metabolic pathways are shared by extant organisms and what organic compounds and their chemical reaction channels were likely to have been primordially available during the initial phase of the formation of prebiotic metabolism. In a previous study, we demonstrated for the first time the reversible amination of ?-oxo acids on the surface of photo-illuminated ZnS. The sulfide mineral is a typical component at the periphery of submarine hydrothermal vents which has been frequently argued as a very attractive venue for the origin of life. In this work, in order to simulate more closely the precipitation environments of ZnS in the vent systems, we treated newly-precipitated ZnS with hydrothermal conditions and found that its photocatalytic power was significantly enhanced because the relative crystallinity of the treated sample was markedly increased with increasing temperature. Since the reported experimental conditions are believed to have been prevalent in shallow-water hydrothermal vents of early Earth and the reversible amination of ?-oxo acids is a key metabolic pathway in all extant life forms, the results of this work provide a prototypical model of the prebiotic amino acid redox metabolism. The amino acid dehydrogenase-like chemistry on photo-irradiated ZnS surfaces may advance our understanding of the establishment of archaic non-enzymatic metabolic systems.

Wang, Wei; Li, Qiliang; Liu, Xiaoyang; Yang, Yanqiang; Su, Wenhui

2012-08-01

10

Enhanced suppression of tumor growth by concomitant treatment of human lung cancer cells with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid and arsenic trioxide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The efficacy of arsenic trioxide (ATO) against acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and relapsed APL has been well documented. ATO may cause DNA damage by generating reactive oxygen intermediates. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, modulates gene and protein expression via histone-dependent or -independent pathways that may result in chromatin decondensation, cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis. We investigated whether ATO and SAHA act synergistically to enhance the death of cancer cells. Our current findings showed that combined treatment with ATO and SAHA resulted in enhanced suppression of non-small-cell lung carcinoma in vitro in H1299 cells and in vivo in a xenograft mouse model. Flow cytometric analysis of annexin V+ cells showed that apoptotic cell death was significantly enhanced after combined treatment with ATO and SAHA. At the doses used, ATO did not interfere with cell cycle progression, but SAHA induced p21 expression and led to G1 arrest. A Comet assay demonstrated that ATO, but not SAHA, induced DNA strand breaks in H1299 cells; however, co-treatment with SAHA significantly increased ATO-induced DNA damage. Moreover, SAHA enhanced acetylation of histone H3 and sensitized genomic DNA to DNase I digestion. Our results suggest that SAHA may cause chromatin relaxation and increase cellular susceptibility to ATO-induced DNA damage. Combined administration of SAHA and ATO may be an effective approach to the treatment of lung cancer. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATO and SAHA are therapeutic agents with different action modes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination of ATO and SAHA synergistically inhibits tumor cell growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SAHA loosens chromatin structure resulting in increased sensitivity to DNase I. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATO-induced DNA damage and apoptosis are enhanced by co-treatment with SAHA.

Chien, Chia-Wen [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 11490, Taiwan (China); Yao, Ju-Hsien [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Institute of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan (China); Chang, Shih-Yu [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Lee, Pei-Chih [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Institute of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan (China); Lee, Te-Chang, E-mail: bmtcl@ibms.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Institute of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan (China)

2011-11-15

11

Enhanced suppression of tumor growth by concomitant treatment of human lung cancer cells with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid and arsenic trioxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The efficacy of arsenic trioxide (ATO) against acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and relapsed APL has been well documented. ATO may cause DNA damage by generating reactive oxygen intermediates. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, modulates gene and protein expression via histone-dependent or -independent pathways that may result in chromatin decondensation, cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis. We investigated whether ATO and SAHA act synergistically to enhance the death of cancer cells. Our current findings showed that combined treatment with ATO and SAHA resulted in enhanced suppression of non-small-cell lung carcinoma in vitro in H1299 cells and in vivo in a xenograft mouse model. Flow cytometric analysis of annexin V+ cells showed that apoptotic cell death was significantly enhanced after combined treatment with ATO and SAHA. At the doses used, ATO did not interfere with cell cycle progression, but SAHA induced p21 expression and led to G1 arrest. A Comet assay demonstrated that ATO, but not SAHA, induced DNA strand breaks in H1299 cells; however, co-treatment with SAHA significantly increased ATO-induced DNA damage. Moreover, SAHA enhanced acetylation of histone H3 and sensitized genomic DNA to DNase I digestion. Our results suggest that SAHA may cause chromatin relaxation and increase cellular susceptibility to ATO-induced DNA damage. Combined administration of SAHA and ATO may be an effective approach to the treatment of lung cancer. -- Highlights: ? ATO and SAHA are therapeutic agents with different action modes. ? Combination of ATO and SAHA synergistically inhibits tumor cell growth. ? SAHA loosens chromatin structure resulting in increased sensitivity to DNase I. ? ATO-induced DNA damage and apoptosis are enhanced by co-treatment with SAHA.

12

Sulfuric acid and hot water treatments enhance ex vitro and in vitro germination of Hibiscus seed  

Science.gov (United States)

Seeds of Hibiscus dasycalyx S. F. Blake & Shiller, a federally listed candidate endangered species and native to North America, and two variants of Hibiscus acetosella Welw. ex. Hiern were scarified using sulfuric acid and hot water. The effects of the scarification methods on in vitro and ex vitro ...

13

Enhancing cytotoxic and apoptotic effect in OVCAR-3 and MDAH-2774 cells with all-trans retinoic acid and zoledronic acid: a paradigm of synergistic molecular targeting treatment for ovarian cancer  

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Abstract Background Ovarian cancer is the most fatal gynecologic malignancies in the world. Although, platinum based treatments are widely used, the disease becomes treatment refractory within two years, and novel treatment options should be searched. All- trans retinoic acid (ATRA) induces growth arrest, differentiation and cell death in some types of cancer cells and its combination with various anticancer agents results in enhanced cytotoxicity. Zoledronic acid is a common...

K?s?m Asl?; Atmaca Harika; Cakar Burcu; Muslu Ugur; Varol Umut; Karaca Burcak; Karabulut Bulent; Uzunoglu Selim; Uslu Ruchan

2010-01-01

14

Plasma treatment induces internal surface modifications of electrospun poly(L-lactic) acid scaffold to enhance protein coating  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Advanced biomaterials should also be bioactive with regard to desirable cellular responses, such as selective protein adsorption and cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. To enhance cell-material interactions, surface modifications have commonly been performed. Among the various surface modification approaches, atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma has been used to change a hydrophobic polymer surface to a hydrophilic surface. Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA)-derived scaffolds lack cell recognition signals and the hydrophobic nature of PLLA hinders cell seeding. To make PLLA surfaces more conducive to cell attachment and spreading, surface modifications may be used to create cell-biomaterial interfaces that elicit controlled cell adhesion and maintain differentiated phenotypes. In this study, (He) gaseous atmospheric plasma glow discharge was used to change the characteristics of a 3D-type polymeric scaffold from hydrophobic to hydrophilic on both the outer and inner surfaces of the scaffold and the penetration efficiency with fibronectin was investigated. Field-emission scanning electron microscope images showed that some grooves were formed on the PLLA fibers after plasma treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data also showed chemical changes in the PLLA structure. After plasma treatment, -CN (285.76 eV) was increased in C1s and -NH{sub 2} (399.70 eV) was increased significantly and –N=CH (400.80 eV) and –NH{sub 3}{sup +} (402.05 eV) were newly appeared in N1s. These changes allowed fibronectin to penetrate into the PLLA scaffold; this could be observed by confocal microscopy. In conclusion, helium atmospheric pressure plasma treatment was effective in modifying the polymeric scaffold, making it hydrophilic, and this treatment can also be used in tissue engineering research as needed to make polymers hydrophilic.

Jin Seo, Hyok; Hee Lee, Mi; Kwon, Byeong-Ju; Kim, Hye-Lee; Park, Jong-Chul [Cellbiocontrol Laboratory, Department of Medical Engineering, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Jin Lee, Seung [Department of Industrial Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bong-Jin; Wang, Kang-Kyun; Kim, Yong-Rok [Department of Chemistry, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-08-21

15

Amino acid treatment enhances protein recovery from sediment and soils for metaproteomic studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Characterization of geomicrobial protein expression provides information necessary to better understand the unique biological pathways that occur within soil microbial communities and the role they play in regulating atmospheric CO2 levels and the Earth’s climate. A significant challenge in studying soil microbial proteins is their initial dissociation from the complex mixture of particles found in natural soil. Due to bias of the most robust cells, the removal of intact bacterial cells limits the characterization of the complete representation of a microbial community. However, in-situ lysis of bacterial cells leads to the expulsion of proteins to the soil surface, which can lead to potentially high levels of adsorption due to the physicochemical properties of both the protein and the soil. We investigated various compounds for their ability to block protein adsorption soil sites prior to in-situ lysis of bacterial cells, as well as their compatibility with both tryptic digestion and mass spectrometric analysis. The treatments were tested by adding lysed Escherichia coli proteins to representative treated and untreated soil samples. The results show that it is possible to significantly increase protein identifications through blockage of binding sites on a variety of soil textures; use of an optimized desorption buffer further increases the number of identifications.

Nicora, Carrie D.; Anderson, Brian J.; Callister, Stephen J.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Jansson, Janet K.; Mason, Olivia U.; David, Maude; Jurelevicius, Diogo D.; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.

2013-10-01

16

Enhancing methane production from waste activated sludge using combined free nitrous acid and heat pre-treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methane production from anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) is often limited by the slow degradation and poor substrate availability of WAS. Our previous study revealed that WAS pre-treatment using free nitrous acid (FNA, i.e. HNO2) is an economically feasible and environmentally friendly method for promoting methane production. In order to further improve methane production from WAS, this study presents a novel strategy based on combined FNA and heat pre-treatment. WAS from a full-scale plant was treated for 24 h with FNA alone (0.52-1.43 mg N/L at 25 °C), heat alone (35, 55 and 70 °C), and FNA (0.52-1.11 mg N/L) combined with heat (35, 55 and 70 °C). The pre-treated WAS was then used for biochemical methane potential tests. Compared to the control (no FNA or heat pre-treatment of WAS), biochemical methane potential of the pre-treated WAS was increased by 12-16%, 0-6%, 17-26%, respectively; hydrolysis rate was improved by 15-25%, 10-25%, 20-25%, respectively, for the three types of pre-treatment. Heat pre-treatment at 55 and 70 °C, independent of the presence or absence of FNA, achieved approximately 4.5 log inactivation of pathogens (in comparison to ?1 log inactivation with FNA treatment alone), thus capable of producing Class A biosolids. The combined FNA and heat pre-treatment is an economically and environmentally attractive technology for the pre-treatment of WAS prior to anaerobic digestion, particularly considering that both FNA and heat can be produced as by-products of anaerobic sludge digestion. PMID:24981745

Wang, Qilin; Jiang, Guangming; Ye, Liu; Yuan, Zhiguo

2014-10-15

17

Evaluation of seed and seedling emergence enhancement of some population of Sahandy savory (Satureja sahendica) by gibberlic acid, potasium nitrate, pre-cooling, physical and chemical scarification treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

In greenhouse experiment, the seed samples of 3 populations were treated with treatments including: cold stratification, Gibberlic Acid (50 ppm and 100 ppm), Potassium nitrate (0.2%, 0.4%), physical scarification (sand paper), chemical scarification (Ethylic alcohol 70%) and distilled water (control), then these treated seed samples were sown in pots as randomize design with three replication. The germination characteristics including: germination percentage, speed of germination, length of root and shoot, seedling length, ratio of root length by shoot length, vigor index, fresh weight arid dry weight, ratio of dry weight by fresh weight were evaluated during 45 days of experiment. Comparing between three populations of Sahandy savory, seed germination characteristics of the Ghazvin population was higher than the other two populations. According to effect of treatment on germination seed characteristics, the species of savory and their population, it was concluded that effect of Gibberlic Acid and Potassium nitrate was higher than physical scarification and chemical scarification comparing with control. With more effective of gibberlic acid and KNO3 and cold treatment on seed germination enhancement of the population, it was clarified that the type of dormancy of some population of Sahandy savory was physiological dormancy. PMID:24506025

Alizadeh, M A; Arab, H A; Tabaie, R; Nasiri, M

2013-10-15

18

Gamma aminobutyric acid B and 5-hydroxy tryptamine 2A receptors functional regulation during enhanced liver cell proliferation by GABA and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticles treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Liver is one of the major organs in vertebrates and hepatocytes are damaged by many factors. The liver cell maintenance and multiplication after injury and treatment gained immense interest. The present study investigated the role of Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) coupled with chitosan nanoparticles in the functional regulation of Gamma aminobutyric acid B and 5-hydroxy tryptamine 2A receptors mediated cell signaling mechanisms, extend of DNA methylation and superoxide dismutase activity during enhanced liver cell proliferation. Liver injury was achieved by partial hepatectomy of male Wistar rats and the GABA and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticles treatments were given intraperitoneally. The experimental groups were sham operated control (C), partially hepatectomised rats with no treatment (PHNT), partially hepatectomised rats with GABA chitosan nanoparticle (GCNP), 5-HT chitosan nanoparticle (SCNP) and a combination of GABA and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticle (GSCNP) treatments. In GABA and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticle treated group there was a significant decrease (P<0.001) in the receptor expression of Gamma aminobutyric acid B and a significant increase (P<0.001) in the receptor expression of 5-hydroxy tryptamine 2A when compared to PHNT. The cyclic adenosine monophosphate content and its regulatory protein, presence of methylated DNA and superoxide dismutase activity were decreased in GCNP, SCNP and GSCNP when compared to PHNT. The Gamma aminobutyric acid B and 5-hydroxy tryptamine 2A receptors coupled signaling elements played an important role in GABA and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticles induced liver cell proliferation which has therapeutic significance in liver disease management. PMID:23748019

Shilpa, Joy; Pretty, Mary Abraham; Anitha, Malat; Paulose, Cheramadathikudyil Skaria

2013-09-01

19

Post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 using aerobic moving bed biofilm process: enhanced removal of aromatic amines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The application of aerobic moving bed biofilm process as post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 was investigated in this study. The main objective of this work was to enhance removal of anaerobically formed the dye aromatic metabolites. Three separate sequential treatment systems were operated with different initial dye concentrations of 100, 500 and 1000 mg/L. Each treatment system consisted of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (An-SBR) followed by an aerobic moving bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor (MB-SBBR). Up to 98% of the dye decolorization and more than 80% of the COD removal occurred anaerobically. The obtained results suggested no significant difference in COD removal as well as the dye decolorization efficiency using three An-SBRs receiving different initial dye concentrations. Monitoring the dye metabolites through HPLC suggested that more than 80% of anaerobically formed 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate was completely removed in the aerobic biofilm reactors. Based on COD analysis results, at least 65-72% of the dye total metabolites were mineralized during the applied treatment systems. According to the measured biofilm mass and also based on respiration-inhibition test results, increasing the initial dye concentration inhibited the growth and final mass of the attached-growth biofilm in MB-SBBRs. PMID:21880425

Koupaie, E Hosseini; Moghaddam, M R Alavi; Hashemi, S H

2011-11-15

20

Enhanced arachidonic acid production from Mortierella alpina combining atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) and diethyl sulfate treatments.  

Science.gov (United States)

To obtain mutant strains with higher arachidonic acid (ARA) yields, the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpina was mutated using atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) coupled with diethyl sulfate (DES). A visual compound filter operation was used in which a screening medium was supplemented with cerulenin, an inhibitor of fatty acid synthase (FAS), and triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC). The mutant strain D20 with an ARA production of 5.09g/L, a 40.61% increase over the original strain (3.62g/L), was isolated. The relative ARA content increased from 38.99% to 45.64% of total fatty acids. After optimizing fermentation conditions, the maximum ARA yield (6.82g/L) for strain D20 was obtained in shake flasks. This work provides an appropriate strategy for obtaining high ARA-yield strains by conventional random mutation methods with an efficient screening assay. PMID:25484124

Li, Xiangyu; Liu, Ruijie; Li, Jing; Chang, Ming; Liu, Yuanfa; Jin, Qingzhe; Wang, Xingguo

2015-02-01

 
 
 
 
21

Post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 using aerobic moving bed biofilm process: Enhanced removal of aromatic amines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: {yields} Biofilm process was applied as post-treatment of anaerobically degraded an azo dye. {yields} More than 65% of the dye total metabolites was completely mineralized. {yields} Based on HPLC analysis, more than 80% of 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate was removed. {yields} Inhibition of biofilm growth was increased with increasing the initial dye concentration. {yields} Considerable porous morphology was observed in the SEM photographs of the biofilm. - Abstract: The application of aerobic moving bed biofilm process as post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 was investigated in this study. The main objective of this work was to enhance removal of anaerobically formed the dye aromatic metabolites. Three separate sequential treatment systems were operated with different initial dye concentrations of 100, 500 and 1000 mg/L. Each treatment system consisted of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (An-SBR) followed by an aerobic moving bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor (MB-SBBR). Up to 98% of the dye decolorization and more than 80% of the COD removal occurred anaerobically. The obtained results suggested no significant difference in COD removal as well as the dye decolorization efficiency using three An-SBRs receiving different initial dye concentrations. Monitoring the dye metabolites through HPLC suggested that more than 80% of anaerobically formed 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate was completely removed in the aerobic biofilm reactors. Based on COD analysis results, at least 65-72% of the dye total metabolites were mineralized during the applied treatment systems. According to the measured biofilm mass and also based on respiration-inhibition test results, increasing the initial dye concentration inhibited the growth and final mass of the attached-growth biofilm in MB-SBBRs.

Hosseini Koupaie, E., E-mail: ehssan.hosseini.k@gmail.com [Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology (AUT), Hafez Ave., Tehran 15875-4413 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alavi Moghaddam, M.R., E-mail: alavim@yahoo.com [Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology (AUT), Hafez Ave., Tehran 15875-4413 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi, S.H., E-mail: h_hashemi@sbu.ac.ir [Environmental Science Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-11-15

22

Enhancing cytotoxic and apoptotic effect in OVCAR-3 and MDAH-2774 cells with all-trans retinoic acid and zoledronic acid: a paradigm of synergistic molecular targeting treatment for ovarian cancer  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Ovarian cancer is the most fatal gynecologic malignancies in the world. Although, platinum based treatments are widely used, the disease becomes treatment refractory within two years, and novel treatment options should be searched. All- trans retinoic acid (ATRA induces growth arrest, differentiation and cell death in some types of cancer cells and its combination with various anticancer agents results in enhanced cytotoxicity. Zoledronic acid is a common bisphosphonate known for its anticancer effects beyond its current use in the treatment of cancer-induced bone disease. We aimed to investigate the possible additive/synergistic effect of both agents in OVCAR-3 and MDAH-2774 ovarian cancer cell lines, since both agents show superiority to conventional cytotoxics in terms of adverse events. Methods XTT cell proliferation assay was used for showing cytotoxicity. For verifying apoptosis, both DNA Fragmentation by ELISA assay and caspase 3/7 activity measurement were used. OligoGeArray® which consists of 112 apoptosis related genes was used to elucidate the genetic changes within cancer cells. To validate our oligoarray results, quantitative real-time PCR was performed on four selected genes that were maximally effected by the combination treatment: lymphotoxin beta receptor (LTBR, myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL-1, tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 1A (TNFRSF1A, TNFRSF1A-associated death domain protein (TRADD. Results We demonstrated that a novel combination of ATRA and zoledronic acid is a strong inducer of apoptotic related cell death in both ovarian cancer cells. While the combination therapy significantly induced proapoptotic genes such as tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF, TRADD and caspase 4, some of the antiapoptotic genes such as members of MCL-1, LTBR, BAG3 and Bcl-2 family members were inhibited. Conclusions These are the preliminary molecular results of a novel combination treatment of ATRA and zoledronic acid, with fewer side effects as compared to conventional cytotoxic agents. With additional experimental analysis, it may serve as a good option for the treatment of refractory and elderly ovarian cancer patients, for whom there exists very limited choice of treatment.

K?s?m Asl?

2010-07-01

23

Lack of enhancement of experimental photocarcinogenesis by topical retinoic acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A controversy exists regarding the ability of retinoic acid to enhance photocarcinogenesis. Divergent results have been obtained with albino hairless mice. We examined this issue with the lightly pigmented variety. We followed two designs: 1. ultraviolet light and topical retinoic acid were given concomitantly while the retinoic acid was continued for many weeks after stopping irradiation; 2. tumors were first induced by ultraviolet light and then treated topically with retinoic acid. In both studies, retinoic acid did not enhance photocarcinogenesis with regard to latent period, tumor yield or tumor progression. It appears that different treatment schedules and different varieties of mice can produce widely disparate results. (orig.)

24

Combining Valosin-containing Protein (VCP) Inhibition and Suberanilohydroxamic Acid (SAHA) Treatment Additively Enhances the Folding, Trafficking, and Function of Epilepsy-associated ?-Aminobutyric Acid, Type A (GABAA) Receptors.  

Science.gov (United States)

GABAA receptors are the primary inhibitory ion channels in the mammalian central nervous system. The A322D mutation in the ?1 subunit results in its excessive endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation at the expense of plasma membrane trafficking, leading to autosomal dominant juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. Presumably, valosin-containing protein (VCP)/p97 extracts misfolded subunits from the endoplasmic reticulum membrane to the cytosolic proteasome for degradation. Here we showed that inhibiting VCP using Eeyarestatin I reduces the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation of the ?1(A322D) subunit without an apparent effect on its dynamin-1 dependent endocytosis and that this treatment enhances its trafficking. Furthermore, coapplication of Eeyarestatin I and suberanilohydroxamic acid, a known small molecule that promotes chaperone-assisted folding, yields an additive restoration of surface expression of ?1(A322D) subunits in HEK293 cells and neuronal SH-SY5Y cells. Consequently, this combination significantly increases GABA-induced chloride currents in whole-cell patch clamping experiments than either chemical compound alone in HEK293 cells. Our findings suggest that VCP inhibition without stress induction, together with folding enhancement, represents a new strategy to restore proteostasis of misfolding-prone GABAA receptors and, therefore, a potential remedy for idiopathic epilepsy. PMID:25406314

Han, Dong-Yun; Di, Xiao-Jing; Fu, Yan-Lin; Mu, Ting-Wei

2015-01-01

25

Model application for acid mine drainage treatment processes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents the utilization of the geochemical model, PHREEQC, to investigate the chemical treatment system for Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) prior to the discharge. The selected treatment system consists of treatment processes commonly used for AMD including settling pond, vertical flow pond (VFP) and caustic soda pond were considered in this study. The use of geochemical model for the treatment process analysis enhances the understanding of the changes in AMD’s chemistry (precipitation...

Nantaporn Noosai, Vineeth Vijayan

2014-01-01

26

Bacterial lipoteichoic acid enhances cryosurvival.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antifreeze proteins in fish, plants, and insects provide protection to a few degrees below freezing. Microbes have been found to survive at even lower temperatures, and with a few exceptions, antifreeze proteins are missing. We show that lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a biopolymer in the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria, can be added to B. subtilis cultures and increase freeze tolerance. At 1 % w/v, LTA enables a 50 % survival rate, similar to the results obtained with 1 % w/v glycerol as measured with the resazurin cell viability assay. In the absence of added LTA or glycerol, a very small number of B. subtilis cells survive freezing. This suggests that an innate freeze tolerance mechanism exists. While cryoprotection can be provided by extracellular polymeric substances, our data demonstrate a role for LTA in cryoprotection. Currently, the exact mode of action for LTA cryoprotection is unknown. With a molecular weight of 3-5 kDa, it is unlikely to enter the cell cytoplasm. However, low temperature microscopy data show small ice crystals aligned along channels of liquid water. Our observations suggest that teichoic acids could protect liquid water within biofilms and planktonic bacteria, augmenting the role of brine while also raising the possibility for survival without brine present. PMID:25477208

Rice, Charles V; Middaugh, Amy; Wickham, Jason R; Friedline, Anthony; Thomas, Kieth J; Scull, Erin; Johnson, Karen; Zachariah, Malcolm; Garimella, Ravindranth

2014-12-01

27

Bile acids in treatment of ocular disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bear bile has been included in Asian pharmacopeias for thousands of years in treatment of several diseases, ranging from sore throat to hemorrhoids. The hydrophilic bile acids tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) are the major bile acids of bear bile. Both of these are available as synthetic formulations and are approved by the health administrations of several countries for treatment of cirrhosis and gallstones. This review briefly covers the use of bear bile in ...

Boatright, Jeffrey H.; Nickerson, John M.; Moring, Anisha G.; Pardue, Machelle T.

2009-01-01

28

Lysophosphatidic acids: III. Enhancement of neutrophil chemotaxis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

1-Palmitoyl-lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) was studied for its influence on the chemotaxis and ultrastructure of human neutrophils. By itself, LPA had no effect on the indices of chemotaxis or random migration of neutrophils. However, LPA on either the cellular or attractant side of Boyden chambers significantly enhanced the chemotactic responses of neutrophils to suboptimal concentrations of formyl-methionyl-phenylalanine. The enhancement of chemotaxis was achieved with concentrations of LPA (1...

Gerrard, J. M.; Clawson, C. C.; White, J. G.

1980-01-01

29

Organic acids enhance halogen activation on mildly acidic water surfaces  

Science.gov (United States)

Iodine species of marine origin are ubiquitous in the marine boundary layer (MBL). They are found over the open ocean (even in the absence of biogenic sources), the Antarctic coast, in rain, aerosols, ice, and snow, and participate in HOx/NOx cycles in the MBL. Surface-active organic acids coating the surface marine microlayer (SML) and marine aerosols could affect their chemical/physical properties. Recent field measurements show that organic acids represent ˜50% of the mass of fog waters collected in the US Gulf Coast. Here we report that I2(g) emissions from the heterogeneous reactions of O3(g) with I- (aq) are dramatically enhanced in the presence of surface-active organic acids under mildly acidic condition that are typical of fine marine aerosols. The amphiphilic weak carboxylic acids appear to promote I2(g) emissions by donating the interfacial protons more efficiently than water itself. We infer that the organic acids coating aerosol particles ejected from ocean's surface films could enhance I2(g) production in the MBL.

Hayase, S.; Enami, S.; Yabushita, A.; Kawasaki, M.; Hoffmann, M. R.; Colussi, A. J.

2011-12-01

30

Surgical Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux Shawnee Mission Medical Center Shawnee Mission, Kansas May 21, 2009 Welcome ... OR-Live” webcast presentation live from Shawnee Mission Medical Center in Merriam, Kansas. During the program it’s ...

31

Surgical Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Live Surgical Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux Shawnee Mission Medical Center Shawnee Mission, Kansas May 21, 2009 Welcome to this “OR-Live” webcast presentation live from Shawnee Mission ...

32

Enhanced integrated nonthermal treatment system study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the Enhanced Nonthermal Treatment Systems (ENTS) study is to evaluate alternative configurations of one of the five systems evaluated in the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) study. Five alternative configurations are evaluated. Each is designed to enhance the final waste form performance by replacing grout with improved stabilization technologies, or to improve system performance by improving the destruction efficiency for organic contaminants. AU enhanced systems are alternative configurations of System NT-5, which has the following characteristics: Nonthermal System NT-5: (1) catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) to treat organic material including organic liquids, sludges, and soft (or combustible) debris, (2) thermal desorption of inorganic sludge and process residue, (3) washing of soil and inorganic debris with treatment by CWO of removed organic material, (4) metal decontamination by abrasive blasting, (5) stabilization of treated sludge, soil, debris, and untreated debris with entrained contamination in grout, and (6) stabilization of inorganic sludge, salts and secondary waste in polymer. System NT-5 was chosen because it was designed to treat combustible debris thereby minimizing the final waste form volume, and because it uses grout for primary stabilization. The enhanced nonthermal systems were studied to determine the cost and performance impact of replacing grout (a commonly used stabilization agent in the DOE complex) with improved waste stabilization methods such as vitrification and polymer

33

Enhanced integrated nonthermal treatment system study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the Enhanced Nonthermal Treatment Systems (ENTS) study is to evaluate alternative configurations of one of the five systems evaluated in the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) study. Five alternative configurations are evaluated. Each is designed to enhance the final waste form performance by replacing grout with improved stabilization technologies, or to improve system performance by improving the destruction efficiency for organic contaminants. AU enhanced systems are alternative configurations of System NT-5, which has the following characteristics: Nonthermal System NT-5: (1) catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) to treat organic material including organic liquids, sludges, and soft (or combustible) debris, (2) thermal desorption of inorganic sludge and process residue, (3) washing of soil and inorganic debris with treatment by CWO of removed organic material, (4) metal decontamination by abrasive blasting, (5) stabilization of treated sludge, soil, debris, and untreated debris with entrained contamination in grout, and (6) stabilization of inorganic sludge, salts and secondary waste in polymer. System NT-5 was chosen because it was designed to treat combustible debris thereby minimizing the final waste form volume, and because it uses grout for primary stabilization. The enhanced nonthermal systems were studied to determine the cost and performance impact of replacing grout (a commonly used stabilization agent in the DOE complex) with improved waste stabilization methods such as vitrification and polymer.

Biagi, C.; Schwinkendorf, B.; Teheranian, B.

1997-02-01

34

Effect of Enhancing Urea-Humic Acid Mixture with Refined Acid Sulphate Soil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Acid Sulphate Soil (ASS is a problem soil partly because of its high acidity. This low pH could be exploited to reduce ammonia loss from urea by reducing soil microsite pH. The use Humic Acid (HA to control ammonia loss from urea has been reported but the cost of this material is high. This laboratory study compared the effect of enhancing urea-humic acid mixtures with acid sulphate soil on NH3 loss, pH, exchangeable ammonium and available nitrate contents. Approach: Humic acid, acid sulfate soil and soil used in the incubation study were analyzed for selected soil physical-chemical properties using standard procedures. Urea-HA-ASS mixtures were prepared and ammonia volatilization of the mixtures was evaluated by the closed-dynamic air flow system. The treatments were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Standard procedures were used to determine ammonia loss, soil pH, exchangeable ammonium and available nitrate at 22 days of incubation. Data obtained were analyzed using analysis of variance and Duncan's test using Statistical Analysis System (SAS version 9.2. Results: Urea amended with 0.75 g ASS significantly reduced ammonia volatilization. Although the use of appropriate amount of acid sulphate soil to control ammonia loss is possible, excessive use of this material is not recommended because of Fe in it. Conclusion: Urea amended with 0.75 g ASS reduced ammonia.

Mohd T.M. Yusuff

2009-01-01

35

Amoxycillin-clavulanic acid treatment of melioidosis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Melioidosis is a serious infection with high acute mortality, and a high rate of relapse despite protracted antimicrobial treatment. The current recommended conventional oral treatment regimen is a 4-drug combination of high-dose chloramphenicol, doxycycline and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole given for between 6 weeks and 6 months. We have evaluated prospectively the use of amoxycillin-clavulanic acid, to which Pseudomonas pseudomallei is consistently sensitive in vitro, for the oral maintena...

Suputtamongkol, Y.; Dance, Da; Chaowagul, W.; Wattanagoon, Y.; Wuthiekanun, V.; White, Nj

1991-01-01

36

Enhancing pitting corrosion resistance of AlxCrFe1.5MnNi0.5 high-entropy alloys by anodic treatment in sulfuric acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High-entropy alloys are a newly developed family of multi-component alloys that comprise various major alloying elements. Each element in the alloy system is present in between 5 and 35 at.%. The crystal structures and physical properties of high-entropy alloys differ completely from those of conventional alloys. The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) of the AlxCrFe1.5MnNi0.5 (x = 0, 0.3, 0.5) alloys, obtained in 0.1 M HCl solution, clearly revealed that the corrosion resistance values were determined to increase from 21 to 34 ?cm2 as the aluminum content increased from 0 to 0.5 mol, and were markedly lower than that of 304 stainless steel (243 ?cm2). At passive potential, the corresponding current declined with the anodizing time accounting, causing passivity by the growth of the multi-component anodized film in H2SO4 solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses revealed that the surface of anodized Al0.3CrFe1.5MnNi0.5 alloy formed aluminum and chromium oxide film which was the main passivating compound on the alloy. This anodic treatment increased the corrosion resistance in the EIS measurements of the CrFe1.5MnNi0.5 and Al0.3CrFe1.5MnNi0.5 alloys by two orders of magnitude. Accordingly, the anodic treatment of the AlxCrFe1.5MnNi0.5 alloys optimized thb>MnNi0.5 alloys optimized their surface structures and minimized their susceptibility to pitting corrosion

37

Ethacrynic acid: a novel radiation enhancer in human carcinoma cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Because agents that interfere with thiol metabolism and glutathione S-transferase (GST) functions have been shown to enhance antitumor effects of alkylating agents in vitro and in vivo, the present study was conceived on the basis that an inhibitor of GST would enhance the radiation response of some selected human carcinoma cells. Ethacrynic acid (EA) was chosen for the study because it is an effective inhibitor of GST and is a well known diuretic in humans. Methods and Materials: Experiments were carried out with well-established human tumor cells in culture growing in Eagle's minimum essential medium (MEM) supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS). Cell lines used were MCF-7, MCF-7 adriamycin resistant (AR) cells (breast carcinoma), HT-29 cells (colon carcinoma), DU-145 cells (prostate carcinoma), and U-373 cells (malignant glioma). Cell survival following the exposure of cells to drug alone, radiation alone, and a combined treatment was assayed by determining the colony-forming ability of single plated cells in culture to obtain dose-survival curves. The drug enhancement ratio was correlated with levels of GST. Results: The cytotoxicity of EA was most pronounced in MCF-7, U-373, and DU-145 cells compared to MCF-7 AR and HT-29 cells. The levels of GST activity were found to be lower in those EA-sensitive cells. A significant radiation enhancement was obtained with EA-sensitive cells exposed to nontoxic concentrations of the drug immediately before or aftions of the drug immediately before or after irradiation. The sensitizer enhancement ratio (SER) of MCF-7 cells was 1.55 with EA (20 ?g/ml), while the SER of MCF-7 AR was less than 1.1. Based on five different human tumor cells, a clear inverse relationship was demonstrated between the magnitude of SER and GST levels of tumor cells prior to the combined treatment. Conclusion: The present results suggest that EA, which acts as both a reversible and irreversible inhibitor of GST activity, could significantly enhance the radiation response of human cancer cells and the level of GST in tumor cells may predict the magnitude of radiation enhancement with EA. Ethacrynic acid would be an excellent drug as a radiosensitizer for further in vivo tumor study

38

Fenton-enhanced ?-radiolysis of cyanuric acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Degradation of cyanuric acid (OOOT), a stable end product of oxidative decomposition of atrazine, is investigated in a combined field of gamma radiolysis and fenton reaction. The reaction of hydroxyl radical (·OH) at pH 6 was carried out by irradiating N2O saturated aqueous solutions containing OOOT (1 x 10-3 mol dm-3), and this resulted only a marginal degradation (20%). However, when the same reaction was carried out in the presence of varying concentrations of ferrous sulfate ((5-10) x 10-5 mol dm-3), the decay of OOOT has been enhanced to more than 80%. This decay followed a first order kinetics. Nearly similar effects were observed with another triazine derivative, 2,4-dioxohexahydro-1,3,5-triazine (DHT). Two major reaction mechanisms are proposed for the enhanced decay of OOOT. The formation of unstable hydroxyl radical adducts from the reaction of ·OH which is the result of gamma radiolysis and the Fenton reaction (resulting from the reaction of the added Fe(II) and of the H2O2 from the radiolysis of water), is proposed as the first mechanism. The second mechanism, which is likely the major contributor to degradation, is proposed as the reaction of a nucleophilic adduct, Fe(II)OOH, which could directly react with the electron deficient triazine ring. It is highlighted that such degradation reactions must be explored for the complete degradation of the byproducts of the oxidative deco of the byproducts of the oxidative decomposition of atrazine

39

Multifunctional Nucleic Acids for Tumor Cell Treatment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We report on a multifunctional nucleic acid, termed AptamiR, composed of an aptamer domain and an antimiR domain. This composition mediates cell specific delivery of antimiR molecules for silencing of endogenous micro RNA. The introduced multifunctional molecule preserves cell targeting, anti-proliferative and antimiR function in one 37-nucleotide nucleic acid molecule. It inhibits cancer cell growth and induces gene expression that is pathologically damped by an oncomir. These findings will have a strong impact on future developments regarding aptamer- and antimiR-related applications for tumor targeting and treatment.

Pofahl, Monika; Wengel, Jesper

2014-01-01

40

[Azelaic acid in the treatment of acne].  

Science.gov (United States)

This review is an update of the literature accumulated over the past 6 years following the original observation that topically applied azelaic acid, a non-toxic C9 dicarboxylic acid, has a beneficial therapeutic effect on acne vulgaris. These studies have shown that azelaic acid has a modulating influence on the process of keratinization, and that it acts as a keratolytic and anti-comedogenic agent. There is evidence that it inhibits mitochondrial and microsomal oxido-reductases, including 5-alpha-reductase, and that it may interfere with the process of sebogenesis. It has a spectrum of antimicrobial activity, both in vitro and in vivo, against aerobic microorganisms and is effective against the anaerobic Propionibacterium acnes. Extensive multi-centre clinical trials have established that topical azelaic acid (a 20% cream) is an effective treatment for all types of acne. It compares well with other agents, such as topical tretinoin or benzoyl-peroxide, or oral tetracycline. It is non-irritant, and does not give rise to allergic or photo-toxic reactions. Its use is not associated with teratogenicity, possible endocrine unbalance, or the disadvantages of antibiotic treatment. It can be applied for long periods, in recurrences, and as maintenance "spot" therapy against individual lesions. PMID:2530163

Nazzaro-Porro, M; Passi, S; Picardo, M; Breathnach, A S; Zina, G

1989-04-01

 
 
 
 
41

Ectopic expression of DAZL gene in goat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells enhances the trans-differentiation to putative germ cells compared to the exogenous treatment of retinoic acid or bone morphogenetic protein 4 signalling molecules.  

Science.gov (United States)

The plasticity of human and murine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) has been proven by their ability to trans-differentiate to multilineage cells, including germ cells. We have investigated ability of goat BMSCs to trans-differentiate to germ cells with extrinsic (e.g., retinoic acid [RA] and BMP4 signalling molecules) and intrinsic factor expression (e.g., DAZL gene ectopic expression). Having optimized the concentration of RA and BMP4, gBMSCs were treated with RA 1?µM) and BMP4 (25?ng/mL), individually and collectively. Both RA and BMP4 induced OCT4, MVH, DAZL, STELLA, NANOG and C-KIT expression, but RNF17, PIWIL2, STRA8, and SCP3 were only expressed after RA treatment. In terms of an endogenous factor, a germ cell specific gene, deleted in Azoospermia-like (DAZL), was overexpressed by plasmid and mRNA techniques. Compared with the RA treated group, DAZL ectopic expression upregulated the transcription and translation of MVH, and SCP3 was also increased at the mRNA level. The mRNA-based method had more effect on the germ cells gene expression compared to the plasmid method. Ectopic expression of the DAZL gene enhanced trans-differentiation compared to the RA-treated group. Knockdown experiments confirmed the pivotal role of DAZL in germ cell differentiation. This study provides further information on the mechanisms underlying the spermatogenesis, which will guide the derivation of post-meiotic germ cells from adult stem cells in vitro. PMID:25052690

Yan, Guangyao; Fan, Yixuan; Li, Peizhen; Zhang, YanLi; Wang, Feng

2015-01-01

42

Removal of coagulant aluminum from water treatment residuals by acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sediment sludge during coagulation and sedimentation in drinking water treatment is called "water treatment residuals (WTR)". Polyaluminum chloride (PAC) is mainly used as a coagulant in Japan. The recycling of WTR has been desired; one method for its reuse is as plowed soil. However, WTR reuse in this way is inhibited by the aluminum from the added PAC, because of its high adsorption capacity for phosphate and other fertilizer components. The removal of such aluminum from WTR would therefore be advantageous for its reuse as plowed soil; this research clarified the effect of acid washing on aluminum removal from WTR and on plant growth in the treated soil. The percentage of aluminum removal from raw WTR by sulphuric acid solution was around 90% at pH 3, the percentage decreasing to 40% in the case of a sun-dried sample. The maximum phosphate adsorption capacity was decreased and the available phosphorus was increased by acid washing, with 90% of aluminum removal. The enhancement of Japanese mustard spinach growth and the increased in plant uptake of phosphates following acid washing were observed. PMID:24835954

Okuda, Tetsuji; Nishijima, Wataru; Sugimoto, Mayo; Saka, Naoyuki; Nakai, Satoshi; Tanabe, Kazuyasu; Ito, Junki; Takenaka, Kenji; Okada, Mitsumasa

2014-09-01

43

Hyaluronic acid enhances gene delivery into the cochlea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cochlear gene therapy can be a new avenue for the treatment of severe hearing loss by inducing regeneration or phenotypic rescue. One necessary step to establish this therapy is the development of a safe and feasible inoculation surgery, ideally without drilling the bony cochlear wall. The round window membrane (RWM) is accessible in the middle-ear space, but viral vectors placed on this membrane do not readily cross the membrane to the cochlear tissues. In an attempt to enhance permeability of the RWM, we applied hyaluronic acid (HA), a nontoxic and biodegradable reagent, onto the RWM of guinea pigs, prior to delivering an adenovirus carrying enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) reporter gene (Ad-eGFP) at the same site. We examined distribution of eGFP in the cochlea 1 week after treatment, comparing delivery of the vector via the RWM, with or without HA, to delivery by a cochleostomy into the perilymph. We found that cochlear tissue treated with HA-assisted delivery of Ad-eGFP demonstrated wider expression of transgenes in cochlear cells than did tissue treated by cochleostomy injection. HA-assisted vector delivery facilitated expression in cells lining the scala media, which are less accessible and not transduced after perilymphatic injection. We assessed auditory function by measuring auditory brainstem responses and determined that thresholds were significantly better in the ears treated with HA-assisted Ad-eGFP placement on the RWM as compared with cochleostomy. Together, these data demonstrate that HA-assisted delivery of viral vectors provides an atraumatic and clinically feasible method to introduce transgenes into cochlear cells, thereby enhancing both research methods and future clinical application. PMID:22074321

Shibata, Seiji B; Cortez, Sarah R; Wiler, James A; Swiderski, Donald L; Raphael, Yehoash

2012-03-01

44

Overview of mass transfer enhancement factor determination for acidic and basic compounds absorption in water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Absorption or gas-liquid mass transfer is a fundamental unit operation useful in many fields, particularly gas treatment (wet scrubbing). Absorption of basic or acidic compounds, even hydrophobic, in water can be achieved successfully due to the mass transfer enhancement linked to proton transfer reactions in the liquid film. The absorption rate takes this phenomenon into account through the enhancement factor E, which depends on many parameters: nature (irreversible or reversible), kinetics ...

Biard, Pierre-franc?ois; Couvert, Annabelle

2013-01-01

45

Abscisic acid enhances resistance to Alternaria solani in tomato seedlings.  

Science.gov (United States)

The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is an important regulator in many aspects of plant growth and development, as well as stress resistance. Here, we investigated the effects of exogenous ABA application on the interaction between tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) and Alternaria solani (early blight). Foliar spraying of 7.58 ?M ABA was effective in reducing disease severity in tomato plants. Previously, increased activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) were observed in exogenous ABA-treated tomato leaves. Moreover, these enzyme activities were maintained at higher levels in ABA-pretreated and A. solani challenged tomato plants. Tomato defense genes, such as PR1, ?-1, 3-glucanase (GLU), PPO, POD, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), were rapidly and significantly up-regulated by exogenous ABA treatment. Furthermore, a subsequent challenge of ABA-pretreated plants with the pathogen A. solani resulted in higher expression of defense genes, compared to water-treated or A. solani inoculated plants. Therefore, our results suggest that exogenous ABA could enhance disease resistance against A. solani infection in tomato through the activation of defense genes and via the enhancement of defense-related enzymatic activities. PMID:21530290

Song, Weiwei; Ma, Xinrong; Tan, Hong; Zhou, Jinyan

2011-07-01

46

Thermal and acid treatment of diatom frustules  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: Diatoms, belonging to Bacilariophyta family, are single-celled microscopic (1-100 micron plants living in aquatic environment. The diatom cell is protected inside a shell (frustule constructed from amorphous nano-silica particles. It is proposed that the frustules and purified silica powders obtained from frustules can be used to reinforce composites. In this study, microstructural properties of two diatom frustules were determined and different methods were investigated for silica powder processing from diatom frustules.Design/methodology/approach: Natural (ND and calcined (CD diatom frustules were used in this study. The chemical and microscopic properties of the diatom frustules were determined using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR and energy dispersive X-Ray Florescence spectrometer (XRF. Two different processing routes were applied to process silica powder from diatom frustules. These included (i leaching the frustules directly in HF, (ii incorporating thermally treated frustules in to the liquid nitrogen.Findings: At increasing HF concentrations, the variety of shapes, nanopores and open voids were seen on the surface of frustules as silica particles were removed from the surface. SEM micrograph results showed that HF significantly etched inside the existing pore structure of the diatom frustules. HF concentration was found more effective in mass loss than the leaching time. Thermal treatment induced several cracks propagated between macro pores and nanopores of the frustules.Practical implications: Results show that thermal and acid treatments were not effective for obtaining silica powder from frustules. Ball milling can be used for silica powder processing from frustules in the further study.Originality/value: In this paper, the microstructural properties of ND and CD frustules were determined. The effect of thermal and acid treatment on frustules was investigated with SEM.

E. Gulturk

2011-06-01

47

Enhancement of arachidonic acid signaling pathway by nicotinic acid receptor HM74A  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

HM74A is a G protein-coupled receptor for nicotinic acid (niacin), which has been used clinically to treat dyslipidemia for decades. The molecular mechanisms whereby niacin exerts its pleiotropic effects on lipid metabolism remain largely unknown. In addition, the most common side effect in niacin therapy is skin flushing that is caused by prostaglandin release, suggesting that the phospholipase A2 (PLA2)/arachidonic acid (AA) pathway is involved. Various eicosanoids have been shown to activate peroxisome-proliferator activated receptors (PPAR) that play a diverse array of roles in lipid metabolism. To further elucidate the potential roles of HM74A in mediating the therapeutic effects and/or side effects of niacin, we sought to explore the signaling events upon HM74A activation. Here we demonstrated that HM74A synergistically enhanced UTP- and bradykinin-mediated AA release in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner in A431 cells. Activation of HM74A also led to Ca2+-mobilization and enhanced bradykinin-promoted Ca2+-mobilization through Gi protein. While HM74A increased ERK1/2 activation by the bradykinin receptor, it had no effects on UTP-promoted ERK1/2 activation.Furthermore, UTP- and bradykinin-mediated AA release was significantly decreased in the presence of both MAPK kinase inhibitor PD 098059 and PKC inhibitor GF 109203X. However, the synergistic effects of HM74A were not dramatically affected by co-treatment with both ically affected by co-treatment with both inhibitors, indicating the cross-talk occurred at the receptor level. Finally, stimulation of A431 cells transiently transfected with PPRE-luciferase with AA significantly induced luciferase activity, mimicking the effects of PPAR? agonist rosiglitazone, suggesting that alteration of AA signaling pathway can regulate gene expression via endogenous PPARs

48

Biodegradability enhancement of purified terephthalic acid wastewater by coagulation-flocculation process as pretreatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, the coagulation-flocculation process was used as pretreatment for purified terephthalic acid (PTA) wastewater with the objective of improving its overall biodegradability. PTA production generates wastewaters with toxicants p-xylene [1,4-dimethyl-benzene (C8H10)], a major raw material used in the production process, along with some of the intermediates, viz., p-toluic acid, benzoic acid, 4-carboxybenzaldehyde, phthalic acid and terephthalic acid. These compounds affect the bio-oxidation process of wastewater treatment; hence removal of these constituents is necessary, prior to conventional aerobic treatment. This paper addresses the application of coagulation-flocculation process using chemical coagulants, viz., aluminium sulphate (alum), polyaluminium chloride (PAC), ferrous sulphate and ferric chloride in combination with anionic polyelectrolyte. Polyaluminium chloride (PAC) in conjunction with lime and polyelectrolyte removed about 63.1% chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 45.2% biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) from PTA wastewater. Coagulation-flocculation process coupled with aerobic bio-oxidation treatment of PTA wastewater achieved, COD & BOD removals of 97.4% and 99.4%, respectively. The biodegradability enhancement evaluated in terms of the BOD5/COD ratio, increased from 0.45 to 0.67 at the optimum conditions. The results obtained from these studies indicate that the coagulation-flocculation process could be a suitable pretreatment method in reducing toxicity of PTA wastewater whilst enhancing biodegradability for aerobic biological treatment scheme. PMID:18054427

Karthik, Manikavasagam; Dafale, Nishant; Pathe, Pradyumna; Nandy, Tapas

2008-06-15

49

Enhance decarboxylation reaction of carboxylic acids in clay minerals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Clay minerals are important constituents of the Earth's crust. These minerals catalyze reactions in several ways: by energy transfer processes, redox reactions, stabilization of intermediates and by Broensted or Lewis acidity behavior. Important set of organic reactions can be improved in the precedence of clay minerals. Besides the properties of clays to catalyze chemical reactions, it is possible to enhance some of its reactions by using ionizing radiation. The phenomenon of radiation-induced catalysis may be connected with ionizing process in the solid and with the trapped non-equilibrium charge carriers. In this paper we are reporting the decarboxylation reaction of carboxylic acids catalyzed by clay and by irradiation of the system acid-clay. We studied the behaviour of several carboxylic acids and analyzed them by gas chromatography, X-ray and infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that decarboxylation of the target compound is the dominating pathway. The reaction is enhanced by gamma radiation in several orders of magnitude. (author)

50

Magnetization Enhancement in Magnetite Nanoparticles Capped with Alginic Acid  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We report on the effect of organic acid capping on the behavior of magnetite nanoparticles. The nanoparticles of magnetite were obtained using microwave activated process, and the magnetic properties as well as the electron magnetic resonance behavior were studied for the Fe3O4 nanoparticles capped with alginic acid. The capped nanoparticles exhibit improved crystalline structure of the surface which leads to an enhanced magnetization. The saturation magnetization Ms increas...

Andrzejewski, B.; Bednarski, W.; Kazmierczak, M.; Pogorzelec-glaser, K.; Hilczer, B.; Jurga, S.; Matczak, M.; Leska, B.; Pankiewicz, R.; Kepinski, L.

2013-01-01

51

Caffeic acid phenethyl ester activation of Nrf2 pathway is enhanced under oxidative state: structural analysis and potential as a pathologically targeted therapeutic agent in treatment of colonic inflammation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a polyphenolic natural product that possesses numerous biological activities including anti-inflammatory effects. CAPE-mediated nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45 (NF-E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation is likely responsible for some of its biological effects. CAPE was chemically modified to yield CAPE analogues that were subjected to experiments examining cellular Nrf2 activity. CAPE and the CAPE analogue with a catechol moiety, but not the other analogues, activated the Nrf2 pathway. In addition, only biotin-labeled CAPE analogues with the catechol moiety precipitated Kelch-like ECH associated protein 1 (Keap1) when incubated with cell lysates and streptavidin agarose beads. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) oxidation of the catechol moiety in CAPE produced an oxidized, electrophilic form of CAPE (Oxi-CAPE) and greatly enhanced the ability of CAPE to activate Nrf2 and to bind to Keap1. Rectal administration of CAPE ameliorated 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced rat colitis and activated the Nrf2 pathway in the inflamed colon, and incubation of CAPE in the lumen of the inflamed distal colon generated Oxi-CAPE. However, these biological effects and chemical change of CAPE were not observed in the normal colon. Our data suggest that CAPE requires the catechol moiety for the oxidation-enhanced activation of the Nrf2 pathway and has potential as a pathologically targeted Nrf2-activating agent that is exclusively activated in pathological states with oxidative stress such as colonic inflammation. PMID:23892357

Kim, Hyunjeong; Kim, Wooseong; Yum, Soohwan; Hong, Sungchae; Oh, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Ji-Woo; Kwak, Mi-Kyoung; Park, Eun Ji; Na, Dong Hee; Jung, Yunjin

2013-12-01

52

TREATMENT TANK CORROSION STUDIES FOR THE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING PROCESS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radioactive waste is stored in high level waste tanks on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is aggressively seeking to close the non-compliant Type I and II waste tanks. The removal of sludge (i.e., metal oxide) heels from the tank is the final stage in the waste removal process. The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed and investigated by SRR to aid in Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) as an option for sludge heel removal. Corrosion rate data for carbon steel exposed to the ECC treatment tank environment was obtained to evaluate the degree of corrosion that occurs. These tests were also designed to determine the effect of various environmental variables such as temperature, agitation and sludge slurry type on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel. Coupon tests were performed to estimate the corrosion rate during the ECC process, as well as determine any susceptibility to localized corrosion. Electrochemical studies were performed to develop a better understanding of the corrosion mechanism. The tests were performed in 1 wt.% and 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with HM and PUREX sludge simulants. The following results and conclusions were made based on this testing: (1) In 1 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, carbon steel corroded at a rate of less than 25 mpy within the temperature and agitation levels of the test. No susceptibility to localized corrosion was observed. (2) In 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, the carbon steel corrosion rates ranged between 15 and 88 mpy. The most severe corrosion was observed at 75 C in the HM/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. Pitting and general corrosion increased with the agitation level at this condition. No pitting and lower general corrosion rates were observed with the PUREX/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. The electrochemical and coupon tests both indicated that carbon steel is more susceptible to localized corrosion in the HM/oxalic acid environment than in the PUREX/oxalic acid environment. (3) The corrosion rates for PUREX/8 wt.% oxalic acid were greater than or equal to those observed for the PUREX/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid. No localized corrosion was observed in the tests with the 8 wt.% oxalic acid. Testing with HM/8 wt.% oxalic acid simulant was not performed. Thus, a comparison with the results with 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid, where the corrosion rate was 88 mpy and localized corrosion was observed at 75 C, cannot be made. (4) The corrosion rates in 1 and 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid solutions were temperature dependent: (a) At 50 C, the corrosion rates ranged between 90 to 140 mpy over the 30 day test period. The corrosion rates were higher under stagnant conditions. (b) At 75 C, the initial corrosion rates were as high as 300 mpy during the first day of exposure. The corrosion rates increased with agitation. However, once the passive ferrous oxalate film formed, the corrosion rate decreased dramatically to less than 20 mpy over the 30 day test period. This rate was independent of agitation. (5) Electrochemical testing indicated that for oxalic acid/sludge simulant mixtures the cathodic reaction has transport controlled reaction kinetics. The literature suggests that the dissolution of the sludge produces a di-oxalatoferrate ion that is reduced at the cathodic sites. The cathodic reaction does not appear to involve hydrogen evolution. On the other hand, electrochemical tests demonstrated that the cathodic reaction for corrosion of carbon steel in pure oxalic acid involves hydrogen evolution. (6) Agitation of the oxalic acid/sludge simulant mixtures typically resulted in a higher corrosion rates for both acid concentrations. The transport of the ferrous ion away from the metal surface results in a less protective ferrous oxalate film. (7) A mercury containing species along with aluminum, silicon and iron oxides was observed on the interior of the pits formed in the HM/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant at 75 C. The pitting rates in the agitated and non-agitated solution were 2 mils/day and 1 mil/day, respectively. A mechanism

Wiersma, B.

2011-08-24

53

Modulating protein adsorption onto hydroxyapatite particles using different amino acid treatments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a material of choice for bone grafts owing to its chemical and structural similarities to the mineral phase of hard tissues. The combination of osteogenic proteins with HA materials that carry and deliver the proteins to the bone-defective areas will accelerate bone regeneration. The study investigated the treatment of HA particles with different amino acids such as serine (Ser), asparagine (Asn), aspartic acid (Asp) and arginine (Arg) to enhance the adsorption ability ...

Lee, Wing-hin; Loo, Ching-yee; Van, Kim Linh; Zavgorodniy, Alexander V.; Rohanizadeh, Ramin

2011-01-01

54

Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and nucleic acids encoding same  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

Brown, Kimberly; Harris, Paul; Zaretsky, Elizabeth; Re, Edward; Vlasenko, Elena; McFarland, Keith; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo

2014-09-30

55

Slagment Cement Improve the Cement Resistance Toward Acids Attack During Acidizing Treatment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Acidizing treatment in past experience shows several zonal isolation problems after the treatment. This study presents the effect of the acid treatment toward class G cement and slagment cement as the improvement method to improve the cement resistance toward the acid. Lab experiments were conducted by immerge the respective cement cubes into 12% HCl/3% HF solution for 40 min before several analysis were conducted. Based on the result, the mass loss and compressive strength loss of the cement...

Nik Khairul Irfan Bin Nik Ab. Lah.; Sonny Irawan

2013-01-01

56

Electroporation-enhanced delivery of nucleic acid vaccines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The naked delivery of nucleic acid vaccines is notoriously inefficient, and an enabling delivery technology is required to direct efficiently these constructs intracellularly. A delivery technology capable of enhancing nucleic acid uptake in both cells in tissues and in culture is electroporation (EP). EP is a physical delivery mechanism that increases the permeability of mammalian cell membranes and allows the trafficking of large macromolecules into the cell. EP has now been used extensively in the clinic and been shown to be an effective method to increase both the uptake of the construct and the breadth and magnitude of the resulting immune responses. Excitingly, 2014 saw the announcement of the first EP-enhanced DNA vaccine Phase II trial demonstrating clinical efficacy. This review seeks to introduce the reader to EP as a technology to enhance the delivery of DNA and RNA vaccines and highlight several published clinical trials using this delivery modality. PMID:25487734

Broderick, Kate E; Humeau, Laurent M

2015-02-01

57

Enhanced absorption of n-3 fatty acids from emulsified compared with encapsulated fish oil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Health benefits of n-3 fatty acids are well-established. However, consumption of adequate dietary sources of these fatty acids is inadequate. Oral fish oil supplements are an alternative means of consuming adequate long-chain n-3 fatty acids in individuals who do not consume sufficient dietary sources. However, palatability can present a problem with compliance. Emulsifying fish oil allows for production of a pleasant-tasting supplement and can enhance digestion and absorption of the fatty acids. We investigated the rate and extent of absorption of emulsified fish oil compared with capsular triglyceride fish oil supplements in humans. Participants subjectively rated palatability of these products. A randomized, crossover-designed, open-label trial was performed in which 10 healthy volunteers received emulsified fish oil and capsular triglyceride fish oil orally. Blood samples were collected at 0, 2, 4, 8, 24, and 48 hours to determine the absorption of individual fatty acids into plasma phospholipid fatty acids. At the completion of blood collection, subjects were asked to subjectively rate the tolerance and acceptability of the two supplements. During a 48-hour period, there was enhanced absorption of total n-3 and eicosapentaenoic acid (0.67%+/-0.16%, 0.45%+/-0.06%; P<0.01; 0.34%+/-0.05%, 0.23%+/-0.04%; P=0.05; emulsified fish oil and capsular triglyceride fish oil, respectively) observed for the emulsified fish oil treatment. Our findings indicate that a single dose of emulsified fish oil resulted in enhanced absorption of total n-3 eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid as evidenced by changes in phospholipid fatty acids composition compared with the capsular triglyceride fish oil during the 48-hour observation period. Both supplements were subjectively rated and found to be well-tolerated by participants. PMID:19465191

Raatz, Susan K; Redmon, J Bruce; Wimmergren, Nyra; Donadio, James V; Bibus, Douglas M

2009-06-01

58

Betulinic Acid for Cancer Treatment and Prevention  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Betulinic acid is a natural product with a range of biological effects, for example potent antitumor activity. This anticancer property is linked to its ability to induce apoptotic cell death in cancer cells by triggering the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. In contrast to the cytotoxicity of betulinic acid against a variety of cancer types, normal cells and tissue are relatively resistant to betulinic acid, pointing to a therapeutic window. Compounds that exert a direct action on mitochon...

Simone Fulda

2008-01-01

59

Nucleic acid molecules conferring enhanced ethanol tolerance and microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to ethanol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention provides isolated nucleic acid molecules which encode a mutant acetaldehyde-CoA/alcohol dehydrogenase or mutant alcohol dehydrogenase and confer enhanced tolerance to ethanol. The invention also provides related expression vectors, genetically engineered microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to ethanol, as well as methods of making and using such genetically modified microorganisms for production of biofuels based on fermentation of biomass materials.

Brown, Steven; Guss, Adam; Yang, Shihui; Karpinets, Tatiana; Lynd, Lee; Shao, Xiongjun

2014-01-14

60

Water Adsorption and Surface Acidity of Nano-Ball Allophane as Affected by Heat Treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effect of heat treatment on the water adsorption and surface acidity of two nano-ball allophane samples with varying Si/Al ratio under different relative humidities (RHs was studied. The water vapor adsorption of two allophane samples under various relative humidities, decreased with preheating treatment up to 400 °C for 2 h. The decrease in water adsorption at monolayer level (RH≤0.45 was greater for KnP sample than for KyP sample, whereas the decrease in water adsorption due to capillary condensation between allophane unit particles (RH≥0.6 was greater for KyP sample. These indicate that allophane hollow spherical particles in KyP sample were directly connected each other with the preheating, but those in KnP sample were not. Heat treatment caused the enhancement in the surface acidity of nano-ball allophane samples. The enhancement in the surface acidity after heat treatment is attributed to the inductive effect on the Si-OH groups present at the pore region of the hollow sphere. The results showed that surface acidity of the allophane with higher Si/Al ratio (KnP was stronger than the (KyP sample having lower Si/Al ratio. This trend was observed under RH between 0 and 75%; then the acid strength for the two samples was the same at RH of 98%. After the heat treatment at lower level of RH, the surface acidity of KnP was higher than KyP. The presence of polymerized silicate tails exposed outside of hollow spherical allophane particles (KnP, causes the enhancement of the BrØnsted acidity and also prevent direct connection between the particles after heating.

Hamayoon Khan

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Cognitive enhancers for the treatment of ADHD  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with multiple cognition-related phenotypic features in both children and adults. This review aims to clarify the role of cognition in ADHD and how prevailing treatments, which are often highly effective at reducing the clinical symptoms of the disorder, fare in modulating ADHD-related cognitive processes. First, we consider how the broad construct of cognition can be conceptualized in the context of ADHD. Second, we review the avai...

Bidwell, L. Cinnamon; Mcclernon, F. Joseph; Kollins, Scott H.

2011-01-01

62

Zoledronic Acid Improves Early Breast Cancer Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

The addition of zoledronic acid (Zometa®) to adjuvant endocrine therapy in premenopausal women with early stage breast cancer significantly improves clinical outcomes beyond those achieved with endocrine therapy alone, according to findings presented at the 2008 ASCO meeting in Chicago.

63

Hepatic arachidonic acid metabolism is disrupted after hexachlorobenzene treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hexaclorobenzene (HCB), one of the most persistent environmental pollutants, can cause a wide range of toxic effects including cancer in animals, and hepatotoxicity and porphyria both in humans and animals. In the present study, liver microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism, hepatic PGE production, and cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) activity were investigated in an experimental model of porphyria cutanea tarda induced by HCB. Female Wistar rats were treated with a single daily dose of HCB (100 mg kg-1 body weight) for 5 days and were sacrificed 3, 10, 17, and 52 days after the last dose. HCB treatment induced the accumulation of hepatic porhyrins from day 17 and increased the activities of liver ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (MROD), and aminopyrine N-demethylase (APND) from day 3 after the last dose. Liver microsomes from control and HCB-treated rats generated, in the presence of NADPH, hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs), epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), 11,12-Di HETE, and ?-OH/?-1-OH AA. HCB treatment caused an increase in total NADPH CYP-dependent AA metabolism, with a higher response at 3 days after the last HCB dose than at the other time points studied. In addition, HCB treatment markedly enhanced PGE production and release in liver slices. This HCB effect was time dependent and reached its highest level after 10 days. At this time cPLA2r 10 days. At this time cPLA2 activity was shown to be increased. Unexpectedly, HCB produced a significant decrease in cPLA2 activity on the 17th and 52nd day. Our results demonstrated for the first time that HCB induces both the cyclooxygenase and CYP-dependent AA metabolism. The effects of HCB on AA metabolism were previous to the onset of a marked porphyria and might contribute to different aspects of HCB-induced liver toxicity such as alterations of membrane fluidity and membrane-bound protein function. Observations also suggested that a possible role of cPLA2 in the early increase of AA metabolism cannot be excluded. However, the existence of other pathway(s) for metabolizable AA generation different from cPLA2 activation is also proposed

64

300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan. Revision 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This section provides a description of the Hanford Site, identifies the proposed method of 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) closure, and briefly summarizes the contents of each chapter of this plan.

NONE

1996-03-01

65

Tienilic acid: a single treatment for hyperuricaemia and hypertension?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tienilic acid is a drug with established uricosuric and hypotensive properties. We have examined its potential role as a single treatment for hyperuricaemia and hypertension, 2 disorders which are commonly associated. In 17 subjects with gout, blood uric acid levels were reduced by approximately 50%. Eleven of these patients also had hypertension which was improved by tienilic acid. However, a statistically significant effect was observed only with standing diastolic blood pressure. Side effe...

Gibson, T.; Rodgers, V. A.; Potter, C. F.; Simmonds, H. A.

1980-01-01

66

Lowering of phytic acid content by enhancement of phytase and acid phosphatase activities during sunflower germination  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this work was to investigate the germination of hybrid sunflowers BRS191 and C11 as a means of lowering phytic acid (PA) content by enhancing the activity of endogenous phytase and acid phosphatase. The concentration of PA in hybrid sunflower achenes varied from 2.16 to 2.83g/100g of sample (p < 0.05). The phytase and acid phosphatase activities of sunflowers BRS191 and C11 were the highest on the 4th and 5th days of germination, respectively, with the release of the phosphor...

Juliana da Silva Agostini; Rosicler Balduíno Nogueira; Elza Iouko Ida

2010-01-01

67

Acid mine water aeration and treatment system  

Science.gov (United States)

An in-line system is provided for treating acid mine drainage which basically comprises the combination of a jet pump (or pumps) and a static mixer. The jet pump entrains air into the acid waste water using a Venturi effect so as to provide aeration of the waste water while further aeration is provided by the helical vanes of the static mixer. A neutralizing agent is injected into the suction chamber of the jet pump and the static mixer is formed by plural sections offset by 90 degrees.

Ackman, Terry E. (Finleyville, PA); Place, John M. (Bethel Park, PA)

1987-01-01

68

Uranium accumulation of crop plants enhanced by citric acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Citric acid was applied to soil to enhance U accumulation in four crop plants. While the highest enhanced U accumulation of aboveground tissues (a.c. 2000 mg kg(-1) dry weight) occurred in the leaves of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), the highest enhanced U accumulation of roots (a.c. 3500 mg kg(-1) dry weight) occurred in canola (Brassica napus var. napus). Uranium translocation among tissues of test plants is in the relation of roots>shoots congruent with leaves. The flowers of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) contained similar or higher U concentrations than those found in shoots, but concentrations in seeds are close to zero. In conclusion, Indian mustard is recommended as a potential species for phytoextraction for U-contaminated soil due to its high U accumulation of aboveground biomass (a.c. 2200 microg per plant). There is no evidence that two types of soils cause a significant difference of the enhanced U accumulation (pcitric acid may result in downward U migration that may contaminate groundwater. Speciation of U that is taken up by plants is also discussed in the end. PMID:16237609

Chang, Peichun; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Yoshida, Satoshi; Kim, Soo-Young

2005-09-01

69

Appearance of hepatocellular adenomas on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate enhancement characteristics of hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs) using gadoxetic acid as a hepatocyte-specific MR contrast agent. Twenty-four patients with histopathologically proven HCAs were retrospectively identified. MRI consisted of T1- and T2-weighted (w) sequences with and without fat saturation (fs), multiphase dynamic T1-w images, and fs T1-w images during the hepatobiliary phase. Standard of reference was surgical resection (n = 19) or biopsy (n = 5). Images were analysed for morphology and contrast behaviour including signal intensity (SI) measurement on T1-w images normalised to the pre-contrast base line. In total 34 HCAs were evaluated. All HCAs showed enhancement in the arterial phase; 38 % of HCAs showed reduced contrast enhancement (''wash-out'') in the venous phase. All HCAs showed enhancement (SI increase, 56 ± 53 %; P <0.001) in the hepatobiliary phase, although liver uptake was stronger (96 ± 58 %). Thus, 31 of all HCAs (91 %) appeared hypointense to the surrounding liver in the hepatobiliary phase, while 3 out of 34 lesions were iso-/hyperintense. Gadoxetic acid accumulates in HCAs in the hepatobiliary phase, although significantly less than in surrounding liver. Thus, HCA appears in the vast majority of cases as a hypointense lesion on hepatobiliary phase images. (orig.)

70

Appearance of hepatocellular adenomas on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate enhancement characteristics of hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs) using gadoxetic acid as a hepatocyte-specific MR contrast agent. Twenty-four patients with histopathologically proven HCAs were retrospectively identified. MRI consisted of T1- and T2-weighted (w) sequences with and without fat saturation (fs), multiphase dynamic T1-w images, and fs T1-w images during the hepatobiliary phase. Standard of reference was surgical resection (n = 19) or biopsy (n = 5). Images were analysed for morphology and contrast behaviour including signal intensity (SI) measurement on T1-w images normalised to the pre-contrast base line. In total 34 HCAs were evaluated. All HCAs showed enhancement in the arterial phase; 38 % of HCAs showed reduced contrast enhancement (''wash-out'') in the venous phase. All HCAs showed enhancement (SI increase, 56 {+-} 53 %; P <0.001) in the hepatobiliary phase, although liver uptake was stronger (96 {+-} 58 %). Thus, 31 of all HCAs (91 %) appeared hypointense to the surrounding liver in the hepatobiliary phase, while 3 out of 34 lesions were iso-/hyperintense. Gadoxetic acid accumulates in HCAs in the hepatobiliary phase, although significantly less than in surrounding liver. Thus, HCA appears in the vast majority of cases as a hypointense lesion on hepatobiliary phase images. (orig.)

Denecke, Timm; Steffen, Ingo G.; Kroencke, Thomas; Haenninen, Enrique Lopez; Hamm, Bernd; Grieser, Christian [Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Klinik fuer Radiologie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany); Agarwal, Sheela; Saini, Sanjay [Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Seehofer, Daniel; Neuhaus, Peter [Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Klinik fuer Allgemein, Viszeral- und Transplantationschirurgie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany); Kramme, Incken-Birthe [Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Institut fuer Pathologie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany)

2012-08-15

71

Surgical Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... upper GI series and sometimes a 24-hour PH study. Typically, medical treatments can be just elevating ... causing the problem. And so a 24-hour PH is commonly done. That’s a study performed by ...

72

Btg2 enhances retinoic acid-induced differentiation by modulating histone H4 methylation and acetylation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Retinoic acid controls hematopoietic differentiation through the transcription factor activity of its receptors. They act on specific target genes by recruiting protein complexes that deacetylate or acetylate histones and modify chromatin status. The regulation of this process is affected by histone methyltransferases, which can inhibit or activate transcription depending on their amino acid target. We show here that retinoic acid treatment of hematopoietic cells induces the expression of BTG2. Overexpression of this protein increases RARalpha transcriptional activity and the differentiation response to retinoic acid of myeloid leukemia cells and CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors. In the absence of retinoic acid, BTG2 is present in the RARalpha transcriptional complex, together with the arginine methyltransferase PRMT1 and Sin3A. Overexpressed BTG2 increases PRMT1 participation in the RARalpha protein complex on the RARbeta promoter, a target gene model, and enhances gene-specific histone H4 arginine methylation. Upon RA treatment Sin3A, BTG2, and PRMT1 detach from RARalpha and thereafter BGT2 and PRMT1 are driven to the cytoplasm. These events prime histone H4 demethylation and acetylation. Overall, our data show that BTG2 contributes to retinoic acid activity by favoring differentiation through a gene-specific modification of histone H4 arginine methylation and acetylation levels. PMID:16782888

Passeri, Daniela; Marcucci, Antonella; Rizzo, Giovanni; Billi, Monia; Panigada, Maddalena; Leonardi, Luca; Tirone, Felice; Grignani, Francesco

2006-07-01

73

Dynamic hydroxymethylation of deoxyribonucleic acid marks differentiation-associated enhancers  

Science.gov (United States)

Enhancers are developmentally controlled transcriptional regulatory regions whose activities are modulated through histone modifications or histone variant deposition. In this study, we show by genome-wide mapping that the newly discovered deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) modification 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is dynamically associated with transcription factor binding to distal regulatory sites during neural differentiation of mouse P19 cells and during adipocyte differentiation of mouse 3T3-L1 cells. Functional annotation reveals that regions gaining 5hmC are associated with genes expressed either in neural tissues when P19 cells undergo neural differentiation or in adipose tissue when 3T3-L1 cells undergo adipocyte differentiation. Furthermore, distal regions gaining 5hmC together with H3K4me2 and H3K27ac in P19 cells behave as differentiation-dependent transcriptional enhancers. Identified regions are enriched in motifs for transcription factors regulating specific cell fates such as Meis1 in P19 cells and PPAR? in 3T3-L1 cells. Accordingly, a fraction of hydroxymethylated Meis1 sites were associated with a dynamic engagement of the 5-methylcytosine hydroxylase Tet1. In addition, kinetic studies of cytosine hydroxymethylation of selected enhancers indicated that DNA hydroxymethylation is an early event of enhancer activation. Hence, acquisition of 5hmC in cell-specific distal regulatory regions may represent a major event of enhancer progression toward an active state and participate in selective activation of tissue-specific genes. PMID:22730288

Sérandour, Aurélien A.; Avner, Stéphane; Oger, Frédérik; Bizot, Maud; Percevault, Frédéric; Lucchetti-Miganeh, Céline; Palierne, Gaëlle; Gheeraert, Céline; Barloy-Hubler, Frédérique; Péron, Christine Le; Madigou, Thierry; Durand, Emmanuelle; Froguel, Philippe; Staels, Bart; Lefebvre, Philippe; Métivier, Raphaël; Eeckhoute, Jérôme; Salbert, Gilles

2012-01-01

74

Ursodeoxycholic acid enhances fractional calcium absorption in primary biliary cirrhosis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bone disease is a frequently reported complication in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), but its pathogenesis is poorly understood. Calcium malabsorption has been considered as an important contributing factor. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is the treatment of choice in PBC, improving survival, but its effect on calcium absorption is unknown. In this study, we have measured fractional calcium absorption, using a single isotope method, in a group of female PBC patients (median age: 60 years, range...

Verma, A.; Maxwell, Jd; Ang, L.; Davis, T.; Hodges, S.; Northfield, Tc; Zaidi, M.; Pazianas, M.

2002-01-01

75

Anaerobic wastewater treatment of acetic acid rich condensate  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this Master’s Thesis the anaerobic treatment of Stora Enso Heinola Fluting mill condensates was examined and its benefits for the mill assessed. The anaerobic treatment of the condensate could reduce the load towards waste water treatment plant and produce biogas. The secondary condensate from semi-chemical pulp and board mill carries high load of fast degrading organic matter especially acetic acid, thus it could be suitable for biogas production. In the 10-day laboratory scale bat...

Lotti, Outi

2013-01-01

76

Surgical Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... GI series and sometimes a 24-hour PH study. Typically, medical treatments can be just elevating the ... 24-hour PH is commonly done. That’s a study performed by Dr. Tom DeMeester originally in which ...

77

Hyaluronic Acid Enhances Gene Delivery into the Cochlea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cochlear gene therapy can be a new avenue for the treatment of severe hearing loss by inducing regeneration or phenotypic rescue. One necessary step to establish this therapy is the development of a safe and feasible inoculation surgery, ideally without drilling the bony cochlear wall. The round window membrane (RWM) is accessible in the middle-ear space, but viral vectors placed on this membrane do not readily cross the membrane to the cochlear tissues. In an attempt to enhance permeability ...

Shibata, Seiji B.; Cortez, Sarah R.; Wiler, James A.; Swiderski, Donald L.; Raphael, Yehoash

2012-01-01

78

Stanford scientists identify a treatment regimen that enhances the effectiveness of a breast cancer treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

Breast cancers expressing the protein HER2 have a particularly poor prognosis. Treatment with trastuzumab (Herceptin) benefits some patients with HER2-positive breast cancer, but it is not as effective as had been hoped. Researchers are therefore seeking ways to enhance the effectiveness of trastuzumab. In this context, a team of researchers at Stanford University has identified a sequential treatment regimen that enhances the effectivenss of trastuzumab in xenotransplant models of breast cancer.

79

New magnetic field-enhanced process for water treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In these paper the author explains a new magnetic field-enhanced process that is under development at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for water treatment. The process uses inexpensive magnetite (FeO.Fe2O3) in a supported mode to remove actinides and fission products from water. (author)

80

The use of fatty acid esters to enhance free acid sophorolipid synthesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acid esters were prepared by transesterification of soy oil with methanol (methyl-soyate, Me-Soy), ethanol (ethyl-soyate, Et-Soy) and propanol (propyl-soyate, Pro-Soy) and used with glycerol as fermentation substrates to enhance production of free-acid sophorolipids (SLs). Fed-batch fermentations of Candida bombicola resulted in SL yields of 46 +/- 4 g/l, 42 +/- 7 g/l and 18 +/- 6 g/l from Me-Soy, Et-Soy, and Pro-Soy, respectively. Liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (LC/API-MS) showed that Me-Soy resulted in 71% open-chain SLs with 59% of those molecules remaining esterified at the carboxyl end of the fatty acids. Et-Soy and Pro-Soy resulted in 43% and 80% open-chain free-acid SLs, respectively (containing linoleic acid and oleic acid as the principal fatty acid species linked to the sophorose sugar at the omega-1 position), with no evidence of residual esterification. PMID:16555009

Ashby, Richard D; Solaiman, Daniel K Y; Foglia, Thomas A

2006-02-01

 
 
 
 
81

Enhanced absorption of omega-3 fatty acids from emulsified compared with encapsulated fish oil (1)  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids (n–3) are well established. However, consumption of adequate dietary sources of these fatty acids is inadequate. Oral fish oil supplements are an alternative means of consuming adequate long chain omega-3 fatty acids in individuals who do not consume sufficient dietary sources. However, palatability can present a problem with compliance. Emulsifying fish oil allows for the production of a pleasant tasting supplement and may enhance the digestion and absorption of the fatty acids Objective We investigated the rate and extent of absorption of emulsified fish oil (EFO) compared to capsular triglyceride fish oil (CFO) supplements in humans. Participants subjectively rated palatability of these products. Design A randomized, cross-over designed, open label trial was performed in which 10 health volunteers received EFO and CFO orally. Blood samples were collected at 0, 2, 4, 8, 24 and 48 hours to determine the absorption of individual fatty acids into plasma phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA). At the completion of blood collection, subjects were asked to subjectively rate the tolerance and acceptability of the two supplements. Results Over a 48 hour period there was enhanced absorption of total n–3 and EPA (0.67 ± 0.16, 0.45 ± 0.06, p<.01; 0.34 % ± 0.05, 0.23 % ± 0.04, p= .05; EFO and CFO respectively) was observed for the EFO treatment. Conclusions Our findings indicate that a single dose of the EFO resulted in enhanced absorption of total n-3, EPA, and DHA as evidenced by changes in PLFA composition compared to the CFO over the 48 hour observation period. Both supplements were subjectively rated and found to be well tolerated by participants. PMID:19465191

Raatz, Susan K; Redmon, J Bruce; Wimmergren, Nyra; Donadio, James V.; Bibus, Douglas M

2009-01-01

82

Treatment of menorrhagia during menstruation: randomised controlled trial of ethamsylate, mefenamic acid, and tranexamic acid.  

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OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and acceptability of ethamsylate, mefenamic acid, and tranexamic acid for treating menorrhagia. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. SETTING: A university department of obstetrics and gynaecology. SUBJECTS: 76 women with dysfunctional uterine bleeding. INTERVENTIONS: Treatment for five days from day 1 of menses during three consecutive menstrual periods. 27 patients were randomised to take ethamsylate 500 mg six hourly, 23 patients to take mefenamic acid 500...

Bonnar, J.; Sheppard, B. L.

1996-01-01

83

Photocatalytic treatment of contaminated groundwater for biological nitrification enhancement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Strengths and weaknesses of biological and photocatalytic treatments as water treatment technologies were reviewed. This investigation concentrated on the treatment of groundwater from an industrial site, using photocatalysis as an alternative to the carbon adsorption system for inhibitor removal. Elimination of bicarbonate and carbonate by lowering the pH was critical for the photocatalytic reaction to take place. The photocatalytic pretreatment was found to dramatically enhance the extent of biological nitrification. The addition of 50 to 350 mg/L hydrogen peroxide enhanced the photocatalytic degradation rate, but had only a minimal effect of biological nitrification. Results were interpreted as confirmation of the potential of photocatalysis to remove inhibition from biological nitrification systems.

Zhang, Z.; Anderson, W. A.; Moo-Young, M. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1998-10-01

84

Novel Zirconia Surface Treatments for Enhanced Osseointegration: Laboratory Characterization  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate three novel surface treatments intended to improve osseointegration of zirconia implants: selective infiltration etching treatment (SIE), fusion sputtering (FS), and low pressure particle abrasion (LPPA). The effects of surface treatments on roughness, topography, hardness, and porosity of implants were also assessed. Materials and Methods. 45 zirconia discs (19?mm in diameter × 3?mm in thickness) received 3 different surface treatments: selective infiltration etching, low pressure particle abrasion with 30?µm alumina, and fusion sputtering while nontreated surface served as control. Surface roughness was evaluated quantitatively using profilometery, porosity was evaluated using mercury prosimetry, and Vickers microhardness was used to assess surface hardness. Surface topography was analyzed using scanning and atomic force microscopy (? = 0.05). Results. There were significant differences between all groups regarding surface roughness (F = 1678, P zirconia implants have been observed after different surface treatment approaches. Thus possibilities for enhanced osseointegration could be additionally offered. PMID:25349610

Ewais, Ola H.; Al Abbassy, Fayza; Ghoneim, Mona M.; Aboushelib, Moustafa N.

2014-01-01

85

On the acidity and/or basicity of USY zeolites after basic and acid treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The isopropanol decomposition reaction was used to evaluate the catalytic activity of ultrastable (USY zeolites with different degrees of dealumination, treated in strongly alkaline medium at various temperatures and contact times. This treatment resulted in the reinsertion of non-framework aluminium, a result of the ultrastabilization process. The samples obtained were also submitted to an acid treatment, leaching the non-framework aluminium that had not been reinserted. The results obtained at 723K showed a large reduction in the acidic activity of the alkaline-treated zeolite, as the treatment conditions became more severe (the longer the treatment time or the higher the temperature, the higher the degree of dealumination. On the other hand, treated samples displayed some isopropanol dehydrogenation activity (basic sites. However, this activity was not very significant and did not depend on the alkaline treatment or ultrastabilization conditions used. The effect of reaction temperature and acid leaching on activity is also shown.

Calsavara V.

2000-01-01

86

Melorheostosis and its treatment with intravenous zoledronic acid  

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We report a case of melorheostosis, a rare bone disorder characterised by mesodermal dysplasia, and its successful and prolonged treatment with the intravenous bisphosphonate zoledronic acid. The middle-aged man presented with pain and swelling of his tibia, which was diagnosed by imaging and bone biopsy as being due to melorheostosis. There was early symptom control after a single infusion of intravenous zoledronic acid. Prolonged symptom relief was accompanied by long-term suppression of th...

Hollick, Rosemary Jane; Black, Alison; Reid, David

2010-01-01

87

Ursodeoxycholic acid treatment of vanishing bile duct syndromes  

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Vanishing bile duct syndromes (VBDS) are characterized by progressive loss of small intrahepatic ducts caused by a variety of different diseases leading to chronic cholestasis, cirrhosis, and premature death from liver failure. The majority of adult patients with VBDS suffer from primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a hydrophilic dihydroxy bile acid, is the only drug currently approved for the treatment of patients with PBC, an...

Pusl, Thomas; Beuers, Ulrich

2006-01-01

88

Enhancement of taxol-induced apoptosis by inhibition of NF-?B with ursorlic acid  

Science.gov (United States)

Taxol is known to inhibit cell growth and triggers significant apoptosis in various cancer cells, and activation of proliferation factor NF-?B during Taxol-induced apoptosis is regarded as a main reason resulting in tumor cells resistance to Taxol. It has been found that ursorlic acid can inhibit the activation of NF-?B. In order to study whether ursorlic acid can enhance the Taxol-induced apoptosis, we use fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique and probe SCAT3 to compare the difference of caspase-3 activation between Taxol alone and Taxol combined ursorlic acid. With laser scanning confocal microscopy, we find that ursorlic acid, a nontoxic food component, sensitizes ASTC-a-1 cells more efficiently to Taxol-induced apoptosis by advanced activation of caspase 3. The result also suggests that there would be a synergistic effect between Taxol and ursorlic acid, and the more detailed mechanism of synergistic effect needs to be clarified further, such as the correlations among NF-?B, Akt, caspase 8, which leads to the advanced activation of caspase 3 during combined treatment of Taxol and ursorlic acid. Moreover, this may be a new way to improve Taxol-dependent tumor therapy.

Li, Yunlong; Xing, Da

2007-05-01

89

Enhanced plant regeneration in lemna minor by amino acids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In present study we investigated the effects of different L-amino acids on the plant regeneration from callus of Lemna minor, and established an efficient protocol. Among the 20 L-amino acids, only L-Ser and L-Gly showed significant improving effect, with the optimal concentration being 1 mM and 1.5 mM, respectively. A regeneration frequency of 46% was observed when the callus transferred to the regeneration medium with addition of 1 mM L-Ser for 11 days. After 26 days of cultivation, the frond regeneration achieved 100% and 94% for 1 mM L-Ser and 1.5 mM L-Gly treatment, respectively. (author)

90

Optimum bile acid treatment for rapid gall stone dissolution.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To determine the optimum bile acid regimen for rapid gall stone dissolution, 48 gall stone patients were divided into four groups of 12 according to stone diameter and were randomly allocated to receive one of four treatment regimens: bedtime or mealtime chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA, 12 mg/kg/day) and bedtime or mealtime ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA, 12 mg/kg/day). An additional 10 patients treated with a combination of CDCA plus UDCA (each 6 mg/kg/day) at bedtime were matched with the 10 patien...

Jazrawi, R. P.; Pigozzi, M. G.; Galatola, G.; Lanzini, A.; Northfield, T. C.

1992-01-01

91

Carbonate interlayered hydrotalcites-enhanced peroxynitrous acid chemiluminescence for high selectivity sensing of ascorbic acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, Mg-Al-carbonate layered double hydroxides (denoted as Mg-Al-CO(3) LDHs) were found to catalyze the chemiluminescence (CL) emission from peroxynitrous acid (ONOOH). The enhanced CL signals resulted from the concentration of peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) onto the LDHs surface by electrostatic attraction, meaning that ONOO(-) can interact with the intercalated carbonate easily and effectively. Moreover, ascorbic acid can react with ONOO(-), or its decomposition products (e.g., ?OH and ?NO(2)), resulting in a decrease in the CL intensity from the Mg-Al-CO(3) LDHs-catalyzed ONOOH reaction. Based on these findings, a sensitive, selective and rapid CL method was developed for the determination of ascorbic acid using Mg-Al-CO(3) LDHs-catalyzed ONOOH as a novel CL system. The CL intensity was proportional to the concentration of ascorbic acid in the range from 5.0 to 5000 nM. The detection limit (S/N = 3) was 0.5 nM and the relative standard deviation (RSD) for nine repeated measurements of 0.1 ?M ascorbic acid was 2.6%. This method has been successfully applied to determine ascorbic acid in commercial liquid fruit juices with recoveries of 97-107%. This work is not only of importance for a better understanding of the unique properties of LDHs-catalyzed CL but also of great potential for extensive applications in many fields, such as luminescence devices, bioanalysis, and labeling probes. PMID:22382556

Wang, Zhihua; Teng, Xu; Lu, Chao

2012-04-21

92

Tolfenamic acid versus propranolol in the prophylactic treatment of migraine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prophylactic effect of tolfenamic acid and propranolol was studied in a randomized double-blind cross-over trial of 76 patients with migraine with or without aura. After a 4-week run-in period patients were randomly allocated to treatment with either tolfenamic acid 100 mg three times daily or propranolol 40 mg three times daily for 12 weeks. After a placebo wash-out period of 4 weeks the patients got the alternative drug for 12 weeks; 56 patients completed the study. Both drugs significantly reduced migraine attacks as judged from the reduction in the efficacy parameters (migraine hours, migraine days, and migraine intensity) in the treatment periods compared with the run-in period. No statistical significant difference in any efficacy parameter was found between the two drugs (level 2 alpha = 0.05, alpha = 0.10). The adverse effects showed no statistical difference in frequency between the 2 treatments. Twenty patients discontinued the study: 12 patients on propranolol and 8 patients on tolfenamic acid. Side effects were the cause of premature discontinuation of study medicine in 9 patients during propranolol treatment (dizziness, fatigue, and fall in blood pressure) and in 5 patients during tolfenamic acid treatment (gastrointestinal symptoms). PMID:7976233

Kjaersgård Rasmussen, M J; Holt Larsen, B; Borg, L; Soelberg Sørensen, P; Hansen, P E

1994-06-01

93

Enhanced Thermoelectric Performance of PEDOT:PSS Flexible Bulky Papers by Treatment with Secondary Dopants.  

Science.gov (United States)

For inorganic thermoelectric materials, Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity are interdependent, and hence optimization of thermoelectric performance is challenging. In this work we show that thermoelectric performance of PEDOT:PSS can be enhanced by greatly improving its electrical conductivity in contrast to inorganic thermoelectric materials. Free-standing flexible and smooth PEDOT:PSS bulky papers were prepared using vacuum-assisted filtration. The electrical conductivity was enhanced to 640, 800, 1300, and 1900 S cm(-1) by treating PEDOT:PSS with ethylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, methanol, and formic acid, respectively. The Seebeck coefficient did not show significant variation with the tremendous conductivity enhancement being 21.4 and 20.6 ?V K(-1) for ethylene glycol- and formic acid-treated papers, respectively. This is because secondary dopants, which increase electrical conductivity, do not change oxidation level of PEDOT. A maximum power factor of 80.6 ?W m(-1) K(-2) was shown for formic acid-treated samples, while it was only 29.3 ?W m(-1) K(-2) for ethylene glycol treatment. Coupled with intrinsically low thermal conductivity of PEDOT:PSS, ZT ? 0.32 was measured at room temperature using Harman method. We investigated the reasons behind the greatly enhanced thermoelectric performance. PMID:25475257

Mengistie, Desalegn A; Chen, Chang-Hsiao; Boopathi, Karunakara M; Pranoto, Ferry W; Li, Lain-Jong; Chu, Chih-Wei

2015-01-14

94

Comparison of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced MRI for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aim: To compare the diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and methods: Eighty-nine patients (118 HCCs) who underwent three-dimensional gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and SPIO-enhanced MRI with a mean interval of 4.7 days (range 3-7 days), were included in this study. Two observers reviewed the gadoxetic acid set (unenhanced, early dynamic, 10 and 20 min hepatocyte-phase images) and SPIO set [unenhanced and ferucarbotran-enhanced T1-, T2-turbo spin-echo (TSE), and T2* weighted imaging (WI)] in consensus. Diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity were evaluated using the alternative-free response receiver operator characteristic (ROC) method. Results: The area under ROC curve (Az value) and sensitivity of the gadoxetic acid set (Az 0.964; sensitivity 90.7%) were significantly higher than those of the SPIO set (Az 0.830; sensitivity 84.7%; p < 0.05). There were 14 and seven lesions that were verified only on the gadoxetic acid set and only on the SPIO set, respectively. Four HCCs were clearly revealed as hypointense only on gadoxetic acid-enhanced hepatocyte phase imaging, but were occult on other sequences, including the SPIO set. Conclusion: Gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI is better than SPIO-enhanced MRI for the detection of HCCs.

Kim, Y.K., E-mail: jmyr@dreamwiz.co [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chonbuk National University Hospital and Medical School, Keum Am Dong, JeonJu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, C.S.; Han, Y.M.; Park, G.; Hwang, S.B. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chonbuk National University Hospital and Medical School, Keum Am Dong, JeonJu (Korea, Republic of); Yu, H.C. [Department of General Surgery, Chonbuk National University Hospital and Medical School, Keum Am Dong, JeonJu (Korea, Republic of)

2010-05-15

95

Cyclosporine A and palmitic acid treatment synergistically induce cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment can cause severe side effects. Patients taking immunosuppressant after organ transplantation often display hyperlipidemia and obesity. Elevated levels of free fatty acids have been linked to the etiology of metabolic syndromes, nonalcoholic fatty liver and steatohepatitis. The contribution of free fatty acids to CsA-induced toxicity is not known. In this study we explored the effect of palmitic acid on CsA-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells. CsA by itself at therapeutic exposure levels did not induce detectible cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Co-treatment of palmitic acid and CsA resulted in a dose dependent increase in cytotoxicity, suggesting that fatty acid could sensitize cells to CsA-induced cytotoxicity at the therapeutic doses of CsA. A synergized induction of caspase-3/7 activity was also observed, indicating that apoptosis may contribute to the cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that CsA reduced cellular oxygen consumption which was further exacerbated by palmitic acid, implicating that impaired mitochondrial respiration might be an underlying mechanism for the enhanced toxicity. Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) attenuated palmitic acid and CsA induced toxicity, suggesting that JNK activation plays an important role in mediating the enhanced palmitic acid/CsA-induced toxicity. Our data suggest that elevated FFA levels, especially saturated FFA such as palmitic acid, may be predisposing factors for CsA toxicity, and patients with underlying diseases that would elevate free fatty acids may be susceptible to CsA-induced toxicity. Furthermore, hyperlipidemia/obesity resulting from immunosuppressive therapy may aggravate CsA-induced toxicity and worsen the outcome in transplant patients. -- Highlights: ? Palmitic acid and cyclosporine (CsA) synergistically increased cytotoxicity. ? The impairment of mitochondrial functions may contribute to the enhanced toxicity. ? Inhibition of JNK activity attenuated palmitate/ CsA induced toxicity. ? Palmitate sensitizes cells to the toxicity induced by CsA at therapeutic exposure. ? Elevated free fatty acids may predispose the patients to CsA-induced toxicity.

96

Structural-phase transformations in bentonite after acid treatment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The methods of X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray microanalysis, electron microscopy, BET and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were used for investigation of the structural-phase transformations in bentonite under the influence of hydrochloric acid and temperature treatment (100-800ºC). It is established that in HCl medium during temperature treatment, dehydration and dehydroxilation of montmorillonite occur. The presence of gypsum and barium chloride res...

Vlasova M.; Dominguez-Patiño G.; Kakazey N.; Dominguez-Patiño M.; Juarez-Romero D.; Méndez Enríquez Y.

2003-01-01

97

An adult case of cerebral malakoplakia successfully cured by treatment with antibiotics, bethanechol and ascorbic acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cerebral malakoplakia is a very rare chronic inflammatory disease. We herein report the case of a 49-year-old female who presented with a slowly progressive speech disturbance and right hemiparesis. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed irregular enhanced mass lesions with numerous scattered areas of calcification in the left insula, thalamus and basal ganglia. Histopathologically, the biopsy specimen showed basophilic laminated inclusion bodies and intracellular and extracellular calculospherules, usually with a typical targetoid appearance (Michaelis-Gutmann bodies). Treatment with antibiotics, bethanechol and ascorbic acid improved her symptoms in association with a decrease in the abnormal calcification and enhancement. The cerebral malakoplakia mimicked a brain tumor in terms of the patient's clinical course and neuroradiological image findings; however, it was successfully cured with medical treatment. This case provides evidence that the pathogenesis of cerebral malakoplakia is deeply tied to bacterial infection and that medical treatment is effective in cases of this disease. PMID:24863007

Fudaba, Hirotaka; Ooba, Hiroshi; Abe, Tatsuya; Kamida, Tohru; Wakabayashi, Yukihiro; Nagatomi, Hirofumi; Fujiki, Minoru

2014-07-15

98

Erythropoietin treatment enhances muscle mitochondrial capacity in humans  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Erythropoietin (Epo) treatment has been shown to induce mitochondrial biogenesis in cardiac muscle along with enhanced mitochondrial capacity in mice. We hypothesized that recombinant human Epo (rhEpo) treatment enhances skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity in humans. In six healthy volunteers rhEpo was administered by sub-cutaneous injection over 8?weeks with oral iron (100?mg) supplementation taken daily. Mitochondrial OXPHOS was quantified by high-resolution respirometry in saponin-permeabilized muscle fibers obtained from biopsies of the vastus lateralis before and after rhEpo treatment. OXPHOS was determined with the mitochondrial complex I substrates malate, glutamate, pyruvate, and complex II substrate succinate in the presence of saturating ADP concentrations, while maximal electron transport capacity (ETS) was assessed by addition of an uncoupler. rhEpo treatment increased OXPHOS (from 92?±?5 to 113?±?7?pmol·s(-1)·mg(-1)) and ETS (107?±?4 to 143?±?14?pmol·s(-1)·mg(-1), p?treatment induces an upregulation of OXPHOS and ETS in human skeletal muscle.

Plenge, Ulla; Belhage, Bo

2012-01-01

99

Why does choice enhance treatment effectiveness? Using placebo treatments to demonstrate the role of personal control.  

Science.gov (United States)

In modern health care, individuals frequently exercise choice over health treatment alternatives. A growing body of research suggests that when individuals choose between treatment options, treatment effectiveness can increase, although little experimental evidence exists clarifying this effect. Four studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that exercising choice over treatment alternatives enhances outcomes by providing greater personal control. Consistent with this possibility, in Study 1 individuals who chronically desired control reported less pain from a laboratory pain task when they were able to select between placebo analgesic treatments. Study 2 replicated this finding with an auditory discomfort paradigm. In Study 3, the desire for control was experimentally induced, and participants with high desire for control benefited more from a placebo treatment when they were able to choose their treatment. Study 4 revealed that the benefit of choice on treatment efficacy was partially mediated by thoughts of personal control. This research suggests that when individuals desire control, choice over treatment alternatives improves treatment effectiveness by enhancing personal control. PMID:23915042

Geers, Andrew L; Rose, Jason P; Fowler, Stephanie L; Rasinski, Heather M; Brown, Jill A; Helfer, Suzanne G

2013-10-01

100

Treatment for Acid Mine Drainage Utilizing Dimension Stone Waste  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available When large quantities of rocks containing sulphide minerals are excavated from mines, they react with water and oxygen to create sulphuric acid. When this water reaches a certain level of acidity it also starts leaching traces of metals, this wastewater is termed as Acid Mine Drainage (AMD, affects the surface and subsurface hydrology and extends its impact to the surrounding land. Although, several AMD treatment techniques and methods exist, lime treatment is the most common approach which proves to be highly expensive. In this study dimension stone (Kotastone waste, generated by the stone quarrying/cutting industries was used for the detoxification of AMD. The selection criteria of treatment agent was its free of cost availability. pH increased from 2.97 to 6.21, net acidity dropped from 1196.6 to 150 mg L-1 of CaCO3. Concentrations of metals like Fe2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Co2+ and Mn2+ also reduced remarkably from 19.69 to 99.24%. The experiments were carried out in 500 mL cylinders with different waste doses ranging from 0.5 to 10 g. The cost comparison with hydrated lime and quick lime was also in favour of Kotastone waste for the AMD treatment Now, major efforts are required by the mining industry and the research laboratories to convert this prototype product into commercial ventures so that this waste can become a utility material instead of nuisance.

V. Sheoran

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Optimum bile acid treatment for rapid gall stone dissolution.  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine the optimum bile acid regimen for rapid gall stone dissolution, 48 gall stone patients were divided into four groups of 12 according to stone diameter and were randomly allocated to receive one of four treatment regimens: bedtime or mealtime chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA, 12 mg/kg/day) and bedtime or mealtime ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA, 12 mg/kg/day). An additional 10 patients treated with a combination of CDCA plus UDCA (each 6 mg/kg/day) at bedtime were matched with the 10 patients on bedtime CDCA and the 10 on bedtime UDCA. The gall stone dissolution rates at six and 12 months were determined by standardised oral cholecystography and expressed as the percentage reduction in the gall stone volume after treatment. The gall stone dissolution rate at six months was higher for UDCA than CDCA treatment (median 78% v 48%, p less than 0.01), and for bedtime than mealtime administration (69% v 39%, p less than 0.02). Both differences were greater for stones less than 8 mm diameter. The dissolution rate was faster for combination therapy than for CDCA alone at both six (82% v 36%, p less than 0.05) and 12 months (100% v 54%, p less than 0.05), but was not different from UDCA alone. We conclude that bile acid treatment should be confined to patients with small gall stones and that bedtime administration of combined UDCA and CDCA is likely to provide the most effective and safe combination. PMID:1568660

Jazrawi, R P; Pigozzi, M G; Galatola, G; Lanzini, A; Northfield, T C

1992-01-01

102

DEVELOPMENT OF SRB TREATMENT SYSTEMS FOR ACID MINE DRAINAGE  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past decade, significant advances have been made in the development of sulfate- reducing bacteria (SRB) technology to treat acid mine drainage (AMD), Bench-scale testing, field demonstrations, and engineered applications of SRBs for the treatment of AMD will be presented...

103

Femtosecond laser treatment enhances DNA transfection efficiency in vivo  

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Abstract Background Gene therapy with plasmid DNA is emerging as a promising strategy for the treatment of many diseases. One of the major obstacles to such therapy is the poor transfection efficiency of DNA in vivo. Methods In this report, we employed a very low power, near-infrared femtosecond laser technique to enhance the transfection efficiency of intradermally and intratumorally administered DNA plasmid. Results We found that femtose...

Hung Chien-Fu; Pai Sara I; Meneshian Avedis; Wu Chao-Yi; Tsen Shaw-Wei D; T-c, Wu

2009-01-01

104

Convection-enhanced delivery for the treatment of brain tumors  

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The brain is highly accessible for nutrients and oxygen, however delivery of drugs to malignant brain tumors is a very challenging task. Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) has been designed to overcome some of the difficulties so that pharmacological agents that would not normally cross the BBB can be used for treatment. Drugs are delivered through one to several catheters placed stereotactically directly within the tumor mass or around the tumor or the resection cavity. Several classes of dr...

Debinski, Waldemar; Tatter, Stephen B.

2009-01-01

105

Enhancement of phloem exudation from Fraxinus uhdei Wenz. (evergreen ash) using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) enhanced the exudation of 14C-labeled assimilates from excised leaflets and whole plant specimens of Fraxinus uhdei Wenz. A 2 millimolar EDTA concentration was found to be most effective in promoting exudation from excised leaflets, while 10 millimolar EDTA was most effective in whole plants experiments. Exudation rate reached a maximum after 24 hours in both experiments. The continuous presence of EDTA throughout the treatment period was required for maximum exudation from excised leaflets. Stachyose, raffinose, verbascose, and sucrose were the principal compounds found to occur in exudate samples. These compounds are typically transported in sieve elements of various Fraxinus species suggesting the exudate was of phloem orgin. Electron microscope studies of petiolule sieve plate pores from excisd leaflets showed substantially less callose appearing after treatment with EDTA than after H2O treatment. It is suggested that EDTA enhances phloem exudation by inhibiting or reducing callose formation in sieve plate pores. The exudation enhancement technique described for whole plant specimens is suggested as a useful means of collecting phloem sap and studying translocation in woody plants

106

Modulating protein adsorption onto hydroxyapatite particles using different amino acid treatments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a material of choice for bone grafts owing to its chemical and structural similarities to the mineral phase of hard tissues. The combination of osteogenic proteins with HA materials that carry and deliver the proteins to the bone-defective areas will accelerate bone regeneration. The study investigated the treatment of HA particles with different amino acids such as serine (Ser), asparagine (Asn), aspartic acid (Asp) and arginine (Arg) to enhance the adsorption ability of HA carrier for delivering therapeutic proteins to the body. The crystallinity of HA reduced when amino acids were added during HA preparation. Depending on the types of amino acid, the specific surface area of the amino acid-functionalized HA particles varied from 105 to 149 m(2) g(-1). Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme were used as model proteins for adsorption study. The protein adsorption onto the surface of amino acid-functionalized HA depended on the polarities of HA particles, whereby, compared with lysozyme, BSA demonstrated higher affinity towards positively charged Arg-HA. Alternatively, the binding affinity of lysozyme onto the negatively charged Asp-HA was higher when compared with BSA. The BSA and lysozyme adsorptions onto the amino acid-functionalized HA fitted better into the Freundlich than Langmuir model. The amino acid-functionalized HA particles that had higher protein adsorption demonstrated a lower protein-release rate. PMID:21957116

Lee, Wing-Hin; Loo, Ching-Yee; Van, Kim Linh; Zavgorodniy, Alexander V; Rohanizadeh, Ramin

2012-05-01

107

Structural-phase transformations in bentonite after acid treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The methods of X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray microanalysis, electron microscopy, BET and cation exchange capacity (CEC were used for investigation of the structural-phase transformations in bentonite under the influence of hydrochloric acid and temperature treatment (100-800ºC. It is established that in HCl medium during temperature treatment, dehydration and dehydroxilation of montmorillonite occur. The presence of gypsum and barium chloride results in an intercalation of interlayer space of montmorillonite by Ca and Ba ions Temperature treatment of intercalated montmorillonite leads to the formation of pores.

Vlasova M.

2003-01-01

108

Lewis acid enhanced switching of the 1,1-dicyanodihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene photo/thermoswitch.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mild Lewis acids enhance the rate of the thermal conversion of vinylheptafulvene (VHF) to dihydroazulene (DHA). In the absence of light, stronger Lewis acids promote the otherwise photoinduced DHA to VHF conversion. PMID:21499631

Parker, Christian Richard; Tortzen, Christian Gregers; Broman, Søren Lindbæk; Schau-Magnussen, Magnus; Kilså, Kristine; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted

2011-06-01

109

Lewis acid enhanced switching of the 1,1-dicyanodihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene photo/thermoswitch.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mild Lewis acids enhance the rate of the thermal conversion of vinylheptafulvene (VHF) to dihydroazulene (DHA). In the absence of light, stronger Lewis acids promote the otherwise photoinduced DHA to VHF conversion.

Parker, Christian Richard; Tortzen, Christian Gregers

2011-01-01

110

Parameters affecting the formation of perfluoroalkyl acids during wastewater treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the fate and behaviour of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in liquid and solid samples from five different wastewater treatment types: facultative and aerated lagoons, chemically assisted primary treatment, secondary aerobic biological treatment, and advanced biological nutrient removal treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest data set from a single study available in the literature to date for PFAAs monitoring study in wastewater treatment. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the predominant PFAA in wastewater with levels from 2.2 to 150ng/L (influent) and 1.9 to 140ng/L (effluent). Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) was the predominant compound in primary sludge, waste biological sludge, and treated biosolids with concentrations from 6.4 to 2900ng/g dry weight (dw), 9.7 to 8200ng/gdw, and 2.1 to 17,000ng/gdw, respectively. PFAAs were formed during wastewater treatment and it was dependant on both process temperature and treatment type; with higher rates of formation in biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) operating at longer hydraulic retention times and higher temperatures. PFAA removal by sorption was influenced by different sorption tendencies; median log values of the solid-liquid distribution coefficient estimated from wastewater biological sludge and final effluent were: PFOS (3.73)>PFDA (3.68)>PFNA (3.25)>PFOA (2.49)>PFHxA (1.93). Mass balances confirmed the formation of PFAAs, low PFAA removal by sorption, and high PFAA levels in effluents. PMID:24691135

Guerra, P; Kim, M; Kinsman, L; Ng, T; Alaee, M; Smyth, S A

2014-05-15

111

Comparison of clindamycin 1% and benzoyl peroxide 5% gel to a novel composition containing salicylic acid, capryloyl salicylic acid, HEPES, glycolic acid, citric acid, and dioic acid in the treatment of acne vulgaris.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the tolerance and efficacy of 2 facial skin products in subjects with acne using the following acne treatments: 1) treatment A, a combination of salicylic acid, capryloyl salicylic acid, HEPES, glycolic acid, citric acid, and dioic acid, and 2) treatment B (BenzaClin®, clindamycin 1% and benzoyl peroxide 5% gel). The treatment design included the split-face application of treatment A and treatment B and the full-face application of the cleanser, moisturizer, and sunscreen. Data were collected through physician visual assessments, subject irritation questionnaires and assessments, along with clinical photography. Results showed similar tolerance and efficacy for both treatments. PMID:23545907

Baumann, Leslie S; Oresajo, Christian; Yatskayer, Margarita; Dahl, Amanda; Figueras, Kristian

2013-03-01

112

Significantly enhancing supercapacitive performance of nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheet electrodes by phosphoric acid activation.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, we present a new method to synthesize the phosphorus, nitrogen contained graphene nanosheets, which uses dicyandiamide to prevent the aggregation of graphene oxide and act as the nitrogen precursor, and phosphoric acid (H3PO4) as the activation reagent. We have found that through the H3PO4 activation, the samples exhibit the remarkably enhanced supercapacitive performance, and depending on the amount of H3PO4 introduced, the specific capacitance of the samples is gradually increased from 7.6 to 244.6 F g(-1). Meanwhile, the samples also exhibit the good rate capability and excellent stability (up to 10?000 cycles). Through the transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analyses, H3PO4 treatment induced large pore volume and phosphorus related function groups in the product are assumed to response for the enhancement. PMID:24456232

Wang, Ping; He, Haili; Xu, Xiaolong; Jin, Yongdong

2014-02-12

113

Contrast-enhanced microwave detection and treatment of breast cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

Contrast agents and heating agents have been proposed for microwave breast tumor imaging and treatment, respectively. The dielectric properties of the tumor are altered with contrast agents or heating agents that locally accumulate in the tumor. The resulting change in dielectric properties of the tumor has the potential to enhance the sensitivity of microwave imaging of breast tumors and increase the efficiency and selectivity of microwave thermal therapy of breast tumors. This dissertation addresses several key challenges in contrast-enhanced microwave imaging and treatment of breast tumors. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been shown to enhance both the relative permittivity and effective conductivity of the host medium, and are promising as theranostic (integrated therapeutic and diagnostic) agents. Thus, our properties characterization work focuses on CNT dispersions. We performed in vitro microwave dielectric properties and heating response characterization of dispersions of CNTs treated by different functionalization methods and identified a CNT formulation that is very promising as a microwave theranostic agent. Stable dispersions of CNTs with concentrations up to 20 mg/ml are obtained with this formulation, and the enhanced microwave properties of these dispersions are extraordinary compared to the control. We also conducted in vivo dielectric properties characterization of mouse tumors with intra-tumoral injections of CNT dispersions and confirmed that the presence of CNTs increases the dielectric properties of the tumor. In parallel, we developed a contrast-enhanced microwave breast tumor imaging algorithm using sparse reconstruction methods. We demonstrated that this algorithm accurately localizes small tumors in 3D numerical breast phantoms. We also demonstrated the experimental feasibility of this method using physical breast phantoms. Lastly, we studied the sensitivity of the distorted Born iterative method (DBIM) to initial guesses and developed a straightforward method for computing a reliable initial guess. DBIM is an iterative algorithm for solving the microwave inverse scattering problem and is used to initialize the sparse reconstruction algorithm developed in this research.

Gao, Fuqiang

114

Comparative study of trichloroacetic acid versus glycolic acid chemical peels in the treatment of melasma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Melasma is a common cause of facial hyperpigmentation with significant cosmetic deformity. Many modalities of treatment are available, but none is satisfactory. Aim: This study was designed to compare the therapeutic response of melasma in Indian women to glycolic acid (GA 20-35%) versus trichloroacetic acid (TCA 10-20%) for chemical peeling. Methods: Forty nonpregnant female patients with a minimum melasma area and severity index (MASI) of 10 we...

Kumari Rashmi; Thappa Devinder

2010-01-01

115

Strategies for enhancing lead-acid battery production and performance  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is a record of the replies given by an expert panel to questions asked by delegates to the Eighth Asian Battery Conference. The subjects are as follows. Analysis of lead and lead compounds: accuracy; critical aspects of sampling. Grid alloys: influence of tin on microstructure and grain size; optimum combination of grid-alloy technologies for automotive batteries. Battery manufacture and design: quality-assurance monitoring; acid-spray treatment of plates; efficiency of tank formation; control of ?-PbO 2/?-PbO 2 ratio; PbO 2 conversion level; positive/negative plate ratio; amount and type of separator for valve-regulated technology. Battery performance: use of cadmium reference electrode; influence of positive/negative plate ratio; local action; negative-plate expanders; gas-recombination catalysts; selective discharge of negative and positive plates.

Lambert, D. W. H.; Manders, J. E.; Nelson, R. F.; Peters, K.; Rand, D. A. J.; Stevenson, M.

116

Omega-3 fatty acids as a putative treatment for traumatic brain injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a global public health epidemic. In the US alone, more than 3 million people sustain a TBI annually. It is one of the most disabling injuries as it may cause motor and sensory deficits and lead to severe cognitive, emotional, and psychosocial impairment, crippling vital areas of higher functioning. Fueled by the recognition of TBI as the "signature injury" in our wounded soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan, and its often devastating impact on athletes playing contact sports, interest in TBI and TBI research has increased dramatically. Unfortunately, despite increased awareness of its detrimental consequences, there has been little progress in developing effective TBI interventions. Recent evidence, however, strongly indicates that nutritional intervention may provide a unique opportunity to enhance the neuronal repair process after TBI. To date, two omega-3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), have the most promising laboratory evidence for their neuro-restorative capacities in TBI. Although both animal models and human studies of brain injuries suggest they may provide benefits, there has been no clinical trial evaluating the effects of n-3 fatty acids on resilience to, or treatment, of TBI. This article reviews the known functions of n-3 fatty acids in the brain and their specific role in the cellular and biochemical pathways underlying neurotraumatic injury. We also highlight recent studies on the therapeutic impact of enhanced omega 3 intake in vivo, and how this may be a particularly promising approach to improving functional outcome in patients with TBI. PMID:23363551

Hasadsri, Linda; Wang, Bonnie H; Lee, James V; Erdman, John W; Llano, Daniel A; Barbey, Aron K; Wszalek, Tracey; Sharrock, Matthew F; Wang, Huan John

2013-06-01

117

Implementation of enhanced dynamic wedges in pinnacle treatment planning system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Enhanced dynamic wedges (EDW) provide many advantages over traditional hard wedges for linear accelerator treatments. Along with these advantages comes the responsibility of ensuring that this complex technology delivers the correct dose to patients. This involves determining the enhanced dynamic wedge factors for various field sizes and depths for use in the hand calculation of monitor units (MUs). The accurate representation of dynamic wedges in the treatment planning computer must also be ensured. This is required so that the final isodose distributions are correct and the MUs calculated by the treatment planning computer match those determined by hand calculation. We have commissioned and implemented the use of EDW in the Pinnacle radiation therapy planning system. The modeled dose profiles agree with the measured ones with a maximum difference of 2%. The MUs generated by Pinnacle are also within 2% of those calculated independently. The process of data collection and verification, beam modeling, and a discussion of a potential pitfall encountered in this process are presented in this paper

118

Novel zirconia surface treatments for enhanced osseointegration: laboratory characterization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate three novel surface treatments intended to improve osseointegration of zirconia implants: selective infiltration etching treatment (SIE), fusion sputtering (FS), and low pressure particle abrasion (LPPA). The effects of surface treatments on roughness, topography, hardness, and porosity of implants were also assessed. Materials and Methods. 45 zirconia discs (19?mm in diameter × 3?mm in thickness) received 3 different surface treatments: selective infiltration etching, low pressure particle abrasion with 30?µm alumina, and fusion sputtering while nontreated surface served as control. Surface roughness was evaluated quantitatively using profilometery, porosity was evaluated using mercury prosimetry, and Vickers microhardness was used to assess surface hardness. Surface topography was analyzed using scanning and atomic force microscopy (? = 0.05). Results. There were significant differences between all groups regarding surface roughness (F = 1678, P hardness (F = 1106.158, P < 0.001). Scanning and atomic force microscopy revealed a nanoporous surface characteristic of SIE, and FS resulted in the creation of surface microbeads, while LPPA resulted in limited abrasion of the surface. Conclusion. Within the limitations of the study, changes in surface characteristics and topography of zirconia implants have been observed after different surface treatment approaches. Thus possibilities for enhanced osseointegration could be additionally offered. PMID:25349610

Ewais, Ola H; Al Abbassy, Fayza; Ghoneim, Mona M; Aboushelib, Moustafa N

2014-01-01

119

Acetylsalicylic Acid Treatment Improves Differentiation and Immunomodulation of SHED.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) possess multipotent differentiation and immunomodulatory properties. They have been used for orofacial bone regeneration and autoimmune disease treatment. In this study, we show that acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) treatment is able to significantly improve SHED-mediated osteogenic differentiation and immunomodulation. Mechanistically, ASA treatment upregulates the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT)/Wnt/?-catenin cascade, leading to improvement of SHED-mediated bone regeneration, and also upregulates TERT/FASL signaling, leading to improvement of SHED-mediated T-cell apoptosis and ameliorating disease phenotypes in dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis mice. These data indicate that ASA treatment is a practical approach to improving SHED-based cell therapy. PMID:25394850

Liu, Y; Chen, C; Liu, S; Liu, D; Xu, X; Chen, X; Shi, S

2015-01-01

120

Pharmacological enhancement of naltrexone treatment for opioid dependence: a review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Paolo Mannelli, Kathleen S Peindl, Li-Tzy WuDepartment of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USAPurpose: Opioid dependence (OD is a serious and growing clinical condition with increasing social costs that requires expanding treatment beyond opioid agonist substitution. The opioid antagonist naltrexone has displayed a remarkable association of theoretical effectiveness and poor clinical utility in treating OD due to noncompliant behavior and low acceptability among patients, only partly modified by psychosocial interventions. We reviewed pharmacological studies, including naltrexone depot formulations and combination treatments.Method: We searched PubMed for clinical studies on the use of naltrexone implants and slow-release injections in OD, and investigations using adjunct medications to improve naltrexone maintenance therapy of OD. We discussed the results in view of their application to the clinical practice.Results: Significant reduction in opioid use and improved retention in treatment have been found in several studies using depot naltrexone formulations, some of which are controlled clinical trials. Pilot investigations have gathered initial positive results on the use of naltrexone in combination with serotonin reuptake inhibitors, ?-2 adrenergic, opioid, and ?-aminobutyric acid agonist medications.Conclusion: Current evidence suggests that more research on effectiveness and safety is needed in support of depot naltrexone treatment for OD. Further research comparing slow-release with oral naltrexone and opioid agonist medications will help characterize the role of opioid antagonist-mediated treatment of OD. Preliminary investigations on naltrexone combination treatments suggest the opportunity to continue study of new mixed receptor activities for the treatment of OD and other drug addictions.Keywords: extended-release, naltrexone, implant, injection, depot, combination

Peindl K

2011-06-01

 
 
 
 
121

Laser Treatment of Sintered Silicon Carbide Surface for Enhanced Hydrophobicity  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, laser treatment of sintered SiC surfaces is carried out to enhance the surface hydrophobicity. Morphological and metallurgical changes of the treated surfaces are evaluated using optical and scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Microhardness and fracture toughness are measured using indentation tests. The residual stresses present are determined using the XRD technique. The wetting characteristics of the treated surfaces are assessed through contact angle measurements. It is found that the laser-treated surfaces consist of fine grooves and pillars and that the resulting surface roughness enhances the surface hydrophobicity. The fracture toughness of the treated surface is reduced possibly because of the microhardness increase at the surface. The residual stress formed in the surface region is on the order of 1.8 GPa, and it is compressive.

Yilbas, Bekir Sami; Bhushan, Bharat

2014-01-01

122

Adjunctive trichloroacetic acid therapy enhances squaric acid response to verruca vulgaris.  

Science.gov (United States)

Squaric acid dibutyl ester (SADBE) is a commonly used treatment for verruca vulgaris of childhood. Few studies, however, have examined the role of SADBE in combination with other topical therapies for warts. We sought to determine if trichloroacetic acid 50% (TCA) and/or cantharidin 0.7% improve therapeutic response to SADBE. A retrospective chart review of 74 patients who were treated for warts at a pediatric dermatology practice in 2010 was performed. Cox regression analysis was used to identify determinants of 100% response to SADBE and found that number of warts was most important (P=0.002). Trichloroacetic acid + SADBE resulted in 100% clearance of warts in all subjects with the shortest time-to-clearance (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.45, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14-5.25, P=0.02). In contrast, addition of cantharidin did not improve response to SADBE (HR: 1.13, 95% CI: 0.60-2.13, P=0.59) or TCA + SADBE (HR: 1.16, 95% CI: 0.65-2.07, P=0.61). These results suggest that combination treatment with TCA 50% and SADBE significantly improves the consistency and speed of SADBE-induced clearance of warts. PMID:23134989

Silverberg, Jonathan I; Silverberg, Nanette B

2012-10-01

123

Robust antifogging antireflective coatings on polymer substrates by hydrochloric acid vapor treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antireflective coatings on polymer substrates have received significant attention for their potential applications. In this paper, robust microporous antifogging antireflective coatings on polymer substrates were prepared from acid-catalyzed silica sol followed by hydrochloric acid vapor solidification at mild temperature below glass transition temperatures of common polymers. The coatings passed 3H pencil hardness test, sand flow test and water-drop test. They had excellent antireflective and antifogging properties. The maximum transmittance of coatings on PMMA substrates reached 100.0% (the maximum transmittance wavelength could be regulated) and average transmittance reached 99.0% in 400-800nm. The advantage and mechanism of hydrochloric acid vapor solidification and mechanical strength enhancement of coatings are discussed in contrast to ammonia vapor treatment and air vapor treatment. The hydrochloric acid vapor treatment results in a dense integrated microporous film structure. Optical properties were characterized by a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Surface wettability was studied by a contact angle/interface system. Surface morphologies and structures of coatings were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom force microscopy (AFM). PMID:25585289

Li, Tong; He, Junhui; Yao, Lin; Geng, Zhi

2015-04-15

124

Enhancement of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on all-trans retinoic acid-induced differentiation in human leukemia HL-60 cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) induces complete remission in a high proportion of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL); however, the response is sometimes very slow. Furthermore, relapse and resistance to treatment often occur despite continued treatment with ATRA. Thereafter, combination treatment strategies have been suggested to circumvent these problems. The present study demonstrates that caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a major component of honeybee propolis, enhanced ATRA-induced granulocytic differentiation in HL-60, a human promyelocytic cell line. The differentiation was assessed by Wright-Giemsa stain, nitroblue tetrazolium reduction, and membrane differentiation marker CD11b. In addition, CAPE enhanced ATRA-induced cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase by decreasing the association of cdk2-cyclin E complex. Finally, it was demonstrated that CAPE promoted the ATRA-mediated nuclear transcription activation of RARalpha assessed by EMSA assay and enhanced the expression of target genes including RARalpha, C/EBPepsilon, and p21 protein resulting in the differentiation development of leukemia. It is suggested that CAPE possesses the potential to enhance the efficiency of ATRA in the differentiation therapy of APL. PMID:16766008

Kuo, Hsing-Chun; Kuo, Wu-Hsien; Lee, Yean-Jang; Wang, Chau-Jong; Tseng, Tsui-Hwa

2006-10-01

125

Enhancement of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on all-trans retinoic acid-induced differentiation in human leukemia HL-60 cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) induces complete remission in a high proportion of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL); however, the response is sometimes very slow. Furthermore, relapse and resistance to treatment often occur despite continued treatment with ATRA. Thereafter, combination treatment strategies have been suggested to circumvent these problems. The present study demonstrates that caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a major component of honeybee propolis, enhanced ATRA-induced granulocytic differentiation in HL-60, a human promyelocytic cell line. The differentiation was assessed by Wright-Giemsa stain, nitroblue tetrazolium reduction, and membrane differentiation marker CD11b. In addition, CAPE enhanced ATRA-induced cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase by decreasing the association of cdk2-cyclin E complex. Finally, it was demonstrated that CAPE promoted the ATRA-mediated nuclear transcription activation of RAR? assessed by EMSA assay and enhanced the expression of target genes including RAR?, C/EBP?, and p21 protein resulting in the differentiation development of leukemia. It is suggested that CAPE possesses the potential to enhance the efficiency of ATRA in the differentiation therapy of APL

126

Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, fetal risks, and ursodeoxycolic acid treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this report is to investigate intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Here we report a 36-year-old woman with intrahepatic cholestasis. We observed a complete cure with ursodeoxycholic acid treatment. We discussed the epidemiology, pathomechanism, and therapy of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is a rare disorder of unknown etiology with a clinically distressing maternal course with pruritus and jaundice as the chief complaints. The disease poses little medical risk to the mother, but significant risk to the fetus such as perinatal mortality, preterm delivery, fetal distress, and meconium staining. On the basis of the data in the literature and our own observation we recommend ursodeoxycholic acid treatment in the management of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

Erdin ?lter

2005-01-01

127

Organising pneumonia associated with fumaric acid ester treatment for psoriasis.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

INTRODUCTION: We present the case of a 49-year old male who presented with dyspnoea, cough, weight loss, night sweats and general malaise. He had been on treatment with oral fumaric acid esters (FAE, Fumaderm(R); Biogen Idec GmbH, Ismaning, Germany) for 6 months. METHODS: Report of a case. RESULTS: His chest X-ray showed patchy infiltrates in the left upper lobe which failed to resolve under empiric antibiotic therapy. A computed tomography of thorax revealed bilateral, mostly peripheral foci of consolidation with air bronchograms. Transbronchial biopsies showed a pattern of organising pneumonia (OP). CONCLUSIONS: Therapy with oral prednisolone (40 mg\\/day) resulted in a rapid clinical and radiological improvement. An association of FAE and OP has not previously been reported. Please cite this paper as: Deegan AP, Kirby B, Rogers S, Crotty TB and McDonnell TJ. Organising pneumonia associated with fumaric acid ester treatment for psoriasis.

Deegan, Alexander Paul

2012-02-01

128

Encapsulation of nucleic acids and opportunities for cancer treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of nucleic acid drugs for the treatment of various cancers has shown great promise in recent years. However, efficient delivery of these drugs to target cells remains a significant challenge towards the successful development of such therapies. This review provides a comprehensive overview of encapsulation technologies being developed for the delivery of nucleic acid-based anti-cancer agents. Both micro and nanoparticles systems are discussed along with their use in delivering plasmid DNA as well as oligonucleotides. The majority of the systems discussed have used DNA immunotherapy as the potential mode of anticancer therapy, which requires targeting to antigen presenting cells. Other applications, including those with oligonucleotides, focus on targeting tumor cells directly. The results obtained so far show the excellent promise of encapsulation as an efficient means of delivering therapeutic nucleic acids. PMID:17372693

Brannon-Peppas, Lisa; Ghosn, Bilal; Roy, Krishnendu; Cornetta, Kenneth

2007-04-01

129

Enhancing pitting corrosion resistance of Al{sub x}CrFe{sub 1.5}MnNi{sub 0.5} high-entropy alloys by anodic treatment in sulfuric acid  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High-entropy alloys are a newly developed family of multi-component alloys that comprise various major alloying elements. Each element in the alloy system is present in between 5 and 35 at.%. The crystal structures and physical properties of high-entropy alloys differ completely from those of conventional alloys. The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) of the Al{sub x}CrFe{sub 1.5}MnNi{sub 0.5} (x = 0, 0.3, 0.5) alloys, obtained in 0.1 M HCl solution, clearly revealed that the corrosion resistance values were determined to increase from 21 to 34 {omega}cm{sup 2} as the aluminum content increased from 0 to 0.5 mol, and were markedly lower than that of 304 stainless steel (243 {omega}cm{sup 2}). At passive potential, the corresponding current declined with the anodizing time accounting, causing passivity by the growth of the multi-component anodized film in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses revealed that the surface of anodized Al{sub 0.3}CrFe{sub 1.5}MnNi{sub 0.5} alloy formed aluminum and chromium oxide film which was the main passivating compound on the alloy. This anodic treatment increased the corrosion resistance in the EIS measurements of the CrFe{sub 1.5}MnNi{sub 0.5} and Al{sub 0.3}CrFe{sub 1.5}MnNi{sub 0.5} alloys by two orders of magnitude. Accordingly, the anodic treatment of the Al{sub x}CrFe{sub 1.5}MnNi{sub 0.5} alloys optimized their surface structures and minimized their susceptibility to pitting corrosion.

Lee, C.P.; Chen, Y.Y.; Hsu, C.Y.; Yeh, J.W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Shih, H.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Chinese Culture University, Taipei 111, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: hcshih@mx.nthu.edu.tw

2008-12-01

130

Rock specific hydraulic fracturing and matrix acidizing to enhance a geothermal system — Concepts and field results  

Science.gov (United States)

Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) are engineered reservoirs developed to extract economic amounts of heat from low permeability and/or porosity geothermal resources. To enhance the productivity of reservoirs, a site specific concept is necessary to actively make reservoir conditions profitable using specially adjusted stimulation treatments, such as multi fracture concepts and site specific well path design. The results of previously performed stimulation treatments in the geothermal research well GtGrSk4/05 at Groß Schönebeck, Germany are presented. The reservoir is located at a 4100-4300 m depth within the Lower Permian of the NE German Basin with a bottom-hole temperature of 150 °C. The reservoir rock is classified by two lithological units from bottom to top: volcanic rocks (andesitic rocks) and siliciclastics ranging from conglomerates to fine-grained sandstones (fluvial sediments). The stimulation treatments included multiple hydraulic stimulations and an acid treatment. In order to initiate a cross-flow from the sandstone layer, the hydraulic stimulations were performed in different depth sections (two in the sandstone section and one in the underlying volcanic section). In low permeability volcanic rocks, a cyclic hydraulic fracturing treatment was performed over 6 days in conjunction with adding quartz in low concentrations to maintain a sustainable fracture performance. Flow rates of up to 150 l/s were realized, and a total of 13,170 m 3 of water was injected. A hydraulic connection to the sandstone layer was successfully achieved in this way. However, monitoring of the water level in the offsetting well EGrSk3/90, which is 475 m apart at the final depth, showed a very rapid water level increase due to the stimulation treatment. This can be explained by a connected fault zone within the volcanic rocks. Two gel-proppant treatments were performed in the slightly higher permeability sandstones to obtain long-term access to the reservoir rocks. During each treatment, a total of 100 ton of high strength proppants was injected with 500 m 3 of cross-linked gel. The subsequent production test in conjunction with flowmeter logging showed an improvement of productivity by a factor of more than 4. Due to assumed residual drilling mud (constituents: calcite, dolomite, and aragonite) in the near-wellbore vicinity, an acid matrix stimulation was performed thereafter using a coil tubing unit. The following nitrogen lift test demonstrated another increase of productivity by 30-50% to an overall increase by a factor of 5.5-6.2.

Zimmermann, Günter; Blöcher, Guido; Reinicke, Andreas; Brandt, Wulf

2011-04-01

131

Hyaluronic acid as a treatment for ankle osteoarthritis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Viscosupplementation refers to the concept of synovial fluid replacement with intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid (HA) for the relief of pain associated with osteoarthritis (OA). Intra-articular viscosupplementation was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1997. It is currently indicated only for the treatment of pain associated with knee OA. However, OA can occur in several of the weight-bearing joints of the foot and ankle. Ankle OA produces chronic disability tha...

Sun, Shu-fen; Chou, Yi-jiun; Hsu, Chien-wei; Chen, Wen-ling

2009-01-01

132

Zoledronic acid infusion for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

John A SunyeczLaurel Highlands Ob/Gyn, Hopwood, Pennsylvania, USA and MenopauseRx, Inc., Uniontown, PA, USAAbstract: Osteoporotic fractures are associated with significant morbidity, reduced quality of life, increased mortality, and high health care costs. Bisphosphonates are standard therapy for treatment of osteoporosis. However, patient compliance and persistence with oral weekly or monthly bisphosphonate therapy are suboptimal and may lead to reduced effectiveness. Zoledronic acid (ZOL) i...

Sunyecz, John A.

2010-01-01

133

Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, fetal risks, and ursodeoxycolic acid treatment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this report is to investigate intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Here we report a 36-year-old woman with intrahepatic cholestasis. We observed a complete cure with ursodeoxycholic acid treatment. We discussed the epidemiology, pathomechanism, and therapy of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is a rare disorder of unknown etiology with a clinically distressing maternal course with pruritus and jaundice as the chief complaints. The diseas...

Erdin ?lter; Can Tu?fekc?i, E.; Osman Batur; Figen Temelli

2005-01-01

134

Oral bile acid treatment of biliary cholesterol stones.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cholesterol gallbladder stones can be dissolved with chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) or ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). Response rate is 60-90%, dissolution rate 60% in stones not exceeding 1.5 cm in diameter. Mean treatment time amounts to 18 months. To improve oral litholysis: 1) UDCA was combined with the amino acid taurine, 2) CDCA and UDCA were administered in a single bedtime dose, 3) they were combined, each bile acid in half dosage, and 4) they were mixed with terpenes. Although there was some improvement with the combination therapy, final outcome is still suboptimal. Many investigations have been performed concerning gallbladder function, mucus production and nucleating factors, showing both that cholesterol supersaturation of bile is the conditio sine qua non for gallstone formation and that other factors play an additional, important role for the development of the first nidus. These factors have to be considered when therapy shall be improved. As yet oral litholysis has shown neither drug-related side effects nor lethality. It is not more expensive than surgery. Direct contact litholysis with methyl tert-butyl ether could reduce the indication for oral treatment to floating stones or patients who refuse gallbladder puncture. But although oral litholysis does not provide us with optimal results and needs further improvements, it will always keep its place in gallstone therapy. PMID:1529153

Leuschner, U

1992-01-01

135

Fenton-enhanced {gamma}-radiolysis of cyanuric acid  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Degradation of cyanuric acid (OOOT), a stable end product of oxidative decomposition of atrazine, is investigated in a combined field of gamma radiolysis and fenton reaction. The reaction of hydroxyl radical ({center_dot}OH) at pH 6 was carried out by irradiating N{sub 2}O saturated aqueous solutions containing OOOT (1 x 10{sup -3} mol dm{sup -3}), and this resulted only a marginal degradation (20%). However, when the same reaction was carried out in the presence of varying concentrations of ferrous sulfate ((5-10) x 10{sup -5} mol dm{sup -3}), the decay of OOOT has been enhanced to more than 80%. This decay followed a first order kinetics. Nearly similar effects were observed with another triazine derivative, 2,4-dioxohexahydro-1,3,5-triazine (DHT). Two major reaction mechanisms are proposed for the enhanced decay of OOOT. The formation of unstable hydroxyl radical adducts from the reaction of {center_dot}OH which is the result of gamma radiolysis and the Fenton reaction (resulting from the reaction of the added Fe(II) and of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} from the radiolysis of water), is proposed as the first mechanism. The second mechanism, which is likely the major contributor to degradation, is proposed as the reaction of a nucleophilic adduct, Fe(II)OOH, which could directly react with the electron deficient triazine ring. It is highlighted that such degradation reactions must be explored for the complete degradation of the byproducts of the oxidative decomposition of atrazine.

Varghese, Rani [School of Chemical Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686560, Kerala (India); Aravind, Usha K. [School of Chemical Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686560, Kerala (India); Aravindakumar, Charuvila T. [School of Chemical Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686560, Kerala (India)]. E-mail: CT-Aravindakumar@rocketmail.com

2007-04-02

136

Plasma surface treatments of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The surfaces of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) were modified by oxygen and nitrogen plasma treatments. The physical and chemical surface characteristics were evaluated by contact angle tests, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The plasma treatments caused an increase in both contact angle and roughening, altered the surface morphology, inserted polar groups, and, consequently, enhanced the hydrophilicity for both PLLA and PHBV polymers.

137

Mechanism involved in enhancement of osteoblast differentiation by hyaluronic acid  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research highlights: {yields} In this study was to investigate the effects of HA on osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. {yields} MG63 cells were incubated with BMP-2 and HA for various time periods. {yields} Phosphorylation of Smad 1/5/8, p38, and ERK proteins was determined by western blot analysis. To elucidate the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated Smad 1/5/8, stimulated cells were subjected to immunofluorescence microscopy. {yields} HA enhanced BMP-2 induces osteoblastic differentiation in MG63 cells via down-regulation of BMP-2 antagonists and ERK phosphorylation. -- Abstract: Objectives: Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is expected to be utilized to fill bone defects and promote healing of fractures. However, it is unable to generate an adequate clinical response for use in bone regeneration. Recently, it was reported that glycosaminoglycans, including heparin, heparan sulfate, keratan sulfate, dermatan sulfate, chondroitin-4-sulfate, chondroitin-6-sulfate, and hyaluronic acid (HA), regulate BMP-2 activity, though the mechanism by which HA regulates osteogenic activities has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HA on osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. Materials and methods: Monolayer cultures of osteoblastic lineage MG63 cells were incubated with BMP-2 and HA for various time periods. To determine osteoblastic differentiation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the cell lysates was quantified. Phosphorylation of Smad 1/5/8, p38, and ERK proteins was determined by Western blot analysis. To elucidate the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated Smad 1/5/8, stimulated cells were subjected to immunofluorescence microscopy. To further elucidate the role of HA in enhancement of BMP-2-induced Smad signaling, mRNA expressions of the BMP-2 receptor antagonists noggin and follistatin were detected using real-time RT-PCR. Results: BMP-2-induced ALP activation, Smad 1/5/8 phosphorylation, and nuclear translocation were up-regulated when MG63 cells were cultured with both BMP-2 and HA. Western blot analysis revealed that phosphorylation of ERK protein was diminished by HA. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of noggin and follistatin induced by BMP-2 were preferentially blocked by HA. Conclusions: These results indicate that HA enhanced BMP-2 induces osteoblastic differentiation in MG63 cells via down-regulation of BMP-2 antagonists and ERK phosphorylation.

Kawano, Michinao [Division of Maxillofacial Diagnostic and Surgical Science, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Department of Health Promotion, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Ariyoshi, Wataru [Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Department of Health Promotion, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Iwanaga, Kenjiro [Division of Maxillofacial Diagnostic and Surgical Science, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Okinaga, Toshinori [Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Department of Health Promotion, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Habu, Manabu [Division of Maxillofacial Diagnostic and Surgical Science, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Yoshioka, Izumi [Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Medicine of Sensory and Motor Organs, University of Miyazaki, Kiyotake, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan); Tominaga, Kazuhiro [Division of Maxillofacial Diagnostic and Surgical Science, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Oral Bioresearch Center, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Nishihara, Tatsuji, E-mail: tatsujin@kyu-dent.ac.jp [Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Department of Health Promotion, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Oral Bioresearch Center, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan)

2011-02-25

138

Lysophosphatidic Acid Enhances Pulmonary Epithelial Barrier Integrity and Protects Endotoxin-induced Epithelial Barrier Disruption and Lung Injury*  

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Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a bioactive phospholipid, induces a wide range of cellular effects, including gene expression, cytoskeletal rearrangement, and cell survival. We have previously shown that LPA stimulates secretion of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in bronchial epithelial cells. This study provides evidence that LPA enhances pulmonary epithelial barrier integrity through protein kinase C (PKC) ?- and ?-mediated E-cadherin accumulation at cell-cell junctions. Treatment of hu...

He, Donghong; Su, Yanlin; Usatyuk, Peter V.; Spannhake, Ernst Wm; Kogut, Paul; Solway, Julian; Natarajan, Viswanathan; Zhao, Yutong

2009-01-01

139

Seed washing, exogenous application of gibberellic acid, and cold stratification enhance the germination of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) seed  

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Seed germination in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) is a slow and lengthy process which has delayed breeding efforts. In this study, seed from ripe fruit of the sweet cherry cultivar ‘Lambert’ were collected and, after removing the endocarp, various dormancy-breaking treatments such as seed washing, the application of exogenous gibberellic acid (GA3), or cold stratification were evaluated for their ability to enhance the percentage and rate of seed germination. The results indicated that s...

Javanmard, T.; Zamani, Z.; Keshavarz Afshar, R.; Hashemi, M.; Struik, P. C.

2014-01-01

140

Enantioseparation of Amino Acids by Micelle-Enhanced Ultrafiltration : Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Copper(II) Amino Acid Interactions  

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A micelle-enhanced ultrafiltration system, which can potentially be used for large scale separations, has been used to investigate the resolution of amino acid enantiomers. For this purpose amino acid derivatives were synthesized, which in combination with copper(II) ions were used as chiral selectors. In the presence of non-ionic surfactants these selectors show for several amino acids high operational enantioselectivities of up to 14.5 for phenylglycine using cholesteryl l-glutamate as a se...

Bruin, T. J. M.

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Cathepsin K in treatment monitoring following intravenous zoledronic acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cathepsin K (CatK) is mainly expressed by osteoclasts and plays an important role in bone resorption. As CatK is expressed and secreted by osteoclasts during active bone resorption, it may be a useful and specific biochemical marker of osteoclastic activity. Therefore, CatK serum levels were studied for monitoring the treatment of females with postmenopausal osteoporosis by zoledronic acid. The serum CatK levels were determined in nine postmenopausal females before and after 3, 6 and 12 months of treatment. The levels were significantly reduced after 3 and 6 months (P<0.05), whereas they returned to baseline after 1 year. Taken together, the serum level of CatK may be suitable for monitoring anti-osteoporotic therapy in association with treatment response. PMID:25279169

Jahn, Oliver; Wex, Thomas; Klose, Silke; Kropf, Siegfried; Adolf, Daniela; Piatek, Stefan

2014-11-01

142

Accumulation of eicosapolyenoic acids enhances sensitivity to abscisic acid and mitigates the effects of drought in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.  

Science.gov (United States)

IgASE1, a C?? ?(9)-specific polyunsaturated fatty acid elongase from the marine microalga Isochrysis galbana, is able to convert linoleic acid and ?-linolenic acid to eicosadienoic acid and eicosatrienoic acid in Arabidopsis. Eicosadienoic acid and eicosatrienoic acid are precursors of arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid, which are synthesized via the ?(8) desaturation biosynthetic pathways. This study shows that the IgASE1-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis exhibited altered morphology (decreased leaf area and biomass) and enhanced drought resistance compared to wild-type plants. The transgenic Arabidopsis were hypersensitive to abscisic acid (ABA) during seed germination, post-germination growth, and seedling development. They had elevated leaf ABA levels under well-watered and dehydrated conditions and their stomata were more sensitive to ABA. Exogenous application of eicosadienoic acid and eicosatrienoic acid can mimic ABA and drought responses in the wild type plants, similar to that found in the transgenic ones. The transcript levels of genes involved in the biosynthesis of ABA (NCED3, ABA1, AAO3) as well as other stress-related genes were upregulated in this transgenic line upon osmotic stress (300 mM mannitol). Taken together, these results indicate that these two eicosapolyenoic acids or their derived metabolites can mitigate the effects of drought in transgenic Arabidopsis, at least in part, through the action of ABA. PMID:24609499

Yuan, Xiaowei; Li, Yaxiao; Liu, Shiyang; Xia, Fei; Li, Xinzheng; Qi, Baoxiu

2014-04-01

143

Slagment Cement Improve the Cement Resistance Toward Acids Attack During Acidizing Treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Acidizing treatment in past experience shows several zonal isolation problems after the treatment. This study presents the effect of the acid treatment toward class G cement and slagment cement as the improvement method to improve the cement resistance toward the acid. Lab experiments were conducted by immerge the respective cement cubes into 12% HCl/3% HF solution for 40 min before several analysis were conducted. Based on the result, the mass loss and compressive strength loss of the cement cubes decrease as the curing temperature and pressure increase due to more evenly distributed cement chemical composition crystal in high curing condition as shown in Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM analysis. From X-Ray Diffraction (XRD and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF analysis, only the first layer of the cement cubes shows chemical component change due to the reaction between the acid. This study found that, replacing class G cement to slagment cement can reduce the mass loss and compressive strength loss up to 72% and 82%, respectively.

Nik Khairul Irfan Bin Nik Ab. Lah.

2013-05-01

144

Influence of reducing carbohydrates on (6S)-5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid degradation during thermal treatments.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mechanism and kinetics of the degradation of (6S)5-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolic acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of reducing carbohydrates such as glucose and fructose were investigated for thermal treatments. Preliminary experiments indicated that the presence of reducing carbohydrates, especially fructose (1.6 mM-1.5 M), strongly enhanced folate degradation at moderate temperatures (50-90 degrees C, 0-60 min). Identification of the predominant folate degradation products by LC-MS and NMR pointed to the formation of N(2alpha)-[1-(carboxyethyl)]-5-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolic acid diastereomers besides other folate degradation products upon prolonged heating (24 h, 100 degrees C) of (6S)5-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolic acid in fructose or dihydroxyacetone solutions. Using a Bayesian multiresponse kinetic modeling approach, kinetic characterization and elucidation of the degradation mechanism in the presence of equimolar amounts of dihydroxyacetone, fructose, and glucose were achieved. On the basis of the established degradation mechanism for (6S)5-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolic acid oxidation in the literature, it was shown that nonenzymatic glycation occurred due to reaction of dihydroxyacetone with 5-methyl-7,8-dihydrofolic acid. During thermal treatments (85-110 degrees C, 0-60 min), the nonenzymatic glycation reaction was characterized by an activation energy of 61.3 +/- 9.3 and 77.6 +/- 7.8 kJ mol(-1) in the presence of, respectively, dihydroxyacetone and fructose. Addition of L-ascorbic acid (1.13 mM) to folate samples (0.04 mM) with equimolar amounts of fructose prior to heating (100 degrees C, 0-45 min) was shown to retard the formation of 5-methyl-7,8-dihydrofolic acid and hence prevented the formation of the carboxyethylated derivatives under the investigated conditions. PMID:20423084

Verlinde, Philippe H C J; Oey, Indrawati; Lemmens, Lien; Deborggraeve, Wim M; Hendrickx, Marc E; Van Loey, Ann M

2010-05-26

145

Pachymic Acid Enhances Pentobarbital-Induced Sleeping Behaviors via GABAA-ergic Systems in Mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was investigated to know whether pachymic acid (PA), one of the predominant triterpenoids in Poria cocos (Hoelen) has the sedative-hypnotic effects, and underlying mechanisms are mediated via ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic systems. Oral administration of PA markedly suppressed locomotion activity in mice. This compound also prolonged sleeping time, and reduced sleep latency showing synergic effects with muscimol (0.2 mg/kg) in shortening sleep onset and enhancing sleep time induced by pentobarbital, both at the hypnotic (40 mg/kg) and sub-hypnotic (28 mg/kg) doses. Additionally, PA elevated intracellular chloride levels in hypothalamic primary cultured neuronal cells of rats. Moreover, Western blotting quantitative results showed that PA increased the amount of protein level expression of GAD65/67 over a broader range of doses. PA increased ?- and ?-subunits protein levels, but decreased ?-subunit protein levels in GABAA receptors. The present experiment provides evidence for the hypnotic effects as PA enhanced pentobarbital-induced sleeping behaviors via GABAA-ergic mechanisms in rodents. Taken together, it is proposed that PA may be useful for the treatment of sleep disturbed subjects with insomnia. PMID:25143810

Shah, Vikash Kumar; Choi, Jae Joon; Han, Jin-Yi; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Hong, Jin Tae; Oh, Ki-Wan

2014-07-01

146

Treatment of spent Ni-Cd batteries by acid lixiviation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work reports on the results of laboratory experiences for the treatment of spent Ni-Cd batteries, using a hydro metallurgical process. The stages of mechanical preparation, lixiviation and extraction with organic solvents are described. The mechanical separation involving a sequence of shearing, drying, crushing and magnetic separation, resulted in the separation into a fine fraction of more than 95% of the cadmium and nickel in the spent batteries, leaving a big fraction of almost all iron and non metallic materials. Lixiviation trials were performed with the fine fraction and modifying the variables of temperature, acidity, reaction time and degree of oxidation of the solution. The incidence of the medium used was evaluated depending on whether it was sulfuric acid or chlorhydric acid solution. Under some conditions more than 90% of the cadmium and nickel could be dissolved, in short periods of no more than 2 hours and it was observed that in the concentrations studied, the chlorhydric acid solutions are more effective than the sulfuric acid ones. DEPHA (Di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid) extractants from the sulfuric solutions and TBP (tributyl phosphate) for the chlorhydrics were used for the extractions using organic solvents. Both extractants are effective in separating the cadmium and nickel contents in the lixiviation solutions but when using the TBPS solution, less steps are needed in the extraction as well as in the re-extraction. The results obtained frthe re-extraction. The results obtained from these studies show that this method can be used for recycling spent Ni-Cd batteries (CW)

147

Fatty acid facts, Part I. Essential fatty acids as treatment for depression, or food for mood?  

Science.gov (United States)

The epidemic character of depressive disorders has prompted further research into dietary habits that could make an etiological contribution. One clear change in the diet of the population in developed countries has been the replacement of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by saturated fats and trans-fats as well as by omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are essential fatty acids, and the members of the -3 and -6 series are crucial for human health. In biochemical processes there is a competition between these two series. A higher dietary intake of omega-6 results in the excessive incorporation of these molecules in the cell membrane with numerous pathological consequences, presumably due to the formation of proinflammatory eicosanoids. Members of the omega-3 family and their derivatives modulate the inflammatory action. Essential fatty acids play a major role in brain development and brain functioning. The omega-3 series members docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) provide fluidity to the cell membrane, facilitating certain processes including neurotransmission and ion channel flow. It is thought that omega-3 deficiency during the fetal and postnatal period may have a long-term effect at various levels. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a positive association between omega-3 deficits and mood disorders. As for treatment, there is convincing evidence that add-on omega-3 fatty acids to standard antidepressant pharmacotherapy results in improved mood. There is no evidence that fatty acid monotherapy has a mood-elevating effect, with a possible exception for childhood depression. There are indications that omega-3 has a prophylactic effect on perinatal depression and has a negative effect on natural killer cell activity and T-lymphocyte function. These observations need further study in view of the popularity of self-medication. PMID:19034351

Pawels, E K J; Volterrani, D

2008-10-01

148

Lactic Acid--The Latest Performance Enhancing Drug  

Science.gov (United States)

Accumulation of lactic acid has long been considered to contribute to muscle fatigue, a major limitation to improvement of athletic performance. However, recent findings have shed new light on the role of lactic acid in muscle fatigue.

David Allen (University of Sydney; Institute of Biomedical Research)

2004-08-20

149

The treatments of soil Rirang by floatation and Acid leaching  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The treatments of soil Rirang by floatation and acid leaching has been carried out to increase high uranium concentrates of materials, separating associated economical minerals and to reduce the gangue minerals which bothering at chemical processing. The physical treatment has been done by ore preparation and floatation using oleic acid and pine oil, 20 % of pulp at pH 9, condition time at 5 minutes and collections of float fraction was 10 minutes. The chemical processing has been done by dynamic leaching using H2SO4 100 kg/ton, MnO2 20 kg/ton, 50 % of solid with ore size - 65 mesh, temperature at 80 oC and time of leaching was 8 hours. The result of experiments is as follows : Physical treatment by floatation shown that the concentrates of U increased at sink fraction by (1.5 - 2) times against feed sample for all the samples, and in the float fraction the recovery of molybdenite separation is 58 - 81 % and rare earths is 57 - 80 %. The result of dynamic leaching is 76 - 91 %, and recovery uranium increasing from 81.02 % (mixture samples soil before floatation) to 91.16 % ( mixture samples of float fraction)

150

Lowering of phytic acid content by enhancement of phytase and acid phosphatase activities during sunflower germination  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a germinação de girassóis híbridos BRS 191 e C11 com finalidade de reduzir o teor de AF e aumentar as atividades de phytases e fosfatases endógenas. A concentração do AF nos aquênios de girassóis híbridos variou de 2,16 a 2,83 g /100g de amostra (p[...] s atividades de fitases e fosfatases de girassóis BRS191 e C11 foram elevadas no 4º e 5º dia de germinação, respectivamente, com liberação do fósforo necessário para o desenvolvimento da semente. Estes resultados indicam que o AF do girassol hibrido reduz e a atividade de phytase aumenta em períodos distintos da germinação, possibilitando assim a aplicação desta enzima no controle do teor de AF em cereais, melhorando o seu valor nutricional. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to investigate the germination of hybrid sunflowers BRS191 and C11 as a means of lowering phytic acid (PA) content by enhancing the activity of endogenous phytase and acid phosphatase. The concentration of PA in hybrid sunflower achenes varied from 2.16 to 2.83g/100g o [...] f sample (p

Juliana da Silva, Agostini; Rosicler Balduíno, Nogueira; Elza Iouko, Ida.

2010-08-01

151

Lowering of phytic acid content by enhancement of phytase and acid phosphatase activities during sunflower germination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the germination of hybrid sunflowers BRS191 and C11 as a means of lowering phytic acid (PA content by enhancing the activity of endogenous phytase and acid phosphatase. The concentration of PA in hybrid sunflower achenes varied from 2.16 to 2.83g/100g of sample (p O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a germinação de girassóis híbridos BRS 191 e C11 com finalidade de reduzir o teor de AF e aumentar as atividades de phytases e fosfatases endógenas. A concentração do AF nos aquênios de girassóis híbridos variou de 2,16 a 2,83 g /100g de amostra (p< 0,005. As atividades de fitases e fosfatases de girassóis BRS191 e C11 foram elevadas no 4º e 5º dia de germinação, respectivamente, com liberação do fósforo necessário para o desenvolvimento da semente. Estes resultados indicam que o AF do girassol hibrido reduz e a atividade de phytase aumenta em períodos distintos da germinação, possibilitando assim a aplicação desta enzima no controle do teor de AF em cereais, melhorando o seu valor nutricional.

Juliana da Silva Agostini

2010-08-01

152

An optimized probucol microencapsulated formulation integrating a secondary bile acid (deoxycholic acid as a permeation enhancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Armin Mooranian,1 Rebecca Negrulj,1 Nigel Chen-Tan,2 Gerald F Watts,3 Frank Arfuso,4 Hani Al-Salami11Biotechnology and Drug Development Research Laboratory, School of Pharmacy, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Biosciences Research Precinct, Curtin University, 2Faculty of Science and Engineering, Curtin University, 3School of Medicine and Pharmacology, Royal Perth Hospital, University of Western Australia, 4School of Biomedical Science, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Biosciences Research Precinct, Curtin University, Perth, AustraliaAbstract: The authors have previously designed, developed, and characterized a novel microencapsulated formulation as a platform for the targeted delivery of therapeutics in an animal model of type 2 diabetes, using the drug probucol (PB. The aim of this study was to optimize PB microcapsules by incorporating the bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA, which has good permeation-enhancing properties, and to examine its effect on microcapsules’ morphology, rheology, structural and surface characteristics, and excipients’ chemical and thermal compatibilities. Microencapsulation was carried out using a BÜCHI-based microencapsulating system established in the authors’ laboratory. Using the polymer sodium alginate (SA, two microencapsulated formulations were prepared: PB-SA (control and PB-DCA-SA (test at a constant ratio (1:30 and 1:3:30, respectively. Complete characterization of the microcapsules was carried out. The incorporation of DCA resulted in better structural and surface characteristics, uniform morphology, and stable chemical and thermal profiles, while size and rheological parameters remained similar to control. In addition, PB-DCA-SA microcapsules showed good excipients’ compatibilities, which were supported by data from differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray studies, suggesting microcapsule stability. Hence, PB-DCA-SA microcapsules have good rheological and compatibility characteristics and may be suitable for the oral delivery of PB in type 2 diabetes.Keywords: artificial cell microencapsulation, diabetes, bile acids, probucol, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, BÜCHI B390

Mooranian A

2014-09-01

153

The effect of various treatment conditions on natural zeolites: ion exchange, acidic, thermal and steam treatments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two different natural zeolites having different phase compositions were obtained from different regions of Turkey and modified by ion-exchange (0.5M NH(4)NO(3)) and acid leaching using 1M HCl. The natural and modified samples were treated at low temperature (LT), high temperature (HT) and steam (ST) conditions and characterised by XRF, XRD, BET, FTIR, DR-UV-Vis, NH(3)-TPD and TGA. Ion-exchange with NH(4)(+) of natural zeolites results in the exchange of the Na(+) and Ca(2+) cations and the partial exchange of the Fe(3+) and Mg(2+) cations. However, steam and acidic treatments cause significant dealumination and decationisation, as well as loss of crystalline, sintering of phases and the formation of amorphous material. The presence of mordenite and quartz phases in the natural zeolites increases the stability towards acid treatment, whereas the structure of clinoptilolite-rich zeolites is mostly maintained after high temperature and steam treatments. The natural and modified zeolites treated at high temperature and in steam were found to be less stable compared with synthetic zeolites, resulting in a loss of crystallinity, a decrease in the surface area and pore volume, a decrease in the surface acidity as well as dealumination, and decationisation. PMID:22331036

Ates, Ayten; Hardacre, Christopher

2012-04-15

154

Enhanced performance of crumb rubber filtration for ballast water treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Waste-tire-derived crumb rubber was utilized as filter media to develop an efficient filter for ballast water treatment. In this study, the effects of coagulation, pressure filtration and dual-media (gravity) filtration on the performance of the crumb rubber filtration were investigated. The removal efficiencies of turbidity, phytoplankton and zooplankton, and head loss development were monitored during the filtration process. The addition of a coagulant enhanced the removal efficiencies of all targeted matter, but resulted in substantial increase of head loss. Pressure filtration increased filtration rates to 220 m(3)h(-1)m(-2) for 8-h operation and improved the zooplankton removal. Dual-media (crumb rubber/sand) gravity filtration also improved the removal efficiencies of phytoplankton and zooplankton over mono-media gravity crumb rubber filtration. However, these filtration techniques alone did not meet the criteria for removing indigenous organisms from ballast water. A combination of filtration and disinfection is suggested for future studies. PMID:19117590

Tang, Zhijian; Butkus, Michael A; Xie, Yuefeng F

2009-03-01

155

POROSITY ENHANCEMENT IN SOME BAKED CLAY SAMPLES UNDER HYDROTHERMAL TREATMENTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the chemically assisted enhancement in porosity of l °Cal clay samples activated at a temperature of 150 ºC. Aluminosilicates enriched baked clay samples were used and hydro thermally treated with NaOH, KOH, Ba (OH2 & ZrO. Pore size and surface area analyzer was used for the determination of surface area. Average pore width, pore volume and surface area were calculated. Treatment with NaOH and KOH has shown to be a very good activation pr °Cedure for high surface area development. Zirconium oxide has caused no pronounced effect on the development of surface area while barium hydroxide showed adverse effect and caused a decline in porosity

IMTIAZ AHMAD

2007-06-01

156

5-aminolevulinic acid enhances cell death under thermal stress in certain cancer cell lines.  

Science.gov (United States)

5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is contained in all organisms and a starting substrate for heme biosynthesis. Since administration of 5-ALA specifically leads cancer cells to accumulate protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), a potent photosensitizer, we tested if 5-ALA also serves as a thermosensitizer. 5-ALA enhanced heat-induced cell death of cancer cell lines such as HepG2, Caco-2, and Kato III, but not other cancer cell lines including U2-OS and normal cell lines including WI-38. Those 5-ALA-sensitive cancer cells, but neither U2-OS nor WI-38, accumulated intracellular PpIX and exhibited an increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation under thermal stress with 5-ALA treatment. In addition, blocking the PpIX-exporting transporter ABCG2 in U2-OS and WI-38 cells enhanced their cell death under thermal stress with 5-ALA. Finally, a ROS scavenger compromised the cell death enhancement by 5-ALA. These suggest that 5-ALA can sensitize certain cancer cells, but not normal cells, to thermal stress via accumulation of PpIX and increase of ROS generation. PMID:25346276

Chibazakura, Taku; Toriyabe, Yui; Fujii, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kiwamu; Kawakami, Mariko; Kuwamura, Haruna; Haga, Hazuki; Ogura, Shun-Ichiro; Abe, Fuminori; Nakajima, Motowo; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Tanaka, Tohru

2014-10-27

157

Ursodeoxycholic acid treatment improves hepatocyte ultrastructure in rat liver fibrosis  

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AIM: To examine the ultrastructural changes after ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment in hepatocytes from experimentally induced fibrotic livers.METHODS: Liver fibrosis was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats with CCl4 for 12 wk, and the rats were divided into two groups. Group I was treated with saline and group II with UDCA (25 mg/kg per day) for 4 wk. All the rats were killed at wk 16. Mitochondria, nuclei, rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) of hepat...

Nuket Mas, Ilker Tasci

2008-01-01

158

Enhancing Anaerobic Treatment of Wastewaters Containing Oleic Acid.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

INTRODUCTIONLipids are one of the major organic pollutants in municipal and industrial wastewaters. Although domestic sewage typically contains about 40-100 mg/I lipids (Forster, 1992; Quéméneur and Marty, 1994), it is industrial wastewaters that are of greater concern when considering the higher lipid concentrations in the discharged effluents. Typical industries that generate lipids-containing wastewaters are dairy, edible oil and fat refinery, slaughterhouse and meatproc...

Ching-shyung, H.

1997-01-01

159

Hydrothermal treatment of nanoparticle thin films for enhanced mechanical durability.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mechanical durability of nanoporous all-nanoparticle and polymer-nanoparticle layer-by-layer (LbL) films (80-150 nm thick) on both glass and polycarbonate substrates has been greatly enhanced by hydrothermal treatment (124-134 degrees C). Polymer-nanoparticle films were more durable than all-nanoparticle films after hydrothermal treatment. The optical properties of nanoporous antireflection (AR) films were exploited in an abrasion test (25-100 kPa normal stress) to quantify the extent of abrasive wear observed qualitatively by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Marginal damage was observed under optimal reinforcement conditions. Untreated films not only delaminated from the surface completely but also damaged their underlying glass and polycarbonate substrates during testing. The nature of the substrate was found to play an important role in determining abrasion resistance, regardless of the level of particle fusion in the film. The low-temperature process enables in situ mechanical reinforcement of otherwise delicate nanoparticle assemblies on plastic substrates. Tribochemical wear was found to planarize the nanoscale surface texture of these films, similar to what is observed in chemo-mechanical polishing (CMP). This finding is useful for anyone trying to make robust superhydrophobic or superhydrophilic coatings. To our knowledge, this is the first report on hydrothermal reinforcement of LbL films. PMID:18232719

Gemici, Zekeriyya; Shimomura, Hiroomi; Cohen, Robert E; Rubner, Michael F

2008-03-01

160

Peptide Nucleic Acids Having Enhanced Binding Affinity and Sequence Specificity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA strand, and exhibit increased sequence specificity and binding affinity. Methods of increasing binding affinity and sequence specificity of peptide nucleic acids are provided wherein some peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from a group consisting of naturally-occurring nucleobases and non-naturally-occurring nucleobases attached to a polyamide backbone, while other peptide nucleic acids contain at least one 2,6-diaminopurine nucleobase and at least one C1-C8 alkylamine side chain.

Buchardt, Ole University of Copenhagen

 
 
 
 
161

Analytic treatments of matter-enhanced solar-neutrino oscillations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mikheyev and Smirnov have pointed out that flavor oscillations of solar neutrinos could be greatly enhanced. The Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein mechanism depends on the effective electron neutrino mass that arises from charged-current scattering off solar electrons, a phenomenon first discussed by Wolfenstein. Two analytic treatments, the adiabatic approximation and Landau-Zener (LZ) approximation, have been used in studies of this mechanism. I discuss a simple extension of the LZ approximation that merges naturally with the adiabatic approximation and is free of certain troublesome pathologies that arise in the conventional treatment. In this extension the solar density is approximated as in the conventional treatment, except that the starting and ending densities are the physical ones. Results of this finite LZ approximation are compared to those from the standard LZ approximation, the adiabatic approximation, and ''exact'' numerical integrations. The new approximation is virtually exact regardless of the point of origin of the neutrino in the solar core. This approximation is used to efficiently calculate the solar-neutrino capture rates for /sup 37/Cl, /sup 71/Ga, and /sup 98/Mo. The spatial extent of the solar core, the contributions of minor neutrino species, and the effects of 8B neutrino capture to excited nuclear states are treated with care. Limits imposed on ?m2 and sin22theta/sub v/ by the nonzero /sup 37/Cl capture rate arey the nonzero /sup 37/Cl capture rate are derived by considering the expected uncertainties in standard-solar-model flux estimates. Those oscillation parameters are determined that could account for the /sup 37/Cl puzzle and yet lead to a /sup 71/Ga counting rate above the minimum astronomical value

162

Zoledronic acid infusion for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available John A SunyeczLaurel Highlands Ob/Gyn, Hopwood, Pennsylvania, USA and MenopauseRx, Inc., Uniontown, PA, USAAbstract: Osteoporotic fractures are associated with significant morbidity, reduced quality of life, increased mortality, and high health care costs. Bisphosphonates are standard therapy for treatment of osteoporosis. However, patient compliance and persistence with oral weekly or monthly bisphosphonate therapy are suboptimal and may lead to reduced effectiveness. Zoledronic acid (ZOL is an intravenous bisphosphonate that is given once yearly for the treatment of osteoporosis via a medically supervised 15-minute infusion. This ensures compliance for a full 12 months. In clinical trials, an annual infusion of ZOL 5 mg has shown sustained efficacy in reducing hip and spine fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. It has also been shown to increase bone density in postmenopausal women with osteopenia (low bone mass and in men with osteoporosis. Transient flu-like symptoms are the most common adverse effects following ZOL infusion, and these can generally be managed with acetaminophen. The availability of an intravenous bisphosphonate that ensures compliance over a long dosing interval may help to overcome barriers to efficacy resulting from poor long-term compliance with oral agents.Keywords: fractures, intravenous bisphosphonate, osteoporosis, zoledronic acid

John A Sunyecz

2010-10-01

163

Cystic fibrosis. Is treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid of value?  

Science.gov (United States)

Liver and biliary diseases are common complications in cystic fibrosis (CF) and may even be so severe that liver transplantation is indicated in cases with mild pulmonary disease. The most common complications are steatosis, fibrosis/cirrhosis, micro gallbladder, cholelithiasis, and sclerosing cholangitis. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has been used in the treatment of gallstones and pathological liver function in CF. The effect on gallstones has been contradictory, and the effect on liver function tests has been shown to be dose-dependent. A significantly better effect has been shown on liver function tests during treatment over 1 year with doses of 15-20 mg/kg/day. Although supplementation with taurine did not further improve this effect, it has been used in many studies. The biliary bile acid pool was enriched by UDCA from about 10% to 35-40%, but a similar increase was not seen in serum. We have studied the long-term effect of UDCA in 10 patients with liver fibrosis or cirrhosis and/or sclerosing cholangitis. Liver function and liver morphology examined on liver biopsies by both light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were followed for 2 years. Preliminary results of this study are encouraging. UDCA is an interesting drug which binds to the hepatocyte membranes, stabilizing membrane structure in in vitro experiments and increasing the bicarbonate excretion in bile in pigs. The mechanism of the effect of UDCA in CF might not only be an increased choleresis; further studies will focus on these aspects. PMID:7824881

Strandvik, B; Lindblad, A

1994-01-01

164

Evaluation of acid treatment by means flowback fluid analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To evaluate the effect of acid treatment on Kitaochitani well SK-1 which requires acid treatment, the flowback fluid was sampled intermittently and analyzed. Powder X-ray diffraction was used to determine the mineral contents. The results are as follows: Quartz -- 20% to 30% (weight), feldspar -- 15% to 20%, calcite -- Tr to 4%, dolomite -- 3% to 60%, Kaolinite - 2% to 5%, smectite -- 2% to 5%, chlorite -- Tr, pyrite -- Tr, and mixed layer -- 4% to 10%. The CO{sub 2} concentration in the gas specimen and Ca and Mg concentrations in the liquid specimen assume maxima at the early stage of flowback and decrease gradually; this suggest that secondary products, such as CaF{sub 2} and MgF{sub 2}, are formed through flowback. The Si and Al concentrations in the flowback specimen is much lower than those obtained through reaction simulation tests; this suggests that hydroxides have formed within the oil reservoir. According to the above findings, it is probable that 15% HCl which is a preflush was insufficient. It should be noted that the environment is very corrosive. 8 figs., 8 tabs.

Chaki, Kazuhisa; Kageyama, Takashi; Ishiwataru, Hironori (Japan Petroleum Exploration Co., Ltd., Tokyo)

1988-11-01

165

Action of successive heat treatments in bovine milk fatty acids  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O estudo mostra a ação sucessiva dos tratamentos térmicos de pasteurização (75 ºC por 15 s) e esterilização comercial por troca indireta de calor (140 ºC for 6 s) sobre o perfil lipídico de leite bovino. Amostras de leite cru foram submetidas à pasteurização e então, à esterilização comercial (ultra [...] -alta temperatura, UHT). A gordura de amostras de leite cru, de leite pasteurizado e de leite esterilizados comercialmente foi extraída. Após transesterificação, os ésteres metílicos dos ácidos graxos (FAMEs) foram analisados por cromatografia gasosa com detecção por ionização de chama (GC-FID). A quantificação revelou que para a maioria dos ácidos graxos (FA) encontrados não houve diferença significativa (p > 0,05) entre as amostras de leite cru e leite pasteurizado. Entretanto, foram encontradas diferenças significativas para 21 dos 26 ácidos graxos analisados (p > 0,05) para as amostras de leite cru e de leite esterilizado, incluindo o isômero predominante no leite do ácido linoléico conjugado (CLA-c9t11). Este fato evidencia a ação sucessiva dos tratamentos térmicos no perfil lipídico do leite. Abstract in english The action of successive pasteurization thermal treatments (75 ºC for 15 s) and commercial sterilization by indirect heat exchange (140 ºC for 6 s) was analyzed on the lipid profile of bovine milk. Raw milk samples were submitted to pasteurization and then were submitted to sterilization (ultra-high [...] temperature, UHT). The fat of raw milk, pasteurized milk and commercially sterilized milk samples was extracted. After transesterification, the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The quantification of fatty acids (FA) revealed that for most of the found fatty acids there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between raw milk and pasteurized milk. However, it was found significant differences for 21 of the 26 analyzed fatty acids (p > 0.05) for the raw and sterilized milks, including the predominant isomer of the conjugated linoleic acid (CLAc9t11) of the milk. This fact evidences the successive action of heat treatments on milk lipid profile.

Edvaldo N., Costa; Ellen C. Q., Lacerda; Suian M. S., Santos; Carilan M. S., Santos; Marcelo, Franco; Robério R., Silva; Julliana I., Simionato.

2115-21-01

166

Enzyme-entrapped mesoporous silica for treatment of uric acid disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gout is an abnormality in the body resulting in the accumulation of uric acid mainly in joints. Dissolution of uric acid crystals into soluble allantoin by the enzyme uricase might provide a better alternative for the treatment of gout. This work aims to investigate the feasibility of a transdermal patch loaded with uricase for better patient compliance. Mesoporous silica (SBA-15) was chosen as the matrix for immobilisation of uricase. Highly oriented mesoporous SBA-15 was synthesized, characterized and uricase was physisorbed in the mesoporous material. The percentage adsorption and release of enzyme in borate buffer was monitored. The release followed linear kinetics and greater than 80% enzyme activity was retained indicating the potential of this system as an effective enzyme immobilization matrix. The enzyme permeability was studied with Wistar rat skin and human cadaver skin. It was found that in case of untreated rat skin 10% of enzyme permeated through skin in 100 h. The permeation increased by adding permeation enhancer (combination of oleic acid in propylene glycol (OA in PG)). The permeation enhancement was studied under two concentrations of OA in PG (1%, 5%) in both rat and human cadaver skin and it was found that 1% OA in PG showed better result in rat skin and 5% OA in PG showed good results in human cadaver skin. PMID:23802423

Muthukoori, Shanthini; Narayanan, Naagarajan; Chandra, Manuguri Sesha Sarath; Sethuraman, Swaminathan; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari

2013-05-01

167

Chronomodulation of topotecan or X-radiation treatment increases treatment efficacy without enhancing acute toxicity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Topotecan (TPT), a camptothecin analog, is currently used to treat human ovarian and small-cell lung cancer and is in clinical trials for other tumor sites. However, it is unknown whether chronomodulation of TPT treatment is beneficial. We examined the effects of administering TPT or X-radiation (XR) alone at different times of the day or night. Methods: We treated mice bearing human colorectal tumor xenografts at four different times representing the early rest period (9 AM or 3 HALO [hours after light onset]), late rest period (3 PM or 9 HALO), early active period (9 PM or 15 HALO), and late active period (3 AM or 21 HALO) of the mice. We gave either TPT (12 mg/kg, injected i.p.) or XR (4 Gy, directed to the tumor) twice weekly on Days 0, 4, 7, 10 within 2 weeks. Results: Treatment with either TPT or XR at 3 AM demonstrated the greatest efficacy (measured by a tumor regrowth assay) without significantly increasing acute toxicity (assessed by a decrease in leukocyte counts or body weight). Conversely, treatment at 3 PM, in particular, showed increased toxicity without any enhanced efficacy. Conclusions: Our study provided the first evidence that chronomodulation of TPT treatments, consistent with the findings of other camptothecin analogs, is potentially clinically beneficial. Additionally, our findings suggest that chronomodulation of fractionated XR treatments is also potentially clinically beneficial

168

Poly(L-glutamic acid)-paclitaxel conjugate is a potent enhancer of tumor radiocurability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Conjugating drugs with polymeric carriers is one way to improve selective delivery to tumors. Poly (L-glutamic acid)-paclitaxel (PG-TXL) is one such conjugate. Compared with paclitaxel, its uptake, tumor retention, and antitumor efficacy are increased. Initial studies showed that PG-TXL given 24 h before or after radiotherapy enhanced tumor growth delay significantly more than paclitaxel. To determine if PG-TXL-induced enhancement is obtained in a more clinically relevant setting, we investigated PG-TXL effects on tumor cure. Methods and Materials: Mice bearing 7-mm-diameter ovarian carcinomas were treated with PG-TXL at an equivalent paclitaxel dose of 80 mg/kg, single dose or 5 daily fractions of radiation or both PG-TXL and radiation. Treatment endpoint was TCD50 (radiation dose yielding tumor control in 50% of mice). Acute radioresponse of jejunum, skin, and hair was determined for all treatments. Results: PG-TXL dramatically improved tumor radioresponse, reducing TCD50 of single-dose irradiation from 53.9 (52.2-55.5) Gy to 7.5 (4.5-10.7) Gy, an enhancement factor (EF) of 7.2. The drug improved the efficacy of fractionated irradiation even more, reducing the TCD50 of 66.6 (62.8-90.4) Gy total fractionated dose to only 7.9 (4.3-11.5) Gy, for an EF of 8.4. PG-TXL did not affect normal tissue radioresponse resulting from either single or fractionated irradiation. Conclusion: PG-TXL dramatically potentiated tumor radiocurabiliamatically potentiated tumor radiocurability after single-dose or fractionated irradiation without affecting acute normal tissue injury. To our knowledge, PG-TXL increased the therapeutic ratio of radiotherapy more than that previously reported for other taxanes, thus, PG-TXL has a high potential to improve clinical radiotherapy

169

LOX/COX inhibitors enhance the antineoplastic effects of all-trans retinoic acid in osteosarcoma cell lines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The induced differentiation of tumor cells into mature phenotypes is a promising strategy in cancer therapy. In this study, the effects of combined treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and lipoxygenase/cyclooxygenase inhibitors were examined in two osteosarcoma cell lines, Saos-2 and OSA-01. Caffeic acid and celecoxib were used as inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase and of cyclooxygenase-2, respectively. Changes in the cell proliferation, matrix mineralization, and occurrence of differentiation markers were evaluated in treated cell populations at intervals. The results confirmed the capability of caffeic acid to enhance the antiproliferative effect of ATRA in both cell lines. In contrast, celecoxib showed the same effect in Saos-2 cells only. Furthermore, the extension of matrix mineralization was observed after combined treatment with ATRA and celecoxib or caffeic acid. The increased expression of osteogenic differentiation markers was observed in both cell lines after the combined application of ATRA and inhibitors. The obtained results clearly demonstrate the capability of lipoxygenase/cyclooxygenase inhibitors to enhance the antiproliferative and differentiating effect of ATRA in osteosarcoma cells, although some of these effects are specific and depend on the biological features of the respective tumor or cell line. PMID:24798977

Krzyzankova, Miroslava; Chovanova, Silvia; Chlapek, Petr; Radsetoulal, Matej; Neradil, Jakub; Zitterbart, Karel; Sterba, Jaroslav; Veselska, Renata

2014-08-01

170

Current issues regarding treatment of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Treatment recommendations in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) defects are diverse. With implementation of newborn screening and identification of asymptomatic patients, it is necessary to define whom to treat and how strictly. We here discuss critical questions that are currently under debate. For some asymptomatic long-chain defects, long-chain fat restriction plays a minor role, and a normal diet may be introduced. For patients presenting only with myopathic symptoms, e.g., during exercise, treatment may be adapted to energy demand. As a consequence, patients with exercise-induced myopathy may be able to return to normal activity when provided with medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) prior to exercise. There is no need to limit participation in sports. Progression of retinopathy in disorders of the mitochondrial trifunctional protein complex is closely associated with hydroxyacylcarnitine accumulation. A strict low-fat diet with MCT supplementation is recommended to slow or prevent progression of chorioretinopathy. Additional docosahexanoic acid does not prevent the decline in retinal function but does promote nonspecific improvement in visual acuity and is recommended. There is no evidence that L-carnitine supplementation is beneficial. Thus, supplementation with L-carnitine in a newborn identified by screening with either a medium-chain or long-chain defect is not supported. With respect to the use of the odd-chain medium-chain triglyceride triheptanoin in myopathic phenotypes, randomized trials are needed to establish whether triheptanoin is more effective than even-chain MCT. With increasing pathophysiological knowledge, new treatment options have been identified and are being clinically evaluated. These include the use of bezafibrates in myopathic long-chain defects. PMID:20830526

Spiekerkoetter, Ute; Bastin, Jean; Gillingham, Melanie; Morris, Andrew; Wijburg, Frits; Wilcken, Bridget

2010-10-01

171

Valproic acid enhances anti-tumor effect of mesenchymal stem cell mediated HSV-TK gene therapy in intracranial glioma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Suicide gene therapy of glioma based on herpes simplex virus type I thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) and prodrug ganciclovir (GCV) suffers from the lack of efficacy in clinical trials, which is mostly due to low transduction efficacy and absence of bystander effect in tumor cells. Recently, stem cells as cellular delivery vehicles of prodrug converting gene has emerged as a new treatment strategy for malignant glioma. In this study, we evaluated the anti-glioma effect of suicide gene therapy using human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells expressing HSV-TK (MSCs-TK) combined with valproic acid (VPA), which can upregulate the gap junction proteins and may enhance the bystander effect of suicide gene therapy. Expression of HSV-TK in MSCs was confirmed by RT-PCR analysis and the sensitivity of MSCs-TK to GCV was assessed. A bystander effect was observed in co-cultures of MSCs-TK and U87 glioma cells by GCV in a dose-dependent manner. VPA induced the expression of the gap junction proteins connexin (Cx) 43 and 26 in glioma cell and thereby enhanced the bystander effect in co-culture experiment. The enhanced bystander effect was inhibited by the gap junction inhibitor 18-?-glycyrrhetinic acid (18-GA). Moreover, the combined treatment with VPA and MSCs-TK synergistically enhanced apoptosis in glioma cells by caspase activation. In vivo efficacy experiments showed that combination treatment of MSCs-TK and VPA significantly inhibited tumor growth and prolonged the survival of glioma-bearing mice compared with single-treatment groups. In addition, TUNEL staining also demonstrated a significant increase in the number of apoptotic cells in the combination treated group compared with single-treatment groups. Taken together, these results provide the rational for designing novel experimental protocols to increase bystander killing effect against intracranial gliomas using MSCs-TK and VPA. PMID:22525671

Ryu, Chung Heon; Park, Kwang Ywel; Kim, Seong Muk; Jeong, Chang Hyun; Woo, Ji Sun; Hou, Yun; Jeun, Sin-Soo

2012-05-11

172

Polystyrene sulphonic acid resins with enhanced acid strength via macromolecular self-assembly within confined nanospace  

Science.gov (United States)

Tightening environmental legislation is driving the chemical industries to develop efficient solid acid catalysts to replace conventional mineral acids. Polystyrene sulphonic acid resins, as some of the most important solid acid catalysts, have been widely studied. However, the influence of the morphology on their acid strength—closely related to the catalytic activity—has seldom been reported. Herein, we demonstrate that the acid strength of polystyrene sulphonic acid resins can be adjusted through their reversible morphology transformation from aggregated to swelling state, mainly driven by the formation and breakage of hydrogen bond interactions among adjacent sulphonic acid groups within the confined nanospace of hollow silica nanospheres. The hybrid solid acid catalyst demonstrates high activity and selectivity in a series of important acid-catalysed reactions. This may offer an efficient strategy to fabricate hybrid solid acid catalysts for green chemical processes.

Zhang, Xiaomin; Zhao, Yaopeng; Xu, Shutao; Yang, Yan; Liu, Jia; Wei, Yingxu; Yang, Qihua

2014-01-01

173

Duration of treatment with 5-aminosalicylic acid compounds.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) therapy as a life long treatment for ulcerative colitis is reviewed from its origins in the 1940s to the present day. The drug was designed to treat rheumatoid arthritis, but was found helpful in the management of nine patients with ulcerative colitis. This discovery preceded the emergence of the clinical trial as a tool for assessing a new drug's efficacy; as a result it lacked scientific rigour and was selective in its presentation of results. Nevertheless it identified the future cornerstone of therapy in ulcerative colitis. In 1962, the first double blind controlled trial of sulphasalazine was conducted on 40 patients. Outcome measures were subjective and included symptoms and an assessment of the rectal mucosa. In 1973, the first two papers on the role of sulphasalazine in maintenance of remission were published. Both used placebo controls and had a stratified design. Outcomes were measured using "an intention to treat" approach. The British study of 64 patients used both subjective and objective criteria to assess outcomes. Patients on placebo had a relapse rate four times patients on active treatment and this founded the basis for a life long approach to therapy with 5-ASA compounds in ulcerative colitis. However, in 1985, a small "on demand" study of 32 patients suggested this approach might be as effective as continuous treatment. Some support for this view came from an Italian study which showed no benefit to continued treatment for those in remission for two years or more. The central problem these studies identify is that of adherence to treatment in the long-term. Few studies have considered patients' attitudes to continuous therapy and it is an area that needs further investigation. PMID:17708602

Moshkovska, T; Mayberry, J-F

2007-08-28

174

Differentiation of HL-60 myeloid leukemia cells induced by all-trans retinoic acid is enhanced in combination with caffeic acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated a possible enhancement of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-induced differentiation of HL-60 human myeloid leukemia cells by caffeic acid (CA), a widely distributed plant phenolic compound. Our results showed that CA, in the concentration of 13 or 52 micro M, had no or minimal influence on cell differentiation, whereas the differentiating activity of ATRA was potentiated by CA treatment. We proved, using flow cytometric detection of the CD66b surface molecule, a synergistic effect of CA: at day 10, 18.3% of CD66b-positive cells were detected after treatment with ATRA only, and 33% when CA and ATRA were combined together. NBT-assay confirmed that this additive effect of CA on ATRA-induced differentiation. Proliferating activity as assessed by MTT-assay was generally not affected by CA at given concentrations. However, cell proliferation was significantly reduced by 52 micro M CA at 96-h intervals. This effect was markedly enhanced when CA, at both concentrations, and ATRA were combined. The possibility to enhance the differentiation potential of ATRA by CA may improve outcomes in the therapy of acute promyelocytic leukemia. PMID:15254783

Veselská, Renata; Zitterbart, Karel; Auer, Jan; Neradil, Jakub

2004-08-01

175

Enhancing Arabidopsis Salt and Drought Stress Tolerance by Chemical Priming for Its Abscisic Acid Responses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Drought and salt stress tolerance of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants increased following treatment with the nonprotein amino acid ?-aminobutyric acid (BABA), known as an inducer of resistance against infection of plants by numerous pathogens. BABA-pretreated plants showed earlier and higher expression of the salicylic acid-dependent PR-1 and PR-5 and the abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent RAB-18 and RD-29A genes following salt and drought stress...

Jakab, Gabor; Ton, Jurriaan; Flors, Victor; Zimmerli, Laurent; Me?traux, Jean-pierre; Mauch-mani, Brigitte

2011-01-01

176

Do fish oil omega-3 fatty acids enhance antioxidant capacity and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation in human atrial myocardium via PPAR? activation?  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Studies in experimental models suggest that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) improve metabolic and anti-inflammatory/antioxidant capacity of the heart, although the mechanisms are unclear and translational evidence is lacking. In this study, patients ingested a moderately high dose of n-3 PUFAs (3.4 g/day eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and doxosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ethyl-esters) for a period of 2-3 weeks before having elective cardiac surgery. Blood was obtained before treatment and at the time of surgery, and myocardial tissue from the right atrium was also dissected during surgery. Blood EPA levels increased and myocardial tissue EPA and DHA levels were significantly higher in n-3 PUFA-treated patients compared with untreated, standard-of-care control patients. Interestingly, n-3 PUFA patients had greater nuclear transactivation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?), fatty acid metabolic gene expression, and enhanced mitochondrial respiration supported by palmitoyl-carnitine in the atrial myocardium, despite no difference in mitochondrial content. Myocardial tissue from n-3 PUFA patients also displayed greater expression and activity of key antioxidant/anti-inflammatory enzymes. These findings lead to our hypothesis that PPAR? activation is a mechanism by which fish oil n-3 PUFAs enhance mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and antioxidant capacity in human atrial myocardium, and that this preoperative therapeutic regimen may be optimal for mitigating oxidative/inflammatory stress associated with cardiac surgery. PMID:24597798

Anderson, Ethan J; Thayne, Kathleen A; Harris, Mitchel; Shaikh, Saame Raza; Darden, Timothy M; Lark, Daniel S; Williams, John Mark; Chitwood, W Randolph; Kypson, Alan P; Rodriguez, Evelio

2014-09-10

177

Oxamflatin treatment enhances cloned porcine embryo development and nuclear reprogramming (*).  

Science.gov (United States)

Faulty epigenetic reprogramming of somatic nuclei is thought to be the main reason for low cloning efficiency by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), such as Scriptaid, improve developmental competence of SCNT embryos in several species. Another HDACi, Oxamflatin, is about 100 times more potent than Scriptaid in the ability to inhibit nuclear-specific HDACs. The present study determined the effects of Oxamflatin treatment on embryo development, DNA methylation, and gene expression. Oxamflatin treatment enhanced blastocyst formation of SCNT embryos in vitro. Embryo transfer produced more pigs born and fewer mummies from the Oxamflatin-treated group compared to the Scriptaid-treated positive control. Oxamflatin also decreased DNA methylation of POU5F1 regulatory elements and centromeric repeat elements in day-7 blastocysts. When compared to in vitro-fertilized (IVF) embryos, the methylation status of POU5F1, NANOG, and centromeric repeat was similar in the cloned embryos, indicating these genes were successfully reprogrammed. However, compared to the lack of methylation of XIST in day-7 IVF embryos, a higher methylation level in day-7 cloned embryos was observed, implying that X chromosomes were activated in day-7 IVF blastocysts, but were not fully activated in cloned embryos, i.e., reprogramming of XIST was delayed. A time-course analysis of XIST DNA methylation on day-13, -15, -17, and -19 in vivo embryos revealed that XIST methylation initiated at about day 13 and was not completed by day 19. The methylation of the XIST gene in day-19 control cloned embryos was delayed again when compared to in vivo embryos. However, methylation of XIST in Oxamflatin-treated embryos was comparable with in vivo embryos, which further demonstrated that Oxamflatin could accelerate the delayed reprogramming of XIST gene and thus might improve cloning efficiency. PMID:25548976

Mao, Jiude; Zhao, Ming-Tao; Whitworth, Kristin M; Spate, Lee D; Walters, Eric M; O'Gorman, Chad; Lee, Kiho; Samuel, Melissa S; Murphy, Clifton N; Wells, Kevin; Rivera, Rocio M; Prather, Randall S

2015-02-01

178

Organic Crop Management Enhances Chicoric Acid Content in Lettuce  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

L- chicoric acid is a dominant phenolic compound in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and has been shown to accumulate in response to many abiotic stresses and crop management practices. It is a potent inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) integrase needed for the replication of this virus and for the productive infection of the host cell. L- chicoric acid has been found to act synergistically in combination with anti-HIV drugs used for treating acquired immuno-deficiency disorder (AIDS...

Rajashekar, Channa B.; Myung-Min Oh; Carey, Edward E.

2012-01-01

179

Enhanced Fatty Acid Flux Triggered by Adiponectin Overexpression  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Adiponectin overexpression in mice increases insulin sensitivity independent of adiposity. Here, we combined stable isotope infusion and in vivo measurements of lipid flux with transcriptomic analysis to characterize fatty acid metabolism in transgenic mice that overexpress adiponectin via the aP2-promoter (ADNTg). Compared with controls, fasted ADNTg mice demonstrated a 31% reduction in plasma free fatty acid concentrations (P = 0.008), a doubling of ketones (P = 0.028), and a 68% increase i...

Shetty, Shoba; Ramos-roman, Maria A.; Cho, You-ree; Brown, Jonathan; Plutzky, Jorge; Muise, Eric S.; Horton, Jay D.; Scherer, Philipp E.; Parks, Elizabeth J.

2012-01-01

180

CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins alpha and epsilon cooperate with all-trans retinoic acid in therapy but differ in their antileukemic activities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs) play critical roles in myelopoiesis. Dysregulation of these proteins likely contributes to the pathogenesis of myeloid disorders characterized by a block in granulopoiesis. In one such disease, acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), a promyelocytic leukemia–retinoic acid receptor ? (PML-RAR?) fusion protein is expressed as a result of a t(15;17) chromosomal translocation. Treatment of PML-RAR? leukemic cells with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) causes...

Lee, Young-jin; Jones, Letetia C.; Timchenko, Nikolai A.; Perrotti, Danilo; Tenen, Daniel G.; Kogan, Scott C.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Treatment of warts with salicyclic acid and lactic acid in flexible collodion wart paint  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One hundred patients with warts (Verruca vulgaris of hands-33; feet-16, hands and feet 10; palmar warts-17 and plantar warts-24 were treated with salicylic acid (16.5% and lactic acid (16.5% in flexible collodion wart (SAL paint. The wart paint was applied twice a week for 3 months. Good response was seen in 82.1% of warts on hands. 46.7% of palmar warts, 54.5% of warts on feet, 84.2% of plantar warts and 57.1% of warts on hands and feet. Overall success rate was 70%. Eighty percent patients completed the study. No adverse effects were observed. During 6 months post treatment follow up recurrence of warts occurred in 11.7% of patients.

Dhar Sandipan

1994-01-01

182

THE ADIPIC ACID ENHANCED FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION PROCESS FOR INDUSTRIAL BOILERS. VOLUME 2. TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives results of an evaluation of an adipic acid enhanced limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system on industrial boilers at Rickenbacker Air National Guard Base. The SO2 removal efficiency with the adipic acid averaged 94.3% over a 30-day period. This represents...

183

ADIPIC ACID ENHANCED FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION PROCESS FOR INDUSTRIAL BOILERS. VOLUME 2. TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT. PROJECT SUMMARY  

Science.gov (United States)

The SO sub 2 removal efficiency with the adipic acid averaged 94.3% over a 30-day period, representing a significant improvement in the performance of the system using only limestone. Economic calculations for an industrial boiler adipic-acid-enhanced limestone FGD system indicat...

184

THE ADIPIC ACID ENHANCED LIMESTONE FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION PROCESS: AN ASSESSMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper gives an overview of EPA's testing of the adipic-acid-enhanced limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process. Extensive research has determined that adipic acid, used as an additive to a limestone FGD system, improves system performance. Both SO2 removal and limeston...

185

Enhanced transdermal lymphatic drug delivery of hyaluronic acid modified transfersomes for tumor metastasis therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel hyaluronic acid modified transfersome was prepared to deliver drugs to lymphatics through the transdermal route. Doxorubicin loaded HA-GMS-T was able to efficiently penetrate into the deep skin tissue, leading to enhanced absorption by lymphatics. Most importantly, hyaluronic acid effectively improved the uptake of drug loaded nanocarriers by tumor cells. PMID:25493296

Kong, Ming; Hou, Lin; Wang, Juan; Feng, Chao; Liu, Ya; Cheng, Xiaojie; Chen, Xiguang

2015-01-01

186

Trehalose accumulation enhances tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to acetic acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trehalose confers protection against various environmental stresses on yeast cells. In this study, trehalase gene deletion mutants that accumulate trehalose at high levels showed significant stress tolerance to acetic acid. The enhancement of trehalose accumulation can thus be considered a target in the breeding of acetic acid-tolerant yeast strains. PMID:25060731

Yoshiyama, Yoko; Tanaka, Koichi; Yoshiyama, Kohei; Hibi, Makoto; Ogawa, Jun; Shima, Jun

2015-02-01

187

Uranium extraction enhancement form phosphoric acid by emulsion liquid membrane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work is mainly concerned with the uranium extraction from phosphoric acid commercially produced by Abu Zaabal Fertilizers and Chemical Co., Egypt. This target would realize a dual purpose where the phosphate ore is considered as an alternative source of uranium besides eliminating its environmental contamination. The applied procedures are that of the new technology of emulsion liquid membrane. Authors have indeed pointed out that the variables explored still leave open to question the roles of stripping at the internal interface as well as the bulk transfer of uranium in the internal phase. For this purpose, two reducing agents are studied as additives to two organic solvent systems; namely the organophosphorous synergistic mixture of D2EHPA/TOPO as well as the tridodecyl amine. The relevant factors have first been optimized upon synthetic uraniferous phosphoric acid solution followed by the application upon the commercial acid after purification. These factors include the concentration of solvent system and the used emulsifier, acid concentration of the external and internal phases besides the nature and concentration of the reductant added to the internal phase. In addition, the permeation time as well as the oxidation state of the external phase was studied. All these factors have indeed been studied under different mixing speeds ranging from 300 up to 1,000 rpm. Ascorbic acid concentration, 1 % as an additive to the internal phosphoric acid phase (40 % P2O5) resulted in 95 % uranium extraction efficiency at the lower speed of 600 rpm. (author)

188

Ursodeoxycholic acid treatment improves hepatocyte ultrastructure in rat liver fibrosis  

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Full Text Available AIM: To examine the ultrastructural changes after ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA treatment in hepatocytes from experimentally induced fibrotic livers.METHODS: Liver fibrosis was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats with CCl4 for 12 wk, and the rats were divided into two groups. Group I was treated with saline and group II with UDCA (25 mg/kg per day for 4 wk. All the rats were killed at wk 16. Mitochondria, nuclei, rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER of hepatocytes were evaluated according to a scoring system.RESULTS: Mitochondria, nuclei, RER and SER injury scores in group II were significantly lower than those in groupI(P < 0.001.CONCLUSION: UDCA alleviates hepatocyte organelle injury in CCl4-induced liver fibrosis.

Nuket Mas, Ilker Tasci, Bilgin Comert, Ramazan Ocal, Mehmet Refik Mas

2008-02-01

189

Betaine and Beet Molasses Enhance L-Lactic Acid Production by Bacillus coagulans  

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Lactic acid is an important chemical with various industrial applications, and it can be efficiently produced by fermentation, in which Bacillus coagulans strains present excellent performance. Betaine can promote lactic acid fermentation as an effective osmoprotectant. Here, positive effect of betaine on fermentation by B. coagulans is revealed. Betaine could enhance lactic acid production by protecting l-LDH activity and cell growth from osmotic inhibition, especially under high glucose con...

Xu, Ke; Xu, Ping

2014-01-01

190

Aristolochic Acid Nephropathy: Epidemiology, Clinical Presentation, and Treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aristolochic acid (AA) is a compound extracted from the Aristolochia species of herbs. It has been used for centuries as a remedy for various illnesses and diseases. However, in the early 1990s in the setting of a weight loss herbal remedy, AA exposure was associated with a syndrome of kidney injury, termed aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN). This entity is marked by elevated serum creatinine, significant anemia, and histopathologic changes demonstrating a hypocellular interstitial infiltrate with severe fibrosis. Progression towards end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is rapid, with most patients having chronic kidney disease for less than 2 years. In addition, AAN is associated with a 40-45 % prevalence of urothelial carcinomas. Treatment of AAN is limited to glucocorticoids that have been shown to delay progression in non-randomized trials. As most patients progress to ESRD, need for renal replacement therapy, as either dialysis or kidney transplant, usually ensues. However, given the high malignant potential, care must be taken to minimize future development of upper urinary tract cancers by performing prophylactic bilateral nephroureterectomies and aggressive cancer surveillance. PMID:25446374

Luciano, Randy L; Perazella, Mark A

2014-12-01

191

EVALUATION OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE ACID HYDROLYZATE TREATMENTS FOR XYLITOL PRODUCTION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Acid sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzate was submitted to pH shifts in order to remove toxic compounds from the medium. The hydrolyzate was treated with bases containing mono-, di- or tri-valent cations and H2SO4, and its performance as a fermentation medium was evaluated by the production of xylitol by C [...] andida guilliermondii FTI 20037. The use of bases containing mono-valent cations was not an efficient method of detoxification, and the use of a tri-valent cation did not show any detectable improvement in detoxification. The treated hydrolyzate recovery (in volume) is greatly affected by the utilized base. Treatment using Al(OH)3 and NaOH showed the best hydrolyzate recovery (87.5%), while the others presented a recovery of about 45% of the original hydrolyzate volume. Considering the whole process, best results were achieved by treatment using Al(OH)3 and NaOH which allowed 0.55 g of xylitol produced from each gram of xylose in the raw hydrolyzate.

P.V., GURGEL; S.A., FURLAN; S.E.R., MARTINEZ; I.M., MANCILHA.

1998-09-01

192

Zoledronic acid infusion for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteoporotic fractures are associated with significant morbidity, reduced quality of life, increased mortality, and high health care costs. Bisphosphonates are standard therapy for treatment of osteoporosis. However, patient compliance and persistence with oral weekly or monthly bisphosphonate therapy are suboptimal and may lead to reduced effectiveness. Zoledronic acid (ZOL) is an intravenous bisphosphonate that is given once yearly for the treatment of osteoporosis via a medically supervised 15-minute infusion. This ensures compliance for a full 12 months. In clinical trials, an annual infusion of ZOL 5 mg has shown sustained efficacy in reducing hip and spine fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. It has also been shown to increase bone density in postmenopausal women with osteopenia (low bone mass) and in men with osteoporosis. Transient flu-like symptoms are the most common adverse effects following ZOL infusion, and these can generally be managed with acetaminophen. The availability of an intravenous bisphosphonate that ensures compliance over a long dosing interval may help to overcome barriers to efficacy resulting from poor long-term compliance with oral agents. PMID:21151682

Sunyecz, John A

2010-01-01

193

EVALUATION OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE ACID HYDROLYZATE TREATMENTS FOR XYLITOL PRODUCTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Acid sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzate was submitted to pH shifts in order to remove toxic compounds from the medium. The hydrolyzate was treated with bases containing mono-, di- or tri-valent cations and H2SO4, and its performance as a fermentation medium was evaluated by the production of xylitol by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037. The use of bases containing mono-valent cations was not an efficient method of detoxification, and the use of a tri-valent cation did not show any detectable improvement in detoxification. The treated hydrolyzate recovery (in volume is greatly affected by the utilized base. Treatment using Al(OH3 and NaOH showed the best hydrolyzate recovery (87.5%, while the others presented a recovery of about 45% of the original hydrolyzate volume. Considering the whole process, best results were achieved by treatment using Al(OH3 and NaOH which allowed 0.55 g of xylitol produced from each gram of xylose in the raw hydrolyzate.

P.V. GURGEL

1998-09-01

194

Afferent signalling from the acid-challenged rat stomach is inhibited and gastric acid elimination is enhanced by lafutidine  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Lafutidine is a histamine H2 receptor antagonist, the gastroprotective effect of which is related to its antisecretory activity and its ability to activate a sensory neuron-dependent mechanism of defence. The present study investigated whether intragastric administration of lafutidine (10 and 30 mg/kg modifies vagal afferent signalling, mucosal injury, intragastric acidity and gastric emptying after gastric acid challenge. Methods Adult rats were treated with vehicle, lafutidine (10 – 30 mg/kg or cimetidine (10 mg/kg, and 30 min later their stomachs were exposed to exogenous HCl (0.25 M. During the period of 2 h post-HCl, intragastric pH, gastric volume, gastric acidity and extent of macroscopic gastric mucosal injury were determined and the activation of neurons in the brainstem was visualized by c-Fos immunocytochemistry. Results Gastric acid challenge enhanced the expression of c-Fos in the nucleus tractus solitarii but caused only minimal damage to the gastric mucosa. Lafutidine reduced the HCl-evoked expression of c-Fos in the NTS and elevated the intragastric pH following intragastric administration of excess HCl. Further analysis showed that the gastroprotective effect of lafutidine against excess acid was delayed and went in parallel with facilitation of gastric emptying, measured indirectly via gastric volume changes, and a reduction of gastric acidity. The H2 receptor antagonist cimetidine had similar but weaker effects. Conclusion These observations indicate that lafutidine inhibits the vagal afferent signalling of a gastric acid insult, which may reflect an inhibitory action on acid-induced gastric pain. The ability of lafutidine to decrease intragastric acidity following exposure to excess HCl cannot be explained by its antisecretory activity but appears to reflect dilution and/or emptying of the acid load into the duodenum. This profile of actions emphasizes the notion that H2 receptor antagonists can protect the gastric mucosa from acid injury independently of their ability to suppress gastric acid secretion.

Holzer Peter

2009-06-01

195

Enhancing the mechanical properties of electrospun polyester mats by heat treatment  

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Full Text Available Microfibrous materials with a targeted design based on poly(L-lactic acid (PLA and poly(?-caprolactone (PCL were prepared by electrospinning and by combining electrospinning and electrospraying. Several approaches were used: (i electrospinning of a common solution of the two polymers, (ii simultaneous electrospinning of two separate solutions of PLA and PCL, (iii electrospinning of PLA solution in conjunction with electrospraying of PCL solution, and (iv alternating layer-by-layer deposition by electrospinning of separate PLA and PCL solutions. The mats were heated at the melting temperature of PCL (60°", thus achieving melting of PCL fibers/particles and thermal sealing of the fibers. The mats subjected to thermal treatment were characterized by greater mean fiber diameters and reduced values of the water contact angle compared to the pristine mats. Heat treatment of the mats affected their thermal stability and led to an increase in the crystallinity degree of PLA incorporated in the mats, whereas that of PCL was reduced. All mats were characterized by enhanced mechanical properties after thermal treatment as compared to the non-treated fibrous materials.

M. Kancheva

2015-01-01

196

Integrated basic treatment of activated carbon for enhanced CO2 selectivity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We attempted the use of three chemical agents viz nitric acid (HN), calcium nitrate (CaN) and calcium ethanoate (CaEt) to achieve enhanced CO2 selective adsorption by activated carbon (AC). In dry phase treatment, microporous coconut shell-based carbon (CS) exhibits higher CO2 capacity than coal-based. However, upon wet-phase pre-treatment, modified CS samples showed lesser CO2 adsorption efficiency. Surface characterization with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the presence of calcium and amine species on the samples with integrated treatment (A-CaN). These samples recorded the highest low-level CO2 capture despite calcinated CaEt-doped samples (C-CaEt) showing the highest value for pure and high level CO2 adsorption capacities. The slope and linearity values of isobaric desorption were used to estimate the proportion of CO2 chemisorbed and heterogeneity of the adsorbents’ surfaces respectively. Consequently, integrated basic impregnation provides the most efficient adsorbents for selective adsorption of both indoor and outdoor CO2 levels.

197

Effects of gas atmospheres on poly(lactic acid) film in acrylic acid plasma treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasma polymerized acrylic acid (AA) coatings were deposited on poly(lactic acid) (PLA) films in various gas atmospheres during the pre-treatment of PLA and the deposition of AA, respectively. Therefore, this work was twofold: the argon pretreated PLA films followed by a deposition in argon were investigated against the mixture of argon and oxygen pretreated ones under the same deposition conditions; the plasma deposition of AA operating in different atmospheres (argon, oxygen and nitrogen) was employed to modify the pretreated PLA in oxygen. Chemical and physical changes on the plasma-treated surfaces were examined using contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-FTIR) analysis. The results showed that the discharge gas can have a significant influence on the chemical composition of the PLA surfaces: oxygen plasmas introduced oxygen-containing groups in company with surface etching in pretreatment and deposition, while argon discharges was able to achieve much better hydrophilic behavior and high retention ratio of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) coating before and after washing in water.

Zhao, Yun; Fina, Alberto; Venturello, Alberto; Geobaldo, Francesco

2013-10-01

198

Effects of gas atmospheres on poly(lactic acid) film in acrylic acid plasma treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plasma polymerized acrylic acid (AA) coatings were deposited on poly(lactic acid) (PLA) films in various gas atmospheres during the pre-treatment of PLA and the deposition of AA, respectively. Therefore, this work was twofold: the argon pretreated PLA films followed by a deposition in argon were investigated against the mixture of argon and oxygen pretreated ones under the same deposition conditions; the plasma deposition of AA operating in different atmospheres (argon, oxygen and nitrogen) was employed to modify the pretreated PLA in oxygen. Chemical and physical changes on the plasma-treated surfaces were examined using contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-FTIR) analysis. The results showed that the discharge gas can have a significant influence on the chemical composition of the PLA surfaces: oxygen plasmas introduced oxygen-containing groups in company with surface etching in pretreatment and deposition, while argon discharges was able to achieve much better hydrophilic behavior and high retention ratio of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) coating before and after washing in water.

199

Effects of gas atmospheres on poly(lactic acid) film in acrylic acid plasma treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Plasma polymerized acrylic acid (AA) coatings were deposited on poly(lactic acid) (PLA) films in various gas atmospheres during the pre-treatment of PLA and the deposition of AA, respectively. Therefore, this work was twofold: the argon pretreated PLA films followed by a deposition in argon were investigated against the mixture of argon and oxygen pretreated ones under the same deposition conditions; the plasma deposition of AA operating in different atmospheres (argon, oxygen and nitrogen) was employed to modify the pretreated PLA in oxygen. Chemical and physical changes on the plasma-treated surfaces were examined using contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-FTIR) analysis. The results showed that the discharge gas can have a significant influence on the chemical composition of the PLA surfaces: oxygen plasmas introduced oxygen-containing groups in company with surface etching in pretreatment and deposition, while argon discharges was able to achieve much better hydrophilic behavior and high retention ratio of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) coating before and after washing in water.

Zhao, Yun, E-mail: yun.zhaotju@yahoo.com [Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy); Fina, Alberto [Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino – sede di Alessandria, V. T. Michel 5, 15121 Alessandria (Italy); Venturello, Alberto; Geobaldo, Francesco [Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy)

2013-10-15

200

77 FR 12227 - Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule: Uncovered Finished Water Reservoirs; Public...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule: Uncovered Finished...Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2 rule...public health risks; strategies to control or remove...control and/or removal strategies. The primary focus...that only one person present a statement on...

2012-02-29

 
 
 
 
201

Dietary enhancement of selected fatty acid biosynthesis in the digestive gland of Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fatty acid composition of the digestive gland from the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis subjected to three different dietary regimens for 30 days was analyzed. Samples were collected at the beginning and end of the trial to obtain a comprehensive picture of fatty acid dynamics. Group A was unfed; group B received a diet consisting of 100% Thalassiosira weissflogii and, thus, similar to natural food; and group C received a diet consisting of 100% wheat germ conferring a 18:2?-6 abundance. Results indicate that fatty acid composition of lipid and phospholipid classes was affected by dietary treatments. However, adult mussel homeostatic skills minimized effects, and thus, only wheat germ diet deeply modified the fatty acid composition. Furthermore, in group C, the occurrence of the non-methylene-interrupted trienoic fatty acids was indicative of de novo fatty acid synthesis presumably because of active fatty acid elongation and ?5 desaturation system, also supported by the general ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid decrease. PMID:23298257

Ventrella, Vittoria; Pagliarani, Alessandra; Nesci, Salvatore; Trombetti, Fabiana; Pirini, Maurizio

2013-01-30

202

The vitamin-like dietary supplement para-aminobenzoic acid enhances the antitumor activity of ionizing radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To determine whether para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) alters the sensitivity of tumor cells to ionizing radiation in vitro and in vivo. Methods and Materials: Cellular proliferation was assessed by WST-1 assays. The effects of PABA and radiation on tumor growth were examined with chick embryo and murine models. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were used to quantify p21CIP1 and CDC25A levels. Results: Para-aminobenzoic acid enhanced (by 50%) the growth inhibitory activity of radiation on B16F10 cells, whereas it had no effect on melanocytes. Para-aminobenzoic acid enhanced (50-80%) the antitumor activity of radiation on B16F10 and 4T1 tumors in vivo. The combination of PABA and radiation therapy increased tumor apoptosis. Treatment of tumor cells with PABA increased expression of CDC25A and decreased levels of p21CIP1. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that PABA might represent a compound capable of enhancing the antitumor activity of ionizing radiation by a mechanism involving altered expression of proteins known to regulate cell cycle arrest

203

Effects of cold work, sensitization treatment and its combination on corrosion behavior of stainless steels in nitric acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the Purex reprocessing process, the spent nuclear fuels from light water reactors are dissolved in nitric acid to separate and recover the fissile materials such as Uranium and Plutonium from the radioactive fission products. To ensure safety and reliable operation of the reprocessing plant, superior corrosion resistance is required to the structural materials of the plant, and stainless steels have been used as one of the main structural materials because of its very good performance in a nitric acid environment. Corrosion behavior of stainless steels was investigated in nitric acid for the effect of cold work, sensitization heat treatment and its combination. Corrosion rate of solution-treated Type 304 with extra low carbon (304 ELC) increased with time and reached constant values after 1,000 h of immersion time. Constant corrosion rates, however, were obtained for 25Cr-20Ni-Nb (310 Nb) from the initial stage of immersion. Cold work mitigated corrosion of the solution-treated stainless steels. The effect of cold work was different on the two stainless steels with sensitization heat treatment, showing accelerated corrosion for 304 ELC. The corrosion resistance of 310 Nb was superior to 304ELC after all the treatments. Chromium concentration of the sensitization treated 304 ELC was lower in the grain-boundary region than that of the solution-treated one, although no chromium carbide precipitation was observed. This might be the cause of corrosion enhancement by sen the cause of corrosion enhancement by sensitization treatment

204

Combination of Active Components Enhances the Efficacy of Prunella in Prevention and Treatment of Lung Cancer  

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Full Text Available The efficacy of Prunella extracts in the prevention and treatment of lung cancer has been attributed to different components. In this study, an "active components combination model" hypothesis was proposed to explain the anti-tumor activity of Prunella. The efficacy of Prunella extracts from different regions was compared in vitro and in vivo, and the TNF-? activity in serum of tumor-bearing mice was also evaluated. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to analyze the extracts and identify 26 common peaks. Prunella samples from different regions were classified by the cluster analysis method; both P. vulgaris L. from Bozhou and P. asiatica Nakai from Nanjing, which had the highest activities, were further divided into different classes. Six peaks from the HPLC analysis were very similar, and were identified as caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, rutin, quercetin, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid. The total ratio of these compounds in Prunella from Bozhou and Nanjing were 1.0:14.7:3.9:1.0:4.4:1.4 and 1.0:14.8:4.0:0.8:5.6:1.8, respectively. Total triterpenes and total phenols in Prunella were separated by macroporous resin purification for activity studies. The results showed that total triterpenes and total phenols had anti-lung cancer activity and their combination significantly enhanced the activity. In addition, the combination also significantly increased the TNF-? content compared to total triterpenes or total phenols. The results indicated that the efficacy of Prunella against lung cancer was attributable to multiple components acting at an optimal ratio.

Feng Shi

2010-11-01

205

Inhibition of serine/threonine phosphatase enhances arachidonic acid-induced [Ca2+]i via protein kinase A  

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Arachidonic acid (AA) regulates intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in a variety of cell types including salivary cells. In the present study, the effects of serine/threonine phosphatases on AA-induced Ca2+ signaling in mouse parotid acini were determined. Mice were euthanized with CO2. Treatment of acini with the serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor calyculin A blocked both thapsigargin- and carbachol-induced Ca2+ entry but resulted in an enhancement of AA-induced Ca2+ release an...

Saino, Tomoyuki; Watson, Eileen L.

2008-01-01

206

Acid Rain Experiments (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)  

Science.gov (United States)

This collection of experiments introduces students to techniques for measuring pH. They will learn how to use pH paper, how to use a garden soil test kit to measure the pH of liquids, how to record their observations, and some lab safety tips. In the experiments, they will measure the pH of some common substances (water, soil, and others), learn about buffering in soils and natural waters, and observe the effects of acid on metals.

207

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF SUMATRIPTAN SUCCINATE NASAL IN-SITU GEL USING FULVIC ACID AS NOVEL PERMEATION ENHANCER  

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Full Text Available Sumatriptan succinate is a 5-HT1D (5-hydroxy tryptamine 1D-receptor agonist, used in the treatment of migraine and cluster headache Sumatriptan succinate has been shown to have a low oral bioavailability in human volunteers (15% because of high first pass metabolism.. Subcutaneous administration is an alternative; however, dislike of injections or inability to self-administer by this route makes subcutaneous treatment unacceptable to some individuals. These all above things justify a need of nasal drug delivery. To improve the nasal retention time of Sumatriptan succinate, it has been formulated as in situ mucoadhesive gel by using Pluronic PF127 and carbopol 974P. The objective of this work was to improve the nasal bioavailability of Sumatriptan succinate by increasing its nasal retention time as well as by means of nasal permeation. Nasal permeation of Sumatriptan succinate was improved by using fulvic acid extracted from Shilajit as a novel permeation enhancer. For the same the nasal in situ gel of Sumatriptan succinate and its complex with fulvic acid extracted from shilajit was made by cold method. The prepared in-situ gel was evaluated for gelation temperature, drug content, mucoadhesive force, gel strength and viscosity measurement. Further insitu gels prepared with and without permeation enhancer (Fulvic acid were evaluated for its In vitro drug diffusion study by Fran’s Diffusion Cell. The data of In vitro drug diffusion study of insitu gel prepared with and without permeation enhancer showed non Fickian or anomalous diffusion mechanism. The optimized batch C3 and F3 of insitu gel prepared with and without permeation enhancer respectively shows drug release in a controlled manner with higher permeation rate for 250min.. The drug permeation study across sheep nasal mucosa was conducted using C3 and F3 batch. The study showed that the insitu gel having fulvic acid have a significantly higher permeability as compared to the insitu gel which do not contain the fulvic acid. The higher permeation rate of C3 formulation as compare to F3 formulation is might be due to polymeric polyphenolic nature of fulvic acid because of which it have a tendency to interact with number of component resulting in higher permeation rate.

Shyam D. Badgujar

2010-10-01

208

Btg2 Enhances Retinoic Acid-Induced Differentiation by Modulating Histone H4 Methylation and Acetylation  

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Retinoic acid controls hematopoietic differentiation through the transcription factor activity of its receptors. They act on specific target genes by recruiting protein complexes that deacetylate or acetylate histones and modify chromatin status. The regulation of this process is affected by histone methyltransferases, which can inhibit or activate transcription depending on their amino acid target. We show here that retinoic acid treatment of hematopoietic cells induces the expression of BTG...

Passeri, Daniela; Marcucci, Antonella; Rizzo, Giovanni; Billi, Monia; Panigada, Maddalena; Leonardi, Luca; Tirone, Felice; Grignani, Francesco

2006-01-01

209

Bile acid changes after high-dose ursodeoxycholic acid treatment in primary sclerosing cholangitis: relation to disease progression  

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High-dose (28-30mg/kg/day) ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment improves serum liver tests in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) but does not improve survival and is associated with increased rates of serious adverse events. The mechanism for the latter undesired effect remains unclear. High-dose UDCA could result in the production of hepatotoxic bile acids, such as lithocholic acid (LCA), due to limited small bowel absorption of UDCA and conversion of UDCA by bacteria in the...

Sinakos, Emmanouil; Marschall, Hanns-ulrich; Kowdley, Kris V.; Befeler, Alex; Keach, Jill; Lindor, Keith

2010-01-01

210

Comparative study of trichloroacetic acid versus glycolic acid chemical peels in the treatment of melasma  

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Full Text Available Background: Melasma is a common cause of facial hyperpigmentation with significant cosmetic deformity. Many modalities of treatment are available, but none is satisfactory. Aim: This study was designed to compare the therapeutic response of melasma in Indian women to glycolic acid (GA 20-35% versus trichloroacetic acid (TCA 10-20% for chemical peeling. Methods: Forty nonpregnant female patients with a minimum melasma area and severity index (MASI of 10 were recruited in the study. After a detailed history and clinical examination under natural light, MASI was calculated and color photographs were taken of all the patients. The patients were advised to carry out a prepeel program of daily application of 12% GA cream or 0.1% tretinoin at night for 2 weeks. They were then treated with graded concentrations of 20-35% GA facial peel every 15 days in GA group and 10-20% TCA in the second group. Results: Objective response to treatment evaluated by reduction in MASI scoring after 12 weeks was by 79% reduction (from 26.6 to 5.6 in GA group and by 73% reduction in TCA group (from 29.1 to 8.2 but this difference was not significant. Patients with epidermal-type melasma showed a better response to treatment than those with mixed-type melasma (P < 0.05. Subjective response, as graded by the patient, showed good or very good response in 75% in GA group and 65% in TCA group. No relation of treatment response to age and duration of melasma could be established in this study. Conclusions: A prepeel program of daily application of 12% GA cream at night for 2 weeks, followed by graded increase in GA and TCA concentrations proved to be an equally effective treatment modality for epidermal and mixed melasma. There are hardly any major side effects, and regular use of sunscreens prevents chances of postpeel hyperpigmentation. GA peel is associated with fewer side effects than TCA and has the added advantage of facial rejuvenation.

Kumari Rashmi

2010-01-01

211

Treatments of free fatty acids to prevent or decrease colour fixation in cottonseed oil  

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Some treatments have been investigated to prevent or remove colour fixation of cottonseed oil containing high level of free fatty acids without using excess of sodium hydroxide in the refining step. The treatments included use of sodium carbonate and ethanolamine before and after subjecting a crude cottonseed oil containing excess of free fatty acid to a colour fixation treatment.
The results revealed that the carbonate/ethanolamine treatment improved the oil colour by decreasing t...

Helmy, H. E.; Taha, F. S.; El-motaal, E. A. Abd

1994-01-01

212

Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in an aquatic liverwort as possible bioindicators of enhanced UV radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We examined, under laboratory conditions, the physiological responses of the aquatic liverwort Jungermannia exsertifolia subsp. cordifolia to artificially enhanced ultraviolet (UV) radiation for 82 days, especially considering the responses of five hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. This species lives in mountain streams, where it is exposed to low temperatures and high UV levels, and this combination is believed to increase the adverse effects of UV. Enhanced UV radiation hardly caused any change in several physiological variables indicative of vitality, such as Fv/Fm and chlorophylls/phaeopigments ratio (OD430/OD410). Thus, this liverwort seemed to be tolerant to UV radiation, probably due to the accumulation of three UV-absorbing hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives: p-coumaroylmalic acid, 5''-(7'',8''-dihydroxycoumaroyl)-2-caffeoylmalic acid, and 5''-(7'',8''-dihydroxy-7-O-?-glucosyl-coumaroyl)-2-caffeoylmalic acid. These compounds might serve as bioindicators of enhanced UV radiation. - Several hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives of an aquatic liverwort are induced by enhanced UV radiation and might serve as bioindicators of changes in UV levels

213

CHF enhancement in flow boiling system with TSP and boric acid solutions under atmospheric pressure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, the effects of tri-sodium phosphate (TSP) and boric acid on CHF enhancement were studied. Both TSP and boric acid are used to control pH in nuclear power plants. TSP is a kind of surfactant, and several surfactants, include TSP, have been reported to have an effect on enhancement of heat transfer. Nothing has yet been reported for the case of boric acid. CHF experiments were performed with mass flux ranging from 100-500 kg/m2 s and inlet subcooling temperature of 50 oC under atmospheric pressure. The test section was a vertical circular SS316 tube having an inner diameter of 10.98 mm. Its heated length was 224 mm, and it was heated by a heat flux control system using DC electricity. Fluids in the test loop were plain water, TSP solutions, and boric acid solutions. TSP solutions had three concentrations (0.2, 0.4, 0.6%), and boric acid solutions had four concentrations (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8%). In the case of TSP, 21.4% enhancement of CHF was observed at the inlet subcooling temperature of 50 oC and extremely low mass flux (100 kg/m2 s). In the case of boric acid, 12.4% enhancement of CHF was observed at inlet subcooling temperature of 50 oC and extremely low mass flux 100 kg/m2 s.

214

Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in an aquatic liverwort as possible bioindicators of enhanced UV radiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We examined, under laboratory conditions, the physiological responses of the aquatic liverwort Jungermannia exsertifolia subsp. cordifolia to artificially enhanced ultraviolet (UV) radiation for 82 days, especially considering the responses of five hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. This species lives in mountain streams, where it is exposed to low temperatures and high UV levels, and this combination is believed to increase the adverse effects of UV. Enhanced UV radiation hardly caused any change in several physiological variables indicative of vitality, such as F{sub v}/F{sub m} and chlorophylls/phaeopigments ratio (OD430/OD410). Thus, this liverwort seemed to be tolerant to UV radiation, probably due to the accumulation of three UV-absorbing hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives: p-coumaroylmalic acid, 5''-(7'',8''-dihydroxycoumaroyl)-2-caffeoylmalic acid, and 5''-(7'',8''-dihydroxy-7-O-{beta}-glucosyl-coumaroyl)-2-caffeoylmalic acid. These compounds might serve as bioindicators of enhanced UV radiation. - Several hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives of an aquatic liverwort are induced by enhanced UV radiation and might serve as bioindicators of changes in UV levels.

Arroniz-Crespo, M.; Nunez-Olivera, E. [Universidad de La Rioja, Complejo Cientifico-Tecnologico, Avda. Madre de Dios 51, 26006 Logrono (La Rioja) (Spain); Martinez-Abaigar, J. [Universidad de La Rioja, Complejo Cientifico-Tecnologico, Avda. Madre de Dios 51, 26006 Logrono (La Rioja) (Spain)], E-mail: javier.martinez@unirioja.es

2008-01-15

215

An endogenous factor enhances ferulic acid decarboxylation catalyzed by phenolic acid decarboxylase from Candida guilliermondii  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The gene for a eukaryotic phenolic acid decarboxylase of Candida guilliermondii was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli for the first time. The structural gene contained an open reading frame of 504 bp, corresponding to 168 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 19,828 Da. The deduced amino sequence exhibited low similarity to those of functional phenolic acid decarboxylases previously reported from bacteria with 25-39% identity and to those of PAD1 and FDC1 proteins...

Huang, Hui-kai; Chen, Li-fan; Tokashiki, Masamichi; Ozawa, Tadahiro; Taira, Toki; Ito, Susumu

2012-01-01

216

Evidence for enhanced mineral dissolution in organic acid-rich shallow ground water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total concentrations of formate, acetate, and isobutyrate varied from less than 5 to greater than 9,000 ?mol/l over distances of < 3 m in ground water from a shallow hydrocarbon contaminated aquifer. Laboratory incubations of aquifer material indicate that organic acid concentrations were dependent on the amount of hydrocarbon loading in the sediment and the relative rates of microbial organic acid production and consumption. In heavily contaminated sediments, production greatly exceeded consumption and organic acid concentrations increased. In lightly contaminated sediments rates were essentially equal and organic acid concentrations remained low. Concentrations of dissolved Ca, Mg, and Fe generally were 1--2 orders of magnitude higher in organic acid-rich ground water than in ground water having low organic acid concentrations. Carbonate and Fe(III)-oxyhydroxide minerals were the likely sources of these elements. Similarly, concentrations of dissolved silica, derived from quartz and K-feldspar, were higher in organic acid-rich ground water than in other waters. The positive relation between concentrations of silica and organic acids suggests that the microbially mediated buildup of organic acids in ground water enhanced quartz/K-feldspar dissolution in the aquifer, although it was not the only factor influencing their dissolution. A model indicated that competition between silica and cations for complexation sites on organic acids also influenced quartz/K-feldspar acids also influenced quartz/K-feldspar dissolution. Physical evidence for enhanced mineral dissolution in organic acid-rich waters included SEM images of highly corroded quartz and K-feldspar grains from portions of the aquifer containing organic acid-rich ground water. Microporosity generated in hydrocarbon contaminated sediments may adversely affect remediation efforts that depend on the efficient injection of electron acceptors into an aquifer or on the recovery of solutes from an aquifer

217

Acetylated Hyaluronic Acid: Enhanced Bioavailability and Biological Studies  

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Hyaluronic acid (HA), a macropolysaccharidic component of the extracellular matrix, is common to most species and it is found in many sites of the human body, including skin and soft tissue. Not only does HA play a variety of roles in physiologic and in pathologic events, but it also has been extensively employed in cosmetic and skin-care products as drug delivery agent or for several biomedical applications. The most important limitations of HA are due to its short half-life and quick degrad...

Saturnino, Carmela; Sinicropi, Maria Stefania; Parisi, Ortensia Ilaria; Iacopetta, Domenico; Popolo, Ada; Marzocco, Stefania; Autore, Giuseppina; Caruso, Anna; Cappello, Anna Rita; Longo, Pasquale; Puoci, Francesco

2014-01-01

218

Enhanced uptake of water by oxidatively processed oleic acid  

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A quartz crystal microbalance apparatus has been used to measure the room temperature uptake of water vapour by thin films of oleic acid as a function of relative humidity, both before and following exposure of the films to various partial pressures of gas phase ozone. A rapid increase in the water-sorbing ability of the film is observed as its exposure to ozone is increased, followed by a plateau region in which no additional water is taken up. In this fully-processed region the mass of wate...

Asad, A.; Mmereki, B. T.; Donaldson, D. J.

2005-01-01

219

13-cis retinoic acid in combination with interferon-? enhances radiation sensitivity of human squamous cell carcinoma cells of the oral cavity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Preclinical and clinical trials demonstrated the antiproliferative and chemopreventive potential of 13-cis retinoic acid in combination with interferon-?. The present study was designed to determine the radiosensitizing potential of both drugs after single and combined treatment of human squamous-cell carcinoma cells of the oral cavity in vitro. Material and methods: The study was performed using the human squamous-cell carcinoma cell line SCC4, which was originally established from a tumor of the overal cavity. Based on clonogenic assays, the inhibition of clonogenic activity and radiosensitizing potential of 13-cis retinoic acid and interferon-? after single or combined treatment without and with subsequent irradiation was determined. Results: 13-cis retinoic acid (10 ?M) and interferon-? (50 IU/ml) showed significant inhibition of clonogenic activity after single treatment. A combined treatment protocol resulted at least in a highly significant additive inhibition of clonogenicity. Treatment with both drugs (5 ?M 13-cis retinoic acid, 25 IU/ml IFN-?) prior and post irradiation of the cells resulted in a pronounced enhancement of radiation toxicity resulting in significantly decreased SF2- and ?-values. Combined treatment with both drugs was significantly more effective than single drug treatment. Conclusions: The data presented indicate that pre- and post-irradiation treatment with 13-cis retinoic acid and interferon-? significantly ed and interferon-? significantly enhance the radiosensitivity on human squamous-cell carcinoma cells, SCC4, in vitro. Therefore, they support the initiation of clinical trials to test the radio-oncological value of such a treatment regime for squamous-cell carcinomas. (orig.)

220

Subendocardial enhancement in gadolinium-diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in aortic stenosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium-diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) in assessing myocardial damage from valvular aortic stenosis (AS). Cardiac catheterization and echocardiography were performed in 17 patients with AS. T1-weighted spin-echo sequence was used to obtain magnetic resonance images of short-axis planes of the left ventricle before and after intravenous Gd-DTPA injection in all patients using a 1.5 Tesla imager. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of regional myocardial enhancement in the images. The Gd-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance images of 7 patients showed circumferential subendocardial enhancement. All patients with enhancement had a history of heart failure and were in New York Heart Association functional class III or IV, whereas patients without enhancement were in New York Heart Association functional class I or II. Patients with enhancement had a smaller aortic valve area (0.28 +/- 0.09 vs 0.38 +/- 0.07 cm2/m2, p <0.05), a higher transvalvular pressure gradient (109 +/- 40 vs 68 +/- 18 mm Hg, p <0.05), greater elevation of left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (22 +/- 11 vs 12 +/- 2 mm Hg, p <0.05), and greater reduction in left ventricular ejection fraction (40 +/- 9 vs 59 +/- 10%, p <0.05). Subendocardial enhancement by Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI was thus shown to be closely related to the severity of AS. In conclusion, Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI is a new noninvasive tool that can provide useful information about myocardial damage in AS. PMID:10335759

Ochiai, K; Ishibashi, Y; Shimada, T; Murakami, Y; Inoue, S; Sano, K

1999-05-15

 
 
 
 
221

Enhanced phagocytosis of group A streptococci M type 6 by oleic acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

M protein, located on the surface fimbriae of group A streptococci, is antiphagocytic by unknown means. It is known that oleic acid kills group A streptococci and distorts the fimbriae. The effect of oleic acid on phagocytosis of group A streptococci was examined. Phagocytosis of a strain possessing M protein (M+) and its M- variant was assessed by uptake of radiolabeled bacteria and by chemiluminescence. The M- but not the M+ streptococci were well phagocytized and induced chemiluminescence. Oleic acid-killed and heat-killed streptococci (both M+ and M-) were readily phagocytized and induced sustained chemiluminescence. M+ streptococci killed by ultraviolet irradiation were inefficiently phagocytized and did not induce chemiluminescence. Oleic acid-killed M+ streptococci absorbed type-specific antibody. An extract of M protein reduced the bactericidal capacity of oleic acid. It is proposed that oleic acid may bind to and alter the M protein of group A streptococci and thereby enhance phagocytosis

222

Enhancing effect of dimethylamine in sulfuric acid nucleation in the presence of water – a computational study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We have studied the hydration of sulfuric acid – ammonia and sulfuric acid – dimethylamine clusters using quantum chemistry. We calculated the formation energies and thermodynamics for clusters of one ammonia or one dimethylamine molecule together with 1–2 sulfuric acid and 0–5 water molecules. The results indicate that dimethylamine enhances the addition of sulfuric acid to the clusters much more efficiently than ammonia when the number of water molecules in the cluster is either zero, or greater than two. Further hydrate distribution calculations reveal that practically all dimethylamine-containing two-acid clusters will remain unhydrated in tropospherically relevant circumstances, thus strongly suggesting that dimethylamine assists atmospheric sulfuric acid nucleation much more effectively than ammonia.

V. Loukonen

2010-02-01

223

Utilization of acetic acid-rich pyrolytic bio-oil by microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: reducing bio-oil toxicity and enhancing algal toxicity tolerance.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work was to utilize acetic acid contained in bio-oil for growth and lipid production of the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The acetic acid-rich bio-oil fraction derived from fast pyrolysis of softwood contained 26% (w/w) acetic acid, formic acid, methanol, furfural, acetol, and phenolics as identified compounds, and 13% (w/w) unidentified compounds. Among those identified compounds, phenolics were most inhibitory to algal growth, followed by furfural and acetol. To enhance the fermentability of the bio-oil fraction, activated carbon was used to reduce the toxicity of the bio-oil, while metabolic evolution was used to enhance the toxicity tolerance of the microalgae. Combining activated carbon treatment and using evolved algal strain resulted in significant algal growth improvement. The results collectively showed that fast pyrolysis-fermentation process was a viable approach for converting biomass into fuels and chemicals. PMID:23455221

Liang, Yi; Zhao, Xuefei; Chi, Zhanyou; Rover, Marjorie; Johnston, Patrick; Brown, Robert; Jarboe, Laura; Wen, Zhiyou

2013-04-01

224

Aneurysmal wall enhancement and perianeurysmal edema after endovascular treatment of unruptured cerebral aneurysms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Perianeurysmal edema and aneurysm wall enhancement are previously described phenomenon after coil embolization attributed to inflammatory reaction. We aimed to demonstrate the prevalence and natural course of these phenomena in unruptured aneurysms after endovascular treatment and to identify factors that contributed to their development. We performed a retrospective analysis of consecutively treated unruptured aneurysms between January 2000 and December 2011. The presence and evolution of wall enhancement and perianeurysmal edema on MRI after endovascular treatment were analyzed. Variable factors were compared among aneurysms with and without edema. One hundred thirty-two unruptured aneurysms in 124 patients underwent endovascular treatment. Eighty-five (64.4 %) aneurysms had wall enhancement, and 9 (6.8 %) aneurysms had perianeurysmal brain edema. Wall enhancement tends to persist for years with two patterns identified. Larger aneurysms and brain-embedded aneurysms were significantly associated with wall enhancement. In all edema cases, the aneurysms were embedded within the brain and had wall enhancement. Progressive thickening of wall enhancement was significantly associated with edema. Edema can be symptomatic when in eloquent brain and stabilizes or resolves over the years. Our study demonstrates the prevalence and some appreciation of the natural history of aneurysmal wall enhancement and perianeurysmal brain edema following endovascular treatment of unruptured aneurysms. Aneurysmal wall enhancement is a common phenomenon while perianeurysmal edema is rare. These phenomena are likely related to the presence of inflammatory reaction near the aneurysmal wall. Both phenomena are usually asymptomatic and self-limited, and prophylactic treatment is not recommended. (orig.)

225

Treatment and prevention systems for acid mine drainage and halogenated contaminants  

Science.gov (United States)

Embodiments include treatments for acid mine drainage generation sources (10 perhaps by injection of at least one substrate (11) and biologically constructing a protective biofilm (13) on acid mine drainage generation source materials (14). Further embodiments include treatments for degradation of contaminated water environments (17) with substrates such as returned milk and the like.

Jin, Song (Fort Collins, CO); Fallgren, Paul H. (Laramie, WY); Morris, Jeffrey M. (Laramie, WY)

2012-01-31

226

Elucidating the role of ferrous ion cocatalyst in enhancing dilute acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently developed iron cocatalyst enhancement of dilute acid pretreatment of biomass is a promising approach for enhancing sugar release from recalcitrant lignocellulosic biomass. However, very little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this enhancement. In the current study, our aim was to identify several essential factors that contribute to ferrous ion-enhanced efficiency during dilute acid pretreatment of biomass and to initiate the investigation of the mechanisms that result in this enhancement. Results During dilute acid and ferrous ion cocatalyst pretreatments, we observed concomitant increases in solubilized sugars in the hydrolysate and reducing sugars in the (insoluble biomass residues. We also observed enhancements in sugar release during subsequent enzymatic saccharification of iron cocatalyst-pretreated biomass. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy showed that major peaks representing the C-O-C and C-H bonds in cellulose are significantly attenuated by iron cocatalyst pretreatment. Imaging using Prussian blue staining indicated that Fe2+ ions associate with both cellulose/xylan and lignin in untreated as well as dilute acid/Fe2+ ion-pretreated corn stover samples. Analyses by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed structural details of biomass after dilute acid/Fe2+ ion pretreatment, in which delamination and fibrillation of the cell wall were observed. Conclusions By using this multimodal approach, we have revealed that (1 acid-ferrous ion-assisted pretreatment increases solubilization and enzymatic digestion of both cellulose and xylan to monomers and (2 this pretreatment likely targets multiple chemistries in plant cell wall polymer networks, including those represented by the C-O-C and C-H bonds in cellulose.

Wei Hui

2011-11-01

227

Could Radiotherapy Effectiveness Be Enhanced by Electromagnetic Field Treatment?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the main goals in radiobiology research is to enhance radiotherapy effectiveness without provoking any increase in toxicity. In this context, it has been proposed that electromagnetic fields (EMFs), known to be modulators of proliferation rate, enhancers of apoptosis and inductors of genotoxicity, might control tumor recruitment and, thus, provide therapeutic benefits. Scientific evidence shows that the effects of ionizing radiation on cellular compartments and functions are strengthen...

Núñez María Isabel; Olea Nicolás; Román-Marinetto Elisa; León Josefa; Ríos-Arrabal Sandra; Artacho-Cordón Francisco; Salinas-Asensio María del Mar; Calvente Irene

2013-01-01

228

Water solubility enhancement of some organic pollutants and pesticides by dissolved humic and fulvic acids  

Science.gov (United States)

Water solubility enhancements by dissolved humic and fulvic acids from soil and aquatic origins and by synthetic organic polymers have been determined for selected organic pollutants and pesticides (p,p???-DDT, 2,4,5,2???,5???-PCB, 2,4,4???-PCB, 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene, and lindane). Significant solubility enhancements of relatively water-insoluble solutes by dissolved organic matter (DOM) of soil and aquatic origins may be described in terms of a partition-like interaction of the the solutes with the microscopic organic environment of the high-molecular-weight DOM species; the apparent solute solubilities increase linearly with DOM concentration and show no competitive effect between solutes. With a given DOM sample, the solute partition coefficient (Kdom) increases with a decrease of solute solubility (Sw) or with an increase of the solute's octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow). The Kdom values of solutes with soil-derived humic acid are approximately 4 times greater than with soil fulvic acid and 5-7 times greater than with aquatic humic and fulvic acids. The effectiveness of DOM in enhancing solute solubility appears to be largely controlled by the DOM molecular size and polarity. The relative inability of high-molecular-weight poly(acrylic acids) to enhance solute solubility is attributed to their high polarities and extended chain structures that do not permit the formation of a sizable intramolecular nonpolar environment.

Chiou, C.T.; Malcolm, R.L.; Brinton, T.I.; Kile, D.E.

1986-01-01

229

Peptide Nucleic Acids Having Enhanced Binding Affinity, Sequence Specificity and Solubility  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA strand, and exhibit increased sequence specificity and solubility. The peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from a group consisting of naturally-occurring nucleobases and non-naturally-occurring nucleobases attached to a polyamide backbone, and contain C1-C8 alkylamine side chains. Methods of enhancing the solubility, binding affinity and sequence specificity of PNAs are provided.

Buchardt, Ole University of Copenhagen

230

Enhancement of nucleoside phosphorylation activity in an acid phosphatase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Escherichia blattae non-specific acid phosphatase (EB-NSAP) possesses a pyrophosphate-nucleoside phosphotransferase activity, which is C-5'-position selective. Current mutational and structural data were used to generate a mutant EB-NSAP for a potential industrial application as an effective and economical protein catalyst in synthesizing nucleotides from nucleosides. First, Gly74 and Ile153 were replaced by Asp and Thr, respectively, since the corresponding replacements in the homologous enzyme from Morganella morganii reduced the K(m) value for inosine and thus increased the productivity of 5'-IMP. We determined the crystal structure of G74D/I153T, which has a reduced K(m) value for inosine, as expected. The tertiary structure of G74D/I153T was virtually identical to that of the wild-type. In addition, neither of the introduced side chains of Asp74 and Thr153 is directly involved in the interaction with inosine in a hypothetical binding mode of inosine to EB-NSAP, although both residues are situated near a potential inosine-binding site. These findings suggested that a slight structural change caused by an amino acid replacement around the potential inosine-binding site could significantly reduce the K(m) value. Prompted by this hypothesis, we designed several mutations and introduced them to G74D/I153T, to decrease the K(m) value further. This strategy produced a S72F/G74D/I153T mutant with a 5.4-fold lower K(m) value and a 2.7-fold higher V(max) value as compared to the wild-type EB-NSAP. PMID:12200535

Ishikawa, Kohki; Mihara, Yasuhiro; Shimba, Nobuhisa; Ohtsu, Naoko; Kawasaki, Hisashi; Suzuki, Ei-ichiro; Asano, Yasuhisa

2002-07-01

231

Docosahexaenoic acid prevents paraquat-induced reactive oxygen species production in dopaminergic neurons via enhancement of glutathione homeostasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels are reduced in the substantia nigra area in Parkinson's disease patients and animal models, implicating docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as a potential treatment for preventing Parkinson's disease and suggesting the need for investigations into how DHA might protect against neurotoxin-induced dopaminergic neuron loss. The herbicide paraquat (PQ) induces dopaminergic neuron loss through the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We found that treatment of dopaminergic SN4741 cells with PQ reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, but pretreatment with DHA ameliorated the toxic effect of PQ. To determine the toxic mechanism of PQ, we measured intracellular ROS content in different organelles with specific dyes. As expected, all types of ROS were increased by PQ treatment, but DHA pretreatment selectively decreased cytosolic hydrogen peroxide content. Furthermore, DHA treatment-induced increases in glutathione reductase and glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLm) mRNA expression were positively correlated with glutathione (GSH) content. Consistent with this increase in GCLm mRNA levels, Western blot analysis revealed that DHA pretreatment increased nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein levels. These findings indicate that DHA prevents PQ-induced neuronal cell loss by enhancing Nrf2-regulated GSH homeostasis. PMID:25545062

Lee, Hyoung Jun; Han, Jeongsu; Jang, Yunseon; Kim, Soo Jeong; Park, Ji Hoon; Seo, Kang Sik; Jeong, Soyeon; Shin, Soyeon; Lim, Kyu; Heo, Jun Young; Kweon, Gi Ryang

2015-01-30

232

Fractionation of sugarcane bagasse using a combined process of dilute acid and ionic liquid treatments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biorefineries processing lignocellulose will produce chemicals and fuels from chemical constituents, cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin to replace fossil-derived products. Fractionation of sugarcane bagasse into three pure streams of chemical constituents was addressed through dissolution of constituents with the ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMiM]CH(3)COO) or 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methyl sulfate ([BMiM]MeSO(4)). Constituents were isolated from the reaction mixture with the anti-solvents acetone (?), acetone-water (AW), and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Delignification was enhanced by NaOH, although resulting in impure product streams. Xylose pre-extraction (75 % w/w) by dilute acid pretreatment, prior to ionic liquid treatment, improved lignin purity after anti-solvent separation. Fractionation efficiency of the combined process was maximized (84 %) by ionic liquid treatment at 125 °C for 120 min, resulting in 80.2 % (w/w) lignin removal and 76.5 % (w/w) lignin recovery. Ionic liquids achieved similar degrees of delignification, although fully digestible cellulose-rich solids were produced only by [EMiM]CH(3)COO treatment. PMID:22639365

Diedericks, Danie; van Rensburg, Eugéne; Görgens, Johann F

2012-08-01

233

Efficacy of topical azelaic acid gel in the treatment of mild-moderate acne vulgaris  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Twenty percent azelaic acid gel is recommended as a topical treatment for acne due to its favorable profile. Aim: Our objective in this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 20% azelaic acid gel in the treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris. Methods: This was a double blind, randomized clinical trial. Sixty patients with mild to moderate acne vulgaris were selected randomly to receive either azelaic acid gel or the vehicle gel alone. Patients ...

Iraji Fariba; Sadeghinia Ali; Shahmoradi Zabiholah; Siadat Amir; Jooya Abolfazl

2007-01-01

234

Enhancing the efficacy of cisplatin in ovarian cancer treatment – could arsenic have a role  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Ovarian cancer affects more than 200,000 women each year around the world. Most women are not diagnosed until the disease has already metastasized from the ovaries with a resultant poor prognosis. Ovarian cancer is associated with an overall 5 year survival of little more than 50%. The mainstay of front-line therapy is cytoreductive surgery followed by chemotherapy. Traditionally, this has been by the intravenous route only but there is more interest in the delivery of intraperitoneal chemotherapy utilizing the pharmaco-therapeutic advantage of the peritoneal barrier. Despite three large, randomized clinical trials comparing intravenous with intraperitoneal chemotherapy showing improved outcomes for those receiving at least part of their chemotherapy by the intraperitoneal route. Cisplatin has been the most active drug for the treatment of ovarian cancer for the last 4 decades and the prognosis for women with ovarian cancer can be defined by the tumor response to cisplatin. Those whose tumors are innately platinum-resistant at the time of initial treatment have a very poor prognosis. Although the majority of patients with ovarian cancer respond to front-line platinum combination chemotherapy the majority will develop disease that becomes resistant to cisplatin and will ultimately succumb to the disease. Improving the efficacy of cisplatin could have a major impact in the fight against this disease. Arsenite is an exciting agent that not only has inherent single-agent tumoricidal activity against ovarian cancer cell lines but also multiple biochemical interactions that may enhance the cytotoxicity of cisplatin including inhibition of deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA repair. In vitro studies suggest that arsenite may enhance the activity of cisplatin in other cell types. Arsenic trioxide is already used clinically to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia demonstrating its safety profile. Further research in ovarian cancer is warranted to define its possible role in this disease.

Helm C William

2009-01-01

235

Alpha-lipoic acid enhances DMSO-induced cardiomyogenic differentiation of P19 cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alpha-lipoic acid (?-LA) is a potent antioxidant that acts as an essential cofactor in mitochondrial dehydrogenase reactions. ?-LA has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective properties, and is used to improve symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. However, the role of ?-LA in stem cell differentiation and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In the present study, we showed that ?-LA significantly promoted dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-induced cardiomyogenic differentiation of mouse embryonic carcinoma P19 cells. ?-LA dose dependently increased beating embryonic body (EB) percentages of DMSO-differentiated P19 cells. The expressions of cardiac specific genes TNNT2, Nkx2.5, GATA4, MEF2C, and MLC2V and cardiac isoform of troponin T (cTnT)-positively stained cell population were significantly up-regulated by the addition of ?-LA. We also demonstrated that the differentiation time after EB formation was critical for ?-LA to take effect. Interestingly, without DMSO treatment, ?-LA did not stimulate the cardiomyogenic differentiation of P19 cells. Further investigation indicated that collagen synthesis-enhancing activity, instead of the antioxidative property, plays a significant role in the cardiomyogenic differentiation-promoting function of ?-LA. These findings highlight the potential use of ?-LA for regenerative therapies in heart diseases. PMID:25112287

Shen, Xinghua; Yang, Qinghui; Jin, Peng; Li, Xueqi

2014-09-01

236

Magnetic microparticles post-synthetically coated by hyaluronic acid as an enhanced carrier for microfluidic bioanalysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Iron oxide based particles functionalized by bioactive molecules have been utilized extensively in biotechnology and biomedicine. Despite their already proven advantages, instability under changing reaction conditions, non-specific sorption of biomolecules on the particles' surfaces, and iron oxide leakage from the naked particles can greatly limit their application. As confirmed many times, surface treatment with an appropriate stabilizer helps to minimize these disadvantages. In this work, we describe enhanced post-synthetic surface modification of superparamagnetic microparticles varying in materials and size using hyaluronic acid (HA) in various chain lengths. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, phase analysis light scattering and laser diffraction are the methods used for characterization of HA-coated particles. The zeta potential and thickness of HA-layer of HA-coated Dynabeads M270 Amine were -50 mV and 85 nm, respectively, and of HA-coated p(GMA-MOEAA)-NH2 were -38 mV and 140 nm, respectively. The electrochemical analysis confirmed the zero leakage of magnetic material and no reactivity of particles with hydrogen peroxide. The rate of non-specific sorption of bovine serum albumin was reduced up to 50% of the naked ones. The coating efficiency and suitability of biopolymer-based microparticles for magnetically active microfluidic devices were confirmed. PMID:25280714

Holubova, Lucie; Knotek, Petr; Palarcik, Jiri; Cadkova, Michaela; Belina, Petr; Vlcek, Milan; Korecka, Lucie; Bilkova, Zuzana

2014-11-01

237

Activation of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid by a 940 nm diode laser for enhanced removal of smear layer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Laser enhancement of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid with cetrimide (EDTAC) has previously been shown to increase removal of smear layer, for middle-infrared erbium lasers. This study evaluated the efficiency of EDTAC activation using a near-infrared-pulsed 940?nm laser delivered by plain fibre tips into 15% EDTAC or 3% hydrogen peroxide. Root canals in 4 groups of 10 single roots were prepared using rotary files, with controls for the presence and absence of smear layer. After laser treatment (80?mJ?pulse(-1) , 50?Hz, 6 cycles of 10?s), roots were split and the apical, middle and coronal thirds of the canal were examined using scanning electron microscopy, with the area of dentine tubules determined by a validated quantitative image analysis method. Lasing EDTAC considerably improved smear layer removal, while lasing into peroxide gave minimal smear layer removal. The laser protocol used was more effective for smear layer removal than the 'gold standard' protocol using EDTAC with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). In addition, lasers may also provide a benefit through photothermal disinfection. Further research is needed to optimise irrigant activation protocols using near-infrared diode lasers of other wavelengths. PMID:25244221

Lagemann, Manfred; George, Roy; Chai, Lei; Walsh, Laurence J

2014-08-01

238

Citric acid enhances the phytoextraction of manganese and plant growth by alleviating the ultrastructural damages in Juncus effusus L  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chelate-assisted phytoextraction by high biomass producing plant species enhances the removal of heavy metals from polluted environments. In this regard, Juncus effusus a wetland plant has great potential. This study evaluated the effects of elevated levels of manganese (Mn) on the vegetative growth, Mn uptake and antioxidant enzymes in J. effusus. We also studied the role of citric acid and EDTA on improving metal accumulation, plant growth and Mn toxicity stress alleviation. Three-week-old plantlets of J. effusus were subjected to various treatments in the hydroponics as: Mn (50, 100 and 500 {mu}M) alone, Mn (500 {mu}M) + citric acid (5 mM), and Mn (500 {mu}M) + EDTA (5 mM). After 2 weeks of treatment, higher Mn concentrations significantly reduced the plant biomass and height. Both citric acid and EDTA restored the plant height as it was reduced at the highest Mn level. Only the citric acid (but not EDTA) was able to recover the plant biomass weight, which was also obvious from the microscopic visualization of mesophyll cells. There was a concentration dependent increase in Mn uptake in J. effusus plants, and relatively more deposition in roots compared to aerial parts. Although both EDTA and citric acid caused significant increase in Mn accumulation; however, the Mn translocation was enhanced markedly by EDTA. Elevated levels of Mn augmented the oxidative stress, which was evident from changes in the activities of antioxidative enzymes in plant shoots. Raised levels of lipid peroxidation and variable changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes were recorded under Mn stress. Electron microscopic images revealed several modifications in the plants at cellular and sub-cellular level due to the oxidative damage induced by Mn. Changes in cell shape and size, chloroplast swelling, increased number of plastoglobuli and disruption of thylakoid were noticed. However, these plants showed a high degree of tolerance against Mn toxicity stress, and it removed substantial amounts of Mn from the media. The EDTA best enhanced the Mn uptake and translocation, while citric acid best recovered the plant growth.

Najeeb, U.; Xu, L.; Ali, Shafaqat [Institute of Crop Science, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Jilani, Ghulam, E-mail: jilani@uaar.edu.pk [Department of Soil Science, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Punjab 46300 (Pakistan); Gong, H.J. [Institute of Crop Science, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Shen, W.Q. [The University of Nottingham at Ningbo, Ningbo 315100 (China); Zhou, W.J., E-mail: wjzhou@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Crop Science, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

2009-10-30

239

External Treatment of Broiler Chickens with Lactic-Acid-Producing Bacteria Before Slaughter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lactic-acid-producing bacterial cultures were applied to the skin of live broilers 24 hours before slaughter to determine whether inoculation with the cultures could affect the numbers of bacteria that are normally found on the skin of processed broiler carcasses. The cultures contained 10,000 to 100,000 cfu/mL and were suspended in 250 mL of a pH 6.0 nutrient medium (including glucose, peptone, beef extract, yeast extract, a surfactant, and salts intended to enhance the survival and growth of the cultures. With broilers suspended by the feet, feathers were moved aside and the liquid suspension was sprayed directly on the skin. Sprayed broilers were then returned to a pen. In each of three replications, 4 six-wk-old broilers were sprayed and 4 broilers were kept as untreated controls. The following day, broilers were processed in a research processing facility and defeathered carcasses were sampled by rinsing for 1 min in 200 mL of peptone water after removal of heads and feet. Coliforms, E. coli, lactic-acid bacteria, and Campylobacter in carcass rinses were enumerated by standard methods. After removal of aliquots for plating, the remaining sample volume was enriched to detect Salmonella. No differences were found in log10(cfu/mL of coliforms, E. coli, or lactic-acid bacteria between the treated and control carcasses. Salmonella bacteria were present on some carcasses, but with no difference between treatments. Campylobacter spp. were present in only one replication, so numbers of Campylobacter could not be analyzed statistically. Spraying lactic-acid-producing bacteria with nutrients on the skin of live broilers on the day before processing appears to have no effect on numbers of bacteria that are present on the skin after defeathering.

J.A. Cason

2005-01-01

240

Ascorbic acid: chemistry, biology and the treatment of cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the discovery of vitamin C, the number of its known biological functions is continually expanding. Both the names ascorbic acid and vitamin C reflect its antiscorbutic properties due to its role in the synthesis of collagen in connective tissues. Ascorbate acts as an electron-donor keeping iron in the ferrous state thereby maintaining the full activity of collagen hydroxylases; parallel reactions with a variety of dioxygenases affect the expression of a wide array of genes, for example via the HIF system, as well as via the epigenetic landscape of cells and tissues. In fact, all known physiological and biochemical functions of ascorbate are due to its action as an electron donor. The ability to donate one or two electrons makes AscH(-) an excellent reducing agent and antioxidant. Ascorbate readily undergoes pH-dependent autoxidation producing hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). In the presence of catalytic metals this oxidation is accelerated. In this review, we show that the chemical and biochemical nature of ascorbate contribute to its antioxidant as well as its prooxidant properties. Recent pharmacokinetic data indicate that intravenous (i.v.) administration of ascorbate bypasses the tight control of the gut producing highly elevated plasma levels; ascorbate at very high levels can act as prodrug to deliver a significant flux of H(2)O(2) to tumors. This new knowledge has rekindled interest and spurred new research into the clinical potential of pharmacological ascorbate. Knowledge and understanding of the mechanisms of action of pharmacological ascorbate bring a rationale to its use to treat disease especially the use of i.v. delivery of pharmacological ascorbate as an adjuvant in the treatment of cancer. PMID:22728050

Du, Juan; Cullen, Joseph J; Buettner, Garry R

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
241

Could Radiotherapy Effectiveness Be Enhanced by Electromagnetic Field Treatment?  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the main goals in radiobiology research is to enhance radiotherapy effectiveness without provoking any increase in toxicity. In this context, it has been proposed that electromagnetic fields (EMFs), known to be modulators of proliferation rate, enhancers of apoptosis and inductors of genotoxicity, might control tumor recruitment and, thus, provide therapeutic benefits. Scientific evidence shows that the effects of ionizing radiation on cellular compartments and functions are strengthened by EMF. Although little is known about the potential role of EMFs in radiotherapy (RT), the radiosensitizing effect of EMFs described in the literature could support their use to improve radiation effectiveness. Thus, we hypothesized that EMF exposure might enhance the ionizing radiation effect on tumor cells, improving the effects of RT. The aim of this paper is to review reports of the effects of EMFs in biological systems and their potential therapeutic benefits in radiotherapy. PMID:23867611

Francisco, Artacho-Cordón; del Mar, Salinas-Asensio María; Irene, Calvente; Sandra, Ríos-Arrabal; Josefa, León; Elisa, Román-Marinetto; Nicolás, Olea; Isabel, Núñez María

2013-01-01

242

Could Radiotherapy Effectiveness Be Enhanced by Electromagnetic Field Treatment?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the main goals in radiobiology research is to enhance radiotherapy effectiveness without provoking any increase in toxicity. In this context, it has been proposed that electromagnetic fields (EMFs, known to be modulators of proliferation rate, enhancers of apoptosis and inductors of genotoxicity, might control tumor recruitment and, thus, provide therapeutic benefits. Scientific evidence shows that the effects of ionizing radiation on cellular compartments and functions are strengthened by EMF. Although little is known about the potential role of EMFs in radiotherapy (RT, the radiosensitizing effect of EMFs described in the literature could support their use to improve radiation effectiveness. Thus, we hypothesized that EMF exposure might enhance the ionizing radiation effect on tumor cells, improving the effects of RT. The aim of this paper is to review reports of the effects of EMFs in biological systems and their potential therapeutic benefits in radiotherapy.

Núñez María Isabel

2013-07-01

243

Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering studies of L-amino acids adsorbed on silver nanoclusters  

Science.gov (United States)

Silver nanocluster films were prepared using plasma inert gas phase condensation technique. These were used as Raman active substrates for Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) studies of 19 standard L-amino acids adsorbed on the surface of Ag nanoclusters via Agsbnd N bonds. A detailed study of two essential aromatic amino acids viz. L-Phenylalanine and L-Tryptophan showed a correlation between the Raman intensity of the characteristic lines of phenol and indole side chains and their molar concentrations in the range 1 ?M-1 mM. This indicates that Raman studies can be used for quantitative determination of the amino acids in proteins.

Botta, Raju; Rajanikanth, A.; Bansal, C.

2015-01-01

244

76 FR 71560 - Notice of a Public Meeting on Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule: Initiate...  

Science.gov (United States)

...on Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule: Initiate Regulatory Review...Cryptosporidium and the source water monitoring data from the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2 rule). This is...

2011-11-18

245

Enhanced uptake of water by oxidatively processed oleic acid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A quartz crystal microbalance apparatus has been used to measure the room temperature uptake of water vapour by thin films of oleic acid as a function of relative humidity, both before and following exposure of the films to various partial pressures of gas phase ozone. A rapid increase in the water-sorbing ability of the film is observed as its exposure to ozone is increased, followed by a plateau region in which no additional water is taken up. In this fully-processed region the mass of water taken up by the film is about 4 times that of the unprocessed film. Infrared spectra of the films, measured after variable exposures to ozone, show dramatic increases in both the "free" and hydrogen-bonded O-H stretching regions, and a decrease in the intensity of olefinic features. These results are consistent with the formation of an oxygenated polymeric product or products, as well as the gas phase products previously identified.

A. Asad

2004-07-01

246

Enhanced uptake of water by oxidatively processed oleic acid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A quartz crystal microbalance apparatus has been used to measure the room temperature uptake of water vapour by thin films of oleic acid as a function of relative humidity, both before and following exposure of the films to various partial pressures of gas phase ozone. A rapid increase in the water-sorbing ability of the film is observed as its exposure to ozone is increased, followed by a plateau region in which additional water is taken up more gradually. In this fully-processed region the mass of water taken up by the film is about 4 times that of the unprocessed film. Infrared spectra of the films, measured after variable exposures to ozone, show dramatic increases in both the 'free' and hydrogen-bonded O-H stretching regions, and a decrease in the intensity of olefinic features. These results are consistent with the formation of an oxygenated polymeric product or products, as well as the gas phase products previously identified.

A. Asad

2004-01-01

247

Ursodeoxycholic acid in the treatment of liver diseases.  

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Ursodeoxycholic acid is a dihydroxy bile acid with a rapidly expanding spectrum of usage in acute and chronic liver diseases. The various mechanisms of action of this hydrophilic bile acid include direct cytoprotection, detergent action on dysfunctional microtubules, immunomodulation and induction of hypercholeresis. Its efficacy in primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis as an adjunct to medical therapy has been well established. Newer indications include its use in the ...

Saksena, S.; Tandon, R. K.

1997-01-01

248

Enhancing cognitive-behavior therapy in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder  

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Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a prevalent and disabling condition. Although effective treatments such as cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) exist, accessibility to this treatment is low and many OCD patients do not respond to CBT. Aims: The general aim of this thesis was to develop and test new treatment strategies for enhancing both the accessibility and the efficacy of CBT in the treatment of OCD More specifically, the aims were to investigate: ...

Andersson, Erik

2014-01-01

249

Betaine and beet molasses enhance L-lactic acid production by Bacillus coagulans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lactic acid is an important chemical with various industrial applications, and it can be efficiently produced by fermentation, in which Bacillus coagulans strains present excellent performance. Betaine can promote lactic acid fermentation as an effective osmoprotectant. Here, positive effect of betaine on fermentation by B. coagulans is revealed. Betaine could enhance lactic acid production by protecting l-LDH activity and cell growth from osmotic inhibition, especially under high glucose concentrations and with poor organic nitrogen nutrients. The fermentation with 0.05 g/L betaine could produce 17.9% more lactic acid compared to the fermentation without betaine. Beet molasses, which is rich in sucrose and betaine, was utilized in a co-feeding fermentation and raised the productivity by 22%. The efficient lactic acid fermentation by B. coagulans is thus developed by using betaine and beet molasses. PMID:24956474

Xu, Ke; Xu, Ping

2014-01-01

250

Enhancement of differentiation induction and upregulation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins and PU.1 in NB4 cells treated with combination of ATRA and valproic acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and valproic acid (VPA), alone and in combination, on the human acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cell line NB4 were investigated in view of differentiation induction and growth inhibition. After 48 h of treatment, not only ATRA but also VPA induced differentiation in NB4 cells, and their combination further augmented the differentiation activity. Furthermore, the upregulation of transcription factors including CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (CEBP?, ?, ?) and PU.1, which are known to be critical factors for normal myelopoiesis, granulocytic maturation and being repressed in APL, concurred with the differentiation induction. A significant cell growth inhibition was observed after the treatment with VPA, which was further strengthened by the addition of ATRA. Given the importance of C/EBPs and PU.1 in myeloid development, these results, thus, suggest that restoration of the normal function of the myeloid cell transcriptional machinery is a major molecular mechanism underlying the differentiation induction in NB4. Therefore, these results may provide novel insights into a possible combinational therapeutic approach for APL patients. PMID:24379003

Iriyama, Noriyoshi; Yuan, Bo; Yoshino, Yuta; Hatta, Yoshihiro; Horikoshi, Akira; Aizawa, Shin; Takei, Masami; Takeuchi, Jin; Takagi, Norio; Toyoda, Hiroo

2014-03-01

251

Preferential Treatment: Interaction Between Amino Acids and Minerals  

Science.gov (United States)

Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and are important for some models of the origin of life. Polymerization of amino acids from dilute solution is unlikely without a scaffold or catalyst. The surfaces of early Earth minerals are the most likely candidates for this role. The surface adsorption behavior of 12 amino acids (L-alanine, L-serine, L-aspartic acid, L-proline, L- phenylalanine, L-valine, L-arginine, d-amino valeric acid, glycine, L-lysine, L-isoleucine, and B-alanine) on 21 minerals (quartz, calcite, enstatite, illite, olivine, pyrrhotite, pyrite, alkali basalt, albite, analcime, chlorite, barite, hydroxyl apatite, hematite, magnetite, aluminum hydroxide, kaolin, silica gel, corundum, rutile, and montmorillonite) was determined via batch adsorption experiments. Absorption was determined for concentrations between 10-4M and 10-6M in the presence of 0.1M NaCl, and between pH values of 3 and 9 at 25 degrees C. The equilibrated solutions were centrifuged, filtered, derivatized using a fluorescent amino group tag (dansyl-chloride) and analyzed by HPLC. Adsorption was standardized using BET surface area measurements for each mineral to give the number of mols of each amino acid adsorbed per square meter for each mineral. The results indicate an enormous difference in the adsorption of amino acids between minerals, along with major differences in the adsorption of individual amino acids on the same mineral surface. There is also a change in the absorbance of amino acids as the pH changes. Many previous studies of amino acid concentration and catalysis by minerals have used clay minerals because of their high surface areas, however, this data suggests that the surfaces of minerals such as calcite, quartz and pyrite have even higher affinities for amino acids. The results suggest mineral surfaces that could be optimal locations for the polymerization of molecules linked to the origin of life.

Crapster-Pregont, E. J.; Cleaves, H. J.; Hazen, R. M.

2008-12-01

252

Clinical effects of enhanced external counterpulsation treatment in patients with ischemic heart failure  

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Full Text Available Objective: Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP is a noninvasive treatment that is proven safe and effective in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD and heart failure (HF. The aims of this study are to investigate the clinical effects of EECP therapy in patients with symptomatic CAD and chronic HF, and to find out an answer to the question: Does EECP therapy have any effect on the prognostic markers of HF? Methods: This study was designed as a prospective cohort study. A total of 68 consecutive patients with symptomatic CAD and chronic HF referred to EECP therapy were enrolled in this study between November 2007 and December 2010; 47 patients (39 males and 8 females, 65±7, years, have undergone EECP treatment, and 21 patients (20 males and 1 female, 62±10 years, who did not want to participate in the EECP program comprised the control group. Statistical analysis was performed using t tests for dependent and independent samples, Mann-Whitney U test, Chi-square and Fischer exact tests. Results: EECP therapy resulted in significant improvement in post-intervention New York Heart Association functional class (p<0.001, left ventricular ejection fraction (p<0.001, B-type natriuretic peptide levels (p<0.003, uric acid levels (p<0.05, free-T3/free-T4 ratio (p<0.034 and mitral annular E (p<0.05 velocity, compared with baseline, a finding not evident in the control group. Conclusion: EECP treatment significantly improved clinical and some biochemical parameters, which are mostly prognostic markers in patients with symptomatic CAD and chronic HF.

Ender Emre

2012-03-01

253

PROCEEDINGS: EPA'S INDUSTRY BRIEFING ON THE ADIPIC ACID ENHANCED LIMESTONE FGD PROCESS (JULY 1981)  

Science.gov (United States)

The proceedings document presentations made during an EPA-sponsored industry briefing, July 15, 1981, in Springfield, MO. The briefing dealt with the status of EPA's research activities on the adipic-acid-enhanced limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process. Subjects covered...

254

Silver nanoparticles fluorescence enhancement effect for determination of nucleic acids with kaempferol-Al(III).  

Science.gov (United States)

Nucleic acids can greatly enhance fluorescence intensity of the kaempferol (Km)-Al(III) system in the presence of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Based on this, a novel method for the determination of nucleic acids is proposed. Under studied conditions, there are linear relationships between the extent of fluorescence enhancement and the concentration of nucleic acids in the range of 5.0 × 10(-9) to 2.0 × 10(-6) g mL(-1) for fish sperm DNA (fsDNA), 7.0 × 10(-9) to 2.0 × 10(-6) gm L(-1) for salmon sperm DNA (smDNA) and 2.0 × 10(-8) to 3.0 × 10(-6) gm L(-1) for yeast RNA (yRNA), and their detection limits are 2.5 × 10(-9) gm L(-1), 3.2 × 10(-9) gm L(-1) and 7.3 × 10(-9) gm L(-1), respectively. Samples were satisfactorily determined. And the system of Km-Al(III)-AgNPs was used as a fluorescence staining reagent for sensitive DNA detection by DNA pattern of agarose gel electrophoresis analysis. The results indicate that the fluorescence enhancement should be attributed to the formation of Km-Al(III)-AgNPs-nucleic acids aggregations through electrostatic attraction and adsorption bridging action of Al(III) and the surface-enhanced fluorescence effect of AgNPs. PMID:21530797

Cao, Yinghua; Wu, Xia; Wang, Minqin

2011-05-30

255

Efficacious intestinal permeation enhancement induced by the sodium salt of 10-undecylenic acid, a medium chain fatty acid derivative.  

Science.gov (United States)

10-undecylenic acid (UA) is an OTC antifungal therapy and a nutritional supplement. It is an unsaturated medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) derivative, so our hypothesis was that its 11-mer sodium salt, uC11, would improve intestinal permeation similar to the established enhancer, sodium caprate (C10), but without the toxicity of the parent saturated MCFA, decylenic acid (C11). MTT assay and high-content screening (HCS) confirmed a cytotoxicity ranking in Caco-2 cells: C11?>?C10?=?uC11. Five to ten millimolars of the three agents reduced TEER and increased the Papp of [(14)C]-mannitol across Caco-2 monolayers and rat intestinal mucosae, a concentration that matched increases in plasma membrane permeability seen in HCS. Although C11 was the most efficacious enhancer in vitro, it damaged monolayers and tissue mucosae more than the other two agents at similar concentrations and exposure times and was therefore not pursued further. Rat jejunal and colonic in situ intestinal instillations of 100 mM C10 or uC11 with FITC-dextran 4000 (FD4) solutions yielded comparable regional enhancement ratios of ~10 and 30%, respectively, for each agent with acceptable tissue histology. Mini-tablets of uC11 and FD4 however delivered more FD4 compared to C10-FD-4 mini-tablets in both regions, as reflected by a statistically higher AUC, and with no evidence of membrane perturbation. The unsaturated bond in uC11 therefore confers a reduction in lipophilicity and cytotoxicity compared to C11, and the resulting permeation enhancement is on a par with or superior to that of C10, a key component of formulations in current phase II oral peptide clinical trials. PMID:24961919

Brayden, David J; Walsh, Edwin

2014-09-01

256

Successful treatment of gallstones with bile acids in obese adolescents  

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Six obese adolescents (4 girls, 2 boys) with radiolucent gallstones were treated with bile acids (chenodeoxycholic or ursodeoxycholic acid). Each had lithogenic bile and no predisposing factors for pigment stone formation. Within 12 months, the bile became unsaturated with cholesterol and the gallstones had disappeared in 4 cases and were decreased in size in two.

Podda, M.; Zuin, M.; Dioguardi, M. L.; Festorazzi, S.

1982-01-01

257

Heat treatments to enhance the safety of mung bean seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salmonella enterica serovars and Escherichia coli O157:H7 have been associated with contaminated seed sprout outbreaks. The majority of these outbreaks have been traced to sprout seeds contaminated with low levels of pathogens. E. coli O157:H7 strains can grow an average of 2.3 log CFU/g over 2 days during seed germination, and Salmonella can achieve an average growth of 3.7 log CFU/g. Therefore, it is important to find an effective method to reduce possible pathogenic bacterial populations on the seeds prior to sprouting. Our objective was to assess the effectiveness of various dry heat treatments on reducing E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella populations on mung beans intended for sprout production and to determine the effect of these treatments on seed germination. Mung beans were inoculated with five-strain cocktails of E. coli O157:H7 and of Salmonella serovars harboring the green fluorescent protein gene and then air dried overnight. Heat treatments were performed by incubating the seeds at 55 degrees C for various periods of time. Heat-treated seeds were then assessed for the efficacy of the heat treatment and the effects of heat treatment on germination rates. After inoculation and drying, 6 log CFU/g E. coli O157:H7 and 4 log CFU/g Salmonella were detected on the seeds. Following heat treatment, pathogenic bacterial populations on the seeds were below detectable levels (germination rate of the seed was not affected. Thus, the risk of contamination and the presence of pathogens in the finished sprouts were greatly reduced via the seed heat treatment process. PMID:15222561

Hu, Haijing; Churey, John J; Worobo, Randy W

2004-06-01

258

Induced Differentiation of Human Myeloid Leukemia Cells into M2 Macrophages by Combined Treatment with Retinoic Acid and 1?,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3  

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Retinoids and 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) induce differentiation of myeloid leukemia cells into granulocyte and macrophage lineages, respectively. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), which is effective in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia, can induce differentiation of other types of myeloid leukemia cells, and combined treatment with retinoid and 1,25(OH)2D3 effectively enhances the differentiation of leukemia cells into macrophage-like cells. Recent work has classified ...

Takahashi, Hiromichi; Hatta, Yoshihiro; Iriyama, Noriyoshi; Hasegawa, Yuichiro; Uchida, Hikaru; Nakagawa, Masaru; Makishima, Makoto; Takeuchi, Jin; Takei, Masami

2014-01-01

259

Resonance-like enhancement in high-order above-threshold ionization of formic acid  

Science.gov (United States)

We have investigated the high-order above-threshold ionization (HATI) spectrum of formic acid by means of high-resolution electron spectroscopy using 800-nm femtosecond laser light. The resonance-like enhancement structures in the HATI spectrum are shown to be experimentally reproducible and three enhancement-suppression patterns are observed in different energy regimes with increasing laser intensity. We simulated these patterns successfully by computing the exact solution of time-dependent Schrödinger equation based on the simple hydrogen-like atom, subject to a time-dependent high-intensity laser pulse. The agreement between experiment and theory shows that "channel closing" effects play an important role in the observed resonance-like enhancements (RLEs). The existence of the RLEs for formic acid, which lacks any symmetry, shows that molecular symmetry does not affect the RLEs.

Wang, C.; Tian, Y.; Luo, S.; Roeterdink, W. G.; Yang, Y.; Ding, D.; Okunishi, M.; Prümper, G.; Shimada, K.; Ueda, K.; Zhu, R.

2014-08-01

260

Organic acid enhanced electrodialytic extraction of lead from contaminated soil fines in suspension  

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The implementation of soil washing technology for the treatment of heavy metal contaminated soils is limited by the toxicity and unwieldiness of the remaining heavy metal contaminated sludge. In this work, the feasibility of combining electrodialytic remediation with heterotrophic leaching for decontamination of the sludge was investigated. The ability of 11 organic acids to extract Pb from the fine fraction of contaminated soil (grains < 63 mu m) was investigated, and application of the acid...

Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

All trans retinoic acid nanodisks enhance retinoic acid receptor mediated apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in mantle cell lymphoma  

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Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is characterized by translocation t(11;14)(q13;q32), aggressive clinical behaviour, and poor patient outcomes following conventional chemotherapy. New treatment approaches are needed that target novel biological pathways. All trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is a key retinoid that acts through nuclear receptors that function as ligand-inducible transcription factors. The present study evaluated cell killing effects of ATRA-enriched nanoscale delivery particles, termed nan...

Singh, Amareshwar T. K.; Evens, Andrew M.; Anderson, Reilly J.; Beckstead, Jennifer A.; Sankar, Natesan; Sassano, Antonella; Bhalla, Savita; Yang, Shuo; Platanias, Leonidas C.; Forte, Trudy M.; Ryan, Robert O.; Gordon, Leo I.

2010-01-01

262

Retinoic Acid Syndrome in Patients following the Treatment of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia with All-trans Retinoic Acid  

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Background: Retinoic acid syndrome (RAS) is a potentially lethal complication during alltransretinoic acid (ATRA) treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia(APL). The incidence and risk factors have been shown to vary in differentseries. In this study we want to establish the incidence of RAS in our hospitaland try to elucidate factors that increase its risk.Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 102 patients diagnosed with APL betweenAugust 1993 and December 2007 at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital...

Yung-Cheng Su; Po Dunn; Lee-Yung Shih; Ming-Chung Kuo; Hung Chang; Jin-Hou Wu; Tung-Liang Lin; Po-Nan Wang; Tzung-Chih Tang; Yu-Shin Hung

2009-01-01

263

Treatment with Docosahexaenoic Acid, but Not Eicosapentaenoic Acid, Delays Ca2+-Induced Mitochondria Permeability Transition in Normal and Hypertrophied Myocardium  

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Intake of fish oil containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) prevents heart failure; however, the mechanisms are unclear. Mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening contributes to myocardial pathology in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, and treatment with DHA + EPA delays MPTP opening. Here, we assessed: 1) whether supplementation with both DHA and EPA is needed for optimal prevention of MPTP opening, and 2) whether this benefit occurs in hyper...

Khairallah, Ramzi J.; O Shea, Karen M.; Brown, Bethany H.; Khanna, Nishanth; Des Rosiers, Christine; Stanley, William C.

2010-01-01

264

Enhanced treatment of trace pollutants by a novel electrolytic cell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Continuous experiments were conducted to evaluate the electrolytic performance of a novel 3-dimensional electrolytic cell consisting of granular Pt/Ti electrodes. The electric current efficiency to decompose indigotrisulfonate was approx. 96%, while energy consumption was one to two orders of magnitude smaller than that for O{sub 3} treatment. Furthermore, the cell was successfully applied to treat trace endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and chlorinated compounds. Energy consumption was in the range of 2 to 10 Wh/m{sup 3}. From these results, it was concluded that the present electrolytic cell would be a feasible alternative to conventional oxidation processes in water treatment. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

Sakakibara, Y.; Senda, Y.; Obanayama, T.; Nagata, R. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan)

2006-12-15

265

The Dynamics of the Treatment-enhancement Distinction: ADHD as a Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A central issue in the ethical debate on psychopharmacological enhancers concerns the distinction between therapy and enhancement. Although from a theoretical point of view it is difficult to make a clear-cut distinction between treatment (of disease on the one hand, and enhancement (of normal functioning on the other, in medical practice and policy debates the counter-positioning of therapy to enhancement is clearly at work. Especially pharmaceutical companies have an interest in occupying the "grey" area between normal and abnormal, treatment and enhancement. This article discusses the dynamics of the treatment-enhancement distinction, and argues that practices that could be labelled "enhancement" can also be understood in terms of medicalisation and "disease mongering". The argument is supported by results from a qualitative empirical study into the experiences and opinions of adults diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. Patients are ambivalent about how to understand ADHD: as a disease, a disorder or a normal variation. Intervention with psychopharmacological means can also be understood in different ways. From an insider perspective it is conceived of as a "normalising" of functioning, whereas from an outsider perspective it can be understood as medicalisation of underperformance, or indeed as performance enhancement. This draws attention to new moral issues which are important but under-recognised in the enhancement debate, and which are related to medicalisation.

Maartje Schermer

2007-01-01

266

Enhanced external counter pulsation in treatment of refractory angina pectoris: two year outcome and baseline factors associated with treatment failure  

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Abstract Background Enhanced external counter pulsation (EECP) is a non-invasive treatment option for patients with refractory angina pectoris ineligible to further traditional treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of EECP on patients at a Scandinavian medical centre and to investigate if outcome can be predicted by analysing baseline factors. Methods 86 consecutive patients (70 male, 16 female) were treated with EECP and followed for two y...

Pettersson Thomas; Bondesson Susanne; Erdling André; Edvinsson Lars

2008-01-01

267

Histone deacetylase inhibitors valproic acid and sodium butyrate enhance prostaglandins release in lipopolysaccharide-activated primary microglia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Modifications of histone deacetylases (HDACs) may be involved in microglia-driven neuroinflammatory responses. Recent studies suggest that several inflammatory molecules can regulate the extent of neurodegeneration and regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS). In the present study, we investigated the effects of HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) valproic acid (VPA) and sodium butyrate (NaBut) on the release of prostaglandins (PGs) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglia. We found that VPA and NaBut significantly enhanced LPS-induced release of PGE2, PGD2 and 8-iso-PGF2?. In addition, both compounds increased cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase immunoreactivity and gene expression in LPS-stimulated microglia. Interestingly, treatment of activated microglia with HDACi also enhanced the gene expression and the release of different pro-inflammatory cytokines. Microglia activation with LPS leads to I?B-? degradation, as well as p38, ERK1/2 and JNK MAPKs phosphorylation and thus activation, which is not affected by treatment with VPA and NaBut. Furthermore, VPA and NaBut treatment induced histone acetylation at H3-K18 in microglia. We suggest that VPA and NaBut-driven increase in PGs release in LPS-activated microglia might be regulated at the transcriptional level and involves histone hyperacetylation. Our data demonstrate that VPA and NaBut are able to modulate microglia responses to inflammatory insults and thus possibly can regulate the CNS degenerative and regenerative processes. PMID:24480366

Singh, V; Bhatia, H S; Kumar, A; de Oliveira, A C P; Fiebich, B L

2014-04-18

268

Anaerobic rotating disc batch reactor nutrient removal process enhanced by volatile fatty acid addition.  

Science.gov (United States)

RBC effluent needs further treatment because of water-quality standards requiring low nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. It may be achieved by using reactors with biomass immobilized on the filling's surface as post-denitrification biofilm reactors. Due to the lack of organic matter in treated wastewater, the introduction of external carbon sources becomes necessary. The new attached growth bioreactor - anaerobic rotating disc batch reactor (ARDBR) - was examined as a post-denitrification reactor. The impact of selected volatile fatty acids on nutrient removal efficiency in an ARDBR was studied. The biofilm was developing on totally submerged discs mounted coaxially on a vertical shaft. Acetic, propionic, butyric and caproic acids were applied. Wastewaters were removed from the reactors after 24-h treatment, together with the excess solids. In the ARDBR tank, there was no biomass in the suspended form at the beginning of the treatment process. Acids with a higher number of carbon atoms (butyric and caproic) were the most efficient in denitrification process. The highest phosphorus removal efficiency was noted in the ARDBR with butyric and propionic acids. The lowest unitary consumption of the external source of carbon in denitrification was recorded for acetic acid, whereas the highest one for caproic acid. PMID:25252632

Rodziewicz, Joanna; Janczukowicz, Wojciech; Mielcarek, Artur; Filipkowska, Urszula; K?odowska, Izabella; Ostrowska, Kamila; Duchniewicz, Sylwia

2015-04-01

269

Enhanced drinking water supply through harvested rainwater treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

Decentralized drinking water systems represent an important element in the process of achieving the Millennium Development Goals, as centralized systems are often inefficient or nonexistent in developing countries. In those countries, most water quality related problems are due to hygiene factors and pathogens. A potential solution might include decentralized systems, which might rely on thermal and/or UV disinfection methods as well as physical and chemical treatments to provide drinking water from rainwater. For application in developing countries, decentralized systems major constraints include low cost, ease of use, environmental sustainability, reduced maintenance and independence from energy sources. This work focuses on an innovative decentralized system that can be used to collect and treat rainwater for potable use (drinking and cooking purposes) of a single household, or a small community. The experimented treatment system combines in one compact unit a Filtration process with an adsorption step on GAC and a UV disinfection phase in an innovative design (FAD - Filtration Adsorption Disinfection). All tests have been carried out using a full scale FAD treatment unit. The efficiency of FAD technology has been discussed in terms of pH, turbidity, COD, TOC, DOC, Escherichia coli and Total coliforms. FAD technology is attractive since it provides a total barrier for pathogens and organic contaminants, and reduces turbidity, thus increasing the overall quality of the water. The FAD unit costs are low, especially if compared to other water treatment technologies and could become a viable option for developing countries.

Naddeo, Vincenzo; Scannapieco, Davide; Belgiorno, Vincenzo

2013-08-01

270

ENHANCED PRODUCTION OF GYMNEMIC ACID USING HR BIOELICITOR EXTRACTED FROM XANTHOMONAS SPP.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Use of Gymnema sylvestre, commonly known as periploca of woods an Indian medicinal woody climber has increased recently due to the pharmaceutical potential of gymnemic acids, found in its leaves. Gymnemic acids have been reported to effect a natural treatment for diabetes. This study developed a novel cell culture system for in vitro growth and production of this species, suggesting a possible technology for large scale production of gymnemic acids. Leaf explants grown in Murashige and Skoog salts supplemented with IAA 1.5mg/l and BA 0.5mg/l gave maximum percentage of callus formation compared to other treatments evaluated. The growth rate and gymnemic acid accumulation in the callus suspension culture was determined. The HR protein from Xanthomonas spp. was used as an elicitor for the production of gymnemic acid. When compared to non-elicited cultures, two fold increase of gymnemic acids yield in elicited cultures was observed. The quantification of gymnemic acid was done using HPLC. The total gynemagenin after 21st day of incubation was 30.2389mg/100ml. This method can be used economically in pilot scale studies.

C.Subathra Devi

2012-01-01

271

CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ? is a potential retinoid target gene in acute promyelocytic leukemia treatment  

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The CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ? (C/EBP?) is a nuclear transcription factor expressed predominantly in myeloid cells and implicated as a potential regulator of myeloid differentiation. We show that it was rapidly induced in the acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cell line NB4 during granulocytic differentiation after exposure to retinoic acid (RA). Our data suggest that induction of C/EBP? expression was through the retinoic acid receptor ? (RAR?) pathway. Reporter gene studies showe...

Park, Dorothy J.; Chumakov, Alexey M.; Vuong, Peter T.; Chih, Doris Y.; Gombart, Adrian F.; Miller, Wilson H.; Koeffler, H. Phillip

1999-01-01

272

Epsilon-amino-caproic acid in the treatment of menorrhagia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Epsilon-amino-caproic acid was used in 38 cases of menor-rhagia. In each patient details of bleeding were recorded for four consecutive menstrual periods. Drug was given during two alter-nate periods and the remaining two periods were considered as control periods. Number of days of bleeding and severity of bleed-ing were statistically significantly reduced by epsilon-amino-caproic acid. The drug was found to be safe and effective.

Mehta B

1977-01-01

273

Humic Acids Enhanced U(VI) Attenuation in Acidic Waste Plumes: An In-situ Remediation Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

In the process of extracting plutonium for nuclear weapons production during the Cold War, large volumes of acidic waste solutions containing low-level radionuclides were discharged for decades into unlined seepage basins in several US Department of Energy (DOE) weapon facilities such as the Savannah River Site (SRS), Oak Ridge (OR), and 300 Area of the Hanford Site. Although the basins have been capped and some sites have gone through many years of active remediation, groundwaters currently remain acidic with pH values as low as 3.0 near the basins, and uranium concentrations remain much higher than its maximum contaminant level (MCL). A sustainable U biogeochemical remediation method has not yet been developed, especially under acidic conditions (pH 3-5). Bioreduction-based U remediation requires permanent maintenance of reducing conditions through indefinite supply of electron donor, and when applied in acidic plumes a high-cost pretreatment procedure is required. Methods based on precipitation of phosphate minerals depend on maintenance of high P concentrations. Precipitating of uranyl vanadates can lower U to below its MCL, but this approach is only effective at near-neutral pH. There is an urgent need for developing a sustainable method to control U mobility in acidic conditions. In this paper, we propose a method of using humic acids (HAs) to attenuate contaminant U mobility in acidic waste plumes. Our laboratory experiment results show that HAs are able to strongly and quickly adsorb onto aquifer sediments from the DOE’s SRS and OR. With a moderate addition of HA, U adsorption increased to near 100% at pH below 5.0. Because U partitioning onto the HA modified mineral surfaces is so strong, U concentration in groundwaters can be sustainably reduced to below its MCL. We conducted flow through experiments for U desorption by acidic groundwater leaching at pH 3.5 and 4.5 from HA-treated SRS contaminated sediments. The results show that desorption of both U and HA by groundwater leaching are non-detectable over a long period of time (200 days and > 100 PV without further addition of HA). As a natural reactive agent for in-situ remediation, HAs are cost-effective (enormous reservoir in nature), nontoxic, resistant to biodegradation, soluble, and easily introducible to the subsurface. This method has high potential to efficiently and sustainably enhance natural attenuation of U within acidic waste plumes.

Wan, J.; Dong, W.; Tokunaga, T. K.

2010-12-01

274

Ion beam surface treatment: A new capability for surface enhancement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The emerging capability to produce high average power (5--350 kW) pulsed ion beams at 0.2--2 MeV energies is enabling the authors to develop a new, commercial-scale thermal surface treatment technology called Ion Beam Surface Treatment (IBEST). This new technique uses high energy, pulsed (?250 ns) ion beams to directly deposit energy in the top 2--20 micrometers of the surface of any material. The depth of treatment is controllable by varying the ion energy and species. Deposition of the energy with short pulses in a thin surface layer allows melting of the layer with relatively small energies and allows rapid cooling of the melted layer by thermal diffusion into the underlying substrate. Typical cooling rates of this process (109--1010 K/sec) cause rapid resolidification, resulting in the production of non-equilibrium microstructures (nano-crystalline and metastable phases) that have significantly improved corrosion, wear, and hardness properties. The authors conducted IBEST feasibility experiments with results confirming surface hardening, noncrystalline grain formation, metal surface polishing, controlled melt of ceramic surfaces, and surface cleaning using pulsed ion beams

275

Inducing Effect of Dihydroartemisinic Acid in the Biosynthesis of Artemisinins with Cultured Cells of Artemisia annua by Enhancing the Expression of Genes  

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Artemisinin has been used in the production of “artemisinin combination therapies” for the treatment of malaria. Feeding of precursors has been proven to be one of the most effective methods to enhance artemisinin production in plant cultured cells. At the current paper, the biosynthesis of artemisinin (ART) and its four analogs from dihydroartemisinic acid (DHAA) in suspension-cultured cells of Artemisia annua were investigated. ARTs were detected by HPLC/GC-MS and isolated by various ch...

Jianhua Zhu; Jiazeng Yang; Zihan Zeng; Wenjin Zhang; Liyan Song; Wei Wen; Rongmin Yu

2014-01-01

276

Enhanced rosmarinic acid production in cultured plants of two species of Mentha.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present investigation an attempt has been made to enhance rosmarinic acid level in plants, grown in vitro, of 2 species of Mentha in presence of 2 precursors in the nutrient media during culture. For in vitro culture establishment and shoot bud multiplication, MS basal media were used supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of different growth regulator like NAA (alpha-napthaleneacetic acid), BAP (6-benzylaminopurine). The medium containing NAA (0.25 mg/L) and BAP (2.5 mg/L) gave the highest potentiality of shoot formation (average 58.0 numbers of shoots) per explant for Mentha piperita L. and the medium containing BAP (2.0 mg/L) gave the highest potentiality of shoot (average 19.2 numbers of shoots) formation per explant for Mentha arvensis L. The complete plants were regenerated in above mentioned media after 8 weeks of subculture. For in vitro enhancement of rosmarinic acid production, the 2 precursors tyrosine (Tyr) and phenylalanine (Phe) were added in the nutrient media at different levels (0.5 mg/L to 15.0 mg/L). Tyrosine was found to be very effective for augmenting rosmarinic acid content in Mentha piperita L. It nearly increased the production up to 1.77 times. In case of Mentha arvensis L., phenylalanine significantly affected the production of rosmarinic acid and the production was nearly 2.03 times more than the control. No significant increase in biomass was observed after addition of these precursors indicating that the added amino acids acting as precursors for rosmarinic acid synthesis were readily utilized in producing rosmarinic acid without promoting growth. Total protein profile also revealed the presence of a specific band in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PMID:23305033

Roy, Debleena; Mukhopadhyay, Sandip

2012-11-01

277

77 FR 57545 - Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule: Public Meeting on Monitoring Data Analysis...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2 rule...that only one person present a statement on behalf...additional Cryptosporidium treatment that may be needed...select from a range of treatment and management strategies (i.e....

2012-09-18

278

Sulfur Hexafluoride Treatment Of Used Nuclear Fuel To Enhance Separations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reactive Gas Recycling (RGR) technology development has been initiated at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), with a stretch-goal to develop a fully dry recycling technology for Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF). This approach is attractive due to the potential of targeted gas-phase treatment steps to reduce footprint and secondary waste volumes associated with separations relying primarily on traditional technologies, so long as the fluorinators employed in the reaction are recycled for use in the reactors or are optimized for conversion of fluorinator reactant. The developed fluorination via SF6, similar to the case for other fluorinators such as NF3, can be used to address multiple fuel forms and downstream cycles including continued processing for LWR via fluorination or incorporation into a aqueous process (e.g. modified FLUOREX) or for subsequent pyro treatment to be used in advanced gas reactor designs such metal- or gas-cooled reactors. This report details the most recent experimental results on the reaction of SF6 with various fission product surrogate materials in the form of oxides and metals, including uranium oxides using a high-temperature DTA apparatus capable of temperatures in excess of 1000° C . The experimental results indicate that the majority of the fission products form stable solid fluorides and sulfides, while a subset of the fission products form volatile fluorides such as molybdenum fluoride and niobium fluorids molybdenum fluoride and niobium fluoride, as predicted thermodynamically. Additional kinetic analysis has been performed on additional fission products. A key result is the verification that SF6 requires high temperatures for direct fluorination and subsequent volatilization of uranium oxides to UF6, and thus is well positioned as a head-end treatment for other separations technologies, such as the volatilization of uranium oxide by NF3 as reported by colleagues at PNNL, advanced pyrochemical separations or traditional full recycle approaches. Based on current results of the research at SRNL on SF6 fluoride volatility for UNF separations, SF6 treatment renders all anticipated volatile fluorides studied to be volatile, and all non-volatile fluorides studied to be non-volatile, with the notable exception of uranium oxides. This offers an excellent opportunity to use this as a head-end separations treatment process because: 1. SF6 can be used to remove volatile fluorides from a UNF matrix while leaving behind uranium oxides. Therefore an agent such as NF3 should be able to very cleanly separate a pure UF6 stream, leaving compounds in the bottoms such as PuF4, SrF2 and CsF after the UNF matrix has been pre-treated with SF6. 2. Due to the fact that the uranium oxide is not separated in the volatilization step upon direct contact with SF6 at moderately high temperatures (?1000°C), this fluoride approach may be wellsuited for head-end processing for Gen IV reactor designs where the LWR is treated as a fuel stock, and it is not desired to separate the uranium from plutonium, but it is desired to separate many of the volatile fission products. 3. It is likely that removal of the volatile fission products from the uranium oxide should simplify both traditional and next generation pyroprocessing techniques. 4. SF6 treatment to remove volatile fission products, with or without treatment with additional fluorinators, could be used to simplify the separations of traditional aqueous processes in similar fashion to the FLUOREX process. Further research should be conducted to determine the separations efficiency of a combined SF6/NF3 separations approach which could be used as a stand-alone separations technology or a head-end process

279

Enhanced incorporation of fatty acid into phosphatidyl choline that parallels histamine discharge in mast cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purified rat peritoneal and pleural mast cells preincubated briefly with radioactively labeled fatty acid were treated with A23187, which bypasses primary receptors in stimulating exocytosis. An enhanced incorporation of fatty acid into phosphatidyl choline (PC) that occurred in parallel with histamine release at 24-25 degrees C was observed and was initially proportional to the total amount of histamine discharged. Enhanced PC labeling and histamine secretion were also proportional at temperatures ranging from 17-37 degrees C. Both radioactive linoleic and palmitic acids were incorporated selectively at the beta-position of the glycerol backbone of PC. PC labeling by [3H]choline was not detectably different in control and stimulated cells, and phosphatidic acid did not exhibit selectively enhanced beta-acylation. Thus, the stimulated labeling in A23187-treated cells may occur secondary to the action of a phospholipase A2 that favors PC as a substrate. Other peritoneal cell types exhibit a very similar A23187-stimulated selective labeling of PC. Therefore, autoradiography has been used to provide a direct demonstration that in purified preparations, mast cells are the principal cell type engaged in A23187-elicited incorporation of fatty acid into PC. The efficacy of this approach has relied on special procedures devised to obtain significantly different autoradiographic grain densities between control and stimulated preparations that can be attributed to differences ins that can be attributed to differences in the level of [3H]palmitate-labeled PC. Preliminary tests using compound 48/80 as a secretory stimulus for mast cells have identified a similar selectively enhanced PC labeling. In either case, however, consideration of possible relationships between PC metabolism and the secretory process are premature since they have not been tested directly

280

CHARACTERIZATION OF ENHANCED FIELD EMISSION SITES ON NIOBIUM SURFACES DUE TO HEAT TREATMENT  

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The study of enhanced field emission from broad area niobium cathodes, and the characterization of individual sites are presented. This experiment was built [1] in a UHV surface analysis system which included a SEM, a scanning Auger microscopy facility and also an in situ heat treatment unit where the samples could be annealed up to 2000°C. Upon heat treatment of the niobium samples, it is observed that the density of field emitting sites increases with the heat treatment temperature up to 9...

Sankarraman, N.; Niedermann, Ph; Noer, R.; Fischer, O.

1986-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Operational Lessons Leaned During bioreactor Demonstrations for Acid Rock Drainage Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) has emphasized the development of biologically-based treatment technologies for acid rock drainage (ARD). Progressively evolving technology demonstrations have resulted in significant advances in sulf...

282

Operational Lessons Learned During Bioreactor Demonstrations for Acid Rock Drainage Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) has emphasized the development of biologically-based treatment technologies for acid rock drainage (ARD). Progressively evolving technology demonstrations have resulted in significant advances in sul...

283

Zoledronic Acid Prevents Bone Loss During Estrogen-Suppression Treatment of Breast Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

Zoledronic acid can prevent treatment-induced bone loss in premenopausal women undergoing total estrogen suppression after surgery for hormone-responsive breast cancer, according to an article published online Jan. 3, 2007, in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

284

Acid-digestion treatment of plutonium-containing waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Radioactive Acid-Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) has been constructed at Hanford to demonstrate the application of the acid-digestion process for treating combustible transuranic wastes and scrap materials. The RADTU, with its original tray digestion vessel, has recently completed a six-month campaign processing potentially contaminated non-glovebox wastes from a Hanford plutonium facility. During this campaign, it processed 2100 kg largely cellulosic wastes at an average sustained processing rate of 3 kg/h as limited by the acid-waste contact and the water boil-off rate from the acid feeds. The on-line operating efficiency was nearly 50% on a twelve-hour day, five-day week basis. Following this campaign, a new annular high-rate digester has been installed for testing. In preliminary tests with simulated wastes, the new digester demonstrated a sustained capacity of 10 kg/h with greatly improved intimacy of contact between the digestion acid and the waste. The new design also doubles the heat-transfer surface, which is expected to provide at least twice the water boil-off rate of the previous tray digester design. Following shakedown testing with simulated and low-level wastes, the new unit will be used to process combustible plutonium scrap and waste from Hanford plutonium facilities for the purposes of volume reduction, plutonium recovery, and stabilization of the final waste form. (author)

285

Enhanced washing durability of hydrophobic coating on cellulose fabric using polycarboxylic acids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nine polycarboxylic acids were used to improve washing durability of hydrophobic cellulose fabric finished by sol-gel method. By simultaneous forming ester-bridge between cellulose and silica layer by ester bond, polycarboxylic acids could anchor silica coating onto cellulose fabric to strengthen the adhesion of organic-inorganic hybrid coating. The wettability of treated fabrics was characterized by water contact angle, spray test and hydrostatic pressure test. The results showed that all investigated polycarboxylic acids could improve the durability. The polycarboxylic acid with proper distance between terminal carboxylic acid groups and number of carboxylic acid groups showed the highest durability. 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) led to the best durability of hydrophobic cellulose fabric with water contact angle of 137.6{sup o} (recovery percentage of 94.2%) after 30 washing times. The effect of BTCA on durability was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. This study demonstrated that the surface treatment using polycarboxylic acids and mixed organosilanes is a promising alternative for achieving durable hydrophobic fabrics.

Huang Wenqi [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Xing Yanjun, E-mail: yjxing@dhu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Key Laboratory of Science and Technology of Eco-Textile (Donghua University), Ministry of Education, Shanghai 201620 (China); Yu Yunyi [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Shang Songmin [Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Hong Kong); Dai Jinjin [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

2011-02-15

286

Enhanced washing durability of hydrophobic coating on cellulose fabric using polycarboxylic acids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nine polycarboxylic acids were used to improve washing durability of hydrophobic cellulose fabric finished by sol-gel method. By simultaneous forming ester-bridge between cellulose and silica layer by ester bond, polycarboxylic acids could anchor silica coating onto cellulose fabric to strengthen the adhesion of organic-inorganic hybrid coating. The wettability of treated fabrics was characterized by water contact angle, spray test and hydrostatic pressure test. The results showed that all investigated polycarboxylic acids could improve the durability. The polycarboxylic acid with proper distance between terminal carboxylic acid groups and number of carboxylic acid groups showed the highest durability. 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) led to the best durability of hydrophobic cellulose fabric with water contact angle of 137.6o (recovery percentage of 94.2%) after 30 washing times. The effect of BTCA on durability was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. This study demonstrated that the surface treatment using polycarboxylic acids and mixed organosilanes is a promising alternative for achieving durable hydrophobic fabrics.

287

Mouse organic solute transporter ? deficiency enhances renal excretion of bile acids and attenuates cholestasis  

Science.gov (United States)

Organic solute transporter alpha-beta (Ost?-Ost?) is a heteromeric bile acid and sterol transporter that facilitates the entero- and renal-hepatic circulation of bile acids. Hepatic expression of this basolateral membrane protein is increased in cholestasis, presumably to facilitate removal of toxic bile acids from the liver. In this study we show that the cholestatic phenotype induced by common bile duct ligation (BDL) is reduced in mice genetically deficient in Ost?. Although Ost??/? mice have a smaller bile acid pool size which could explain lower serum and hepatic levels of bile acids after BDL, gallbladder bilirubin and urinary bile acid concentrations were significantly greater in Ost??/? BDL mice, suggesting additional alternative adaptive responses. Livers of Ost??/? mice had higher mRNA levels of constitutive androstane receptor (Car) than wild-type BDL mice and increased expression of Phase I enzymes (Cyp7a1, Cyp2b10, Cyp3a11), Phase II enzymes (Sult2a1, Ugt1a1) and Phase III transporters (Mrp2, Mrp3). Following BDL, the bile acid pool size increased in Ost??/? mice and protein levels for the hepatic basolateral membrane export transporters, Mrp3 and Mrp4, and for the apical bilirubin transporter, Mrp2, were all increased. In the kidney of Ost??/? mice after BDL the apical bile acid uptake transporter, Asbt, is further reduced, while apical export transporters, Mrp2 and Mrp4, are increased, resulting in a significant increase in urinary bile acid excretion. Conclusions: These findings indicate that loss of Ost? provides protection from liver injury in obstructive cholestasis through adaptive responses in both the kidney and liver that enhance clearance of bile acids into urine and through detoxification pathways most likely mediated by the nuclear receptor, Car. PMID:19902485

Soroka, Carol J.; Mennone, Albert; Hagey, Lee R.; Ballatori, Nazzareno; Boyer, James L.

2010-01-01

288

Enhanced L-(+)-lactic acid production by an adapted strain of Rhizopus oryzae using corncob hydrolysate  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Corncob is an economic feedstock and more than 20 million tons of corncobs are produced annually in China. Abundant xylose can be potentially converted from the large amount of hemicellulosic materials in corncobs, which makes the crop residue an attractive alternative substrate for a value-added production of a variety of bioproducts. Lactic acid can be used as a precursor for poly-lactic acid production. Although current industrial lactic acid is produced by lactic acid bacteria using enriched medium, production by Rhizopus oryzae is preferred due to its exclusive formation of the-isomer and a simple nutrition requirement by the fungus. Production of-L-(+)-lactic acid by R. oryzae using xylose has been reported; however, its yield and conversion rate are poor compared with that of using glucose. In this study, we report an adapted R. oryzae strain HZS6 that significantly improved efficiency of substrate utilization and enhanced production of L-(+)-lactic acid from corncob hydrolysate. It increased L-(+)-lactic acid final concentration, yield, and volumetric productivity more than twofold compared with its parental strain. The optimized growth and fermentation conditions for Strain HZS6 were defined.

Bai, Dongmei; Li, S.Z.

2008-01-01

289

Enhanced Synthesis of Alkyl Amino Acids in Miller's 1958 H2S Experiment  

Science.gov (United States)

Stanley Miller's 1958 H2S-containing experiment, which included a simulated prebiotic atmosphere of methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) produced several alkyl amino acids, including the alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers of aminobutyric acid (ABA) in greater relative yields than had previously been reported from his spark discharge experiments. In the presence of H2S, aspariic and glutamic acids could yield alkyl amino acids via the formation of thioimide intermediates. Radical chemistry initiated by passing H2S through a spark discharge could have also enhanced alkyl amino acid synthesis by generating alkyl radicals that can help form the aldehyde and ketone precursors to these amino acids. We propose mechanisms that may have influenced the synthesis of certain amino acids in localized environments rich in H2S and lightning discharges, similar to conditions near volcanic systems on the early Earth, thus contributing to the prebiotic chemical inventory of the primordial Earth.

Parker, Eric T.; Cleaves, H. James; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, James P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Lazcano, Antonio; Bada, Jeffrey L.

2011-01-01

290

Biomineralization of arsenate to arsenic sulfides is greatly enhanced at mildly acidic conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arsenic (As) is an important water contaminant due to its high toxicity and widespread occurrence. Arsenic-sulfide minerals (ASM) are formed during microbial reduction of arsenate (As(V)) and sulfate (SO4(2-)). The objective of this research is to study the effect of the pH on the removal of As due to the formation of ASM in an iron-poor system. A series of batch experiments was used to study the reduction of SO4(2-) and As(V) by an anaerobic biofilm mixed culture in a range of pH conditions (6.1-7.2), using ethanol as the electron donor. Total soluble concentrations and speciation of S and As were monitored. Solid phase speciation of arsenic was characterized by x-ray adsorption spectroscopy (XAS). A marked decrease of the total aqueous concentrations of As and S was observed in the inoculated treatments amended with ethanol, but not in the non-inoculated controls, indicating that the As-removal was biologically mediated. The pH dramatically affected the extent and rate of As removal, as well as the stoichiometric composition of the precipitate. The amount of As removed was 2-fold higher and the rate of the As removal was up to 17-fold greater at pH 6.1 than at pH 7.2. Stoichiometric analysis and XAS results confirmed the precipitate was composed of a mixture of orpiment and realgar, and the proportion of orpiment in the sample increased with increasing pH. The results taken as a whole suggest that ASM formation is greatly enhanced at mildly acidic pH conditions. PMID:25222328

Rodriguez-Freire, Lucia; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Root, Robert; Chorover, Jon; Field, James A

2014-12-01

291

Caffeic acid phenethyl ester synergistically enhances docetaxel and paclitaxel cytotoxicity in prostate cancer cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evidence is growing for the beneficial role of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM) in prostate diseases. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a promising component of propolis that possesses SERM activity. This study aimed at investigating the modulatory impact of CAPE on docetaxel (DOC) and paclitaxel (PTX) cytotoxicity in prostate cancer cells and exploring the possible underlying mechanisms for this chemomodulation. CAPE significantly increased DOC and PTX potency in PC-3, DU-145 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Combination index calculations showed synergistic interaction of CAPE/DOC and CAPE/PTX cotreatments in all the tested cell lines. Subsequent mechanistic studies in PC-3 cells indicated that cyclin D1 and c-myc were significantly reduced in the combined treatment groups with concurrent increase in p27kip. DNA-ploidy analysis indicated a significant increase in the percentage of cells in pre-G1 in CAPE/DOC and CAPE/PTX cotreatments. Decreased Bcl-2/Bax ratio together with increased caspase-3 activity and protein abundance were observed in the same groups. Estrogen receptor-? (ER-?) and its downstream tumor suppressor forkhead box O1 levels were significantly elevated in CAPE and combination groups compared to DOC or PTX-alone. ER-? and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor protein abundance were reduced in the same groups. CAPE significantly reduced AKT, ERK and ER-? (Ser-167) phosphorylation in PC-3 cells. CAPE-induced inhibition of AKT phosphorylation was more prominent (1.7-folds higher) in cells expressing ER-? such as PC-3 compared to LNCaP. In conclusion, CAPE enhances the antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of DOC and PTX in prostate cancer cells. This can be, at least partly, attributed to CAPE augmentation of DOC and PTX proapoptotic effects in addition to CAPE-induced alterations in ER-? and ER-? abundance. PMID:23847086

Tolba, Mai F; Esmat, Ahmed; Al-Abd, Ahmed M; Azab, Samar S; Khalifa, Amani E; Mosli, Hisham A; Abdel-Rahman, Sherif Z; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B

2013-08-01

292

Tranexamic acid for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding: efficacy and safety  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tranexamic acid has proven to be an effective treatment for heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB). It reduces menstrual blood loss (MBL) by 26%–60% and is significantly more effective than placebo, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, oral cyclical luteal phase progestins, or oral etamsylate, while the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system reduces MBL more than tranexamic acid. Other treatments used for HMB are oral contraceptives, danazol, and surgical interventions (endometrial ablation ...

Leminen, Henri; Hurskainen, Ritva

2012-01-01

293

Transgenic tomato plants overexpressing tyramine N-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase exhibit elevated hydroxycinnamic acid amide levels and enhanced resistance to Pseudomonas syringae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydroxycinnamic acid amides (HCAA) are secondary metabolites involved in plant development and defense that have been widely reported throughout the plant kingdom. These phenolics show antioxidant, antiviral, antibacterial, and antifungal activities. Hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:tyramine N-hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (THT) is the key enzyme in HCAA synthesis and is induced in response to pathogen infection, wounding, or elicitor treatments, preceding HCAA accumulation. We have engineered transgenic tomato plants overexpressing tomato THT. These plants displayed an enhanced THT gene expression in leaves as compared with wild type (WT) plants. Consequently, leaves of THT-overexpressing plants showed a higher constitutive accumulation of the amide coumaroyltyramine (CT). Similar results were found in flowers and fruits. Moreover, feruloyltyramine (FT) also accumulated in these tissues, being present at higher levels in transgenic plants. Accumulation of CT, FT and octopamine, and noradrenaline HCAA in response to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato infection was higher in transgenic plants than in the WT plants. Transgenic plants showed an enhanced resistance to the bacterial infection. In addition, this HCAA accumulation was accompanied by an increase in salicylic acid levels and pathogenesis-related gene induction. Taken together, these results suggest that HCAA may play an important role in the defense of tomato plants against P. syringae infection. PMID:25014592

Campos, Laura; Lisón, Purificación; López-Gresa, María Pilar; Rodrigo, Ismael; Zacarés, Laura; Conejero, Vicente; Bellés, José María

2014-10-01

294

Enhancement of root hydraulic conductivity by methyl jasmonate and the role of calcium and abscisic acid in this process.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of jasmonic acid in the induction of stomatal closure is well known. However, its role in regulating root hydraulic conductivity (L) has not yet been explored. The objectives of the present research were to evaluate how JA regulates L and how calcium and abscisic acid (ABA) could be involved in such regulation. We found that exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) increased L of Phaseolus vulgaris, Solanum lycopersicum and Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Tomato plants defective in JA biosynthesis had lower values of L than wild-type plants, and that L was restored by addition of MeJA. The increase of L by MeJA was accompanied by an increase of the phosphorylation state of the aquaporin PIP2. We observed that MeJA addition increased the concentration of cytosolic calcium and that calcium channel blockers inhibited the rise of L caused by MeJA. Treatment with fluoridone, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis, partially inhibited the increase of L caused by MeJA, and tomato plants defective in ABA biosynthesis increased their L after application of MeJA. It is concluded that JA enhances L and that this enhancement is linked to calcium and ABA dependent and independent signalling pathways. PMID:24131347

Sánchez-Romera, Beatriz; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel; Li, Guowei; Luu, Doan-Trung; Martínez-Ballesta, Maria del Carmen; Carvajal, Micaela; Zamarreño, Angel María; García-Mina, Jose María; Maurel, Christophe; Aroca, Ricardo

2014-04-01

295

The Sonodegradation of Caffeic Acid under Ultrasound Treatment: Relation to Stability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The degradation of caffeic acid under ultrasound treatment in a model system was investigated. The type of solvent and temperature were important factors in determining the outcome of the degradation reactions. Liquid height, ultrasonic intensity and duty cycle only affected degradation rate, but did not change the nature of the degradation. The degradation rate of caffeic acid decreased with increasing temperature. Degradation kinetics of caffeic acid under ultrasound fitted a zero-order rea...

Yujing Sun; Liping Qiao; Xingqian Ye; Donghong Liu; Xianzhong Zhang; Haizhi Huang

2013-01-01

296

A variant t(14;17) in acute promyelocytic leukemia. Positive response to retinoic acid treatment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a case of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) carrying an atypical translocation involving chromosomes 14 and 17. This translocation could be considered a variant of the APL-specific t(15;17). Positive response to retinoic acid treatment suggests molecular rearrangement of retinoic acid receptor alpha.

Cigudosa, J. C.; Calasanz, M. J.; Odero, M. D.; Marin, J.; Bengoechea, E.; Gullon, A.

1995-01-01

297

Applied research on the treatment of high acid consumption uranium ore with activate heap leaching  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The applied research on the treatment of high acid consumption uranium ore with activate heap leaching is introduced. Compared with the conventional leaching, the acid consumption is reduced by 30%-40% in the activate heap process. In the same conditions, the leaching rate of uranium is improved by 9%-11% with activation technology

298

PERIODS OF VERTEBRAL COLUMN SENSITIVITY TO BORIC ACID TREATMENT IN CD-1 MICE IN UTERO  

Science.gov (United States)

Periods of vertebral column sensitivity to boric acid treatment in CD-1 mice in utero. Cherrington JW, Chernoff N. Department of Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA. jana_cherrington@hotmail.com Boric acid (BA) has many uses as...

299

Heat-killed lactic acid bacteria enhance immunomodulatory potential by skewing the immune response toward Th1 polarization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heat-killed lactic acid bacteria not only possess immunomodulatory functions but also provide the advantages of longer product shelf life, easier storage, and more convenient transportation. To establish appropriate heat treatments for the industrial preparation of probiotics with immunomodulatory effects, 4 different heat treatments were used to kill 11 strains of lactic acid bacteria. Comparisons among the strains and with viable forms were carried out in terms of immunomodulatory activity and adhesion to Caco-2 cells. Field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) was employed to observe morphological changes in bacteria after heating. Among the 11 viable strains,?Lactobacillus gasseri?AI-88 was the strongest inducer of interferon-gamma (IFN)-? and interleukin (IL)-12p70 production. However, after heat treatments its stimulatory ability was attenuated. Heat-killed?Enterococcus faecalis?YM-73 and?Lactobacillus salivarius?AP-32 strains showed enhanced stimulation of IFN-? and IL-12p70 secretion and coincidental decrease in IL-13 production. The adhesion of lactic acid bacteria to Caco-2 cells decreased with increases in temperature. However, heat exposure did not influence immunomodulatory activity. With rising temperature, roughness and unevenness of bacterial cell surfaces increased significantly. The results indicated that heat-killed?E. faecalis?YM-73 and?L. salivarius?AP-32 have immunomodulatory ability via increased Th1-associated cytokines and reduced Th2-associated cytokines, switching the immune response from a Th2 toward a Th1 response. These 2 heat-killed strains have the potential for development as commercial products. PMID:22417436

Ou, Chu-Chyn; Lin, Shiao-Lin; Tsai, Jaw-Ji; Lin, Meei-Yn

2011-01-01

300

Reduction of phytic acid and enhancement of bioavailable micronutrients in food grains.  

Science.gov (United States)

More than half of the world populations are affected by micronutrient malnutrition and one third of world's population suffers from anemia and zinc deficiency, particularly in developing countries. Iron and zinc deficiencies are the major health problems worldwide. Phytic acid is the major storage form of phosphorous in cereals, legumes, oil seeds and nuts. Phytic acid is known as a food inhibitor which chelates micronutrient and prevents it to be bioavailabe for monogastric animals, including humans, because they lack enzyme phytase in their digestive tract. Several methods have been developed to reduce the phytic acid content in food and improve the nutritional value of cereal which becomes poor due to such antinutrient. These include genetic improvement as well as several pre-treatment methods such as fermentation, soaking, germination and enzymatic treatment of grains with phytase enzyme. Biofortification of staple crops using modern biotechnological techniques can potentially help in alleviating malnutrition in developing countries. PMID:25694676

Gupta, Raj Kishor; Gangoliya, Shivraj Singh; Singh, Nand Kumar

2015-02-01

 
 
 
 
301

Lactic Acid Recovery in Electro-Enhanced Dialysis: Modelling and Validation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A dynamic model is derived for simultaneous transport of multiple ions through anion exchange membranes based on an irreversible thermodynamics approach. This model accounts for the convective transport of the dissociated and undissociated species in the module channels, and the diffusion and migration across the boundary layers and membranes. The model is validated for Donnan dialysis recovery of different monoprotic carboxylic acids. Simulations are used to evaluate the potential enhancement of lactate fluxes under current load conditions, referred as Electro-Enhanced Dialysis operation. This model is a useful tool to understand the transport mechanism in such electrochemical system.

Prado Rubio, Oscar Andres; JØrgensen, Sten Bay

2009-01-01

302

Arabidopsis ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 promotes systemic acquired resistance via azelaic acid and its precursor 9-oxo nonanoic acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a form of inducible disease resistance that depends on salicylic acid and its upstream regulator ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1). Although local Arabidopsis thaliana defence responses activated by the Pseudomonas syringae effector protein AvrRpm1 are intact in eds1 mutant plants, SAR signal generation is abolished. Here, the SAR-specific phenotype of the eds1 mutant is utilized to identify metabolites that contribute to SAR. To this end, SAR bioassay-assisted fractionation of extracts from the wild type compared with eds1 mutant plants that conditionally express AvrRpm1 was performed. Using high-performance liquid chromatography followed by mass spectrometry, systemic immunity was associated with the accumulation of 60 metabolites, including the putative SAR signal azelaic acid (AzA) and its precursors 9-hydroperoxy octadecadienoic acid (9-HPOD) and 9-oxo nonanoic acid (ONA). Exogenous ONA induced SAR in systemic untreated leaves when applied at a 4-fold lower concentration than AzA. The data suggest that in planta oxidation of ONA to AzA might be partially responsible for this response and provide further evidence that AzA mobilizes Arabidopsis immunity in a concentration-dependent manner. The AzA fragmentation product pimelic acid did not induce SAR. The results link the C9 lipid peroxidation products ONA and AzA with systemic rather than local resistance and suggest that EDS1 directly or indirectly promotes the accumulation of ONA, AzA, or one or more of their common precursors possibly by activating one or more pathways that either result in the release of these compounds from galactolipids or promote lipid peroxidation. PMID:25114016

Wittek, Finni; Hoffmann, Thomas; Kanawati, Basem; Bichlmeier, Marlies; Knappe, Claudia; Wenig, Marion; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Parker, Jane E; Schwab, Wilfried; Vlot, A Corina

2014-11-01

303

Tauroursodeoxycholic acid enhances the pre-implantation embryo development by reducing apoptosis in pigs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Apoptosis is an important determinant of the normal development of pre-implantation embryos in vitro. Recently, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis has been extensively investigated in a wide variety of diseases. Efficient functioning of the ER is essential for most cellular activities and survival. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), an endogenous bile acid, has been reported to attenuate ER stress-mediated cell death by interrupting the classic pathways of apoptosis. Therefore, in this study, the anti-apoptotic effect of TUDCA on ER stress-induced apoptosis was examined in pre-implantation pig embryos. Also, tunicamycin was used to investigate the effects of ER stress on pig embryo development. After in vitro maturation and fertilization, presumptive pig embryos were cultured in NCSU-23 medium supplemented with TUDCA or TM for 6 days at 39 °C, 5% CO(2) in air. All data were analysed using one-way anova and Duncan's multiple range test in the statistical analysis system (SAS). In addition, we also determined the optimal TM and TUDCA concentrations. Samples were treated with TM at concentrations of 0, 1, 2 or 5 ?m and with TUDCA at concentrations of 0, 100, 200 or 300 ?m. When TM was used during in vitro culture, only 8.2% (8/97) of the embryos developed to the blastocyst stage when the treatment concentration was 1 ?m compared with 27.4% (28/102) of the embryos in the control group (p < 0.05). In contrast, the frequency of blastocyst formation and the number of cells were higher when treated with 200 ?m TUDCA compared with the control group (32.8% and 39.5 vs 22.2% and 35.6, p < 0.05). Moreover, the developmental rate to the blastocyst stage embryo in the group treated with TM and TUDCA was not significantly different from that of the control group (17.8%, 26/142 vs 24.9%, 36/145). Furthermore, the blastocyst cell number was enhanced (31.9 vs 36.9) and apoptosis reduced (TUNEL-positive nuclei number, 6.0 vs 3.2) by TUDCA treatment in pig embryos. In the real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis, the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-XL gene was shown to be increased in the blastocyst stage because of TUDCA treatment, whereas expression of pro-apoptotic Bax was decreased. In addition, we also found that TUDCA decreased the rate of TM-induced apoptosis in the pre-implantation stage. Taken together, our results indicate that TUDCA improves the developmental competence of pig embryos by modulating ER stress-induced apoptosis during the pre-implantation stage. PMID:22151574

Kim, J-S; Song, B-S; Lee, K-S; Kim, D-H; Kim, S-U; Choo, Y-K; Chang, K-T; Koo, D-B

2012-10-01

304

MODULAR FIELD-BIOREACTOR FOR ACID MINE DRAINAGE TREATMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

The presentation focuses on the improvements to engineered features of a passive technology that has been used for remediation of acid rock drainage (ARD). This passive remedial technology, a sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) bioreactor, takes advantage of the ability of SRB that,...

305

Oxolinic acid for the treatment of chronic gastrointestinal Shigella carriers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two patients were long-term gastrointestinal carriers of Shigella flexneri for 23 mo and 6 mo, respectively. Neither patient responded to oral antibiotics, despite in vitro sensitivity of the bacteria to the antibiotics administered. Oral oxolinic acid produced immediate cessation of the carrier state in both patients, with resolution of minor but persistent physical complaints. PMID:686252

Ribner, B S; Freimer, E H

1978-07-01

306

Treatment of Natural Peanut Butter with Phytic Acid  

Science.gov (United States)

Peanut butter may be less allergenic if allergens in the butter exist as insoluble complexes that are not absorbed by the body. We determined that such complexes form in natural peanut butter that is treated with phytic acid. Commercial natural peanut butter (non-hydrogenated, creamy, oil-based, and...

307

Accumulation of eicosapolyenoic acids enhances sensitivity to abscisic acid and mitigates the effects of drought in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

IgASE1, a C18 ?9-specific polyunsaturated fatty acid elongase from the marine microalga Isochrysis galbana, is able to convert linoleic acid and ?-linolenic acid to eicosadienoic acid and eicosatrienoic acid in Arabidopsis. Eicosadienoic acid and eicosatrienoic acid are precursors of arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid, which are synthesized via the ?8 desaturation biosynthetic pathways. This study shows that the IgASE1-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis exhibi...

Yuan, Xiaowei; Li, Yaxiao; Liu, Shiyang; Xia, Fei; Li, Xinzheng; Qi, Baoxiu

2014-01-01

308

Method of improving the decontaminating efficiency of ruthenium in evaporating treatment of nitric acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To significantly improve the ruthenium removing efficiency in a nitric acid solution in an acid recovery system for the recovery of nitric acid from nitric acid liquid wastes through evaporating condensation. Method: Upon evaporating treatment of nitric acid solution containing ruthenium by supplying and heating the solution to a nitric acid evaporating device, hydrazine is previously added to the nitric acid solution. Hydrazine and intermediate reaction product of hydrazine such as azide causes a reduction reaction with intermediate reaction product of ruthenium tetraoxide to suppress the oxidation of ruthenium and thereby improve the decontaminating efficiency of ruthenium. The amount of hydrazine to be added is preferably between 20 - 500 mg/l and most suitably between 200 - 2000 mg/l per one liter of the liquid in the evaporating device. (Seki, T.)

309

Changes in Growth, Auxin- and Ribonucleic Acid Metabolism in Wheat Coleoptile Sections Following Pulse Treatment with Indole-3-Acetic Acid  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Growth reactions of wbeat coleoptile sections following a brief pretreament in indole-3-acetic acid (LAA) were studied. The growth versus concentration curves 24 hours after the treatment showed a minimum value surrounded by bigber values. The minimum was never at concentrations lower than 10-5M lAA but it could be found at higher concentrations after short pretreatment periods. The growth versus time curves reveated that the hormone treatment cansed the growth rate initially to increase but later on to decrease. The decrease was followed by a second increase for some treatments. Analysis of IAA content after the pretreatment showed that the attered growth patterns could be ascribed to declining auxin content with time, but not to thc actual concentration in the sections. The results indicate that the metabolic activation brought about by IAA leads to its own disappearance. Such a phenomenon was mirroretl in effects of IAA on hte net synthesis of ribonucleic acid.

Truelsen, T.A.; Galston, A.W.

1966-01-01

310

Complex-formation-enhanced fluorescence quenching effect for efficient detection of picric acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Amine-functionalized ?-cyanostilbene derivatives (Z)-2-(4-aminophenyl)-3-(4-butoxyphenyl)acrylonitrile (ABA) and (Z)-3-(4-butoxyphenyl)-2-[4-(butylamino)phenyl]acrylonitrile (BBA) were designed for specific recognition of picric acid (PA), an environmental and biological pollutant. The 1:1 host-guest complexes formed between the chemosensors and PA enhanced fluorescence quenching, thus leading to sensitive and selective detection in aqueous media and the solid phase. PMID:25081497

Ding, Aixiang; Yang, Longmei; Zhang, Yuyang; Zhang, Gaobin; Kong, Lin; Zhang, Xuanjun; Tian, Yupeng; Tao, Xutang; Yang, Jiaxiang

2014-09-15

311

Analysis of acidity production during enhanced reductive dechlorination using a simplified reactive transport model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Build-up of fermentation products and hydrochloric acid at a contaminated site undergoing enhanced reductive dechlorination can result in groundwater acidification. Sub-optimal pH conditions can inhibit microbial activity and lead to reduced dechlorination rates. The extent of acidification likely to occur is site-specific and depends primarily on the extent of fermentation and dechlorination, the geochemical composition of soil and groundwater, and the pH-sensitivity of the active microbial ...

Brovelli, Alessandro; Barry, David Andrew; Robinson, Clare; Gerhard, Jason Ian

2012-01-01

312

Enhancement of ursodeoxycholic acid bioavailability by cross-linked sodium carboxymethyl cellulose.  

Science.gov (United States)

The bioavailability of ursodeoxycholic acid from a new formulation based on drug-loaded cross-linked sodium carboxymethyl cellulose was studied in man. The plasma levels of ursodeoxycholic acid were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after derivatization and sample purification by solid-phase extraction. Capsules containing the drug/polymer system were prepared and compared with conventional commercial ursodeoxycholic acid capsules after single oral administration using a randomized crossover experimental design. Although the drug/polymer system improved the in-vitro dissolution rate of ursodeoxycholic acid in simulated intestinal fluid, statistical evaluation of the area under the plasma concentration curves indicated no significant difference in the extent of bioavailability between the two formulations (14.93+/-4.43 vs 14.95+/-5.79 microM h; P > 0.2). However, following the administration of the ursodeoxycholic acid/cross-linked sodium carboxymethyl cellulose system with an enteric-coated capsule, the mean area under the plasma concentration curve (27.60+/-10.11 microM h) was significantly higher than that obtained after treatment with the commercially available ursodeoxycholic acid capsule (16.24+/-8-38 microM h; P ursodeoxycholic acid/polymer system. Moreover, the simplicity of the preparation and the non-toxicity of the polymer used as the carrier represented additional advantages of this dosage form. PMID:10813547

Scalia, S; Giunchedi, P; Pazzi, P; Conte, U

2000-04-01

313

Effect of glow discharge treatment of poly(acrylic acid) preadsorbed onto poly(ethylene)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to introduce carboxylic acid groups at the surface of poly(ethylene) (PE) films, an attempt was made to covalently link a preadsorbed layer of poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) on a PE film by an argon or tetrafluoromethane (CF4) plasma treatment. Surface analysis was performed by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and water contact angle measurements. It was shown that by treatment of a PAAc layer preadsorbed on PE with an argon or a CF4 plasma, a small amount of carboxylic acid groups ...

Terlingen, Johannes G. A.; Hoffman, Allan S.; Feijen, Jan

1993-01-01

314

L-FOLINIC ACID VERSUS FOLIC ACID FOR THE TREATMENT OF HYPERHOMOCYSTEINEMIA IN HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS  

Science.gov (United States)

The hyperhomocysteinemia found in most hemodialysis patients is refractory to combined oral B-vitamin supplementation featuring supraphysiological doses of folic acid (FA). We evaluated whether a high-dose L-folinic acid- based regimen provided improved total homocysteine (tHcy)-lowering efficacy in...

315

CHF enhancement in flow boiling system with TSP and boric acid solutions under atmospheric pressure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In several studies, it was demonstrated that surfactant affects the heat transfer with the change of fluid property related with bubble formation and behavior due to the decrease of surface tension. G. Hetsroni et al. showed in their experiments with Habon G surfactant that the heat transfer of the boiling process is enhanced considerably by the addition of a small amount of surfactant. It was also experimented by Rozenblit et al. on how flow changes in surfactant solution. It showed that gas bubbles in air-water solution with surfactant are smaller in size but much larger in number than in pure air-water mixture, at all flow regimes. In recent, an experiment was performed by Jeong et al. which was on flow boiling CHF enhancement with TSP surfactant solutions under atmospheric pressure in SS316 circular tube. It was represented that the addition of TSP surfactant helps to increase wettability by reducing surface tension and the increment is vary with the concentration of TSP, mass flux, and subcooling. Tri-sodium phosphate (TSP, Na3PO4·12H2O) and boric acid (H3BO3) are used in nuclear power plant for maintaining high pH level during accidents. It is noticed that boric acid concentration is about 2000 ppm at normal condition and about 4000 ppm in IRWST. In this study, the variation of the CHF is observed in water with TSP or boric acid at circular tube of flow boiling water system under atmospheric pressure. Same system under atmospheric pressure. Same procedure of the experiment is performed on several concentrations of TSP or boric acid, and it was shown that TSP and boric acid are effective for the CHF enhancement from the results of the experiment

316

Temperature evolution, injury enhancement and treatment planning in cryosurgery  

Science.gov (United States)

Cryosurgery is the in situ ablation of target tissues by exposing them to low subzero temperatures. The last ten years have seen a resurgence of the interest in low temperature medicine and an advancement in the technologies used to inflict a freezing injury. Based on a comparative study, a new Joule-Thompson based cryomachine was found to have superior control than the standard liquid nitrogen cryomachine tested. The ability of the new generation of machines to quickly change temperatures led to the hypothesis that Dynamic Cryosurgery, the generation of thermal waves by oscillating cryoprobe tip temperatures, may increase the direct injury to cells within a cryosurgical iceball. An alternative means of accomplishing the same goal is to hold the iceball at a constant size once the critical temperature has been reached by the target tissue thereby increasing the hold time of cells at subzero temperatures. This alternative was tested in-vivo with an AT-1 Dunning rat prostate model and was found to increase the lethality of the iceball. To further the understanding of the cell damage mechanisms occurring during cryosurgery freezing and thawing rates that would be experienced clinically were mimicked on a cryostage and an in-vitro map of cellular damage was created, again using the Dunning cell line. Single and double freeze-thaw cycle experiments were performed. No intracellular ice was observed during the first freeze thaw cycle and viable cells were found in all regions of the iceball. This finding supports the role of ischemia resulting from post-treatment vascular stasis as a major contributor to cell killing. Cryosurgery is currently preformed with the goal of enclosing the target tissue within a critical isotherm assumed to insure necrosis. A three dimensional model of temperatures about multiple cryoprobes was developed to predict temperatures during cryosurgery and compared to experimental data. Predictions of this model were found to be accurate within experimental error. The ablative ratio, a measure of iceball potency, was calculated for one, three and five cryoprobe configurations. Multiple cryoprobe arrays produce an iceball with an ablative ratio that increases with time then plateaus. This contrasts with the ablative ratio for a single cryoprobe which is a continually decreasing as a function of time. In an attempt to simulate the thermal environment which occurs during prostate cryosurgery a thermal model was created taking into account the heating effects of the bladder and urethra. Computer generated three-dimensional visualization of isotherms overlaid on the relevant anatomy with temperature-volume-histograms and regions of concern maps allowed quantitative assessment of the planned treatment.

Rewcastle, John Cameron

317

ENHANCING SOLUBILITY AND DISSOLUTION OF MEFENAMIC ACID BY FREEZE DRYING USING ?-CYCLODEXTRIN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mefenamic acid, an anti-inflammatory drug, exhibits poor water solubility, dissolution and flow properties. Thus, the aim of the present study was to improve the solubility and dissolution rate of Mefenamic acid by preparing microparticle by Freeze drying technique. Mefenamic acid microparticle containing different ratio of ?-cyclodextrin were produced by Freeze drying using water and Isopropyl alcohol as solvent system to enhance solubility and dissolution rate. The prepared formulations containing different ratio of drug and polymer were evaluated for in vitro dissolution and solubility. The prepared formulations were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimeter, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Dissolution profile of the Freeze dried microparticle was compared with its physical mixture and pure sample. Freeze dried microparticle exhibited decreased crystallinity and the solubility and dissolution of the microparticle containing different ratio of drug and ?-cyclodextrin were significant improved compared with its physical mixture and pure sample of Mefenamic acid. Dissolution of microparticle containing 1:3 w/w (FD 3 showed higher % release i.e. 98.6 % in 60 min compare to other formulation. Consequently, hence, from the above result it can be conclude that Freeze dried microparticle of Mefenamic acid is a useful technique to improve the solubility and dissolution of poorly water soluble drug like Mefenamic acid.

Dixit Mudit

2011-09-01

318

Differentiating mass-forming intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma from atypical hepatocellular carcinoma using gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aim: To examine the differential features of mass-forming intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) from atypical hypovascular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and methods: The institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived informed patient consent. Seventy patients with pathologically proven ICCs (35) and hypovascular atypical HCCs (35) who had undergone preoperative gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI were enrolled in this study. Images were analysed for the shape of the lesions and presence of hyperintensity on the T1-weighted image (T1WI) and hypo- or hyperintense areas on the T2-weighted image (T2WI). In addition, images were analysed for the presence of linear hyperintensity or multifocal, tiny, hyperintense foci on T2WI and the presence of rim enhancement during early dynamic phases and a central enhancement with a hypointense rim (target appearance) on the 10 and 20 min hepatobiliary phase images. The significance of these findings was determined by the X{sup 2} test. Results: Univariate analysis revealed that the following significant parameters favour ICC or hypovascular HCC; the presence of T2 hypo- and hyperintense areas and target appearance on the 10 min hepatobiliary phase images favour ICC, and the presence of T2 linear hyperintensity and T2 multifocal hyperintense foci favour hypovascular HCC (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that only target appearance on the 10 min hepatobiliary phase was predictive of ICC (p = 0.002) as 30 ICCs (85.7%) showed this feature. However, the target appearance was also observed in all six scirrhous HCCs. Conclusion: A target appearance on the 10 min hepatobiliary phase images is the best predictor for identifying mass-forming ICC at gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI.

Chong, Y.S. [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.K., E-mail: jmyr@dreamwiz.com [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, M.W.; Kim, S.H.; Lee, W.J.; Rhim, H.C.; Lee, S.J. [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2012-08-15

319

Differentiating mass-forming intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma from atypical hepatocellular carcinoma using gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aim: To examine the differential features of mass-forming intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) from atypical hypovascular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and methods: The institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived informed patient consent. Seventy patients with pathologically proven ICCs (35) and hypovascular atypical HCCs (35) who had undergone preoperative gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI were enrolled in this study. Images were analysed for the shape of the lesions and presence of hyperintensity on the T1-weighted image (T1WI) and hypo- or hyperintense areas on the T2-weighted image (T2WI). In addition, images were analysed for the presence of linear hyperintensity or multifocal, tiny, hyperintense foci on T2WI and the presence of rim enhancement during early dynamic phases and a central enhancement with a hypointense rim (target appearance) on the 10 and 20 min hepatobiliary phase images. The significance of these findings was determined by the X2 test. Results: Univariate analysis revealed that the following significant parameters favour ICC or hypovascular HCC; the presence of T2 hypo- and hyperintense areas and target appearance on the 10 min hepatobiliary phase images favour ICC, and the presence of T2 linear hyperintensity and T2 multifocal hyperintense foci favour hypovascular HCC (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that only target appearance on s revealed that only target appearance on the 10 min hepatobiliary phase was predictive of ICC (p = 0.002) as 30 ICCs (85.7%) showed this feature. However, the target appearance was also observed in all six scirrhous HCCs. Conclusion: A target appearance on the 10 min hepatobiliary phase images is the best predictor for identifying mass-forming ICC at gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI.

320

Phospholipids that Contain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Enhance Neuronal Cell Mechanics and Touch Sensation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mechanoelectrical transduction (MeT channels embedded in neuronal cell membranes are essential for touch and proprioception. Little is understood about the interplay between native MeT channels and membrane phospholipids, in part because few techniques are available for altering plasma membrane composition in vivo. Here, we leverage genetic dissection, chemical complementation, and optogenetics to establish that arachidonic acid (AA, an omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid, enhances touch sensation and mechanoelectrical transduction activity while incorporated into membrane phospholipids in C. elegans touch receptor neurons (TRNs. Because dynamic force spectroscopy reveals that AA modulates the mechanical properties of TRN plasma membranes, we propose that this polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA is needed for MeT channel activity. These findings establish that polyunsaturated phospholipids are crucial determinants of both the biochemistry and mechanics of mechanoreceptor neurons and reinforce the idea that sensory mechanotransduction in animals relies on a cellular machine composed of both proteins and membrane lipids.

Valeria Vásquez

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Acid mine drainage as an important mechanism of natural radiation enhancement in mining areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a world wide problem that occurs whenever sulfidic material is present in association to the mined ore. The acidic waters generated by the process of sulfide minerals oxidation can mobilize important amounts of pollutants and cause significant environmental impacts. The composition of the drainage will depend, on a very large extent, on the mineralogy of the rocks. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that acid mine drainage has the potential to enhance the natural levels of environmental radioactivity. The paper revises some strategies to be used in the diagnostic of the problem. General mathematical formulations that can assist on the prediction of the duration of the problem, and the definition of the size of the oxidizing zones in a waste dump are given. A study case on a waste dump of the Pocos de Caldas Uranium Mining Site, Brazil is also presented. (author)

322

Renal handling of amino acids in 5/6-nephrectomized rats: stimulation of renal amino acid reabsorption after treatment with triiodothyronine or dexamethasone under amino acid load.  

Science.gov (United States)

In anaesthetized adult female rats, the renal amino acid handling was measured six days after 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6NX). The distinct rise in blood urea nitrogen as well as the significant reduction in urine flow and GFR indicate an impairment of kidney function. In principle, in 5/6NX rats amino acid plasma concentrations were comparable to those of control animals with two intact kidneys, whereas the fractional excretions (FEAA) of most endogenous amino acids measured were significantly enhanced. After bolus injection of leucine or taurine (each 20 mg/100 g b.wt.) or glutamine (90 mg/ 100 g b.wt.), dissolved in 2 ml normal saline per 100 g b.wt., the FEAA of both the amino acids administered and the endogenous amino acids increased as a sign of overloaded amino acid reabsorption capacity. This effect was more pronounced in 5/6NX rats than in controls. As early as one hour after amino acid load, plasma concentrations and FEAA returned to baseline values of 5/6NX rats. A pretreatment with triiodothyronine (20 micrograms/100 g b.wt.) or dexamethasone (60 micrograms/100 g b.wt.), both given intraperitoneally once daily for 3 days, stimulated the renal amino acid transport capacity in 5/6NX rats: the increase in FEAA after amino acid load was significantly lower compared to non-pretreated animals. This stimulation could be shown for the bolus amino acids and the endogenous amino acids and was more distinct in 5/6NX rats than in controls with two intact kidneys. PMID:10319186

Fleck, C; Gräfe, K; Kart, I

1999-01-01

323

Pharmacological enhancement of exposure-based treatment in PTSD: a qualitative review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a good amount of evidence that exposure therapy is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Notwithstanding its efficacy, there is room for improvement, since a large proportion of patients does not benefit from treatment. Recently, an interesting new direction in the improvement of exposure therapy efficacy for PTSD emerged. Basic research found evidence of the pharmacological enhancement of the underlying learning and memory processes of exposure therapy. The current review aims to give an overview of clinical studies on pharmacological enhancement of exposure-based treatment for PTSD. The working mechanisms, efficacy studies in PTSD patients, and clinical utility of four different pharmacological enhancers will be discussed: D-cycloserine, MDMA, hydrocortisone, and propranolol.

Rianne A. de Kleine

2013-10-01

324

Imaging features of small hepatocellular carcinomas with microvascular invasion on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objectives: Detection of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) before microvascular invasion (MVI) occurs is important due to the poor outcomes associated with MVI. We retrospectively investigated the imaging features of small HCCs with MVI on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging. Methods: Fifty patients (40 men and 10 women; mean age, 54 years) with 58 surgically proven small (2 cm or less) HCCs were evaluated by gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI. Signal intensities on imaging sequences and the presence of the typical dynamic enhancement pattern (arterial enhancement and washout) were assessed. Fisher's exact tests were performed to evaluate the relationships between the presence of MVI, tumor size, and imaging findings. Results: None of the 12 small HCCs with diameters of 1 cm or less had MVI, while 15 (33%) of the 46 small HCCs with diameters of 1.1–2.0 cm had MVI (p = 0.025, Fisher's exact test). Among the small HCCs with diameters of 1.1–2.0 cm, all HCCs with MVI showed the typical dynamic pattern and hyperintensity on T2- and diffusion-weighted images. Most HCCs (54 lesions, 93%) were hypointense on hepatobiliary phase images regardless of the presence of MVI. Conclusions: All small HCCs with MVI showed typical dynamic pattern and hyperintensity on T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted images, while atypical dynamic pattern and size of less than 1 cm in diameter may suggest absence of MVI

325

Imaging features of small hepatocellular carcinomas with microvascular invasion on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objectives: Detection of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) before microvascular invasion (MVI) occurs is important due to the poor outcomes associated with MVI. We retrospectively investigated the imaging features of small HCCs with MVI on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging. Methods: Fifty patients (40 men and 10 women; mean age, 54 years) with 58 surgically proven small (2 cm or less) HCCs were evaluated by gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI. Signal intensities on imaging sequences and the presence of the typical dynamic enhancement pattern (arterial enhancement and washout) were assessed. Fisher's exact tests were performed to evaluate the relationships between the presence of MVI, tumor size, and imaging findings. Results: None of the 12 small HCCs with diameters of 1 cm or less had MVI, while 15 (33%) of the 46 small HCCs with diameters of 1.1–2.0 cm had MVI (p = 0.025, Fisher's exact test). Among the small HCCs with diameters of 1.1–2.0 cm, all HCCs with MVI showed the typical dynamic pattern and hyperintensity on T2- and diffusion-weighted images. Most HCCs (54 lesions, 93%) were hypointense on hepatobiliary phase images regardless of the presence of MVI. Conclusions: All small HCCs with MVI showed typical dynamic pattern and hyperintensity on T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted images, while atypical dynamic pattern and size of less than 1 cm in diameter may suggest absence of MVI.

Kim, Myeong-Jin, E-mail: kimnex@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myungsu; Choi, Jin-Young [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Nyun [Department of Pathology, Yonsei University Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2012-10-15

326

Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of amorphous polyethylene terephthalate for enhanced heatsealing properties  

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An atmospheric pressure plasma system has been used to treat amorphous polyethylene terephthalate (APET) to enhance its heatseal properties to a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film. The plasma treated APET sheet material was thermoformed into trays for use in the food packaging industry and heatsealed to a PET film. The heatsealing properties of the resulting package were assessed using the burst test technique. It was found that the plasma treatment significantly enhanced the adhesive prop...

Dowling, Denis P.; Tynan, J.; Ward, P.; et al.

2012-01-01

327

Production of ?-Amino Butyric Acid in Tea Leaves wit Treatment of Lactic Acid Bacteria  

Science.gov (United States)

Lactic acid bacteria was searched for producing termented tea that contained a lot of ?-amino butyric acid(GABA). Also examined were the growth condition, GABA production and changes in catechin contents in the tea leaves. Lactobacillus brevis L12 was found to be suitable for the production of fermented tea since it gave as much GABA as gabaron tea when tea leaves being suspended with water at 10% and incubated for 4 days at 25°C. The amount of GABA produced was more than calculated based upon the content of glutamic acid in tea leaves. It is probable to assume that glutamate derived from glutamine and theanine is converted into GABA.

Watanabe, Yuko; Hayakawa, Kiyoshi; Ueno, Hiroshi

328

Comparison of trichostatin A and valproic acid treatment regimens in a mouse model of kidney fibrosis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are promising new compounds for the therapy of fibrotic diseases. In this study we compared the effect of two HDAC inhibitors, trichostatin A and valproic acid, in an experimental model of kidney fibrosis. In mice, doxorubicin (adriamycin) can cause nephropathy characterized by chronic proteinuria, glomerular damage and interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, as seen in human focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Two treatment regimens were applied, treatment was either started prior to the doxorubicin insult or delayed until a significant degree of proteinuria and fibrosis was present. Pre-treatment of trichostatin A significantly hampered glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, as did the pre-treatment with valproic acid. In contrast, the development of proteinuria was only completely inhibited in the pre-treated valproic acid group, and not in the pre-treated trichostatin A animals. In the postponed treatment with valproic acid, a complete resolution of established doxorubicin-induced proteinuria was achieved within three days, whereas trichostatin A could not correct proteinuria in such a treatment regimen. However, both postponed regimens have comparable efficacy in maintaining the kidney fibrosis to the level reached at the start of the treatments. Moreover, not only the process of fibrosis, but also renal inflammation was attenuated by both HDAC inhibitors. Our data confirm a role for HDACs in renal fibrogenesis and point towards a therapeutic potential for HDAC inhibitors. The effect on renal disease progression and manifestation can however be different for individual HDAC inhibitors. - Highlights: • Valproic acid is a potent antiproteinuric drug, whereas trichostatin A is not. • Trichostatin A and valproic acid reduce kidney fibrosis in doxorubicin nephropathy. • Both valproic acid and trichostatin A attenuate renal inflammation.

Van Beneden, Katrien, E-mail: kvbenede@vub.ac.be [Department of Human Anatomy, Liver Cell Biology Lab, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Geers, Caroline [Department of Pathology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Pauwels, Marina [Department of Human Anatomy, Liver Cell Biology Lab, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Mannaerts, Inge [Department of Cell Biology, Liver Cell Biology Lab, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Wissing, Karl M. [Department of Nephrology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Van den Branden, Christiane [Department of Human Anatomy, Liver Cell Biology Lab, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Grunsven, Leo A. van, E-mail: lvgrunsv@vub.ac.be [Department of Cell Biology, Liver Cell Biology Lab, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium)

2013-09-01

329

Comparison of trichostatin A and valproic acid treatment regimens in a mouse model of kidney fibrosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are promising new compounds for the therapy of fibrotic diseases. In this study we compared the effect of two HDAC inhibitors, trichostatin A and valproic acid, in an experimental model of kidney fibrosis. In mice, doxorubicin (adriamycin) can cause nephropathy characterized by chronic proteinuria, glomerular damage and interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, as seen in human focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Two treatment regimens were applied, treatment was either started prior to the doxorubicin insult or delayed until a significant degree of proteinuria and fibrosis was present. Pre-treatment of trichostatin A significantly hampered glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, as did the pre-treatment with valproic acid. In contrast, the development of proteinuria was only completely inhibited in the pre-treated valproic acid group, and not in the pre-treated trichostatin A animals. In the postponed treatment with valproic acid, a complete resolution of established doxorubicin-induced proteinuria was achieved within three days, whereas trichostatin A could not correct proteinuria in such a treatment regimen. However, both postponed regimens have comparable efficacy in maintaining the kidney fibrosis to the level reached at the start of the treatments. Moreover, not only the process of fibrosis, but also renal inflammation was attenuated by both HDAC inhibitors. Our data confirm a role for HDACs in renal fibrogenesis and point towards a therapeutic potential for HDAC inhibitors. The effect on renal disease progression and manifestation can however be different for individual HDAC inhibitors. - Highlights: • Valproic acid is a potent antiproteinuric drug, whereas trichostatin A is not. • Trichostatin A and valproic acid reduce kidney fibrosis in doxorubicin nephropathy. • Both valproic acid and trichostatin A attenuate renal inflammation

330

Short course acid suppressive treatment for patients with functional dyspepsia: results depend on Helicobacter pylori status  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS—Treatment of functional dyspepsia with acid inhibitors is controversial and it is not known if the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection influences the response.?METHODS—After a complete diagnostic workup, 792 patients with functional dyspepsia unresponsive to one week of low dose antacid treatment were randomised to two weeks of treatment with placebo, ranitidine 150 mg, omeprazole 10 mg, or omeprazole 20 mg daily. Individual dyspeptic and other abdominal sy...

Blum, A.; Arnold, R.; Stolte, M.; Fischer, M.; Koelz, H.; The, F.

2000-01-01

331

Treatment of osteoporosis with annual iv zoledronic acid: effects on hip fracture  

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Roland D ChapurlatINSERM U831, Université de Lyon, Division of Rheumatology, Hôpital E Herriot, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, FranceBackground: Several treatments for postmenopausal osteoporosis have been available in the past decade, but adherence to these treatments has been judged inadequate. The prevention of hip fracture by these medications is still modest.Methods: A literature search was performed for treatment with zoledronic acid for the prevention of hip fractu...

Rol; Chapurlat, D.

2009-01-01

332

A double-blind controlled trial of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of multiple sclerosis.  

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A trial of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of multiple sclerosis has been conducted over a 5 year period. Ambulant patients (312) with acute remitting disease were randomly allocated to treatment or placebo. Both groups were given dietary advice to increase the intake of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the treatment group in addition received capsules containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Analysis of clinical outcome at the end of 2 years of treatment was made in te...

Bates, D.; Cartlidge, N. E.; French, J. M.; Jackson, M. J.; Nightingale, S.; Shaw, D. A.; Smith, S.; Woo, E.; Hawkins, S. A.; Millar, J. H.

1989-01-01

333

Effect of salicylic acid treatment on cadmium toxicity and leaf lipid composition in sunflower  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ameliorative effect of salicylic acid (SA on cadmium (Cd toxicity in sunflower plants was studied by investigating plant growth and fatty acid composition. Sunflower plants in two leaves stage were exposed to CdCl2 treatment (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 µM and then were treated with salicylic acid (0, 250 and 500 µM as foliage spraying. One week after the last salicylic acid treatment,plants were harvested and growth parameters were measured . Oil of leaf was extracted in a Soxhlet system and fatty acid composition were measured by gas chromatography (GC. Statistical analyses showed excess Cd reduced growth parameters (fresh weight and length of stems and roots, fresh weight and number of leavesand SA increased them compared with the control. Maximum reduction in these parameters was at 200 µmol Cd and 0µmol of SA. Cd caused a shift in fatty acids composition, resulting in a lower degree of their unsaturation and an increase in saturated fatty acids in sunflower leaves,whereas SA improved them. SA, particularly increased the percentage of linolenic acid and lowered that of palmitic acid by the same proportion. These results sugg membrane integrity due to lipids est that SA could be used as a potential growth regulator and a stabilizer ofprotection of cadmium-induced oxidative stress to improve plant resistance to Cd stress

Moradkhani S.

2012-11-01

334

Enhanced biological phosphorus removal - results of experiences in three large waste water treatment plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Within a scientific project especially the operation of four real-size sewage treatment plants with different processes of enhanced biological phosphorus removal is investigated under the aspect of efficiency, stability, practicability and costs of the enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Three plants and first results are explained and compared as well with one another as with data, which are generally regarded as favourable conditions for the enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Between the plants there are significant differences in the degree of P-elimination mainly due to different characteristics of the wastewater. An important influence on P-effluent concentrations may be exacted by P-resolution in the final clarifier. (orig.)

335

BONE MEAL AS ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT FOR ACIDIC AND METAL CONTAMINATED ACID MINE DRAINAGE WATER EFFLUENT: LAB SCALE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The typical methods of treatment for acidic and metal contaminated water effluent such as the Acid Mine Drainage (AMD will always focus on either civil engineering methods, such as disposal, excavation, drainage and encapsulation or process based technologies such as effluent washing and treatment. These techniques are not environmental friendly, costly and unsustainable, thus environmental damaging. Nowadays, there is a growing need for an alternative remediation treatment that is innovative and more natural in order to prevent pollution in the environment. Therefore, in this study, a new alternative treatment, that is more organic, biodegradable and cost effective, using bone meal was presented. In this research, bone meal comprising of chicken bones were used as an alternative passive treatment to determine its potential in neutralizing and removing heavy metals from the abandoned cooper mine, Mamut Acid Mine Drainage (AMD waste water effluent. A pretreatment process for bone meal was performed by incineration process where it was heated up in the furnace at 500°C for 24 h after it was cleaned, crushed, boiled and dried. Batch experiment test has been carried out to test whether the selected bone meal sizes 45, 75 and 150 µm was able to neutralize the AMD Mamut water samples. Inductive Plasma Couple-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES test was carried out to test the concentration of the heavy metals before and after the treatment. The surface morphology of bone meal was examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Enlargement of pores after the neutralization treatment was seen on the surface morphology of the bone meal by SEM analyses. A significant rising of pH from 2.98 to 5.69 within 6 h 30 min was observed during neutralization process and 99% removal of Fe, Zn, Al, Cu and 36% removal of Mg concentration was achieved after the treatment through the neutralization treatment of the AMD waste water effluent. The results from this study conclude that bone meal has the potential to neutralize and remove heavy metals from acidic and metal contaminated AMD waste water effluent.

Carolyn Payus

2014-01-01

336

Steroids and bile acids in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy : effects of treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid  

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A method permitting simultaneous analysis of individual steroid hormone metabolites and bile acids in different forms of conjugation in serum and urine was established. Total bile acids and neutral steroids were extracted from human serum or urine with octadecylsilane-bonded silica, separated into different groups of conjugates by anion-exchange chromatography and analyzed by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. After sequential hydrolysis/solvolysis, derivatized bile ac...

Meng, Ling-jie

1997-01-01

337

EVALUATION OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE ACID HYDROLYZATE TREATMENTS FOR XYLITOL PRODUCTION  

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Acid sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzate was submitted to pH shifts in order to remove toxic compounds from the medium. The hydrolyzate was treated with bases containing mono-, di- or tri-valent cations and H2SO4, and its performance as a fermentation medium was evaluated by the production of xylitol by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037. The use of bases containing mono-valent cations was not an efficient method of detoxification, and the use of a tri-valent cation did not show any detectable improv...

Gurgel, P. V.; Furlan, S. A.; Martinez, S. E. R.; Mancilha, I. M.

1998-01-01

338

Enhanced zero-valent metal permeable wall treatment of contaminated groundwater  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On-going research at the University of Central Florida, supported by NASA, is investigating the use of sonicated zero-valent metal permeable treatment walls to remediate chlorinated solvent contaminated groundwater. Use of ultrasound within the treatment wall is proposed to enhance and/or restore the activity of the zero-valent metal. Batch studies designed to evaluate the destruction of chlorinated hydrocarbons using enhanced zero-valent metal reduction found a nearly three-fold increase in reaction rates after ultrasound treatment. Column studies substantiated these results. It is hypothesized that ultrasound serves to remove corrosion products from the iron surface and will prolong the reactive life and efficiency of the permeable treatment wall, thus decreasing long-term costs of wall construction and maintenance

339

Modeling and optimizing the design of matrix treatments in carbonate reservoirs with self-diverting acid systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of a self-diverting-acid based on viscoelastic surfactant (SDVA) is a promising technology for improving the efficacy of acid treatment in oil and gas-bearing carbonate reservoirs. In this study, we present a mathematical model for assessing SDVA flow and reaction with carbonate rock using the SDVA rheological characteristics. The model calculates the technological parameters for acidizing operations and the prediction of well productivity after acid treatment, in addition to technical and economic optimization of the acidizing process by modeling different acid treatment options with varying volumes, injection rates, process fluids stages and initial economic scenarios.

Bulgakova, G. T.; Kharisov, R. Ya; Sharifullin, A. R.; Pestrikov, A. V.

2015-01-01

340

Novel Antidepressant-Like Activity of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Is Mediated by Enhanced Glucocorticoid Receptor Function in the Hippocampus  

Science.gov (United States)

Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is an active component of propolis that has a variety of potential pharmacological effects. Although we previously demonstrated that propolis has antidepressant-like activity, the effect of CAPE on this activity remains unknown. The present study assessed whether treatment with CAPE (5, 10, and 20?µmol/kg for 21 days) has an antidepressant-like effect in mice subjected to chronic unpredictable stress via tail suspension (TST) and forced swim (FST) tests. CAPE administration induced behaviors consistent with an antidepressant effect, evidenced by decreased immobility in the TST and FST independent of any effect on serum corticosterone secretion. Western blots, conducted subsequent to behavioral assessment, revealed that CAPE significantly decreased glucocorticoid receptor phosphorylation at S234 (pGR(S234)), resulting in an increased pGR(S220/S234) ratio. We also observed negative correlations between pGR(S220)/(S234) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) phosphorylation, which was decreased by CAPE treatment. These findings suggest that CAPE treatment exerts an antidepressant-like effect via downregulation of p38MAPK phosphorylation, thereby contributing to enhanced GR function. PMID:25477995

Lee, Mi-Sook; Kim, Young Han; Lee, Bo-ram; Kwon, Seung-Hae; Moon, Won-Jin; Hong, Kwan-Su; Song, Yun Seon; Morita, Kyoji; Hahm, Dae Hyun; Shim, Insop; Her, Song

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Novel antidepressant-like activity of caffeic Acid phenethyl ester is mediated by enhanced glucocorticoid receptor function in the hippocampus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is an active component of propolis that has a variety of potential pharmacological effects. Although we previously demonstrated that propolis has antidepressant-like activity, the effect of CAPE on this activity remains unknown. The present study assessed whether treatment with CAPE (5, 10, and 20?µmol/kg for 21 days) has an antidepressant-like effect in mice subjected to chronic unpredictable stress via tail suspension (TST) and forced swim (FST) tests. CAPE administration induced behaviors consistent with an antidepressant effect, evidenced by decreased immobility in the TST and FST independent of any effect on serum corticosterone secretion. Western blots, conducted subsequent to behavioral assessment, revealed that CAPE significantly decreased glucocorticoid receptor phosphorylation at S234 (pGR(S234)), resulting in an increased pGR(S220/S234) ratio. We also observed negative correlations between pGR(S220)/(S234) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) phosphorylation, which was decreased by CAPE treatment. These findings suggest that CAPE treatment exerts an antidepressant-like effect via downregulation of p38MAPK phosphorylation, thereby contributing to enhanced GR function. PMID:25477995

Lee, Mi-Sook; Kim, Young Han; Lee, Bo-Ram; Kwon, Seung-Hae; Moon, Won-Jin; Hong, Kwan-Su; Song, Yun Seon; Morita, Kyoji; Hahm, Dae Hyun; Shim, Insop; Her, Song

2014-01-01

342

Molecular characterization of cDNA encoding oxygen evolving enhancer protein 1 increased by salt treatment in the mangrove Bruguiera gymnorrhiza.  

Science.gov (United States)

Young plants of the common Okinawa mangrove species Bruguiera gymnorrhiza were transferred from freshwater to a medium with seawater salt level (500 mM NaCl). Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed in the leaf extract of the plant a 33 kDa protein with pI 5.2, whose quantity increased as a result of NaCl treatment. The N-terminal amino acids sequence of this protein had a significant homology with mature region of oxygen evolving enhancer protein 1 (OEE1) precursor. The cloning of OEE1 precursor cDNA fragment was carried out by means of reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) using degenerated primers. Both 3'- and 5'-regions were isolated by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. The deduced amino acid sequence consisted of 322 amino acids and was 87% identical to that of Nicotiana tabacum. In B. gymnorrhiza, the predicted amino acid sequence of the mature protein starts at the residue number 85 of the open reading frame. The first 84-amino acid residues correspond to a typical transit sequence for the signal directing OEE1 to its appropriate compartment of chloroplast. The expression of OEE1 was analyzed together with other OEE subunits and D1 protein of photosystem II. The transcript levels of all the three OEEs were enhanced by NaCl treatment, but the significant increase of D1 protein was not observed. PMID:11092914

Sugihara, K; Hanagata, N; Dubinsky, Z; Baba, S; Karube, I

2000-11-01

343

Enhancement of microalgae growth and fatty acid content under the influence of phytohormones.  

Science.gov (United States)

The growth of Scenedesmus obliquus improved with increase in phytohormones concentrations (10(-8)-10(-)(5)M). Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) supported the maximum growth at 10(-5)M with 17.7×10(6)cells/mL and total fatty acid of 97.9mg/g-DCW, enhancing the growth by 1.9-fold compared to control (9.5×10(6)cells/mL). While 10(-5)M of a newly discovered phytohormone Diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate (DAH) demonstrated a 2.5-fold higher growth with 23.5×10(6)cells/mL and a total fatty acid content of 100mg/g-DCW. Poly-unsaturated fatty acid content increased up to 56% and 59% at 10(-)(5)M of IAA and DAH, respectively. The highest carbohydrate content (33% and 34%) achieved at 10(-8)M and 10(-5)M of IAA and DAH, respectively. While, the highest protein content (34% and 35%) obtained at 10(-8)M of IAA and DAH, respectively. The current investigation demonstrates that phytohormones accelerate microalgal growth and induce the quality and quantity of fatty acid content for biodiesel production. PMID:25247249

Salama, El-Sayed; Kabra, Akhil N; Ji, Min-Kyu; Kim, Jung Rae; Min, Booki; Jeon, Byong-Hun

2014-11-01

344

Treatment with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reverses endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress in experimental menopause.  

Science.gov (United States)

Menopause is associated with endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress. In this condition, reduced n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) contribute to cardiovascular disease. We investigated whether treatment with n-3 PUFA reverses endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress in experimental menopause. Thirty female rats underwent either sham-surgery or bilateral ovariectomy or bilateral ovariectomy+oral n-3 PUFA (0.8 g kg(-1) day(-1) for 2 months). Ovariectomy caused endothelial dysfunction to acetylcholine, which was reversed by superoxide scavenger Tiron. Erythrocyte membrane lipid composition was characterized by reduced n-3 PUFA total content and omega-3 index, and by concomitant increase in n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio. Ovariectomy-related oxidative stress, demonstrated by both enhanced superoxide production and 3-nitrotyrosine expression in aorta, was associated with increased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunit NOX-4 protein expression. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) functional inhibition by l-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester, protein expression and activity did not change. In ovariectomized rats, treatment with n-3 PUFA increased n-3 PUFA total content and omega-3 index and decreased n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio in erythrocyte membrane, reversed vascular oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, aortic 3-nitrotyrosine and markedly lowered NOX-4 protein expression; eNOS protein expression also increased, paralleled by reversal of inhibitory binding to Caveolin-1, while ex-vivo functional inhibition and NOS synthesis were unchanged. These findings demonstrate in vivo a therapeutic benefit of n-3 PUFA on menopause-associated endothelial dysfunction by reversal of alterations in membrane lipid composition induced by ovariectomy and by reduction of vascular oxidative stress. In this setting they also identify NOX-4 as a potential target to reduce oxidative stress-mediated vascular complications. PMID:23159066

Gortan Cappellari, Gianluca; Losurdo, Pasquale; Mazzucco, Sara; Panizon, Emiliano; Jevnicar, Mitja; Macaluso, Loredana; Fabris, Bruno; Barazzoni, Rocco; Biolo, Gianni; Carretta, Renzo; Zanetti, Michela

2013-01-01

345

Interventions to Enhance Breast Cancer Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment among Racial and Ethnic Minority Women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The authors conduct a systematic review of the literature to identify interventions designed to enhance breast cancer screening, diagnosis, and treatment among minority women. Most trials in this area have focused on breast cancer screening, while relatively few have addressed diagnostic testing or breast cancer treatment. Among patient-targeted screening interventions, those that are culturally tailored or addressed financial or logistical barriers are generally more effective than reminder-...

Masi, Christopher M.; Blackman, Dionne J.; Peek, Monica E.

2007-01-01

346

Silvicultural treatments enhance growth rates of future crop trees in a tropical dry forest  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Silvicultural treatments are often needed in selectively logged tropical forest to enhance the growth rates of many commercial tree species and, consequently, for recovering a larger proportion of the initial volume harvested over the next cutting cycle. The available data in the literature suggest, however, that the effect of silvicultural treatments on tree growth is smaller in dry forests than in humid forest tree species. In this study, we analyze the effect of logging and application of ...

Villegas, Z.; Pen?a-claros, M.; Mostacedo, B.; Alarco?n, A.; Licona, J. C.; Lean?o, C.; Pariona, W.; Choque, U.

2009-01-01

347

Effect of electrochemical treatment of oleic acid on anaerobic digestion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Electrochemical pre-treatment of oleate on anaerobic digestion was investigated using two anaerobic filters (AF and AFm) working, respectively, with increasing concentrations of electrochemically pre-treated oleate and oleate. Influents containing 25% and 50% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) of these substrates did not cause relevant alterations in either digester's performance. Comparatively, the pre-treated oleate unit (AF) showed a higher gas production but a lower COD removal than AFm (2.0...

Gonc?alves, M. M.; Bastos, E.; Alves, M. M.; Correia, J. P.; Marques, I. P.

2006-01-01

348

Sialic acid changes in Dalton's lymphoma-bearing mice after cyclophosphamide and cisplatin treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sialic acid changes in Dalton's lymphoma cells and other tissues of 10-12-week-old Swiss albino mice were investigated in relation to tumour growth in vivo and following cyclophosphamide (ip, 200 mg/kg body weight or cisplatin (ip, 8 mg/kg body weight treatment. Three to four animals of both sexes were used in each experimental group. The sialic acid level of tumour cells (0.88 µmol/g increased with tumour progression (1.44-1.59 µmol/g; P<=0.05 in mice. Sialic acid concentration in other tissues (liver, kidney, testes and brain also increased (~40, 10, 30 and 58%, respectively in the tumour-bearing hosts as compared with that in the respective tissues of normal mice. In vivo cyclophosphamide or cisplatin treatment resulted in an overall decrease of sialic acid contents in the tissues. Cyclophosphamide was more efficient in lowering tissue sialic acid than cisplatin (P<=0.01, ANOVA. It is suggested that sialic acid residues could be an important factor contributing to the manifestation of malignant properties in cancer cells in general and Dalton's lymphoma cells in particular. A significant decrease in the sialic acid content of Dalton's lymphoma cells after cisplatin or cyclophosphamide treatment may bring about specific changes in tumour cells which could be associated with tumour regression.

Nicol B.M.

2002-01-01

349

Nucleic acid labeling with [3H]orotic acid and nucleotide profile in rats in protein deprivation, enteral and parenteral essential amino acid administration, and 5-fluorouracil treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rats were fed a 0% casein diet for 1 week, with or without enteral or parenteral administration of essential amino acids, or a 25% casein diet, in one group supplemented with 5-fluorouracil treatment. Ninety minutes before sacrifice the rats were given a tracer of [3H]orotic acid. Incorporation into the acid soluble fraction, RNA, and DNA was determined in liver, small intestine, bone marrow, and kidney. Nucleotide profile was examined in liver and intestine. Protein deficiency caused inter alia a decrease in body weight; a decrease in RNA/DNA ratio and an increase in the specific RNA labeling in liver and kidney; an altered nucleotide profile in the liver; an increase in the nucleotide/DNA and RNA/DNA ratios and a decrease in the specific labeling of the acid soluble fraction, RNA, and DNA in the bone marrow. These changes were prevented to the same extent by giving essential amino acids, either orally or intravenously. The minor changes in intestinal nucleotide profile in protein deprivation were prevented to a slightly larger extent by amino acids orally than parenterally. 5-Fluorouracil treatment gave a decrease in the RNA/DNA ratio in the liver and kidney but an increase in the nucleotide/DNA and RNA/DNA ratios in the bone marrow. Nucleotide profiles were unaltered. The amount of DNA per gram of tissue decreased in bone marrow and increased in kidney. Parenteral administration per se resulted in almost no changes

350

Acetic acid enhanced purification of crude cellulose from sugarcane bagasse: Structural and morphological characterization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Crude cellulose prepared from alkali-extracted sugarcane bagasse was subjected to a rapid purification treatment with a mixture of 80% acetic acid-68% nitric acid (10/1, v/v at 120 °C for 15 min. The yields of the preparations decreased slightly from 57.3%-58.6% in the crude cellulose preparations to 50.3%-51.9% in the purified cellulose samples. The purification treatment removed large amounts of resistant hemicelluloses strongly associated to the cellulose. XRD analysis revealed that the structure of both the crude and purified cellulose was cellulose I. Compared to the crude cellulose, a slight increase in the crystallinity index of the purified cellulose was observed by FTIR, XRD, and CP/MAS 13C NMR analyses. In addition, SEM showed that the macrofibril surface of the crude cellulose was almost free of trenches, but many terraces, steps, and kinks formed in the preparations after the purification.

Jing Bian

2012-11-01

351

Ascorbic acid enhances radiation-induced apoptosis in an HL60 human leukemia cell line  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was conducted to examine the utility of the combined use of ascorbic acid (AsA) and radiation in clinical applications. We investigated cell survival, DNA fragmentation, and caspase activation after X-ray irradiation and AsA treatment of human leukemia HL60 cells. The number of living cells decreased after combined X-ray irradiation and AsA treatment (2 Gy+5 mM) in comparison with that after X-ray irradiation (2 Gy) or AsA treatment (5 mM) alone. DNA fragmentation was more in the cells subjected to combined X-ray irradiation and AsA treatment than in those subjected to X-ray irradiation alone. Caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 were highly activated following combined X-ray irradiation and AsA treatment, but caspase-8 activity was not markedly increased after X-ray irradiation alone. Bax levels in the mitochondrial membrane fractions were increased after AsA treatment alone and after combined X-ray irradiation and AsA treatment. However, there was no apparent increase in the Bax levels after X-ray irradiation treatment alone. Thus, this study confirmed that supplementing X-ray irradiation with AsA treatment results in increased apoptosis in HL60 cells. With regard to the apoptosis-inducing factors, we hypothesized that Bax and caspase-8 were activated after combined X-ray irradiation and AsA treatment compared with either treatment alone. (author)

352

Omega-3 fatty acids for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has been recognized as a major health burden. It is the most important cause of chronic liver disease and a major independent cardiovascular risk factor. Lacking a definite treatment for NAFLD, a specific diet and an increase in physical activity represent the most commonly used therapeutic approaches. In this review, major literature data about the use of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs as a potential treatment of NAFLD have been described. n-3 PUFAs, besides having a beneficial impact on most of the cardio-metabolic risk factors (hypertension, hyperlipidemia, endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis by regulating gene transcription factors [i.e., peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR ?, PPAR?, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1, carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein], impacts both lipid metabolism and on insulin sensitivity. In addition to an enhancement of hepatic beta oxidation and a decrease of the endogenous lipid production, n-3 PUFAs are able to determine a significant reduction of the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules (tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-6 and of oxygen reactive species. Further strengthening the results of the in vitro studies, both animal models and human intervention trials, showed a beneficial effect of n-3 PUFAs on the severity of NAFLD as expressed by laboratory parameters and imaging measurements. Despite available results provided encouraging data about the efficacy of n-3 PUFAs as a treatment of NAFLD in humans, well-designed randomized controlled trials of adequate size and duration, with histological endpoints, are needed to assess the long-term safety and efficacy of PUFA, as well as other therapies, for the treatment of NAFLD and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis patients. It is worthwhile to consider that n-3 PUFAs cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be derived from exogenous sources (fish oil, flaxseeds, olive oil which are typical foods of the Mediterranean diet, known for its beneficial effects in preventing obesity, diabetes and, in turn, cardiovascular events. According to these data, it is important to consider that most of the beneficial effects of n-3 PUFAs can also be obtained by an equilibrate nutrition program.

Matteo Nicola Dario Di Minno

2012-01-01

353

Appropriate controls for phosphate boiler water treatments to avoid acid phosphate corrosion and hydrogen damage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The identification of the acid phosphate corrosion (APC) mechanism in the early 90s following years of hideout and hideout return with congruent phosphate treatment lad to the development and adoption of equilibrium phosphate and phosphate treatment.These treatments have eliminated APC and the need for acid phosphate additions, and rely solely on trisodium phosphate with possible small additions of NaOH, up to 1 mg kg{sup -1}. Procedures have been consolidated over the last 10 years for conversion to these treatments. However, recent experiences confirm that unless particular care is given to the contaminant cycles, there is a possibility that hydrogen damage can emanate in boilers operating with either of these treatments, particularly in those operating with EPT. (orig.)

Dooley, B.; McNaughton, W.P.

2001-03-01

354

Treatment of focal epithelial hyperplasia with trichloroacetic acid  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a benign disease which has a chronic course that manifests as characteristic multiple small papules or nodules. They are predominantly found in the oral mucosa, gingiva and tongue. The surface of the lesions is smooth and it varies in size. It is an asymptomatic disea [...] se caused by human papillomavirus, affecting mainly children and adolescents. In this report, we describe four cases referred to the Stomatology and Oral Surgery Department of the Faculty of Dentistry, Cartagena University with a diagnosis of focal epithelial hyperplasia. Clinical features and histopathological characteristics of the patients were recorded. We also describe the properties and advantages of trichloroacetic acid as a therapeutic method.

J, Harris Ricardo; M, Carmona Lorduy; A, Díaz Caballero.

2012-12-01

355

Ursodeoxycholic Acid for the Treatment of Cholesterol Gallstones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cholesterol is the principal constituent of more than three quarters of gallstones. Pure cholesterol crystals are quite soft, and protein contributes importantly to the strength of cholesterol stones. The risk of gallstones does not correlate with total serum cholesterol levels, but it does correlate with decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased triglyceride levels. At least 10 percent of adults have gallstones where female: male ratio of about 2:1 in the younger age groups with increasing prevalence with age. Nine patients with gallstones (6 females and 3 males) were included in the study. Patients were treated with ursodeoxycholic acids tablets in two oral doses, one after breakfast, and the other after dinner for 9 months. Ultrasound examination was repeated every 3 months. Re-examination by abdominal ultrasonography revealed that gallstone 1 cm or less in diameter disappeared within 6 months, and the largest stone 3.06 cm in diameter disappeared within 9 months.

356

Effects of cold work, sensitization treatment, and the combination on corrosion behavior of stainless steels in nitric acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a reprocessing process, spent nuclear fuels from light-water reactors are dissolved in nitric acid (HNO3) to separate and recover the fissile materials such as uranium and plutonium from the radioactive fission products. Corrosion behavior of two stainless steels (SS) was investigated in nitric acid (HNO3) for the effect of cold work (CW), sensitization heat treatment (Sens.), and a combination (CW + Sens.). The corrosion rate of the solution-treated type 304 SS (UNS S30400) with extra-low carbon (type 304ELC SS (UNS S30403)) increased with time and reached constant values after 1,000 h of immersion. However, constant corrosion rates were obtained for 25% Cr-20% Ni-Nb (type 310Nb SS [UNS S31040]) from the initial stage of immersion. CW mitigated corrosion of the solution-treated SS. The effect of CW was different on the two types of SS, with the sensitization heat-treated type 304 ELC SS showing higher corrosion rates and type 310Nb SS lower corrosion rates by CW. Corrosion resistance of type 310Nb SS was superior to type 304 ELC SS after all treatments. Chromium concentration of the sensitization-treated type 304 ELC SS was lower in the grain-boundary region than of the solution-treated one, although no chromium carbide precipitation was observed. This may have been the cause of intergranular corrosion enhancement by sensitization treatment

357

Arachidonic acid enhances reproduction in Daphnia magna and mitigates changes in sex ratios induced by pyriproxyfen.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arachidonic acid (AA) is one of only two unsaturated fatty acids retained in the ovaries of crustaceans, and an inhibitor of HR97g, a nuclear receptor expressed in adult ovaries. We hypothesized that as a key fatty acid, AA may be associated with reproduction and potentially environmental sex determination in Daphnia. Reproduction assays with AA indicate that it alters female/male sex ratios by increasing female production. This reproductive effect only occurred during a restricted P. subcapitata diet. Next, we tested whether enriching a poorer algal diet (C. vulgaris) with AA enhances overall reproduction and sex ratios. AA enrichment of a C. vulgaris diet also enhances fecundity at 1.0 and 4.0 ?M by 30-40% in the presence and absence of pyriproxyfen. This indicates that AA is crucial in reproduction regardless of environmental sex determination. Furthermore, our data indicates that P. subcapitata may provide a threshold concentration of AA needed for reproduction. Diet switch experiments from P. subcapitata to C. vulgaris mitigate some but not all of AA's effects when compared to a C. vulgaris only diet, suggesting that some AA provided by P. subcapitata is retained. In summary, AA supplementation increases reproduction and represses pyriproxyfen-induced environmental sex determination in D. magna in restricted diets. A diet rich in AA may provide protection from some reproductive toxicants such as the juvenile hormone agonist, pyriproxyfen. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25393616

Ginjupalli, Gautam K; Gerard, Patrick D; Baldwin, William S

2014-11-13

358

Enhanced thermal- and photo-stability of acid yellow 17 by incorporation into layered double hydroxides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

2,5-dichloro-4-(5-hydroxy-3-methyl-4-(sulphophenylazo) pyrazol-1-yl) benzenesulphonate (DHSB) anions, namely acid yellow 17 anions, have been successfully intercalated into Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDH) to produce a novel organic-inorganic pigment by a simple method involving separate nucleation and aging steps (SNAS), and the dye-intercalated LDH was analyzed by various techniques, e.g., XRD, SEM, FT-IR, TG-DTA and ICP. The d-spacing of the prepared LDH is 2.09 nm. Furthermore, the incorporation of the DHSB aims to enhance the thermal- and photo-stability of the guest dye molecule, for example, the less color change after accelerated thermal- and photo-aging test. - Graphical abstract: Acid yellow anions were successfully assembled into ZnAl layered double hydroxides (LDH) to produce a novel organic-inorganic composite pigment by a simple method involving separate nucleation and aging steps (SNAS). Highlights: ? Acid yellow 17 was directly intercalated into ZnAl-LDH to form a novel pigment. ? The pigment was prepared by a method involving separate nucleation and aging steps. ? The intercalation of dye anions enhances its thermal- and photo-stability.

359

Atypical Findings of Focal Nodular Hyperplasia with Gadoxetic Acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We report two cases of focal nodular hyperplasia in patients following gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging confirmed with histopathology. These cases showed an atypical pattern during the delayed-hepatobiliary phase after the injection of gadoxetic acid. One case showed a total defect, and the other showed a peripheral ring-like enhancement without a visible central scar, mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma. The pathologic examination demonstrated that the two lesi...

Yoon, Jung-hee; Kim, Ji-yeon

2014-01-01

360

Atypical Findings of Focal Nodular Hyperplasia with Gadoxetic Acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report two cases of focal nodular hyperplasia in patients following gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging confirmed with histopathology. These cases showed an atypical pattern during the delayed-hepatobiliary phase after the injection of gadoxetic acid. One case showed a total defect, and the other showed a peripheral ring-like enhancement without a visible central scar, mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma. The pathologic examination demonstrated that the two lesions were focal nodular hyperplasia. PMID:24693305

Yoon, Jung-Hee; Kim, Ji-Yeon

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Clinical studies on cheno- and ursodeoxycholic acid treatment for gallstone dissolution.  

Science.gov (United States)

We treated 30 patients with radiolucent gallstones with chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) or ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) at daily dosages of 300 to 600 mg. Duration of treatment ranged from 5 to 16 months. Gallstone dissolution was noted in 23.3% of the group. CDCA was effective in 22.2%, and UDCA was effective in 25%. Treatment with these bile acids was usually effective when radiolucent stones smaller than 5 mm in diameter were found in the normally functioning gallbladder. Improvement of symptoms was noted in 60.9% of the patients who had symptoms related to biliary disease prior to the treatment. There was no definite evidence of hepatotoxicity due to these bile acids, although transient elevation of transaminase activity of unknown clinical significance was observed in 36.7% of the patients during the course of treatment. Five patients (16.7%) experienced diarrhea during treatment, but it was transient as long as the dose remained at 300 mg daily. Our experience with UDCA revealed comparative efficacy to that of CDCA, and side effects were rare. Long-term low-dose therapy with CDCA or UDCA seems to be an effective and safe treatment for radiolucent gallstones. PMID:7203354

Iwamura, K

1980-02-01

362

Treatment of warts with salicyclic acid and lactic acid in flexible collodion wart paint  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One hundred patients with warts (Verruca vulgaris of hands-33; feet-16, hands and feet 10; palmar warts-17 and plantar warts-24) were treated with salicylic acid (16.5%) and lactic acid (16.5%) in flexible collodion wart (SAL) paint. The wart paint was applied twice a week for 3 months. Good response was seen in 82.1% of warts on hands. 46.7% of palmar warts, 54.5% of warts on feet, 84.2% of plantar warts and 57.1% of warts on hands and feet. O...

Dhar Sandipan; Kumar Bhushan; Kaur Inderjeet

1994-01-01

363

Aneurysmal wall enhancement and perianeurysmal edema after endovascular treatment of unruptured cerebral aneurysms.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Perianeurysmal edema and aneurysm wall enhancement are previously described phenomenon after coil embolization attributed to inflammatory reaction. We aimed to demonstrate the prevalence and natural course of these phenomena in unruptured aneurysms after endovascular treatment and to identify factors that contributed to their development.

Su, I-Chang

2014-06-01

364

Using Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing To Enhance Treatment of Couples.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) as a clinical technique may enhance treatment effectiveness when applied in couple therapy that is emotionally and experientially oriented. Clinical experience indicates EMDR-based interventions are useful for accessing and reprocessing intense emotions in couple interactions. EMDR can amplify…

Protinsky, Howard; Sparks, Jennifer; Flemke, Kimberly

2001-01-01

365

Enhancing effects of unsaturated fatty acids with various structures on the permeation of indomethacin through rat skin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effects of straight-chain, cis-type, unsaturated fatty acids with various structures (alkyl chain lengths, numbers of double bonds, position of double bonds, and cis- and trans-positional isomers) on the skin permeation of indomethacin were examined by using rat skins in-vitro. Furthermore, the disordering degrees of the intercellular lipid domain in the stratum corneum, which were treated with preparations of unsaturated fatty acids, were measured by the Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) method using excised rabbit ear skins. Unsaturated fatty acids enhanced the permeation of indomethacin through rat skins. These permeation-enhancing effects by unsaturated fatty acids were affected by changes of their alkyl chain length from C14 to C22. The lag-times on the permeation of indomethacin were shortened by unsaturated fatty acids in the following order: C20 = C18 = C22 C22 = C18 = C16 > C14. Therefore, gondoic acid (cis-11-eicosenoic acid; C20H38O2) mostly enhanced the skin permeation of indomethacin. However, the enhancing effects of unsaturated fatty acids (C18 chain) were not affected by their differences of position and numbers of double bonds. These permeation-enhancing effects which were evaluated by flux were related to the degrees of wave-number shift in the frequency of the antisymmetric CH bond stretching absorbance (near 2920 cm-1) on FT-IR spectra of the fatty acid-treated stratum corneum. Therefore, the perturbation increase of lipid domain in the stratum corneum by these fatty acids probably was the cause of the enhancing effects of permeation of indomethacin. PMID:8961160

Morimoto, K; Tojima, H; Haruta, T; Suzuki, M; Kakemi, M

1996-11-01

366

Discovery of TUG-770 : A Highly Potent Free Fatty Acid Receptor 1 (FFA1/GPR40) Agonist for Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1 or GPR40) enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic ?-cells and currently attracts high interest as a new target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. We here report the discovery of a highly potent FFA1 agonist with favorable physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. The compound efficiently normalizes glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese mice, an effect that is fully sustained after 29 days of chronic dosing.

Christiansen, Elisabeth; Hansen, Steffen V F

2013-01-01

367

Discovery of TUG-770: A Highly Potent Free Fatty Acid Receptor 1 (FFA1/GPR40) Agonist for Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1 or GPR40) enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic ?-cells and currently attracts high interest as a new target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. We here report the discovery of a highly potent FFA1 agonist with favorable physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. The compound efficiently normalizes glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese mice, an effect that is fully sustained after 29 days of chronic dosing.

Christiansen, E.; Hansen, S. V. F.; Urban, C.; Hudson, B. D.; Wargent, E. T.; Grundmann, M.; Jenkins, L.; Zaibi, M.; Stocker, C. J.; Ullrich, S.; Kostenis, E.; Kassack, M. U.; Milligan, G.; Cawthorne, M. A.; Ulven, T.

2013-01-01

368

Discovery of TUG-770: A Highly Potent Free Fatty Acid Receptor 1 (FFA1/GPR40) Agonist for Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1 or GPR40) enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic ?-cells and currently attracts high interest as a new target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. We here report the discovery of a highly potent FFA1 agonist with favorable physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. The compound efficiently normalizes glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese mice, an effect that is fully sustained after 29 days of chronic dosing. PMID:23687558

Christiansen, Elisabeth; Hansen, Steffen V F; Urban, Christian; Hudson, Brian D; Wargent, Edward T; Grundmann, Manuel; Jenkins, Laura; Zaibi, Mohamed; Stocker, Claire J; Ullrich, Susanne; Kostenis, Evi; Kassack, Matthias U; Milligan, Graeme; Cawthorne, Michael A; Ulven, Trond

2013-05-01

369

Contrast-Enhanced Three Dimensional Ultrasonography supporting HIFU treatment of Small Liver Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

HIFU was carried out in the 12 patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma (small HCC) as a extracorporeal ablation therapy, and clinical availability was studied from the results. In carrying out the HIFU therapy, contrast enhanced (CE) three dimensional (3D) ultrasound imaging played an important role to clarify the tumor nature , to monitor the sonication procedure and to assess the tumor ablation and was almost indispensable for the treatment. All the patient had no serious side effects and they are all alive with no local tumor progression for 3 to 14 months after the treatment. Ultrasound supporting HIFU therapy could be usefully available for the treatment of small HCC.

Ohto, Masao; Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Ito, Ryu; Shinohara, Yasushi; Sakamoto, Akio; Karasawa, Eii

2009-04-01

370

Reversible Tuning of Chemical Structure of Nafion Cast Film by Heat and Acid Treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effects of annealing have been studied on the chemical structure, water uptake, and acidity of the cast Nafion thin film of thickness ? 6 ?m using a fluorescent probe, 2-(3'-pyridyl)benzimidazole (3PBI), and attenuated total reflactance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy. Nonannealed films and thick Nafion 117 membrane have been used as reference materials, in order to develop a complete understanding of the effect. Annealing has been found to cause a decrease in acidity of otherwise highly acidic ionomer, as sensed by the fluorescent probe and loss of water, as reflected in the ATR-IR spectrum. This observation is surprising and cannot be explained in the light of previous reports of physical changes. Our ATR-IR study has revealed changes in the chemical structure of the hydrophilic part of the ionomer, leading to the formation of sulfonic acid anhydrides. This phenomenon can rationalize the decreased acidity reported in our fluorescence study. Interestingly, acid treatment of the annealed film restores the acidity of the unannealed films. This cannot be rationalized simply by a greater proton uptake from the solution, as the film has to be electroneutral. It appears that the anhydrides formed during the annealing process undergo acid hydrolysis, leading to an increase in the number of SO3(-) groups and, consequently, an increase in the number of H3O(+) ions in the water channels. Besides, the films can be hydrated to an extent that is much greater than Nafion membranes, but the water uptake of acid treated annealed film is slightly less than that of nonannealed films. Hence, we conclude that, along with annealing, acid treatment, a procedure that is generally not performed on the cast films, is an important pretreatment procedure to improve the acidity and hence the transport properties of the cast film. PMID:25275923

Singhal, Nancy; Datta, Anindya

2014-10-21

371

Modification of cation-exchange properties of activated carbon by treatment with nitric acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The uptake of inorganic cations by high-surface-area activated carbon can be increased by an order of magnitude by controlled exposure to high concentrations of nitric acid at elevated temperatures. Distribution coefficients of cations are also increased. Oxidation treatment causes some loss in particle strength. Acid strength of the functional groups from the nitric acid treatment is greater than those of the starting material. Surface area measurements from small-angle neutron scattering indicate that the increase in effective ion-exchange capacity is not accompanied by gross changes in the structure of the material. 13C-NMR on solid samples suggests that the concentration of carboxyl and phenolic functional groups in the carbon is increased by the treatment

372

Zoledronic Acid for the Treatment and Prevention of Primary and Secondary Osteoporosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is increasing interest in therapies that can be administered less frequently and/or avoid gastrointestinal irritation. The efficacy of once-yearly zoledronic acid (5 mg) in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis has been evaluated in different patient populations. In the 3-year HORIZON-Pivotal Fracture Trial in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, zoledronic acid reduced the risk of vertebral and hip fracture by 70% and 41%, respectively, versus placebo. The efficacy of zoledro...

Rizzoli, Rene?

2010-01-01

373

Inhibition of breast cancer cell proliferation in repeated and non-repeated treatment with zoledronic acid  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Zoledronic acid is used to treat bone metastases and has been shown to reduce skeletal-related events and exert antitumor activity. The present in vitro study investigates the mechanism of action of Zoledronic Acid on breast cancer cell lines with different hormonal and HER2 patterns. Furthermore, we investigated the efficacy of repeated versus non-repeated treatments. Methods The study was performed on 4 breast cancer cell lines (BR...

Ibrahim Toni; Mercatali Laura; Sacanna Emanuele; Tesei Anna; Carloni Silvia; Ulivi Paola; Liverani Chiara; Fabbri Francesco; Zanoni Michele; Zoli Wainer; Amadori Dino

2012-01-01

374

High dose ursodeoxycholic acid for the treatment of primary sclerosing cholangitis is safe and effective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has been shown to improve serum liver tests in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), but controlled trials have shown inconsistent effects on liver histology, and did not reveal a survival benefit. This pilot, randomised dose-ranging trial attempted to determine whether further enrichment of the bile acid pool with UDCA would lead to an improvement in outcome for PSC patients. METHODS: Thirty-one patients with PSC were randomised to treatment with ...

Cullen, Sn; Rust, C.; Fleming, K.; Edwards, C.; Beuers, U.; Chapman, Rw

2006-01-01

375

Some biochemical reactions of strawberry plants to infection with Botrytis cinerea and salicylic acid treatment  

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Full Text Available The reactions of strawberry plants to infection with B. cinerea and treatment with salicylic acid has been studied. Infection of leaves with B. cinerea resulted in early increases in active oxygen species generation, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities and phenolic compounds content. Some increases of the above reactions were noticed in plants treated with salicylic acid but not in the plants treated with SA and then later infected with B. cinerea.

Urszula Ma?olepsza

1994-12-01

376

Some biochemical reactions of strawberry plants to infection with Botrytis cinerea and salicylic acid treatment  

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The reactions of strawberry plants to infection with B. cinerea and treatment with salicylic acid has been studied. Infection of leaves with B. cinerea resulted in early increases in active oxygen species generation, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities and phenolic compounds content. Some increases of the above reactions were noticed in plants treated with salicylic acid but not in the plants treated with SA and then later infected with B. cinerea.

Urszula Ma?olepsza; Henryk Urbanek; Justyna Polit

1994-01-01

377

Medical treatment of biliary duct stones: effect of ursodeoxycholic acid administration.  

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Twenty-eight patients with radiolucent biliary duct stones without cholangitis and jaundice were randomly allocated into two treatment groups receiving ursodeoxycholic acid 12 mg/kg (group A) or placebo (group B) in three daily doses for 24 months. In group A stones disappeared completely in seven patients and partially in one; placebo administration had no effect on stone size and three patients of group B (only one of group A) went to surgery for complications. Ursodeoxycholic acid treatmen...

Salvioli, G.; Salati, R.; Lugli, R.; Zanni, C.

1983-01-01

378

Pre-treatment of ligno-cellulose with biological acid recycling (the Biosulfurol process)  

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A biomass pretreatment process is being developed based on contacting ligno-cellulosic biomass with 70% sulphuric acid and subsequent hydrolysis by adding water. In this process, the hydrolysate can be fermented yielding ethanol, while the sulphuric acid is partly recovered by anion-selective membranes before the fermentation process, and partly via biological sulphate reduction in the anaerobic wastewater treatment plant. The produced sulphide is recovered as H2S gas and chemically converted...

Groenestijn, J. W.; Hazewinkel, J. H. O.; Bakker, R. R.

2008-01-01

379

Phytic acid as a potential treatment for Alzheimer's pathology: evidence from animal and in vitro models  

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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) causes progressive age-dependent cortical and hippocampal dysfunctions leading to abnormal intellectual capacity and memory. We propose a novel protective treatment for AD pathology with phytic acid (inositol hexakisphosphate), a phytochemical found in food grains and a key signaling molecule in mammalian cells. We evaluated the protective and beneficial effects of phytic acid against amyloid beta pathology in MC65 cells and the Tg2576 mouse model. In MC65 cells, 48...

Anekonda, Thimmappa S.; Wadsworth, Teri L.; Sabin, Robert; Frahler, Kate; Harris, Christopher; Petriko, Babett; Ralle, Martina; Woltjer, Randy; Quinn, Joseph F.

2011-01-01

380

Salicylic acid in karaya gum patch as a treatment for verruca vulgaris.  

Science.gov (United States)

A clinical study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a new delivery system for administering salicylic acid for the treatment of verruca vulgaris. The study compared wart resolution among volunteers who used karaya gum patches. The cure rate was 69% for warts treated with patches containing salicylic acid, which was significantly higher (p less than 0.01) than for warts treated with control patches (35%). PMID:2643641

Bart, B J; Biglow, J; Vance, J C; Neveaux, J L

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Treatment of disseminated granuloma annulare with fumaric acid esters  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Granuloma annulare is a granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. Various therapies have been tried in disseminated granuloma annulare (DGA, including corticosteroids, several variants of psoralen plus ultraviolet-A radiation, ultraviolet- A1 radiation, systemic retinoids, and dapsone, with variable success. We report a patient with recalcitrant DGA who was treated with fumaric acid esters (FAE. Case presentation A 40-year old Caucasian woman presented with a 25-year history of recalcitrant DGA. On both legs and the abdomen there were erythematous annular plaques. She was treated with FAE in tablet form using two formulations differing in strength (low strength tablets: 30 mg dimethylfumarate, 67 mg monoethylfumarate Ca salt, 5 mg monoethylfumarate Mg salt, 3 mg monoethylfumarate Zn salt; high strength tablets: 120 mg dimethylfumarate, 87 mg monoethylfumarate Ca salt, 5 mg monoethylfumarate Mg salt, 3 mg monoethylfumarate Zn salt. After three-month therapy, an almost complete clearance of skin lesions was achieved. With the exception of temporary lymphopenia, no adverse effects were observed. The patient remained in remission during a six-month follow up period. Conclusions Our observation has demonstrated that FAE is a potentially beneficial therapeutic option for patients with recalcitrant DGA. However controlled trials are necessary to fully explore the efficacy, optimal dosage, and safety of FAE in the management of DGA.

Altmeyer Peter

2002-03-01

382

Dithiol amino acids can structurally shape and enhance the ligand-binding properties of polypeptides  

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The disulfide bonds that form between two cysteine residues are important in defining and rigidifying the structures of proteins and peptides. In polypeptides containing multiple cysteine residues, disulfide isomerization can lead to multiple products with different biological activities. Here, we describe the development of a dithiol amino acid (Dtaa) that can form two disulfide bridges at a single amino acid site. Application of Dtaas to a serine protease inhibitor and a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor inhibitor that contain disulfide constraints enhanced their inhibitory activities 40- and 7.6-fold, respectively. X-ray crystallographic and NMR structure analysis show that the peptide ligands containing Dtaas have retained their native tertiary structures. We furthermore show that replacement of two cysteines by Dtaas can avoid the formation of disulfide bond isomers. With these properties, Dtaas are likely to have broad application in the rational design or directed evolution of peptides and proteins with high activity and stability.

Chen, Shiyu; Gopalakrishnan, Ranganath; Schaer, Tifany; Marger, Fabrice; Hovius, Ruud; Bertrand, Daniel; Pojer, Florence; Heinis, Christian

2014-11-01

383

Enhanced Production of Fatty Acids and Astaxanthin in Aurantiochytrium sp. by the Expression of Vitreoscilla Hemoglobin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dissolved oxygen is a critical factor for heterotrophic cell growth and metabolite production. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an oxygen-involved protein on cell growth and fatty acid and astaxanthin production in the biologically important thraustochytrid Aurantiochytrium sp. The hemoglobin of the Vitreoscilla stercoraria (VHb) gene was fused upstream with a zeocin resistance gene (ble) and driven by the Aurantiochytrium tubulin promoter. The expression construct was introduced into two strains of Aurantiochytrium sp. by electroporation. Transgenic Aurantiochytrium sp. strains MP4 and SK4 expressing the heterologous VHb achieved significantly higher maximum biomass than their corresponding controls in microaerobic conditions. Furthermore, the transformants of Aurantiochytrium sp. SK4 produced 44% higher total fatty acid and 9-fold higher astaxanthin contents than the wild type control in aerobic conditions. The present study highlights the biotechnological application of VHb in high-cell density fermentation for enhanced biomass production as well as high-value metabolites. PMID:25420960

Suen, Yung Lee; Tang, Hongmei; Huang, Junchao; Chen, Feng

2014-12-24

384

TiO2 nanobelts: Acid corrosion, enhanced photocatalytic activity and CeO2 deposition  

Science.gov (United States)

TiO2 nanobelts are synthesized via a hydrothermal procedure. The rough surface can be obtained by sulfuric acid corrosion and TiO2 nanoparticles were attached on the surface of the nanobelts. The concentration of sulfuric acid and corrosion temperature play important roles on the morphology and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanobelts. The TiO2 nanoparticles on the nanobelts enhanced the photocatalytic activity. TiO2 nanobelts etched with sulfuric acid of 0.03 M at 120°C show the highest photocatalytic activity and the degradation rate of methyl orange reaches 84.64% after irradiated by the UV light for 2.5 h. With high concentration of sulfuric acid and corrosion temperature treated, belt-like structure would be broken, and even aggregated together, which weaken the photocatalytic activity. In addition, CeO2/TiO2 nanobelt heterostructure is prepared through the process of chemical coprecipitation. The rough surface provides the nucleation sites for CeO2, and the nanoparticles with small size can distribute on the surface of TiO2 nanobelts.

He, Haiyan; Jia, Changchao; Yang, Ping

2014-12-01

385

Examination of the mechanism of oleic acid-induced percutaneous penetration enhancement: an ultrastructural study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The epidermal permeability barrier appears to be regulated primarily by the lamellar arrangement of lipid bilayers between coneocytes of the stratum corneum and presents a significant barrier to the transdermal delivery of drugs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of oleic acid on the ultrastructure of stratum corneum lipids in rat skin. Wistar rats were treated topically with 10% oleic acid/propylene glycol for 2 h, the structure of stratum corneum was examined by electron microscopy using osmium tetroxide or ruthenium tetroxide postfixation, and the epidermal barrier function was evaluated in a lanthanum tracer study. Ultrastructural examination revealed that there was a marked alteration in the stratum corneum and the tracer penetrated into the intercellular spaces of the stratum corneum after application of oleic acid. These results suggest that ruthenium tetroxide postfixation is a powerful tool for the study of the stratum corneum lipid structure. Oleic acid might increase the epidermal permeability through a mechanism involving the perturbation of stratum corneum lipid bilayers and lacunae formation to enhance transdermal drug delivery. PMID:12520175

Jiang, Shao Jun; Zhou, Xiao Jun

2003-01-01

386

CAPSULE REPORT: ADIPIC ACID-ENHANCED LIME/LIMESTONE TEST RESULTS AT THE EPA ALKALI SCRUBBING TEST FACILITY  

Science.gov (United States)

The fifth in a series of reports describing the results of the Shawnee Lime and Limestone Wet Scrubbing Test Program, this report describes the results of adipic acid-enhanced limestone wet scrubbing systems. rimary objective of this program was to enhance sulfur oxide removal an...

387

Retrospective comparison of prednisolone and ursodeoxycholic acid for the treatment of feline lymphocytic cholangitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the effect of treatment with prednisolone or ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on the survival times of 26 cats with lymphocytic cholangitis, and to determine prognostic factors. Most affected cats were males (76.9%, P=0.006) and a breed predisposition for the Norwegian Forest Cat was demonstrated (P=0.021). Clinical signs included weight loss, icterus, anorexia, vomiting, and listlessness. Blood analyses revealed elevated hepatic enzymes, bile acids and hypergammaglobulinaemia. Breed, sex, and therapeutic regimen were significantly associated with survival times. Prednisolone treatment resulted in a statistically longer survival time compared to UDCA. PMID:22840210

Otte, C M A; Penning, L C; Rothuizen, J; Favier, R P

2013-02-01

388

Treatment of Pu-containing waste by acid digestion (wet combustion)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Acid digestion as a process of treatment of plutonium-containing solid waste was developed and demonstrated under conditions of an active operation with respect to the recovery of plutonium. The process composes the following main steps: waste shredding, waste carbonisation, waste oxidation and conversion of plutonium oxide to plutonium sulphate, off-gas treatment, acid recovery and plutonium separation. The technical, safety and operational details of the plant will be presented. Furthermore, methods of the purification of separate plutonium and solidification of secondary waste for final disposal will be described. (orig./RW)

389

Surface enhanced Raman scattering of trans-3-hydroxycinnamic acid adsorbed on silver nanoparticles  

Science.gov (United States)

SERS of trans-3-hydroxycinnamic acid adsorbed on silver colloids have been analyzed in order to detect resonant charge transfer processes similar to a resonance Raman mechanism, involving the photoinduced transfer of an electron from the metal to the adsorbate (SERS-CT). Theoretical SERS-CT intensities for the neutral, anionic and dianionic forms have been calculated and it was found that the active SERS species corresponds to cinnamate ion linked to the metal through its carboxylate group. Moreover, it has been shown that the SERS-CT mechanism is operating in the SERS, explaining the strong enhancement of the band at ca. 1600 cm -1, assigned to the 8a mode.

Sardo, Mariana; Ruano, Cristina; Castro, José Luis; López-Tocón, Isabel; Ribeiro-Claro, Paulo J. A.; Otero, Juan C.

2008-12-01

390

SnO2 nanospheres supported Pd catalyst with enhanced performance for formic acid oxidation  

Science.gov (United States)

SnO2 nanospheres were employed as the support material for Pd catalyst. The as-prepared Pd/SnO2 catalyst exhibited remarkably improved electrocatalytic activity and stability towards formic acid oxidation, in comparison with that of the Vulcan XC-72 carbon black and the commercial SnO2 nanopowder supported Pd catalyst. The enhanced catalytic performance may arise from the unique structure and surface properties of the SnO2 nanospheres, which process extraordinary promotional effect on Pd catalyst.

Lu, Haiting; Fan, Yang; Huang, Ping; Xu, Dongli

2012-10-01

391

Bimetallic alloy Pt/Ag nanoparticles with enhanced catalytic activity for formic acid oxidation  

Science.gov (United States)

Here, we report the synthesis of Pt/Ag bimetallic alloy catalyst through combining the ion implantation and electrodeposition method. Ag nanoparticles are employed as the seeds for the growth of Pt nanoparticles. Pt/Ag alloy catalyst demonstrates much higher catalytic activity than pure Pt catalyst, which is about three times more active on the basis of equivalent Pt electrochemically active surface area than that of the pure Pt catalyst. The ion implantation of Ag efficiently enhances the catalytic activity of Pt catalyst for formic acid oxidation.

Guo, Chunmei; Hu, Jingbo

2014-05-01

392

Inhibition of acid hydrolase activity in human granulocytes by PUVA treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The activity of acid hydrolases in peripheral blood granulocytes was determined. No significant differences could be revealed between healthy and psoriatic donors. During PUVA therapy of psoriasis patients the activity of acid hydrolases in granulocytes was moderately decreased in most cases, but the differences were not significant (high individual variability). Isolated granulocytes were treated in vitro with doses of 8-methoxypsoralen and UVA light as can be achieved in situ in the epidermis during PUVA therapy. A reduced acid hydrolases activity was found in the cells after the treatment, which was not due to secretion of the enzyme or cytotoxic damage. The presence of reduced glutathione prevented this effect. Free extracellular acid hydrolases were not inactivated by PUVA. PUVA-treated granulocytes showed an unimpaired superoxide generation after phagocytic stimulation. These results show that an intracellular inactivation of acid hydrolases and possibly other lysosomal enzymes in granulocytes infiltrating the psoriatic epidermis contribute to the antipsoriatic effects of PUVA therapy. (author)

393

Design and evaluation of Lumefantrine – Oleic Acid Self Nanoemulsifying Ionic Complex for Enhanced Dissolution  

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Full Text Available Background:Lumefantrine, an antimalarial molecule has very low and variable bioavailability owing to its extremely poor solubility in water. It is recommended to be taken with milk to enhance its solubility and bioavailability. The aim of present study was to develop a Self Nanoemulsifying Delivery system (SNEDs of lumefantrine (LF to achieve rapid and complete dissolution independent of food-fat and surfactant in dissolution media.Methods:Solubility of LF in oil, co-solvent/co-surfactant and surfactant solution and emulsification efficiency of surfactant were analyzed to optimize the LF loaded self nanoemulsifying preconcentrate. Effect of LF-oleic acid complexation on emulsification, droplet size, zeta potential and dissolution were investigated. Effect of milk concentration and fat content on saturation solubility and dissolution of LF was investigated. Dissolution of marketed formulation and LF-SNEDs was carried out in pH 1.2 and pH 6.8 phosphate buffer.Results:LF exhibited very high solubility in oleic acid owing to complexation between tertiary amine of LF and carboxyl group of oleic acid (OA. Cremophore EL and medium chain monoglyceride were selected surfactant and co-surfactant, respectively. Significantly smaller droplet size (37 nm, shift in zeta potential from negative to positive value, very high drug loading in lipid based system (> 10%, no precipitation after dissolution are the major distinguish characteristics contributed by LF-OA complex in the SNED system. Saturation solubility and dissolution study in milk containing media pointed the significant increment in solubility of LF in the presence of milk-food fat. LF-SNEDs showed > 90% LF release within 30 min in pH 1.2 while marketed tablet showed almost 0% drug release.Conclusion:Self nanoemulsification promoting ionic complexation between basic drug and oleic acid hold great promise in enhancing solubility of hydrophobic drugs.

Pradeep Vavia

2013-03-01

394

Hypertonic saline reduces inflammation and enhances the resolution of oleic acid induced acute lung injury  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertonic saline (HTS reduces the severity of lung injury in ischemia-reperfusion, endotoxin-induced and ventilation-induced lung injury. However, the potential for HTS to modulate the resolution of lung injury is not known. We investigated the potential for hypertonic saline to modulate the evolution and resolution of oleic acid induced lung injury. Methods Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used in all experiments. Series 1 examined the potential for HTS to reduce the severity of evolving oleic acid (OA induced acute lung injury. Following intravenous OA administration, animals were randomized to receive isotonic (Control, n = 12 or hypertonic saline (HTS, n = 12, and the extent of lung injury assessed after 6 hours. Series 2 examined the potential for HTS to enhance the resolution of oleic acid (OA induced acute lung injury. Following intravenous OA administration, animals were randomized to receive isotonic (Control, n = 6 or hypertonic saline (HTS, n = 6, and the extent of lung injury assessed after 6 hours. Results In Series I, HTS significantly reduced bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL neutrophil count compared to Control [61.5 ± 9.08 versus 102.6 ± 11.89 × 103 cells.ml-1]. However, there were no between group differences with regard to: A-a O2 gradient [11.9 ± 0.5 vs. 12.0 ± 0.5 KPa]; arterial PO2; static lung compliance, or histologic injury. In contrast, in Series 2, hypertonic saline significantly reduced histologic injury and reduced BAL neutrophil count