WorldWideScience
1

Enhanced blood compatibility of metallocene polyethylene subjected to hydrochloric acid treatment for cardiovascular implants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Blood compatibility of metallocene polyethylene (mPE) was investigated after modifying the surface using hydrochloric acid. Contact angle of the mPE exposed to HCl poses a decrease in its value which indicates increasing wettability and better blood compatibility. Surface of mPE analyzed by using FTIR revealed no significant changes in its functional groups after treatment. Furthermore, scanning electron microscope images supported the increasing wettability through the modifications like pit formations and etching on the acid rendered surface. To evaluate the effect of acid treatment on the coagulation cascade, prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were measured. Both PT and APTT were delayed significantly (P < 0.05) after 60 min exposure implying improved blood compatibility of the surfaces. Hemolysis assay of the treated surface showed a remarkable decrease in the percentage of lysis of red blood cells when compared with untreated surface. Moreover, platelet adhesion assay demonstrated that HCl exposed surfaces deter the attachment of platelets and thereby reduce the chances of activation of blood coagulation cascade. These results confirmed the enhanced blood compatibility of mPE after HCl exposure which can be utilized for cardiovascular implants like artificial vascular prostheses, implants, and various blood contacting devices. PMID:24955370

Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Mohandas, Hemanth; Sivakumar, Gunalan; Kasi, Palaniappan; Sudheer, Theertha; Avineri Veetil, Sruthi; Murugesan, Selvakumar; Supriyanto, Eko

2014-01-01

2

Enhanced Blood Compatibility of Metallocene Polyethylene Subjected to Hydrochloric Acid Treatment for Cardiovascular Implants  

OpenAIRE

Blood compatibility of metallocene polyethylene (mPE) was investigated after modifying the surface using hydrochloric acid. Contact angle of the mPE exposed to HCl poses a decrease in its value which indicates increasing wettability and better blood compatibility. Surface of mPE analyzed by using FTIR revealed no significant changes in its functional groups after treatment. Furthermore, scanning electron microscope images supported the increasing wettability through the modifications like pit...

Saravana Kumar Jaganathan; Hemanth Mohandas; Gunalan Sivakumar; Palaniappan Kasi; Theertha Sudheer; Sruthi Avineri Veetil; Selvakumar Murugesan; Eko Supriyanto

2014-01-01

3

Enhanced Photocatalytic Performance of ZnS for Reversible Amination of ?-oxo Acids by Hydrothermal Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

To understand how life could have originated on early Earth, it is essential to know what biomolecules and metabolic pathways are shared by extant organisms and what organic compounds and their chemical reaction channels were likely to have been primordially available during the initial phase of the formation of prebiotic metabolism. In a previous study, we demonstrated for the first time the reversible amination of ?-oxo acids on the surface of photo-illuminated ZnS. The sulfide mineral is a typical component at the periphery of submarine hydrothermal vents which has been frequently argued as a very attractive venue for the origin of life. In this work, in order to simulate more closely the precipitation environments of ZnS in the vent systems, we treated newly-precipitated ZnS with hydrothermal conditions and found that its photocatalytic power was significantly enhanced because the relative crystallinity of the treated sample was markedly increased with increasing temperature. Since the reported experimental conditions are believed to have been prevalent in shallow-water hydrothermal vents of early Earth and the reversible amination of ?-oxo acids is a key metabolic pathway in all extant life forms, the results of this work provide a prototypical model of the prebiotic amino acid redox metabolism. The amino acid dehydrogenase-like chemistry on photo-irradiated ZnS surfaces may advance our understanding of the establishment of archaic non-enzymatic metabolic systems.

Wang, Wei; Li, Qiliang; Liu, Xiaoyang; Yang, Yanqiang; Su, Wenhui

2012-08-01

4

Alkyl polyglucose enhancing propionic acid enriched short-chain fatty acids production during anaerobic treatment of waste activated sludge and mechanisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adding alkyl polyglucose (APG) into an anaerobic treatment system of waste activated sludge (WAS) was reported to remarkably improve the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), especially propionic acid via simultaneously accelerating solubilization and hydrolysis, enhancing acidification, inhibiting methanogenesis and balancing carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio of substrate. Not only the production of SCFAs, especially propionic acid, was significantly improved by APG, but also the feasible operation time was shortened. The SCFAs yield at 0.3 g APG per gram of total suspended solids (TSS) within 4 d was 2988 ± 60 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD) per liter, much higher than that those from sole WAS or sole WAS plus sole APG. The corresponding yield of propionic acid was 1312 ± 25 mg COD/L, 7.9-fold of sole WAS. Mechanism investigation showed that during anaerobic treatment of WAS in the presence of APG both the solubilization and hydrolysis were accelerated and the acidification was enhanced, while the methanogenesis was inhibited. Moreover, the activities of key enzymes involved in WAS hydrolysis and acidification were improved through the adjustment of C/N ratio of substrates with APG. The abundance of microorganisms responsible for organic compounds hydrolysis and SCFAs production was also observed to be greatly enhanced with APG via 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing analysis. PMID:25697695

Luo, Jingyang; Feng, Leiyu; Chen, Yinguang; Sun, Han; Shen, Qiuting; Li, Xiang; Chen, Hong

2015-04-15

5

Enhanced suppression of tumor growth by concomitant treatment of human lung cancer cells with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid and arsenic trioxide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The efficacy of arsenic trioxide (ATO) against acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and relapsed APL has been well documented. ATO may cause DNA damage by generating reactive oxygen intermediates. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, modulates gene and protein expression via histone-dependent or -independent pathways that may result in chromatin decondensation, cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis. We investigated whether ATO and SAHA act synergistically to enhance the death of cancer cells. Our current findings showed that combined treatment with ATO and SAHA resulted in enhanced suppression of non-small-cell lung carcinoma in vitro in H1299 cells and in vivo in a xenograft mouse model. Flow cytometric analysis of annexin V+ cells showed that apoptotic cell death was significantly enhanced after combined treatment with ATO and SAHA. At the doses used, ATO did not interfere with cell cycle progression, but SAHA induced p21 expression and led to G1 arrest. A Comet assay demonstrated that ATO, but not SAHA, induced DNA strand breaks in H1299 cells; however, co-treatment with SAHA significantly increased ATO-induced DNA damage. Moreover, SAHA enhanced acetylation of histone H3 and sensitized genomic DNA to DNase I digestion. Our results suggest that SAHA may cause chromatin relaxation and increase cellular susceptibility to ATO-induced DNA damage. Combined administration of SAHA and ATO may be an effective approach to the treatment of lung cancer. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATO and SAHA are therapeutic agents with different action modes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination of ATO and SAHA synergistically inhibits tumor cell growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SAHA loosens chromatin structure resulting in increased sensitivity to DNase I. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATO-induced DNA damage and apoptosis are enhanced by co-treatment with SAHA.

Chien, Chia-Wen [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 11490, Taiwan (China); Yao, Ju-Hsien [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Institute of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan (China); Chang, Shih-Yu [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Lee, Pei-Chih [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Institute of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan (China); Lee, Te-Chang, E-mail: bmtcl@ibms.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Institute of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan (China)

2011-11-15

6

Enhanced suppression of tumor growth by concomitant treatment of human lung cancer cells with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid and arsenic trioxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The efficacy of arsenic trioxide (ATO) against acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and relapsed APL has been well documented. ATO may cause DNA damage by generating reactive oxygen intermediates. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, modulates gene and protein expression via histone-dependent or -independent pathways that may result in chromatin decondensation, cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis. We investigated whether ATO and SAHA act synergistically to enhance the death of cancer cells. Our current findings showed that combined treatment with ATO and SAHA resulted in enhanced suppression of non-small-cell lung carcinoma in vitro in H1299 cells and in vivo in a xenograft mouse model. Flow cytometric analysis of annexin V+ cells showed that apoptotic cell death was significantly enhanced after combined treatment with ATO and SAHA. At the doses used, ATO did not interfere with cell cycle progression, but SAHA induced p21 expression and led to G1 arrest. A Comet assay demonstrated that ATO, but not SAHA, induced DNA strand breaks in H1299 cells; however, co-treatment with SAHA significantly increased ATO-induced DNA damage. Moreover, SAHA enhanced acetylation of histone H3 and sensitized genomic DNA to DNase I digestion. Our results suggest that SAHA may cause chromatin relaxation and increase cellular susceptibility to ATO-induced DNA damage. Combined administration of SAHA and ATO may be an effective approach to the treatment of lung cancer. -- Highlights: ? ATO and SAHA are therapeutic agents with different action modes. ? Combination of ATO and SAHA synergistically inhibits tumor cell growth. ? SAHA loosens chromatin structure resulting in increased sensitivity to DNase I. ? ATO-induced DNA damage and apoptosis are enhanced by co-treatment with SAHA.

7

Amino acid treatment enhances protein recovery from sediment and soils for metaproteomic studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Characterization of microbial protein expression provides information necessary to better understand the unique biological pathways that occur within soil microbial communities that contribute to atmospheric CO2 levels and the earth's changing climate. A significant challenge in studying the soil microbial community proteome is the initial dissociation of bacterial proteins from the complex mixture of particles found in natural soil. The differential extraction of intact bacterial cells limits the characterization of the complete representation of a microbial community. However, in situ lysis of bacterial cells in soil can lead to potentially high levels of protein adsorption to soil particles. Here, we investigated various amino acids for their ability to block soil protein adsorption sites prior to in situ lysis of bacterial cells, as well as their compatibility with both tryptic digestion and mass spectrometric analysis. The treatments were tested by adding proteins from lysed Escherichia coli cells to representative treated and untreated soil samples. The results show that it is possible to significantly increase protein identifications through blockage of binding sites on a variety of soil and sediment textures; use of an optimized desorption buffer further increases the number of identifications. PMID:23776032

Nicora, Carrie D; Anderson, Brian J; Callister, Stephen J; Norbeck, Angela D; Purvine, Sam O; Jansson, Janet K; Mason, Olivia U; David, Maude M; Jurelevicius, Diogo; Smith, Richard D; Lipton, Mary S

2013-10-01

8

Treatment with ?-lipoic acid enhances the bone healing after femoral fracture model of rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the fracture-healing effects of ?-lipoic acid (?-LA), which was applied orally once daily in preventive treatment mode during 1 month after fracture induction. Rats were randomly divided into sham-operated group (group 1), femoral fracture control (group 2), femoral fracture?+?25 mg/kg ?-LA (group 3), and femoral fracture?+?50 mg/kg ?-LA (group 4). Rats in the experimental groups were orally administered 25 or 50 mg/kg ?-LA once daily for 30 days starting from postoperative day 1. Thirty days postoperatively, the rats underwent X-ray imaging and were then euthanized for blood and tissue collection. Histopathological, biochemical, molecular, computed tomography (CT), and mechanical strength tests were performed on samples. The serum levels of osteocalcin (OC), osteopontin (OP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) did not differ significantly between groups 2 and 3. Serum OC, OP, TNF-?, and IL-6 levels in group 4 were significantly lower than those in group 3. From X-ray images, staging for fracture healing was scored as 2 in group 3, and >3 in group 4. In group 2, the average score of less than 2 suggests insufficient fracture healing; those of both the ?-LA groups were >2, indicating progression of healing. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were significantly higher in the sham group than in the femoral fracture control. Both doses of ?-LA increased TGF-? mRNA expression compared to the fracture group. CT results and biomechanical testing at 4 week after fracture demonstrated that ?-LA has fastened bone healing, which was confirmed by stereological analyses in which 50 mg/kg ?-LA increased the number of osteoclasts. Our findings indicate that ?-LA supplementation promotes healing of femoral fractures in rats. PMID:25038619

Aydin, Ali; Halici, Zekai; Akoz, Ayhan; Karaman, Adem; Ferah, Irmak; Bayir, Yasin; Aksakal, A Murat; Akpinar, Erol; Selli, Jale; Kovaci, Halim

2014-11-01

9

Sulfuric acid and hot water treatments enhance ex vitro and in vitro germination of Hibiscus seed  

Science.gov (United States)

Seeds of Hibiscus dasycalyx S. F. Blake & Shiller, a federally listed candidate endangered species and native to North America, and two variants of Hibiscus acetosella Welw. ex. Hiern were scarified using sulfuric acid and hot water. The effects of the scarification methods on in vitro and ex vitro ...

10

Plasma treatment induces internal surface modifications of electrospun poly(L-lactic) acid scaffold to enhance protein coating  

Science.gov (United States)

Advanced biomaterials should also be bioactive with regard to desirable cellular responses, such as selective protein adsorption and cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. To enhance cell-material interactions, surface modifications have commonly been performed. Among the various surface modification approaches, atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma has been used to change a hydrophobic polymer surface to a hydrophilic surface. Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA)-derived scaffolds lack cell recognition signals and the hydrophobic nature of PLLA hinders cell seeding. To make PLLA surfaces more conducive to cell attachment and spreading, surface modifications may be used to create cell-biomaterial interfaces that elicit controlled cell adhesion and maintain differentiated phenotypes. In this study, (He) gaseous atmospheric plasma glow discharge was used to change the characteristics of a 3D-type polymeric scaffold from hydrophobic to hydrophilic on both the outer and inner surfaces of the scaffold and the penetration efficiency with fibronectin was investigated. Field-emission scanning electron microscope images showed that some grooves were formed on the PLLA fibers after plasma treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data also showed chemical changes in the PLLA structure. After plasma treatment, -CN (285.76 eV) was increased in C1s and -NH2 (399.70 eV) was increased significantly and -N=CH (400.80 eV) and -NH3+ (402.05 eV) were newly appeared in N1s. These changes allowed fibronectin to penetrate into the PLLA scaffold; this could be observed by confocal microscopy. In conclusion, helium atmospheric pressure plasma treatment was effective in modifying the polymeric scaffold, making it hydrophilic, and this treatment can also be used in tissue engineering research as needed to make polymers hydrophilic.

Jin Seo, Hyok; Hee Lee, Mi; Kwon, Byeong-Ju; Kim, Hye-Lee; Jin Lee, Seung; Kim, Bong-Jin; Wang, Kang-Kyun; Kim, Yong-Rok; Park, Jong-Chul

2013-08-01

11

Plasma treatment induces internal surface modifications of electrospun poly(L-lactic) acid scaffold to enhance protein coating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Advanced biomaterials should also be bioactive with regard to desirable cellular responses, such as selective protein adsorption and cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. To enhance cell-material interactions, surface modifications have commonly been performed. Among the various surface modification approaches, atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma has been used to change a hydrophobic polymer surface to a hydrophilic surface. Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA)-derived scaffolds lack cell recognition signals and the hydrophobic nature of PLLA hinders cell seeding. To make PLLA surfaces more conducive to cell attachment and spreading, surface modifications may be used to create cell-biomaterial interfaces that elicit controlled cell adhesion and maintain differentiated phenotypes. In this study, (He) gaseous atmospheric plasma glow discharge was used to change the characteristics of a 3D-type polymeric scaffold from hydrophobic to hydrophilic on both the outer and inner surfaces of the scaffold and the penetration efficiency with fibronectin was investigated. Field-emission scanning electron microscope images showed that some grooves were formed on the PLLA fibers after plasma treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data also showed chemical changes in the PLLA structure. After plasma treatment, -CN (285.76 eV) was increased in C1s and -NH2 (399.70 eV) was increased significantly and –N=CH (400.80 eV) and –NH3+ (402.05 eV) were newly appeared in N1s. These changes allowed fibronectin to penetrate into the PLLA scaffold; this could be observed by confocal microscopy. In conclusion, helium atmospheric pressure plasma treatment was effective in modifying the polymeric scaffold, making it hydrophilic, and this treatment can also be used in tissue engineering research as needed to make polymers hydrophilic

12

Amino acid treatment enhances protein recovery from sediment and soils for metaproteomic studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Characterization of geomicrobial protein expression provides information necessary to better understand the unique biological pathways that occur within soil microbial communities and the role they play in regulating atmospheric CO2 levels and the Earth’s climate. A significant challenge in studying soil microbial proteins is their initial dissociation from the complex mixture of particles found in natural soil. Due to bias of the most robust cells, the removal of intact bacterial cells limits the characterization of the complete representation of a microbial community. However, in-situ lysis of bacterial cells leads to the expulsion of proteins to the soil surface, which can lead to potentially high levels of adsorption due to the physicochemical properties of both the protein and the soil. We investigated various compounds for their ability to block protein adsorption soil sites prior to in-situ lysis of bacterial cells, as well as their compatibility with both tryptic digestion and mass spectrometric analysis. The treatments were tested by adding lysed Escherichia coli proteins to representative treated and untreated soil samples. The results show that it is possible to significantly increase protein identifications through blockage of binding sites on a variety of soil textures; use of an optimized desorption buffer further increases the number of identifications.

Nicora, Carrie D.; Anderson, Brian J.; Callister, Stephen J.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Jansson, Janet K.; Mason, Olivia U.; David, Maude; Jurelevicius, Diogo D.; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.

2013-10-01

13

Enhancement of nitric oxide removal by ammonia on a low-rank coal based carbon by sulphuric acid treatment  

OpenAIRE

This work presents a study of the effect of wet sulphuric acid treatment and gas-phase treatment with SO2 + O2 + H2O on the catalytic activity of a low-rank coal-based carbon for the nitric oxide reduction with ammonia. Carbons were characterized by N2 adsorption, TPD, and FTIR in order to assess how the surface chemistry and the texture of carbons change after the treatments. A great amount of oxygenated functional groups both CO2 and CO evolving ones are produced by liquid-phase sulphuric a...

Izquierdo Pantoja, Mari?a Teresa; Rubio Villa, Begon?a; Martinez Yuso, Alicia; Ballestero, Diego

2011-01-01

14

Use of Acid Treatment and a Selective Medium To Enhance the Recovery of Francisella tularensis from Water ?  

OpenAIRE

Francisella tularensis has been associated with naturally occurring waterborne outbreaks and is also of interest as a potential biological weapon. Recovery of this pathogen from water using cultural methods is challenging due to the organism's fastidious growth requirements and interference by indigenous bacteria. A 15-min acid treatment procedure prior to culture on a selective agar was evaluated for recovery of F. tularensis from seeded water samples. Mean levels of reduction of virulent st...

Humrighouse, B. W.; Adcock, N. J.; Rice, E. W.

2011-01-01

15

Enhanced industrial wastewater treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate (SS/FS) process is a treatment technology for the reduction of hexavalent chromium and precipitation of heavy metals in industrial wastewater treatment plants (IWTP). When the ferrous ion, as ferrous sulfate, is mixed with sulfide, the hexavalent chromium is rapidly reduced to its trivalent state at a neutral pH and then precipitated. SS/FS technology can be used to replace the current hydroxide treatment chemistry in Navy IWTPs. This paper will present the results and lessons learned from full-scale implementation of SS/FS at Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC) Keyport, Washington. The SS/FS treatment process reduced the chemical cost by fifty nine percent and sludge disposal cost by thirty one percent. On an annual basis total cost savings amounted to $31,950 or thirty four percent. The SS/FS treatment process lowered the amount of treatment chemicals used in the IWTP. Furthermore, metal sulfides tend to be two to three orders of magnitude less soluble than their corresponding metal hydroxides. This allows for cleaner effluent, which will help the facility meet environmental discharge requirements. Further benefits include the removal from the shop area of the high pressure sulfur dioxide cylinder (used in the hydroxide process), a faster and more reliable chrome reduction method, neutral pH operation that extends tank and equipment life, and less acid and caustic chemicals stored on the shop floor. As Navy activities respond to the ever increasing pressures to do more with less, the SS/FS process can help them meet the increasingly stringent standards.

Nachabe, A.H.; Durlak, E. [Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, CA (United States)

1997-12-31

16

Sec61alpha synthesis is enhanced during translocation of nascent chains of collagen type IV in F9 teratocarcinoma cells after retinoic acid treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nascent procollagen peptides and other secretory proteins are transported across the endoplasmic reticulum (ER membrane through a protein-conducting channel called translocon. Sec61alpha, a multispanning membrane translocon protein, has been implicated as being essential for translocation of polypeptide chains into the cisterns of the ER. Sec61alpha forms a protein complex with collagen and Hsp47, an ER-resident heat shock protein that binds specifically to collagen. However, it is not known whether Sec61alpha is ubiquitously produced in collagen-producing F9 teratocarcinoma cells or under heat shock treatment. Furthermore, the production and utilization of Sec61alpha may depend on the stage of cell differentiation. Cultured F9 teratocarcinoma cells are capable of differentiation in response to low concentrations of retinoic acid. This differentiation results in loss of tumorigenicity. Mouse F9 cells were grown in culture medium at 37ºC and 43ºC (heat shock treatment treated or not with retinoic acid, and labeled in certain instances with 35S-methionine. Membrane-bound polysomes of procollagen IV were then isolated. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis were performed using polyclonal antibodies against collagen IV, Hsp47 and Sec61alpha. Under retinoic acid-untreated conditions, F9 cells produced undetectable amounts of Sec61alpha. Sec61alpha, Hsp47 and type IV collagen levels were increased after retinoic acid treatment. Heat shock treatment did not alter Sec61alpha levels, suggesting that Sec61alpha production is probably not affected by heat shock. These data indicate that the enhanced production of Sec61alpha in retinoic acid-induced F9 teratocarcinoma cells parallels the increased synthesis of Hsp47 and collagen type IV.

Ferreira L.R.

2003-01-01

17

Sec61alpha synthesis is enhanced during translocation of nascent chains of collagen type IV in F9 teratocarcinoma cells after retinoic acid treatment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Nascent procollagen peptides and other secretory proteins are transported across the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane through a protein-conducting channel called translocon. Sec61alpha, a multispanning membrane translocon protein, has been implicated as being essential for translocation of polype [...] ptide chains into the cisterns of the ER. Sec61alpha forms a protein complex with collagen and Hsp47, an ER-resident heat shock protein that binds specifically to collagen. However, it is not known whether Sec61alpha is ubiquitously produced in collagen-producing F9 teratocarcinoma cells or under heat shock treatment. Furthermore, the production and utilization of Sec61alpha may depend on the stage of cell differentiation. Cultured F9 teratocarcinoma cells are capable of differentiation in response to low concentrations of retinoic acid. This differentiation results in loss of tumorigenicity. Mouse F9 cells were grown in culture medium at 37ºC and 43ºC (heat shock treatment) treated or not with retinoic acid, and labeled in certain instances with 35S-methionine. Membrane-bound polysomes of procollagen IV were then isolated. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis were performed using polyclonal antibodies against collagen IV, Hsp47 and Sec61alpha. Under retinoic acid-untreated conditions, F9 cells produced undetectable amounts of Sec61alpha. Sec61alpha, Hsp47 and type IV collagen levels were increased after retinoic acid treatment. Heat shock treatment did not alter Sec61alpha levels, suggesting that Sec61alpha production is probably not affected by heat shock. These data indicate that the enhanced production of Sec61alpha in retinoic acid-induced F9 teratocarcinoma cells parallels the increased synthesis of Hsp47 and collagen type IV.

L.R., Ferreira; C.E.E., Velano; E.C., Braga; C.C., Paula; H., Martéli Junior; J.J., Sauk.

2003-01-01

18

Somatic mutations in arachidonic acid metabolism pathway genes enhance oral cancer post-treatment disease-free survival.  

Science.gov (United States)

The arachidonic acid metabolism (AAM) pathway promotes tumour progression. Chemical inhibitors of AAM pathway prolong post-treatment survival of cancer patients. Here we test whether non-synonymous somatic mutations in genes of this pathway, acting as natural inhibitors, increase post-treatment survival. We identify loss-of-function somatic mutations in 15 (18%) of 84 treatment-naïve oral cancer patients by whole-exome sequencing, which we map to genes of AAM pathway. Patients (n = 53) who survived ? 12 months after surgery without recurrence have significantly (P = 0.007) higher proportion (26% versus 3%) of mutations than those who did not (n = 31). Patients with mutations have a significantly (P = 0.003) longer median disease-free survival (24 months) than those without (13 months). Compared with the presence of a mutation, absence of any mutation increases the hazard ratio for death (11.3) significantly (P = 0.018). The inferences are strengthened when we pool our data with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data. In patients with AAM pathway mutations, some downstream pathways, such as the PI3K-Akt pathway, are downregulated. PMID:25517499

Biswas, Nidhan K; Das, Subrata; Maitra, Arindam; Sarin, Rajiv; Majumder, Partha P

2014-01-01

19

Post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 using aerobic moving bed biofilm process: Enhanced removal of aromatic amines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Biofilm process was applied as post-treatment of anaerobically degraded an azo dye. ? More than 65% of the dye total metabolites was completely mineralized. ? Based on HPLC analysis, more than 80% of 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate was removed. ? Inhibition of biofilm growth was increased with increasing the initial dye concentration. ? Considerable porous morphology was observed in the SEM photographs of the biofilm. - Abstract: The application of aerobic moving bed biofilm process as post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 was investigated in this study. The main objective of this work was to enhance removal of anaerobically formed the dye aromatic metabolites. Three separate sequential treatment systems were operated with different initial dye concentrations of 100, 500 and 1000 mg/L. Each treatment system consisted of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (An-SBR) followed by an aerobic moving bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor (MB-SBBR). Up to 98% of the dye decolorization and more than 80% of the COD removal occurred anaerobically. The obtained results suggested no significant difference in COD removal as well as the dye decolorization efficiency using three An-SBRs receiving different initial dye concentrations. Monitoring the dye metabolites through HPLC suggested that more than 80% of anaerobically formed 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate was completely removed in the aerobic biofilm reactors. Based on COD analysis resultss. Based on COD analysis results, at least 65-72% of the dye total metabolites were mineralized during the applied treatment systems. According to the measured biofilm mass and also based on respiration-inhibition test results, increasing the initial dye concentration inhibited the growth and final mass of the attached-growth biofilm in MB-SBBRs.

20

Post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 using aerobic moving bed biofilm process: Enhanced removal of aromatic amines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: {yields} Biofilm process was applied as post-treatment of anaerobically degraded an azo dye. {yields} More than 65% of the dye total metabolites was completely mineralized. {yields} Based on HPLC analysis, more than 80% of 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate was removed. {yields} Inhibition of biofilm growth was increased with increasing the initial dye concentration. {yields} Considerable porous morphology was observed in the SEM photographs of the biofilm. - Abstract: The application of aerobic moving bed biofilm process as post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 was investigated in this study. The main objective of this work was to enhance removal of anaerobically formed the dye aromatic metabolites. Three separate sequential treatment systems were operated with different initial dye concentrations of 100, 500 and 1000 mg/L. Each treatment system consisted of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (An-SBR) followed by an aerobic moving bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor (MB-SBBR). Up to 98% of the dye decolorization and more than 80% of the COD removal occurred anaerobically. The obtained results suggested no significant difference in COD removal as well as the dye decolorization efficiency using three An-SBRs receiving different initial dye concentrations. Monitoring the dye metabolites through HPLC suggested that more than 80% of anaerobically formed 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate was completely removed in the aerobic biofilm reactors. Based on COD analysis results, at least 65-72% of the dye total metabolites were mineralized during the applied treatment systems. According to the measured biofilm mass and also based on respiration-inhibition test results, increasing the initial dye concentration inhibited the growth and final mass of the attached-growth biofilm in MB-SBBRs.

Hosseini Koupaie, E., E-mail: ehssan.hosseini.k@gmail.com [Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology (AUT), Hafez Ave., Tehran 15875-4413 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alavi Moghaddam, M.R., E-mail: alavim@yahoo.com [Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology (AUT), Hafez Ave., Tehran 15875-4413 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi, S.H., E-mail: h_hashemi@sbu.ac.ir [Environmental Science Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-11-15

21

Combining valosin-containing protein (VCP) inhibition and suberanilohydroxamic acid (SAHA) treatment additively enhances the folding, trafficking, and function of epilepsy-associated ?-aminobutyric acid, type A (GABAA) receptors.  

Science.gov (United States)

GABAA receptors are the primary inhibitory ion channels in the mammalian central nervous system. The A322D mutation in the ?1 subunit results in its excessive endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation at the expense of plasma membrane trafficking, leading to autosomal dominant juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. Presumably, valosin-containing protein (VCP)/p97 extracts misfolded subunits from the endoplasmic reticulum membrane to the cytosolic proteasome for degradation. Here we showed that inhibiting VCP using Eeyarestatin I reduces the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation of the ?1(A322D) subunit without an apparent effect on its dynamin-1 dependent endocytosis and that this treatment enhances its trafficking. Furthermore, coapplication of Eeyarestatin I and suberanilohydroxamic acid, a known small molecule that promotes chaperone-assisted folding, yields an additive restoration of surface expression of ?1(A322D) subunits in HEK293 cells and neuronal SH-SY5Y cells. Consequently, this combination significantly increases GABA-induced chloride currents in whole-cell patch clamping experiments than either chemical compound alone in HEK293 cells. Our findings suggest that VCP inhibition without stress induction, together with folding enhancement, represents a new strategy to restore proteostasis of misfolding-prone GABAA receptors and, therefore, a potential remedy for idiopathic epilepsy. PMID:25406314

Han, Dong-Yun; Di, Xiao-Jing; Fu, Yan-Lin; Mu, Ting-Wei

2015-01-01

22

Gemstone enhancement by radiation treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the discovery of radioactivity, investigations on the effects of atomic rays on precious stones began and Crookes established that alpha rays from radium produced green colour in diamonds. Gamma rays, x-rays, electrons, neutrons, protons etc. are effective in producing colour in precious stone like topaz and corundum. Some of these also produce considerable amount of radioactivity which is not acceptable if the radioactivity exceeds permissible limits. Colour enhancement by radiation treatment, different radiations, safety of irradiated gem stones and market related aspects are discussed. (author)

23

Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

... Research News From NIH Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents ... that people who are trying to end their addiction to marijuana can benefit from a treatment program ...

24

Bacterial lipoteichoic acid enhances cryosurvival.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antifreeze proteins in fish, plants, and insects provide protection to a few degrees below freezing. Microbes have been found to survive at even lower temperatures, and with a few exceptions, antifreeze proteins are missing. We show that lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a biopolymer in the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria, can be added to B. subtilis cultures and increase freeze tolerance. At 1 % w/v, LTA enables a 50 % survival rate, similar to the results obtained with 1 % w/v glycerol as measured with the resazurin cell viability assay. In the absence of added LTA or glycerol, a very small number of B. subtilis cells survive freezing. This suggests that an innate freeze tolerance mechanism exists. While cryoprotection can be provided by extracellular polymeric substances, our data demonstrate a role for LTA in cryoprotection. Currently, the exact mode of action for LTA cryoprotection is unknown. With a molecular weight of 3-5 kDa, it is unlikely to enter the cell cytoplasm. However, low temperature microscopy data show small ice crystals aligned along channels of liquid water. Our observations suggest that teichoic acids could protect liquid water within biofilms and planktonic bacteria, augmenting the role of brine while also raising the possibility for survival without brine present. PMID:25477208

Rice, Charles V; Middaugh, Amy; Wickham, Jason R; Friedline, Anthony; Thomas, Kieth J; Scull, Erin; Johnson, Karen; Zachariah, Malcolm; Garimella, Ravindranth

2015-03-01

25

Sonoelectrochemically enhanced determination of 5-aminosalicylic acid.  

OpenAIRE

The electrochemical detection of the anti-inflammatory drug 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) has been evaluated through the application of linear sweep, square wave and sonolinear sweep voltammetry. The introduction of ultrasound is shown to significantly enhance the oxidation signal intensity thereby enabling the detection of low concentrations with the linear range (1-57 muM) adequate for assessing free drug within physiological samples. Interference from ascorbic acid can be effectively negat...

Beckett, El; Lawrence, Ns; Evans, Rg; Davis, J.; Compton, Rg

2001-01-01

26

Surgical Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Live Surgical Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux Shawnee Mission Medical Center Shawnee Mission, Kansas May 21, 2009 Welcome to this “OR-Live” webcast presentation live from Shawnee Mission ...

27

Surgical Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux Shawnee Mission Medical Center Shawnee Mission, Kansas May 21, 2009 Welcome ... OR-Live” webcast presentation live from Shawnee Mission Medical Center in Merriam, Kansas. During the program it’s ...

28

UV Treatment Enhances Flavonoid Content in Blueberries  

Science.gov (United States)

Treatment of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum, cv. Sierra) with UV-C at 2.15 or 4.30 kJ m-2 enhanced blueberry fruit content of flavonoids including resveratrol, myricetin 3-arabinoside, quercetin 3-galactoside, quercetin 3-arabinoside, quercetin derivative, kaempferol 3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-ga...

29

Effect of Enhancing Urea-Humic Acid Mixture with Refined Acid Sulphate Soil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Acid Sulphate Soil (ASS is a problem soil partly because of its high acidity. This low pH could be exploited to reduce ammonia loss from urea by reducing soil microsite pH. The use Humic Acid (HA to control ammonia loss from urea has been reported but the cost of this material is high. This laboratory study compared the effect of enhancing urea-humic acid mixtures with acid sulphate soil on NH3 loss, pH, exchangeable ammonium and available nitrate contents. Approach: Humic acid, acid sulfate soil and soil used in the incubation study were analyzed for selected soil physical-chemical properties using standard procedures. Urea-HA-ASS mixtures were prepared and ammonia volatilization of the mixtures was evaluated by the closed-dynamic air flow system. The treatments were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Standard procedures were used to determine ammonia loss, soil pH, exchangeable ammonium and available nitrate at 22 days of incubation. Data obtained were analyzed using analysis of variance and Duncan's test using Statistical Analysis System (SAS version 9.2. Results: Urea amended with 0.75 g ASS significantly reduced ammonia volatilization. Although the use of appropriate amount of acid sulphate soil to control ammonia loss is possible, excessive use of this material is not recommended because of Fe in it. Conclusion: Urea amended with 0.75 g ASS reduced ammonia.

Mohd T.M. Yusuff

2009-01-01

30

Enhanced integrated nonthermal treatment system study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the Enhanced Nonthermal Treatment Systems (ENTS) study is to evaluate alternative configurations of one of the five systems evaluated in the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) study. Five alternative configurations are evaluated. Each is designed to enhance the final waste form performance by replacing grout with improved stabilization technologies, or to improve system performance by improving the destruction efficiency for organic contaminants. AU enhanced systems are alternative configurations of System NT-5, which has the following characteristics: Nonthermal System NT-5: (1) catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) to treat organic material including organic liquids, sludges, and soft (or combustible) debris, (2) thermal desorption of inorganic sludge and process residue, (3) washing of soil and inorganic debris with treatment by CWO of removed organic material, (4) metal decontamination by abrasive blasting, (5) stabilization of treated sludge, soil, debris, and untreated debris with entrained contamination in grout, and (6) stabilization of inorganic sludge, salts and secondary waste in polymer. System NT-5 was chosen because it was designed to treat combustible debris thereby minimizing the final waste form volume, and because it uses grout for primary stabilization. The enhanced nonthermal systems were studied to determine the cost and performance impact of replacing grout (a commonly used stabilization agent in the DOE complex) with improved waste stabilization methods such as vitrification and polymer

31

ACID EXTRACTION TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF METAL CONTAMINATED SOILS  

Science.gov (United States)

The Acid Extraction Treatment System (AETS) reduces the concentrations and/or leachability of heavy metals in contaminated soils so the soil can be returned to the site from which it originated. he objective of the project was to determine the effectiveness and commercial viabili...

32

Enhancing pitting corrosion resistance of AlxCrFe1.5MnNi0.5 high-entropy alloys by anodic treatment in sulfuric acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High-entropy alloys are a newly developed family of multi-component alloys that comprise various major alloying elements. Each element in the alloy system is present in between 5 and 35 at.%. The crystal structures and physical properties of high-entropy alloys differ completely from those of conventional alloys. The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) of the AlxCrFe1.5MnNi0.5 (x = 0, 0.3, 0.5) alloys, obtained in 0.1 M HCl solution, clearly revealed that the corrosion resistance values were determined to increase from 21 to 34 ?cm2 as the aluminum content increased from 0 to 0.5 mol, and were markedly lower than that of 304 stainless steel (243 ?cm2). At passive potential, the corresponding current declined with the anodizing time accounting, causing passivity by the growth of the multi-component anodized film in H2SO4 solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses revealed that the surface of anodized Al0.3CrFe1.5MnNi0.5 alloy formed aluminum and chromium oxide film which was the main passivating compound on the alloy. This anodic treatment increased the corrosion resistance in the EIS measurements of the CrFe1.5MnNi0.5 and Al0.3CrFe1.5MnNi0.5 alloys by two orders of magnitude. Accordingly, the anodic treatment of the AlxCrFe1.5MnNi0.5 alloys optimized thb>MnNi0.5 alloys optimized their surface structures and minimized their susceptibility to pitting corrosion

33

Betulinic Acid for Cancer Treatment and Prevention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Betulinic acid is a natural product with a range of biological effects, for example potent antitumor activity. This anticancer property is linked to its ability to induce apoptotic cell death in cancer cells by triggering the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. In contrast to the cytotoxicity of betulinic acid against a variety of cancer types, normal cells and tissue are relatively resistant to betulinic acid, pointing to a therapeutic window. Compounds that exert a direct action on mitochondria present promising experimental cancer therapeutics, since they may trigger cell death under circumstances in which standard chemotherapeutics fail. Thus, mitochondrion-targeted agents such as betulinic acid hold great promise as a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of human cancers.

Simone Fulda

2008-06-01

34

Betulinic Acid for Cancer Treatment and Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

Betulinic acid is a natural product with a range of biological effects, for example potent antitumor activity. This anticancer property is linked to its ability to induce apoptotic cell death in cancer cells by triggering the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. In contrast to the cytotoxicity of betulinic acid against a variety of cancer types, normal cells and tissue are relatively resistant to betulinic acid, pointing to a therapeutic window. Compounds that exert a direct action on mitochondria present promising experimental cancer therapeutics, since they may trigger cell death under circumstances in which standard chemotherapeutics fail. Thus, mitochondrion-targeted agents such as betulinic acid hold great promise as a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of human cancers. PMID:19325847

Fulda, Simone

2008-01-01

35

Induction of system A amino acid transport activity through long-term treatment with ouabain: possible correlation with enhanced (Na+/K+)ATPase activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mouse embryo fibroblast cells (C3H-10T1/2) and the methylcholanthrene-transformed derivative (MCA-10T1/2) were treated with basal modified Eagles medium at varying ouabain concentrations ranging from 0.05 mM to 0.5 mM for 16 h in culture. After replacing the ouabain-containing medium with BME, System A (3H-AlB uptake) and the (Na+/K+)ATPase pump activity (ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake) was increased 10-fold and 3-fold, respectively (at 0.4 mM ouabain) in confluent C3H-10T1/2 cells. System A and the (Na+/K+)ATPase activity was increased 15-fold and 5-fold, respectively in confluent MCA-10T1/2 cells but the increase was maximal at 0.2 mM ouabain. This treatment with ouabain increased the [Na+]/sub i//[K+]/sub i/ as measured by atomic absorption, and thereby decreased the Na+ and K+ electrochemical gradients. Their data show that the transformed cells were more sensitive to the internal ion inversion by ouabain than the C3H-10T1/2 cells. It appears, from data on hypertonicity and lipophilic cations that neither the chemical Na+ gradient nor the negative membrane potential are the primary driving forces of System A transport

36

Multifunctional Nucleic Acids for Tumor Cell Treatment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We report on a multifunctional nucleic acid, termed AptamiR, composed of an aptamer domain and an antimiR domain. This composition mediates cell specific delivery of antimiR molecules for silencing of endogenous micro RNA. The introduced multifunctional molecule preserves cell targeting, anti-proliferative and antimiR function in one 37-nucleotide nucleic acid molecule. It inhibits cancer cell growth and induces gene expression that is pathologically damped by an oncomir. These findings will have a strong impact on future developments regarding aptamer- and antimiR-related applications for tumor targeting and treatment.

Pofahl, Monika; Wengel, Jesper

2014-01-01

37

Ethacrynic acid: a novel radiation enhancer in human carcinoma cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Because agents that interfere with thiol metabolism and glutathione S-transferase (GST) functions have been shown to enhance antitumor effects of alkylating agents in vitro and in vivo, the present study was conceived on the basis that an inhibitor of GST would enhance the radiation response of some selected human carcinoma cells. Ethacrynic acid (EA) was chosen for the study because it is an effective inhibitor of GST and is a well known diuretic in humans. Methods and Materials: Experiments were carried out with well-established human tumor cells in culture growing in Eagle's minimum essential medium (MEM) supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS). Cell lines used were MCF-7, MCF-7 adriamycin resistant (AR) cells (breast carcinoma), HT-29 cells (colon carcinoma), DU-145 cells (prostate carcinoma), and U-373 cells (malignant glioma). Cell survival following the exposure of cells to drug alone, radiation alone, and a combined treatment was assayed by determining the colony-forming ability of single plated cells in culture to obtain dose-survival curves. The drug enhancement ratio was correlated with levels of GST. Results: The cytotoxicity of EA was most pronounced in MCF-7, U-373, and DU-145 cells compared to MCF-7 AR and HT-29 cells. The levels of GST activity were found to be lower in those EA-sensitive cells. A significant radiation enhancement was obtained with EA-sensitive cells exposed to nontoxic concentrations of the drug immediately before or aftions of the drug immediately before or after irradiation. The sensitizer enhancement ratio (SER) of MCF-7 cells was 1.55 with EA (20 ?g/ml), while the SER of MCF-7 AR was less than 1.1. Based on five different human tumor cells, a clear inverse relationship was demonstrated between the magnitude of SER and GST levels of tumor cells prior to the combined treatment. Conclusion: The present results suggest that EA, which acts as both a reversible and irreversible inhibitor of GST activity, could significantly enhance the radiation response of human cancer cells and the level of GST in tumor cells may predict the magnitude of radiation enhancement with EA. Ethacrynic acid would be an excellent drug as a radiosensitizer for further in vivo tumor study

38

Effectiveness of hydrochloric acid treatment of well  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Industrial and geophysical investigations (IGI) carried out for purpose of determine the effectiveness of hydrochloric acid treatment (HCAT) of Tengiz-112 well. First investigation was in April 1995, second one in July 1996 after HCAT of well. In process of IGI test of well by method of stead-state selection for more precise determination of IGI effectiveness carried out. Data analysis allows to make the conclusion about mechanism of Tengiz deposit productivity increase due to IGI conducting. (author)

39

Alcohol treatment enhances Staphylococcus aureus biofilm development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Staphylococcus aureus forms pathogenic biofilms. Previous studies have indicated that ethanol supplementation during S. aureus biofilm formation results in increased biofilm formation and changes in gene expression. However, the impact of alcohols on preformed S. aureus biofilms has not been studied. In this study, we formed S. aureus biofilms on PVC plastic plates and then treated these preformed biofilms with five different alcohols. We observed that alcohol treatment of preformed S. aureus biofilms led to significant increases in biofilm levels after 24 h of treatment. Many bacteria within these biofilms were found to be alive and metabolically active. Alcohol treatment also resulted in increased transcription of the biofilm-promoting genes icaA and icaD, as well as several antibiotic resistance genes. These results demonstrate that treatment of S. aureus preformed biofilms with alcohols enhances biofilm levels if maintained for extended periods. Thus, alcohols might be of limited usefulness for the eradication of preformed S. aureus biofilms. PMID:23163872

Redelman, Carly V; Maduakolam, Chike; Anderson, Gregory G

2012-12-01

40

Ectopic expression of DAZL gene in goat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells enhances the trans-differentiation to putative germ cells compared to the exogenous treatment of retinoic acid or bone morphogenetic protein 4 signalling molecules.  

Science.gov (United States)

The plasticity of human and murine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) has been proven by their ability to trans-differentiate to multilineage cells, including germ cells. We have investigated ability of goat BMSCs to trans-differentiate to germ cells with extrinsic (e.g., retinoic acid [RA] and BMP4 signalling molecules) and intrinsic factor expression (e.g., DAZL gene ectopic expression). Having optimized the concentration of RA and BMP4, gBMSCs were treated with RA 1?µM) and BMP4 (25?ng/mL), individually and collectively. Both RA and BMP4 induced OCT4, MVH, DAZL, STELLA, NANOG and C-KIT expression, but RNF17, PIWIL2, STRA8, and SCP3 were only expressed after RA treatment. In terms of an endogenous factor, a germ cell specific gene, deleted in Azoospermia-like (DAZL), was overexpressed by plasmid and mRNA techniques. Compared with the RA treated group, DAZL ectopic expression upregulated the transcription and translation of MVH, and SCP3 was also increased at the mRNA level. The mRNA-based method had more effect on the germ cells gene expression compared to the plasmid method. Ectopic expression of the DAZL gene enhanced trans-differentiation compared to the RA-treated group. Knockdown experiments confirmed the pivotal role of DAZL in germ cell differentiation. This study provides further information on the mechanisms underlying the spermatogenesis, which will guide the derivation of post-meiotic germ cells from adult stem cells in vitro. PMID:25052690

Yan, Guangyao; Fan, Yixuan; Li, Peizhen; Zhang, YanLi; Wang, Feng

2015-01-01

41

Hyaluronic acid enhances gene delivery into the cochlea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cochlear gene therapy can be a new avenue for the treatment of severe hearing loss by inducing regeneration or phenotypic rescue. One necessary step to establish this therapy is the development of a safe and feasible inoculation surgery, ideally without drilling the bony cochlear wall. The round window membrane (RWM) is accessible in the middle-ear space, but viral vectors placed on this membrane do not readily cross the membrane to the cochlear tissues. In an attempt to enhance permeability of the RWM, we applied hyaluronic acid (HA), a nontoxic and biodegradable reagent, onto the RWM of guinea pigs, prior to delivering an adenovirus carrying enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) reporter gene (Ad-eGFP) at the same site. We examined distribution of eGFP in the cochlea 1 week after treatment, comparing delivery of the vector via the RWM, with or without HA, to delivery by a cochleostomy into the perilymph. We found that cochlear tissue treated with HA-assisted delivery of Ad-eGFP demonstrated wider expression of transgenes in cochlear cells than did tissue treated by cochleostomy injection. HA-assisted vector delivery facilitated expression in cells lining the scala media, which are less accessible and not transduced after perilymphatic injection. We assessed auditory function by measuring auditory brainstem responses and determined that thresholds were significantly better in the ears treated with HA-assisted Ad-eGFP placement on the RWM as compared with cochleostomy. Together, these data demonstrate that HA-assisted delivery of viral vectors provides an atraumatic and clinically feasible method to introduce transgenes into cochlear cells, thereby enhancing both research methods and future clinical application. PMID:22074321

Shibata, Seiji B; Cortez, Sarah R; Wiler, James A; Swiderski, Donald L; Raphael, Yehoash

2012-03-01

42

Separation of amino acid enantiomers by micelle-enhanced ultrafiltration  

OpenAIRE

A Micelle-enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF) separation process was investigated that can potentially be used for large-scale enantioseparations. Copper(II)-amino acid derivatives dissolved in nonionic surfactant micelles were used as chiral selectors for the separation of dilute racemic amino acids solutions. For the ?-amino acids phenylalanine, phenylglycine, O- methyltyrosine, isoleucine, and leucine good separation was obtained using cholesteryl L-glutamate and Cu(II) ions as chiral selecto...

Bruin, T. J. M.; Marcelis, A. T. M.; Zuilhof, H.; Rodenburg, L. M.; Overdevest, P. E. M.; Padt, A.; Sudho?lter, E. J. R.

2000-01-01

43

Organic acid enhanced electrodialytic extraction of lead from contaminated soil fines in suspension  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The implementation of soil washing technology for the treatment of heavy metal contaminated soils is limited by the toxicity and unwieldiness of the remaining heavy metal contaminated sludge. In this work, the feasibility of combining electrodialytic remediation with heterotrophic leaching for decontamination of the sludge was investigated. The ability of 11 organic acids to extract Pb from the fine fraction of contaminated soil (grains <63 mu m) was investigated, and application of the acids as enhancing reagents during electrodialytic remediation (EDR) of Pb-contaminated soil fines in suspension was tested. Five of the acids showed the ability to extract Ph from the soil fines in excess of the effect caused solely by pH changes. Addition of the acids, however, severely impeded EDR, hence promotion of EDR by combination with heterotrophic leaching was rejected. In contrast, enhancement of EDR with nitric acid gave promising results.

Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

2007-01-01

44

Acid mine water treatment using engineered wetlands  

Science.gov (United States)

During the last two decades, the United States mining industry has greatly increased the amount it spends on pollution control. The application of biotechnology to mine water can reduce the industry's water treatment costs (estimated at over a million dollars a day) and improve water quality in streams and rivers adversely affected by acidic mine water draining from abandoned mines. Biological treatment of mine waste water is typically conducted in a series of small excavated ponds that resemble, in a superficial way, a small marsh area. The ponds are engineered to first facilitate bacterial oxidation of iron; ideally, the water then flows through a composted organic substrate that supports a population of sulfate-reducing bacteria. The latter process raises the pH. During the past four years, over 400 wetland water treatment systems have been built on mined lands as a result of research by the U.S. Bureau of Mines. In general, mine operators find that the wetlands reduce chemical treatment costs enough to repay the cost of wetland construction in less than a year. Actual rates of iron removal at field sites have been used to develop empirical sizing criteria based on iron loading and pH. If the pH is 6 or above, the wetland area (m2) required is equivalent to the iron load (grams/day) divided by 10. Theis requirement doubles at a pH of 4 to 5. At a pH below 4, the iron load (grams/day) should be divided by 2 to estimate the area required (m2).

Kleinmann, Robert L. P.

1990-03-01

45

Enhancement of arachidonic acid signaling pathway by nicotinic acid receptor HM74A  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

HM74A is a G protein-coupled receptor for nicotinic acid (niacin), which has been used clinically to treat dyslipidemia for decades. The molecular mechanisms whereby niacin exerts its pleiotropic effects on lipid metabolism remain largely unknown. In addition, the most common side effect in niacin therapy is skin flushing that is caused by prostaglandin release, suggesting that the phospholipase A2 (PLA2)/arachidonic acid (AA) pathway is involved. Various eicosanoids have been shown to activate peroxisome-proliferator activated receptors (PPAR) that play a diverse array of roles in lipid metabolism. To further elucidate the potential roles of HM74A in mediating the therapeutic effects and/or side effects of niacin, we sought to explore the signaling events upon HM74A activation. Here we demonstrated that HM74A synergistically enhanced UTP- and bradykinin-mediated AA release in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner in A431 cells. Activation of HM74A also led to Ca2+-mobilization and enhanced bradykinin-promoted Ca2+-mobilization through Gi protein. While HM74A increased ERK1/2 activation by the bradykinin receptor, it had no effects on UTP-promoted ERK1/2 activation.Furthermore, UTP- and bradykinin-mediated AA release was significantly decreased in the presence of both MAPK kinase inhibitor PD 098059 and PKC inhibitor GF 109203X. However, the synergistic effects of HM74A were not dramatically affected by co-treatment with both ically affected by co-treatment with both inhibitors, indicating the cross-talk occurred at the receptor level. Finally, stimulation of A431 cells transiently transfected with PPRE-luciferase with AA significantly induced luciferase activity, mimicking the effects of PPAR? agonist rosiglitazone, suggesting that alteration of AA signaling pathway can regulate gene expression via endogenous PPARs

46

Treatment of phosphate rocks with hydrochloric acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phosphate rocks were leached with hydrochloric acid; and radium was removed by co-precipitation with BaSO4. Uranium and lanthanides were extracted by di(2-ethyl hexyl) phosphoric acid and tributyl phosphate. Phosphoric acid was then separated from calcium chloride solution and other impurities by extraction using undiluted iso-amyl alcohol. Gypsum was precipitated by sulfuric acid to regenerate hydrochloric acid for recycling. Fluorine was precipitated from the initial leach solution as Na2SiF6. (author)

47

Magnetization Enhancement in Magnetite Nanoparticles Capped with Alginic Acid  

OpenAIRE

We report on the effect of organic acid capping on the behavior of magnetite nanoparticles. The nanoparticles of magnetite were obtained using microwave activated process, and the magnetic properties as well as the electron magnetic resonance behavior were studied for the Fe3O4 nanoparticles capped with alginic acid. The capped nanoparticles exhibit improved crystalline structure of the surface which leads to an enhanced magnetization. The saturation magnetization Ms increas...

Andrzejewski, B.; Bednarski, W.; Kazmierczak, M.; Pogorzelec-glaser, K.; Hilczer, B.; Jurga, S.; Matczak, M.; Leska, B.; Pankiewicz, R.; Kepinski, L.

2013-01-01

48

Nano-proniosomes enhancing the transdermal delivery of mefenamic acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mefenamic acid (MA) is a BCS II class NSAID drug. It is available only in the form of tablets, capsules, and pediatric suspensions. Oral administration of MA is associated with severe gastrointestinal side effects. The aim of this study was to develop a convenient and low-cost transdermal drug delivery system for MA using proniosome as a novel carrier without the addition of penetration enhancers. The formulation factors, such as the presence of cholesterol, types of lecithin, and surfactants were investigated for their influence on the entrapment efficiency, rate of hydration, vesicle size, and zeta potential, in vitro drug release and skin permeation in order to optimize the proniosomal formulations with the minimum dose of the drug. Furthermore, the in vivo anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated on a formalin-induced rat paw edema model. The results showed that the type of surfactants had higher impact on the entrapment efficiency than the type of lecithins, with the highest in Span 80 (82.84%). The release of MA from Span 80 proniosomal gel was significantly affected by the type of lecithin used. The addition of cholesterol significantly increased both the drug release and the skin permeation flux of MA. Zeta potential showed a stable A4 noisomal suspension. DSC revealed the molecular dispersion of MA into the loaded proniosomes. In vivo study of the treatment group with MA proniosome gel showed a significant inhibition of rat paw edema compared with the same gel without the drug (control). The results of this study suggest that proniosomes are promising nano vesicular carriers and safe alternatives to enhance the transdermal delivery of MA. PMID:24779560

Wen, Ming Ming; Farid, Ragwa M; Kassem, Abeer A

2014-12-01

49

THE USE OF FATTY ACID-ESTERS TO ENHANCE FREE ACID SOPHOROLIPID SYNTHESIS  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acid esters were prepared by transesterification of soy oil with methanol (methyl-soyate, Me-Soy), ethanol (ethyl-soyate, Et-Soy) and propanol (propyl-soyate, Pro-Soy) and used with glycerol as fermentation substrates to enhance production of free-acid sophorolipids (SLs). Fed-batch fermentat...

50

Caffeic acid phenethyl ester activation of Nrf2 pathway is enhanced under oxidative state: structural analysis and potential as a pathologically targeted therapeutic agent in treatment of colonic inflammation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a polyphenolic natural product that possesses numerous biological activities including anti-inflammatory effects. CAPE-mediated nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45 (NF-E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation is likely responsible for some of its biological effects. CAPE was chemically modified to yield CAPE analogues that were subjected to experiments examining cellular Nrf2 activity. CAPE and the CAPE analogue with a catechol moiety, but not the other analogues, activated the Nrf2 pathway. In addition, only biotin-labeled CAPE analogues with the catechol moiety precipitated Kelch-like ECH associated protein 1 (Keap1) when incubated with cell lysates and streptavidin agarose beads. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) oxidation of the catechol moiety in CAPE produced an oxidized, electrophilic form of CAPE (Oxi-CAPE) and greatly enhanced the ability of CAPE to activate Nrf2 and to bind to Keap1. Rectal administration of CAPE ameliorated 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced rat colitis and activated the Nrf2 pathway in the inflamed colon, and incubation of CAPE in the lumen of the inflamed distal colon generated Oxi-CAPE. However, these biological effects and chemical change of CAPE were not observed in the normal colon. Our data suggest that CAPE requires the catechol moiety for the oxidation-enhanced activation of the Nrf2 pathway and has potential as a pathologically targeted Nrf2-activating agent that is exclusively activated in pathological states with oxidative stress such as colonic inflammation. PMID:23892357

Kim, Hyunjeong; Kim, Wooseong; Yum, Soohwan; Hong, Sungchae; Oh, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Ji-Woo; Kwak, Mi-Kyoung; Park, Eun Ji; Na, Dong Hee; Jung, Yunjin

2013-12-01

51

Treatment for Acid Mine Drainage Utilizing Dimension Stone Waste  

OpenAIRE

When large quantities of rocks containing sulphide minerals are excavated from mines, they react with water and oxygen to create sulphuric acid. When this water reaches a certain level of acidity it also starts leaching traces of metals, this wastewater is termed as Acid Mine Drainage (AMD), affects the surface and subsurface hydrology and extends its impact to the surrounding land. Although, several AMD treatment techniques and methods exist, lime treatment is the most common approach which ...

Sheoran, V.; Choudhary, R. P.; Sheoran, A. S.

2012-01-01

52

Removal of PAHs and pesticides from polluted soils by enhanced electrokinetic-Fenton treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, electrokinetic-Fenton treatment was used to remediate a soil polluted with PAHs and the pesticide pyrimethanil. Recently, this treatment has emerged as an interesting alternative to conventional soil treatments due to its peculiar advantages, namely the capability of treating fine and low-permeability materials, as well as that of achieving a high yield in the removals of salt content and inorganic and organic pollutants. In a standard electrokinetic-Fenton treatment, the maximum degradation of the pollutant load achieved was 67%, due to the precipitation of the metals near the cathode chamber that reduces the electro-osmotic flow of the system and thus the efficiency of the treatment. To overcome this problem, different complexing agents and pH control in the cathode chamber were evaluated to increase the electro-osmotic flux as well as to render easier the solubilization of the metal species present in the soil. Four complexing agents (ascorbic acid, citric acid, oxalic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) in the Fenton-like treatment were evaluated. Results revealed the citric acid as the most suitable complexing agent. Thereby its efficiency was tested as pH controller by flushing it in the cathode chamber (pH 2 and 5). For the latter treatments, near total degradation was achieved after 27d. Finally, phytotoxicity tests for polluted and treated samples were carried out. The high germination levels of the soil treated under enhanced conditions concluded that nearly complete restoration was achieved. PMID:25577698

Bocos, Elvira; Fernández-Costas, Carmen; Pazos, Marta; Sanromán, M Ángeles

2015-04-01

53

Enhanced Antiscrapie Effect Using Combination Drug Treatment  

OpenAIRE

Combination treatment with pentosan polysulfate and Fe(III)meso-tetra(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphine in mice beginning 14 or 28 days after scrapie inoculation significantly increased survival times. This increase may be synergistic, implying that the compounds act cooperatively in vivo. Combination therapy may therefore be more effective for treatment of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies and other protein-misfolding diseases.

Kocisko, D. A.; Caughey, B.; Morrey, John D.; Race, R. E.

2006-01-01

54

TREATMENT TANK CORROSION STUDIES FOR THE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING PROCESS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radioactive waste is stored in high level waste tanks on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is aggressively seeking to close the non-compliant Type I and II waste tanks. The removal of sludge (i.e., metal oxide) heels from the tank is the final stage in the waste removal process. The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed and investigated by SRR to aid in Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) as an option for sludge heel removal. Corrosion rate data for carbon steel exposed to the ECC treatment tank environment was obtained to evaluate the degree of corrosion that occurs. These tests were also designed to determine the effect of various environmental variables such as temperature, agitation and sludge slurry type on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel. Coupon tests were performed to estimate the corrosion rate during the ECC process, as well as determine any susceptibility to localized corrosion. Electrochemical studies were performed to develop a better understanding of the corrosion mechanism. The tests were performed in 1 wt.% and 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with HM and PUREX sludge simulants. The following results and conclusions were made based on this testing: (1) In 1 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, carbon steel corroded at a rate of less than 25 mpy within the temperature and agitation levels of the test. No susceptibility to localized corrosion was observed. (2) In 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, the carbon steel corrosion rates ranged between 15 and 88 mpy. The most severe corrosion was observed at 75 C in the HM/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. Pitting and general corrosion increased with the agitation level at this condition. No pitting and lower general corrosion rates were observed with the PUREX/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. The electrochemical and coupon tests both indicated that carbon steel is more susceptible to localized corrosion in the HM/oxalic acid environment than in the PUREX/oxalic acid environment. (3) The corrosion rates for PUREX/8 wt.% oxalic acid were greater than or equal to those observed for the PUREX/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid. No localized corrosion was observed in the tests with the 8 wt.% oxalic acid. Testing with HM/8 wt.% oxalic acid simulant was not performed. Thus, a comparison with the results with 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid, where the corrosion rate was 88 mpy and localized corrosion was observed at 75 C, cannot be made. (4) The corrosion rates in 1 and 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid solutions were temperature dependent: (a) At 50 C, the corrosion rates ranged between 90 to 140 mpy over the 30 day test period. The corrosion rates were higher under stagnant conditions. (b) At 75 C, the initial corrosion rates were as high as 300 mpy during the first day of exposure. The corrosion rates increased with agitation. However, once the passive ferrous oxalate film formed, the corrosion rate decreased dramatically to less than 20 mpy over the 30 day test period. This rate was independent of agitation. (5) Electrochemical testing indicated that for oxalic acid/sludge simulant mixtures the cathodic reaction has transport controlled reaction kinetics. The literature suggests that the dissolution of the sludge produces a di-oxalatoferrate ion that is reduced at the cathodic sites. The cathodic reaction does not appear to involve hydrogen evolution. On the other hand, electrochemical tests demonstrated that the cathodic reaction for corrosion of carbon steel in pure oxalic acid involves hydrogen evolution. (6) Agitation of the oxalic acid/sludge simulant mixtures typically resulted in a higher corrosion rates for both acid concentrations. The transport of the ferrous ion away from the metal surface results in a less protective ferrous oxalate film. (7) A mercury containing species along with aluminum, silicon and iron oxides was observed on the interior of the pits formed in the HM/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant at 75 C. The pitting rates in the agitated and non-agitated solution were 2 mils/day and 1 mil/day, respectively. A mechanism

Wiersma, B.

2011-08-24

55

Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and nucleic acids encoding same  

Science.gov (United States)

The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

Brown, Kimberly; Harris, Paul; Zaretsky, Elizabeth; Re, Edward; Vlasenko, Elena; McFarland, Keith; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo

2014-09-30

56

Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and nucleic acids encoding same  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

Brown, Kimberly; Harris, Paul; Zaretsky, Elizabeth; Re, Edward; Vlasenko, Elena; McFarland, Keith; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo

2012-10-16

57

Gambogic acid enhances proteasome inhibitor-induced anticancer activity  

OpenAIRE

Proteasome inhibition has emerged as a novel approach to anticancer therapy. Numerous natural compounds, such as gambogic acid, have been tested in vitro and in vivo as anticancer agents for cancer prevention and therapy. However, whether gambogic acid has chemosensitizing properties when combined with proteasome inhibitors in the treatment of malignant cells is still unknown. In an effort to investigate this effect, human leukemia K562 cells, mouse hepatocarcinoma H22 cells and H22 cell allo...

Huang, Hongbiao; Chen, Di; Li, Shujue; Li, Xiaofen; Liu, Ningning; Lu, Xiaoyu; Liu, Shouting; Zhao, Kai; Zhao, Canguo; Guo, Haiping; Yang, Changshan; Zhou, Ping; Dong, Xiaoxian; Zhang, Change; Guanmei,

2011-01-01

58

The Enhancement of Catharanthine Content in Catharanthus roseus Callus Culture Treated with Naphtalene Acetic Acid  

OpenAIRE

The research aim was to examine the enhancement of catharanthine content in Catharanthus roseus callus culture added with different concentration of Naphtalene Acetic Acid (NAA). NAA treatment produced callus that formed hairy roots. Fresh and dry weight of callus increased as the increasing of NAA concentration. The catharanthine content of C. roseus callus culture was increased by adding NAA as well. The highest catharanthine content was found in 2.5 ppm NAA added callus.

DINGSE PANDIANGAN; NELSON NAINGGOLAN

2006-01-01

59

The Enhancement of Catharanthine Content in Catharanthus roseus Callus Culture Treated with Naphtalene Acetic Acid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research aim was to examine the enhancement of catharanthine content in Catharanthus roseus callus culture added with different concentration of Naphtalene Acetic Acid (NAA. NAA treatment produced callus that formed hairy roots. Fresh and dry weight of callus increased as the increasing of NAA concentration. The catharanthine content of C. roseus callus culture was increased by adding NAA as well. The highest catharanthine content was found in 2.5 ppm NAA added callus.

DINGSE PANDIANGAN

2006-09-01

60

Apparent Enhanced Solubility of Single-Wall Carbon Nano tubes in a Deuterated Acid Mixture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An apparent enhanced solubility of single-wall carbon nano tubes (SWNTs) in the deuterated form of the standard 3 : 1 sulfuric (H2SO4) to nitric (HNO3) acid mixture treatment is reported and attributed to the stronger interaction of deuterium bonds with the single-wall carbon nano tube surface. UV-Visible spectroscopy was used to characterize the apparent enhanced solubility of the SWNTs treated in deuterated forms of the acid mixture in comparison to the standard acid mix, while FTIR was used to analyze the nature of the functional groups generated on the SWNTs as a result of the different acid treatments. The apparent enhanced solubility reported here is consistent with the limited number of computational and experimental results published in the literature regarding the interaction of carbon nano tubes with deuterated solvents; however, a detailed understanding of the underlying mechanism responsible for this observation is currently lacking. The apparent increased solubility observed here could potentially be utilized in many applications where carbon nano tube dispersion is required.

61

Zoledronic Acid Improves Early Breast Cancer Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

The addition of zoledronic acid (Zometa®) to adjuvant endocrine therapy in premenopausal women with early stage breast cancer significantly improves clinical outcomes beyond those achieved with endocrine therapy alone, according to findings presented at the 2008 ASCO meeting in Chicago.

62

Surgical Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Acid Reflux Shawnee Mission Medical Center Shawnee Mission, Kansas May 21, 2009 Welcome to this “OR-Live” ... live from Shawnee Mission Medical Center in Merriam, Kansas. During the program it’s easy for you to ...

63

Hepatic arachidonic acid metabolism is disrupted after hexachlorobenzene treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hexaclorobenzene (HCB), one of the most persistent environmental pollutants, can cause a wide range of toxic effects including cancer in animals, and hepatotoxicity and porphyria both in humans and animals. In the present study, liver microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism, hepatic PGE production, and cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) activity were investigated in an experimental model of porphyria cutanea tarda induced by HCB. Female Wistar rats were treated with a single daily dose of HCB (100 mg kg-1 body weight) for 5 days and were sacrificed 3, 10, 17, and 52 days after the last dose. HCB treatment induced the accumulation of hepatic porhyrins from day 17 and increased the activities of liver ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (MROD), and aminopyrine N-demethylase (APND) from day 3 after the last dose. Liver microsomes from control and HCB-treated rats generated, in the presence of NADPH, hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs), epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), 11,12-Di HETE, and ?-OH/?-1-OH AA. HCB treatment caused an increase in total NADPH CYP-dependent AA metabolism, with a higher response at 3 days after the last HCB dose than at the other time points studied. In addition, HCB treatment markedly enhanced PGE production and release in liver slices. This HCB effect was time dependent and reached its highest level after 10 days. At this time cPLA2r 10 days. At this time cPLA2 activity was shown to be increased. Unexpectedly, HCB produced a significant decrease in cPLA2 activity on the 17th and 52nd day. Our results demonstrated for the first time that HCB induces both the cyclooxygenase and CYP-dependent AA metabolism. The effects of HCB on AA metabolism were previous to the onset of a marked porphyria and might contribute to different aspects of HCB-induced liver toxicity such as alterations of membrane fluidity and membrane-bound protein function. Observations also suggested that a possible role of cPLA2 in the early increase of AA metabolism cannot be excluded. However, the existence of other pathway(s) for metabolizable AA generation different from cPLA2 activation is also proposed

64

300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan. Revision 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This section provides a description of the Hanford Site, identifies the proposed method of 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) closure, and briefly summarizes the contents of each chapter of this plan.

NONE

1996-03-01

65

Tienilic acid: a single treatment for hyperuricaemia and hypertension?  

OpenAIRE

Tienilic acid is a drug with established uricosuric and hypotensive properties. We have examined its potential role as a single treatment for hyperuricaemia and hypertension, 2 disorders which are commonly associated. In 17 subjects with gout, blood uric acid levels were reduced by approximately 50%. Eleven of these patients also had hypertension which was improved by tienilic acid. However, a statistically significant effect was observed only with standing diastolic blood pressure. Side effe...

Gibson, T.; Rodgers, V. A.; Potter, C. F.; Simmonds, H. A.

1980-01-01

66

Selective enhancement and suppression of frog gustatory responses to amino acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Properties of the receptor sites for L-amino acids in taste cells of the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) were examined by measuring the neural activities of the glossopharyngeal nerve under various conditions. (a) The frogs responded to 12 amino acids, but the responses to the amino acids varied with individual frogs under natural conditions. The frog tongues, however, exhibited similar responses after an alkaline treatment that removes Ca2+ from the tissue. The variation in the responses under natural conditions was apparently due to the variation in the amount of Ca2+ bound to the receptor membrane. (b) The responses to hydrophilic L-amino acids (glycine, L-alanine, L-serine, L-threonine, L-cysteine, and L-proline) were of a tonic type, but those to hydrophobic L-amino acids (L-valine, L-leucine, L-isoleucine, L-methionine, L-phenylalanine, and L-tyrptophan) were usually composed of both phasic and tonic components. (c) The properties of the tonic component were quite different from those of the phasic component: the tonic component was largely enhanced by the alkaline treatment and suppressed by the acidic treatment that increases binding of Ca2+ to the tissue. Also, the tonic component was suppressed by the presence of low concentrations of salts, or the action of pronase E, whereas the phasic component was unchanged under these conditions. These properties of the phasic component were quite similar to those of the response to hydrophobic substances such as quinine. These results suggest that the hydrophilic L-amino acids stimulate receptor protein(s) and that the hydrophobic L-amino acids stimulate both the receptor protein and a receptor site similar to that for quinine. (d) On the basis of the suppression of the responses to amino acids by salts, the mechanism of generation of the receptor potential is discussed. PMID:6972437

Yoshii, K; Kobatake, Y; Kurihara, K

1981-04-01

67

Acid mine water aeration and treatment system  

Science.gov (United States)

An in-line system is provided for treating acid mine drainage which basically comprises the combination of a jet pump (or pumps) and a static mixer. The jet pump entrains air into the acid waste water using a Venturi effect so as to provide aeration of the waste water while further aeration is provided by the helical vanes of the static mixer. A neutralizing agent is injected into the suction chamber of the jet pump and the static mixer is formed by plural sections offset by 90 degrees.

Ackman, Terry E. (Finleyville, PA); Place, John M. (Bethel Park, PA)

1987-01-01

68

300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOERL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion includes closure plan documentation submitted for individual, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units undergoing closure, such as the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Whenever appropriate, 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. This 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System Closure Plan (Revision 2) includes a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Part A, Form 3. Information provided in this closure plan is current as of April 1999.

LUKE, S.N.

1999-05-17

69

Organic Crop Management Enhances Chicoric Acid Content in Lettuce  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available L- chicoric acid is a dominant phenolic compound in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. and has been shown to accumulate in response to many abiotic stresses and crop management practices. It is a potent inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 integrase needed for the replication of this virus and for the productive infection of the host cell. L- chicoric acid has been found to act synergistically in combination with anti-HIV drugs used for treating acquired immuno-deficiency disorder (AIDS. We show in this study that organic management practices increase the chicoric acid content by nearly 2-fold compared to conventional management practices while they did not have a significant effect on the overall accumulation of phenolic compounds and antioxidants. Similar increase was observed in quercetin-3-O-glucoside under organic management. In addition, pre-plant fertilization decreased the levels of many phenolic compounds including chicoric acid under organic management unlike under conventional management. However, organically managed crop without pre-plant fertilization had better growth and produced about 2.5 times higher yield and higher chicoric acid content than did the conventionally managed crop. Thus, the results show that long term organic crop management practices, but avoiding pre-plant fertilization, can significantly enhance the yield of antiretroviral agent chicoric acid in lettuce.

Channa B. Rajashekar

2012-09-01

70

Surgical Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... let’s try something to decrease the amount of acid that’s in your stomach,” and then after a while he realizes and ... Some people call a “shoe shine” maneuver. But base clay what we want to do is make sure the stomach doesn’t appear to be stretched or too ...

71

Surgical Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... upper GI series and sometimes a 24-hour PH study. Typically, medical treatments can be just elevating ... causing the problem. And so a 24-hour PH is commonly done. That’s a study performed by ...

72

Surgical Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... more detail with a diagram. But the long story short is that we’re going to take ... an upper GI series and sometimes a 24-hour PH study. Typically, medical treatments can be just ...

73

Treatment of alopecia areata with squaric acid dibutylester.  

Science.gov (United States)

Squaric acid dibutylester is a topical sensitizing agent utilized for the treatment of alopecia areata. The mechanism of action is not fully understood, but is believed to redirect the inflammatory response by invoking allergic contact dermatitis. Several studies have compared the efficacy of squaric acid dibutylester to other treatments vs placebo with favorable results. This contribution reviews the history of the topical sensitizing agent squaric acid dibutylester and discusses the mechanism of action, the use in alopecia areata, and the efficacy and safety of this therapeutic agent. PMID:25889130

Hill, Nikki D; Bunata, Kristin; Hebert, Adelaide A

2015-01-01

74

Appearance of hepatocellular adenomas on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate enhancement characteristics of hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs) using gadoxetic acid as a hepatocyte-specific MR contrast agent. Twenty-four patients with histopathologically proven HCAs were retrospectively identified. MRI consisted of T1- and T2-weighted (w) sequences with and without fat saturation (fs), multiphase dynamic T1-w images, and fs T1-w images during the hepatobiliary phase. Standard of reference was surgical resection (n = 19) or biopsy (n = 5). Images were analysed for morphology and contrast behaviour including signal intensity (SI) measurement on T1-w images normalised to the pre-contrast base line. In total 34 HCAs were evaluated. All HCAs showed enhancement in the arterial phase; 38 % of HCAs showed reduced contrast enhancement (''wash-out'') in the venous phase. All HCAs showed enhancement (SI increase, 56 {+-} 53 %; P <0.001) in the hepatobiliary phase, although liver uptake was stronger (96 {+-} 58 %). Thus, 31 of all HCAs (91 %) appeared hypointense to the surrounding liver in the hepatobiliary phase, while 3 out of 34 lesions were iso-/hyperintense. Gadoxetic acid accumulates in HCAs in the hepatobiliary phase, although significantly less than in surrounding liver. Thus, HCA appears in the vast majority of cases as a hypointense lesion on hepatobiliary phase images. (orig.)

Denecke, Timm; Steffen, Ingo G.; Kroencke, Thomas; Haenninen, Enrique Lopez; Hamm, Bernd; Grieser, Christian [Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Klinik fuer Radiologie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany); Agarwal, Sheela; Saini, Sanjay [Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Seehofer, Daniel; Neuhaus, Peter [Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Klinik fuer Allgemein, Viszeral- und Transplantationschirurgie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany); Kramme, Incken-Birthe [Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Institut fuer Pathologie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany)

2012-08-15

75

Appearance of hepatocellular adenomas on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate enhancement characteristics of hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs) using gadoxetic acid as a hepatocyte-specific MR contrast agent. Twenty-four patients with histopathologically proven HCAs were retrospectively identified. MRI consisted of T1- and T2-weighted (w) sequences with and without fat saturation (fs), multiphase dynamic T1-w images, and fs T1-w images during the hepatobiliary phase. Standard of reference was surgical resection (n = 19) or biopsy (n = 5). Images were analysed for morphology and contrast behaviour including signal intensity (SI) measurement on T1-w images normalised to the pre-contrast base line. In total 34 HCAs were evaluated. All HCAs showed enhancement in the arterial phase; 38 % of HCAs showed reduced contrast enhancement (''wash-out'') in the venous phase. All HCAs showed enhancement (SI increase, 56 ± 53 %; P <0.001) in the hepatobiliary phase, although liver uptake was stronger (96 ± 58 %). Thus, 31 of all HCAs (91 %) appeared hypointense to the surrounding liver in the hepatobiliary phase, while 3 out of 34 lesions were iso-/hyperintense. Gadoxetic acid accumulates in HCAs in the hepatobiliary phase, although significantly less than in surrounding liver. Thus, HCA appears in the vast majority of cases as a hypointense lesion on hepatobiliary phase images. (orig.)

76

Influence of acidic treatment on the properties of Syrian zeolite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four samples of Syrian zeolite TS-7, TS-9, TS-14, TS-18 have been used and collected from Tell-Assis. The treatment was carried with solution of HCl (pH=4). The acidic treatment leads to positive changes in the texture properties of the samples. The surface area increases for all samples, and the percent of micro porosity also increases. The acidic treatment shows that the medium pore radii decreasing. The other texture properties change the energy of adsorption and CBET. (Author)

77

Atypical enhancement pattern of focal liver lesions on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR hepatobiliary imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gadoxetic acid (Primovist or Eovist; Bayer Schering Pharma, Berlin, Germany), otherwise known as gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA), is a hepatobiliary-specific contrast agent. Gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging is useful for the evaluation of focal liver lesions. In particular, hepatobiliary phase imaging that is acquired 20 minutes after injection has several merits because it reflects an aspect of hepatocyte function. Normal liver parenchyma demonstrates significant enhancement on the hepatobiliary phase due to selective uptake of gadoxetic acid by functioning hepatocytes, while most malignant liver lesions including hepatocellular carcinoma appear hypointense in comparison with adjacent liver parenchyma during the hepatobiliary phase. However, 10-27% of hepatocellular carcinoma nodules appear isointense or hyperintense during the hepatobiliary phase, and are considered to demonstrate a type of hepatocyte function. There is no relationship between the degree of enhancement on the hepatobiliary phase and tumor differentiation. Organic anion transport polypeptide such as OATP1B3 plays a role in the uptake of gadoxetic acid. The degree of OATP1B3 expression in the tumor affects the degree of tumor enhancement during the hepatobiliary phase. Focal nodular hyperplasia usually appears isointense or hyperintense during the hepatobiliary phase. However, it has been reported that a certain percentage of lesions appear hypointense. Arteentage of lesions appear hypointense. Arterial-enhancing pseudolesions such as arterioportal shunt usually appear isointense during the hepatobiliary phase, reflecting normal hepatocyte function. However, it has been reported that a certain percentage of lesions appear hypointense. As for hepatic adenoma, some researchers reported that these lesions appear hypointense, while the others reported that these lesions appear isointense or hyperintense during the hepatobiliary phase. Other than tumorous lesions, there are certain clinical conditions that demonstrate hypointense areas during the hepatobiliary phase. Focal liver inflammation sometimes appears hypointense during the hepatobiliary phase. Radiation hepatitis in the acute stage usually appears hypointense during the hepatobiliary phase. Liver parenchyma after percutaneous transhepatic portal embolization appears hypointense during the hepatobiliary phase. An awareness of atypical enhancement patterns during the hepatobiliary phase images may improve the accuracy of diagnosing focal liver lesions using gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging. (author)

78

[Enhancers on the transmembrane transport of chlorogenic acid].  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the influence of the difference enhancers on the transport mechanism of chlorogenic acid (CGA) across Caco-2 cells model, a RP-HPLC method was adopted to detect the concentrations of CGA. At the concentrations of 20 to 80 microg x mL(-1), the difference of absorption rate constants (K(a)) was not statistically significant. At the concentrations of 40 and 20 microg x mL(-1), the ratios of apparent permeability coefficients (P(app)) of the apical to basolateral and the basolateral to apical were 1.14 and 1.18, respectively. With the effect of enhancers K(a) and P(app) increased, the absorption half-life (T1/2) decreased. CGA passed through the Caco-2 cell membrane mainly by passive transport. It showed that monocarboxylic acid transporter (MCT) could be involved in the across membrane transport process of CGA. Borneol had no effect on the cell membrane transport processes. The order of increasing absorption of CGA caused by the enhancers was sodium lauryl sulphate > sodium taurocholate > carbomer. PMID:24761618

Ren, Jing; Deng, Sheng-Qi; Jiang, Xue-Hua; Wang, Ling-Ling; Xiao, Yu

2014-02-01

79

Hyaluronic Acid Enhances Gene Delivery into the Cochlea  

OpenAIRE

Cochlear gene therapy can be a new avenue for the treatment of severe hearing loss by inducing regeneration or phenotypic rescue. One necessary step to establish this therapy is the development of a safe and feasible inoculation surgery, ideally without drilling the bony cochlear wall. The round window membrane (RWM) is accessible in the middle-ear space, but viral vectors placed on this membrane do not readily cross the membrane to the cochlear tissues. In an attempt to enhance permeability ...

Shibata, Seiji B.; Cortez, Sarah R.; Wiler, James A.; Swiderski, Donald L.; Raphael, Yehoash

2011-01-01

80

Stanford scientists identify a treatment regimen that enhances the effectiveness of a breast cancer treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

Breast cancers expressing the protein HER2 have a particularly poor prognosis. Treatment with trastuzumab (Herceptin) benefits some patients with HER2-positive breast cancer, but it is not as effective as had been hoped. Researchers are therefore seeking ways to enhance the effectiveness of trastuzumab. In this context, a team of researchers at Stanford University has identified a sequential treatment regimen that enhances the effectivenss of trastuzumab in xenotransplant models of breast cancer.

81

Characterization of Unye bentonite after treatment with sulfuric acid  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Unye bentonite was found to consist predominantly of a dioctahedral smectite along with quartz, tridymite, cristobalite, and minor fractions of feldspar and anatase. A considerable amount of Al was retained as a constituent in acid-resistant impurities following the decomposition of the montmorillon [...] ite via acid treatment at an acid/clay ratio of 0.4. These impurities were mesoporous with a maximum surface area of 303.9±0.4 m² g-1. A sharp decrease in the d001 lattice spacing of the montmorillonite to 15.33 Å reflected the reduction of the crystallinity in the activated products. In addition, the increase in the ease with which newly formed hydroxyl groups were lost paralleled the severity of the acid treatment.

Bulent, Caglar; Beytullah, Afsin; Engin, Koksal; Ahmet, Tabak; Erdal, Eren.

82

Comparison Effects of Citric Acid and Synthetic Chelators In Enhancing Phytoremediation of Cadmium  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the effects of enhancing synthetic chelators (HEDTA, EGTA and low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA such as citric acid were compared on cadmium (Cd solution in soils that were artificially contaminated. Also Cd phytoextraction capability by radish (Raphanus Sativus L. was studied. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete factorial design where each treatment was replicated three times. Concentration treatments of cadmium using CdCl2 were 0(control, 5, 20, 60 and 100 mg Cd kg-1. After complete growth of plants, 6, 20 and 20 mMkg-1 soil HEDTA, EGTA and Citric Acid were added per pot, keeping a control without any chelator application. In order to determine cadmium concentration ten days after adding chelates, samples were taken from the plants and soil of pots. The results showed that in all treatments the concentration of soluble Cd in soil was higher than the control. Also the results showed that synthetic chelators as compared with LMWOA (Citric Acid have increased the solution remarkably. Among the other chelates, HEDTA had significant effects on Cd solution. In the current study, Cd concentration in shoot and root of (Raphanus Sativus L. was increased with enhancement of Cd concentration in soil. Cd concentrations in shoots of radish were higher than those in roots. This could refer to higher bioavailability and solubility of Cd. In the current study, in all the treatments with HEDTA Cd concentrations in shoot and root of (Raphanus Sativus L. were increased as compared with other chelates..

Z. Arabi

2011-01-01

83

Enhanced production of docosahexaenoic acid in mammalian cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), one of the important polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with pharmaceutical and nutraceutical effects, may be obtained through diet or synthesized in vivo from dietary a-linolenic acid (ALA). However, the accumulation of DHA in human body or other mammals relies on the intake of high dose of DHA for a certain period of time, and the bioconversion of dietary ALA to DHA is very limited. Therefore the mammalian cells are not rich in DHA. Here, we report a new technology for increased production of DHA in mammalian cells. By using transient transfection method, Siganus canaliculatus ?4 desaturase was heterologously expressed in chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, and simultaneously, mouse ?6-desaturase and ?5-desaturase were overexpressed. The results demonstrated that the overexpression of ?6/?5-desaturases significantly enhanced the ability of transfected cells to convert the added ALA to docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) which in turn get converted into DHA directly and efficiently by the heterologously expressed ?4 desaturase. This technology provides the basis for potential utility of these gene constructs in the creation of transgenic livestock for increased production of DHA/related products to meet the growing demand of this important PUFA. PMID:24788769

Zhu, Guiming; Jiang, Xudong; Ou, Qin; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Mingfu; Sun, Guozhi; Wang, Zhao; Sun, Jie; Ge, Tangdong

2014-01-01

84

The use of fatty acid esters to enhance free acid sophorolipid synthesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acid esters were prepared by transesterification of soy oil with methanol (methyl-soyate, Me-Soy), ethanol (ethyl-soyate, Et-Soy) and propanol (propyl-soyate, Pro-Soy) and used with glycerol as fermentation substrates to enhance production of free-acid sophorolipids (SLs). Fed-batch fermentations of Candida bombicola resulted in SL yields of 46 +/- 4 g/l, 42 +/- 7 g/l and 18 +/- 6 g/l from Me-Soy, Et-Soy, and Pro-Soy, respectively. Liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (LC/API-MS) showed that Me-Soy resulted in 71% open-chain SLs with 59% of those molecules remaining esterified at the carboxyl end of the fatty acids. Et-Soy and Pro-Soy resulted in 43% and 80% open-chain free-acid SLs, respectively (containing linoleic acid and oleic acid as the principal fatty acid species linked to the sophorose sugar at the omega-1 position), with no evidence of residual esterification. PMID:16555009

Ashby, Richard D; Solaiman, Daniel K Y; Foglia, Thomas A

2006-02-01

85

Melorheostosis and its treatment with intravenous zoledronic acid  

OpenAIRE

We report a case of melorheostosis, a rare bone disorder characterised by mesodermal dysplasia, and its successful and prolonged treatment with the intravenous bisphosphonate zoledronic acid. The middle-aged man presented with pain and swelling of his tibia, which was diagnosed by imaging and bone biopsy as being due to melorheostosis. There was early symptom control after a single infusion of intravenous zoledronic acid. Prolonged symptom relief was accompanied by long-term suppression of th...

Hollick, Rosemary Jane; Black, Alison; Reid, David

2010-01-01

86

New magnetic enhanced adsorption process for wastewater treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive and non-radioactive metal ion and particulate species in aqueous solutions present a formidable treatment problem for the nuclear and commercial industries. An economical and highly effective system for the treatment of wastewater containing these metal species is presented that uses a new magnetic enhanced adsorption technique. The process employs low cost magnetite (FeO · Fe2O3) supported on various organic and inorganic support media, and an external magnetic field to couple the inherent sorption properties of the magnetite with a High Gradient Magnetic Separation technique. This combination of sorption techniques offers several advantages over current filtration and ion exchange systems, and removes a variety of heavy metals and radioactive species. Filtration systems do not remove ionic species and ion exchange systems can be plugged by particulate matter, which may limit the amount of exchange sites able to be accessed. Column studies have been preformed with 10 and 25-mm inside diameter columns. Flow rates have been varied by a factor of four to determine sorption kinetics, e.g., residence time requirements. Removal capacity for cobalt and cesium have been thoroughly studied and calcium, magnesium, iron, and strontium have been evaluated more qualitative than quantitative. Flow rate and pH were measured at every sample interval, and samples were analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Sample blanks and periodic calibrometry. Sample blanks and periodic calibration checks ensured sample accuracy and consistency. The inorganic support material used in these experiments was produced in the laboratory and the method of production can be found in the literature. Experimental results indicate the capture of ions and nano-particles can be accomplished by the use of specific sorbent material and pH control. Elution of some contaminants can be achieved by removal of the magnetic field from around the column and by flushing the sorbent with a small volume of slightly acidic wash solution. Elution studies performed on the sorbent used for cobalt sorption resulted in more than 97 percent recovery of the cobalt with less than 20 bed volumes of wash solution. (authors)

87

Skeletal muscle fatty acids shift from oxidation to storage upon dexamethasone treatment in chickens.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of an exogenous glucocorticoid on the lipid metabolism and fatty acid pattern of skeletal muscle in broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) was investigated in vivo and in vitro. Male Arbor Acres chickens were subjected to dexamethasone (DEX) treatment for 3days. We found that DEX retarded body growth, facilitated lipid accumulation in adipose and skeletal muscle tissues, and elevated the thigh monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) to saturated fatty acids (SFA) ratio at fasted state. DEX-treated chickens exhibited increased stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) activity and decreased carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT1) activity in the thigh muscle under fasting conditions and in primary cultured myoblasts. Phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha at Thr172 did not occur in vivo but was increased in vitro by DEX. In cells exposed to DEX, fatty acid transport protein-1 mRNA expression and fatty acid storage were enhanced while fatty acid oxidation was repressed. In conclusion, in oxidative muscle of fasted chickens, DEX stimulated uptake of myocellular fatty acids which was stored with the modified MUFA to SFA ratio in a process that maybe involved SCD1 activation. The altered fatty acid composition together with the inactivation of CPT1 showed an increased tendency towards fatty acid accumulation as opposed to oxidation. These findings provide important insight concerning the influence of glucocorticoids on lipid metabolism. PMID:23036730

Wang, X J; Song, Z G; Jiao, H C; Lin, H

2012-12-01

88

Ursodeoxycholic acid treatment of vanishing bile duct syndromes  

Science.gov (United States)

Vanishing bile duct syndromes (VBDS) are characterized by progressive loss of small intrahepatic ducts caused by a variety of different diseases leading to chronic cholestasis, cirrhosis, and premature death from liver failure. The majority of adult patients with VBDS suffer from primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a hydrophilic dihydroxy bile acid, is the only drug currently approved for the treatment of patients with PBC, and anticholestatic effects have been reported for several other cholestatic syndromes. Several potential mechanisms of action of UDCA have been proposed including stimulation of hepatobiliary secretion, inhibition of apoptosis and protection of cholangiocytes against toxic effects of hydrophobic bile acids. PMID:16773706

Pusl, Thomas; Beuers, Ulrich

2006-01-01

89

Cyclosporine A and palmitic acid treatment synergistically induce cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment can cause severe side effects. Patients taking immunosuppressant after organ transplantation often display hyperlipidemia and obesity. Elevated levels of free fatty acids have been linked to the etiology of metabolic syndromes, nonalcoholic fatty liver and steatohepatitis. The contribution of free fatty acids to CsA-induced toxicity is not known. In this study we explored the effect of palmitic acid on CsA-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells. CsA by itself at therapeutic exposure levels did not induce detectible cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Co-treatment of palmitic acid and CsA resulted in a dose dependent increase in cytotoxicity, suggesting that fatty acid could sensitize cells to CsA-induced cytotoxicity at the therapeutic doses of CsA. A synergized induction of caspase-3/7 activity was also observed, indicating that apoptosis may contribute to the cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that CsA reduced cellular oxygen consumption which was further exacerbated by palmitic acid, implicating that impaired mitochondrial respiration might be an underlying mechanism for the enhanced toxicity. Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) attenuated palmitic acid and CsA induced toxicity, suggesting that JNK activation plays an important role in mediating the enhanced palmitic acid/CsA-induced toxicity. Our data suggest that elevated FFA levels, especially saturated FFA such as palmitic acid, may be predisposing factors for CsA toxicity, and patients with underlying diseases that would elevate free fatty acids may be susceptible to CsA-induced toxicity. Furthermore, hyperlipidemia/obesity resulting from immunosuppressive therapy may aggravate CsA-induced toxicity and worsen the outcome in transplant patients. -- Highlights: ? Palmitic acid and cyclosporine (CsA) synergistically increased cytotoxicity. ? The impairment of mitochondrial functions may contribute to the enhanced toxicity. ? Inhibition of JNK activity attenuated palmitate/ CsA induced toxicity. ? Palmitate sensitizes cells to the toxicity induced by CsA at therapeutic exposure. ? Elevated free fatty acids may predispose the patients to CsA-induced toxicity.

Luo, Yi, E-mail: yi.luo@pfizer.com; Rana, Payal; Will, Yvonne

2012-06-01

90

Cyclosporine A and palmitic acid treatment synergistically induce cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment can cause severe side effects. Patients taking immunosuppressant after organ transplantation often display hyperlipidemia and obesity. Elevated levels of free fatty acids have been linked to the etiology of metabolic syndromes, nonalcoholic fatty liver and steatohepatitis. The contribution of free fatty acids to CsA-induced toxicity is not known. In this study we explored the effect of palmitic acid on CsA-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells. CsA by itself at therapeutic exposure levels did not induce detectible cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Co-treatment of palmitic acid and CsA resulted in a dose dependent increase in cytotoxicity, suggesting that fatty acid could sensitize cells to CsA-induced cytotoxicity at the therapeutic doses of CsA. A synergized induction of caspase-3/7 activity was also observed, indicating that apoptosis may contribute to the cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that CsA reduced cellular oxygen consumption which was further exacerbated by palmitic acid, implicating that impaired mitochondrial respiration might be an underlying mechanism for the enhanced toxicity. Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) attenuated palmitic acid and CsA induced toxicity, suggesting that JNK activation plays an important role in mediating the enhanced palmitic acid/CsA-induced toxicity. Our data suggest that elevated FFA levels, especially saturated FFA such as palmitic acid, may be predisposing factors for CsA toxicity, and patients with underlying diseases that would elevate free fatty acids may be susceptible to CsA-induced toxicity. Furthermore, hyperlipidemia/obesity resulting from immunosuppressive therapy may aggravate CsA-induced toxicity and worsen the outcome in transplant patients. -- Highlights: ? Palmitic acid and cyclosporine (CsA) synergistically increased cytotoxicity. ? The impairment of mitochondrial functions may contribute to the enhanced toxicity. ? Inhibition of JNK activity attenuated palmitate/ CsA induced toxicity. ? Palmitate sensitizes cells to the toxicity induced by CsA at therapeutic exposure. ? Elevated free fatty acids may predispose the patients to CsA-induced toxicity.

91

Structural-phase transformations in bentonite after acid treatment  

OpenAIRE

The methods of X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray microanalysis, electron microscopy, BET and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were used for investigation of the structural-phase transformations in bentonite under the influence of hydrochloric acid and temperature treatment (100-800ºC). It is established that in HCl medium during temperature treatment, dehydration and dehydroxilation of montmorillonite occur. The presence of gypsum and barium chloride res...

Vlasova M.; Dominguez-Patiño G.; Kakazey N.; Dominguez-Patiño M.; Juarez-Romero D.; Méndez Enríquez Y.

2003-01-01

92

Carbonate interlayered hydrotalcites-enhanced peroxynitrous acid chemiluminescence for high selectivity sensing of ascorbic acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, Mg-Al-carbonate layered double hydroxides (denoted as Mg-Al-CO(3) LDHs) were found to catalyze the chemiluminescence (CL) emission from peroxynitrous acid (ONOOH). The enhanced CL signals resulted from the concentration of peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) onto the LDHs surface by electrostatic attraction, meaning that ONOO(-) can interact with the intercalated carbonate easily and effectively. Moreover, ascorbic acid can react with ONOO(-), or its decomposition products (e.g., ?OH and ?NO(2)), resulting in a decrease in the CL intensity from the Mg-Al-CO(3) LDHs-catalyzed ONOOH reaction. Based on these findings, a sensitive, selective and rapid CL method was developed for the determination of ascorbic acid using Mg-Al-CO(3) LDHs-catalyzed ONOOH as a novel CL system. The CL intensity was proportional to the concentration of ascorbic acid in the range from 5.0 to 5000 nM. The detection limit (S/N = 3) was 0.5 nM and the relative standard deviation (RSD) for nine repeated measurements of 0.1 ?M ascorbic acid was 2.6%. This method has been successfully applied to determine ascorbic acid in commercial liquid fruit juices with recoveries of 97-107%. This work is not only of importance for a better understanding of the unique properties of LDHs-catalyzed CL but also of great potential for extensive applications in many fields, such as luminescence devices, bioanalysis, and labeling probes. PMID:22382556

Wang, Zhihua; Teng, Xu; Lu, Chao

2012-04-21

93

An adult case of cerebral malakoplakia successfully cured by treatment with antibiotics, bethanechol and ascorbic acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cerebral malakoplakia is a very rare chronic inflammatory disease. We herein report the case of a 49-year-old female who presented with a slowly progressive speech disturbance and right hemiparesis. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed irregular enhanced mass lesions with numerous scattered areas of calcification in the left insula, thalamus and basal ganglia. Histopathologically, the biopsy specimen showed basophilic laminated inclusion bodies and intracellular and extracellular calculospherules, usually with a typical targetoid appearance (Michaelis-Gutmann bodies). Treatment with antibiotics, bethanechol and ascorbic acid improved her symptoms in association with a decrease in the abnormal calcification and enhancement. The cerebral malakoplakia mimicked a brain tumor in terms of the patient's clinical course and neuroradiological image findings; however, it was successfully cured with medical treatment. This case provides evidence that the pathogenesis of cerebral malakoplakia is deeply tied to bacterial infection and that medical treatment is effective in cases of this disease. PMID:24863007

Fudaba, Hirotaka; Ooba, Hiroshi; Abe, Tatsuya; Kamida, Tohru; Wakabayashi, Yukihiro; Nagatomi, Hirofumi; Fujiki, Minoru

2014-07-15

94

Enhanced thermoelectric performance of PEDOT:PSS flexible bulky papers by treatment with secondary dopants.  

Science.gov (United States)

For inorganic thermoelectric materials, Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity are interdependent, and hence optimization of thermoelectric performance is challenging. In this work we show that thermoelectric performance of PEDOT:PSS can be enhanced by greatly improving its electrical conductivity in contrast to inorganic thermoelectric materials. Free-standing flexible and smooth PEDOT:PSS bulky papers were prepared using vacuum-assisted filtration. The electrical conductivity was enhanced to 640, 800, 1300, and 1900 S cm(-1) by treating PEDOT:PSS with ethylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, methanol, and formic acid, respectively. The Seebeck coefficient did not show significant variation with the tremendous conductivity enhancement being 21.4 and 20.6 ?V K(-1) for ethylene glycol- and formic acid-treated papers, respectively. This is because secondary dopants, which increase electrical conductivity, do not change oxidation level of PEDOT. A maximum power factor of 80.6 ?W m(-1) K(-2) was shown for formic acid-treated samples, while it was only 29.3 ?W m(-1) K(-2) for ethylene glycol treatment. Coupled with intrinsically low thermal conductivity of PEDOT:PSS, ZT ? 0.32 was measured at room temperature using Harman method. We investigated the reasons behind the greatly enhanced thermoelectric performance. PMID:25475257

Mengistie, Desalegn A; Chen, Chang-Hsiao; Boopathi, Karunakara M; Pranoto, Ferry W; Li, Lain-Jong; Chu, Chih-Wei

2015-01-14

95

Comparison of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced MRI for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aim: To compare the diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and methods: Eighty-nine patients (118 HCCs) who underwent three-dimensional gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and SPIO-enhanced MRI with a mean interval of 4.7 days (range 3-7 days), were included in this study. Two observers reviewed the gadoxetic acid set (unenhanced, early dynamic, 10 and 20 min hepatocyte-phase images) and SPIO set [unenhanced and ferucarbotran-enhanced T1-, T2-turbo spin-echo (TSE), and T2* weighted imaging (WI)] in consensus. Diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity were evaluated using the alternative-free response receiver operator characteristic (ROC) method. Results: The area under ROC curve (Az value) and sensitivity of the gadoxetic acid set (Az 0.964; sensitivity 90.7%) were significantly higher than those of the SPIO set (Az 0.830; sensitivity 84.7%; p < 0.05). There were 14 and seven lesions that were verified only on the gadoxetic acid set and only on the SPIO set, respectively. Four HCCs were clearly revealed as hypointense only on gadoxetic acid-enhanced hepatocyte phase imaging, but were occult on other sequences, including the SPIO set. Conclusion: Gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI is better than SPIO-enhanced MRI for the detection of HCCs.

96

DEVELOPMENT OF SRB TREATMENT SYSTEMS FOR ACID MINE DRAINAGE  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past decade, significant advances have been made in the development of sulfate- reducing bacteria (SRB) technology to treat acid mine drainage (AMD), Bench-scale testing, field demonstrations, and engineered applications of SRBs for the treatment of AMD will be presented...

97

Treatment of acidic technology effluent of one uranium mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Study results of treatment of acidic technology effluent of one uranium mine are described. Lime cream neutralization-addition of removing fluorin ion reagent and barium chloride solution-sludge recycle technology is adopted in the treatment process, which is an effective technology to remove the nuclides U, Th, Ra as well as harmful element F and Mn. After the treatment the effluent is met the discharge standards. The process is easy in operation and saves lime cream reagent. And the produce of the sludge has fast precipitation speed with low water content. (authors)

98

Structural-phase transformations in bentonite after acid treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The methods of X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray microanalysis, electron microscopy, BET and cation exchange capacity (CEC were used for investigation of the structural-phase transformations in bentonite under the influence of hydrochloric acid and temperature treatment (100-800ºC. It is established that in HCl medium during temperature treatment, dehydration and dehydroxilation of montmorillonite occur. The presence of gypsum and barium chloride results in an intercalation of interlayer space of montmorillonite by Ca and Ba ions Temperature treatment of intercalated montmorillonite leads to the formation of pores.

Vlasova M.

2003-01-01

99

Isomerization of fatty acids in sunflower oil during heat treatment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Pilot-scale treatments of sunflower oil similar to deodorization were carried out by applying steam stripping at different temperatures ranging from 179 to 282°C for 5 h. Samples were taken every half hour, and fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. The results showed an increa [...] se in the relative percentage of trans linoleic acid with an increase in either time or temperature. The formation of trans linoleic acid isomers followed a zero-order reaction and the kinetic constants varied according to the Arrhenius' law. The activation energies for the formation of the acids C18:2ct, C18:2tc and C18:2tt were calculated as 147.4, 147.8 and 146.6 kJ/mol, respectively.

L.E., Mateos; G.M., Tonetto; G.H., Crapiste.

2010-07-01

100

Water treatment of acid mining lakes; Wasserbehandlung fuer Tagebauseen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the field of the rehabilitation of the two east German lignite mining districts (Lausitz and Middle Germany) six research projects in the thematic field 'Treatment of flooding water' were funded. The topics of the projects are listed below. 1. Long-term effects of neutralisation processes in sediments of acid mining-lakes. 2. Biological in situ reduction of sulphate in acid mining lakes. 3. Biological ex situ reduction of sulphate in acid mining water - basic research. 4. Biological ex situ reduction of sulphate in acid mining water - selection and disposal of remaining products. 5. Electrolytical generation of hydrogen and precipitation of heavy metals. 6. Installation of an electro chemical redox barrier. (orig.)

Nitsche, C.

2001-07-01

101

Erythropoietin treatment enhances muscle mitochondrial capacity in humans  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Erythropoietin (Epo) treatment has been shown to induce mitochondrial biogenesis in cardiac muscle along with enhanced mitochondrial capacity in mice. We hypothesized that recombinant human Epo (rhEpo) treatment enhances skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity in humans. In six healthy volunteers rhEpo was administered by sub-cutaneous injection over 8?weeks with oral iron (100?mg) supplementation taken daily. Mitochondrial OXPHOS was quantified by high-resolution respirometry in saponin-permeabilized muscle fibers obtained from biopsies of the vastus lateralis before and after rhEpo treatment. OXPHOS was determined with the mitochondrial complex I substrates malate, glutamate, pyruvate, and complex II substrate succinate in the presence of saturating ADP concentrations, while maximal electron transport capacity (ETS) was assessed by addition of an uncoupler. rhEpo treatment increased OXPHOS (from 92?±?5 to 113?±?7?pmol·s(-1)·mg(-1)) and ETS (107?±?4 to 143?±?14?pmol·s(-1)·mg(-1), p?treatment induces an upregulation of OXPHOS and ETS in human skeletal muscle.

Plenge, Ulla; Belhage, Bo

2012-01-01

102

Erythropoietin treatment enhances mitochondrial function in human skeletal muscle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Erythropoietin (Epo treatment has been shown to induce mitochondrial biogenesis in cardiac muscle along with enhanced mitochondrial capacity in mice. We hypothesized that recombinant human Epo (rhEpo treatment enhances skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS capacity in humans. In six healthy volunteers rhEpo was administered by sub-cutaneous injection over eight weeks with oral iron (100 mg supplementation taken daily. Mitochondrial OXPHOS was quantified by high-resolution respirometry in saponin-permeabilized muscle fibers obtained from biopsies of the vastus lateralis before and after rhEpo treatment. OXPHOS was determined with the mitochondrial complex I substrates malate, glutamate, pyruvate and complex II substrate succinate in the presence of saturating ADP concentrations, while maximal electron transport capacity (ETS was assessed by addition of an uncoupler. rhEpo treatment increased OXPHOS (from 92±5 to 113±7 pmol.sec-1.mg-1 and ETS (107±4 to 143±14 pmol.sec-1.mg-1, P<0.05, demonstrating that Epo treatment induces an upregulation of OXPHOS and ETS in human skeletal muscle.

RobertBoushel

2012-03-01

103

Self-enhanced ozonation of benzoic acid at acidic pHs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ozonation of recalcitrant contaminants under acidic conditions is inefficient due to the lack of initiator (e.g., OH(-)) for ozone to produce hydroxyl radicals (HO). In this study, we reported that benzoic acid (BA), which is inert to ozone attack, underwent efficient degradation by ozone at acidic pH (2.3). The kinetics of BA degradation and ozone decomposition were both enhanced by increasing BA concentrations. Essentially, it is a HO-mediated reaction. Based on the exclusion of possible contributions of H2O2 and phenol-like intermediates for HO production, the reaction mechanism involved the formation of ozone ion ( [Formula: see text] ), which is an effective precursor of HO, was thus proposed. The hydroxycyclohexadienyl-type radicals generated during the attack of BA by HO may lead to the formation of [Formula: see text] . Meanwhile, [Formula: see text] could also be possibly formed from the reaction between ozone and organic (e.g., ROO?) or inorganic peroxyl radicals (e.g., HO2). In addition, the hydroxylated products like phenol-like intermediates also played a positive role in HO production. Consequently, HO was produced efficiently under acidic conditions, resulting in rapid degradation of BA. This study provides a new approach for ozone activation even at acidic pHs, and broadens the knowledge of ozonation in removal of micropollutants from water. PMID:25635752

Huang, Xianfeng; Li, Xuchun; Pan, Bingcai; Li, Hongchao; Zhang, Yanyang; Xie, Bihuang

2015-04-15

104

Effect of acid concentration and treatment time on acid-alcohol modified jackfruit seed starch properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

The properties of starch extracted from jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) seeds, collected from west Assam after acid-alcohol modification by short term treatment (ST) for 15-30min with concentrated hydrochloric acid and long term treatment (LT) for 1-15days with 1M hydrochloric acid, were investigated. Granule density, freeze thaw stability, solubility and light transmittance of the treated starches increased. A maximum decrease in the degree of polymerisation occurred in ST of 30min (2607.6). Jackfruit starch had 27.1±0.04% amylose content (db), which in ST initially decreased and then increased with the severity of treatment; in LT the effect was irregular. The pasting profile and granule morphology of the treated samples were severely modified. Native starch had the A-type crystalline pattern and crystalline structure increased on treatment. FTIR spectra revealed slight changes in bond stretching and bending. Colour measurement indicated that whiteness increased on treatment. Acid modified jackfruit seed starch can have applications in the food industry. PMID:25212133

Dutta, Himjyoti; Paul, Sanjib Kumar; Kalita, Dipankar; Mahanta, Charu Lata

2011-09-15

105

Pregnancy-secreted Acid phosphatase, uteroferrin, enhances fetal erythropoiesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Uteroferrin (UF) is a progesterone-induced acid phosphatase produced by uterine glandular epithelia in mammals during pregnancy and targeted to sites of hematopoiesis throughout pregnancy. The expression pattern of UF is coordinated with early fetal hematopoietic development in the yolk sac and then liver, spleen, and bone to prevent anemia in fetuses. Our previous studies suggested that UF exerts stimulatory impacts on hematopoietic progenitor cells. However, the precise role and thereby the mechanism of action of UF on hematopoiesis have not been investigated previously. Here, we report that UF is a potent regulator that can greatly enhance fetal erythropoiesis. Using primary fetal liver hematopoietic cells, we observed a synergistic stimulatory effect of UF with erythropoietin and other growth factors on both burst-forming unit-erythroid and colony-forming unit-erythroid formation. Further, we demonstrated that UF enhanced erythropoiesis at terminal stages using an in vitro culture system. Surveying genes that are crucial for erythrocyte formation at various stages revealed that UF, along with erythropoietin, up-regulated transcription factors required for terminal erythrocyte differentiation and genes required for synthesis of hemoglobin. Collectively, our results demonstrate that UF is a cytokine secreted by uterine glands in response to progesterone that promotes fetal erythropoiesis at various stages of pregnancy, including burst-forming unit-erythroid and colony-forming unit-erythroid progenitor cells and terminal stages of differentiation of hematopoietic cells in the erythroid lineage. PMID:25093463

Ying, Wei; Wang, Haiqing; Bazer, Fuller W; Zhou, Beiyan

2014-11-01

106

Contrast-enhanced microwave detection and treatment of breast cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

Contrast agents and heating agents have been proposed for microwave breast tumor imaging and treatment, respectively. The dielectric properties of the tumor are altered with contrast agents or heating agents that locally accumulate in the tumor. The resulting change in dielectric properties of the tumor has the potential to enhance the sensitivity of microwave imaging of breast tumors and increase the efficiency and selectivity of microwave thermal therapy of breast tumors. This dissertation addresses several key challenges in contrast-enhanced microwave imaging and treatment of breast tumors. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been shown to enhance both the relative permittivity and effective conductivity of the host medium, and are promising as theranostic (integrated therapeutic and diagnostic) agents. Thus, our properties characterization work focuses on CNT dispersions. We performed in vitro microwave dielectric properties and heating response characterization of dispersions of CNTs treated by different functionalization methods and identified a CNT formulation that is very promising as a microwave theranostic agent. Stable dispersions of CNTs with concentrations up to 20 mg/ml are obtained with this formulation, and the enhanced microwave properties of these dispersions are extraordinary compared to the control. We also conducted in vivo dielectric properties characterization of mouse tumors with intra-tumoral injections of CNT dispersions and confirmed that the presence of CNTs increases the dielectric properties of the tumor. In parallel, we developed a contrast-enhanced microwave breast tumor imaging algorithm using sparse reconstruction methods. We demonstrated that this algorithm accurately localizes small tumors in 3D numerical breast phantoms. We also demonstrated the experimental feasibility of this method using physical breast phantoms. Lastly, we studied the sensitivity of the distorted Born iterative method (DBIM) to initial guesses and developed a straightforward method for computing a reliable initial guess. DBIM is an iterative algorithm for solving the microwave inverse scattering problem and is used to initialize the sparse reconstruction algorithm developed in this research.

Gao, Fuqiang

107

Treatment of hydrofluoric acid exposure to the eye  

Science.gov (United States)

AIM To review the current evidence of the treatment of hydrofluoric acid (HF) exposure to the human cornea. METHODS A comprehensive manual search of the literature was conducted through the Ovid interface to assess the mechanism and efficacy of each irrigator through a variety of clinical cases and experimental studies. RESULTS Ocular exposure to HF is extremely damaging to the eye and swift recognition and decontamination with an appropriate agent forms the basis of treatment. Although there are various decontamination solutions that have efficacy against the corrosive action of HF, irrigation with Hexafluorine proved to be the most safe and effective treatment for the eye. CONCLUSION In conclusion emergency departments could benefit from the availability of Hexafluorine for the treatment of HF ocular burns in patients. PMID:25709926

Atley, Katherine; Ridyard, Edward

2015-01-01

108

Robust antifogging antireflective coatings on polymer substrates by hydrochloric acid vapor treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antireflective coatings on polymer substrates have received significant attention for their potential applications. In this paper, robust microporous antifogging antireflective coatings on polymer substrates were prepared from acid-catalyzed silica sol followed by hydrochloric acid vapor solidification at mild temperature below glass transition temperatures of common polymers. The coatings passed 3H pencil hardness test, sand flow test and water-drop test. They had excellent antireflective and antifogging properties. The maximum transmittance of coatings on PMMA substrates reached 100.0% (the maximum transmittance wavelength could be regulated) and average transmittance reached 99.0% in 400-800 nm. The advantage and mechanism of hydrochloric acid vapor solidification and mechanical strength enhancement of coatings are discussed in contrast to ammonia vapor treatment and air vapor treatment. The hydrochloric acid vapor treatment results in a dense integrated microporous film structure. Optical properties were characterized by a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Surface wettability was studied by a contact angle/interface system. Surface morphologies and structures of coatings were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom force microscopy (AFM). PMID:25585289

Li, Tong; He, Junhui; Yao, Lin; Geng, Zhi

2015-04-15

109

Properties of Ferrofluid Nanoparticles Prepared by Coprecipitation and Acid Treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new stable acid water-based CoFe2O4 ferrofluid is prepared by coprecipitation and acid treatment. The properties of the nanoparticles forming the ferrofluid are examined by means of X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometer, scanning tunneling microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and annihilation technique. The results show that the particles are cubic CoFe2O4 nanoparticles, which have an average diameter of 12.2 nm and are coated with a low density porous amorphous layer. The CoFe2O4 particles in an acid aqueous medium exist in two kinds of forms, one is a single spherical particle and another is an aggregation of several spherical particles

110

Glycyrrhizic acid in the treatment of liver diseases: literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) is a triterpene glycoside found in the roots of licorice plants (Glycyrrhiza glabra). GA is the most important active ingredient in the licorice root, and possesses a wide range of pharmacological and biological activities. GA coupled with glycyrrhetinic acid and 18-beta-glycyrrhetic acid was developed in China or Japan as an anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antiallergic drug for liver disease. This review summarizes the current biological activities of GA and its medical applications in liver diseases. The pharmacological actions of GA include inhibition of hepatic apoptosis and necrosis; anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory actions; antiviral effects; and antitumor effects. This paper will be a useful reference for physicians and biologists researching GA and will open the door to novel agents in drug discovery and development from Chinese herbs. With additional research, GA may be more widely used in the treatment of liver diseases or other conditions. PMID:24963489

Li, Jian-yuan; Cao, Hong-yan; Liu, Ping; Cheng, Gen-hong; Sun, Ming-yu

2014-01-01

111

Zoledronic acid infusion for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis  

OpenAIRE

John A SunyeczLaurel Highlands Ob/Gyn, Hopwood, Pennsylvania, USA and MenopauseRx, Inc., Uniontown, PA, USAAbstract: Osteoporotic fractures are associated with significant morbidity, reduced quality of life, increased mortality, and high health care costs. Bisphosphonates are standard therapy for treatment of osteoporosis. However, patient compliance and persistence with oral weekly or monthly bisphosphonate therapy are suboptimal and may lead to reduced effectiveness. Zoledronic acid (ZOL) i...

Sunyecz, John A.

2010-01-01

112

Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, fetal risks, and ursodeoxycolic acid treatment  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this report is to investigate intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Here we report a 36-year-old woman with intrahepatic cholestasis. We observed a complete cure with ursodeoxycholic acid treatment. We discussed the epidemiology, pathomechanism, and therapy of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is a rare disorder of unknown etiology with a clinically distressing maternal course with pruritus and jaundice as the chief complaints. The diseas...

Erdin ?lter; Can Tu?fekc?i, E.; Osman Batur; Figen Temelli

2005-01-01

113

Hyaluronic acid as a treatment for ankle osteoarthritis  

OpenAIRE

Viscosupplementation refers to the concept of synovial fluid replacement with intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid (HA) for the relief of pain associated with osteoarthritis (OA). Intra-articular viscosupplementation was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1997. It is currently indicated only for the treatment of pain associated with knee OA. However, OA can occur in several of the weight-bearing joints of the foot and ankle. Ankle OA produces chronic disability tha...

Sun, Shu-fen; Chou, Yi-jiun; Hsu, Chien-wei; Chen, Wen-ling

2009-01-01

114

Implementation of enhanced dynamic wedges in pinnacle treatment planning system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Enhanced dynamic wedges (EDW) provide many advantages over traditional hard wedges for linear accelerator treatments. Along with these advantages comes the responsibility of ensuring that this complex technology delivers the correct dose to patients. This involves determining the enhanced dynamic wedge factors for various field sizes and depths for use in the hand calculation of monitor units (MUs). The accurate representation of dynamic wedges in the treatment planning computer must also be ensured. This is required so that the final isodose distributions are correct and the MUs calculated by the treatment planning computer match those determined by hand calculation. We have commissioned and implemented the use of EDW in the Pinnacle radiation therapy planning system. The modeled dose profiles agree with the measured ones with a maximum difference of 2%. The MUs generated by Pinnacle are also within 2% of those calculated independently. The process of data collection and verification, beam modeling, and a discussion of a potential pitfall encountered in this process are presented in this paper

115

Enhancement of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on all-trans retinoic acid-induced differentiation in human leukemia HL-60 cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) induces complete remission in a high proportion of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL); however, the response is sometimes very slow. Furthermore, relapse and resistance to treatment often occur despite continued treatment with ATRA. Thereafter, combination treatment strategies have been suggested to circumvent these problems. The present study demonstrates that caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a major component of honeybee propolis, enhanced ATRA-induced granulocytic differentiation in HL-60, a human promyelocytic cell line. The differentiation was assessed by Wright-Giemsa stain, nitroblue tetrazolium reduction, and membrane differentiation marker CD11b. In addition, CAPE enhanced ATRA-induced cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase by decreasing the association of cdk2-cyclin E complex. Finally, it was demonstrated that CAPE promoted the ATRA-mediated nuclear transcription activation of RAR? assessed by EMSA assay and enhanced the expression of target genes including RAR?, C/EBP?, and p21 protein resulting in the differentiation development of leukemia. It is suggested that CAPE possesses the potential to enhance the efficiency of ATRA in the differentiation therapy of APL

116

Plasma surface treatments of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The surfaces of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) were modified by oxygen and nitrogen plasma treatments. The physical and chemical surface characteristics were evaluated by contact angle tests, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The plasma treatments caused an increase in both contact angle and roughening, altered the surface morphology, inserted polar groups, and, consequently, enhanced the hydrophilicity for both PLLA and PHBV polymers.

117

Does Treatment Readiness Enhance the Response of African American Substance Users to Motivational Enhancement Therapy?  

OpenAIRE

The development of effective treatments for African Americans and other ethnic minorities is essential for reducing health disparities in substance use. Despite research suggesting that Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET) may reduce substance use among African Americans, the findings have been inconsistent. This research examined the extent to which readiness-to-change (RTC) affects response to MET among African American substance users. The study was a secondary analysis of the 194 Africa...

Burlew, Ann Kathleen; Montgomery, Latrice; Kosinski, Andrzej S.; Forcehimes, Alyssa A.

2013-01-01

118

Electron beam treatment with radical scavengers/enhancers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

E-beam treatment of low level contaminated groundwater is best apt to demonstrate the role of scavengers and enhancers, respectively because groundwater already contains some scavengers as natural solutes. The action of ionizing radiation to water is known to result in the formation of ions, molecular and free radical species. For low level contaminations of groundwater (pollutant concentration aqu - and H are of interest for pollutant decomposition. The pollutants have to compete for the free radical species with the natural solutes. 10 figures are discussed. (author)

119

Detection of liver metastases: Gadoxetic acid-enhanced three-dimensional MR imaging versus ferucarbotran-enhanced MR imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To compare the diagnostic performance of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI with ferucarbotran-enhanced MRI for the detection of liver metastases. Materials and methods: Thirty-six patients with 80 liver metastases who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI using a three-dimensional volumetric interpolated technique and ferucarbotran-enhanced MRI with a mean interval of 7 days (range, 5-10 days) were included in this study. Two observers independently interpreted the two sets of images - the gadoxetic acid set (unenhanced, early dynamic and 20 min delayed phase images) and the ferucarbotran set (unenhanced and ferucarbotran-enhanced T2*-weighted-gradient echo and T2-weighted turbo spin echo images). Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated using the alternative-free response receiver operator characteristic (ROC) method. Sensitivity and positive predictive value were also evaluated. Results: There was a trend toward increased areas under the ROC curve (Az values) for the gadoxetic acid set (0.950, 0.948) as compared with the ferucarbotran set (0.941 and 0.939) of images, but no significant difference was found for both observers (p < 0.05). Sensitivities of the gadoxetic acid set (93.8% and 92.5%) were also slightly better than those of the ferucarbotran set (88.8% and 87.5%) with no significant difference (p = 0.13). The two image sets showed similar positive predictive values (98.7% and 98.6%, respectively). Conclusions: Gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI showed comparable diagn acid-enhanced MRI showed comparable diagnostic performance to ferucarbotran-enhanced MRI for the detection of liver metastases.

120

Mechanism involved in enhancement of osteoblast differentiation by hyaluronic acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? In this study was to investigate the effects of HA on osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. ? MG63 cells were incubated with BMP-2 and HA for various time periods. ? Phosphorylation of Smad 1/5/8, p38, and ERK proteins was determined by western blot analysis. To elucidate the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated Smad 1/5/8, stimulated cells were subjected to immunofluorescence microscopy. ? HA enhanced BMP-2 induces osteoblastic differentiation in MG63 cells via down-regulation of BMP-2 antagonists and ERK phosphorylation. -- Abstract: Objectives: Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is expected to be utilized to fill bone defects and promote healing of fractures. However, it is unable to generate an adequate clinical response for use in bone regeneration. Recently, it was reported that glycosaminoglycans, including heparin, heparan sulfate, keratan sulfate, dermatan sulfate, chondroitin-4-sulfate, chondroitin-6-sulfate, and hyaluronic acid (HA), regulate BMP-2 activity, though the mechanism by which HA regulates osteogenic activities has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HA on osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. Materials and methods: Monolayer cultures of osteoblastic lineage MG63 cells were incubated with BMP-2 and HA for various time periods. To determine osteoblastic differentiation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the cell lysates was quantified. Phosphorylation of Smad 1/5/8, p38, and ERK proteins was determined by Western blot analysis. To elucidate the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated Smad 1/5/8, stimulated cells were subjected to immunofluorescence microscopy. To further elucidate the role of HA in enhancement of BMP-2-induced Smad signaling, mRNA expressions of the BMP-2 receptor antagonists noggin and follistatin were detected using real-time RT-PCR. Results: BMP-2-induced ALP activation, Smad 1/5/8 phosphorylation, and nuclear translocation were up-regulated when MG63 cells were cultured with both BMP-2 and HA. Western blot analysis revealed that phosphorylation of ERK protein was diminished by HA. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of noggin and follistatin induced by BMP-2 were preferentially blocked by HA. Conclusions: These results indicate that HA enhanced BMP-2 induces osteoblastic differentiation in MG63 cells via down-regulation of BMP-2 antagonists and ERK phosphorylation.

121

Mechanism involved in enhancement of osteoblast differentiation by hyaluronic acid  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research highlights: {yields} In this study was to investigate the effects of HA on osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. {yields} MG63 cells were incubated with BMP-2 and HA for various time periods. {yields} Phosphorylation of Smad 1/5/8, p38, and ERK proteins was determined by western blot analysis. To elucidate the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated Smad 1/5/8, stimulated cells were subjected to immunofluorescence microscopy. {yields} HA enhanced BMP-2 induces osteoblastic differentiation in MG63 cells via down-regulation of BMP-2 antagonists and ERK phosphorylation. -- Abstract: Objectives: Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is expected to be utilized to fill bone defects and promote healing of fractures. However, it is unable to generate an adequate clinical response for use in bone regeneration. Recently, it was reported that glycosaminoglycans, including heparin, heparan sulfate, keratan sulfate, dermatan sulfate, chondroitin-4-sulfate, chondroitin-6-sulfate, and hyaluronic acid (HA), regulate BMP-2 activity, though the mechanism by which HA regulates osteogenic activities has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HA on osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. Materials and methods: Monolayer cultures of osteoblastic lineage MG63 cells were incubated with BMP-2 and HA for various time periods. To determine osteoblastic differentiation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the cell lysates was quantified. Phosphorylation of Smad 1/5/8, p38, and ERK proteins was determined by Western blot analysis. To elucidate the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated Smad 1/5/8, stimulated cells were subjected to immunofluorescence microscopy. To further elucidate the role of HA in enhancement of BMP-2-induced Smad signaling, mRNA expressions of the BMP-2 receptor antagonists noggin and follistatin were detected using real-time RT-PCR. Results: BMP-2-induced ALP activation, Smad 1/5/8 phosphorylation, and nuclear translocation were up-regulated when MG63 cells were cultured with both BMP-2 and HA. Western blot analysis revealed that phosphorylation of ERK protein was diminished by HA. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of noggin and follistatin induced by BMP-2 were preferentially blocked by HA. Conclusions: These results indicate that HA enhanced BMP-2 induces osteoblastic differentiation in MG63 cells via down-regulation of BMP-2 antagonists and ERK phosphorylation.

Kawano, Michinao [Division of Maxillofacial Diagnostic and Surgical Science, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Department of Health Promotion, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Ariyoshi, Wataru [Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Department of Health Promotion, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Iwanaga, Kenjiro [Division of Maxillofacial Diagnostic and Surgical Science, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Okinaga, Toshinori [Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Department of Health Promotion, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Habu, Manabu [Division of Maxillofacial Diagnostic and Surgical Science, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Yoshioka, Izumi [Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Medicine of Sensory and Motor Organs, University of Miyazaki, Kiyotake, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan); Tominaga, Kazuhiro [Division of Maxillofacial Diagnostic and Surgical Science, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Oral Bioresearch Center, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Nishihara, Tatsuji, E-mail: tatsujin@kyu-dent.ac.jp [Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Department of Health Promotion, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Oral Bioresearch Center, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan)

2011-02-25

122

Slagment Cement Improve the Cement Resistance Toward Acids Attack During Acidizing Treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Acidizing treatment in past experience shows several zonal isolation problems after the treatment. This study presents the effect of the acid treatment toward class G cement and slagment cement as the improvement method to improve the cement resistance toward the acid. Lab experiments were conducted by immerge the respective cement cubes into 12% HCl/3% HF solution for 40 min before several analysis were conducted. Based on the result, the mass loss and compressive strength loss of the cement cubes decrease as the curing temperature and pressure increase due to more evenly distributed cement chemical composition crystal in high curing condition as shown in Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM analysis. From X-Ray Diffraction (XRD and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF analysis, only the first layer of the cement cubes shows chemical component change due to the reaction between the acid. This study found that, replacing class G cement to slagment cement can reduce the mass loss and compressive strength loss up to 72% and 82%, respectively.

Nik Khairul Irfan Bin Nik Ab. Lah.

2013-05-01

123

Influence of fenofibrate treatment on triacylglycerides, diacylglycerides and fatty acids in fructose fed rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fenofibrate (FF) lowers plasma triglycerides via PPAR? activation. Here, we analyzed lipidomic changes upon FF treatment of fructose fed rats. Three groups with 6 animals each were defined as control, fructose-fed and fructose-fed/FF treated. Male Wistar Unilever Rats were subjected to 10% fructose-feeding for 20 days. On day 14, fenofibrate treatment (100 mg/kg p.o.) was initiated and maintained for 7 days. Lipid species in serum were analyzed using mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS; LC-FT-MS, GC-MS) on days 0, 14 and 20 in all three groups. In addition, lipid levels in liver and intestine were determined. Short-chain TAGs increased in serum and liver upon fructose-feeding, while almost all TAG-species decreased under FF treatment. Long-chain unsaturated DAG-levels (36:1, 36:2, 36:4, 38:3, 38:4, 38:5) increased upon FF treatment in rat liver and decreased in rat serum. FAs, especially short-chain FAs (12:0, 14:0, 16:0) increased during fructose-challenge. VLDL secretion increased upon fructose-feeding and together with FA-levels decreased to control levels during FF treatment. Fructose challenge of de novo fatty acid synthesis through fatty acid synthase (FAS) may enhance the release of FAs ? 16:0 chain length, a process reversed by FF-mediated PPAR?-activation. PMID:25198467

Kopf, Thomas; Schaefer, Hans-Ludwig; Troetzmueller, Martin; Koefeler, Harald; Broenstrup, Mark; Konovalova, Tatiana; Schmitz, Gerd

2014-01-01

124

Flaxseed Soluble Dietary Fibre Enhances Lactic Acid Bacterial Survival and Growth in Kefir and Possesses High Antioxidant Capacity  

OpenAIRE

This study investigated the capability and efficiency of flaxseed soluble dietary fibre /mucilage to enhance bacterial survival and growth in kefir as well as the antioxidant activity of the mucilage. Crude flaxseed mucilage was extracted using a microwave method, followed by enzymatic and dialysis treatments to obtain pure mucilage. The antioxidant activities of the pure and crude mucilage were measured using different assays. Microbial analyses, pH and total titratable acidity (TTA) were me...

Mehri HadiNezhad; Camille Duc; Nam Fong Han; Farah Hosseinian

2013-01-01

125

Seed washing, exogenous application of gibberellic acid, and cold stratification enhance the germination of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) seed  

OpenAIRE

Seed germination in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) is a slow and lengthy process which has delayed breeding efforts. In this study, seed from ripe fruit of the sweet cherry cultivar ‘Lambert’ were collected and, after removing the endocarp, various dormancy-breaking treatments such as seed washing, the application of exogenous gibberellic acid (GA3), or cold stratification were evaluated for their ability to enhance the percentage and rate of seed germination. The results indicated that s...

Javanmard, T.; Zamani, Z.; Keshavarz Afshar, R.; Hashemi, M.; Struik, P. C.

2014-01-01

126

Treatment of spent Ni-Cd batteries by acid lixiviation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work reports on the results of laboratory experiences for the treatment of spent Ni-Cd batteries, using a hydro metallurgical process. The stages of mechanical preparation, lixiviation and extraction with organic solvents are described. The mechanical separation involving a sequence of shearing, drying, crushing and magnetic separation, resulted in the separation into a fine fraction of more than 95% of the cadmium and nickel in the spent batteries, leaving a big fraction of almost all iron and non metallic materials. Lixiviation trials were performed with the fine fraction and modifying the variables of temperature, acidity, reaction time and degree of oxidation of the solution. The incidence of the medium used was evaluated depending on whether it was sulfuric acid or chlorhydric acid solution. Under some conditions more than 90% of the cadmium and nickel could be dissolved, in short periods of no more than 2 hours and it was observed that in the concentrations studied, the chlorhydric acid solutions are more effective than the sulfuric acid ones. DEPHA (Di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid) extractants from the sulfuric solutions and TBP (tributyl phosphate) for the chlorhydrics were used for the extractions using organic solvents. Both extractants are effective in separating the cadmium and nickel contents in the lixiviation solutions but when using the TBPS solution, less steps are needed in the extraction as well as in the re-extraction. The results obtained frthe re-extraction. The results obtained from these studies show that this method can be used for recycling spent Ni-Cd batteries (CW)

127

The treatments of soil Rirang by floatation and Acid leaching  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The treatments of soil Rirang by floatation and acid leaching has been carried out to increase high uranium concentrates of materials, separating associated economical minerals and to reduce the gangue minerals which bothering at chemical processing. The physical treatment has been done by ore preparation and floatation using oleic acid and pine oil, 20 % of pulp at pH 9, condition time at 5 minutes and collections of float fraction was 10 minutes. The chemical processing has been done by dynamic leaching using H2SO4 100 kg/ton, MnO2 20 kg/ton, 50 % of solid with ore size - 65 mesh, temperature at 80 oC and time of leaching was 8 hours. The result of experiments is as follows : Physical treatment by floatation shown that the concentrates of U increased at sink fraction by (1.5 - 2) times against feed sample for all the samples, and in the float fraction the recovery of molybdenite separation is 58 - 81 % and rare earths is 57 - 80 %. The result of dynamic leaching is 76 - 91 %, and recovery uranium increasing from 81.02 % (mixture samples soil before floatation) to 91.16 % ( mixture samples of float fraction)

128

Treatment of cesium in the highly saline acidic HLLW  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results are presented for the treatment of cesium in the highly saline acidic high level liquid waste (HLLW) by potassium titanium hexacyanoferrate (KTiFC). The properties of KTiFC are given. The removal of cesium-137 from the genuine Chinese highly saline HLLW and from the simulated HLLW with two columns connected in series is carried out. The dynamic Cs capacity is 0.41 mmol/g at 1% Cs breakthrough and 0.71 mmol/g at 90% breakthrough. Part of cesium in cesium-loaded KTiFC can be eluted and recycled with 8 M nitric acid. The Cs-loaded KTiFC inorganic ion exchanger can be immobilized in the stable titanate ceramic waste form after destroyed the cyan

129

Alpha lipoic acid: a novel treatment for depression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Insulin resistance has been associated with people diagnosed with depression. Conversely, it has also been documented that diabetics have an increased risk of depression. Evidence suggests that insulin activity plays a role in serotonergic activity by increasing the influx of tryptophan into the brain. This increased influx of tryptophan has been shown to result in an increase in serotonin synthesis. In accordance with the serotonin theory of depression, it may be possible to treat depression by increasing insulin activity. The antioxidant alpha lipoic acid has been shown to increase insulin sensitivity and is used to treat people with diabetes. Therefore, the nutrient alpha lipoic acid should be clinically tested as an adjunct treatment for depression. PMID:11090300

Salazar, M R

2000-12-01

130

Exogenous jasmonic acid can enhance tolerance of wheat seedlings to salt stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Jasmonic acid (JA) is regarded as endogenous regulator that plays an important role in regulating stress responses, plant growth and development. To investigate the physiological mechanisms of salt stress mitigated by exogenous JA, foliar application of 2mM JA was done to wheat seedlings for 3days and then they were subjected to 150mM NaCl. Our results showed that 150mM NaCl treatment significantly decreased plant height, root length, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, the concentration of glutathione (GSH), chlorophyll b (Chl b) and carotenoid (Car), the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), enhanced the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the rate of superoxide radical (O2•-) generation in the wheat seedlings when compared with the control. However, treatments with exogenous JA for 3 days significantly enhanced salt stress tolerance in wheat seedlings by decreasing the concentration of MDA and H2O2, the production rate of O2•- and increasing the transcript levels and activities of SOD, POD, CAT and APX and the contents of GSH, Chl b and Car, which, in turn, enhanced the growth of salt stressed seedlings. These results suggested that JA could effectively protect wheat seedlings from salt stress damage by enhancing activities of antioxidant enzymes and the concentration of antioxidative compounds to quench the excessive reactive oxygen species caused by salt stress and presented a practical implication for wheat cultivation in salt-affected soils. PMID:24726929

Qiu, ZongBo; Guo, JunLi; Zhu, AiJing; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, ManMan

2014-06-01

131

Enhancement of glucose disposal in patients with type 2 diabetes by alpha-lipoic acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Insulin resistance of skeletal muscle glucose uptake is a prominent feature of Type II diabetes (NIDDM); therefore pharmacological interventions should aim to improve insulin sensitivity. Alpha-lipoic acid (CAS 62-46-4, thioctic acid, ALA), a natural occurring compound frequently used for treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy, enhances glucose utilization in various experimental models. To see whether this compound also augments insulin mediated glucose disposal in NIDDM, 13 patients received either ALA (1000 mg/Thioctacid/500 ml NaCl, n = 7) or vehicle only (500 ml NaCl, n = 6) during a glucose-clamp study. Both groups were comparable in age, body-mass index and duration of diabetes and had a similar degree of insulin resistance at baseline. Acute parenteral administration of ALA resulted in a significant increase of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal; metabolic clearance rate (MCR) for glucose rose by about 50% (3.76 ml/kg/min = pre vs. 5.82 ml/kg/min = post, p alpha-lipoic acid increases insulin stimulated glucose disposal in NIDDM. The mode of action of ALA and its potential use as an antihyperglycemic agent require further investigation. PMID:7575750

Jacob, S; Henriksen, E J; Schiemann, A L; Simon, I; Clancy, D E; Tritschler, H J; Jung, W I; Augustin, H J; Dietze, G J

1995-08-01

132

Treatment of vinasse from tequila production using polyglutamic acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vinasse, the wastewater from ethanol distillation, is characterised by high levels of organic and inorganic matter, high exit process temperature (ca. 90°C) and low pH (3.0-4.5). In this study, the treatment of tequila vinasse was achieved by a flocculation-coagulation process using poly-?-glutamic acid (PGA). Results showed that the use of PGA (250-300 ppm) combined with sodium hypochlorite and sand filtration managed to remove about 70% of the turbidity and reduced chemical oxygen demand (COD) by 79.5% with the extra benefit of colour removal. PGA showed its best flocculating activity at pH 2.5-3.5 and a temperature of 30-55°C. Such a treatment may be a solution for small tequila companies for which other solutions to deal with their vinasse may not be economically affordable. PMID:21600690

Carvajal-Zarrabal, Octavio; Nolasco-Hipólito, Cirilo; Barradas-Dermitz, Dulce Ma; Hayward-Jones, Patricia M; Aguilar-Uscanga, Ma Guadalupe; Bujang, Kopli

2012-03-01

133

Methane sulfonic acid-enhanced formation of molecular clusters of sulfuric acid and dimethyl amine  

Science.gov (United States)

Over oceans and in coastal regions, methane sulfonic acid (MSA) is present in substantial concentrations in aerosols and in the gas phase. We present an investigation into the effect of MSA on sulfuric acid- and dimethyl amine (DMA)-based cluster formation rates. From systematic conformational scans and well-tested ab initio methods, we optimise the structures of all MSAx (H2SO4)yDMAz clusters where x + y ≤ 3 and z ≤ 2. The resulting thermodynamic data are used in the Atmospheric Cluster Dynamics Code, and the effect of MSA is evaluated by comparing ternary MSA-H2SO4-DMA cluster formation rates to binary H2SO4-DMA cluster formation rates. Within the range of atmospherically relevant MSA concentrations, we find that MSA may increase cluster formation rates by up to 1 order of magnitude, although typically, the increase will be less than 300 % at 258 K, less than 100 % at 278 K and less than 15 % at 298 K. The results are rationalised by a detailed analysis of the main growth paths of the clusters. We find that MSA-enhanced clustering involves clusters containing one MSA molecule, while clusters containing more than one MSA molecule do not contribute significantly to the growth.

Bork, N.; Elm, J.; Olenius, T.; Vehkamäki, H.

2014-11-01

134

Methane sulfonic acid enhanced formation of molecular clusters of sulfuric acid and dimethyl amine  

Science.gov (United States)

Over oceans and in coastal regions methane sulfonic acid (MSA) is present in substantial concentrations in aerosols and in the gas phase. We present an investigation of the effect of MSA on sulfuric acid and dimethyl amine (DMA) based cluster formation rates. From systematic conformational scans and well tested ab initio methods, we optimize structures of all MSAx (H2SO4)yDMAz clusters where x + y ≤ 3 and z ≤ 2. The resulting thermodynamic data is used in the Atmospheric Cluster Dynamics Code and the effect of MSA is evaluated by comparing ternary MSA-H2SO4-DMA cluster formation rates to binary H2SO4-DMA cluster formation rates. Within the range of atmospherically relevant MSA concentrations, we find that MSA may increase cluster formation rates by up to one order of magnitude, although typically, the increase will be less than 300% at 258 K, less than 100% at 278 K and less than 15% at 298 K. The results are rationalized by a detailed analysis of the the main growth paths of the clusters. We find that MSA enhanced clustering involves clusters containing one MSA molecule, while clusters containing more than one MSA molecule do not contribute significantly to the growth.

Bork, N.; Elm, J.; Olenius, T.; Vehkamäki, H.

2014-07-01

135

Lowering of phytic acid content by enhancement of phytase and acid phosphatase activities during sunflower germination  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a germinação de girassóis híbridos BRS 191 e C11 com finalidade de reduzir o teor de AF e aumentar as atividades de phytases e fosfatases endógenas. A concentração do AF nos aquênios de girassóis híbridos variou de 2,16 a 2,83 g /100g de amostra (p[...] s atividades de fitases e fosfatases de girassóis BRS191 e C11 foram elevadas no 4º e 5º dia de germinação, respectivamente, com liberação do fósforo necessário para o desenvolvimento da semente. Estes resultados indicam que o AF do girassol hibrido reduz e a atividade de phytase aumenta em períodos distintos da germinação, possibilitando assim a aplicação desta enzima no controle do teor de AF em cereais, melhorando o seu valor nutricional. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to investigate the germination of hybrid sunflowers BRS191 and C11 as a means of lowering phytic acid (PA) content by enhancing the activity of endogenous phytase and acid phosphatase. The concentration of PA in hybrid sunflower achenes varied from 2.16 to 2.83g/100g o [...] f sample (p

Juliana da Silva, Agostini; Rosicler Balduíno, Nogueira; Elza Iouko, Ida.

2010-08-01

136

Lowering of phytic acid content by enhancement of phytase and acid phosphatase activities during sunflower germination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the germination of hybrid sunflowers BRS191 and C11 as a means of lowering phytic acid (PA content by enhancing the activity of endogenous phytase and acid phosphatase. The concentration of PA in hybrid sunflower achenes varied from 2.16 to 2.83g/100g of sample (p O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a germinação de girassóis híbridos BRS 191 e C11 com finalidade de reduzir o teor de AF e aumentar as atividades de phytases e fosfatases endógenas. A concentração do AF nos aquênios de girassóis híbridos variou de 2,16 a 2,83 g /100g de amostra (p< 0,005. As atividades de fitases e fosfatases de girassóis BRS191 e C11 foram elevadas no 4º e 5º dia de germinação, respectivamente, com liberação do fósforo necessário para o desenvolvimento da semente. Estes resultados indicam que o AF do girassol hibrido reduz e a atividade de phytase aumenta em períodos distintos da germinação, possibilitando assim a aplicação desta enzima no controle do teor de AF em cereais, melhorando o seu valor nutricional.

Juliana da Silva Agostini

2010-08-01

137

5-aminolevulinic acid enhances cell death under thermal stress in certain cancer cell lines.  

Science.gov (United States)

5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is contained in all organisms and a starting substrate for heme biosynthesis. Since administration of 5-ALA specifically leads cancer cells to accumulate protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), a potent photosensitizer, we tested if 5-ALA also serves as a thermosensitizer. 5-ALA enhanced heat-induced cell death of cancer cell lines such as HepG2, Caco-2, and Kato III, but not other cancer cell lines including U2-OS and normal cell lines including WI-38. Those 5-ALA-sensitive cancer cells, but neither U2-OS nor WI-38, accumulated intracellular PpIX and exhibited an increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation under thermal stress with 5-ALA treatment. In addition, blocking the PpIX-exporting transporter ABCG2 in U2-OS and WI-38 cells enhanced their cell death under thermal stress with 5-ALA. Finally, a ROS scavenger compromised the cell death enhancement by 5-ALA. These suggest that 5-ALA can sensitize certain cancer cells, but not normal cells, to thermal stress via accumulation of PpIX and increase of ROS generation. PMID:25346276

Chibazakura, Taku; Toriyabe, Yui; Fujii, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kiwamu; Kawakami, Mariko; Kuwamura, Haruna; Haga, Hazuki; Ogura, Shun-Ichiro; Abe, Fuminori; Nakajima, Motowo; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Tanaka, Tohru

2015-03-01

138

Enhancing Anaerobic Treatment of Wastewaters Containing Oleic Acid.  

OpenAIRE

INTRODUCTIONLipids are one of the major organic pollutants in municipal and industrial wastewaters. Although domestic sewage typically contains about 40-100 mg/I lipids (Forster, 1992; Quéméneur and Marty, 1994), it is industrial wastewaters that are of greater concern when considering the higher lipid concentrations in the discharged effluents. Typical industries that generate lipids-containing wastewaters are dairy, edible oil and fat refinery, slaughterhouse and meatprocessing, rendering...

Ching-shyung, H.

1997-01-01

139

POROSITY ENHANCEMENT IN SOME BAKED CLAY SAMPLES UNDER HYDROTHERMAL TREATMENTS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english This paper demonstrates the chemically assisted enhancement in porosity of l °Cal clay samples activated at a temperature of 150 ºC. Aluminosilicates enriched baked clay samples were used and hydro thermally treated with NaOH, KOH, Ba (OH)2 & ZrO. Pore size and surface area analyzer was used for the [...] determination of surface area. Average pore width, pore volume and surface area were calculated. Treatment with NaOH and KOH has shown to be a very good activation pr °Cedure for high surface area development. Zirconium oxide has caused no pronounced effect on the development of surface area while barium hydroxide showed adverse effect and caused a decline in porosity

IMTIAZ, AHMAD; M, SHAKIRULLAH; M, ISHAQ; M, ARSALA KHAN; HABIB, UR REHMAN; MUHAMMAD, OMER; HAMEED, ULLAH.

1126-11-01

140

POROSITY ENHANCEMENT IN SOME BAKED CLAY SAMPLES UNDER HYDROTHERMAL TREATMENTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the chemically assisted enhancement in porosity of l °Cal clay samples activated at a temperature of 150 ºC. Aluminosilicates enriched baked clay samples were used and hydro thermally treated with NaOH, KOH, Ba (OH2 & ZrO. Pore size and surface area analyzer was used for the determination of surface area. Average pore width, pore volume and surface area were calculated. Treatment with NaOH and KOH has shown to be a very good activation pr °Cedure for high surface area development. Zirconium oxide has caused no pronounced effect on the development of surface area while barium hydroxide showed adverse effect and caused a decline in porosity

IMTIAZ AHMAD

2007-06-01

141

Enhanced performance of crumb rubber filtration for ballast water treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Waste-tire-derived crumb rubber was utilized as filter media to develop an efficient filter for ballast water treatment. In this study, the effects of coagulation, pressure filtration and dual-media (gravity) filtration on the performance of the crumb rubber filtration were investigated. The removal efficiencies of turbidity, phytoplankton and zooplankton, and head loss development were monitored during the filtration process. The addition of a coagulant enhanced the removal efficiencies of all targeted matter, but resulted in substantial increase of head loss. Pressure filtration increased filtration rates to 220 m(3)h(-1)m(-2) for 8-h operation and improved the zooplankton removal. Dual-media (crumb rubber/sand) gravity filtration also improved the removal efficiencies of phytoplankton and zooplankton over mono-media gravity crumb rubber filtration. However, these filtration techniques alone did not meet the criteria for removing indigenous organisms from ballast water. A combination of filtration and disinfection is suggested for future studies. PMID:19117590

Tang, Zhijian; Butkus, Michael A; Xie, Yuefeng F

2009-03-01

142

Zoledronic acid infusion for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available John A SunyeczLaurel Highlands Ob/Gyn, Hopwood, Pennsylvania, USA and MenopauseRx, Inc., Uniontown, PA, USAAbstract: Osteoporotic fractures are associated with significant morbidity, reduced quality of life, increased mortality, and high health care costs. Bisphosphonates are standard therapy for treatment of osteoporosis. However, patient compliance and persistence with oral weekly or monthly bisphosphonate therapy are suboptimal and may lead to reduced effectiveness. Zoledronic acid (ZOL is an intravenous bisphosphonate that is given once yearly for the treatment of osteoporosis via a medically supervised 15-minute infusion. This ensures compliance for a full 12 months. In clinical trials, an annual infusion of ZOL 5 mg has shown sustained efficacy in reducing hip and spine fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. It has also been shown to increase bone density in postmenopausal women with osteopenia (low bone mass and in men with osteoporosis. Transient flu-like symptoms are the most common adverse effects following ZOL infusion, and these can generally be managed with acetaminophen. The availability of an intravenous bisphosphonate that ensures compliance over a long dosing interval may help to overcome barriers to efficacy resulting from poor long-term compliance with oral agents.Keywords: fractures, intravenous bisphosphonate, osteoporosis, zoledronic acid

John A Sunyecz

2010-10-01

143

Increased Production of Fatty Acids and Triglycerides in Aspergillus oryzae by Enhancing Expressions of Fatty Acid Synthesis-Related Genes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Microbial production of fats and oils is being developedas a means of converting biomass to biofuels. Here we investigate enhancing expression of enzymes involved in the production of fatty acids and triglycerides as a means to increase production of these compounds in Aspergillusoryzae. Examination of the A.oryzaegenome demonstrates that it contains twofatty acid synthases and several other genes that are predicted to be part of this biosynthetic pathway. We enhancedthe expressionof fatty acid synthesis-related genes by replacing their promoters with thepromoter fromthe constitutively highly expressedgene tef1. We demonstrate that by simply increasing the expression of the fatty acid synthasegenes we successfullyincreasedtheproduction of fatty acids and triglyceridesby more than two fold. Enhancement of expression of the fatty acid pathway genes ATP-citrate lyase and palmitoyl-ACP thioesteraseincreasedproductivity to a lesser extent.Increasing expression ofacetyl-CoA carboxylase caused no detectable change in fatty acid levels. Increases in message level for each gene were monitored usingquantitative real-time RT-PCR. Our data demonstrates that a simple increase in the abundance of fatty acid synthase genes can increase the detectable amount of fatty acids.

Tamano, Koichi; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Culley, David E.; Deng, Shuang; Collett, James R.; Umemura, Myco; Koike, Hideaki; Baker, Scott E.; Machida, Masa

2013-01-01

144

Action of successive heat treatments in bovine milk fatty acids  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O estudo mostra a ação sucessiva dos tratamentos térmicos de pasteurização (75 ºC por 15 s) e esterilização comercial por troca indireta de calor (140 ºC for 6 s) sobre o perfil lipídico de leite bovino. Amostras de leite cru foram submetidas à pasteurização e então, à esterilização comercial (ultra [...] -alta temperatura, UHT). A gordura de amostras de leite cru, de leite pasteurizado e de leite esterilizados comercialmente foi extraída. Após transesterificação, os ésteres metílicos dos ácidos graxos (FAMEs) foram analisados por cromatografia gasosa com detecção por ionização de chama (GC-FID). A quantificação revelou que para a maioria dos ácidos graxos (FA) encontrados não houve diferença significativa (p > 0,05) entre as amostras de leite cru e leite pasteurizado. Entretanto, foram encontradas diferenças significativas para 21 dos 26 ácidos graxos analisados (p > 0,05) para as amostras de leite cru e de leite esterilizado, incluindo o isômero predominante no leite do ácido linoléico conjugado (CLA-c9t11). Este fato evidencia a ação sucessiva dos tratamentos térmicos no perfil lipídico do leite. Abstract in english The action of successive pasteurization thermal treatments (75 ºC for 15 s) and commercial sterilization by indirect heat exchange (140 ºC for 6 s) was analyzed on the lipid profile of bovine milk. Raw milk samples were submitted to pasteurization and then were submitted to sterilization (ultra-high [...] temperature, UHT). The fat of raw milk, pasteurized milk and commercially sterilized milk samples was extracted. After transesterification, the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The quantification of fatty acids (FA) revealed that for most of the found fatty acids there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between raw milk and pasteurized milk. However, it was found significant differences for 21 of the 26 analyzed fatty acids (p > 0.05) for the raw and sterilized milks, including the predominant isomer of the conjugated linoleic acid (CLAc9t11) of the milk. This fact evidences the successive action of heat treatments on milk lipid profile.

Edvaldo N., Costa; Ellen C. Q., Lacerda; Suian M. S., Santos; Carilan M. S., Santos; Marcelo, Franco; Robério R., Silva; Julliana I., Simionato.

2115-21-01

145

Aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy combined with topically applied vascular disrupting agent vadimezan leads to enhanced antitumor responses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The tumor vascular-disrupting agent (VDA) vadimezan (5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid, DMXAA) has been shown to potentiate the antitumor activity of photodynamic therapy (PDT) using systemically administered photosensitizers. Here, we characterized the response of subcutaneous syngeneic Colon26 murine colon adenocarcinoma tumors to PDT using the locally applied photosensitizer precursor aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in combination with a topical formulation of vadimezan. Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS), a noninvasive method for monitoring blood flow, was utilized to determine tumor vascular response to treatment. In addition, correlative CD31-immunohistochemistry to visualize endothelial damage, ELISA to measure induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and tumor weight measurements were also examined in separate animals. In our previous work, DCS revealed a selective decrease in tumor blood flow over time following topical vadimezan. ALA-PDT treatment also induced a decrease in tumor blood flow. The onset of blood flow reduction was rapid in tumors treated with both ALA-PDT and vadimezan. CD31-immunostaining of tumor sections confirmed vascular damage following topical application of vadimezan. Tumor weight measurements revealed enhanced tumor growth inhibition with combination treatment compared with ALA-PDT or vadimezan treatment alone. In conclusion, vadimezan as a topical agent enhances treatment efficacy when combined with ALA-PDT. This combination could be useful in clinical applications. PMID:21575001

Marrero, Allison; Becker, Theresa; Sunar, Ulas; Morgan, Janet; Bellnier, David

2011-01-01

146

Hydrothermal treatment of nanoparticle thin films for enhanced mechanical durability.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mechanical durability of nanoporous all-nanoparticle and polymer-nanoparticle layer-by-layer (LbL) films (80-150 nm thick) on both glass and polycarbonate substrates has been greatly enhanced by hydrothermal treatment (124-134 degrees C). Polymer-nanoparticle films were more durable than all-nanoparticle films after hydrothermal treatment. The optical properties of nanoporous antireflection (AR) films were exploited in an abrasion test (25-100 kPa normal stress) to quantify the extent of abrasive wear observed qualitatively by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Marginal damage was observed under optimal reinforcement conditions. Untreated films not only delaminated from the surface completely but also damaged their underlying glass and polycarbonate substrates during testing. The nature of the substrate was found to play an important role in determining abrasion resistance, regardless of the level of particle fusion in the film. The low-temperature process enables in situ mechanical reinforcement of otherwise delicate nanoparticle assemblies on plastic substrates. Tribochemical wear was found to planarize the nanoscale surface texture of these films, similar to what is observed in chemo-mechanical polishing (CMP). This finding is useful for anyone trying to make robust superhydrophobic or superhydrophilic coatings. To our knowledge, this is the first report on hydrothermal reinforcement of LbL films. PMID:18232719

Gemici, Zekeriyya; Shimomura, Hiroomi; Cohen, Robert E; Rubner, Michael F

2008-03-01

147

Current issues regarding treatment of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Treatment recommendations in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) defects are diverse. With implementation of newborn screening and identification of asymptomatic patients, it is necessary to define whom to treat and how strictly. We here discuss critical questions that are currently under debate. For some asymptomatic long-chain defects, long-chain fat restriction plays a minor role, and a normal diet may be introduced. For patients presenting only with myopathic symptoms, e.g., during exercise, treatment may be adapted to energy demand. As a consequence, patients with exercise-induced myopathy may be able to return to normal activity when provided with medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) prior to exercise. There is no need to limit participation in sports. Progression of retinopathy in disorders of the mitochondrial trifunctional protein complex is closely associated with hydroxyacylcarnitine accumulation. A strict low-fat diet with MCT supplementation is recommended to slow or prevent progression of chorioretinopathy. Additional docosahexanoic acid does not prevent the decline in retinal function but does promote nonspecific improvement in visual acuity and is recommended. There is no evidence that L-carnitine supplementation is beneficial. Thus, supplementation with L-carnitine in a newborn identified by screening with either a medium-chain or long-chain defect is not supported. With respect to the use of the odd-chain medium-chain triglyceride triheptanoin in myopathic phenotypes, randomized trials are needed to establish whether triheptanoin is more effective than even-chain MCT. With increasing pathophysiological knowledge, new treatment options have been identified and are being clinically evaluated. These include the use of bezafibrates in myopathic long-chain defects. PMID:20830526

Spiekerkoetter, Ute; Bastin, Jean; Gillingham, Melanie; Morris, Andrew; Wijburg, Frits; Wilcken, Bridget

2010-10-01

148

Acridine yellow as solar photocatalyst for enhancing biodegradability and eliminating ferulic acid as model pollutant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The possibility of using acridine yellow G (AYG) as solar photocatalyst for wastewater treatment has been examined in this paper. A phenolic compound, namely ferulic acid, has been employed as target pollutant. The effect of pH, concentration of the substrate and photocatalyst has been investigated. Control of pH is critical in the process, as rate constants obtained at pH 3 (k = 0.020 min{sup -1}) were one order of magnitude higher than in basic media (k = 0.002 min{sup -1} at pH 9), due to differences in the absorption spectrum in the UVA-vis region. Under acidic conditions, 80% removal of the substrate was achieved after 3 h irradiation, although TOC decrease was moderate (around 20%). Nevertheless important detoxification of the solution was measured, and the remaining organic matter showed an enhanced biodegradability. For this reason, a combination of AYG-driven solar photocatalysis with biological treatment seems a good approach to deal with these effluents. Experimental data are consistent with an electron transfer mechanism between the excited photocatalyst and the substrate: involvement of hydroxyl radicals can be ruled out, and photophysical measurements indicate a quenching of the fluorescence of AYG in the presence of ferulic acid. The rate constant for this process was obtained from the Stern-Volmer equation (k{sub q} = 4.4 x 10{sup 9} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}). Finally, based on the Rehm-Weller equation, a {delta}G = -22.8 kcal/mol was calculated, indicating that the process is thermodynamically favourable. (author)

Amat, Ana M.; Arques, Antonio; Santos-Juanes, Lucas; Vercher, Rosa F.; Vicente, R. [Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, EPSA-UPV, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Paseo Viaducto 1, E-03801 Alcoy (Spain); Galindo, Francisco [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica y Organica, Universitat Jaume I, E-12071 Castellon (Spain); Miranda, Miguel A. [Departamento de Quimica e Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica UPV-CSIC, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Apartado 22012, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

2007-05-11

149

Bioelectrochemical treatment of acid mine drainage dominated with iron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Treatment of AMD dominated with Fe is problematic due to its low pH. ? The goal of AMD treatment is pH increasing and Fe controlled removal. ? An MFC could fulfill both these requirements by treating AMD at the aerated cathode. ? The performance was proportional to the charge transfer up to 880 C. ? The treated AMD met the discharge limits both for Fe (>99% recovery) and pH (7.9). - Abstract: Treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) dominated with iron (Fe), the most common metal, is a long-term expensive commitment, the goal of which is to increase the pH and remove Fe. In the present study, a proton exchange membrane microbial fuel cell (MFC) showed promise for the efficient treatment of an AMD dominated with ferric iron (pH 2.4 ± 0.1; 500 mg L?1 Fe3+). Briefly, Fe3+ was reduced to Fe2+ at the cathode of the MFC, followed by Fe2+ re-oxidation and precipitation as oxy(hydroxi)des. Oxygen reduction and cation transfer to the cathode of the MFC further caused a rise in pH. A linear relationship was observed between the charge transferred in the MFC and the performance of the system up to 880 C. Optimal conditions were found at a charge of 662 C, achieved within 7 d at an acetate concentration of 1.6 g L?1 in a membrane MFC. This caused the pH to rise to 7.9 and resulted in a Fe removal of 99%. Treated effluent met the pH discharge limits of 6.5–9. The maximum power generation maximum power generation achieved under these conditions averaged 8.6 ± 2.3 W m?3, which could help reduce the costs of full-scale bioelectrochemical treatment of AMD dominated with Fe.

150

Retinoic acid and glycolic acid combination in the treatment of acne scars  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: Acne is a prevalent condition in society affecting nearly 80-90% of adolescents often resulting in secondary damage in the form of scarring. Retinoic acid (RA) is said to improve acne scars and reduce postinflammatory hyperpigmentation while glycolic acid (GA) is known for its keratolytic properties and its ability to reduce atrophic acne scars. There are studies exploring the combined effect of retinaldehyde and GA combination with positive results while the efficacy of retinoic acid and GA (RAGA) combination remains unexplored. Aim: The aim of this study remains to retrospectively assess the efficacy of RAGA combination on acne scars in patients previously treated for active acne. Materials and Methods: A retrospective assessment of 35 patients using topical RAGA combination on acne scars was done. The subjects were 17-34 years old and previously treated for active acne. Case records and photographs of each patient were assessed and the acne scars were graded as per Goodman and Baron's global scarring grading system (GSGS), before the start and after 12 weeks of RAGA treatment. The differences in the scar grades were noted to assess the improvement. Results: At the end of 12 weeks, significant improvement in acne scars was noticed in 91.4% of the patients. Conclusion: The RAGA combination shows efficacy in treating acne scars in the majority of patients, minimizing the need of procedural treatment for acne scars.

Chandrashekar, BS; Ashwini, KR; Vasanth, Vani; Navale, Shreya

2015-01-01

151

Sumatra success : acid tunnelling succeeded where conventional acid treatments, proppant frac failed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article described an acid-tunneling technology developed by BJ Services which provides an economic and efficient stimulation alternative for wells completed openhole in carbonate reservoirs. The patented process, called StimTunnel, uses coiled tubing to convey a jointed nozzle that jets acid at the formation rock, dissolving it to create several mechanically stable, stimulated tunnels in the formation. These tunnels, and a range of wormholes and expanded pores, increase reservoir contact and improve productivity by distributing inflow across more surface area. The process has been used to get more oil out of a mature field in the Indonesian province of South Sumatra. The oil pools in the Ogan Komering Block were discovered in 1988 but have resisted efforts at well stimulation. Drill bits are not used in the StimTunnel concept. Instead, hydrochloric acid is used to dissolve the carbonate rock. Prior to StimTunnel treatment, the 9 wells in the Ogan Komering Block were averaging 638 bbls of oil per day. One year following treatment, the wells averaged 1,494 bbls of oil per day, a sustained increase in production of 134 per cent. 1 ref., 3 figs.

Roche, P.

2009-03-15

152

Enhanced functional properties of tannic acid after thermal hydrolysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermal hydrolysis processing of fresh tannic acid was carried out in a closed reactor at four different temperatures (65, 100, 150 and 200°C). Pressures reached in the system were 1.3 and 4.8 MPa at 150 and 200°C, respectively. Hydrolysis products (gallic acid and pyrogallol) were separated and qua...

153

Genetic Engineering of Rhizopus for Enhancing Lactic Acid Production  

Science.gov (United States)

The fungus Rhizopus is frequently used to convert, or ferment sugars obtained from agricultural crops to lactic acid. This natural product has long been utilized by the food industry as an additive for preservation, flavor, and acidity. Additionally, it is used for the manufacture of environmental...

154

Polystyrene sulphonic acid resins with enhanced acid strength via macromolecular self-assembly within confined nanospace.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tightening environmental legislation is driving the chemical industries to develop efficient solid acid catalysts to replace conventional mineral acids. Polystyrene sulphonic acid resins, as some of the most important solid acid catalysts, have been widely studied. However, the influence of the morphology on their acid strength--closely related to the catalytic activity--has seldom been reported. Herein, we demonstrate that the acid strength of polystyrene sulphonic acid resins can be adjusted through their reversible morphology transformation from aggregated to swelling state, mainly driven by the formation and breakage of hydrogen bond interactions among adjacent sulphonic acid groups within the confined nanospace of hollow silica nanospheres. The hybrid solid acid catalyst demonstrates high activity and selectivity in a series of important acid-catalysed reactions. This may offer an efficient strategy to fabricate hybrid solid acid catalysts for green chemical processes. PMID:24463793

Zhang, Xiaomin; Zhao, Yaopeng; Xu, Shutao; Yang, Yan; Liu, Jia; Wei, Yingxu; Yang, Qihua

2014-01-01

155

Treatment of warts with salicyclic acid and lactic acid in flexible collodion wart paint  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One hundred patients with warts (Verruca vulgaris of hands-33; feet-16, hands and feet 10; palmar warts-17 and plantar warts-24 were treated with salicylic acid (16.5% and lactic acid (16.5% in flexible collodion wart (SAL paint. The wart paint was applied twice a week for 3 months. Good response was seen in 82.1% of warts on hands. 46.7% of palmar warts, 54.5% of warts on feet, 84.2% of plantar warts and 57.1% of warts on hands and feet. Overall success rate was 70%. Eighty percent patients completed the study. No adverse effects were observed. During 6 months post treatment follow up recurrence of warts occurred in 11.7% of patients.

Dhar Sandipan

1994-01-01

156

Polyamino acid display on cell surfaces enhances salt and alcohol tolerance of Escherichia coli.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbes employ cell membranes for reducing exogenous stresses. Polyamino acid display on microbial cell surfaces and their effects on microbial chemical stress tolerance were examined. Growth analysis revealed that displays of polyarginine, polyaspartate and polytryptophan substantially enhanced tolerance of Escherichia coli to NaCl. A titration assay indicated that polyarginine and polyaspartate altered cell surface charges, implying tolerance enhancement via ion atmosphere and/or ionic bond network formations for electrostatic ion repulsion. The enhancement by polytryptophan may have arisen from surface hydrophobicity increase for hydrophobic ion exclusion, because of a strong correlation between hydrophobic characters of amino acids and their effects on tolerance enhancement. The display also enhanced tolerance to other salts and/or alcohols in E. coli and to NaCl in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Thus polyamino acid display has the potential as an approach for conferring chemical stress tolerance on various microbes. PMID:25588810

Suzuki, Hirokazu; Ishii, Jun; Kondo, Akihiko; Yoshida, Ken-Ichi

2015-02-01

157

Enhanced Production of Docosahexaenoic Acid in Mammalian Cells  

OpenAIRE

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), one of the important polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with pharmaceutical and nutraceutical effects, may be obtained through diet or synthesized in vivo from dietary a-linolenic acid (ALA). However, the acumulation of DHA in human body or other mammals relies on the intake of high dose of DHA for a certain period of time, and the bioconversion of dietary ALA to DHA is very limited. Therefore the mammalian cells are not rich in DHA. Here, we report a new technolog...

Zhu, Guiming; Jiang, Xudong; Ou, Qin; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Mingfu; Sun, Guozhi; Wang, Zhao; Sun, Jie; Ge, Tangdong

2014-01-01

158

Aristolochic acid nephropathy: epidemiology, clinical presentation, and treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aristolochic acid (AA) is a compound extracted from the Aristolochia species of herbs. It has been used for centuries as a remedy for various illnesses and diseases. However, in the early 1990s in the setting of a weight loss herbal remedy, AA exposure was associated with a syndrome of kidney injury, termed aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN). This entity is marked by elevated serum creatinine, significant anemia, and histopathologic changes demonstrating a hypocellular interstitial infiltrate with severe fibrosis. Progression towards end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is rapid, with most patients having chronic kidney disease for less than 2 years. In addition, AAN is associated with a 40-45 % prevalence of urothelial carcinomas. Treatment of AAN is limited to glucocorticoids that have been shown to delay progression in non-randomized trials. As most patients progress to ESRD, need for renal replacement therapy, as either dialysis or kidney transplant, usually ensues. However, given the high malignant potential, care must be taken to minimize future development of upper urinary tract cancers by performing prophylactic bilateral nephroureterectomies and aggressive cancer surveillance. PMID:25446374

Luciano, Randy L; Perazella, Mark A

2015-01-01

159

Enhancement of vindoline and vinblastine production in suspension-cultured cells of Catharanthus roseus by artemisinic acid elicitation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Elicitation is an important strategy to improve production of secondary metabolites in vitro. Artemisinic acid was studied as a novel elicitor to enhance the yield of terpenoid indole alkaloids in the present paper. Our results demonstrated that the concentrations of vindoline and vinblastine were increased by sixfold and twofold, respectively, compared to those of the control group after treatment with artemisinic acid. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, we investigated the gene expression of four enzymes involved in the biosynthetic pathway of vinblastine in the suspension-cultured cells of Catharanthu sroseus. RT-PCR experiment showed that artemisinic acid was able to up-regulate the transcriptions of tryptophan decarboxylase, geraniol 10-hydroxylase, tabersonine 16-hydroxylase and deacetoxyvindoline 4-hydroxylase. PMID:23864440

Liu, Jinwei; Zhu, Jianhua; Tang, Le; Wen, Wei; Lv, Shuangshuang; Yu, Rongmin

2014-01-01

160

Oxamflatin treatment enhances cloned porcine embryo development and nuclear reprogramming.  

Science.gov (United States)

Faulty epigenetic reprogramming of somatic nuclei is thought to be the main reason for low cloning efficiency by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), such as Scriptaid, improve developmental competence of SCNT embryos in several species. Another HDACi, Oxamflatin, is about 100 times more potent than Scriptaid in the ability to inhibit nuclear-specific HDACs. The present study determined the effects of Oxamflatin treatment on embryo development, DNA methylation, and gene expression. Oxamflatin treatment enhanced blastocyst formation of SCNT embryos in vitro. Embryo transfer produced more pigs born and fewer mummies from the Oxamflatin-treated group compared to the Scriptaid-treated positive control. Oxamflatin also decreased DNA methylation of POU5F1 regulatory elements and centromeric repeat elements in day-7 blastocysts. When compared to in vitro-fertilized (IVF) embryos, the methylation status of POU5F1, NANOG, and centromeric repeat was similar in the cloned embryos, indicating these genes were successfully reprogrammed. However, compared to the lack of methylation of XIST in day-7 IVF embryos, a higher methylation level in day-7 cloned embryos was observed, implying that X chromosomes were activated in day-7 IVF blastocysts, but were not fully activated in cloned embryos, i.e., reprogramming of XIST was delayed. A time-course analysis of XIST DNA methylation on day-13, -15, -17, and -19 in vivo embryos revealed that XIST methylation initiated at about day 13 and was not completed by day 19. The methylation of the XIST gene in day-19 control cloned embryos was delayed again when compared to in vivo embryos. However, methylation of XIST in Oxamflatin-treated embryos was comparable with in vivo embryos, which further demonstrated that Oxamflatin could accelerate the delayed reprogramming of XIST gene and thus might improve cloning efficiency. PMID:25548976

Mao, Jiude; Zhao, Ming-Tao; Whitworth, Kristin M; Spate, Lee D; Walters, Eric M; O'Gorman, Chad; Lee, Kiho; Samuel, Melissa S; Murphy, Clifton N; Wells, Kevin; Rivera, Rocio M; Prather, Randall S

2015-02-01

161

KINETIC ASPECTS OF CATION-ENHANCED AGGREGATION IN AQUEOUS HUMIC ACIDS. (R822832)  

Science.gov (United States)

The cation-enhanced formation of hydrophobic domains in aqueous humic acids has been shown to be a slow process, consistent with the evolution and disintegration of humic acid configurations over periods lasting from days to weeks. After the addition of a magnesium salt to a humi...

162

ADIPIC ACID ENHANCED FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION PROCESS FOR INDUSTRIAL BOILERS. VOLUME 2. TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT. PROJECT SUMMARY  

Science.gov (United States)

The SO sub 2 removal efficiency with the adipic acid averaged 94.3% over a 30-day period, representing a significant improvement in the performance of the system using only limestone. Economic calculations for an industrial boiler adipic-acid-enhanced limestone FGD system indicat...

163

THE ADIPIC ACID ENHANCED FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION PROCESS FOR INDUSTRIAL BOILERS. VOLUME 2. TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives results of an evaluation of an adipic acid enhanced limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system on industrial boilers at Rickenbacker Air National Guard Base. The SO2 removal efficiency with the adipic acid averaged 94.3% over a 30-day period. This represents...

164

THE ADIPIC ACID ENHANCED LIMESTONE FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION PROCESS: AN ASSESSMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper gives an overview of EPA's testing of the adipic-acid-enhanced limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process. Extensive research has determined that adipic acid, used as an additive to a limestone FGD system, improves system performance. Both SO2 removal and limeston...

165

Enhanced biodegradation of petrochemical wastewater using ozonation and BAC advanced treatment system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The characteristics of degradation/conversion of bio-refractory and the growth of a biofilm are investigated in laboratory-scale pre-ozonation and lifted moving-bed biological activated carbon (BAC) advanced treatment processes treating phenol, benzoic acid, aminobenzoic acid and petrochemical industry wastewater which contains acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). The optimal reaction time and ozone dosage of pre-ozonation for bio-refractory conversion were determined to be 30 min and 100-200mg O{sub 3}/hr, respectively. After pre-ozonation of 30 min treatment, BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio of influent and effluent increased apparently from 20 to 35%, approximately. However, the change of pH in pre-ozonation was inconspicuous. The optimal flow rate of influent and air were controlled at 1.6 1/h and 120-l50nl/min in lifted moving-bed BAC advanced treatment reactor. A COD removal efficiency of 85-95% and 70-90% may be maintained by using an organic loading of 3.2-6.3kg COD/m{sup 3} day and 0.6-1.6 kg-COD/m{sup 3} day with an HRT of 6.0 h as secondary and advanced treatment system, respectively. The time required for the BAC bed to be regenerated by a thermal regeneration is prolonged 4-5 times more than that of GAC system. It can be estimated that the enhanced COD removal capability of the biofilm was not only due to the increase in the COD removal capability of acclimated bacteria, but also due to species succession of bacteria in bio-film ecosystem. (Author)

Lin, Chi-Kang; Tsai, Tsung-Yueh; Liu, Jiunn-Ching; Chen, Mei-Chen [Energy and Resources Labs., ITRI, Hsinchu (Taiwan)

2001-07-01

166

Enhancement of influenza virus infections by secalonic acid D.  

OpenAIRE

Secalonic acid D (SAD), a hepatotoxic, teratogenic, and slightly mutagenic metabolite of Penicillium oxalicum has been identified as a natural contaminant of grain dust. Secalonic acid D was administered intraperitoneally to male ICR mice that were exposed to influenza virus aerosols 5 days earlier. The mortality rate was significantly higher (p less than 0.001) in mice subjected to both influenza and SAD than those subjected to influenza alone. Virus titers in lung tissue samples at selected...

Fleischhacker, D. S.; Akers, T. G.; Katz, S. P.; Palmgren, M. S.

1986-01-01

167

Uranium extraction enhancement form phosphoric acid by emulsion liquid membrane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work is mainly concerned with the uranium extraction from phosphoric acid commercially produced by Abu Zaabal Fertilizers and Chemical Co., Egypt. This target would realize a dual purpose where the phosphate ore is considered as an alternative source of uranium besides eliminating its environmental contamination. The applied procedures are that of the new technology of emulsion liquid membrane. Authors have indeed pointed out that the variables explored still leave open to question the roles of stripping at the internal interface as well as the bulk transfer of uranium in the internal phase. For this purpose, two reducing agents are studied as additives to two organic solvent systems; namely the organophosphorous synergistic mixture of D2EHPA/TOPO as well as the tridodecyl amine. The relevant factors have first been optimized upon synthetic uraniferous phosphoric acid solution followed by the application upon the commercial acid after purification. These factors include the concentration of solvent system and the used emulsifier, acid concentration of the external and internal phases besides the nature and concentration of the reductant added to the internal phase. In addition, the permeation time as well as the oxidation state of the external phase was studied. All these factors have indeed been studied under different mixing speeds ranging from 300 up to 1,000 rpm. Ascorbic acid concentration, 1 % as an additive to the internal phosphoric acid phase (40 % P2O5) resulted in 95 % uranium extraction efficiency at the lower speed of 600 rpm. (author)

168

Betaine and Beet Molasses Enhance L-Lactic Acid Production by Bacillus coagulans  

OpenAIRE

Lactic acid is an important chemical with various industrial applications, and it can be efficiently produced by fermentation, in which Bacillus coagulans strains present excellent performance. Betaine can promote lactic acid fermentation as an effective osmoprotectant. Here, positive effect of betaine on fermentation by B. coagulans is revealed. Betaine could enhance lactic acid production by protecting l-LDH activity and cell growth from osmotic inhibition, especially under high glucose con...

Xu, Ke; Xu, Ping

2014-01-01

169

Successful treatment of recalcitrant cutaneous sarcoidosis with fumaric acid esters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease of unknown origin characterized by the formation of noncaseating granulomas, in particular in the lungs, lymph nodes, eyes, and skin. Systemic treatment for cutaneous sarcoidosis can be used for large disfiguring lesions, generalized involvement, or recalcitrant lesions that did not respond to topical therapy. Case presentations We report three patients with recalcitrant cutaneous sarcoidosis who were treated with oral fumaric acid esters (FAE. Three female patients presented with cutaneous sarcoidosis that have proved to be refractory to various therapies, including corticosteroids and chloroquine. We treated the patients with FAE in tablet form using two formulations differing in strength (Fumaderm® initial, Fumaderm®. Dosage of FAE was performed according to the standard therapy regimen for psoriasis patients. After treatment with FAE (4–12 months, a complete clearance of skin lesions was achieved in the three patients. The side effects observed in this trial correspond to the well-known spectrum of adverse effects of FAE (flush, minor gastrointestinal complaints, lymphopenia. Conclusions On the basis of our findings FAE therapy seems to be a safe and effective regimen for patients with recalcitrant cutaneous sarcoidosis. Nevertheless further investigations are necessary to confirm our preliminary results.

Hanefeld Christoph

2002-12-01

170

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids enhance cerebral angiogenesis and provide long-term protection after stroke.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stroke is a devastating neurological disorder and one of the leading causes of death and serious disability. After cerebral ischemia, revascularization in the ischemic boundary zone provides nutritive blood flow as well as various growth factors to promote the survival and activity of neurons and neural progenitor cells. Enhancement of angiogenesis and the resulting improvement of cerebral microcirculation are key restorative mechanisms and represent an important therapeutic strategy for ischemic stroke. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that post-stroke angiogenesis would be enhanced by omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), a major component of dietary fish oil. To this end, we found that transgenic fat-1 mice that overproduce n-3 PUFAs exhibited long-term behavioral and histological protection against transient focal cerebral ischemia (tFCI). Importantly, fat-1 transgenic mice also exhibited robust improvements in revascularization and angiogenesis compared to wild type littermates, suggesting a potential role for n-3 fatty acids in post-stroke cerebrovascular remodeling. Mechanistically, n-3 PUFAs induced upregulation of angiopoietin 2 (Ang 2) in astrocytes after tFCI and stimulated extracellular Ang 2 release from cultured astrocytes after oxygen and glucose deprivation. Ang 2 facilitated endothelial proliferation and barrier formation in vitro by potentiating the effects of VEGF on phospholipase C?1 and Src signaling. Consistent with these findings, blockade of Src activity in post-stroke fat-1 mice impaired n-3 PUFA-induced angiogenesis and exacerbated long-term neurological outcomes. Taken together, our findings strongly suggest that n-3 PUFA supplementation is a potential angiogenic treatment capable of augmenting brain repair and improving long-term functional recovery after cerebral ischemia. PMID:24794156

Wang, Jiayin; Shi, Yejie; Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Feng; Hu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Wenting; Leak, Rehana K; Gao, Yanqin; Chen, Ling; Chen, Jun

2014-08-01

171

Effects of gas atmospheres on poly(lactic acid) film in acrylic acid plasma treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Plasma polymerized acrylic acid (AA) coatings were deposited on poly(lactic acid) (PLA) films in various gas atmospheres during the pre-treatment of PLA and the deposition of AA, respectively. Therefore, this work was twofold: the argon pretreated PLA films followed by a deposition in argon were investigated against the mixture of argon and oxygen pretreated ones under the same deposition conditions; the plasma deposition of AA operating in different atmospheres (argon, oxygen and nitrogen) was employed to modify the pretreated PLA in oxygen. Chemical and physical changes on the plasma-treated surfaces were examined using contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-FTIR) analysis. The results showed that the discharge gas can have a significant influence on the chemical composition of the PLA surfaces: oxygen plasmas introduced oxygen-containing groups in company with surface etching in pretreatment and deposition, while argon discharges was able to achieve much better hydrophilic behavior and high retention ratio of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) coating before and after washing in water.

Zhao, Yun, E-mail: yun.zhaotju@yahoo.com [Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy); Fina, Alberto [Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino – sede di Alessandria, V. T. Michel 5, 15121 Alessandria (Italy); Venturello, Alberto; Geobaldo, Francesco [Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy)

2013-10-15

172

Afferent signalling from the acid-challenged rat stomach is inhibited and gastric acid elimination is enhanced by lafutidine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Lafutidine is a histamine H2 receptor antagonist, the gastroprotective effect of which is related to its antisecretory activity and its ability to activate a sensory neuron-dependent mechanism of defence. The present study investigated whether intragastric administration of lafutidine (10 and 30 mg/kg modifies vagal afferent signalling, mucosal injury, intragastric acidity and gastric emptying after gastric acid challenge. Methods Adult rats were treated with vehicle, lafutidine (10 – 30 mg/kg or cimetidine (10 mg/kg, and 30 min later their stomachs were exposed to exogenous HCl (0.25 M. During the period of 2 h post-HCl, intragastric pH, gastric volume, gastric acidity and extent of macroscopic gastric mucosal injury were determined and the activation of neurons in the brainstem was visualized by c-Fos immunocytochemistry. Results Gastric acid challenge enhanced the expression of c-Fos in the nucleus tractus solitarii but caused only minimal damage to the gastric mucosa. Lafutidine reduced the HCl-evoked expression of c-Fos in the NTS and elevated the intragastric pH following intragastric administration of excess HCl. Further analysis showed that the gastroprotective effect of lafutidine against excess acid was delayed and went in parallel with facilitation of gastric emptying, measured indirectly via gastric volume changes, and a reduction of gastric acidity. The H2 receptor antagonist cimetidine had similar but weaker effects. Conclusion These observations indicate that lafutidine inhibits the vagal afferent signalling of a gastric acid insult, which may reflect an inhibitory action on acid-induced gastric pain. The ability of lafutidine to decrease intragastric acidity following exposure to excess HCl cannot be explained by its antisecretory activity but appears to reflect dilution and/or emptying of the acid load into the duodenum. This profile of actions emphasizes the notion that H2 receptor antagonists can protect the gastric mucosa from acid injury independently of their ability to suppress gastric acid secretion.

Holzer Peter

2009-06-01

173

Shifts in the Membrane Fatty Acid Profile of Streptococcus mutans Enhance Survival in Acidic Environments  

OpenAIRE

Acid adaptation of Streptococcus mutans UA159 involves several different mechanisms, including the ability to alter its proportion of long-chain, monounsaturated membrane fatty acids (R. G. Quivey, Jr., R. Faustoferri, K. Monahan, and R. Marquis, FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 189:89-92, 2000). In the present study, we examined the mechanism and timing of changes in fatty acid ratios and the potential benefit that an increased proportion of long-chained fatty acids has for the organism during growth a...

Fozo, Elizabeth M.; Quivey, Robert G.

2004-01-01

174

Gallic acid enhancement of gold nanoparticle anticancer activity in cervical cancer cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cervical cancer (CxCa) is the most common cancer in women and a prominent cause of cancer mortality worldwide. The primary cause of CxCa is human papillomavirus (HPV). Radiation therapy and chemotherapy have been used as standard treatments, but they have undesirable side effects for patients. It was reported that gallic acid has antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities. Gold nanoparticles are currently being used in medicine as biosensors and drug delivery agents. This study aimed to develop a drug delivery agent using gold nanoparticles conjugated with gallic acid. The study was performed in uninfected (C33A) cervical cancer cells, cervical cancer cells infected with HPV type 16 (CaSki) or 18 (HeLa), and normal Vero kidney cells. The results showed that GA inhibited the proliferation of cancer cells by inducing apoptosis. To enhance the efficacy of this anticancer activity, 15-nm spherical gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were used to deliver GA to cancer cells. The GNPs-GA complex had a reduced ability compared to unmodified GA to inhibit the growth of CxCa cells. It was interesting that high-concentration (150 ?M) GNPs-GA was not toxic to normal cells, whereas GA alone was cytotoxic. In conclusion, GNPs-GA could inhibit CxCa cell proliferation less efficiently than GA, but it was not cytotoxic to normal cells. Thus, gold nanoparticles have the potential to be used as phytochemical delivery agents for alternative cancer treatment to reduce the side effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. PMID:25640346

Daduang, Jureerut; Palasap, Adisak; Daduang, Sakda; Boonsiri, Patcharee; Suwannalert, Prasit; Limpaiboon, Temduang

2015-01-01

175

Enhancing the mechanical properties of electrospun polyester mats by heat treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Microfibrous materials with a targeted design based on poly(L-lactic acid (PLA and poly(?-caprolactone (PCL were prepared by electrospinning and by combining electrospinning and electrospraying. Several approaches were used: (i electrospinning of a common solution of the two polymers, (ii simultaneous electrospinning of two separate solutions of PLA and PCL, (iii electrospinning of PLA solution in conjunction with electrospraying of PCL solution, and (iv alternating layer-by-layer deposition by electrospinning of separate PLA and PCL solutions. The mats were heated at the melting temperature of PCL (60°", thus achieving melting of PCL fibers/particles and thermal sealing of the fibers. The mats subjected to thermal treatment were characterized by greater mean fiber diameters and reduced values of the water contact angle compared to the pristine mats. Heat treatment of the mats affected their thermal stability and led to an increase in the crystallinity degree of PLA incorporated in the mats, whereas that of PCL was reduced. All mats were characterized by enhanced mechanical properties after thermal treatment as compared to the non-treated fibrous materials.

M. Kancheva

2015-01-01

176

Integrated basic treatment of activated carbon for enhanced CO{sub 2} selectivity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We attempted the use of three chemical agents viz nitric acid (HN), calcium nitrate (CaN) and calcium ethanoate (CaEt) to achieve enhanced CO{sub 2} selective adsorption by activated carbon (AC). In dry phase treatment, microporous coconut shell-based carbon (CS) exhibits higher CO{sub 2} capacity than coal-based. However, upon wet-phase pre-treatment, modified CS samples showed lesser CO{sub 2} adsorption efficiency. Surface characterization with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the presence of calcium and amine species on the samples with integrated treatment (A-CaN). These samples recorded the highest low-level CO{sub 2} capture despite calcinated CaEt-doped samples (C-CaEt) showing the highest value for pure and high level CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities. The slope and linearity values of isobaric desorption were used to estimate the proportion of CO{sub 2} chemisorbed and heterogeneity of the adsorbents’ surfaces respectively. Consequently, integrated basic impregnation provides the most efficient adsorbents for selective adsorption of both indoor and outdoor CO{sub 2} levels.

Adelodun, Adedeji Adebukola; Jo, Young-Min, E-mail: ymjo@khu.ac.kr

2013-12-01

177

Integrated basic treatment of activated carbon for enhanced CO2 selectivity  

Science.gov (United States)

We attempted the use of three chemical agents viz nitric acid (HN), calcium nitrate (CaN) and calcium ethanoate (CaEt) to achieve enhanced CO2 selective adsorption by activated carbon (AC). In dry phase treatment, microporous coconut shell-based carbon (CS) exhibits higher CO2 capacity than coal-based. However, upon wet-phase pre-treatment, modified CS samples showed lesser CO2 adsorption efficiency. Surface characterization with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the presence of calcium and amine species on the samples with integrated treatment (A-CaN). These samples recorded the highest low-level CO2 capture despite calcinated CaEt-doped samples (C-CaEt) showing the highest value for pure and high level CO2 adsorption capacities. The slope and linearity values of isobaric desorption were used to estimate the proportion of CO2 chemisorbed and heterogeneity of the adsorbents’ surfaces respectively. Consequently, integrated basic impregnation provides the most efficient adsorbents for selective adsorption of both indoor and outdoor CO2 levels.

Adelodun, Adedeji Adebukola; Jo, Young-Min

2013-12-01

178

Integrated basic treatment of activated carbon for enhanced CO2 selectivity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We attempted the use of three chemical agents viz nitric acid (HN), calcium nitrate (CaN) and calcium ethanoate (CaEt) to achieve enhanced CO2 selective adsorption by activated carbon (AC). In dry phase treatment, microporous coconut shell-based carbon (CS) exhibits higher CO2 capacity than coal-based. However, upon wet-phase pre-treatment, modified CS samples showed lesser CO2 adsorption efficiency. Surface characterization with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the presence of calcium and amine species on the samples with integrated treatment (A-CaN). These samples recorded the highest low-level CO2 capture despite calcinated CaEt-doped samples (C-CaEt) showing the highest value for pure and high level CO2 adsorption capacities. The slope and linearity values of isobaric desorption were used to estimate the proportion of CO2 chemisorbed and heterogeneity of the adsorbents’ surfaces respectively. Consequently, integrated basic impregnation provides the most efficient adsorbents for selective adsorption of both indoor and outdoor CO2 levels.

179

Ozonolysis mechanism of lignin model compounds and microbial treatment of organic acids produced.  

Science.gov (United States)

Treatment methods comprising ozonolysis and microbial treatment of lignin discharged from the pulp manufacture industries were investigated by using a sulfite pulp wastewater and a lignin model compound, i.e. sodium lignosulfonate. Dynamic behaviors for the formations of intermediate derivatives such as muconic acid, maleic acid, and oxalic acid produced from the ozonolysis of sulfite pulp wastewater were observed from data of UV absorption at 280 nm by a spectrophotometer and at 210 nm by high performance liquid chromatography. The microorganisms that were isolated by the enrichment culture method were used to degrade the organic acids such as oxalic acid and acetic acid. Time courses of biological degradation of these organic acids indicated diauxic growth, which was found in a culture with mixed substrates. In the treatment of sodium lignosulfonate, the ozonolysis and microbial treatment using activated sludge converted sodium lignosulfonate into carbon dioxide and water almost completely. PMID:15461411

Nakamura, Y; Daidai, M; Kobayashi, F

2004-01-01

180

Mechanisms for the interactions between acidic oils and surfactant-enhanced alkaline solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An interfacial activity model has been proposed to predict the equilibrium interfacial tension of acidic oil/surfactant-enhanced alkaline systems. The model accounts for a mixed interfacial layer and mixed micelle formation by the acid, ionized acid, and added surfactant. The mass action model was adopted for the formation of micelles in conjunction with an empirical relationship for the critical micelle concentration change. The agreement between model predictions and experiments is satisfactory and confirms the mechanisms proposed. For the acidic oil/alkali system, it has been found that the unionized acid adsorbs onto the interface along with the ionized acid, resulting in lower interfacial tension, but fails to produce ultralow values because the ionic strength is not constant as the pH is varied. It has been also found that the acid lowers the interfacial tension of the oil/added surfactant systems by simultaneously adsorbing onto the interface and reduces the critical micelle concentration of the added surfactant.

Touhami, Y.; Hornof, V.; Neale, G.H. [Univ. of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1996-02-10

181

Enhancement of brown fat thermogenesis using chenodeoxycholic acid in mice.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 38, ?. 8 (2014), s. 1027-1034. ISSN 0307-0565 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E12073; GA ?R(CZ) GA13-00871S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : white adipose tissue * uncoupling protein 1 * energy expenditure * bile acids Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 5.386, year: 2013

Teodoro, J.S.; Zouhar, Petr; Flachs, Pavel; Bardová, Kristina; Janovská, Petra; Gomes, A.P.; Duarte, F.V.; Varela, A.T.; Rolo, A.P.; Palmeira, C.M.; Kopecký, Jan

2014-01-01

182

Lactic acid bacteria: promising supplements for enhancing the biological activities of kombucha.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kombucha is sweetened black tea that is fermented by a symbiosis of bacteria and yeast embedded within a cellulose membrane. It is considered a health drink in many countries because it is a rich source of vitamins and may have other health benefits. It has previously been reported that adding lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus) strains to kombucha can enhance its biological functions, but in that study only lactic acid bacteria isolated from kefir grains were tested. There are many other natural sources of lactic acid bacteria. In this study, we examined the effects of lactic acid bacteria from various fermented Vietnamese food sources (pickled cabbage, kefir and kombucha) on kombucha's three main biological functions: glucuronic acid production, antibacterial activity and antioxidant ability. Glucuronic acid production was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, antibacterial activity was assessed by the agar-well diffusion method and antioxidant ability was evaluated by determining the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity. Four strains of food-borne pathogenic bacteria were used in our antibacterial experiments: Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19111, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 and Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778. Our findings showed that lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from kefir are superior to those from other sources for improving glucuronic acid production and enhancing the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of kombucha. This study illustrates the potential of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from kefir as biosupplements for enhancing the bioactivities of kombucha. PMID:25763303

Nguyen, Nguyen Khoi; Dong, Ngan Thi Ngoc; Nguyen, Huong Thuy; Le, Phu Hong

2015-01-01

183

Separation of phenolic acids from monosaccharides by low-pressure nanofiltration integrated with laccase pre-treatments  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Separation of phenolic acids from monosaccharides is required for detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. For the first time, a low-pressure nanofiltration (NF) process was used to retain phenolic acids (vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid) and at the same time permeate monosaccharides (xylose, arabinose, glucose). Four commercial NF membranes (NF270, NP030, NTR7450 and NP010) were evaluated at different pH values and with various laccase pre-treatments (for polymerization of phenolic acids). The results showed that with increasing pH, the retentions of phenolic acids by NF increased, reaching 86–88% for NTR7450 and 90–94% for NF270 at pH 9.55. The retentions of monosaccharides kept almost constant (<10%) for NP030, NTR7450 and NP010 membranes at different pH but significantly increased at pH 9.55 for the NF270 membrane due to enhancement of solute interactions. Phenolic acids could be polymerized by laccase and then completely retained by the NF membranes via size exclusion at pH 5.15. The formation of large polymeric products by laccase could alleviate the irreversible fouling in/on a NF membrane and decrease the monosaccharide retention, while the small polymeric products (e.g. dimers and trimers) were mainly responsible for the adsorption fouling. Free laccase treatment was preferred since it was prone to produce large polymeric products while the biocatalytic membrane with immobilized laccase was not suitable as it generated smaller polymers by in-situ product removal. Furthermore, the NF membranes with more charge and higher hydrophilicity were more resistant to the irreversible fouling caused by hydrophobic adsorption of phenolic acids and their polymers. This work not only provides fundamental data for removal of phenolic acids from lignocellulosic hydrolysates, but also opens a new gate for separation of small solutes with similar molecular weight by NF integrated with enzymatic conversion.

Luo, Jianquan; Zeuner, Birgitte

2015-01-01

184

An enhanced procedure for measuring organic acids and methyl esters in PM2.5  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed an enhanced analytical procedure to measure organic acids and methyl esters in fine aerosol with much greater specificity and sensitivity than previously available. This capability is important because of these species and their low concentrations, even in highly polluted atmospheres like Beijing, China. The procedure first separates the acids and esters from the other organic compounds with anion-exchange solid- phase extraction (SPE), then, quantifies them by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. This allows us to accurately quantify the C4-C11 dicarboxylic and the C8-C30 monocarboxylic acids. Then the acids are separated from the esters on an aminopropyl SPE cartridge, whose weak retention isolates and enriches the acids from esters prevents the fatty acids and dimethyl phthalate from being overestimated. The resulting correlations between the aliphatic acids and fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) suggest that FAMEs had sources similar to those of the carboxylic acids, or were formed by esterifying carboxylic acids, or that aliphatic acids were formed by hydrolyzing FAMEs. In all, 17 aromatic acids were identified and quantified using this procedure coupled with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, including the five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) acids 2-naphthoic, biphenyl-4-carboxylic, 9-oxo-9H-fluorene-1-carboxylic, biphenyl-4,4´-dicarboxylic, and phenanthrene-1-carboxylic acid, plus 1,8-naphthalic anhydride. Correlations between the PAH-acids and the dicarboxylic and aromatic acids indicated that the first three acids and 1,8-naphthalic anhydride were mainly secondary, the last two mainly primary.

Liu, F.; Duan, F.; He, K.; Ma, Y.; Rahn, K. A.; Zhang, Q.

2015-03-01

185

Water-dispersible ascorbic-acid-coated magnetite nanoparticles for contrast enhancement in MRI  

Science.gov (United States)

Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles of size ~5 nm surface functionalized with ascorbic acid (vitamin C) form a stable dispersion in water with a hydrodynamic size of ~30 nm. The anti-oxidant property of ascorbic acid is retained after capping, as evidenced from the capability of converting methylene blue to its reduced leuco form. NMR relaxivity studies show that the ascorbic-acid-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide aqueous nanofluid is suitable as a contrast enhancement agent for MRI applications, coupled with the excellent biocompatibility and medicinal values of ascorbic acid.

Sreeja, V.; Jayaprabha, K. N.; Joy, P. A.

2015-04-01

186

Selective enhancement and suppression of frog gustatory responses to amino acids  

OpenAIRE

Properties of the receptor sites for L-amino acids in taste cells of the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) were examined by measuring the neural activities of the glossopharyngeal nerve under various conditions. (a) The frogs responded to 12 amino acids, but the responses to the amino acids varied with individual frogs under natural conditions. The frog tongues, however, exhibited similar responses after an alkaline treatment that removes Ca2+ from the tissue. The variation in the responses under n...

1981-01-01

187

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF SUMATRIPTAN SUCCINATE NASAL IN-SITU GEL USING FULVIC ACID AS NOVEL PERMEATION ENHANCER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sumatriptan succinate is a 5-HT1D (5-hydroxy tryptamine 1D-receptor agonist, used in the treatment of migraine and cluster headache Sumatriptan succinate has been shown to have a low oral bioavailability in human volunteers (15% because of high first pass metabolism.. Subcutaneous administration is an alternative; however, dislike of injections or inability to self-administer by this route makes subcutaneous treatment unacceptable to some individuals. These all above things justify a need of nasal drug delivery. To improve the nasal retention time of Sumatriptan succinate, it has been formulated as in situ mucoadhesive gel by using Pluronic PF127 and carbopol 974P. The objective of this work was to improve the nasal bioavailability of Sumatriptan succinate by increasing its nasal retention time as well as by means of nasal permeation. Nasal permeation of Sumatriptan succinate was improved by using fulvic acid extracted from Shilajit as a novel permeation enhancer. For the same the nasal in situ gel of Sumatriptan succinate and its complex with fulvic acid extracted from shilajit was made by cold method. The prepared in-situ gel was evaluated for gelation temperature, drug content, mucoadhesive force, gel strength and viscosity measurement. Further insitu gels prepared with and without permeation enhancer (Fulvic acid were evaluated for its In vitro drug diffusion study by Fran’s Diffusion Cell. The data of In vitro drug diffusion study of insitu gel prepared with and without permeation enhancer showed non Fickian or anomalous diffusion mechanism. The optimized batch C3 and F3 of insitu gel prepared with and without permeation enhancer respectively shows drug release in a controlled manner with higher permeation rate for 250min.. The drug permeation study across sheep nasal mucosa was conducted using C3 and F3 batch. The study showed that the insitu gel having fulvic acid have a significantly higher permeability as compared to the insitu gel which do not contain the fulvic acid. The higher permeation rate of C3 formulation as compare to F3 formulation is might be due to polymeric polyphenolic nature of fulvic acid because of which it have a tendency to interact with number of component resulting in higher permeation rate.

Shyam D. Badgujar

2010-10-01

188

Acid Rain Experiments (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)  

Science.gov (United States)

This collection of experiments introduces students to techniques for measuring pH. They will learn how to use pH paper, how to use a garden soil test kit to measure the pH of liquids, how to record their observations, and some lab safety tips. In the experiments, they will measure the pH of some common substances (water, soil, and others), learn about buffering in soils and natural waters, and observe the effects of acid on metals.

189

An endogenous factor enhances ferulic acid decarboxylation catalyzed by phenolic acid decarboxylase from Candida guilliermondii  

OpenAIRE

The gene for a eukaryotic phenolic acid decarboxylase of Candida guilliermondii was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli for the first time. The structural gene contained an open reading frame of 504 bp, corresponding to 168 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 19,828 Da. The deduced amino sequence exhibited low similarity to those of functional phenolic acid decarboxylases previously reported from bacteria with 25-39% identity and to those of PAD1 and FDC1 proteins...

Huang, Hui-kai; Chen, Li-fan; Tokashiki, Masamichi; Ozawa, Tadahiro; Taira, Toki; Ito, Susumu

2012-01-01

190

Arachidonic acid enhances reproduction in Daphnia magna and mitigates changes in sex ratios induced by pyriproxyfen.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arachidonic acid is 1 of only 2 unsaturated fatty acids retained in the ovaries of crustaceans and an inhibitor of HR97g, a nuclear receptor expressed in adult ovaries. The authors hypothesized that, as a key fatty acid, arachidonic acid may be associated with reproduction and potentially environmental sex determination in Daphnia. Reproduction assays with arachidonic acid indicate that it alters female:male sex ratios by increasing female production. This reproductive effect only occurred during a restricted Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata diet. Next, the authors tested whether enriching a poorer algal diet (Chlorella vulgaris) with arachidonic acid enhances overall reproduction and sex ratios. Arachidonic acid enrichment of a C. vulgaris diet also enhances fecundity at 1.0?µM and 4.0?µM by 30% to 40% in the presence and absence of pyriproxyfen. This indicates that arachidonic acid is crucial in reproduction regardless of environmental sex determination. Furthermore, the data indicate that P. subcapitata may provide a threshold concentration of arachidonic acid needed for reproduction. Diet-switch experiments from P. subcapitata to C. vulgaris mitigate some, but not all, of arachidonic acid's effects when compared with a C. vulgaris-only diet, suggesting that some arachidonic acid provided by P. subcapitata is retained. In summary, arachidonic acid supplementation increases reproduction and represses pyriproxyfen-induced environmental sex determination in D. magna in restricted diets. A diet rich in arachidonic acid may provide protection from some reproductive toxicants such as the juvenile hormone agonist pyriproxyfen. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:527-535. © 2014 SETAC. PMID:25393616

Ginjupalli, Gautam K; Gerard, Patrick D; Baldwin, William S

2015-03-01

191

Treatment and prevention systems for acid mine drainage and halogenated contaminants  

Science.gov (United States)

Embodiments include treatments for acid mine drainage generation sources (10 perhaps by injection of at least one substrate (11) and biologically constructing a protective biofilm (13) on acid mine drainage generation source materials (14). Further embodiments include treatments for degradation of contaminated water environments (17) with substrates such as returned milk and the like.

Jin, Song (Fort Collins, CO); Fallgren, Paul H. (Laramie, WY); Morris, Jeffrey M. (Laramie, WY)

2012-01-31

192

Enhancing effect of dimethylamine in sulfuric acid nucleation in the presence of water – a computational study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We have studied the hydration of sulfuric acid – ammonia and sulfuric acid – dimethylamine clusters using quantum chemistry. We calculated the formation energies and thermodynamics for clusters of one ammonia or one dimethylamine molecule together with 1–2 sulfuric acid and 0–5 water molecules. The results indicate that dimethylamine enhances the addition of sulfuric acid to the clusters much more efficiently than ammonia when the number of water molecules in the cluster is either zero, or greater than two. Further hydrate distribution calculations reveal that practically all dimethylamine-containing two-acid clusters will remain unhydrated in tropospherically relevant circumstances, thus strongly suggesting that dimethylamine assists atmospheric sulfuric acid nucleation much more effectively than ammonia.

V. Loukonen

2010-02-01

193

Enhanced phagocytosis of group A streptococci M type 6 by oleic acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

M protein, located on the surface fimbriae of group A streptococci, is antiphagocytic by unknown means. It is known that oleic acid kills group A streptococci and distorts the fimbriae. The effect of oleic acid on phagocytosis of group A streptococci was examined. Phagocytosis of a strain possessing M protein (M+) and its M- variant was assessed by uptake of radiolabeled bacteria and by chemiluminescence. The M- but not the M+ streptococci were well phagocytized and induced chemiluminescence. Oleic acid-killed and heat-killed streptococci (both M+ and M-) were readily phagocytized and induced sustained chemiluminescence. M+ streptococci killed by ultraviolet irradiation were inefficiently phagocytized and did not induce chemiluminescence. Oleic acid-killed M+ streptococci absorbed type-specific antibody. An extract of M protein reduced the bactericidal capacity of oleic acid. It is proposed that oleic acid may bind to and alter the M protein of group A streptococci and thereby enhance phagocytosis

194

Enhanced uptake of water by oxidatively processed oleic acid  

OpenAIRE

A quartz crystal microbalance apparatus has been used to measure the room temperature uptake of water vapour by thin films of oleic acid as a function of relative humidity, both before and following exposure of the films to various partial pressures of gas phase ozone. A rapid increase in the water-sorbing ability of the film is observed as its exposure to ozone is increased, followed by a plateau region in which no additional water is taken up. In this fully-processed region the mass of wate...

Asad, A.; Mmereki, B. T.; Donaldson, D. J.

2005-01-01

195

Efficacy of topical azelaic acid gel in the treatment of mild-moderate acne vulgaris  

OpenAIRE

Background: Twenty percent azelaic acid gel is recommended as a topical treatment for acne due to its favorable profile. Aim: Our objective in this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 20% azelaic acid gel in the treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris. Methods: This was a double blind, randomized clinical trial. Sixty patients with mild to moderate acne vulgaris were selected randomly to receive either azelaic acid gel or the vehicle gel alone. Patients were followed up ever...

Iraji Fariba; Sadeghinia Ali; Shahmoradi Zabiholah; Siadat Amir; Jooya Abolfazl

2007-01-01

196

Enhancing thermal conductivity of palmitic acid based phase change materials with carbon nanotubes as fillers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as produced are usually entangled and not ready to be dispersed into organic matrix. CNTs were treated by mechano-chemical reaction with ball milling the mixture of potassium hydroxide and the pristine CNTs. Hydroxide radical functional groups have been introduced on the CNT surfaces, which enabled to make stable and homogeneous CNT composites. Treated CNTs were successfully dispersed into the palmitic acid matrix without any surfactant. Transient short-hot-wire apparatus was used to measure the thermal conductivities of these nanotube composites. Nanotube composites have substantially higher thermal conductivities than the base palmitic acid matrix, with the enhancement increasing with the mass fraction of CNTs in both liquid state and solid state. The enhancements of the thermal conductivity are about 30% higher than the reported corresponding values for palmitic acid based phase change nanocomposites containing 1 wt% CNTs treated by concentrated acid mixture. (author)

Wang, Jifen [School of Urban Development and Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Second Polytechnic University, Shanghai 201209 (China); State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Xie, Huaqing; Li, Yang; Chen, Lifei [School of Urban Development and Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Second Polytechnic University, Shanghai 201209 (China); Xin, Zhong [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

2010-02-15

197

Cognitive deficits in marijuana users: effects on motivational enhancement therapy plus cognitive behavioral therapy treatment outcome  

OpenAIRE

Clinical variables that affect treatment outcome for marijuana dependent individuals are not yet well understood, including the effects of cognitive functioning. To address this, level of cognitive functioning and treatment outcome were investigated. Twenty marijuana-dependent outpatients were administered a neuropsychological battery at treatment entry. All patients received 12 weekly individual sessions of combined motivational enhancement therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. The Wilco...

Aharonovich, Efrat; Brooks, Adam C.; Nunes, Edward V.; Hasin, Deborah S.

2008-01-01

198

Enhancing fatty acid production by the expression of the regulatory transcription factor FadR.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acids are important precursors to biofuels. The Escherichia coli FadR is a transcription factor that regulates several processes in fatty acid biosynthesis, degradation, and membrane transport. By tuning the expression of FadR in an engineered E. coli host, we were able to increase fatty acid titer by 7.5-fold over our previously engineered fatty acid-producing strain, reaching 5.2±0.5g/L and 73% of the theoretical yield. The mechanism by which FadR enhanced fatty acid yield was studied by whole-genome transcriptional analysis (microarray) and targeted proteomics. Overexpression of FadR led to transcriptional changes for many genes, including genes involved in fatty acid pathways. The biggest transcriptional changes in fatty acid pathway genes included fabB, fabF, and accA. Overexpression of any of these genes alone did not result in a high yield comparable to fadR expression, indicating that FadR enhanced fatty acid production globally by tuning the expression levels of many genes to optimal levels. PMID:23026122

Zhang, Fuzhong; Ouellet, Mario; Batth, Tanveer S; Adams, Paul D; Petzold, Christopher J; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Keasling, Jay D

2012-11-01

199

Aneurysmal wall enhancement and perianeurysmal edema after endovascular treatment of unruptured cerebral aneurysms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Perianeurysmal edema and aneurysm wall enhancement are previously described phenomenon after coil embolization attributed to inflammatory reaction. We aimed to demonstrate the prevalence and natural course of these phenomena in unruptured aneurysms after endovascular treatment and to identify factors that contributed to their development. We performed a retrospective analysis of consecutively treated unruptured aneurysms between January 2000 and December 2011. The presence and evolution of wall enhancement and perianeurysmal edema on MRI after endovascular treatment were analyzed. Variable factors were compared among aneurysms with and without edema. One hundred thirty-two unruptured aneurysms in 124 patients underwent endovascular treatment. Eighty-five (64.4 %) aneurysms had wall enhancement, and 9 (6.8 %) aneurysms had perianeurysmal brain edema. Wall enhancement tends to persist for years with two patterns identified. Larger aneurysms and brain-embedded aneurysms were significantly associated with wall enhancement. In all edema cases, the aneurysms were embedded within the brain and had wall enhancement. Progressive thickening of wall enhancement was significantly associated with edema. Edema can be symptomatic when in eloquent brain and stabilizes or resolves over the years. Our study demonstrates the prevalence and some appreciation of the natural history of aneurysmal wall enhancement and perianeurysmal brain edema following endovascular treatment of unruptured aneurysms. Aneurysmal wall enhancement is a common phenomenon while perianeurysmal edema is rare. These phenomena are likely related to the presence of inflammatory reaction near the aneurysmal wall. Both phenomena are usually asymptomatic and self-limited, and prophylactic treatment is not recommended. (orig.)

Su, I. Chang [Toronto Western Hospital, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Taipei Cathay General Hospital, Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Taipei (China); Willinsky, Robert A.; Agid, Ronit [Toronto Western Hospital, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Fanning, Noel F. [Cork University Hospital, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Cork (Ireland)

2014-06-15

200

Docosahexaenoic acid prevents paraquat-induced reactive oxygen species production in dopaminergic neurons via enhancement of glutathione homeostasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels are reduced in the substantia nigra area in Parkinson's disease patients and animal models, implicating docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as a potential treatment for preventing Parkinson's disease and suggesting the need for investigations into how DHA might protect against neurotoxin-induced dopaminergic neuron loss. The herbicide paraquat (PQ) induces dopaminergic neuron loss through the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We found that treatment of dopaminergic SN4741 cells with PQ reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, but pretreatment with DHA ameliorated the toxic effect of PQ. To determine the toxic mechanism of PQ, we measured intracellular ROS content in different organelles with specific dyes. As expected, all types of ROS were increased by PQ treatment, but DHA pretreatment selectively decreased cytosolic hydrogen peroxide content. Furthermore, DHA treatment-induced increases in glutathione reductase and glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLm) mRNA expression were positively correlated with glutathione (GSH) content. Consistent with this increase in GCLm mRNA levels, Western blot analysis revealed that DHA pretreatment increased nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein levels. These findings indicate that DHA prevents PQ-induced neuronal cell loss by enhancing Nrf2-regulated GSH homeostasis. PMID:25545062

Lee, Hyoung Jun; Han, Jeongsu; Jang, Yunseon; Kim, Soo Jeong; Park, Ji Hoon; Seo, Kang Sik; Jeong, Soyeon; Shin, Soyeon; Lim, Kyu; Heo, Jun Young; Kweon, Gi Ryang

2015-01-30

201

Cognitive Enhancement as a Treatment for Drug Addictions  

OpenAIRE

Drug addiction continues to be an important public health problem, with an estimated 22.6 million current illicit drug users in the United States alone. For many addictions, including cocaine, methamphetamine, and marijuana addiction, there are no approved pharmacological treatments. Behavioral treatments are effective but effects vary widely across individuals. Treatments that are effective across multiple addictions are greatly needed, and accumulating evidence suggests that one such approa...

Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Devito, Elise E.; Waters, Andrew J.; Carroll, Kathleen M.

2012-01-01

202

Water solubility enhancement of some organic pollutants and pesticides by dissolved humic and fulvic acids  

Science.gov (United States)

Water solubility enhancements by dissolved humic and fulvic acids from soil and aquatic origins and by synthetic organic polymers have been determined for selected organic pollutants and pesticides (p,p???-DDT, 2,4,5,2???,5???-PCB, 2,4,4???-PCB, 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene, and lindane). Significant solubility enhancements of relatively water-insoluble solutes by dissolved organic matter (DOM) of soil and aquatic origins may be described in terms of a partition-like interaction of the the solutes with the microscopic organic environment of the high-molecular-weight DOM species; the apparent solute solubilities increase linearly with DOM concentration and show no competitive effect between solutes. With a given DOM sample, the solute partition coefficient (Kdom) increases with a decrease of solute solubility (Sw) or with an increase of the solute's octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow). The Kdom values of solutes with soil-derived humic acid are approximately 4 times greater than with soil fulvic acid and 5-7 times greater than with aquatic humic and fulvic acids. The effectiveness of DOM in enhancing solute solubility appears to be largely controlled by the DOM molecular size and polarity. The relative inability of high-molecular-weight poly(acrylic acids) to enhance solute solubility is attributed to their high polarities and extended chain structures that do not permit the formation of a sizable intramolecular nonpolar environment.

Chiou, C.T.; Malcolm, R.L.; Brinton, T.I.; Kile, D.E.

1986-01-01

203

Citric acid enhances the phytoextraction of manganese and plant growth by alleviating the ultrastructural damages in Juncus effusus L  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chelate-assisted phytoextraction by high biomass producing plant species enhances the removal of heavy metals from polluted environments. In this regard, Juncus effusus a wetland plant has great potential. This study evaluated the effects of elevated levels of manganese (Mn) on the vegetative growth, Mn uptake and antioxidant enzymes in J. effusus. We also studied the role of citric acid and EDTA on improving metal accumulation, plant growth and Mn toxicity stress alleviation. Three-week-old plantlets of J. effusus were subjected to various treatments in the hydroponics as: Mn (50, 100 and 500 {mu}M) alone, Mn (500 {mu}M) + citric acid (5 mM), and Mn (500 {mu}M) + EDTA (5 mM). After 2 weeks of treatment, higher Mn concentrations significantly reduced the plant biomass and height. Both citric acid and EDTA restored the plant height as it was reduced at the highest Mn level. Only the citric acid (but not EDTA) was able to recover the plant biomass weight, which was also obvious from the microscopic visualization of mesophyll cells. There was a concentration dependent increase in Mn uptake in J. effusus plants, and relatively more deposition in roots compared to aerial parts. Although both EDTA and citric acid caused significant increase in Mn accumulation; however, the Mn translocation was enhanced markedly by EDTA. Elevated levels of Mn augmented the oxidative stress, which was evident from changes in the activities of antioxidative enzymes in plant shoots. Raised levels of lipid peroxidation and variable changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes were recorded under Mn stress. Electron microscopic images revealed several modifications in the plants at cellular and sub-cellular level due to the oxidative damage induced by Mn. Changes in cell shape and size, chloroplast swelling, increased number of plastoglobuli and disruption of thylakoid were noticed. However, these plants showed a high degree of tolerance against Mn toxicity stress, and it removed substantial amounts of Mn from the media. The EDTA best enhanced the Mn uptake and translocation, while citric acid best recovered the plant growth.

Najeeb, U.; Xu, L.; Ali, Shafaqat [Institute of Crop Science, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Jilani, Ghulam, E-mail: jilani@uaar.edu.pk [Department of Soil Science, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Punjab 46300 (Pakistan); Gong, H.J. [Institute of Crop Science, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Shen, W.Q. [The University of Nottingham at Ningbo, Ningbo 315100 (China); Zhou, W.J., E-mail: wjzhou@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Crop Science, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

2009-10-30

204

Citric acid enhances the phytoextraction of manganese and plant growth by alleviating the ultrastructural damages in Juncus effusus L  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chelate-assisted phytoextraction by high biomass producing plant species enhances the removal of heavy metals from polluted environments. In this regard, Juncus effusus a wetland plant has great potential. This study evaluated the effects of elevated levels of manganese (Mn) on the vegetative growth, Mn uptake and antioxidant enzymes in J. effusus. We also studied the role of citric acid and EDTA on improving metal accumulation, plant growth and Mn toxicity stress alleviation. Three-week-old plantlets of J. effusus were subjected to various treatments in the hydroponics as: Mn (50, 100 and 500 ?M) alone, Mn (500 ?M) + citric acid (5 mM), and Mn (500 ?M) + EDTA (5 mM). After 2 weeks of treatment, higher Mn concentrations significantly reduced the plant biomass and height. Both citric acid and EDTA restored the plant height as it was reduced at the highest Mn level. Only the citric acid (but not EDTA) was able to recover the plant biomass weight, which was also obvious from the microscopic visualization of mesophyll cells. There was a concentration dependent increase in Mn uptake in J. effusus plants, and relatively more deposition in roots compared to aerial parts. Although both EDTA and citric acid caused significant increase in Mn accumulation; however, the Mn translocation was enhanced markedly by EDTA. Elevated levels of Mn augmented the oxidative stress, which was evident from changes in the activities of antioxidative enzymes in plant shoots. Raised levels of ymes in plant shoots. Raised levels of lipid peroxidation and variable changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes were recorded under Mn stress. Electron microscopic images revealed several modifications in the plants at cellular and sub-cellular level due to the oxidative damage induced by Mn. Changes in cell shape and size, chloroplast swelling, increased number of plastoglobuli and disruption of thylakoid were noticed. However, these plants showed a high degree of tolerance against Mn toxicity stress, and it removed substantial amounts of Mn from the media. The EDTA best enhanced the Mn uptake and translocation, while citric acid best recovered the plant growth.

205

Primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumor: gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging  

OpenAIRE

We present a case of a 71-year-old man with prostate cancer who had no prior underlying liver disease. During metastatic evaluation, a solid mass in the liver was identified by computed tomography and ultrasound. Gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a well-defined, peripheral enhancing hepatic mass containing small cystic component. This lesion was diagnosed as hepatic neuroendocrine tumor. Primary neuroendocrine tumors of the liver are extremely rare....

Baek, Soo-heui; Yoon, Jung-hee; Kim, Kwan-woo

2013-01-01

206

Magnetic microparticles post-synthetically coated by hyaluronic acid as an enhanced carrier for microfluidic bioanalysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Iron oxide based particles functionalized by bioactive molecules have been utilized extensively in biotechnology and biomedicine. Despite their already proven advantages, instability under changing reaction conditions, non-specific sorption of biomolecules on the particles' surfaces, and iron oxide leakage from the naked particles can greatly limit their application. As confirmed many times, surface treatment with an appropriate stabilizer helps to minimize these disadvantages. In this work, we describe enhanced post-synthetic surface modification of superparamagnetic microparticles varying in materials and size using hyaluronic acid (HA) in various chain lengths. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, phase analysis light scattering and laser diffraction are the methods used for characterization of HA-coated particles. The zeta potential and thickness of HA-layer of HA-coated Dynabeads M270 Amine were -50 mV and 85 nm, respectively, and of HA-coated p(GMA-MOEAA)-NH2 were -38 mV and 140 nm, respectively. The electrochemical analysis confirmed the zero leakage of magnetic material and no reactivity of particles with hydrogen peroxide. The rate of non-specific sorption of bovine serum albumin was reduced up to 50% of the naked ones. The coating efficiency and suitability of biopolymer-based microparticles for magnetically active microfluidic devices were confirmed. PMID:25280714

Holubova, Lucie; Knotek, Petr; Palarcik, Jiri; Cadkova, Michaela; Belina, Petr; Vlcek, Milan; Korecka, Lucie; Bilkova, Zuzana

2014-11-01

207

Alpha-lipoic acid enhances DMSO-induced cardiomyogenic differentiation of P19 cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alpha-lipoic acid (?-LA) is a potent antioxidant that acts as an essential cofactor in mitochondrial dehydrogenase reactions. ?-LA has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective properties, and is used to improve symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. However, the role of ?-LA in stem cell differentiation and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In the present study, we showed that ?-LA significantly promoted dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-induced cardiomyogenic differentiation of mouse embryonic carcinoma P19 cells. ?-LA dose dependently increased beating embryonic body (EB) percentages of DMSO-differentiated P19 cells. The expressions of cardiac specific genes TNNT2, Nkx2.5, GATA4, MEF2C, and MLC2V and cardiac isoform of troponin T (cTnT)-positively stained cell population were significantly up-regulated by the addition of ?-LA. We also demonstrated that the differentiation time after EB formation was critical for ?-LA to take effect. Interestingly, without DMSO treatment, ?-LA did not stimulate the cardiomyogenic differentiation of P19 cells. Further investigation indicated that collagen synthesis-enhancing activity, instead of the antioxidative property, plays a significant role in the cardiomyogenic differentiation-promoting function of ?-LA. These findings highlight the potential use of ?-LA for regenerative therapies in heart diseases. PMID:25112287

Shen, Xinghua; Yang, Qinghui; Jin, Peng; Li, Xueqi

2014-09-01

208

Activation of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid by a 940 nm diode laser for enhanced removal of smear layer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Laser enhancement of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid with cetrimide (EDTAC) has previously been shown to increase removal of smear layer, for middle-infrared erbium lasers. This study evaluated the efficiency of EDTAC activation using a near-infrared-pulsed 940?nm laser delivered by plain fibre tips into 15% EDTAC or 3% hydrogen peroxide. Root canals in 4 groups of 10 single roots were prepared using rotary files, with controls for the presence and absence of smear layer. After laser treatment (80?mJ?pulse(-1) , 50?Hz, 6 cycles of 10?s), roots were split and the apical, middle and coronal thirds of the canal were examined using scanning electron microscopy, with the area of dentine tubules determined by a validated quantitative image analysis method. Lasing EDTAC considerably improved smear layer removal, while lasing into peroxide gave minimal smear layer removal. The laser protocol used was more effective for smear layer removal than the 'gold standard' protocol using EDTAC with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). In addition, lasers may also provide a benefit through photothermal disinfection. Further research is needed to optimise irrigant activation protocols using near-infrared diode lasers of other wavelengths. PMID:25244221

Lagemann, Manfred; George, Roy; Chai, Lei; Walsh, Laurence J

2014-08-01

209

Glycyrrhizic Acid in the Treatment of Liver Diseases: Literature Review  

OpenAIRE

Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) is a triterpene glycoside found in the roots of licorice plants (Glycyrrhiza glabra). GA is the most important active ingredient in the licorice root, and possesses a wide range of pharmacological and biological activities. GA coupled with glycyrrhetinic acid and 18-beta-glycyrrhetic acid was developed in China or Japan as an anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antiallergic drug for liver disease. This review summarizes the current biological activities of GA and its medi...

Jian-yuan Li; Hong-yan Cao; Ping Liu,; Gen-hong Cheng; Ming-yu Sun

2014-01-01

210

Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering studies of L-amino acids adsorbed on silver nanoclusters  

Science.gov (United States)

Silver nanocluster films were prepared using plasma inert gas phase condensation technique. These were used as Raman active substrates for Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) studies of 19 standard L-amino acids adsorbed on the surface of Ag nanoclusters via Agsbnd N bonds. A detailed study of two essential aromatic amino acids viz. L-Phenylalanine and L-Tryptophan showed a correlation between the Raman intensity of the characteristic lines of phenol and indole side chains and their molar concentrations in the range 1 ?M-1 mM. This indicates that Raman studies can be used for quantitative determination of the amino acids in proteins.

Botta, Raju; Rajanikanth, A.; Bansal, C.

2015-01-01

211

Acrylic acid removal by acrylic acid utilizing bacteria from acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resin manufactured wastewater treatment system.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study is to isolate the acrylic acid utilizing bacteria from the ABS resin manufactured wastewater treatment system. The bacteria should have the ability to remove acrylic acid and tolerate the acrylonitrile and acrylamide toxicity. The aim is also to understand the performance of isolated pure strain for treating different initial acrylic acid concentrations from synthetic wastewater. The results are: twenty strains were isolated from the ABS resin manufactured wastewater treatment system and twelve of them could utilize 600 mg/l acrylic acid for growth. Seven of twelve strains could tolerate the acrylonitrile and acrylamide toxicity, when the concentration was below 300 mg/l. Bacillus thuringiensis was one of the seven strains and the optimum growth temperature was 32 degrees C. Bacillus thuringiensis could utilize acrylic acid for growth, when the initial acrylic acid concentration was below 1,690.4 mg/l. Besides this, when the initial acrylic acid concentration was below 606.8 mg/l, the acrylic acid removal efficiency exceeded 96.3%. Bacillus thuringiensis could tolerate 295.7 mg/l acrylamide and 198.4 mg/l acrylonitrile toxicity but could not tolerate 297.3 mg/l epsilon-caprolactam. PMID:16749456

Wang, C C; Lee, C M

2006-01-01

212

Light stress is not effective to enhanced crassulacean acid metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clusia minor L., a C3-CAM intermediate, and Clusia multiflora H. B. K., a C3 obligate, present two physiotypes of a similar morphotype occurring sympatrically in the field. Both species, exposed 2 days to high light, show similar responses to this kind of stress: (i) the level of xanthophyll pigments in tested plants during the daycourse adapts to stress, (ii) the levels of antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin clearly increase during the afternoon showing increased de-epoxidation, (iii) the changes in the xanthophyll cycle are similar. Exposure to high light increases the malate levels in C. minor during the afternoon while decreases the day/night changes of the malate levels, and hence the Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) expression. It can be concluded that strong light applied as a single stress factor to well-watered plants is not effective in strengthing the CAM metabolism in a C3-CAM intermediate plant but rather suppresses the CAM activity despite exposure to high light energy. It is suggested that, when water supply is not limiting and other stresses do not prevail, C3 allows to use up the citrate pool, especially in the afternoon and enables a superior daily photon utilization. PMID:20355326

Kornas, Andrzej; Miszalski, Zbigniew; Surówka, Ewa; Fischer-Schliebs, Elke; Lüttge, Ulrich

2010-01-01

213

Enhanced uptake of water by oxidatively processed oleic acid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A quartz crystal microbalance apparatus has been used to measure the room temperature uptake of water vapour by thin films of oleic acid as a function of relative humidity, both before and following exposure of the films to various partial pressures of gas phase ozone. A rapid increase in the water-sorbing ability of the film is observed as its exposure to ozone is increased, followed by a plateau region in which no additional water is taken up. In this fully-processed region the mass of water taken up by the film is about 4 times that of the unprocessed film. Infrared spectra of the films, measured after variable exposures to ozone, show dramatic increases in both the "free" and hydrogen-bonded O-H stretching regions, and a decrease in the intensity of olefinic features. These results are consistent with the formation of an oxygenated polymeric product or products, as well as the gas phase products previously identified.

A. Asad

2004-07-01

214

The enhancement of radiosensitivity in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells by zoledronic acid and its potential mechanism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has a low 5-year patient survival rate. Radiotherapy, as a preoperative or postoperative treatment of surgery, has a crucial role in improving local control and survival of ESCC. Various chemotherapeutic and biologic agents have been used as radio-sensitizers in combination with radiotherapy. Here, we demonstrate that zoledronic acid (ZOL) has a radio-sensitizing effect on ESCC cells. Exposure of ESCC cancer cells to ZOL plus radiation resulted in increased cell death through arresting the cell cycle between S and G2/M phases. ZOL appeared to inhibit proliferation, tube formation and invasion of endothelial cells. These anti-angiogenetic effects were more marked concurrently with irradiation. In addition, synergistic suppressive effects on VEGF expression were observed after combined treatment. Our data suggest that the combination of ZOL and radiation is a promising therapeutic strategy to enhance radiation therapy for ESCC patients. PMID:23334334

You, Yanjie; Liu, Jianfeng; Wang, Zhizhong; Zhang, Yuan; Ran, Yonggang; Guo, Xu; Liu, Huimin; Wang, Haibo

2014-01-01

215

Could Radiotherapy Effectiveness Be Enhanced by Electromagnetic Field Treatment?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the main goals in radiobiology research is to enhance radiotherapy effectiveness without provoking any increase in toxicity. In this context, it has been proposed that electromagnetic fields (EMFs, known to be modulators of proliferation rate, enhancers of apoptosis and inductors of genotoxicity, might control tumor recruitment and, thus, provide therapeutic benefits. Scientific evidence shows that the effects of ionizing radiation on cellular compartments and functions are strengthened by EMF. Although little is known about the potential role of EMFs in radiotherapy (RT, the radiosensitizing effect of EMFs described in the literature could support their use to improve radiation effectiveness. Thus, we hypothesized that EMF exposure might enhance the ionizing radiation effect on tumor cells, improving the effects of RT. The aim of this paper is to review reports of the effects of EMFs in biological systems and their potential therapeutic benefits in radiotherapy.

Núñez María Isabel

2013-07-01

216

Enhancing cognitive-behavior therapy in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder  

OpenAIRE

Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a prevalent and disabling condition. Although effective treatments such as cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) exist, accessibility to this treatment is low and many OCD patients do not respond to CBT. Aims: The general aim of this thesis was to develop and test new treatment strategies for enhancing both the accessibility and the efficacy of CBT in the treatment of OCD More specifically, the aims were to investigate: ...

Andersson, Erik

2014-01-01

217

The Effects of Different Acid Treatment and Stratification Duration on Germination of Cercis siliquastrum L. Seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the effects of acid (H2SO4 treatment and moist stratification duration on the properties of seed coat, germination rate and duration of the Cercis siliquastrum L. were investigated. The rupture force and firmness of seed coat decrease during the acid treatment and moist stratification, stratification was for more than 30 minutes of these applications. Up to this treatment, rupture force and firmness were highly decreased. Contrary to this decrease, the germination rate was increased. The decrease in rupture force and firmness of seed coat were changed limitedly after 45 minutes and over acid treatments. From the results of this study, we conclude that eight weeks of moist stratification duration was optimal after 30 minutes of acid treatment to remove the physical and physiological dormancy of the seeds of the C. siliquastrum L.

Halil ÜNAL

2010-06-01

218

Selective inhibition of HDAC8 decreases neuroblastoma growth in vitro and in vivo and enhances retinoic acid-mediated differentiation.  

Science.gov (United States)

For differentiation-defective malignancies, compounds that modulate transcription, such as retinoic acid and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, are of particular interest. HDAC inhibitors are currently under investigation for the treatment of a broad spectrum of cancer diseases. However, one clinical drawback is class-specific toxicity of unselective inhibitors, limiting their full anticancer potential. Selective targeting of individual HDAC isozymes in defined tumor entities may therefore be an attractive alternative treatment approach. We have previously identified HDAC family member 8 (HDAC8) as a novel target in childhood neuroblastoma. Using small-molecule inhibitors, we now demonstrate that selective inhibition of HDAC8 exhibits antineuroblastoma activity without toxicity in two xenograft mouse models of MYCN oncogene-amplified neuroblastoma. In contrast, the unselective HDAC inhibitor vorinostat was more toxic in the same models. HDAC8-selective inhibition induced cell cycle arrest and differentiation in vitro and in vivo. Upon combination with retinoic acid, differentiation was significantly enhanced, as demonstrated by elongated neurofilament-positive neurites and upregulation of NTRK1. Additionally, MYCN oncogene expression was downregulated in vitro and tumor cell growth was markedly reduced in vivo. Mechanistic studies suggest that cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) links HDAC8- and retinoic acid-mediated gene transcription. In conclusion, HDAC-selective targeting can be effective in tumors exhibiting HDAC isozyme-dependent tumor growth in vivo and can be combined with differentiation-inducing agents. PMID:25695609

Rettig, I; Koeneke, E; Trippel, F; Mueller, W C; Burhenne, J; Kopp-Schneider, A; Fabian, J; Schober, A; Fernekorn, U; von Deimling, A; Deubzer, H E; Milde, T; Witt, O; Oehme, I

2015-01-01

219

Effect of acidic treatment on carbon nano tubes for immobilization of cellulase enzyme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The effect of acidic treatment on MWCNTs functionalization was studied by mixing different ratios (1:1, 1:2, and 1:3 v/v %) of nitric acid and sulphuric acid, respectively. The effect of these treatments on the structure of MWCNTs was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Filed emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Results showed that the optimum ratio 1:3 (v/v %) is best suitable in imparting carboxylic acid and hydroxyl groups which are required for immobilization of cellulase enzyme on functionalized CNTs. (author)

220

Efficacious intestinal permeation enhancement induced by the sodium salt of 10-undecylenic acid, a medium chain fatty acid derivative.  

Science.gov (United States)

10-undecylenic acid (UA) is an OTC antifungal therapy and a nutritional supplement. It is an unsaturated medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) derivative, so our hypothesis was that its 11-mer sodium salt, uC11, would improve intestinal permeation similar to the established enhancer, sodium caprate (C10), but without the toxicity of the parent saturated MCFA, decylenic acid (C11). MTT assay and high-content screening (HCS) confirmed a cytotoxicity ranking in Caco-2 cells: C11?>?C10?=?uC11. Five to ten millimolars of the three agents reduced TEER and increased the Papp of [(14)C]-mannitol across Caco-2 monolayers and rat intestinal mucosae, a concentration that matched increases in plasma membrane permeability seen in HCS. Although C11 was the most efficacious enhancer in vitro, it damaged monolayers and tissue mucosae more than the other two agents at similar concentrations and exposure times and was therefore not pursued further. Rat jejunal and colonic in situ intestinal instillations of 100 mM C10 or uC11 with FITC-dextran 4000 (FD4) solutions yielded comparable regional enhancement ratios of ~10 and 30%, respectively, for each agent with acceptable tissue histology. Mini-tablets of uC11 and FD4 however delivered more FD4 compared to C10-FD-4 mini-tablets in both regions, as reflected by a statistically higher AUC, and with no evidence of membrane perturbation. The unsaturated bond in uC11 therefore confers a reduction in lipophilicity and cytotoxicity compared to C11, and the resulting permeation enhancement is on a par with or superior to that of C10, a key component of formulations in current phase II oral peptide clinical trials. PMID:24961919

Brayden, David J; Walsh, Edwin

2014-09-01

221

Ferulic acid enhances IgE binding to peanut allergens in western blots.  

Science.gov (United States)

Because phenolic compounds can precipitate or complex with proteins, we postulated that interactions of phenolics with IgE antibodies help enhance IgE binding to peanut allergens in Western blots. Three different phenolics, such as, ferulic, caffeic and chlorogenic acids were examined. Each was mixe...

222

The Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Valproic Acid Enhances Acquisition, Extinction, and Reconsolidation of Conditioned Fear  

Science.gov (United States)

Histone modifications contribute to the epigenetic regulation of gene expression, a process now recognized to be important for the consolidation of long-term memory. Valproic acid (VPA), used for many years as an anticonvulsant and a mood stabilizer, has effects on learning and memory and enhances the extinction of conditioned fear through its…

Bredy, Timothy W.; Barad, Mark

2008-01-01

223

Study on enhancement of coal-based humic acids on biological activity of monocrotophos  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of water-soluble coal-based acids (WSCA) on the biological activity of monocrotophos was studied. WSCAs were prepared using Wuchun weathered lignite and Jincheng weathered coal. The study showed that the WSCAs enhanced the biological activity of monocrotophos. 15 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

Zhang, C.; Li, S.; Li, B.; Li, W. [Inst. of Coal Chemistry, Taiyuan (China). State Key Lab. of Coal Conversion

2002-10-01

224

PROCEEDINGS: EPA'S INDUSTRY BRIEFING ON THE ADIPIC ACID ENHANCED LIMESTONE FGD PROCESS (JULY 1981)  

Science.gov (United States)

The proceedings document presentations made during an EPA-sponsored industry briefing, July 15, 1981, in Springfield, MO. The briefing dealt with the status of EPA's research activities on the adipic-acid-enhanced limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process. Subjects covered...

225

Heat treatments to enhance the safety of mung bean seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salmonella enterica serovars and Escherichia coli O157:H7 have been associated with contaminated seed sprout outbreaks. The majority of these outbreaks have been traced to sprout seeds contaminated with low levels of pathogens. E. coli O157:H7 strains can grow an average of 2.3 log CFU/g over 2 days during seed germination, and Salmonella can achieve an average growth of 3.7 log CFU/g. Therefore, it is important to find an effective method to reduce possible pathogenic bacterial populations on the seeds prior to sprouting. Our objective was to assess the effectiveness of various dry heat treatments on reducing E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella populations on mung beans intended for sprout production and to determine the effect of these treatments on seed germination. Mung beans were inoculated with five-strain cocktails of E. coli O157:H7 and of Salmonella serovars harboring the green fluorescent protein gene and then air dried overnight. Heat treatments were performed by incubating the seeds at 55 degrees C for various periods of time. Heat-treated seeds were then assessed for the efficacy of the heat treatment and the effects of heat treatment on germination rates. After inoculation and drying, 6 log CFU/g E. coli O157:H7 and 4 log CFU/g Salmonella were detected on the seeds. Following heat treatment, pathogenic bacterial populations on the seeds were below detectable levels (germination rate of the seed was not affected. Thus, the risk of contamination and the presence of pathogens in the finished sprouts were greatly reduced via the seed heat treatment process. PMID:15222561

Hu, Haijing; Churey, John J; Worobo, Randy W

2004-06-01

226

Use of humic acids to enhance the removal of aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated aquifers. Part 2: Pilot scale  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this study was to determine whether humic acids could be used cost-effectively to enhance the dissolution and transport of aromatic hydrocarbons and provide an environmentally suitable alternative to artificial surfactants for cleaning up soil and groundwater contaminated by petroleum products. To test new technologies at near field scale, a model aquifer with a very dense monitoring network was constructed, and fully instrumented. Humic acid was added as a sodium salt at a concentration of 1 g/L, resulting in a pH of 8.5. The effluent was discharged to the sewer through a charcoal filter for the treatment side until a constant concentration of humic acid was obtained at the withdrawal wells. Over 1000 samples were analyzed. A residual diesel source was emplaced and dissolved slowly as would occur in a typical pump and treat scenario. The addition of humic acids was found to increase the concentration of polyaromatic hydrocarbons dissolving from diesel as much as ten-fold. Also, there was evidence of biodegradation of the volatile hydrocarbons. The influence of macroscopic dispersion was negligible. 22 refs., 6 figs.

Lesage, S.; Xu, H.; Novakowski, K. S.; Brown, S.; Durham, L. [Environment Canada, Burlington, ON (Canada). Wastewater Technology Centre

1995-12-31

227

Chiropractic treatment and the enhancement of sport performance: a narrative literature review  

OpenAIRE

A literature search and narrative review was carried out with the intent of determining the current level of knowledge regarding the chiropractic treatment of athletes for the purpose of sport performance enhancement. Of the fifty-nine relevant articles retrieved, only 7 articles of variable quality were obtained which specifically investigated/discussed chiropractic treatment and its involvement in sport performance enhancement. The role of the chiropractor in sport, unsubstantiated claims o...

Miners, Andrew L.

2010-01-01

228

Enhancement of seed vigour following insecticide and phenolic elicitor treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thiamethoxam (CGA 293'343) is a novel broad-spectrum neonicotinoid insecticide. It is commercially used as a seed treatment under the trademark Cruiser (CRZ). Although many reports detail its insecticidal, plant-protecting properties, there are minimal reports concerning the effect on seed germination activities which can be key control points of seedling vigour. In this report, we investigated the effect of CRZ, fish protein hydrolysates (FPH; a known elicitor of pentose-phosphate pathway) and the combination of CRZ and FPH (CF) on seed vigour of pea, soybean and corn. Seed vigour was investigated by estimating germination percentage, shoot height, shoot weight, total soluble phenolic content, antioxidant content, G6PDH (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) activity, and GPX (guaiacol peroxidase) activity. Addition of FPH to CRZ (CF) seemed to have a slightly positive effect on seed vigour, especially, CF and FPH treatment for corn and FPH treatment for pea, suggesting that pre-sowing treatments may cause positive/negative effects on seed vigour, depending on the concentration of treatments. Further research will be needed to determine their effects and the optimal concentration for seed priming. PMID:16581243

Horii, A; McCue, P; Shetty, K

2007-02-01

229

Chitosan-caffeic acid-genipin films presenting enhanced antioxidant activity and stability in acidic media.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of chitosan films has been limited due to their high degradability in aqueous acidic media. In order to produce chitosan films with high antioxidant activity and insoluble in acid solutions caffeic acid was grafted to chitosan by a radical mechanism using ammonium cerium (IV) nitrate (60 mM). Genipin was used as cross-linker. This methodology originated films with 80% higher antioxidant activity than the pristine film. Also, these films only lost 11% of their mass upon seven days immersion into an aqueous solution at pH 3.5 under stirring. The films surface wettability (contact angle 105°), mechanical properties (68 MPa of tensile strength and 4% of elongation at break), and thermal stability for temperatures lower than 300 °C were not significantly influenced by the covalent linkage of caffeic acid and genipin to chitosan. Due to their characteristics, mainly higher antioxidant activity and lower solubility, these are promising materials to be used as active films. PMID:23044128

Nunes, Cláudia; Maricato, Élia; Cunha, Ângela; Nunes, Alexandra; da Silva, José A Lopes; Coimbra, Manuel A

2013-01-01

230

Behavioral activation: a strategy to enhance treatment response.  

Science.gov (United States)

Behavioral activation is an empirically validated treatment for depression pioneered in 1973 by Ferster, based on B.F. Skinner's behavioral principles. After publication of Beck's work on cognitive therapy, the boundaries of behavioral and cognitive therapies were blurred and the two now overlap substantially. Behavioral activation is also used as a stand-alone treatment and can also be effective in conjunction with antidepressant medication. Case conceptualization in behavioral activation entails an assessment of the behaviors that the patient has stopped that produce pleasure or are of importance, as well as behaviors essential to self-care. Activity monitoring, which provides treatment targets and leads to the case conceptualization in behavioral activation, consists of using charts, forms, or other prompts to track the relationship between activities and other variables (e.g., mood, enjoyment). That technique is also used to target rumination, procrastination, and avoidance and may also be helpful for patients with psychosis. PMID:25036582

Sudak, Donna M; Majeed, Muhammad H; Youngman, Branden

2014-07-01

231

Acetic acid enhanced purification of crude cellulose from sugarcane bagasse: Structural and morphological characterization  

OpenAIRE

Crude cellulose prepared from alkali-extracted sugarcane bagasse was subjected to a rapid purification treatment with a mixture of 80% acetic acid-68% nitric acid (10/1, v/v) at 120 °C for 15 min. The yields of the preparations decreased slightly from 57.3%-58.6% in the crude cellulose preparations to 50.3%-51.9% in the purified cellulose samples. The purification treatment removed large amounts of resistant hemicelluloses strongly associated to the cellulose. XRD analysis revealed that the ...

Jing Bian; Feng Peng; Xiao-Peng Peng; Pai Peng; Feng Xu; Run-Cang Sun

2012-01-01

232

Thermochemical pretreatments for enhancing succinic acid production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to develop an efficient thermochemical method for treatment of industrial hemp biomass, in order to increase its bioconversion to succinic acid. Industrial hemp was subjected to various thermochemical pretreatments using 0-3% H2SO4, NaOH or H2O2 at 121-180°C prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. The influence of the different pretreatments on hydrolysis and succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z was investigated in batch mode, using anaerobic bottles and bioreactors. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of hemp material pretreated with 3% H2O2 resulted in the highest overall sugar yield (73.5%), maximum succinic acid titer (21.9gL(-1)), as well as the highest succinic acid yield (83%). Results obtained clearly demonstrated the impact of different pretreatments on the bioconversion efficiency of industrial hemp into succinic acid. PMID:25682224

Gunnarsson, Ingólfur B; Kuglarz, Mariusz; Karakashev, Dimitar; Angelidaki, Irini

2015-04-01

233

Dynamic and delayed contrast enhancement in upper abdominal MRI studies: Comparison of gadoxetic acid and gadobutrol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To prospectively compare contrast properties of extracelullar (gadobutrol) and hepatospecific (gadoxetic acid) contrast agents in upper abdominal MRI studies. Materials and methods: Standardized (0.1 ml/kg) dose of gadobutrol (56 subjects) and gadoxetic acid (51 subjects) was administered intravenously by MRI-compatible injector at 2 ml/s, followed by 20 ml saline flush. MR signal intensity changes (SIC) between precontrast scans and arterial phase, portal venous phase, equilibrium, and delayed scans at 10 and 20 min were measured in abdominal aorta, portal vein, common bile duct, liver, and spleen. Mean SIC values for gadobutrol and gadoxetic acid were compared by a two-sample t-test with p-value <0.05 considered significant. Results: In abdominal aorta, the mean SIC in the arterial phase did not significantly differ between gadobutrol (330%) and gadoxetic acid (295%). In portal vein, the mean SIC in the portal venous phase significantly differed between gadobutrol (267%) and gadoxetic acid (176%). Liver parenchyma enhancement was significantly higher for gadobutrol than for gadoxetic acid in both arterial phase (28 versus 13%) and portal venous phase (81 versus 46%). On the contrary, gadobutrol reached significantly lower mean SIC in the liver on delayed scans at 10 min (47 versus 59%) and 20 min (40 versus 67%), as well as in common bile duct at 10 min (54 versus 133%) and 20 min (57 versus 457%), respectively. In the spleen, mean SIC for gadobutrol was n the spleen, mean SIC for gadobutrol was significantly higher at all phases. Conclusion: Gadobutrol showed superior enhancement of upper abdominal structures in the dynamic phases whereas gadoxetic acid showed better enhancement of the hepatobiliary structures on delayed scans

234

Dynamic and delayed contrast enhancement in upper abdominal MRI studies: Comparison of gadoxetic acid and gadobutrol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objective: To prospectively compare contrast properties of extracelullar (gadobutrol) and hepatospecific (gadoxetic acid) contrast agents in upper abdominal MRI studies. Materials and methods: Standardized (0.1 ml/kg) dose of gadobutrol (56 subjects) and gadoxetic acid (51 subjects) was administered intravenously by MRI-compatible injector at 2 ml/s, followed by 20 ml saline flush. MR signal intensity changes (SIC) between precontrast scans and arterial phase, portal venous phase, equilibrium, and delayed scans at 10 and 20 min were measured in abdominal aorta, portal vein, common bile duct, liver, and spleen. Mean SIC values for gadobutrol and gadoxetic acid were compared by a two-sample t-test with p-value <0.05 considered significant. Results: In abdominal aorta, the mean SIC in the arterial phase did not significantly differ between gadobutrol (330%) and gadoxetic acid (295%). In portal vein, the mean SIC in the portal venous phase significantly differed between gadobutrol (267%) and gadoxetic acid (176%). Liver parenchyma enhancement was significantly higher for gadobutrol than for gadoxetic acid in both arterial phase (28 versus 13%) and portal venous phase (81 versus 46%). On the contrary, gadobutrol reached significantly lower mean SIC in the liver on delayed scans at 10 min (47 versus 59%) and 20 min (40 versus 67%), as well as in common bile duct at 10 min (54 versus 133%) and 20 min (57 versus 457%), respectively. In the spleen, mean SIC for gadobutrol was significantly higher at all phases. Conclusion: Gadobutrol showed superior enhancement of upper abdominal structures in the dynamic phases whereas gadoxetic acid showed better enhancement of the hepatobiliary structures on delayed scans.

Zizka, Jan [Department of Radiology, Charles University Hospital, Sokolska 581, CZ-500 05 Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: zizka@fnhk.cz; Klzo, Ludovit [Department of Radiology, Charles University Hospital, Sokolska 581, CZ-500 05 Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Ferda, Jiri [Department of Radiology, Charles University Hospital, Alej Svobody 80, CZ-306 40 Plzen (Czech Republic); Mrklovsky, Milan [Department of Radiology and Imaging Centre Pardubice, Regional Hospital, Kyjevska 44, CZ-530 01 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Bukac, Josef [Department of Biophysics, Medical Faculty, Charles University, Simkova 870, CZ-500 38 Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

2007-05-15

235

Zoledronic Acid Prevents Bone Loss During Estrogen-Suppression Treatment of Breast Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

Zoledronic acid can prevent treatment-induced bone loss in premenopausal women undergoing total estrogen suppression after surgery for hormone-responsive breast cancer, according to an article published online Jan. 3, 2007, in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

236

pH dependence of methyl phosphonic acid, dipicolinic acid, and cyanide by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

U.S. and Coalition forces fighting terrorism in Afghanistan and Iraq must consider a wide range of attack scenarios in addition to car bombings. Among these is the intentional poisoning of water supplies to obstruct military operations. To counter such attacks, the military is developing portable analyzers that can identify and quantify potential chemical agents in water supplies at microgram per liter concentrations within 10 minutes. To aid this effort we have been investigating the value of a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy based portable analyzer. In particular we have been developing silver-doped sol-gels to generate SER spectra of chemical agents and their hydrolysis products. Here we present SER spectra of methyl phosphonic acid and cyanide as a function of pH, an important factor affecting quantitation measurements, which to our knowledge has not been examined. In addition, dipicolinic acid, a chemical signature associated with anthrax-causing spores, is also presented.

Farquharson, Stuart; Gift, Alan; Maksymiuk, Paul; Inscore, Frank E.; Smith, Wayne W.

2004-03-01

237

Inducing Effect of Dihydroartemisinic Acid in the Biosynthesis of Artemisinins with Cultured Cells of Artemisia annua by Enhancing the Expression of Genes  

OpenAIRE

Artemisinin has been used in the production of “artemisinin combination therapies” for the treatment of malaria. Feeding of precursors has been proven to be one of the most effective methods to enhance artemisinin production in plant cultured cells. At the current paper, the biosynthesis of artemisinin (ART) and its four analogs from dihydroartemisinic acid (DHAA) in suspension-cultured cells of Artemisia annua were investigated. ARTs were detected by HPLC/GC-MS and isolated by various ch...

Jianhua Zhu; Jiazeng Yang; Zihan Zeng; Wenjin Zhang; Liyan Song; Wei Wen; Rongmin Yu

2014-01-01

238

Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes by Free Fatty Acid Receptor Agonists  

OpenAIRE

Dietary free fatty acids (FFAs), such as ?-3 fatty acids, regulate metabolic and anti-inflammatory processes, with many of these effects attributed to FFAs interacting with a family of G protein-coupled receptors. Selective synthetic ligands for Free Fatty Acid receptors (FFA1-4) have consequently been developed as potential treatments for type 2 diabetes (T2D). In particular, clinical studies show that Fasiglifam, an agonist of the long chain FFA receptor, FFA1, improved glycaemic control a...

GraemeMilligan; TrondUlven

2014-01-01

239

The Sonodegradation of Caffeic Acid under Ultrasound Treatment: Relation to Stability  

OpenAIRE

The degradation of caffeic acid under ultrasound treatment in a model system was investigated. The type of solvent and temperature were important factors in determining the outcome of the degradation reactions. Liquid height, ultrasonic intensity and duty cycle only affected degradation rate, but did not change the nature of the degradation. The degradation rate of caffeic acid decreased with increasing temperature. Degradation kinetics of caffeic acid under ultrasound fitted a zero-order rea...

Yujing Sun; Liping Qiao; Xingqian Ye; Donghong Liu; Xianzhong Zhang; Haizhi Huang

2013-01-01

240

Enhanced rosmarinic acid production in cultured plants of two species of Mentha.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present investigation an attempt has been made to enhance rosmarinic acid level in plants, grown in vitro, of 2 species of Mentha in presence of 2 precursors in the nutrient media during culture. For in vitro culture establishment and shoot bud multiplication, MS basal media were used supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of different growth regulator like NAA (alpha-napthaleneacetic acid), BAP (6-benzylaminopurine). The medium containing NAA (0.25 mg/L) and BAP (2.5 mg/L) gave the highest potentiality of shoot formation (average 58.0 numbers of shoots) per explant for Mentha piperita L. and the medium containing BAP (2.0 mg/L) gave the highest potentiality of shoot (average 19.2 numbers of shoots) formation per explant for Mentha arvensis L. The complete plants were regenerated in above mentioned media after 8 weeks of subculture. For in vitro enhancement of rosmarinic acid production, the 2 precursors tyrosine (Tyr) and phenylalanine (Phe) were added in the nutrient media at different levels (0.5 mg/L to 15.0 mg/L). Tyrosine was found to be very effective for augmenting rosmarinic acid content in Mentha piperita L. It nearly increased the production up to 1.77 times. In case of Mentha arvensis L., phenylalanine significantly affected the production of rosmarinic acid and the production was nearly 2.03 times more than the control. No significant increase in biomass was observed after addition of these precursors indicating that the added amino acids acting as precursors for rosmarinic acid synthesis were readily utilized in producing rosmarinic acid without promoting growth. Total protein profile also revealed the presence of a specific band in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PMID:23305033

Roy, Debleena; Mukhopadhyay, Sandip

2012-11-01

241

Acid pre-treatment method for in situ ore leaching  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An acid leaching method is described for the recovery of a desired element from a subterranean rubblized body of primary ore containing the element and also having associated therewith a carbonate mineral wherein the rubblized ore body is flooded with an aqueous acidic solution in order to release carbon dioxide from the associated carbonate mineral. After a substantial portion of the available carbon dioxide is released and removed from the ore body, as by venting to the atmosphere, an oxidizing gas is introduced into the flooded, rubblized ore to oxidize the ore and form an acid leach solution effective in the presence of the dissolved oxidizing gas to dissolve the ore and cause the desired element to go into solution. The leach solution is then circulated to the surface where the metal values are recovered therefrom

242

Lymphatic Pump Treatment Repeatedly Enhances the Lymphatic and Immune Systems  

OpenAIRE

Background: Osteopathic practitioners utilize manual therapies called lymphatic pump techniques (LPT) to treat edema and infectious diseases. While previous studies examined the effect of a single LPT treatment on the lymphatic system, the effect of repeated applications of LPT on lymphatic output and immunity has not been investigated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to measure the effects of repeated LPT on lymphatic flow, lymph leukocyte numbers, and inflammatory mediator concentr...

Schander, Artur; Padro, David; King, Hollis H.; Downey, H. Fred; Hodge, Lisa M.

2013-01-01

243

Enhanced washing durability of hydrophobic coating on cellulose fabric using polycarboxylic acids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nine polycarboxylic acids were used to improve washing durability of hydrophobic cellulose fabric finished by sol-gel method. By simultaneous forming ester-bridge between cellulose and silica layer by ester bond, polycarboxylic acids could anchor silica coating onto cellulose fabric to strengthen the adhesion of organic-inorganic hybrid coating. The wettability of treated fabrics was characterized by water contact angle, spray test and hydrostatic pressure test. The results showed that all investigated polycarboxylic acids could improve the durability. The polycarboxylic acid with proper distance between terminal carboxylic acid groups and number of carboxylic acid groups showed the highest durability. 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) led to the best durability of hydrophobic cellulose fabric with water contact angle of 137.6{sup o} (recovery percentage of 94.2%) after 30 washing times. The effect of BTCA on durability was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. This study demonstrated that the surface treatment using polycarboxylic acids and mixed organosilanes is a promising alternative for achieving durable hydrophobic fabrics.

Huang Wenqi [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Xing Yanjun, E-mail: yjxing@dhu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Key Laboratory of Science and Technology of Eco-Textile (Donghua University), Ministry of Education, Shanghai 201620 (China); Yu Yunyi [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Shang Songmin [Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Hong Kong); Dai Jinjin [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

2011-02-15

244

Sulfur Hexafluoride Treatment Of Used Nuclear Fuel To Enhance Separations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reactive Gas Recycling (RGR) technology development has been initiated at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), with a stretch-goal to develop a fully dry recycling technology for Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF). This approach is attractive due to the potential of targeted gas-phase treatment steps to reduce footprint and secondary waste volumes associated with separations relying primarily on traditional technologies, so long as the fluorinators employed in the reaction are recycled for use in the reactors or are optimized for conversion of fluorinator reactant. The developed fluorination via SF6, similar to the case for other fluorinators such as NF3, can be used to address multiple fuel forms and downstream cycles including continued processing for LWR via fluorination or incorporation into a aqueous process (e.g. modified FLUOREX) or for subsequent pyro treatment to be used in advanced gas reactor designs such metal- or gas-cooled reactors. This report details the most recent experimental results on the reaction of SF6 with various fission product surrogate materials in the form of oxides and metals, including uranium oxides using a high-temperature DTA apparatus capable of temperatures in excess of 1000° C . The experimental results indicate that the majority of the fission products form stable solid fluorides and sulfides, while a subset of the fission products form volatile fluorides such as molybdenum fluoride and niobium fluorids molybdenum fluoride and niobium fluoride, as predicted thermodynamically. Additional kinetic analysis has been performed on additional fission products. A key result is the verification that SF6 requires high temperatures for direct fluorination and subsequent volatilization of uranium oxides to UF6, and thus is well positioned as a head-end treatment for other separations technologies, such as the volatilization of uranium oxide by NF3 as reported by colleagues at PNNL, advanced pyrochemical separations or traditional full recycle approaches. Based on current results of the research at SRNL on SF6 fluoride volatility for UNF separations, SF6 treatment renders all anticipated volatile fluorides studied to be volatile, and all non-volatile fluorides studied to be non-volatile, with the notable exception of uranium oxides. This offers an excellent opportunity to use this as a head-end separations treatment process because: 1. SF6 can be used to remove volatile fluorides from a UNF matrix while leaving behind uranium oxides. Therefore an agent such as NF3 should be able to very cleanly separate a pure UF6 stream, leaving compounds in the bottoms such as PuF4, SrF2 and CsF after the UNF matrix has been pre-treated with SF6. 2. Due to the fact that the uranium oxide is not separated in the volatilization step upon direct contact with SF6 at moderately high temperatures (?1000°C), this fluoride approach may be wellsuited for head-end processing for Gen IV reactor designs where the LWR is treated as a fuel stock, and it is not desired to separate the uranium from plutonium, but it is desired to separate many of the volatile fission products. 3. It is likely that removal of the volatile fission products from the uranium oxide should simplify both traditional and next generation pyroprocessing techniques. 4. SF6 treatment to remove volatile fission products, with or without treatment with additional fluorinators, could be used to simplify the separations of traditional aqueous processes in similar fashion to the FLUOREX process. Further research should be conducted to determine the separations efficiency of a combined SF6/NF3 separations approach which could be used as a stand-alone separations technology or a head-end process

245

SULFUR HEXAFLUORIDE TREATMENT OF USED NUCLEAR FUEL TO ENHANCE SEPARATIONS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reactive Gas Recycling (RGR) technology development has been initiated at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), with a stretch-goal to develop a fully dry recycling technology for Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF). This approach is attractive due to the potential of targeted gas-phase treatment steps to reduce footprint and secondary waste volumes associated with separations relying primarily on traditional technologies, so long as the fluorinators employed in the reaction are recycled for use in the reactors or are optimized for conversion of fluorinator reactant. The developed fluorination via SF{sub 6}, similar to the case for other fluorinators such as NF{sub 3}, can be used to address multiple fuel forms and downstream cycles including continued processing for LWR via fluorination or incorporation into a aqueous process (e.g. modified FLUOREX) or for subsequent pyro treatment to be used in advanced gas reactor designs such metal- or gas-cooled reactors. This report details the most recent experimental results on the reaction of SF{sub 6} with various fission product surrogate materials in the form of oxides and metals, including uranium oxides using a high-temperature DTA apparatus capable of temperatures in excess of 1000{deg}C . The experimental results indicate that the majority of the fission products form stable solid fluorides and sulfides, while a subset of the fission products form volatile fluorides such as molybdenum fluoride and niobium fluoride, as predicted thermodynamically. Additional kinetic analysis has been performed on additional fission products. A key result is the verification that SF{sub 6} requires high temperatures for direct fluorination and subsequent volatilization of uranium oxides to UF{sub 6}, and thus is well positioned as a head-end treatment for other separations technologies, such as the volatilization of uranium oxide by NF{sub 3} as reported by colleagues at PNNL, advanced pyrochemical separations or traditional full recycle approaches. Based on current results of the research at SRNL on SF{sub 6} fluoride volatility for UNF separations, SF{sub 6} treatment renders all anticipated volatile fluorides studied to be volatile, and all non-volatile fluorides studied to be non-volatile, with the notable exception of uranium oxides. This offers an excellent opportunity to use this as a head-end separations treatment process because: 1. SF{sub 6} can be used to remove volatile fluorides from a UNF matrix while leaving behind uranium oxides. Therefore an agent such as NF{sub 3} should be able to very cleanly separate a pure UF{sub 6} stream, leaving compounds in the bottoms such as PuF{sub 4}, SrF{sub 2} and CsF after the UNF matrix has been pre-treated with SF{sub 6}. 2. Due to the fact that the uranium oxide is not separated in the volatilization step upon direct contact with SF{sub 6} at moderately high temperatures (? 1000{deg}C), this fluoride approach may be wellsuited for head-end processing for Gen IV reactor designs where the LWR is treated as a fuel stock, and it is not desired to separate the uranium from plutonium, but it is desired to separate many of the volatile fission products. 3. It is likely that removal of the volatile fission products from the uranium oxide should simplify both traditional and next generation pyroprocessing techniques. 4. SF{sub 6} treatment to remove volatile fission products, with or without treatment with additional fluorinators, could be used to simplify the separations of traditional aqueous processes in similar fashion to the FLUOREX process. Further research should be conducted to determine the separations efficiency of a combined SF{sub 6}/NF{sub 3} separations approach which could be used as a stand-alone separations technology or a head-end process.

Gray, J.; Torres, R.; Korinko, P.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Becnel, J.; Garcia-Diaz, B.; Adams, T.

2012-09-25

246

Raman and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy of amino acids and peptide  

Science.gov (United States)

Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is potentially tool in the characterization of biomolecules such as amino acids, complicated peptides and proteins, and even tissues or living cells. Amino acids and short peptides contain different functional groups. Therefore, they are suitable for the investigations of the competitive-interactions of these functional groups with colloidal silver surfaces. In this paper, Normal Raman and SERS of amino acids Leucine and Isoleucine and short peptide Leu-Leu were measured on the silver colloidal substrate. Raman shifts that stem from different vibrational mode in the molecular inner structure, and the variations of SERS of the samples were analyzed in this study. The results show that different connection of one methyl to the main chains of the isomer amino acids resulted in different vibration modes in the Normal Raman spectra of Leucine and Isoleucine. In the SERS spectra of the isomer amino acids, all frequency shifts are expressed more differently than those in Normal Raman spectra of solid state. Orientation of this isomer amino acids, as well as specific-competitive interactions of their functional groups with the colloidal silver surface, were speculated by detailed spectral analysis of the obtained SERS spectra. In addition, the dipeptide Leu-Leu, as the corresponding homodipeptide of Leucine, was also measured adsorbed on the colloidal silver surface. The SERS spectrum of Leu-Leu is different from its corresponding amino acid Leucine but both of them are adsorbed on the silver surface through the carboxylate moiety.

Yuan, Xiaojuan; Gu, Huaimin; Wu, Jiwei; Kang, Jian; Dong, Xiao

2009-08-01

247

Enhanced L-(+)-lactic acid production by an adapted strain of Rhizopus oryzae using corncob hydrolysate  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Corncob is an economic feedstock and more than 20 million tons of corncobs are produced annually in China. Abundant xylose can be potentially converted from the large amount of hemicellulosic materials in corncobs, which makes the crop residue an attractive alternative substrate for a value-added production of a variety of bioproducts. Lactic acid can be used as a precursor for poly-lactic acid production. Although current industrial lactic acid is produced by lactic acid bacteria using enriched medium, production by Rhizopus oryzae is preferred due to its exclusive formation of the-isomer and a simple nutrition requirement by the fungus. Production of-L-(+)-lactic acid by R. oryzae using xylose has been reported; however, its yield and conversion rate are poor compared with that of using glucose. In this study, we report an adapted R. oryzae strain HZS6 that significantly improved efficiency of substrate utilization and enhanced production of L-(+)-lactic acid from corncob hydrolysate. It increased L-(+)-lactic acid final concentration, yield, and volumetric productivity more than twofold compared with its parental strain. The optimized growth and fermentation conditions for Strain HZS6 were defined.

Bai, Dongmei; Li, S.Z.

2008-01-01

248

Enhancing fluorescence intensity of Ellagic acid in Borax-HCl-CTAB micelles  

Science.gov (United States)

Ellagic acid (C 14H 6O 8), a naturally occurring phytochemical, found mainly in berries and some nuts, has anticarcinogenic and antioxidant properties. It is found that fluorescence of Ellagic acid (EA) is greatly enhanced by micelle of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant. Based on this effect, a sensitive proposed fluorimetric method was applied for the determination of Ellagic acid in aqueous solution. In the Borax-HCl buffer, the fluorescence intensity of Ellagic acid in the presence of CTAB is proportional to the concentration of Ellagic acid in range from 8.0 × 10 -10 to 4.0 × 10 -5 mol L -1; and the detection limits are 3.2 × 10 -10 mol L -1 and 5.9 × 10 -10 mol L -1 excited at 266 nm and 388 nm, respectively. The actual samples of pomegranate rinds are simply manipulated and satisfactorily determined. The interaction mechanism studies argue that the negative EA-Borax complex is formed and solubilized in the cationic surfactant CTAB micelle in this system. The fluorescence intensity of EA enhances because the CTAB micelle provides a hydrophobic microenvironment for EA-Borax complex, which can prevent collision with water molecules and decrease the energy loss of EA-Borax complex.

Wang, Feng; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Guokui; Li, Kexiang; Tang, Bo

2011-03-01

249

Advances in Treatment Integrity Research: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on the Conceptualization, Measurement, and Enhancement of Treatment Integrity  

Science.gov (United States)

Documenting treatment integrity is an important issue in research and practice in any discipline concerned with prevention and intervention. However, consensus concerning the dimensions of treatment integrity and how they should be measured has yet to emerge. Advances from three areas in which significant treatment integrity work has taken…

Schulte, Ann C.; Easton, Julia E.; Parker, Justin

2009-01-01

250

Transgenic tomato plants overexpressing tyramine N-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase exhibit elevated hydroxycinnamic acid amide levels and enhanced resistance to Pseudomonas syringae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydroxycinnamic acid amides (HCAA) are secondary metabolites involved in plant development and defense that have been widely reported throughout the plant kingdom. These phenolics show antioxidant, antiviral, antibacterial, and antifungal activities. Hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:tyramine N-hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (THT) is the key enzyme in HCAA synthesis and is induced in response to pathogen infection, wounding, or elicitor treatments, preceding HCAA accumulation. We have engineered transgenic tomato plants overexpressing tomato THT. These plants displayed an enhanced THT gene expression in leaves as compared with wild type (WT) plants. Consequently, leaves of THT-overexpressing plants showed a higher constitutive accumulation of the amide coumaroyltyramine (CT). Similar results were found in flowers and fruits. Moreover, feruloyltyramine (FT) also accumulated in these tissues, being present at higher levels in transgenic plants. Accumulation of CT, FT and octopamine, and noradrenaline HCAA in response to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato infection was higher in transgenic plants than in the WT plants. Transgenic plants showed an enhanced resistance to the bacterial infection. In addition, this HCAA accumulation was accompanied by an increase in salicylic acid levels and pathogenesis-related gene induction. Taken together, these results suggest that HCAA may play an important role in the defense of tomato plants against P. syringae infection. PMID:25014592

Campos, Laura; Lisón, Purificación; López-Gresa, María Pilar; Rodrigo, Ismael; Zacarés, Laura; Conejero, Vicente; Bellés, José María

2014-10-01

251

Enhancement of root hydraulic conductivity by methyl jasmonate and the role of calcium and abscisic acid in this process.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of jasmonic acid in the induction of stomatal closure is well known. However, its role in regulating root hydraulic conductivity (L) has not yet been explored. The objectives of the present research were to evaluate how JA regulates L and how calcium and abscisic acid (ABA) could be involved in such regulation. We found that exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) increased L of Phaseolus vulgaris, Solanum lycopersicum and Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Tomato plants defective in JA biosynthesis had lower values of L than wild-type plants, and that L was restored by addition of MeJA. The increase of L by MeJA was accompanied by an increase of the phosphorylation state of the aquaporin PIP2. We observed that MeJA addition increased the concentration of cytosolic calcium and that calcium channel blockers inhibited the rise of L caused by MeJA. Treatment with fluoridone, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis, partially inhibited the increase of L caused by MeJA, and tomato plants defective in ABA biosynthesis increased their L after application of MeJA. It is concluded that JA enhances L and that this enhancement is linked to calcium and ABA dependent and independent signalling pathways. PMID:24131347

Sánchez-Romera, Beatriz; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel; Li, Guowei; Luu, Doan-Trung; Martínez-Ballesta, Maria del Carmen; Carvajal, Micaela; Zamarreño, Angel María; García-Mina, Jose María; Maurel, Christophe; Aroca, Ricardo

2014-04-01

252

MODULAR FIELD-BIOREACTOR FOR ACID MINE DRAINAGE TREATMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

The presentation focuses on the improvements to engineered features of a passive technology that has been used for remediation of acid rock drainage (ARD). This passive remedial technology, a sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) bioreactor, takes advantage of the ability of SRB that,...

253

Reduction of phytic acid and enhancement of bioavailable micronutrients in food grains.  

Science.gov (United States)

More than half of the world populations are affected by micronutrient malnutrition and one third of world's population suffers from anemia and zinc deficiency, particularly in developing countries. Iron and zinc deficiencies are the major health problems worldwide. Phytic acid is the major storage form of phosphorous in cereals, legumes, oil seeds and nuts. Phytic acid is known as a food inhibitor which chelates micronutrient and prevents it to be bioavailabe for monogastric animals, including humans, because they lack enzyme phytase in their digestive tract. Several methods have been developed to reduce the phytic acid content in food and improve the nutritional value of cereal which becomes poor due to such antinutrient. These include genetic improvement as well as several pre-treatment methods such as fermentation, soaking, germination and enzymatic treatment of grains with phytase enzyme. Biofortification of staple crops using modern biotechnological techniques can potentially help in alleviating malnutrition in developing countries. PMID:25694676

Gupta, Raj Kishor; Gangoliya, Shivraj Singh; Singh, Nand Kumar

2015-02-01

254

Changes in Growth, Auxin- and Ribonucleic Acid Metabolism in Wheat Coleoptile Sections Following Pulse Treatment with Indole-3-Acetic Acid  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Growth reactions of wbeat coleoptile sections following a brief pretreament in indole-3-acetic acid (LAA) were studied. The growth versus concentration curves 24 hours after the treatment showed a minimum value surrounded by bigber values. The minimum was never at concentrations lower than 10-5M lAA but it could be found at higher concentrations after short pretreatment periods. The growth versus time curves reveated that the hormone treatment cansed the growth rate initially to increase but later on to decrease. The decrease was followed by a second increase for some treatments. Analysis of IAA content after the pretreatment showed that the attered growth patterns could be ascribed to declining auxin content with time, but not to thc actual concentration in the sections. The results indicate that the metabolic activation brought about by IAA leads to its own disappearance. Such a phenomenon was mirroretl in effects of IAA on hte net synthesis of ribonucleic acid.

Truelsen, T.A.; Galston, A.W.

1966-01-01

255

Lactic Acid Recovery in Electro-Enhanced Dialysis: Modelling and Validation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A dynamic model is derived for simultaneous transport of multiple ions through anion exchange membranes based on an irreversible thermodynamics approach. This model accounts for the convective transport of the dissociated and undissociated species in the module channels, and the diffusion and migration across the boundary layers and membranes. The model is validated for Donnan dialysis recovery of different monoprotic carboxylic acids. Simulations are used to evaluate the potential enhancement of lactate fluxes under current load conditions, referred as Electro-Enhanced Dialysis operation. This model is a useful tool to understand the transport mechanism in such electrochemical system.

Prado Rubio, Oscar Andres; JØrgensen, Sten Bay

2009-01-01

256

L-FOLINIC ACID VERSUS FOLIC ACID FOR THE TREATMENT OF HYPERHOMOCYSTEINEMIA IN HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS  

Science.gov (United States)

The hyperhomocysteinemia found in most hemodialysis patients is refractory to combined oral B-vitamin supplementation featuring supraphysiological doses of folic acid (FA). We evaluated whether a high-dose L-folinic acid- based regimen provided improved total homocysteine (tHcy)-lowering efficacy in...

257

Accumulation of eicosapolyenoic acids enhances sensitivity to abscisic acid and mitigates the effects of drought in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana  

OpenAIRE

IgASE1, a C18 ?9-specific polyunsaturated fatty acid elongase from the marine microalga Isochrysis galbana, is able to convert linoleic acid and ?-linolenic acid to eicosadienoic acid and eicosatrienoic acid in Arabidopsis. Eicosadienoic acid and eicosatrienoic acid are precursors of arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid, which are synthesized via the ?8 desaturation biosynthetic pathways. This study shows that the IgASE1-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis exhibi...

Yuan, Xiaowei; Li, Yaxiao; Liu, Shiyang; Xia, Fei; Li, Xinzheng; Qi, Baoxiu

2014-01-01

258

Glucagon-like peptide 2 stimulates glucagon secretion, enhances lipid absorption, and inhibits gastric acid secretion in humans  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The gut-derived peptide glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) has been suggested as a potential drug candidate for the treatment of various intestinal diseases. However, the acute effects of GLP-2 on gastric functions as well as on glucose and lipid homeostasis in humans are less well characterized. METHODS: Fifteen healthy male volunteers were studied with the intravenous infusion of GLP-2 or placebo over 120 minutes in the fasting state, and pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid output was assessed. Another 15 healthy male volunteers were studied with a 390 minutes infusion of GLP-2 or placebo during the ingestion of a solid test meal. Gastric emptying was determined using a 13C-sodium-octanote breath test. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, GLP-2, free fatty acids, free glycerol, and triglycerides were determined. RESULTS: GLP-2 administration led to a marked increase in glucagon concentrations both in the fasting state and during the meal study (P < .001). Postprandial plasma concentrations of triglycerides and free fatty acids were significantly higher during GLP-2 infusion compared with placebo (P < .01), while glycerol concentrations were similar (P = .07). GLP-2 administration caused an approximately 15% reduction in pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid and chloride secretion (P < .01), whereas gastric emptying was not affected (P = .99). CONCLUSIONS: GLP-2 reduces gastric acid secretion but does not seem to have an influence on gastric emptying. The stimulation of glucagon secretion by GLP-2 may counteract the glucagonostatic effect of GLP-1. Changes in postprandial lipid excursions seem to reflect enhanced intestinal nutrient absorption during GLP-2 administration.

Meier, Juris J; Nauck, Michael A

2006-01-01

259

Inter-treatment compensation of treatment setup variation to enhance the radiotherapeutic ratio  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: In radiotherapy, treatment setup error has been one of the major causes of dose variation in the treated volume. With the data acquired from on-line electronic portal imaging, it is now possible not only to adjust the patient setup, but also to modify the treatment plan during the course of clinical treatment based on the setup error measured for each individual patient. In this work, daily clinical portal images were retrospectively analyzed to study (1) the number of initial daily portal images required to give adequate prediction of the systematic and random deviations of treatment setup, and (2) the potential therapeutic gain when the inter-treatment planning modification was established using the setup error of each individual patient. Methods and Materials: Only those patients whose treatment positions had not been adjusted during the course of treatment were selected for the retrospective study. Daily portal images of 27 lung, 25 pelvis, and 12 head and neck (h and n) cancer patients were obtained from two independent clinics with similar setup procedures. The anterior-to-posterior field was analyzed for the pelvis and lung treatments, and the right lateral field for the h and n treatments. Between 13 to 30 daily portal images were acquired for each patient and were analyzed using a 2D alignment tool. Systematic and random deviations of the treatment setup were calculated for each individual patient. The statistical confidence on the convergence of bottical confidence on the convergence of both systematic and random deviations with time were tested to determine the number of initial daily portal images needed to predict these deviations. In addition, a mean deviation for each site was also calculated using the setup errors from all patients. Two treatment planning schemes were simulated to evaluate margin design and prescription dose adjustment. Therapeutic scores were quantified in terms of tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). In the first planning scheme, a uniform margin based on the mean deviation and fixed prescription dose were used for all treatment plans. In the second, the same margin and prescription dose were used only for the initial planning. These were adjusted, by reducing the treatment field margin and escalating the prescription dose, whenever necessary in order to improve the therapeutic scores of the initial plan. Results: For those patients whose setup variations did not drift with time, the systematic and random deviations for the treatment course were found to be within ±1 mm for the former and ±0.5 mm for the latter at ? 90% confidence level using ? 8 initial daily portal images. Six pelvic patients and three lung patients exhibited the setup error that drifted with time and required more frequent portal image verification. The distribution of setup errors for the individual patients deviated from the mean deviation by 4.7, 2.1 and 1.5 mm, for the treatment of pelvis, lung and h and n respectively. These values were used to determine thresholds when the margin and prescription dose need to be modified on an individual patient basis. Our results show that dose could be escalated safely in at least 80% of the pelvis treatments, 63% of the lung treatments and 41% of h and n treatment if the inter-treatment modification is used. These will increase the TCP about 15% for the lung treatment, 18% for the pelvis treatment, and 4% for the h and n treatment with the NTCP at the same level. Conclusion: Our work demonstrates a different approach for the use of on-line portal images. This approach focuses on modification of the treatment plan, rather than treatment setup adjustment. Our results show the potential to improve the therapeutic ratio based upon feedback from the initial radiation treatments. This strategy can help direct the modification of both the prescription dose and treatment margin, leading to individually optimized dose escalation of conformal therapy

260

Influence of composition and acid treatment on proton conduction of composite polybenzimidazole membranes  

Science.gov (United States)

Inorganic/organic composite membranes formed by polybenzimidazole, silicotungstic acid and silica with different ratio between them have been prepared and characterized before and after treatment in phosphoric acid in order to evaluate the influence of composition and acid treatment on some main characteristics of the membranes. In particular the proton conductivity, the mechanical stability and the structural characteristics of the membranes were evaluated. Silica behaved as a support on which the heteropolyacid remained blocked in finely dispersed state and as an adsorbent for water, thus determining a beneficial effect on proton conduction. The membrane with 50 wt.% of SiWA-SiO 2/PBI, mechanically stable, gave proton conductivity of 1.2×10 -3 S cm -1 at 160°C and 100% relative humidity. After treatment with phosphoric acid the proton conductivity of membranes increased to 2.23×10 -3 S cm -1 under the same test conditions. All the materials prepared had amorphous structure.

Staiti, P.; Minutoli, M.

261

Ascorbic acid: Chemistry, biology and the treatment of cancer?  

OpenAIRE

Since the discovery of vitamin C, the number of its known biological functions is continually expanding. Both the names ascorbic acid and vitamin C reflect its antiscorbutic properties due to its role in the synthesis of collagen in connective tissues. Ascorbate acts as an electron-donor keeping iron in the ferrous state thereby maintaining the full activity of collagen hydroxylases; parallel reactions with a variety of dioxygenases affect the expression of a wide array of genes, for example ...

Du, Juan; Cullen, Joseph J.; Buettner, Garry R.

2012-01-01

262

The value of retinoic acid-0induced redifferentiation in the treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

About 30% of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) loses its ability of differentiation, which results in poor or no effect of the radioiodine therapy and the thyroid hormone replacement therapy after operation. Retinoic acids, the biologically active metabolite of vitamin A, is of central importance for growth, proliferation and differentiation of various cells. In this review, summarized the mechanism of the dedifferentiation among the DTC, the retinoic acids-induced redifferention and the clinical use of retinoic acids. It is demonstrated by many studies that retinoic acids-induced redifferentiaon has a large potential in the treatment of DTC. (authors)

263

Could Somatostatin Enhance the Outcomes of Chemotherapeutic Treatment in SCLC?  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: Somatostatin is a peptide with a potent and broad antisecretory action, which makes it an invaluable drug target for the pharmacological management of pituitary adenomas and neuroendocrine tumors. Furthermore, somatostatin (SST) receptors (SSTR1, 2A and B, 3, 4 and 5) belong to the G protein coupled receptor family and are overexpressed in tumors. Since, human small-cell lung cancer overexpresses somatostatin receptors (STTR), they could be legitimate targets for treating SCLC.The aim of this study was the evaluation of cytotoxicity of somatostatin in combination with several anticancer drugs in HTB-175 cell line (Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell line that expresses neuron specific enolase). Methods: Docetaxel, Paclitaxel, Carboplatin, Cisplatin, Etoposide, Gemzar, Navelbine, Fluorouracil, Farmorubicin are the chemotherapeutic drugs that we used for the combination before and after adding somatostatin in SCLC cell culture. HTB-175 cell line was purchased from ATCC LGC Standards.At indicated time-point, 48h after the combination, cell viability and apoptosis were measured with Annexin V staining by flow cytometry. Results: Flow cytometry showed that Docetaxel, Paclitaxel, Gemzar and Cisplatin induced apoptosis more when they were added before somatostatin, whereas etoposide induced apoptosis more after somatostatin treatment. Navelbine alone or in combination with somatostatin showed no differences in apoptosis. Farmorubicin showed equal toxicity in all combinations. Fluorouracil and Carboplatin induced apoptosis more when added alone in HTB-175 cell line. However, increased apoptosis was also observed when Carboplatin was administered before somatostatin in higher concentrations. Conclusion: Our results indicated that depending on the drug, somatostatin treatment before or after chemotherapeutic drugs increased apoptosis in small cell lung cancer cells. We suggest that long acting somatostatin analogues could be used as additive and maintenance therapy in combination to antineoplastic agents in SCLC patients. PMID:25767606

Domvri, Kalliopi; Bougiouklis, Dimitrios; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Xristoforidis, Manolis; Liaka, Alexandra; Eleutheriadou, Ellada; Lampaki, Sofia; Lazaridis, George; Organtzis, John; Kyriazis, George; Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wolfgang; Tsirgogianni, Katerina; Karavasilis, Vasilis; Baka, Sofia; Darwiche, Kaid; Freitag, Lutz; Trakada, Georgia; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

2015-01-01

264

Hydrothermal treatment of titanium alloys for the enhancement of osteoconductivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The surface wettability of implants is a crucial factor in their osteoconductivity because it influences the adsorption of cell-attached proteins onto the surface. In this study, a single-step hydrothermal surface treatment using distilled water at a temperature of 180°C for 3h was applied to titanium (Ti) and its alloys (Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-7Nb, Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr, Ti-13Cr-1Fe-3Al; mass%) and compared with as-polished Ti implants and with implants produced by anodizing Ti in 0.1M of H3PO4 with applied voltages from 0V to 150V at a scanning rate of 0.1Vs(-1). The surface-treated samples were stored in a five time phosphate buffered saline (×5 PBS(-)) solution to prevent increasing the water contact angle (WCA) with time. The surface characteristics were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, surface roughness, and contact angle measurement using a 2?L droplet of distilled water. The relationship between WCA and osteoconductivity at various surface modifications was examined using in vivo tests. The results showed that a superhydrophilic surface with a WCA?10° and a high osteoconductivity (RB-I) of up to 50% in the cortical bone part, about four times higher than the as-polished Ti and Ti alloys, were provided by the combination of the hydrothermal surface treatment and storage in ×5 of PBS(-). PMID:25686969

Zuldesmi, Mansjur; Waki, Atsushi; Kuroda, Kensuke; Okido, Masazumi

2015-04-01

265

Cationic polyacrylamide enhancing cellulase treatment efficiency of hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cellulase treatment for decreasing viscosity and increasing Fock reactivity of dissolving pulp is a promising approach to reduce the use of toxic chemicals, such as hypochlorite in the dissolving pulp manufacturing process in the industry. Improving the cellulase treatment efficiency during the process is of practical interest. In the present study, the concept of using cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) to enhance the cellulase treatment efficiency was demonstrated. This was mainly attributed to the increased cellulase adsorption onto cellulose fibers based on the patching/bridging mechanism. Results showed that the cellulase adsorption was increased by about 20% with the addition of 250ppm of CPAM under the same conditions as those of the control. It was found that the viscosity decrease and Fock reactivity increase for the cellulase treatment was enhanced from using CPAM. The CPAM-assisted cellulase treatment concept may provide a practical alternative to the present hypochlorite-based technology for viscosity control in the industry. PMID:25710682

Wang, Qiang; Liu, Shanshan; Yang, Guihua; Chen, Jiachuan; Ni, Yonghao

2015-05-01

266

Bioremediation of acid mine drainage coupled with domestic wastewater treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acid mine drainage (AMD) - characterized by high acidity and elevated sulfate and metal concentrations - represents a big environmental concern. Biological sulfate reduction has become an alternative to the classical physicochemical methods. In this study, domestic wastewater (DW) was tested as a cost-effective carbon-source for the remediation of AMD. Sediments from Tinto River, an extreme acidic environment with an elevated concentration of metals, were used as inoculum. Three anaerobic bioreactors with different microbial supports were fed with a 1:10 (v:v) mixture of synthetic AMD:DW. Around 50% of the organic matter present in the DW co-precipitated with the metals from the AMD previous to feeding the reactor. Therefore, the reactors had to be supplemented with an extra carbon-source (acetate) to achieve higher S elimination. Elevated removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (>88%), sulfate (>75%), Fe (>85%) and other dissolved metals (>99% except for Mn) were achieved. Bacterial communities were examined through denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and scanning electron microscopy. Higher biodiversity was found in the bioreactors compared with that of the inoculum. Dominant species belong to two metabolic groups: fermentative (Clostridium spp., Delftia spp., Paludibacter spp. and Pelotomaculum spp.) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (Desulfomonile spp., Desulfovibrio spp., Desulfosporosinus spp. and Desulfotomaculum spp.). PMID:23032774

Sánchez-Andrea, Irene; Triana, David; Sanz, Jose L

2012-01-01

267

Oncolytic herpes simplex virus armed with xenogeneic homologue of prostatic acid phosphatase enhances antitumor efficacy in prostate cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prostate cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in men. Replication-competent oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) vectors are a powerful antitumor therapy that can exert at least two effects: direct cytocidal activity that selectively kills cancer cells and induction of antitumor immunity. In addition, oHSV vectors can also function as a platform to deliver transgenes of interest. In these studies, we have examined the expression of a xenogeneic homologue of the prostate cancer antigen, prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), with the goal of enhancing virotherapy against PAP-expressing tumors. PAP has already been used for cancer vaccination in patients with prostate cancer. Here we show that treatment with oHSV bPDelta6 expressing xenogeneic human PAP (hPAP) significantly reduces tumor growth and increases survival of C57/BL6 mice bearing mouse TRAMP-C2 prostate tumors, whereas expression of syngeneic mouse PAP (mPAP) from the same oHSV vector did not enhance antitumor activity. Treatment of mice bearing metastatic TRAMP-C2 lung tumors with oHSV-expressing hPAP resulted in fewer tumor nodules. To our knowledge, this is the first report of oncolytic viruses being used to express xenoantigens. These data lend support to the concept of combining oncolytic and immunogenic therapies as a way to improve therapy of metastatic prostate cancer. PMID:20220784

Castelo-Branco, P; Passer, B J; Buhrman, J S; Antoszczyk, S; Marinelli, M; Zaupa, C; Rabkin, S D; Martuza, R L

2010-06-01

268

Oncolytic herpes simplex virus armed with xenogeneic homologue of prostatic acid phosphatase enhances anti-tumor efficacy in prostate cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

Prostate cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in men. Replication-competent oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) vectors are a powerful anti-tumor therapy that can exert at least two effects: direct cytocidal activity that selectively kills cancer cells and induction of anti-tumor immunity. In addition, oHSV vectors can also function as a platform to deliver transgenes of interest. In these studies, we have examined the expression of a xenogeneic homologue of the prostate cancer antigen, prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), with the goal of enhancing virotherapy against PAP-expressing tumors. PAP has already been used for cancer vaccination in prostate cancer patients. Here we show that treatment with oHSV bP?6 expressing xenogeneic human PAP (hPAP) significantly reduces tumor growth and increases survival of C57/BL6 mice bearing mouse TRAMP-C2 prostate tumors, whereas expression of syngeneic mouse PAP (mPAP) from the same oHSV vector did not enhance anti-tumor activity. Treatment of mice bearing metastatic TRAMP-C2 lung tumors with oHSV expressing hPAP resulted in fewer tumor nodules. To our knowledge, this is the first report of oncolytic viruses being used to express xenoantigens. This data lends support to the concept of combining oncolytic and immunogenic therapies as a way to improve therapy of metastatic prostate cancer. PMID:20220784

Castelo-Branco, Pedro; Passer, Brent J.; Buhrman, Jason S.; Antoszczyk, Slawomir; Marinelli, Melissa; Zaupa, Cecil; Rabkin, Samuel D; Martuza, Robert L.

2011-01-01

269

Enhancing brain lesions after endovascular treatment of aneurysms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Complications of endovascular therapy of aneurysms mainly include aneurysm rupture and thromboembolic events. The widespread use of MR imaging for follow-up of these patients revealed various nonvascular complications such as aseptic meningitis, hydrocephalus, and perianeurysmal brain edema. We present 7 patients from 5 different institutions that developed MR imaging-enhancing brain lesions after endovascular therapy of aneurysms, detected after a median time of 63 days. The number of lesions ranged from 4-46 (median of 10.5), sized 2-20 mm, and were mostly in the same vascular territory used for access. Three patients presented with symptoms attributable to these lesions. After a median follow-up of 21.5 months, the number of lesions increased in 2, was stable in 1, decreased in 3, and disappeared in 1. The imaging and clinical characteristics suggested a foreign body reaction. We could find no correlation to a specific device, but a possible source may be the generic hydrophilic coating. PMID:24874528

Cruz, J P; Marotta, T; O'Kelly, C; Holtmannspötter, M; Saliou, G; Willinsky, R; Krings, T; Agid, R

2014-10-01

270

Conductivity enhancement of conjugated polymer after HCl-methanol treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polymer conductivity is key factor to improve the performance of the electronic and photonic devices. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) films were soaked into 0.03, 0.14, 0.41, and 1.13 M concentrations of HCl-methanol solution for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 min. The resulting films were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, conductivity measurements, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The characteristic FTIR absorption peaks of poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) of the films decreased as the soaking time increased. While PSS absorption peaks appeared in the HCl-methanol soaking solution and increased with the soaking time. The conductivity of PEDOT:PSS film was approximately 1.20 x 10-6 S/cm before soaking in the HCl-methanol solution. The conductivity of PEDOT:PSS was enhanced nearly three orders of magnitude after soaking the films into the HCl-methanol solvent. The surface of PEDOT:PSS film was initially very smooth. However, numerous humps appeared on the surface of the films after soaking PEDOT:PSS film into the HCl-methanol solution for 10, 20, and 30 min. The number of humps was reduced and disappeared thereafter.

271

Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibition enhances memory acquisition through activation of PPAR-? nuclear receptors  

OpenAIRE

Inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) increase endogenous levels of anandamide (a cannabinoid CB1-receptor ligand) and oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide (OEA and PEA, ligands for ?-type peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear receptors, PPAR-?) when and where they are naturally released in the brain. Using a passive-avoidance task in rats, we found that memory acquisition was enhanced by the FAAH inhibitor URB597 or by the PPAR-? agonist WY14643, and these enhancemen...

Mazzola, Carmen; Medalie, Julie; Scherma, Maria; Panlilio, Leigh V.; Solinas, Marcello; Tanda, Gianluigi; Drago, Filippo; Cadet, Jean Lud; Goldberg, Steven R.; Yasar, Sevil

2009-01-01

272

Rapid and reversible enhancement of blood–brain barrier permeability using lysophosphatidic acid  

OpenAIRE

The present study characterizes the effects of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) on blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability focusing specifically on the time of onset, duration, and magnitude of LPA-induced changes in cerebrovascular permeability in the mouse using both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and near infrared fluorescence imaging (NIFR). Furthermore, potential application of LPA for enhanced drug delivery to the brain was also examined by measuring the brain accumulation of radiolabeled...

On, Ngoc H.; Savant, Sanjot; Toews, Myron; Miller, Donald W.

2013-01-01

273

Does docosahexaenoic acid supplementation in term infants enhance neurocognitive functioning in infancy?  

OpenAIRE

The proposal that dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) enhances neurocognitive functioning in term infants is controversial. Theoretical evidence, laboratory research and human epidemiological studies have convincingly demonstrated that DHA deficiency can negatively impact neurocognitive development. However, the results from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of DHA supplementation in human term-born infants have been inconsistent. This article will (i) discuss the role of DHA in the human di...

AlexandraElizabethHeaton; JonathanKeithFoster; KarenSimmer

2013-01-01

274

Pyrene-based chemosensor detects picric acid upto attogram level through aggregation enhanced excimer emission.  

Science.gov (United States)

A pyrene-based small molecular weight probe, exhibiting aggregation enhanced excimer emission has been synthesized. The crystalline emissive form detects 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (picric acid) at parts-per-billion concentration in solution and as low as 0.46 attogram in direct contact mode, operating predominantly in a static quenching mechanism, proposed on the basis of steady state and life-time fluorescence measurements. PMID:25732427

Chopra, Rakesh; Kaur, Paramjit; Singh, Kamaljit

2015-03-15

275

Determination of filtration beds in carbonate section from repeated pulse neutron logging data in acid treatment (on example of Orenburg field)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In hydrodynamic tests of carbonate deposits the strata are in most cases treated with hydrochloric acid to intensify the oil and gas inflow. Pulsed neutron logging can be employed to reveal the intervals of hydrochloric acid inflows into the section, since hydrochloric acid possesses abnormal neutron properties. The intervals relate to effective thicknesses as two-phase filtration (the displacement of oil (gas) by the acid) occurs within them. On assumptions a method has been developed for localizing filtration thicknesses from the results obtained through observations of the inflows of HCl into the strata by well logging before and after the acid treatments. It will enhance the data validity on carbonate deposits and reduce the volume of intrainterval samplings by using them only for checking the quantitative estimations on the efficiency of the strata (uniform in filtration-capacity properties)

276

The physiological response of Artemisia annua L. to salt stress and salicylic acid treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salinity has a great influence on plant growth and distribution. A few existing reports on Artemisia annua L. response to salinity are concentrated on plant growth and artemisinin content; the physiological response and salt damage mitigation are yet to be understood. In this study, the physiological response of varying salt stresses (50, 100, 200, 300, or 400 mM NaCl) on A. annua L. and the effect of exogenous salicylic acid (0.05 or 0.1 mM) at 300-mM salt stress were investigated. Plant growth, antioxidant enzyme activity, proline, and mineral element level were determined. In general, increasing salt concentration significantly reduced plant growth. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) were stimulated by salt treatment to a higher enzyme activity in treated plants than those in untreated plants. Content of proline had a visible range of increment in the salt-treated plants. Distribution of mineral elements was in inconformity: Na(+) and Ca(2+) were mainly accumulated in the roots; K(+) and Mg(2+) were concentrated in leaves and stems, respectively. Alleviation of growth arrest was observed with exogenous applications of salicylic acid (SA) under salt stress conditions. The activity of SOD and POD was notably enhanced by SA, but the CAT action was suppressed. While exogenous SA had no discernible effect on proline content, it effectively inhibited excessive Na(+) absorption and promoted Mg(2+) absorption. Ca(2+) and K(+) contents showed a slight reduction when supplemented with SA. Overall, the positive effect of SA towards resistance to the salinity of A. annua will provide some practical basis for A. annua cultivation. PMID:24757320

Li, Lin; Zhang, Haihui; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Yonghong; Yang, Ruiwu; Ding, Chunbang; Wang, Xiaoli

2014-04-01

277

Comparison of trichostatin A and valproic acid treatment regimens in a mouse model of kidney fibrosis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are promising new compounds for the therapy of fibrotic diseases. In this study we compared the effect of two HDAC inhibitors, trichostatin A and valproic acid, in an experimental model of kidney fibrosis. In mice, doxorubicin (adriamycin) can cause nephropathy characterized by chronic proteinuria, glomerular damage and interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, as seen in human focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Two treatment regimens were applied, treatment was either started prior to the doxorubicin insult or delayed until a significant degree of proteinuria and fibrosis was present. Pre-treatment of trichostatin A significantly hampered glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, as did the pre-treatment with valproic acid. In contrast, the development of proteinuria was only completely inhibited in the pre-treated valproic acid group, and not in the pre-treated trichostatin A animals. In the postponed treatment with valproic acid, a complete resolution of established doxorubicin-induced proteinuria was achieved within three days, whereas trichostatin A could not correct proteinuria in such a treatment regimen. However, both postponed regimens have comparable efficacy in maintaining the kidney fibrosis to the level reached at the start of the treatments. Moreover, not only the process of fibrosis, but also renal inflammation was attenuated by both HDAC inhibitors. Our data confirm a role for HDACs in renal fibrogenesis and point towards a therapeutic potential for HDAC inhibitors. The effect on renal disease progression and manifestation can however be different for individual HDAC inhibitors. - Highlights: • Valproic acid is a potent antiproteinuric drug, whereas trichostatin A is not. • Trichostatin A and valproic acid reduce kidney fibrosis in doxorubicin nephropathy. • Both valproic acid and trichostatin A attenuate renal inflammation.

Van Beneden, Katrien, E-mail: kvbenede@vub.ac.be [Department of Human Anatomy, Liver Cell Biology Lab, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Geers, Caroline [Department of Pathology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Pauwels, Marina [Department of Human Anatomy, Liver Cell Biology Lab, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Mannaerts, Inge [Department of Cell Biology, Liver Cell Biology Lab, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Wissing, Karl M. [Department of Nephrology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Van den Branden, Christiane [Department of Human Anatomy, Liver Cell Biology Lab, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Grunsven, Leo A. van, E-mail: lvgrunsv@vub.ac.be [Department of Cell Biology, Liver Cell Biology Lab, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium)

2013-09-01

278

Comparison of trichostatin A and valproic acid treatment regimens in a mouse model of kidney fibrosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are promising new compounds for the therapy of fibrotic diseases. In this study we compared the effect of two HDAC inhibitors, trichostatin A and valproic acid, in an experimental model of kidney fibrosis. In mice, doxorubicin (adriamycin) can cause nephropathy characterized by chronic proteinuria, glomerular damage and interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, as seen in human focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Two treatment regimens were applied, treatment was either started prior to the doxorubicin insult or delayed until a significant degree of proteinuria and fibrosis was present. Pre-treatment of trichostatin A significantly hampered glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, as did the pre-treatment with valproic acid. In contrast, the development of proteinuria was only completely inhibited in the pre-treated valproic acid group, and not in the pre-treated trichostatin A animals. In the postponed treatment with valproic acid, a complete resolution of established doxorubicin-induced proteinuria was achieved within three days, whereas trichostatin A could not correct proteinuria in such a treatment regimen. However, both postponed regimens have comparable efficacy in maintaining the kidney fibrosis to the level reached at the start of the treatments. Moreover, not only the process of fibrosis, but also renal inflammation was attenuated by both HDAC inhibitors. Our data confirm a role for HDACs in renal fibrogenesis and point towards a therapeutic potential for HDAC inhibitors. The effect on renal disease progression and manifestation can however be different for individual HDAC inhibitors. - Highlights: • Valproic acid is a potent antiproteinuric drug, whereas trichostatin A is not. • Trichostatin A and valproic acid reduce kidney fibrosis in doxorubicin nephropathy. • Both valproic acid and trichostatin A attenuate renal inflammation

279

Treatment of osteoporosis with annual iv zoledronic acid: effects on hip fracture  

OpenAIRE

Roland D ChapurlatINSERM U831, Université de Lyon, Division of Rheumatology, Hôpital E Herriot, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, FranceBackground: Several treatments for postmenopausal osteoporosis have been available in the past decade, but adherence to these treatments has been judged inadequate. The prevention of hip fracture by these medications is still modest.Methods: A literature search was performed for treatment with zoledronic acid for the prevention of hip fractu...

Rol; Chapurlat, D.

2009-01-01

280

Large neutral amino acids in the treatment of PKU: from theory to practice  

OpenAIRE

Notwithstanding the success of the traditional dietary phenylalanine restriction treatment in phenylketonuria (PKU), the use of large neutral amino acid (LNAA) supplementation rather than phenylalanine restriction has been suggested. This treatment modality deserves attention as it might improve cognitive outcome and quality of life in patients with PKU. Following various theories about the pathogenesis of cognitive dysfunction in PKU, LNAA supplementation may have multiple treatment targets:...

Spronsen, Francjan J.; Groot, Martijn J.; Hoeksma, Marieke; Reijngoud, Dirk-jan; Rijn, Margreet

2010-01-01

281

Moessbauer study of the effect of acidic treatment on iron minerals during the demineralization of coals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to determine the iron-containing minerals that remained in two different Spanish subbituminous coals after acidic treatments. Spectra were taken before and after treatments of both coals with HCl and HCl followed by HF. Pyrite, jarosite and Fe2+-clay were the main iron mineral constituents of the untreated samples. After the treatments significant changes in the relative concentration of these species were noticed. The weakness of the used demineralization procedures is discussed. (orig.)

282

Diagnostic efficacy of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI for hepatocellular carcinoma and dysplastic nodule  

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Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the relationship between the signal intensity of hepatobiliary phase images on gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and histological grade. METHODS: Fifty-nine patients with 82 hepatocellular lesions were evaluated retrospectively. Hepatobiliary phase images on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI were classified into 3 groups: low, iso or high. Angiography-assisted computed tomography (CT findings were also classified into 3 groups: CT during arterial portography, and CT hepatic arteriography: A: iso, iso or low; B: slightly low, iso or low; and C: low, high. We correlated angiography-assisted CT, hepatobiliary phase findings during gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and histological grades. Furthermore, correlations between MRI findings and histological grade for each hemodynamic pattern were performed. Correlations among radiological and pathological findings were statistically evaluated using the chi-square test and Fisher’ s exact test. RESULTS: There was a significant correlation between histological grade and hemodynamic pattern (P < 0.05. There was a significant correlation between histological grade and signal intensity in the hepatobiliary phase (P < 0.05 in group A lesions. There was no significant correlation between histological grade and signal intensity in the hepatobiliary phase in group B or C lesions (P > 0.05. CONCLUSION: Signal intensity in the hepatobiliary phase correlated with histological grade in the lesions that maintained portal blood flow, but did not correlate in lesions that showed decreased or defective portal blood flow.

Kazuhiro Saito

2011-01-01

283

Differentiating mass-forming intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma from atypical hepatocellular carcinoma using gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aim: To examine the differential features of mass-forming intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) from atypical hypovascular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and methods: The institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived informed patient consent. Seventy patients with pathologically proven ICCs (35) and hypovascular atypical HCCs (35) who had undergone preoperative gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI were enrolled in this study. Images were analysed for the shape of the lesions and presence of hyperintensity on the T1-weighted image (T1WI) and hypo- or hyperintense areas on the T2-weighted image (T2WI). In addition, images were analysed for the presence of linear hyperintensity or multifocal, tiny, hyperintense foci on T2WI and the presence of rim enhancement during early dynamic phases and a central enhancement with a hypointense rim (target appearance) on the 10 and 20 min hepatobiliary phase images. The significance of these findings was determined by the X2 test. Results: Univariate analysis revealed that the following significant parameters favour ICC or hypovascular HCC; the presence of T2 hypo- and hyperintense areas and target appearance on the 10 min hepatobiliary phase images favour ICC, and the presence of T2 linear hyperintensity and T2 multifocal hyperintense foci favour hypovascular HCC (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that only target appearance on s revealed that only target appearance on the 10 min hepatobiliary phase was predictive of ICC (p = 0.002) as 30 ICCs (85.7%) showed this feature. However, the target appearance was also observed in all six scirrhous HCCs. Conclusion: A target appearance on the 10 min hepatobiliary phase images is the best predictor for identifying mass-forming ICC at gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI.

284

Differentiating mass-forming intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma from atypical hepatocellular carcinoma using gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aim: To examine the differential features of mass-forming intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) from atypical hypovascular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and methods: The institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived informed patient consent. Seventy patients with pathologically proven ICCs (35) and hypovascular atypical HCCs (35) who had undergone preoperative gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI were enrolled in this study. Images were analysed for the shape of the lesions and presence of hyperintensity on the T1-weighted image (T1WI) and hypo- or hyperintense areas on the T2-weighted image (T2WI). In addition, images were analysed for the presence of linear hyperintensity or multifocal, tiny, hyperintense foci on T2WI and the presence of rim enhancement during early dynamic phases and a central enhancement with a hypointense rim (target appearance) on the 10 and 20 min hepatobiliary phase images. The significance of these findings was determined by the X{sup 2} test. Results: Univariate analysis revealed that the following significant parameters favour ICC or hypovascular HCC; the presence of T2 hypo- and hyperintense areas and target appearance on the 10 min hepatobiliary phase images favour ICC, and the presence of T2 linear hyperintensity and T2 multifocal hyperintense foci favour hypovascular HCC (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that only target appearance on the 10 min hepatobiliary phase was predictive of ICC (p = 0.002) as 30 ICCs (85.7%) showed this feature. However, the target appearance was also observed in all six scirrhous HCCs. Conclusion: A target appearance on the 10 min hepatobiliary phase images is the best predictor for identifying mass-forming ICC at gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI.

Chong, Y.S. [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.K., E-mail: jmyr@dreamwiz.com [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, M.W.; Kim, S.H.; Lee, W.J.; Rhim, H.C.; Lee, S.J. [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2012-08-15

285

Effect of salicylic acid treatment on cadmium toxicity and leaf lipid composition in sunflower  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ameliorative effect of salicylic acid (SA on cadmium (Cd toxicity in sunflower plants was studied by investigating plant growth and fatty acid composition. Sunflower plants in two leaves stage were exposed to CdCl2 treatment (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 µM and then were treated with salicylic acid (0, 250 and 500 µM as foliage spraying. One week after the last salicylic acid treatment,plants were harvested and growth parameters were measured . Oil of leaf was extracted in a Soxhlet system and fatty acid composition were measured by gas chromatography (GC. Statistical analyses showed excess Cd reduced growth parameters (fresh weight and length of stems and roots, fresh weight and number of leavesand SA increased them compared with the control. Maximum reduction in these parameters was at 200 µmol Cd and 0µmol of SA. Cd caused a shift in fatty acids composition, resulting in a lower degree of their unsaturation and an increase in saturated fatty acids in sunflower leaves,whereas SA improved them. SA, particularly increased the percentage of linolenic acid and lowered that of palmitic acid by the same proportion. These results sugg membrane integrity due to lipids est that SA could be used as a potential growth regulator and a stabilizer ofprotection of cadmium-induced oxidative stress to improve plant resistance to Cd stress

Moradkhani S.

2012-11-01

286

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and the adsorption behavior of (RS)-phenylsuccinic acid  

Science.gov (United States)

The surface geometry of (RS)-phenylsuccinic acid molecule was studied by analysis of the SERS spectra of aromatic dicarboxylic acid adsorbed on silver colloid surfaces. For a reliable analysis of the SERS spectrum, we also performed density functional theoretical calculations. The SERS spectral features indicated that the RSPSA molecules should bound to the silver as dicarboxylate, with a strongly tilted orientation with respect to the normal to the surface. Such a tilted orientation was presumed to occur by the simultaneous ? and ?-type coordination of carboxylate groups to silver surface caused by the steric hindrance and electrostatic repulsion between the two carboxylate groups, and thereby RSPSA on silver was easily displaced with aromatic carboxylic acids. A ?-type coordination therefore seemed to be more important than a ?-type coordination for aromatic carboxylic acid derivatives to assemble on a silver surface. The large enhancement of in-plane bending, out of plane bending and ring breathing modes in the surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectrum indicates that the molecule is adsorbed on the silver surface in a 'atleast vertical' configuration, with the ring perpendicular to the silver surface.

Sajan, D.; Fischer, Andreas; Joe, I. Hubert; Jayakumar, V. S.

2006-06-01

287

Roles of acidic functional groups of carbon fiber surfaces in enhancing interfacial adhesion behavior  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The gas phase ozone treatment was used as a method to bind acidic oxygen functional groups on carbon fiber surfaces. The ozone treatment on carbon fibers was varied with the ozone concentration and treatment time. Surface analyses of the carbon fibers before and after treatments were performed by FT-IR, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), and dynamic contact angle measurements. Mechanical interfacial properties of the fibers/polymer composites were investigated by using critical stress intensity factor (K IC) and critical energy release rate (G IC) measurements. From the results of FT-IR and XPS, it was observed that the oxygen functional groups, such as -OH, O-C=O, C=O, and C-O, were attached on the carbon fiber surfaces after the ozone treatment. The mechanical interfacial properties of the composites also showed higher values than those of untreated composites. Ozone treatment is attributed to the increase of both the acidic functional groups and the degree of adhesion at interfaces between the fibers and polymeric resin in composites

288

Modeling and optimizing the design of matrix treatments in carbonate reservoirs with self-diverting acid systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of a self-diverting-acid based on viscoelastic surfactant (SDVA) is a promising technology for improving the efficacy of acid treatment in oil and gas-bearing carbonate reservoirs. In this study, we present a mathematical model for assessing SDVA flow and reaction with carbonate rock using the SDVA rheological characteristics. The model calculates the technological parameters for acidizing operations and the prediction of well productivity after acid treatment, in addition to technical and economic optimization of the acidizing process by modeling different acid treatment options with varying volumes, injection rates, process fluids stages and initial economic scenarios.

Bulgakova, G. T.; Kharisov, R. Ya; Sharifullin, A. R.; Pestrikov, A. V.

2015-01-01

289

Fatty acids in treatment and prevention of depression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The increase of incident rates for depression and other psychiatric disorders is a serious threat for all communities.The study presents data verifying the relationship between the level of omega-3 PUFAs in the blood and an increased risk of depression, including the parallel standard therapy with antidepressants or not.There is an increasing number of evidences that fatty acids like DHA, AA and EPA are linked to depression. In epidemiological studies and clinical trials a correlation between the decline of omega-3 PUFA intake and an increasing risk for developing depression is considered.

Wilczy?ska, Agnieszka

2013-07-01

290

EDTA glycine acid treatment of red blood cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

IgG dissociation is necessary when a sample is direct antiglobulin test (DAT) positive and antigen testing using blood grouping serum reactive by the antiglobulin test is performed. Exposure of IgG-coated red blood cells (RCBs) to a low pH of 3.0 with EDTA glycine acid successfully dissociates the IgG, rendering the RCBs DAT negative 82 to 85 percent of the time. The procedure takes one minute or less and leaves RBC antigens intact and able to be typed except for those antigens in the Kell blood group system and for the high-prevalence antigen Er(a). PMID:23286556

Kosanke, Joanne

2012-01-01

291

Skeletal Cell Differentiation Is Enhanced by Atmospheric Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Treatment  

OpenAIRE

Enhancing chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation is of paramount importance in providing effective regenerative therapies and improving the rate of fracture healing. This study investigated the potential of non-thermal atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge plasma (NT-plasma) to enhance chondrocyte and osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. Although the exact mechanism by which NT-plasma interacts with cells is undefined, it is known that during treatment the atmosphere is ioniz...

Steinbeck, Marla J.; Chernets, Natalie; Zhang, Jun; Kurpad, Deepa S.; Fridman, Gregory; Fridman, Alexander; Freeman, Theresa A.

2013-01-01

292

Convection-Enhanced Delivery for the Treatment of Pediatric Neurologic Disorders  

OpenAIRE

Direct perfusion of specific regions of the central nervous system by convection-enhanced delivery is becoming more widely used for the delivery of compounds in the research and treatment of various neural disorders. In contrast to other currently available central nervous system delivery techniques, convection-enhanced delivery relies on bulk flow for distribution of solute. This allows for safe, targeted, reliable, and homogeneous delivery of small- and large-molecular-weight substances ove...

Song, Debbie K.; Lonser, Russell R.

2008-01-01

293

Valproic acid and all-trans retinoic acid: meta-analysis of a palliative treatment regimen in AML and MDS patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Currently, no standard treatment is available for elderly patients with de novo/secondary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who are not eligible for intensive chemotherapy. New, less aggressive therapies are therefore needed. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are known to reduce proliferation and induce differentiation in hematological malignancies. With all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) these effects have been reported to be even enhanced. Valproic acid (VPA) is an HDACi and has been known as anti-epileptic agent for many years. We treated 21 patients with de novo/secondary AML and 1 patient with myelodysplastic syndrome with ATRA (45 mg/m(2)/day in 2 doses, 14 days, q29 days) and VPA (150 mg/day 1 week, then 300 mg/day, continuously). Treatment was tolerated well with moderate side effects. 4 patients revealed hematological improvement and another 4 patients experienced a reduction in transfusion dependency. The overall response rate was 27%. Our study is presented together with an overview of the literature on the topic. PMID:19145098

Bellos, Frauke; Mahlknecht, Ulrich

2008-11-01

294

Nanofiltration and granular activated carbon treatment of perfluoroalkyl acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are of concern because of their persistence in the environment and the potential toxicological effects on humans exposed to PFAAs through a variety of possible exposure routes, including contaminated drinking water. This study evaluated the efficacy of nanofiltration (NF) and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption in removing a suite of PFAAs from water. Virgin flat-sheet NF membranes (NF270, Dow/Filmtec) were tested at permeate fluxes of 17-75 Lm(-2)h(-1) using deionized (DI) water and artificial groundwater. The effects of membrane fouling by humic acid on PFAA rejection were also tested under constant permeate flux conditions. Both virgin and fouled NF270 membranes demonstrated >93% removal for all PFAAs under all conditions tested. GAC efficacy was tested using rapid small-scale columns packed with Calgon Filtrasorb300 (F300) carbon and DI water with and without dissolved organic matter (DOM). DOM effects were also evaluated with F600 and Siemens AquaCarb1240C. The F300 GAC had 20% breakthrough of all PFAAs by 10,000 BVs was observed for all carbons. PMID:23846124

Appleman, Timothy D; Dickenson, Eric R V; Bellona, Christopher; Higgins, Christopher P

2013-09-15

295

Fluorescence enhancement of Tb 3+ in Tb-aromatic acid complexes: correlation of synergistic enhancement with the structure of the ligand  

Science.gov (United States)

Fluorescence enhancement of Tb 3+ has been studied, using aromatic carboxylic acids as ligands. These ligands enhance the fluorescence of Tb 3+ by about three orders of magnitude. The enhancement is observed to be due to ligand sensitized fluorescence. The fluorescence of Tb 3+ in some of these complexes is further enhanced by an order of magnitude by the addition of trioctyl phosphine oxide (TOPO), a phenomenon referred to as synergism. However, the pattern of synergism displayed by TOPO is not uniform, and is found to vary with the ligand. While with some aromatic acids, TOPO displayed maximum synergism near pH 6, in others it did so around pH 4. In a few cases, TOPO did not display any synergism at all, at any of the pH values. These observations are discussed in detail and the results are rationalized on the basis of the structure of the aromatic acids.

Panigrahi, B. S.; Peter, Susy; Viswanathan, K. S.; Mathews, C. K.

1995-11-01

296

Efficacy of topical azelaic acid gel in the treatment of mild-moderate acne vulgaris  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Twenty percent azelaic acid gel is recommended as a topical treatment for acne due to its favorable profile. Aim: Our objective in this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 20% azelaic acid gel in the treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris. Methods: This was a double blind, randomized clinical trial. Sixty patients with mild to moderate acne vulgaris were selected randomly to receive either azelaic acid gel or the vehicle gel alone. Patients were followed up every 15 days for a period of 45 days. The number of lesions and the acne severity index (ASI were recorded and compared using Student?s t-test. Results: Total lesion count was reduced by 60.6% and 19.9% by azelaic acid gel and the placebo respectively (P =0.002. ASI was reduced by 65.2% and 21.3% by azelaic acid gel and the placebo respectively (P =0.001, i.e., azelaic acid gel was 3.06 times more effective than the placebo in reducing ASI. Conclusion: Azelaic acid gel can be used as an effective treatment in mild to moderate acne vulgaris.

Iraji Fariba

2007-01-01

297

Treatment of osteoporosis with annual iv zoledronic acid: effects on hip fracture  

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Full Text Available Roland D ChapurlatINSERM U831, Université de Lyon, Division of Rheumatology, Hôpital E Herriot, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, FranceBackground: Several treatments for postmenopausal osteoporosis have been available in the past decade, but adherence to these treatments has been judged inadequate. The prevention of hip fracture by these medications is still modest.Methods: A literature search was performed for treatment with zoledronic acid for the prevention of hip fracture.Results: In the The Health Outcomes and Reduced Incidence with Zoledronic Acid Once Yearly (HORIZON Pivotal Fracture Trial, involving 7765 postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density or with prevalent vertebral fracture, women taking zoledronic acid had a 41% relative risk reduction for hip fracture, at 3 years, compared to placebo. In the HORIZON Recurrent Fracture Trial, 2127 patients (76% were women were randomized to receive either zoledronic acid or placebo after sustaining a first hip fracture. A reduction of 30% in the second hip fracture risk was observed, but it did not reach statistical significance. Zoledronic acid was generally safe in these trials, although a slightly increased rate of severe atrial fibrillations was observed in the HORIZON Prevention Fracture Trial, but not in the HORIZON Recurrent Fracture Trial.Conclusion: Yearly zoledronic acid reduces the risk of hip fracture, both in postmenopausal osteoporotic women with and without prevalent vertebral fracture and in men and women with a recent first hip fracture.Keywords: osteoporosis, bisphosphonates, hip fracture, zoledronic acid

Rol

2009-01-01

298

Effects of Boronizing Treatment on Corrosion Resistance of 65Mn Steel in two Acid Mediums  

Science.gov (United States)

To explore the soil workability of rotary blade suitable for large tilling depth (over 20 cm) manufactured through boronizing treatment, this work focuses on the corrosion behavior of 65Mn steel after boronizing treatment in two acid mediums, i.e. the strong acidic medium that hydrochloric solution and the weak acidic that fertilizer-containing soil, and the comparison with existing technology of general rotary blade (lonnealing after overall quenching). The result shows that the corrosion resistance in the two acid mediums of 65Mn steel after boronizing treatment is remarkably improved. After 168 hours' corrosion in the hydrochloric acid solution, the weight loss of boronizing-status sample is only 27.9% of that of lonnealing-status sample. Moreover, there is no obvious weight loss in boronizing-status sample after 168 hours' corrosion in the fertilizer-containing soil, while the weight of lonnealing-status sample is lighter than the original weight after about 150 hours' corrosion. The improvement of the corrosion resistance lies in the significant reduction of the anodization speed in strong acid medium and the effective prevention of phosphorization reaction in weak acidic medium.

Wang, Hongyu; Zhao, Yufeng; Yuan, Xiaoming; Chen, Kangmin; Xu, Ruihua

299

Palladium nanoparticles synthesized by reducing species generated during a successive acidic/alkaline treatment of sucrose  

Science.gov (United States)

Uniform spherical palladium nanoparticles with an average particle size of 4.3 ± 0.5 nm were successfully synthesized by reducing H2PdCl4 with intermediates in situ generated during a successive acidic/alkaline treatment of sucrose. A successive acidic/alkaline treatment plays an important role on converting the non-reducing sucrose into efficient reducing species containing aldehyde functionality. The Benedict's test corroborates the development and vanishing of the in situ generated reducing species upon prolonged degradation. An increase in alkalinity drastically improves the reduction efficiency. ATR FT-IR spectroscopy indicated spontaneous development of carboxylate after the alkaline treatment. Under the employed condition, small organic species with carbonyl groups (aldehyde, acid, and acid salt) were generated through the sucrose degradation before being oxidized to carbonate after an hour of the treatment. Sucrose was completely decomposed into carbonate after a 24-h successive acidic/alkaline treatment. The synthesized palladium nanoparticles express a good catalytic activity in the decolorization process of Congo red by sodium borohydride.

Amornkitbamrung, Lunjakorn; Pienpinijtham, Prompong; Thammacharoen, Chuchaat; Ekgasit, Sanong

2014-03-01

300

Enhanced photoconduction of free-standing ZnO nanowire films by L-lysine treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Flexible paper-like ZnO nanowire films are fabricated and the effect of L-lysine passivation of the nanowire surfaces on improving the UV photoresponse is studied. We prepare three types of nanowires with different defect contents, and find that the L-lysine treatment can suppress the oxygen-vacancy-related photoluminescence as well as enhance the UV photoconduction. The nanowires with fewer defects gain larger enhancement of UV photoconduction after L-lysine treatment. Reproducible UV photoresponse of the devices in humid air is obtained due to L-lysine surface passivation, ruling out the influence of water molecules in degrading the UV photocurrent.

Liu Jinzhang; Park, Jaeku; Ahn, Yeonghwan; Park, Ji-Yong; Koh, Ken Ha; Lee, Soonil [Division of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kyung Ho, E-mail: soonil@ajou.ac.kr [Korea Advanced Nano Fab Center, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-12-03

301

Enhanced photoconduction of free-standing ZnO nanowire films by L-lysine treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Flexible paper-like ZnO nanowire films are fabricated and the effect of L-lysine passivation of the nanowire surfaces on improving the UV photoresponse is studied. We prepare three types of nanowires with different defect contents, and find that the L-lysine treatment can suppress the oxygen-vacancy-related photoluminescence as well as enhance the UV photoconduction. The nanowires with fewer defects gain larger enhancement of UV photoconduction after L-lysine treatment. Reproducible UV photoresponse of the devices in humid air is obtained due to L-lysine surface passivation, ruling out the influence of water molecules in degrading the UV photocurrent.

302

Effect of tocopherol treatment on deterioration of edible oil quality (acid value, carbonyl value, free fatty acid and radical activity).  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, waste edible oil was prepared by both heat and aeration treatment, and the increasing inhibitive effect of tocopherol treatment on the acid value (AV) and carbonyl value (CV) of the oil was investigated. The AV and CV of waste edible oil treated with tocopherol were 0.1-1.0% lower than those of the nontreated oil, indicating that tocopherol exerted a radical-scavenging activity. The concentration of tocopherol decreased with time, while that of the remaining 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals increased. These results suggest that the addition of tocopherol proved to be useful for preventing the deterioration of waste edible oil. PMID:24420062

Ogata, Fumihiko; Tanaka, Yuko; Kawasaki, Naohito

2014-01-01

303

Appropriate controls for phosphate boiler water treatments to avoid acid phosphate corrosion and hydrogen damage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The identification of the acid phosphate corrosion (APC) mechanism in the early 90s following years of hideout and hideout return with congruent phosphate treatment lad to the development and adoption of equilibrium phosphate and phosphate treatment.These treatments have eliminated APC and the need for acid phosphate additions, and rely solely on trisodium phosphate with possible small additions of NaOH, up to 1 mg kg{sup -1}. Procedures have been consolidated over the last 10 years for conversion to these treatments. However, recent experiences confirm that unless particular care is given to the contaminant cycles, there is a possibility that hydrogen damage can emanate in boilers operating with either of these treatments, particularly in those operating with EPT. (orig.)

Dooley, B.; McNaughton, W.P.

2001-03-01

304

Performance Enhancement and Immunity Profile of Broiler Treated Feed Additive Containing Lactic Acid Bacteria and Ganoderma lucidum  

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Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of feed additive containing lactic acid bacteria (LAB and Ganoderma lucidum (GL on body weight gain (BWG, feed efficiency (FE, performance index (PI, antibody titer (AT against Newcastle disease and histopathology of broilers. Bacteria used were Lactobacillus salivarius and Pediococcus pentosaceus, which were isolated from broiler’s intestine. A number of 195 unsexed day old chicks (Cobb strain were arranged in a completely randomized design and consisted of 5 treatments, each in 3 equal replicates. The treatments were as followed T0: control/without-feed additive, T1: 1% LAB (109 cfu g-1, T2: 1% GL, T3: 1% of LAB 109 cfu g-1 + GL (1:1, T4: commercial antibiotic. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and conti-nued to Duncan’s multiple range test. The results showed that T2, T3, T4 treatments significantly improved (P<0.05 BWG, FE and PI of broilers. Broilers fed T3 had the highest PI, followed by T4, T1, T2 and T0. Broilers fed T3 had the highest AT value followed by T0, T2, T4, and T1. Histopathology profile showed that broiler fed T3 had no lesion on liver and intestine compared to others. The result of this experiment indicated that additive containing 0.25% L. salivarius, 0.25% P. pentosaceus, and 0.5% G. lucidum was able to enhance broiler performance.

A. Sofyan

2012-12-01

305

Supplementation With Highly Purified Docosahexaenoic Acid Ethyl Ester Was Associated With Enhancement of Hepatic Fatty Acid Oxidation and Greater Apparent Absorption of Docosahexaenoic Acid in Rats  

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Full Text Available Fish oil-derived fatty acid ethyl ester (EE has been widely utilized as a supplement in Europe and United States. However, few studies have assessed the apparent absorption of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA between non-purified DHA-EE (L-DHAEE and highly purified DHA-EE (H-DHAEE. This study evaluated the effects of L-DHAEE and H-DHAEE on lipid metabolism and apparent absorption of DHA in rats. Groups of male Wistar rats were fed AIN93G diet containing 2.8% L-DHAEE or 1.0% H-DHAEE for 4 or 8 weeks. As parameters of lipid metabolism and apparent absorption of DHA-EE, serum and liver lipid contents, fecal EE excretion, lipid-metabolizing enzyme activities, and organ fatty acid composition were measured. The L-DHAEE diet increased fecal DHA-EE and total EE excretion compared with the H-DHAEE diet. In rats fed DHA-EE for 4 weeks, H-DHAEE was more efficacious than L-DHAEE at increasing liver DHA content, partly owing to the enhancement of apparent absorption. In addition, rats fed the H-DHAEE diet had higher fatty acid ?-oxidation activity in peroxisomes than rats fed the L-DHAEE diet for 8 weeks. These results suggest that H-DHAEE supplementation may have beneficial functions in the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases as compared with L-DHAEE supplementation.

Kenji Fukunaga

2013-07-01

306

Enhanced zero-valent metal permeable wall treatment of contaminated groundwater  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On-going research at the University of Central Florida, supported by NASA, is investigating the use of sonicated zero-valent metal permeable treatment walls to remediate chlorinated solvent contaminated groundwater. Use of ultrasound within the treatment wall is proposed to enhance and/or restore the activity of the zero-valent metal. Batch studies designed to evaluate the destruction of chlorinated hydrocarbons using enhanced zero-valent metal reduction found a nearly three-fold increase in reaction rates after ultrasound treatment. Column studies substantiated these results. It is hypothesized that ultrasound serves to remove corrosion products from the iron surface and will prolong the reactive life and efficiency of the permeable treatment wall, thus decreasing long-term costs of wall construction and maintenance

307

Ursodeoxycholic Acid for the Treatment of Cholesterol Gallstones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cholesterol is the principal constituent of more than three quarters of gallstones. Pure cholesterol crystals are quite soft, and protein contributes importantly to the strength of cholesterol stones. The risk of gallstones does not correlate with total serum cholesterol levels, but it does correlate with decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased triglyceride levels. At least 10 percent of adults have gallstones where female: male ratio of about 2:1 in the younger age groups with increasing prevalence with age. Nine patients with gallstones (6 females and 3 males) were included in the study. Patients were treated with ursodeoxycholic acids tablets in two oral doses, one after breakfast, and the other after dinner for 9 months. Ultrasound examination was repeated every 3 months. Re-examination by abdominal ultrasonography revealed that gallstone 1 cm or less in diameter disappeared within 6 months, and the largest stone 3.06 cm in diameter disappeared within 9 months.

308

Interventions to Enhance Breast Cancer Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment among Racial and Ethnic Minority Women  

OpenAIRE

The authors conduct a systematic review of the literature to identify interventions designed to enhance breast cancer screening, diagnosis, and treatment among minority women. Most trials in this area have focused on breast cancer screening, while relatively few have addressed diagnostic testing or breast cancer treatment. Among patient-targeted screening interventions, those that are culturally tailored or addressed financial or logistical barriers are generally more effective than reminder-...

Masi, Christopher M.; Blackman, Dionne J.; Peek, Monica E.

2007-01-01

309

Reversible tuning of chemical structure of nafion cast film by heat and Acid treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effects of annealing have been studied on the chemical structure, water uptake, and acidity of the cast Nafion thin film of thickness ? 6 ?m using a fluorescent probe, 2-(3'-pyridyl)benzimidazole (3PBI), and attenuated total reflactance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy. Nonannealed films and thick Nafion 117 membrane have been used as reference materials, in order to develop a complete understanding of the effect. Annealing has been found to cause a decrease in acidity of otherwise highly acidic ionomer, as sensed by the fluorescent probe and loss of water, as reflected in the ATR-IR spectrum. This observation is surprising and cannot be explained in the light of previous reports of physical changes. Our ATR-IR study has revealed changes in the chemical structure of the hydrophilic part of the ionomer, leading to the formation of sulfonic acid anhydrides. This phenomenon can rationalize the decreased acidity reported in our fluorescence study. Interestingly, acid treatment of the annealed film restores the acidity of the unannealed films. This cannot be rationalized simply by a greater proton uptake from the solution, as the film has to be electroneutral. It appears that the anhydrides formed during the annealing process undergo acid hydrolysis, leading to an increase in the number of SO3(-) groups and, consequently, an increase in the number of H3O(+) ions in the water channels. Besides, the films can be hydrated to an extent that is much greater than Nafion membranes, but the water uptake of acid treated annealed film is slightly less than that of nonannealed films. Hence, we conclude that, along with annealing, acid treatment, a procedure that is generally not performed on the cast films, is an important pretreatment procedure to improve the acidity and hence the transport properties of the cast film. PMID:25275923

Singhal, Nancy; Datta, Anindya

2015-02-12

310

Discovery of TUG-770 : A Highly Potent Free Fatty Acid Receptor 1 (FFA1/GPR40) Agonist for Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1 or GPR40) enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic ?-cells and currently attracts high interest as a new target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. We here report the discovery of a highly potent FFA1 agonist with favorable physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. The compound efficiently normalizes glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese mice, an effect that is fully sustained after 29 days of chronic dosing.

Christiansen, Elisabeth; Hansen, Steffen V F

2013-01-01

311

Bias-enhanced post-treatment process for enhancing the electron field emission properties of ultrananocrystalline diamond films  

Science.gov (United States)

The electron field emission (EFE) properties of ultrananocrystalline diamond films were markedly improved via the bias-enhanced plasma post-treatment (bep) process. The bep-process induced the formation of hybrid-granular structure of the diamond (bep-HiD) films with abundant nano-graphitic phase along the grain boundaries that increased the conductivity of the films. Moreover, the utilization of Au-interlayer can effectively suppress the formation of resistive amorphous-carbon (a-C) layer, thereby enhancing the transport of electrons crossing the diamond-to-Si interface. Therefore, bep-HiD/Au/Si films exhibit superior EFE properties with low turn-on field of E0 = 2.6 V/?m and large EFE current density of Je = 3.2 mA/cm2 (at 5.3 V/?m).

Saravanan, A.; Huang, B. R.; Sankaran, K. J.; Dong, C. L.; Tai, N. H.; Lin, I. N.

2015-03-01

312

Study of the influence of acid etching treatments on the superficial characteristics of Ti  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Modifications in texture and surface chemistry are commonly used to increase the biologic response to implants. We evaluated the influence of five different acid etching treatments on the chemical and topographical superficial characteristics of cpTi grade IV discs (test groups). One group of sample [...] s were only polished (control group). The samples were analyzed by electron microscopy (SEM, EDS), atomic force microscopy, and grazing incidence XRD. The acid etching treatments which produced higher values for the amplitude roughness parameters showed a combination of strong acids (HF and HCl/H2SO4) at high concentrations, with a relatively high temperature (? 60 °C) for a considerable time (? 60 min). Titanium and oxygen were the only elements detected by EDS on the surface in all groups, whereas titanium hydride was detected when the samples were analyzed by GIXRD. Only the group subjected to thermal treatment showed presence of rutile phase on the surface.

Bruno Ramos, Chrcanovic; Maximiliano Delany, Martins.

2014-04-01

313

Zoledronic Acid for the Treatment and Prevention of Primary and Secondary Osteoporosis  

OpenAIRE

There is increasing interest in therapies that can be administered less frequently and/or avoid gastrointestinal irritation. The efficacy of once-yearly zoledronic acid (5 mg) in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis has been evaluated in different patient populations. In the 3-year HORIZON-Pivotal Fracture Trial in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, zoledronic acid reduced the risk of vertebral and hip fracture by 70% and 41%, respectively, versus placebo. The efficacy of zoledro...

Rizzoli, Rene?

2010-01-01

314

Treatment of Active Acne Vulgaris by Chemical Peeling Using 88% Lactic Acid  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: The etiopathogenesis of acne vulgaris is multifactorial, and its therapy is prolonged course that might be not accepted by many patients. Most recently TCA 35% one session peeling gave complete clearance and full remission for active acne vulgaris. Lactic acid has been used effectively as therapeutic topical agents for many skin diseases. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of chemical peeling using 88% lactic acid solution in the treatment of active acne vulgaris. ...

Sharquie, Khalifa E.; Noaimi, Adil A.; Al-janabi, Entesar A.

2014-01-01

315

Some biochemical reactions of strawberry plants to infection with Botrytis cinerea and salicylic acid treatment  

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Full Text Available The reactions of strawberry plants to infection with B. cinerea and treatment with salicylic acid has been studied. Infection of leaves with B. cinerea resulted in early increases in active oxygen species generation, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities and phenolic compounds content. Some increases of the above reactions were noticed in plants treated with salicylic acid but not in the plants treated with SA and then later infected with B. cinerea.

Urszula Ma?olepsza

1994-12-01

316

In Vivo Treatment of Propionibacterium acnes Infection with Liposomal Lauric Acids  

OpenAIRE

Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is a Gram-positive bacterium strongly associated with acne infection. While many antimicrobial agents have been used in clinic to treat acne infection by targeting P. acnes, these existing anti-acne agents usually produce considerable side effects. Herein, we report the development and evaluation of liposomal lauric acids (LipoLA) as a new, effective and safe therapeutic agent for the treatment of acne infection. By incorporating lauric acids into the lipid ...

Pornpattananangkul, Dissaya; Fu, Victoria; Thamphiwatana, Soracha; Zhang, Li; Chen, Michael; Vecchio, James; Gao, Weiwei; Huang, Chun-ming; Zhang, Liangfang

2013-01-01

317

The uptake transporter OATP8 expression decreases during multistep hepatocarcinogenesis: correlation with gadoxetic acid enhanced MR imaging  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To clarify the changes in organic anion-transporting polypeptide 8 (OATP8) expression and enhancement ratio on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging in hepatocellular nodules during multistep hepatocarcinogenesis. In imaging analysis, we focused on 71 surgically resected hepatocellular carcinomas (well, moderately and poorly differentiated HCCs) and 1 dysplastic nodule (DN). We examined the enhancement ratio in the hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic acid enhanced MR imaging [(1/postcontrast T1 value-1/precontrast T1 value)/(1/precontrast T1 value)], then analysed the correlation among the enhancement ratio, tumour differentiation grade and intensity of immunohistochemical OATP8 expression. In pathological analysis, we focused on surgically resected 190 hepatocellular nodules: low-grade DNs, high-grade DNs, early HCCs, well-differentiated, moderately differentiated and poorly differentiated HCCs, including cases without gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging. We evaluated the correlation between the immunohistochemical OATP8 expression and the tumour differentiation grade. The enhancement ratio of HCCs decreased in accordance with the decline in tumour differentiation (P < 0.0001, R = 0.28) and with the decline of OATP8 expression (P < 0.0001, R = 0.81). The immunohistochemical OATP8 expression decreased from low-grade DNs to poorly differentiated HCCs (P < 0.0001, R = 0.15). The immunohistochemical expression of OATP8 significantly decreases during multistep hepatocarcinogenesis, which may explain the decrease in enhancement ratio on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging. (orig.)

Kitao, Azusa; Matsui, Osamu; Yoneda, Norihide; Kozaka, Kazuto; Shinmura, Rieko; Koda, Wataru; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Gabata, Toshifumi [Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Department of Radiology, Kanazawa (Japan); Zen, Yoh [Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Human Pathology, Kanazawa (Japan); King' s College Hospital, Institute of Liver Studies, London (United Kingdom); Yamashita, Tatsuya; Kaneko, Shuichi [Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Gastroenterology, Kanazawa (Japan); Nakanuma, Yasuni [Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Human Pathology, Kanazawa (Japan)

2011-10-15

318

Organic acids enhance bioavailability of tetracycline in water to Escherichia coli for uptake and expression of antibiotic resistance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tetracyclines are a large class of antimicrobials used most extensively in livestock feeding operations. A large portion of tetracyclines administered to livestock is excreted in manure and urine which is collected in waste lagoons. Subsequent land application of these wastes introduces tetracyclines into the soil environment, where they could exert selective pressure for the development of antibiotic resistance genes in bacteria. Tetracyclines form metal-complexes in natural waters, which could reduce their bioavailability for bacterial uptake. We hypothesized that many naturally-occurring organic acids could effectively compete with tetracyclines as ligands for metal cations, hence altering the bioavailability of tetracyclines to bacteria in a manner that could enhance the selective pressure. In this study, we investigated the influence of acetic acid, succinic acid, malonic acid, oxalic acid and citric acid on tetracycline uptake from water by Escherichia coli bioreporter construct containing a tetracycline resistance gene which induces the emission of green fluorescence when activated. The presence of the added organic acid ligands altered tetracycline speciation in a manner that enhanced tetracycline uptake by E. coli. Increased bacterial uptake of tetracycline and concomitant enhanced antibiotic resistance response were quantified, and shown to be positively related to the degree of organic acid ligand complexation of metal cations in the order of citric acid > oxalic acid > malonic acid > succinic acid > acetic acid. The magnitude of the bioresponse increased with increasing aqueous organic acid concentration. Apparent positive relation between intracellular tetracycline concentration and zwitterionic tetracycline species in aqueous solution indicates that (net) neutral tetracycline is the species which most readily enters E. coli cells. Understanding how naturally-occurring organic acid ligands affect tetracycline speciation in solution, and how speciation influences tetracycline uptake by bacteria, allows more accurate assessment of the selective pressure from trace levels of antibiotics in the environment on microbial communities for preserving and developing antibiotic resistance. PMID:25100186

Zhang, Yingjie; Boyd, Stephen A; Teppen, Brian J; Tiedje, James M; Li, Hui

2014-11-15

319

Ras Isoprenylation and pAkt Inhibition by Zoledronic Acid and Fluvastatin Enhances Paclitaxel Activity in T24 Bladder Cancer Cells  

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Full Text Available Background: Bisphosphonates interfere with the mevalonate pathway and inhibit the prenylation of small GTP-binding proteins such as ras and rap. We hypothesized that zoledronic acid would synergistically inhibit T24 bladder cancer cell growth in combination with fluvastatin and paclitaxel. Methods: Increasing doses of fluvastatin, zoledronic acid, and paclitaxel were investigated as single agents and in combination, and synergistic interactions were evaluated by the Chou-Talalay method. Western blots were used to assess effects on signal transduction pathways. Results: Growth of T24 was significantly inhibited with IC50 values of 2.67 ± 0.61 mM for fluvastatin and 5.35 ± 1.35 mM for zoledronic acid after 72 hours treatment. Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate and farnesyl pyrophosphate was able to block, in part, this inhibitory activity. The combinations of zoledronic acid and paclitaxel, zoledronic acid and fluvastatin, and fluvastatin and paclitaxel were all synergistic. Both fluvastatin and zoledronic acid inhibited Ras and Rap prenylation, and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and AKT. The degree of inhibition of phosphorylation of these key signaling transduction pathways appears to closely correlate with their synergistic interactions. Conclusions: Zoledronic acid enhances fluvastatin and paclitaxel activity against T24 in a synergistic manner and this is mediated largely by inhibition of both the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways via isoprenylation inhibition.

Shaojuan Li

2011-02-01

320

Enhanced thermal- and photo-stability of acid yellow 17 by incorporation into layered double hydroxides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

2,5-dichloro-4-(5-hydroxy-3-methyl-4-(sulphophenylazo) pyrazol-1-yl) benzenesulphonate (DHSB) anions, namely acid yellow 17 anions, have been successfully intercalated into Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDH) to produce a novel organic-inorganic pigment by a simple method involving separate nucleation and aging steps (SNAS), and the dye-intercalated LDH was analyzed by various techniques, e.g., XRD, SEM, FT-IR, TG-DTA and ICP. The d-spacing of the prepared LDH is 2.09 nm. Furthermore, the incorporation of the DHSB aims to enhance the thermal- and photo-stability of the guest dye molecule, for example, the less color change after accelerated thermal- and photo-aging test. - Graphical abstract: Acid yellow anions were successfully assembled into ZnAl layered double hydroxides (LDH) to produce a novel organic-inorganic composite pigment by a simple method involving separate nucleation and aging steps (SNAS). Highlights: ? Acid yellow 17 was directly intercalated into ZnAl-LDH to form a novel pigment. ? The pigment was prepared by a method involving separate nucleation and aging steps. ? The intercalation of dye anions enhances its thermal- and photo-stability.

321

Retinoic acid enhances and depresses in vitro development of cartilaginous bone anlagen in embryonic mouse limbs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Forelimbs of Day 11 and Day 12 embryonic mice were excised and cultured for 3 d in the presence of either 0.25 microgram (8 X 10(-7) M), 0.5 microgram (1.7 X 10(-6) M), or 1.0 microgram (3.3 X 10(-6) M) of all-trans retinoic acid (RA) per milliliter of culture medium. Cultured limbs were fixed, stained, and mounted whole on glass slides and evaluated with computerized optical image analysis for RA-induced effects on the area and shape of the total limb and individual bone anlagen. Relative effects of RA on total bone, soft tissue, long bone, and paw regions were also examined. With Day 11 forelimbs total bone area was increased by 10.5% by the low dose of RA. The increase was mostly in long bones and at the expense of soft tissue. Total bone area was increased 9.3% with Day 12 forelimbs. This increase was primarily in the paw. The high dose of RA decreased Day 11 forelimb area, primarily affecting long bones. Day 12 forelimbs were not significantly affected by the high dose of RA. Effects of the intermediate dose were primarily limited to reduction in soft tissue area. Long bone:paw and soft tissue:bone ratios reflected these effects. The high dose produced a consistent rounding or shortening of Day 11 forelimb bones. On Day 12 0.5 microgram/ml RA produced an inconsistent pattern of rounding of bone anlagen. Treatment with the high dose on Day 12 produced angular rather than rounded contours in many cases, as indicated by shape factor values closer to zero than obtained with controls. These data show that direct exposure to RA can affect both the size and shape of bone anlagen of the developing limb; the low dose enhances and the high dose depresses development. The results support previous studies which suggest that RA may play a critical role in the control of cell activities such as cell migration, proliferation, and cytodifferentiation in the development of the cartilaginous bone anlagen. PMID:3949678

Kwasigroch, T E; Vannoy, J F; Church, J K; Skalko, R G

1986-03-01

322

Treatment of disseminated granuloma annulare with fumaric acid esters  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Granuloma annulare is a granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. Various therapies have been tried in disseminated granuloma annulare (DGA, including corticosteroids, several variants of psoralen plus ultraviolet-A radiation, ultraviolet- A1 radiation, systemic retinoids, and dapsone, with variable success. We report a patient with recalcitrant DGA who was treated with fumaric acid esters (FAE. Case presentation A 40-year old Caucasian woman presented with a 25-year history of recalcitrant DGA. On both legs and the abdomen there were erythematous annular plaques. She was treated with FAE in tablet form using two formulations differing in strength (low strength tablets: 30 mg dimethylfumarate, 67 mg monoethylfumarate Ca salt, 5 mg monoethylfumarate Mg salt, 3 mg monoethylfumarate Zn salt; high strength tablets: 120 mg dimethylfumarate, 87 mg monoethylfumarate Ca salt, 5 mg monoethylfumarate Mg salt, 3 mg monoethylfumarate Zn salt. After three-month therapy, an almost complete clearance of skin lesions was achieved. With the exception of temporary lymphopenia, no adverse effects were observed. The patient remained in remission during a six-month follow up period. Conclusions Our observation has demonstrated that FAE is a potentially beneficial therapeutic option for patients with recalcitrant DGA. However controlled trials are necessary to fully explore the efficacy, optimal dosage, and safety of FAE in the management of DGA.

Altmeyer Peter

2002-03-01

323

Detection of liver malignancy with gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI: Is addition of diffusion-weighted MRI beneficial?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aim: To determine the additive value of diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) to gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI for the detection of hepatic metastases and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and Methods: Thirty-five patients with 38 liver metastases and 18 HCCs were included in this study. Ten patients also had hemangiomas (n = 3) or cysts (n = 8). Liver MRI consisted of pre-contrast and gadoxetic acid-enhanced 3D T1-weighted MRIs (arterial, portal, 2-min delay, 20 min hepatocyte-selective phases), a post-contrast T2-weighted image, and post-contrast DWI (b values: 0, 50, 600 s/mm2). Two observers independently analyzed the gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI with and without DWI. The diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity for the detection of liver lesions were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results: Although there were no significant differences in diagnostic accuracy for detecting metastases and HCCs between the gadoxetic acid set alone and the combined DWI and gadoxetic acid set for both observers (mean Az, 0.974 vs 0.987), we found the sensitivity for detecting metastases to be significantly higher with the combined images (97.4%) than with the gadoxetic acid set alone (89.5%) for observer 1 (p = 0.008). Three and two metastases for each observer were clearly verified by adding DWI to gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI. However, sensitivities for both image sets were equivalent in detecting HCCs. Conclusion: The addition of DWI to gadoxetic acid-on: The addition of DWI to gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI has the potential to increase sensitivity for the detection of liver metastases. However, for detecting HCC, we found no additive value of DWI to gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI.

324

Treatment of Pu-containing waste by acid digestion (wet combustion)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Acid digestion as a process of treatment of plutonium-containing solid waste was developed and demonstrated under conditions of an active operation with respect to the recovery of plutonium. The process composes the following main steps: waste shredding, waste carbonisation, waste oxidation and conversion of plutonium oxide to plutonium sulphate, off-gas treatment, acid recovery and plutonium separation. The technical, safety and operational details of the plant will be presented. Furthermore, methods of the purification of separate plutonium and solidification of secondary waste for final disposal will be described. (orig./RW)

325

Inhibition of acid hydrolase activity in human granulocytes by PUVA treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The activity of acid hydrolases in peripheral blood granulocytes was determined. No significant differences could be revealed between healthy and psoriatic donors. During PUVA therapy of psoriasis patients the activity of acid hydrolases in granulocytes was moderately decreased in most cases, but the differences were not significant (high individual variability). Isolated granulocytes were treated in vitro with doses of 8-methoxypsoralen and UVA light as can be achieved in situ in the epidermis during PUVA therapy. A reduced acid hydrolases activity was found in the cells after the treatment, which was not due to secretion of the enzyme or cytotoxic damage. The presence of reduced glutathione prevented this effect. Free extracellular acid hydrolases were not inactivated by PUVA. PUVA-treated granulocytes showed an unimpaired superoxide generation after phagocytic stimulation. These results show that an intracellular inactivation of acid hydrolases and possibly other lysosomal enzymes in granulocytes infiltrating the psoriatic epidermis contribute to the antipsoriatic effects of PUVA therapy. (author)

326

Aneurysmal wall enhancement and perianeurysmal edema after endovascular treatment of unruptured cerebral aneurysms.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Perianeurysmal edema and aneurysm wall enhancement are previously described phenomenon after coil embolization attributed to inflammatory reaction. We aimed to demonstrate the prevalence and natural course of these phenomena in unruptured aneurysms after endovascular treatment and to identify factors that contributed to their development.

Su, I-Chang

2014-06-01

327

Contrast-Enhanced Three Dimensional Ultrasonography supporting HIFU treatment of Small Liver Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

HIFU was carried out in the 12 patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma (small HCC) as a extracorporeal ablation therapy, and clinical availability was studied from the results. In carrying out the HIFU therapy, contrast enhanced (CE) three dimensional (3D) ultrasound imaging played an important role to clarify the tumor nature , to monitor the sonication procedure and to assess the tumor ablation and was almost indispensable for the treatment. All the patient had no serious side effects and they are all alive with no local tumor progression for 3 to 14 months after the treatment. Ultrasound supporting HIFU therapy could be usefully available for the treatment of small HCC.

Ohto, Masao; Fukuda, Hiroyuki; Ito, Ryu; Shinohara, Yasushi; Sakamoto, Akio; Karasawa, Eii

2009-04-01

328

Hydrolysis of Miscanthus for bioethanol production using dilute acid presoaking combined with wet explosion pre-treatment and enzymatic treatment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Miscanthus is a high yielding bioenergy crop. In this study we used acid presoaking, wet explosion, and enzymatic hydrolysis to evaluate the combination of the different pre-treatment methods for bioethanol production with Miscanthus. Acid presoaking is primarily carried out in order to remove xylose prior to wet explosion. The acid presoaking extracted 63.2% xylose and 5.2% glucose. Direct enzymatic hydrolysis of the presoaked biomass was found to give only low sugar yields of 24-26% glucose. Wet explosion is a pre-treatment method that combines wet-oxidation and steam explosion. The effect of wet explosion on non-presoaked and presoaked Miscanthus was investigated using both atmospheric air and hydrogen peroxide as the oxidizing agent. All wet explosion pre-treatments showed to have a disrupting effect on the lignocellulosic biomass, making the sugars accessible for enzymatic hydrolysis. The combination of presoaking, wet explosion, and enzymatic hydrolysis was found to give the highest sugar yields. The use of atmospheric air gave the highest xylose yield (94.9% xylose, 61.3% glucose), while hydrogen peroxide gave the highest glucose yield (82.4% xylose, 63.7% glucose).

SØrensen, Annette; Teller, Philip Johan

2008-01-01

329

Re-treatment of relapsed Paget's disease of bone with zoledronic acid: results from an open-label study  

OpenAIRE

Six patients from the phase 3 trials of zoledronic acid in Paget's disease, who had received zoledronic acid initially and had subsequently relapsed, were entered into an open re-treatment study. Following re-treatment, each patient reached similar absolute nadirs of serum alkaline phosphatase to those recorded after their first dose. No significant adverse events were reported. It is concluded that, while re-treatment of Paget's disease with zoledronic acid is rarely needed, it is safe and e...

Reid, Ian R.; Brown, Jacques P.; Levitt, Naomi; Roma?n Ivorra, Jose? A.; Bachiller-corral, Javier; Ross, Ian L.; Su, Guoqin; Antunez-flores, Oscar; Aftring, R. Paul

2013-01-01

330

Optimisation of dilute acid pre-treatment of artisan rice hulls for ethanol production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rice hulls are potential low-cost feedstocks for fuel ethanol production in many countries. In this work, the dilute-acid pre-treatment of artisan rice hulls was investigated using a central composite rotatable experimental design. The experimental variables were temperature (140-210 C), biomass load (5-20%) and sulphuric acid concentration (0.5-1.5 g per 100 g of reaction mixture). A total of 16 experimental runs, including a 23-plan, two replicates at the central point and six star points, were carried out. Low temperatures were found to be favourable for the hydrolysis of xylan and of the easily hydrolyzable glucan fraction. High glucose formation (up to 15.3 g/100 g), attributable to starch hydrolysis, was detected in the hydrolysates obtained under the least severe pre-treatment conditions. Using the experimental results, several models for predicting the effect of the operational conditions on the yield of pretreated solids, xylan and glucan conversion upon pre-treatment, and on enzymatic convertibility of cellulose were developed. Optimum results were predicted for the conversion of easily-hydrolyzable glucan in the material pretreated at 140.7 C, and for the enzymatic saccharification of cellulose in the material pretreated at 169 C. These results suggested the use of two-step acid hydrolysis as future pre-treatment strategy for artisan rice hulls. Key words: Dilute acid hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis, pre-treatment, rice hulls. (author) rice hulls. (author)

331

Structural transformation and field emission enhancement of carbon nanofibers by energetic argon plasma post-treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (CNFs) grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) were transformed into cone-shaped nanostructures after treatment by argon (Ar) plasma. Significant enhancement of field emission characteristics of the post-treated CNFs has been achieved. Analysis by electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) suggests that the structural transformation is a result of a cosputtering/deposition process by energetic plasma ions. The enhancements can be attributed to the combining effects of an additional Si/C layer coverage, catalytic nanoparticles removal and the sharpening of CNFs tips. The argon plasma post-treatment processes developed here can be easily extended to in situ PECVD processes for fabricating CNFs based emitters

332

Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? enhances fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? PPAR? activation increased mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes and GPDH activity in human adipocytes. ? PPAR? activation also increased insulin-dependent glucose uptake in human adipocytes. ? PPAR? activation did not affect lipid accumulation in human adipocytes. ? PPAR? activation increased fatty acid oxidation through induction of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in human adipocytes. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) is a key regulator for maintaining whole-body energy balance. However, the physiological functions of PPAR? in adipocytes have been unclarified. We examined the functions of PPAR? using human multipotent adipose tissue-derived stem cells as a human adipocyte model. Activation of PPAR? by GW7647, a potent PPAR? agonist, increased the mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes such as PPAR?, adipocyte-specific fatty acid-binding protein, and lipoprotein lipase and increased both GPDH activity and insulin-dependent glucose uptake level. The findings indicate that PPAR? activation stimulates adipocyte differentiation. However, lipid accumulation was not changed, which is usually observed when PPAR? is activated. On the other hand, PPAR? activation by GW7647 treatment induced the mRNA expression of fatty acid oxidation-related genes such as CPT-1B and AOX in a PPAR?-dependent manner. Moreover, PPAR? activation increased the production of CO2 and acid soluble metabolites, which are products of fatty acid oxidation, and increased oxygen consumption rate in human adipocytes. The data indicate that activation of PPAR? stimulates both adipocyte differentiation and fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes, suggesting that PPAR? agonists could improve insulin resistance without lipid accumulation in adipocytes. The expected effects of PPAR? activation are very valuable for managing diabetic conditions accompanied by obesity, because PPAR? agonists, usually used as antidiabetic drugs, induce excessive lipid accumulation in adipocytes in addition to improvement of insulin resistance.

333

Quality and antioxidant properties on sweet cherries as affected by preharvest salicylic and acetylsalicylic acids treatments.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of salicylic acid (SA) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) treatments during on-tree cherry growth and ripening on fruit quality attributes, especially those related with the content on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity were analysed in this research. For this purpose, two sweet cherry cultivars, 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', were used and SA or ASA treatments, at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0mM concentrations, were applied at three key points of fruit development (pit hardening, initial colour changes and onset of ripening). These treatments increased fruit weight and ameliorated quality attributes at commercial harvest, and led to cherries with higher concentration in total phenolics and in total anthocyanins, as well as higher antioxidant activity, in both hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions. Thus, preharvest treatments with SA or ASA could be promising tools to improve sweet cherry quality and health beneficial effects for consumers. PMID:24799232

Giménez, María José; Valverde, Juan Miguel; Valero, Daniel; Guillén, Fabián; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Serrano, María; Castillo, Salvador

2014-10-01

334

Omega-3 fatty acids as treatments for mental illness: which disorder and which fatty acid?  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background A growing number of observational and epidemiological studies have suggested that mental illness, in particular mood disorders, is associated with reduced dietary intake and/or cellular abundance of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). This has prompted researchers to test the efficacy of omega-3 PUFA in a range of different psychiatric disorders. We have critically reviewed the double blind placebo controlled clinical trials published prior to April 2007 to determi...

Sieswerda Lee E; Seguin Jennifer; Ross Brian M

2007-01-01

335

Skeletal cell differentiation is enhanced by atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enhancing chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation is of paramount importance in providing effective regenerative therapies and improving the rate of fracture healing. This study investigated the potential of non-thermal atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge plasma (NT-plasma) to enhance chondrocyte and osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. Although the exact mechanism by which NT-plasma interacts with cells is undefined, it is known that during treatment the atmosphere is ionized generating extracellular reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) and an electric field. Appropriate NT-plasma conditions were determined using lactate-dehydrogenase release, flow cytometric live/dead assay, flow cytometric cell cycle analysis, and Western blots to evaluate DNA damage and mitochondrial integrity. We observed that specific NT-plasma conditions were required to prevent cell death, and that loss of pre-osteoblastic cell viability was dependent on intracellular ROS and RNS production. To further investigate the involvement of intracellular ROS, fluorescent intracellular dyes Mitosox (superoxide) and dihydrorhodamine (peroxide) were used to assess onset and duration after NT-plasma treatment. Both intracellular superoxide and peroxide were found to increase immediately post NT-plasma treatment. These increases were sustained for one hour but returned to control levels by 24 hr. Using the same treatment conditions, osteogenic differentiation by NT-plasma was assessed and compared to peroxide or osteogenic media containing ?-glycerolphosphate. Although both NT-plasma and peroxide induced differentiation-specific gene expression, neither was as effective as the osteogenic media. However, treatment of cells with NT-plasma after 24 hr in osteogenic or chondrogenic media significantly enhanced differentiation as compared to differentiation media alone. The results of this study show that NT-plasma can selectively initiate and amplify ROS signaling to enhance differentiation, and suggest this technology could be used to enhance bone fusion and improve healing after skeletal injury. PMID:24349203

Steinbeck, Marla J; Chernets, Natalie; Zhang, Jun; Kurpad, Deepa S; Fridman, Gregory; Fridman, Alexander; Freeman, Theresa A

2013-01-01

336

Skeletal Cell Differentiation Is Enhanced by Atmospheric Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

Enhancing chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation is of paramount importance in providing effective regenerative therapies and improving the rate of fracture healing. This study investigated the potential of non-thermal atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge plasma (NT-plasma) to enhance chondrocyte and osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. Although the exact mechanism by which NT-plasma interacts with cells is undefined, it is known that during treatment the atmosphere is ionized generating extracellular reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) and an electric field. Appropriate NT-plasma conditions were determined using lactate-dehydrogenase release, flow cytometric live/dead assay, flow cytometric cell cycle analysis, and Western blots to evaluate DNA damage and mitochondrial integrity. We observed that specific NT-plasma conditions were required to prevent cell death, and that loss of pre-osteoblastic cell viability was dependent on intracellular ROS and RNS production. To further investigate the involvement of intracellular ROS, fluorescent intracellular dyes Mitosox (superoxide) and dihydrorhodamine (peroxide) were used to assess onset and duration after NT-plasma treatment. Both intracellular superoxide and peroxide were found to increase immediately post NT-plasma treatment. These increases were sustained for one hour but returned to control levels by 24 hr. Using the same treatment conditions, osteogenic differentiation by NT-plasma was assessed and compared to peroxide or osteogenic media containing ?-glycerolphosphate. Although both NT-plasma and peroxide induced differentiation-specific gene expression, neither was as effective as the osteogenic media. However, treatment of cells with NT-plasma after 24 hr in osteogenic or chondrogenic media significantly enhanced differentiation as compared to differentiation media alone. The results of this study show that NT-plasma can selectively initiate and amplify ROS signaling to enhance differentiation, and suggest this technology could be used to enhance bone fusion and improve healing after skeletal injury. PMID:24349203

Zhang, Jun; Kurpad, Deepa S.; Fridman, Gregory; Fridman, Alexander; Freeman, Theresa A.

2013-01-01

337

Dithiol amino acids can structurally shape and enhance the ligand-binding properties of polypeptides  

Science.gov (United States)

The disulfide bonds that form between two cysteine residues are important in defining and rigidifying the structures of proteins and peptides. In polypeptides containing multiple cysteine residues, disulfide isomerization can lead to multiple products with different biological activities. Here, we describe the development of a dithiol amino acid (Dtaa) that can form two disulfide bridges at a single amino acid site. Application of Dtaas to a serine protease inhibitor and a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor inhibitor that contain disulfide constraints enhanced their inhibitory activities 40- and 7.6-fold, respectively. X-ray crystallographic and NMR structure analysis show that the peptide ligands containing Dtaas have retained their native tertiary structures. We furthermore show that replacement of two cysteines by Dtaas can avoid the formation of disulfide bond isomers. With these properties, Dtaas are likely to have broad application in the rational design or directed evolution of peptides and proteins with high activity and stability.

Chen, Shiyu; Gopalakrishnan, Ranganath; Schaer, Tifany; Marger, Fabrice; Hovius, Ruud; Bertrand, Daniel; Pojer, Florence; Heinis, Christian

2014-11-01

338

Effect of nitric acid on pretreatment and fermentation for enhancing ethanol production of rice straw.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, nitric acid (HNO?) was evaluated as an acid catalyst for rice straw pretreatment, and, after neutralization, as a sole nitrogen source for subsequent fermentation. Response surface methodology was used to obtain optimal pretreatment condition with respect to HNO? concentration (0.2-1.0%), temperature (120-160 °C) and reaction time (1-20 min). In a condition of 0.65% HNO?, 158.8 °C and 5.86 min, a maximum xylose yield of 86.5% and an enzymatic digestibility of 83.0% were achieved. The sugar solution that contained nitrate derived from the acid catalyst supported the enhancement of ethanol yield by Pichia stipitis from 10.92 g/L to 14.50 g/L. The results clearly reveal that nitric acid could be used not only as a pretreatment catalyst, but also as a nitrogen source in the fermentation process for bioethanol production. It is anticipated that the HNO?-based pretreatment can reduce financial burden on the cellulosic bioethanol industry by simplifying after-pretreatment-steps as well as providing a nitrogen source. PMID:24274544

Kim, Ilgook; Lee, Bomi; Park, Ji-Yeon; Choi, Sun-A; Han, Jong-In

2014-01-01

339

Optimization of substrate concentration for enhanced citric acid production by aspergillus niger M-101  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studying the effect of different sugar concentration of beet molasses on citric acid accumulation in batch fermentation, 150 g/litre sugar concentration was found to be optimal for maximum citric acid production (27.25+-2.35 g/litre) using Aspergillus niger M-101. Y/sup p/x/ value for product formation increased with increase in sugar concentration through out the study. Qp value for citric acid production also increased with increase in sugar concentration and reached the maximum (0.141 g/litre/h) at 150 g/litre sugar concentration but with further increase in sugar concentration, the value decreased. When culture was grown at different substrate concentrations, the kinetic parameters monitored for Y/sub x/s/, Y/sub p/s/ and Y/sub p/x/, Q/sub p/, Q/sub s/ and q/sub p/ showed significant enhancement (p <= 0.05) in citric acid production as well as biomass growth. (author)

340

Zoledronic acid in the treatment of bone metastases by hepatocellular carcinoma: a case series  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Purpose The survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has improved with advancements in various diagnostic tools and treatment modalities. Consequently, bone metastases from HCC are diagnosed more frequently. The aims of the present study was to describe the clinical features and treatment of HCC patients presenting with bone metastases. In particular, we evaluated the role of zoledronic acid in these patients especially with regar...

Montella, Liliana; Addeo, Raffaele; Palmieri, Giovannella; Caraglia, Michele; Cennamo, Gregorio; Vincenzi, Bruno; Guarrasi, Rosario; Mamone, Rosanna; Faiola, Vincenzo; Frega, Nicola; Capasso, Elena; Maiorino, Luigi; Leopardo, Davide; Pizza, Carmine; Montesarchio, Vincenzo

2009-01-01

341

Use of zoledronic acid in the treatment of Paget’s disease  

OpenAIRE

This review examines the use of zoledronic acid in the treatment of Paget’s disease of bone. It begins with a brief discussion of the theories of pathogenesis of Paget’s disease, its clinical manifestations, and the history of bisphosphonate treatment in this disorder. Risk of oversuppression of bone by the more potent bisphosphonates and their association with avascular necrosis of the jaw are noted.

Seton, Margaret P.; Krane, Stephen Martin

2007-01-01

342

Improving impregnation properties of fir wood to acid copper chromate (ACC) with microwave pre-treatment  

OpenAIRE

Effects of microwave pre-treatment on impregnation properties in fir wood (Abies alba L.) with acid copper chromate (ACC) were studied here. Flat-sawn specimen boards were prepared with moisture content (MC) of 40 ± 5% and were exposed to microwave radiation with 2450 MHz frequency for 10, 12, 14, and 16 minutes at four different radiation treatments. Microwave-treated specimens, along with the control specimens, were conditioned to the final MC of 12% and then impregnated with 5%-ACC soluti...

Ramezanpour M; Tarmian A; Hr, Taghiyari

2014-01-01

343

Differential proteome analysis of human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK-293) following mycophenolic acid treatment  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is widely used as a post transplantation medicine to prevent acute organ rejection. In the present study we used proteomics approach to identify proteome alterations in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293) after treatment with therapeutic dose of MPA. Following 72 hours MPA treatment, total protein lysates were prepared, resolved by two dimensional gel electrophoresis and differentially expressed proteins were identified by QTOF-MS/MS analysis. Ex...

Rahman Hazir; Qasim Muhammad; Oellerich Michael; Asif Abdul R

2011-01-01

344

Effect of quarantine treatments on the carbohydrate and organic acid content of mangoes (cv. Tommy Atkins)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Brazil is one of the largest mango producers and the third largest mango exporter worldwide. Irradiation treatment and its commercial feasibility have been studied in our country to make it possible to develop new markets and, consequently, to compete with the major exporters of mangoes, Mexico and India. This work was designed to compare irradiation treatment with the hot water dip treatment in mangoes cv. Tommy Atkins for export and to verify that the main attributes for acceptance, color and texture, as well as carbohydrate and organic acid contents, were maintained. In this study, the fruit was divided into groups: control, hot water dip-treated (46 °C for 90 min), and irradiation-treated at doses of 0.4 kGy and 1.0 kGy. The fruit was stored at low temperature (11 °C±2) for 14 days and then at room temperature (23 °C±2) until the end of the study. The results indicated that the fruit given a dose of 1.0 kGy remained in a less advanced stage of ripening (stage 3) throughout the storage period, but experienced a greater loss of texture in the beginning of the experiment. It was noted that only the control group had higher levels of citric acid and succinic acid on the last day of the experiment. There were no significant differences in the total sugar content between any treatment groups. Gamma radiation can be used as a quarantine treatment and does not interfere negatively with the quality attributes of mangoes. - Highlights: ? In Brazil, one of the largestts: ? In Brazil, one of the largest producers and exporters of mangoes, tropical fruits are routinely treated with a hot water dip. ? Results from this study demonstrate that irradiation is a good alternative to this conventional quarantine treatment. ? Carbohydrate and organic acid results are presented for irradiation and hot water dip treatments. ? Texture measurements are shown as a function of storage time for each of these treatments.

345

CAPSULE REPORT: ADIPIC ACID-ENHANCED LIME/LIMESTONE TEST RESULTS AT THE EPA ALKALI SCRUBBING TEST FACILITY  

Science.gov (United States)

The fifth in a series of reports describing the results of the Shawnee Lime and Limestone Wet Scrubbing Test Program, this report describes the results of adipic acid-enhanced limestone wet scrubbing systems. rimary objective of this program was to enhance sulfur oxide removal an...

346

Synergistic permeability enhancing effect of lysophospholipids and fatty acids on lipid membranes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The permeability-enhancing effects of the two surfactants, 1-paltnitoyl-2-lyso-sn-gycero-3-pllosplloclloline (lysoPPC) and palmitic acid (PA), on lipid membranes that at physiological temperatures are in the gel, fluid, and liquid-ordered phases were determined using the concentration-dependent self-quenching properties of the hydrophilic marker, calcein. Adding lysoPPC to lipid membranes in the gel-phase induced a time-dependent calcein release curve that can be described by the sum of two exponentials, whereas RA induces a considerably more complex release curve. However, when lysoPPC and PA were added simultaneously in equimolar concentrations, a dramatic synergistic permeability-enhancing effect was observed. In contrast, when both lysoPPC and PA are added to liposomal membranes that are in the fluid or liquid-ordered phases, no effect on the transmembrane permeation of calcein was observed.

Davidsen, Jesper; Mouritsen, O.G.

2002-01-01

347

Hypertonic saline reduces inflammation and enhances the resolution of oleic acid induced acute lung injury  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertonic saline (HTS reduces the severity of lung injury in ischemia-reperfusion, endotoxin-induced and ventilation-induced lung injury. However, the potential for HTS to modulate the resolution of lung injury is not known. We investigated the potential for hypertonic saline to modulate the evolution and resolution of oleic acid induced lung injury. Methods Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used in all experiments. Series 1 examined the potential for HTS to reduce the severity of evolving oleic acid (OA induced acute lung injury. Following intravenous OA administration, animals were randomized to receive isotonic (Control, n = 12 or hypertonic saline (HTS, n = 12, and the extent of lung injury assessed after 6 hours. Series 2 examined the potential for HTS to enhance the resolution of oleic acid (OA induced acute lung injury. Following intravenous OA administration, animals were randomized to receive isotonic (Control, n = 6 or hypertonic saline (HTS, n = 6, and the extent of lung injury assessed after 6 hours. Results In Series I, HTS significantly reduced bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL neutrophil count compared to Control [61.5 ± 9.08 versus 102.6 ± 11.89 × 103 cells.ml-1]. However, there were no between group differences with regard to: A-a O2 gradient [11.9 ± 0.5 vs. 12.0 ± 0.5 KPa]; arterial PO2; static lung compliance, or histologic injury. In contrast, in Series 2, hypertonic saline significantly reduced histologic injury and reduced BAL neutrophil count [24.5 ± 5.9 versus 46.8 ± 4.4 × 103 cells.ml-1], and interleukin-6 levels [681.9 ± 190.4 versus 1365.7 ± 246.8 pg.ml-1]. Conclusion These findings demonstrate, for the first time, the potential for HTS to reduce pulmonary inflammation and enhance the resolution of oleic acid induced lung injury.

Costello Joseph F

2008-07-01

348

Design and evaluation of Lumefantrine – Oleic Acid Self Nanoemulsifying Ionic Complex for Enhanced Dissolution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background:Lumefantrine, an antimalarial molecule has very low and variable bioavailability owing to its extremely poor solubility in water. It is recommended to be taken with milk to enhance its solubility and bioavailability. The aim of present study was to develop a Self Nanoemulsifying Delivery system (SNEDs of lumefantrine (LF to achieve rapid and complete dissolution independent of food-fat and surfactant in dissolution media.Methods:Solubility of LF in oil, co-solvent/co-surfactant and surfactant solution and emulsification efficiency of surfactant were analyzed to optimize the LF loaded self nanoemulsifying preconcentrate. Effect of LF-oleic acid complexation on emulsification, droplet size, zeta potential and dissolution were investigated. Effect of milk concentration and fat content on saturation solubility and dissolution of LF was investigated. Dissolution of marketed formulation and LF-SNEDs was carried out in pH 1.2 and pH 6.8 phosphate buffer.Results:LF exhibited very high solubility in oleic acid owing to complexation between tertiary amine of LF and carboxyl group of oleic acid (OA. Cremophore EL and medium chain monoglyceride were selected surfactant and co-surfactant, respectively. Significantly smaller droplet size (37 nm, shift in zeta potential from negative to positive value, very high drug loading in lipid based system (> 10%, no precipitation after dissolution are the major distinguish characteristics contributed by LF-OA complex in the SNED system. Saturation solubility and dissolution study in milk containing media pointed the significant increment in solubility of LF in the presence of milk-food fat. LF-SNEDs showed > 90% LF release within 30 min in pH 1.2 while marketed tablet showed almost 0% drug release.Conclusion:Self nanoemulsification promoting ionic complexation between basic drug and oleic acid hold great promise in enhancing solubility of hydrophobic drugs.

Pradeep Vavia

2013-03-01

349

Bimetallic alloy Pt/Ag nanoparticles with enhanced catalytic activity for formic acid oxidation  

Science.gov (United States)

Here, we report the synthesis of Pt/Ag bimetallic alloy catalyst through combining the ion implantation and electrodeposition method. Ag nanoparticles are employed as the seeds for the growth of Pt nanoparticles. Pt/Ag alloy catalyst demonstrates much higher catalytic activity than pure Pt catalyst, which is about three times more active on the basis of equivalent Pt electrochemically active surface area than that of the pure Pt catalyst. The ion implantation of Ag efficiently enhances the catalytic activity of Pt catalyst for formic acid oxidation.

Guo, Chunmei; Hu, Jingbo

2014-05-01

350

Platelet-Rich Plasma in Treatment of Zoledronic Acid-Induced Bisphosphonate-related Osteonecrosis of the Jaws  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) is a well-known challenging entity warranting management. Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) plays an important role in bone biology by enhancing bone repair and regeneration. Objectives: The aim of this animal study was to evaluate the effects of PRP on zoledronic acid-induced BRONJ. Materials and Methods: Seven rats were given 0.04 mg Zoledronic acid intravenously once a week for five weeks. Two weeks later, the animals underwent extraction of their first lower molars, bilaterally. After clinical confirmation of the osteonecrosis, PRP was injected randomly into one of the extraction sockets of each rat. Three weeks later, all rats were sacrificed in order to obtain histological sections. The analysis of epithelialization was performed by McNamar’s test, and the analysis of osteogenesis and angiogenesis was performed by the Wilcoxon Sign Rank test. P value was set at 0.05. Results: We found no significant differences between the two groups regarding the amount of epithelialization, angiogenesis or sequestrum formation (P > 0.05), but a significant difference was seen between the two groups regarding the amount of existing vital bone (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Our study demonstrates positive results (preservation or regeneration of bone) using PRP in treatment of BRONJ. Although PRP may enhance osseous regeneration, long-term follow-ups are required to confirm its benefits. PMID:25032151

Sarkarat, Farzin; Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein; Jahanbani, Jahanfar; Sepehri, Dena; Kahali, Roozbeh; Nematollahi, Zahra

2014-01-01

351

Detection of liver malignancy with gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI: Is addition of diffusion-weighted MRI beneficial?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aim: To determine the additive value of diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) to gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI for the detection of hepatic metastases and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and Methods: Thirty-five patients with 38 liver metastases and 18 HCCs were included in this study. Ten patients also had hemangiomas (n = 3) or cysts (n = 8). Liver MRI consisted of pre-contrast and gadoxetic acid-enhanced 3D T1-weighted MRIs (arterial, portal, 2-min delay, 20 min hepatocyte-selective phases), a post-contrast T2-weighted image, and post-contrast DWI (b values: 0, 50, 600 s/mm{sup 2}). Two observers independently analyzed the gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI with and without DWI. The diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity for the detection of liver lesions were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results: Although there were no significant differences in diagnostic accuracy for detecting metastases and HCCs between the gadoxetic acid set alone and the combined DWI and gadoxetic acid set for both observers (mean Az, 0.974 vs 0.987), we found the sensitivity for detecting metastases to be significantly higher with the combined images (97.4%) than with the gadoxetic acid set alone (89.5%) for observer 1 (p = 0.008). Three and two metastases for each observer were clearly verified by adding DWI to gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI. However, sensitivities for both image sets were equivalent in detecting HCCs. Conclusion: The addition of DWI to gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI has the potential to increase sensitivity for the detection of liver metastases. However, for detecting HCC, we found no additive value of DWI to gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI.

Kim, Young Kon, E-mail: jmyr@dreamwiz.co [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chonbuk National University Hospital and Medical School (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chong Soo; Han, Young Min [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chonbuk National University Hospital and Medical School (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Hwan [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Wonkwang University Hospital and Medical School (Korea, Republic of)

2011-06-15

352

Enhanced absorption of anthocyanins after oral administration of phytic acid in rats and humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many studies on the bioavailability of polyphenols have been reported. However, the relative urinary excretions of AC are also low, ranging from 0.004% to 0.1%. By contrast, other polyphenols show higher urinary excretion levels. Here, we studied the enhancing effects of phytic acid (IP6) on absorption of blackcurrant anthocyanins (BCAs) in rats and humans. In rats after oral administration of BCAs (as 241 mg of AC/kg body weight) in IP6 (0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, 2.5%) solution, the ACs recovery in urine was increased dependent on IP6 dose. These results suggest that the IP6 enhances gastrointestinal absorption of ACs. At the further analysis of IP6 enhancement effect in rat, whereas BCAs were normally passed through the stomach and duodenum within 2 h, in IP6 group, after 2-6 h post-administration, stomach and jejunum content's weights were specifically heavy, and large amounts of ACs were also detected in stomach, duodenum, and jejunum. These results suggested that the mixture of BCAs and IP6 reduced the gastrointestinal motility. Prolongation of ACs residue in gastrointestinal tract then caused the enhancing effects of IP6 on absorption of AC. In the human study, each subject was orally administrated a BCA beverage containing BCA concentrate (AC 4 mg/kg body weight), 1% of IP6, and 1% of sodium citrate as a pH stabilizer. Both the plasma level and the urinary excretion of AC were increased as compared to BCA administration without IP6. AC intake with IP6 may increase the bioavailability of AC to the comparative level as other polyphenols. Yet, phytic acid, being a strong chelator of important minerals, contributes to mineral deficiencies. An interference with iron uptake has been reported. Safety tests are therefore necessary before high dose IP6 can be used in foods. PMID:17319688

Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Ito, Kyoko; Yonekura, Kumiko; Tsuda, Takanori; Ichiyanagi, Takashi; Hirayama, Masao; Konishi, Tetsuya

2007-03-21

353

Combined oral treatment with racemic and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid for removal of mercury in rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Racemic dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) was found more efficient than the meso-isoform in enhancing the removal of mercury in rats. However, racemic-DMSA has recently been found more toxic. The efficiency of combined oral treatment with the two isoforms of DMSA for removal of mercury has now been evaluated. Female albino rats were treated orally for four days with meso- (M) and/or racemic- (R) DMSA (1 mmol/kg each), five days after a single intraperitoneal administration of 203Hg with 0.5 mg HgCl2/kg. The animals were divided into six groups according to the number of treatments with each isomer: control (untreated), 4M, IR+3M, 2R+2M, 3R+1M, and 4R. Whole body, kidney, liver and brain mercury contents were measured nine days after 203Hg administration. In all treated groups retention in the whole body and kidneys was greatly reduced. The groups treated with racemic-DMSA, regardless of the number of doses, showed a greater removal of mercury than the group treated with meso-DMSA alone (4M). All treatments were less efficient in reducing liver retention, and the brain retention was not affected. It was concluded that even a single application of the more toxic racemic-DMSA during a four-day oral treatment regimen is sufficient to improve the removal by meso-DMSA of mercury from rats. (au)

354

Combined oral treatment with racemic and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid for removal of mercury in rats  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Racemic dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) was found more efficient than the meso-isoform in enhancing the removal of mercury in rats. However, racemic-DMSA has recently been found more toxic. The efficiency of combined oral treatment with the two isoforms of DMSA for removal of mercury has now been evaluated. Female albino rats were treated orally for four days with meso- (M) and/or racemic- (R) DMSA (1 mmol/kg each), five days after a single intraperitoneal administration of {sup 203}Hg with 0.5 mg HgCl{sub 2}/kg. The animals were divided into six groups according to the number of treatments with each isomer: control (untreated), 4M, IR+3M, 2R+2M, 3R+1M, and 4R. Whole body, kidney, liver and brain mercury contents were measured nine days after {sup 203}Hg administration. In all treated groups retention in the whole body and kidneys was greatly reduced. The groups treated with racemic-DMSA, regardless of the number of doses, showed a greater removal of mercury than the group treated with meso-DMSA alone (4M). All treatments were less efficient in reducing liver retention, and the brain retention was not affected. It was concluded that even a single application of the more toxic racemic-DMSA during a four-day oral treatment regimen is sufficient to improve the removal by meso-DMSA of mercury from rats. (au). 8 refs.

Kostial, K.; Restek-Samarzija, N.; Blanusa, M.; Piasek, M. [Inst. for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb (Croatia); Mones, M.M. [Vanderbilt Univ., Dept. of Chemistry, Nashville, TN (United States); Singh, P.K. [Ellington Agriculture Center, Tennessee Dept. of Agriculture, Food Residue and Toxicology Lab., Nashville, TN (United States)

1997-11-01

355

A review of minodronic acid hydrate for the treatment of osteoporosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Shinji Tanishima, Yasuo MorioDepartment of Orthopedic Surgery, Misasa Onsen Hospital, Misasa, Tottori, JapanAbstract: Minodronic acid hydrate was the first bisphosphonate developed and approved for osteoporosis treatment in Japan. With regard to inhibition of bone resorption, minodronic acid hydrate is 1000 times more effective than etidronic acid and 10–100 times more effective than alendronic acid. Clinical trials conducted to date have focused on postmenopausal female patients suffering from primary osteoporosis. In these trials, 1 mg of oral minodronic acid hydrate was administrated once daily, and a significant increase was observed in lumbar-spine and hip-joint bone density 1–2 years after administration. All markers of bone metabolism urinary collagen type 1 cross-linked N-telopeptide, urinary free deoxypyridinoline, serum bone alkaline phosphatase, and serum osteocalcin were decreased. The incidence rate of new vertebral and nonvertebral fractures was also decreased. Therefore, effectiveness in fracture prevention was confirmed. A form of minodronic acid (50 mg requiring once-monthly administration has been developed and is currently being used clinically. A comparative study between this new formulation and once-daily minodronic acid (1 mg showed no significant differences between the two formulations in terms of improvement rates in lumbar-spine and hip-joint bone density, changes in bone metabolism markers, or incidence of side effects. This indicates the noninferiority of the monthly formulation. Side effects such as osteonecrosis of the jaw or atypical femoral fractures were not reported with other bisphosphonates, although it is believed that these side effects may emerge as future studies continue to be conducted. On the basis of studies conducted to date, minodronic acid hydrate is considered effective for improving bone density and preventing fractures. We anticipate further investigations in the future.Keywords: osteoporosis, minodronic acid hydrate, treatment, bisphosphonate

Tanishima S

2013-02-01

356

The Effect of Fiber Bleaching Treatment on the Properties of Poly(lactic acid/Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber Composites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work, biodegradable composites from poly(lactic acid (PLA and oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB fiber were prepared by melt blending method. Prior to mixing, the fiber was modified through bleaching treatment using hydrogen peroxide. Bleached fiber composite showed an improvement in mechanical properties as compared to untreated fiber composite due to the enhanced fiber/matrix interfacial adhesion. Interestingly, fiber bleaching treatment also improved the physical appearance of the composite. The study was extended by blending the composites with commercially available masterbatch colorant.

Marwah Rayung

2014-08-01

357

Inhibition of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid conjugation to amino acids by treatment of cultured soybean cells with cytokinins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kinetin, and all other cytokinins tested, inhibited the conjugation of [(14)C]2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D) to amino acids when supplied simultaneously with the 2,4-D to cultured soybean cells. Upon transfer to hormone-free medium, the cytokinin-treated cells released more of their [(14)C]2,4-D than did the control cells. Initial exposure to low 2,4-D and high kinetin levels resulted in the greatest release of 2,4-D upon subsequent transfer. The observed alteration in 2,4-D metabolism did not seem to be correlated with growth rate. Appropriate treatment of soybean cells with kinetin resulted in 2,4-D metabolism that resembled the 2,4-D metabolism of embryogenic carrot cells. However, no new morphological structures were observed in these soybean cultures, indicating that other factors are related to the failure of soybean cells to regenerate in culture. PMID:16661739

Montague, M J; Enns, R K; Siegel, N R; Jaworski, E G

1981-04-01

358

Effective treatment with para-aminomethylbenzoic acid for chronic disseminated intravascular coagulation associated with aortic dissection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic disseminated intravascular coagulation is a rare complication of aortic dissection. Surgical correction or low molecular weight heparin is treatment of choice, but for a severe bleeding problem due to excessive fibrinolysis, para-aminomethylbenzoic acid would be a simple and effective therapeutic approach. PMID:24695090

Cui, Qingya; Wu, Tianqin; Chen, Haifei; Qin, Longmei; Yu, Ziqiang; Shen, Hongshi; Wang, Zhaoyue

2015-04-01

359

COMPOST-FREE BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF ACID ROCK DRAINAGE, TECHNICAL EVALUATION BULLETIN  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program, an evaluation of the compost-free bioreactor treatment of acid rock drainage (ARD) from the Aspen Seep was conducted at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site located in a remote, high altitude area of Alpine Co...

360

COMPOST-FREE BIOREACTOR TREATMENT OF ACID ROCK DRAINAGE - TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program, an evaluation of the compost-free bioreactor treatment of acid rock drainage (ARD) from the Aspen Seep was conducted at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site located in a remote, high altitude area of Alpine Co...

361

COMPOST-FREE BIOREACTOR TREATMENT OF ACID ROCK DRAINAGE LEVIATHAN MINE, CALIFORNIA INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program, an evaluation of the compost-free bioreactor treatment of acid rock drainage (ARD) from the Aspen Seep was conducted at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site located in a remote, high altitude area of Alpine Co...

362

Effect of thermal, chemical and thermo-chemical pre-treatments to enhance methane production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The rise in oil price triggered the exploration and enhancement of various renewable energy sources. Producing biogas from organic waste is not only providing a clean sustainable indigenous fuel to the number of on-farm digesters in Europe, but also reducing the ecological and environmental deterioration. The lignocellulosic substrates are not completely biodegraded in anaerobic digesters operating at commercial scale due to their complex physical and chemical structure, which result in meager energy recovery in terms of methane yield. The focus of this study is to investigate the effect of pre-treatments: thermal, thermo-chemical and chemical pre-treatments on the biogas and methane potential of dewatered pig manure. A laboratory scale batch digester is used for these pre-treatments at different temperature range (25 degrees C-150 degrees C). Results showed that thermo-chemical pretreatment has high effect on biogas and methane potential in the temperature range (25-100 degrees C). Maximum enhancement is observed at 70 degrees C with increase of 78% biogas and 60% methane production. Thermal pretreatment also showed enhancement in the temperature range (50-10 degrees C), with maximum enhancement at 100 degrees C having 28% biogas and 25% methane increase. Crown Copyright (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Rafique, Rashad; Poulsen, Tjalfe

2010-01-01

363

Effect of thermal, chemical and thermo-chemical pre-treatments to enhance methane production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The rise in oil price triggered the exploration and enhancement of various renewable energy sources. Producing biogas from organic waste is not only providing a clean sustainable indigenous fuel to the number of on-farm digesters in Europe, but also reducing the ecological and environmental deterioration. The lignocellulosic substrates are not completely biodegraded in anaerobic digesters operating at commercial scale due to their complex physical and chemical structure, which result in meager energy recovery in terms of methane yield. The focus of this study is to investigate the effect of pre-treatments: thermal, thermo-chemical and chemical pre-treatments on the biogas and methane potential of dewatered pig manure. A laboratory scale batch digester is used for these pre-treatments at different temperature range (25 C-150 C). Results showed that thermo-chemical pretreatment has high effect on biogas and methane potential in the temperature range (25-100 C). Maximum enhancement is observed at 70 C with increase of 78% biogas and 60% methane production. Thermal pretreatment also showed enhancement in the temperature range (50-10 C), with maximum enhancement at 100 C having 28% biogas and 25% methane increase. (author)

Rafique, Rashad; Nizami, Abdul-Sattar; Murphy, Jerry D.; Kiely, Gerard [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University College Cork (Ireland); Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm [Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Aalborg University (Denmark); Asam, Zaki-ul-Zaman [Department of Civil Engineering, National University of Ireland Galway (Ireland)

2010-12-15

364

Hydrothermal treatment of oleaginous yeast for the recovery of free fatty acids for use in advanced biofuel production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbial oils hold great potential as a suitable feedstock for the renewable production of biofuels. Specifically, the use of oleaginous yeasts offers several advantages related to cultivation and quality of lipid products. However, one of the major bottlenecks for large-scale production of yeast oils is found in the lipid extraction process. This work investigated the hydrothermal treatment of oleaginous yeast for hydrolysis and lipid extraction resulting in fatty acids used for biofuel production. The oleaginous yeast, Cryptococcus curvatus, was grown in 5 L bioreactors and the biomass slurry with 53±4% lipid content (dry weight basis) was treated at 280 °C for 1h with an initial pressure of 500 psi in batch stainless steel reactors. The hydrolysis product was separated and each of the resulting streams was further characterized. The hexane soluble fraction contained fatty acids from the hydrolysis of yeast triacylglycerides, and was low in nitrogen and minerals and could be directly integrated as feedstock into pyrolysis processing to produce biofuels. The proposed hydrothermal treatment addresses some current technological bottlenecks associated with traditional methodologies such as dewatering, oil extraction and co-product utilization. It also enhances the feasibility of using microbial biomass for production of renewable fuels and chemicals. PMID:25034431

Espinosa-Gonzalez, Isabel; Parashar, Archana; Bressler, David C

2014-10-10

365

All-trans retinoic acid and sodium butyrate enhance natriuretic peptide receptor a gene transcription: role of histone modification.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the present study was to delineate the mechanisms of GC-A/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (GC-A/NPRA) gene (Npr1) expression in vivo. We used all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, sodium butyrate (NaBu) to examine the expression and function of Npr1 using gene-disrupted heterozygous (1-copy; +/-), wild-type (2-copy; +/+), and gene-duplicated heterozygous (3-copy; ++/+) mice. Npr1(+/-) mice exhibited increased renal HDAC and reduced histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity; on the contrary, Npr1(++/+) mice showed decreased HDAC and enhanced HAT activity compared with Npr1(+)(/+) mice. ATRA and NaBu promoted global acetylation of histones H3-K9/14 and H4-K12, reduced methylation of H3-K9 and H3-K27, and enriched accumulation of active chromatin marks at the Npr1 promoter. A combination of ATRA-NaBu promoted recruitment of activator-complex containing E26 transformation-specific 1, retinoic acid receptor ?, and HATs (p300 and p300/cAMP response element-binding protein-binding protein-associated factor) at the Npr1 promoter, and significantly increased renal NPRA expression, GC activity, and cGMP levels. Untreated 1-copy mice showed significantly increased systolic blood pressure and renal expression of ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) compared with 2- and 3-copy mice. Treatment with ATRA and NaBu synergistically attenuated the expression of ?-SMA and PCNA and reduced systolic blood pressure in Npr1(+/-) mice. Our findings demonstrate that epigenetic upregulation of Npr1 gene transcription by ATRA and NaBu leads to attenuation of renal fibrotic markers and systolic blood pressure in mice with reduced Npr1 gene copy number, which will have important implications in prevention and treatment of hypertension-related renal pathophysiological conditions. PMID:24714214

Kumar, Prerna; Periyasamy, Ramu; Das, Subhankar; Neerukonda, Smitha; Mani, Indra; Pandey, Kailash N

2014-06-01

366

Osteonecrosis related to once-yearly zoledronic Acid treatment in an osteoporotic patient after dental implant.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a case of osteonecrosis of the jaw related to zoledronic acid (5 mg) administered once yearly to treat osteoporosis. A 79-year-old woman who has been treated for osteoporosis for 5 years with 5 applications of zoledronic acid was referred for evaluation. The patient had been submitted to dental implant placement and there was no osseointegration. On clinical examination, suppuration and exposed bone on the alveolar ridge were observed. Radiographic examination revealed an osteolytic area and bone sequestration. Both clinical and radiological features were suggestive of osteonecrosis. The treatment consisted of surgery to remove the affected bone completely. The patient is asymptomatic at 9 months after surgery. Dentists and oral surgeons should be alert to the possibility of osteonecrosis related to the use of once-yearly injections of zoledronic acid for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. PMID:25672391

Miniello, Thais Gimenez; Araújo, Juliane Pirágine; Lopes, Rodrigo Nascimento; Alves, Fabio Abreu

2015-01-01

367

Efficacy and safety of zoledronic acid in the treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ege Can Serefoglu1, Zafer Tandogdu21Kiziltepe Hospital, Department of Urology, Mardin, Turkey; 2Taksim Teaching Hospital, Department of Urology, Istanbul, TurkeyAbstract: Glucocorticoids are essential in treating many disorders and they are widely used in spite of their negative impact on the skeletal system. As bisphosphonates reduce bone resorption through their action on osteoclasts, they play an important role in management of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Unlike other bisphosphonates, zoledronic acid is given by intravenous infusion and it has a potential advantage of increasing the compliance and adherence of patients when it is given 5 mg once a year. However, this treatment modality seems to be associated with more adverse events than oral administrations, and further studies with longer follow-up periods must be conducted to determine the safety and cost-effectiveness of long-term treatment with zoledronic acid.Keywords: bisphosphonates, glucocorticoids, osteoporosis, zoledronic acid

Ege Can Serefoglu

2010-05-01

368

Acidity enhancement of unsaturated bases of group 15 by association with borane and beryllium dihydride. Unexpected boron and beryllium Brønsted acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

The intrinsic acidity of CH2[double bond, length as m-dash]CHXH2, HC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CXH2 (X = N, P, As, Sb) derivatives and of their complexes with BeH2 and BH3 has been investigated by means of high-level density functional theory and molecular orbital ab initio calculations, using as a reference the ethyl saturated analogues. The acidity of the free systems steadily increases down the group for the three series of derivatives, ethyl, vinyl and ethynyl. The association with both beryllium dihydride and borane leads to a very significant acidity enhancement, being larger for BeH2 than for BH3 complexes. This acidity enhancement, for the unsaturated compounds, is accompanied by a change in the acidity trends down the group, which do not steadily decrease but present a minimum value for both the vinyl- and the ethynyl-phosphine. When the molecule acting as the Lewis acid is beryllium dihydride, the ?-type complexes in which the BeH2 molecules interact with the double or triple bond are found, in some cases, to be more stable, in terms of free energies, than the conventional complexes in which the attachment takes place at the heteroatom, X. The most important finding, however, is that P, As, and Sb ethynyl complexes with BeH2 do not behave as P, As, or Sb Brønsted acids, but unexpectedly as Be acids. PMID:25415658

Martín-Sómer, Ana; Mó, Otilia; Yáñez, Manuel; Guillemin, Jean-Claude

2015-01-21

369

Comparative proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in ?-aminobutyric acid enhanced Arabidopsis thaliana tolerance to simulated acid rain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acid rain is a worldwide environmental issue that has seriously destroyed forest ecosystems. As a highly effective and broad-spectrum plant resistance-inducing agent, ?-aminobutyric acid could elevate the tolerance of Arabidopsis when subjected to simulated acid rain. Using comparative proteomic strategies, we analyzed 203 significantly varied proteins of which 175 proteins were identified responding to ?-aminobutyric acid in the absence and presence of simulated acid rain. They could be divided into ten groups according to their biological functions. Among them, the majority was cell rescue, development and defense-related proteins, followed by transcription, protein synthesis, folding, modification and destination-associated proteins. Our conclusion is ?-aminobutyric acid can lead to a large-scale primary metabolism change and simultaneously activate antioxidant system and salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, abscisic acid signaling pathways. In addition, ?-aminobutyric acid can reinforce physical barriers to defend simulated acid rain stress. PMID:21500342

Liu, Tingwu; Jiang, Xinwu; Shi, Wuliang; Chen, Juan; Pei, Zhenming; Zheng, Hailei

2011-05-01

370

Effect of retarded acid treatment on limestone hydro mechanical properties, a multi scale approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

CO2 geological storage is considered as the most effective way to prevent CO2 release into atmosphere and to reduce consecutive greenhouse effect. CO2 injection implies geochemical reactions between the reactive brine and in situ formations, leading to modification of their petrophysical and geomechanical properties. The evolutions of these properties, related to sample alteration, are studied following a multi-scale approach. Carbonate samples are subjected to retarded alteration, using a thermally activated acid, which technique ensures homogeneous increase of sample porosity and mimics long-term CO2 effects on host rocks. Firstly, the alteration impact on the evolution of flow properties related to microstructural changes is studied at successive levels of alteration by classical petrophysical measurements of porosity and permeability (including NMR, mercury porosimetry and laser diffraction) and by observations of microstructures on thin sections and by SEM. Secondly, the mechanical properties of samples are investigated by classical macroscopic triaxial and uniaxial tests. The evolutions of the mechanical properties are discussed in terms of the structural modifications. The macroscopic tests indicate that the alteration weakens the material, owing to the decrease of elastic moduli and Uniaxial Compressive Strengths, from 29MPa to 19MPa after 6 cycles of acid treatments. The study is further complemented by full (mechanical) field measurements, performed by coupling mechanical tests and Digital Image Correlation (DIC). This technique allows for continuous quantitative micro-mechanical description of sample by defining precisely the history of the deformation and the localisation processes during the compression. This technique was applied on both intact and altered materials and at different scales of observation: (i) cm-scale samples were compressed in a classical load frame and imaged by optical devices, (ii) mm-scale samples were loaded with a mini compression rig fitted within a Scanning Electron Microscope. At the macroscale and for the intact sample, a diffuse accommodation of the deformation is observed during the elastic regime, followed by sudden failure propagation after the peak stress. Conversely, the altered samples exhibit much stronger deformation levels, related to strain localization events. The latter result in locally non monotonous stress-strain curves well before macroscopic failure. At the microscale and for the intact sample, the deformation is mostly accommodated within the inter-granular pores. In contrast, the altered samples show a gradual damage, characterized by nucleation at the grain contacts and propagation of microcracks within the grains. The DIC results suggest that besides the overall increase of porosity, the dissolution processes enhance the local heterogeneities of the porous network, which phenomenon further increases the weakening of the materials.

Zinsmeister, L.; Dautriat, J.; Dimanov, A.; Raphanel, J.; Bornert, M.; Gland, N.

2012-04-01

371

Enhancement of laser cancer treatment by a chitosan-derived immunoadjuvant.  

Science.gov (United States)

A chitosan derivative, glycated chitosan (GC), has been used as an immunostimulant for cancer treatment in laser immunotherapy. The function of GC is to enhance the host immune response after direct cancer cell destruction by a selective laser photothermal interaction. To further test its effects, laser immunotherapy was extended to include several different adjuvants for immunological stimulation and to include photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a different tumor-destruction mechanism. Complete Freund (CF) adjuvant, incomplete Freund (IF) adjuvant and Corynebacterium parvum (CP) were selected for treatment of metastatic mammary tumors in rats, in combination with a selective photothermal interaction. The solution of the immunoadjuvants admixed with indocyanine green (ICG), a light-absorbing dye, was injected directly into the tumors, followed by noninvasive irradiation of an 805 nm laser. Combined with PDT, in the treatment of tumors in mice, GC was administered peritumorally immediately after laser irradiation. The survivals of treated animals were compared with untreated control animals. In the treatment of rat tumors, CF, IF and CP raised the cure rates from 0% to 18%, 7% and 9%, respectively. In comparison, GC resulted in a 29% long-term survival. In the treatment of EMT6 mammary sarcoma in mice, GC of 0.5% and 1.5% concentrations increased the cure rates of Photofrin-based PDT treatment from 38% to 63% and 75%, respectively. In the treatment of Line 1 lung adenocarcinoma in mice, a 1.67% GC solution enabled a noncurative meso-substituted tetra(meta-hydroxy-phenyl)chlorin-based PDT to cure 37% of the tumor-bearing mice. The experimental results of this study confirmed our previous studies, showing that immunoadjuvants played an active role in laser-related cancer treatment and that GC significantly enhanced the efficacy of laser cancer treatment. PMID:15535737

Chen, Wei R; Korbelik, Mladen; Bartels, Kenneth E; Liu, Hong; Sun, Jinghai; Nordquist, Robert E

2005-01-01

372

Evaluating Enhanced Sulfate Reduction and Optimized Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA) Composition in Anaerobic Reactor by Fe (III) Addition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anaerobic reactors with ferric iron addition have been experimentally demonstrated to be able to simultaneously improve sulfate reduction and organic matter degradation during sulfate-containing wastewater treatment. In this work, a mathematical model is developed to evaluate the impact of ferric iron addition on sulfate reduction and organic carbon removal as well as the volatile fatty acids (VFA) composition in anaerobic reactor. The model is successfully calibrated and validated using independent long-term experimental data sets from the anaerobic reactor with Fe (III) addition under different operational conditions. The model satisfactorily describes the sulfate reduction, organic carbon removal and VFA production. Results show Fe (III) addition induces the microbial reduction of Fe (III) by iron reducing bacteria (IRB), which significantly enhances sulfate reduction by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and subsequently changes the VFA composition to acetate-dominating effluent. Simultaneously, the produced Fe (II) from IRB can alleviate the inhibition of undissociated H2S on microorganisms through iron sulfide precipitation, resulting in further improvement of the performance. In addition, the enhancement on reactor performance by Fe (III) is found to be more significantly favored at relatively low organic carbon/SO4(2-) ratio (e.g., 1.0) than at high organic carbon/SO4(2-) ratio (e.g., 4.5). The Fe (III)-based process of this work can be easily integrated with a commonly used strategy for phosphorus recovery, with the produced sulfide being recovered and then deposited into conventional chemical phosphorus removal sludge (FePO4) to achieve FeS precipitation for phosphorus recovery while the required Fe (III) being acquired from the waste ferric sludge of drinking water treatment process, to enable maximum resource recovery/reuse while achieving high-rate sulfate removal. PMID:25606811

Liu, Yiwen; Zhang, Yaobin; Ni, Bing-Jie

2015-02-17

373

Effects of treatment with chromium picolinate on peripheral amino acid availability and brain monoamine function in the rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Elemental chromium (Cr) is an essential micronutrient. It is required for optimal insulin activity and normal carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Tri-valent chromium (Cr3+) is recommended for the treatment of diabetes and obesity. There is evidence that Cr3+ may have antidepressant properties, possibly by enhancement of monoamine function through its ability to increase amino acid transport to the brain. The aim of the present study was to investigate further the possible effects of Cr3+ treatment on peripheral amino acid availability and brain monoamine function in the rat. We undertook three studies in rats. The first was a time-course study in which animals were administered single doses of 50 mg/kg of Cr3+ picolinate and the second a dose-response study in which animals were given either 20 or 50 mg/kg Cr3+ picolinate versus vehicle alone via the intra-peritoneal route. In the third, animals were fed a diet containing Cr3+ picolinate (100 mg/kg) or a similar control diet for two weeks and were then sacrificed. Blood was sampled and brains were removed for later analysis. Results from the Cr3+ time-course study defined an optimal time for sampling of two hours after dosing. Results from the second study showed dose-related responses to Cr3+ treatment for a number of measured biochemical parameters including serum corticosterone. In the sub-chronic treatment study Cr3+ significantly increased serum free tryptophan (TRP), non-esterified free fatty acids (NEFFAs), corticosterone, together with brain TRP, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), noradrenaline (NA) and pineal melatonin. From other studies in our laboratory we have shown that Cr3+ treatment can modify brain 5-HT function, perhaps by altering the sensitivity of central 5-HT2A receptors. The peripheral effect of Cr3+ picolinate treatments and their consequential central effect on increased serotonergic and noradrenergic function may suggest that Cr3+ could have some antidepressant-like actions. Future studies to confirm this are to be done. PMID:14571351

Franklin, M; Odontiadis, J

2003-09-01

374

Contrast-enhanced ultrasonic parametric perfusion imaging in the evaluation of antiangiogenic tumor treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To assess the validity of contrast-enhanced ultrasonic parametric perfusion imaging in the evaluation of antiangiogenic tumor treatment by using histology as the reference standard. Materials and methods: H22 hepatoma-bearing mice were treated with thalidomide or placebo by intraperitoneal injection. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound was performed on day 8 after bolus injection of SonoVue. Three different parametric perfusion images were calculated based on the following parameters: area under the curve (AUC), maximum intensity (IMAX) and perfusion index (PI). A score from 1 to 5 (1 = low, 5 = excellent) was used for analysis of parametric perfusion images by two independent readers. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed for evaluation of microvascular density (MVD). Results: Treatment with thalidomide resulted in a significant decrease in perfusion scores assigned to AUC, IMAX and PI parametric images as compared with control tumors (P < 0.001). Immunohistochemistry showed significant decreases of MVD in treated tumors as compared with control tumors (P = 0.002). MVD was positively correlated with the perfusion scores assigned to AUC parametric images (r = 0.568, P = 0.009), IMAX parametric images (r = 0.614, P = 0.004) and PI parametric images (r = 0.636, P = 0.003). Conclusion: Contrast-enhanced ultrasonic parametric perfusion imaging provides a noninvasive tool to directly visualize tumor perfusion changes after antiangiogenic tumor treatment.ntiangiogenic tumor treatment.

375

Intravenous zoledronic acid for the treatment of osteoporosis: The evidence of its therapeutic effect  

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Full Text Available E Michael LewieckiNew Mexico Clinical Research and Osteoporosis Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USAIntroduction: Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mineral density and poor bone quality resulting in reduced bone strength and increased risk of fracture. Oral bisphosphonates, first-line therapy for most patients with osteoporosis, are associated with suboptimal adherence to therapy due to factors that include a complex dosing regimen and gastrointestinal intolerance in some patients. Intravenous bisphosphonates address these limitations through infrequent injectable dosing that assures 100% bioavailability. Intravenous zoledronic acid is the newest bisphosphonate to be approved for the treatment of osteoporosis.Aims: This review assesses the evidence for the therapeutic effects of intravenous zoledronic acid for the treatment of osteoporosis. Evidence review: Zoledronic acid 5 mg administered as an annual 15-min intravenous infusion has been shown to reduce the risk of vertebral fractures, hip fractures, and other fractures in a three-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in women and men with a recent surgical repair of low-trauma hip fracture, it reduced the risk of new clinical fractures and improved survival. In both studies, zoledronic acid was associated with a good safety profile and was generally well tolerated. Zoledronic acid has the potential to improve clinical outcomes by reducing the risk of fracture in patients with osteoporosis.Clinical value: Intravenous zoledronic acid 5 mg every 12 months reduces fracture risk in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis and in women and men with recent low-trauma hip fracture. Keywords: osteoporosis, zoledronic acid, treatment, management, fracture, bisphosphonates

E Michael Lewiecki

2009-06-01

376

Changes underlying the dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI response to treatment in rheumatoid arthritis  

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Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of patients with rheumatoid arthritis has shown a decrease in the early enhancement rate (EER) of synovitis after treatment. The purpose of this work was to investigate the underlying changes. 3D dynamic contrast-enhanced images were acquired from 13 patients before and 1-2 weeks after anti-TNF{alpha} treatment. The EER of the inflamed synovium was measured. The T{sub 1} relaxation time of the synovitis was calculated from images at different flip angles. The time course of the arrival of gadolinium at the radial artery was determined. The gadolinium enhancement of the inflamed synovium was modeled to calculate the fractional plasma volume (v{sub p}), the fractional extravascular, extracellular fluid volume (v{sub e}), and the volume transfer constant (K{sup trans}). Pre- and post-treatment values were compared and the dependence of the EER on each parameter was assessed. There was a decrease in the EER measured over 26 s after treatment (29%, p = 0.002). Reductions in T{sub 1} (12%, p = 0.001), K{sup trans} (31%, p = 0.002), and v{sub p} (43%, p = 0.01) contributed to this; however, the EER was relatively insensitive to changes in v{sub e}. The decrease in EER after anti-TNF{alpha} treatment is largely caused by reductions in the volume transfer constant K{sup trans}, the fractional plasma volume v{sub p}, and the T{sub 1} relaxation time. Only the contributions from K{sup trans} and v{sub p} directly reflect synovial vascularity. (orig.)

Hodgson, Richard J. [University of Liverpool, MARIARC, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Barnes, Theresa; Moots, Robert [University of Aintree, Clinical Rheumatology, School of Clinical Sciences, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Connolly, Sylvia [Whiston Hospital, Merseyside (United Kingdom); Eyes, Brian [University Hospital Aintree, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Campbell, Robert S.D. [Royal Liverpool Hospital, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

2008-03-15

377

Jasmonic acid enhances plant cyanogenesis and resistance to herbivory in lima bean.  

Science.gov (United States)

Jasmonic acid (JA) is a natural plant hormone ubiquitously distributed in plants and centrally involved in the induction of direct and indirect plant defenses. Defenses up-regulated by this hormone include trichomes--a direct, mechanical defense--and alkaloids--a direct chemical defense--as well as two indirect chemical defenses: volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and extrafloral nectar (EFN). Plant cyanogenesis--the release of toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) from preformed cyanogenic precursors in fruits, leaves, and seeds of many plants--is recognized as a direct, constitutive plant defensive trait, and is among the most widely distributed of all direct chemical plant defenses. The cyanogenic system in plants is composed of three parameters: The cyanogenic potential (HCNp; concentration of cyanogenic precursors), ?-glucosidase activity, and cyanogenic capacity (HCNc; release of gaseous hydrogen cyanide). Here, we demonstrated that experimental application of aqueous solutions of JA ranging from 0.001 to 1.0 mmol L(-1), as well as insect herbivory significantly enhanced HCNc via the induction of ?-glucosidase activity in wild lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.). In choice feeding trials with JA induced and damaged leaves, adult Mexican bean beetles--natural herbivores of lima bean--rejected leaves with enhanced ?-glucosidase activity and HCNc. Our findings suggest that jasmonic acid plays a critical role in regulating activity of ?-glucosidases, which determines the rate of cyanogenesis, and thus mediates direct plant defense against herbivores. PMID:25399357

Kautz, Stefanie; Trisel, Julie A; Ballhorn, Daniel J

2014-12-01

378

Antioxidative Peptides Derived from Enzyme Hydrolysis of Bone Collagen after Microwave Assisted Acid Pre-Treatment and Nitrogen Protection  

OpenAIRE

This study focused on the preparation method of antioxidant peptides by enzymatic hydrolysis of bone collagen after microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection. Phosphoric acid showed the highest ability of hydrolysis among the four other acids tested (hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and/or citric acid). The highest degree of hydrolysis (DH) was 9.5% using 4 mol/L phosphoric acid with a ratio of 1:6 under a microwave intensity of 510 W for 240 s. Neutral proteinase gave hig...

Jin Sun; Yong-Hui Shi; Ya-Xin Li; Jie-Yun Wang; Guo-Wei Le; Yun-Jian Lin

2010-01-01

379

Therapeutic value of serum uric acid levels increasing in the treatment of multiple sclerosis  

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Full Text Available Background/Aim. Uric acid was successfully used in both, prevention and treatment of the animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS. Recently it has been shown that inosine, a ribosylated precursor of uric acid, might be used to elevate serum uric acid levels in MS patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of oral inosine as a single drug treatment in patients with MS. Methods. We administered inosine orally to 32 MS patients from 2001-2004 year at doses from 1-2 g daily (given twice depending on the pretreatment serum uric acid levels. The mean follow-up interval was 37.69±6.55 months. The other 32 MS patients, without any treatment except for a relapse period (matched by age, sex, duration of disease and functional disability, were used as controls. The follow-up interval of these patients was 36.39±2.68 months. The neurological disability was evaluated by the Expanded Disability Status Scale score (EDSS. Results. During the observed period the treated MS patients were found to have the lower relapses rate than the non-treated MS patients (Chi-square test, p=0.001. None of the patients have showed any adverse effect of inosine treatment. The non-treated MS patients were found to have a higher increasing in the mean EDSS score than the treated ones (two-way ANOVA repeated measures/factor times, p=0.025. Conclusion. Our results suggested that the treatment approaches based on the elevation of serum uric acid levels might prove beneficial for some MS patients.

Ton?ev Goran

2006-01-01

380

Selection of tropical lactic acid bacteria for enhancing the quality of maize silage.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to select lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains isolated from silage and assess their effect on the quality of maize silage. The LAB strains were inoculated into aqueous extract obtained from maize to evaluate their production of metabolites and pH reduction. The ability to inhibit the pathogenic and silage-spoilage microorganisms' growth was evaluated. Nine LAB strains that showed the best results were assessed in polyvinyl chloride experimental silos. The inoculation of the LAB strains influenced the concentration of lactic and acetic acids and the diversity of Listeria. The inoculation of silages with Lactobacillus buchneri (UFLA SLM11 and UFLA SLM103 strains) resulted in silages with greater LAB populations and improvements after aerobic exposure. The UFLA SLM11 and SLM103 strains identified as L. buchneri showed to be promising in the treatment of maize silage. PMID:24119815

Santos, A O; Ávila, C L S; Schwan, R F

2013-12-01

381

Omega-3 fatty acids as treatments for mental illness: which disorder and which fatty acid?  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing number of observational and epidemiological studies have suggested that mental illness, in particular mood disorders, is associated with reduced dietary intake and/or cellular abundance of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. This has prompted researchers to test the efficacy of omega-3 PUFA in a range of different psychiatric disorders. We have critically reviewed the double blind placebo controlled clinical trials published prior to April 2007 to determine whether omega-3 PUFA are likely to be efficacious in these disorders. Results Most trials involved a small number of participants but were largely well designed. Omega-3 PUFA were well tolerated by both children and adults with mild gastrointestinal effects being the only consistently reported adverse event. For schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder we found little evidence of a robust clinically relevant effect. In the case of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and related disorders, most trials showed at most small benefits over placebo. A limited meta-analysis of these trials suggested that benefits of omega-3 PUFA supplementation may be greater in a classroom setting than at home. Some evidence indicates that omega-3 PUFA may reduce symptoms of anxiety although the data is preliminary and inconclusive. The most convincing evidence for beneficial effects of omega-3 PUFA is to be found in mood disorders. A meta-analysis of trials involving patients with major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder provided evidence that omega-3 PUFA supplementation reduces symptoms of depression. Furthermore, meta-regression analysis suggests that supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid may be more beneficial in mood disorders than with docosahexaenoic acid, although several confounding factors prevented a definitive conclusion being made regarding which species of omega-3 PUFA is most beneficial. The mechanisms underlying the apparent efficacy of omega-3 PUFA in mood disorders compared to schizophrenia are discussed as is a rational for the possibly greater efficacy of EPA compared to DHA. Conclusion While it is not currently possible to recommend omega-3 PUFA as either a mono- or adjunctive-therapy in any mental illness, the available evidence is strong enough to justify continued study, especially with regard to attentional, anxiety and mood disorders.

Sieswerda Lee E

2007-09-01

382

Flow Boiling Critical Heat Flux Enhancement with Tri Sodium Phosphate and Boric Acid Solution in the Tube  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a nuclear power plant, the cooling water is used to remove the decay heat and the safety system such as safety injection system (SIS) and cavity flooding system (CFS) has the cooling water including boric acid. During severe accident, tri sodium phosphate (TSP, Na3PO4·12H2O) is utilized to maintain pH in water within reactor containment. In this study, the purpose is to investigate the critical heat flux (CHF) characteristic of boric acid and TSP solution. In previous studies, Lee et al. and Jeong et al. have reported that boric acid and TSP solution can enhance CHF on a tube. This study examines CHF enhancement on a tube with mixture solution of boric acid and TSP as well as boric acid and TSP solution

383

Cocaine abstinence following chronic treatment alters cerebral metabolism in dopaminergic reward regions. Bromocriptine enhances recovery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

2-(14C)deoxyglucose autoradiography was used to determine local cerebral glucose utilization (lCGU) in rats following chronic cocaine treatment and subsequent abstinence. lCGU was examined in 43 discrete brain regions in animals which had received daily injections of cocaine for 14 days (10 mg/kg) followed by 3 days of saline or bromocriptine (10 mg/kg) treatment. Cocaine abstinence following chronic treatment significantly reduced lCGU in several regions including mesocorticolimbic structures such as ventral tegmental area, medial prefrontal cortex, and nucleus accumbens (NAc). Within the NAc, however, only the rostral pole showed significant reduction. In contrast, when bromocriptine treatment accompanied abstinence, lCGU was no longer reduced in mesocorticolimbic and most other regions, implying that metabolic recovery was enhanced by bromocriptine treatment during early abstinence following chronic cocaine treatment. These data suggest that cerebral metabolism is decreased during cocaine abstinence following chronic treatment in critical brain regions, and that this alteration can be prevented by treatment with direct-acting dopamine agonists such as bromocriptine.

Clow, D.W.; Hammer, R.P. Jr. (Univ. of Hawaii School of Medicine, Honolulu (USA))

1991-01-01

384

Cocaine abstinence following chronic treatment alters cerebral metabolism in dopaminergic reward regions. Bromocriptine enhances recovery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

2-[14C]deoxyglucose autoradiography was used to determine local cerebral glucose utilization (lCGU) in rats following chronic cocaine treatment and subsequent abstinence. lCGU was examined in 43 discrete brain regions in animals which had received daily injections of cocaine for 14 days (10 mg/kg) followed by 3 days of saline or bromocriptine (10 mg/kg) treatment. Cocaine abstinence following chronic treatment significantly reduced lCGU in several regions including mesocorticolimbic structures such as ventral tegmental area, medial prefrontal cortex, and nucleus accumbens (NAc). Within the NAc, however, only the rostral pole showed significant reduction. In contrast, when bromocriptine treatment accompanied abstinence, lCGU was no longer reduced in mesocorticolimbic and most other regions, implying that metabolic recovery was enhanced by bromocriptine treatment during early abstinence following chronic cocaine treatment. These data suggest that cerebral metabolism is decreased during cocaine abstinence following chronic treatment in critical brain regions, and that this alteration can be prevented by treatment with direct-acting dopamine agonists such as bromocriptine

385

Electron beam combined with hydrothermal treatment for enhancing the enzymatic convertibility of sugarcane bagasse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of microbial cellulolytic enzymes is the most efficient process to liberate glucose from cellulose in biomass without the formation of fermentation inhibitors. A combination of pretreatment technologies is an alternative way to increase the access of enzymes to cellulose, and consequently, the conversion yield. In this way, the present study reports on the enzymatic hydrolysis of SCB submitted to three kinds of pretreatment: electron beam processing (EBP), and EBP followed by hydrothermal (TH) and diluted acid (AH) treatment. SCB samples were irradiated using a radiation dynamics electron beam accelerator, and then submitted to thermal and acid (0.1% sulfuric acid) hydrolysis for 40 and 60 min at 180 °C. These samples were submitted to enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) using commercial preparations, including Celluclast 1.5 L and beta-glycosidase. The addition of diluted acid improved TH treatment allowing for a shorter application time. EBP with 50 kGy increased the enzymatic hydrolysis yield of cellulose by 20% after TH and 30% after AH. - Highlights: ? We study the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose in sugarcane bagasse. ? We study the combination of three pretreatments: electron beam processing, EBP followed by hydrothermal and by diluted acid treatment. ? The electron beam processing increased the enzymatic hydrolysis from 8% to 15% with 20 kGy. ? The enzymes used were commercial preparations, as Celluclast 1.5 L and ?-glycosidase. ? st 1.5 L and ?-glycosidase. ? The EBP with 50 kGy increased on 20% the yield of EH of cellulose after TH and 30% after AH.

386

Efficacy of salicylic acid in the treatment of digital dermatitis in dairy cattle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Digital dermatitis (DD) is one of the most important causes of lameness in dairy cattle worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of salicylic acid in the treatment of the disease. A total of 201 DD lesions from 173 cows from four commercial dairy herds were evaluated at day 0 during routine hoof trimming and were allocated into two groups, namely, a control group given chlortetracycline spray, and a treatment group given 10 g of salicylic acid powder applied topically within a bandage. Pain, lesion size and clinical appearance (scored MO to M4) were evaluated on days 3, 14 and 34 post-treatment. A change to MO was defined as healing, while changes of M2 or M4 to M1 or M3 were classified as clinical improvements. Healing rates did not differ significantly between treatment groups at days 3 and 14. By day 34 the healing rate was fivefold better (P = 0.01) for the treatment vs. the control group, with healing rates of 13.6% and 3.1 respectively. By day 3, the rate of improvement was 2.5-fold better (P = 0.02) for the controls. By day 34 the overall positive effect (i.e. healing and improvement) was 1.75-fold better (P = 0.05) for the treatment group. Lesions from the control group were 2.2 times more likely (P = 0.09) to have a pain score equal to 2 by day 14. The proportion of lesions getting smaller by days 14 and 34 was 2.5 times higher (P <0.08) for the treatment vs. the control group. The findings suggest salicylic acid should be considered as an alternative to chlortetracycline for the treatment of DD as it appears more efficacious and would assist in reducing antibiotic use. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Schultz, N.; Capion, N.

2013-01-01

387

Chronic oleoylethanolamide treatment improves spatial cognitive deficits through enhancing hippocampal neurogenesis after transient focal cerebral ischemia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) has been shown to have neuroprotective effects after acute cerebral ischemic injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic OEA treatment on ischemia-induced spatial cognitive impairments, electrophysiology behavior and hippocampal neurogenesis. Daily treatments of 30mg/kg OEA significantly ameliorated spatial cognitive deficits and attenuated the inhibition of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rat model. Moreover, OEA administration improved cognitive function in a manner associated with enhanced neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Further study demonstrated that treatment with OEA markedly increased the expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ? (PPAR?). Our data suggest that chronic OEA treatment can exert functional recovery of cognitive impairments and neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemic insult in rats via triggering of neurogenesis in the hippocampus, which supports the therapeutic use of OEA for cerebral ischemia. PMID:25748831

Yang, Li-Chao; Guo, Han; Zhou, Hao; Suo, Da-Qin; Li, Wen-Jun; Zhou, Yu; Zhao, Yun; Yang, Wu-Shuang; Jin, Xin

2015-04-15

388

Organic acid enhanced soil risk element (Cd, Pb and Zn) leaching and secondary bioconcentration in water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.) in the rhizofiltration process.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of natural chelates to enhance risk element mobility combined with rhizofiltration by free floating macrophytes have not been thoroughly studied in recent years. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of organic acids in soil by conducting flushing experiments to enhance the mobility of Cd, Pb, and Zn from soil to solution. In addition, the bioaccumulation of Cd, Pb, and Zn, in water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.) will be studied as they affect the biomass in the rhizofiltration process. The results revealed that citric and tartaric acids mobilised the highest amount of all risk elements. In comparison to control, citric acid mobilised 71%, 181%, and 112% of Cd, Pb, and Zn while tartaric acid mobilised 70%, 155%, and 135% of Cd, Pb, and Zn respectively. The bioconcentration factor was approximately 2-5 times higher for juvenile plants than mature plants for all treatments as well as for both parts (leaves and roots). The risk element translocation into aerial parts decreased with increased time. Juvenile and mature plants proved a high accumulation potential and a 3 week growth period was observed as a sufficient time period to remove more than 80% of Cd, Pb, and Zn. PMID:22567715

Veseý, Tomás; Tlustos, Pavel; Száková, Jirina

2012-04-01

389

A vaccine strategy with multiple prostatic acid phosphatase-fused cytokines for prostate cancer treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

Immunotherapy is one of the attractive treatment strategies for advanced prostate cancer. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) previously approved the therapeutic vaccine, sipuleucel-T, which is composed of autologous antigen-presenting cells cultured with a fusion protein [prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF)]. Although sipuleucel-T has been shown to prolong the median survival of patients for 4.1 months, more robust therapeutic effects may be expected by modifying the vaccination protocol. In the present study, we aimed to develop and validate a novel vaccination strategy using multiple PAP-fused cytokines for prostate cancer treatment. Using a super gene expression (SGE) system that we previously established to amplify the production of a recombinant protein, significant amounts of PAP-fused cytokines [human GMCSF, interleukin-2 (IL2), IL4, IL7 and mouse GMCSF and IL4] were obtained. We examined the activity of the fusion proteins in vitro to validate their cytokine functions. A significant upregulation of dendritic cell differentiation from monocytes was achieved by PAP-GMCSF when used with the other PAP-fused cytokines. The PAP-fused human IL2 significantly increased the proliferation of lymphocytes, as determined by flow cytometry. We also investigated the in vivo therapeutic effects of multiple PAP-fused cytokines in a mouse prostate cancer model bearing prostate-specific antigen (PSA)- and PAP-expressing tumors. The simultaneous intraperitoneal administration of PAP-GMCSF, -IL2, -IL4 and -IL7 significantly prevented tumor induction and inhibited the tumor growth in the PAP-expressing tumors, yet not in the PSA-expressing tumors. The in vivo therapeutic effects with the multiple PAP-fused cytokines were superior to the effects of PAP-GMCSF alone. We thus demonstrated the advantages of the combined use of multiple PAP-fused cytokines including PAP-GMCSF, and propose a promising prostatic antigen-vaccination strategy to enhance the therapeutic effects. PMID:25632844

FUJIO, KEI; WATANABE, MASAMI; UEKI, HIDEO; LI, SHUN-AI; KINOSHITA, RIE; OCHIAI, KAZUHIKO; FUTAMI, JUNICHIRO; WATANABE, TOYOHIKO; NASU, YASUTOMO; KUMON, HIROMI

2015-01-01

390

Study on hydrogen evolution during treatment of SRS high level radioactive sludge simulant with formic acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the Savannah River Site, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was constructed to vitrify high-level radioactive liquid waste in borosilicate glass for permanent storage. Formic acid, which serves as both an acid and a reducing agent, is used to treat the washed alkaline sludge during melter feed preparation primarily to improve the processability of the feed and to reduce mercury to a metallic state for steam stripping. The high-level sludge is composed of many transition metal hydroxides. Among them there are small quantities of platinum group metals such as Ru, Rh and Pd that are fission products. During the treatment of simulated sludge with formic acid, significant amounts of hydrogen were generated when the platinum group metals were included in the sludge. Apparently the noble metals in the sludge were reduced to metallic states and caused formic acid to decompose catalytically into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, usually with an induction period. A parametric study revealed the following: increasing the amount of formic acid added to the sludge increased the hydrogen generation rate dramatically; once the catalysts were activated, the hydrogen generation rate decreased significantly with a lowering of the temperature of the sludge; the relative catalytic activities of the noble metals in the sludge decreased in the following order: Rh > Ru >> Pd; ammonium ions were generated catalytically from the reaction between formic acid and nitrate; when present, en formic acid and nitrate; when present, the noble metals caused higher upward drifts of the sludge pH

391

Intra-Articular Hyaluronic Acid Injections Vs. Dextrose Prolotherapy in the Treatment of Osteoarthritic Knee Pain  

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Full Text Available Background: Conservative treatment needs to be tried prior to surgical treatment of knee osteoarthritis. This study was designed to evaluate the short-term effects of dextrose prolotherapy on pain relief and functional improvement in knee osteoarthritis in comparison with intra-articular hyaluronic acid injections. Methods: In this double blind clinical trial, 100 patients, aged 40-70 years, with complaints of knee pain lasting >3 months were recruited in Akhtar hospital during the years 2010 to 2011. The patients met the criteria proposed by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR for knee osteoarthritis. 50 patients in hyaluronic acid group received five 2 ml injections of hyaluronic acid (Synocrom Forte® 1% weekly and 50 patients in dextrose prolotherapy group received three 2 ml bimonthly injections of 25% dextrose. The patients were evaluated before and after treatment in terms of pain and functionality using the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS self-questionnaire. The patients were followed up for 12 weeks and were examined 12 weeks after the injections by an observer unaware of group assignments. The data were recorded for statistical analysis. Results: The mean age of the patients was 60.6?8.2 years. No significant differences were found between the two groups with respect to pre- and post-treatment KOOS scores. The scores showed significant improvements in all items following treatment in both groups (P<0.001. Conclusion: It seems that intra-articular injections of 25% dextrose prolotherapy could be as effective as hyaluronic acid injections for the treatment of knee pain due to OA.

S Nasiripour

2012-05-01

392

Treatments of free fatty acids to prevent or decrease colour fixation in cottonseed oil  

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Full Text Available Some treatments have been investigated to prevent or remove colour fixation of cottonseed oil containing high level of free fatty acids without using excess of sodium hydroxide in the refining step. The treatments included use of sodium carbonate and ethanolamine before and after subjecting a crude cottonseed oil containing excess of free fatty acid to a colour fixation treatment.
The results revealed that the carbonate/ethanolamine treatment improved the oil colour by decreasing the free fatty acids and gossypol in the oil, without using any excess of sodium hydroxide.
Carrying out the carbonate/ethanolamine treatment on cottonseed oil with high levels of free fatty acid before colour fixation takes place is more recommended than carrying out the same treatment on the same oil after it has been fixed.

Se han investigado algunos tratamientos para prevenir o eliminar la fijación del color de aceite de semilla de algodón que contienen alto nivel de ácidos grasos libres, sin utilizar un exceso de hidróxido sódico en la etapa de refinación.
Los tratamientos incluyeron el uso de carbonato sódico y etanolamina antes y después, sometiendo un aceite crudo de semilla de algodón que contiene exceso de ácidos grasos libres a tratamiento de fijación del color.
Los resultados mostraron que el tratamiento carbonato/etanolamina mejoró el color del aceite por disminución de los ácidos grasos libres y gosipol en el aceite, sin utilizar un exceso de hidróxido sódico.
Llevar a cabo el tratamiento con carbonato/etanolamina sobre aceite de semilla de algodón con niveles altos de ácidos grasos libres antes que tenga lugar la fijación del color es más recomendable que llevar a cabo el mismo tratamiento sobre el mismo aceite después de que se haya fijado.

Helmy, H. E.

1994-12-01

393

Raman and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of amino acids and nucleotide bases for target bacterial vibrational mode identification  

Science.gov (United States)

Raman and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) studies of bacteria have reported a wide range of vibrational mode assignments associated with biological material. We present Raman and SER spectra of the amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, glutamine, cysteine, alanine, proline, methionine, asparagine, threonine, valine, glycine, serine, leucine, isoleucine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid and the nucleic acid bases adenosine, guanosine, thymidine, and uridine to better characterize biological vibrational mode assignments for bacterial target identification. We also report spectra of the bacteria Bacillus globigii, Pantoea agglomerans, and Yersinia rhodei along with band assignments determined from the reference spectra obtained.

Guicheteau, Jason; Argue, Leanne; Hyre, Aaron; Jacobson, Michele; Christesen, Steven D.

2006-05-01

394

Enhanced copper surface protection in aqueous solutions containing short-chain alkanoic acid potassium salts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of dissolved potassium monocarboxylate salts to produce surface passivation and to inhibit aqueous corrosion of copper was studied. The electrochemical measurements indicate that the inhibiting efficiency of these compounds, with a general formula Cn-1H2n-1COOK or CnK (n=3...12), is dependent on the hydrocarbon chain length. The inhibiting efficiency was higher for a longer hydrocarbon chain of n-alkanoic acid. The degree of copper protection was found to increase with an increase in n-alkanoic acid potassium salt concentration; the optimum concentration of potassium dodecanoate (C12K) in sulfate solutions was found to be 0.07 M. The protective layers formed at the copper surface subsequent to exposure in various n-alkanoic acid potassium salt solutions were characterized by contact angle measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared reflection spectroscopy. Pronounced copper protection was attributed to the growth of a protective film on the copper surface, containing both copper oxides and copper carboxylate compounds. It is suggested that the organic molecules enhance copper protection by covering copper oxides with a thin and dense organic layer, which prevents water molecules or aggressive anions from interacting with the copper surface. PMID:17900157

Abelev, Esta; Starosvetsky, David; Ein-Eli, Yair

2007-10-23

395

Aliphatic carboxylic acids and alcohols as efficiency and elution strength enhancers in micellar liquid chromatography.  

Science.gov (United States)

Micellar liquid chromatography (MLC) uses surfactant solutions as mobile phases with added organic additives to enhance both the elution strength and the chromatographic efficiency. Two aliphatic carboxylic acids (1-butanoic and 1-pentanoic) were used as MLC additives and compared with the two corresponding alcohols (1-butanol, 1-pentanol) in terms of elution strength, efficiency and selectivity. A set of 11 phenol derivatives was used as probe compounds. All micellar mobile phases were prepared with sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) with concentration ranging from 0.05 to 0.15M and the modifier content within 1.0 and 5.0% (v/v). The elution strength of different mobile phases containing a constant amount of SDS and different amounts of modifiers; and mobile phases containing a constant amount of modifier and different SDS concentration were determined and discussed. The effect of the acid modifiers on efficiency was studied constructing van Deemter plots that showed no minimum within the 0.01-0.7mL/min flow rate range studied. Temperature effects were also studied constructing the classical van't Hoff plots. The slight curvature of the plots in the 25-70 degrees C range may indicate some modification of the surfactant-bonded moiety layer on the stationary phase surface. Since no definitive advantage of the use of aliphatic acids were established compared to their alcohol counterpart, their terrible smell will probably preclude their use as MLC organic modifiers. PMID:20673901

Boichenko, Alexander P; Berthod, Alain

2010-09-01

396

Hypotonic stimuli enhance proton-gated currents of acid-sensing ion channel-1b.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are strong candidates for mammalian mechanoreceptors. We investigated whether mouse acid-sensing ion channel-1b (ASIC1b) is sensitive to mechanical stimuli using oocyte electrophysiology, because ASIC1b is located in the mechanosensory stereocilia of cochlear hair cells. Hypotonic stimuli that induced membrane stretch of oocytes evoked no significant current in ASIC1b-expressing oocytes at pH 7.5. However, acid (pH 4.0 or 5.0)-evoked currents in the oocytes were substantially enhanced by the hypotonicity, showing mechanosensitivity of ASIC1b and possible mechanogating of the channel in the presence of other components. Interestingly, the ASIC1b channel was permeable to K(+) (a principal charge carrier for cochlear sensory transduction) and the affinity of the channel for amiloride (IC(50) (inhibition constant)=approximately 48.3 microM) was quite similar to that described for the mouse hair cell mechanotransducer current. Taken together, these data raise the possibility that ASIC1b participates in cochlear mechanoelectrical transduction. PMID:18158916

Ugawa, Shinya; Ishida, Yusuke; Ueda, Takashi; Yu, Yong; Shimada, Shoichi

2008-03-14

397

Hypotonic stimuli enhance proton-gated currents of acid-sensing ion channel-1b  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are strong candidates for mammalian mechanoreceptors. We investigated whether mouse acid-sensing ion channel-1b (ASIC1b) is sensitive to mechanical stimuli using oocyte electrophysiology, because ASIC1b is located in the mechanosensory stereocilia of cochlear hair cells. Hypotonic stimuli that induced membrane stretch of oocytes evoked no significant current in ASIC1b-expressing oocytes at pH 7.5. However, acid (pH 4.0 or 5.0)-evoked currents in the oocytes were substantially enhanced by the hypotonicity, showing mechanosensitivity of ASIC1b and possible mechanogating of the channel in the presence of other components. Interestingly, the ASIC1b channel was permeable to K+ (a principal charge carrier for cochlear sensory transduction) and the affinity of the channel for amiloride (IC50 (inhibition constant) = approximately 48.3 ?M) was quite similar to that described for the mouse hair cell mechanotransducer current. Taken together, these data raise the possibility that ASIC1b participates in cochlear mechanoelectrical transduction

398

Side-stream sludge treatment using free nitrous acid selectively eliminates nitrite oxidizing bacteria and achieves the nitrite pathway.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nitrogen removal via nitrite (i.e. the nitrite pathway) is bene?cial for carbon-limited biological wastewater treatment plants. This study presents a novel strategy for achieving the nitrite pathway, which involves recirculating a portion of the activated sludge through a side-stream sludge treatment unit, where the sludge is subject to treatment with free nitrous acid (FNA i.e. HNO2). The strategy is proposed based on a novel discovery reported in this work that in the concentration range of 0.24-1.35 mg HNO2(-)-N/L, FNA is substantially more biocidal to nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) than to ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Two sequencing batch reactors (SBR) treating synthetic domestic wastewater were used to demonstrate the concept, with one serving as an experimental reactor and the other as a control. In the experimental system, 22% of the sludge from the SBR was transferred to the side-stream treatment unit each day, and was subject to FNA treatment at 1.35 mg N/L for 24 h and then returned to the SBR. The nitrite pathway was rapidly (in 15 d) established in the experimental reactor with an average nitrite accumulation ratio (NO2(-)-N/(NO2(-)-N + NO3(-)-N) × 100%) of above 80%. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization demonstrated that the NOB population in the experimental reactor was 80% lower than that in the control reactor, indicating that the majority of NOB were eliminated from the experimental reactor. The FNA-based strategy for establishing the nitrite pathway substantially improved total nitrogen removal, and did not increase N2O emission or deteriorate sludge settleability. The strategy can be easily integrated with a previously demonstrated strategy, which enhances methane production through pre-treatment of secondary activated sludge, to enable maximum energy recovery while achieving improved nitrogen removal. PMID:24607525

Wang, Qilin; Ye, Liu; Jiang, Guangming; Hu, Shihu; Yuan, Zhiguo

2014-05-15

399

Treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, patient perspectives – focus on once yearly zoledronic acid  

OpenAIRE

Oral bisphosphonates are of proven efficacy in preventing fractures in postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, poor adherence limits their real-world efficacy and clinical utility. Zoledronic acid (ZOL) is a potent bisphosphonate administered by annual intravenous infusion, effectively ensuring adherence to therapy over the following year. According to available data, 66% to 79% of patients have expressed a preference for ZOL over oral bisphosphonates. This is likely to lead to enhanced clinica...

Carmona, Raj; Adachi, Rick

2009-01-01

400

Treatment of murine tumors using acoustic droplet vaporization-enhanced high intensity focused ultrasound  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) can be applied focally and noninvasively to thermally ablate solid tumors. Long treatment times are typically required for large tumors, which can expose patients to certain risks while potentially decreasing the therapeutic efficacy of the treatment. Acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) is a promising modality that can enhance the efficacy of tumor treatment using HIFU. In this study, the therapeutic effects of combined HIFU and ADV was evaluated in mice bearing subcutaneously-implanted 4T1 tumors. Histological examination showed that the combination of HIFU and ADV generated a mean necrotic area in the tumor that was 2.9-fold larger than with HIFU alone. A significant enhancement of necrosis was found in the periphery of the tumor, where the blood supply was abundant. Seven days after treatment, the tumors treated with combined HIFU and ADV were 30-fold smaller in volume than tumors treated with HIFU alone. The study demonstrates the potential advantage of combining HIFU a