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Sample records for acid treatment enhances

  1. Enhancement of cell viability after treatment with polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, J; Walitza, S; Grnblatt, E

    2014-01-24

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly prevalent in children and adolescents and both environmental and genetic factors play major roles. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are postulated to contribute to the development of the infant brain and an imbalance in these may increase the risk of ADHD. In recent clinical studies, supplementation with PUFAs improved symptoms of ADHD in some cases. Similarly, some beneficial effects were observed with PUFA treatment in neuronal cell cultures. Therefore, in this study, we hypothesized that a specific PUFA combination (available on the market as Equazen [Vifor Pharma, Switzerland]) along with iron, zinc, or vitamin B5 (vitB5) would produce an additive beneficial effect on the viability of rat pheochromocytoma-12 dopaminergic cells. The specific PUFA combination alone, as well as added to each of the three nutrients, was tested in a dose-response manner. The specific PUFAs significantly improved cell viability, starting at very low doses (100pM) from 60h up to 90h; while the combined treatment with vitB5 and minerals did not provide additional benefit. Our results confirmed the beneficial effect of the specific PUFAs on neuronal cell viability; although supplementation with minerals and vitB5 did not enhance this effect. PMID:24269370

  2. Differentiation enhances aminolevulinic acid-dependent photodynamic treatment of LNCaP prostate cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ortel, B.; Sharlin, D; O'Donnell, D.; Sinha, A.K.; Maytin, E V; Hasan, T.

    2002-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy using 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) may be applied to the treatment of neoplasms in a variety of organs. In order to enhance existing regimens of photodynamic therapy, we investigated the effects of adding differentiation therapy to photodynamic therapy in human prostate cancer cells in vitro. The objective of differentiation therapy per se is to reverse the lack of differentiation in cancer cells using pharmacological agents. The motivation...

  3. Enhanced blood compatibility of metallocene polyethylene subjected to hydrochloric acid treatment for cardiovascular implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Mohandas, Hemanth; Sivakumar, Gunalan; Kasi, Palaniappan; Sudheer, Theertha; Avineri Veetil, Sruthi; Murugesan, Selvakumar; Supriyanto, Eko

    2014-01-01

    Blood compatibility of metallocene polyethylene (mPE) was investigated after modifying the surface using hydrochloric acid. Contact angle of the mPE exposed to HCl poses a decrease in its value which indicates increasing wettability and better blood compatibility. Surface of mPE analyzed by using FTIR revealed no significant changes in its functional groups after treatment. Furthermore, scanning electron microscope images supported the increasing wettability through the modifications like pit formations and etching on the acid rendered surface. To evaluate the effect of acid treatment on the coagulation cascade, prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were measured. Both PT and APTT were delayed significantly (P < 0.05) after 60 min exposure implying improved blood compatibility of the surfaces. Hemolysis assay of the treated surface showed a remarkable decrease in the percentage of lysis of red blood cells when compared with untreated surface. Moreover, platelet adhesion assay demonstrated that HCl exposed surfaces deter the attachment of platelets and thereby reduce the chances of activation of blood coagulation cascade. These results confirmed the enhanced blood compatibility of mPE after HCl exposure which can be utilized for cardiovascular implants like artificial vascular prostheses, implants, and various blood contacting devices. PMID:24955370

  4. Photoluminescence Enhancement and Structure Repairing of Monolayer MoSe 2 by Hydrohalic Acid Treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Hau-Vei

    2015-12-30

    Atomically thin two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have attracted much attention recently due to their unique electronic and optical properties for future optoelectronic devices. The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method is able to generate TMDCs layers with a scalable size and a controllable thickness. However, the TMDC monolayers grown by CVD may incorporate structural defects, and it is fundamentally important to understand the relation between photoluminescence and structural defects. In this report, point defects (Se vacancies) and oxidized Se defects in CVD-grown MoSe2 monolayers are identified by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These defects can significantly trap free charge carriers and localize excitons, leading to the smearing of free band-to-band exciton emission. Here, we report that the simple hydrohalic acid treatment (such as HBr) is able to efficiently suppress the trap-state emission and promote the neutral exciton and trion emission in defective MoSe2 monolayers through the p-doping process, where the overall photoluminescence intensity at room temperature can be enhanced by a factor of 30. We show that HBr treatment is able to activate distinctive trion and free exciton emissions even from highly defective MoSe2 layers. Our results suggest that the HBr treatment not only reduces the n-doping in MoSe2 but also reduces the structural defects. The results provide further insights of the control and tailoring the exciton emission from CVD-grown monolayer TMDCs.

  5. Methylseleninic Acid Enhances Paclitaxel Efficacy for the Treatment of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Yanfeng; Fu, Xueqi; Xiong, Zhenggang; Zhang, Haitao; Hill, Steven. M.; Rowan, Brian G.; Dong, Yan

    2012-01-01

    A major challenge in breast cancer therapy is the lack of an effective therapeutic option for a particularly aggressive subtype of breast cancer, triple-negative breast cancer. Here we provide the first preclinical evidence that a second-generation selenium compound, methylseleninic acid, significantly enhances the anticancer efficacy of paclitaxel in triple-negative breast cancer. Through combination-index value calculation, we demonstrated that methylseleninic acid synergistically enhanced ...

  6. Enhancement of the Electrical Properties of CVD-Grown Graphene with Ascorbic Acid Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chunmiao; Chen, Zhiying; Zhang, Haoran; Zhang, Yaqian; Zhang, Yanhui; Sui, Yanping; Yu, Guanghui; Cao, Yijiang

    2016-02-01

    Ascorbic acid was used to modify to chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphene films transferred onto SiO2 substrate. Residual polymer (polymethyl methacrylate), Fe3+, Cl-, H2O, and O2 affected the electrical and thermal properties on graphene during the transfer or device fabrication processes. Exposure of transferred graphene to ascorbic acid resulted in significantly enhanced electrical properties with increased charge carrier mobility. All devices exhibited more than 30% improvement in room temperature carrier mobility in air. The carrier mobility of the treated graphene did not significantly decrease in 21 days. This result can be attributed to electron donation to graphene through the -OH functional group in ascorbic acid that is absorbed in graphene. This work provides a method to enhance the electrical properties of CVD-grown graphene.

  7. Disinfection efficiency of peracetic acid, UV and ozone after enhanced primary treatment of municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehr, Ronald; Wagner, Monika; Veerasubramanian, Priya; Payment, Pierre

    2003-11-01

    The City of Montreal Wastewater Treatment Plant uses enhanced physicochemical processes (ferric and/or alum coagulation) for suspended solids and phosphorus removal. The objective of this study was to assess the ability of peracetic acid (PAA), UV, or ozone to inactivate the indicator organisms fecal coliforms, Enterococci, MS-2 coliphage, or Clostridium perfringens in the effluent from this plant. PAA doses to reach the target fecal coliform level of 9000 CFU/100mL exceeded 6 mg/L; similar results were obtained for enterococci, and no inactivation of Clostridium perfringens was observed. However a 1-log reduction of MS-2 occurred at PAA doses of 1.5 mg/L and higher. It was expected that this effluent would have a high ozone demand, and would require relatively high UV fluences, because of relatively high effluent COD, iron and suspended solids concentrations, and low UV transmittance. This was confirmed herein. For UV, the inactivation curve for fecal coliforms showed the typical two-stage shape, with the target of 1000 CFU/100 mL (to account for photoreactivation) occurring in the asymptote zone at fluences >20 mJ/cm(2). In contrast, inactivation curves for MS-2 and Clostridium perfringens were linear. Clostridium perfringens was the most resistant organism. For ozone, inactivation was already observed before any residuals could be measured. The transferred ozone doses to reach target fecal coliform levels ( approximately 2-log reduction) were 30-50 mg/L. MS-2 was less resistant, but Clostridium perfringens was more resistant than fecal coliforms. The different behaviour of the four indicator organisms studied, depending on the disinfectant, suggests that a single indicator organism might not be appropriate. The required dose of any of the disinfectants is unlikely to be economically viable, and upstream changes to the plant will be needed. PMID:14568042

  8. Enhanced Blood Compatibility of Metallocene Polyethylene Subjected to Hydrochloric Acid Treatment for Cardiovascular Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Saravana Kumar Jaganathan; Hemanth Mohandas; Gunalan Sivakumar; Palaniappan Kasi; Theertha Sudheer; Sruthi Avineri Veetil; Selvakumar Murugesan; Eko Supriyanto

    2014-01-01

    Blood compatibility of metallocene polyethylene (mPE) was investigated after modifying the surface using hydrochloric acid. Contact angle of the mPE exposed to HCl poses a decrease in its value which indicates increasing wettability and better blood compatibility. Surface of mPE analyzed by using FTIR revealed no significant changes in its functional groups after treatment. Furthermore, scanning electron microscope images supported the increasing wettability through the modifications like pit...

  9. Enhanced Photocatalytic Performance of ZnS for Reversible Amination of ?-oxo Acids by Hydrothermal Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Qiliang; Liu, Xiaoyang; Yang, Yanqiang; Su, Wenhui

    2012-08-01

    To understand how life could have originated on early Earth, it is essential to know what biomolecules and metabolic pathways are shared by extant organisms and what organic compounds and their chemical reaction channels were likely to have been primordially available during the initial phase of the formation of prebiotic metabolism. In a previous study, we demonstrated for the first time the reversible amination of ?-oxo acids on the surface of photo-illuminated ZnS. The sulfide mineral is a typical component at the periphery of submarine hydrothermal vents which has been frequently argued as a very attractive venue for the origin of life. In this work, in order to simulate more closely the precipitation environments of ZnS in the vent systems, we treated newly-precipitated ZnS with hydrothermal conditions and found that its photocatalytic power was significantly enhanced because the relative crystallinity of the treated sample was markedly increased with increasing temperature. Since the reported experimental conditions are believed to have been prevalent in shallow-water hydrothermal vents of early Earth and the reversible amination of ?-oxo acids is a key metabolic pathway in all extant life forms, the results of this work provide a prototypical model of the prebiotic amino acid redox metabolism. The amino acid dehydrogenase-like chemistry on photo-irradiated ZnS surfaces may advance our understanding of the establishment of archaic non-enzymatic metabolic systems.

  10. Enhanced suppression of tumor growth by concomitant treatment of human lung cancer cells with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid and arsenic trioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficacy of arsenic trioxide (ATO) against acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and relapsed APL has been well documented. ATO may cause DNA damage by generating reactive oxygen intermediates. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, modulates gene and protein expression via histone-dependent or -independent pathways that may result in chromatin decondensation, cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis. We investigated whether ATO and SAHA act synergistically to enhance the death of cancer cells. Our current findings showed that combined treatment with ATO and SAHA resulted in enhanced suppression of non-small-cell lung carcinoma in vitro in H1299 cells and in vivo in a xenograft mouse model. Flow cytometric analysis of annexin V+ cells showed that apoptotic cell death was significantly enhanced after combined treatment with ATO and SAHA. At the doses used, ATO did not interfere with cell cycle progression, but SAHA induced p21 expression and led to G1 arrest. A Comet assay demonstrated that ATO, but not SAHA, induced DNA strand breaks in H1299 cells; however, co-treatment with SAHA significantly increased ATO-induced DNA damage. Moreover, SAHA enhanced acetylation of histone H3 and sensitized genomic DNA to DNase I digestion. Our results suggest that SAHA may cause chromatin relaxation and increase cellular susceptibility to ATO-induced DNA damage. Combined administration of SAHA and ATO may be an effective approach to the treatment of lung cancer. -- Highlights: ? ATO and SAHA are therapeutic agents with different action modes. ? Combination of ATO and SAHA synergistically inhibits tumor cell growth. ? SAHA loosens chromatin structure resulting in increased sensitivity to DNase I. ? ATO-induced DNA damage and apoptosis are enhanced by co-treatment with SAHA.

  11. Enhanced suppression of tumor growth by concomitant treatment of human lung cancer cells with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid and arsenic trioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, Chia-Wen [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 11490, Taiwan (China); Yao, Ju-Hsien [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Institute of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan (China); Chang, Shih-Yu [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Lee, Pei-Chih [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Institute of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan (China); Lee, Te-Chang, E-mail: bmtcl@ibms.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Institute of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan (China)

    2011-11-15

    The efficacy of arsenic trioxide (ATO) against acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and relapsed APL has been well documented. ATO may cause DNA damage by generating reactive oxygen intermediates. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, modulates gene and protein expression via histone-dependent or -independent pathways that may result in chromatin decondensation, cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis. We investigated whether ATO and SAHA act synergistically to enhance the death of cancer cells. Our current findings showed that combined treatment with ATO and SAHA resulted in enhanced suppression of non-small-cell lung carcinoma in vitro in H1299 cells and in vivo in a xenograft mouse model. Flow cytometric analysis of annexin V+ cells showed that apoptotic cell death was significantly enhanced after combined treatment with ATO and SAHA. At the doses used, ATO did not interfere with cell cycle progression, but SAHA induced p21 expression and led to G1 arrest. A Comet assay demonstrated that ATO, but not SAHA, induced DNA strand breaks in H1299 cells; however, co-treatment with SAHA significantly increased ATO-induced DNA damage. Moreover, SAHA enhanced acetylation of histone H3 and sensitized genomic DNA to DNase I digestion. Our results suggest that SAHA may cause chromatin relaxation and increase cellular susceptibility to ATO-induced DNA damage. Combined administration of SAHA and ATO may be an effective approach to the treatment of lung cancer. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATO and SAHA are therapeutic agents with different action modes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination of ATO and SAHA synergistically inhibits tumor cell growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SAHA loosens chromatin structure resulting in increased sensitivity to DNase I. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATO-induced DNA damage and apoptosis are enhanced by co-treatment with SAHA.

  12. O-6-methylguanine-deoxyribonucleic acid methyltransferase methylation enhances response to temozolomide treatment in esophageal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifat Hasina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: World-wide, esophageal cancer is a growing epidemic and patients frequently present with advanced disease that is surgically inoperable. Hence, chemotherapy is the predominate treatment. Cytotoxic platinum compounds are mostly used, but their efficacy is only moderate. Newer alkylating agents have shown promise in other tumor types, but little is known about their utility in esophageal cancer. Methods: We utilized archived human esophageal cancer samples and esophageal cancer cell lines to evaluate O-6-methylguanine-deoxyribonucleic acid methyltransferase (MGMT hypermethylation status and determined sensitivity to the alkylating drug temozolomide (TMZ. Immunoblot analysis was performed to determine MGMT protein expression in cell lines. To assess and confirm the effect of TMZ treatment in a methylated esophageal cancer cell line in vivo, a mouse flank xenograft tumor model was utilized. Results: Nearly 71% (12/17 of adenocarcinoma and 38% (3/8 of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC patient samples were MGMT hypermethylated. Out of four adenocarcinoma and nine SCC cell lines tested, one of each histology was hypermethylated. Immunoblot analyses confirmed that hypermethylated cell lines did not express the MGMT protein. In vitro cell viability assays showed the methylated Kyse-140 and FLO cells to be sensitive to TMZ at an IC 50 of 52-420 ?M, whereas unmethylated cells Kyse-410 and SKGT-4 did not respond. In an in vivo xenograft tumor model with Kyse-140 cells, which are MGMT hypermethylated, TMZ treatment abrogated tumor growth by more than 60%. Conclusion: MGMT methylation may be an important biomarker in subsets of esophageal cancers and targeting by TMZ may be utilized to successfully treat these patients.

  13. Plasma treatment induces internal surface modifications of electrospun poly(L-lactic) acid scaffold to enhance protein coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced biomaterials should also be bioactive with regard to desirable cellular responses, such as selective protein adsorption and cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. To enhance cell-material interactions, surface modifications have commonly been performed. Among the various surface modification approaches, atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma has been used to change a hydrophobic polymer surface to a hydrophilic surface. Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA)-derived scaffolds lack cell recognition signals and the hydrophobic nature of PLLA hinders cell seeding. To make PLLA surfaces more conducive to cell attachment and spreading, surface modifications may be used to create cell-biomaterial interfaces that elicit controlled cell adhesion and maintain differentiated phenotypes. In this study, (He) gaseous atmospheric plasma glow discharge was used to change the characteristics of a 3D-type polymeric scaffold from hydrophobic to hydrophilic on both the outer and inner surfaces of the scaffold and the penetration efficiency with fibronectin was investigated. Field-emission scanning electron microscope images showed that some grooves were formed on the PLLA fibers after plasma treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data also showed chemical changes in the PLLA structure. After plasma treatment, -CN (285.76 eV) was increased in C1s and -NH2 (399.70 eV) was increased significantly and N=CH (400.80 eV) and NH3+ (402.05 eV) were newly appeared in N1s. These changes allowed fibronectin to penetrate into the PLLA scaffold; this could be observed by confocal microscopy. In conclusion, helium atmospheric pressure plasma treatment was effective in modifying the polymeric scaffold, making it hydrophilic, and this treatment can also be used in tissue engineering research as needed to make polymers hydrophilic

  14. Plasma treatment induces internal surface modifications of electrospun poly(L-lactic) acid scaffold to enhance protein coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Seo, Hyok; Hee Lee, Mi; Kwon, Byeong-Ju; Kim, Hye-Lee; Park, Jong-Chul [Cellbiocontrol Laboratory, Department of Medical Engineering, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Jin Lee, Seung [Department of Industrial Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bong-Jin; Wang, Kang-Kyun; Kim, Yong-Rok [Department of Chemistry, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-21

    Advanced biomaterials should also be bioactive with regard to desirable cellular responses, such as selective protein adsorption and cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. To enhance cell-material interactions, surface modifications have commonly been performed. Among the various surface modification approaches, atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma has been used to change a hydrophobic polymer surface to a hydrophilic surface. Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA)-derived scaffolds lack cell recognition signals and the hydrophobic nature of PLLA hinders cell seeding. To make PLLA surfaces more conducive to cell attachment and spreading, surface modifications may be used to create cell-biomaterial interfaces that elicit controlled cell adhesion and maintain differentiated phenotypes. In this study, (He) gaseous atmospheric plasma glow discharge was used to change the characteristics of a 3D-type polymeric scaffold from hydrophobic to hydrophilic on both the outer and inner surfaces of the scaffold and the penetration efficiency with fibronectin was investigated. Field-emission scanning electron microscope images showed that some grooves were formed on the PLLA fibers after plasma treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data also showed chemical changes in the PLLA structure. After plasma treatment, -CN (285.76 eV) was increased in C1s and -NH{sub 2} (399.70 eV) was increased significantly and N=CH (400.80 eV) and NH{sub 3}{sup +} (402.05 eV) were newly appeared in N1s. These changes allowed fibronectin to penetrate into the PLLA scaffold; this could be observed by confocal microscopy. In conclusion, helium atmospheric pressure plasma treatment was effective in modifying the polymeric scaffold, making it hydrophilic, and this treatment can also be used in tissue engineering research as needed to make polymers hydrophilic.

  15. Plasma treatment induces internal surface modifications of electrospun poly(L-lactic) acid scaffold to enhance protein coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin Seo, Hyok; Hee Lee, Mi; Kwon, Byeong-Ju; Kim, Hye-Lee; Jin Lee, Seung; Kim, Bong-Jin; Wang, Kang-Kyun; Kim, Yong-Rok; Park, Jong-Chul

    2013-08-01

    Advanced biomaterials should also be bioactive with regard to desirable cellular responses, such as selective protein adsorption and cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. To enhance cell-material interactions, surface modifications have commonly been performed. Among the various surface modification approaches, atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma has been used to change a hydrophobic polymer surface to a hydrophilic surface. Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA)-derived scaffolds lack cell recognition signals and the hydrophobic nature of PLLA hinders cell seeding. To make PLLA surfaces more conducive to cell attachment and spreading, surface modifications may be used to create cell-biomaterial interfaces that elicit controlled cell adhesion and maintain differentiated phenotypes. In this study, (He) gaseous atmospheric plasma glow discharge was used to change the characteristics of a 3D-type polymeric scaffold from hydrophobic to hydrophilic on both the outer and inner surfaces of the scaffold and the penetration efficiency with fibronectin was investigated. Field-emission scanning electron microscope images showed that some grooves were formed on the PLLA fibers after plasma treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data also showed chemical changes in the PLLA structure. After plasma treatment, -CN (285.76 eV) was increased in C1s and -NH2 (399.70 eV) was increased significantly and -N=CH (400.80 eV) and -NH3+ (402.05 eV) were newly appeared in N1s. These changes allowed fibronectin to penetrate into the PLLA scaffold; this could be observed by confocal microscopy. In conclusion, helium atmospheric pressure plasma treatment was effective in modifying the polymeric scaffold, making it hydrophilic, and this treatment can also be used in tissue engineering research as needed to make polymers hydrophilic.

  16. The xenobiotic ?-aminobutyric acid enhances Arabidopsis thermotolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerli, Laurent; Hou, Bi-Huei; Tsai, Chia-Hong; Jakab, Gabor; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Somerville, Shauna

    2009-01-01

    The non-protein amino acid ?-aminobutyric acid (BABA) primes Arabidopsis to respond more quickly and strongly to pathogen and osmotic stress. Here, we report that BABA also significantly enhances acquired thermotolerance in Arabidopsis. This thermotolerance was dependent on heat shock protein 101, a critical component of the normal heat-shock response. BABA did not enhance basal thermotolerance under a severe heat-shock treatment. No roles for the hormones ethylene and salicylic acid in BABA-...

  17. Facile, room-temperature pre-treatment of rice husks with tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide: Enhanced enzymatic and acid hydrolysis yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, B B Y; Luis, E T; Hossain, M M; Hart, W E S; Cencia-Lay, B; Black, J J; To, T Q; Aldous, L

    2015-12-01

    Aqueous solutions of tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide have been evaluated as pretreatment media for rice husks, prior to sulphuric acid hydrolysis or cellulase enzymatic hydrolysis. Varying the water:tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide ratio varied the rate of delignification, as well as silica, lignin and cellulose solubility. Pre-treatment with 60wt% hydroxide dissolved the rice husk and the regenerated material was thus heavily disrupted. Sulphuric acid hydrolysis of 60wt%-treated samples yielded the highest amount of glucose per gram of rice husk. Solutions with good lignin and silica solubility but only moderate to negligible cellulose solubility (10-40wt% hydroxide) were equally effective as pre-treatment media for both acid and enzymatic hydrolysis. However, pre-treatment with 60wt% hydroxide solutions was incompatible with downstream enzymatic hydrolysis. This was due to significant incorporation of phosphonium species in the regenerated biomass, which significantly inhibited the activity of the cellulase enzymes. PMID:26342336

  18. Combined free nitrous acid and hydrogen peroxide pre-treatment of waste activated sludge enhances methane production via organic molecule breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Wang, Qilin; Ye, Liu; Batstone, Damien; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a novel pre-treatment strategy using combined free nitrous acid (FNA i.e. HNO2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to enhance methane production from WAS, with the mechanisms investigated bio-molecularly. WAS from a full-scale plant was treated with FNA alone (1.54?mg N/L), H2O2 alone (1080?mg/g TS), and their combinations followed by biochemical methane potential tests. Combined FNA and H2O2 pre-treatment substantially enhanced methane potential of WAS by 5983%, compared to 1323% and 56% with H2O2 pre-treatment alone and FNA pre-treatment alone respectively. Model-based analysis indicated the increased methane potential was mainly associated with up to 163% increase in rapidly biodegradable fraction with combined pre-treatment. The molecular weight distribution and chemical structure analyses revealed the breakdown of soluble macromolecules with the combined pre-treatment caused by the deamination and oxidation of the typical functional groups in proteins, polysaccharides and phosphodiesters. These changes likely improved the biodegradability of WAS. PMID:26565653

  19. Combined free nitrous acid and hydrogen peroxide pre-treatment of waste activated sludge enhances methane production via organic molecule breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Wang, Qilin; Ye, Liu; Batstone, Damien; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-11-01

    This study presents a novel pre-treatment strategy using combined free nitrous acid (FNA i.e. HNO2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to enhance methane production from WAS, with the mechanisms investigated bio-molecularly. WAS from a full-scale plant was treated with FNA alone (1.54 mg N/L), H2O2 alone (10–80 mg/g TS), and their combinations followed by biochemical methane potential tests. Combined FNA and H2O2 pre-treatment substantially enhanced methane potential of WAS by 59–83%, compared to 13–23% and 56% with H2O2 pre-treatment alone and FNA pre-treatment alone respectively. Model-based analysis indicated the increased methane potential was mainly associated with up to 163% increase in rapidly biodegradable fraction with combined pre-treatment. The molecular weight distribution and chemical structure analyses revealed the breakdown of soluble macromolecules with the combined pre-treatment caused by the deamination and oxidation of the typical functional groups in proteins, polysaccharides and phosphodiesters. These changes likely improved the biodegradability of WAS.

  20. Sec61alpha synthesis is enhanced during translocation of nascent chains of collagen type IV in F9 teratocarcinoma cells after retinoic acid treatment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L.R., Ferreira; C.E.E., Velano; E.C., Braga; C.C., Paula; H., Martli Junior; J.J., Sauk.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nascent procollagen peptides and other secretory proteins are transported across the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane through a protein-conducting channel called translocon. Sec61alpha, a multispanning membrane translocon protein, has been implicated as being essential for translocation of polype [...] ptide chains into the cisterns of the ER. Sec61alpha forms a protein complex with collagen and Hsp47, an ER-resident heat shock protein that binds specifically to collagen. However, it is not known whether Sec61alpha is ubiquitously produced in collagen-producing F9 teratocarcinoma cells or under heat shock treatment. Furthermore, the production and utilization of Sec61alpha may depend on the stage of cell differentiation. Cultured F9 teratocarcinoma cells are capable of differentiation in response to low concentrations of retinoic acid. This differentiation results in loss of tumorigenicity. Mouse F9 cells were grown in culture medium at 37C and 43C (heat shock treatment) treated or not with retinoic acid, and labeled in certain instances with 35S-methionine. Membrane-bound polysomes of procollagen IV were then isolated. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis were performed using polyclonal antibodies against collagen IV, Hsp47 and Sec61alpha. Under retinoic acid-untreated conditions, F9 cells produced undetectable amounts of Sec61alpha. Sec61alpha, Hsp47 and type IV collagen levels were increased after retinoic acid treatment. Heat shock treatment did not alter Sec61alpha levels, suggesting that Sec61alpha production is probably not affected by heat shock. These data indicate that the enhanced production of Sec61alpha in retinoic acid-induced F9 teratocarcinoma cells parallels the increased synthesis of Hsp47 and collagen type IV.

  1. Evaluation of Seed and Seedling Emergence Enhancement of Some Population of Sahandy Savory (Satureja sahendica by Gibberlic Acid, Potasium Nitrate, Pre-cooling, Physical and Chemical Scarification Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tabaie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In greenhouse experiment, the seed samples of 3 populations were treated with treatments including: cold stratification, Gibberlic Acid (50 ppm and 100 ppm, Potassium nitrate (0.2%, 0.4%, physical scarification (sand paper, chemical scarification (Ethylic alcohol 70% and distilled water (control, then these treated seed samples were sown in pots as randomize design with three replication. The germination characteristics including: germination percentage, speed of germination, length of root and shoot, seedling length, ratio of root length by shoot length, vigor index, fresh weight and dry weight, ratio of dry weight by fresh weight were evaluated during 45 days of experiment. Comparing between three populations of Sahandy savory, seed germination characteristics of the Ghazvin population was higher than the other two populations. According to effect of treatment on germination seed characteristics, the species of savory and their population, it was concluded that effect of Gibberlic Acid and Potassium nitrate was higher than physical scarification and chemical scarification comparing with control. With more effective of gibberlic acid and KNO3 and cold treatment on seed germination enhancement of the population, it was clarified that the type of dormancy of some population of Sahandy savory was physiological dormancy.

  2. Evaluation of seed and seedling emergence enhancement of some population of Sahandy savory (Satureja sahendica) by gibberlic acid, potasium nitrate, pre-cooling, physical and chemical scarification treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, M A; Arab, H A; Tabaie, R; Nasiri, M

    2013-10-15

    In greenhouse experiment, the seed samples of 3 populations were treated with treatments including: cold stratification, Gibberlic Acid (50 ppm and 100 ppm), Potassium nitrate (0.2%, 0.4%), physical scarification (sand paper), chemical scarification (Ethylic alcohol 70%) and distilled water (control), then these treated seed samples were sown in pots as randomize design with three replication. The germination characteristics including: germination percentage, speed of germination, length of root and shoot, seedling length, ratio of root length by shoot length, vigor index, fresh weight arid dry weight, ratio of dry weight by fresh weight were evaluated during 45 days of experiment. Comparing between three populations of Sahandy savory, seed germination characteristics of the Ghazvin population was higher than the other two populations. According to effect of treatment on germination seed characteristics, the species of savory and their population, it was concluded that effect of Gibberlic Acid and Potassium nitrate was higher than physical scarification and chemical scarification comparing with control. With more effective of gibberlic acid and KNO3 and cold treatment on seed germination enhancement of the population, it was clarified that the type of dormancy of some population of Sahandy savory was physiological dormancy. PMID:24506025

  3. Post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 using aerobic moving bed biofilm process: Enhanced removal of aromatic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Biofilm process was applied as post-treatment of anaerobically degraded an azo dye. ? More than 65% of the dye total metabolites was completely mineralized. ? Based on HPLC analysis, more than 80% of 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate was removed. ? Inhibition of biofilm growth was increased with increasing the initial dye concentration. ? Considerable porous morphology was observed in the SEM photographs of the biofilm. - Abstract: The application of aerobic moving bed biofilm process as post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 was investigated in this study. The main objective of this work was to enhance removal of anaerobically formed the dye aromatic metabolites. Three separate sequential treatment systems were operated with different initial dye concentrations of 100, 500 and 1000 mg/L. Each treatment system consisted of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (An-SBR) followed by an aerobic moving bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor (MB-SBBR). Up to 98% of the dye decolorization and more than 80% of the COD removal occurred anaerobically. The obtained results suggested no significant difference in COD removal as well as the dye decolorization efficiency using three An-SBRs receiving different initial dye concentrations. Monitoring the dye metabolites through HPLC suggested that more than 80% of anaerobically formed 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate was completely removed in the aerobic biofilm reactors. Based on COD analysis results, at least 65-72% of the dye total metabolites were mineralized during the applied treatment systems. According to the measured biofilm mass and also based on respiration-inhibition test results, increasing the initial dye concentration inhibited the growth and final mass of the attached-growth biofilm in MB-SBBRs.

  4. Enhancement of colposcopic image by sulphosalicylic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khilnani P

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Acetic acid is used conventionally for enhancement of the colposcopic image. We used sulphosalicylic acid instead of acetic acid in 50 normal cases. The normal appearance was enhanced in all cases. The image was also enhanced in 70% cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 90% cases of cervical condyloma accuminata. The image was not inferior to that with acetic acid in any of the cases.

  5. Treatment of acid mine wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid mine drainage often results from the oxidation sulfide minerals to form sulfuric acid. As a consequence, high concentrations of metals in the both the suspended and dissolved state result from the low pH water. This paper discusses several of the more common treatment methods for acid mine drainage including the use of chemical precipitation agents, pH correction agents, filtration methods, and biodegradation methods. Advanced treatment technologies are also briefly described and include microfiltration, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, and electrodialysis

  6. Bacterial lipoteichoic acid enhances cryosurvival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Charles V; Middaugh, Amy; Wickham, Jason R; Friedline, Anthony; Thomas, Kieth J; Scull, Erin; Johnson, Karen; Zachariah, Malcolm; Garimella, Ravindranth

    2015-03-01

    Antifreeze proteins in fish, plants, and insects provide protection to a few degrees below freezing. Microbes have been found to survive at even lower temperatures, and with a few exceptions, antifreeze proteins are missing. We show that lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a biopolymer in the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria, can be added to B. subtilis cultures and increase freeze tolerance. At 1 % w/v, LTA enables a 50 % survival rate, similar to the results obtained with 1 % w/v glycerol as measured with the resazurin cell viability assay. In the absence of added LTA or glycerol, a very small number of B. subtilis cells survive freezing. This suggests that an innate freeze tolerance mechanism exists. While cryoprotection can be provided by extracellular polymeric substances, our data demonstrate a role for LTA in cryoprotection. Currently, the exact mode of action for LTA cryoprotection is unknown. With a molecular weight of 3-5 kDa, it is unlikely to enter the cell cytoplasm. However, low temperature microscopy data show small ice crystals aligned along channels of liquid water. Our observations suggest that teichoic acids could protect liquid water within biofilms and planktonic bacteria, augmenting the role of brine while also raising the possibility for survival without brine present. PMID:25477208

  7. Model application for acid mine drainage treatment processes

    OpenAIRE

    Nantaporn Noosai, Vineeth Vijayan, Khokiat Kengskool

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the utilization of the geochemical model, PHREEQC, to investigate the chemical treatment system for Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) prior to the discharge. The selected treatment system consists of treatment processes commonly used for AMD including settling pond, vertical flow pond (VFP) and caustic soda pond were considered in this study. The use of geochemical model for the treatment process analysis enhances the understanding of the changes in AMD’s chemistry (precipitation, ...

  8. Bile acids in treatment of ocular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Boatright, Jeffrey H.; Nickerson, John M.; Moring, Anisha G.; Pardue, Machelle T

    2009-01-01

    Bear bile has been included in Asian pharmacopeias for thousands of years in treatment of several diseases, ranging from sore throat to hemorrhoids. The hydrophilic bile acids tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) are the major bile acids of bear bile. Both of these are available as synthetic formulations and are approved by the health administrations of several countries for treatment of cirrhosis and gallstones. This review briefly covers the use of bear bile in ...

  9. Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research News From NIH Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents ... that people who are trying to end their addiction to marijuana can benefit from a treatment program ...

  10. Enhanced acid tolerance of Rhizopus oryzae during fumaric acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Lv, Chunwei; Xu, Qing; Li, Shuang; Huang, He; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2015-02-01

    Ensuring a suitable pH in the culture broth is a major problem in microorganism-assisted industrial fermentation of organic acids. To address this issue, we investigated the physiological changes in Rhizopus oryzae at different extracellular pH levels and attempted to solve the issue of cell shortage under low pH conditions. We compared various parameters, such as membrane fatty acids' composition, intracellular pH, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration. It was found that the shortage of intracellular ATP might be the main reason for the low rate of fumaric acid production by R. oryzae under low pH conditions. When 1 g/l citrate was added to the culture medium at pH 3.0, the intracellular ATP concentration increased from 0.4 to 0.7 mol/mg, and the fumaric acid titer was enhanced by 63% compared with the control (pH 3.0 without citrate addition). The final fumaric acid concentration at pH 3.0 reached 21.9 g/l after 96 h of fermentation. This strategy is simple and feasible for industrial fumaric acid production under low pH conditions. PMID:25190324

  11. Surgical Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Live Surgical Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux Shawnee Mission Medical Center Shawnee Mission, Kansas May 21, 2009 Welcome to this OR-Live webcast presentation live from Shawnee Mission ...

  12. Surgical Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux Shawnee Mission Medical Center Shawnee Mission, Kansas May 21, 2009 Welcome ... OR-Live webcast presentation live from Shawnee Mission Medical Center in Merriam, Kansas. During the program its ...

  13. Surgical Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Live Surgical Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux Shawnee Mission Medical Center Shawnee Mission, Kansas May 21, 2009 Welcome to this “OR-Live” webcast presentation live from Shawnee Mission Medical Center ...

  14. [Injection treatment with hyaluronic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerosch, J

    2015-11-01

    This article presents the spectrum of indications for the use of hyaluronic acid (HA) based on the recommendations of the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR), the American College of Rheumatology (ACR), the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI), the International Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) and the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) taking the reality of patient care in Europe into account. PMID:26431953

  15. Enhancing adolescent substance abuse treatment engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Paula T

    2008-06-01

    Trends in adolescent drug use are encouraging and suggest the importance of preventative programs for youth. Yet, among those who become involved with illicit substances and seek treatment, only a fraction report positive outcomes. This article describes an approach to enhance adolescent participation in substance abuse treatment. Aspects of the transtheoretical model are integrated into a treatment program designed to meet the unique developmental needs of adolescent alcohol and marijuana abusers. The result is a treatment that better engages adolescents in participation, thereby increasing the likelihood for treatment success. PMID:18720667

  16. Effect of Enhancing Urea-Humic Acid Mixture with Refined Acid Sulphate Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd T.M. Yusuff

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Acid Sulphate Soil (ASS is a problem soil partly because of its high acidity. This low pH could be exploited to reduce ammonia loss from urea by reducing soil microsite pH. The use Humic Acid (HA to control ammonia loss from urea has been reported but the cost of this material is high. This laboratory study compared the effect of enhancing urea-humic acid mixtures with acid sulphate soil on NH3 loss, pH, exchangeable ammonium and available nitrate contents. Approach: Humic acid, acid sulfate soil and soil used in the incubation study were analyzed for selected soil physical-chemical properties using standard procedures. Urea-HA-ASS mixtures were prepared and ammonia volatilization of the mixtures was evaluated by the closed-dynamic air flow system. The treatments were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Standard procedures were used to determine ammonia loss, soil pH, exchangeable ammonium and available nitrate at 22 days of incubation. Data obtained were analyzed using analysis of variance and Duncan's test using Statistical Analysis System (SAS version 9.2. Results: Urea amended with 0.75 g ASS significantly reduced ammonia volatilization. Although the use of appropriate amount of acid sulphate soil to control ammonia loss is possible, excessive use of this material is not recommended because of Fe in it. Conclusion: Urea amended with 0.75 g ASS reduced ammonia.

  17. Model application for acid mine drainage treatment processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nantaporn Noosai, Vineeth Vijayan, Khokiat Kengskool

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the utilization of the geochemical model, PHREEQC, to investigate the chemical treatment system for Acid Mine Drainage (AMD prior to the discharge. The selected treatment system consists of treatment processes commonly used for AMD including settling pond, vertical flow pond (VFP and caustic soda pond were considered in this study. The use of geochemical model for the treatment process analysis enhances the understanding of the changes in AMD’s chemistry (precipitation, reduction of metals, etc. in each process, thus, the chemical requirements (i.e., CaCO3 and NaOH for the system and the system’s treatment efficiency can be determined. The selected treatment system showed that the final effluent meet the discharge standard. The utilization of geochemical model to investigate AMD treatment processes can assist in the process design.

  18. Enhancing pitting corrosion resistance of AlxCrFe1.5MnNi0.5 high-entropy alloys by anodic treatment in sulfuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-entropy alloys are a newly developed family of multi-component alloys that comprise various major alloying elements. Each element in the alloy system is present in between 5 and 35 at.%. The crystal structures and physical properties of high-entropy alloys differ completely from those of conventional alloys. The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) of the AlxCrFe1.5MnNi0.5 (x = 0, 0.3, 0.5) alloys, obtained in 0.1 M HCl solution, clearly revealed that the corrosion resistance values were determined to increase from 21 to 34 ?cm2 as the aluminum content increased from 0 to 0.5 mol, and were markedly lower than that of 304 stainless steel (243 ?cm2). At passive potential, the corresponding current declined with the anodizing time accounting, causing passivity by the growth of the multi-component anodized film in H2SO4 solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses revealed that the surface of anodized Al0.3CrFe1.5MnNi0.5 alloy formed aluminum and chromium oxide film which was the main passivating compound on the alloy. This anodic treatment increased the corrosion resistance in the EIS measurements of the CrFe1.5MnNi0.5 and Al0.3CrFe1.5MnNi0.5 alloys by two orders of magnitude. Accordingly, the anodic treatment of the AlxCrFe1.5MnNi0.5 alloys optimized their surface structures and minimized their susceptibility to pitting corrosion

  19. UV Treatment Enhances Flavonoid Content in Blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treatment of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum, cv. Sierra) with UV-C at 2.15 or 4.30 kJ m-2 enhanced blueberry fruit content of flavonoids including resveratrol, myricetin 3-arabinoside, quercetin 3-galactoside, quercetin 3-arabinoside, quercetin derivative, kaempferol 3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-ga...

  20. Organic acids enhanced decoloration of azo dye in gas phase surface discharge plasma system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiecheng; Qu, Guangzhou; Ren, Jingyu; Sun, Qiuhong; Liang, Dongli; Hu, Shibin

    2016-01-25

    A gas phase surface discharge plasma combined with organic acids system was developed to enhance active species mass transfer and dye-containing wastewater treatment efficacy, with Acid Orange II (AO7) as the model pollutant. The effects of discharge voltage and various organic acid additives (acetic acid, lactic acid and nonoic acid) on AO7 decoloration efficiency were evaluated. The experimental results showed that an AO7 decoloration efficiency of approximately 69.0% was obtained within 4min of discharge plasma treatment without organic acid addition, which was improved to 82.8%, 83.5% and 88.6% within the same treatment time with the addition of acetic acid, lactic acid and nonoic acid, respectively. The enhancement effects on AO7 decoloration efficiency could be attributed to the decrease in aqueous surface tension, improvement in bubble distribution and shape, and increase in ozone equivalent concentration. The AO7 wastewater was biodegradable after discharge plasma treatment with the addition of organic acid. AO7 decomposition intermediates were analyzed by UV-vis spectrometry and GC-MS; 2-naphthol, 1,4-benzoquinone, phthalic anhydride, coumarin, 1,2-naphthoquinone, and 2-formyl-benzoic acid were detected. A possible pathway for AO7 decomposition in this system was proposed. PMID:26444488

  1. Bacterial Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase for Water Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Sujin; Mutlu, Baris R; Aksan, Alptekin; Wackett, Lawrence P

    2015-10-01

    Di- and trichloroisocyanuric acids are widely used as water disinfection agents, but cyanuric acid accumulates with repeated additions and must be removed to maintain free hypochlorite for disinfection. This study describes the development of methods for using a cyanuric acid-degrading enzyme contained within nonliving cells that were encapsulated within a porous silica matrix. Initially, three different bacterial cyanuric acid hydrolases were compared: TrzD from Acidovorax citrulli strain 12227, AtzD from Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP, and CAH from Moorella thermoacetica ATCC 39073. Each enzyme was expressed recombinantly in Escherichia coli and tested for cyanuric acid hydrolase activity using freely suspended or encapsulated cell formats. Cyanuric acid hydrolase activities differed by only a 2-fold range when comparing across the different enzymes with a given format. A practical water filtration system is most likely to be used with nonviable cells, and all cells were rendered nonviable by heat treatment at 70C for 1 h. Only the CAH enzyme from the thermophile M. thermoacetica retained significant activity under those conditions, and so it was tested in a flowthrough system simulating a bioreactive pool filter. Starting with a cyanuric acid concentration of 10,000 ?M, more than 70% of the cyanuric acid was degraded in 24 h, it was completely removed in 72 h, and a respike of 10,000 ?M cyanuric acid a week later showed identical biodegradation kinetics. An experiment conducted with water obtained from municipal swimming pools showed the efficacy of the process, although cyanuric acid degradation rates decreased by 50% in the presence of 4.5 ppm hypochlorite. In total, these experiments demonstrated significant robustness of cyanuric acid hydrolase and the silica bead materials in remediation. PMID:26187963

  2. Enhanced integrated nonthermal treatment system study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Enhanced Nonthermal Treatment Systems (ENTS) study is to evaluate alternative configurations of one of the five systems evaluated in the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) study. Five alternative configurations are evaluated. Each is designed to enhance the final waste form performance by replacing grout with improved stabilization technologies, or to improve system performance by improving the destruction efficiency for organic contaminants. AU enhanced systems are alternative configurations of System NT-5, which has the following characteristics: Nonthermal System NT-5: (1) catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) to treat organic material including organic liquids, sludges, and soft (or combustible) debris, (2) thermal desorption of inorganic sludge and process residue, (3) washing of soil and inorganic debris with treatment by CWO of removed organic material, (4) metal decontamination by abrasive blasting, (5) stabilization of treated sludge, soil, debris, and untreated debris with entrained contamination in grout, and (6) stabilization of inorganic sludge, salts and secondary waste in polymer. System NT-5 was chosen because it was designed to treat combustible debris thereby minimizing the final waste form volume, and because it uses grout for primary stabilization. The enhanced nonthermal systems were studied to determine the cost and performance impact of replacing grout (a commonly used stabilization agent in the DOE complex) with improved waste stabilization methods such as vitrification and polymer

  3. Enhanced integrated nonthermal treatment system study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biagi, C.; Schwinkendorf, B.; Teheranian, B.

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of the Enhanced Nonthermal Treatment Systems (ENTS) study is to evaluate alternative configurations of one of the five systems evaluated in the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) study. Five alternative configurations are evaluated. Each is designed to enhance the final waste form performance by replacing grout with improved stabilization technologies, or to improve system performance by improving the destruction efficiency for organic contaminants. AU enhanced systems are alternative configurations of System NT-5, which has the following characteristics: Nonthermal System NT-5: (1) catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) to treat organic material including organic liquids, sludges, and soft (or combustible) debris, (2) thermal desorption of inorganic sludge and process residue, (3) washing of soil and inorganic debris with treatment by CWO of removed organic material, (4) metal decontamination by abrasive blasting, (5) stabilization of treated sludge, soil, debris, and untreated debris with entrained contamination in grout, and (6) stabilization of inorganic sludge, salts and secondary waste in polymer. System NT-5 was chosen because it was designed to treat combustible debris thereby minimizing the final waste form volume, and because it uses grout for primary stabilization. The enhanced nonthermal systems were studied to determine the cost and performance impact of replacing grout (a commonly used stabilization agent in the DOE complex) with improved waste stabilization methods such as vitrification and polymer.

  4. Ethacrynic acid: a novel radiation enhancer in human carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Because agents that interfere with thiol metabolism and glutathione S-transferase (GST) functions have been shown to enhance antitumor effects of alkylating agents in vitro and in vivo, the present study was conceived on the basis that an inhibitor of GST would enhance the radiation response of some selected human carcinoma cells. Ethacrynic acid (EA) was chosen for the study because it is an effective inhibitor of GST and is a well known diuretic in humans. Methods and Materials: Experiments were carried out with well-established human tumor cells in culture growing in Eagle's minimum essential medium (MEM) supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS). Cell lines used were MCF-7, MCF-7 adriamycin resistant (AR) cells (breast carcinoma), HT-29 cells (colon carcinoma), DU-145 cells (prostate carcinoma), and U-373 cells (malignant glioma). Cell survival following the exposure of cells to drug alone, radiation alone, and a combined treatment was assayed by determining the colony-forming ability of single plated cells in culture to obtain dose-survival curves. The drug enhancement ratio was correlated with levels of GST. Results: The cytotoxicity of EA was most pronounced in MCF-7, U-373, and DU-145 cells compared to MCF-7 AR and HT-29 cells. The levels of GST activity were found to be lower in those EA-sensitive cells. A significant radiation enhancement was obtained with EA-sensitive cells exposed to nontoxic concentrations of the drug immediately before or after irradiation. The sensitizer enhancement ratio (SER) of MCF-7 cells was 1.55 with EA (20 ?g/ml), while the SER of MCF-7 AR was less than 1.1. Based on five different human tumor cells, a clear inverse relationship was demonstrated between the magnitude of SER and GST levels of tumor cells prior to the combined treatment. Conclusion: The present results suggest that EA, which acts as both a reversible and irreversible inhibitor of GST activity, could significantly enhance the radiation response of human cancer cells and the level of GST in tumor cells may predict the magnitude of radiation enhancement with EA. Ethacrynic acid would be an excellent drug as a radiosensitizer for further in vivo tumor study

  5. Cognitive enhancers for the treatment of anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Stefan G; Fang, Angela; Gutner, Cassidy A

    2014-01-01

    Traditional treatments for anxiety disorders include cognitive-behavioral therapy and anxiolytic medications. Although these treatments are more effective than placebo, there is still considerable room for further improvement. Unfortunately, combining these different modalities is generally not substantially better than monotherapies. Recently, researchers have turned their attention toward translating preclinical research on the neural circuitry underlying fear extinction to clinical applications for the treatment of anxiety disorders with the goal to augment the learning process during exposure-based procedures with cognitive enhancers. This review examines d-cycloserine, cortisol, catecholamines, yohimbine, oxytocin, modafinil, as well as nutrients and botanicals as agents to augment treatment for anxiety disorders. D-cycloserine shows the most empirical support. Other promising agents include cortisol, catecholamines, yohimbine, and possibly oxytocin. Less support comes from studies that examined nutrients and botanicals, such as caffeine, nicotine, and omega-3 fatty acid. Limitations of the exiting literature and future research directions are discussed. PMID:23542909

  6. Multifunctional Nucleic Acids for Tumor Cell Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pofahl, Monika; Wengel, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    We report on a multifunctional nucleic acid, termed AptamiR, composed of an aptamer domain and an antimiR domain. This composition mediates cell specific delivery of antimiR molecules for silencing of endogenous micro RNA. The introduced multifunctional molecule preserves cell targeting, anti-proliferative and antimiR function in one 37-nucleotide nucleic acid molecule. It inhibits cancer cell growth and induces gene expression that is pathologically damped by an oncomir. These findings will have a strong impact on future developments regarding aptamer- and antimiR-related applications for tumor targeting and treatment.

  7. Pretreatment and biodegradability enhancement of DSD acid manufacturing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, G; Zhu, W; Yang, Z

    1998-08-01

    Two advanced oxidation processes, Fenton's reagent oxidation and ozonation, were used for pretreatment of a 4,4'-diaminostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DSD-acid) manufacturing wastewater on a laboratory scale. The results showed that both methods are suitable for partial removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color as well as the enhancement of biodegradability of DSD-acid manufacturing wastewater before the conventional biological treatment. Fenton's reagent oxidation by 9.0 g/L H2O2 and 150 mg/L Fe2+ and ozonation by 7.5 g/L O3 led to an improved biodegradability (BOD5/COD = 0.3). Fenton's reagent oxidation in combination with Fe3+ coagulation has shown to effectively remove COD and color. About 90% of COD and 95% of color removals were obtained at the optimum condition, oxidation by 150 mg/L Fe2+ and 2 g/L H2O2, followed by two-stage coagulation with 5 g/L and 2 g/L FeCl3, respectively. PMID:9661277

  8. Enhanced high temperature thermoelectric response of sulphuric acid treated conducting polymer thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Sarath

    2015-11-24

    We report the high temperature thermoelectric properties of solution processed pristine and sulphuric acid treated poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (or PEDOT:PSS) films. The acid treatment is shown to simultaneously enhance the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of the metal-like films, resulting in a five-fold increase in thermoelectric power factor (0.052 W/m. K ) at 460 K, compared to the pristine film. By using atomic force micrographs, Raman and impedance spectra and using a series heterogeneous model for electrical conductivity, we demonstrate that acid treatment results in the removal of PSS from the films, leading to the quenching of accumulated charge-induced energy barriers that prevent hopping conduction. The continuous removal of PSS with duration of acid treatment also alters the local band structure of PEDOT:PSS, resulting in simultaneous enhancement in Seebeck coefficient.

  9. Cognitive enhancers for the treatment of ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, L. Cinnamon; McClernon, F. Joseph; Kollins, Scott H.

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with multiple cognition-related phenotypic features in both children and adults. This review aims to clarify the role of cognition in ADHD and how prevailing treatments, which are often highly effective at reducing the clinical symptoms of the disorder, fare in modulating ADHD-related cognitive processes. First, we consider how the broad construct of cognition can be conceptualized in the context of ADHD. Second, we review the available evidence for how a range of both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions have fared with respect to enhancing cognition in individuals affected by this pervasive disorder. Findings from the literature suggest that the effects across a broad range of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions on the characteristic symptoms of ADHD can be distinguished from their effects on cognitive impairments. As such the direct clinical relevance of cognition enhancing effects of different interventions is somewhat limited. Recommendations for future research are discussed, including the identification of cognition-related end ophenotypes, the refinement of the ADHD clinical phenotype, and studying the difference between acute and chronic treatment regimens. PMID:21596055

  10. Removal of coagulant aluminum from water treatment residuals by acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Tetsuji; Nishijima, Wataru; Sugimoto, Mayo; Saka, Naoyuki; Nakai, Satoshi; Tanabe, Kazuyasu; Ito, Junki; Takenaka, Kenji; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2014-09-01

    Sediment sludge during coagulation and sedimentation in drinking water treatment is called "water treatment residuals (WTR)". Polyaluminum chloride (PAC) is mainly used as a coagulant in Japan. The recycling of WTR has been desired; one method for its reuse is as plowed soil. However, WTR reuse in this way is inhibited by the aluminum from the added PAC, because of its high adsorption capacity for phosphate and other fertilizer components. The removal of such aluminum from WTR would therefore be advantageous for its reuse as plowed soil; this research clarified the effect of acid washing on aluminum removal from WTR and on plant growth in the treated soil. The percentage of aluminum removal from raw WTR by sulphuric acid solution was around 90% at pH 3, the percentage decreasing to 40% in the case of a sun-dried sample. The maximum phosphate adsorption capacity was decreased and the available phosphorus was increased by acid washing, with 90% of aluminum removal. The enhancement of Japanese mustard spinach growth and the increased in plant uptake of phosphates following acid washing were observed. PMID:24835954

  11. Separation of amino acid enantiomers by micelle-enhanced ultrafiltration

    OpenAIRE

    Bruin, T.J.M., de; Marcelis, A.T.M.; Zuilhof, H.; Rodenburg, L.M.; Overdevest, P.E.M.; Padt, A., van der; Sudhlter, E.J.R.

    2000-01-01

    A Micelle-enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF) separation process was investigated that can potentially be used for large-scale enantioseparations. Copper(II)-amino acid derivatives dissolved in nonionic surfactant micelles were used as chiral selectors for the separation of dilute racemic amino acids solutions. For the ?-amino acids phenylalanine, phenylglycine, O- methyltyrosine, isoleucine, and leucine good separation was obtained using cholesteryl L-glutamate and Cu(II) ions as chiral selector...

  12. Pharmacological enhancement of treatment for amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashad MA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad A RashadOphthalmology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, EgyptBackground: The purpose of this study was to compare a weight-adjusted dose of carbidopa-levodopa as treatment adjunctive to occlusion therapy with occlusion therapy alone in children and adults with different types of amblyopia.Methods: This prospective study included 63 patients with amblyopia classified into two groups, ie, an occlusion group which included 35 patients who received occlusion therapy only and a pharmacological enhancement group which included 28 patients who received oral carbidopa-levodopa together with occlusion therapy for 6 weeks.Results: The mean logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR of the eyes with amblyopia was not significantly different in the occlusion group (0.52, 0.52, and 0.51 than in the pharmacological enhancement group (0.58, 0.49, and 0.56 at three follow-up visits (at months 1, 3, and 12, respectively. There was a highly significant improvement in mean logMAR of amblyopic eyes compared with baseline in both occlusion groups (from 0.68 to 0.52, from 0.68 to 0.52, and from 0.68 to 0.51 and in the pharmacological enhancement group (from 0.81 to 0.58, from 0.81 to 0.49, and from 0.81 to 0.56 at the month 1, 3, and 12 visits (P = 0.01, P = 0.01, and P = 0.001, respectively. The improvement of mean logMAR in the subgroup of patients older than 12 years was greater in the pharmacological enhancement group (42.5% than in the occlusion group (30%. The improvement of mean logMAR in the subgroup of patients with severe amblyopia was greater in the pharmacological enhancement group (34.3% than in the occlusion group (22%.Conclusion: Significant improvement was reported in both groups at all follow-up visits over 1 year. Regardless of the etiology of amblyopia, levodopa-carbidopa may be added to part-time occlusion in older patients as a means of increasing the plasticity of the visual cortex. Levodopa may add to the effect of occlusion in severe amblyopia and bilateral amblyopia.Keywords: amblyopia, levodopa, carbidopa, occlusion

  13. Ursolic acid enhances pentobarbital-induced sleeping behaviors via GABAergic neurotransmission in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Se Jin; Park, Ho Jae; Gao, Qingtao; Pena, Irene Joy Dela; Park, Se Jin; Lee, Hyung Eun; Woo, Hyun; Kim, Hee Jin; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Hong, Eunyoung; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2015-09-01

    Prunella vulgaris is widely used as a herbal medicine for cancers, inflammatory diseases, and other infections. Although it has long been used, few studies have examined its effects on central nervous system function. Here, we first observed that ethanolic extracts of P. vulgaris (EEPV) prolonged pentobarbital-induced sleep duration in mice. It is known that EEPV consists of many active components including triterpenoid (ursolic acid and oleanolic acid), which have many biological activities. Therefore, we evaluated which EEPV components induced sleep extension in pentobarbital-mediated sleeping model in mice. Surprisingly, despite their structural similarity and other common functions such as anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, and tissue protection, only ursolic acid enhanced sleep duration in pentobarbital-treated mice. These results were attenuated by bicuculline treatment, which is a GABAA receptor antagonist. The present results suggest that ursolic acid from P. vulgaris enhances sleep duration through GABAA receptor activation and could be a therapeutic candidate for insomnia treatment. PMID:26102564

  14. Thermal and acid treatment of diatom frustules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gulturk

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Diatoms, belonging to Bacilariophyta family, are single-celled microscopic (1-100 micron plants living in aquatic environment. The diatom cell is protected inside a shell (frustule constructed from amorphous nano-silica particles. It is proposed that the frustules and purified silica powders obtained from frustules can be used to reinforce composites. In this study, microstructural properties of two diatom frustules were determined and different methods were investigated for silica powder processing from diatom frustules.Design/methodology/approach: Natural (ND and calcined (CD diatom frustules were used in this study. The chemical and microscopic properties of the diatom frustules were determined using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR and energy dispersive X-Ray Florescence spectrometer (XRF. Two different processing routes were applied to process silica powder from diatom frustules. These included (i leaching the frustules directly in HF, (ii incorporating thermally treated frustules in to the liquid nitrogen.Findings: At increasing HF concentrations, the variety of shapes, nanopores and open voids were seen on the surface of frustules as silica particles were removed from the surface. SEM micrograph results showed that HF significantly etched inside the existing pore structure of the diatom frustules. HF concentration was found more effective in mass loss than the leaching time. Thermal treatment induced several cracks propagated between macro pores and nanopores of the frustules.Practical implications: Results show that thermal and acid treatments were not effective for obtaining silica powder from frustules. Ball milling can be used for silica powder processing from frustules in the further study.Originality/value: In this paper, the microstructural properties of ND and CD frustules were determined. The effect of thermal and acid treatment on frustules was investigated with SEM.

  15. Evaluation of Seed and Seedling Emergence Enhancement of Some Population of Sahandy Savory (Satureja sahendica) by Gibberlic Acid, Potasium Nitrate, Pre-cooling, Physical and Chemical Scarification Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    R. Tabaie; H.A. Arab; M.A. Alizadeh; M NASIRI

    2013-01-01

    In greenhouse experiment, the seed samples of 3 populations were treated with treatments including: cold stratification, Gibberlic Acid (50 ppm and 100 ppm), Potassium nitrate (0.2%, 0.4%), physical scarification (sand paper), chemical scarification (Ethylic alcohol 70%) and distilled water (control), then these treated seed samples were sown in pots as randomize design with three replication. The germination characteristics including: germination percentage, speed of germination, lengt...

  16. Organic acid enhanced electrodialytic extraction of lead from contaminated soil fines in suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ahring, Birgitte Kir

    2007-01-01

    The implementation of soil washing technology for the treatment of heavy metal contaminated soils is limited by the toxicity and unwieldiness of the remaining heavy metal contaminated sludge. In this work, the feasibility of combining electrodialytic remediation with heterotrophic leaching for decontamination of the sludge was investigated. The ability of 11 organic acids to extract Pb from the fine fraction of contaminated soil (grains <63 mu m) was investigated, and application of the acids as enhancing reagents during electrodialytic remediation (EDR) of Pb-contaminated soil fines in suspension was tested. Five of the acids showed the ability to extract Ph from the soil fines in excess of the effect caused solely by pH changes. Addition of the acids, however, severely impeded EDR, hence promotion of EDR by combination with heterotrophic leaching was rejected. In contrast, enhancement of EDR with nitric acid gave promising results.

  17. Acid mine water treatment using engineered wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinmann, Robert L. P.

    1990-03-01

    During the last two decades, the United States mining industry has greatly increased the amount it spends on pollution control. The application of biotechnology to mine water can reduce the industry's water treatment costs (estimated at over a million dollars a day) and improve water quality in streams and rivers adversely affected by acidic mine water draining from abandoned mines. Biological treatment of mine waste water is typically conducted in a series of small excavated ponds that resemble, in a superficial way, a small marsh area. The ponds are engineered to first facilitate bacterial oxidation of iron; ideally, the water then flows through a composted organic substrate that supports a population of sulfate-reducing bacteria. The latter process raises the pH. During the past four years, over 400 wetland water treatment systems have been built on mined lands as a result of research by the U.S. Bureau of Mines. In general, mine operators find that the wetlands reduce chemical treatment costs enough to repay the cost of wetland construction in less than a year. Actual rates of iron removal at field sites have been used to develop empirical sizing criteria based on iron loading and pH. If the pH is 6 or above, the wetland area (m2) required is equivalent to the iron load (grams/day) divided by 10. Theis requirement doubles at a pH of 4 to 5. At a pH below 4, the iron load (grams/day) should be divided by 2 to estimate the area required (m2).

  18. Enhancing charge storage of conjugated polymer electrodes with phenolic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Michal; R?bi?, Tomasz; Ingans, Olle

    2016-01-01

    We here present studies of electrochemical doping of poly(1-aminoanthraquinone) (PAAQ) films with three structurally different phenolic acids. The examined phenolic acids (sinapic, ferulic and syringic acid) were selected due to their resemblance to redox active groups, which can be found in lignin. The outstanding electrochemical stability of PAAQ films synthesized for this work enabled extensive cycling of phenolic acid-doped PAAQ films. Potentiodynamic and charge-discharge studies revealed that phenolic acid-doped PAAQ films exhibited enhanced capacitance in comparison to undoped PAAQ films, together with appearance of redox activity characteristics specific for each dopant. Electrochemical kinetic studies performed on microelectrodes affirmed the fast electron transfer for hydroquinone-to-quinone reactions with these phenolic compounds. These results imply the potential application of phenolic acids in cheap and degradable energy storage devices.

  19. Treatment of patients with uric acid stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilberg, Ita Pfeferman

    2016-02-01

    Uric acid nephrolithiasis and unduly acidic urinary pH are both considered a renal manifestation of insulin resistance but the underlying mechanisms for the development of low urinary pH and the propensity for uric acid stone formation are not completely elucidated. Nevertheless, excessive dietary acid intake, increased endogenous acid production and/or defective NH4+ excretion play an important role, among other factors. The main principles of therapy for uric acid nephrolithiasis are aimed at urinary alkalinization through diet modification or pharmacologic agents, increase of urinary volume, and less importantly at the reduction of uric acid excretion. PMID:26645868

  20. Magnetization Enhancement in Magnetite Nanoparticles Capped with Alginic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzejewski, B.; Bednarski, W.; Kazmierczak, M.; Pogorzelec-Glaser, K.; Hilczer, B.; S. Jurga; Matczak, M.; Leska, B.; Pankiewicz, R.; L. Kepinski

    2013-01-01

    We report on the effect of organic acid capping on the behavior of magnetite nanoparticles. The nanoparticles of magnetite were obtained using microwave activated process, and the magnetic properties as well as the electron magnetic resonance behavior were studied for the Fe3O4 nanoparticles capped with alginic acid. The capped nanoparticles exhibit improved crystalline structure of the surface which leads to an enhanced magnetization. The saturation magnetization Ms increas...

  1. Towards energy positive wastewater treatment by sludge treatment using free nitrous acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qilin; Hao, Xiaodi; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-02-01

    Free nitrous acid (FNA i.e. HNO2) was revealed to be effective in enhancing biodegradability of secondary sludge. Also, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria were found to be more susceptible to FNA than ammonium-oxidizing bacteria. Based on these findings, a novel FNA-based sludge treatment technology is proposed to enhance energy recovery from wastewater/sludge. Energy analysis indicated that the FNA-based technology would make wastewater treatment become an energy generating process (yielding energy at 4kWh/PE/y; kWh/PE/y: kilowatt hours per population equivalent per year), rather than being a large energy consumer that it is today (consuming energy at 24kWh/PE/y). Importantly, FNA required for the sludge treatment could be produced as a by-product of wastewater treatment. This proposed FNA-based technology is economically and environmentally attractive, and can be easily implemented in any wastewater treatment plants. It only involves the installation of a simple sludge mixing tank. This article presents the concept of the FNA-based technology. PMID:26539712

  2. Effect of the treatment by slightly acidic electrolyzed water on the accumulation of ?-aminobutyric acid in germinated brown millet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingfeng; Hao, Jianxiong; Liu, Xianggui; Liu, Haijie; Ning, Yawei; Cheng, Ruhong; Tan, Bin; Jia, Yingmin

    2015-11-01

    The accumulation of ?-aminobutyric acid and the microbial decontamination are concerned increasingly in the production of sprouts. In this work, the effect of the treatment by slightly acidic electrolyzed water on the accumulation of ?-aminobutyric acid in the germinated brown millet was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography during germination. The results showed that slightly acidic electrolyzed water with appropriate available chlorine (15 or 30 mg/L) could promote the accumulation of ?-aminobutyric acid by up to 21% (P acidic electrolyzed water could not enhance the sprouts growth of the germinated brown millet. The catalase and peroxidase activities of the germinated brown millet during germination were in agreement with the sprouts growth. Our results suggested that the accumulation of ?-aminobutyric acid was independent of the length of sprouts in germinated grains. Moreover, the treatment with slightly acidic electrolyzed water significantly reduced the microbial counts in the germinated millet (P acidic electrolyzed water is an available approach to improve the accumulation of ?-aminobutyric acid and anti-infection potential in the germinated brown millet, and it can avoid too long millet sprouts. PMID:25976818

  3. Enhancing Treatment Integrity Maintenance through Fading with Indiscriminable Contingencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Thomas J.; Duhon, Gary J.; Doerksen-Klopp, Bethany

    2014-01-01

    School psychologists are often asked to develop treatment to remediate students' academic skills or social behavior problems. When teachers implement treatment recommendations with high levels of treatment integrity, students benefit. Treatment integrity has been enhanced by use of direct training, performance feedback, and negative

  4. Enhancing Treatment Integrity Maintenance through Fading with Indiscriminable Contingencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Thomas J.; Duhon, Gary J.; Doerksen-Klopp, Bethany

    2014-01-01

    School psychologists are often asked to develop treatment to remediate students' academic skills or social behavior problems. When teachers implement treatment recommendations with high levels of treatment integrity, students benefit. Treatment integrity has been enhanced by use of direct training, performance feedback, and negative…

  5. Enhancement of arachidonic acid signaling pathway by nicotinic acid receptor HM74A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HM74A is a G protein-coupled receptor for nicotinic acid (niacin), which has been used clinically to treat dyslipidemia for decades. The molecular mechanisms whereby niacin exerts its pleiotropic effects on lipid metabolism remain largely unknown. In addition, the most common side effect in niacin therapy is skin flushing that is caused by prostaglandin release, suggesting that the phospholipase A2 (PLA2)/arachidonic acid (AA) pathway is involved. Various eicosanoids have been shown to activate peroxisome-proliferator activated receptors (PPAR) that play a diverse array of roles in lipid metabolism. To further elucidate the potential roles of HM74A in mediating the therapeutic effects and/or side effects of niacin, we sought to explore the signaling events upon HM74A activation. Here we demonstrated that HM74A synergistically enhanced UTP- and bradykinin-mediated AA release in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner in A431 cells. Activation of HM74A also led to Ca2+-mobilization and enhanced bradykinin-promoted Ca2+-mobilization through Gi protein. While HM74A increased ERK1/2 activation by the bradykinin receptor, it had no effects on UTP-promoted ERK1/2 activation.Furthermore, UTP- and bradykinin-mediated AA release was significantly decreased in the presence of both MAPK kinase inhibitor PD 098059 and PKC inhibitor GF 109203X. However, the synergistic effects of HM74A were not dramatically affected by co-treatment with both inhibitors, indicating the cross-talk occurred at the receptor level. Finally, stimulation of A431 cells transiently transfected with PPRE-luciferase with AA significantly induced luciferase activity, mimicking the effects of PPAR? agonist rosiglitazone, suggesting that alteration of AA signaling pathway can regulate gene expression via endogenous PPARs

  6. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and nucleic acids encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Kimberly; Harris, Paul; Zaretsky, Elizabeth; Re, Edward; Vlasenko, Elena; McFarland, Keith; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo

    2012-10-16

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  7. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and nucleic acids encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Kimberly; Harris, Paul; Zaretsky, Elizabeth; Re, Edward; Vlasenko, Elena; McFarland, Keith; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo

    2014-09-30

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  8. Surface modification of activated carbon for enhanced adsorption of perfluoroalkyl acids from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Yue; Liu, Jinxia

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the research was to examine the effect of increasing carbon surface basicity on uptake of perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS) and carboxylic acids (PFOA) by activated carbon. Granular activated carbons made from coal, coconut shell, wood, and phenolic-polymer-based activated carbon fibers were modified through high-temperature and ammonia gas treatments to facilitate systematical evaluation of the impact of basicity of different origins. Comparison of adsorption isotherms and adsorption distribution coefficients showed that the ammonia gas treatment was more effective than the high-temperature treatment in enhancing surface basicity. The resultant higher point of zero charges and total basicity (measured by total HCl uptake) correlated with improved adsorption affinity for PFOS and PFOA. The effectiveness of surface modification to enhance adsorption varied with carbon raw material. Wood-based carbons and activated carbon fibers showed enhancement by one to three orders of magnitudes while other materials could experience reduction in adsorption towards either PFOS or PFOA. PMID:26469934

  9. Treatment for Acid Mine Drainage Utilizing Dimension Stone Waste

    OpenAIRE

    V. Sheoran; R.P. Choudhary; A.S. Sheoran

    2012-01-01

    When large quantities of rocks containing sulphide minerals are excavated from mines, they react with water and oxygen to create sulphuric acid. When this water reaches a certain level of acidity it also starts leaching traces of metals, this wastewater is termed as Acid Mine Drainage (AMD), affects the surface and subsurface hydrology and extends its impact to the surrounding land. Although, several AMD treatment techniques and methods exist, lime treatment is the most common approach which ...

  10. Peripheral Amino Acid Levels in Schizophrenia and Antipsychotic Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Luca, Vincenzo; VIGGIANO, EMANUELA; Messina, Giovanni; Viggiano, Alessandro; Borlido, Carol; Viggiano, Andrea; Monda, Marcellino

    2008-01-01

    Abnormal levels of amino acids have been reported in patients with schizophrenia and have also been investigated as a biomarker to monitor antipsychotic treatment, however results have been inconsistent. The purpose of the present review is to summarize the evidence in the literature of whether amino acid levels can be a biomarker and predict the treatment outcome in schizophrenia. The current review does not support amino acid concentration as a useful biomarker for monitoring antipsychotic ...

  11. Slagment Cement Improve the Cement Resistance Toward Acids Attack During Acidizing Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Nik Khairul Irfan Bin Nik Ab. Lah.; Sonny Irawan

    2013-01-01

    Acidizing treatment in past experience shows several zonal isolation problems after the treatment. This study presents the effect of the acid treatment toward class G cement and slagment cement as the improvement method to improve the cement resistance toward the acid. Lab experiments were conducted by immerge the respective cement cubes into 12% HCl/3% HF solution for 40 min before several analysis were conducted. Based on the result, the mass loss and compressive strength loss of the cement...

  12. Enhanced arsenite removal through surface-catalyzed oxidative coagulation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Bland, Garret D; Yan, Weile

    2016-05-01

    Arsenic being a naturally-occurring groundwater contaminant is subject to stringent water quality regulations. Coagulation and adsorption are widely used methods to treat arsenic-contaminated water, however, these treatments have been reported to be less efficient for the removal of arsenite (As(III)) than arsenate (As(V)). In this study, the feasibility of in situ oxidation of As(III) during coagulation was investigated in two systems: Fe(II) or H2O2-assisted oxidative coagulation treatment using ferric chloride as the coagulant. This setup exploits the catalytic property of the fresh formed Fe(III) hydroxide colloids in coagulation suspension to mediate the production of reactive oxidants capable of As(III) oxidation. Fe(II)-assisted coagulation brought about small improvements in As(III) removal compared to treatment with Fe(III) coagulant alone, however, its arsenic removal efficiency is strongly dependent on pH (observed optimal pH = 7-9). Addition of H2O2 together with ferric chloride led to a significant enhancement in arsenic retention at pH 6-8, with final arsenic concentrations well below the U.S.EPA regulatory limit (10 μg/L). H2O2-assisted oxidative coagulation can attain reliable As(III) removal over a broad pH range of 4-9. Radical quenching experiments reveal the participation of superoxide radical in As(III) removal in the oxidative coagulation systems. Phosphate (at > 0.1 mM) strongly suppresses As(III) removal efficiency, whereas carbonate and humic acid pose a minor impact. Overall, the results suggest that a low dose addition of H2O2 along with ferric coagulant is a feasible method for the existing water treatment facilities to achieve improved As(III) removal efficiency. PMID:26897520

  13. TREATMENT TANK CORROSION STUDIES FOR THE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B.

    2011-08-24

    Radioactive waste is stored in high level waste tanks on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is aggressively seeking to close the non-compliant Type I and II waste tanks. The removal of sludge (i.e., metal oxide) heels from the tank is the final stage in the waste removal process. The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed and investigated by SRR to aid in Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) as an option for sludge heel removal. Corrosion rate data for carbon steel exposed to the ECC treatment tank environment was obtained to evaluate the degree of corrosion that occurs. These tests were also designed to determine the effect of various environmental variables such as temperature, agitation and sludge slurry type on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel. Coupon tests were performed to estimate the corrosion rate during the ECC process, as well as determine any susceptibility to localized corrosion. Electrochemical studies were performed to develop a better understanding of the corrosion mechanism. The tests were performed in 1 wt.% and 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with HM and PUREX sludge simulants. The following results and conclusions were made based on this testing: (1) In 1 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, carbon steel corroded at a rate of less than 25 mpy within the temperature and agitation levels of the test. No susceptibility to localized corrosion was observed. (2) In 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, the carbon steel corrosion rates ranged between 15 and 88 mpy. The most severe corrosion was observed at 75 C in the HM/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. Pitting and general corrosion increased with the agitation level at this condition. No pitting and lower general corrosion rates were observed with the PUREX/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. The electrochemical and coupon tests both indicated that carbon steel is more susceptible to localized corrosion in the HM/oxalic acid environment than in the PUREX/oxalic acid environment. (3) The corrosion rates for PUREX/8 wt.% oxalic acid were greater than or equal to those observed for the PUREX/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid. No localized corrosion was observed in the tests with the 8 wt.% oxalic acid. Testing with HM/8 wt.% oxalic acid simulant was not performed. Thus, a comparison with the results with 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid, where the corrosion rate was 88 mpy and localized corrosion was observed at 75 C, cannot be made. (4) The corrosion rates in 1 and 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid solutions were temperature dependent: (a) At 50 C, the corrosion rates ranged between 90 to 140 mpy over the 30 day test period. The corrosion rates were higher under stagnant conditions. (b) At 75 C, the initial corrosion rates were as high as 300 mpy during the first day of exposure. The corrosion rates increased with agitation. However, once the passive ferrous oxalate film formed, the corrosion rate decreased dramatically to less than 20 mpy over the 30 day test period. This rate was independent of agitation. (5) Electrochemical testing indicated that for oxalic acid/sludge simulant mixtures the cathodic reaction has transport controlled reaction kinetics. The literature suggests that the dissolution of the sludge produces a di-oxalatoferrate ion that is reduced at the cathodic sites. The cathodic reaction does not appear to involve hydrogen evolution. On the other hand, electrochemical tests demonstrated that the cathodic reaction for corrosion of carbon steel in pure oxalic acid involves hydrogen evolution. (6) Agitation of the oxalic acid/sludge simulant mixtures typically resulted in a higher corrosion rates for both acid concentrations. The transport of the ferrous ion away from the metal surface results in a less protective ferrous oxalate film. (7) A mercury containing species along with aluminum, silicon and iron oxides was observed on the interior of the pits formed in the HM/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant at 75 C. The pitting rates in the agitated and non-agitated solution were 2 mils/day and 1 mil/day, respectively. A mechanism by which the mercury interacts with the aluminum and silicon oxides in this simulant to accelerate corrosion was proposed.

  14. Nucleic acid molecules conferring enhanced ethanol tolerance and microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven; Guss, Adam; Yang, Shihui; Karpinets, Tatiana; Lynd, Lee; Shao, Xiongjun

    2014-01-14

    The present invention provides isolated nucleic acid molecules which encode a mutant acetaldehyde-CoA/alcohol dehydrogenase or mutant alcohol dehydrogenase and confer enhanced tolerance to ethanol. The invention also provides related expression vectors, genetically engineered microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to ethanol, as well as methods of making and using such genetically modified microorganisms for production of biofuels based on fermentation of biomass materials.

  15. Removal of PAHs and pesticides from polluted soils by enhanced electrokinetic-Fenton treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocos, Elvira; Fernndez-Costas, Carmen; Pazos, Marta; Sanromn, M ngeles

    2015-04-01

    In this study, electrokinetic-Fenton treatment was used to remediate a soil polluted with PAHs and the pesticide pyrimethanil. Recently, this treatment has emerged as an interesting alternative to conventional soil treatments due to its peculiar advantages, namely the capability of treating fine and low-permeability materials, as well as that of achieving a high yield in the removals of salt content and inorganic and organic pollutants. In a standard electrokinetic-Fenton treatment, the maximum degradation of the pollutant load achieved was 67%, due to the precipitation of the metals near the cathode chamber that reduces the electro-osmotic flow of the system and thus the efficiency of the treatment. To overcome this problem, different complexing agents and pH control in the cathode chamber were evaluated to increase the electro-osmotic flux as well as to render easier the solubilization of the metal species present in the soil. Four complexing agents (ascorbic acid, citric acid, oxalic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) in the Fenton-like treatment were evaluated. Results revealed the citric acid as the most suitable complexing agent. Thereby its efficiency was tested as pH controller by flushing it in the cathode chamber (pH 2 and 5). For the latter treatments, near total degradation was achieved after 27 d. Finally, phytotoxicity tests for polluted and treated samples were carried out. The high germination levels of the soil treated under enhanced conditions concluded that nearly complete restoration was achieved. PMID:25577698

  16. Appearance of hepatocellular adenomas on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denecke, Timm; Steffen, Ingo G.; Kroencke, Thomas; Haenninen, Enrique Lopez; Hamm, Bernd; Grieser, Christian [Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Klinik fuer Radiologie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany); Agarwal, Sheela; Saini, Sanjay [Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Seehofer, Daniel; Neuhaus, Peter [Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Klinik fuer Allgemein, Viszeral- und Transplantationschirurgie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany); Kramme, Incken-Birthe [Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Institut fuer Pathologie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate enhancement characteristics of hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs) using gadoxetic acid as a hepatocyte-specific MR contrast agent. Twenty-four patients with histopathologically proven HCAs were retrospectively identified. MRI consisted of T1- and T2-weighted (w) sequences with and without fat saturation (fs), multiphase dynamic T1-w images, and fs T1-w images during the hepatobiliary phase. Standard of reference was surgical resection (n = 19) or biopsy (n = 5). Images were analysed for morphology and contrast behaviour including signal intensity (SI) measurement on T1-w images normalised to the pre-contrast base line. In total 34 HCAs were evaluated. All HCAs showed enhancement in the arterial phase; 38 % of HCAs showed reduced contrast enhancement (''wash-out'') in the venous phase. All HCAs showed enhancement (SI increase, 56 {+-} 53 %; P <0.001) in the hepatobiliary phase, although liver uptake was stronger (96 {+-} 58 %). Thus, 31 of all HCAs (91 %) appeared hypointense to the surrounding liver in the hepatobiliary phase, while 3 out of 34 lesions were iso-/hyperintense. Gadoxetic acid accumulates in HCAs in the hepatobiliary phase, although significantly less than in surrounding liver. Thus, HCA appears in the vast majority of cases as a hypointense lesion on hepatobiliary phase images. (orig.)

  17. Appearance of hepatocellular adenomas on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate enhancement characteristics of hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs) using gadoxetic acid as a hepatocyte-specific MR contrast agent. Twenty-four patients with histopathologically proven HCAs were retrospectively identified. MRI consisted of T1- and T2-weighted (w) sequences with and without fat saturation (fs), multiphase dynamic T1-w images, and fs T1-w images during the hepatobiliary phase. Standard of reference was surgical resection (n = 19) or biopsy (n = 5). Images were analysed for morphology and contrast behaviour including signal intensity (SI) measurement on T1-w images normalised to the pre-contrast base line. In total 34 HCAs were evaluated. All HCAs showed enhancement in the arterial phase; 38 % of HCAs showed reduced contrast enhancement (''wash-out'') in the venous phase. All HCAs showed enhancement (SI increase, 56 53 %; P <0.001) in the hepatobiliary phase, although liver uptake was stronger (96 58 %). Thus, 31 of all HCAs (91 %) appeared hypointense to the surrounding liver in the hepatobiliary phase, while 3 out of 34 lesions were iso-/hyperintense. Gadoxetic acid accumulates in HCAs in the hepatobiliary phase, although significantly less than in surrounding liver. Thus, HCA appears in the vast majority of cases as a hypointense lesion on hepatobiliary phase images. (orig.)

  18. Enhancing Residential Treatment for Drug Court Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koob, Jeff; Brocato, Jo; Kleinpeter, Christine

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors describe and evaluate the impact of increased access to residential treatment added to traditional drug court services in Orange County, California, with a goal of increasing program retention, successful completion, and graduation rates for a high-risk drug offender population participating in drug court between January

  19. Acid mine water aeration and treatment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackman, Terry E. (Finleyville, PA); Place, John M. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1987-01-01

    An in-line system is provided for treating acid mine drainage which basically comprises the combination of a jet pump (or pumps) and a static mixer. The jet pump entrains air into the acid waste water using a Venturi effect so as to provide aeration of the waste water while further aeration is provided by the helical vanes of the static mixer. A neutralizing agent is injected into the suction chamber of the jet pump and the static mixer is formed by plural sections offset by 90 degrees.

  20. Hepatic arachidonic acid metabolism is disrupted after hexachlorobenzene treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hexaclorobenzene (HCB), one of the most persistent environmental pollutants, can cause a wide range of toxic effects including cancer in animals, and hepatotoxicity and porphyria both in humans and animals. In the present study, liver microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism, hepatic PGE production, and cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) activity were investigated in an experimental model of porphyria cutanea tarda induced by HCB. Female Wistar rats were treated with a single daily dose of HCB (100 mg kg-1 body weight) for 5 days and were sacrificed 3, 10, 17, and 52 days after the last dose. HCB treatment induced the accumulation of hepatic porhyrins from day 17 and increased the activities of liver ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (MROD), and aminopyrine N-demethylase (APND) from day 3 after the last dose. Liver microsomes from control and HCB-treated rats generated, in the presence of NADPH, hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs), epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), 11,12-Di HETE, and ω-OH/ω-1-OH AA. HCB treatment caused an increase in total NADPH CYP-dependent AA metabolism, with a higher response at 3 days after the last HCB dose than at the other time points studied. In addition, HCB treatment markedly enhanced PGE production and release in liver slices. This HCB effect was time dependent and reached its highest level after 10 days. At this time cPLA2 activity was shown to be increased. Unexpectedly, HCB produced a significant decrease in cPLA2 activity on the 17th and 52nd day. Our results demonstrated for the first time that HCB induces both the cyclooxygenase and CYP-dependent AA metabolism. The effects of HCB on AA metabolism were previous to the onset of a marked porphyria and might contribute to different aspects of HCB-induced liver toxicity such as alterations of membrane fluidity and membrane-bound protein function. Observations also suggested that a possible role of cPLA2 in the early increase of AA metabolism cannot be excluded. However, the existence of other pathway(s) for metabolizable AA generation different from cPLA2 activation is also proposed

  1. Cognitive enhancers for the treatment of ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Bidwell, L. Cinnamon; McClernon, F. Joseph; Kollins, Scott H.

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with multiple cognition-related phenotypic features in both children and adults. This review aims to clarify the role of cognition in ADHD and how prevailing treatments, which are often highly effective at reducing the clinical symptoms of the disorder, fare in modulating ADHD-related cognitive processes. First, we consider how the broad construct of cognition can be conceptualized in the context of ADHD. Second, we review the avai...

  2. [Hemoperfusion in the treatment of acute valproic acid intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, R; Fernndez, E J; Snchez, R J; Peces, C; Montero, A; Selgas, R

    2007-01-01

    Valproic acid is increasingly used in the treatment of epilepsy, and also prescribed for bipolar affective disorders, schizoaffective disorders, schizophrenia and migraine prophylaxis. Valproic acid intoxication with suicide attempt is a relatively common clinical problem that can result in coma, respiratory depression, pancytopenia, hemodynamic instability and death. The drug's relatively low molecular weight, small volume of distribution and saturable protein-binding render it potentially amenable to exracorporeal removal (hemodialysis, hemoperfusion or hemofiltration ), but published experience is scarce. We describe a case report involving valproic acid intoxication with ingestion of ethanol, who was successfully treated with charcoal hemoperfusion. With this treatment the half-life of valproic acid was reduced with rapid lowering of valproic acid levels and clinical improvement. Based on our experience in this patient and a review of previously reported cases, charcoal hemoperfusion should be considered for serious valproic acid intoxication because free as well as bound drug fractions are eliminated via this technique. PMID:17725457

  3. Increase of ?1-acid glycoprotein after treatment with amitriptyline

    OpenAIRE

    Baumann, P.; Tinguely, D.; Schpf, J.

    1982-01-01

    Sixteen primary depressive patients were treated for 3 weeks with amitriptyline 150 mg daily. In thirteen patients the plasma level of ?1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) significantly increased after the treatment but the albumin levels did not change.

  4. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section provides a description of the Hanford Site, identifies the proposed method of 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) closure, and briefly summarizes the contents of each chapter of this plan

  5. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This section provides a description of the Hanford Site, identifies the proposed method of 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) closure, and briefly summarizes the contents of each chapter of this plan.

  6. Atypical enhancement pattern of focal liver lesions on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR hepatobiliary imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadoxetic acid (Primovist or Eovist; Bayer Schering Pharma, Berlin, Germany), otherwise known as gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA), is a hepatobiliary-specific contrast agent. Gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging is useful for the evaluation of focal liver lesions. In particular, hepatobiliary phase imaging that is acquired 20 minutes after injection has several merits because it reflects an aspect of hepatocyte function. Normal liver parenchyma demonstrates significant enhancement on the hepatobiliary phase due to selective uptake of gadoxetic acid by functioning hepatocytes, while most malignant liver lesions including hepatocellular carcinoma appear hypointense in comparison with adjacent liver parenchyma during the hepatobiliary phase. However, 10-27% of hepatocellular carcinoma nodules appear isointense or hyperintense during the hepatobiliary phase, and are considered to demonstrate a type of hepatocyte function. There is no relationship between the degree of enhancement on the hepatobiliary phase and tumor differentiation. Organic anion transport polypeptide such as OATP1B3 plays a role in the uptake of gadoxetic acid. The degree of OATP1B3 expression in the tumor affects the degree of tumor enhancement during the hepatobiliary phase. Focal nodular hyperplasia usually appears isointense or hyperintense during the hepatobiliary phase. However, it has been reported that a certain percentage of lesions appear hypointense. Arterial-enhancing pseudolesions such as arterioportal shunt usually appear isointense during the hepatobiliary phase, reflecting normal hepatocyte function. However, it has been reported that a certain percentage of lesions appear hypointense. As for hepatic adenoma, some researchers reported that these lesions appear hypointense, while the others reported that these lesions appear isointense or hyperintense during the hepatobiliary phase. Other than tumorous lesions, there are certain clinical conditions that demonstrate hypointense areas during the hepatobiliary phase. Focal liver inflammation sometimes appears hypointense during the hepatobiliary phase. Radiation hepatitis in the acute stage usually appears hypointense during the hepatobiliary phase. Liver parenchyma after percutaneous transhepatic portal embolization appears hypointense during the hepatobiliary phase. An awareness of atypical enhancement patterns during the hepatobiliary phase images may improve the accuracy of diagnosing focal liver lesions using gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging. (author)

  7. Surgical Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... upper GI series and sometimes a 24-hour PH study. Typically, medical treatments can be just elevating ... causing the problem. And so a 24-hour PH is commonly done. Thats a study performed by ...

  8. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOERL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion includes closure plan documentation submitted for individual, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units undergoing closure, such as the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Whenever appropriate, 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. This 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System Closure Plan (Revision 2) includes a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Part A, Form 3. Information provided in this closure plan is current as of April 1999

  9. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LUKE, S.N.

    1999-05-17

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOERL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion includes closure plan documentation submitted for individual, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units undergoing closure, such as the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Whenever appropriate, 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. This 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System Closure Plan (Revision 2) includes a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Part A, Form 3. Information provided in this closure plan is current as of April 1999.

  10. How Surface Treatments Enhance Ground Handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Several runway surface treatments developed in recent years are described in terms of how aircraft tire landing and takeoff friction requirements are met, particularly during adverse weather conditions. Changing the surface texture with grooving, grinding and shot peening, use of chemicals to remove or prevent accumulation of natural or man-made contaminants, and the use of new techniques and materials are discussed as means of improving surface friction performance. Test data are presented to illustrate the effects of runway conditions on aircraft ground performance. The severity of the problem of operating on runway surfaces which cannot provide sufficient aircraft tire friction capability is also illustrated from documented aircraft accident/incident reports. The paper concludes with recommendations for future pavement research activities.

  11. The use of fatty acid esters to enhance free acid sophorolipid synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Richard D; Solaiman, Daniel K Y; Foglia, Thomas A

    2006-02-01

    Fatty acid esters were prepared by transesterification of soy oil with methanol (methyl-soyate, Me-Soy), ethanol (ethyl-soyate, Et-Soy) and propanol (propyl-soyate, Pro-Soy) and used with glycerol as fermentation substrates to enhance production of free-acid sophorolipids (SLs). Fed-batch fermentations of Candida bombicola resulted in SL yields of 46 +/- 4 g/l, 42 +/- 7 g/l and 18 +/- 6 g/l from Me-Soy, Et-Soy, and Pro-Soy, respectively. Liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (LC/API-MS) showed that Me-Soy resulted in 71% open-chain SLs with 59% of those molecules remaining esterified at the carboxyl end of the fatty acids. Et-Soy and Pro-Soy resulted in 43% and 80% open-chain free-acid SLs, respectively (containing linoleic acid and oleic acid as the principal fatty acid species linked to the sophorose sugar at the omega-1 position), with no evidence of residual esterification. PMID:16555009

  12. Surgical Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... GI series and sometimes a 24-hour PH study. Typically, medical treatments can be just elevating the ... 24-hour PH is commonly done. Thats a study performed by Dr. Tom DeMeester originally in which ...

  13. Atypical femoral fracture following zoledronic acid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atao?lu, Baybars; Kaptan, Ahmet Yi?it; Eren, Toygun Ka?an; Yapar, Ali Ekber; Berkay, Ahmet F?rat

    2016-04-01

    A 68-year-old female patient admitted to our clinic with right anterior thigh pain ongoing for six months and which increased in last two months. The patient had no trauma history. The patient had been followed-up for 15 years because of osteoporosis and administrated alendronate and ibandronate treatment for 10 years. Patient had three shots of zoledronate once a year during the last three years. Her pain was increasing when she was walking. Physical examination revealed pain in her right thigh. Radiogram showed thickened lateral cortex of the subtrochanteric area. Magnetic resonance imaging also showed thickening and edema of the same area. These images were correlated with atypical fracture in right femoral subthrochanteric zone. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry revealed that T score was -3.3 in lumbar region and -2.5 in femoral neck. Zoledronate treatment was ended. Prophylactic surgical fixation was performed with titanium elastic nails. PMID:26874637

  14. Enhanced external counter pulsation in treatment of refractory angina pectoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdling, Andr; Bondesson, Susanne; Pettersson, Thomas; Edvinsson, Lars

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Enhanced external counter pulsation (EECP) is a non-invasive treatment option for patients with refractory angina pectoris ineligible to further traditional treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of EECP on patients at a Scandinavian medical centre and to investig......BACKGROUND: Enhanced external counter pulsation (EECP) is a non-invasive treatment option for patients with refractory angina pectoris ineligible to further traditional treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of EECP on patients at a Scandinavian medical centre and to...... antagonists were more common among the non-responders (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: This study confirms the safety and efficiency of EECP as a treatment option for patients suffering from refractory angina pectoris. The therapy is most beneficial in patients suffering from severe angina (CCS III-IV) while sustained...

  15. Characterization of Unye bentonite after treatment with sulfuric acid

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bulent, Caglar; Beytullah, Afsin; Engin, Koksal; Ahmet, Tabak; Erdal, Eren.

    Full Text Available Unye bentonite was found to consist predominantly of a dioctahedral smectite along with quartz, tridymite, cristobalite, and minor fractions of feldspar and anatase. A considerable amount of Al was retained as a constituent in acid-resistant impurities following the decomposition of the montmorillon [...] ite via acid treatment at an acid/clay ratio of 0.4. These impurities were mesoporous with a maximum surface area of 303.90.4 m g-1. A sharp decrease in the d001 lattice spacing of the montmorillonite to 15.33 reflected the reduction of the crystallinity in the activated products. In addition, the increase in the ease with which newly formed hydroxyl groups were lost paralleled the severity of the acid treatment.

  16. Enhancement of taxol-induced apoptosis by inhibition of NF-?B with ursorlic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunlong; Xing, Da

    2007-05-01

    Taxol is known to inhibit cell growth and triggers significant apoptosis in various cancer cells, and activation of proliferation factor NF-?B during Taxol-induced apoptosis is regarded as a main reason resulting in tumor cells resistance to Taxol. It has been found that ursorlic acid can inhibit the activation of NF-?B. In order to study whether ursorlic acid can enhance the Taxol-induced apoptosis, we use fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique and probe SCAT3 to compare the difference of caspase-3 activation between Taxol alone and Taxol combined ursorlic acid. With laser scanning confocal microscopy, we find that ursorlic acid, a nontoxic food component, sensitizes ASTC-a-1 cells more efficiently to Taxol-induced apoptosis by advanced activation of caspase 3. The result also suggests that there would be a synergistic effect between Taxol and ursorlic acid, and the more detailed mechanism of synergistic effect needs to be clarified further, such as the correlations among NF-?B, Akt, caspase 8, which leads to the advanced activation of caspase 3 during combined treatment of Taxol and ursorlic acid. Moreover, this may be a new way to improve Taxol-dependent tumor therapy.

  17. Effect of Acid Treatment on Volumetric Swelling Ratios of Coals

    OpenAIRE

    MESC?, Nejat

    2001-01-01

    To remove Ca2+ ions, six low rank coals and one coking coal were treated with 0.1 and l.0 N HC1 for 24 h. IR spectra and proximate analysis of the lignites indicated that only slight structural changes had occurred during acid treatment. The swelling ratios of parent and acid-treated coal samples showed that removal of Ca2+ resulted in an increase in the swelling ratios. Higher swelling ratios were obtained with acid-washed coal samples. While the highest swelling ratios of the p...

  18. New magnetic field-enhanced process for water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In these paper the author explains a new magnetic field-enhanced process that is under development at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for water treatment. The process uses inexpensive magnetite (FeO.Fe2O3) in a supported mode to remove actinides and fission products from water. (author)

  19. CT contrast enhancement following renal cryoablation artefact or treatment failure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tommy Kjrgaard; straat, yvind; Andersen, Gratien; Hyer, Sren; Borre, Michael

    Introduction and objective: Renal cryoablation is a valid treatment option for localized pT1a renal cancer. Treatment success is typically defined as absence of contrast enhancement (CE) and a decrease in size of the cryoablated renal mass (i.e. cryolesion) on follow-up imaging. We investigated the...... CT characteristics and treatment outcome of renal cryolesions demonstrating CE during postoperative follow-up. Material and methods: A retrospective review of Aarhus Cryoablation Register identified 113 patients with a pT1a biopsy verified malignant renal lesion who underwent primary laparoscopic...

  20. Long term acid suppressing treatment in general practice.

    OpenAIRE

    Ryder, S.D.; O Reilly, S.; Miller, R. J.; Ross, J; Jacyna, M. R.; Levi, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the current practice in selected general practices for prescribing long term (> 6 months) treatment to suppress gastric acid secretion. SETTING--Seven general practices in the Harrow area that always or usually refer to Northwick Park Hospital. SUBJECTS--60,148 patients on lists of the general practices. DESIGN--Identification of patients receiving long term treatment through repeat prescribing data, followed by a manual and computer survey of patients' notes for indic...

  1. Enhanced field emission from carbon nanotubes by hydrogen plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The field emission capability of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has been improved by hydrogen plasma treatment, and the enhanced emission mechanism has been studied systematically using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman, and transmission electron microscopy. The hydrogen concentration in the samples increases with increasing plasma treatment duration. A Cδ--Hδ+ dipole layer may form on CNTs' surface and a high density of defects results from the plasma treatment, which is likely to make the external surface of CNTs more active to emit electrons after treatment. In addition, the sharp edge of CNTs' top, after removal of the catalyst particles, may increase the local electronic field more effectively. The present study suggests that hydrogen plasma treatment is a useful method for improving the field electron emission property of CNTs

  2. Cyclosporine A and palmitic acid treatment synergistically induce cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yi, E-mail: yi.luo@pfizer.com; Rana, Payal; Will, Yvonne

    2012-06-01

    Immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment can cause severe side effects. Patients taking immunosuppressant after organ transplantation often display hyperlipidemia and obesity. Elevated levels of free fatty acids have been linked to the etiology of metabolic syndromes, nonalcoholic fatty liver and steatohepatitis. The contribution of free fatty acids to CsA-induced toxicity is not known. In this study we explored the effect of palmitic acid on CsA-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells. CsA by itself at therapeutic exposure levels did not induce detectible cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Co-treatment of palmitic acid and CsA resulted in a dose dependent increase in cytotoxicity, suggesting that fatty acid could sensitize cells to CsA-induced cytotoxicity at the therapeutic doses of CsA. A synergized induction of caspase-3/7 activity was also observed, indicating that apoptosis may contribute to the cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that CsA reduced cellular oxygen consumption which was further exacerbated by palmitic acid, implicating that impaired mitochondrial respiration might be an underlying mechanism for the enhanced toxicity. Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) attenuated palmitic acid and CsA induced toxicity, suggesting that JNK activation plays an important role in mediating the enhanced palmitic acid/CsA-induced toxicity. Our data suggest that elevated FFA levels, especially saturated FFA such as palmitic acid, may be predisposing factors for CsA toxicity, and patients with underlying diseases that would elevate free fatty acids may be susceptible to CsA-induced toxicity. Furthermore, hyperlipidemia/obesity resulting from immunosuppressive therapy may aggravate CsA-induced toxicity and worsen the outcome in transplant patients. -- Highlights: ? Palmitic acid and cyclosporine (CsA) synergistically increased cytotoxicity. ? The impairment of mitochondrial functions may contribute to the enhanced toxicity. ? Inhibition of JNK activity attenuated palmitate/ CsA induced toxicity. ? Palmitate sensitizes cells to the toxicity induced by CsA at therapeutic exposure. ? Elevated free fatty acids may predispose the patients to CsA-induced toxicity.

  3. Cyclosporine A and palmitic acid treatment synergistically induce cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment can cause severe side effects. Patients taking immunosuppressant after organ transplantation often display hyperlipidemia and obesity. Elevated levels of free fatty acids have been linked to the etiology of metabolic syndromes, nonalcoholic fatty liver and steatohepatitis. The contribution of free fatty acids to CsA-induced toxicity is not known. In this study we explored the effect of palmitic acid on CsA-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells. CsA by itself at therapeutic exposure levels did not induce detectible cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Co-treatment of palmitic acid and CsA resulted in a dose dependent increase in cytotoxicity, suggesting that fatty acid could sensitize cells to CsA-induced cytotoxicity at the therapeutic doses of CsA. A synergized induction of caspase-3/7 activity was also observed, indicating that apoptosis may contribute to the cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that CsA reduced cellular oxygen consumption which was further exacerbated by palmitic acid, implicating that impaired mitochondrial respiration might be an underlying mechanism for the enhanced toxicity. Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) attenuated palmitic acid and CsA induced toxicity, suggesting that JNK activation plays an important role in mediating the enhanced palmitic acid/CsA-induced toxicity. Our data suggest that elevated FFA levels, especially saturated FFA such as palmitic acid, may be predisposing factors for CsA toxicity, and patients with underlying diseases that would elevate free fatty acids may be susceptible to CsA-induced toxicity. Furthermore, hyperlipidemia/obesity resulting from immunosuppressive therapy may aggravate CsA-induced toxicity and worsen the outcome in transplant patients. -- Highlights: ? Palmitic acid and cyclosporine (CsA) synergistically increased cytotoxicity. ? The impairment of mitochondrial functions may contribute to the enhanced toxicity. ? Inhibition of JNK activity attenuated palmitate/ CsA induced toxicity. ? Palmitate sensitizes cells to the toxicity induced by CsA at therapeutic exposure. ? Elevated free fatty acids may predispose the patients to CsA-induced toxicity.

  4. Treatment for Acid Mine Drainage Utilizing Dimension Stone Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sheoran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When large quantities of rocks containing sulphide minerals are excavated from mines, they react with water and oxygen to create sulphuric acid. When this water reaches a certain level of acidity it also starts leaching traces of metals, this wastewater is termed as Acid Mine Drainage (AMD, affects the surface and subsurface hydrology and extends its impact to the surrounding land. Although, several AMD treatment techniques and methods exist, lime treatment is the most common approach which proves to be highly expensive. In this study dimension stone (Kotastone waste, generated by the stone quarrying/cutting industries was used for the detoxification of AMD. The selection criteria of treatment agent was its free of cost availability. pH increased from 2.97 to 6.21, net acidity dropped from 1196.6 to 150 mg L-1 of CaCO3. Concentrations of metals like Fe2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Co2+ and Mn2+ also reduced remarkably from 19.69 to 99.24%. The experiments were carried out in 500 mL cylinders with different waste doses ranging from 0.5 to 10 g. The cost comparison with hydrated lime and quick lime was also in favour of Kotastone waste for the AMD treatment Now, major efforts are required by the mining industry and the research laboratories to convert this prototype product into commercial ventures so that this waste can become a utility material instead of nuisance.

  5. Role of acidic chemistries in steam treatment of aluminium alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2015-01-01

    initiate doxide growth at the intermetallic particles while growth and corrosion performance of oxide was found tobe a function of anions type and their concentration. Further, steam treatment with phosphates exhibited better performance under acetic acid salt spray and filiform corrosion test whereas...

  6. Lewis acid enhanced switching of the 1,1-dicyanodihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene photo/thermoswitch.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Christian Richard; Tortzen, Christian Gregers

    2011-01-01

    Mild Lewis acids enhance the rate of the thermal conversion of vinylheptafulvene (VHF) to dihydroazulene (DHA). In the absence of light, stronger Lewis acids promote the otherwise photoinduced DHA to VHF conversion.

  7. Treatment of alpha-bearing combustible wastes using acid digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid digestion has been developed at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) in Richland, Washington to reduce the volume of combustible nuclear waste materials, while converting them to an inert, noncombustible residue. A 100 kg/day test unit has recently been constructed to demonstrate the process using radioactively contaminated combustible wastes. The unit, called the Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) was completed in September 1977 and is currently undergoing cold shakedown tests. Hot operation is expected in May 1978. Features of RADTU include: storage and transfer station for incoming wastes, a feed preparation station, an extrusion feed mechanism for transfer of the waste to the acid digester, the acid digester, a residue recovery system, and an off-gas treatment system

  8. Treatment of alpha-bearing combustible wastes using acid digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid digestion has been developed at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) in Richland, Washington to reduce the volume of combustible nuclear waste materials, while converting them to an inert, noncombustible residue. A 100 kg/day test unit has recently been constructed to demonstrate the process using radioactively contaminated combustible wastes. The unit, called the Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) was completed in September 1977 and is currently undergoing cold shakedown tests. Hot operation is expected in May 1978. Features of RADTU include: storage and transfer station for incoming wastes, a feed preparation station, an extrusion feed mechanism for transfer of the waste to the acid digester, the acid digester a residue recovery system, and an off-gas treatment system

  9. Isomerization of fatty acids in sunflower oil during heat treatment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L.E., Mateos; G.M., Tonetto; G.H., Crapiste.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Pilot-scale treatments of sunflower oil similar to deodorization were carried out by applying steam stripping at different temperatures ranging from 179 to 282C for 5 h. Samples were taken every half hour, and fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. The results showed an increa [...] se in the relative percentage of trans linoleic acid with an increase in either time or temperature. The formation of trans linoleic acid isomers followed a zero-order reaction and the kinetic constants varied according to the Arrhenius' law. The activation energies for the formation of the acids C18:2ct, C18:2tc and C18:2tt were calculated as 147.4, 147.8 and 146.6 kJ/mol, respectively.

  10. Adhesion enhancement of polymer surfaces by atmospheric plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasma (APNEP) developed in the UK by EA Technology Ltd is currently being investigated in collaboration with the University of Surrey. Of the many applications of surface modification that can be induced using plasmas, adhesion enhancement is one of the most commercially important. In this paper, we illustrate the use of an atmospheric plasma to enhance the adhesion characteristics of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). The polymers were treated in the remote afterglow region of an atmospheric pressure plasma to avoid the thermal effects that can cause degradation for thermally sensitive materials when placed in direct contact with the plasma. Reactive (oxygen containing) and inert (oxygen free) atmospheric plasmas rapidly impart adhesion enhancement by a factor of two to ten as measured by 180 deg. peel tests. However, extended exposure to the atmospheric plasma does not impart additional adhesion enhancement as the surface is ablated revealing the underlying polymer with poor adhesive characteristics. In contrast, vacuum plasma treated LDPE and PET show increased adhesion with extended plasma treatment. An adhesion enhancement in excess of two to three orders of magnitude was found to be achievable for vacuum plasma treatment times greater than 10 min. (author)

  11. Lewis acid enhanced switching of the 1,1-dicyanodihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene photo/thermoswitch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Christian Richard; Tortzen, Christian Gregers; Broman, Søren Lindbæk; Schau-Magnussen, Magnus; Kilså, Kristine; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted

    2011-01-01

    Mild Lewis acids enhance the rate of the thermal conversion of vinylheptafulvene (VHF) to dihydroazulene (DHA). In the absence of light, stronger Lewis acids promote the otherwise photoinduced DHA to VHF conversion.......Mild Lewis acids enhance the rate of the thermal conversion of vinylheptafulvene (VHF) to dihydroazulene (DHA). In the absence of light, stronger Lewis acids promote the otherwise photoinduced DHA to VHF conversion....

  12. Enhancement of surface properties of oil fly ash by chemical treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawabkeh, Reyad; Khan, Muhammad J.; Al-Juhani, Abdulhadi A.; Al-Abdul Wahhab, Hamad I.; Hussein, Ibnelwaleed A.

    2011-12-01

    In this study, surface modification of oil fly ash (OFA), a by-product generated by oil power plants, was achieved by chemical treatment. A mixture of sulfuric and nitric acids was used to modify the surface in order to attach a carboxylic functional group to the surface of OFA. The goal of surface modification of OFA is to make its surface more compatible with nonpolar polymers in order to produce OFA/polymer composite materials with improved dispersion of OFA, and to increase OFA surface area in order to support its use as adsorbent materials in adsorptive separation and purification applications. Different acid compositions were used for treatment by gradually increasing the nitric acid concentration from 0 to 20%. Also, the effect of oxidation on surface modification was examined by introducing air to enhance the oxidation of OFA. FTIR analysis was performed to identify the different functional groups attached to OFA surface before and after the chemical treatment. Evaluation of different structural changes during the surface modification was investigated by XRD analysis. Surface morphology and spot analysis was studied by SEM technique to identify the composition of different elements present in the OFA such as carbon, oxygen and sulfur. BET analysis showed major increase in surface area after modification as well as pore size and micropore volume of OFA particles. The maximum increase in surface area was obtained with 15 vol.% HNO 3. Also, carboxylic functionalization of OFA was enhanced when air was injected.

  13. Slag Treatment Followed by Acid Leaching as a Route to Solar-Grade Silicon:

    OpenAIRE

    Meteleva-Fischer, Y.V.; Yang, Y.; Boom, R; Kraaijveld, B.; Kuntzel, H.

    2012-01-01

    Refining of metallurgical-grade silicon was studied using a process sequence of slag treatment, controlled cooling, and acid leaching. A slag of the Na2O-CaO-SiO2 system was used. The microstructure of grain boundaries in the treated silicon showed enhanced segregation of impurities, and the formation of CaSi2 and other Ca-rich phases. Boron and phosphorus were found in the grain boundary phases of silicon after the slag treatment and were successfully removed together with most of the metall...

  14. Role of acidic chemistries in steam treatment of aluminium alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2015-01-01

    The effect of acidic chemistry on the accelerated growth of oxide on aluminium alloys Peraluman 706TM and AA6060 under exposure to high temperature steam was investigated. Studied chemistries were based on citrates and phosphates. Results showed that the presence of citrate and phosphate anions initiate doxide growth at the intermetallic particles while growth and corrosion performance of oxide was found tobe a function of anions type and their concentration. Further, steam treatment with phosphates exhibited better performance under acetic acid salt spray and filiform corrosion test whereas delay in powder coating resulted in 1.53 times inferior performance.

  15. Effect of acid concentration and treatment time on acid-alcohol modified jackfruit seed starch properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Himjyoti; Paul, Sanjib Kumar; Kalita, Dipankar; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2011-09-15

    The properties of starch extracted from jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) seeds, collected from west Assam after acid-alcohol modification by short term treatment (ST) for 15-30min with concentrated hydrochloric acid and long term treatment (LT) for 1-15days with 1M hydrochloric acid, were investigated. Granule density, freeze thaw stability, solubility and light transmittance of the treated starches increased. A maximum decrease in the degree of polymerisation occurred in ST of 30min (2607.6). Jackfruit starch had 27.10.04% amylose content (db), which in ST initially decreased and then increased with the severity of treatment; in LT the effect was irregular. The pasting profile and granule morphology of the treated samples were severely modified. Native starch had the A-type crystalline pattern and crystalline structure increased on treatment. FTIR spectra revealed slight changes in bond stretching and bending. Colour measurement indicated that whiteness increased on treatment. Acid modified jackfruit seed starch can have applications in the food industry. PMID:25212133

  16. Omega-3 free fatty acids for the treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastelein, John J P; Maki, Kevin C; Susekov, Andrey; Ezhov, Marat; Nordestgaard, Borge G; Machielse, Ben N; Kling, Douglas; Davidson, Michael H

    2014-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids in free fatty acid form have enhanced bioavailability, and plasma levels are less influenced by food than for ethyl ester forms.......Omega-3 fatty acids in free fatty acid form have enhanced bioavailability, and plasma levels are less influenced by food than for ethyl ester forms....

  17. Electroacupuncture enhances spermatogenesis in rats after scrotal heat treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Jing; Zuo, Yan; So, Kam-Hei; Yeung, William S. B.; Ng, Ernest H Y; Lee, Kai-Fai

    2012-01-01

    Spermatogenesis is regulated by a cascade of steroid regulated genes in the testis. Recent studies suggested that acupuncture may improve fertility in men with abnormal semen parameters. Yet, the underlying mechanisms in which acupuncture enhances spermatogenesis remain largely unknown. Here we used a scrotal heat-treated rat model to study the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on recovery of spermatogenesis. In this model, spermatogenesis was disrupted by 30 min scrotal heat treatment at 43...

  18. CT CONTRAST ENHANCEMENT FOLLOWING RENAL CRYOABLATION ARTEFACT OR TREATMENT FAILURE?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tommy Kjrgaard; straat, yvind

    Introduction and objective: Renal cryoablation is a valid treatment option for localized pT1a renal cancer. Treatment success is typically defined as absence of contrast enhancement (CE) and a decrease in size of the cryoablated renal mass (i.e. cryolesion) on follow-up imaging. We investigated the CT characteristics and treatment outcome of renal cryolesions demonstrating CE during postoperative follow-up. Material and methods: A retrospective review of Aarhus Cryoablation Register identified 113 patients with a pT1a biopsy verified malignant renal lesion who underwent primary laparoscopic (LCA) or percutaneous cryoablation (PCA) from August 2005 to August 2012 at Aarhus University Hospital. Six patients were excluded from analysis due to MRI follow-up. During routine postoperative CT follow-up, contrast enhancement of the cryolesion was identified in 34 of the 107 patients (32%). Results: Mean patient age was 64 (45:79) yr. Mean tumour size was 24 (10:43) mm. RCC- subtypes: Clear cell (79 %), Papillary (12 %), Chromophobe (6%), Collecting duct carcinoma (3%). Treatment modalities was: LCA 53% and PCA 47%. A total of 31 patients (29%) were found to have CE on the initial follow-up CT and additional 3 patients had delayed CE (defined as no CE on prior CT). No significant difference in patient characteristics between patients with or without CE lesions was found. Spontaneous resolution of the CE was observed in 15 of the 34 patients (44%). Ten patients (29%) with CE lesions underwent re-ablation, with a median time to re-ablation of 12 months (1-27) after initial procedure. Other salvage procedures was: partial nephrectomy (1 pts), nephrectomy (2 pts) and oncological treatment (4 pts). Stratified on final outcome (spontaneous resolution vs. salvage therapy) age, tumour size, PADUA- score and level of contrast enhancement was significantly (p<0,05) lower among patients experiencing spontaneous resolution. Histology, change in cryolesion size, contrast enhancement pattern and number of cryoprobes used were not significantly different between the two groups. In patients where attenuation levels excited 39 HU it was found that only 13% experienced spontaneous resolution compared to 39% of patients with lower attenuation levels (p=0.004). None of the tumours with a high PADUA-score (?10) resulted in spontaneous resolution. Conclusion: Early re-treatment prior to 12 months should be carefully evaluated, as spontaneous resolution is commonly observed during postoperative follow-up. The importance of change in cryolesion size remains controversial and requires further research. If the PADUA score is ?10 and attenuation levels exceed 39 HU on contrast enhancement CT, residual unablated tumor should be considered.

  19. Mechanism involved in enhancement of osteoblast differentiation by hyaluronic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Michinao [Division of Maxillofacial Diagnostic and Surgical Science, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Department of Health Promotion, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Ariyoshi, Wataru [Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Department of Health Promotion, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Iwanaga, Kenjiro [Division of Maxillofacial Diagnostic and Surgical Science, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Okinaga, Toshinori [Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Department of Health Promotion, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Habu, Manabu [Division of Maxillofacial Diagnostic and Surgical Science, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Yoshioka, Izumi [Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Medicine of Sensory and Motor Organs, University of Miyazaki, Kiyotake, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan); Tominaga, Kazuhiro [Division of Maxillofacial Diagnostic and Surgical Science, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Oral Bioresearch Center, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Nishihara, Tatsuji, E-mail: tatsujin@kyu-dent.ac.jp [Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Department of Health Promotion, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Oral Bioresearch Center, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan)

    2011-02-25

    Research highlights: {yields} In this study was to investigate the effects of HA on osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. {yields} MG63 cells were incubated with BMP-2 and HA for various time periods. {yields} Phosphorylation of Smad 1/5/8, p38, and ERK proteins was determined by western blot analysis. To elucidate the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated Smad 1/5/8, stimulated cells were subjected to immunofluorescence microscopy. {yields} HA enhanced BMP-2 induces osteoblastic differentiation in MG63 cells via down-regulation of BMP-2 antagonists and ERK phosphorylation. -- Abstract: Objectives: Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is expected to be utilized to fill bone defects and promote healing of fractures. However, it is unable to generate an adequate clinical response for use in bone regeneration. Recently, it was reported that glycosaminoglycans, including heparin, heparan sulfate, keratan sulfate, dermatan sulfate, chondroitin-4-sulfate, chondroitin-6-sulfate, and hyaluronic acid (HA), regulate BMP-2 activity, though the mechanism by which HA regulates osteogenic activities has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HA on osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. Materials and methods: Monolayer cultures of osteoblastic lineage MG63 cells were incubated with BMP-2 and HA for various time periods. To determine osteoblastic differentiation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the cell lysates was quantified. Phosphorylation of Smad 1/5/8, p38, and ERK proteins was determined by Western blot analysis. To elucidate the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated Smad 1/5/8, stimulated cells were subjected to immunofluorescence microscopy. To further elucidate the role of HA in enhancement of BMP-2-induced Smad signaling, mRNA expressions of the BMP-2 receptor antagonists noggin and follistatin were detected using real-time RT-PCR. Results: BMP-2-induced ALP activation, Smad 1/5/8 phosphorylation, and nuclear translocation were up-regulated when MG63 cells were cultured with both BMP-2 and HA. Western blot analysis revealed that phosphorylation of ERK protein was diminished by HA. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of noggin and follistatin induced by BMP-2 were preferentially blocked by HA. Conclusions: These results indicate that HA enhanced BMP-2 induces osteoblastic differentiation in MG63 cells via down-regulation of BMP-2 antagonists and ERK phosphorylation.

  20. Mechanism involved in enhancement of osteoblast differentiation by hyaluronic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → In this study was to investigate the effects of HA on osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. → MG63 cells were incubated with BMP-2 and HA for various time periods. → Phosphorylation of Smad 1/5/8, p38, and ERK proteins was determined by western blot analysis. To elucidate the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated Smad 1/5/8, stimulated cells were subjected to immunofluorescence microscopy. → HA enhanced BMP-2 induces osteoblastic differentiation in MG63 cells via down-regulation of BMP-2 antagonists and ERK phosphorylation. -- Abstract: Objectives: Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is expected to be utilized to fill bone defects and promote healing of fractures. However, it is unable to generate an adequate clinical response for use in bone regeneration. Recently, it was reported that glycosaminoglycans, including heparin, heparan sulfate, keratan sulfate, dermatan sulfate, chondroitin-4-sulfate, chondroitin-6-sulfate, and hyaluronic acid (HA), regulate BMP-2 activity, though the mechanism by which HA regulates osteogenic activities has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HA on osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. Materials and methods: Monolayer cultures of osteoblastic lineage MG63 cells were incubated with BMP-2 and HA for various time periods. To determine osteoblastic differentiation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the cell lysates was quantified. Phosphorylation of Smad 1/5/8, p38, and ERK proteins was determined by Western blot analysis. To elucidate the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated Smad 1/5/8, stimulated cells were subjected to immunofluorescence microscopy. To further elucidate the role of HA in enhancement of BMP-2-induced Smad signaling, mRNA expressions of the BMP-2 receptor antagonists noggin and follistatin were detected using real-time RT-PCR. Results: BMP-2-induced ALP activation, Smad 1/5/8 phosphorylation, and nuclear translocation were up-regulated when MG63 cells were cultured with both BMP-2 and HA. Western blot analysis revealed that phosphorylation of ERK protein was diminished by HA. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of noggin and follistatin induced by BMP-2 were preferentially blocked by HA. Conclusions: These results indicate that HA enhanced BMP-2 induces osteoblastic differentiation in MG63 cells via down-regulation of BMP-2 antagonists and ERK phosphorylation.

  1. Enhancing pitting corrosion resistance of Al{sub x}CrFe{sub 1.5}MnNi{sub 0.5} high-entropy alloys by anodic treatment in sulfuric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.P.; Chen, Y.Y.; Hsu, C.Y.; Yeh, J.W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Shih, H.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Chinese Culture University, Taipei 111, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: hcshih@mx.nthu.edu.tw

    2008-12-01

    High-entropy alloys are a newly developed family of multi-component alloys that comprise various major alloying elements. Each element in the alloy system is present in between 5 and 35 at.%. The crystal structures and physical properties of high-entropy alloys differ completely from those of conventional alloys. The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) of the Al{sub x}CrFe{sub 1.5}MnNi{sub 0.5} (x = 0, 0.3, 0.5) alloys, obtained in 0.1 M HCl solution, clearly revealed that the corrosion resistance values were determined to increase from 21 to 34 {omega}cm{sup 2} as the aluminum content increased from 0 to 0.5 mol, and were markedly lower than that of 304 stainless steel (243 {omega}cm{sup 2}). At passive potential, the corresponding current declined with the anodizing time accounting, causing passivity by the growth of the multi-component anodized film in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses revealed that the surface of anodized Al{sub 0.3}CrFe{sub 1.5}MnNi{sub 0.5} alloy formed aluminum and chromium oxide film which was the main passivating compound on the alloy. This anodic treatment increased the corrosion resistance in the EIS measurements of the CrFe{sub 1.5}MnNi{sub 0.5} and Al{sub 0.3}CrFe{sub 1.5}MnNi{sub 0.5} alloys by two orders of magnitude. Accordingly, the anodic treatment of the Al{sub x}CrFe{sub 1.5}MnNi{sub 0.5} alloys optimized their surface structures and minimized their susceptibility to pitting corrosion.

  2. In vivo selection of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains with enhanced quinolone resistance during fluoroquinolone treatment of urinary tract infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Deguchi, T.; Kawamura, T.; Yasuda, M.; Nakano, M.; Fukuda, H.; Kato, H.; Kato, N.; Okano, Y; Y. Kawada

    1997-01-01

    We report two cases of failure of fluoroquinolone treatment of urinary tract infections with Klebsiella pneumoniae strains harboring quinolone resistance-associated alterations in GyrA and ParC and in vivo selection of posttreatment isolates with enhanced fluoroquinolone resistance. Active efflux leading to decreased accumulation of a drug enhanced fluoroquinolone resistance in one posttreatment isolate, and an additional mutation in parC resulting in an additional amino acid change in ParC w...

  3. Treatment of hydrofluoric acid exposure to the eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Atley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To review the current evidence of the treatment of hydrofluoric acid (HF exposure to the human cornea. METHODS: A comprehensive manual search of the literature was conducted through the Ovid interface to assess the mechanism and efficacy of each irrigator through a variety of clinical cases and experimental studies. RESULTS: Ocular exposure to HF is extremely damaging to the eye and swift recognition and decontamination with an appropriate agent forms the basis of treatment. Although there are various decontamination solutions that have efficacy against the corrosive action of HF, irrigation with Hexafluorine proved to be the most safe and effective treatment for the eye. CONCLUSION: In conclusion emergency departments could benefit from the availability of Hexafluorine for the treatment of HF ocular burns in patients.

  4. Psychosocial Treatments for Bipolar Depression: A 1-Year Randomized Trial From the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program

    OpenAIRE

    Miklowitz, DJ; Otto, MW; Frank, E.; Reilly-Harrington, NA; Wisniewski, SR; Kogan, JN; Nierenberg, AA; Calabrese, JR; Marangell, LB; Gyulai, L; Araga, M; Gonzalez, JM; Shirley, ER; Thase, ME; Sachs, GS

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: Psychosocial interventions have been shown to enhance pharmacotherapy outcomes in bipolar disorder. OBJECTIVE: To examine the benefits of 4 disorder-specific psychotherapies in conjunction with pharmacotherapy on time to recovery and the likelihood of remaining well after an episode of bipolar depression. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Fifteen clinics affiliated with the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder. Patients A total of 293 referred out...

  5. Properties of Ferrofluid Nanoparticles Prepared by Coprecipitation and Acid Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new stable acid water-based CoFe2O4 ferrofluid is prepared by coprecipitation and acid treatment. The properties of the nanoparticles forming the ferrofluid are examined by means of X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometer, scanning tunneling microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and annihilation technique. The results show that the particles are cubic CoFe2O4 nanoparticles, which have an average diameter of 12.2 nm and are coated with a low density porous amorphous layer. The CoFe2O4 particles in an acid aqueous medium exist in two kinds of forms, one is a single spherical particle and another is an aggregation of several spherical particles

  6. Organising pneumonia associated with fumaric acid ester treatment for psoriasis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Deegan, Alexander Paul

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: We present the case of a 49-year old male who presented with dyspnoea, cough, weight loss, night sweats and general malaise. He had been on treatment with oral fumaric acid esters (FAE, Fumaderm(R); Biogen Idec GmbH, Ismaning, Germany) for 6 months. METHODS: Report of a case. RESULTS: His chest X-ray showed patchy infiltrates in the left upper lobe which failed to resolve under empiric antibiotic therapy. A computed tomography of thorax revealed bilateral, mostly peripheral foci of consolidation with air bronchograms. Transbronchial biopsies showed a pattern of organising pneumonia (OP). CONCLUSIONS: Therapy with oral prednisolone (40 mg\\/day) resulted in a rapid clinical and radiological improvement. An association of FAE and OP has not previously been reported. Please cite this paper as: Deegan AP, Kirby B, Rogers S, Crotty TB and McDonnell TJ. Organising pneumonia associated with fumaric acid ester treatment for psoriasis.

  7. Zoledronic acid infusion for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sunyecz, John A

    2010-01-01

    John A SunyeczLaurel Highlands Ob/Gyn, Hopwood, Pennsylvania, USA and MenopauseRx, Inc., Uniontown, PA, USAAbstract: Osteoporotic fractures are associated with significant morbidity, reduced quality of life, increased mortality, and high health care costs. Bisphosphonates are standard therapy for treatment of osteoporosis. However, patient compliance and persistence with oral weekly or monthly bisphosphonate therapy are suboptimal and may lead to reduced effectiveness. Zoledronic acid (ZOL) i...

  8. Contrast-enhanced microwave detection and treatment of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fuqiang

    Contrast agents and heating agents have been proposed for microwave breast tumor imaging and treatment, respectively. The dielectric properties of the tumor are altered with contrast agents or heating agents that locally accumulate in the tumor. The resulting change in dielectric properties of the tumor has the potential to enhance the sensitivity of microwave imaging of breast tumors and increase the efficiency and selectivity of microwave thermal therapy of breast tumors. This dissertation addresses several key challenges in contrast-enhanced microwave imaging and treatment of breast tumors. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been shown to enhance both the relative permittivity and effective conductivity of the host medium, and are promising as theranostic (integrated therapeutic and diagnostic) agents. Thus, our properties characterization work focuses on CNT dispersions. We performed in vitro microwave dielectric properties and heating response characterization of dispersions of CNTs treated by different functionalization methods and identified a CNT formulation that is very promising as a microwave theranostic agent. Stable dispersions of CNTs with concentrations up to 20 mg/ml are obtained with this formulation, and the enhanced microwave properties of these dispersions are extraordinary compared to the control. We also conducted in vivo dielectric properties characterization of mouse tumors with intra-tumoral injections of CNT dispersions and confirmed that the presence of CNTs increases the dielectric properties of the tumor. In parallel, we developed a contrast-enhanced microwave breast tumor imaging algorithm using sparse reconstruction methods. We demonstrated that this algorithm accurately localizes small tumors in 3D numerical breast phantoms. We also demonstrated the experimental feasibility of this method using physical breast phantoms. Lastly, we studied the sensitivity of the distorted Born iterative method (DBIM) to initial guesses and developed a straightforward method for computing a reliable initial guess. DBIM is an iterative algorithm for solving the microwave inverse scattering problem and is used to initialize the sparse reconstruction algorithm developed in this research.

  9. Enhancement of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on all-trans retinoic acid-induced differentiation in human leukemia HL-60 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) induces complete remission in a high proportion of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL); however, the response is sometimes very slow. Furthermore, relapse and resistance to treatment often occur despite continued treatment with ATRA. Thereafter, combination treatment strategies have been suggested to circumvent these problems. The present study demonstrates that caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a major component of honeybee propolis, enhanced ATRA-induced granulocytic differentiation in HL-60, a human promyelocytic cell line. The differentiation was assessed by Wright-Giemsa stain, nitroblue tetrazolium reduction, and membrane differentiation marker CD11b. In addition, CAPE enhanced ATRA-induced cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase by decreasing the association of cdk2-cyclin E complex. Finally, it was demonstrated that CAPE promoted the ATRA-mediated nuclear transcription activation of RAR? assessed by EMSA assay and enhanced the expression of target genes including RAR?, C/EBP?, and p21 protein resulting in the differentiation development of leukemia. It is suggested that CAPE possesses the potential to enhance the efficiency of ATRA in the differentiation therapy of APL

  10. Lowering of phytic acid content by enhancement of phytase and acid phosphatase activities during sunflower germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana da Silva Agostini

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the germination of hybrid sunflowers BRS191 and C11 as a means of lowering phytic acid (PA content by enhancing the activity of endogenous phytase and acid phosphatase. The concentration of PA in hybrid sunflower achenes varied from 2.16 to 2.83g/100g of sample (p O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a germinao de girassis hbridos BRS 191 e C11 com finalidade de reduzir o teor de AF e aumentar as atividades de phytases e fosfatases endgenas. A concentrao do AF nos aqunios de girassis hbridos variou de 2,16 a 2,83 g /100g de amostra (p< 0,005. As atividades de fitases e fosfatases de girassis BRS191 e C11 foram elevadas no 4 e 5 dia de germinao, respectivamente, com liberao do fsforo necessrio para o desenvolvimento da semente. Estes resultados indicam que o AF do girassol hibrido reduz e a atividade de phytase aumenta em perodos distintos da germinao, possibilitando assim a aplicao desta enzima no controle do teor de AF em cereais, melhorando o seu valor nutricional.

  11. Coarse media filtration for enhanced primary treatment of municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Z; Odegaard, H

    2002-01-01

    In these experimental studies enhanced primary treatment in coarse media filters has been evaluated. The coarse media used in the filters have been plastic carriers normally used for moving bed bioreactors, a Kaldnes carrier K1 with density floating (K2L) version and a heavier, sinking one (K2H). The results demonstrated that media characteristics significantly influenced filter performance. The dosing of a high MW and high charge cationic polymer was, however, found to have an even greater effect on treatment efficiency and especially on head loss development. Both filters were found to be feasible for enhanced primary treatment at high filtration rates (20-30 m/h) especially when dosing low dosages (1-3 mg/l) of polymer. The combination of two media into a dual media filter might take the advantages of both. Further experiments were carried out on a dual media filter consisting of lighter K1L media and heavier K2H media. It was indeed found that the K1L+K2H up-flow filter resulted in better performances in terms of water production when an optimised backwash procedure was taken into account. PMID:12361009

  12. An optimized probucol microencapsulated formulation integrating a secondary bile acid (deoxycholic acid as a permeation enhancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mooranian A

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Armin Mooranian,1 Rebecca Negrulj,1 Nigel Chen-Tan,2 Gerald F Watts,3 Frank Arfuso,4 Hani Al-Salami11Biotechnology and Drug Development Research Laboratory, School of Pharmacy, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Biosciences Research Precinct, Curtin University, 2Faculty of Science and Engineering, Curtin University, 3School of Medicine and Pharmacology, Royal Perth Hospital, University of Western Australia, 4School of Biomedical Science, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Biosciences Research Precinct, Curtin University, Perth, AustraliaAbstract: The authors have previously designed, developed, and characterized a novel microencapsulated formulation as a platform for the targeted delivery of therapeutics in an animal model of type 2 diabetes, using the drug probucol (PB. The aim of this study was to optimize PB microcapsules by incorporating the bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA, which has good permeation-enhancing properties, and to examine its effect on microcapsules morphology, rheology, structural and surface characteristics, and excipients chemical and thermal compatibilities. Microencapsulation was carried out using a BCHI-based microencapsulating system established in the authors laboratory. Using the polymer sodium alginate (SA, two microencapsulated formulations were prepared: PB-SA (control and PB-DCA-SA (test at a constant ratio (1:30 and 1:3:30, respectively. Complete characterization of the microcapsules was carried out. The incorporation of DCA resulted in better structural and surface characteristics, uniform morphology, and stable chemical and thermal profiles, while size and rheological parameters remained similar to control. In addition, PB-DCA-SA microcapsules showed good excipients compatibilities, which were supported by data from differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray studies, suggesting microcapsule stability. Hence, PB-DCA-SA microcapsules have good rheological and compatibility characteristics and may be suitable for the oral delivery of PB in type 2 diabetes.Keywords: artificial cell microencapsulation, diabetes, bile acids, probucol, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, BCHI B390

  13. [Hyaluronic Acid (hyalgan(r)) in the treatment of gonarthritis.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelka, K; Vlaskov, V; Vtov, J; Stehlkov, H; Slansk, J

    1995-01-01

    The authors made an open multicentre clinical study with the administration of hyaluronic acid (Hyalgan(R) - Fidia) in patients with gonarthritis. The study comprised 31 patients with gonarthritis grade II-III according to Kellgren, 30 of whom completed the study. Hyalgan was administered to the patients - vials 2 ml in five injections in weekly intervals by the intraarticular route. The patients were followed up for another three months after completed treatment. A significant decline of pain on the visual analogue scale (VAS) was recorded already two weeks after onset of treatment (p = 0.001) and this decline persisted for another 13 weeks after termination of treatment. The algofunctional indices (Lequesne, Jezek) also declined after the first injection, whereby a statistically significant reduction was recorded still after 12 weeks, as compared with values before the onset of treatment (p = 0.001). Similar results were obtained also in objective evaluations (effusion, temperature above joint, tenderness). Already after the second injection a significantly shorter time was required for a 20 m walk. The mean daily paracetamol consumption declined from a mean value of 1496 +/- 777 mg before administration to 670 6 661 mg at the end of the investigation (p = 0.00006). Undesirable effects (increased intensity of pain after puncture) was recorded in one patient (3.3%). Evidence was provided that Hyalgan(R) belongs as to its profile of effectiveness among so-called SYSADOAs (symptomatic slow acting drugs for OA). Treatment is quite safe. Key words: knee osteoarthritis, hyaluronic acid, i. a. treatment. PMID:20470530

  14. Enhancement of the wet properties of transparent chitosan-acetic-acid-salt films using microfibrillated cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordqvist, David; Idermark, Johan; Hedenqvist, Mikael S; Gllstedt, Mikael; Ankerfors, Mikael; Lindstrm, Tom

    2007-08-01

    This report presents a new route to enhance the wet properties of chitosan-acetic-acid-salt films using microfibrillated cellulose (MFC). The enhancement makes it easier to form chitosan-acetic-acid-salt films into various shapes at room temperature in the wet state. Chitosan with MFC was compared with the well-known buffer treatment. It was observed that films containing 5 wt % MFC were visually identical to the buffered/unbuffered films without MFC. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy indicated that MFC formed a network with uniformly distributed fibrils and fibril bundles in the chitosan matrix. The addition of MFC reduced the risk of creases and deformation in the wet state because of a greater wet stiffness. The wet films containing MFC were also extensible. Although the stiffness, strength and extensibility were highest for the buffered films, the wet strength of the MFC-containing unbuffered films was sufficient for wet forming operations. The effects of MFC on the mechanical properties of the dry chitosan films were small or absent. It was concluded that the addition of MFC is an acceptable alternative to buffering for shaping chitosan films/products in the wet state. The advantages are that the "extra" processing step associated with buffering is unnecessary and that the film matrix remains more water-soluble. PMID:17645308

  15. Flaxseed Soluble Dietary Fibre Enhances Lactic Acid Bacterial Survival and Growth in Kefir and Possesses High Antioxidant Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Mehri HadiNezhad; Camille Duc; Nam Fong Han; Farah Hosseinian

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the capability and efficiency of flaxseed soluble dietary fibre /mucilage to enhance bacterial survival and growth in kefir as well as the antioxidant activity of the mucilage. Crude flaxseed mucilage was extracted using a microwave method, followed by enzymatic and dialysis treatments to obtain pure mucilage. The antioxidant activities of the pure and crude mucilage were measured using different assays. Microbial analyses, pH and total titratable acidity (TTA) were me...

  16. Lysophosphatidic Acid Enhances Pulmonary Epithelial Barrier Integrity and Protects Endotoxin-induced Epithelial Barrier Disruption and Lung Injury*

    OpenAIRE

    He, Donghong; Su, Yanlin; Usatyuk, Peter V.; SPANNHAKE, Ernst Wm.; Kogut, Paul; Solway, Julian; Natarajan, Viswanathan; Zhao, Yutong

    2009-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a bioactive phospholipid, induces a wide range of cellular effects, including gene expression, cytoskeletal rearrangement, and cell survival. We have previously shown that LPA stimulates secretion of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in bronchial epithelial cells. This study provides evidence that LPA enhances pulmonary epithelial barrier integrity through protein kinase C (PKC) ?- and ?-mediated E-cadherin accumulation at cell-cell junctions. Treatment of huma...

  17. Enhancement of food safety antimicrobial effectiveness of cold plasma treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina SMEU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cold plasma treatment proved to be a flexible, efficient, chemical-free antimicrobial process and it can represent an easy to use sanitizing method for the food industry that does not require special temperature, humidity or pressure conditions. This paper reviews the classification of plasma and the main cold plasma generating devices used in the recent years to enhance food safety. A research of available literature was also conducted to identify the antimicrobial mode of action of cold plasma treatment as well as advantages and key limitations of this technique when applied to different food products such as fruits, vegetables, meat and milk. The study revealed that further development of this method will have to be carried out, allowing better understanding of the complex interactions during applications and its restrictions, as well as practice outlook.

  18. Enhanced physicochemical-biological sewage treatment process in cold regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guoren; Jia, Chao; Zhang, Zhao; Jiang, Yunlong

    2014-01-01

    Biological treatment processes give relatively poor pollutant removal efficiencies in cold regions because microbial activity is inhibited at low temperatures. We developed an enhanced physicochemical-biological wastewater treatment process that involves micro-membrane filtration, anaerobic biofilter, and aerobic biofilter to improve the pollutant removal efficiencies that can be achieved under cold conditions. Full-scale experiments using the process were carried out in the northeast of China, at outdoor temperatures of around -30 C. The average removal efficiencies achieved for chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus, ammonia nitrogen, and suspended solids were 89.8, 92.9, 94.3, and 95.8%, respectively, using a polyaluminium chloride dosage of 50 mg L?. We concluded that the process is effective to treat sewage in cold regions. PMID:25401308

  19. Peptide Nucleic Acids Having Enhanced Binding Affinity and Sequence Specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA strand, and exhibit increased sequence specificity and binding affinity. Methods of increasing binding affinity and sequence specificity of peptide nucleic acids are provided wherein some peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from a group consisting of naturally-occurring nucleobases and non-naturally-occurring nucleobases attached to a polyamide bac...

  20. Enhanced antimicrobial effect of organic acid washing against foodborne pathogens on broccoli by vacuum impregnation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun-Won; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-01-18

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of vacuum impregnation applied to the washing process for removal of Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes from broccoli surfaces. Broccoli was inoculated with the two foodborne pathogens and treated with simple dipping washing or with vacuum impregnation in 2% malic acid for 5, 10, 20, or 30min. There were two methods of vacuum impregnation: continuous and intermittent. After 30min of 101.3kPa (=14.7psi, simple dipping), 61.3kPa (=8.9psi), and 21.3kPa (=3.1psi) of continuous vacuum impregnation treatment, there were 1.6, 2.0, and 2.4log10CFU/g reductions of S. Typhimurium and 1.5, 1.7, and 2.3log10CFU/g reductions of L. monocytogenes, respectively. After 30min of 101.3, 61.3, and 21.3kPa of intermittent vacuum impregnation treatment, there were 1.5, 2.3, and 3.7log10CFU/g reductions of S. Typhimurium and 1.6, 2.1, and 3.2log10CFU/g reductions of L. monocytogenes, respectively. Scanning electron photomicrographs showed that bacteria tend to attach to or become entrapped in protective sites after simple wash processing (dipping). However, most bacteria were washed out of protective sites after intermittent treatment. Direct treatment of cell suspensions with vacuum impregnation showed that it had no inactivation capacity in itself since there were no significant differences (P?0.05) between the reduction rates of non- and vacuum impregnation treatment. These results demonstrate that the increased antimicrobial effect of vacuum impregnation can be attributed to increased accessibility of sanitizer and an enhanced washing effect in protected sites on produce. Color, texture and titratable acidity values of broccoli treated with intermittent vacuum impregnation in 2% malic acid for 30min were not significantly (P?0.05) different from those of untreated samples even though a storage interval was needed for titratable acidity values to be reduced to levels comparable to those of untreated controls. PMID:26496412

  1. Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Treatment on Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogoş Tiberius

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Insulin resistance (IR is a common pathogenic factor of several diseases: diabetes mellitus, the metabolic syndrome, arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia, etc. There are many therapeutic factors involved in decreasing IR. Among them we mention metformin, pioglitazone, physical activity, weight loss, diet, etc. In the last decade, there are more observations of the influence of polyunsaturated fatty acids on IR. The most powerful seem to be omega-3 fatty acids. In our study, we wanted to asses if the administration of omega-3 fatty acids is involved in modifying IR. Materials and methods: We evaluated 126 diabetic patients with IR from January 2011 until July 2014. The study was open-label and non-randomized. For the determination of IR we used the HOMA-IR method. Results: For both males and females there was a regression of HOMA-IR during the 4 weeks of treatment with omega-3 and also after 2 weeks after stopping the administration of these fatty acids. The decrease of HOMA-IR was statistically significant (p<0.05. The statistic result observed in the next 2 weeks after stopping administration of omega-3 was also significant (p<0.05.

  2. Plasma surface treatments of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surfaces of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) were modified by oxygen and nitrogen plasma treatments. The physical and chemical surface characteristics were evaluated by contact angle tests, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The plasma treatments caused an increase in both contact angle and roughening, altered the surface morphology, inserted polar groups, and, consequently, enhanced the hydrophilicity for both PLLA and PHBV polymers.

  3. Excimer surface treatment to enhance bonding in coated steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert E.; Olfert, M.; Duley, Walter W.; North, T.; Hood, J.; Sakai, D.

    1996-04-01

    Zinc coated sheet steel in the form of temper rolled galvanize and galvanneal are used extensively in the automotive industry. Through a process of excimer laser surface treatment, we have succeeded in significantly enhancing the adhesion characteristics of these coated steels. The laser treatment is performed by scanning focused excimer laser radiation in a raster pattern over the surface to be bonded. Adhesion tests have been carried out in the form of T peel tests, using either a hot melt nylon resin or an epoxy as the adhesive. An increase in bond strength was observed over a substantial range of surface treatment conditions. The largest improvement observed was more than a factor of three greater than for untreated surfaces. With the improved surface condition, the bond strength became limited by the cohesive strength of the adhesive. The physical structure and chemical composition of the parent and excimer treated surfaces have been examined using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to determine the nature and extent of the changes caused by the surface treatment. The effects of the observed changes on the bonding performance will be discussed. Surfaces have been processed under an inert atmosphere to isolate the effects of physical surface modification and surface oxidation. An attempt will be made to correlate the surface changes with the bonding characteristics and thereby indicate which changes are most beneficial. The ultimate goal is to optimize the surface condition for bonding and maximize the process rate.

  4. Solar enhanced wastewater treatment in waste stabilization ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agunwamba, J C; Utsev, J T; Okonkwo, W I

    2009-05-01

    One of the most popular off-site wastewater treatment plants used in the tropics is the waste stabilization pond (WSP). Although it has several advantages, its use in urban areas is limited because of its large land area requirement. Hence, this research is aimed at investigating if a solar-enhanced WSP (SEWSP) can increase treatment efficiency and consequently reduce the land area requirement. The SEWSPs of varying sizes, made of a metallic tank with inlet and outlet valves and a solar reflector, were constructed to increase the incident sunlight intensity. Wastewater samples collected from the inlet and outlet of the SEWSPs were examined for physio-chemical and biological characteristics for a period of 2 months. The parameters examined were total suspended solids, dissolved oxygen, 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), coliform, and Escherichia coli. The efficiencies of the SEWSPs, with respect to these parameters, fluctuated with temperature variation, with the shallowest SEWSP giving the highest treatment efficiency. The research revealed that the cost of treating wastewater using SEWSPs was approximately 2 times lower than the conventional WSP for the same treatment efficiencies. PMID:19472946

  5. Enhancement of radiotherapy by ceria nanoparticles modified with neogambogic acid in breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Zhang, Xiao Hong; Hu, Xiao Dan; Zhang, Wei; Lou, Zhi Chao; Xie, Li Hua; Liu, Pei Dang; Zhang, Hai Qian

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the main strategies for cancer treatment but has significant challenges, such as cancer cell resistance and radiation damage to normal tissue. Radiosensitizers that selectively increase the susceptibility of cancer cells to radiation can enhance the effectiveness of radiotherapy. We report here the development of a novel radiosensitizer consisting of monodispersed ceria nanoparticles (CNPs) covered with the anticancer drug neogambogic acid (NGA-CNPs). These were used in conjunction with radiation in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, and the efficacy and mechanisms of action of this combined treatment approach were evaluated. NGA-CNPs potentiated the toxic effects of radiation, leading to a higher rate of cell death than either treatment used alone and inducing the activation of autophagy and cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, while pretreatment with NGA or CNPs did not improve the rate of radiation-induced cancer cells death. However, NGA-CNPs decreased both endogenous and radiation-induced reactive oxygen species formation, unlike other nanomaterials. These results suggest that the adjunctive use of NGA-CNPs can increase the effectiveness of radiotherapy in breast cancer treatment by lowering the radiation doses required to kill cancer cells and thereby minimizing collateral damage to healthy adjacent tissue. PMID:26316742

  6. Enhancing Anaerobic Treatment of Wastewaters Containing Oleic Acid.

    OpenAIRE

    Ching-Shyung, H.

    1997-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONLipids are one of the major organic pollutants in municipal and industrial wastewaters. Although domestic sewage typically contains about 40-100 mg/I lipids (Forster, 1992; Qumneur and Marty, 1994), it is industrial wastewaters that are of greater concern when considering the higher lipid concentrations in the discharged effluents. Typical industries that generate lipids-containing wastewaters are dairy, edible oil and fat refinery, slaughterhouse and meatprocessing, rendering a...

  7. The treatments of soil Rirang by floatation and Acid leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The treatments of soil Rirang by floatation and acid leaching has been carried out to increase high uranium concentrates of materials, separating associated economical minerals and to reduce the gangue minerals which bothering at chemical processing. The physical treatment has been done by ore preparation and floatation using oleic acid and pine oil, 20 % of pulp at pH 9, condition time at 5 minutes and collections of float fraction was 10 minutes. The chemical processing has been done by dynamic leaching using H2SO4 100 kg/ton, MnO2 20 kg/ton, 50 % of solid with ore size - 65 mesh, temperature at 80 oC and time of leaching was 8 hours. The result of experiments is as follows : Physical treatment by floatation shown that the concentrates of U increased at sink fraction by (1.5 - 2) times against feed sample for all the samples, and in the float fraction the recovery of molybdenite separation is 58 - 81 % and rare earths is 57 - 80 %. The result of dynamic leaching is 76 - 91 %, and recovery uranium increasing from 81.02 % (mixture samples soil before floatation) to 91.16 % ( mixture samples of float fraction)

  8. Influence of reducing carbohydrates on (6S)-5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid degradation during thermal treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinde, Philippe H C J; Oey, Indrawati; Lemmens, Lien; Deborggraeve, Wim M; Hendrickx, Marc E; Van Loey, Ann M

    2010-05-26

    The mechanism and kinetics of the degradation of (6S)5-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolic acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of reducing carbohydrates such as glucose and fructose were investigated for thermal treatments. Preliminary experiments indicated that the presence of reducing carbohydrates, especially fructose (1.6 mM-1.5 M), strongly enhanced folate degradation at moderate temperatures (50-90 degrees C, 0-60 min). Identification of the predominant folate degradation products by LC-MS and NMR pointed to the formation of N(2alpha)-[1-(carboxyethyl)]-5-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolic acid diastereomers besides other folate degradation products upon prolonged heating (24 h, 100 degrees C) of (6S)5-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolic acid in fructose or dihydroxyacetone solutions. Using a Bayesian multiresponse kinetic modeling approach, kinetic characterization and elucidation of the degradation mechanism in the presence of equimolar amounts of dihydroxyacetone, fructose, and glucose were achieved. On the basis of the established degradation mechanism for (6S)5-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolic acid oxidation in the literature, it was shown that nonenzymatic glycation occurred due to reaction of dihydroxyacetone with 5-methyl-7,8-dihydrofolic acid. During thermal treatments (85-110 degrees C, 0-60 min), the nonenzymatic glycation reaction was characterized by an activation energy of 61.3 +/- 9.3 and 77.6 +/- 7.8 kJ mol(-1) in the presence of, respectively, dihydroxyacetone and fructose. Addition of L-ascorbic acid (1.13 mM) to folate samples (0.04 mM) with equimolar amounts of fructose prior to heating (100 degrees C, 0-45 min) was shown to retard the formation of 5-methyl-7,8-dihydrofolic acid and hence prevented the formation of the carboxyethylated derivatives under the investigated conditions. PMID:20423084

  9. Genetic Engineering of Rhizopus for Enhancing Lactic Acid Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungus Rhizopus is frequently used to convert, or ferment sugars obtained from agricultural crops to lactic acid. This natural product has long been utilized by the food industry as an additive for preservation, flavor, and acidity. Additionally, it is used for the manufacture of environmental...

  10. Hydrothermal-acid treatment for effectual extraction of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-abundant lipids from Nannochloropsis salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ilgyu; Han, Jong-In

    2015-09-01

    Hydrothermal acid treatment, was adopted to extract eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) from wet biomass of Nannochloropsis salina. It was found that sulfuric acid-based treatment increased EPA yield from 11.8 to 58.1 mg/g cell in a way that was nearly proportional to its concentration. Nitric acid exhibited the same pattern at low concentrations, but unlike sulfuric acid its effectiveness unexpectedly dropped from 0.5% to 2.0%. The optimal and minimal conditions for hydrothermal acid pretreatment were determined using a statistical approach; its maximum EPA yield (predicted: 43.69 mg/g cell; experimental: 43.93 mg/g cell) was established at a condition of 1.27% of sulfuric acid, 113.34 C of temperature, and 36.71 min of reaction time. Our work demonstrated that the acid-catalyzed cell disruption, accompanied by heat, can be one potentially promising option for ?-3 fatty acids extraction. PMID:25966023

  11. Hippocampal adult neurogenesis is enhanced by chronic eszopiclone treatment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methippara, Melvi; Bashir, Tariq; Suntsova, Natalia; Szymusiak, Ron; McGinty, Dennis

    2010-09-01

    The adult hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) exhibits cell proliferation and neurogenesis throughout life. We examined the effects of daily administration of eszopiclone (Esz), a commonly used hypnotic drug and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist, compared with vehicle, on DG cell proliferation and neurogenesis, and on sleep-wake patterns. Esz was administered during the usual sleep period of rats, to mimic typical use in humans. Esz treatment for 7 days did not affect the rate of cell proliferation, as measured by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunostaining. However, twice-daily Esz administration for 2 weeks increased survival of newborn cells by 46%. Most surviving cells exhibited a neuronal phenotype, identified as BrdU-neuronal nuclei (NeuN) double-labeling. NeuN is a marker of neurons. Non-rapid eye movement sleep was increased on day 1, but not on days 7 or 14 of Esz administration. Delta electroencephalogram activity was increased on days 1 and 7 of treatment, but not on day 14. There is evidence that enhancement of DG neurogenesis is a critical component of the effects of antidepressant treatments of major depressive disorder (MDD). Adult-born DG cells are responsive to GABAergic stimulation, which promotes cell maturation. The present study suggests that Esz, presumably acting as a GABA agonist, has pro-neurogenic effects in the adult DG. This result is consistent with evidence that Esz enhances the antidepressant treatment response of patients with MDD with insomnia. PMID:20408925

  12. Optimization of germination time and heat treatments for enhanced availability of minerals from leguminous sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, Kiran; Uppal, Veny; Kaur, Harpreet

    2014-05-01

    Germinated legumes are highly nutritious food especially for their enhanced iron bioavailability primarily because of reduction of phytates and increase in ascorbic acid with an advancement of germination period. Length of germination time followed by different heat treatments affect the nutritive value of leguminous sprouts. To optimize germination time and heat treatments for enhanced availability of iron from leguminous sprouts, three legumes namely, mungbean, chickpea and cowpea were germinated for three time periods followed by cooking of sprouts by two cooking methods ie. pressure cooking and microwaving. Optimized germination time for mungbean was 12, 16 and 20h; 36, 48 and 60h for chickpea and 16, 20 and 24h for cowpea. Germination process increased ascorbic acid significantly in all the three legumes, the values being 8.24 to 8.87mg/100g in mungbean, 9.34 to 9.85mg/100g in chickpea and 9.12 to 9.68mg/100g in cowpea. Soaking and germination significantly reduced the phytin phosphorus in all the three legumes, the percent reduction being 5.3 to 16.1% during soaking and 25.7 to 46.4% during germination. The reduction in phytin phosphorus after pressure cooking was 9.6% in mungbean, 18.4% in chickpea and 6.1% in cowpea. The corresponding values during microwaving were 8.4, 19.7 and 4.5%. Mineral bioavailability as predicted by phytate:iron enhanced significantly with an increase in germination time. Further reduction i.e. 0.9 to 16.3% was observed in three legumes after the two heat treatments. The study concluded that the longer germination periods ie. 20h for mungbean, 60h for chickpea and 24h for cowpea followed by pressure cooking for optimized time were suitable in terms of better iron availability. PMID:24803714

  13. Organic Crop Management Enhances Chicoric Acid Content in Lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Channa B. Rajashekar; Myung-Min Oh; Edward E. Carey

    2012-01-01

    L- chicoric acid is a dominant phenolic compound in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and has been shown to accumulate in response to many abiotic stresses and crop management practices. It is a potent inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) integrase needed for the replication of this virus and for the productive infection of the host cell. L- chicoric acid has been found to act synergistically in combination with anti-HIV drugs used for treating acquired immuno-deficiency disorder (AIDS...

  14. Uranium extraction enhancement form phosphoric acid by emulsion liquid membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is mainly concerned with the uranium extraction from phosphoric acid commercially produced by Abu Zaabal Fertilizers and Chemical Co., Egypt. This target would realize a dual purpose where the phosphate ore is considered as an alternative source of uranium besides eliminating its environmental contamination. The applied procedures are that of the new technology of emulsion liquid membrane. Authors have indeed pointed out that the variables explored still leave open to question the roles of stripping at the internal interface as well as the bulk transfer of uranium in the internal phase. For this purpose, two reducing agents are studied as additives to two organic solvent systems; namely the organophosphorous synergistic mixture of D2EHPA/TOPO as well as the tridodecyl amine. The relevant factors have first been optimized upon synthetic uraniferous phosphoric acid solution followed by the application upon the commercial acid after purification. These factors include the concentration of solvent system and the used emulsifier, acid concentration of the external and internal phases besides the nature and concentration of the reductant added to the internal phase. In addition, the permeation time as well as the oxidation state of the external phase was studied. All these factors have indeed been studied under different mixing speeds ranging from 300 up to 1,000 rpm. Ascorbic acid concentration, 1 % as an additive to the internal phosphoric acid phase (40 % P2O5) resulted in 95 % uranium extraction efficiency at the lower speed of 600 rpm. (author)

  15. Action of successive heat treatments in bovine milk fatty acids

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edvaldo N., Costa; Ellen C. Q., Lacerda; Suian M. S., Santos; Carilan M. S., Santos; Marcelo, Franco; Robrio R., Silva; Julliana I., Simionato.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available O estudo mostra a ao sucessiva dos tratamentos trmicos de pasteurizao (75 C por 15 s) e esterilizao comercial por troca indireta de calor (140 C for 6 s) sobre o perfil lipdico de leite bovino. Amostras de leite cru foram submetidas pasteurizao e ento, esterilizao comercial (ultra [...] -alta temperatura, UHT). A gordura de amostras de leite cru, de leite pasteurizado e de leite esterilizados comercialmente foi extrada. Aps transesterificao, os steres metlicos dos cidos graxos (FAMEs) foram analisados por cromatografia gasosa com deteco por ionizao de chama (GC-FID). A quantificao revelou que para a maioria dos cidos graxos (FA) encontrados no houve diferena significativa (p > 0,05) entre as amostras de leite cru e leite pasteurizado. Entretanto, foram encontradas diferenas significativas para 21 dos 26 cidos graxos analisados (p > 0,05) para as amostras de leite cru e de leite esterilizado, incluindo o ismero predominante no leite do cido linolico conjugado (CLA-c9t11). Este fato evidencia a ao sucessiva dos tratamentos trmicos no perfil lipdico do leite. Abstract in english The action of successive pasteurization thermal treatments (75 C for 15 s) and commercial sterilization by indirect heat exchange (140 C for 6 s) was analyzed on the lipid profile of bovine milk. Raw milk samples were submitted to pasteurization and then were submitted to sterilization (ultra-high [...] temperature, UHT). The fat of raw milk, pasteurized milk and commercially sterilized milk samples was extracted. After transesterification, the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The quantification of fatty acids (FA) revealed that for most of the found fatty acids there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between raw milk and pasteurized milk. However, it was found significant differences for 21 of the 26 analyzed fatty acids (p > 0.05) for the raw and sterilized milks, including the predominant isomer of the conjugated linoleic acid (CLAc9t11) of the milk. This fact evidences the successive action of heat treatments on milk lipid profile.

  16. Zoledronic acid infusion for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Sunyecz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available John A SunyeczLaurel Highlands Ob/Gyn, Hopwood, Pennsylvania, USA and MenopauseRx, Inc., Uniontown, PA, USAAbstract: Osteoporotic fractures are associated with significant morbidity, reduced quality of life, increased mortality, and high health care costs. Bisphosphonates are standard therapy for treatment of osteoporosis. However, patient compliance and persistence with oral weekly or monthly bisphosphonate therapy are suboptimal and may lead to reduced effectiveness. Zoledronic acid (ZOL is an intravenous bisphosphonate that is given once yearly for the treatment of osteoporosis via a medically supervised 15-minute infusion. This ensures compliance for a full 12 months. In clinical trials, an annual infusion of ZOL 5 mg has shown sustained efficacy in reducing hip and spine fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. It has also been shown to increase bone density in postmenopausal women with osteopenia (low bone mass and in men with osteoporosis. Transient flu-like symptoms are the most common adverse effects following ZOL infusion, and these can generally be managed with acetaminophen. The availability of an intravenous bisphosphonate that ensures compliance over a long dosing interval may help to overcome barriers to efficacy resulting from poor long-term compliance with oral agents.Keywords: fractures, intravenous bisphosphonate, osteoporosis, zoledronic acid

  17. Acridine yellow as solar photocatalyst for enhancing biodegradability and eliminating ferulic acid as model pollutant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amat, Ana M.; Arques, Antonio; Santos-Juanes, Lucas; Vercher, Rosa F.; Vicente, R. [Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, EPSA-UPV, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Paseo Viaducto 1, E-03801 Alcoy (Spain); Galindo, Francisco [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica y Organica, Universitat Jaume I, E-12071 Castellon (Spain); Miranda, Miguel A. [Departamento de Quimica e Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica UPV-CSIC, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Apartado 22012, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2007-05-11

    The possibility of using acridine yellow G (AYG) as solar photocatalyst for wastewater treatment has been examined in this paper. A phenolic compound, namely ferulic acid, has been employed as target pollutant. The effect of pH, concentration of the substrate and photocatalyst has been investigated. Control of pH is critical in the process, as rate constants obtained at pH 3 (k = 0.020 min{sup -1}) were one order of magnitude higher than in basic media (k = 0.002 min{sup -1} at pH 9), due to differences in the absorption spectrum in the UVA-vis region. Under acidic conditions, 80% removal of the substrate was achieved after 3 h irradiation, although TOC decrease was moderate (around 20%). Nevertheless important detoxification of the solution was measured, and the remaining organic matter showed an enhanced biodegradability. For this reason, a combination of AYG-driven solar photocatalysis with biological treatment seems a good approach to deal with these effluents. Experimental data are consistent with an electron transfer mechanism between the excited photocatalyst and the substrate: involvement of hydroxyl radicals can be ruled out, and photophysical measurements indicate a quenching of the fluorescence of AYG in the presence of ferulic acid. The rate constant for this process was obtained from the Stern-Volmer equation (k{sub q} = 4.4 x 10{sup 9} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}). Finally, based on the Rehm-Weller equation, a {delta}G = -22.8 kcal/mol was calculated, indicating that the process is thermodynamically favourable. (author)

  18. Systematic Procedure for Integrated Process Operation: Reverse Electro-Enhanced Dialysis (REED) during Lactic Acid Fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado Rubio, Oscar Andres; Jrgensen, Sten Bay; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    The integration of lactic acid fermentation and Reverse Electro-Enhanced Dialysis (REED) is investigated based upon previously developed mathematical models. A goal driven process and operation design procedure is proposed and partially investigated. The conceptual analysis of the processes...

  19. Enhancing Arabidopsis salt and drought stress tolerance by chemical priming for its abscisic acid responses

    OpenAIRE

    Jakab, Gabor; Ton, Jurriaan; Flors, Victor; Zimmerli, Laurent; Mtraux, Jean-Pierre; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte

    2006-01-01

    Drought and salt stress tolerance of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants increased following treatment with the nonprotein amino acid ?-aminobutyric acid (BABA), known as an inducer of resistance against infection of plants by numerous pathogens. BABA-pretreated plants showed earlier and higher expression of the salicylic acid-dependent PR-1 and PR-5 and the abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent RAB-18 and RD-29A genes following salt and drought stress. However, non-expressor of pathogenesis-re...

  20. Electroacupuncture enhances spermatogenesis in rats after scrotal heat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jing; Zuo, Yan; So, Kam-Hei; Yeung, William S.B.; Ng, Ernest H.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Spermatogenesis is regulated by a cascade of steroid regulated genes in the testis. Recent studies suggested that acupuncture may improve fertility in men with abnormal semen parameters. Yet, the underlying mechanisms in which acupuncture enhances spermatogenesis remain largely unknown. Here we used a scrotal heat-treated rat model to study the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on recovery of spermatogenesis. In this model, spermatogenesis was disrupted by 30 min scrotal heat treatment at 43C. Ten sessions of EA were given at Baihui (GV20), Guanyuan (CV4), Zusanli (ST36) and Sanyinjiao (SP6) from day 9 to day 36 post-treatment. Sperm motility and production, morphology of the germinal epithelium by Johnsens scoring, germ cell apoptosis by TUNEL staining, proliferation by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining, as well as serum testosterone and inhibin B levels by immunoassays were evaluated on day 0, 1, 9, 25, 37, 46, 56 and 79. When compared with the heat-treated (H) group, the heat-treated plus EA (H+EA) group showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in PCNA-positive cells and inhibin B levels on days 37 and 46, and a higher Johnsens score till day 56. On day 79, motile spermatozoa could be found in the vas deferens of H+EA group only. Consistently, there was a trend of improved motility and increased number of motile epididymal spermatozoa in the H+EA group than the H group; while apoptosis of germ cells and serum testosterone levels were similar between the two groups. Taken together, EA enhanced germ cell proliferation through improvement of Sertoli cell functions. This may facilitate the recovery of spermatogenesis and may restore normal semen parameters in subfertile patients. PMID:22553490

  1. Response surface optimization of culture medium for enhanced docosahexaenoic acid production by a Malaysian thraustochytrid

    OpenAIRE

    Vidyah Manikan; Mohd Sahaid Kalil; Aidil Abdul Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) plays a vital role in the enhancement of human health, particularly for cognitive, neurological, and visual functions. Marine microalgae, such as members of the genus Aurantiochytrium, are rich in DHA and represent a promising source of omega-3 fatty acids. In this study, levels of glucose, yeast extract, sodium glutamate and sea salt were optimized for enhanced lipid and DHA production by a Malaysian isolate of thraustochytrid, Aurantiochytrium sp. SW1, u...

  2. Retinoic acid and glycolic acid combination in the treatment of acne scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B S Chandrashekar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acne is a prevalent condition in society affecting nearly 80-90% of adolescents often resulting in secondary damage in the form of scarring. Retinoic acid (RA is said to improve acne scars and reduce postinflammatory hyperpigmentation while glycolic acid (GA is known for its keratolytic properties and its ability to reduce atrophic acne scars. There are studies exploring the combined effect of retinaldehyde and GA combination with positive results while the efficacy of retinoic acid and GA (RAGA combination remains unexplored. Aim: The aim of this study remains to retrospectively assess the efficacy of RAGA combination on acne scars in patients previously treated for active acne. Materials and Methods: A retrospective assessment of 35 patients using topical RAGA combination on acne scars was done. The subjects were 17-34 years old and previously treated for active acne. Case records and photographs of each patient were assessed and the acne scars were graded as per Goodman and Baron?s global scarring grading system (GSGS, before the start and after 12 weeks of RAGA treatment. The differences in the scar grades were noted to assess the improvement. Results: At the end of 12 weeks, significant improvement in acne scars was noticed in 91.4% of the patients. Conclusion: The RAGA combination shows efficacy in treating acne scars in the majority of patients, minimizing the need of procedural treatment for acne scars.

  3. Polyamino acid display on cell surfaces enhances salt and alcohol tolerance of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hirokazu; Ishii, Jun; Kondo, Akihiko; Yoshida, Ken-Ichi

    2015-02-01

    Microbes employ cell membranes for reducing exogenous stresses. Polyamino acid display on microbial cell surfaces and their effects on microbial chemical stress tolerance were examined. Growth analysis revealed that displays of polyarginine, polyaspartate and polytryptophan substantially enhanced tolerance of Escherichia coli to NaCl. A titration assay indicated that polyarginine and polyaspartate altered cell surface charges, implying tolerance enhancement via ion atmosphere and/or ionic bond network formations for electrostatic ion repulsion. The enhancement by polytryptophan may have arisen from surface hydrophobicity increase for hydrophobic ion exclusion, because of a strong correlation between hydrophobic characters of amino acids and their effects on tolerance enhancement. The display also enhanced tolerance to other salts and/or alcohols in E. coli and to NaCl in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Thus polyamino acid display has the potential as an approach for conferring chemical stress tolerance on various microbes. PMID:25588810

  4. Lactic acid bacteria in the treatment of acute rotavirus gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majamaa, H; Isolauri, E; Saxelin, M; Vesikari, T

    1995-04-01

    We compared different lactic acid bacteria for their effect on the immune response to rotavirus in children with acute rotavirus gastroenteritis. After initial oral rehydration, 49 children aged 6 to 35 months with rotavirus gastroenteritis randomly received either Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei strain GG (LGG), L. casei subsp. rhamnosus (Lactophilus), or a combination of Streptococcus thermophilus and L. delbrckii subsp. bulgaricus (Yalacta) twice daily for 5 days. Serum antibodies to rotavirus, total number of immunoglobulin-secreting cells (ISC), and specific antibody-secreting cells (sASC) to rotavirus were measured at the acute stage and at convalescence. The mean (SD) duration of diarrhea was 1.8 (0.8) days in children who received LGG, 2.8 (1.2) days in those receiving Lactophilus, and 2.6 (1.4) days in those receiving Yalacta (F = 3.3, p = 0.04). The ISC response was comparable in the three study groups, but the rotavirus-specific immune responses were different. LGG therapy was associated with an enhancement of IgA sASC to rotavirus and serum IgA antibody level at convalescent stage. We conclude that certain strains of lactic acid bacteria, particularly LGG, promote serum and intestinal immune responses to rotavirus, and thus may be important in establishing immunity against rotavirus reinfections. PMID:7608829

  5. Enhanced production of polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid by thraustochytrid protists

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jain, R.; Raghukumar, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    The polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an important requirement in the human diet. It is also essential in the nutrition of crustaceans and aquaculture animals. Of the sources available for commercial production of DHA...

  6. Continuous butyric acid fermentation coupled with REED technology for enhanced productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroi, George Nabin; Skiadas, Ioannis; Westermann, Peter; Gavala, Hariklia N.

    present study focuses on butyric acid fermentation of Pre-treated (by wet explosion) and enzymatically Hydrolysed Wheat Straw (PHWS) by an adapted C. tyrobutyricum strain. The strain could grow in up to 80% (v/v) PHWS in batch mode and it was capable of fermenting both glucose and xylose producing butyric...... acid at a high yield (0,32-0,46 g/g sugars) and selectivity (0,78-1 g/g acids). However, batch fermentations exhibited low sugars uptake rates, which resulted to long fermentation durations and low butyric acid productivities, especially at increasing concentrations of PHWS. The combination of...... continuous fermentation mode and in-situ acids removal by Reverse Enhanced Electro Dialysis (REED) resulted to enhanced sugars consumption rates when 60% PHWS was fermented. Specifically, glucose and xylose consumption rate increased by a factor of 6 and 39, respectively, while butyric acid productivity...

  7. KINETIC ASPECTS OF CATION-ENHANCED AGGREGATION IN AQUEOUS HUMIC ACIDS. (R822832)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cation-enhanced formation of hydrophobic domains in aqueous humic acids has been shown to be a slow process, consistent with the evolution and disintegration of humic acid configurations over periods lasting from days to weeks. After the addition of a magnesium salt to a humi...

  8. Organic acid enhanced electrodialytic extraction of lead from contaminated soil fines in suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ahring, Birgitte Kir; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2007-01-01

    decontamination of the sludge was investigated. The ability of 11 organic acids to extract Pb from the fine fraction of contaminated soil (grains <63 mu m) was investigated, and application of the acids as enhancing reagents during electrodialytic remediation (EDR) of Pb-contaminated soil fines in suspension was...

  9. Treatment of warts with salicyclic acid and lactic acid in flexible collodion wart paint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhar Sandipan

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred patients with warts (Verruca vulgaris of hands-33; feet-16, hands and feet 10; palmar warts-17 and plantar warts-24 were treated with salicylic acid (16.5% and lactic acid (16.5% in flexible collodion wart (SAL paint. The wart paint was applied twice a week for 3 months. Good response was seen in 82.1% of warts on hands. 46.7% of palmar warts, 54.5% of warts on feet, 84.2% of plantar warts and 57.1% of warts on hands and feet. Overall success rate was 70%. Eighty percent patients completed the study. No adverse effects were observed. During 6 months post treatment follow up recurrence of warts occurred in 11.7% of patients.

  10. Amino Acids Enhance Adaptive Behaviour of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa in the Cystic Fibrosis Lung Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Dinesh Diraviam Sriramulu

    2010-01-01

    Sputum of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is a nutrient-rich environment. Higher amino acid content of CF sputum compared to normal sputum plays a major role in the CF-specific phenotype of P. aeruginosa. Presence of amino acids in the sputum-like environment influenced P. aeruginosa quorum-sensing activity and the formation of an unknown exopolysaccharide in the biofilm. Lipopolysaccharides isolated from P. aeruginosa grown in the presence of amino acids enhanced the release of cytokine IL-8 b...

  11. Betaine and Beet Molasses Enhance L-Lactic Acid Production by Bacillus coagulans

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Ke; Xu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important chemical with various industrial applications, and it can be efficiently produced by fermentation, in which Bacillus coagulans strains present excellent performance. Betaine can promote lactic acid fermentation as an effective osmoprotectant. Here, positive effect of betaine on fermentation by B. coagulans is revealed. Betaine could enhance lactic acid production by protecting l-LDH activity and cell growth from osmotic inhibition, especially under high glucose con...

  12. Enhancement of brown fat thermogenesis using chenodeoxycholic acid in mice.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Teodoro, J.S.; Zouhar, Petr; Flachs, Pavel; Bardov, Kristina; Janovsk, Petra; Gomes, A.P.; Duarte, F.V.; Varela, A.T.; Rolo, A.P.; Palmeira, C.M.; Kopeck, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 38, ?. 8 (2014), s. 1027-1034. ISSN 0307-0565 R&D Projects: GA Mk(CZ) 7E12073; GA ?R(CZ) GA13-00871S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : white adipose tissue * uncoupling protein 1 * energy expenditure * bile acids Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 5.004, year: 2014

  13. Enhancement of commercial antifungal agents by kojic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojic acid (KA), a natural by-product of fungal fermentation, is a commonly used food and cosmetic additive. We show that KA increases activity of amphotericin B and strobilurin, medical and agricultural antifungal agents, respectively, possibly targeting the fungal antioxidative system. KA shows pr...

  14. Skin laser treatments enhancing transdermal delivery of ALA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmez, Clara; Costela, ngel; Garca-Moreno, Inmaculada; Llanes, Felipe; Teijn, Jos M; Blanco, M Dolores

    2011-01-01

    Drug delivery across skin has been limited due to barrier properties of the skin, especially those of the stratum corneum (SC). Use of the laser radiation has been suggested for the controlled removal of the SC. The purpose of this study was to study in vitro the influence of infrared radiation from the erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser (??=?2940 ?nm), and visible from the 2nd harmonic of a neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser (??=?532? nm) on transdermal delivery of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). Pinna skin of the inner side of rabbit ear was used for skin permeation. The light sources were an Er:YAG laser (Key III Plus KaVo) and a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (Lotis TII SL-2132). Permeation study, morphological and structural skin examination by histology and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were carried out. Permeation profiles and histological observations obtained after irradiation with infrared and visible laser radiation differed due to different biophysical effects on irradiated skin. Wavelength of 2940 ?nm required lower energy contribution to produce the same level of permeation than visible radiation at 532 ?nm. Structural analysis by DSC shows a selective impact on the lipidic structure. Laser pretreatment enhanced the delivery of ALA trough the skin by SC ablation. PMID:20589948

  15. BONE MEAL AS ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT FOR ACIDIC AND METAL CONTAMINATED ACID MINE DRAINAGE WATER EFFLUENT: LAB SCALE

    OpenAIRE

    Carolyn Payus; Olga David; Moh Pak Yan

    2014-01-01

    The typical methods of treatment for acidic and metal contaminated water effluent such as the Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) will always focus on either civil engineering methods, such as disposal, excavation, drainage and encapsulation or process based technologies such as effluent washing and treatment. These techniques are not environmental friendly, costly and unsustainable, thus environmental damaging. Nowadays, there is a growing need for an alternative remediation treatment that is innovativ...

  16. Lactic Acid Recovery in Electro-Enhanced Dialysis: Modelling and Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado Rubio, Oscar Andres; Jrgensen, Sten Bay; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    migration across the boundary layers and membranes. The model is validated for Donnan dialysis recovery of different monoprotic carboxylic acids. Simulations are used to evaluate the potential enhancement of lactate fluxes under current load conditions, referred as Electro-Enhanced Dialysis operation. This...

  17. The 300 area waste acid treatment system closure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) is located within operable units 300-FF-2 (source) and 300-FF-5 (groundwater), as designated in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) . Operable units 300-FF-2 and 300-FF-5 are scheduled to be remediated using the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) process. Thus, any remediation of the 300 Area WATS with respect to contaminants not produced by those facilities and soils and groundwater will be deferred to the CERCLA RI/FS process. Final closure activities will be completed in 3 phases and certified in accordance with the 300 Area WATS closure plan by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It is anticipated that the 300 Area WATS closure would take 2 years to complete

  18. Extrusion enhances metabolizable energy and ileal amino acids digestibility of canola meal for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljuobori Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to determine the effect of extrusion process on apparent metabolizable energy (AME, crude protein (CP and amino acid (AA digestibility of canola meal (CM in broiler chickens. A total of 36, 42-day-old broilers were randomly assigned into adaptation diets (no CM or 30% CM with six replicates. After 4 days of adaptation period, on day 47, birds were allowed to consume the assay diets that contain CM or extruded canola meal (ECM as the sole source of energy and protein. Following 4 h after feeding, the birds were killed and ileal contents were collected. The results showed that ECM had greater (P<0.001 AME (10.87 vs9.39 MJ/kg compared to CM. The extrusion also significantly enhanced apparent ileal digestibility of CP and some of AA such as Asp, Glu, Ser, Thr and Trp. In conclusion, the extrusion treatment appeared to be a practical and effective approach in enhancing the digestibility of AME, CP and some AA of CMin broiler chickens.

  19. Enhanced silicate weathering is not limited by silicic acid saturation

    OpenAIRE

    Schuiling, R.D.; Wilson, S A; Power, I.M.

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced weathering of olivine as a means of sequestering carbon is investigated by Khler et al. (1). Specifically, the study discusses the potential distribution of fine olivine powder, obtained from dunite mines, in the humid tropic regions of the Amazon and Congo River catchments. Olivine (forsterite) dissolution (Eq. 1) implies the sequestration of 4 moles of CO2 for each mole of olivine.

  20. Enhanced endothelialization guided by fibronectin functionalized plasma polymerized acrylic acid film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plasma polymerized acrylic acid (PPAA) films with high carboxyl concentration were fabricated by low temperature plasma polymerization technology. Vacuum thermal treatment was used to modify the PPAA films. The stability of the PPAA film was evidenced by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The result of toluidine blue-O (TBO) method showed that the COOH concentration on the surface of the PPAA films decreased from 20.73 nM to17.90 nM after vacuum thermal treatment. Fibronectin (Fn) was successfully covalently immobilized onto the modified surface PPAA via a covalent bond reacted with carboxyl groups. Diffuse reflectance Fourier infrared transform spectroscopy (DRFTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were utilized to characterize the layer-by-layer PPAA surface modification. From the evaluation of immunostaining for actin and Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), the surface of Fn-immobilized thermal treated PPAA films could be used to enhance the adhesion and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Especially, the exposure of RGD domain existing in the immobilized Fn was ascertained by ELISA, which was one of main improvement factors of HUVEC's adhesion and proliferation. This study demonstrated a promising surface modification used for vascular devices.

  1. Enhanced antitumor efficacy of telomerase-specific oncolytic adenovirus with valproic acid against human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Y; Hashimoto, Y; Kagawa, S; Kawamura, H; Nagai, K; Tanaka, N; Urata, Y; Fujiwara, T

    2012-11-01

    Replication-selective oncolytic viruses are being developed for human cancer therapy. We previously developed an attenuated adenovirus (OBP-301, Telomelysin), in which the human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter element drives expression of E1A and E1B genes linked with an internal ribosome entry site. OBP-301 can replicate in, and causes selective lysis of, human cancer cells. Valproic acid (VPA), which is an effective antiepileptic drug, is known to inhibit the histone deacetylase activities. We determined whether the antitumor effect of OBP-301 could be enhanced by VPA in human lung cancer cells. In an in vitro cell viability assay, OBP-301 infection killed four human lung cancer cell lines, H1299, H1299-R5 (a subline of H1299 with a low level of the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) expression), H460, and A549, more efficiently in the presence of VPA than in its absence. VPA treatment increased CAR expression in all the four lung cancer cells. Consistent with their CAR upregulation, the infection efficiency of adenoviruses in the presence of VPA was significantly higher than that in its absence. The molecular mechanism of this combined effect could be explained by an increase in adenovirus infectivity via VPA-mediated upregulation of CAR. These results suggest that treatment with OBP-301 in combination with VPA is a promising strategy for human lung cancer. PMID:22956040

  2. EVALUATION OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE ACID HYDROLYZATE TREATMENTS FOR XYLITOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. GURGEL

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Acid sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzate was submitted to pH shifts in order to remove toxic compounds from the medium. The hydrolyzate was treated with bases containing mono-, di- or tri-valent cations and H2SO4, and its performance as a fermentation medium was evaluated by the production of xylitol by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037. The use of bases containing mono-valent cations was not an efficient method of detoxification, and the use of a tri-valent cation did not show any detectable improvement in detoxification. The treated hydrolyzate recovery (in volume is greatly affected by the utilized base. Treatment using Al(OH3 and NaOH showed the best hydrolyzate recovery (87.5%, while the others presented a recovery of about 45% of the original hydrolyzate volume. Considering the whole process, best results were achieved by treatment using Al(OH3 and NaOH which allowed 0.55 g of xylitol produced from each gram of xylose in the raw hydrolyzate.

  3. Successful treatment of recalcitrant cutaneous sarcoidosis with fumaric acid esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanefeld Christoph

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease of unknown origin characterized by the formation of noncaseating granulomas, in particular in the lungs, lymph nodes, eyes, and skin. Systemic treatment for cutaneous sarcoidosis can be used for large disfiguring lesions, generalized involvement, or recalcitrant lesions that did not respond to topical therapy. Case presentations We report three patients with recalcitrant cutaneous sarcoidosis who were treated with oral fumaric acid esters (FAE. Three female patients presented with cutaneous sarcoidosis that have proved to be refractory to various therapies, including corticosteroids and chloroquine. We treated the patients with FAE in tablet form using two formulations differing in strength (Fumaderm® initial, Fumaderm®. Dosage of FAE was performed according to the standard therapy regimen for psoriasis patients. After treatment with FAE (4–12 months, a complete clearance of skin lesions was achieved in the three patients. The side effects observed in this trial correspond to the well-known spectrum of adverse effects of FAE (flush, minor gastrointestinal complaints, lymphopenia. Conclusions On the basis of our findings FAE therapy seems to be a safe and effective regimen for patients with recalcitrant cutaneous sarcoidosis. Nevertheless further investigations are necessary to confirm our preliminary results.

  4. Effects of gas atmospheres on poly(lactic acid) film in acrylic acid plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yun; Fina, Alberto; Venturello, Alberto; Geobaldo, Francesco

    2013-10-01

    Plasma polymerized acrylic acid (AA) coatings were deposited on poly(lactic acid) (PLA) films in various gas atmospheres during the pre-treatment of PLA and the deposition of AA, respectively. Therefore, this work was twofold: the argon pretreated PLA films followed by a deposition in argon were investigated against the mixture of argon and oxygen pretreated ones under the same deposition conditions; the plasma deposition of AA operating in different atmospheres (argon, oxygen and nitrogen) was employed to modify the pretreated PLA in oxygen. Chemical and physical changes on the plasma-treated surfaces were examined using contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-FTIR) analysis. The results showed that the discharge gas can have a significant influence on the chemical composition of the PLA surfaces: oxygen plasmas introduced oxygen-containing groups in company with surface etching in pretreatment and deposition, while argon discharges was able to achieve much better hydrophilic behavior and high retention ratio of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) coating before and after washing in water.

  5. Effects of gas atmospheres on poly(lactic acid) film in acrylic acid plasma treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yun, E-mail: yun.zhaotju@yahoo.com [Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy); Fina, Alberto [Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino sede di Alessandria, V. T. Michel 5, 15121 Alessandria (Italy); Venturello, Alberto; Geobaldo, Francesco [Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Plasma polymerized acrylic acid (AA) coatings were deposited on poly(lactic acid) (PLA) films in various gas atmospheres during the pre-treatment of PLA and the deposition of AA, respectively. Therefore, this work was twofold: the argon pretreated PLA films followed by a deposition in argon were investigated against the mixture of argon and oxygen pretreated ones under the same deposition conditions; the plasma deposition of AA operating in different atmospheres (argon, oxygen and nitrogen) was employed to modify the pretreated PLA in oxygen. Chemical and physical changes on the plasma-treated surfaces were examined using contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-FTIR) analysis. The results showed that the discharge gas can have a significant influence on the chemical composition of the PLA surfaces: oxygen plasmas introduced oxygen-containing groups in company with surface etching in pretreatment and deposition, while argon discharges was able to achieve much better hydrophilic behavior and high retention ratio of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) coating before and after washing in water.

  6. Effects of gas atmospheres on poly(lactic acid) film in acrylic acid plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma polymerized acrylic acid (AA) coatings were deposited on poly(lactic acid) (PLA) films in various gas atmospheres during the pre-treatment of PLA and the deposition of AA, respectively. Therefore, this work was twofold: the argon pretreated PLA films followed by a deposition in argon were investigated against the mixture of argon and oxygen pretreated ones under the same deposition conditions; the plasma deposition of AA operating in different atmospheres (argon, oxygen and nitrogen) was employed to modify the pretreated PLA in oxygen. Chemical and physical changes on the plasma-treated surfaces were examined using contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-FTIR) analysis. The results showed that the discharge gas can have a significant influence on the chemical composition of the PLA surfaces: oxygen plasmas introduced oxygen-containing groups in company with surface etching in pretreatment and deposition, while argon discharges was able to achieve much better hydrophilic behavior and high retention ratio of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) coating before and after washing in water.

  7. Lactic acid bacteria: promising supplements for enhancing the biological activities of kombucha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nguyen Khoi; Dong, Ngan Thi Ngoc; Nguyen, Huong Thuy; Le, Phu Hong

    2015-01-01

    Kombucha is sweetened black tea that is fermented by a symbiosis of bacteria and yeast embedded within a cellulose membrane. It is considered a health drink in many countries because it is a rich source of vitamins and may have other health benefits. It has previously been reported that adding lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus) strains to kombucha can enhance its biological functions, but in that study only lactic acid bacteria isolated from kefir grains were tested. There are many other natural sources of lactic acid bacteria. In this study, we examined the effects of lactic acid bacteria from various fermented Vietnamese food sources (pickled cabbage, kefir and kombucha) on kombucha's three main biological functions: glucuronic acid production, antibacterial activity and antioxidant ability. Glucuronic acid production was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, antibacterial activity was assessed by the agar-well diffusion method and antioxidant ability was evaluated by determining the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity. Four strains of food-borne pathogenic bacteria were used in our antibacterial experiments: Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19111, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 and Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778. Our findings showed that lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from kefir are superior to those from other sources for improving glucuronic acid production and enhancing the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of kombucha. This study illustrates the potential of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from kefir as biosupplements for enhancing the bioactivities of kombucha. PMID:25763303

  8. Bioelectrochemical treatment of acid mine drainage dominated with iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Treatment of AMD dominated with Fe is problematic due to its low pH. ► The goal of AMD treatment is pH increasing and Fe controlled removal. ► An MFC could fulfill both these requirements by treating AMD at the aerated cathode. ► The performance was proportional to the charge transfer up to 880 C. ► The treated AMD met the discharge limits both for Fe (>99% recovery) and pH (7.9). - Abstract: Treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) dominated with iron (Fe), the most common metal, is a long-term expensive commitment, the goal of which is to increase the pH and remove Fe. In the present study, a proton exchange membrane microbial fuel cell (MFC) showed promise for the efficient treatment of an AMD dominated with ferric iron (pH 2.4 ± 0.1; 500 mg L−1 Fe3+). Briefly, Fe3+ was reduced to Fe2+ at the cathode of the MFC, followed by Fe2+ re-oxidation and precipitation as oxy(hydroxi)des. Oxygen reduction and cation transfer to the cathode of the MFC further caused a rise in pH. A linear relationship was observed between the charge transferred in the MFC and the performance of the system up to 880 C. Optimal conditions were found at a charge of 662 C, achieved within 7 d at an acetate concentration of 1.6 g L−1 in a membrane MFC. This caused the pH to rise to 7.9 and resulted in a Fe removal of 99%. Treated effluent met the pH discharge limits of 6.5–9. The maximum power generation achieved under these conditions averaged 8.6 ± 2.3 W m−3, which could help reduce the costs of full-scale bioelectrochemical treatment of AMD dominated with Fe.

  9. Ferulic Acid Enhances Peripheral Nerve Regeneration across Long Gaps

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng-Chi Lee; Chin-Chuan Tsai; Chun-Hsu Yao; Yueh-Sheng Chen; Ming-Chang Wu

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of ferulic acid (FA) on peripheral nerve injury. In the in vitro test, the effect of FA on viability of Schwann cells was studied. In the in vivo test, right sciatic nerves of the rats were transected, and a 15?mm nerve defect was created. A nerve conduit made of silicone rubber tube filled with FA (5 and 25??g/mL), or saline (control), was implanted into the nerve defect. Results show that the number of proliferating Schwann cells increased significantly in...

  10. Complexation with phosphatidyl choline as a strategy for absorption enhancement of boswellic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Amrita; Gupta, Nishant Kumar; Dixit, Vinod Kumar

    2010-11-01

    Boswellic acids (BAs) are isolated from oleo gum resin of Boswellia serrata and are reported to be effective as anti-inflammatory, hypolipidemic, immunomodulatory, and anti-tumor. Pharmacokinetic studies of boswellic acid reveal its poor absorption through the intestine. The objective of the present study is to enhance bioavailability of boswellic acid by its complexation with phosphatidylcholine. A complex of boswellic acid was prepared with phosphatidylcholine and characterized on the basis of solubility, melting point, TLC, and IR. An everted intestine sac technique was used to study ex-vivo drug absorption of boswellic acid-phosphatidylcholine (BA-PC) complex and plain boswellic acid. Anti-inflammatory activity of the complex was compared with boswellic acid in carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. Hypolipidemic activity was also evaluated in Triton-induced hyperlipidemia. The complex was also converted into vesicles (phytosomes) and compared with other vesicular systems (liposomes and niosomes) by evaluating its anti-inflammatory effect. Analytical reports along with spectroscopic data revealed the formation of a complex. The results of ex-vivo study show that BA-PC complex has significantly increased absorption compared with boswellic acid, when given in equimolar doses. The complex showed better anti-inflammatory and hypolipidemic activity as compared to BA. Among all vesicular systems phytosomes showed maximum anti-inflammatory activity. Enhanced bioavailability of the BA-PC complex may be due to the amphiphilic nature of the complex, which greatly enhance the water and lipid solubility of the boswellic acid. The present study clearly indicates the superiority of complex over boswellic acid, in terms of better absorption, enhanced bioavailability and improved pharmacokinetics. PMID:20624027

  11. The substrates of memory: defects, treatments, and enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Gary; Rex, Christopher S; Chen, Lulu Y; Gall, Christine M

    2008-05-01

    Recent work has added strong support to the long-standing hypothesis that the stabilization of both long-term potentiation and memory requires rapid reorganization of the spine actin cytoskeleton. This development has led to new insights into the origins of cognitive disorders, and raised the possibility that a diverse array of memory problems, including those associated with diabetes, reflect disturbances to various components of the same mechanism. In accord with this argument, impairments to long-term potentiation in mouse models of Huntington's disease and in middle-aged rats have both been linked to problems with modulatory factors that control actin polymerization in spine heads. Complementary to the common mechanism hypothesis is the idea of a single treatment for addressing seemingly unrelated memory diseases. First tests of the point were positive: Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), a potent activator of actin signaling cascades in adult spines, rescued potentiation in Huntington's disease mutant mice, middle-aged rats, and a mouse model of Fragile-X syndrome. A similar reversal of impairments to long-term potentiation was obtained in middle-aged rats by up-regulating BDNF production with brief exposures to ampakines, a class of drugs that positively modulate AMPA-type glutamate receptors. Work now in progress will test if chronic elevation of BDNF enhances memory in normal animals. PMID:18374328

  12. CHF enhancement in flow boiling system with TSP and boric acid solutions under atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Juno, E-mail: nezads@kaist.ac.k [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yong Hoon, E-mail: jeongyh@kaist.ac.k [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Soon Heung, E-mail: shchang@kaist.ac.k [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    In this study, the effects of tri-sodium phosphate (TSP) and boric acid on CHF enhancement were studied. Both TSP and boric acid are used to control pH in nuclear power plants. TSP is a kind of surfactant, and several surfactants, include TSP, have been reported to have an effect on enhancement of heat transfer. Nothing has yet been reported for the case of boric acid. CHF experiments were performed with mass flux ranging from 100-500 kg/m2 s and inlet subcooling temperature of 50 {sup o}C under atmospheric pressure. The test section was a vertical circular SS316 tube having an inner diameter of 10.98 mm. Its heated length was 224 mm, and it was heated by a heat flux control system using DC electricity. Fluids in the test loop were plain water, TSP solutions, and boric acid solutions. TSP solutions had three concentrations (0.2, 0.4, 0.6%), and boric acid solutions had four concentrations (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8%). In the case of TSP, 21.4% enhancement of CHF was observed at the inlet subcooling temperature of 50 {sup o}C and extremely low mass flux (100 kg/m2 s). In the case of boric acid, 12.4% enhancement of CHF was observed at inlet subcooling temperature of 50 {sup o}C and extremely low mass flux 100 kg/m{sup 2} s.

  13. Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in an aquatic liverwort as possible bioindicators of enhanced UV radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroniz-Crespo, M.; Nunez-Olivera, E. [Universidad de La Rioja, Complejo Cientifico-Tecnologico, Avda. Madre de Dios 51, 26006 Logrono (La Rioja) (Spain); Martinez-Abaigar, J. [Universidad de La Rioja, Complejo Cientifico-Tecnologico, Avda. Madre de Dios 51, 26006 Logrono (La Rioja) (Spain)], E-mail: javier.martinez@unirioja.es

    2008-01-15

    We examined, under laboratory conditions, the physiological responses of the aquatic liverwort Jungermannia exsertifolia subsp. cordifolia to artificially enhanced ultraviolet (UV) radiation for 82 days, especially considering the responses of five hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. This species lives in mountain streams, where it is exposed to low temperatures and high UV levels, and this combination is believed to increase the adverse effects of UV. Enhanced UV radiation hardly caused any change in several physiological variables indicative of vitality, such as F{sub v}/F{sub m} and chlorophylls/phaeopigments ratio (OD430/OD410). Thus, this liverwort seemed to be tolerant to UV radiation, probably due to the accumulation of three UV-absorbing hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives: p-coumaroylmalic acid, 5''-(7'',8''-dihydroxycoumaroyl)-2-caffeoylmalic acid, and 5''-(7'',8''-dihydroxy-7-O-{beta}-glucosyl-coumaroyl)-2-caffeoylmalic acid. These compounds might serve as bioindicators of enhanced UV radiation. - Several hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives of an aquatic liverwort are induced by enhanced UV radiation and might serve as bioindicators of changes in UV levels.

  14. Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in an aquatic liverwort as possible bioindicators of enhanced UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined, under laboratory conditions, the physiological responses of the aquatic liverwort Jungermannia exsertifolia subsp. cordifolia to artificially enhanced ultraviolet (UV) radiation for 82 days, especially considering the responses of five hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. This species lives in mountain streams, where it is exposed to low temperatures and high UV levels, and this combination is believed to increase the adverse effects of UV. Enhanced UV radiation hardly caused any change in several physiological variables indicative of vitality, such as Fv/Fm and chlorophylls/phaeopigments ratio (OD430/OD410). Thus, this liverwort seemed to be tolerant to UV radiation, probably due to the accumulation of three UV-absorbing hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives: p-coumaroylmalic acid, 5''-(7'',8''-dihydroxycoumaroyl)-2-caffeoylmalic acid, and 5''-(7'',8''-dihydroxy-7-O-?-glucosyl-coumaroyl)-2-caffeoylmalic acid. These compounds might serve as bioindicators of enhanced UV radiation. - Several hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives of an aquatic liverwort are induced by enhanced UV radiation and might serve as bioindicators of changes in UV levels

  15. Arachidonic acid enhances reproduction in Daphnia magna and mitigates changes in sex ratios induced by pyriproxyfen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginjupalli, Gautam K; Gerard, Patrick D; Baldwin, William S

    2015-03-01

    Arachidonic acid is 1 of only 2 unsaturated fatty acids retained in the ovaries of crustaceans and an inhibitor of HR97g, a nuclear receptor expressed in adult ovaries. The authors hypothesized that, as a key fatty acid, arachidonic acid may be associated with reproduction and potentially environmental sex determination in Daphnia. Reproduction assays with arachidonic acid indicate that it alters female:male sex ratios by increasing female production. This reproductive effect only occurred during a restricted Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata diet. Next, the authors tested whether enriching a poorer algal diet (Chlorella vulgaris) with arachidonic acid enhances overall reproduction and sex ratios. Arachidonic acid enrichment of a C. vulgaris diet also enhances fecundity at 1.0?M and 4.0?M by 30% to 40% in the presence and absence of pyriproxyfen. This indicates that arachidonic acid is crucial in reproduction regardless of environmental sex determination. Furthermore, the data indicate that P. subcapitata may provide a threshold concentration of arachidonic acid needed for reproduction. Diet-switch experiments from P. subcapitata to C. vulgaris mitigate some, but not all, of arachidonic acid's effects when compared with a C. vulgaris-only diet, suggesting that some arachidonic acid provided by P. subcapitata is retained. In summary, arachidonic acid supplementation increases reproduction and represses pyriproxyfen-induced environmental sex determination in D. magna in restricted diets. A diet rich in arachidonic acid may provide protection from some reproductive toxicants such as the juvenile hormone agonist pyriproxyfen. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:527-535. 2014 SETAC. PMID:25393616

  16. The vitamin-like dietary supplement para-aminobenzoic acid enhances the antitumor activity of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine whether para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) alters the sensitivity of tumor cells to ionizing radiation in vitro and in vivo. Methods and Materials: Cellular proliferation was assessed by WST-1 assays. The effects of PABA and radiation on tumor growth were examined with chick embryo and murine models. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were used to quantify p21CIP1 and CDC25A levels. Results: Para-aminobenzoic acid enhanced (by 50%) the growth inhibitory activity of radiation on B16F10 cells, whereas it had no effect on melanocytes. Para-aminobenzoic acid enhanced (50-80%) the antitumor activity of radiation on B16F10 and 4T1 tumors in vivo. The combination of PABA and radiation therapy increased tumor apoptosis. Treatment of tumor cells with PABA increased expression of CDC25A and decreased levels of p21CIP1. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that PABA might represent a compound capable of enhancing the antitumor activity of ionizing radiation by a mechanism involving altered expression of proteins known to regulate cell cycle arrest

  17. DNA Diagnostics: Nanotechnology-enhanced Electrochemical Detection of Nucleic Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Fang; Lillehoj, Peter B.; Ho, Chih-ming

    2010-01-01

    The detection of mismatched base pairs in DNA plays a crucial role in the diagnosis of genetic-related diseases and conditions, especially for early stage treatment. Among the various biosensors that have been employed for DNA detection, electrochemical sensors show great promise since they are capable of precise DNA recognition and efficient signal transduction. Advancements in micro- and nanotechnologies, specifically fabrication techniques and new nanomaterials, have enabled for the develo...

  18. Comparative study of trichloroacetic acid versus glycolic acid chemical peels in the treatment of melasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Melasma is a common cause of facial hyperpigmentation with significant cosmetic deformity. Many modalities of treatment are available, but none is satisfactory. Aim: This study was designed to compare the therapeutic response of melasma in Indian women to glycolic acid (GA 20-35% versus trichloroacetic acid (TCA 10-20% for chemical peeling. Methods: Forty nonpregnant female patients with a minimum melasma area and severity index (MASI of 10 were recruited in the study. After a detailed history and clinical examination under natural light, MASI was calculated and color photographs were taken of all the patients. The patients were advised to carry out a prepeel program of daily application of 12% GA cream or 0.1% tretinoin at night for 2 weeks. They were then treated with graded concentrations of 20-35% GA facial peel every 15 days in GA group and 10-20% TCA in the second group. Results: Objective response to treatment evaluated by reduction in MASI scoring after 12 weeks was by 79% reduction (from 26.6 to 5.6 in GA group and by 73% reduction in TCA group (from 29.1 to 8.2 but this difference was not significant. Patients with epidermal-type melasma showed a better response to treatment than those with mixed-type melasma (P < 0.05. Subjective response, as graded by the patient, showed good or very good response in 75% in GA group and 65% in TCA group. No relation of treatment response to age and duration of melasma could be established in this study. Conclusions: A prepeel program of daily application of 12% GA cream at night for 2 weeks, followed by graded increase in GA and TCA concentrations proved to be an equally effective treatment modality for epidermal and mixed melasma. There are hardly any major side effects, and regular use of sunscreens prevents chances of postpeel hyperpigmentation. GA peel is associated with fewer side effects than TCA and has the added advantage of facial rejuvenation.

  19. A Sustainable Approach for Acid Rock Drainage Treatment using Clinoptilolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L. Y.; Xu, W.; Grace, J. R.

    2009-04-01

    Problems related to acid rock drainage (ARD) occur along many highways of British Columbia. The ARD problem at Pennask Creek along Highway 97C in the Thompson-Okanagan region is an ideal site for pilot study to investigate a possible remediation solution. The highway was opened in 1991. An ARD problem was identified in 1997. Both sides of Highway 97C are producing acidified runoff from both cut rock surface and a fractured ditch. This runoff eventually enters Pennask Creek, the largest spawning source of rainbow trout in British Columbia. The current remediation technique using limestone for ARD treatment appears to be unnecessarily expensive, to generate additional solid waste and to not be optimally effective. A soil mineral natural zeolite - clinoptilolite - which is inexpensive and locally available, has a high metal adsorption capacity and a significant buffering capacity. Moreover, the clinoptilolite materials could be back-flushed and reused on site. An earlier batch adsorption study from our laboratory demonstrated that clinoptilolite has a high adsorption capacity for Cu, Zn, Al, with adsorption concentrations 131, 158 and 215 mg/kg clinoptilolite, respectively, from ARD of pH 3.3. Removal of metals from the loaded clinoptilolite by back-flushing was found to depend on the pH, with an optimum pH range for extraction of 2.5 to 4.0 for a contact time of one hour. The rank of desorption effectiveness was EDTA > NaCl > NaNO3 > NaOAC > NaHCO3 > Na2CO3 > NaOH > Ca(OH)2. A novel process involving cyclic adsorption on clinoptilolite followed by regeneration of the sorbent by desorption is examined for the removal of heavy metals from acid rock drainage. Experimental results show that the adsorption of zinc and copper depends on the pH and on external mass transfer. Desorption is assisted by adding NaCl to the water. A slurry bubble column was able to significantly reduce the time required for both adsorption and desorption in batch tests. XRD analysis indicated that the original structure of the sorbent is retained over multiple adsorption/ desorption cycles. Clinoptilolite in a slurry bubble column appears to be a promising sorbent for treatment of ARD leachate.

  20. Enhanced phagocytosis of group A streptococci M type 6 by oleic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M protein, located on the surface fimbriae of group A streptococci, is antiphagocytic by unknown means. It is known that oleic acid kills group A streptococci and distorts the fimbriae. The effect of oleic acid on phagocytosis of group A streptococci was examined. Phagocytosis of a strain possessing M protein (M+) and its M- variant was assessed by uptake of radiolabeled bacteria and by chemiluminescence. The M- but not the M+ streptococci were well phagocytized and induced chemiluminescence. Oleic acid-killed and heat-killed streptococci (both M+ and M-) were readily phagocytized and induced sustained chemiluminescence. M+ streptococci killed by ultraviolet irradiation were inefficiently phagocytized and did not induce chemiluminescence. Oleic acid-killed M+ streptococci absorbed type-specific antibody. An extract of M protein reduced the bactericidal capacity of oleic acid. It is proposed that oleic acid may bind to and alter the M protein of group A streptococci and thereby enhance phagocytosis

  1. Enhancement of ribosomal ribonucleic acid synthesis by deoxyribonucleic acid gyrase activity in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostra, B A; van Vliet, A J; Ab, G; Gruber, M

    1981-12-01

    The effect of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) gyrase inhibitors coumermycin A1, novobiocin, and oxolinic acid on ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthesis in Escherichia coli was studied in vivo and in vitro. Preferential inhibition of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis was observed. No effect of oxolinic acid and coumermycin on rRNA synthesis was seen in mutants having a DNA gyrase which is resistant to these inhibitors. In a temperature-sensitive DNA gyrase mutant rRNA synthesis was decreased at nonpermissive temperatures. Thus, a functional DNA gyrase is required for rRNA synthesis. Purified DNA gyrase had no effect on rRNA synthesis in a purified system. However, DNA gyrase does show preferential stimulation of rRNA synthesis in a system supplemented with other proteins. Apparently, DNA gyrase stimulation of rRNA synthesis requires another protein. PMID:6171557

  2. Treatment of odorous volatile fatty acids using a biotrickling filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Y F; Chua, H; Sin, S N; Chan, S Y

    2008-02-01

    In this study, a novel fibrous bioreactor was developed for treating odorous compounds present in contaminated air. The first stage of this work was a preliminary study which aimed at investigating the feasibility of using the fibrous bioreactor for the removal of malodorous volatile fatty acids (VFA) that is a common odorous contaminant generated from anaerobic degradation of organic compounds. The kinetics of microbial growth and VFA degradation in the selected culture, and the performance of the submerged bioreactor at different VFA mass loadings were studied. Above 95% of VFA removal efficiencies were achieved at mass loadings up to 22.4 g/m(3)/h. In the second stage, the odour treatment process was scaled up with system design and operational considerations. A trickling biofilter with synthetic fibrous packing medium was employed. The effects of inlet VFA concentration and empty bed retention time (EBRT) on the process performance were investigated. The bioreactor was effective in removing VFA at mass loadings up to 32 g/m(3)/h, beyond which VFA started to accumulate in the recirculation liquid, indicating the biofilm was unable to degrade all of the VFA introduced. Although VFA accumulated in the liquid phase, the removal efficiency remained above 99%. This suggested that the biochemical reaction rather than gas-liquid mass transfer was the limiting step of the treatment process. In addition, the biotrickling filter was stable for long-term operation with relatively low and steady pressure drop, no clogging and degeneration of the packing material occurred during the four-month study. PMID:17321131

  3. Combining superficial glycolic acid (alpha-hydroxy acid) peels with microdermabrasion to maximize treatment results and patient satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briden, Elizabeth; Jacobsen, Ellen; Johnson, Colleen

    2007-01-01

    Microdermabrasion and superficial glycolic acid peels are common aesthetic procedures. Microdermabrasion alone provides the benefits of exfoliation but may provide faster results and increased patient satisfaction when combined with superficial glycolic acid (alpha-hydroxy acid) peels because of the significant antiaging effects of glycolic acid peels. A roundtable discussion was held with dermatologists to review methods of combining these procedures. The first method included alternating glycolic acid peels and microdermabrasion treatments every 2 weeks, enabling the patient to receive both a peel and microdermabrasion in the same month. With the second method, microdermabrasion may be used prior to the superficial glycolic acid peel to increase the exfoliation and antiaging effects of both treatments within the same visit. This second method is considered to be a more aggressive approach and usually is reserved for patients with a history of procedures. Lastly, combining treatments can be used to maintain a patient's skin after the initial treatment stage, usually performed every other month or seasonally, depending on the patient. As with all combination treatments, safety precautions and monitoring the patient's skin throughout treatment are crucial to success. PMID:17455889

  4. Enhanced uptake of water by oxidatively processed oleic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Asad

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available A quartz crystal microbalance apparatus has been used to measure the room temperature uptake of water vapour by thin films of oleic acid as a function of relative humidity, both before and following exposure of the films to various partial pressures of gas phase ozone. A rapid increase in the water-sorbing ability of the film is observed as its exposure to ozone is increased, followed by a plateau region in which no additional water is taken up. In this fully-processed region the mass of water taken up by the film is about 4 times that of the unprocessed film. Infrared spectra of the films, measured after variable exposures to ozone, show dramatic increases in both the "free" and hydrogen-bonded O-H stretching regions, and a decrease in the intensity of olefinic features. These results are consistent with the formation of an oxygenated polymeric product or products, as well as the gas phase products previously identified.

  5. Enhanced crystallization of poly (lactic acid) through reactive aliphatic bisamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanthananon, P.; Seadan, M.; Pivsa-Art, S.; Suttiruengwong, S.

    2015-07-01

    The poor crystallization rate of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) is a major drawback in terms of controlling the properties of final products. To overcome this, a nucleating agent is normally applied. In this work, the aliphatic bisamide, N, N'-(1,3-propylene) bis(10-undecenamide) (PBU), having reactive functional groups is used as a crystallization promoter for PLA by adding PBU in various concentration (0.1-0.7 wt%) into PLA together with peroxide via reactive melt blending. The conventional ethylene bis-stearamide(EBS) is used for a comparison. The extruded samples are characterized for gel content and FT-IR spectroscopy. The crystallization behaviour and rate, and spherulites morphology are investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarized optical microscopy (POM), respectively. It is found that the addition of PBU into PLA results in the dramatic increase in crystallinity and crystallization rate of PLA compared with neat PLA and PLA added EBS. The crystallinity increases to 24.9-28.3% higher than neat PLA under even cooling rate of 7C/min. The addition of 0.7 wt% PBU shows the fastest crystallization rate with t1/2 value isothermally crystallized at 130C of only 6 min. POM images indicate the increase in the nucleation density and very fine spherulitesof PLA added PBU, promoting the fast crystallization.

  6. Light stress is not effective to enhanced crassulacean acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornas, Andrzej; Miszalski, Zbigniew; Surówka, Ewa; Fischer-Schliebs, Elke; Lüttge, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Clusia minor L., a C3-CAM intermediate, and Clusia multiflora H. B. K., a C3 obligate, present two physiotypes of a similar morphotype occurring sympatrically in the field. Both species, exposed 2 days to high light, show similar responses to this kind of stress: (i) the level of xanthophyll pigments in tested plants during the daycourse adapts to stress, (ii) the levels of antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin clearly increase during the afternoon showing increased de-epoxidation, (iii) the changes in the xanthophyll cycle are similar. Exposure to high light increases the malate levels in C. minor during the afternoon while decreases the day/night changes of the malate levels, and hence the Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) expression. It can be concluded that strong light applied as a single stress factor to well-watered plants is not effective in strengthing the CAM metabolism in a C3-CAM intermediate plant but rather suppresses the CAM activity despite exposure to high light energy. It is suggested that, when water supply is not limiting and other stresses do not prevail, C3 allows to use up the citrate pool, especially in the afternoon and enables a superior daily photon utilization. PMID:20355326

  7. Enhancing fatty acid production by the expression of the regulatory transcription factor FadR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fuzhong; Ouellet, Mario; Batth, Tanveer S; Adams, Paul D; Petzold, Christopher J; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Keasling, Jay D

    2012-11-01

    Fatty acids are important precursors to biofuels. The Escherichia coli FadR is a transcription factor that regulates several processes in fatty acid biosynthesis, degradation, and membrane transport. By tuning the expression of FadR in an engineered E. coli host, we were able to increase fatty acid titer by 7.5-fold over our previously engineered fatty acid-producing strain, reaching 5.20.5g/L and 73% of the theoretical yield. The mechanism by which FadR enhanced fatty acid yield was studied by whole-genome transcriptional analysis (microarray) and targeted proteomics. Overexpression of FadR led to transcriptional changes for many genes, including genes involved in fatty acid pathways. The biggest transcriptional changes in fatty acid pathway genes included fabB, fabF, and accA. Overexpression of any of these genes alone did not result in a high yield comparable to fadR expression, indicating that FadR enhanced fatty acid production globally by tuning the expression levels of many genes to optimal levels. PMID:23026122

  8. A PTBA small molecule enhances recovery and reduces postinjury fibrosis after aristolochic acid-induced kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novitskaya, Tatiana; McDermott, Lee; Zhang, Ke Xin; Chiba, Takuto; Paueksakon, Paisit; Hukriede, Neil A; de Caestecker, Mark P

    2014-03-01

    Phenylthiobutanoic acids (PTBAs) are a new class of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors that accelerate recovery and reduce postinjury fibrosis after ischemia-reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury. However, unlike the more common scenario in which patients present with protracted and less clearly defined onset of renal injury, this model of acute kidney injury gives rise to a clearly defined injury that begins to resolve over a short period of time. In these studies, we show for the first time that treatment with the PTBA analog methyl-4-(phenylthio)butanoate (M4PTB) accelerates recovery and reduces postinjury fibrosis in a progressive model of acute kidney injury and renal fibrosis that occurs after aristolochic acid injection in mice. These effects are apparent when M4PTB treatment is delayed 4 days after the initiating injury and are associated with increased proliferation and decreased G2/M arrest of regenerating renal tubular epithelial cells. In addition, there is reduced peritubular macrophage infiltration and decreased expression of the macrophage chemokines CX3Cl1 and CCL2. Since macrophage infiltration plays a role in promoting kidney injury, and since renal tubular epithelial cells show defective repair and a marked increase in maladaptive G2/M arrest after aristolochic acid injury, these findings suggest M4PTB may be particularly beneficial in reducing injury and enhancing intrinsic cellular repair even when administered days after aristolochic acid ingestion. PMID:24370591

  9. Elucidating the role of ferrous ion cocatalyst in enhancing dilute acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hui

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently developed iron cocatalyst enhancement of dilute acid pretreatment of biomass is a promising approach for enhancing sugar release from recalcitrant lignocellulosic biomass. However, very little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this enhancement. In the current study, our aim was to identify several essential factors that contribute to ferrous ion-enhanced efficiency during dilute acid pretreatment of biomass and to initiate the investigation of the mechanisms that result in this enhancement. Results During dilute acid and ferrous ion cocatalyst pretreatments, we observed concomitant increases in solubilized sugars in the hydrolysate and reducing sugars in the (insoluble biomass residues. We also observed enhancements in sugar release during subsequent enzymatic saccharification of iron cocatalyst-pretreated biomass. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy showed that major peaks representing the C-O-C and C-H bonds in cellulose are significantly attenuated by iron cocatalyst pretreatment. Imaging using Prussian blue staining indicated that Fe2+ ions associate with both cellulose/xylan and lignin in untreated as well as dilute acid/Fe2+ ion-pretreated corn stover samples. Analyses by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed structural details of biomass after dilute acid/Fe2+ ion pretreatment, in which delamination and fibrillation of the cell wall were observed. Conclusions By using this multimodal approach, we have revealed that (1 acid-ferrous ion-assisted pretreatment increases solubilization and enzymatic digestion of both cellulose and xylan to monomers and (2 this pretreatment likely targets multiple chemistries in plant cell wall polymer networks, including those represented by the C-O-C and C-H bonds in cellulose.

  10. Pachymic Acid Enhances Pentobarbital-Induced Sleeping Behaviors via GABAA-ergic Systems in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Vikash Kumar; Choi, Jae Joon; Han, Jin-Yi; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Hong, Jin Tae; Oh, Ki-Wan

    2014-01-01

    This study was investigated to know whether pachymic acid (PA), one of the predominant triterpenoids in Poria cocos (Hoelen) has the sedative-hypnotic effects, and underlying mechanisms are mediated via ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic systems. Oral administration of PA markedly suppressed locomotion activity in mice. This compound also prolonged sleeping time, and reduced sleep latency showing synergic effects with muscimol (0.2 mg/kg) in shortening sleep onset and enhancing sleep time induc...

  11. Lactic acid bacteria: promising supplements for enhancing the biological activities of kombucha

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Nguyen Khoi; Dong, Ngan Thi Ngoc; Nguyen, Huong Thuy; Le, Phu Hong

    2015-01-01

    Kombucha is sweetened black tea that is fermented by a symbiosis of bacteria and yeast embedded within a cellulose membrane. It is considered a health drink in many countries because it is a rich source of vitamins and may have other health benefits. It has previously been reported that adding lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus) strains to kombucha can enhance its biological functions, but in that study only lactic acid bacteria isolated from kefir grains were tested. There are many other na...

  12. Mild alkaline pre-treatments loosen fibre structure enhancing methane production from biomass crops and residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three ligno-cellulosic substrates representing varying levels of biodegradability (giant reed, GR; fibre sorghum, FS; barley straw, BS) were combined with mild alkaline pre-treatments (NaOH 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15 N at 25 °C for 24 h) plus untreated controls, to study pre-treatment effects on physical-chemical structure, anaerobic digestibility and methane output of the three substrates. In a batch anaerobic digestion (AD) assay (58 days; 35 °C; 4 g VS l−1), the most recalcitrant substrate (GR) staged the highest increase in cumulative methane yield: +30% with NaOH 0.15 N over 190 ml CH4 g−1 VS in untreated GR. Conversely, the least recalcitrant substrate (FS) exhibited the lowest gain (+10% over 248 ml CH4 g−1 VS), while an intermediate behaviour was shown by BS (+15% over 232 ml CH4 g−1 VS). Pre-treatments speeded AD kinetics and reduced technical digestion time (i.e., the time needed to achieve 80% methane potential), which are the premises for increased production capacity of full scale AD plants. Fibre components (cellulose, hemicellulose and acid insoluble lignin determined after acid hydrolysis) and substrate structure (Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy) outlined reductions of the three fibre components after pre-treatments, supporting claims of loosened binding of lignin with cellulose and hemicellulose. Hence, mild alkaline pre-treatments were shown to improve the biodegradability of ligno-cellulosic substrates to an extent proportional to their recalcitrance. In turn, this contributes to mitigate the food vs. fuel controversy raised by the use of whole plant cereals (namely, maize) as feedstocks for biogas production. - Highlights: • Three ligno-cellulosic substrates were pre-treated with mild alkaline methods. • Giant reed pre-treated with NaOH 0.15 N showed highest increase in CH4 yield (30%). • Alkaline pre-treatments speeded process kinetics, cutting technical digestion time. • Changes in fibre structure support enhanced biodegradability due to pre-treatments

  13. Fucoxanthin Enhances Chain Elongation and Desaturation of Alpha-Linolenic Acid in HepG2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Ting; Su, Hui-Min; Cui, Yi; Windust, Anthony; Chou, Hong-Nong; Huang, Ching-Jang

    2015-10-01

    Dietary fucoxanthin (FX), a carotenoid compound from brown algae, was found to increase docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6) in the liver of mice. DHA and ARA are known to be biosynthesized from the respective precursor ?-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) and linoleic acid (LNA, 18:2n-6), through desaturation and chain elongation. We examined the effect of FX on the fatty acid metabolism in HepG2 cells (Hepatocellular carcinoma, human). In the first experiment, cells were co-treated with ALA (100 ?M) and FX (0-100 ?M) or vehicle for 48 h. FX increased eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5n-3), DHA at concentrations of ? 50 ?M. To clarify the change in the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), in the second experiment, cells were co-treated with universally-[(13)C]-labeled (U-[(13)C]-) ALA (100 ?M) and FX (100 ?M) for 0.5, 3, 6, 24 and 48 h. [(13)C] labeled-EPA, DPA and DHA content in HepG2 cells were all increased by FX after 48 h treatment. Furthermore, estimated delta-5 desaturase (D5D) but not delta-6 desaturase (D6D) activity index was increased at 48 h. These results suggested that FX may enhance the conversion of ALA to longer chain n-3 PUFA through increasing D5D activity in the liver. PMID:26271617

  14. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid enhances the pre-implantation embryo development by reducing apoptosis in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J-S; Song, B-S; Lee, K-S; Kim, D-H; Kim, S-U; Choo, Y-K; Chang, K-T; Koo, D-B

    2012-10-01

    Apoptosis is an important determinant of the normal development of pre-implantation embryos in vitro. Recently, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis has been extensively investigated in a wide variety of diseases. Efficient functioning of the ER is essential for most cellular activities and survival. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), an endogenous bile acid, has been reported to attenuate ER stress-mediated cell death by interrupting the classic pathways of apoptosis. Therefore, in this study, the anti-apoptotic effect of TUDCA on ER stress-induced apoptosis was examined in pre-implantation pig embryos. Also, tunicamycin was used to investigate the effects of ER stress on pig embryo development. After in vitro maturation and fertilization, presumptive pig embryos were cultured in NCSU-23 medium supplemented with TUDCA or TM for 6 days at 39 C, 5% CO(2) in air. All data were analysed using one-way anova and Duncan's multiple range test in the statistical analysis system (SAS). In addition, we also determined the optimal TM and TUDCA concentrations. Samples were treated with TM at concentrations of 0, 1, 2 or 5 ?m and with TUDCA at concentrations of 0, 100, 200 or 300 ?m. When TM was used during in vitro culture, only 8.2% (8/97) of the embryos developed to the blastocyst stage when the treatment concentration was 1 ?m compared with 27.4% (28/102) of the embryos in the control group (p TUDCA compared with the control group (32.8% and 39.5 vs 22.2% and 35.6, p embryo in the group treated with TM and TUDCA was not significantly different from that of the control group (17.8%, 26/142 vs 24.9%, 36/145). Furthermore, the blastocyst cell number was enhanced (31.9 vs 36.9) and apoptosis reduced (TUNEL-positive nuclei number, 6.0 vs 3.2) by TUDCA treatment in pig embryos. In the real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis, the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-XL gene was shown to be increased in the blastocyst stage because of TUDCA treatment, whereas expression of pro-apoptotic Bax was decreased. In addition, we also found that TUDCA decreased the rate of TM-induced apoptosis in the pre-implantation stage. Taken together, our results indicate that TUDCA improves the developmental competence of pig embryos by modulating ER stress-induced apoptosis during the pre-implantation stage. PMID:22151574

  15. Deglacial diatom production in the tropical North Atlantic driven by enhanced silicic acid supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Katharine R.; Gong, Xun; Knorr, Gregor; Pike, Jennifer; Hall, Ian R.

    2016-03-01

    Major shifts in ocean circulation are thought to be responsible for abrupt changes in temperature and atmospheric CO2 during the last deglaciation, linked to variability in meridional heat transport and deep ocean carbon storage. There is also widespread evidence for shifts in biological production during these times of deglacial CO2 rise, including enhanced diatom production in regions such as the tropical Atlantic. However, it remains unclear as to whether this diatom production was driven by enhanced wind-driven upwelling or density-driven vertical mixing, or by elevated thermocline concentrations of silicic acid supplied to the surface at a constant rate. Here, we demonstrate that silicic acid supply at depth in the NE Atlantic was enhanced during the abrupt climate events of the deglaciation. We use marine sediment archives to show that an increase in diatom production during abrupt climate shifts could only occur in regions of the NE Atlantic where the deep supply of silicic acid could reach the surface. The associated changes are indicative of enhanced regional wind-driven upwelling and/or weakened stratification due to circulation changes during phases of weakened Atlantic meridional overturning. Globally near-synchronous pulses of diatom production and enhanced thermocline concentrations of silicic acid suggest that widespread deglacial surface-driven breakdown of stratification, linked to changes in atmospheric circulation, had major consequences for biological productivity and carbon cycling.

  16. Integrated basic treatment of activated carbon for enhanced CO{sub 2} selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelodun, Adedeji Adebukola; Jo, Young-Min, E-mail: ymjo@khu.ac.kr

    2013-12-01

    We attempted the use of three chemical agents viz nitric acid (HN), calcium nitrate (CaN) and calcium ethanoate (CaEt) to achieve enhanced CO{sub 2} selective adsorption by activated carbon (AC). In dry phase treatment, microporous coconut shell-based carbon (CS) exhibits higher CO{sub 2} capacity than coal-based. However, upon wet-phase pre-treatment, modified CS samples showed lesser CO{sub 2} adsorption efficiency. Surface characterization with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the presence of calcium and amine species on the samples with integrated treatment (A-CaN). These samples recorded the highest low-level CO{sub 2} capture despite calcinated CaEt-doped samples (C-CaEt) showing the highest value for pure and high level CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities. The slope and linearity values of isobaric desorption were used to estimate the proportion of CO{sub 2} chemisorbed and heterogeneity of the adsorbents surfaces respectively. Consequently, integrated basic impregnation provides the most efficient adsorbents for selective adsorption of both indoor and outdoor CO{sub 2} levels.

  17. Integrated basic treatment of activated carbon for enhanced CO2 selectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We attempted the use of three chemical agents viz nitric acid (HN), calcium nitrate (CaN) and calcium ethanoate (CaEt) to achieve enhanced CO2 selective adsorption by activated carbon (AC). In dry phase treatment, microporous coconut shell-based carbon (CS) exhibits higher CO2 capacity than coal-based. However, upon wet-phase pre-treatment, modified CS samples showed lesser CO2 adsorption efficiency. Surface characterization with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the presence of calcium and amine species on the samples with integrated treatment (A-CaN). These samples recorded the highest low-level CO2 capture despite calcinated CaEt-doped samples (C-CaEt) showing the highest value for pure and high level CO2 adsorption capacities. The slope and linearity values of isobaric desorption were used to estimate the proportion of CO2 chemisorbed and heterogeneity of the adsorbents surfaces respectively. Consequently, integrated basic impregnation provides the most efficient adsorbents for selective adsorption of both indoor and outdoor CO2 levels.

  18. Combination of Active Components Enhances the Efficacy of Prunella in Prevention and Treatment of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Shi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of Prunella extracts in the prevention and treatment of lung cancer has been attributed to different components. In this study, an "active components combination model" hypothesis was proposed to explain the anti-tumor activity of Prunella. The efficacy of Prunella extracts from different regions was compared in vitro and in vivo, and the TNF-? activity in serum of tumor-bearing mice was also evaluated. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to analyze the extracts and identify 26 common peaks. Prunella samples from different regions were classified by the cluster analysis method; both P. vulgaris L. from Bozhou and P. asiatica Nakai from Nanjing, which had the highest activities, were further divided into different classes. Six peaks from the HPLC analysis were very similar, and were identified as caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, rutin, quercetin, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid. The total ratio of these compounds in Prunella from Bozhou and Nanjing were 1.0:14.7:3.9:1.0:4.4:1.4 and 1.0:14.8:4.0:0.8:5.6:1.8, respectively. Total triterpenes and total phenols in Prunella were separated by macroporous resin purification for activity studies. The results showed that total triterpenes and total phenols had anti-lung cancer activity and their combination significantly enhanced the activity. In addition, the combination also significantly increased the TNF-? content compared to total triterpenes or total phenols. The results indicated that the efficacy of Prunella against lung cancer was attributable to multiple components acting at an optimal ratio.

  19. Pretreatment of corn stover with diluted acetic acid for enhancement of acidogenic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Wang, Lijuan; Lu, Xuebin; Zhang, Shuting

    2014-04-01

    A Box-Behnken design of response surface method was used to optimize acetic acid-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment of corn stover, in respect to acid concentration (0.05-0.25%), treatment time (5-15 min) and reaction temperature (180-210C). Acidogenic fermentations with different initial pH and hydrolyzates were also measured to evaluate the optimal pretreatment conditions for maximizing acid production. The results showed that pretreatment with 0.25% acetic acid at 191C for 7.74 min was found to be the most optimal condition for pretreatment of corn stover under which the production of acids can reach the highest level. Acidogenic fermentation with the hydrolyzate of pretreatment at the optimal condition at the initial pH=5 was shown to be butyric acid type fermentation, producing 21.84 g acetic acid, 7.246 g propionic acid, 9.170 butyric acid and 1.035 g isovaleric acid from 100g of corn stover in 900 g of water containing 2.25 g acetic acid. PMID:24583209

  20. Separation of phenolic acids from monosaccharides by low-pressure nanofiltration integrated with laccase pre-treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Jianquan; Zeuner, Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    Separation of phenolic acids from monosaccharides is required for detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. For the first time, a low-pressure nanofiltration (NF) process was used to retain phenolic acids (vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid) and at the same time permeate monosaccharides (xylose, arabinose, glucose). Four commercial NF membranes (NF270, NP030, NTR7450 and NP010) were evaluated at different pH values and with various laccase pre-treatments (for polymerization of phenolic acids). The results showed that with increasing pH, the retentions of phenolic acids by NF increased, reaching 8688% for NTR7450 and 9094% for NF270 at pH 9.55. The retentions of monosaccharides kept almost constant (<10%) for NP030, NTR7450 and NP010 membranes at different pH but significantly increased at pH 9.55 for the NF270 membrane due to enhancement of solute interactions. Phenolic acids could be polymerized by laccase and then completely retained by the NF membranes via size exclusion at pH 5.15. The formation of large polymeric products by laccase could alleviate the irreversible fouling in/on a NF membrane and decrease the monosaccharide retention, while the small polymeric products (e.g. dimers and trimers) were mainly responsible for the adsorption fouling. Free laccase treatment was preferred since it was prone to produce large polymeric products while the biocatalytic membrane with immobilized laccase was not suitable as it generated smaller polymers by in-situ product removal. Furthermore, the NF membranes with more charge and higher hydrophilicity were more resistant to the irreversible fouling caused by hydrophobic adsorption of phenolic acids and their polymers. This work not only provides fundamental data for removal of phenolic acids from lignocellulosic hydrolysates, but also opens a new gate for separation of small solutes with similar molecular weight by NF integrated with enzymatic conversion.

  1. Continuous butyric acid fermentation coupled with REED technology for enhanced productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroi, George Nabin; Skiadas, Ioannis

    A major step towards the development of a sustainable industrial society is a shift from petroleum-based resources to renewable resources. An ongoing effort is focused on developing bio-refineries as an alternative way of producing fuels and chemical building-blocks from renewable resources. Thus, todays organic residues and wastes may become tomorrows platform for a variety of products for industrial use. Butyric acid fermentation has long been discussed in the last decade due to the wide application of butyric acid in chemical, pharmaceutical and food industries. Compared to other microbial strains, C.tyrobutyricum seems the most promising for biological production of butyric acid as it is characterised by higher selectivity and higher tolerance to butyric acid. However, studies on fermentative butyric production from lignocellulosic biomasses are scarce in the international literature. The present study focuses on butyric acid fermentation of Pre-treated (by wet explosion) and enzymatically Hydrolysed Wheat Straw (PHWS) by an adapted C. tyrobutyricum strain. The strain could grow in up to 80% (v/v) PHWS in batch mode and it was capable of fermenting both glucose and xylose producing butyric acid at a high yield (0,32-0,46 g/g sugars) and selectivity (0,78-1 g/g acids). However, batch fermentations exhibited low sugars uptake rates, which resulted to long fermentation durations and low butyric acid productivities, especially at increasing concentrations of PHWS. The combination of continuous fermentation mode and in-situ acids removal by Reverse Enhanced Electro Dialysis (REED) resulted to enhanced sugars consumption rates when 60% PHWS was fermented. Specifically, glucose and xylose consumption rate increased by a factor of 6 and 39, respectively, while butyric acid productivity reached 0,88 g/l/h compared to 0,55 g/L/h butyric acid when REED was not applied

  2. Enhancing neural stem cell response to SDF-1? gradients through hyaluronic acid-laminin hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addington, C P; Heffernan, J M; Millar-Haskell, C S; Tucker, E W; Sirianni, R W; Stabenfeldt, S E

    2015-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) initiates an expansive biochemical insult that is largely responsible for the long-term dysfunction associated with TBI; however, current clinical treatments fall short of addressing these underlying sequelae. Pre-clinical investigations have used stem cell transplantation with moderate success, but are plagued by staggeringly low survival and engraftment rates (2-4%). As such, providing cell transplants with the means to better dynamically respond to injury-related signals within the transplant microenvironment may afford improved transplantation survival and engraftment rates. The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1? (SDF-1?) is a potent chemotactic signal that is readily present after TBI. In this study, we sought to develop a transplantation vehicle to ultimately enhance the responsiveness of neural transplants to injury-induced SDF-1?. Specifically, we hypothesize that a hyaluronic acid (HA) and laminin (Lm) hydrogel would promote 1. upregulated expression of the SDF-1? receptor CXCR4 in neural progenitor/stem cells (NPSCs) and 2. enhanced NPSC migration in response to SDF-1? gradients. We demonstrated successful development of a HA-Lm hydrogel and utilized standard protein and cellular assays to probe NPSC CXCR4 expression and NPSC chemotactic migration. The findings demonstrated that NPSCs significantly increased CXCR4 expression after 48h of culture on the HA-Lm gel in a manner critically dependent on both HA and laminin. Moreover, the HA-Lm hydrogel significantly increased NPSC chemotactic migration in response to SDF-1? at 48h, an effect that was critically dependent on HA, laminin and the SDF-1? gradient. Therefore, this hydrogel serves to 1. prime NPSCs for the injury microenvironment and 2. provide the appropriate infrastructure to support migration into the surrounding tissue, equipping cells with the tools to more effectively respond to the injury microenvironment. PMID:26340314

  3. Gadoxetic acid enhanced MRI for differentiation of FNH and HCA: a single centre experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of enhancement characteristics of histopathologically confirmed focal nodular hyperplasias (FNHs) and hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs) with gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI. Sixty-eight patients with 115 histopathologically proven lesions (FNHs, n = 44; HCAs, n = 71) examined with gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI were retrospectively enrolled (standard of reference: surgical resection, n = 53 patients (lesions: FNHs, n = 37; HCAs, n = 53); biopsy, n = 15 (lesions: FNHs, n = 7; HCAs, n = 18)). Two radiologists evaluated all MR images regarding morphological features as well as the vascular and hepatocyte-specific enhancement in consensus. For the hepatobiliary phase, relative enhancement of the lesions and lesion to liver enhancement were significantly lower for HCAs (mean, 48.7 (48.4) % and 49.4 (33.9) %) compared to FNHs (159.3 (92.5) %; and 151.7 (79) %; accuracy of 89 % and 90 %, respectively; P < 0.001). Visual strong uptake of FNHs vs. hypointensity of HCAs in the hepatobiliary phase resulted in an accuracy of 92 %. This parameter was superior to all other morphological and dynamic vascular criteria alone and in combination (accuracy, 54-85 %). For differentiation of FNHs and HCAs by means of MRI, gadoxetic acid uptake in the hepatobiliary phase was found to be superior to all other criteria alone and in combination. (orig.)

  4. Gadoxetic acid enhanced MRI for differentiation of FNH and HCA: a single centre experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieser, Christian; Steffen, Ingo G.; Perez Fernandez, Carmen Maria; Hamm, Bernd; Denecke, Timm [Klinik fuer Radiologie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Kramme, Incken-Birthe; Blaeker, Hendrik; Kilic, Ergin [Institut fuer Pathologie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Seehofer, Daniel [Klinik fuer Allgemein, Viszeral- und Transplantationschirurgie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Schott, Eckart [Medizinische Klinik m.S. Hepatologie und Gastroenterologie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    Evaluation of enhancement characteristics of histopathologically confirmed focal nodular hyperplasias (FNHs) and hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs) with gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI. Sixty-eight patients with 115 histopathologically proven lesions (FNHs, n = 44; HCAs, n = 71) examined with gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI were retrospectively enrolled (standard of reference: surgical resection, n = 53 patients (lesions: FNHs, n = 37; HCAs, n = 53); biopsy, n = 15 (lesions: FNHs, n = 7; HCAs, n = 18)). Two radiologists evaluated all MR images regarding morphological features as well as the vascular and hepatocyte-specific enhancement in consensus. For the hepatobiliary phase, relative enhancement of the lesions and lesion to liver enhancement were significantly lower for HCAs (mean, 48.7 (48.4) % and 49.4 (33.9) %) compared to FNHs (159.3 (92.5) %; and 151.7 (79) %; accuracy of 89 % and 90 %, respectively; P < 0.001). Visual strong uptake of FNHs vs. hypointensity of HCAs in the hepatobiliary phase resulted in an accuracy of 92 %. This parameter was superior to all other morphological and dynamic vascular criteria alone and in combination (accuracy, 54-85 %). For differentiation of FNHs and HCAs by means of MRI, gadoxetic acid uptake in the hepatobiliary phase was found to be superior to all other criteria alone and in combination. (orig.)

  5. Enhanced volatile fatty acids production of waste activated sludge under salinity conditions: Performance and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gaoqiang; Wang, Shuying; Yuan, Zhiguo; Peng, Yongzhen

    2016-03-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are essential for removing biological nitrogen and phosphorus in wastewater treatment plants. The purpose of this work was to investigate whether and how the addition of NaCl could improve the production of VFAs from waste activated sludge (WAS). Sludge solubilization was efficiently improved by the addition of NaCl. Both protein and carbohydrate in the fermentation liquid increased with the dosage of NaCl, and it provided a larger amount of organic compounds for the production of the VFAs. NaCl had inhibitory effects on the production of methane and a high dosage of NaCl could severely suppress the growth of methanogens, which decreased the consumption of the VFAs. Consequently, the production of VFAs was significantly enhanced by the addition of NaCl. The maximum production of VFAs was achieved with the highest dosage of NaCl (3316 mg (COD)/L at the NaCl dosage 0.5 mol/L; 783 mg (COD)/L without the addition of NaCl). Therefore, this study indicates that using NaCl could be an efficient method for improving the production of VFAs from WAS. PMID:26320405

  6. Magnetic microparticles post-synthetically coated by hyaluronic acid as an enhanced carrier for microfluidic bioanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubova, Lucie; Knotek, Petr; Palarcik, Jiri; Cadkova, Michaela; Belina, Petr; Vlcek, Milan; Korecka, Lucie; Bilkova, Zuzana

    2014-11-01

    Iron oxide based particles functionalized by bioactive molecules have been utilized extensively in biotechnology and biomedicine. Despite their already proven advantages, instability under changing reaction conditions, non-specific sorption of biomolecules on the particles' surfaces, and iron oxide leakage from the naked particles can greatly limit their application. As confirmed many times, surface treatment with an appropriate stabilizer helps to minimize these disadvantages. In this work, we describe enhanced post-synthetic surface modification of superparamagnetic microparticles varying in materials and size using hyaluronic acid (HA) in various chain lengths. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, phase analysis light scattering and laser diffraction are the methods used for characterization of HA-coated particles. The zeta potential and thickness of HA-layer of HA-coated Dynabeads M270 Amine were -50 mV and 85 nm, respectively, and of HA-coated p(GMA-MOEAA)-NH2 were -38 mV and 140 nm, respectively. The electrochemical analysis confirmed the zero leakage of magnetic material and no reactivity of particles with hydrogen peroxide. The rate of non-specific sorption of bovine serum albumin was reduced up to 50% of the naked ones. The coating efficiency and suitability of biopolymer-based microparticles for magnetically active microfluidic devices were confirmed. PMID:25280714

  7. Enhanced cytotoxic effects of the combined valproic acid and the Aurora kinase inhibitor VE465 on gynecologic cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WeiHu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence shows that targeting epigenetic changes including acetylation and deacetylation of core nucleosomal histones as well as Aurora kinases hold promise for improving the treatment of human cancers including ovarian cancer. We investigated whether the histone deacetylase inhibitor, valproic acid (VPA and the Aurora kinase inhibitor VE465 can have additive or synergistic effects on gynecologic cancer cells. We tested the in vitro antitumor activity of VPA and VE465, alone and in combination, in gynecologic cancer cells and assessed potential mechanisms of action. 3-[4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT analysis revealed that 72 hours of treatment with VPA or VE465 alone induced dose-dependent cytotoxic effects in nine gynecologic cancer cell lines (ovarian: 2008/C13, OVCAR3, SKOV3, and A2780; cervical: ME180 and CaSki; endometrial: HEC-1B; and uterine sarcoma: MES-SA and MES-SA/D×5. Co-treatment with VPA and VE465 enhanced cytotoxic effects on five of these cell lines: ovarian: 2008/C13, A2780, and OVCAR3; endometrial: HEC-1B; and cervical: ME180. In ovarian 2008/C13 cells, co-treatment with VPA (2 mM and VE465 (1μM induced more apoptosis than either VPA or VE465 alone. Western blot analysis showed that VPA alone increased the expression of cleaved PARP and p21 in a dose-dependent manner in 2008/C13 cells, while co-treatment with VPA and VE465 induced more cleaved PARP than treatment with VPA or VE465 alone did. The combined use of VPA and VE465 enhanced cytotoxic effects in some ovarian cancer cells, via enhanced induction of apoptosis. Targeting epigenetics with the histone deacetylase inhibitor, in combination with Aurora kinase inhibitors, holds promise for more effective therapy of ovarian cancer.

  8. 77 FR 12227 - Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule: Uncovered Finished Water Reservoirs; Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 141 and 142 Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule: Uncovered Finished... requirement in the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2 rule). At this meeting, EPA...

  9. Composition of acid tars from sulfuric acid treatment of petroleum oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frolov, A.F.; Denisova, T.L.; Karpova, I.V.; Titova, T.S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper examines the composition of freshly produced acid tars and pond tars, gives an analysis of the acid part of the tars, and obtains data on the change in composition of the acid tar in the course of storage--data that are needed in developing methods for utilizing the tar. The acid-pond tars consist of a mixture of hydrocarbons with a very low content of acids, whereas the freshly produced acid tars consist mainly of sulfuric acid, sulfonic acids, and carboxylic acids. In the course of storage, hardening of acid tars in the volume proceeds through reactions of polymerization, condensation, and oxidation of the surface layer that is in contact with air.

  10. Case Report: Valproic Acid and Risperidone Treatment Leading to Development of Hyperammonemia and Mania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Teri; Reynolds, Charles A.; Caplan, Rochelle

    2007-01-01

    This case report describes two children who developed hyperammonemia together with frank manic behavior during treatment with a combination of valproic acid and risperidone. One child had been maintained on valproic acid for years and risperidone was added. In the second case, valproic acid was introduced to a child who had been treated with

  11. Efficacy of 15% trichloroacetic acid and 50% glycolic acid peel in the treatment of frictional melanosis: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sacchidanand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Frictional dermal melanosis is aesthetically displeasing. Various modalities ranging from depigmenting agents to lasers have been tried but it continues to be a difficult problem to treat. Objective: To study and compare the efficacy of 15% trichloroacetic acid (TCA and 50% glycolic acid in the treatment of frictional melanosis of the forearm. Materials and Methods: 40 patients of frictional melanosis of the forearm were included in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two equal groups A and B. Pre-peel priming was carried out with 12% glycolic acid and sunscreen for 2 weeks. Group A was treated with trichloroacetic acid (TCA-15% peel and Group B with glycolic acid (GA-50% peel. Four peels were done one every 15 days. Clinical photographs were taken to assess the response. Response to therapy was evaluated by both objective and subjective methods. The patients were followed up for 3 months after the last peel to note any relapse. Results: Both TCA and glycolic acid peels were effective in frictional melanosis. TCA showed better response compared to glycolic acid at the end of the treatment, both by subjective and objective methods. However, this difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05. No permanent side effects were seen in any of the treated patients and the improvement was sustained without any relapse at 3 months. Conclusion: Chemical peeling with both tricholoroacetic acid (15% and glycolic acid (50% is safe and effective for the treatment of frictional dermal melanosis. Tricholoroacetic acid was found to be marginally superior to glycolic acid.

  12. Treatment and prevention systems for acid mine drainage and halogenated contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Song (Fort Collins, CO); Fallgren, Paul H. (Laramie, WY); Morris, Jeffrey M. (Laramie, WY)

    2012-01-31

    Embodiments include treatments for acid mine drainage generation sources (10 perhaps by injection of at least one substrate (11) and biologically constructing a protective biofilm (13) on acid mine drainage generation source materials (14). Further embodiments include treatments for degradation of contaminated water environments (17) with substrates such as returned milk and the like.

  13. 13-cis retinoic acid in combination with interferon-? enhances radiation sensitivity of human squamous cell carcinoma cells of the oral cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Preclinical and clinical trials demonstrated the antiproliferative and chemopreventive potential of 13-cis retinoic acid in combination with interferon-?. The present study was designed to determine the radiosensitizing potential of both drugs after single and combined treatment of human squamous-cell carcinoma cells of the oral cavity in vitro. Material and methods: The study was performed using the human squamous-cell carcinoma cell line SCC4, which was originally established from a tumor of the overal cavity. Based on clonogenic assays, the inhibition of clonogenic activity and radiosensitizing potential of 13-cis retinoic acid and interferon-? after single or combined treatment without and with subsequent irradiation was determined. Results: 13-cis retinoic acid (10 ?M) and interferon-? (50 IU/ml) showed significant inhibition of clonogenic activity after single treatment. A combined treatment protocol resulted at least in a highly significant additive inhibition of clonogenicity. Treatment with both drugs (5 ?M 13-cis retinoic acid, 25 IU/ml IFN-?) prior and post irradiation of the cells resulted in a pronounced enhancement of radiation toxicity resulting in significantly decreased SF2- and ?-values. Combined treatment with both drugs was significantly more effective than single drug treatment. Conclusions: The data presented indicate that pre- and post-irradiation treatment with 13-cis retinoic acid and interferon-? significantly enhance the radiosensitivity on human squamous-cell carcinoma cells, SCC4, in vitro. Therefore, they support the initiation of clinical trials to test the radio-oncological value of such a treatment regime for squamous-cell carcinomas. (orig.)

  14. Citric acid enhances the phytoextraction of manganese and plant growth by alleviating the ultrastructural damages in Juncus effusus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelate-assisted phytoextraction by high biomass producing plant species enhances the removal of heavy metals from polluted environments. In this regard, Juncus effusus a wetland plant has great potential. This study evaluated the effects of elevated levels of manganese (Mn) on the vegetative growth, Mn uptake and antioxidant enzymes in J. effusus. We also studied the role of citric acid and EDTA on improving metal accumulation, plant growth and Mn toxicity stress alleviation. Three-week-old plantlets of J. effusus were subjected to various treatments in the hydroponics as: Mn (50, 100 and 500 ?M) alone, Mn (500 ?M) + citric acid (5 mM), and Mn (500 ?M) + EDTA (5 mM). After 2 weeks of treatment, higher Mn concentrations significantly reduced the plant biomass and height. Both citric acid and EDTA restored the plant height as it was reduced at the highest Mn level. Only the citric acid (but not EDTA) was able to recover the plant biomass weight, which was also obvious from the microscopic visualization of mesophyll cells. There was a concentration dependent increase in Mn uptake in J. effusus plants, and relatively more deposition in roots compared to aerial parts. Although both EDTA and citric acid caused significant increase in Mn accumulation; however, the Mn translocation was enhanced markedly by EDTA. Elevated levels of Mn augmented the oxidative stress, which was evident from changes in the activities of antioxidative enzymes in plant shoots. Raised levels of lipid peroxidation and variable changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes were recorded under Mn stress. Electron microscopic images revealed several modifications in the plants at cellular and sub-cellular level due to the oxidative damage induced by Mn. Changes in cell shape and size, chloroplast swelling, increased number of plastoglobuli and disruption of thylakoid were noticed. However, these plants showed a high degree of tolerance against Mn toxicity stress, and it removed substantial amounts of Mn from the media. The EDTA best enhanced the Mn uptake and translocation, while citric acid best recovered the plant growth.

  15. Citric acid enhances the phytoextraction of manganese and plant growth by alleviating the ultrastructural damages in Juncus effusus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najeeb, U.; Xu, L.; Ali, Shafaqat [Institute of Crop Science, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Jilani, Ghulam, E-mail: jilani@uaar.edu.pk [Department of Soil Science, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Punjab 46300 (Pakistan); Gong, H.J. [Institute of Crop Science, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Shen, W.Q. [The University of Nottingham at Ningbo, Ningbo 315100 (China); Zhou, W.J., E-mail: wjzhou@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Crop Science, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

    2009-10-30

    Chelate-assisted phytoextraction by high biomass producing plant species enhances the removal of heavy metals from polluted environments. In this regard, Juncus effusus a wetland plant has great potential. This study evaluated the effects of elevated levels of manganese (Mn) on the vegetative growth, Mn uptake and antioxidant enzymes in J. effusus. We also studied the role of citric acid and EDTA on improving metal accumulation, plant growth and Mn toxicity stress alleviation. Three-week-old plantlets of J. effusus were subjected to various treatments in the hydroponics as: Mn (50, 100 and 500 {mu}M) alone, Mn (500 {mu}M) + citric acid (5 mM), and Mn (500 {mu}M) + EDTA (5 mM). After 2 weeks of treatment, higher Mn concentrations significantly reduced the plant biomass and height. Both citric acid and EDTA restored the plant height as it was reduced at the highest Mn level. Only the citric acid (but not EDTA) was able to recover the plant biomass weight, which was also obvious from the microscopic visualization of mesophyll cells. There was a concentration dependent increase in Mn uptake in J. effusus plants, and relatively more deposition in roots compared to aerial parts. Although both EDTA and citric acid caused significant increase in Mn accumulation; however, the Mn translocation was enhanced markedly by EDTA. Elevated levels of Mn augmented the oxidative stress, which was evident from changes in the activities of antioxidative enzymes in plant shoots. Raised levels of lipid peroxidation and variable changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes were recorded under Mn stress. Electron microscopic images revealed several modifications in the plants at cellular and sub-cellular level due to the oxidative damage induced by Mn. Changes in cell shape and size, chloroplast swelling, increased number of plastoglobuli and disruption of thylakoid were noticed. However, these plants showed a high degree of tolerance against Mn toxicity stress, and it removed substantial amounts of Mn from the media. The EDTA best enhanced the Mn uptake and translocation, while citric acid best recovered the plant growth.

  16. Efficacious intestinal permeation enhancement induced by the sodium salt of 10-undecylenic acid, a medium chain fatty acid derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayden, David J; Walsh, Edwin

    2014-09-01

    10-undecylenic acid (UA) is an OTC antifungal therapy and a nutritional supplement. It is an unsaturated medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) derivative, so our hypothesis was that its 11-mer sodium salt, uC11, would improve intestinal permeation similar to the established enhancer, sodium caprate (C10), but without the toxicity of the parent saturated MCFA, decylenic acid (C11). MTT assay and high-content screening (HCS) confirmed a cytotoxicity ranking in Caco-2 cells: C11?>?C10?=?uC11. Five to ten millimolars of the three agents reduced TEER and increased the Papp of [(14)C]-mannitol across Caco-2 monolayers and rat intestinal mucosae, a concentration that matched increases in plasma membrane permeability seen in HCS. Although C11 was the most efficacious enhancer in vitro, it damaged monolayers and tissue mucosae more than the other two agents at similar concentrations and exposure times and was therefore not pursued further. Rat jejunal and colonic in situ intestinal instillations of 100 mM C10 or uC11 with FITC-dextran 4000 (FD4) solutions yielded comparable regional enhancement ratios of ~10 and 30%, respectively, for each agent with acceptable tissue histology. Mini-tablets of uC11 and FD4 however delivered more FD4 compared to C10-FD-4 mini-tablets in both regions, as reflected by a statistically higher AUC, and with no evidence of membrane perturbation. The unsaturated bond in uC11 therefore confers a reduction in lipophilicity and cytotoxicity compared to C11, and the resulting permeation enhancement is on a par with or superior to that of C10, a key component of formulations in current phase II oral peptide clinical trials. PMID:24961919

  17. The Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Valproic Acid Enhances Acquisition, Extinction, and Reconsolidation of Conditioned Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredy, Timothy W.; Barad, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Histone modifications contribute to the epigenetic regulation of gene expression, a process now recognized to be important for the consolidation of long-term memory. Valproic acid (VPA), used for many years as an anticonvulsant and a mood stabilizer, has effects on learning and memory and enhances the extinction of conditioned fear through its

  18. Ferulic acid enhances IgE binding to peanut allergens in western blots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because phenolic compounds can precipitate or complex with proteins, we postulated that interactions of phenolics with IgE antibodies help enhance IgE binding to peanut allergens in Western blots. Three different phenolics, such as, ferulic, caffeic and chlorogenic acids were examined. Each was mixe...

  19. Clinical management of boric acid ingestion: pharmacokinetic assessment of efficacy of hemodialysis for treatment of acute boric acid poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshima, D; Morishita, K; Ueda, Y; Futagami, K; Higuchi, S; Komoda, T; Nanishi, F; Taniyama, T; Yoshitake, J; Aoyama, T

    1992-06-01

    Seven hours after suicidal ingestion of about 21 g of boric acid, a 26-year-old female admitted to our hospital in a state of slightly impaired consciousness, with frequent vomiting, shivering, fever and skin flush. Immediately, gastric lavage, followed by administration of activated charcoal and laxative (MgSO4), was performed. In order to ensure her urination, fluid infusion therapy was conducted with the aid of diuretics (furosemide). Since the serum concentrations of boric acid was very high, hemodialysis was carried out twice during the first 39 h. She responded well to the above mentioned treatment and was discharged 12 d post-admission without any sequelae. The concentrations of boric acid in serum and urine were measured in appropriate intervals with our modified Miyamoto's method, and the pharmacokinetics of boric acid were analyzed. The concentration of boric acid in serum and urine at the beginning of treatment was 465 micrograms/ml and 3.40 mg/ml, respectively. The half-life of boric acid in serum was 13.46 h, whereas it was shortened to 3.76 h during hemodialysis. The total body clearance was 0.99 l/h, while it increased to 3.53 l/h by hemodialysis. The additional removal of boric acid by hemodialysis was estimated to be about 5 g. It was concluded that the hemodialysis was very useful in the treatment of boric acid poisoning, because it accelerated the elimination of boric acid about four times faster than with conventional treatment. PMID:1432568

  20. Fractionation of sugarcane bagasse using a combined process of dilute acid and ionic liquid treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedericks, Danie; van Rensburg, Eugne; Grgens, Johann F

    2012-08-01

    Biorefineries processing lignocellulose will produce chemicals and fuels from chemical constituents, cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin to replace fossil-derived products. Fractionation of sugarcane bagasse into three pure streams of chemical constituents was addressed through dissolution of constituents with the ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMiM]CH(3)COO) or 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methyl sulfate ([BMiM]MeSO(4)). Constituents were isolated from the reaction mixture with the anti-solvents acetone (?), acetone-water (AW), and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Delignification was enhanced by NaOH, although resulting in impure product streams. Xylose pre-extraction (75 % w/w) by dilute acid pretreatment, prior to ionic liquid treatment, improved lignin purity after anti-solvent separation. Fractionation efficiency of the combined process was maximized (84 %) by ionic liquid treatment at 125 C for 120 min, resulting in 80.2 % (w/w) lignin removal and 76.5 % (w/w) lignin recovery. Ionic liquids achieved similar degrees of delignification, although fully digestible cellulose-rich solids were produced only by [EMiM]CH(3)COO treatment. PMID:22639365

  1. Successful treatment of gallstones with bile acids in obese adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podda, M; Zuin, M; Dioguardi, M L; Festorazzi, S

    1982-01-01

    Six obese adolescents (4 girls, 2 boys) with radiolucent gallstones were treated with bile acids (chenodeoxycholic or ursodeoxycholic acid). Each had lithogenic bile and no predisposing factors for pigment stone formation. Within 12 months, the bile became unsaturated with cholesterol and the gallstones had disappeared in 4 cases and were decreased in size in two. PMID:7181529

  2. Successful treatment of gallstones with bile acids in obese adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Podda, M.; Zuin, M.; Dioguardi, M L; Festorazzi, S

    1982-01-01

    Six obese adolescents (4 girls, 2 boys) with radiolucent gallstones were treated with bile acids (chenodeoxycholic or ursodeoxycholic acid). Each had lithogenic bile and no predisposing factors for pigment stone formation. Within 12 months, the bile became unsaturated with cholesterol and the gallstones had disappeared in 4 cases and were decreased in size in two.

  3. Enhancement in extraction rates by addition of organic acids to aqueous phase in solvent extraction of rare earth metals in presence of diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, H. [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan); Azis, A.; Fujita, M.; Teramoto, M. [Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto (Japan)

    1996-02-01

    It is well known that the selectivity of rare earth metals by solvent extraction is increased by the addition of a chelating agent such as diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) in the aqueous phase. One of the disadvantages of this method is the decrease in extraction rates due to complexation in the aqueous phase. In this paper, further addition of organic acids to the aqueous phase was examined for the purpose of enhancing the extraction rates in solvent extraction with DTPA. The addition of several kind of organic acids such as formic acid, acetic acid, malonic acid, lactic acid and citric acid was investigated for a Er/Y separation system. A remarkable enhancement in extraction rates ryas observed with a slight decrease in the selectivity by the addition of citric acid or lactic acid. Extraction rates in the presence of both DTPA and citric acid increased with the increase in citric acid concentration and with the increase in proton concentration. A 150 times enhancement in extraction rates was found in the low proton concentration condition. In order to analyze the extraction rates and selectivities obtained, mass transfer equations were presented by considering both the dissociation reaction or rare earth metal-DTPA completes and the complex formation between rare earth metal and organic acid in the aqueous phase. The experimental data were analyzed by these equations. 30 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Enhancement in extraction rates by addition of organic acids to aqueous phase in solvent extraction of rare earth metals in presence of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that the selectivity of rare earth metals by solvent extraction is increased by the addition of a chelating agent such as diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) in the aqueous phase. One of the disadvantages of this method is the decrease in extraction rates due to complexation in the aqueous phase. In this paper, further addition of organic acids to the aqueous phase was examined for the purpose of enhancing the extraction rates in solvent extraction with DTPA. The addition of several kind of organic acids such as formic acid, acetic acid, malonic acid, lactic acid and citric acid was investigated for a Er/Y separation system. A remarkable enhancement in extraction rates was observed with a slight decrease in the selectivity by the addition of citric acid or lactic acid. Extraction rates in the presence of both DTPA and citric acid increased with the increase in citric acid concentration and with the increase in proton concentration. A 150 times enhancement in extraction rates was found in the low proton concentration condition. In order to analyze the extraction rates and selectivities obtained, mass transfer equations were presented by considering both the dissociation reaction of rare earth metal-DTPA complexes and the complex formation between rare earth metal and organic acid in the aqueous phase. The experimental data were analyzed by these equations. (author)

  5. Organic acid enhanced electrodialytic extraction of lead from contaminated soil fines in suspension

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ahring, Birgitte Kir; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2007-01-01

    The implementation of soil washing technology for the treatment of heavy metal contaminated soils is limited by the toxicity and unwieldiness of the remaining heavy metal contaminated sludge. In this work, the feasibility of combining electrodialytic remediation with heterotrophic leaching for decontamination of the sludge was investigated. The ability of 11 organic acids to extract Pb from the fine fraction of contaminated soil (grains < 63 mu m) was investigated, and application of the acid...

  6. Light quality treatments enhance somatic seedling production in three southern pine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Scott A; Montello, Paul M; Xia, Xiuqin; Upchurch, Bruce L; Smith, Dale R

    2006-02-01

    Embryogenic cultures of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.), longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) and slash pine x longleaf pine hybrids were initiated from immature seeds on an initiation medium containing 13.57 microM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2.22 microM benzylaminopurine. Embryogenic cultures proliferated and somatic embryos developed, matured and germinated following a modified protocol and media originally developed for radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don.) somatic seedling production. A discrete, light-sensitive pre-germination stage and a later germination (radicle emergence) stage were identified by the differential response of somatic embryos to light of different wavelengths. Different light quality treatments were applied during the pre-germination and germination steps, using cool white fluorescent bulbs or light-emitting diodes (LEDs), or both. In general, red wavelengths provided by LEDs during these steps resulted in higher frequencies of somatic embryo germination (up to 64%) and conversion (up to 50%), longer tap roots and more first-order lateral roots than the standard cool white fluorescent treatments or treatment with blue wavelengths from LEDs. In addition, exposure to red light allowed germination of somatic embryos of some clones that failed to produce germinants under fluorescent light. Germination and conversion were further enhanced by sequential application of cool white fluorescent light and red light, resulting in up to 100% germination and conversion in one experiment. Longleaf pine somatic embryos were especially responsive to the light quality treatments, resulting in the first report of somatic seedling production for this species. PMID:16356915

  7. Thermochemical pretreatments for enhancing succinic acid production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Inglfur B; Kuglarz, Mariusz; Karakashev, Dimitar; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient thermochemical method for treatment of industrial hemp biomass, in order to increase its bioconversion to succinic acid. Industrial hemp was subjected to various thermochemical pretreatments using 0-3% H2SO4, NaOH or H2O2 at 121-180C prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. The influence of the different pretreatments on hydrolysis and succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z was investigated in batch mode, using anaerobic bottles and bioreactors. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of hemp material pretreated with 3% H2O2 resulted in the highest overall sugar yield (73.5%), maximum succinic acid titer (21.9 g L(-1)), as well as the highest succinic acid yield (83%). Results obtained clearly demonstrated the impact of different pretreatments on the bioconversion efficiency of industrial hemp into succinic acid. PMID:25682224

  8. Thermochemical pretreatments for enhancing succinic acid production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Inglfur Bragi; Kuglarz, Mariusz; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient thermochemical method for treatment of industrial hemp biomass, in order to increase its bioconversion to succinic acid. Industrial hemp was subjected to various thermochemical pretreatments using 0-3% H2SO4, NaOH or H2O2 at 121-180C prior to...... enzymatic hydrolysis. The influence of the different pretreatments on hydrolysis and succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z was investigated in batch mode, using anaerobic bottles and bioreactors. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of hemp material pretreated with 3% H2O2 resulted...... in the highest overall sugar yield (73.5%), maximum succinic acid titer (21.9gL-1), as well as the highest succinic acid yield (83%). Results obtained clearly demonstrated the impact of different pretreatments on the bioconversion efficiency of industrial hemp into succinic acid....

  9. Thermochemical pretreatments for enhancing succinic acid production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Inglfur Bragi; Kuglarz, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient thermochemical method for treatment of industrial hemp biomass, in order to increase its bioconversion to succinic acid. Industrial hemp was subjected to various thermochemical pretreatments using 0-3% H2SO4, NaOH or H2O2 at 121-180C prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. The influence of the different pretreatments on hydrolysis and succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z was investigated in batch mode, using anaerobic bottles and bioreactors. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of hemp material pretreated with 3% H2O2 resulted in the highest overall sugar yield (73.5%), maximum succinic acid titer (21.9gL-1), as well as the highest succinic acid yield (83%). Results obtained clearly demonstrated the impact of different pretreatments on the bioconversion efficiency of industrial hemp into succinic acid.

  10. Examining the Effect of the Life Enhancement Treatment for Substance Use (LETS ACT) on Residential Substance Abuse Treatment Retention

    OpenAIRE

    Magidson, Jessica F.; Gorka, Stephanie M; MacPherson, Laura; Hopko, Derek R.; Blanco, Carlos; Lejuez, C. W.; Daughters, Stacey B.

    2011-01-01

    Effective, parsimonious behavioral interventions that target reinforcement are needed for substance users with depression to improve mood as well as treatment retention. The Life Enhancement Treatment for Substance Use (LETS ACT; Daughters et al., 2008) is a behavioral activation-based approach tailored to increase levels of positive reinforcement among depressed substance users while in substance abuse treatment. The current study tested the efficacy of LETS ACT compared to a contact-time ma...

  11. Enhanced succinic acid production in Aspergillus saccharolyticus by heterologous expression of fumarate reductase from Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Lbeck, Mette; Ahring, Birgitte K; Lbeck, Peter S

    2016-02-01

    Aspergillus saccharolyticus exhibits great potential as a cell factory for industrial production of dicarboxylic acids. In the analysis of the organic acid profile, A. saccharolyticus was cultivated in an acid production medium using two different pH conditions. The specific activities of the enzymes, pyruvate carboxylase (PYC), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), and fumarase (FUM), involved in the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) branch, were examined and compared in cells harvested from the acid production medium and a complete medium. The results showed that ambient pH had a significant impact on the pattern and the amount of organic acids produced by A. saccharolyticus. The wild-type strain produced higher amount of malic acid and succinic acid in the pH buffered condition (pH 6.5) compared with the pH non-buffered condition. The enzyme assays showed that the rTCA branch was active in the acid production medium as well as the complete medium, but the measured enzyme activities were different depending on the media. Furthermore, a soluble NADH-dependent fumarate reductase gene (frd) from Trypanosoma brucei was inserted and expressed in A. saccharolyticus. The expression of the frd gene led to an enhanced production of succinic acid in frd transformants compared with the wild-type in both pH buffered and pH non-buffered conditions with highest amount produced in the pH buffered condition (16.20.5g/L). This study demonstrates the feasibility of increasing succinic acid production through the cytosolic reductive pathway by genetic engineering in A. saccharolyticus. PMID:26521243

  12. Docosahexaenoic acid prevents paraquat-induced reactive oxygen species production in dopaminergic neurons via enhancement of glutathione homeostasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • DHA prevents PQ-induced dopaminergic neuronal loss via decreasing of excessive ROS. • DHA increases GR and GCLm derivate GSH pool by enhancement of Nrf2 expression. • Protective mechanism is removal of PQ-induced ROS via DHA-dependent GSH pool. • DHA may be a good preventive strategy for Parkinson’s disease (PD) therapy. - Abstract: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels are reduced in the substantia nigra area in Parkinson’s disease patients and animal models, implicating docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as a potential treatment for preventing Parkinson’s disease and suggesting the need for investigations into how DHA might protect against neurotoxin-induced dopaminergic neuron loss. The herbicide paraquat (PQ) induces dopaminergic neuron loss through the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We found that treatment of dopaminergic SN4741 cells with PQ reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, but pretreatment with DHA ameliorated the toxic effect of PQ. To determine the toxic mechanism of PQ, we measured intracellular ROS content in different organelles with specific dyes. As expected, all types of ROS were increased by PQ treatment, but DHA pretreatment selectively decreased cytosolic hydrogen peroxide content. Furthermore, DHA treatment-induced increases in glutathione reductase and glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLm) mRNA expression were positively correlated with glutathione (GSH) content. Consistent with this increase in GCLm mRNA levels, Western blot analysis revealed that DHA pretreatment increased nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein levels. These findings indicate that DHA prevents PQ-induced neuronal cell loss by enhancing Nrf2-regulated GSH homeostasis

  13. Humic acids enhance the microbially mediated release of sedimentary ferrous iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-Han; Wei, Chia-Cheng; Lin, Li-Hung; Tu, Tzu-Hsuan; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan

    2016-03-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential element for many organisms, but high concentrations of iron can be toxic. The complex relation between iron, arsenic (As), bacteria, and organic matter in sediments and groundwater is still an issue of environmental concern. The present study addresses the effects of humic acids and microorganisms on the mobilization of iron in sediments from an arsenic-affected area, and the microbial diversity was analyzed. The results showed that the addition of 50, 100, and 500mg/L humic acids enhanced ferrous iron (Fe(II)) release in a time-dependent and dose-dependent fashion under anaerobic conditions. A significant increase in the soluble Fe(II) concentrations occurred in the aqueous phases of the samples during the first 2weeks, and aqueous Fe(II) reached its maximum concentrations after 8weeks at the following Fe(II) concentrations: 28.95??1.16mg/L (original non-sterilized sediments), 32.50??0.71mg/L (50mg/L humic acid-amended, non-sterilized sediments), 37.50??1.85mg/L (100mg/L humic acid-amended, non-sterilized sediments), and 39.00??0.43mg/L (500mg/L humic acid-amended, non-sterilized sediments). These results suggest that humic acids can further enhance the microbially mediated release of sedimentary iron under anaerobic conditions. By contrast, very insignificant amounts of iron release were observed from sterilized sediments (the abiotic controls), even with the supplementation of humic acids under anaerobic incubation. In addition, the As(III) release was increased from 50??10?g/L (original non-sterilized sediments) to 110??45?g/L (100mg/L humic acid-amended, non-sterilized sediments) after 8weeks of anaerobic incubation. Furthermore, a microbial community analysis indicated that the predominant class was changed from Alphaproteobacteria to Deltaproteobacteria, and clearly increased populations of Geobacter sp., Paludibacter sp., and Methylophaga sp. were found after adding humic acids along with the increased release of iron and arsenic. Our findings provide evidence that humic acids can enhance the microbially mediated release of sedimentary ferrous iron in an arsenic-affected area. It is thus suggested that the control of anthropogenic humic acid use and entry into the environment is important for preventing the subsequent iron contamination in groundwater. PMID:25997809

  14. Aneurysmal wall enhancement and perianeurysmal edema after endovascular treatment of unruptured cerebral aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, I. Chang [Toronto Western Hospital, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Taipei Cathay General Hospital, Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Taipei (China); Willinsky, Robert A.; Agid, Ronit [Toronto Western Hospital, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Fanning, Noel F. [Cork University Hospital, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Cork (Ireland)

    2014-06-15

    Perianeurysmal edema and aneurysm wall enhancement are previously described phenomenon after coil embolization attributed to inflammatory reaction. We aimed to demonstrate the prevalence and natural course of these phenomena in unruptured aneurysms after endovascular treatment and to identify factors that contributed to their development. We performed a retrospective analysis of consecutively treated unruptured aneurysms between January 2000 and December 2011. The presence and evolution of wall enhancement and perianeurysmal edema on MRI after endovascular treatment were analyzed. Variable factors were compared among aneurysms with and without edema. One hundred thirty-two unruptured aneurysms in 124 patients underwent endovascular treatment. Eighty-five (64.4 %) aneurysms had wall enhancement, and 9 (6.8 %) aneurysms had perianeurysmal brain edema. Wall enhancement tends to persist for years with two patterns identified. Larger aneurysms and brain-embedded aneurysms were significantly associated with wall enhancement. In all edema cases, the aneurysms were embedded within the brain and had wall enhancement. Progressive thickening of wall enhancement was significantly associated with edema. Edema can be symptomatic when in eloquent brain and stabilizes or resolves over the years. Our study demonstrates the prevalence and some appreciation of the natural history of aneurysmal wall enhancement and perianeurysmal brain edema following endovascular treatment of unruptured aneurysms. Aneurysmal wall enhancement is a common phenomenon while perianeurysmal edema is rare. These phenomena are likely related to the presence of inflammatory reaction near the aneurysmal wall. Both phenomena are usually asymptomatic and self-limited, and prophylactic treatment is not recommended. (orig.)

  15. Retinoic Acid Syndrome in Patients following the Treatment of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia with All-trans Retinoic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Yung-Cheng Su; Po Dunn; Lee-Yung Shih; Ming-Chung Kuo; Hung Chang; Jin-Hou Wu; Tung-Liang Lin; Po-Nan Wang; Tzung-Chih Tang; Yu-Shin Hung

    2009-01-01

    Background: Retinoic acid syndrome (RAS) is a potentially lethal complication during alltransretinoic acid (ATRA) treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia(APL). The incidence and risk factors have been shown to vary in differentseries. In this study we want to establish the incidence of RAS in our hospitaland try to elucidate factors that increase its risk.Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 102 patients diagnosed with APL betweenAugust 1993 and December 2007 at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital...

  16. Enhancing the efficacy of cisplatin in ovarian cancer treatment could arsenic have a role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helm C William

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ovarian cancer affects more than 200,000 women each year around the world. Most women are not diagnosed until the disease has already metastasized from the ovaries with a resultant poor prognosis. Ovarian cancer is associated with an overall 5 year survival of little more than 50%. The mainstay of front-line therapy is cytoreductive surgery followed by chemotherapy. Traditionally, this has been by the intravenous route only but there is more interest in the delivery of intraperitoneal chemotherapy utilizing the pharmaco-therapeutic advantage of the peritoneal barrier. Despite three large, randomized clinical trials comparing intravenous with intraperitoneal chemotherapy showing improved outcomes for those receiving at least part of their chemotherapy by the intraperitoneal route. Cisplatin has been the most active drug for the treatment of ovarian cancer for the last 4 decades and the prognosis for women with ovarian cancer can be defined by the tumor response to cisplatin. Those whose tumors are innately platinum-resistant at the time of initial treatment have a very poor prognosis. Although the majority of patients with ovarian cancer respond to front-line platinum combination chemotherapy the majority will develop disease that becomes resistant to cisplatin and will ultimately succumb to the disease. Improving the efficacy of cisplatin could have a major impact in the fight against this disease. Arsenite is an exciting agent that not only has inherent single-agent tumoricidal activity against ovarian cancer cell lines but also multiple biochemical interactions that may enhance the cytotoxicity of cisplatin including inhibition of deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA repair. In vitro studies suggest that arsenite may enhance the activity of cisplatin in other cell types. Arsenic trioxide is already used clinically to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia demonstrating its safety profile. Further research in ovarian cancer is warranted to define its possible role in this disease.

  17. Administration of tauroursodeoxycholic acid enhances osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Byung-Hyun; Jung, Moon-Joo; Moon, Bo-Kyung; Kim, Jin-Su; Ma, Yoonji; Arai, Yoshie; Noh, Myungkyung; Shin, Jung-Youn; Kim, Byung-Soo; Lee, Soo-Hong

    2016-02-01

    It is known that osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be promoted by suppression of adipogenesis of MSCs. We have recently found that the chemical chaperone tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) significantly reduces adipogenesis of MSCs. In the present study, we examined whether TUDCA can promote osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) by regulating Integrin 5 (ITGA5) associated with activation of ERK1/2 signal pathway and thereby enhance bone tissue regeneration by reducing apoptosis and the inflammatory response. TUDCA treatment promoted in vitro osteogenic differentiation of BMMSCs and in vivo bone tissue regeneration in a calvarial defect model, as confirmed by micro-computed tomography, histological staining, and immunohistochemistry for osteocalcin. In addition, TUDCA treatment significantly decreased apoptosis and the inflammatory response in vivo and in vitro, which is important to enhance bone tissue regeneration. These results indicate that TUDCA plays a critical role in enhancing osteogenesis of BMMSCs, and is therefore a potential alternative drug for bone tissue regeneration. PMID:26499839

  18. Effects of Enhanced Depression Treatment on Diabetes Self-Care

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Elizabeth H. B.; KATON, WAYNE; Rutter, Carolyn; Simon, Greg E; Evette J. Ludman; VON KORFF, Michael; Young, Bessie; Oliver, Malia; Ciechanowski, Paul C.; Kinder, Leslie; Walker, Edward

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE Among patients with diabetes, major depression is associated with more diabetic complications, lower medication adherence, and poorer self-care of diabetes. We reported earlier that enhanced depression care reduces depression symptoms but not hemoglobin A1c level. This study examined effects of depression interventions on self-management among depressed diabetic patients.

  19. Plasma Treatment to Enhance Fuel Cell Water Management Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to further define the potential for plasma treatment technology, developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to modify and...

  20. Improving Outcome of Psychosocial Treatments by Enhancing Memory and Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, Allison G.; LEE, JASON; Williams, Joseph; Hollon, Steven D.; Walker, Matthew P; Thompson, Monique A.; Smith, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Mental disorders are prevalent and lead to significant impairment. Progress toward establishing treatments has been good. However, effect sizes are small to moderate, gains may not persist, and many patients derive no benefit. Our goal is to highlight the potential for empirically-supported psychosocial treatments to be improved by incorporating insights from cognitive psychology and research on education. Our central question is: If it were possible to improve memory for content of sessions ...

  1. LEVERAGING TECHNOLOGY TO ENHANCE ADDICTION TREATMENT AND RECOVERY

    OpenAIRE

    Marsch, Lisa A

    2012-01-01

    Technology such as the Internet and mobile phones offers considerable promise for affecting the assessment, prevention, and treatment of and recovery from substance use disorders. Technology may enable entirely new models of behavioral health care within and outside of formal systems of care. This article reviews the promise of technology-based therapeutic tools for affecting the quality and reach of addiction treatment and recovery support systems, as well as the empirical support to date fo...

  2. Enhanced Extracorporeal CO2 Removal by Regional Blood Acidification: Effect of Infusion of Three Metabolizable Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaravilli, Vittorio; Kreyer, Stefan; Linden, Katharina; Belenkiy, Slava; Pesenti, Antonio; Zanella, Alberto; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Batchinsky, Andriy I

    2015-01-01

    Acidification of blood entering a membrane lung (ML) with lactic acid enhances CO2 removal (VCO2ML). We compared the effects of infusion of acetic, citric, and lactic acids on VCO2ML. Three sheep were connected to a custom-made circuit, consisting of a Hemolung device (Alung Technologies, Pittsburgh, PA), a hemofilter (NxStage, NxStage Medical, Lawrence, MA), and a peristaltic pump recirculating ultrafiltrate before the ML. Blood flow was set at 250 ml/min, gas flow (GF) at 10 L/min, and recirculating ultrafiltrate flow at 100 ml/min. Acetic (4.4 M), citric (0.4 M), or lactic (4.4 M) acids were infused in the ultrafiltrate at 1.5 mEq/min, for 2 hours each, in randomized fashion. VCO2ML was measured by the Hemolung built-in capnometer. Circuit and arterial blood gas samples were collected at baseline and during acid infusion. Hemodynamics and ventilation were monitored. Acetic, citric, or lactic acids similarly enhanced VCO2ML (+35%), from 37.4 3.6 to 50.6 7.4, 49.8 5.6, and 52.0 8.2 ml/min, respectively. Acids similarly decreased pH, increased pCO2, and reduced HCO3 of the post-acid extracorporeal blood sample. No significant effects on arterial gas values, ventilation, or hemodynamics were observed. In conclusion, it is possible to increase VCO2ML by more than one-third using any one of the three metabolizable acids. PMID:26273934

  3. Genetic analysis of pathway regulation for enhancing branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis in plants

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Hao

    2010-08-01

    The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) valine, leucine and isoleucine are essential amino acids that play critical roles in animal growth and development. Animals cannot synthesize these amino acids and must obtain them from their diet. Plants are the ultimate source of these essential nutrients, and they synthesize BCAAs through a conserved pathway that is inhibited by its end products. This feedback inhibition has prevented scientists from engineering plants that accumulate high levels of BCAAs by simply over-expressing the respective biosynthetic genes. To identify components critical for this feedback regulation, we performed a genetic screen for Arabidopsis mutants that exhibit enhanced resistance to BCAAs. Multiple dominant allelic mutations in the VALINE-TOLERANT 1 (VAT1) gene were identified that conferred plant resistance to valine inhibition. Map-based cloning revealed that VAT1 encodes a regulatory subunit of acetohydroxy acid synthase (AHAS), the first committed enzyme in the BCAA biosynthesis pathway. The VAT1 gene is highly expressed in young, rapidly growing tissues. When reconstituted with the catalytic subunit in vitro, the vat1 mutant-containing AHAS holoenzyme exhibits increased resistance to valine. Importantly, transgenic plants expressing the mutated vat1 gene exhibit valine tolerance and accumulate higher levels of BCAAs. Our studies not only uncovered regulatory characteristics of plant AHAS, but also identified a method to enhance BCAA accumulation in crop plants that will significantly enhance the nutritional value of food and feed. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Effect of acidic treatment on carbon nano tubes for immobilization of cellulase enzyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The effect of acidic treatment on MWCNTs functionalization was studied by mixing different ratios (1:1, 1:2, and 1:3 v/v %) of nitric acid and sulphuric acid, respectively. The effect of these treatments on the structure of MWCNTs was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Filed emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Results showed that the optimum ratio 1:3 (v/v %) is best suitable in imparting carboxylic acid and hydroxyl groups which are required for immobilization of cellulase enzyme on functionalized CNTs. (author)

  5. Enhanced incorporation of fatty acid into phosphatidyl choline that parallels histamine discharge in mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purified rat peritoneal and pleural mast cells preincubated briefly with radioactively labeled fatty acid were treated with A23187, which bypasses primary receptors in stimulating exocytosis. An enhanced incorporation of fatty acid into phosphatidyl choline (PC) that occurred in parallel with histamine release at 24-25 degrees C was observed and was initially proportional to the total amount of histamine discharged. Enhanced PC labeling and histamine secretion were also proportional at temperatures ranging from 17-37 degrees C. Both radioactive linoleic and palmitic acids were incorporated selectively at the beta-position of the glycerol backbone of PC. PC labeling by [3H]choline was not detectably different in control and stimulated cells, and phosphatidic acid did not exhibit selectively enhanced beta-acylation. Thus, the stimulated labeling in A23187-treated cells may occur secondary to the action of a phospholipase A2 that favors PC as a substrate. Other peritoneal cell types exhibit a very similar A23187-stimulated selective labeling of PC. Therefore, autoradiography has been used to provide a direct demonstration that in purified preparations, mast cells are the principal cell type engaged in A23187-elicited incorporation of fatty acid into PC. The efficacy of this approach has relied on special procedures devised to obtain significantly different autoradiographic grain densities between control and stimulated preparations that can be attributed to differences in the level of [3H]palmitate-labeled PC. Preliminary tests using compound 48/80 as a secretory stimulus for mast cells have identified a similar selectively enhanced PC labeling. In either case, however, consideration of possible relationships between PC metabolism and the secretory process are premature since they have not been tested directly

  6. The Effects of Different Acid Treatment and Stratification Duration on Germination of Cercis siliquastrum L. Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat ZENCİRKİRAN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of acid (H2SO4 treatment and moist stratification duration on the properties of seed coat, germination rate and duration of the Cercis siliquastrum L. were investigated. The rupture force and firmness of seed coat decrease during the acid treatment and moist stratification, stratification was for more than 30 minutes of these applications. Up to this treatment, rupture force and firmness were highly decreased. Contrary to this decrease, the germination rate was increased. The decrease in rupture force and firmness of seed coat were changed limitedly after 45 minutes and over acid treatments. From the results of this study, we conclude that eight weeks of moist stratification duration was optimal after 30 minutes of acid treatment to remove the physical and physiological dormancy of the seeds of the C. siliquastrum L.

  7. Enhanced Synthesis of Alkyl Amino Acids in Miller's 1958 H2S Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Eric T.; Cleaves, H. James; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, James P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Lazcano, Antonio; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    Stanley Miller's 1958 H2S-containing experiment, which included a simulated prebiotic atmosphere of methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) produced several alkyl amino acids, including the alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers of aminobutyric acid (ABA) in greater relative yields than had previously been reported from his spark discharge experiments. In the presence of H2S, aspariic and glutamic acids could yield alkyl amino acids via the formation of thioimide intermediates. Radical chemistry initiated by passing H2S through a spark discharge could have also enhanced alkyl amino acid synthesis by generating alkyl radicals that can help form the aldehyde and ketone precursors to these amino acids. We propose mechanisms that may have influenced the synthesis of certain amino acids in localized environments rich in H2S and lightning discharges, similar to conditions near volcanic systems on the early Earth, thus contributing to the prebiotic chemical inventory of the primordial Earth.

  8. Enhanced washing durability of hydrophobic coating on cellulose fabric using polycarboxylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nine polycarboxylic acids were used to improve washing durability of hydrophobic cellulose fabric finished by sol-gel method. By simultaneous forming ester-bridge between cellulose and silica layer by ester bond, polycarboxylic acids could anchor silica coating onto cellulose fabric to strengthen the adhesion of organic-inorganic hybrid coating. The wettability of treated fabrics was characterized by water contact angle, spray test and hydrostatic pressure test. The results showed that all investigated polycarboxylic acids could improve the durability. The polycarboxylic acid with proper distance between terminal carboxylic acid groups and number of carboxylic acid groups showed the highest durability. 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) led to the best durability of hydrophobic cellulose fabric with water contact angle of 137.6o (recovery percentage of 94.2%) after 30 washing times. The effect of BTCA on durability was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. This study demonstrated that the surface treatment using polycarboxylic acids and mixed organosilanes is a promising alternative for achieving durable hydrophobic fabrics.

  9. Enhancing fluorescence intensity of Ellagic acid in Borax-HCl-CTAB micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Guokui; Li, Kexiang; Tang, Bo

    2011-03-01

    Ellagic acid (C 14H 6O 8), a naturally occurring phytochemical, found mainly in berries and some nuts, has anticarcinogenic and antioxidant properties. It is found that fluorescence of Ellagic acid (EA) is greatly enhanced by micelle of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant. Based on this effect, a sensitive proposed fluorimetric method was applied for the determination of Ellagic acid in aqueous solution. In the Borax-HCl buffer, the fluorescence intensity of Ellagic acid in the presence of CTAB is proportional to the concentration of Ellagic acid in range from 8.0 10 -10 to 4.0 10 -5 mol L -1; and the detection limits are 3.2 10 -10 mol L -1 and 5.9 10 -10 mol L -1 excited at 266 nm and 388 nm, respectively. The actual samples of pomegranate rinds are simply manipulated and satisfactorily determined. The interaction mechanism studies argue that the negative EA-Borax complex is formed and solubilized in the cationic surfactant CTAB micelle in this system. The fluorescence intensity of EA enhances because the CTAB micelle provides a hydrophobic microenvironment for EA-Borax complex, which can prevent collision with water molecules and decrease the energy loss of EA-Borax complex.

  10. NIR sensitivity enhancement by laser treatment for Si detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The light absorption coefficient of silicon is high in the short wavelengths, but much lower in the long wavelengths (longer than 900 nm). Thus it is necessary to use thicker silicon wafers to manufacture high-sensitivity light sensors for long wavelength applications. However, this imposes constraints on applied voltage, dark current, response speed, and cost. This then leads to limitations on device characteristics and possible applications. As an alternative to using thicker silicon wafers to enhance the NIR sensitivity of silicon photodiodes, we used an ultra-short pulse laser to form 'black silicon' structures on the surface of silicon photodiodes. At 1064 nm, QE was improved from 25% to 72%. Future research will determine how this technology can also be applied to enhancing the NIR sensitivity of image sensors such as CCDs.

  11. Synthesis of Peptide-Based Hybrid Nanobelts with Enhanced Color Emission by Heat Treatment or Water Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingcen; Zhu, Pengli; Fei, Jinbo; Zhao, Jie; Yan, Xuehai; Li, Junbai

    2015-06-22

    We demonstrate that an inorganic lanthanide ion (Tb(3+)) or organic dye molecules were encapsulated in situ into diphenylalanine (FF) organogels by a general, simple, and efficient co-assembly process, which generated peptide-based hybrid nanobelts with a range of colored emissions. In the presence of a photosensitizer (salicylic acid), the organogel can serve as an excellent molecular-donor scaffold to investigate FRET to Tb(3+). More importantly, heat treatment or water induction instigated a morphology transition from nanofibers to nanobelts, after which the participation of guest molecules in the FF assembly was promoted and the stability and photoluminescence emission of the composite organogels were enhanced. PMID:25965918

  12. Behavioral activation: a strategy to enhance treatment response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudak, Donna M; Majeed, Muhammad H; Youngman, Branden

    2014-07-01

    Behavioral activation is an empirically validated treatment for depression pioneered in 1973 by Ferster, based on B.F. Skinner's behavioral principles. After publication of Beck's work on cognitive therapy, the boundaries of behavioral and cognitive therapies were blurred and the two now overlap substantially. Behavioral activation is also used as a stand-alone treatment and can also be effective in conjunction with antidepressant medication. Case conceptualization in behavioral activation entails an assessment of the behaviors that the patient has stopped that produce pleasure or are of importance, as well as behaviors essential to self-care. Activity monitoring, which provides treatment targets and leads to the case conceptualization in behavioral activation, consists of using charts, forms, or other prompts to track the relationship between activities and other variables (e.g., mood, enjoyment). That technique is also used to target rumination, procrastination, and avoidance and may also be helpful for patients with psychosis. PMID:25036582

  13. Biomineralization of Arsenate to Arsenic Sulfides is Greatly Enhanced at Mildly Acidic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Freire, Lucia; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Root, Robert; Chorover, Jon; Field, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is an important water contaminant due to its high toxicity and widespread occurrence. Arsenic-sulfide minerals (ASM) are formed during microbial reduction of arsenate (AsV) and sulfate (SO42?). The objective of this research is to study the effect of the pH on the removal of As due to the formation of ASM in an iron-poor system. A series of batch experiments was used to study the reduction of SO42? and AsV by an anaerobic biofilm mixed culture in a range of pH conditions (6.17.2), using ethanol as the electron donor. Total soluble concentrations and speciation of S and As were monitored. Solid phase speciation of arsenic was characterized by x-ray adsorption spectroscopy (XAS). A marked decrease of the total aqueous concentrations of As and S was observed in the inoculated treatments amended with ethanol, but not in the non-inoculated controls, indicating that the As-removal was biologically mediated. The pH dramatically affected the extent and rate of As removal, as well as the stoichiometric composition of the precipitate. The amount of As removed was 2-fold higher and the rate of the As removal was up to 17-fold greater at pH 6.1 than at pH 7.2. Stoichiometric analysis and XAS results confirmed the precipitate was composed of a mixture of orpiment and realgar, and the proportion of orpiment in the sample increased with increasing pH. The results taken as a whole suggest that ASM formation is greatly enhanced at mildly acidic pH conditions. PMID:25222328

  14. Enhanced rat sciatic nerve regeneration through silicon tubes implanted with valproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fei; Xing, Danmou; Peng, Zhengren; Rao, Ting

    2008-05-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is an effective antiepileptic drug and mood stabilizer. It has recently been demonstrated that VPA could promote neurite outgrowth, activate the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway, and increase B-cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 (bcl-2)and growth cone-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) levels in spinal cord. We hypothesized that VPA could enhance axonal regeneration in the rat. In the present research, we demonstrate the effect of VPA on peripheral nerve regeneration and recovery of motor function through a silicon tube implanted with VPA. The left sciatic nerves were exposed through dorsal-splitting incisions, and 8-mm nerve sections were excised at the middle of the thigh. Then, a 1.0-cm-long silicone tube (internal diameter,1.0 mm; exterior diameter, 2.0 mm) was used to bridge the nerve deficit, anchored to the proximal and distal terminals of the excised deficit of sciatic nerves with 9-0 nylon epineural suture. Sterile petroleum jelly was used to seal the ends of the tubes to avoid leakage. The rats in the VPA group and control group were locally delivered 10 muL VPA injection (400 mg/5 mL) and normal saline, respectively, after the operation. The sciatic nerve index (SFI) was observed in each animal at 2-week intervals and electrophysiology was studied at 4-week intervals for 12 weeks. Histological and morphometrical analyses were performed at the end of the experiment (12 weeks after the operation). Using the digital image-analysis system, the thickness of the myelin sheath was measured, and total numbers of regenerated axons were counted. There was a significant difference in SFI, electrophysiological index (motor-nerve conduct velocity, amplitude of activity potential), and morphometrical results (regenerated axon number and thickness of myelin sheath) in nerve regeneration between the VPA group and controls ( P clinical application of VPA for the treatment of peripheral nerve injury in humans. PMID:18496777

  15. Biomineralization of arsenate to arsenic sulfides is greatly enhanced at mildly acidic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Freire, Lucia; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Root, Robert; Chorover, Jon; Field, James A

    2014-12-01

    Arsenic (As) is an important water contaminant due to its high toxicity and widespread occurrence. Arsenic-sulfide minerals (ASM) are formed during microbial reduction of arsenate (As(V)) and sulfate (SO4(2-)). The objective of this research is to study the effect of the pH on the removal of As due to the formation of ASM in an iron-poor system. A series of batch experiments was used to study the reduction of SO4(2-) and As(V) by an anaerobic biofilm mixed culture in a range of pH conditions (6.1-7.2), using ethanol as the electron donor. Total soluble concentrations and speciation of S and As were monitored. Solid phase speciation of arsenic was characterized by x-ray adsorption spectroscopy (XAS). A marked decrease of the total aqueous concentrations of As and S was observed in the inoculated treatments amended with ethanol, but not in the non-inoculated controls, indicating that the As-removal was biologically mediated. The pH dramatically affected the extent and rate of As removal, as well as the stoichiometric composition of the precipitate. The amount of As removed was 2-fold higher and the rate of the As removal was up to 17-fold greater at pH 6.1 than at pH 7.2. Stoichiometric analysis and XAS results confirmed the precipitate was composed of a mixture of orpiment and realgar, and the proportion of orpiment in the sample increased with increasing pH. The results taken as a whole suggest that ASM formation is greatly enhanced at mildly acidic pH conditions. PMID:25222328

  16. Changes in Growth, Auxin- and Ribonucleic Acid Metabolism in Wheat Coleoptile Sections Following Pulse Treatment with Indole-3-Acetic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, T.A.; Galston, A.W.

    1966-01-01

    Growth reactions of wbeat coleoptile sections following a brief pretreament in indole-3-acetic acid (LAA) were studied. The growth versus concentration curves 24 hours after the treatment showed a minimum value surrounded by bigber values. The minimum was never at concentrations lower than 10-5M lAA but it could be found at higher concentrations after short pretreatment periods. The growth versus time curves reveated that the hormone treatment cansed the growth rate initially to increase but lat...

  17. Thermochemical pretreatments for enhancing succinic acid production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Inglfur Bragi; Kuglarz, Mariusz; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient thermochemical method for treatment of industrial hemp biomass, in order to increase its bioconversion to succinic acid. Industrial hemp was subjected to various thermochemical pretreatments using 0-3% H2SO4, NaOH or H2O2 at 121-180C prior to enz...

  18. Surfactant enhanced disinfection of the human norovirus surrogate, tulane virus with organic acids and surfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human infection with foodborne viruses can occur following consumption of contaminated food, person-to-person body contact, or release of aerosols. Combinatorial treatments of surfactants and organic acids may have synergistic or additive mechanisms to inactivate foodborne viruses and prevent outbr...

  19. Uric acid enhances the antitumor immunity of dendritic cell-based vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Yihan Wang; Xuelei Ma; Chao Su; Bin Peng; Jing Du; Hongyuan Jia; Min Luo; Chunju Fang; Yuquan Wei

    2015-01-01

    Uric acid (UA) released from dying cells has been recognized by the immune system as a danger signal. In response to UA, dendritic cells (DC) in the immune system mature and enhance the T cell response to foreign antigens. It is conceivable that the antitumor immunity of a tumor vaccine could be promoted by the administration of UA. To test this concept, we applied UA as an adjuvant to a DC-based vaccine, and discovered that the administration of UA as an adjuvant significantly enhanced the a...

  20. Clinical effects of enhanced external counterpulsation treatment in patients with ischemic heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ender Emre

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP is a noninvasive treatment that is proven safe and effective in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD and heart failure (HF. The aims of this study are to investigate the clinical effects of EECP therapy in patients with symptomatic CAD and chronic HF, and to find out an answer to the question: Does EECP therapy have any effect on the prognostic markers of HF? Methods: This study was designed as a prospective cohort study. A total of 68 consecutive patients with symptomatic CAD and chronic HF referred to EECP therapy were enrolled in this study between November 2007 and December 2010; 47 patients (39 males and 8 females, 657, years, have undergone EECP treatment, and 21 patients (20 males and 1 female, 6210 years, who did not want to participate in the EECP program comprised the control group. Statistical analysis was performed using t tests for dependent and independent samples, Mann-Whitney U test, Chi-square and Fischer exact tests. Results: EECP therapy resulted in significant improvement in post-intervention New York Heart Association functional class (p<0.001, left ventricular ejection fraction (p<0.001, B-type natriuretic peptide levels (p<0.003, uric acid levels (p<0.05, free-T3/free-T4 ratio (p<0.034 and mitral annular E (p<0.05 velocity, compared with baseline, a finding not evident in the control group. Conclusion: EECP treatment significantly improved clinical and some biochemical parameters, which are mostly prognostic markers in patients with symptomatic CAD and chronic HF.

  1. Enhanced external counter pulsation in treatment of refractory angina pectoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdling, Andr; Bondesson, Susanne; Pettersson, Thomas; Edvinsson, Lars

    2008-01-01

    antagonists were more common among the non-responders (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: This study confirms the safety and efficiency of EECP as a treatment option for patients suffering from refractory angina pectoris. The therapy is most beneficial in patients suffering from severe angina (CCS III-IV) while sustained...

  2. Hydrothermal treatment of titanium alloys for the enhancement of osteoconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surface wettability of implants is a crucial factor in their osteoconductivity because it influences the adsorption of cell-attached proteins onto the surface. In this study, a single-step hydrothermal surface treatment using distilled water at a temperature of 180 °C for 3 h was applied to titanium (Ti) and its alloys (Ti–6Al–4V, Ti–6Al–7Nb, Ti–29Nb–13Ta–4.6Zr, Ti–13Cr–1Fe–3Al; mass%) and compared with as-polished Ti implants and with implants produced by anodizing Ti in 0.1 M of H3PO4 with applied voltages from 0 V to 150 V at a scanning rate of 0.1 V s−1. The surface-treated samples were stored in a five time phosphate buffered saline (× 5 PBS(−)) solution to prevent increasing the water contact angle (WCA) with time. The surface characteristics were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, surface roughness, and contact angle measurement using a 2 μL droplet of distilled water. The relationship between WCA and osteoconductivity at various surface modifications was examined using in vivo tests. The results showed that a superhydrophilic surface with a WCA ≤ 10° and a high osteoconductivity (RB–I) of up to 50% in the cortical bone part, about four times higher than the as-polished Ti and Ti alloys, were provided by the combination of the hydrothermal surface treatment and storage in × 5 of PBS(−). - Highlights: • Hydrothermal treatment in distilled water was applied to titanium alloys. • Surface characteristics and osteoconductivity by in vivo test were evaluated. • Water contact angles of titanium alloys were decreased by hydrothermal treatment. • Osteoconductivity of titanium alloys improved notably by hydrothermal treatment after stored in × 5 of PBS (−)

  3. The Effect of Fiber Bleaching Treatment on the Properties of Poly(lactic acid)/Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Marwah Rayung; Nor Azowa Ibrahim; Norhazlin Zainuddin; Wan Zuhainis Saad; Nur Inani Abdul Razak; Buong Woei Chieng

    2014-01-01

    In this work, biodegradable composites from poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber were prepared by melt blending method. Prior to mixing, the fiber was modified through bleaching treatment using hydrogen peroxide. Bleached fiber composite showed an improvement in mechanical properties as compared to untreated fiber composite due to the enhanced fiber/matrix interfacial adhesion. Interestingly, fiber bleaching treatment also improved the physical appearance of th...

  4. Reduction of ringing artifacts in the arterial phase of gadoxetic acid-enhanced dynamic MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We assessed what MR imaging parameters affected ringing artifacts during the arterial phase of gadoxetic acid-enhanced dynamic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We tested various parameters, including imaging matrices, choice of either sequential or elliptical centric phase-encoding scheme, scanning time, and contrast injection rate using new simulation software on a personal computer and visually evaluated clinical MR images retrospectively using a 4-point scale to assess ringing artifacts. The simulation study revealed that square matrices, short scanning time, slow injection rate, and sequential view ordering effectively reduced ringing artifacts, findings confirmed in clinical practice using gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging. Significantly fewer artifacts resulted using a slow injection rate (P<0.05) and using square matrices in the arterial (P<0.05), portal (P<0.01), and hepatocytic (P<0.05) phases. Choice of square matrix, slower injection rate, shorter scanning time, and sequential view ordering could reduce ringing artifacts. (author)

  5. Influence of concentration in phosphoric acid treatment of titanium oxide and their powder properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Onoda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Titanium oxide that has the photocatalytic activity is used as a white pigment for cosmetics. A certain degree of sebum on the skin is decomposed by the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight. In this work, titanium oxide was shaken with various concentrations of phosphoric acid to synthesize a novel white pigment for cosmetics. Their chemical composition, powder properties, photocatalytic activity, color phase, and smoothness were studied. The obtained materials indicated XRD peaks of titanium oxide; however, these peak intensities became weak by phosphoric acid treatment. The photocatalytic activity of the obtained powders became weak by phosphoric acid treatment to protect the sebum on the skin. The high concentration of phosphoric acid was suitable to obtain a novel white pigment in the phosphoric acid treatment of titanium oxide.

  6. LIMESTONE-LIME TREATMENT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE - FULL SCALE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nation-wide problems related to acidic discharges from coal mining operations are well documented in both popular and technical literature. Neutralization is and will continue to be a necessary short-term measure in numerous instances, while long-range programs are being deve...

  7. MODULAR FIELD-BIOREACTOR FOR ACID MINE DRAINAGE TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation focuses on the improvements to engineered features of a passive technology that has been used for remediation of acid rock drainage (ARD). This passive remedial technology, a sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) bioreactor, takes advantage of the ability of SRB that,...

  8. Dynamic peracetic acid (PAA) exposure, a treatment strategy against ectoparasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    The search for alternative therapeutic agents is a difficult and laborious task. The use of peracetic acid (PAA) has recently been evaluated as an alternative compound for disinfection (Gustavino et al., 2005). In addition to having a broad antimicrobial spectrum, PAA does not contribute to the form...

  9. Could peracetic acid be an alternative treatment in aquaculture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is an antimicrobial disinfectant used in agriculture, food processing and medical facilities. It has recently been tested as a means to control infestations of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Saprolegnia parasitica. Free-swimming theronts of I. multifiliis can be eliminated u...

  10. Hydrolysis of Miscanthus for bioethanol production using dilute acid presoaking combined with wet explosion pre-treatment and enzymatic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srensen, Annette; Teller, Philip Johan; Hilstrm, Troels; Ahring, Birgitte Kir

    2008-01-01

    xylose prior to wet explosion. The acid presoaking extracted 63.2% xylose and 5.2% glucose. Direct enzymatic hydrolysis of the presoaked biomass was found to give only low sugar yields of 24-26% glucose. Wet explosion is a pre-treatment method that combines wet-oxidation and steam explosion. The effect......Miscanthus is a high yielding bioenergy crop. In this study we used acid presoaking, wet explosion, and enzymatic hydrolysis to evaluate the combination of the different pre-treatment methods for bioethanol production with Miscanthus. Acid presoaking is primarily carried out in order to remove...... of wet explosion on non-presoaked and presoaked Miscanthus was investigated using both atmospheric air and hydrogen peroxide as the oxidizing agent. All wet explosion pre-treatments showed to have a disrupting effect on the lignocellulosic biomass, making the sugars accessible for enzymatic...

  11. L-FOLINIC ACID VERSUS FOLIC ACID FOR THE TREATMENT OF HYPERHOMOCYSTEINEMIA IN HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hyperhomocysteinemia found in most hemodialysis patients is refractory to combined oral B-vitamin supplementation featuring supraphysiological doses of folic acid (FA). We evaluated whether a high-dose L-folinic acid- based regimen provided improved total homocysteine (tHcy)-lowering efficacy in...

  12. Synergistic Effect of Elicitors in Enhancement of Ganoderic Acid Production: Optimization and Gene Expression Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motaharehsadat Heydarian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractGanoderma lucidum is one of the most well-known fungi, and has many applications in medicine. Ganoderic acid is among the valuable secondary metabolites of Ganoderma lucidum, and responsible for the inhibition of the tumor cell growth and cancer treatment. Application of ganoderic acid has been limited because of low yields of its production from Ganoderma lucidum. The present study aims to investigate the synergistic effect of elicitors including methyl jasmonate and aspirin on the production of ganoderic acid derived from Ganoderma lucidum mushroom in a shaken flasks using response surface methodology. The results showed that the optimal dose of methyl jasmonate and asprin significantly impacts on the amount of ganoderic acid production as a response (p<0.05. The proposed model predicted the maximum ganoderic acid production as 0.085 mg/ml in which the optimal concentrations obtained for methyl jasmonate and asprin were 250mM and 4.4mM, respectively. Also the influence of ganoderic acid production on the expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase and squalene synthase (two important metabolic pathway genes in ganoderic acid was investigated, and the results showed that these genes expression has increased by 10 and 11 folds, respectively.

  13. Enhanced phytoextraction: II. Effect of EDTA and citric acid on heavy metal uptake by Helianthus annuus from a calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesage, E; Meers, E; Vervaeke, P; Lamsal, S; Hopgood, M; Tack, F M G; Verloo, M G

    2005-01-01

    High biomass producing plant species, such as Helianthus annuus, have potential for removing large amounts of trace metals by harvesting the aboveground biomass if sufficient metal concentrations in their biomass can be achieved However, the low bioavailability of heavy metals in soils and the limited translocation of heavy metals to the shoots by most high biomass producing plant species limit the efficiency of the phytoextraction process. Amendment of a contaminated soil with ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) or citric acid increases soluble heavy metal concentrations, potentially rendering them more available for plant uptake. This article discusses the effects of EDTA and citric acid on the uptake of heavy metals and translocation to aboveground harvestable plant parts in Helianthus annuus. EDTA was included in the research for comparison purposes in our quest for less persistent alternatives, suitable for enhanced phytoextraction. Plants were grown in a calcareous soil moderately contaminated with Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd and treated with increasing concentrations of EDTA (0.1, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 mmol kg(-1) soil) or citric acid (0.01, 0.05, 0.25, 0.442, and 0.5 mol kg(-1) soil). Heavy metal concentrations in harvested shoots increased with EDTA concentration but the actual amount of phytoextracted heavy metals decreased at high EDTA concentrations, due to severe growth depression. Helianthus annuus suffered heavy metal stress due to the significantly increased bioavailable metal fraction in the soil. The rapid mineralization of citric acid and the high buffering capacity of the soil made citric acid inefficient in increasing the phytoextracted amounts of heavy metals. Treatments that did not exceed the buffering capacity of the soil (soil) did not result in any significant increase in shoot heavy metal concentrations. Treatments with high concentrations resulted in a dissolution of the carbonates and compaction of the soil. These physicochemical changes caused growth depression of Helianthus annuus. EDTA and citric acid added before sowing of Helianthus annuus did not appear to be efficient amendments when phytoextraction of heavy metals from calcareous soils is considered. PMID:16128445

  14. Reduction of Endogenous Kynurenic Acid Formation Enhances Extracellular Glutamate, Hippocampal Plasticity, and Cognitive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Potter, Michelle C; Elmer, Greg I.; Bergeron, Richard; Albuquerque, Edson X.; Guidetti, Paolo; Wu, Hui-Qiu; Schwarcz, Robert

    2010-01-01

    At endogenous brain concentrations, the astrocyte-derived metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA) antagonizes the ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and, possibly, the glycine co-agonist site of the NMDA receptor. The functions of these two receptors, which are intimately involved in synaptic plasticity and cognitive processes, may, therefore, be enhanced by reductions in brain KYNA levels. This concept was tested in mice with a targeted deletion of kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II), a major ...

  15. 5-Aminolevulinic acid enhances cancer radiotherapy in a mouse tumor model

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Junko; Misawa, Masaki; Murakami, Mami; Mori, Takashi; Nomura, Kazuki; Iwahashi, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is a photosensitizer used in photodynamic therapy (PDT) because it causes preferential accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in tumor cells, where it forms singlet oxygen upon light irradiation and kills the tumor cells. Our previous study demonstrated that PpIX enhances generation of reactive oxygen species by physicochemical interaction with X-rays. We investigated the effect of ALA administration with X-ray irradiation of mouse B16-BL6 melanoma cells in vitro...

  16. Intraluminal duodenal diverticulum: CT and gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Myeong; Lee, Nam Kyung; Kim, Suk; Kim, Dong Uk; Kim, Tae Un [Dept. of Radiology, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    Intraluminal duodenal diverticulum (IDD) is a rare congenital anomaly. IDD can become symptomatic in 20% to 25% of cases when complicated by intestinal obstruction, pancreatitis, or hemorrhage. We report the case of a 21-year-old female presenting with IDD mimicking duodenoduodenal intussusception. We describe the imaging features of IDD on the gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance image as well as computed tomography.

  17. Fatty-Acid Binding Proteins Modulate Sleep and Enhance Long-Term Memory Consolidation in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Gerstner, Jason R.; Vanderheyden, William M; Shaw, Paul J.; LANDRY, CHARLES F.; Yin, Jerry C.P.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep is thought to be important for memory consolidation, since sleep deprivation has been shown to interfere with memory processing. However, the effects of augmenting sleep on memory formation are not well known, and testing the role of sleep in memory enhancement has been limited to pharmacological and behavioral approaches. Here we test the effect of overexpressing the brain-type fatty acid binding protein (Fabp7) on sleep and long-term memory (LTM) formation in Drosophila melanogaster. ...

  18. Systematic Procedure for Integrated Process Operation: Reverse Electro-Enhanced Dialysis (REED) during Lactic Acid Fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado Rubio, Oscar Andres; Jrgensen, Sten Bay; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2011-01-01

    The integration of lactic acid fermentation and Reverse Electro-Enhanced Dialysis (REED) is investigated based upon previously developed mathematical models. A goal driven process and operation design procedure is proposed and partially investigated. The conceptual analysis of the processes integration shows the need for an additional pH controller in the fermenten A PI controller is implemented and tested. The complete control structure for the integrated system consists of this PI controller i...

  19. Lactic Acid Recovery in Electro-Enhanced Dialysis: Modelling and Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado Rubio, Oscar Andres; Jrgensen, Sten Bay; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2009-01-01

    A dynamic model is derived for simultaneous transport of multiple ions through anion exchange membranes based on an irreversible thermodynamics approach. This model accounts for the convective transport of the dissociated and undissociated species in the module channels, and the diffusion and migration across the boundary layers and membranes. The model is validated for Donnan dialysis recovery of different monoprotic carboxylic acids. Simulations are used to evaluate the potential enhancement o...

  20. Intraluminal duodenal diverticulum: CT and gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intraluminal duodenal diverticulum (IDD) is a rare congenital anomaly. IDD can become symptomatic in 20% to 25% of cases when complicated by intestinal obstruction, pancreatitis, or hemorrhage. We report the case of a 21-year-old female presenting with IDD mimicking duodenoduodenal intussusception. We describe the imaging features of IDD on the gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance image as well as computed tomography.

  1. Enhanced Disease Susceptibility 1 and Salicylic Acid Act Redundantly to Regulate Resistance Gene-Mediated Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Venugopal, Srivathsa C; Jeong, Rae-Dong; Mandal, Mihir K.; Zhu, Shifeng; Chandra-Shekara, A. C.; Xia, Ye; Hersh, Matthew; Arnold J. Stromberg; Navarre, Duroy; Kachroo, Aardra; Kachroo, Pradeep

    2009-01-01

    Resistance (R) proteinassociated pathways are well known to participate in defense against a variety of microbial pathogens. Salicylic acid (SA) and its associated proteinaceous signaling components, including enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1), nonrace-specific disease resistance 1 (NDR1), phytoalexin deficient 4 (PAD4), senescence associated gene 101 (SAG101), and EDS5, have been identified as components of resistance derived from many R proteins. Here, we show that EDS1 and SA fulf...

  2. Fluorescence enhancement of glutaraldehyde functionalized polyaniline nanofibers in the presence of aromatic amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Rajiv; Kumar, Ashok

    2016-04-01

    Polyaniline nanofibers (PNFs) synthesized by dilute polymerization method have been surface functionalized with glutaraldehyde at their N-terminals in Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) at P(H)=7.4 in order to achieve improved interaction of surface functionalized polyaniline nanofibers (SF-PNFs) with aromatic amino acids-Tyrosine, Tryptophan and Phenylalanine through incorporation of aldehyde (-CHO) and hydroxyl (-OH) functionalities. HRTEM reveals nanofibers of average diameter of 35.66nm. FESEM depicts interconnected networks of nanofibers of polyaniline (PAni). UV-visible absorption and Fluorescence spectroscopy indicate that the PNFs and SF-PNFs are in emeraldine base (EB) form. FT-IR, (1)H NMR spectroscopy suggests covalent interactions of SF-PNFs with aromatic amino acids and possible reaction mechanisms have been proposed based on these results. Remarkable enhancement in fluorescence signals of SF-PNFs in the presence of aromatic amino acids has been observed and the apparent binding constant (KA) and the number of binding sites (n) have been calculated using fluorescence enhancement equation. The KA value is found to be highest for SF-PNFs+Tyrosine and n is two for all the polymer amino acid complexes, which are in agreement with the FT-IR and (1)H NMR results. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) efficiency has been found to be highest for SF-PNFs+Tyrosine giving maximum fluorescence enhancement. The study of interaction mechanisms by means of an extremely sensitive technique like fluorescence using SF-PNFs as a substrate may provide a promising analytical tool for detection and monitoring any biochemical reactions involving these three aromatic amino acids. PMID:26838907

  3. Operational Lessons Leaned During bioreactor Demonstrations for Acid Rock Drainage Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) has emphasized the development of biologically-based treatment technologies for acid rock drainage (ARD). Progressively evolving technology demonstrations have resulted in significant advances in sulf...

  4. Operational Lessons Learned During Bioreactor Demonstrations for Acid Rock Drainage Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) has emphasized the development of biologically-based treatment technologies for acid rock drainage (ARD). Progressively evolving technology demonstrations have resulted in significant advances in sul...

  5. Combined process for 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid treatment-Coupling of an electrochemical system with a biological treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Fontmorin, Jean-Marie; Fourcade, Florence; Geneste, Florence; Floner, Didier; Huguet, Samuel; Amrane, Abdelatif

    2013-01-01

    A coupled process was studied for the removal of a chlorinated pesticide: 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). A home-made electrochemical flow cell was used for the pre-treatment and a biological treatment was then carried out using activated sludge supplied by a local wastewater treatment plant. 2,4-D was used as a target compound for the study. Several parameters were monitored during the biological treatment, like dissolved organic carbon (DOC), the target compound and the major by-pro...

  6. Oil production enhancement through a standardized brine treatment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adewumi, A.; Watson, R.; Tian, S.; Safargar, S.; Heckman, S.; Drielinger, I.

    1995-08-01

    In order to permit the environmentally safe discharge of brines produced from oil wells in Pennsylvania to the surface waters of the Commonwealth and to rapidly brings as many wells as possible into compliance with the law, the Pennsylvania Oil and Gas Association (POGAM) approached the Pennsylvania State University to develop a program designed to demonstrate that a treatment process to meet acceptable discharge conditions and effluent limitations can be standardized for all potential stripper wells brine discharge. After the initial studies, the first phase of this project was initiated. A bench-scale prototype model was developed for conducting experiments in laboratory conditions. The experiments pursued in the laboratory conditions were focused on the removal of ferrous iron from synthetically made brine. Iron was selected as the primary heavy metals for studying the efficiency of the treatment process. The results of a number of experiments in the lab were indicative of the capability of the proposed brine treatment process in the removal of iron. Concurrent with the laboratory experiments, a comprehensive and extensive kinetic study was initiated. This study was necessary to provide the required data base for process modeling. This study included the investigation of the critical pH as well as the rate and order of reactions of the studied elements: aluminum, lead, zinc, and copper. In the second phase of this project, a field-based prototype was developed to evaluate and demonstrate the treatment process effectiveness. These experiments were conducted under various conditions and included the testing on five brines from different locations with various dissolved constituents. The outcome of this research has been a software package, currently based on iron`s reactivity, to be used for design purposes. The developed computer program was refined as far as possible using the results from laboratory and field experiments.

  7. Lymphatic Pump Treatment Repeatedly Enhances the Lymphatic and Immune Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Schander, Artur; Padro, David; King, Hollis H.; Downey, H. Fred; Hodge, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Osteopathic practitioners utilize manual therapies called lymphatic pump techniques (LPT) to treat edema and infectious diseases. While previous studies examined the effect of a single LPT treatment on the lymphatic system, the effect of repeated applications of LPT on lymphatic output and immunity has not been investigated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to measure the effects of repeated LPT on lymphatic flow, lymph leukocyte numbers, and inflammatory mediator concentr...

  8. Ion beam surface treatment: A new capability for surface enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emerging capability to produce high average power (5--350 kW) pulsed ion beams at 0.2--2 MeV energies is enabling the authors to develop a new, commercial-scale thermal surface treatment technology called Ion Beam Surface Treatment (IBEST). This new technique uses high energy, pulsed (?250 ns) ion beams to directly deposit energy in the top 2--20 micrometers of the surface of any material. The depth of treatment is controllable by varying the ion energy and species. Deposition of the energy with short pulses in a thin surface layer allows melting of the layer with relatively small energies and allows rapid cooling of the melted layer by thermal diffusion into the underlying substrate. Typical cooling rates of this process (109--1010 K/sec) cause rapid resolidification, resulting in the production of non-equilibrium microstructures (nano-crystalline and metastable phases) that have significantly improved corrosion, wear, and hardness properties. The authors conducted IBEST feasibility experiments with results confirming surface hardening, noncrystalline grain formation, metal surface polishing, controlled melt of ceramic surfaces, and surface cleaning using pulsed ion beams

  9. Diagnostic efficacy of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI for hepatocellular carcinoma and dysplastic nodule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Saito

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the relationship between the signal intensity of hepatobiliary phase images on gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and histological grade. METHODS: Fifty-nine patients with 82 hepatocellular lesions were evaluated retrospectively. Hepatobiliary phase images on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI were classified into 3 groups: low, iso or high. Angiography-assisted computed tomography (CT findings were also classified into 3 groups: CT during arterial portography, and CT hepatic arteriography: A: iso, iso or low; B: slightly low, iso or low; and C: low, high. We correlated angiography-assisted CT, hepatobiliary phase findings during gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and histological grades. Furthermore, correlations between MRI findings and histological grade for each hemodynamic pattern were performed. Correlations among radiological and pathological findings were statistically evaluated using the chi-square test and Fisher s exact test. RESULTS: There was a significant correlation between histological grade and hemodynamic pattern (P < 0.05. There was a significant correlation between histological grade and signal intensity in the hepatobiliary phase (P < 0.05 in group A lesions. There was no significant correlation between histological grade and signal intensity in the hepatobiliary phase in group B or C lesions (P > 0.05. CONCLUSION: Signal intensity in the hepatobiliary phase correlated with histological grade in the lesions that maintained portal blood flow, but did not correlate in lesions that showed decreased or defective portal blood flow.

  10. The Unexpected Uses of Urso- and Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid in the Treatment of Non-liver Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Vang, Sheila; Longley, Katie; Steer, Clifford J.; Low, Walter C

    2014-01-01

    Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is the taurine conjugate of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a US Food and Drug Administrationapproved hydrophilic bile acid for the treatment of certain cholestatic liver diseases. There is a growing body of research on the mechanism(s) of TUDCA and its potential therapeutic effect on a wide variety of non-liver diseases. Both UDCA and TUDCA are potent inhibitors of apoptosis, in part by interfering with the upstream mitochondrial pathway of cell death, inhibit...

  11. Peracetic acid oxidation as an alternative pre-treatment for the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appels, Lise; Van Assche, Ado; Willems, Kris; Degrve, Jan; Van Impe, Jan; Dewil, Raf

    2011-03-01

    Anaerobic digestion is generally considered to be an economic and environmentally friendly technology for treating waste activated sludge, but has some limitations, such as the time it takes for the sludge to be digested and also the ineffectiveness of degrading the solids. Various pre-treatment technologies have been suggested to overcome these limitations and to improve the biogas production rate by enhancing the hydrolysis of organic matter. This paper studies the use of peracetic acid for disintegrating sludge as a pre-treatment of anaerobic digestion. It has been proved that this treatment effectively leads to a solubilisation of organic material. A maximum increase in biogas production by 21% is achieved. High dosages of PAA lead to a decrease in biogas production. This is due to the inhibition of the anaerobic micro-organisms by the high VFA-concentrations. The evolution of the various VFAs during digestion is studied and the observed trends support this hypothesis. PMID:21227687

  12. ENHANCED MOBILITY OF DENSE NONAQUEOUS-PHASE LIQUIDS (DNAPLs) USING DISSOLVED HUMIC ACIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EDWIN S. OLSON; JOHN R. GALLAGHER; MARC D. KURZ

    1998-10-01

    The specific objectives of this subtask are as follows: ? Evaluate the suitability of using humic acids to enhance the solubility and mobility of DNAPL contaminants sorbed to soils. ? Evaluate the toxicity and bioavailablity of the DNAPLs to biodegrading microorganisms. To meet the first objective, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) evaluated a set of humic acids (two) with different chemical compositions and polarities for the following: ? Ability of the humates to mobilize/solubilize selected (three) DNAPLs ? Mobilization/solubilization in batch soil?water experiments (one soil) ? Removal rate via biotreatment with a well-established active microbial culture. The second objective was met by evaluating the inhibiting effects of a leonardite-derived humic acid on active microbial populations.

  13. Acid mine drainage as an important mechanism of natural radiation enhancement in mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a world wide problem that occurs whenever sulfidic material is present in association to the mined ore. The acidic waters generated by the process of sulfide minerals oxidation can mobilize important amounts of pollutants and cause significant environmental impacts. The composition of the drainage will depend, on a very large extent, on the mineralogy of the rocks. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that acid mine drainage has the potential to enhance the natural levels of environmental radioactivity. The paper revises some strategies to be used in the diagnostic of the problem. General mathematical formulations that can assist on the prediction of the duration of the problem, and the definition of the size of the oxidizing zones in a waste dump are given. A study case on a waste dump of the Pocos de Caldas Uranium Mining Site, Brazil is also presented. (author)

  14. Enhanced amino acid utilization sustains growth of cells lacking Snf1/AMPK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicastro, Raffaele; Tripodi, Farida

    2015-01-01

    The metabolism of proliferating cells shows common features even in evolutionary distant organisms such as mammals and yeasts, for example the requirement for anabolic processes under tight control of signaling pathways. Analysis of the rewiring of metabolism, which occurs following the dysregulation of signaling pathways, provides new knowledge about the mechanisms underlying cell proliferation.The key energy regulator in yeast Snf1 and its mammalian ortholog AMPK have earlier been shown to have similar functions at glucose limited conditions and here we show that they also have analogies when grown with glucose excess. We show that loss of Snf1 in cells growing in 2% glucose induces an extensive transcriptional reprogramming, enhances glycolytic activity, fatty acid accumulation and reliance on amino acid utilization for growth. Strikingly, we demonstrate that Snf1/AMPK-deficient cells remodel their metabolism fueling mitochondria and show glucose and amino acids addiction, a typical hallmark of cancer cells.

  15. SULFUR HEXAFLUORIDE TREATMENT OF USED NUCLEAR FUEL TO ENHANCE SEPARATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, J.; Torres, R.; Korinko, P.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Becnel, J.; Garcia-Diaz, B.; Adams, T.

    2012-09-25

    Reactive Gas Recycling (RGR) technology development has been initiated at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), with a stretch-goal to develop a fully dry recycling technology for Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF). This approach is attractive due to the potential of targeted gas-phase treatment steps to reduce footprint and secondary waste volumes associated with separations relying primarily on traditional technologies, so long as the fluorinators employed in the reaction are recycled for use in the reactors or are optimized for conversion of fluorinator reactant. The developed fluorination via SF{sub 6}, similar to the case for other fluorinators such as NF{sub 3}, can be used to address multiple fuel forms and downstream cycles including continued processing for LWR via fluorination or incorporation into a aqueous process (e.g. modified FLUOREX) or for subsequent pyro treatment to be used in advanced gas reactor designs such metal- or gas-cooled reactors. This report details the most recent experimental results on the reaction of SF{sub 6} with various fission product surrogate materials in the form of oxides and metals, including uranium oxides using a high-temperature DTA apparatus capable of temperatures in excess of 1000{deg}C . The experimental results indicate that the majority of the fission products form stable solid fluorides and sulfides, while a subset of the fission products form volatile fluorides such as molybdenum fluoride and niobium fluoride, as predicted thermodynamically. Additional kinetic analysis has been performed on additional fission products. A key result is the verification that SF{sub 6} requires high temperatures for direct fluorination and subsequent volatilization of uranium oxides to UF{sub 6}, and thus is well positioned as a head-end treatment for other separations technologies, such as the volatilization of uranium oxide by NF{sub 3} as reported by colleagues at PNNL, advanced pyrochemical separations or traditional full recycle approaches. Based on current results of the research at SRNL on SF{sub 6} fluoride volatility for UNF separations, SF{sub 6} treatment renders all anticipated volatile fluorides studied to be volatile, and all non-volatile fluorides studied to be non-volatile, with the notable exception of uranium oxides. This offers an excellent opportunity to use this as a head-end separations treatment process because: 1. SF{sub 6} can be used to remove volatile fluorides from a UNF matrix while leaving behind uranium oxides. Therefore an agent such as NF{sub 3} should be able to very cleanly separate a pure UF{sub 6} stream, leaving compounds in the bottoms such as PuF{sub 4}, SrF{sub 2} and CsF after the UNF matrix has been pre-treated with SF{sub 6}. 2. Due to the fact that the uranium oxide is not separated in the volatilization step upon direct contact with SF{sub 6} at moderately high temperatures (? 1000{deg}C), this fluoride approach may be wellsuited for head-end processing for Gen IV reactor designs where the LWR is treated as a fuel stock, and it is not desired to separate the uranium from plutonium, but it is desired to separate many of the volatile fission products. 3. It is likely that removal of the volatile fission products from the uranium oxide should simplify both traditional and next generation pyroprocessing techniques. 4. SF{sub 6} treatment to remove volatile fission products, with or without treatment with additional fluorinators, could be used to simplify the separations of traditional aqueous processes in similar fashion to the FLUOREX process. Further research should be conducted to determine the separations efficiency of a combined SF{sub 6}/NF{sub 3} separations approach which could be used as a stand-alone separations technology or a head-end process.

  16. Oral Low-Molecular Weight Hyaluronic Acid in the Treatment of Atrophic Vaginitis

    OpenAIRE

    Tindara La Galia; Antonio Micali; Domenico Puzzolo; Francesco Cancellieri

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of low molecular weight hyaluronic acid oral tablets for the treatment of atrophic vaginitis. 12 women with atrophic vaginitis were recruited for this double blind, placebo-controlled study. Patients were randomized to receive either low molecular weight hyaluronic acid (HA) oral tablets or placebo for three months. Vaginal biopsies were taken at baseline and after three months of treatment, and vagina...

  17. The Dynamics of the Treatment-enhancement Distinction: ADHD as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maartje Schermer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A central issue in the ethical debate on psychopharmacological enhancers concerns the distinction between therapy and enhancement. Although from a theoretical point of view it is difficult to make a clear-cut distinction between treatment (of disease on the one hand, and enhancement (of normal functioning on the other, in medical practice and policy debates the counter-positioning of therapy to enhancement is clearly at work. Especially pharmaceutical companies have an interest in occupying the "grey" area between normal and abnormal, treatment and enhancement. This article discusses the dynamics of the treatment-enhancement distinction, and argues that practices that could be labelled "enhancement" can also be understood in terms of medicalisation and "disease mongering". The argument is supported by results from a qualitative empirical study into the experiences and opinions of adults diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. Patients are ambivalent about how to understand ADHD: as a disease, a disorder or a normal variation. Intervention with psychopharmacological means can also be understood in different ways. From an insider perspective it is conceived of as a "normalising" of functioning, whereas from an outsider perspective it can be understood as medicalisation of underperformance, or indeed as performance enhancement. This draws attention to new moral issues which are important but under-recognised in the enhancement debate, and which are related to medicalisation.

  18. Sebum Free Fatty Acids Enhance the Innate Immune Defense of Human Sebocytes by Upregulating ?-Defensin-2 Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Kao, Mandy C.; Zhang, Liangfang; Zouboulis, Christos C.; Gallo, Richard L.; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2009-01-01

    Various sebum free fatty acids (FFAs) have shown antibacterial activity against a broad range of Gram-positive bacteria, resulting in the suggestion that they are accountable, at least partially, for the direct antimicrobial activity of the skin surface. In this study, we examined the effects of sebum FFAs on the antimicrobial peptide (AMP)-mediated innate immune defense of human sebocytes. Incubation of lauric acid, palmitic acid, or oleic acid (OA) with human sebocytes dramatically enhanced...

  19. Electrochemical treatment of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in groundwater impacted by aqueous film forming foams (AFFFs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Charles E; Andaya, Christina; Urtiaga, Ana; McKenzie, Erica R; Higgins, Christopher P

    2015-09-15

    Laboratory experiments were performed to evaluate the use of electrochemical treatment for the decomposition of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), as well as other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), in aqueous film forming foam (AFFF)-impacted groundwater collected from a former firefighter training area and PFAA-spiked synthetic groundwater. Using a commercially-produced Ti/RuO2 anode in a divided electrochemical cell, PFOA and PFOS decomposition was evaluated as a function of current density (0-20 mA/cm(2)). Decomposition of both PFOA and PFOS increased with increasing current density, although the decomposition of PFOS did not increase as the current density was increased above 2.5 mA/cm(2). At a current density of 10 mA/cm(2), the first-order rate constants, normalized for current density and treatment volume, for electrochemical treatment of both PFOA and PFOS were 46 10(-5) and 70 10(-5) [(min(-1)) (mA/cm(2))(-1) (L)], respectively. Defluorination was confirmed for both PFOA and PFOS, with 58% and 98% recovery as fluoride, respectively (based upon the mass of PFOA and PFOS degraded). Treatment of other PFAAs present in the groundwater also was observed, with shorter chain PFAAs generally being more recalcitrant. Results highlight the potential for electrochemical treatment of PFAAs, particularly PFOA and PFOS, in AFFF-impacted groundwater. PMID:25909497

  20. RGD functionalized polymeric nanoparticles targeting periodontitis epithelial cells for the enhanced treatment of periodontitis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wenxin; Xu, Peicheng; Zhao, Jingjing; Ling, Li; Li, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Bo; Cheng, Nengneng; Pang, Zhiqing

    2015-11-15

    Long term retention of antimicrobials with effective drug concentration in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) is of vital importance for the treatment of chronic periodontitis. In this study, a novel epithelial cell-targeting nanoparticle drug delivery system by conjugating minocycline-loaded poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid) (PEG-PLA) nanoparticles (NP-MIN) with RGD peptide were developed and administrated locally for targeting periodontitis epithelial cells and enhancing the treatment of periodontitis in dogs. Biodegradable NP-MIN was made with an emulsion/solvent evaporation technique. RGD peptide was conjugated to the surface of nanoparticles via Maleimide group reaction with hydrosulfide in RGD peptide (RGD-NP-MIN). Transmission electron microscopy examination and dynamic light scattering results revealed that RGD-NP-MIN had a sphere shape, with a mean diameter around 106nm. In vitro release of minocycline from RGD-NP-MIN showed that RGD modification did not change the remarkable sustained releasing characteristic of NP-MIN. To elucidate the interaction of RGD-NP and epithelial cells, RGD-NP binding, uptake and cellular internalization mechanisms by calu-3 cells were investigated. It was shown RGD modification significantly enhanced nanoparticles binding and uptake by Calu-3 cells, and RGD-NP uptake was an energy-dependent process through receptor-mediated endocytosis. Both clathrin-associated endocytosis and caveolae-dependent endocytosis pathway were involved in the RGD-NP uptake, and the intracellular transport of RGD-NP was related to lysosome and Golgi apparatus. Finally, in vivo pharmacokinetics of minocycline in the periodontal pockets and anti-periodontitis effects of RGD-NP-MIN on periodontitis-bearing dogs were evaluated. After local administration of RGD-NP-MIN, minocycline concentration in gingival crevicular fluid decreased slowly and maintained an effective drug concentration for a longer time than that of NP-MIN. Anti-periodontitis effects demonstrated that RGD-NP-MIN could significantly decrease symptoms of periodontitis, which was better than any other control group. These findings suggested that these epithelial cell-targeting nanoparticles offered a novel and effective local delivery system for the treatment of periodontitis. PMID:26197107

  1. Ascorbic acid: Chemistry, biology and the treatment of cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Juan; Cullen, Joseph J; BUETTNER, GARRY R.

    2012-01-01

    Since the discovery of vitamin C, the number of its known biological functions is continually expanding. Both the names ascorbic acid and vitamin C reflect its antiscorbutic properties due to its role in the synthesis of collagen in connective tissues. Ascorbate acts as an electron-donor keeping iron in the ferrous state thereby maintaining the full activity of collagen hydroxylases; parallel reactions with a variety of dioxygenases affect the expression of a wide array of genes, for example ...

  2. Acid Treatment effects on the stable isotopic signature of fossils

    OpenAIRE

    NICHOLAS, CHRISTOPHER JOHN

    2012-01-01

    Prior to geochemical analyses, fossil bones and teeth are often extracted from any surrounding lithified sediments using chemical techniques such as immersion in acid. As stable isotope analysis becomes more commonplace in palaeoecological investigations, it is important to consider what effects these chemical preparation techniques may have on any subsequent isotopic data and to constrain these effects as quantitatively as possible. This study aims to elucidate these effects, as it is vital ...

  3. Passive treatment of acid drainage waters from coal piles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groudev, S.N. [University of Mining and Geology, Sofia (Bulgaria). Dept. of Engineering Geoecology

    1997-12-31

    Acid drainage water from rich-in-pyrite coal piles were treated under pilot-scale conditions by means of a unit consisting of two-alkalinity producing and sulphate-reducing anoxic cells arranged in series. The cells contained organic substrate mixed with ground limestone and a consortium of interdependent microorganisms. The bacterial dissimilatory sulphate reduction was the main water clean-up process in the cells. (orig.)

  4. Ion Exchange : - A Treatment Option for Acid Mine Drainage

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Amita

    2014-01-01

    The sorption of heavy metals from Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) by using clinoptilolite, a natural zeolite, was studied in this thesis. The behavior of clinoptilolite, as an ion exchanger, was studied to see if the concentration of iron, copper, zinc, and manganese could be reduced to acceptable environmental standards. Folldal works, Lkken works, and Rros copper works were the mines investigated during this study. However, experiments were conducted on the AMD from Folldal and L...

  5. Production of ?-Amino Butyric Acid in Tea Leaves wit Treatment of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuko; Hayakawa, Kiyoshi; Ueno, Hiroshi

    Lactic acid bacteria was searched for producing termented tea that contained a lot of ?-amino butyric acid(GABA). Also examined were the growth condition, GABA production and changes in catechin contents in the tea leaves. Lactobacillus brevis L12 was found to be suitable for the production of fermented tea since it gave as much GABA as gabaron tea when tea leaves being suspended with water at 10% and incubated for 4 days at 25C. The amount of GABA produced was more than calculated based upon the content of glutamic acid in tea leaves. It is probable to assume that glutamate derived from glutamine and theanine is converted into GABA.

  6. Roles of acidic functional groups of carbon fiber surfaces in enhancing interfacial adhesion behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gas phase ozone treatment was used as a method to bind acidic oxygen functional groups on carbon fiber surfaces. The ozone treatment on carbon fibers was varied with the ozone concentration and treatment time. Surface analyses of the carbon fibers before and after treatments were performed by FT-IR, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), and dynamic contact angle measurements. Mechanical interfacial properties of the fibers/polymer composites were investigated by using critical stress intensity factor (K IC) and critical energy release rate (G IC) measurements. From the results of FT-IR and XPS, it was observed that the oxygen functional groups, such as -OH, O-C=O, C=O, and C-O, were attached on the carbon fiber surfaces after the ozone treatment. The mechanical interfacial properties of the composites also showed higher values than those of untreated composites. Ozone treatment is attributed to the increase of both the acidic functional groups and the degree of adhesion at interfaces between the fibers and polymeric resin in composites

  7. Topical pyruvic acid (70% versus topical salicylic acid (16.7% compound in treatment of plantar warts: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabihollah Shahmoradi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Topical pyruvic acid and compound salicylic acid had the same efficacy and complications in treating plantar warts. Decision for choosing the treatment can be made based on the costs and individual factors as well as patients preferences.

  8. Resistant starch improvement of rice starches under a combination of acid and heat-moisture treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Pham Van; Vien, Ngo Lam; Lan Phi, Nguyen Thi

    2016-01-15

    The effects of a combination of acid and heat-moisture treatment on formation of resistant starch (RS) and characteristics of high-amylose, normal and waxy rice starches were investigated in this study. The degrees of polymerization of the rice starches treated with citric acid, lactic acid or acetic acid were significantly reduced as compared to the native starches. The RS contents of acid and heat-moisture treated rice starches were in a range of 30.1-39.0%, significantly higher than those of native rice starches (6.3-10.2%) and those of heat-moisture treated rice starches (18.5-23.9%). The acid and heat-moisture treatments reduced swelling power and viscosity, but increased solubility of the starches, while the crystalline structure did not change. Among the organic acids used, citric acid had the most impact on starch characteristics and RS formation, followed by lactic acid and acetic acid. The results are useful in production of RS for functional food application. PMID:26258703

  9. Retinoic acid and glycolic acid combination in the treatment of acne scars

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrashekar, B. S.; K R Ashwini; Vani Vasanth; Shreya Navale

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Acne is a prevalent condition in society affecting nearly 80-90% of adolescents often resulting in secondary damage in the form of scarring. Retinoic acid (RA) is said to improve acne scars and reduce postinflammatory hyperpigmentation while glycolic acid (GA) is known for its keratolytic properties and its ability to reduce atrophic acne scars. There are studies exploring the combined effect of retinaldehyde and GA combination with positive results while the efficacy of retinoi...

  10. Comparison between phosphoric acid and hydrochloric acid in microabrasion technique for the treatment of dental fluorosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mahshid Mohammadi Bassir; Golnaz Bagheri

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 )-pumice compound with conventional hydrochloric acid (HCl)-pumice compound in treating different severities of dental fluorosis with the microabrasion technique. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven anterior teeth from seven patients with different severities of dental fluorosis were treated. In each patient, half of the teeth were treated with HCl-pumice compound and the other half with H 3 PO 4 -pumice compound (split-mou...

  11. Alcohol Treatment and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: Enhancing Effectiveness by Incorporating Spirituality and Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective modality for the treatment of alcoholism. Given widespread interest in incorporating spirituality into professional treatment, this article orients practitioners to spiritually modified CBT, an approach that may enhance outcomes with some spiritually motivated clients. More specifically, by

  12. Clavulanic acid enhances glutamate transporter subtype I (GLT-1) expression and decreases reinforcing efficacy of cocaine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae; John, Joel; Langford, Dianne; Walker, Ellen; Ward, Sara; Rawls, Scott M

    2016-03-01

    The ?-lactam antibiotic ceftriaxone (CTX) reduces cocaine reinforcement and relapse in preclinical assays through a mechanism involving activation of glutamate transporter subtype 1 (GLT-1). However, its poor brain penetrability and intravenous administration route may limit its therapeutic utility for indications related to CNS diseases. An alternative is clavulanic acid (CA), a structural analog of CTX that retains the ?-lactam core required for GLT-1 activity but displays enhanced brain penetrability and oral activity relative to CTX. Here, we tested the hypothesis that CA (1, 10mg/kg ip) would enhance GLT-1 expression and decrease cocaine self-administration (SA) in mice, but at lower doses than CTX. Experiments revealed that GLT-1 transporter expression in the nucleus accumbens of mice treated with repeated CA (1, 10mg/kg) was enhanced relative to saline-treated mice. Repeated CA treatment (1mg/kg) reduced the reinforcing efficacy of cocaine (0.56mg/kg/inf) in mice maintained on a progressive-ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement but did not affect acquisition of cocaine SA under fixed-ratio responding or acquisition or retention of learning. These findings suggest that the ?-lactamase inhibitor CA can activate the cellular glutamate reuptake system in the brain reward circuit and reduce cocaine's reinforcing efficacy at 100-fold lower doses than CTX. PMID:26543027

  13. Anacardic acid enhances the anticancer activity of liposomal mitoxantrone towards melanoma cell lines in vitro studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legut, Mateusz; Lipka, Dominik; Filipczak, Nina; Piwoni, Adriana; Kozubek, Arkadiusz; Gubernator, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a novel formulation of antineoplastic drug: mitoxantrone loaded into liposomal carriers enriched with encapsulated anacardic acid in the liposomal bilayer using a vitamin C gradient. Anacardic acid is a potent epigenetic agent with anticancer activity. This is the first liposomal formulation to combine an actively encapsulated drug and anacardic acid. The liposomes were characterized in terms of basic parameters, such as size, zeta potential, optimal drug-to-lipid ratio, loading time and temperature, and stability at 4C and in human plasma in vitro. The formulation was found to be stable, and the loading process was rapid and efficient (drug-to-lipid ratio of up to 0.3 with over 90% efficiency in 5 minutes). The cytotoxicity of these formulations was assessed using the human melanoma cell lines A375 and Hs294T and the normal human dermal fibroblast line. The results showed that anacardic acid and to a smaller extent vitamin C significantly increased the cytotoxicity of the drug towards melanoma compared to ammonium sulfate liposomes. On the other hand, vitamin C and anacardic acid both protected normal cells from damage caused by the drug. The formulation combining anacardic acid, vitamin C, and mitoxantrone showed promising results in terms of cytotoxicity and cytoprotection. Therefore, it has potential for anticancer treatment. PMID:24489469

  14. Ascorbic acid enhances destruction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during home-type drying of apple slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, J A; Kendall, P A; Sofos, J N

    2001-08-01

    Destruction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was evaluated on inoculated apple slices dehydrated at two temperatures with and without application of predrying treatments. Half-ring slices (0.6 cm thick) of peeled and cored Gala apples were inoculated by immersion for 30 min in a four-strain composite inoculum of E. coli O157:H7. The inoculated slices (8.7 to 9.4 log CFU/g) either received no predrying treatment (control), were soaked for 15 min in a 3.4% ascorbic acid solution, or were steam blanched for 3 min at 88 degrees C immediately prior to drying at 57.2 or 62.8 degrees C for up to 6 h. Samples were plated on tryptic soy (TSA) and sorbitol MacConkey (SMAC) agar media for direct enumeration of surviving bacterial populations. Steam blanching changed initial inoculation levels by +0.3 to -0.7 log CFU/g, while immersion in the ascorbic acid solution reduced the inoculation levels by 1.4 to 1.6 log CFU/g. Dehydration of control samples for 6 h reduced mean bacterial populations by 2.9 log CFU/g (TSA or SMAC) at 57.2 degrees C and by 3.3 (SMAC) and 3.5 (TSA) log CFU/g at 62.8 degrees C. Mean decreases from initial inoculum levels for steam-blanched slices after 6 h of drying were 2.1 (SMAC) and 2.0 (TSA) log CFU/g at 57.2 degrees C, and 3.6 (TSA or SMAC) log CFU/g at 62.8 degrees C. In contrast, initial bacterial populations on ascorbic acid-pretreated apple slices declined by 5.0 (SMAC) and 5.1 (TSA) log CFU/g after 3 h of dehydration at 57.2 degrees C, and by 7.3 (SMAC) and 6.9 (TSA) log CFU/g after 3 h at 62.8 degrees C. Reductions on slices treated with ascorbic acid were in the range of 8.0 to 8.3 log CFU/g after 6 h of drying, irrespective of drying temperature or agar medium used. The results of immersing apple slices in a 3.4% ascorbic acid solution for 15 min prior to drying indicate that a predrying treatment enhances the destruction of E. coli O157:H7 on home-dried apple products. PMID:11510669

  15. Effect of electric field treatment on unsaturated fatty acid in crude avocado oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza-Ortega, Jos Alberto; Ramrez-Moreno, Esther; Daz-Reyes, Joel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly del Socorro

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of the fatty acids in avocado oil when the product is subjected to different conditions of electric field treatment (voltage: 5 kV cm(-1); frequency: 720 Hz; treatment time: 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 min). Fatty acids were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the mid-infrared region. Electric field is a suitable method to preserve the oil quality and composition with minimal modifications in unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:25069856

  16. Excimer laser treatment for aluminium alloy mechanical property enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sicard, E.; Boulmer-Leborgne, C. [Orleans Univ. (France). GREMI; Andreazza-Vignolle, C.; Andreazza, P. [CRMD, Universite d`Orleans, BP 6752, 45067, Orleans, cedex2 (France); Langlade, C.; Vannes, B. [IFOS, Ecole centrale de Lyon, 36 avenue de collongue, BP 163, 69131, Ecully, cedex (France)

    1998-03-01

    An excimer laser beam is focused (1-3 Jcm{sup 2}) on to an aluminium alloy (AlSi7Mg) surface target in a nitrogen atmosphere (760 Torr). A nitride layer (5 mm{sup 2} area per laser spot) is obtained by nitrogen diffusion in the bulk with a depth of several micrometres during the induced laser-plasma time interaction on the surface. For chemical, structural and tribological analyses, 1 x 1 cm{sup 2} samples are processed by scanning the laser beam on the surface, either by locating the laser-plasma spots side by side or by overlapping them. Different experimental conditions are investigated (laser fluence, laser pulse number, overlapping rate of laser-plasma spots), and then various analysis such as NRA, XRD, GIXD, SEM, EDS are performed. When a step-by-step process is used, the nitrogen concentration appears to be inhomogeneous depending on the surface location, and the surface roughness is too high for further applications. Nevertheless, the overlapping process yields homogeneous chemical composition layers with smooth surfaces. Tests are performed to characterise the friction behaviour of the treated surface under fretting conditions, and tribological results clearly indicate the best experimental conditions to be used for the enhancement of mechanical properties. (orig.) 16 refs.

  17. Valproic acid enhances the efficacy of radiation therapy by protecting normal hippocampal neurons and sensitizing malignant glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thotala, Dinesh; Karvas, Rowan M; Engelbach, John A; Garbow, Joel R; Hallahan, Andrew N; DeWees, Todd A; Laszlo, Andrei; Hallahan, Dennis E

    2015-10-27

    Neurocognitive deficits are serious sequelae that follow cranial irradiation used to treat patients with medulloblastoma and other brain neoplasms. Cranial irradiation causes apoptosis in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus leading to cognitive deficits. Valproic acid (VPA) treatment protected hippocampal neurons from radiation-induced damage in both cell culture and animal models. Radioprotection was observed in VPA-treated neuronal cells compared to cells treated with radiation alone. This protection is specific to normal neuronal cells and did not extend to cancer cells. In fact, VPA acted as a radiosensitizer in brain cancer cells. VPA treatment induced cell cycle arrest in cancer cells but not in normal neuronal cells. The level of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was increased and the pro-apoptotic protein Bax was reduced in VPA treated normal cells. VPA inhibited the activities of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK3?), the latter of which is only inhibited in normal cells. The combination of VPA and radiation was most effective in inhibiting tumor growth in heterotopic brain tumor models. An intracranial orthotopic glioma tumor model was used to evaluate tumor growth by using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (DCE MRI) and mouse survival following treatment with VPA and radiation. VPA, in combination with radiation, significantly delayed tumor growth and improved mouse survival. Overall, VPA protects normal hippocampal neurons and not cancer cells from radiation-induced cytotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo. VPA treatment has the potential for attenuating neurocognitive deficits associated with cranial irradiation while enhancing the efficiency of glioma radiotherapy. PMID:26413814

  18. Coal acid mine drainage treatment using cement kiln dust

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar Alberto Martínez; Jorge Iván Tobón; Juan Guillermo Morales

    2014-01-01

    Sulphurs are present in different rocks. During mining activities and the sulphur removal processes Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) may be produced, by sulphate ions (SO4 2-) in solution. AMDs are the main source of pollution from mining operations and in Colombia their discharge into natural bodies of water must comply with national environmental regulations (pH between 5 and 9). Cement Kiln Dust (CKD), with calcium carbonate as its main component, from a Cementos Argos S.A. plant was used to neutr...

  19. Fatty acids in treatment and prevention of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilczyńska, Agnieszka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The increase of incident rates for depression and other psychiatric disorders is a serious threat for all communities.The study presents data verifying the relationship between the level of omega-3 PUFAs in the blood and an increased risk of depression, including the parallel standard therapy with antidepressants or not.There is an increasing number of evidences that fatty acids like DHA, AA and EPA are linked to depression. In epidemiological studies and clinical trials a correlation between the decline of omega-3 PUFA intake and an increasing risk for developing depression is considered.

  20. EVALUATION OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE ACID HYDROLYZATE TREATMENTS FOR XYLITOL PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    P.V. GURGEL; FURLAN S.A.; MARTINEZ S.E.R.; I.M. De Mancilha

    1998-01-01

    Acid sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzate was submitted to pH shifts in order to remove toxic compounds from the medium. The hydrolyzate was treated with bases containing mono-, di- or tri-valent cations and H2SO4, and its performance as a fermentation medium was evaluated by the production of xylitol by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037. The use of bases containing mono-valent cations was not an efficient method of detoxification, and the use of a tri-valent cation did not show any detectable improv...

  1. Anacardic acid enhances the anticancer activity of liposomal mitoxantrone towards melanoma cell lines in vitro studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legut M

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mateusz Legut, Dominik Lipka, Nina Filipczak, Adriana Piwoni, Arkadiusz Kozubek, Jerzy GubernatorDepartment of Lipids and Liposomes, Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Wroc?aw, Wroc?aw, PolandAbstract: This paper describes a novel formulation of antineoplastic drug: mitoxantrone loaded into liposomal carriers enriched with encapsulated anacardic acid in the liposomal bilayer using a vitamin C gradient. Anacardic acid is a potent epigenetic agent with anticancer activity. This is the first liposomal formulation to combine an actively encapsulated drug and anacardic acid. The liposomes were characterized in terms of basic parameters, such as size, zeta potential, optimal drug-to-lipid ratio, loading time and temperature, and stability at 4C and in human plasma in vitro. The formulation was found to be stable, and the loading process was rapid and efficient (drug-to-lipid ratio of up to 0.3 with over 90% efficiency in 5 minutes. The cytotoxicity of these formulations was assessed using the human melanoma cell lines A375 and Hs294T and the normal human dermal fibroblast line. The results showed that anacardic acid and to a smaller extent vitamin C significantly increased the cytotoxicity of the drug towards melanoma compared to ammonium sulfate liposomes. On the other hand, vitamin C and anacardic acid both protected normal cells from damage caused by the drug. The formulation combining anacardic acid, vitamin C, and mitoxantrone showed promising results in terms of cytotoxicity and cytoprotection. Therefore, it has potential for anticancer treatment.Keywords: anacardic acid, vitamin C, ascorbic acid, liposomes, mitoxantrone, melanoma

  2. Oxidative acid treatment and characterization of new biocarbon from sustainable Miscanthus biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstey, Andrew; Vivekanandhan, Singaravelu; Rodriguez-Uribe, Arturo; Misra, Manjusri; Mohanty, Amar Kumar

    2016-04-15

    Oxidative acid treatments of biochar produced from Miscanthus were performed in this study using nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and a mixture of both. The structural and morphological changes of the acid-treated biochar were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, organic elemental analysis and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Improved surface functionality of the treated biochars was observed in their respective FT-IR spectra through the presence of nitro and carboxylic acid functional groups. SEM-EDS and elemental analysis revealed a large increase in the oxygen to carbon ratio in the biochar, which was evidence of chemical oxidation from the acid treatment. Further, TGA study showed the reduced thermal stability of acid-treated biochar over 200°C due to the increased oxygen content. Acid treatments also influenced the graphitic structure of the biochar, as observed in the Raman spectra. The results suggest that biochar can be successfully functionalized for composite applications and provide a sustainable alternative to petroleum-based carbon additives. PMID:26820927

  3. The value of retinoic acid-0induced redifferentiation in the treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 30% of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) loses its ability of differentiation, which results in poor or no effect of the radioiodine therapy and the thyroid hormone replacement therapy after operation. Retinoic acids, the biologically active metabolite of vitamin A, is of central importance for growth, proliferation and differentiation of various cells. In this review, summarized the mechanism of the dedifferentiation among the DTC, the retinoic acids-induced redifferention and the clinical use of retinoic acids. It is demonstrated by many studies that retinoic acids-induced redifferentiaon has a large potential in the treatment of DTC. (authors)

  4. Diphosphonic acid complexing agents: Basic solution chemistry and potential uses in actinide waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a class of metal ion chelating agents, gem-diphosphonic acids are unusual in their ability to form remarkably strong complexes with polyvalent metal ions in acidic solutions. Ligands with this characteristic have the potential to aid in strategies for the dramatic reduction of the volume of radioactive wastes which must be disposed of in a deep geological repository. The relationship between complex stability, ligand acidity and structure, the nature of the phosphonic acid group, and the thermodynamics, stoichiometry and hydration of metal complexes are discussed. Some examples of their potential applications in radioactive waste treatment are presented

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF ENHANCED FIELD EMISSION SITES ON NIOBIUM SURFACES DUE TO HEAT TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Sankarraman, N.; Niedermann, Ph.; Noer, R; Fischer, O

    1986-01-01

    The study of enhanced field emission from broad area niobium cathodes, and the characterization of individual sites are presented. This experiment was built [1] in a UHV surface analysis system which included a SEM, a scanning Auger microscopy facility and also an in situ heat treatment unit where the samples could be annealed up to 2000C. Upon heat treatment of the niobium samples, it is observed that the density of field emitting sites increases with the heat treatment temperature up to 90...

  6. Treatment of mining acidic leachates with indigenous limestone, Zimapan Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labastida, I; Armienta, M A; Lara-Castro, R H; Aguayo, A; Cruz, O; Ceniceros, N

    2013-11-15

    An experimental study to evaluate the potential of using indigenous limestones in a passive system to treat acid mine drainage, at a mining zone of Mexico was carried out. Chemical and mineralogical characteristics of four types of native rocks (KIT1, KIT2, KSS, QZ) showed distinct CaCO3 contents. Synthetic aqueous leachates from an old tailings impoundment had a pH of 2.18, 34 mg/L As, 705 mg/L Fetotal, and 3975 mg/L SO4(2-). To evaluate dissolution behavior of rocks, kinetic batch experiments with an acid Fe-rich solution were performed. Decaying kinetic constants adjusting H(+) concentration to a first order exponential process were: KIT1 (k = 2.89), KIT2 (k = 0.89) and KSS (k = 0.47). Infrared spectrum and XRD of precipitates showed schwertmannite formation. To determine As and heavy metals (Fe, Cd, Zn, Al) removal from the synthetic leachates, batch experiments using KIT1 were developed. Arsenic decreased from 34.00 mg/L to 0.04 mg/L, Fe and Al were totally removed, and concentrations of Zn and Cd decreased 88% and 91% respectively. Analyses by IR and SEM-EDS indicate that co-precipitation with Fe-Hydroxides formed upon leachate interaction with limestone is the main As removal process. Chamosite, identified by XRD may participate in the removal of Al, SiO2 and a fraction of Fe. PMID:22819958

  7. BONE MEAL AS ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT FOR ACIDIC AND METAL CONTAMINATED ACID MINE DRAINAGE WATER EFFLUENT: LAB SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Payus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The typical methods of treatment for acidic and metal contaminated water effluent such as the Acid Mine Drainage (AMD will always focus on either civil engineering methods, such as disposal, excavation, drainage and encapsulation or process based technologies such as effluent washing and treatment. These techniques are not environmental friendly, costly and unsustainable, thus environmental damaging. Nowadays, there is a growing need for an alternative remediation treatment that is innovative and more natural in order to prevent pollution in the environment. Therefore, in this study, a new alternative treatment, that is more organic, biodegradable and cost effective, using bone meal was presented. In this research, bone meal comprising of chicken bones were used as an alternative passive treatment to determine its potential in neutralizing and removing heavy metals from the abandoned cooper mine, Mamut Acid Mine Drainage (AMD waste water effluent. A pretreatment process for bone meal was performed by incineration process where it was heated up in the furnace at 500°C for 24 h after it was cleaned, crushed, boiled and dried. Batch experiment test has been carried out to test whether the selected bone meal sizes 45, 75 and 150 µm was able to neutralize the AMD Mamut water samples. Inductive Plasma Couple-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES test was carried out to test the concentration of the heavy metals before and after the treatment. The surface morphology of bone meal was examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Enlargement of pores after the neutralization treatment was seen on the surface morphology of the bone meal by SEM analyses. A significant rising of pH from 2.98 to 5.69 within 6 h 30 min was observed during neutralization process and 99% removal of Fe, Zn, Al, Cu and 36% removal of Mg concentration was achieved after the treatment through the neutralization treatment of the AMD waste water effluent. The results from this study conclude that bone meal has the potential to neutralize and remove heavy metals from acidic and metal contaminated AMD waste water effluent.

  8. Effect of the Acid Treatment of Montmorillonite Clay in the Oleic Acid Esterification Reaction

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexsandra Rodrigues do, Nascimento; Jos Antnio Barros Leal Reis, Alves; Marcus Antnio de Freitas, Melo; Dulce Maria de Arajo, Melo; Marcelo Jos Barros de, Souza; Anne Michelle Garrido, Pedrosa.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a fuel renewable, biodegradable and environmentally correct fuel, which can be obtained from the esterification reactions, transesterification and pyrolisis. Montmorillonite is a clay mineral of the smectite group and are of great interest for industrial processes such as catalysis and [...] adsorption. Acid activation of clay minerals is one of the most effective methods proposed to produce active materials. In this work, montmorillonite clay was treated with H2SO4 in different concentrations (0.2 0.8 mol L1), characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and applied in the catalytic esterification of oleic acid. The results reveal that the clay treated with aqueous solutions 0.8 mol L1 H2SO4 shows promising catalytic activity toward the studied reaction, with maximum conversion of oleic acid of 65% at 30 C.

  9. Lactic acid enhancement can improve the fresh and cooked color of dark-cutting beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, J K; Sawyer, J T; Meullenet, J-F; Yancey, J W S; Wharton, M D

    2011-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to compare the effects of enhancing dark-cutting (DC) strip loins with lactic acid (LAC) on fresh and cooked beef color, as well as sensory attributes, with nonenhanced, normal pH strip loins (CH). Strip loins, with an average ultimate pH of 6.70 0.11 (Exp. 1) and 6.78 0.11 (Exp. 2), were cut into 2 equal-length sections, and DC sections were randomly assigned as either nonenhanced DC or DC enhanced with 0.15 (Exp. 1), 0.35 (Exp. 1 and 2), or 0.50% (Exp. 2) LAC at a target of either 105 (Exp. 1) or 112% (Exp. 2) of the raw product weight. Enhancement with 0.15 and 0.35% LAC did not (P > 0.05) affect postenhancement pH of DC strip loins when enhanced at a target of 105% (Exp. 1); however, postenhancement pH was reduced (P 0.05) to those of CH strip loin sections (Exp. 2). In Exp. 1, raw steaks from CH strip loins had greater (P Japanese beef color scores compared with steaks from nonenhanced and LAC-enhanced DC strip loins across the first 3 d of simulated retail display (LAC enhancement retail display duration; P Japanese color scores than did steaks from DC sections, regardless of LAC enhancement; however, mean Japanese color scores of CH steaks were only 0.7 and 0.4 units greater (P 0.05) differ when cooked to 71C in Exp. 2. Fresh and cooked color of DC beef was only minimally altered when enhanced with 0.35% LAC at 105% of the fresh product weight; however, when DC beef was enhanced with 0.35 and 0.50% LAC at a target of 112%, fresh and cooked color were improved close to that of CH beef. Because the persistent red or pink cooked color of DC was virtually eliminated by 0.50% LAC enhancement, LAC-enhanced DC beef may be suitable for food-service markets; however, the raw or fresh color results of Exp. 2 suggested that the fresh color of DC beef can be improved to the color of normal pH beef by postmortem acidification, leading to the possible recoupment of most, if not all, of the lost value associated with DC beef. PMID:21856894

  10. Effect of salicylic acid treatment on cadmium toxicity and leaf lipid composition in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradkhani S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The ameliorative effect of salicylic acid (SA on cadmium (Cd toxicity in sunflower plants was studied by investigating plant growth and fatty acid composition. Sunflower plants in two leaves stage were exposed to CdCl2 treatment (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 M and then were treated with salicylic acid (0, 250 and 500 M as foliage spraying. One week after the last salicylic acid treatment,plants were harvested and growth parameters were measured . Oil of leaf was extracted in a Soxhlet system and fatty acid composition were measured by gas chromatography (GC. Statistical analyses showed excess Cd reduced growth parameters (fresh weight and length of stems and roots, fresh weight and number of leavesand SA increased them compared with the control. Maximum reduction in these parameters was at 200 mol Cd and 0mol of SA. Cd caused a shift in fatty acids composition, resulting in a lower degree of their unsaturation and an increase in saturated fatty acids in sunflower leaves,whereas SA improved them. SA, particularly increased the percentage of linolenic acid and lowered that of palmitic acid by the same proportion. These results sugg membrane integrity due to lipids est that SA could be used as a potential growth regulator and a stabilizer ofprotection of cadmium-induced oxidative stress to improve plant resistance to Cd stress

  11. Organic acid enhanced electrodialytic extraction of lead from contaminated soil fines in suspension

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ahring, Birgitte Kir; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2007-01-01

    The implementation of soil washing technology for the treatment of heavy metal contaminated soils is limited by the toxicity and unwieldiness of the remaining heavy metal contaminated sludge. In this work, the feasibility of combining electrodialytic remediation with heterotrophic leaching for decontamination of the sludge was investigated. The ability of 11 organic acids to extract Pb from the fine fraction of contaminated soil (grains <63 mu m) was investigated, and application of the ac...

  12. Nucleic acid labeling with [3H]orotic acid and nucleotide profile in rats in protein deprivation, enteral and parenteral essential amino acid administration, and 5-fluorouracil treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rats were fed a 0% casein diet for 1 week, with or without enteral or parenteral administration of essential amino acids, or a 25% casein diet, in one group supplemented with 5-fluorouracil treatment. Ninety minutes before sacrifice the rats were given a tracer of [3H]orotic acid. Incorporation into the acid soluble fraction, RNA, and DNA was determined in liver, small intestine, bone marrow, and kidney. Nucleotide profile was examined in liver and intestine. Protein deficiency caused inter alia a decrease in body weight; a decrease in RNA/DNA ratio and an increase in the specific RNA labeling in liver and kidney; an altered nucleotide profile in the liver; an increase in the nucleotide/DNA and RNA/DNA ratios and a decrease in the specific labeling of the acid soluble fraction, RNA, and DNA in the bone marrow. These changes were prevented to the same extent by giving essential amino acids, either orally or intravenously. The minor changes in intestinal nucleotide profile in protein deprivation were prevented to a slightly larger extent by amino acids orally than parenterally. 5-Fluorouracil treatment gave a decrease in the RNA/DNA ratio in the liver and kidney but an increase in the nucleotide/DNA and RNA/DNA ratios in the bone marrow. Nucleotide profiles were unaltered. The amount of DNA per gram of tissue decreased in bone marrow and increased in kidney. Parenteral administration per se resulted in almost no changes

  13. Comparison of trichostatin A and valproic acid treatment regimens in a mouse model of kidney fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Beneden, Katrien, E-mail: kvbenede@vub.ac.be [Department of Human Anatomy, Liver Cell Biology Lab, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Geers, Caroline [Department of Pathology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Pauwels, Marina [Department of Human Anatomy, Liver Cell Biology Lab, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Mannaerts, Inge [Department of Cell Biology, Liver Cell Biology Lab, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Wissing, Karl M. [Department of Nephrology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Van den Branden, Christiane [Department of Human Anatomy, Liver Cell Biology Lab, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Grunsven, Leo A. van, E-mail: lvgrunsv@vub.ac.be [Department of Cell Biology, Liver Cell Biology Lab, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-09-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are promising new compounds for the therapy of fibrotic diseases. In this study we compared the effect of two HDAC inhibitors, trichostatin A and valproic acid, in an experimental model of kidney fibrosis. In mice, doxorubicin (adriamycin) can cause nephropathy characterized by chronic proteinuria, glomerular damage and interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, as seen in human focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Two treatment regimens were applied, treatment was either started prior to the doxorubicin insult or delayed until a significant degree of proteinuria and fibrosis was present. Pre-treatment of trichostatin A significantly hampered glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, as did the pre-treatment with valproic acid. In contrast, the development of proteinuria was only completely inhibited in the pre-treated valproic acid group, and not in the pre-treated trichostatin A animals. In the postponed treatment with valproic acid, a complete resolution of established doxorubicin-induced proteinuria was achieved within three days, whereas trichostatin A could not correct proteinuria in such a treatment regimen. However, both postponed regimens have comparable efficacy in maintaining the kidney fibrosis to the level reached at the start of the treatments. Moreover, not only the process of fibrosis, but also renal inflammation was attenuated by both HDAC inhibitors. Our data confirm a role for HDACs in renal fibrogenesis and point towards a therapeutic potential for HDAC inhibitors. The effect on renal disease progression and manifestation can however be different for individual HDAC inhibitors. - Highlights: • Valproic acid is a potent antiproteinuric drug, whereas trichostatin A is not. • Trichostatin A and valproic acid reduce kidney fibrosis in doxorubicin nephropathy. • Both valproic acid and trichostatin A attenuate renal inflammation.

  14. Comparison of trichostatin A and valproic acid treatment regimens in a mouse model of kidney fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are promising new compounds for the therapy of fibrotic diseases. In this study we compared the effect of two HDAC inhibitors, trichostatin A and valproic acid, in an experimental model of kidney fibrosis. In mice, doxorubicin (adriamycin) can cause nephropathy characterized by chronic proteinuria, glomerular damage and interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, as seen in human focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Two treatment regimens were applied, treatment was either started prior to the doxorubicin insult or delayed until a significant degree of proteinuria and fibrosis was present. Pre-treatment of trichostatin A significantly hampered glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, as did the pre-treatment with valproic acid. In contrast, the development of proteinuria was only completely inhibited in the pre-treated valproic acid group, and not in the pre-treated trichostatin A animals. In the postponed treatment with valproic acid, a complete resolution of established doxorubicin-induced proteinuria was achieved within three days, whereas trichostatin A could not correct proteinuria in such a treatment regimen. However, both postponed regimens have comparable efficacy in maintaining the kidney fibrosis to the level reached at the start of the treatments. Moreover, not only the process of fibrosis, but also renal inflammation was attenuated by both HDAC inhibitors. Our data confirm a role for HDACs in renal fibrogenesis and point towards a therapeutic potential for HDAC inhibitors. The effect on renal disease progression and manifestation can however be different for individual HDAC inhibitors. - Highlights: • Valproic acid is a potent antiproteinuric drug, whereas trichostatin A is not. • Trichostatin A and valproic acid reduce kidney fibrosis in doxorubicin nephropathy. • Both valproic acid and trichostatin A attenuate renal inflammation

  15. Ursodeoxycholic Acid for the Treatment of Cholesterol Gallstones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholesterol is the principal constituent of more than three quarters of gallstones. Pure cholesterol crystals are quite soft, and protein contributes importantly to the strength of cholesterol stones. The risk of gallstones does not correlate with total serum cholesterol levels, but it does correlate with decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased triglyceride levels. At least 10 percent of adults have gallstones where female: male ratio of about 2:1 in the younger age groups with increasing prevalence with age. Nine patients with gallstones (6 females and 3 males) were included in the study. Patients were treated with ursodeoxycholic acids tablets in two oral doses, one after breakfast, and the other after dinner for 9 months. Ultrasound examination was repeated every 3 months. Re-examination by abdominal ultrasonography revealed that gallstone 1 cm or less in diameter disappeared within 6 months, and the largest stone 3.06 cm in diameter disappeared within 9 months.

  16. Kinetics of salivary pH after acidic beverage intake by patients undergoing orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turssi, Cecilia P; Silva, Carolina S; Bridi, Enrico C; Amaral, Flavia Lb; Franca, Fabiana Mg; Basting, Roberta T

    2015-01-01

    The saliva of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances can potentially present a delay in the diluting, clearing, and buffering of dietary acids due to an increased number of retention areas. The aim of this clinical trial was to compare salivary pH kinetics of patients with and without orthodontic treatment, following the intake of an acidic beverage. Twenty participants undergoing orthodontic treatment and 20 control counterparts had their saliva assessed for flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity. There was no significant difference between salivary parameters in participants with or without an orthodontic appliance. Salivary pH recovery following acidic beverage intake was slower in the orthodontic subjects compared to controls. Patients with fixed orthodontic appliances, therefore, seem to be at higher risk of dental erosion, suggesting that dietary advice and preventive care need to be implemented during orthodontic treatment. PMID:25945760

  17. Physical and chemical treatments for enhancing seed germination of Oldman saltbush (Atriplex nummularia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to improve the seed germination of Oldman saltbush (Atriplex nummularia), which is an important fodder shrub commonly used for revegetation of degraded rangelands in the West Asia and North Africa regions. Seeds with and without their bracts (fruits) were subjected to physical (scarification, water soaking, gamma radiation) and chemical (potassium nitrate, sulfuric acid and gibberellic acid) treatments. For each treatment, sets of 100 seeds with and without bracts were selected randomly, divided into four equal groups, and incubated in a germinator at 20 1C. The treatments had a highly significant (P < 0.0001) effect on seed germination. The scarification, potassium nitrate (0.2% concentration), gibberellic acid (100 and 150ppm) and sulfuric acid (25% for 10min, 50% for 10 and 20min) treatments improved seed germination significantly compared to control treatment (4.0%). The different doses of gamma radiation and high concentrations of sulfuric acid (75%) reduced seed germination significantly (P < 0.001). The removal of bracts surrounding the seeds had a highly significant (P < 0.0001) effect on seed germination and averaged 73.5% for washing, 78.0% for scarification, 80.9% and 88.0% for potassium nitrate of 2% and 4% concentration, 88.1% for gibberellic acid of 150ppm, and 70.4% for sulfuric acid of 25% concentration. The results indicate that the inhibiting factors of germination must be located in the bracts. Future work should focus on developing technologies to remove the bracts surrounding the true seed of A. nummularia. (author)

  18. Large neutral amino acids in the treatment of PKU: from theory to practice

    OpenAIRE

    van Spronsen, Francjan J; de Groot, Martijn J.; Hoeksma, Marieke,; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan.; Van Rijn, Margreet

    2010-01-01

    Notwithstanding the success of the traditional dietary phenylalanine restriction treatment in phenylketonuria (PKU), the use of large neutral amino acid (LNAA) supplementation rather than phenylalanine restriction has been suggested. This treatment modality deserves attention as it might improve cognitive outcome and quality of life in patients with PKU. Following various theories about the pathogenesis of cognitive dysfunction in PKU, LNAA supplementation may have multiple treatment targets:...

  19. Enhancement of skin wound healing with decellularized scaffolds loaded with hyaluronic acid and epidermal growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Zhongchun; Ma, Huan; Wu, Zhengzheng [Institute of Biomedicine, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Key Lab for Genetic Medicine of Guangdong Province, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zeng, Huilan [Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Li, Zhizhong [Department of Bone, The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Wang, Yuechun; Liu, Gexiu [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Xu, Bin; Lin, Yongliang; Zhang, Peng [Grandhope Biotech Co., Ltd., Building D, #408, Guangzhou International Business Incubator, Guangzhou Science Park, Guangzhou 510663, Guangdong (China); Wei, Xing, E-mail: wei70@hotmail.com [Institute of Biomedicine, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Key Lab for Genetic Medicine of Guangdong Province, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2014-11-01

    Current therapy for skin wound healing still relies on skin transplantation. Many studies were done to try to find out ways to replace skin transplantation, but there is still no effective alternative therapy. In this study, decellularized scaffolds were prepared from pig peritoneum by a series of physical and chemical treatments, and scaffolds loaded with hyaluronic acid (HA) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were tested for their effect on wound healing. MTT assay showed that EGF increased NIH3T3 cell viability and confirmed that EGF used in this study was biologically active in vitro. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that HA stably attached to scaffolds even after soaking in PBS for 48 h. ELISA assay showed that HA increased the adsorption of EGF to scaffolds and sustained the release of EGF from scaffolds. Animal study showed that the wounds covered with scaffolds containing HA and EGF recovered best among all 4 groups and had wound healing rates of 49.86%, 70.94% and 87.41% respectively for days 10, 15 and 20 post-surgery compared to scaffolds alone with wound healing rates of 29.26%, 42.80% and 70.14%. In addition, the wounds covered with scaffolds containing EGF alone were smaller than no EGF scaffolds on days 10, 15 and 20 post-surgery. Hematoxylin–Eosin (HE) staining confirmed these results by showing that on days 10, 15 and 20 post-surgery, the thicker epidermis and dermis layers were observed in the wounds covered with scaffolds containing HA and EGF than scaffolds alone. In addition, the thicker epidermis and dermis layers were also observed in the wounds covered with scaffolds containing EGF than scaffolds alone. Skin appendages were observed on day 20 only in the wound covered with scaffolds containing HA and EGF. These results demonstrate that the scaffolds containing HA and EGF can enhance wound healing. - Highlights: • HA can increase the adsorption of EGF to decellularized scaffolds. • HA can sustain the release of EGF from decellularized scaffolds. • The scaffolds containing HA and EGF can increase wound healing rates. • The scaffolds containing HA and EGF can increase the thickness of dermis layer.

  20. Performance Enhancement and Immunity Profile of Broiler Treated Feed Additive Containing Lactic Acid Bacteria and Ganoderma lucidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sofyan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of feed additive containing lactic acid bacteria (LAB and Ganoderma lucidum (GL on body weight gain (BWG, feed efficiency (FE, performance index (PI, antibody titer (AT against Newcastle disease and histopathology of broilers. Bacteria used were Lactobacillus salivarius and Pediococcus pentosaceus, which were isolated from broilers intestine. A number of 195 unsexed day old chicks (Cobb strain were arranged in a completely randomized design and consisted of 5 treatments, each in 3 equal replicates. The treatments were as followed T0: control/without-feed additive, T1: 1% LAB (109 cfu g-1, T2: 1% GL, T3: 1% of LAB 109 cfu g-1 + GL (1:1, T4: commercial antibiotic. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and conti-nued to Duncans multiple range test. The results showed that T2, T3, T4 treatments significantly improved (P<0.05 BWG, FE and PI of broilers. Broilers fed T3 had the highest PI, followed by T4, T1, T2 and T0. Broilers fed T3 had the highest AT value followed by T0, T2, T4, and T1. Histopathology profile showed that broiler fed T3 had no lesion on liver and intestine compared to others. The result of this experiment indicated that additive containing 0.25% L. salivarius, 0.25% P. pentosaceus, and 0.5% G. lucidum was able to enhance broiler performance.

  1. Organic acids enhance bioavailability of tetracycline in water to Escherichia coli for uptake and expression of antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingjie; Boyd, Stephen A; Teppen, Brian J; Tiedje, James M; Li, Hui

    2014-11-15

    Tetracyclines are a large class of antimicrobials used most extensively in livestock feeding operations. A large portion of tetracyclines administered to livestock is excreted in manure and urine which is collected in waste lagoons. Subsequent land application of these wastes introduces tetracyclines into the soil environment, where they could exert selective pressure for the development of antibiotic resistance genes in bacteria. Tetracyclines form metal-complexes in natural waters, which could reduce their bioavailability for bacterial uptake. We hypothesized that many naturally-occurring organic acids could effectively compete with tetracyclines as ligands for metal cations, hence altering the bioavailability of tetracyclines to bacteria in a manner that could enhance the selective pressure. In this study, we investigated the influence of acetic acid, succinic acid, malonic acid, oxalic acid and citric acid on tetracycline uptake from water by Escherichia coli bioreporter construct containing a tetracycline resistance gene which induces the emission of green fluorescence when activated. The presence of the added organic acid ligands altered tetracycline speciation in a manner that enhanced tetracycline uptake by E. coli. Increased bacterial uptake of tetracycline and concomitant enhanced antibiotic resistance response were quantified, and shown to be positively related to the degree of organic acid ligand complexation of metal cations in the order of citric acid > oxalic acid > malonic acid > succinic acid > acetic acid. The magnitude of the bioresponse increased with increasing aqueous organic acid concentration. Apparent positive relation between intracellular tetracycline concentration and zwitterionic tetracycline species in aqueous solution indicates that (net) neutral tetracycline is the species which most readily enters E. coli cells. Understanding how naturally-occurring organic acid ligands affect tetracycline speciation in solution, and how speciation influences tetracycline uptake by bacteria, allows more accurate assessment of the selective pressure from trace levels of antibiotics in the environment on microbial communities for preserving and developing antibiotic resistance. PMID:25100186

  2. Comparison of trichostatin A and valproic acid treatment regimens in a mouse model of kidney fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beneden, Katrien; Geers, Caroline; Pauwels, Marina; Mannaerts, Inge; Wissing, Karl M; Van den Branden, Christiane; van Grunsven, Leo A

    2013-09-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are promising new compounds for the therapy of fibrotic diseases. In this study we compared the effect of two HDAC inhibitors, trichostatin A and valproic acid, in an experimental model of kidney fibrosis. In mice, doxorubicin (adriamycin) can cause nephropathy characterized by chronic proteinuria, glomerular damage and interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, as seen in human focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Two treatment regimens were applied, treatment was either started prior to the doxorubicin insult or delayed until a significant degree of proteinuria and fibrosis was present. Pre-treatment of trichostatin A significantly hampered glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, as did the pre-treatment with valproic acid. In contrast, the development of proteinuria was only completely inhibited in the pre-treated valproic acid group, and not in the pre-treated trichostatin A animals. In the postponed treatment with valproic acid, a complete resolution of established doxorubicin-induced proteinuria was achieved within three days, whereas trichostatin A could not correct proteinuria in such a treatment regimen. However, both postponed regimens have comparable efficacy in maintaining the kidney fibrosis to the level reached at the start of the treatments. Moreover, not only the process of fibrosis, but also renal inflammation was attenuated by both HDAC inhibitors. Our data confirm a role for HDACs in renal fibrogenesis and point towards a therapeutic potential for HDAC inhibitors. The effect on renal disease progression and manifestation can however be different for individual HDAC inhibitors. PMID:23707763

  3. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α enhances fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → PPARα activation increased mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes and GPDH activity in human adipocytes. → PPARα activation also increased insulin-dependent glucose uptake in human adipocytes. → PPARα activation did not affect lipid accumulation in human adipocytes. → PPARα activation increased fatty acid oxidation through induction of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in human adipocytes. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) is a key regulator for maintaining whole-body energy balance. However, the physiological functions of PPARα in adipocytes have been unclarified. We examined the functions of PPARα using human multipotent adipose tissue-derived stem cells as a human adipocyte model. Activation of PPARα by GW7647, a potent PPARα agonist, increased the mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes such as PPARγ, adipocyte-specific fatty acid-binding protein, and lipoprotein lipase and increased both GPDH activity and insulin-dependent glucose uptake level. The findings indicate that PPARα activation stimulates adipocyte differentiation. However, lipid accumulation was not changed, which is usually observed when PPARγ is activated. On the other hand, PPARα activation by GW7647 treatment induced the mRNA expression of fatty acid oxidation-related genes such as CPT-1B and AOX in a PPARα-dependent manner. Moreover, PPARα activation increased the production of CO2 and acid soluble metabolites, which are products of fatty acid oxidation, and increased oxygen consumption rate in human adipocytes. The data indicate that activation of PPARα stimulates both adipocyte differentiation and fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes, suggesting that PPARα agonists could improve insulin resistance without lipid accumulation in adipocytes. The expected effects of PPARα activation are very valuable for managing diabetic conditions accompanied by obesity, because PPARγ agonists, usually used as antidiabetic drugs, induce excessive lipid accumulation in adipocytes in addition to improvement of insulin resistance.

  4. Atypical Findings of Focal Nodular Hyperplasia with Gadoxetic Acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report two cases of focal nodular hyperplasia in patients following gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging confirmed with histopathology. These cases showed an atypical pattern during the delayed-hepatobiliary phase after the injection of gadoxetic acid. One case showed a total defect, and the other showed a peripheral ring-like enhancement without a visible central scar, mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma. The pathologic examination demonstrated that the two lesions were focal nodular hyperplasia

  5. Efficacy of topical azelaic acid gel in the treatment of mild-moderate acne vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraji Fariba

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Twenty percent azelaic acid gel is recommended as a topical treatment for acne due to its favorable profile. Aim: Our objective in this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 20% azelaic acid gel in the treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris. Methods: This was a double blind, randomized clinical trial. Sixty patients with mild to moderate acne vulgaris were selected randomly to receive either azelaic acid gel or the vehicle gel alone. Patients were followed up every 15 days for a period of 45 days. The number of lesions and the acne severity index (ASI were recorded and compared using Student?s t-test. Results: Total lesion count was reduced by 60.6% and 19.9% by azelaic acid gel and the placebo respectively (P =0.002. ASI was reduced by 65.2% and 21.3% by azelaic acid gel and the placebo respectively (P =0.001, i.e., azelaic acid gel was 3.06 times more effective than the placebo in reducing ASI. Conclusion: Azelaic acid gel can be used as an effective treatment in mild to moderate acne vulgaris.

  6. Virulence of viable but nonculturable S. Typhimurium LT2 after peracetic acid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolivet-Gougeon, A; Sauvager, F; Bonnaure-Mallet, M; Colwell, R R; Cormier, M

    2006-11-01

    S. Typhimurium LT2 cells suspended in sterilized sewage effluent water (SEW) and in distilled water microcosms were exposed to 0, 7, 15 and 20 mg/l peracetic acid, and tested for viability and virulence. After treatment for one hour, colony forming units decreased by at least 5 log units at peracetic acid concentration of 7 mg/l. In SEW, at peracetic acid concentration of 15 mg/l, the cells were nonculturable (VNC), but retained virulence as demonstrated by invasion assays of HeLa cells. Higher concentrations (greater than or equal to 20 mg/l) resulted in bacterial death, i.e. substrate non-responsive cells. Despite morphological alterations of the bacteria after peracetic acid treatment, visualized by transmission electronic microscopy, conservation of both adhesive and invasive capacities was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy after exposure to 0-15 mg/l peracetic acid. Public health professionals need to recognize that peracetic acid-treated Salmonella is capable of modifying its physiological characteristics, including entering and recovering from the viable but nonculturable state, and may remain virulent after a stay in SEW followed by peracetic acid treatment. PMID:16876276

  7. Sialic acid changes in Dalton's lymphoma-bearing mice after cyclophosphamide and cisplatin treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicol B.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Sialic acid changes in Dalton's lymphoma cells and other tissues of 10-12-week-old Swiss albino mice were investigated in relation to tumour growth in vivo and following cyclophosphamide (ip, 200 mg/kg body weight or cisplatin (ip, 8 mg/kg body weight treatment. Three to four animals of both sexes were used in each experimental group. The sialic acid level of tumour cells (0.88 mol/g increased with tumour progression (1.44-1.59 mol/g; P<=0.05 in mice. Sialic acid concentration in other tissues (liver, kidney, testes and brain also increased (~40, 10, 30 and 58%, respectively in the tumour-bearing hosts as compared with that in the respective tissues of normal mice. In vivo cyclophosphamide or cisplatin treatment resulted in an overall decrease of sialic acid contents in the tissues. Cyclophosphamide was more efficient in lowering tissue sialic acid than cisplatin (P<=0.01, ANOVA. It is suggested that sialic acid residues could be an important factor contributing to the manifestation of malignant properties in cancer cells in general and Dalton's lymphoma cells in particular. A significant decrease in the sialic acid content of Dalton's lymphoma cells after cisplatin or cyclophosphamide treatment may bring about specific changes in tumour cells which could be associated with tumour regression.

  8. Citric acid enhances the phytoextraction of chromium, plant growth, and photosynthesis by alleviating the oxidative damages in Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshan, Sehar; Ali, Shafaqat; Bharwana, Saima Aslam; Rizwan, Muhammad; Farid, Mujahid; Abbas, Farhat; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Mehmood, Muhammad Aamer; Abbasi, Ghulam Hasan

    2015-08-01

    Chromium (Cr) toxicity is widespread in crops grown on Cr-contaminated soils and has become a serious environmental issue which requires affordable strategies for the remediation of such soils. This study was performed to assess the performance of citric acid (CA) through growing Brassica napus in the phytoextraction of Cr from contaminated soil. Different Cr (0, 100, and 500 ?M) and citric acid (0, 2.5, and 5.0 mM) treatments were applied alone and in combinations to 4-week-old seedlings of B. napus plants in soil under wire house condition. Plants were harvested after 12 weeks of sowing, and the data was recorded regarding growth characteristics, biomass, photosynthetic pigments, malondialdehyde (MDA), electrolytic leakage (EL), antioxidant enzymes, and Cr uptake and accumulation. The results showed that the plant growth, biomass, chlorophyll contents, and carotenoid as well as soluble protein concentrations significantly decreased under Cr stress alone while these adverse effects were alleviated by application of CA. Cr concentration in roots, stem, and leaves of CA-supplied plant was significantly reduced while total uptake of Cr increased in all plant parts with CA application. Furthermore, in comparison with Cr treatments alone, CA supply reduced the MDA and EL values in both shoots and roots. Moreover, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in shoots and roots markedly increased by 100 ?M Cr exposure, while decreased at 500 ?M Cr stress. CA application enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes compared to the same Cr treatment alone. Thus, the data indicate that exogenous CA application can increase Cr uptake and can minimize Cr stress in plants and may be beneficial in accelerating the phytoextraction of Cr through hyper-accumulating plants such as B. napus. PMID:25850739

  9. Determination of filtration beds in carbonate section from repeated pulse neutron logging data in acid treatment (on example of Orenburg field)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In hydrodynamic tests of carbonate deposits the strata are in most cases treated with hydrochloric acid to intensify the oil and gas inflow. Pulsed neutron logging can be employed to reveal the intervals of hydrochloric acid inflows into the section, since hydrochloric acid possesses abnormal neutron properties. The intervals relate to effective thicknesses as two-phase filtration (the displacement of oil (gas) by the acid) occurs within them. On assumptions a method has been developed for localizing filtration thicknesses from the results obtained through observations of the inflows of HCl into the strata by well logging before and after the acid treatments. It will enhance the data validity on carbonate deposits and reduce the volume of intrainterval samplings by using them only for checking the quantitative estimations on the efficiency of the strata (uniform in filtration-capacity properties)

  10. Enhanced fumaric acid production from brewery wastewater and insight into the morphology of Rhizopus oryzae 1526.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ratul Kumar; Brar, Satinder Kaur

    2014-03-01

    The present work explores brewery wastewater as a novel substrate for fumaric acid production employing the filamentous fungal strain Rhizopus oryzae 1526 through submerged fermentation. The effects of different parameters such as substrate total solid concentrations, fermentation pH, incubation temperature, flask shaking speed, and inoculum size on the fungal morphologies were investigated. Different morphological forms (mycelium clumps, suspended mycelium, and solid/hairy pellets) of R. oryzae 1526 were obtained at different applied fermentation pH, incubation temperature, flask shaking speed, and inoculum size. Among all the obtained morphologies, pellet morphology was found to be the most favorable for enhanced production of fumaric acid for different studied parameters. Scanning electron microscopic investigation was done to reveal the detailed morphologies of the pellets formed under all optimized conditions. With all the optimized growth conditions (pH 6, 25 C, 200 rpm, 5% (v/v) inoculum size, 25 g/L total solid concentration, and pellet diameter of 0.465 0.04 mm), the highest concentration of fumaric acid achieved was 31.3 2.77 g/L. The results demonstrated that brewery wastewater could be used as a good substrate for the fungal strain R. oryzae 1526 in submerged fermentation for the production of fumaric acid. PMID:24469587

  11. TiO2 nanobelts: Acid corrosion, enhanced photocatalytic activity and CeO2 deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Haiyan; Jia, Changchao; Yang, Ping

    2014-12-01

    TiO2 nanobelts are synthesized via a hydrothermal procedure. The rough surface can be obtained by sulfuric acid corrosion and TiO2 nanoparticles were attached on the surface of the nanobelts. The concentration of sulfuric acid and corrosion temperature play important roles on the morphology and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanobelts. The TiO2 nanoparticles on the nanobelts enhanced the photocatalytic activity. TiO2 nanobelts etched with sulfuric acid of 0.03 M at 120C show the highest photocatalytic activity and the degradation rate of methyl orange reaches 84.64% after irradiated by the UV light for 2.5 h. With high concentration of sulfuric acid and corrosion temperature treated, belt-like structure would be broken, and even aggregated together, which weaken the photocatalytic activity. In addition, CeO2/TiO2 nanobelt heterostructure is prepared through the process of chemical coprecipitation. The rough surface provides the nucleation sites for CeO2, and the nanoparticles with small size can distribute on the surface of TiO2 nanobelts.

  12. Influence of Gibberellic Acid on Enhancement Growth of Aspergillus Niger for Chitosan Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitosan is obtained by chemical conversion of chitin, which is a constituent of the exoskeleton of crustacean and insects. An alternative source of chitosan is the cell wall of fungi. The waste biomass of Aspergillus niger, following citric acid production, was used as a source for fungal chitosan extraction. In this research we study the effect of different production media, different concentrations of molass, the effect of addition of gibberellic acid at different concentrations (1-5 mg/l) on mycelial growth and chitosan production from Aspergillus niger. Studying the effect of different incubation time. The results showed that, the best production medium was molass salt medium (MSM) with molass concentration 50 g/l and incubation time 48h. Maximum enhancement was observed at 2 mg gibberellic acid. Gibberellic acid at high concentrations inhibit both growth and chitosan content. The produced fungal chitosan was characterized with deacetylation degree of 81.3%, a molecular weight of 24.2 kDa and their FT-IR spectra were compared with that of shrimp chitosan.

  13. Optimization of substrate concentration for enhanced citric acid production by aspergillus niger M-101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studying the effect of different sugar concentration of beet molasses on citric acid accumulation in batch fermentation, 150 g/litre sugar concentration was found to be optimal for maximum citric acid production (27.25+-2.35 g/litre) using Aspergillus niger M-101. Y/sup p/x/ value for product formation increased with increase in sugar concentration through out the study. Qp value for citric acid production also increased with increase in sugar concentration and reached the maximum (0.141 g/litre/h) at 150 g/litre sugar concentration but with further increase in sugar concentration, the value decreased. When culture was grown at different substrate concentrations, the kinetic parameters monitored for Y/sub x/s/, Y/sub p/s/ and Y/sub p/x/, Q/sub p/, Q/sub s/ and q/sub p/ showed significant enhancement (p <= 0.05) in citric acid production as well as biomass growth. (author)

  14. Enhanced production of fatty acids and astaxanthin in Aurantiochytrium sp. by the expression of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Yung Lee; Tang, Hongmei; Huang, Junchao; Chen, Feng

    2014-12-24

    Dissolved oxygen is a critical factor for heterotrophic cell growth and metabolite production. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an oxygen-involved protein on cell growth and fatty acid and astaxanthin production in the biologically important thraustochytrid Aurantiochytrium sp. The hemoglobin of the Vitreoscilla stercoraria (VHb) gene was fused upstream with a zeocin resistance gene (ble) and driven by the Aurantiochytrium tubulin promoter. The expression construct was introduced into two strains of Aurantiochytrium sp. by electroporation. Transgenic Aurantiochytrium sp. strains MP4 and SK4 expressing the heterologous VHb achieved significantly higher maximum biomass than their corresponding controls in microaerobic conditions. Furthermore, the transformants of Aurantiochytrium sp. SK4 produced 44% higher total fatty acid and 9-fold higher astaxanthin contents than the wild type control in aerobic conditions. The present study highlights the biotechnological application of VHb in high-cell density fermentation for enhanced biomass production as well as high-value metabolites. PMID:25420960

  15. Novel biopolymer matrices for microencapsulation of phages: enhanced protection against acidity and protease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, Cecilia; Islan, Germn A; de Urraza, Patricio J; Castro, Guillermo R

    2012-09-01

    Phage therapy by oral administration requires enhanced resistance of phages to the harsh gastric conditions. The aim of this work is the microencapsulation of phages in natural biopolymeric matrices as a protective barrier against the gastric environment. Alginate and pectin are used as base polymers. Further emulsification with oleic acid or coating with a different biopolymer is also studied. Emulsified pectin shows the maximum encapsulation efficiency and the highest protection against acidity, leaving more than 10(3) active phages after 30 min exposure at pH = 1.6, and protects phage from pepsin activity (4.2 mg mL(-1)). Non-encapsulated phages are fully inactivated at pH = 1.6 or with pepsin (0.5 mg mL(-1)) after 10 min. PMID:22847825

  16. Dithiol amino acids can structurally shape and enhance the ligand-binding properties of polypeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiyu; Gopalakrishnan, Ranganath; Schaer, Tifany; Marger, Fabrice; Hovius, Ruud; Bertrand, Daniel; Pojer, Florence; Heinis, Christian

    2014-11-01

    The disulfide bonds that form between two cysteine residues are important in defining and rigidifying the structures of proteins and peptides. In polypeptides containing multiple cysteine residues, disulfide isomerization can lead to multiple products with different biological activities. Here, we describe the development of a dithiol amino acid (Dtaa) that can form two disulfide bridges at a single amino acid site. Application of Dtaas to a serine protease inhibitor and a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor inhibitor that contain disulfide constraints enhanced their inhibitory activities 40- and 7.6-fold, respectively. X-ray crystallographic and NMR structure analysis show that the peptide ligands containing Dtaas have retained their native tertiary structures. We furthermore show that replacement of two cysteines by Dtaas can avoid the formation of disulfide bond isomers. With these properties, Dtaas are likely to have broad application in the rational design or directed evolution of peptides and proteins with high activity and stability.

  17. Design and evaluation of Lumefantrine Oleic Acid Self Nanoemulsifying Ionic Complex for Enhanced Dissolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Vavia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:Lumefantrine, an antimalarial molecule has very low and variable bioavailability owing to its extremely poor solubility in water. It is recommended to be taken with milk to enhance its solubility and bioavailability. The aim of present study was to develop a Self Nanoemulsifying Delivery system (SNEDs of lumefantrine (LF to achieve rapid and complete dissolution independent of food-fat and surfactant in dissolution media.Methods:Solubility of LF in oil, co-solvent/co-surfactant and surfactant solution and emulsification efficiency of surfactant were analyzed to optimize the LF loaded self nanoemulsifying preconcentrate. Effect of LF-oleic acid complexation on emulsification, droplet size, zeta potential and dissolution were investigated. Effect of milk concentration and fat content on saturation solubility and dissolution of LF was investigated. Dissolution of marketed formulation and LF-SNEDs was carried out in pH 1.2 and pH 6.8 phosphate buffer.Results:LF exhibited very high solubility in oleic acid owing to complexation between tertiary amine of LF and carboxyl group of oleic acid (OA. Cremophore EL and medium chain monoglyceride were selected surfactant and co-surfactant, respectively. Significantly smaller droplet size (37 nm, shift in zeta potential from negative to positive value, very high drug loading in lipid based system (> 10%, no precipitation after dissolution are the major distinguish characteristics contributed by LF-OA complex in the SNED system. Saturation solubility and dissolution study in milk containing media pointed the significant increment in solubility of LF in the presence of milk-food fat. LF-SNEDs showed > 90% LF release within 30 min in pH 1.2 while marketed tablet showed almost 0% drug release.Conclusion:Self nanoemulsification promoting ionic complexation between basic drug and oleic acid hold great promise in enhancing solubility of hydrophobic drugs.

  18. Spectroscopic characterization of genetically modified flax fibres enhanced with poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Szopa, Jan; Dymi?ska, Lucyna; M?czka, Miros?aw; Hanuza, Jerzy

    2009-02-01

    Genetically modified flax fibres, derived from transgenic flax with expression of three bacterial genes necessary for synthesis of poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB), have been analysed. These transgenic flaxes, enhanced with different amount of the PHB, have been studied by FT-IR spectroscopy. The integral intensities of the IR bands have been used for estimation of the chemical content of the normal and transgenic flaxes as well as the differences between the natural and genetically modified flax fibres. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from chemical analysis of flax fibres.

  19. Enhanced light absorption and scattering by carbon soot aerosol internally mixed with sulfuric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalizov, Alexei F; Xue, Huaxin; Wang, Lin; Zheng, Jun; Zhang, Renyi

    2009-02-12

    Light absorption by carbon soot increases when the particles are internally mixed with nonabsorbing materials, leading to increased radiative forcing, but the magnitude of this enhancement is a subject of great uncertainty. We have performed laboratory experiments of the optical properties of fresh and internally mixed carbon soot aerosols with a known particle size, morphology, and the mixing state. Flame-generated soot aerosol is size-selected with a double-differential mobility analyzer (DMA) setup to eliminate multiply charged particle modes and then exposed to gaseous sulfuric acid (10(9)-10(10) molecule cm(-3)) and water vapor (5-80% relative humidity, RH). Light extinction and scattering by fresh and internally mixed soot aerosol are measured at 532 nm wavelength using a cavity ring-down spectrometer and an integrating nephelometer, respectively, and the absorption is derived as the difference between extinction and scattering. The optical properties of fresh soot are independent of RH, whereas soot internally mixed with sulfuric acid exhibits significant enhancement in light absorption and scattering, increasing with the mass fraction of sulfuric acid coating and relative humidity. For soot particles with an initial mobility diameter of 320 nm and a 40% H(2)SO(4) mass coating fraction, absorption and scattering are increased by 1.4- and 13-fold at 80% RH, respectively. Also, the single scattering albedo of soot aerosol increases from 0.1 to 0.5 after coating and humidification. Additional measurements with soot particles that are first coated with sulfuric acid and then heated to remove the coating show that both scattering and absorption are enhanced by irreversible restructuring of soot aggregates to more compact globules. Depending on the initial size and density of soot aggregates, restructuring acts to increase or decrease the absorption cross-section, but the combination of restructuring and encapsulation always results in an increased absorption for internally mixed soot. Mass absorption cross-sections (MAC) for fresh soot aggregates are size dependent, increasing from 6.7 +/- 0.7 m(2) g(-1) for 155 nm particles to 8.7 +/- 0.1 m(2) g(-1) for 320 nm particles. After exposure of soot to sulfuric acid, MAC is as high as 12.6 m(2) g(-1) for 320 nm particles at 80% RH. Our results imply that optical properties of soot are significantly altered within its atmospheric lifetime, leading to greater impact on visibility, local air quality, and radiative climate forcing. PMID:19146408

  20. Enhancement of temozolomide-induced apoptosis by valproic acid in human glioma cell lines through redox regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Hsein; Chang, Yu-Jia; Ku, Maurice S B; Chung, King-Thom; Yang, Jen-Tsung

    2011-03-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ) is an oral alkylating agent that has been widely used in the treatment of refractory glioma, although inherent and acquired resistance to this drug is common. The clinical use of valproic acid (VPA) as an anticonvulsant and mood-stabilizing drug has been reported primarily for the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder and less commonly for major depression. VPA is also used in the treatment of glioma-associated seizures with or without intracranial operation. In this study, we evaluated the potential synergistic effect of TMZ and VPA in human glioma cell lines. Compared with the use of TMZ or VPA alone, concurrent treatment with both drugs synergistically induced apoptosis in U87MG cells as evidenced by p53 and Bax expression, mitochondrial transmembrane potential loss, reactive oxygen species production, and glutathione depletion. This synergistic effect correlated with a decrease in nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor and corresponded with reduced heme oxygenase-1 and ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase expression. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine partially recovered the apoptotic effect of the TMZ/VPA combination treatment. The same degree of synergism is also seen in p53-mutant Hs683 cells, which indicates that p53 may not play a major role in the increased proapoptotic effect of the TMZ/VPA combination. In conclusion, VPA enhanced the apoptotic effect of TMZ, possibly through a redox regulation mechanism. The TMZ/VPA combination may be effective for treating glioma cancer and may be a powerful agent against malignant glioma. This drug combination should be further explored in the clinical setting. PMID:21340685

  1. Pharmacological enhancement of exposure-based treatment in PTSD: a qualitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kleine, Rianne A; Rothbaum, Barbara O; van Minnen, Agnes

    2013-01-01

    There is a good amount of evidence that exposure therapy is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Notwithstanding its efficacy, there is room for improvement, since a large proportion of patients does not benefit from treatment. Recently, an interesting new direction in the improvement of exposure therapy efficacy for PTSD emerged. Basic research found evidence of the pharmacological enhancement of the underlying learning and memory processes of exposure therapy. The current review aims to give an overview of clinical studies on pharmacological enhancement of exposure-based treatment for PTSD. The working mechanisms, efficacy studies in PTSD patients, and clinical utility of four different pharmacological enhancers will be discussed: d-cycloserine, MDMA, hydrocortisone, and propranolol. PMID:24147208

  2. Pharmacological enhancement of exposure-based treatment in PTSD: a qualitative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rianne A. de Kleine

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a good amount of evidence that exposure therapy is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Notwithstanding its efficacy, there is room for improvement, since a large proportion of patients does not benefit from treatment. Recently, an interesting new direction in the improvement of exposure therapy efficacy for PTSD emerged. Basic research found evidence of the pharmacological enhancement of the underlying learning and memory processes of exposure therapy. The current review aims to give an overview of clinical studies on pharmacological enhancement of exposure-based treatment for PTSD. The working mechanisms, efficacy studies in PTSD patients, and clinical utility of four different pharmacological enhancers will be discussed: D-cycloserine, MDMA, hydrocortisone, and propranolol.

  3. Omega-3 fatty acids as treatments for mental illness: which disorder and which fatty acid?

    OpenAIRE

    Sieswerda Lee E; Seguin Jennifer; Ross Brian M

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background A growing number of observational and epidemiological studies have suggested that mental illness, in particular mood disorders, is associated with reduced dietary intake and/or cellular abundance of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). This has prompted researchers to test the efficacy of omega-3 PUFA in a range of different psychiatric disorders. We have critically reviewed the double blind placebo controlled clinical trials published prior to April 2007 to determi...

  4. Omega-3 fatty acids for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Nicola Dario Di Minno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has been recognized as a major health burden. It is the most important cause of chronic liver disease and a major independent cardiovascular risk factor. Lacking a definite treatment for NAFLD, a specific diet and an increase in physical activity represent the most commonly used therapeutic approaches. In this review, major literature data about the use of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs as a potential treatment of NAFLD have been described. n-3 PUFAs, besides having a beneficial impact on most of the cardio-metabolic risk factors (hypertension, hyperlipidemia, endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis by regulating gene transcription factors [i.e., peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR ?, PPAR?, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1, carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein], impacts both lipid metabolism and on insulin sensitivity. In addition to an enhancement of hepatic beta oxidation and a decrease of the endogenous lipid production, n-3 PUFAs are able to determine a significant reduction of the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules (tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-6 and of oxygen reactive species. Further strengthening the results of the in vitro studies, both animal models and human intervention trials, showed a beneficial effect of n-3 PUFAs on the severity of NAFLD as expressed by laboratory parameters and imaging measurements. Despite available results provided encouraging data about the efficacy of n-3 PUFAs as a treatment of NAFLD in humans, well-designed randomized controlled trials of adequate size and duration, with histological endpoints, are needed to assess the long-term safety and efficacy of PUFA, as well as other therapies, for the treatment of NAFLD and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis patients. It is worthwhile to consider that n-3 PUFAs cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be derived from exogenous sources (fish oil, flaxseeds, olive oil which are typical foods of the Mediterranean diet, known for its beneficial effects in preventing obesity, diabetes and, in turn, cardiovascular events. According to these data, it is important to consider that most of the beneficial effects of n-3 PUFAs can also be obtained by an equilibrate nutrition program.

  5. Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of amorphous polyethylene terephthalate for enhanced heatsealing properties

    OpenAIRE

    Dowling, Denis P; Tynan, J.; Ward, P.; et. al.

    2012-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure plasma system has been used to treat amorphous polyethylene terephthalate (APET) to enhance its heatseal properties to a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film. The plasma treated APET sheet material was thermoformed into trays for use in the food packaging industry and heatsealed to a PET film. The heatsealing properties of the resulting package were assessed using the burst test technique. It was found that the plasma treatment significantly enhanced the adhesive prop...

  6. Adding silver and copper to hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid in the disinfection of an advanced primary treatment effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orta De Velsquez, M T; Yez-Noguez, I; Jimnez-Cisneros, B; Luna Pabello, V M

    2008-11-01

    This paper evaluates the efficacy of hydrogen peroxide (HP) and peracetic acid (PAA) in the disinfection of an Advanced Primary Treatment (APT) effluent, and how said disinfection capacities can be enhanced by combining the oxidants with copper (Cu2+) and silver (Ag). The treatment sequence consisted of APT (adding chemicals to water to remove suspended solids by coagulation and flocculation), followed by disinfection with various doses of HP, HP+Cu2+, HP+Ag, PAA and PAA+Ag. Microbiological quality was determined by monitoring concentrations of fecal coliforms (FC), pathogenic bacteria (PB) and helminth eggs (HE) throughout the sequence. The results revealed that APT effluent still contains very high levels of bacteria as the treatment only removes 1-2 log of FC and PB, but the reduction in the number of viable helminth eggs was 83%. Subsequent disinfection stages demonstrated that both HP+Cu2+ and HP+Ag have a marked disinfection capacity for bacteria (3.9 and 3.4 log-inactivation, respectively). Peracetic acid on its own was already extremely efficient at disinfecting for bacteria, and the effect was enhanced when combining PAA with silver (PAA+Ag). The best result for HE removal was achieved by combining PAA with silver (PAA+Ag) at doses of 20 + 2.0 mg l(-1), respectively. The study concluded that the PAA+Ag and HP+Ag combinations were good alternatives for APT effluent disinfection, because the disinfected effluents met the standards in NOM-001-SEMARNAT-1996, Mexico's regulation governing the microbiological quality required in treated wastewater destined for unrestricted reuse in agricultural irrigation (< or =1 helminths per litre). Combining either of these disinfection treatments with a primary method such as APT, therefore, offers an effective and practical way of reducing the health risks normally associated with the reuse of wastewaters. PMID:18975853

  7. Reversible tuning of chemical structure of Nafion cast film by heat and acid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Nancy; Datta, Anindya

    2015-02-12

    Effects of annealing have been studied on the chemical structure, water uptake, and acidity of the cast Nafion thin film of thickness ? 6 ?m using a fluorescent probe, 2-(3'-pyridyl)benzimidazole (3PBI), and attenuated total reflactance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy. Nonannealed films and thick Nafion 117 membrane have been used as reference materials, in order to develop a complete understanding of the effect. Annealing has been found to cause a decrease in acidity of otherwise highly acidic ionomer, as sensed by the fluorescent probe and loss of water, as reflected in the ATR-IR spectrum. This observation is surprising and cannot be explained in the light of previous reports of physical changes. Our ATR-IR study has revealed changes in the chemical structure of the hydrophilic part of the ionomer, leading to the formation of sulfonic acid anhydrides. This phenomenon can rationalize the decreased acidity reported in our fluorescence study. Interestingly, acid treatment of the annealed film restores the acidity of the unannealed films. This cannot be rationalized simply by a greater proton uptake from the solution, as the film has to be electroneutral. It appears that the anhydrides formed during the annealing process undergo acid hydrolysis, leading to an increase in the number of SO3(-) groups and, consequently, an increase in the number of H3O(+) ions in the water channels. Besides, the films can be hydrated to an extent that is much greater than Nafion membranes, but the water uptake of acid treated annealed film is slightly less than that of nonannealed films. Hence, we conclude that, along with annealing, acid treatment, a procedure that is generally not performed on the cast films, is an important pretreatment procedure to improve the acidity and hence the transport properties of the cast film. PMID:25275923

  8. Ras Isoprenylation and pAkt Inhibition by Zoledronic Acid and Fluvastatin Enhances Paclitaxel Activity in T24 Bladder Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaojuan Li

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bisphosphonates interfere with the mevalonate pathway and inhibit the prenylation of small GTP-binding proteins such as ras and rap. We hypothesized that zoledronic acid would synergistically inhibit T24 bladder cancer cell growth in combination with fluvastatin and paclitaxel. Methods: Increasing doses of fluvastatin, zoledronic acid, and paclitaxel were investigated as single agents and in combination, and synergistic interactions were evaluated by the Chou-Talalay method. Western blots were used to assess effects on signal transduction pathways. Results: Growth of T24 was significantly inhibited with IC50 values of 2.67 0.61 mM for fluvastatin and 5.35 1.35 mM for zoledronic acid after 72 hours treatment. Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate and farnesyl pyrophosphate was able to block, in part, this inhibitory activity. The combinations of zoledronic acid and paclitaxel, zoledronic acid and fluvastatin, and fluvastatin and paclitaxel were all synergistic. Both fluvastatin and zoledronic acid inhibited Ras and Rap prenylation, and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and AKT. The degree of inhibition of phosphorylation of these key signaling transduction pathways appears to closely correlate with their synergistic interactions. Conclusions: Zoledronic acid enhances fluvastatin and paclitaxel activity against T24 in a synergistic manner and this is mediated largely by inhibition of both the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways via isoprenylation inhibition.

  9. Treatment feasibility of the acidic intermediate level radioactive liquid waste - a laboratory scale study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acidic ILW from PREFRE-2 have higher concentrations of U, Fe, Mn and TBP degraded products. During the pretreatment of this acidic ILW prior to ion exchange process, there was formation of large volumes of precipitate having poor settling characteristics. This was reducing the throughput of the processing plant. Laboratory scale studies were carried out to remove the precipitating constituents by solvent extraction using Di - 2 -Ethyl Hexyl Phosporic acid (D2EHPA). In single contact almost 99 % of U and Fe got extracted in D2EHPA in 0.2 M acidic condition. After making alkaline the aqueous part forms only small quantities of Mn(OH)2 precipitate. Decant of this is amenable for conventional ion exchange treatment. The low active effluent from RF resin column is amenable for chemical co-precipitation treatment. (author)

  10. Comparative FT-IR study of structural modifications during acid treatment of dioctahedral smectites and hectorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madejov, J.; Bujdk, J.; Janek, M.; Komadel, P.

    1998-09-01

    Seven dioctahedral smectites of various composition and one trioctahedral smectite (hectorite) were leached in the HCl under different treatment conditions. Hectorite is much more susceptible to acid attack than the dioctahedral smectites. The rate of smectite dissolution increases with increasing octahedral Mg or Fe content as well as with the treatment temperature and acid concentration. The mechanism of smectite dissolution in HCl is independent of layer composition. The final reaction product obtained from acid dissolution of both smectite types is a hydrous amorphous silica phase. FT-IR spectroscopy is a sensitive method for characterization of the starting mineral, identification of some admixtures, such as quartz or kaolinite, and can be useful to assist in controling the extent of acid dissolution.

  11. Formic acid-based treatments for control of Varroa destructor in a Mediterranean area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satta, Alberto; Floris, Ignazio; Eguaras, Martin; Cabras, Paolo; Garau, Vincenzo Luigi; Melis, Marinella

    2005-04-01

    Two formic acid autumnal treatments, gel packets (BeeVar formulation) and impregnated paperwick (Liebig-Dispenser), were tested in apiary to evaluate their effectiveness against Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman and their residues in honey in a Mediterranean region (Sardinia, Italy). Both treatments were efficient in the apiary control of the varroosis, with values of percentage of mite mortality ranging between 93.6 and 100%, without statistical differences between them. The more gradual release of formic acid from the gel application allowed a longer action (2 wk for each treatment) compared with the Liebig-Dispenser (approximately 3d for each treatment). The rate of daily evaporation ranged between approximately 5 and 9 g/d from BeeVar and approximately 26 and 35 g/d from the Liebig-Dispenser, in the first and second treatment, respectively. The total amount of formic acid administered per hive during all the treatment period was approximately 200 g for either treatment. A significantly higher adult bee mortality was recorded in the Liebig-Dispenser-treated hives compared with the BeeVar-treated group. On the contrary, BeeVar treatment produced an interruption of brood reared, whereas the extension of the sealed brood area of the Liebig-Dispenser-treated hives was not significantly different from that of the control hives. Neither queen mortality nor robbing activity was observed due to the treatments. Formic acid residues in honey collected in the nest were 3,855 +/- 2,061 and 3,030 +/- 1,624 mg/kg for the BeeVar- and the Liebig-Dispenser-treated hives, respectively. After 21 d from the end of the treatment, the residues fell to 1,261 +/- 1,054 and 794 +/- 518 mg/kg for the honey sampled from the BeeVar and Liebig-Dispenser groups, respectively. PMID:15889712

  12. Task 1.16 - Enhanced Mobility of Dense Nonaqueoius-Phase Liquids (DNAPLs) Using Dissolved Humic Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc D. Kurz

    1997-08-01

    Chlorinated solvent contamination is widespread across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex and other industrial facilities. Because of the physical properties of dense nonaqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs), current treatment technologies are generally incapable of completely removing contamination from the source area. Incomplete removal means that the residual DNAPL will persist as a long-term source of groundwater contamination. When DNALPs occur in the subsurface, they resist remediation, owing to low water volubility, high viscosity and interracial tension, and microbial recalcitrance. Because of their high density and polarity, they are usually found sorbed to aquifer solids or in pools on impermeable materials. Surfactants have been used with some success to reduce interracial tension between the aqueous and organic phases and improve volubility of DNAPLs. However, surfactants are expensive and toxic and exhibit an oxygen demand. An alternative is the use of dissolved humic acids in improving DNAPL mobilization and solubilization. Humic acids, a. natural form of organic carbon, are abundant, inexpensive, and nontoxic; biodegrade slowly (low oxygen demand); and have excellent mobilization properties. The present work is to establish the feasibility of using humates for enhancing DNAPL remediation.

  13. Task 1.16 - Enhanced Mobility of Dense Nonaqueous-Phase Liquids (DNAPLs) Using Dissolved Humic Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwin S. Olson; Marc D. Kurz

    1998-02-01

    Chlorinated solvent contamination is widespread across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex and other industrial facilities. Because of the physical properties of dense nonaqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs), current treatment technologies are generally incapable of completely removing contamination from the source area. Incomplete removal means that the residual DNAPL WN persist as a long-term source of groundwater contamination. When DNALPs occur in the subsurface, they resist remediation, owing to low water volubility, high viscosity and interracial tension, and microbial recalcitrance. Because of their high density and polarity, they are usually found sorbed to aquifer solids or in pools on impermeable materials. Surfactants have been used with some success to reduce interracial tension between the aqueous and organic phases and improve volubility of DNAPLs. However, surfactants are expensive and toxic and exhibit an oxygen demand. An alternative is the use of dissolved humic acids in improving DNAPL mobilization and solubilization. Humic acids, a natural form of organic carbon, are abundant, inexpensive, and nontoxic; biodegrade slowly (low oxygen demand); and have excellent mobilization properties. The present work is to establish the feasibility of using hurnates for enhancing DNAPL remediation.

  14. Using Laboratory Activities Enhanced with Concept Cartoons to Support Progression in Students' Understanding of Acid-Base Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Haluk; Demircioglu, Gokhan; Burhan, Yasemin; Naseriazar, Akbar; Demircioglu, Hulya

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of an intervention based on a series of laboratory activities enhanced with concept cartoons. The purpose of the intervention was to enhance students' understanding of acid-base chemistry for eight grade students' from two classes in a Turkish primary school. A pretest-posttest non-equivalent

  15. Treatment of Active Acne Vulgaris by Chemical Peeling Using 88% Lactic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Sharquie, Khalifa E.; Adil A Noaimi; Entesar A. Al-Janabi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The etiopathogenesis of acne vulgaris is multifactorial, and its therapy is prolonged course that might be not accepted by many patients. Most recently TCA 35% one session peeling gave complete clearance and full remission for active acne vulgaris. Lactic acid has been used effectively as therapeutic topical agents for many skin diseases. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of chemical peeling using 88% lactic acid solution in the treatment of active acne vulgaris. ...

  16. Some biochemical reactions of strawberry plants to infection with Botrytis cinerea and salicylic acid treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Ma?olepsza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The reactions of strawberry plants to infection with B. cinerea and treatment with salicylic acid has been studied. Infection of leaves with B. cinerea resulted in early increases in active oxygen species generation, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities and phenolic compounds content. Some increases of the above reactions were noticed in plants treated with salicylic acid but not in the plants treated with SA and then later infected with B. cinerea.

  17. The effects of various chemical treatments on the pyrolytic pattern of peat humic acid

    OpenAIRE

    G. Almendros; Martn Martnez, Francisco; Gonzlez-Vila, Francisco Javier; Ro Andrade, Jos Carlos del

    1993-01-01

    The present study describes the pyrolytic patterns of a series of humic preparations obtained from a peat humic acid subjected to chemical modifications, such as methylation, oximation, sulphonation, nitration, amidation, ammonia fixation, acetylation, acid and alkaline hydrolysis, hydrogen peroxide treatment, etc. Some diagnostic pyrolysis compounds were found which can be useful in studying N speciation in humic substances. In addition, the noticeable differences in the distribution pattern...

  18. Study of the influence of acid etching treatments on the superficial characteristics of Ti

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bruno Ramos, Chrcanovic; Maximiliano Delany, Martins.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Modifications in texture and surface chemistry are commonly used to increase the biologic response to implants. We evaluated the influence of five different acid etching treatments on the chemical and topographical superficial characteristics of cpTi grade IV discs (test groups). One group of sample [...] s were only polished (control group). The samples were analyzed by electron microscopy (SEM, EDS), atomic force microscopy, and grazing incidence XRD. The acid etching treatments which produced higher values for the amplitude roughness parameters showed a combination of strong acids (HF and HCl/H2SO4) at high concentrations, with a relatively high temperature (? 60 C) for a considerable time (? 60 min). Titanium and oxygen were the only elements detected by EDS on the surface in all groups, whereas titanium hydride was detected when the samples were analyzed by GIXRD. Only the group subjected to thermal treatment showed presence of rutile phase on the surface.

  19. Bias-enhanced post-treatment process for enhancing the electron field emission properties of ultrananocrystalline diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanan, A.; Huang, B. R. [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering and Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Sankaran, K. J.; Tai, N. H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Dong, C. L. [Scientific Research Division, National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Lin, I. N., E-mail: inanlin@mail.tku.edu.tw [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui 251, Taiwan (China)

    2015-03-16

    The electron field emission (EFE) properties of ultrananocrystalline diamond films were markedly improved via the bias-enhanced plasma post-treatment (bep) process. The bep-process induced the formation of hybrid-granular structure of the diamond (bep-HiD) films with abundant nano-graphitic phase along the grain boundaries that increased the conductivity of the films. Moreover, the utilization of Au-interlayer can effectively suppress the formation of resistive amorphous-carbon (a-C) layer, thereby enhancing the transport of electrons crossing the diamond-to-Si interface. Therefore, bep-HiD/Au/Si films exhibit superior EFE properties with low turn-on field of E{sub 0}?=?2.6?V/?m and large EFE current density of J{sub e}?=?3.2?mA/cm{sup 2} (at 5.3?V/?m)

  20. Electron beam combined with hydrothermal treatment for enhancing the enzymatic convertibility of sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of microbial cellulolytic enzymes is the most efficient process to liberate glucose from cellulose in biomass without the formation of fermentation inhibitors. A combination of pretreatment technologies is an alternative way to increase the access of enzymes to cellulose, and consequently, the conversion yield. In this way, the present study reports on the enzymatic hydrolysis of SCB submitted to three kinds of pretreatment: electron beam processing (EBP), and EBP followed by hydrothermal (TH) and diluted acid (AH) treatment. SCB samples were irradiated using a radiation dynamics electron beam accelerator, and then submitted to thermal and acid (0.1% sulfuric acid) hydrolysis for 40 and 60 min at 180 C. These samples were submitted to enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) using commercial preparations, including Celluclast 1.5 L and beta-glycosidase. The addition of diluted acid improved TH treatment allowing for a shorter application time. EBP with 50 kGy increased the enzymatic hydrolysis yield of cellulose by 20% after TH and 30% after AH. - Highlights: ? We study the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose in sugarcane bagasse. ? We study the combination of three pretreatments: electron beam processing, EBP followed by hydrothermal and by diluted acid treatment. ? The electron beam processing increased the enzymatic hydrolysis from 8% to 15% with 20 kGy. ? The enzymes used were commercial preparations, as Celluclast 1.5 L and ?-glycosidase. ? The EBP with 50 kGy increased on 20% the yield of EH of cellulose after TH and 30% after AH.

  1. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal - results of experiences in three large waste water treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within a scientific project especially the operation of four real-size sewage treatment plants with different processes of enhanced biological phosphorus removal is investigated under the aspect of efficiency, stability, practicability and costs of the enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Three plants and first results are explained and compared as well with one another as with data, which are generally regarded as favourable conditions for the enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Between the plants there are significant differences in the degree of P-elimination mainly due to different characteristics of the wastewater. An important influence on P-effluent concentrations may be exacted by P-resolution in the final clarifier. (orig.)

  2. Changes underlying the dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI response to treatment in rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of patients with rheumatoid arthritis has shown a decrease in the early enhancement rate (EER) of synovitis after treatment. The purpose of this work was to investigate the underlying changes. 3D dynamic contrast-enhanced images were acquired from 13 patients before and 1-2 weeks after anti-TNF? treatment. The EER of the inflamed synovium was measured. The T1 relaxation time of the synovitis was calculated from images at different flip angles. The time course of the arrival of gadolinium at the radial artery was determined. The gadolinium enhancement of the inflamed synovium was modeled to calculate the fractional plasma volume (vp), the fractional extravascular, extracellular fluid volume (ve), and the volume transfer constant (Ktrans). Pre- and post-treatment values were compared and the dependence of the EER on each parameter was assessed. There was a decrease in the EER measured over 26 s after treatment (29%, p = 0.002). Reductions in T1 (12%, p = 0.001), Ktrans (31%, p = 0.002), and vp (43%, p = 0.01) contributed to this; however, the EER was relatively insensitive to changes in ve. The decrease in EER after anti-TNF? treatment is largely caused by reductions in the volume transfer constant Ktrans, the fractional plasma volume vp, and the T1 relaxation time. Only the contributions from Ktrans and vp directly reflect synovial vascularity. (orig.)

  3. Transcriptome analysis of acetic-acid-treated yeast cells identifies a large set of genes whose overexpression or deletion enhances acetic acid tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeji; Nasution, Olviyani; Choi, Eunyong; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Wankee; Choi, Wonja

    2015-08-01

    Acetic acid inhibits the metabolic activities of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, a better understanding of how S. cerevisiae cells acquire the tolerance to acetic acid is of importance to develop robust yeast strains to be used in industry. To do this, we examined the transcriptional changes that occur at 12h post-exposure to acetic acid, revealing that 56 and 58 genes were upregulated and downregulated, respectively. Functional categorization of them revealed that 22 protein synthesis genes and 14 stress response genes constituted the largest portion of the upregulated and downregulated genes, respectively. To evaluate the association of the regulated genes with acetic acid tolerance, 3 upregulated genes (DBP2, ASC1, and GND1) were selected among 34 non-protein synthesis genes, and 54 viable mutants individually deleted for the downregulated genes were retrieved from the non-essential haploid deletion library. Strains overexpressing ASC1 and GND1 displayed enhanced tolerance to acetic acid, whereas a strain overexpressing DBP2 was sensitive. Fifty of 54 deletion mutants displayed enhanced acetic acid tolerance. Three chosen deletion mutants (hsps82?, ato2?, and ssa3?) were also tolerant to benzoic acid but not propionic and sorbic acids. Moreover, all those five (two overexpressing and three deleted) strains were more efficient in proton efflux and lower in membrane permeability and internal hydrogen peroxide content than controls. Individually or in combination, those physiological changes are likely to contribute at least in part to enhanced acetic acid tolerance. Overall, information of our transcriptional profile was very useful to identify molecular factors associated with acetic acid tolerance. PMID:26062532

  4. Enhanced zero-valent metal permeable wall treatment of contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On-going research at the University of Central Florida, supported by NASA, is investigating the use of sonicated zero-valent metal permeable treatment walls to remediate chlorinated solvent contaminated groundwater. Use of ultrasound within the treatment wall is proposed to enhance and/or restore the activity of the zero-valent metal. Batch studies designed to evaluate the destruction of chlorinated hydrocarbons using enhanced zero-valent metal reduction found a nearly three-fold increase in reaction rates after ultrasound treatment. Column studies substantiated these results. It is hypothesized that ultrasound serves to remove corrosion products from the iron surface and will prolong the reactive life and efficiency of the permeable treatment wall, thus decreasing long-term costs of wall construction and maintenance

  5. Desire for Penile Girth Enhancement and the Effects of the Self-Injection of Hyaluronic Acid Gel

    OpenAIRE

    Coskuner, Enis Rauf; Canter, Halil Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Penile girth enhancement is a controversial subject but demands for enhancement are increasing steadily. Although various fillers have been widely used for soft tissue augmentation, there is no reliable material for this particular situation. Here we report a case of an acute hypersensitivity reaction in a man after his first self-injection of a filler material, which, he claimed, was hyaluronic acid gel for penile girth enhancement and glans penis augmentation.

  6. Desire for penile girth enhancement and the effects of the self-injection of hyaluronic acid gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enis Rauf Coskuner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile girth enhancement is a controversial subject but demands for enhancement are increasing steadily. Although various fillers have been widely used for soft tissue augmentation, there is no reliable material for this particular situation. Here we report a case of an acute hypersensitivity reaction in a man after his first self-injection of a filler material, which, he claimed, was hyaluronic acid gel for penile girth enhancement and glans penis augmentation.

  7. Inhibition of acid hydrolase activity in human granulocytes by PUVA treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity of acid hydrolases in peripheral blood granulocytes was determined. No significant differences could be revealed between healthy and psoriatic donors. During PUVA therapy of psoriasis patients the activity of acid hydrolases in granulocytes was moderately decreased in most cases, but the differences were not significant (high individual variability). Isolated granulocytes were treated in vitro with doses of 8-methoxypsoralen and UVA light as can be achieved in situ in the epidermis during PUVA therapy. A reduced acid hydrolases activity was found in the cells after the treatment, which was not due to secretion of the enzyme or cytotoxic damage. The presence of reduced glutathione prevented this effect. Free extracellular acid hydrolases were not inactivated by PUVA. PUVA-treated granulocytes showed an unimpaired superoxide generation after phagocytic stimulation. These results show that an intracellular inactivation of acid hydrolases and possibly other lysosomal enzymes in granulocytes infiltrating the psoriatic epidermis contribute to the antipsoriatic effects of PUVA therapy. (author)

  8. Response surface optimization of culture medium for enhanced docosahexaenoic acid production by a Malaysian thraustochytrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikan, Vidyah; Kalil, Mohd Sahaid; Hamid, Aidil Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) plays a vital role in the enhancement of human health, particularly for cognitive, neurological, and visual functions. Marine microalgae, such as members of the genus Aurantiochytrium, are rich in DHA and represent a promising source of omega-3 fatty acids. In this study, levels of glucose, yeast extract, sodium glutamate and sea salt were optimized for enhanced lipid and DHA production by a Malaysian isolate of thraustochytrid, Aurantiochytrium sp. SW1, using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimized medium contained 60 g/L glucose, 2 g/L yeast extract, 24 g/L sodium glutamate and 6 g/L sea salt. This combination produced 17.8 g/L biomass containing 53.9% lipid (9.6 g/L) which contained 44.07% DHA (4.23 g/L). The optimized medium was used in a scale-up run, where a 5 L bench-top bioreactor was employed to verify the applicability of the medium at larger scale. This produced 24.46 g/L biomass containing 38.43% lipid (9.4 g/L), of which 47.87% was DHA (4.5 g/L). The total amount of DHA produced was 25% higher than that produced in the original medium prior to optimization. This result suggests that Aurantiochytrium sp. SW1 could be developed for industrial application as a commercial DHA-producing microorganism. PMID:25721623

  9. Amino acid conjugated self assembling molecules for enhancing surface wettability of fiber laser treated titanium surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkan, Cagri K.; Hür, Deniz; Uzun, Lokman; Garipcan, Bora

    2016-03-01

    Surface wetting properties of implants are one of the most critical parameter, which determine the interaction of proteins and cells with the implant surface. In this regards, acid etching and sand blasting are the mostly used methods at surface modification of Titanium (Ti) for enhanced surface wettability. Besides, these kinds of modifications may cause a conflict whether the surface wettability is influenced by the process related surface contaminations or by the surface roughness. In contrast, lasers might be an option for the alteration of surface wetting properties via supporting micro and/or nano surface topographies while preventing surface chemical contaminations. In this work, we focused on two steps of surface processing approaches of Ti surface: physical and chemical modifications. Herein, we hierarchically structured Ti surfaces by using microsecond modulated pulsed fiber laser. Subsequently, laser structured and non-structured Ti surfaces were further modified with novel histidine and leucine Amino Acid conjugated Self-Assembled Molecules (His1-SAMs2 and Leu3-SAMs) to alter the surface wettability by introducing biologically hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups. Modification of Ti surfaces with His-SAMs and Leu-SAMs ended up with stable wetting properties when compared to non-modified surfaces after 7 days which may enhances the cell-surface interaction.

  10. Acidity enhancement of unsaturated bases of group 15 by association with borane and beryllium dihydride. Unexpected boron and beryllium Brnsted acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martn-Smer, Ana; M, Otilia; Yez, Manuel; Guillemin, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-21

    The intrinsic acidity of CH2[double bond, length as m-dash]CHXH2, HC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CXH2 (X = N, P, As, Sb) derivatives and of their complexes with BeH2 and BH3 has been investigated by means of high-level density functional theory and molecular orbital ab initio calculations, using as a reference the ethyl saturated analogues. The acidity of the free systems steadily increases down the group for the three series of derivatives, ethyl, vinyl and ethynyl. The association with both beryllium dihydride and borane leads to a very significant acidity enhancement, being larger for BeH2 than for BH3 complexes. This acidity enhancement, for the unsaturated compounds, is accompanied by a change in the acidity trends down the group, which do not steadily decrease but present a minimum value for both the vinyl- and the ethynyl-phosphine. When the molecule acting as the Lewis acid is beryllium dihydride, the ?-type complexes in which the BeH2 molecules interact with the double or triple bond are found, in some cases, to be more stable, in terms of free energies, than the conventional complexes in which the attachment takes place at the heteroatom, X. The most important finding, however, is that P, As, and Sb ethynyl complexes with BeH2 do not behave as P, As, or Sb Brnsted acids, but unexpectedly as Be acids. PMID:25415658

  11. Fatty Acid Incubation of Myotubues from Humans with Type 2 Diabetes Leads to Enhanced Release of Beta Oxidation Products Due to Impaired Fatty Acid Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wensaas, Andreas J; Rustan, Arild C; Just, Marlene; Berge, Rolf K; Drevon, Christian A; Gaster, Michael

    2008-01-01

    processes. Research Design and Methods: We examined fatty acid and glucose metabolism, and gene expression in cultured human skeletal muscle cells from control and T2D individuals after four days preincubation with EPA or TTA. Results: T2D myotubes exhibited reduced formation of CO(2) from palmitic acid (PA....... EPA markedly enhanced TAG accumulation in myotubes, more pronounced in T2D cells. TAG accumulation and fatty acid oxidation were inversely correlated only after EPA preincubation, and total level of acyl-CoA was reduced. Glucose oxidation (CO(2) formation) was enhanced and lactate production decreased...... after chronic exposure to EPA and TTA, whereas glucose uptake and storage were unchanged. Both EPA and especially TTA increased the expression of genes involved in fatty acid uptake, activation, accumulation and oxidation. Conclusion: Our results suggest: a) mitochondrial dysfunction in diabetic...

  12. Enhancement of Micropollutant Degradation at the Outlet of Small Wastewater Treatment Plants

    OpenAIRE

    ROSSI, Luca; Queloz, Pierre; Brovelli, Alessandro; Margot, Jonas; Barry, David Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate low-cost and easy-to-operate engineering solutions that can be added as a polishing step to small wastewater treatment plants to reduce the micropollutant load to water bodies. The proposed design combines a sand filter/constructed wetland with additional and more advanced treatment technologies (UV degradation, enhanced adsorption to the solid phase, e.g., an engineered substrate) to increase the elimination of recalcitrant compounds. The removal of five ...

  13. Pharmacological enhancement of exposure-based treatment in PTSD: a qualitative review

    OpenAIRE

    de Kleine, Rianne A.; Rothbaum, Barbara O.; van Minnen, Agnes

    2013-01-01

    There is a good amount of evidence that exposure therapy is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Notwithstanding its efficacy, there is room for improvement, since a large proportion of patients does not benefit from treatment. Recently, an interesting new direction in the improvement of exposure therapy efficacy for PTSD emerged. Basic research found evidence of the pharmacological enhancement of the underlying learning and memory processes of exposure therapy. Th...

  14. Silvicultural treatments enhance growth rates of future crop trees in a tropical dry forest

    OpenAIRE

    Villegas, Z.; Pea-Claros, M.; Mostacedo, B.; Alarcn, A.; Licona, J.C.; Leao, C; Pariona, W.; Choque, U.

    2009-01-01

    Silvicultural treatments are often needed in selectively logged tropical forest to enhance the growth rates of many commercial tree species and, consequently, for recovering a larger proportion of the initial volume harvested over the next cutting cycle. The available data in the literature suggest, however, that the effect of silvicultural treatments on tree growth is smaller in dry forests than in humid forest tree species. In this study, we analyze the effect of logging and application of ...

  15. Usefulness of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in determining treatment efficacy and outcome after pancreatic cancer chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Atsushi Sofuni, Takao Itoi, Fumihide Itokawa, Takayoshi Tsuchiya, Toshio Kurihara, Kentaro Ishii, Syujiro Tsuji, Nobuhito Ikeuchi, Fuminori Moriyasu

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate if contrast-enhanced ultrasono-graphy (CE-US) is useful for determining treatment efficacy and outcome in the early stages of pancreatic cancer chemotherapy by assessing changes in intratumor hemodynamics using CE-US with a contrast agent.METHODS: The subjects were 34 patients with unresectable advanced pancreatic cancer treated by chemotherapy. CE-US was assessed after every treatment (course) completion under the same conditions, and patients were divided into two groups...

  16. Proton pump inhibitors in acid-related diseases. Issues in diagnosis, treatment and outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Jonasson, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Acid-related disease (ARD) is a term used to describe a range of conditions in which acid is involved in the generation of symptoms and/or complications. Two of the most common ARDs are gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) and peptic ulcer disease (PUD).

    PPIs are today regarded as the gold standard in the treatment of both symptoms and mucosal injury in patients with GERD as well as for prevention and acute treatment of PUD. Since the PPIs were introduced in the late 198...

  17. Treatment of Pu-containing waste by acid digestion (wet combustion)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid digestion as a process of treatment of plutonium-containing solid waste was developed and demonstrated under conditions of an active operation with respect to the recovery of plutonium. The process composes the following main steps: waste shredding, waste carbonisation, waste oxidation and conversion of plutonium oxide to plutonium sulphate, off-gas treatment, acid recovery and plutonium separation. The technical, safety and operational details of the plant will be presented. Furthermore, methods of the purification of separate plutonium and solidification of secondary waste for final disposal will be described. (orig./RW)

  18. Selection of tropical lactic acid bacteria for enhancing the quality of maize silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A O; vila, C L S; Schwan, R F

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to select lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains isolated from silage and assess their effect on the quality of maize silage. The LAB strains were inoculated into aqueous extract obtained from maize to evaluate their production of metabolites and pH reduction. The ability to inhibit the pathogenic and silage-spoilage microorganisms' growth was evaluated. Nine LAB strains that showed the best results were assessed in polyvinyl chloride experimental silos. The inoculation of the LAB strains influenced the concentration of lactic and acetic acids and the diversity of Listeria. The inoculation of silages with Lactobacillus buchneri (UFLA SLM11 and UFLA SLM103 strains) resulted in silages with greater LAB populations and improvements after aerobic exposure. The UFLA SLM11 and SLM103 strains identified as L. buchneri showed to be promising in the treatment of maize silage. PMID:24119815

  19. Enhanced biodegradation of phthalate acid esters in marine sediments by benthic diatom Cylindrotheca closterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Gao, Jing; Meng, Fanbo; Chi, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Cylindrotheca closterium, a marine benthic diatom, was inoculated on the surface of marine sediments spiked with diethyl phthalate (DEP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) to investigate the effects of benthic microalgae on the degradation of the contaminants. The elimination of DEP and DBP from unsterilized sediments with C. closterium (treatment BA) was compared with that from unsterilized sediments without C. closterium (treatment B), sterilized sediments with C. closterium (treatment A) and sterilized sediments without C. closterium (treatment N). The results showed that during the 8-day experiment, inoculation with C. closterium increased the removal rates of the contaminants from the sediments, and more significantly from the surface layer (top 0.5 cm) of sediments than from the bottom layer of sediments. In the surface sediments, the first-order elimination rate constants (k) of DEP and DBP were in the order of treatment BA (2.098 and 0.309 d(-1))>treatment B (0.460 and 0.256 d(-1))>treatment A (0.216 and 0.039 d(-1))>treatment N (nil (no data)), indicating that microbial degradation played a major role in the removal of the contaminants from the sediments. A similar trend was also observed in bottom sediments (0.444 and 0.165 d(-1) in treatment BA, 0.329 and 0.194 d(-1) in treatment B, 0.129 d(-1) and nil in treatment A), but the difference of k values between treatments BA and B was relatively small. The positive effect of C. closterium on total phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) content in sediments was observed, which was mainly related to the increase of biomass of aerobic bacteria as a result of improved sediment oxygenation and release of exudates (e.g. exopolysaccharides) by C. closterium. Moreover, Pearson correlation analysis showed a significant positive correlation between the elimination ratios of the contaminants and abundance of total aerobic bacterial PLFAs, suggesting that aerobic bacteria played a key role in C. closterium-promoted degradation of the contaminants in sediments. PMID:25481253

  20. Optimisation of dilute acid pre-treatment of artisan rice hulls for ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice hulls are potential low-cost feedstocks for fuel ethanol production in many countries. In this work, the dilute-acid pre-treatment of artisan rice hulls was investigated using a central composite rotatable experimental design. The experimental variables were temperature (140-210 C), biomass load (5-20%) and sulphuric acid concentration (0.5-1.5 g per 100 g of reaction mixture). A total of 16 experimental runs, including a 23-plan, two replicates at the central point and six star points, were carried out. Low temperatures were found to be favourable for the hydrolysis of xylan and of the easily hydrolyzable glucan fraction. High glucose formation (up to 15.3 g/100 g), attributable to starch hydrolysis, was detected in the hydrolysates obtained under the least severe pre-treatment conditions. Using the experimental results, several models for predicting the effect of the operational conditions on the yield of pretreated solids, xylan and glucan conversion upon pre-treatment, and on enzymatic convertibility of cellulose were developed. Optimum results were predicted for the conversion of easily-hydrolyzable glucan in the material pretreated at 140.7 C, and for the enzymatic saccharification of cellulose in the material pretreated at 169 C. These results suggested the use of two-step acid hydrolysis as future pre-treatment strategy for artisan rice hulls. Key words: Dilute acid hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis, pre-treatment, rice hulls. (author)

  1. Biochar enhances Aspergillus niger rock phosphate solubilization by increasing organic acid production and alleviating fluoride toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Gilberto de Oliveira; Zafra, David Lopez; Vassilev, Nikolay Bojkov; Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Ribeiro, Jos Ivo; Costa, Maurcio Dutra

    2014-05-01

    During fungal rock phosphate (RP) solubilization, a significant quantity of fluoride (F(-)) is released together with phosphorus (P), strongly inhibiting the process. In the present study, the effect of two F(-) adsorbents [activated alumina (Al2O3) and biochar] on RP solubilization by Aspergillus niger was examined. Al2O3 adsorbed part of the F(-) released but also adsorbed soluble P, which makes it inappropriate for microbial RP solubilization systems. In contrast, biochar adsorbed only F(-) while enhancing phosphate solubilization 3-fold, leading to the accumulation of up to 160 mg of P per liter. By comparing the values of F(-) measured in solution at the end of incubation and those from a predictive model, it was estimated that up to 19 mg of F(-) per liter can be removed from solution by biochar when added at 3 g liter(-1) to the culture medium. Thus, biochar acted as an F(-) sink during RP solubilization and led to an F(-) concentration in solution that was less inhibitory to the process. In the presence of biochar, A. niger produced larger amounts of citric, gluconic, and oxalic acids, whether RP was present or not. Our results show that biochar enhances RP solubilization through two interrelated processes: partial removal of the released F(-) and increased organic acid production. Given the importance of organic acids for P solubilization and that most of the RPs contain high concentrations of F(-), the proposed solubilization system offers an important technological improvement for the microbial production of soluble P fertilizers from RP. PMID:24610849

  2. Genetic engineering of Yarrowia lipolytica for enhanced production of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been extensively studied for decades because of its health benefits including cancer prevention, anti-atherogenic and anti-obesity effects, and modulation of the immune system. We previously described the production of trans-10, cis-12 CLA in Yarrowia lipolytica by expressing the gene coding for linoleic acid isomerase from Propionibacterium acnes (pai). However the stable strain produced CLA at about 0.08% of dry cell weight (DCW), a level of production which was not high enough for practical applications. The goal of the present study was to enhance production of CLA by genetic engineering of Y. lipolytica strains. Results We have now co-expressed the delta 12-desaturase gene (FADS12, d12) from Mortierella alpina together with the codon-optimized linoleic acid isomerase (opai) gene in Y. lipolytica, expressed under the control of promoter hp16d modified by fusing 12 copies of UAS1B to the original promoter hp4d. A multi-copy integration plasmid was used to further enhance the expression of both genes. Using glucose as the sole carbon source, the genetically-modified Y. lipolytica produced trans-10, cis-12-CLA at a level of up to 10% of total fatty acids and 0.4% of DCW. Furthermore, when the recombinant yeast was grown with soybean oil, trans-10, cis-12-CLA now accumulated at a level of up to 44% of total fatty acids, which represented 30% of DCW after 38.5h of cultivation. In addition, trans-10, cis-12-CLA was also detected in the growth medium up to 0.9g/l. Conclusions We have successfully produced trans-10, cis-12-CLA with a titre of 4g/l of culture (3.1g/l in cells and 0.9g/l in culture medium). Our results demonstrate the potential use of Y. lipolytica as a promising microbial cell factory for trans-10, cis-12-CLA production. PMID:23866108

  3. Studying Pellet Formation of a Filamentous Fungus Rhizopus oryzae to Enhance Organic Acid Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei; Liu, Yan; Chen, Shulin

    Using pelletized fungal biomass can effectively improve the fermentation performance for most of fugal strains. This article studied the effects of inoculum and medium compositions such as potato dextrose broth (PDB) as carbon source, soybean peptone, calcium carbonate, and metal ions on pellet formation of Rhizopus oryzae. It has been found that metal ions had significantly negative effects on pellet formation whereas soybean peptone had positive effects. In addition PDB and calcium carbonate were beneficial to R. oryzae for growing small smooth pellets during the culture. The study also demonstrated that an inoculum size of less than 1.5109 spores/L had no significant influence on pellet formation. Thus, a new approach to form pellets has been developed using only PDB, soybean peptone, and calcium carbonate. Meanwhile, palletized fungal fermentation significantly enhanced organic acid production. Lactic acid concentration reached 65.0 g/L in 30 h using pelletized R. oryzae NRRL 395, and fumeric acid concentration reached 31.0 g/L in 96 h using pelletized R. oryzae ATCC 20344.

  4. Hypotonic stimuli enhance proton-gated currents of acid-sensing ion channel-1b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are strong candidates for mammalian mechanoreceptors. We investigated whether mouse acid-sensing ion channel-1b (ASIC1b) is sensitive to mechanical stimuli using oocyte electrophysiology, because ASIC1b is located in the mechanosensory stereocilia of cochlear hair cells. Hypotonic stimuli that induced membrane stretch of oocytes evoked no significant current in ASIC1b-expressing oocytes at pH 7.5. However, acid (pH 4.0 or 5.0)-evoked currents in the oocytes were substantially enhanced by the hypotonicity, showing mechanosensitivity of ASIC1b and possible mechanogating of the channel in the presence of other components. Interestingly, the ASIC1b channel was permeable to K+ (a principal charge carrier for cochlear sensory transduction) and the affinity of the channel for amiloride (IC50 (inhibition constant) = approximately 48.3 ?M) was quite similar to that described for the mouse hair cell mechanotransducer current. Taken together, these data raise the possibility that ASIC1b participates in cochlear mechanoelectrical transduction

  5. Physicochemical properties of corn stalk after treatment using steam explosion coupled with acid or alkali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong-Gang; Ma, Yu-Long; Wang, Li-Qiong; Wang, Feng-Zhi; Wu, Qian-Qian; Pan, Guan-Yu

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate comparatively the effects of different pretreatments including steam explosion, acid, and alkali, alone or in combination, on the structural properties and thermal stability of corn stalk. All of the treated treatments decreased the contents of hemicellulose and lignin and thereby increased the content of cellulose in corn stalks. But the combined treatments with alkali and steam explosion under 0.4-0.6 MPa were better as compared with other treatments based on the removals of hemicellulose and lignin, and about 71.58-79.59% of hemicellulose and 64.32-71.83% of lignin were removed. Treatment with steam explosion coupled with acid or alkali changed the bonding distribution and surface morphology and increased the crystallinity and thermal stability of corn stalks, and the degradation temperature reached over 350 C. These results suggest that steam explosion coupled with alkali is a better method for the depolymerization of corn stalk polymer. PMID:25498662

  6. Omega-3 fatty acids as treatments for mental illness: which disorder and which fatty acid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sieswerda Lee E

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing number of observational and epidemiological studies have suggested that mental illness, in particular mood disorders, is associated with reduced dietary intake and/or cellular abundance of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. This has prompted researchers to test the efficacy of omega-3 PUFA in a range of different psychiatric disorders. We have critically reviewed the double blind placebo controlled clinical trials published prior to April 2007 to determine whether omega-3 PUFA are likely to be efficacious in these disorders. Results Most trials involved a small number of participants but were largely well designed. Omega-3 PUFA were well tolerated by both children and adults with mild gastrointestinal effects being the only consistently reported adverse event. For schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder we found little evidence of a robust clinically relevant effect. In the case of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and related disorders, most trials showed at most small benefits over placebo. A limited meta-analysis of these trials suggested that benefits of omega-3 PUFA supplementation may be greater in a classroom setting than at home. Some evidence indicates that omega-3 PUFA may reduce symptoms of anxiety although the data is preliminary and inconclusive. The most convincing evidence for beneficial effects of omega-3 PUFA is to be found in mood disorders. A meta-analysis of trials involving patients with major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder provided evidence that omega-3 PUFA supplementation reduces symptoms of depression. Furthermore, meta-regression analysis suggests that supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid may be more beneficial in mood disorders than with docosahexaenoic acid, although several confounding factors prevented a definitive conclusion being made regarding which species of omega-3 PUFA is most beneficial. The mechanisms underlying the apparent efficacy of omega-3 PUFA in mood disorders compared to schizophrenia are discussed as is a rational for the possibly greater efficacy of EPA compared to DHA. Conclusion While it is not currently possible to recommend omega-3 PUFA as either a mono- or adjunctive-therapy in any mental illness, the available evidence is strong enough to justify continued study, especially with regard to attentional, anxiety and mood disorders.

  7. Discovery of TUG-770 : A Highly Potent Free Fatty Acid Receptor 1 (FFA1/GPR40) Agonist for Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Elisabeth; Hansen, Steffen V F

    2013-01-01

    Free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1 or GPR40) enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic ?-cells and currently attracts high interest as a new target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. We here report the discovery of a highly potent FFA1 agonist with favorable physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. The compound efficiently normalizes glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese mice, an effect that is fully sustained after 29 days of chronic dosing.

  8. The effects of different thermal treatments and organic acid levels on nutrient digestibility in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Mader, A; Knorr, F; Ruhnke, I; Rhe, I; Hafeez, A; Mnner, K; Zentek, J

    2014-05-01

    Poultry feed is a potential vector for pathogens. Heat processing and organic acid treatments may decontaminate feed and can affect bird performance as well as feed digestibility. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of different thermal treatments including pelleting (P), long-term conditioning at 85C for 3min (L), or expanding at 110C (E110) and 130C for 3 to 5 s (E130) without or with 0.75 and 1.5% organic acid supplementation (63.75% formic acid, 25.00% propionic acid, and 11.25% water) on performance, nutrient digestibility, and organ weights of broilers. In total, 960 one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 8 replicates using a 3 4 factorial arrangement. Performance variables were determined, and the relative organ weights and ileal and total amino acid (AA) digestibilities were measured at d 35. The organic acid inclusion linearly improved feed efficiency in the first week (P ? 0.05). The acid inclusion levels and thermal treatments had no significant effect on the performance variables at later intervals of the growing period of the birds. The L group showed the lowest ileal AA and CP digestibility. The inclusion of organic acids had a quadratic effect on total and ileal digestibility of isoleucine (P ? 0.05), whereas it had no significant effect on the ileal digestibility of other AA and nutrients. The relative weights of the jejunum and small intestine were significantly higher in the E130 group compared with P and L (P ? 0.05). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that long-term heat conditioning can decrease ileal nutrient digestibility, whereas pelleting and expansion, independently of organic acid addition, seemed to have no negative impact on broiler performance and nutrient digestibilities. Moreover, adding a blend of organic acids to broiler diets had neither positive nor negative effects on nutrient digestibility and final broiler performance. This indicates the feasibility of short-term thermal treatment and acid supplementation for hygienization of broiler feed without negatively influencing performance. PMID:24795308

  9. Lysophosphatidic acid enhances survival of human CD34+ cells in ischemic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostic, Ivana; Fidalgo-Carvalho, Isabel; Aday, Sezin; Vazo, Helena; Carvalheiro, Tiago; Gros, Mrio; Duarte, Antnio; Cardoso, Carla; Gonalves, Lino; Carvalho, Lina; Paiva, Artur; Ferreira, Lino

    2015-01-01

    Several clinical trials are exploring therapeutic effect of human CD34+ cells in ischemic diseases, including myocardial infarction. Unfortunately, most of the cells die few days after delivery. Herein we show that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-treated human umbilical cord blood-derived CD34+ cells cultured under hypoxic and serum-deprived conditions present 2.2-fold and 1.3-fold higher survival relatively to non-treated cells and prostaglandin E2-treated cells, respectively. The pro-survival effect of LPA is concentration- and time-dependent and it is mediated by the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor ? (PPAR?) and downstream, by the activation of pro-survival ERK and Akt signaling pathways and the inhibition of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. In hypoxia and serum-deprived culture conditions, LPA induces CD34+ cell proliferation without maintaining the their undifferentiating state, and enhances IL-8, IL-6 and G-CSF secretion during the first 12?h compared to non-treated cells. LPA-treated CD34+ cells delivered in fibrin gels have enhanced survival and improved cardiac fractional shortening at 2 weeks on rat infarcted hearts as compared to hearts treated with placebo. We have developed a new platform to enhance the survival of CD34+ cells using a natural and cost-effective ligand and demonstrated its utility in the preservation of the functionality of the heart after infarction. PMID:26553339

  10. [Chemical adsorption of thiosalicylic acid on silver surface investigated by surface-enhanced Raman scattering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-han; Yuan, Rong-hui; Teng, Yuan-jie; Qin, Yan-ping; Pan, Zai-fa; Ma, Chun-an

    2013-09-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of thiosalicylic acid (TSA) with sulfydryl group was investigated on the surface of electrochemically roughed silver electrode. The result shows that SERS enhancement effect was relative to the concentration and pH, and 1 x 10(-3) mol x L(-1) and pH 4 were the optimal condition. While the concentration increased, the enhancement effect decreased quickly because of steric hindrance. S--Ag peak position by the absorption of TSA was basically consistent, but pH significantly affected its intensity. The distribution and mechanism of TSA at different pH were further investigated. It was showed that TSA was adsorbed on the active silver surface via the sulfydryl group without H of neutral C4H4 (COOH)SH molecule. Competitive adsorption of negative valence C4H4 (COO-) SH and OH- may bring non-SERS under the strong base condition. At the same time, the sulfydryl group significantly influenced the carboxyl vibration peak's change and the distribution of electron cloud of benzene ring conjugate system. PMID:24369647

  11. Uric acid enhances the antitumor immunity of dendritic cell-based vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yihan; Ma, Xuelei; Su, Chao; Peng, Bin; Du, Jing; Jia, Hongyuan; Luo, Min; Fang, Chunju; Wei, Yuquan

    2015-01-01

    Uric acid (UA) released from dying cells has been recognized by the immune system as a danger signal. In response to UA, dendritic cells (DC) in the immune system mature and enhance the T cell response to foreign antigens. It is conceivable that the antitumor immunity of a tumor vaccine could be promoted by the administration of UA. To test this concept, we applied UA as an adjuvant to a DC-based vaccine, and discovered that the administration of UA as an adjuvant significantly enhanced the ability of the tumor lysate-pulsed DC vaccine in delaying the tumor growth. The antitumor activity was achieved with adoptively transferred lymphocytes, and both CD8(+) T cells and NK cells were required to achieve effective immunity. This resulted in an increased accumulation of activated CD8(+) T cells and an elevated production of IFN-?. Collectively, our study shows that the administration of UA enhances the antitumor activity of tumor lysate-pulsed DC vaccine, thus providing the preclinical rationale for the application of UA in DC-based vaccine strategies. PMID:26553557

  12. Rapid and reversible enhancement of blood-brain barrier permeability using lysophosphatidic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    On, Ngoc H; Savant, Sanjot; Toews, Myron; Miller, Donald W

    2013-12-01

    The present study characterizes the effects of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) on blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability focusing specifically on the time of onset, duration, and magnitude of LPA-induced changes in cerebrovascular permeability in the mouse using both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and near infrared fluorescence imaging (NIFR). Furthermore, potential application of LPA for enhanced drug delivery to the brain was also examined by measuring the brain accumulation of radiolabeled methotrexate. Exposure of primary cultured brain microvessel endothelial cells (BMECs) to LPA produced concentration-dependent increases in permeability that were completely abolished by clostridium toxin B. Administration of LPA disrupted BBB integrity and enhanced the permeability of small molecular weight marker gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (Gd-DTPA) contrast agent, the large molecular weight permeability marker, IRdye800cwPEG, and the P-glycoprotein efflux transporter probe, Rhodamine 800 (R800). The increase in BBB permeability occurred within 3?minutes after LPA injection and barrier integrity was restored within 20?minutes. A decreased response to LPA on large macromolecule BBB permeability was observed after repeated administration. The administration of LPA also resulted in 20-fold enhancement of radiolabeled methotrexate in the brain. These studies indicate that administration of LPA in combination with therapeutic agents may increase drug delivery to the brain. PMID:24045401

  13. Improved focal liver lesion detection by increasing flip angle during gadoxetic acid-enhancement in MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Se Jy [Dept. of Medical science Graduate school, Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Keun [Dept. of Radiotechnology, Gwang-ju Health university, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    To study the differences of focal liver lesion image detection at 3 minute, 10 minute and 15 minute time points on gadoxetic acid (GA)s enhanced MR imaging with a flip angle (FA) of 30 compared with a 11. The subjects were 69 patients evaluated with GA enhanced MR imaging with 3.0T MR scanner. The patients are total 35(23 men and 7 women at the mean age of 60.4 years), hepatocellular carcinoma(23) and metastsis(12) except for normal, cyst and hemangioma. After GA was injected, FA 11 and 30 images were obtained at 3 minute, 10 minute and 15 minute time points respectively. After quantitative and qualitative assessment of each image was done, statistical analysis was performed by using the independent sample T-test. From both quantitative and qualitative assessment of 3 minute and 10 minute MR images after the injection of GA, FA 30 images was found to be superior than FA 11, but there were no statistical significance. However, at 15 minute time point, Statistically significant FA 30 image(p<0.05) was better than FA 11 therefore, the FA 30 improves the focal liver lesion detection. FA 30 of MR image can detect liver lesion more sensitively than the existing FA11 image after GA contrast enhancement at 15 minute time point.

  14. Omega-3 fatty acids for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    OpenAIRE

    Matteo Nicola Dario Di Minno; Anna Russolillo; Roberta Lupoli; Pasquale Ambrosino; Alessandro Di Minno; Giovanni Tarantino (ed.)

    2012-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been recognized as a major health burden. It is the most important cause of chronic liver disease and a major independent cardiovascular risk factor. Lacking a definite treatment for NAFLD, a specific diet and an increase in physical activity represent the most commonly used therapeutic approaches. In this review, major literature data about the use of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) as a potential treatment of NAFLD have been desc...

  15. Use of zoledronic acid in the treatment of Pagets disease

    OpenAIRE

    Seton, Margaret P.; Krane, Stephen Martin

    2007-01-01

    This review examines the use of zoledronic acid in the treatment of Pagets disease of bone. It begins with a brief discussion of the theories of pathogenesis of Pagets disease, its clinical manifestations, and the history of bisphosphonate treatment in this disorder. Risk of oversuppression of bone by the more potent bisphosphonates and their association with avascular necrosis of the jaw are noted.

  16. Zoledronic acid in the treatment of bone metastases by hepatocellular carcinoma: a case series

    OpenAIRE

    MONTELLA, LILIANA; ADDEO, RAFFAELE; Palmieri, Giovannella; Caraglia, Michele; Cennamo, Gregorio; Vincenzi, Bruno; Guarrasi, Rosario; Mamone, Rosanna; Faiola, Vincenzo; Frega, Nicola; Capasso, Elena; Maiorino, Luigi; Leopardo, Davide; Pizza, Carmine; Montesarchio, Vincenzo

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Purpose The survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has improved with advancements in various diagnostic tools and treatment modalities. Consequently, bone metastases from HCC are diagnosed more frequently. The aims of the present study was to describe the clinical features and treatment of HCC patients presenting with bone metastases. In particular, we evaluated the role of zoledronic acid in these patients especially with regar...

  17. Endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux with polyacrylate polyalcohol copolymer and dextranomer/hyaluronic acid in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Akif Turk; Ahmet Selimoglu; Kadir Demir; Osman Celik; Erkin Saglam; Fatih Tarhan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer and polyacrylate polyalcohol copolymer in endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux disease in adult patients with and without chronic renal failure. Materials and Methods Thirty two patients (12 female, 20 male) with a total of 50 renal units were treated for vesicoureteral reflux. There were 26 (81%) chronic renal failure patients. The success of treatment was evaluated by voiding cyst...

  18. Nucleic acid carrier systems based on polyethylenimine conjugates for the treatment of metastatic tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaffert, David; Ogris, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Nucleic acid (NA) based drugs offer the potential of highly selective treatments for malignant diseases. They act as an initially inactive pro-drug being activated at the intended site of action, either by translation into a protein in case of plasmid DNA or through expression shutdown by interfering specifically with messenger RNA (RNAi technology). In case of already metastasized cancer, systemic treatment via the blood stream is often inevitable to reach the lesion. This makes it necessary to...

  19. Enhanced Case Management versus Substance Abuse Treatment Alone among Substance Abusers with Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striley, Catherine W.; Nattala, Prasanthi; Ben Abdallah, Arbi; Dennis, Michael L.; Cottler, Linda B.

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of enhanced case management for substance abusers with comorbid major depression, which was an integrated approach to care. One hundred and 20 participants admitted to drug treatment who also met Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule criteria for major depression at baseline were randomized to

  20. Using Pretreatment and Posttreatment Assessments To Enhance and Evaluate Existing Treatment Packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, David M.; Berg, Wendy K.; Wacker, David P.; Stephens, Tracy; Rankin, Barbara; Kilroy, Jennette

    1997-01-01

    Pretreatment assessment data were used to enhance an existing treatment package to reduce aggression and to increase the positive social interactions of a 9-year-old boy with moderate mental retardation and Hunter's syndrome. Additional reinforcements and punishment components were added and resulted in positive social interactions and suppressed

  1. Using Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing To Enhance Treatment of Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protinsky, Howard; Sparks, Jennifer; Flemke, Kimberly

    2001-01-01

    Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) as a clinical technique may enhance treatment effectiveness when applied in couple therapy that is emotionally and experientially oriented. Clinical experience indicates EMDR-based interventions are useful for accessing and reprocessing intense emotions in couple interactions. EMDR can amplify

  2. Aneurysmal wall enhancement and perianeurysmal edema after endovascular treatment of unruptured cerebral aneurysms.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Su, I-Chang

    2014-06-01

    Perianeurysmal edema and aneurysm wall enhancement are previously described phenomenon after coil embolization attributed to inflammatory reaction. We aimed to demonstrate the prevalence and natural course of these phenomena in unruptured aneurysms after endovascular treatment and to identify factors that contributed to their development.

  3. Duration of wrinkle correction following repeat treatment with Juvderm hyaluronic acid fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stacy R; Jones, Derek; Thomas, Jane A; Murphy, Diane K; Beddingfield, Frederick C

    2010-12-01

    Many patients elect to have repeat treatments with hyaluronic acid dermal fillers to maintain wrinkle correction, but the clinical performance of these products after repeat treatments has not been formally assessed. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Juvderm injectable gel (Juvderm Ultra, Juvderm Ultra Plus, and Juvderm 30) through 1 year after repeat treatment of nasolabial folds (NLFs) that were previously treated with Juvderm or Zyplast 6-9 months prior to the repeat treatment. Upon completion of the pivotal IDE clinical trial for Juvderm, five of the original 11 study sites were selected to participate in an extended follow-up evaluation, and a total of 80 subjects were enrolled. For the Juvderm-treated NLFs in each treatment group, the median injection volume was 1.5-1.6 mL for initial treatment but only 0.5-0.6 mL for the repeat treatment (p 24 weeks) and 0.7-0.9 (mild) at 4 weeks after repeat treatment. At 48 weeks post-repeat treatment, the mean NLF scores were 1.1-1.3 (mild), and 78-90% of subjects were considered responders (?1 point improvement). Thus, subjects sustained a total of 18-21 months of wrinkle correction with a repeat treatment at 6-9 months and needed substantially less filler (60% less) for repeat treatment than for initial treatment, indicating that retreatment at this timepoint may be beneficial to patients. PMID:20936295

  4. Structural transformation and field emission enhancement of carbon nanofibers by energetic argon plasma post-treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (CNFs) grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) were transformed into cone-shaped nanostructures after treatment by argon (Ar) plasma. Significant enhancement of field emission characteristics of the post-treated CNFs has been achieved. Analysis by electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) suggests that the structural transformation is a result of a cosputtering/deposition process by energetic plasma ions. The enhancements can be attributed to the combining effects of an additional Si/C layer coverage, catalytic nanoparticles removal and the sharpening of CNFs tips. The argon plasma post-treatment processes developed here can be easily extended to in situ PECVD processes for fabricating CNFs based emitters

  5. Titania doped triaxial porcelain: Enhancement of strength by controlled heat treatment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sunipa Bhattacharyya; Swapan Kumar Das; Kausik Dana; Nirendra Krishna Mitra

    2007-06-01

    Titania doped vitrified triaxial porcelain samples were subjected to controlled heat treatment at different temperatures of 600, 800 and 1000°C with a specific heating schedule. The results revealed that flexural strength of 800°C heat treated sample was significantly enhanced to 60 MPa from its original value of 40 MPa. XRD pattern revealed the formation of mullite in the system both before and after heat treatment and the differences in their growth was ascertained through SEM analysis. The present heat treatment process may be useful to produce high strength porcelain body from a common triaxial system.

  6. Enhancement of Field Emission Properties of Carbon Nanotubes by ECR-Plasma Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Javid Ali; Avshish Kumar; Samina Husain; Shama Parveen; Renu Choithrani; Mohammad Zulfequar; Harsh; Mushahid Husain

    2014-01-01

    We report a significant improvement in electron field emission property of carbon nanotubes film by using an electron cyclotron resonance plasma treatment. Our research results reveal that plasma treatment can modify the surface morphology and enhance the field emission characteristics of carbon nanotubes. Raman spectra indicate that plasma treated CNTs sample has lesser defects. Before plasma treatment, low current density of 6.5 mA/cm2 at 3.0 V/μm and at a high turn-on field Eto of 2.4 V/μm...

  7. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} enhances fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joo-Young; Hashizaki, Hikari; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Sakamoto, Tomoya; Takahashi, Nobuyuki [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kawada, Teruo, E-mail: fat@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes and GPDH activity in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation also increased insulin-dependent glucose uptake in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation did not affect lipid accumulation in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased fatty acid oxidation through induction of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in human adipocytes. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) is a key regulator for maintaining whole-body energy balance. However, the physiological functions of PPAR{alpha} in adipocytes have been unclarified. We examined the functions of PPAR{alpha} using human multipotent adipose tissue-derived stem cells as a human adipocyte model. Activation of PPAR{alpha} by GW7647, a potent PPAR{alpha} agonist, increased the mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes such as PPAR{gamma}, adipocyte-specific fatty acid-binding protein, and lipoprotein lipase and increased both GPDH activity and insulin-dependent glucose uptake level. The findings indicate that PPAR{alpha} activation stimulates adipocyte differentiation. However, lipid accumulation was not changed, which is usually observed when PPAR{gamma} is activated. On the other hand, PPAR{alpha} activation by GW7647 treatment induced the mRNA expression of fatty acid oxidation-related genes such as CPT-1B and AOX in a PPAR{alpha}-dependent manner. Moreover, PPAR{alpha} activation increased the production of CO{sub 2} and acid soluble metabolites, which are products of fatty acid oxidation, and increased oxygen consumption rate in human adipocytes. The data indicate that activation of PPAR{alpha} stimulates both adipocyte differentiation and fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes, suggesting that PPAR{alpha} agonists could improve insulin resistance without lipid accumulation in adipocytes. The expected effects of PPAR{alpha} activation are very valuable for managing diabetic conditions accompanied by obesity, because PPAR{gamma} agonists, usually used as antidiabetic drugs, induce excessive lipid accumulation in adipocytes in addition to improvement of insulin resistance.

  8. Anaerobic waste water treatment: influencing parameters on the acid formation of citric acid production waste - investigation in lab scale and on a large treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the biochemical background of anaerobic waste water treatment processes and on the kinetic criteria the problems of acid formation in one and two stage fermentations are discussed. Chemical analytics play an important role on the control of anaerobic processes. In a separate chapter the significance of different parameters and their application for the control of acidification processes is discussed. Of special importance is an early information on process disturbances and considerations concerning the balancing of the relevant processes. Analytical problems that occur in practice are also dealt with. The practical experience with the large scale wastewater treatment plant, where the described procedures were applied are the main purpose of the thesis. The main influencing parameters on both the lab scale and large scale processes are compared and the influence of important process variables like temperature, pH, load, waste water composition and addition of aerobic and anaerobic sludges on the acid formation is investigated. The results of the work are discussed and compared with results from the literature. In addition a mathematical model dealing with the main pH-dependent equilibrium conditions for acidification reactions was developed on basis of existing models for anaerobic waste water treatment processes. (author)

  9. Platelet-Rich Plasma in Treatment of Zoledronic Acid-Induced Bisphosphonate-related Osteonecrosis of the Jaws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkarat, Farzin; Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein; Jahanbani, Jahanfar; Sepehri, Dena; Kahali, Roozbeh; Nematollahi, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) is a well-known challenging entity warranting management. Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) plays an important role in bone biology by enhancing bone repair and regeneration. Objectives: The aim of this animal study was to evaluate the effects of PRP on zoledronic acid-induced BRONJ. Materials and Methods: Seven rats were given 0.04 mg Zoledronic acid intravenously once a week for five weeks. Two weeks later, the animals underwent extraction of their first lower molars, bilaterally. After clinical confirmation of the osteonecrosis, PRP was injected randomly into one of the extraction sockets of each rat. Three weeks later, all rats were sacrificed in order to obtain histological sections. The analysis of epithelialization was performed by McNamars test, and the analysis of osteogenesis and angiogenesis was performed by the Wilcoxon Sign Rank test. P value was set at 0.05. Results: We found no significant differences between the two groups regarding the amount of epithelialization, angiogenesis or sequestrum formation (P > 0.05), but a significant difference was seen between the two groups regarding the amount of existing vital bone (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Our study demonstrates positive results (preservation or regeneration of bone) using PRP in treatment of BRONJ. Although PRP may enhance osseous regeneration, long-term follow-ups are required to confirm its benefits. PMID:25032151

  10. Disruption of Crosstalk Between the Fatty Acid Synthesis and Proteasome Pathways Enhances Unfolded Protein Response Signaling and Cell Death

    OpenAIRE

    Little, Joy L.; Wheeler, Frances B.; Koumenis, Constantinos; Kridel, Steven J.

    2008-01-01

    Fatty Acid Synthase (FASN) is the terminal enzyme responsible for fatty acid synthesis and is upregulated in tumors of various origins to facilitate their growth and progression. Because of several reports linking the fatty acid synthase and proteasome pathways, we asked whether FASN inhibitors could combine with bortezomib, the FDA-approved proteasome inhibitor, to amplify cell death. Indeed, bortezomib treatment augmented sub-optimal FASN inhibitor concentrations to reduce clonogenic surviv...

  11. Chromate enhanced visible light driven TiO2 photocatalytic mechanism on Acid Orange 7 photodegradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: Photocatalysis of Cr(VI) and TiO2 were studied by ESR analysis on DMPO-OH signals. Mechanism of Cr(VI)-enhanced by visible light was different from that by UV. O2 adsorbed on TiO2 surfaces could react with Cr(VI) to lower photoenergy needed. Even by UV, no TiO2 photocatalysis was observed without O2 solution. Visible light and Cr(VI) redox reaction could activate TiO2 and would yield OH. - Abstract: When hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is added to a TiO2 photocatalytic reaction, the decolorization and mineralization efficiencies of azo dyes Acid Orange 7 (AO7) are enhanced even though the mechanism is unclear. This study used 5,5-dimethyl-L-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) as the scavenger and the analysis of Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) to investigate this enhancement effect by observing the hydroxyl radical (OH) generation of the Cr(VI)/TiO2 system under UV and visible light (Vis) irradiation. With Cr(VI), the decolorization efficiencies were approximately 95% and 62% under UV and Vis, and those efficiencies were 25% less in the absence of Cr(VI). The phenomena of the DMPO-OH signals during the ESR analysis under Vis 405 and 550 nm irradiation were obviously the enhancement effects of Cr(VI) in aerobic conditions. In anoxic conditions, the catalytic effects of Cr(VI) could not be achieved due to the lack of a redox reaction between Cr(VI) and the adsorbed oxygen at the oxygen vacancy sites on the TiO2 surfaces. The results suggest that by introducing the agents of redox reactions such as chromate ions, we could lower the photoenergy of TiO2 needed and allow Vis irradiation to activate photocatalysis

  12. Contrast Enhancement on CT Following Renal Cryoablation Does It Represent Treatment Failure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tommy Kjrgaard; straat, yvind; Andersen, Gratien; Hyer, Sren; Borre, Michael

    Aim: Renal cryoablation is a valid treatment option for localized pT1a renal cancer. Treatment success is typically defined as absence of contrast enhancement (CE) on follow-up imaging. We investigate the development of lesions that demonstrate CE on follow-up CT after renal cryoablation. Materials...... and methods: A retrospective review of laparoscopic and percutaneous cryoablation procedures from 2005 to 2012 was conducted. A total of 113 patients with a localized pT1a biopsy verified malignant renal lesion was identified. Of these, 34 patients (12 females and 22 males) experienced postoperative...... interventions were not uncommon. As there are no clear-cut criteria for monitoring treatment failure, careful evaluation by an experienced radiologist and urologist is recommend. The significance of delayed contrast enhancement is not clearly evident and needs further investigation....

  13. Enhanced external counter pulsation in treatment of refractory angina pectoris: two year outcome and baseline factors associated with treatment failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pettersson Thomas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enhanced external counter pulsation (EECP is a non-invasive treatment option for patients with refractory angina pectoris ineligible to further traditional treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of EECP on patients at a Scandinavian medical centre and to investigate if outcome can be predicted by analysing baseline factors. Methods 86 consecutive patients (70 male, 16 female were treated with EECP and followed for two years post treatment. Canadian cardiovascular society (CCS class was analysed, and medication and adverse clinical events were researched prior to EECP, at the end of the treatment, and at six, 12 and 24 months thereafter. Patients responding to therapy by improving at least one CCS class were compared with those who failed to respond. Any differences in background factors were recorded and analysed. Results 79% of the patients responded to therapy by improving at least one CCS class. In general, the CCS class improved by one class after EECP treatment (3.05 before versus 2.14 after treatment. A total of 61.5% of the initial responders showed sustained improvement at the 12 month follow-up while 29% presented sustained improvement after 24 months. Treatment was most effective among patients suffering from CCS class III-IV angina pectoris, while patients suffering from CCS class II angina pectoris improved transiently but failed to show sustained improvement after the 12 month follow-up. Diabetes mellitus and calcium channel antagonists were more common among the non-responders (p Conclusion This study confirms the safety and efficiency of EECP as a treatment option for patients suffering from refractory angina pectoris. The therapy is most beneficial in patients suffering from severe angina (CCS III-IV while sustained response to therapy could not be verified among patients suffering from CCS class II angina pectoris.

  14. Evaluation of continuous 4 day exposure to peracetic acid as a treatment for Ichthyophthirius multifiliis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The parasitic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infests all species of freshwater fish and can cause severe economic losses in fish breeding. The most effective treatment, malachite green, has been banned in Europe and North America for use in food-fish production. Peracetic acid (PAA) was foun...

  15. COMPOST-FREE BIOREACTOR TREATMENT OF ACID ROCK DRAINAGE - TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program, an evaluation of the compost-free bioreactor treatment of acid rock drainage (ARD) from the Aspen Seep was conducted at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site located in a remote, high altitude area of Alpine Co...

  16. COMPOST-FREE BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF ACID ROCK DRAINAGE, TECHNICAL EVALUATION BULLETIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program, an evaluation of the compost-free bioreactor treatment of acid rock drainage (ARD) from the Aspen Seep was conducted at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site located in a remote, high altitude area of Alpine Co...

  17. COMPOST-FREE BIOREACTOR TREATMENT OF ACID ROCK DRAINAGE LEVIATHAN MINE, CALIFORNIA INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program, an evaluation of the compost-free bioreactor treatment of acid rock drainage (ARD) from the Aspen Seep was conducted at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site located in a remote, high altitude area of Alpine Co...

  18. Sanitizing with peracetic acid (PAA)- An alternative treatment to use in aquaculture ...?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because of the lack of approved treatments for fish disease, disinfectants were tested to treat fish pathogens. One of these substances is peracetic acid (PAA). PAA is an agent used for disinfection in aquaculture, but it must be investigated thoroughly in order to mitigate diseases without harmful ...

  19. Comparative study of 15% TCA peel versus 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Puri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemical peels are the mainstay of a cosmetic practitioner?s armamentarium because they can be used to treat some skin disorders and can provide aesthetic benefit. Objectives: To compare 15% TCA peel and 35% glycolic acid peel for the treatment of melasma. Material and Methods: We selected 30 participants of melasma aged between 20 and 50 years from the dermatology outpatient department and treated equal numbers with 15% TCA and 35% glycolic acid. Results: Subjective response as graded by the patient showed good or very good response in 70% participants in the glycolic acid group and 64% in the TCA group. Conclusions: There was statistically insignificant difference in the efficacy between the two groups for the treatment of melasma.

  20. Endoplasmic reticulum-located PDAT1-2 from castor bean enhances hydroxy fatty acid accumulation in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Go, Young Sam; Jung, Jin Hee; Suh, Mi-Chung; Kim, Jong Bum

    2011-06-01

    Ricinoleic acid (12-hydroxy-octadeca-9-enoic acid) is a major unusual fatty acid in castor oil. This hydroxy fatty acid is useful in industrial materials. This unusual fatty acid accumulates in triacylglycerol (TAG) in the seeds of the castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), even though it is synthesized in phospholipids, which indicates that the castor plant has an editing enzyme, which functions as a phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT) that is specific to ricinoleic acid. Transgenic plants containing fatty acid ?12-hydroxylase encoded by the castor bean FAH12 gene produce a limited amount of hydroxy fatty acid, a maximum of around 17% of TAGs present in Arabidopsis seeds, and this unusual fatty acid remains in phospholipids of cell membranes in seeds. Identification of ricinoleate-specific PDAT from castor bean and manipulation of the phospholipid editing system in transgenic plants will enhance accumulation of the hydroxy fatty acid in transgenic seeds. The castor plant has three PDAT genes; PDAT1-1 and PDAT2 are homologs of PDAT, which are commonly found in plants; however, PDAT1-2 is newly grouped as a castor bean-specific gene. PDAT1-2 is expressed in developing seeds and localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, similar to FAH12, indicating its involvement in conversion of ricinoleic acid into TAG. PDAT1-2 significantly enhances accumulation of total hydroxy fatty acid up to 25%, with a significant increase in castor-like oil, 2-OH TAG, in seeds of transgenic Arabidopsis, which is an identification of the key gene for oilseed engineering in production of unusual fatty acids. PMID:21659329

  1. Pulsed electric field treatment enhanced stilbene content in Graciano, Tempranillo and Grenache grape varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Alfaro, Isabel; González-Arenzana, Lucía; López, Noelia; Santamaría, Pilar; López, Rosa; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa

    2013-12-15

    The purpose of this paper was to study the effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on the stilbene content of three grape varieties. For this purpose, four different PEF treatments were applied using a continuous system over three varieties, Graciano, Tempranillo and Grenache, destemmed and crushed. In addition, the influence of PEF on their physicochemical composition was studied. PEF treatments did not affect the pH or total acidity of Graciano, however, musts from Tempranillo and Grenache had higher pH values and lower total acidity. In the three varieties, all treatments resulted in an increase of potassium content, deeper colour intensity and total polyphenol index and lower tonality, more pronounced in the treatments with higher time and energy. The stilbene content of the must significantly increased with respect to the control. This increase depended on the variety and the treatment applied. Tempranillo increased up 200% the total stilbene concentration, Grenache 60% and Graciano 50%. For the three varieties, the treatment with the highest time and energy was the most effective on the total stilbene extraction. These results indicate that PEF could be a suitable technology for obtaining musts with deeper colour and higher phenolic content, including resveratrol and piceid. PMID:23993546

  2. Addition of alkali to the hydrothermal-mechanochemical treatment of Eucalyptus enhances its enzymatic saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Maki; Endo, Takashi

    2014-02-01

    The effects of alkali on hydrothermal-mechanochemical treatment (hydrothermal treatment combined with wet-milling) were examined with the aim of improving pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass before enzymatic saccharification. After enzymatic saccharification, the highest glucose yield was obtained by autoclaving at 170C in the presence of 20% NaOH per substrate weight. The wood fiber was unraveled into finer nanofibers by hydrothermal-mechanochemical treatment, thus increasing the specific surface area of the substrate from 11 to 132m(2)/g. Adding 20% NaOH to the treatment further increased the specific surface area of the already fibrillated substrate by 76% (232m(2)/g) due to lignin removal and ester bond cleavage between lignin and hemicellulose. This increase in specific surface area was closely related to the increase in enzymatic digestibility; therefore, NaOH addition may have enhanced the effect of hydrothermal-mechanochemical treatment. PMID:24378778

  3. Effect of retarded acid treatment on limestone hydro mechanical properties, a multi scale approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinsmeister, L.; Dautriat, J.; Dimanov, A.; Raphanel, J.; Bornert, M.; Gland, N.

    2012-04-01

    CO2 geological storage is considered as the most effective way to prevent CO2 release into atmosphere and to reduce consecutive greenhouse effect. CO2 injection implies geochemical reactions between the reactive brine and in situ formations, leading to modification of their petrophysical and geomechanical properties. The evolutions of these properties, related to sample alteration, are studied following a multi-scale approach. Carbonate samples are subjected to retarded alteration, using a thermally activated acid, which technique ensures homogeneous increase of sample porosity and mimics long-term CO2 effects on host rocks. Firstly, the alteration impact on the evolution of flow properties related to microstructural changes is studied at successive levels of alteration by classical petrophysical measurements of porosity and permeability (including NMR, mercury porosimetry and laser diffraction) and by observations of microstructures on thin sections and by SEM. Secondly, the mechanical properties of samples are investigated by classical macroscopic triaxial and uniaxial tests. The evolutions of the mechanical properties are discussed in terms of the structural modifications. The macroscopic tests indicate that the alteration weakens the material, owing to the decrease of elastic moduli and Uniaxial Compressive Strengths, from 29MPa to 19MPa after 6 cycles of acid treatments. The study is further complemented by full (mechanical) field measurements, performed by coupling mechanical tests and Digital Image Correlation (DIC). This technique allows for continuous quantitative micro-mechanical description of sample by defining precisely the history of the deformation and the localisation processes during the compression. This technique was applied on both intact and altered materials and at different scales of observation: (i) cm-scale samples were compressed in a classical load frame and imaged by optical devices, (ii) mm-scale samples were loaded with a mini compression rig fitted within a Scanning Electron Microscope. At the macroscale and for the intact sample, a diffuse accommodation of the deformation is observed during the elastic regime, followed by sudden failure propagation after the peak stress. Conversely, the altered samples exhibit much stronger deformation levels, related to strain localization events. The latter result in locally non monotonous stress-strain curves well before macroscopic failure. At the microscale and for the intact sample, the deformation is mostly accommodated within the inter-granular pores. In contrast, the altered samples show a gradual damage, characterized by nucleation at the grain contacts and propagation of microcracks within the grains. The DIC results suggest that besides the overall increase of porosity, the dissolution processes enhance the local heterogeneities of the porous network, which phenomenon further increases the weakening of the materials.

  4. Enhancement of lipid production and fatty acid profiling in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CC1010 for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpagam, R; Preeti, R; Ashokkumar, B; Varalakshmi, P

    2015-11-01

    Lipid from microalgae is one of the putative oil resources to facilitate the biodiesel production during this era of energy dissipation and environmental pollution. In this study, the key parameters such as biomass productivity, lipid productivity and lipid content were evaluated at the early stationary phase of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CC1010 cultivated in nutrient starved (nitrogen, phosphorous), glucose (0.05%, 0.1%, 0.15% and 0.2%) and vitamin B12 supplementation (0.001%, 0.002% and 0.003%) in Tris-Acetate-Phosphate (TAP) medium. The lipid content in nitrogen starved media was 61% which is 2.34 folds higher than nutrient sufficient TAP medium. Glucose supplementation has lead to proportional increase in biomass productivity with the increasing concentration of glucose whereas vitamin B12 supplementations had not shown any influence in lipid and biomass production. Further, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling of C. reinhardtii, CC 1010 has revealed more than 80% of total SFA (saturated fatty acid) and MUFA (mono unsaturated fatty acid) content. Quality checking parameters of biodiesel like cetane number, saponification value, iodine number and degree of unsaturation were analyzed and the biodiesel fuel properties were found to be appropriate as per the international standards, EN 14214 and ASTM D6751. Conclusively, among all the treatments, nitrogen starvation with 0.1% glucose supplementation had yielded high lipid content in C. reinhardtii, CC 1010. PMID:25838071

  5. Retinoic acid enhances skeletal muscle progenitor formation and bypasses inhibition by bone morphogenetic protein 4 but not dominant negative ?-catenin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamboulas Christina

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding stem cell differentiation is essential for the future design of cell therapies. While retinoic acid (RA is the most potent small molecule enhancer of skeletal myogenesis in stem cells, the stage and mechanism of its function has not yet been elucidated. Further, the intersection of RA with other signalling pathways that stimulate or inhibit myogenesis (such as Wnt and BMP4, respectively is unknown. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the molecular mechanisms by which RA enhances skeletal myogenesis and interacts with Wnt and BMP4 signalling during P19 or mouse embryonic stem (ES cell differentiation. Results Treatment of P19 or mouse ES cells with low levels of RA led to an enhancement of skeletal myogenesis by upregulating the expression of the mesodermal marker, Wnt3a, the skeletal muscle progenitor factors Pax3 and Meox1, and the myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs MyoD and myogenin. By chromatin immunoprecipitation, RA receptors (RARs bound directly to regulatory regions in the Wnt3a, Pax3, and Meox1 genes and RA activated a ?-catenin-responsive promoter in aggregated P19 cells. In the presence of a dominant negative ?-catenin/engrailed repressor fusion protein, RA could not bypass the inhibition of skeletal myogenesis nor upregulate Meox1 or MyoD. Thus, RA functions both upstream and downstream of Wnt signalling. In contrast, it functions downstream of BMP4, as it abrogates BMP4 inhibition of myogenesis and Meox1, Pax3, and MyoD expression. Furthermore, RA downregulated BMP4 expression and upregulated the BMP4 inhibitor, Tob1. Finally, RA inhibited cardiomyogenesis but not in the presence of BMP4. Conclusion RA can enhance skeletal myogenesis in stem cells at the muscle specification/progenitor stage by activating RARs bound directly to mesoderm and skeletal muscle progenitor genes, activating ?-catenin function and inhibiting bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signalling. Thus, a signalling pathway can function at multiple levels to positively regulate a developmental program and can function by abrogating inhibitory pathways. Finally, since RA enhances skeletal muscle progenitor formation, it will be a valuable tool for designing future stem cell therapies.

  6. SU-E-T-56: Brain Metastasis Treatment Plans for Contrast-Enhanced Synchrotron Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Iodine-enhanced radiotherapy is an innovative treatment combining the selective accumulation of an iodinated contrast agent in brain tumors with irradiations using monochromatic medium energy x-rays. The aim of this study is to compare dynamic stereotactic arc-therapy and iodineenhanced SSRT. Methods: Five patients bearing brain metastasis received a standard helical 3D-scan without iodine. A second scan was acquired 13 min after an 80 g iodine infusion. Two SSRT treatment plans (with/without iodine) were performed for each patient using a dedicated Monte Carlo (MC) treatment planning system (TPS) based on the ISOgray TPS. Ten coplanar beams (66 cm2, shaped with collimator) were simulated. MC statistical error objective was less than 5% in the 50% isodose. The dynamic arc-therapy plan was achieved on the Iplan Brainlab TPS. The treatment plan validation criteria were fixed such that 100% of the prescribed dose is delivered at the beam isocentre and the 70% isodose contains the whole target volume. The comparison elements were the 70% isodose volume, the average and maximum doses delivered to organs at risk (OAR): brainstem, optical nerves, chiasma, eyes, skull bone and healthy brain parenchyma. Results: The stereotactic dynamic arc-therapy remains the best technique in terms of dose conformation. Iodine-enhanced SSRT presents similar performances to dynamic arc-therapy with increased brainstem and brain parenchyma sparing. One disadvantage of SSRT is the high dose to the skull bone. Iodine accumulation in metastasis may increase the dose by 2030%, allowing a normal tissue sparing effect at constant prescribed dose. Treatment without any iodine enhancement (medium-energy stereotactic radiotherapy) is not relevant with degraded HDVs (brain, parenchyma and skull bone) comparing to stereotactic dynamic arc-therapy. Conclusion: Iodine-enhanced SSRT exhibits a good potential for brain metastasis treatment regarding the dose distribution and OAR criteria

  7. [Boswellic acids (components of frankincense) as the active principle in treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammon, H P T

    2002-01-01

    Preparations from the gum resin of Boswellia serrata have been used as a traditional remedy in Ayurvedic medicine in India for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Compounds from the gum with genuine antiinflammatory effects are pentacyclic triterpenes of the boswellic acid type. Boswellic acids inhibit the leukotriene biosynthesis in neutrophilic granulocytes by a non-redox, noncompetitive inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase. The effect is triggered by boswellic acids binding to the enzyme. Moreover certain boswellic acids have been described to inhibit elastase in leukocytes, to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis and to inhibit topoisomerases of leukoma- and glioma cell lines. A series of chronic inflammatory diseases are thought to be perpetuated by leukotrienes. In clinical trials promising results were observed in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, chronic colitis, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, bronchial asthma und peritumoral brains edemas. PMID:12244881

  8. Organic acid enhanced soil risk element (Cd, Pb and Zn) leaching and secondary bioconcentration in water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.) in the rhizofiltration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vese, Toms; Tlustos, Pavel; Szkov, Jirina

    2012-04-01

    The use of natural chelates to enhance risk element mobility combined with rhizofiltration by free floating macrophytes have not been thoroughly studied in recent years. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of organic acids in soil by conducting flushing experiments to enhance the mobility of Cd, Pb, and Zn from soil to solution. In addition, the bioaccumulation of Cd, Pb, and Zn, in water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.) will be studied as they affect the biomass in the rhizofiltration process. The results revealed that citric and tartaric acids mobilised the highest amount of all risk elements. In comparison to control, citric acid mobilised 71%, 181%, and 112% of Cd, Pb, and Zn while tartaric acid mobilised 70%, 155%, and 135% of Cd, Pb, and Zn respectively. The bioconcentration factor was approximately 2-5 times higher for juvenile plants than mature plants for all treatments as well as for both parts (leaves and roots). The risk element translocation into aerial parts decreased with increased time. Juvenile and mature plants proved a high accumulation potential and a 3 week growth period was observed as a sufficient time period to remove more than 80% of Cd, Pb, and Zn. PMID:22567715

  9. Electrochemical treatment of acidic aqueous ferrous sulfate and copper sulfate as models for acid mine drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunce, N.J.; Chartrand, M.; Keech, P. [University of Guelph, Guelph, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry & Biochemistry

    2001-07-01

    The present work describes electrolytic reduction of solutions of synthetic acid mine drainage, comprising FeSO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and CuSO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, in flow-through cells whose anode and cathode compartments were separated using ion exchange membranes. In the case of FeSO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at constant flow rate, the pH of the effluent from the catholyte increased progressively with current at a variety of cathodes, due to electrolytic reduction of H+ ions to elemental hydrogen. Near-quantitative removal of iron was achieved by sparging air into the catholyte effluent, thereby precipitating iron outside the electrochemical cell, and avoiding fouling of the electrodes. The anode reaction was the oxidation of water to O{sub 2}, a proton-releasing process. Using cation exchange membranes and sodium sulfate as the supporting electrolyte in the anode compartment, the efficiency of the process was compromised at high currents by transport of H{sup +} competitively with Na{sup +} from the anode to the cathode compartments. Higher efficiencies were obtained when anion exchange membranes were used, and in this case no additional supporting electrolyte other than dilute H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was needed, the net reaction being the electrochemically driven transfer of the elements of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} from the cathode to the anode compartments. Current efficiencies similar to 50% were achieved, the loss of efficiency being accounted for by ohmic heating of the solutions. In the case of CuSO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and anion exchange membranes at high currents, reduction of Cu{sup 2+} and H{sup +} ions and transport of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ions out of the catholyte caused unacceptably high potentials to be generated.

  10. Therapeutic value of serum uric acid levels increasing in the treatment of multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ton?ev Goran

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Uric acid was successfully used in both, prevention and treatment of the animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS. Recently it has been shown that inosine, a ribosylated precursor of uric acid, might be used to elevate serum uric acid levels in MS patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of oral inosine as a single drug treatment in patients with MS. Methods. We administered inosine orally to 32 MS patients from 2001-2004 year at doses from 1-2 g daily (given twice depending on the pretreatment serum uric acid levels. The mean follow-up interval was 37.696.55 months. The other 32 MS patients, without any treatment except for a relapse period (matched by age, sex, duration of disease and functional disability, were used as controls. The follow-up interval of these patients was 36.392.68 months. The neurological disability was evaluated by the Expanded Disability Status Scale score (EDSS. Results. During the observed period the treated MS patients were found to have the lower relapses rate than the non-treated MS patients (Chi-square test, p=0.001. None of the patients have showed any adverse effect of inosine treatment. The non-treated MS patients were found to have a higher increasing in the mean EDSS score than the treated ones (two-way ANOVA repeated measures/factor times, p=0.025. Conclusion. Our results suggested that the treatment approaches based on the elevation of serum uric acid levels might prove beneficial for some MS patients.

  11. Enhanced optoelectronic quality of perovskite thin films with hypophosphorous acid for planar heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Pathak, Sandeep; Sakai, Nobuya; Stergiopoulos, Thomas; Nayak, Pabitra K.; Noel, Nakita K.; Haghighirad, Amir A.; Burlakov, Victor M.; deQuilettes, Dane W.; Sadhanala, Aditya; Li, Wenzhe; Wang, Liduo; Ginger, David S.; Friend, Richard H.; Snaith, Henry J.

    2015-01-01

    Solution-processed metal halide perovskite semiconductors, such as CH3NH3PbI3, have exhibited remarkable performance in solar cells, despite having non-negligible density of defect states. A likely candidate is halide vacancies within the perovskite crystals, or the presence of metallic lead, both generated due to the imbalanced I/Pb stoichiometry which could evolve during crystallization. Herein, we show that the addition of hypophosphorous acid (HPA) in the precursor solution can significantly improve the film quality, both electronically and topologically, and enhance the photoluminescence intensity, which leads to more efficient and reproducible photovoltaic devices. We demonstrate that the HPA can reduce the oxidized I2 back into I?, and our results indicate that this facilitates an improved stoichiometry in the perovskite crystal and a reduced density of metallic lead. PMID:26615763

  12. Enhancing effect of dimethylamine in sulfuric acid nucleation in the presence of water – a computational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Loukonen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the hydration of sulfuric acid – ammonia and sulfuric acid – dimethylamine clusters using quantum chemistry. We calculated the formation energies and thermodynamics for clusters of one ammonia or one dimethylamine molecule together with 1–2 sulfuric acid and 0–5 water molecules. The results indicate that dimethylamine enhances the addition of sulfuric acid to the clusters much more efficiently than ammonia when the number of water molecules in the cluster is either zero, or greater than two. Further hydrate distribution calculations reveal that practically all dimethylamine-containing two-acid clusters will remain unhydrated in tropospherically relevant circumstances, thus strongly suggesting that dimethylamine assists atmospheric sulfuric acid nucleation much more effectively than ammonia.

  13. Adsorption and Vibrational Study of Folic Acid on Gold Nanopillar Structures Using Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, John J.; Rindzevicius, Tomas; Rozo, Ciro E.; Boisen, Anja

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study of adsorption and vibrational features of folic acid, using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). A gold-capped silicon nanopillar (Au NP) with a height of 600 nm and a width of 120 nm was utilized to study the vibrational features of FA molecules adsorbed on the...... nanopillars within the high electromagnetic field areas. The adsorption behaviour of folic acid and the band assignment of the main vibrations together with the optimized geometry of folic acid and folic acid in the presence of a cluster of 10 gold atoms were assessed using the density functional theory (B3......LYP(6-31G(d))) and the scalar relativistic effective core potential with a double-zeta basis set (LANL2DZ). The vibrations obtained from the solid-state folic acid and the folic acid on a gold cluster were in accordance with those observed experimentally. The analysis of the main vibrations indicated...

  14. Synthesis and characterization of electrochromic plate-like tungsten oxide films by acidic treatment of electrochemical anodized tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: Plate-like WO32H2O films were prepared by electrochemical anodization followed by acidic treatment. The enhanced electrochromic properties of the films were caused by their high surface area. The WO3 films demonstrated electrochemical stability after the first 100 cycles. - Abstract: Tungsten films on ITO glass were anodized into a porous amorphous WO3 film morphology at 60 V. The follow-up acidic treatment of the anodized WO3 films in H2SO4 solution transformed the morphology into plate-like WO32H2O. Glancing incident X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering spectra indicated that the growth of plate-like WO32H2O films was caused by a dissolutionprecipitation reaction in H2SO4 solution. The plate-like WO32H2O transformed into monoclinic WO3 by dehydration at 400 C, and it collapsed into a dense particle-like one at 500 C due to the strain of dehydration. Due to its highly porous plate-like morphology, the 400 C-annealed WO3 film has the highest optical modulation of 52% and coloration efficiency of 71 cm2/C at 633 nm

  15. UV Spectra of Amino Acid Immobilized at Nanoparticles Formation through Nanosphere Lithography (NSL) by Plasma Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modifying of nanospheres structures by plasma treatments to the fabricated nanoparticles arrays by Nanosphere Lithography (NSL) techniques to create Periodic Particles Arrays (PPAs) with different size, shape and orientation. Spectra of amino acid that immobilized to the nanoparticles arrays under Ultra Violet (UV) spectrums were studied. The PPAs with different sizes, shapes and orientation were fabricated by plasma treatment of 5 sec, 7 sec and 10 sec to the Polystyrene Nanosphere (PSN). Plasma treatment will effect to the PSN including etching part of the PSN to produce a much bigger channel to the single layer template of the PSN. Metal was deposited at interstitial sites between of the polymer balls and later removed by dissolving them in organic solvent, leaving a hexagonal pattern of metal structures at the interstitial sites. The nanoparticles immobilized with the standard amino acid, which later investigated under UV spectrums. The spectrums shows the possibilities use as biosensor devices.

  16. Surface plasma treatment of poly(caprolactone) micro, nano, and multiscale fibrous scaffolds for enhanced osteoconductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Deepthi; Shalumon, K T; Chennazhi, K P; Menon, Deepthy; Jayakumar, R

    2014-06-01

    In this study, poly(caprolactone) (PCL) was electrospun to nano, micro, and multiscale (micro-nano) fibers, which were then subjected to low pressure argon and nitrogen plasma treatment. The electrospun fibers contain microfibers of diameter 8-10??m and nanofibers of diameter 200-300?nm. Characterization of the plasma-treated fibers showed that treatment using less oxidizing gas like nitrogen and inert gas like argon functionalize the surface with polar groups that significantly modify the properties of the scaffold. Highly hydrophobic PCL fibrous scaffolds were rendered hydrophilic, with significantly improved biomineralization after the plasma treatment. While plasma treatment on micro and multiscale fibers enhanced their protein adsorption, cell attachment, spreading, elongation, and proliferation, nanofibers showed remarkably improved cell attachment. The applicability of plasma-treated electrospun fibers for differentiation of mesenchymal stem cell toward osteogenic lineage was also studied. Accelerated differentiation toward osteoblast lineage, with maximum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in 14 days was achieved in plasma-treated fibers. Another remarkable outcome was the enhanced ALP activity of the microfibers after plasma treatment, compared with multiscale and nanofibers. Alizarin red staining further confirmed the mineralization of the plasma-treated scaffolds, indicative of maturation of the differentiated cells. This work thus concentrates on harnessing the potential of plasma treatment, for improving the osteoconductivity of fibrous scaffolds, which could be used for bone tissue engineering/regenerative medicine. PMID:24377950

  17. Retinoic Acid Syndrome in Patients following the Treatment of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia with All-trans Retinoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Cheng Su

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Retinoic acid syndrome (RAS is a potentially lethal complication during alltransretinoic acid (ATRA treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia(APL. The incidence and risk factors have been shown to vary in differentseries. In this study we want to establish the incidence of RAS in our hospitaland try to elucidate factors that increase its risk.Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 102 patients diagnosed with APL betweenAugust 1993 and December 2007 at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital,Taiwan. All patients received ATRA as an induction regimen with or withoutconventional chemotherapy.Results: Eight of the 102 patients (7.8% experienced RAS which developed after amedian of 9 days (range: 2 to 23 days of ATRA treatment. Respiratory distressand fever were the most common presentations, occurring in 7 of 8patients (87.5%. Age, gender, morphological or molecular subtypes, an initialwhite blood cell (WBC count of more than 10 x 109/L and concurrentchemotherapy did not statistically attribute to the occurrence of RAS. Onepatient developed RAS manifesting with pulmonary hemorrhage but experienceda complete recovery after administration of high-dose dexamethasone.The RAS-related mortality was 12.5% (1 out of 8 patients.Conclusion: The incidence of RAS in this study was similar to those of other series withATRA and concurrent chemotherapy. Age, gender, morphological or molecularsubtypes, an initial leukocyte count of more than 10 x 109/L or the presenceof concurrent chemotherapy is not significantly associated with theoccurrence of the RAS.

  18. Efficacy of salicylic acid in the treatment of digital dermatitis in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, N.; Capion, N.

    2013-01-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is one of the most important causes of lameness in dairy cattle worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of salicylic acid in the treatment of the disease. A total of 201 DD lesions from 173 cows from four commercial dairy herds were evaluated at day 0 during routine hoof trimming and were allocated into two groups, namely, a control group given chlortetracycline spray, and a treatment group given 10 g of salicylic acid powder applied topically within a bandage. Pain, lesion size and clinical appearance (scored MO to M4) were evaluated on days 3, 14 and 34 post-treatment. A change to MO was defined as healing, while changes of M2 or M4 to M1 or M3 were classified as clinical improvements. Healing rates did not differ significantly between treatment groups at days 3 and 14. By day 34 the healing rate was fivefold better (P = 0.01) for the treatment vs. the control group, with healing rates of 13.6% and 3.1 respectively. By day 3, the rate of improvement was 2.5-fold better (P = 0.02) for the controls. By day 34 the overall positive effect (i.e. healing and improvement) was 1.75-fold better (P = 0.05) for the treatment group. Lesions from the control group were 2.2 times more likely (P = 0.09) to have a pain score equal to 2 by day 14. The proportion of lesions getting smaller by days 14 and 34 was 2.5 times higher (P <0.08) for the treatment vs. the control group. The findings suggest salicylic acid should be considered as an alternative to chlortetracycline for the treatment of DD as it appears more efficacious and would assist in reducing antibiotic use. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhancement of heat transfer for thermal energy storage application using stearic acid nanocomposite with multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A latent heat storage nanocomposite made of stearic acid (SA) and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) is prepared for thermal energy storage application. The thermal properties of the SA/MWCNT nanocomposite are characterized by SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and DSC (differential scanning calorimeter) analysis techniques, and the effects of different volume fractions of MWCNT on the heat transfer enhancement and thermal performance of stearic acid are investigated during the charging and discharging phases. The SEM analysis shows that the additive of MWCNT is uniformly distributed in the phase change material of stearic acid, and the DSC analysis reveals that the melting point of SA/MWCNT nanocomposite shifts to a lower temperature during the charging phase and the freezing point shifts to a higher temperature during the discharging phase when compared with the pure stearic acid. The experimental results show that the addition of MWCNT can improve the thermal conductivity of stearic acid effectively, but it also weakens the natural convection of stearic acid in liquid state. In comparison with the pure stearic acid, the charging rate can be decreased by about 50% while the discharging rate can be improved by about 91% respectively by using the SA/5.0% MWCNT nanocomposite. It appears that the MWCNT is a promising candidate for enhancing the heat transfer performance of latent heat thermal energy storage system. - Highlights: A nanocomposite made of stearic acid and multi-walled carbon nanotube is prepared for thermal energy storage application. Effects of multi-walled carbon nanotube on the thermal performance of the nanocomposite are investigated. Multi-walled carbon nanotube enhances the thermal conductivity but weakens the natural convection of stearic acid. Discharging/charging rates of stearic acid are increased/decreased by using multi-walled carbon nanotube

  20. Tangential Flow Ultrafiltration Allows Purification and Concentration of Lauric Acid-/Albumin-Coated Particles for Improved Magnetic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Zaloga

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs are frequently used for drug targeting, hyperthermia and other biomedical purposes. Recently, we have reported the synthesis of lauric acid-/albumin-coated iron oxide nanoparticles SEONLA-BSA, which were synthesized using excess albumin. For optimization of magnetic treatment applications, SPION suspensions need to be purified of excess surfactant and concentrated. Conventional methods for the purification and concentration of such ferrofluids often involve high shear stress and low purification rates for macromolecules, like albumin. In this work, removal of albumin by low shear stress tangential ultrafiltration and its influence on SEONLA-BSA particles was studied. Hydrodynamic size, surface properties and, consequently, colloidal stability of the nanoparticles remained unchanged by filtration or concentration up to four-fold (v/v. Thereby, the saturation magnetization of the suspension can be increased from 446.5 A/m up to 1667.9 A/m. In vitro analysis revealed that cellular uptake of SEONLA-BSA changed only marginally. The specific absorption rate (SAR was not greatly affected by concentration. In contrast, the maximum temperature Tmax in magnetic hyperthermia is greatly enhanced from 44.4 C up to 64.9 C by the concentration of the particles up to 16.9 mg/mL total iron. Taken together, tangential ultrafiltration is feasible for purifying and concentrating complex hybrid coated SPION suspensions without negatively influencing specific particle characteristics. This enhances their potential for magnetic treatment.

  1. Utilizing Intrinsic Properties of Polyaniline to Detect Nucleic Acid Hybridization through UV-Enhanced Electrostatic Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Partha Pratim; Gloria, Jared N; Amato, Dahlia N; Amato, Douglas V; Patton, Derek L; Murali, Beddhu; Flynt, Alex S

    2015-10-12

    Detection of specific RNA or DNA molecules by hybridization to "probe" nucleic acids via complementary base-pairing is a powerful method for analysis of biological systems. Here we describe a strategy for transducing hybridization events through modulating intrinsic properties of the electroconductive polymer polyaniline (PANI). When DNA-based probes electrostatically interact with PANI, its fluorescence properties are increased, a phenomenon that can be enhanced by UV irradiation. Hybridization of target nucleic acids results in dissociation of probes causing PANI fluorescence to return to basal levels. By monitoring restoration of base PANI fluorescence as little as 10(-11) M (10 pM) of target oligonucleotides could be detected within 15 min of hybridization. Detection of complementary oligos was specific, with introduction of a single mismatch failing to form a target-probe duplex that would dissociate from PANI. Furthermore, this approach is robust and is capable of detecting specific RNAs in extracts from animals. This sensor system improves on previously reported strategies by transducing highly specific probe dissociation events through intrinsic properties of a conducting polymer without the need for additional labels. PMID:26388289

  2. Ultrasensitive immunoassay for CA125 detection using acid site compound as signal and enhancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiang; Wang, Huan; Wu, Dan; Fan, Dawei; Zhang, Yong; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin

    2015-11-01

    A novel sensitive electrochemical immunosensor was proposed for detection of CA125 based on ferrocenecarboxylic acid (FA), HCl-doped polyaniline (H-PANI) and chitosan hydrochloride (CS-HCl), which were used as substrate materials to generate signal and to enlarge specific surface area. The composite of these three materials (acid center compound, FA@H-PANI@CS-HCl) can be connected by hydrogen (H) in each molecule. Ag@Co3O4 nanosheets were used in the immunosensor to amplify the antibody capacity and to enhance the sensitivity of the immunoassay. This kind of sensor was novel, concise and it is the first time to be used in the detection of CA125. The biosensor exhibited low detection limit (0.25pg/mL) and wide linear range (0.001-25ng/mL). The stability, selectivity and reproducibility were acceptable. Serum sample analysis proved that the proposed sensor owned well precision and it might be used in potential clinic testing application in the future. PMID:26452859

  3. Enhanced 5-aminolevulinic acid-gold nanoparticle conjugate-based photodynamic therapy using pulse laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hao; Yao, Cuiping; Wang, Jing; Chang, Zhennan; Zhang, Zhenxi

    2016-02-01

    The low bioavailability is a crucial limitation for the application of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in theranostics. In this research, 5-aminolevulinic acid and gold nanoparticle conjugates (ALA-GNPs) were synthesized to improve the bioavailability of ALA and to investigate the impact of ALA photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) in Hela cells. A 532 nm pulse laser and light-emitting diode (central wavelengths 502 nm) were jointly used as light sources in PDT research. The results show a 532 nm pulse laser can control ALA release from ALA-GNPs by adjusting the pulse laser dose. This laser control release may be attributed to the heat generation from GNPs under pulse laser irradiation, which indicates accurately adjusting the pulse laser dose to control the drug release in the cell interior can be considered as a new cellular surgery modality. Furthermore, the PDT results in Hela cells indicate the enhancement of ALA release by pulse laser before PDT can promote the efficacy of cell eradication in the light-emitting diode PDT (LED-PDT). This laser mediated drug release system can provide a new online therapy approach in PDT and it can be utilized in the optical monitor technologies based individual theranostics.

  4. Plasma treatment of electrodes significantly enhances the development of anodic electrochemically active biofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Plasma pre-treatment of electrodes produces chemical modifications at surface level. • Nitrogen and plasma treatment were studied before inoculation with a mixed microbial consortia. • Plasma treatment accelerates the current development in microbial bio-electrochemical systems. • Plasma enhances the initial attachment of cells. • After treatment, a mature electroactive biofilm is developed in half the time as blank electrodes. -- Abstract: Surface modifications of electrode materials are important for improved performance of microbial bio-electrochemical systems. Here, we studied the effect of pre-treating both glassy carbon and graphite felt electrodes with either an oxygen or a nitrogen plasma before reactor inoculation with a mixed microbial consortia. The plasma produces chemical modifications at the electrode surface level. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and water contact angle analysis showed that the plasma removes surface contamination, produces ion implantation and renders the hydrophobic surfaces highly hydrophilic. Plasma pre-treatment considerably accelerated the generation of a bio-electrochemical anodic current after inoculation. Nitrogen plasma pre-treatment yielded the best performance, followed closely by oxygen plasma. Plasma pre-treated electrodes reached a plateau of maximum current density twice as fast as untreated electrodes. Analysis of the current development profiles suggests that the plasma pre-treatment is neither producing a preferential attachment of certain types of bacteria over others nor accelerating the extracellular electron transfer rate. The results indicate that the plasma treatment considerably enhances the initial cell adhesion, which results in subsequently faster biofilm development. Plasma pre-treatment of electrodes is an inexpensive, fast, safe and straightforward technique to achieve more rapid start-up of bio-electrochemical processes

  5. Critical appraisal of the use of alpha lipoic acid (thioctic acid in the treatment of symptomatic diabetic polyneuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIlduff CE

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Courtney E McIlduff, Seward B RutkoveDepartment of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USABackground: The most common of the neuropathies associated with diabetes mellitus, diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN is a syndrome of diffuse, length-dependent, symmetric nerve dysfunction. The condition is linked with substantial morbidity, frequent healthcare utilization, and compromised quality of life due to related discomfort. Correspondingly, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and opioids are regularly prescribed with the goal of pain control. However, the agents rarely provide complete pain relief and fail to address progression of the disorder. Whereas strict blood glucose control can slow the onset and worsening of DSPN, near-normoglycemia is not easily attainable. Evidence implicating oxidative processes in the pathogenesis of DSPN offers one potentially important therapeutic avenue. Due to its properties as a potent antioxidant, alpha lipoic acid (ALA could mitigate the development of DSPN and attenuate resultant symptoms and signs. Approved for treatment of DSPN in Germany, the agent is not more widely used due to uncertainty about its efficacy and reported adverse effects. Here we review the effectiveness and tolerability of ALA in the treatment of symptomatic DSPN.Methods: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for English-language literature on the topic. Randomized, blinded studies comparing parenteral and oral ALA with placebo in the treatment of peripheral neuropathy in diabetic adults were selected. Analysis included studies with a level of evidence of at least 2b.Results: The current appraisal summarizes data from 1160 participants in the ALADIN, SYDNEY, ORPIL, SYDNEY 2, and ALADIN III trials. In four of the studies, ALA provided significant improvement in manifestations of DSPN.Conclusion: Treatment with ALA 600 mg iv daily for 3 weeks represents a well-tolerated and effective therapy for DSPN. An oral dose of 600 mg daily administered for up to 5 weeks could offer benefits in symptoms and signs of DSPN without significant side effects.Keywords: alpha lipoic acid, antioxidant, diabetes mellitus, neuropathy, thioctic acid

  6. Endohyphal bacterium enhances production of indole-3-acetic acid by a foliar fungal endophyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Michele T; Gunatilaka, Malkanthi K; Wijeratne, Kithsiri; Gunatilaka, Leslie; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Numerous plant pathogens, rhizosphere symbionts, and endophytic bacteria and yeasts produce the important phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), often with profound effects on host plants. However, to date IAA production has not been documented among foliar endophytes -- the diverse guild of primarily filamentous Ascomycota that live within healthy, above-ground tissues of all plant species studied thus far. Recently bacteria that live within hyphae of endophytes (endohyphal bacteria) have been detected, but their effects have not been studied previously. Here we show not only that IAA is produced in vitro by a foliar endophyte (here identified as Pestalotiopsis aff. neglecta, Xylariales), but that IAA production is enhanced significantly when the endophyte hosts an endohyphal bacterium (here identified as Luteibacter sp., Xanthomonadales). Both the endophyte and the endophyte/bacterium complex appear to rely on an L-tryptophan dependent pathway for IAA synthesis. The bacterium can be isolated from the fungus when the symbiotic complex is cultivated at 36C. In pure culture the bacterium does not produce IAA. Culture filtrate from the endophyte-bacterium complex significantly enhances growth of tomato in vitro relative to controls and to filtrate from the endophyte alone. Together these results speak to a facultative symbiosis between an endophyte and endohyphal bacterium that strongly influences IAA production, providing a new framework in which to explore endophyte-plant interactions. PMID:24086270

  7. Peracetic acid-ionic liquid pretreatment to enhance enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uju; Abe, Kojiro; Uemura, Nobuyuki; Oshima, Toyoji; Goto, Masahiro; Kamiya, Noriho

    2013-06-01

    To enhance enzymatic saccharification of pine biomass, the pretreatment reagents peracetic acid (PAA) and ionic liquid (IL) were validated in single reagent pretreatments or combination pretreatments with different sequences. In a 1h saccharification, 5-25% cellulose conversion was obtained from the single pretreatment of PAA or IL. In contrast, a marked enhancement in conversion rates was achieved by PAA-IL combination pretreatments (45-70%). The PAA followed by IL (PAA+IL) pretreatment sequence was the most effective for preparing an enzymatic digestible regenerated biomass with 250-fold higher glucose formation rates than untreated biomass and 2- to 12-fold higher than single pretreatments with PAA or IL alone. Structural analysis confirmed that this pretreatment resulted in biomass with highly porous structural fibers associated with the reduction of lignin content and acetyl groups. Using the PAA+IL sequence, biomass loading in the pretreatment step can be increased from 5% to 15% without significant decrease in cellulose conversion. PMID:23612165

  8. Enhanced Photolysis of Nucleic Acid Monomers by Pyrophosphate in the Simulated Primitive Soup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongjiang, Wang; Zhifang, Chai; Xianming, Pan

    1999-05-01

    In our simulation of the photochemistry of the primitive soup, it was found that yield of chromophore loss of some nucleic acid bases, nucleosides and nucleotides [NA] undergoing ultraviolet radiation by medium pressure mercury lamp [MPML] was enhanced by pyrophosphate and triphosphate whether O2 is present or not. The yield of chromophore loss of guanosine, uracil, 5' CMP, and the derivatives of adenine and thymine was observed to rise with the increase of molar concentration of pyrophosphate in N2-saturated systems. In air-saturated samples, increase in yield of chromophore loss was observed when the concentration of pyrophosphate reaches 510-4 M, relative yield of chromophore loss (CLrel) coming to maximum in the range from 0.01 to 0.1 M, followed by a slight decline with the further increase of pyrophosphate concentration. The enhancement of photolysis of NA by pyrophosphate was due to the interaction between NA and pyrophosphate radicals photoionized by UV quanta of wavelength less than about 210 nm in the emission spectrum of a MPML. The relevance of this phenomenon to the origin of life has been discussed as well.

  9. Selection of enhanced antimicrobial activity posing lactic acid bacteria characterised by (GTG)5-PCR fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    alomskien?, Joana; Abraitien?, Asta; Jonkuvien?, Dovil?; Ma?ionien?, Irena; Repe?kien?, J?rat?

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was a detail evaluation of genetic diversity among the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains having an advantage of a starter culture in order to select genotypically diverse strains with enhanced antimicrobial effect on some harmfull and pathogenic microorganisms. Antimicrobial activity of LAB was performed by the agar well diffusion method and was examined against the reference strains and foodborne isolates of Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Typhimurium. Antifungal activity was tested against the foodborne isolates of Candida parapsilosis, Debaromyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Pichia guilliermondii, Yarowia lipolytica, Aspergillus brasiliensis, Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium herbarum, Penicillium chrysogenum and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. A total 40 LAB strains representing Lactobacillus (23 strains), Lactococcus (13 strains) and Streptococcus spp. (4 strains) were characterised by repetitive sequence based polymerase chain reaction fingerprinting which generated highly discriminatory profiles, confirmed the identity and revealed high genotypic heterogeneity among the strains. Many of tested LAB demonstrated strong antimicrobial activity specialised against one or few indicator strains. Twelve LAB strains were superior in suppressing growth of the whole complex of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. These results demonstrated that separate taxonomic units offered different possibilities of selection for novel LAB strains could be used as starter cultures enhancing food preservation. PMID:26139877

  10. Enhanced topical delivery of hyaluronic acid encapsulated in liposomes: A surface-dependent phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vzquez-Gonzlez, Martha L; Calpena, Ana C; Domnech, scar; Montero, M Teresa; Borrell, Jordi H

    2015-10-01

    In the present study, we investigated the release and permeation of hyaluronic acid (HA) encapsulated in liposomes when deposited onto two surfaces: cellulose, a model widely used for investigating transport of drugs; and human skin, a natural biointerface used for transdermal drug delivery. We prepared and characterised liposomes loaded with HA and liposomes incorporating two penetration enhancers (PEs): the non-ionic surfactant Tween 80, and Transcutol P, a solubilising agent able to mix with polar and non-polar solvents. In vitro and ex vivo permeation assays showed that PEs indeed enhance HA-release from liposomes. Since one of the possible mechanisms postulated for the action of liposomes on skin is related to its adsorption onto the stratum corneum (SC), we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) topography and force volume (FV) analysis to investigate the structures formed after deposition of liposome formulations onto the investigated surfaces. We explored the possible relationship between the formation of planar lipid structures on the surfaces and the permeation of HA. PMID:26142626

  11. Efficacy of hyaluronic acid in the treatment of chronic gingivitis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igi? Marija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Aim. Gingivitis is a common occurrence in children and may well be thought as a risk factor for the appearance and progression of the diseases of parodontal tissues. It is thus necessary to react in a timely and adequate fashion to prevent the disease to become serious and produce parodontopathy. The aim of the study was to establish the efficacy of hyaluronic acid in the treatment of chronic gingivitis in children. Methods. The study enrolled 130 children with permanent dentition. All of the examinees were divided into three groups: group I - 50 patients with chronic gingivitis in which only the basic treatment was applied; group II - 50 patients with chronic gingivitis in which hyaluronic acid was applied in addition to basic treatment; group III - 30 examinees with healthy gingiva (control group. Assessment of oral hygiene and status of the gingiva and parodontium was done using the appropriate indexes before and after the treatment. Inflammation of the gingiva was monitored by way of cytomorphometric studies. Results. The pretreatment values of the plaque index (PI were high: in the group I PI was 1.94; in the group II PI was 1.68. After the treatment, the PI value was reduced to null in both groups (PI = 0. In the group III PI was 0.17. The bleeding index (BI in the group I was 2.02 before and 0.32 after the treatment; the BI value in the group II was 1.74 before and 0.16 after the treatment. In the group III BI was 0. In the group I, the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN was 1.66 before and 0.32 after the treatment; in the group II, the CPITN value was 1.5 before and 0.24 after the treatment. In the group III, the CPITN value was 0. In the group I, the size of the nuclei of the stratified squamous epithelium of the gingiva was reduced, although not so much as the nuclear size in the group II of examinees. Conclusion. Basic treatment is able to successfully treat chronic gingivitis in children. The use of hyaluronic acid together with the basic treatment can markedly improve the treatment effect.

  12. Bile acid malabsorption investigated by selenium-75-homocholic acid taurine ((75)SeHCAT) scans : causes and treatment responses to cholestyramine in 298 patients with chronic watery diarrhoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghede, Mrta K; Schltter, Jacob Mrup

    2011-01-01

    The liver produces and secretes bile acids into the small intestine. In the small intestine, most of the bile acids are absorbed in the distal ileum with portal vein transportation back to the liver and resecretion (enterohepatic recycling). Increased spillover of bile acids from the small intestine into the colon (bile acid malabsorption) may affect the secretion of colonic water and electrolytes and result in watery diarrhoea. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of bile acid malabsorption and treatment responses to cholestyramine with (75)SeHCAT scanning among patients suffering from chronic watery diarrhoea.

  13. The Effect of Fiber Bleaching Treatment on the Properties of Poly(lactic acid/Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwah Rayung

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, biodegradable composites from poly(lactic acid (PLA and oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB fiber were prepared by melt blending method. Prior to mixing, the fiber was modified through bleaching treatment using hydrogen peroxide. Bleached fiber composite showed an improvement in mechanical properties as compared to untreated fiber composite due to the enhanced fiber/matrix interfacial adhesion. Interestingly, fiber bleaching treatment also improved the physical appearance of the composite. The study was extended by blending the composites with commercially available masterbatch colorant.

  14. The Effect of Fiber Bleaching Treatment on the Properties of Poly(lactic acid)/Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayung, Marwah; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Zainuddin, Norhazlin; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Razak, Nur Inani Abdul; Chieng, Buong Woei

    2014-01-01

    In this work, biodegradable composites from poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber were prepared by melt blending method. Prior to mixing, the fiber was modified through bleaching treatment using hydrogen peroxide. Bleached fiber composite showed an improvement in mechanical properties as compared to untreated fiber composite due to the enhanced fiber/matrix interfacial adhesion. Interestingly, fiber bleaching treatment also improved the physical appearance of the composite. The study was extended by blending the composites with commercially available masterbatch colorant. PMID:25153628

  15. Electron beam combined with hydrothermal treatment for enhancing the enzymatic convertibility of sugarcane bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, C. L.; Ribeiro, M. A.; Oikawa, H.; Mori, M. N.; Napolitano, C. M.; Galvo, C. A.

    2012-08-01

    The use of microbial cellulolytic enzymes is the most efficient process to liberate glucose from cellulose in biomass without the formation of fermentation inhibitors. A combination of pretreatment technologies is an alternative way to increase the access of enzymes to cellulose, and consequently, the conversion yield. In this way, the present study reports on the enzymatic hydrolysis of SCB submitted to three kinds of pretreatment: electron beam processing (EBP), and EBP followed by hydrothermal (TH) and diluted acid (AH) treatment. SCB samples were irradiated using a radiation dynamics electron beam accelerator, and then submitted to thermal and acid (0.1% sulfuric acid) hydrolysis for 40 and 60 min at 180 C. These samples were submitted to enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) using commercial preparations, including Celluclast 1.5 L and beta-glycosidase. The addition of diluted acid improved TH treatment allowing for a shorter application time. EBP with 50 kGy increased the enzymatic hydrolysis yield of cellulose by 20% after TH and 30% after AH.

  16. Oxidation of fatty acid may be enhanced by a combination of pomegranate fruit phytochemicals and acetic acid in HepG2 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ji Yeon; Ok, Elly; Kim, You Jin; Choi, Kyoung-Sook; Kwon, Oran

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether the combination of phytochemicals and acetic acid in the form of fruit vinegar provides an additive effect on changes of mRNA levels related to fatty acid oxidation in human hepatocyte (HepG2). Among the seven fruit vinegars (Rubuscoreanus, Opuntia, blueberry, cherry, red ginseng, mulberry, and pomegranate) studied, treatment of HepG2 with pomegranate vinegar (PV) at concentrations containing 1 mM acetic acid showed the highest in vitro potentiating effect on the mRNA ...

  17. Lanthanide-Dipicolinic Acid Coordination Driven Micelles with Enhanced Stability and Tunable Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junyou; de Kool, R H Marleen; Velders, Aldrik H

    2015-11-10

    Lanthanide-incorporated polymer micelles have been prepared driven by the lanthanide-dipicolinic acid (Ln-DPA) coordination. The terdentate DPA ligand is grafted to the PVP block of a diblock copolymer poly(4-vinylpyridine)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (P4VP48-b-PEO193). Upon addition of Eu(III) ions to a solution of the DPA16-g-P4VP48-b-PEO193 block copolymer, intermolecular cross-links form and the ligand-carrying blocks assemble, leading to the formation of micelles, stabilized by the hydrophilic PEO blocks. The DPA exhibits a dual function in this study. First, the chelate group strongly coordinates to Eu(III) in a three to one ratio, and leads to high stability of the formed micelles, as proven by light scattering and luminescence spectroscopy. Second, DPA acts as an antenna that transfers energy to the Eu(III) ion and dramatically enhances the luminescence emission. The Eu(III) emission is moreover most sensitive for local environment and allows to shine light on the internal structure of this class of self-assembled 36 nm size soft nanoparticles. With the same strategy gadolinium(III) can be incorporated providing micelles which show enhanced magnetic relaxation rates. Micelles capping a mixture of Eu(III) and Gd(III) show both enhanced luminescence emission and magnetic relaxation rates, and the functions can be tuned by regulating the mixing ratio of Eu(III) and Gd(III), showing great potential for developing multimodal imaging agents for diagnostic as well as therapeutic applications. PMID:26479961

  18. Non-invasive visualization of in vivo drug delivery of poly(L-glutamic acid) using contrast enhanced MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Furong; Ke, Tianyi; JEONG, EUN-KEE; Wang, Xuli; Sun, Yongen; Johnson, Melody; Lu, Zheng-Rong

    2006-01-01

    Biomedical imaging is valuable for non-invasive investigation of in vivo drug delivery with polymer conjugates. It can provide real-time information on pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and drug delivery efficiency of the conjugates. Non-invasive visualization of in vivo drug delivery of polymer conjugates with contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was studied with paramagnetically labeled poly(L-glutamic acid) in an animal tumor model. Poly(L-glutamic acid) is a biocompatible an...

  19. Phosphate Limitation for Enhanced Citric Acid Fermentation Using Aspergillus niger Mutant UV-M9 on Semi-pilot Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad-ur-Rehman

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, the Aspergillus niger mutant UV-M9 was evaluated using phosphate limitations for enhanced citric acid production. Of the three phosphate sources, K2HPO4 was found to be the best yielding 75.25 gl-1 of anhydrous citric acid. The sugar consumption was 112.5 gl-1 while dry cell mass produced was 18.00 gl-1. The mycelia were small pellets.

  20. ASPIRIN AND NICOTINIC ACID AS TWO FACES OF SAME COIN IN THE TREATMENT OF DYSLIPIDEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RK Mohamed Mutahar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Globally cardiovascular diseases are believed to be the no.1 cause of death. According to the current estimates of World Health Organisation, approximately one-third of all deaths (16.7 million people around the globe resulted from cardiovascular diseases. Eighty percent of these deaths were reported from low and middle income countries. The main intention of writing this review article is that, India being the second most highly populated country characterized by a majority of low and middle income population, the need for an effective treatment for this devastating disease both cost and efficacy wise is most desired. Since a long time, antidislipidemic agent nicotinic acid has been continuously under consideration to tackle the cardiovascular diseases by treating dyslipidemia. But its use has been limited due to its notorious yet harmless side effect of flushing. Now the focus of attention would be to use nicotinic acid by cleverly handling the flush. At this adjuncture the entry of acetyl salicylic acid (Aspirin has been taken to give the best result. No doubt the major intention to take aspirin (low dose with the combination of major drug nicotinic acid is to reduce nicotinic acid -induced flushing, but its associated properties or remedies as you may tell are more equally supportive to the very treatment of cardiovascular diseases itself. Hence it may be construed that aspirin and nicotinic acid are nothing but the two sides of the same coin in the treatment of dyslipidemia. Hence the hypothesis People with heart disease should be on aspirin anyway.