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1

Salicylic-acid-mediated enhanced biological treatment of wastewater.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Activated sludge represents a microbial community which is responsible for reduction in pollution load from wastewaters and whose performance depends upon the composition and the expression of degradative capacity. In the present study, the role of salicylic acid (SA) has been evaluated for acclimatization of activated sludge collected from a combined effluent treatment plant followed by analysis of the physiological performance and microbial community of the sludge. The biodegradative capacity of the acclimatized activated sludge was further evaluated for improvement in efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal from wastewater samples collected from industries manufacturing bulk drugs and dyes and dye intermediates (wastewater 1) and from dye industry (wastewater 2). An increase in COD removal efficiency from 50% to 58% and from 78% to 82% was observed for wastewater 1 and wastewater 2, respectively. Microbial community analysis data showed selective enrichment and change in composition due to acclimatization by SA, with 50% of the clones showing sequence homology to unidentified and uncultured bacteria. This was demonstrated by analysis of partial 16S rDNA sequence data generated from dominating clones representing the metagenome which also showed the appearance of a unique population of clones after acclimatization, which was distinct from those obtained before acclimatization and clustered away from the dominating population.

Khardenavis AA; Kapley A; Purohit HJ

2010-03-01

2

Acid and alkaline treatments for enhancing the growth of rhizobia in sludge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wastewater treatment processes produce large amounts of sludge. The application of sludge to agricultural soils improves the soil's physical and biological properties because it contains organic matter and plant nutrients. Wastewater sludge has been used for producing certain bacteria. It has also been proposed as an effective method for the production of rhizobia. Although the amount of sludge required for the production of bacterial inoculum is low, this new application constitutes an additional and suitable alternative for wastewater sludge recycling. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential of using acid or alkaline pre-treatments in sludges having different solid concentrations, to increase the biodegradability of organic material, thereby to enhance the growth of rhizobia, while using sludge as a culture medium. Results of the experiment show that both acid and alkaline treatments improved the rhizobial cell count and reduced mean generation time in primary and secondary sludges, but the efficiency of the treatment was also dependent on the total suspended solids (TSS) concentration. The highest cell count was obtained with primary sludge at 0.65 per cent TSS under alkaline treatment. For secondary sludge, the highest cell count was reached under acid hydrolysis. The mean generation time was reduced by both pre-treatments, with best values obtained for alkaline treatment in primary sludge. 31 refs., 6 tabs.

Rebah, F. B.; Tyagi, R. D. [Quebec Univ., Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Sainte Foy, PQ (Canada); Prevost, D. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Centre de recherche et de developpement sur les sols et les grandes cultures, Sainte Foy, PQ (Canada)

2001-06-01

3

Physiological and behavioral response of stonefly nymphs to enhanced limestone treatment of acid mine drainage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment system uses pulsed, fluidized beds of limestone, and carbon dioxide pretreatment of influent AMD to enhance limestone neutralization of AMD. Laboratory studies were carried out to evaluate the behavior and physiology of larval stoneflies (Pteronarcys proteus, Plecoptera) exposed to effluents produced by the treatment system. Survival, sodium balance, drift, and feeding responses by P. proteus to treated and untreated AMD were examined. P. proteus nymphs exhibited significant losses of whole body sodium in exposures to untreated AMD. Nymphs exposed to treated effluents experienced no loss of whole-body sodium. No significant differences in feeding or drift behavior occurred between nymphs exposed to treated effluents and those exposed to AMD-free controls. The treatment system, with and without CO{sub 2} pretreatment, provided water that was not toxic to the test animals, and that allowed normal behavioral and physiological function.

Cole, M.B.; Arnold, D.E.; Watten, B.J. [ABR Inc., PO Box 249, OR (USA). Environmental Research and Services

2001-07-01

4

Osteoconduction of porous Ti metal enhanced by acid and heat treatments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bone ingrowth into porous Ti metal is important for stable fixation of Ti metal implants to surrounding bone. However, without surface treatment this is limited to only a thin region of the outer surface of the Ti metal. In the present study, a porous Ti metal with a porosity of ~60 % and interpore connections of 70-200 micrometers in diameter was investigated in terms of its chemical and heat treatments, by implanting it into rabbit femur for periods varying from 3 to 12 weeks. The porous Ti metal subjected to heat treatment at 600 °C after H2SO4/HCl mixed acid treatment showed the largest bone ingrowth in comparison with those subjected to no treatment, only acid treatment, and only heat treatment even at an early stage after implantation, and remained as such even 12 weeks after implantation. Their bone ingrowths were well interpreted in terms of apatite-forming abilities of the Ti metals in body environment. Their apatite-forming abilities did not depend upon their surface roughness nor type of crystalline phase, but upon the positive surface charge. PMID:23532383

Kawai, Toshiyuki; Takemoto, Mitsuru; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Pattanayak, Deepak K; Doi, Kenji; Matsushita, Tomiharu; Nakamura, Takashi; Kokubo, Tadashi; Matsuda, Shuichi

2013-03-27

5

Osteoconduction of porous Ti metal enhanced by acid and heat treatments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bone ingrowth into porous Ti metal is important for stable fixation of Ti metal implants to surrounding bone. However, without surface treatment this is limited to only a thin region of the outer surface of the Ti metal. In the present study, a porous Ti metal with a porosity of ~60 % and interpore connections of 70-200 micrometers in diameter was investigated in terms of its chemical and heat treatments, by implanting it into rabbit femur for periods varying from 3 to 12 weeks. The porous Ti metal subjected to heat treatment at 600 °C after H2SO4/HCl mixed acid treatment showed the largest bone ingrowth in comparison with those subjected to no treatment, only acid treatment, and only heat treatment even at an early stage after implantation, and remained as such even 12 weeks after implantation. Their bone ingrowths were well interpreted in terms of apatite-forming abilities of the Ti metals in body environment. Their apatite-forming abilities did not depend upon their surface roughness nor type of crystalline phase, but upon the positive surface charge.

Kawai T; Takemoto M; Fujibayashi S; Akiyama H; Yamaguchi S; Pattanayak DK; Doi K; Matsushita T; Nakamura T; Kokubo T; Matsuda S

2013-07-01

6

Does pre-treatment with bile acids enhance efficacy of biliary extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy?  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine the effect of chenodiol and ursodiol pre-treatment prior to shock wave lithotripsy of gallstones, two groups of 50 gallbladder stones (n = 100), obtained at cholecystectomy, were matched according to their size, shape and weight. All stones were stored in a bile perfused gallbladder model for two weeks. In the first group (A), serving as control, native bile was used, whereas in the other group (B), ursodiol- and chenodiol-enriched bile was perfused, both bile acids at therapeutic concentrations. After two weeks of pre-treatment, electromagnetic shock wave lithotripsy (19 kV, 1 Hz) was performed until stones were fragmented to a size smaller 2 mm. Neither stone density, as assessed by computed tomography, nor their cholesterol content were different in group A and B. A trend towards higher fragmentation efficacy was observed for stones < 15 mm and for those with a CT-density < 100 HU. No influence of either stone shape (rounded vs. angular) or cholesterol content was observed with regard to fragmentation efficacy. Comparing the number of shock waves (SW) required for fragmentation (< 2 mm) there was no significant difference between group A (1850 +/- 1300 SW) and group B (1970 +/- 1500 SW, n.s.). These in vitro results do not support a significant role of bile acids as a rationale pre-treatment prior to lithotripsy of gallstones. PMID:7754647

Wehrmann, T; Kleemann, N; Caspary, W F; Lembcke, B

1995-03-01

7

Does pre-treatment with bile acids enhance efficacy of biliary extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To determine the effect of chenodiol and ursodiol pre-treatment prior to shock wave lithotripsy of gallstones, two groups of 50 gallbladder stones (n = 100), obtained at cholecystectomy, were matched according to their size, shape and weight. All stones were stored in a bile perfused gallbladder model for two weeks. In the first group (A), serving as control, native bile was used, whereas in the other group (B), ursodiol- and chenodiol-enriched bile was perfused, both bile acids at therapeutic concentrations. After two weeks of pre-treatment, electromagnetic shock wave lithotripsy (19 kV, 1 Hz) was performed until stones were fragmented to a size smaller 2 mm. Neither stone density, as assessed by computed tomography, nor their cholesterol content were different in group A and B. A trend towards higher fragmentation efficacy was observed for stones < 15 mm and for those with a CT-density < 100 HU. No influence of either stone shape (rounded vs. angular) or cholesterol content was observed with regard to fragmentation efficacy. Comparing the number of shock waves (SW) required for fragmentation (< 2 mm) there was no significant difference between group A (1850 +/- 1300 SW) and group B (1970 +/- 1500 SW, n.s.). These in vitro results do not support a significant role of bile acids as a rationale pre-treatment prior to lithotripsy of gallstones.

Wehrmann T; Kleemann N; Caspary WF; Lembcke B

1995-03-01

8

Enhanced photocatalytic activity of nanotube-like titania by sulfuric acid treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The TiO2 nanotube sample was prepared via a NaOH solution in a Teflon vessel at 150 degrees C. The as-prepared nanotubes were then treated with H2 SO4 solutions. The TiO2 nanotube has a crystalline structure with open-ended and multiwall morphologies. The TiO2 nanotubes before and after surface acid treatment were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy(SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-VIS dispersive energy spectrophotometry (DRS). The photocatalytic activity of the samples was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of acid orange II in aqueous solutions. It was found that the order of photocatalytic activity was as follows: TiO2 nanotubes treated with 1.0 mol/L H2SO4 solution (TiO2 (1.0M H2SO4) snanotubes) > TiO2 nanotubes treated with 0.2 mol/L H2SO4 solution (TiO2 (0.2M H2O4) nanotubes) > TiO2 nanotubes > TiO2 powder. This was attributed to the fact that TiO2 nanotubes treated with H2SO4 was composed of smaller particles and had higher specific surface areas. Furthermore, the smaller TiO2 particles were beneficial to the transfer and separation of photo-generated electrons and holes in the inner of and on the surface of TiO2 particles and reduced the recombination of photo-generated electrons and holes. Acid treatment was particularly effective for TiO2 nanotubes, this increase in activity was correlated with the concentration of H2 SO4 solution.

Yang SG; Quan X; Li XY; Fang N; Zhang N; Zhao HM

2005-01-01

9

Enhanced photocatalytic activity of nanotube-like titania by sulfuric acid treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The TiO2 nanotube sample was prepared via a NaOH solution in a Teflon vessel at 150 degrees C. The as-prepared nanotubes were then treated with H2 SO4 solutions. The TiO2 nanotube has a crystalline structure with open-ended and multiwall morphologies. The TiO2 nanotubes before and after surface acid treatment were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy(SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-VIS dispersive energy spectrophotometry (DRS). The photocatalytic activity of the samples was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of acid orange II in aqueous solutions. It was found that the order of photocatalytic activity was as follows: TiO2 nanotubes treated with 1.0 mol/L H2SO4 solution (TiO2 (1.0M H2SO4) snanotubes) > TiO2 nanotubes treated with 0.2 mol/L H2SO4 solution (TiO2 (0.2M H2O4) nanotubes) > TiO2 nanotubes > TiO2 powder. This was attributed to the fact that TiO2 nanotubes treated with H2SO4 was composed of smaller particles and had higher specific surface areas. Furthermore, the smaller TiO2 particles were beneficial to the transfer and separation of photo-generated electrons and holes in the inner of and on the surface of TiO2 particles and reduced the recombination of photo-generated electrons and holes. Acid treatment was particularly effective for TiO2 nanotubes, this increase in activity was correlated with the concentration of H2 SO4 solution. PMID:16295908

Yang, Shao-gui; Quan, Xie; Li, Xin-yong; Fang, Ning; Zhang, Ning; Zhao, Hui-min

2005-01-01

10

Amino acid treatment enhances protein recovery from sediment and soils for metaproteomic studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Characterization of microbial protein expression provides information necessary to better understand the unique biological pathways that occur within soil microbial communities that contribute to atmospheric CO2 levels and the earth's changing climate. A significant challenge in studying the soil microbial community proteome is the initial dissociation of bacterial proteins from the complex mixture of particles found in natural soil. The differential extraction of intact bacterial cells limits the characterization of the complete representation of a microbial community. However, in situ lysis of bacterial cells in soil can lead to potentially high levels of protein adsorption to soil particles. Here, we investigated various amino acids for their ability to block soil protein adsorption sites prior to in situ lysis of bacterial cells, as well as their compatibility with both tryptic digestion and mass spectrometric analysis. The treatments were tested by adding proteins from lysed Escherichia coli cells to representative treated and untreated soil samples. The results show that it is possible to significantly increase protein identifications through blockage of binding sites on a variety of soil and sediment textures; use of an optimized desorption buffer further increases the number of identifications. PMID:23776032

Nicora, Carrie D; Anderson, Brian J; Callister, Stephen J; Norbeck, Angela D; Purvine, Sam O; Jansson, Janet K; Mason, Olivia U; David, Maude M; Jurelevicius, Diogo; Smith, Richard D; Lipton, Mary S

2013-08-16

11

Amino acid treatment enhances protein recovery from sediment and soils for metaproteomic studies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Characterization of microbial protein expression provides information necessary to better understand the unique biological pathways that occur within soil microbial communities that contribute to atmospheric CO2 levels and the earth's changing climate. A significant challenge in studying the soil microbial community proteome is the initial dissociation of bacterial proteins from the complex mixture of particles found in natural soil. The differential extraction of intact bacterial cells limits the characterization of the complete representation of a microbial community. However, in situ lysis of bacterial cells in soil can lead to potentially high levels of protein adsorption to soil particles. Here, we investigated various amino acids for their ability to block soil protein adsorption sites prior to in situ lysis of bacterial cells, as well as their compatibility with both tryptic digestion and mass spectrometric analysis. The treatments were tested by adding proteins from lysed Escherichia coli cells to representative treated and untreated soil samples. The results show that it is possible to significantly increase protein identifications through blockage of binding sites on a variety of soil and sediment textures; use of an optimized desorption buffer further increases the number of identifications.

Nicora CD; Anderson BJ; Callister SJ; Norbeck AD; Purvine SO; Jansson JK; Mason OU; David MM; Jurelevicius D; Smith RD; Lipton MS

2013-10-01

12

Large enhancement of photoluminescence in SrTiO3:Pr3+ powders by fluorhydric acid treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have investigated the effect of fluorhydric acid (HF) treatment on the photoluminescence (PL) properties of SrTiO3:Pr3+ powders prepared by sol-gel method. The red emission intensity increased significantly up to 18 times when the powders were subjected into a water-diluted 5% HF solution for 10 min. The origin of the PL enhancement was ascribed to the increase of oxygen vacancies in HF-treated SrTiO3:Pr3+ powders. This study also manifested that HF etching is more effective to improve the red PL intensity than vacuum-annealing for the sol-gel made SrTiO3:Pr3+ powders.

2010-01-01

13

Sulfuric Acid and Hot Water Treatments Enhance Ex Vitro Germination of Hibiscus Seed  

Science.gov (United States)

Seeds of Hibiscus dasycalyx S. F. Blake & Shiller, a federally listed candidate endangered species and native to North America, and two variants of Hibiscus acetosella Welw. ex. Hiern were scarified using sulfuric acid and hot water. The effects of the scarification methods on in vitro and ex vitro ...

14

Ascorbic acid treatment enhances would healing in mice exposed to gamma radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of various doses of ascorbic acid on the survival and healing of would in mice whole-body exposed to gamma radiation because of the crucial practical importance of acute radiation exposure associated with combined injuries

2004-01-01

15

Plasma treatment induces internal surface modifications of electrospun poly(L-lactic) acid scaffold to enhance protein coating  

Science.gov (United States)

Advanced biomaterials should also be bioactive with regard to desirable cellular responses, such as selective protein adsorption and cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. To enhance cell-material interactions, surface modifications have commonly been performed. Among the various surface modification approaches, atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma has been used to change a hydrophobic polymer surface to a hydrophilic surface. Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA)-derived scaffolds lack cell recognition signals and the hydrophobic nature of PLLA hinders cell seeding. To make PLLA surfaces more conducive to cell attachment and spreading, surface modifications may be used to create cell-biomaterial interfaces that elicit controlled cell adhesion and maintain differentiated phenotypes. In this study, (He) gaseous atmospheric plasma glow discharge was used to change the characteristics of a 3D-type polymeric scaffold from hydrophobic to hydrophilic on both the outer and inner surfaces of the scaffold and the penetration efficiency with fibronectin was investigated. Field-emission scanning electron microscope images showed that some grooves were formed on the PLLA fibers after plasma treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data also showed chemical changes in the PLLA structure. After plasma treatment, -CN (285.76 eV) was increased in C1s and -NH2 (399.70 eV) was increased significantly and -N=CH (400.80 eV) and -NH3+ (402.05 eV) were newly appeared in N1s. These changes allowed fibronectin to penetrate into the PLLA scaffold; this could be observed by confocal microscopy. In conclusion, helium atmospheric pressure plasma treatment was effective in modifying the polymeric scaffold, making it hydrophilic, and this treatment can also be used in tissue engineering research as needed to make polymers hydrophilic.

Jin Seo, Hyok; Hee Lee, Mi; Kwon, Byeong-Ju; Kim, Hye-Lee; Jin Lee, Seung; Kim, Bong-Jin; Wang, Kang-Kyun; Kim, Yong-Rok; Park, Jong-Chul

2013-08-01

16

Fractional carbon dioxide laser treatment to enhance skin permeation of ascorbic acid 2-glucoside with minimal skin disruption.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Topical treatment with vitamin C has been used to treat photoaged skin and as a skin whitener, but no standard procedure exists for percutaneous delivery. OBJECTIVE: To compare skin histology and the permeation of ascorbic acid 2-glucoside (AA2G) after fractional and conventional carbon dioxide (CO(2) ) laser pretreatment. METHODS: The effect on porcine skin of treatment with different strengths of fractional and conventional CO(2) laser treatment was examined using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Permeation of AA2G through porcine skin was tested in vitro using a Franz diffusion chamber. In vivo changes in fluorescein thiocyanate permeability in nude mice were examined using confocal laser scanning microscopy. RESULTS: Fractional CO(2) laser treatment with four or fewer passes caused less disruption than conventional laser treatment at the same fluence. AA2G permeation using four passes of fractional laser treatment was similar to that seen with conventional CO(2) laser treatment of the same fluence. Changes in permeability and in depth of permeation were higher with conventional than fractional laser treatment. CONCLUSION: Fractional CO(2) laser treatment can cause similar transdermal delivery of AA2G to conventional laser treatment with less skin disruption and a different pattern of histologic change.

Hsiao CY; Huang CH; Hu S; Ko YS; Sung HC; Chen CC; Huang SY

2012-08-01

17

Sec61alpha synthesis is enhanced during translocation of nascent chains of collagen type IV in F9 teratocarcinoma cells after retinoic acid treatment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Nascent procollagen peptides and other secretory proteins are transported across the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane through a protein-conducting channel called translocon. Sec61alpha, a multispanning membrane translocon protein, has been implicated as being essential for translocation of polypeptide chains into the cisterns of the ER. Sec61alpha forms a protein complex with collagen and Hsp47, an ER-resident heat shock protein that binds specifically to collagen. How (more) ever, it is not known whether Sec61alpha is ubiquitously produced in collagen-producing F9 teratocarcinoma cells or under heat shock treatment. Furthermore, the production and utilization of Sec61alpha may depend on the stage of cell differentiation. Cultured F9 teratocarcinoma cells are capable of differentiation in response to low concentrations of retinoic acid. This differentiation results in loss of tumorigenicity. Mouse F9 cells were grown in culture medium at 37ºC and 43ºC (heat shock treatment) treated or not with retinoic acid, and labeled in certain instances with 35S-methionine. Membrane-bound polysomes of procollagen IV were then isolated. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis were performed using polyclonal antibodies against collagen IV, Hsp47 and Sec61alpha. Under retinoic acid-untreated conditions, F9 cells produced undetectable amounts of Sec61alpha. Sec61alpha, Hsp47 and type IV collagen levels were increased after retinoic acid treatment. Heat shock treatment did not alter Sec61alpha levels, suggesting that Sec61alpha production is probably not affected by heat shock. These data indicate that the enhanced production of Sec61alpha in retinoic acid-induced F9 teratocarcinoma cells parallels the increased synthesis of Hsp47 and collagen type IV.

Ferreira, L.R.; Velano, C.E.E.; Braga, E.C.; Paula, C.C.; Martéli Junior, H.; Sauk, J.J.

2003-01-01

18

Evaluation of Seed and Seedling Emergence Enhancement of Some Population of Sahandy Savory (Satureja sahendica) by Gibberlic Acid, Potasium Nitrate, Pre-cooling, Physical and Chemical Scarification Treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In greenhouse experiment, the seed samples of 3 populations were treated with treatments including: cold stratification, Gibberlic Acid (50 ppm and 100 ppm), Potassium nitrate (0.2%, 0.4%), physical scarification (sand paper), chemical scarification (Ethylic alcohol 70%) and distilled water (control), then these treated seed samples were sown in pots as randomize design with three replication. The germination characteristics including: germination percentage, speed of germination, length of root and shoot, seedling length, ratio of root length by shoot length, vigor index, fresh weight and dry weight, ratio of dry weight by fresh weight were evaluated during 45 days of experiment. Comparing between three populations of Sahandy savory, seed germination characteristics of the Ghazvin population was higher than the other two populations. According to effect of treatment on germination seed characteristics, the species of savory and their population, it was concluded that effect of Gibberlic Acid and Potassium nitrate was higher than physical scarification and chemical scarification comparing with control. With more effective of gibberlic acid and KNO3 and cold treatment on seed germination enhancement of the population, it was clarified that the type of dormancy of some population of Sahandy savory was physiological dormancy.

M.A. Alizadeh; H.A. Arab; R. Tabaie; M. Nasiri

2013-01-01

19

Gamma aminobutyric acid B and 5-hydroxy tryptamine 2A receptors functional regulation during enhanced liver cell proliferation by GABA and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticles treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Liver is one of the major organs in vertebrates and hepatocytes are damaged by many factors. The liver cell maintenance and multiplication after injury and treatment gained immense interest. The present study investigated the role of Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) coupled with chitosan nanoparticles in the functional regulation of Gamma aminobutyric acid B and 5-hydroxy tryptamine 2A receptors mediated cell signaling mechanisms, extend of DNA methylation and superoxide dismutase activity during enhanced liver cell proliferation. Liver injury was achieved by partial hepatectomy of male Wistar rats and the GABA and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticles treatments were given intraperitoneally. The experimental groups were sham operated control (C), partially hepatectomised rats with no treatment (PHNT), partially hepatectomised rats with GABA chitosan nanoparticle (GCNP), 5-HT chitosan nanoparticle (SCNP) and a combination of GABA and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticle (GSCNP) treatments. In GABA and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticle treated group there was a significant decrease (P<0.001) in the receptor expression of Gamma aminobutyric acid B and a significant increase (P<0.001) in the receptor expression of 5-hydroxy tryptamine 2A when compared to PHNT. The cyclic adenosine monophosphate content and its regulatory protein, presence of methylated DNA and superoxide dismutase activity were decreased in GCNP, SCNP and GSCNP when compared to PHNT. The Gamma aminobutyric acid B and 5-hydroxy tryptamine 2A receptors coupled signaling elements played an important role in GABA and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticles induced liver cell proliferation which has therapeutic significance in liver disease management. PMID:23748019

Shilpa, Joy; Pretty, Mary Abraham; Anitha, Malat; Paulose, Cheramadathikudyil Skaria

2013-06-06

20

Enhancement of colposcopic image by sulphosalicylic acid.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Acetic acid is used conventionally for enhancement of the colposcopic image. We used sulphosalicylic acid instead of acetic acid in 50 normal cases. The normal appearance was enhanced in all cases. The image was also enhanced in 70% cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 90% cases of cervical condyloma accuminata. The image was not inferior to that with acetic acid in any of the cases.

Khilnani P; Parulekar S

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Enhancing gamma-aminobutyric acid content in germinated brown rice by repeated treatment of soaking and incubation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), commonly produced by germination of brown rice grain, is a free amino acid which could help relieving or preventing non-communicable diseases in human. Several research works have been conducted on GABA production from germinated brown rice. However, the yielded GABA (10.1-69.2?mg/100?g germinated brown rice) was comparatively low; thus the amount was insufficient to be used as active ingredients in functional foods. The objective of this study was to explore alternative methods in order to gain higher yield of GABA. A new process of repeated soaking (in tap water at 35?°C, 3?h) and incubation (at 37?°C, 21?h) during germination was developed. The amount of GABA produced was highest at 116.88?±?9.24?mg/100?g germinated brown rice (dry basis). However, an unpleasant odour was generated by some microorganisms during long germination. Lactic acid was applied at soaking step to overcome this problem; whereby 0.5% lactic acid solution (vol./vol.) could effectively control the microorganisms without impairing GABA producing ability and sensory qualities.

Thitinunsomboon S; Keeratipibul S; Boonsiriwit A

2013-02-01

22

Enhancing cytotoxic and apoptotic effect in OVCAR-3 and MDAH-2774 cells with all-trans retinoic acid and zoledronic acid: a paradigm of synergistic molecular targeting treatment for ovarian cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Ovarian cancer is the most fatal gynecologic malignancies in the world. Although, platinum based treatments are widely used, the disease becomes treatment refractory within two years, and novel treatment options should be searched. All- trans retinoic acid (ATRA) induces growth arrest, differentiation and cell death in some types of cancer cells and its combination with various anticancer agents results in enhanced cytotoxicity. Zoledronic acid is a common bisphosphonate known for its anticancer effects beyond its current use in the treatment of cancer-induced bone disease. We aimed to investigate the possible additive/synergistic effect of both agents in OVCAR-3 and MDAH-2774 ovarian cancer cell lines, since both agents show superiority to conventional cytotoxics in terms of adverse events. Methods XTT cell proliferation assay was used for showing cytotoxicity. For verifying apoptosis, both DNA Fragmentation by ELISA assay and caspase 3/7 activity measurement were used. OligoGeArray® which consists of 112 apoptosis related genes was used to elucidate the genetic changes within cancer cells. To validate our oligoarray results, quantitative real-time PCR was performed on four selected genes that were maximally effected by the combination treatment: lymphotoxin beta receptor (LTBR), myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL-1), tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 1A (TNFRSF1A), TNFRSF1A-associated death domain protein (TRADD). Results We demonstrated that a novel combination of ATRA and zoledronic acid is a strong inducer of apoptotic related cell death in both ovarian cancer cells. While the combination therapy significantly induced proapoptotic genes such as tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF), TRADD and caspase 4, some of the antiapoptotic genes such as members of MCL-1, LTBR, BAG3 and Bcl-2 family members were inhibited. Conclusions These are the preliminary molecular results of a novel combination treatment of ATRA and zoledronic acid, with fewer side effects as compared to conventional cytotoxic agents. With additional experimental analysis, it may serve as a good option for the treatment of refractory and elderly ovarian cancer patients, for whom there exists very limited choice of treatment.

Karabulut Bulent; Karaca Burcak; Varol Umut; Muslu Ugur; Cakar Burcu; Atmaca Harika; K?s?m Asl?; Uzunoglu Selim; Uslu Ruchan

2010-01-01

23

Evaluation of Seed and Seedling Emergence Enhancement of Some Population of Sahandy Savory (Satureja sahendica) by Gibberlic Acid, Potasium Nitrate, Pre-cooling, Physical and Chemical Scarification Treatment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In greenhouse experiment, the seed samples of 3 populations were treated with treatments including: cold stratification, Gibberlic Acid (50 ppm and 100 ppm), Potassium nitrate (0.2%, 0.4%), physical scarification (sand paper), chemical scarification (Ethylic alcohol 70%) and distilled water (con...

M.A. Alizadeh; H.A. Arab; R. Tabaie; M. Nasiri

24

Osteoporosis treatment: why ibandronic acid?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: In this article, we have summarized the specific evidence on ibandronic acid (or ibandronate) efficacy, tolerability, and feasibility acquired from trials and clinical use. AREAS COVERED: This critical review focuses on evidence from randomized controlled clinical trials, meta-analyses, surrogate markers, bridging trials, long-term extension studies, observational studies, clinical experiences in osteoporosis in addition to postmenopausal treatment adherence in clinical practice, and safety profile of ibandronic acid. EXPERT OPINION: Pivotal studies on ibandronic acid efficacy in terms of antifracture effects on nonvertebral fractures had some intrinsic limitations. However, a large body of indirect evidence suggests that ibandronate has significantly sustained vertebral and nonvertebral antifracture efficacies in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis, in comparison to those observed with other nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates. Discrepancies in efficacy between the available bisphosphonate regimens appear to be a function of dose rather than to inherent differences in their respective therapeutic potential. Drugs or treatment regimens that minimize the risk of osteoporotic fractures and make the treatment of osteoporosis more convenient and suitable for patients are preferred: ibandronic acid marketed at oral doses of 150 mg once monthly and 3 mg quarterly as intravenous injection has these characteristics. The safety profile of ibandronic acid treatment appears to be good overall and in some cases better than that of other nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates.

Rossini M; Orsolini G; Adami S; Kunnathully V; Gatti D

2013-07-01

25

[Hepatotoxicity of valproic acid treatment  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hepatotoxicity of valproic acid (VPA) is reported in a psychomotor retarded boy. A four-month antiepileptic therapy was followed by a combined VPA/phenytoin treatment where-upon, two months later, the patient died in a hepatic coma. In the final state the metabolic pattern of VPA was still found within the normal range with the exception of the two abnormal metabolites 4-en-VPA) (2-propyl-4-pentenoic acid) and 4.4'-dien-VPA (2-(2-propenyl-4-pentenoic acid) detected only in low concentration. The amino acid pattern in plasma was characterized by a decrease or branched chain amino acids by 50% in contrast to the increase of the aromatic amino acids. Methionine, however, was in the normal range. Due to lack of a biochemical parameter indicating a possibly irreversible development of VPA induced hepatotoxicity stopping of VPA therapy should be obligatory if abnormal unsaturated VPA metabolites are detected or if dien-VPA/3, a normal metabolic compound, is increased above the normal range. L-carnitine treatment is recommended as a prophylactic therapy.

Keulen FP; Kochen W

1985-09-01

26

High-efficiency polymer solar cells enhanced by solvent treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A significant enhancement of efficiency in thieno[3,4-b]-thiophene/benzodithiophene:[6,6]-phenyl C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PTB7:PC70 BM) solar cells can be achieved by methanol treatment. The effects of methanol treatment are shown in an improvement of built-in voltage, a decrease in series resistance, an enhanced charge-transport property, an accelerated and enlarged charge extraction, and a reduced charge recombination, which induce a simultaneous enhancement in open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current (Jsc), and fill factor (FF) in the devices.

Zhou H; Zhang Y; Seifter J; Collins SD; Luo C; Bazan GC; Nguyen TQ; Heeger AJ

2013-03-01

27

Retinoic acid-mediated activation of the mouse renin enhancer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previous studies demonstrate that the mouse renin gene is regulated by a complex enhancer of transcription located 2.6 kilobases upstream of the transcription start site which is under both positive and negative influence. We demonstrate herein that a positive regulatory element (Eb) is repeated 10 bp upstream (Ec), and both are required for baseline activity of the enhancer. The Eb and Ec core sequences are identical to the consensus sequence for the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of transcription factors, and transcriptional activity of constructs containing the enhancer is increased after treatment with retinoic acid. Maximal induction requires both Eb and Ec. Expression of endogenous renin and a renin-promoter controlled transgene in As4.1 cells, and kidney renin mRNA in C57BL/6J mice was induced after retinoid treatment. Gel mobility supershift analysis revealed the binding of RARalpha and RXRalpha to oligonucleotides containing both Eb and Ec. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that As4.1 cells express both receptor isoforms, along with RARgamma, but do not express RARbeta, RXRbeta, or RXRgamma. Co-transfection of an expression vector encoding wild-type RARalpha increased enhancer activity, whereas a dominant negative mutant of RARalpha significantly attenuated retinoic acid-induced activity of the enhancer. These results demonstrate the importance of the Eb and Ec motifs in controlling baseline activity of the renin enhancer, and suggest the potential importance of retinoids in regulating renin expression.

Shi Q; Gross KW; Sigmund CD

2001-02-01

28

Migration of mesenchymal stem cells towards glioblastoma cells depends on hepatocyte-growth factor and is enhanced by aminolaevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hepatocyte-growth factor (HGF) is expressed by glioblastomas and contributes to their growth, migration and invasion. HGF also mediates migration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to sites of apoptotic cell death. Moreover, MSC show tropism for glioblastomas, which is exploited in gene therapy to deliver the therapeutics to the tumor cells. Here, we have studied whether HGF contributes to the recruitment of MSC by glioblastoma cells and whether aminolaevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy (ALA/PDT), a novel therapeutic approach that induces apoptosis in glioblastoma cells, affects HGF release and this migratory response. MSC expressed the HGF receptor MET and migrated towards U87 and U251 glioblastoma spheroids. Migration increased significantly when spheroids were subjected to ALA/PDT, which was associated with induction of apoptosis and up-regulation of HGF. Neutralizing HGF resulted in significant inhibition of MSC migration towards untreated as well as ALA/PDT-treated spheroids. Thus, glioblastoma cells express HGF, which contributes to the attraction of MSC. ALA/PDT induces apoptosis and augments HGF release causing enhanced MSC migration towards the tumor cells. ALA/PDT may therefore be exploited to improve targeting of MSC delivered gene therapy, but it may also constitute a risk in terms of beneficial effects for the tumor.

Vogel S; Peters C; Etminan N; Börger V; Schimanski A; Sabel MC; Sorg RV

2013-02-01

29

Enhancing nucleic acid delivery by photochemical internalization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Photochemical internalization (PCI) is a method for releasing macromolecules from endosomal and lysosomal compartments. The PCI approach uses a photosensitizer that localizes to endosomal and lysosomal compartments, and a light source with appropriate light spectra for excitation of the photosensitizer. Upon photosensitizer excitation, endosomal and lysosomal membranes are destroyed, due to the formation of reactive oxygen species, followed by release of the endocytosed material. PCI has been demonstrated to enhance and control (site- and time-specific) delivery of various macromolecules such as viruses, proteins, chemotherapeutics, nucleic acid, and so on. In this Review we present past and current studies of PCI-controlled delivery of natural and artificial nucleic acids, such as peptide nucleic acids, siRNA molecules, mRNA molecules and plasmids. We also discuss critical aspects to further the possibilities for successful gene targeting in space and time.

Bøe SL; Hovig E

2013-09-01

30

Enhancing nucleic acid delivery by photochemical internalization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Photochemical internalization (PCI) is a method for releasing macromolecules from endosomal and lysosomal compartments. The PCI approach uses a photosensitizer that localizes to endosomal and lysosomal compartments, and a light source with appropriate light spectra for excitation of the photosensitizer. Upon photosensitizer excitation, endosomal and lysosomal membranes are destroyed, due to the formation of reactive oxygen species, followed by release of the endocytosed material. PCI has been demonstrated to enhance and control (site- and time-specific) delivery of various macromolecules such as viruses, proteins, chemotherapeutics, nucleic acid, and so on. In this Review we present past and current studies of PCI-controlled delivery of natural and artificial nucleic acids, such as peptide nucleic acids, siRNA molecules, mRNA molecules and plasmids. We also discuss critical aspects to further the possibilities for successful gene targeting in space and time. PMID:24024512

Bøe, Sigurd Leinæs; Hovig, Eivind

2013-09-01

31

Enhancing itaconic acid production by Aspergillus terreus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aspergillus terreus is successfully used for industrial production of itaconic acid. The acid is formed from cis-aconitate, an intermediate of the tricarboxylic (TCA) cycle, by catalytic action of cis-aconitate decarboxylase. It could be assumed that strong anaplerotic reactions that replenish the pool of the TCA cycle intermediates would enhance the synthesis and excretion rate of itaconic acid. In the phylogenetic close relative Aspergillus niger, upregulated metabolic flux through glycolysis has been described that acted as a strong anaplerotic reaction. Deregulated glycolytic flux was caused by posttranslational modification of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK1) that resulted in formation of a highly active, citrate inhibition-resistant shorter form of the enzyme. In order to avoid complex posttranslational modification, the native A. niger pfkA gene has been modified to encode for an active shorter PFK1 fragment. By the insertion of the modified A. niger pfkA genes into the A. terreus strain, increased specific productivities of itaconic acid and final yields were documented by transformants in respect to the parental strain. On the other hand, growth rate of all transformants remained suppressed which is due to the low initial pH value of the medium, one of the prerequisites for the accumulation of itaconic acid by A. terreus mycelium.

Tevz G; Bencina M; Legisa M

2010-08-01

32

Enhancing itaconic acid production by Aspergillus terreus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aspergillus terreus is successfully used for industrial production of itaconic acid. The acid is formed from cis-aconitate, an intermediate of the tricarboxylic (TCA) cycle, by catalytic action of cis-aconitate decarboxylase. It could be assumed that strong anaplerotic reactions that replenish the pool of the TCA cycle intermediates would enhance the synthesis and excretion rate of itaconic acid. In the phylogenetic close relative Aspergillus niger, upregulated metabolic flux through glycolysis has been described that acted as a strong anaplerotic reaction. Deregulated glycolytic flux was caused by posttranslational modification of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK1) that resulted in formation of a highly active, citrate inhibition-resistant shorter form of the enzyme. In order to avoid complex posttranslational modification, the native A. niger pfkA gene has been modified to encode for an active shorter PFK1 fragment. By the insertion of the modified A. niger pfkA genes into the A. terreus strain, increased specific productivities of itaconic acid and final yields were documented by transformants in respect to the parental strain. On the other hand, growth rate of all transformants remained suppressed which is due to the low initial pH value of the medium, one of the prerequisites for the accumulation of itaconic acid by A. terreus mycelium. PMID:20461508

Tevz, Gregor; Bencina, Mojca; Legisa, Matic

2010-05-12

33

Treatment for enhancing joint lubrication  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention is directed to a method of altering the amount or composition of synovial fluids secreted from joints in a subject in need of such treatment. The method comprises administering to a subject a nicotinic receptor agonist such as nicotine, transmetanicotine, epibatidine, lobeline, and imidacloprid; analogs of such nicotinic agonists; and pyridol and para-alkylthiophenol derivatives in an amount effective to stimulate synovial secretions. Pharmaceutical formulations and methods of their production and administration are also disclosed. The invention is useful for treating disorders associated with joint stiffness, including but not limited to, osteoarthritis and following arthroplastic surgery.; Preferred compounds are selected from nicotine, anabasine, 5-ethynylnicotine, trans-metanicotine, 3-ethoxy trans-metanicotine, epibatidine derivatives, ABT-089, ABT-594, SIB-1553A, lobeline analogues, ABT-418, DMXB, DBO-083, imidacloprid and desnitro-imidacloprid.

BENJAMIN R * YERXA; MATTHEW S * COWLEN

34

Plant-enhanced phenanthrene and pyrene biodegradation in acidic soil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A study was undertaken to assess if corn plant (Zea may L.) maybe able to enhance the degradation of phenanthrene and pyrene in acidic soil inoculated with a bacterial strain (Pseudomonas putida MUB1) capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Planting with corn, inoculating with MUB1, ora combination of the two were found to promote the degradation of phenanthrene and pyrene in acidic soil at different rates. In the presence of corn plants, the rates of phenanthrene and pyrene removal were 41.7 and 38.8% in the first 10 days, while the rates were 58.8 and 53.6%, respectively in the treatment which received MUB1 only. After 60 days, the corn + MUB1 treatment led to the greatest reduction in both phenanthrene and pyrene biodegradation (89 and 88.2%, respectively). In control autoclaved soil, the rates of phenanthrene and pyrene removal were 14.2 and 28.7%, respectively while in non-autoclaved soil, the rates were 68.7 and 53.2%, respectively. These results show that corn, which was previously shown to grow well in PAH-contaminated acidic soil, also can enhance PAH degradation in such soil. Inoculation with a known PAH degrader further enhanced PAH degradation in the presence of corn.

Chouychai W; Thongkukiatkul A; Upatham S; Lee H; Pokethitiyook P; Kruatrachue M

2009-01-01

35

Bile acids in treatment of ocular disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bear bile has been included in Asian pharmacopeias for thousands of years in treatment of several diseases, ranging from sore throat to hemorrhoids. The hydrophilic bile acids tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) are the major bile acids of bear bile. Both of these are a...

Boatright, Jeffrey H.; Nickerson, John M.; Moring, Anisha G.; Pardue, Machelle T.

36

Bile acids in treatment of ocular disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bear bile has been included in Asian pharmacopeias for thousands of years in treatment of several diseases, ranging from sore throat to hemorrhoids. The hydrophilic bile acids tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) are the major bile acids of bear bile. Both of these are available as synthetic formulations and are approved by the health administrations of several countries for treatment of cirrhosis and gallstones. This review briefly covers the use of bear bile in Traditional Chinese Medicine, bile acid physiology, approved use of UDCA and TUDCA in Western medicine, and recent research exploring their neuroprotective properties, including in models of ocular disease.

Boatright JH; Nickerson JM; Moring AG; Pardue MT

2009-09-01

37

Fenton-enhanced ?-radiolysis of cyanuric acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Degradation of cyanuric acid (OOOT), a stable end product of oxidative decomposition of atrazine, is investigated in a combined field of gamma radiolysis and fenton reaction. The reaction of hydroxyl radical (·OH) at pH 6 was carried out by irradiating N2O saturated aqueous solutions containing OOOT (1 x 10-3 mol dm-3), and this resulted only a marginal degradation (20%). However, when the same reaction was carried out in the presence of varying concentrations of ferrous sulfate ((5-10) x 10-5 mol dm-3), the decay of OOOT has been enhanced to more than 80%. This decay followed a first order kinetics. Nearly similar effects were observed with another triazine derivative, 2,4-dioxohexahydro-1,3,5-triazine (DHT). Two major reaction mechanisms are proposed for the enhanced decay of OOOT. The formation of unstable hydroxyl radical adducts from the reaction of ·OH which is the result of gamma radiolysis and the Fenton reaction (resulting from the reaction of the added Fe(II) and of the H2O2 from the radiolysis of water), is proposed as the first mechanism. The second mechanism, which is likely the major contributor to degradation, is proposed as the reaction of a nucleophilic adduct, Fe(II)OOH, which could directly react with the electron deficient triazine ring. It is highlighted that such degradation reactions must be explored for the complete degradation of the byproducts of the oxidative decomposition of atrazine

2007-04-02

38

Effect of Enhancing Urea-Humic Acid Mixture with Refined Acid Sulphate Soil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Acid Sulphate Soil (ASS) is a problem soil partly because of its high acidity. This low pH could be exploited to reduce ammonia loss from urea by reducing soil microsite pH. The use Humic Acid (HA) to control ammonia loss from urea has been reported but the cost of this material is high. This laboratory study compared the effect of enhancing urea-humic acid mixtures with acid sulphate soil on NH3 loss, pH, exchangeable ammonium and available nitrate contents. Approach: Humic acid, acid sulfate soil and soil used in the incubation study were analyzed for selected soil physical-chemical properties using standard procedures. Urea-HA-ASS mixtures were prepared and ammonia volatilization of the mixtures was evaluated by the closed-dynamic air flow system. The treatments were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Standard procedures were used to determine ammonia loss, soil pH, exchangeable ammonium and available nitrate at 22 days of incubation. Data obtained were analyzed using analysis of variance and Duncan's test using Statistical Analysis System (SAS) version 9.2. Results: Urea amended with 0.75 g ASS significantly reduced ammonia volatilization. Although the use of appropriate amount of acid sulphate soil to control ammonia loss is possible, excessive use of this material is not recommended because of Fe in it. Conclusion: Urea amended with 0.75 g ASS reduced ammonia.

Mohd T.M. Yusuff; Osumanu H. Ahmed; Nik M.A. Majid

2009-01-01

39

Treatment of hydrofluoric acid burns  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A chemical-plant worker sustained hydrofluoric acid burns during cleaning procedures. Intra-arterial perfusion and intralesional injections of calcium gluconate solution prevented progression of the burns into deeper tissue layers.

Thiele, B.; Winter, U.J.; Mahrle, G.; Steigleder, G.K.

1986-01-31

40

Ethacrynic acid: a novel radiation enhancer in human carcinoma cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Because agents that interfere with thiol metabolism and glutathione S-transferase (GST) functions have been shown to enhance antitumor effects of alkylating agents in vitro and in vivo, the present study was conceived on the basis that an inhibitor of GST would enhance the radiation response of some selected human carcinoma cells. Ethacrynic acid (EA) was chosen for the study because it is an effective inhibitor of GST and is a well known diuretic in humans. Methods and Materials: Experiments were carried out with well-established human tumor cells in culture growing in Eagle's minimum essential medium (MEM) supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS). Cell lines used were MCF-7, MCF-7 adriamycin resistant (AR) cells (breast carcinoma), HT-29 cells (colon carcinoma), DU-145 cells (prostate carcinoma), and U-373 cells (malignant glioma). Cell survival following the exposure of cells to drug alone, radiation alone, and a combined treatment was assayed by determining the colony-forming ability of single plated cells in culture to obtain dose-survival curves. The drug enhancement ratio was correlated with levels of GST. Results: The cytotoxicity of EA was most pronounced in MCF-7, U-373, and DU-145 cells compared to MCF-7 AR and HT-29 cells. The levels of GST activity were found to be lower in those EA-sensitive cells. A significant radiation enhancement was obtained with EA-sensitive cells exposed to nontoxic concentrations of the drug immediately before or after irradiation. The sensitizer enhancement ratio (SER) of MCF-7 cells was 1.55 with EA (20 ?g/ml), while the SER of MCF-7 AR was less than 1.1. Based on five different human tumor cells, a clear inverse relationship was demonstrated between the magnitude of SER and GST levels of tumor cells prior to the combined treatment. Conclusion: The present results suggest that EA, which acts as both a reversible and irreversible inhibitor of GST activity, could significantly enhance the radiation response of human cancer cells and the level of GST in tumor cells may predict the magnitude of radiation enhancement with EA. Ethacrynic acid would be an excellent drug as a radiosensitizer for further in vivo tumor study

1996-01-15

 
 
 
 
41

Cognitive enhancers for the treatment of anxiety disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditional treatments for anxiety disorders include cognitive-behavioral therapy and anxiolytic medications. Although these treatments are more effective than placebo, there is still considerable room for further improvement. Unfortunately, combining these different modalities is generally not substantially better than monotherapies. Recently, researchers have turned their attention toward translating preclinical research on the neural circuitry underlying fear extinction to clinical applications for the treatment of anxiety disorders with the goal to augment the learning process during exposure-based procedures with cognitive enhancers. This review examines d-cycloserine, cortisol, catecholamines, yohimbine, oxytocin, modafinil, as well as nutrients and botanicals as agents to augment treatment for anxiety disorders. D-cycloserine shows the most empirical support. Other promising agents include cortisol, catecholamines, yohimbine, and possibly oxytocin. Less support comes from studies that examined nutrients and botanicals, such as caffeine, nicotine, and omega-3 fatty acid. Limitations of the exiting literature and future research directions are discussed. PMID:23542909

Hofmann, Stefan G; Fang, Angela; Gutner, Cassidy A

2013-03-29

42

Cognitive enhancers for the treatment of anxiety disorders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Traditional treatments for anxiety disorders include cognitive-behavioral therapy and anxiolytic medications. Although these treatments are more effective than placebo, there is still considerable room for further improvement. Unfortunately, combining these different modalities is generally not substantially better than monotherapies. Recently, researchers have turned their attention toward translating preclinical research on the neural circuitry underlying fear extinction to clinical applications for the treatment of anxiety disorders with the goal to augment the learning process during exposure-based procedures with cognitive enhancers. This review examines d-cycloserine, cortisol, catecholamines, yohimbine, oxytocin, modafinil, as well as nutrients and botanicals as agents to augment treatment for anxiety disorders. D-cycloserine shows the most empirical support. Other promising agents include cortisol, catecholamines, yohimbine, and possibly oxytocin. Less support comes from studies that examined nutrients and botanicals, such as caffeine, nicotine, and omega-3 fatty acid. Limitations of the exiting literature and future research directions are discussed.

Hofmann SG; Fang A; Gutner CA

2013-03-01

43

Induction of system A amino acid transport activity through long-term treatment with ouabain: possible correlation with enhanced (Na/sup +//K/sup +/)ATPase activity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mouse embryo fibroblast cells (C3H-10T1/2) and the methylcholanthrene-transformed derivative (MCA-10T1/2) were treated with basal modified Eagles medium at varying ouabain concentrations ranging from 0.05 mM to 0.5 mM for 16 h in culture. After replacing the ouabain-containing medium with BME, System A (/sup 3/H-AlB uptake) and the (Na/sup +//K/sup +/)ATPase pump activity (ouabain-sensitive /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ uptake) was increased 10-fold and 3-fold, respectively (at 0.4 mM ouabain) in confluent C3H-10T1/2 cells. System A and the (Na/sup +//K/sup +/)ATPase activity was increased 15-fold and 5-fold, respectively in confluent MCA-10T1/2 cells but the increase was maximal at 0.2 mM ouabain. This treatment with ouabain increased the (Na/sup +/)/sub i//(K/sup +/)/sub i/ as measured by atomic absorption, and thereby decreased the Na/sup +/ and K/sup +/ electrochemical gradients. Their data show that the transformed cells were more sensitive to the internal ion inversion by ouabain than the C3H-10T1/2 cells. It appears, from data on hypertonicity and lipophilic cations that neither the chemical Na/sup +/ gradient nor the negative membrane potential are the primary driving forces of System A transport.

Schenerman, M.A.; Leister, K.J.; Wang, S.Y.; Racker, E.

1987-05-01

44

Surgical Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux Shawnee Mission Medical Center Shawnee Mission, Kansas May 21, 2009 Welcome ... OR-Live” webcast presentation live from Shawnee Mission Medical Center in Merriam, Kansas. During the program it’s ...

45

Biological treatment of acid mine drainage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research was conducted to evaluate methods for the biological treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD). Two general approaches were evaluated. The first evaluated treatment of impounded AMD through the addition of a mixed microbial community and carbon sources appropriate for their maintenance. To provide adequate treatment of AMD, a second approach was directed to evaluation of a biologically based unit process for AMD treatment. Using an anaerobic digestor which provided waste liquors high in organic acids, AMD was mixed with digestor effluent in an anaerobic reactor which maintained sulfate reduction. The utility of a pilot plant design incorporating anaerobic digestion, sulfate reduction, aeration, and final clarification and settling was demonstrated.

Herricks, E.E.

1982-10-01

46

Erythropoietin treatment enhances muscle mitochondrial capacity in humans  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Erythropoietin (Epo) treatment has been shown to induce mitochondrial biogenesis in cardiac muscle along with enhanced mitochondrial capacity in mice. We hypothesized that recombinant human Epo (rhEpo) treatment enhances skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity in hu...

Plenge, Ulla; Belhage, Bo; Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia; Andersen, Peter Riis; Lundby, Carsten; Dela, Flemming; Stride, Nis

47

Erythropoietin Treatment Enhances Muscle Mitochondrial Capacity in Humans  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Erythropoietin (Epo) treatment has been shown to induce mitochondrial biogenesis in cardiac muscle along with enhanced mitochondrial capacity in mice. We hypothesized that recombinant human Epo (rhEpo) treatment enhances skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity in hu...

Plenge, Ulla; Belhage, Bo; Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia; Andersen, Peter Riis; Lundby, Carsten; Dela, Flemming; Stride, Nis

48

Oxygen plasma surface modification enhances immobilization of simvastatin acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Simvastatin acid (SVA) has been reported to stimulate bone formation with increased expression of BMP-2. Therefore, immobilization of SVA onto dental implants is expected to promote osteogenesis at the bone tissue/implant interface. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immobilization behavior of SVA onto titanium (Ti), O(2)-plasma treated titanium (Ti + O(2)), thin-film coatings of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO), and O(2)-plasma treated HMDSO (HMDSO + O(2)) by using the quartz crystal microbalance-dissipation (QCM-D) technique. HMDSO surfaces were activated by the introduction of an OH group and/or O(2)-functional groups by O(2)-plasma treatment. In contrast, titanium surfaces showed no appreciable compositional changes by O(2)-plasma treatment. The QCM-D technique enabled evaluation even at the adsorption behavior of a substance with a low molecular weight such as simvastatin. The largest amount of SVA was adsorbed on O(2)-plasma treated HMDSO surfaces compared to untreated titanium, HMDSO-coated titanium, and O(2)-plasma treated titanium. These findings suggested that the adsorption of SVA was enhanced on more hydrophilic surfaces concomitant with the presence of an OH group and/or O(2)-functional group resulting from the O(2)-plasma treatment, and that an organic film of HMDSO followed by O(2)-plasma treatment is a promising method for the adsorption of SVA in dental implant systems. PMID:16543663

Yoshinari, Masao; Hayakawa, Tohru; Matsuzaka, Kenichi; Inoue, Takashi; Oda, Yutaka; Shimono, Masaki; Ide, Takaharu; Tanaka, Teruo

2006-02-01

49

Oxygen plasma surface modification enhances immobilization of simvastatin acid.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Simvastatin acid (SVA) has been reported to stimulate bone formation with increased expression of BMP-2. Therefore, immobilization of SVA onto dental implants is expected to promote osteogenesis at the bone tissue/implant interface. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immobilization behavior of SVA onto titanium (Ti), O(2)-plasma treated titanium (Ti + O(2)), thin-film coatings of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO), and O(2)-plasma treated HMDSO (HMDSO + O(2)) by using the quartz crystal microbalance-dissipation (QCM-D) technique. HMDSO surfaces were activated by the introduction of an OH group and/or O(2)-functional groups by O(2)-plasma treatment. In contrast, titanium surfaces showed no appreciable compositional changes by O(2)-plasma treatment. The QCM-D technique enabled evaluation even at the adsorption behavior of a substance with a low molecular weight such as simvastatin. The largest amount of SVA was adsorbed on O(2)-plasma treated HMDSO surfaces compared to untreated titanium, HMDSO-coated titanium, and O(2)-plasma treated titanium. These findings suggested that the adsorption of SVA was enhanced on more hydrophilic surfaces concomitant with the presence of an OH group and/or O(2)-functional group resulting from the O(2)-plasma treatment, and that an organic film of HMDSO followed by O(2)-plasma treatment is a promising method for the adsorption of SVA in dental implant systems.

Yoshinari M; Hayakawa T; Matsuzaka K; Inoue T; Oda Y; Shimono M; Ide T; Tanaka T

2006-02-01

50

Enhanced biomethanation of kitchen waste by different pre-treatments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five different pre-treatments were investigated to enhance the solubilisation and anaerobic biodegradability of kitchen waste (KW) in thermophilic batch and continuous tests. In the batch solubilisation tests, the highest and the lowest solubilisation efficiency were achieved with the thermo-acid and the pressure-depressure pre-treatments, respectively. However, in the batch biodegradability tests, the highest cumulative biogas production was obtained with the pressure-depressure method. In the continuous tests, the best performance in terms of an acceptable biogas production efficiency of 60% and stable in-reactor CODs and VFA concentrations corresponded to the pressure-depressure reactor, followed by freeze-thaw, acid, thermo-acid, thermo and control. The maximum OLR (5 g COD L(-1) d(-1)) applied in the pressure-depressure and freeze-thaw reactors almost doubled the control reactor. From the overall analysis, the freeze-thaw pre-treatment was the most profitable process with a net potential profit of around 11.5 € ton(-1) KW. PMID:20813520

Ma, Jingxing; Duong, Thu Hang; Smits, Marianne; Verstraete, Willy; Carballa, Marta

2010-08-11

51

Enhanced biomethanation of kitchen waste by different pre-treatments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Five different pre-treatments were investigated to enhance the solubilisation and anaerobic biodegradability of kitchen waste (KW) in thermophilic batch and continuous tests. In the batch solubilisation tests, the highest and the lowest solubilisation efficiency were achieved with the thermo-acid and the pressure-depressure pre-treatments, respectively. However, in the batch biodegradability tests, the highest cumulative biogas production was obtained with the pressure-depressure method. In the continuous tests, the best performance in terms of an acceptable biogas production efficiency of 60% and stable in-reactor CODs and VFA concentrations corresponded to the pressure-depressure reactor, followed by freeze-thaw, acid, thermo-acid, thermo and control. The maximum OLR (5 g COD L(-1) d(-1)) applied in the pressure-depressure and freeze-thaw reactors almost doubled the control reactor. From the overall analysis, the freeze-thaw pre-treatment was the most profitable process with a net potential profit of around 11.5 € ton(-1) KW.

Ma J; Duong TH; Smits M; Verstraete W; Carballa M

2011-01-01

52

Breaker enhancer for crosslinked borates : novel self-generating acid  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Borate cross-linked guar fluids are often used as a proppant fluid in fractured reservoirs due to their high stability in high temperature and high shear conditions. However, borate fluids can leave an insoluble polymer residue that remains in the proppant pack after the gels have been broken with oxidizer breakers. The residues have been shown to impair proppant pack conductivity, and residual unbroken gels at a high pH are susceptible to re-crosslinking when exposed to multivalent ions. This study described a novel self-generating acid that was used as a breaker enhancer for crosslinked borates. The breakers were designed to cleave to the polymer chains at random sites, resulting in a mixture of residual fragments that remained crosslinked. A series of long-term proppant pack conductivity tests were conducted using a proppant at a closure stress of 4000 psi. The experimental studies demonstrated that the addition of the self-generating acid dramatically improved the regain conductivity of the proppant pack. Use of the acid also facilitated the removal of polymer residues from wells after treatment. 9 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs.

Maley, D.; O' Neil, B. [Trican Well Service Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2010-07-01

53

Pharmacological enhancement of treatment for amblyopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mohammad A RashadOphthalmology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, EgyptBackground: The purpose of this study was to compare a weight-adjusted dose of carbidopa-levodopa as treatment adjunctive to occlusion therapy with occlusion therapy alone in children and adults with different types of amblyopia.Methods: This prospective study included 63 patients with amblyopia classified into two groups, ie, an occlusion group which included 35 patients who received occlusion therapy only and a pharmacological enhancement group which included 28 patients who received oral carbidopa-levodopa together with occlusion therapy for 6 weeks.Results: The mean logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR) of the eyes with amblyopia was not significantly different in the occlusion group (0.52, 0.52, and 0.51) than in the pharmacological enhancement group (0.58, 0.49, and 0.56) at three follow-up visits (at months 1, 3, and 12, respectively). There was a highly significant improvement in mean logMAR of amblyopic eyes compared with baseline in both occlusion groups (from 0.68 to 0.52, from 0.68 to 0.52, and from 0.68 to 0.51) and in the pharmacological enhancement group (from 0.81 to 0.58, from 0.81 to 0.49, and from 0.81 to 0.56) at the month 1, 3, and 12 visits (P = 0.01, P = 0.01, and P = 0.001, respectively). The improvement of mean logMAR in the subgroup of patients older than 12 years was greater in the pharmacological enhancement group (42.5%) than in the occlusion group (30%). The improvement of mean logMAR in the subgroup of patients with severe amblyopia was greater in the pharmacological enhancement group (34.3%) than in the occlusion group (22%).Conclusion: Significant improvement was reported in both groups at all follow-up visits over 1 year. Regardless of the etiology of amblyopia, levodopa-carbidopa may be added to part-time occlusion in older patients as a means of increasing the plasticity of the visual cortex. Levodopa may add to the effect of occlusion in severe amblyopia and bilateral amblyopia.Keywords: amblyopia, levodopa, carbidopa, occlusion

Rashad MA

2012-01-01

54

Enhancement of mononuclear procoagulant activity by platelet 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Platelets induce generation of procoagulant tissue factor activity (TFa) by mononuclear leukocytes, and also enhance the TFa induced by endotoxin. Our present investigation demonstrated that arachidonic acid, which by itself had no effect on mononuclear TFa, greatly enhanced platelet-induced TFa. Th...

Lorenzet, R; Niemetz, J; Marcus, A J; Broekman, M J

55

Betulinic Acid for Cancer Treatment and Prevention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Betulinic acid is a natural product with a range of biological effects, for example potent antitumor activity. This anticancer property is linked to its ability to induce apoptotic cell death in cancer cells by triggering the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. In contrast to the cytotoxicity of betulinic acid against a variety of cancer types, normal cells and tissue are relatively resistant to betulinic acid, pointing to a therapeutic window. Compounds that exert a direct action on mitochondria present promising experimental cancer therapeutics, since they may trigger cell death under circumstances in which standard chemotherapeutics fail. Thus, mitochondrion-targeted agents such as betulinic acid hold great promise as a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of human cancers.

Simone Fulda

2008-01-01

56

Treatment of NASH with ursodeoxycholic acid: cons.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has a prevalence of 1% in Western countries. Its causes as well as its medical treatment are, to date, still debated. Recently, studies of agents suggested to have antiapoptotic, insulin-sensitizing or anti-inflammatory effects in patients with NASH have been conducted, one of which is ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a tertiary bile acid. Between 1994 and 2008, four prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of the treatment of NASH with UDCA were conducted. The first study, by Lindor et al., compared the impact of 13-15 mg/kg/day of UDCA to a placebo. The second study by Dufour et al. had an additional third arm that administered combination therapy with UDCA and vitamin E. The third and fourth studies by Leuschner et al. and by Ratziu et al. evaluated high doses of UDCA at 25-35 mg/kg/day, and used liver biopsies and serum liver enzyme levels to evaluate the impact of UDCA. With the exception of Ratziu et al.'s study, which was lacking a second liver biopsy, none of these studies showed any significant differences in the treatment of NASH with UDCA compared with a placebo. However, Dufour et al. did observe a significant improvement of NASH with the combination (UDCA/VitE) vs placebo therapy, whereas UDCA monotherapy was not effective in the treatment of NASH. Nevertheless, the effects of other bile acids and combination therapies need to be explored.

Liechti F; Dufour JF

2012-09-01

57

Organic acid enhanced electrodialytic extraction of lead from contaminated soil fines in suspension  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The implementation of soil washing technology for the treatment of heavy metal contaminated soils is limited by the toxicity and unwieldiness of the remaining heavy metal contaminated sludge. In this work, the feasibility of combining electrodialytic remediation with heterotrophic leaching for decontamination of the sludge was investigated. The ability of 11 organic acids to extract Pb from the fine fraction of contaminated soil (grains <63 mu m) was investigated, and application of the acids as enhancing reagents during electrodialytic remediation (EDR) of Pb-contaminated soil fines in suspension was tested. Five of the acids showed the ability to extract Ph from the soil fines in excess of the effect caused solely by pH changes. Addition of the acids, however, severely impeded EDR, hence promotion of EDR by combination with heterotrophic leaching was rejected. In contrast, enhancement of EDR with nitric acid gave promising results.

Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

2007-01-01

58

Enhance decarboxylation reaction of carboxylic acids in clay minerals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Clay minerals are important constituents of the Earth's crust. These minerals catalyze reactions in several ways: by energy transfer processes, redox reactions, stabilization of intermediates and by Broensted or Lewis acidity behavior. Important set of organic reactions can be improved in the precedence of clay minerals. Besides the properties of clays to catalyze chemical reactions, it is possible to enhance some of its reactions by using ionizing radiation. The phenomenon of radiation-induced catalysis may be connected with ionizing process in the solid and with the trapped non-equilibrium charge carriers. In this paper we are reporting the decarboxylation reaction of carboxylic acids catalyzed by clay and by irradiation of the system acid-clay. We studied the behaviour of several carboxylic acids and analyzed them by gas chromatography, X-ray and infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that decarboxylation of the target compound is the dominating pathway. The reaction is enhanced by gamma radiation in several orders of magnitude. (author)

1995-01-01

59

Chemical enhancement of footwear impressions in blood on fabric - part 3: amino acid staining.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Enhancement of footwear impressions, using ninhydrin or ninhydrin analogues is not considered common practice and such techniques are generally used to target amino acids present in fingermarks where the reaction gives rise to colour and possibly fluorescence. Ninhydrin and two of its analogues were used for the enhancement of footwear impressions in blood on various types, colours and porosities of fabric. Test footwear impressions on fabric were prepared using a specifically built rig to minimise the variability between each impression. Ninhydrin enhancement of footwear impressions in blood on light coloured fabric yielded good enhancement results, however the contrast was weak or non-existent on dark coloured fabrics. Other ninhydrin analogues which have the advantage of fluorescence failed to enhance the impressions in blood on all fabrics. The sequential treatment of impressions in blood on fabric with other blood enhancing reagents (e.g. protein stains and heme reagents) was also investigated.

Farrugia KJ; Bandey H; Savage K; NicDaéid N

2013-03-01

60

Dicarboxylic Acid Production with Enhanced Energy Recovery  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention provides improved energy content in and shaft power recovery from off-gas from xylene oxidation reactions while at the same time minimizing wastewater treatment cost. More shaft power is produced using off-gas than is required to drive the main air compressor, even with preferred, relatively low oxidation temperatures. Simultaneously, an amount of wastewater greater than byproduct water from oxidation of xylene is kept in vapor form and treated along with off-gas pollutants in a self-sustaining (self-fueling) gas-phase thermal oxidative destruction unit. Optionally, off-gas is combined from multiple xylene oxidation reactors, comprising primary and/or secondary oxidation reactors and forming TPA and/or IPA. Optionally, air compressor condensate and caustic scrubber blowdown are used in a TPA process or as utility water, effectively eliminating normal flow of liquid wastewater effluent from a TPA plant. Optionally, PET off-gas containing the water of PET formation is treated in a shared thermal oxidative destruction unit, effectively eliminating normal flow of liquid wastewater effluent from a combined pX-to-TPA-to-PET plant.

FOGLE III RAYMOND ELBERT; SHEPPARD RONALD BUFORD; UPSHAW TIMOTHY ALAN; WONDERS ALAN GEORGE

 
 
 
 
61

DICARBOXYLIC ACID PRODUCTION WITH ENHANCED ENERGY RECOVERY  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention provides improved energy content in and shaft power recovery from off-gas from xylene oxidation reactions while at the same time minimizing wastewater treatment cost. More shaft power is produced using off- gas than is required to drive the main air compressor, even with preferred, relatively low oxidation temperatures. Simultaneously, an amount of wastewater greater than byproduct water from oxidation of xylene is kept in vapor form and treated along with off-gas pollutants in a self-sustaining (self-fueling) gas-phase thermal oxidative destruction unit. Optionally, off-gas is combined from multiple xylene oxidation reactors, comprising primary and/or secondary oxidation reactors and forming TPA and/or IPA. Optionally, air compressor condensate and caustic scrubber blowdown are used in a TPA process or as utility water, effectively eliminating normal flow of liquid wastewater effluent from a TPA plant. Optionally, PET off-gas containing the water of PET formation is treated in a shared thermal oxidative destruction unit, effectively eliminating normal flow of liquid wastewater effluent from a combined pX-to-TPA-to-PET plant.

FOGLE RAYMOND ELBERT III; SHEPPARD RONALD BUFORD; UPSHAW TIMOTHY ALAN; WONDERS ALAN GEORGE

62

SKIN PERMEATION ENHANCEMENT EFFECTS OF ASCORBIC ACID AND TRIETHYL CITRATE ON ROFECOXIB  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The enhancing effect of ascorbic acid and triethyl citrate (TEC) on the in vitro skin permeation of rofecoxib across rat epidermis was investigated. Skin pre-treatment with ascorbic acid and TEC at different concentrations, followed by application of rofecoxib gel, showed higher permeation flux than the control condition. The mechanism underlying this permeation enhancement was probed with fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The FTIR spectra of rat epidermis treated with ascorbic acid revealed that ascorbic acid at low concentration appears to interact with dermal keratin, whereas at higher concentration it appears to interact with both dermal proteins and lipids. The FTIR spectra of rat epidermis treated with TEC showed a decrease in peak heights for both asymmetric and symmetric C-H stretching absorbance, indicating a change in the fluidity of alkyl chains in the intercellular lipids in the stratum corneum (SC). The protein disruption effect of TEC was probably due to the solvation of keratin by the formation of hydrogen bonds between TEC hydroxyl groups and keratin chain C=O groups. Skin pre-treatment with different concentrations of permeation enhancers did not show any significant change in lag time in comparison to control. The amount of rofecoxib retained in the skin after skin pre-treatment with enhancers was found to be higher than in the experiment without skin pre-treatment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed the maintenance of skin integrity throughout the permeation experiment. The observed permeation enhancing effects of ascorbic acid and TEC in the present study indicate that a rapid percutaneous absorption of rofecoxib at effective therapeutic levels may facilitate faster anti-inflammatory activity.

MALAY K. DAS; ABDUL B. AHMED

2008-01-01

63

Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil.

Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow (Rocky Point, NY)

1994-01-01

64

Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and nucleic acids encoding same  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

Brown, Kimberly; Harris, Paul; Zaretsky, Elizabeth; Re, Edward; Vlasenko, Elena; McFarland, Keith; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo

2012-10-16

65

Oral tranexamic acid enhances the efficacy of low-fluence 1064-nm quality-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser treatment for melasma in Koreans: a randomized, prospective trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Tranexamic acid (TA) has recently gained in popularity in the treatment of pigmentary disorders. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of oral TA combined with low-fluence 1064-nm quality-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (QSNY) laser for the treatment of melasma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-eight patients with melasma were enrolled in the study and subsequently divided into two groups: a combination group and a laser treatment group. All patients were treated with two sessions of low-fluence QSNY laser, and patients in the combination group took 8 weeks of oral TA. Two blinded dermatologists evaluated patients using the Modified Melasma Area and Severity Index (mMASI) and a clinical improvement scale. RESULTS: Mean mMASI score 4 weeks after the second treatment decreased significantly in both groups from base line. Based on overall clinical improvement, a greater number of patients scored as grade 3 and more in the combination group; no patients were scored as grade 4 in the laser-alone group. CONCLUSIONS: Oral TA may prove a safe and efficient treatment option for melasma in combination with low-fluence QSNY laser therapy.

Shin JU; Park J; Oh SH; Lee JH

2013-03-01

66

Enhancement of arachidonic acid signaling pathway by nicotinic acid receptor HM74A  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

HM74A is a G protein-coupled receptor for nicotinic acid (niacin), which has been used clinically to treat dyslipidemia for decades. The molecular mechanisms whereby niacin exerts its pleiotropic effects on lipid metabolism remain largely unknown. In addition, the most common side effect in niacin therapy is skin flushing that is caused by prostaglandin release, suggesting that the phospholipase A2 (PLA2)/arachidonic acid (AA) pathway is involved. Various eicosanoids have been shown to activate peroxisome-proliferator activated receptors (PPAR) that play a diverse array of roles in lipid metabolism. To further elucidate the potential roles of HM74A in mediating the therapeutic effects and/or side effects of niacin, we sought to explore the signaling events upon HM74A activation. Here we demonstrated that HM74A synergistically enhanced UTP- and bradykinin-mediated AA release in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner in A431 cells. Activation of HM74A also led to Ca2+-mobilization and enhanced bradykinin-promoted Ca2+-mobilization through Gi protein. While HM74A increased ERK1/2 activation by the bradykinin receptor, it had no effects on UTP-promoted ERK1/2 activation.Furthermore, UTP- and bradykinin-mediated AA release was significantly decreased in the presence of both MAPK kinase inhibitor PD 098059 and PKC inhibitor GF 109203X. However, the synergistic effects of HM74A were not dramatically affected by co-treatment with both inhibitors, indicating the cross-talk occurred at the receptor level. Finally, stimulation of A431 cells transiently transfected with PPRE-luciferase with AA significantly induced luciferase activity, mimicking the effects of PPAR? agonist rosiglitazone, suggesting that alteration of AA signaling pathway can regulate gene expression via endogenous PPARs.

2006-06-23

67

Acid mine treatment with open limestone channels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Acid mine drainage (AMD) is often associated with mining of pyritic coal and metal deposits. Typical AMD associated with coal mines in the eastern US can have acidity and iron concentrations ranging from the teens to the thousands of mg/l. Aluminum and manganese can be present in concentrations ranging from zero to the low hundreds of mg/l. Much attention has been devoted to developing inexpensive, limestone (LS)-based systems for treating AMID with little or no maintenance. However, LS tends to coat with metal hydroxides when exposed to AMID in an oxidized state, a process known as {open_quotes}armoring{close_quotes}. It is generally assumed that once armored, LS ceases to neutralize acid. Another problem is that the hydroxides tend to settle into plug the pore spaces in LS beds forcing water to move around rather than through the LS. While both are caused by the precipitation of metal hydroxides, armoring and plugging are two different problems. Plugging of LS pores can be avoided by maintaining a high flushing rate through the LS bed. Armoring, however, occurs regardless of water velocity. This study investigated the influence of armoring on LS solubility and the implications of armoring and plugging on the construction of open (oxidizing) LS channels for treating AMD. We evaluated the AMID treatment performance of armored and unarmored LS in oxidizing environments both in laboratory and field studies.

Ziemkiewicz, P.F.; Brant, D.L.; Skousen, J.G. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

1996-12-31

68

Caffeic acid phenethyl ester activation of Nrf2 pathway is enhanced under oxidative state: Structural analysis and potential as a pathologically targeted therapeutic agent in treatment of colonic inflammation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a polyphenolic natural product that possesses numerous biological activities including anti-inflammatory effects. CAPE-mediated nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45 (NF-E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation is likely responsible for some of its biological effects. CAPE was chemically modified to yield CAPE analogues that were subjected to experiments examining cellular Nrf2 activity. CAPE and the CAPE analogue with a catechol moiety, but not the other analogues, activated the Nrf2 pathway. In addition, only biotin-labeled CAPE analogues with the catechol moiety precipitated Kelch-like ECH associated protein 1 (Keap1) when incubated with cell lysates and streptavidin agarose beads. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) oxidation of the catechol moiety in CAPE produced an oxidized, electrophilic form of CAPE (Oxi-CAPE) and greatly enhanced the ability of CAPE to activate Nrf2 and to bind to Keap1. Rectal administration of CAPE ameliorated 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced rat colitis and activated the Nrf2 pathway in the inflamed colon, and incubation of CAPE in the lumen of the inflamed distal colon generated Oxi-CAPE. However, these biological effects and chemical change of CAPE were not observed in the normal colon. Our data suggest that CAPE requires the catechol moiety for the oxidation-enhanced activation of the Nrf2 pathway and has potential as a pathologically targeted Nrf2-activating agent that is exclusively activated in pathological states with oxidative stress such as colonic inflammation.

Kim H; Kim W; Yum S; Hong S; Oh JE; Lee JW; Kwak MK; Ji Park E; Hee Na D; Jung Y

2013-07-01

69

Thermal and acid treatment of diatom frustules  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: Diatoms, belonging to Bacilariophyta family, are single-celled microscopic (1-100 micron) plants living in aquatic environment. The diatom cell is protected inside a shell (frustule) constructed from amorphous nano-silica particles. It is proposed that the frustules and purified silica powders obtained from frustules can be used to reinforce composites. In this study, microstructural properties of two diatom frustules were determined and different methods were investigated for silica powder processing from diatom frustules.Design/methodology/approach: Natural (ND) and calcined (CD) diatom frustules were used in this study. The chemical and microscopic properties of the diatom frustules were determined using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR) and energy dispersive X-Ray Florescence spectrometer (XRF). Two different processing routes were applied to process silica powder from diatom frustules. These included (i) leaching the frustules directly in HF, (ii) incorporating thermally treated frustules in to the liquid nitrogen.Findings: At increasing HF concentrations, the variety of shapes, nanopores and open voids were seen on the surface of frustules as silica particles were removed from the surface. SEM micrograph results showed that HF significantly etched inside the existing pore structure of the diatom frustules. HF concentration was found more effective in mass loss than the leaching time. Thermal treatment induced several cracks propagated between macro pores and nanopores of the frustules.Practical implications: Results show that thermal and acid treatments were not effective for obtaining silica powder from frustules. Ball milling can be used for silica powder processing from frustules in the further study.Originality/value: In this paper, the microstructural properties of ND and CD frustules were determined. The effect of thermal and acid treatment on frustules was investigated with SEM.

E. Gulturk; M. Guden

2011-01-01

70

[Surgical treatment of acid gastroesophageal reflux  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recently, it has been demonstrated that the surgical treatment of gastro-esophageal reflux disease is superior to the medical treatment. Further, the surgical treatment gained new popularity because of the introduction and diffusion of laparoscopic techniques. A careful definition of gastro-esophageal reflux disease, based on the underlying pathophysiological abnormality (i.e.: an increased exposure of the distal esophagus to the refluxed acid juice), and a proper selection of patients candidate to surgery must however be maintained, together with a proper surgical technique, in order to achieve satisfactory results. In this paper, the authors outline in this paper the general principles of anti-reflux surgery and review the most recent results obtained with Nissen fundoplication as well as with other antireflux procedures. They describe in detail the surgical technique of the Nissen fundoplication ("Floppy" Nissen) by a laparoscopic approach. They review their experience in this with 15 operations performed since June 1992, and report the results of an Italian multicentric survey study on laparoscopic surgery for gastro-esophageal reflux disease. Recent series appeared in Literature are also reviewed. In conclusion, the authors underline the need for careful prospective studies and long-term clinical and functional follow-up of patients undergoing laparoscopic anti-reflux surgery before drawing definitive conclusions on its efficacy. However, early results seem to be really promising.

Ancona E; Costantini M; Zaninotto G; Rossi M; Anselmino M; Boccù C; Merigliano S

1995-09-01

71

Enhanced succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes after genome shuffling.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Succinic acid is an important platform chemical for synthesis of C4 compounds. We applied genome shuffling to improve fermentative production of succinic acid by A. succinogenes. Using a screening strategy composed of selection in fermentation broth, cultured in 96-deep-well plates, and condensed HPLC screening, a starting population of 11 mutants producing a higher succinic acid concentration was selected and subjected to recursive protoplasts fusion. After three rounds of genome shuffling, strain F3-II-3-F was obtained, producing succinic acid at 1.99 g/l/h with a yield of 95.6 g/l. The genome shuffled strain had about a 73 % improvement in succinic acid production compared to the parent strain after 48 h in fed-batch fermentation. The genomic variability of F3-II-3-F was confirmed by amplified fragment-length polymorphism. The activity levels of key enzymes involved in end-product formation from glucose and metabolic flux distribution during succinic acid production were compared between A. succinogenes CGMCC 1593 and F3-II-3-F. Increased activity of glucokinase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, PEP carboxykinase and fumarase, as well as decreased activity of pyruvate kinase, pyruvate formate-lyase, and acetate kinase explained the enhanced succinic acid production and decreased acetic acid formation. Metabolic flux analysis suggested that increased flux to NADH was the main reason for increased activity of the C4 pathway resulting in increased yields of succinic acid. The present work will be propitious to the development of a bio-succinic acid fermentation industry.

Zheng P; Zhang K; Yan Q; Xu Y; Sun Z

2013-08-01

72

Enhanced succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes after genome shuffling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Succinic acid is an important platform chemical for synthesis of C4 compounds. We applied genome shuffling to improve fermentative production of succinic acid by A. succinogenes. Using a screening strategy composed of selection in fermentation broth, cultured in 96-deep-well plates, and condensed HPLC screening, a starting population of 11 mutants producing a higher succinic acid concentration was selected and subjected to recursive protoplasts fusion. After three rounds of genome shuffling, strain F3-II-3-F was obtained, producing succinic acid at 1.99 g/l/h with a yield of 95.6 g/l. The genome shuffled strain had about a 73 % improvement in succinic acid production compared to the parent strain after 48 h in fed-batch fermentation. The genomic variability of F3-II-3-F was confirmed by amplified fragment-length polymorphism. The activity levels of key enzymes involved in end-product formation from glucose and metabolic flux distribution during succinic acid production were compared between A. succinogenes CGMCC 1593 and F3-II-3-F. Increased activity of glucokinase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, PEP carboxykinase and fumarase, as well as decreased activity of pyruvate kinase, pyruvate formate-lyase, and acetate kinase explained the enhanced succinic acid production and decreased acetic acid formation. Metabolic flux analysis suggested that increased flux to NADH was the main reason for increased activity of the C4 pathway resulting in increased yields of succinic acid. The present work will be propitious to the development of a bio-succinic acid fermentation industry. PMID:23677529

Zheng, Pu; Zhang, Kunkun; Yan, Qiang; Xu, Yan; Sun, Zhihao

2013-05-16

73

Enhancing addiction treatment through psychoeducational groups.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clients with an addiction disorder generally present with an ego deficit in the area of self-care. This deficiency manifests itself in an inability to suffer and struggle with day-to-day problem solving. Outpatient addiction treatment today places significant resources in psychotherapy and psychodynamic group therapy often at the expense of teaching basic life skills our clients need to negotiate day-to-day living. To address both issues of ego and life skills deficits, the use of a psychoeducational group is presented. This specialized, task-oriented didactic group experience is a necessary component of a comprehensive addiction treatment program. A psychoeducational group in the treatment of addictions can serve as a synthesis for problem-solving skills training used in mental health and the psychodynamic theory of addictive behavior. Cases are presented to illustrate the efficacy of psychoeducational groups. PMID:8246317

La Salvia, T A

74

Enhancing addiction treatment through psychoeducational groups.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Clients with an addiction disorder generally present with an ego deficit in the area of self-care. This deficiency manifests itself in an inability to suffer and struggle with day-to-day problem solving. Outpatient addiction treatment today places significant resources in psychotherapy and psychodynamic group therapy often at the expense of teaching basic life skills our clients need to negotiate day-to-day living. To address both issues of ego and life skills deficits, the use of a psychoeducational group is presented. This specialized, task-oriented didactic group experience is a necessary component of a comprehensive addiction treatment program. A psychoeducational group in the treatment of addictions can serve as a synthesis for problem-solving skills training used in mental health and the psychodynamic theory of addictive behavior. Cases are presented to illustrate the efficacy of psychoeducational groups.

La Salvia TA

1993-09-01

75

An integrated sandstone acidizing fluid selection and simulation to optimize treatment design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An optimized design of a matrix treatment involves fluid selection and acidizing simulations to predict the outcome of the treatment. Many matrix acidizing treatment designs and fluid selections have been successfully accomplished by utilizing expert system technology. However, none of these present a complete and optimized result (i.e., by utilizing the output of the expert system to predict the acidizing outcome using an acidizing numerical simulator). In the meantime, several acidizing computer simulation studies have been conducted separately. This paper presents a study which integrates the treatment design, particularly the fluid selection process, and acidizing simulation for sandstone formations. Required parameters for sandstone acidizing such as acid type, concentration, volume, and injection rate/pressure are first selected using an expert system. The output from the expert system is further used for the input to an acidizing numerical simulator (UTACID). A new sandstone acidizing reaction model, appropriate for a high-temperature environment, and anisotropic medium have been implemented into UTACID to enhance the performance of the simulator. The expert system and the simulator have been integrated to provide an optimization tool for sandstone acidizing treatment design and simulation.

Sumotarto, U.; Hill, A.D.; Sepehrnoori, K.

1995-12-31

76

Polyphosphoric acid treatment promotes bone regeneration around titanium implants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of polyphosphoric acid (PPA) treatment on bone regeneration around titanium (Ti) implants in vivo. Adsorption of PPA by Ti was achieved by immersing Ti implants (2 mm in diameter, 4 mm in length) in different concentrations of PPA solution (0, 1 and 10 wt%) for 24 h at 37 degrees C after proper Ti surface cleaning. The treated Ti implants were implanted on 8-week-old-male rat (n = 30) tibiae. Two or four weeks after implantation, all animals were deeply anaesthetized and underwent perfusion fixation. Ten specimens in each condition were further immersed in the same fixative for 1 week and eventually embedded in polyester resin. Afterwards, undecalcified sections were ground to a thickness of approximately 70 microm parallel to the long axis of the implant. The sections were stained with basic fuchsine and methylene blue and then examined by light microscopy. For quantitative evaluation of bone regeneration around the implants, the bone-implant contact ratio (BICR) was determined. Polyphosphoric acid treatment of the Ti implant surface significantly enhanced direct bone contact to the Ti surface. Especially, the BICRs of the 1 wt% PPA-treated Ti implants were significantly higher than those of the control untreated Ti implants, both 2 and 4 weeks after implantation. At 4 weeks, 10 wt% PPA-treated implants also significantly increased the BICR as compared to that of the untreated Ti implants. These results suggest that PPA treatment promotes osteoconductivity of Ti in vivo.

Maekawa K; Shimono K; Oshima M; Yoshida Y; Van Meerbeek B; Suzuki K; Kuboki T

2009-05-01

77

Polyphosphoric acid treatment promotes bone regeneration around titanium implants.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of polyphosphoric acid (PPA) treatment on bone regeneration around titanium (Ti) implants in vivo. Adsorption of PPA by Ti was achieved by immersing Ti implants (2 mm in diameter, 4 mm in length) in different concentrations of PPA solution (0, 1 and 10 wt%) for 24 h at 37 degrees C after proper Ti surface cleaning. The treated Ti implants were implanted on 8-week-old-male rat (n = 30) tibiae. Two or four weeks after implantation, all animals were deeply anaesthetized and underwent perfusion fixation. Ten specimens in each condition were further immersed in the same fixative for 1 week and eventually embedded in polyester resin. Afterwards, undecalcified sections were ground to a thickness of approximately 70 microm parallel to the long axis of the implant. The sections were stained with basic fuchsine and methylene blue and then examined by light microscopy. For quantitative evaluation of bone regeneration around the implants, the bone-implant contact ratio (BICR) was determined. Polyphosphoric acid treatment of the Ti implant surface significantly enhanced direct bone contact to the Ti surface. Especially, the BICRs of the 1 wt% PPA-treated Ti implants were significantly higher than those of the control untreated Ti implants, both 2 and 4 weeks after implantation. At 4 weeks, 10 wt% PPA-treated implants also significantly increased the BICR as compared to that of the untreated Ti implants. These results suggest that PPA treatment promotes osteoconductivity of Ti in vivo. PMID:19210680

Maekawa, K; Shimono, K; Oshima, M; Yoshida, Y; Van Meerbeek, B; Suzuki, K; Kuboki, T

2009-02-06

78

Treatment of contact hypersensitivity with urocanic acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to investigate the effect of cis-urocanic acid (UCA) on a delayed-type hypersensitivity response in humans, a contact hypersensitivity reaction was induced on four test sites on the back of 33 volunteer subjects. The first test site was pretreated with cis-UCA immediately before application of the allergen. The second and third test sites were posttreated on the second and third days of the hypersensitivity response with cis-UCA and a class III corticosteroid, respectively. The fourth test site was used as a positive control. The cutaneous blood flow of the test sites was measured using laser Doppler flowmetry. Pretreatment with cis-UCA reduced the hypersensitivity response significantly. It is possible that cis-UCA could be used in the preventive treatment of contact hypersensitivity responses. PMID:7487143

van Strien, G A; Korstanje, M J

1995-01-01

79

Treatment of contact hypersensitivity with urocanic acid.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to investigate the effect of cis-urocanic acid (UCA) on a delayed-type hypersensitivity response in humans, a contact hypersensitivity reaction was induced on four test sites on the back of 33 volunteer subjects. The first test site was pretreated with cis-UCA immediately before application of the allergen. The second and third test sites were posttreated on the second and third days of the hypersensitivity response with cis-UCA and a class III corticosteroid, respectively. The fourth test site was used as a positive control. The cutaneous blood flow of the test sites was measured using laser Doppler flowmetry. Pretreatment with cis-UCA reduced the hypersensitivity response significantly. It is possible that cis-UCA could be used in the preventive treatment of contact hypersensitivity responses.

van Strien GA; Korstanje MJ

1995-01-01

80

The Enhancement of Catharanthine Content in Catharanthus roseus Callus Culture Treated with Naphtalene Acetic Acid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research aim was to examine the enhancement of catharanthine content in Catharanthus roseus callus culture added with different concentration of Naphtalene Acetic Acid (NAA). NAA treatment produced callus that formed hairy roots. Fresh and dry weight of callus increased as the increasing of NAA concentration. The catharanthine content of C. roseus callus culture was increased by adding NAA as well. The highest catharanthine content was found in 2.5 ppm NAA added callus.

DINGSE PANDIANGAN; NELSON NAINGGOLAN

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Enhance decarboxylation reaction of carboxylic acids in clay minerals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Clay minerals are important constituents of the Earth`s crust. These minerals catalyze reactions in several ways: by energy transfer processes, redox reactions, stabilization of intermediates and by Broensted or Lewis acidity behavior. Important set of organic reactions can be improved in the precedence of clay minerals. Besides the properties of clays to catalyze chemical reactions, it is possible to enhance some of its reactions by using ionizing radiation. The phenomenon of radiation-induced catalysis may be connected with ionizing process in the solid and with the trapped non-equilibrium charge carriers. In this paper we are reporting the decarboxylation reaction of carboxylic acids catalyzed by clay and by irradiation of the system acid-clay. We studied the behaviour of several carboxylic acids and analyzed them by gas chromatography, X-ray and infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that decarboxylation of the target compound is the dominating pathway. The reaction is enhanced by gamma radiation in several orders of magnitude. (author).

Negron-Mendoza, A.; Ramos, S.; Albarran, G. [Instituto de Ciencias y Artes, Chiapas (Mexico). Escuela de Biologia

1995-10-01

82

Enhancing the efficacy of photodynamic cancer therapy by radicals from plant auxin (indole-3-acetic acid).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Indole-3-acetic acid (plant auxin) has low toxicity but dramatically enhances the killing of mammalian cells on illuminating phenothiazinium dyes with red light. Suitable dyes include toluidine blue, used in cancer diagnosis because of localization in tumors, and methylene blue, used in experimental photodynamic therapy of cancer. The photosensitized oxidation of indole acetic acid forms a free radical that fragments in microseconds, forming reactive cytotoxins. Unlike conventional photodynamic therapy, requiring excitation of oxygen to the reactive singlet state, the treatment is effective even at the low oxygen levels common in tumors and with much lower light doses than normally used.

Folkes LK; Wardman P

2003-02-01

83

Zoledronic acid causes enhancement of bone growth into porous implants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of zoledronic acid on bone ingrowth was examined in an animal model in which porous tantalum implants were placed bilaterally within the ulnae of seven dogs. Zoledronic acid in saline was administered via a single post-operative intravenous injection at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg. The ulnae were harvested six weeks after surgery. Undecalcified transverse histological sections of the implant-bone interfaces were imaged with backscattered scanning electron microscopy and the percentage of available pore space that was filled with new bone was calculated. The mean extent of bone ingrowth was 6.6% for the control implants and 12.2% for the zoledronic acid-treated implants, an absolute difference of 5.6% (95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 10.1) and a relative difference of 85% which was statistically significant. Individual islands of new bone formation within the implant pores were similar in number in both groups but were 69% larger in the zoledronic acid-treated group. The bisphosphonate zoledronic acid should be further investigated for use in accelerating or enhancing the biological fixation of implants to bone. PMID:15773657

Bobyn, J D; Hacking, S A; Krygier, J J; Harvey, E J; Little, D G; Tanzer, M

2005-03-01

84

Galactose decorated acid-labile nanoparticles encapsulating quantum dots for enhanced cellular uptake and subcellular localization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Biodegradable polymers containing acid-labile segments and galactose grafts were formulated into nanoparticles in current study, and enhanced cellular uptake and subcellular distribution were clarified. METHODS: Quantum dots (QDs) was utilized as an imaging agent and a model of bioactive substances, and entrapped into nanoparticles of around 200 nm through a nanoprecipitation process. RESULTS: The acid-labile characteristics of QDs-loaded nanoparticles were approved by the hemolysis capability, the degradation behaviors of matrix polymers, and the fluorescence decay of entrapped QDs after incubation into buffer solutions of different pH values. The galactose grafts increased the acid-lability, due to the hydrophilic moieties on the acid-labile segments, and enhanced uptake efficiency of over 50 % was found after 4 h incubation with HepG2 cells, due to the galactose-receptor mediated endocytosis. The acid-lability led to an efficient endosomal escape of QDs-loaded nanoparticles into cytoplasm. CONCLUSIONS: The integration of acid-lability, targeting effect, and full biodegradable backbone into nanoparticle matrices constitutes a promising platform for intracellular delivery of bioactive substances for disease diagnosis, imaging and treatment.

Cai X; Li X; Liu Y; Wu G; Zhao Y; Chen F; Gu Z

2012-08-01

85

Micropore formation by acid treatment of antigorite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Microporous materials are prepared by H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} treatment of antigorite (Mg{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}) and characterized mainly by SEM observation, a gas adsorption method, and {sup 29}Si MAS NMR spectroscopy. The microtexture of the acid-treated products retains the morphology of the original pore composed of antigorite-like platy masses. Micropores 1 nm in size are formed between the layers of SiO{sub 4}-tetrahedron by Mg{sup 2+} dissolution. The micropore structure is changed by a condensation of silanol groups occurring in the pores. The maximum specific surface area is around 400 m{sup 2}/g, pore volume is 0.22 mL/g, and mean pore diameter is 1.2 nm. Around 5% MgO is necessary to stabilize the micropore structure and achieve a specific surface area of over 300 m{sup 2}/g. Mg{sup 2+} dissolution finally leads to formation of an amorphous silica with more than 99% SiO{sub 2} content of which the specific surface area, pore volume and mean pore diameter are 170 m{sup 2}/g, 0.08 mL/g, and 2.0 nm, respectively. 10 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Kosuge, K.; Tsunashima, A. [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan); Shimada, K. [Toho Olivine Industrial Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

1995-12-01

86

Treatment of NASH with ursodeoxycholic acid: pro.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is one of hepatologists'oldest friends, always ready to help, throughout the years, in numerous and various liver and biliary tract diseases. On paper, it has had an impeccable track record of cytoprotection in vitro and in vivo due to its pleiotropic effects on many pathways leading to cell injury. Most of its hepatoprotective effects demonstrated under experimental conditions proved able to counteract pathogenic mechanisms involved in the transition from steatosis to steatohepatitis, and early clinical studies suggested a potentially beneficial effect in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) as well. Yet, only scant data on the efficacy of UDCA specifically in experimental models of steatosis/NASH are available, and the few available randomized controlled clinical studies have substantial methodological issues and are discussed in this review. Thus, at this point, there is not enough evidence to either confirm or reject the efficacy of UDCA in NASH, although many NASH patients clearly experience biochemical improvements with prolonged UDCA treatment. Also, a few new UDCA derivatives have shown promising activity in preclinical models and may be worth testing in clinical trials.

Ratziu V

2012-09-01

87

Femtosecond laser treatment enhances DNA transfection efficiency in vivo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene therapy with plasmid DNA is emerging as a promising strategy for the treatment of many diseases. One of the major obstacles to such therapy is the poor transfection efficiency of DNA in vivo. Methods In this report, we employed a very low power, near-infrared femtosecond laser technique to enhance the transfection efficiency of intradermally and intratumorally administered DNA plasmid. Results We found that femtosecond laser treatment can significantly enhance the delivery of DNA into the skin and into established tumors in mice. In addition, we found that both laser power density as well as duration of laser treatment are critical parameters for augmenting DNA transfection efficiency. The femtosecond laser technique employs a relatively unfocused laser beam that maximizes the transfected area, minimizes damage to tissue and simplifies its implementation. Conclusion This femtosecond new laser technology represents a safe and innovative technology for enhancing DNA gene transfer in vivo.

Tsen Shaw-Wei D; Wu Chao-Yi; Meneshian Avedis; Pai Sara I; Hung Chien-Fu; Wu T-C

2009-01-01

88

Acid breakers enhance open-hole horizontal completions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses the use of hydrochloric acid to help break down polymers and other additives used to degrade the filter cake which develops in horizontal, unconsolidated drill holes. In unconsolidated formations, polymers and starch derivatives are used for viscosity control along with solid-forms of sodium chloride. The sodium chloride is water soluble during well completion and cleaning procedures. However, the insoluble residuals must be removed through other techniques. The performance of HCL as a breaker is described along with case studies of performance enhancements resulting from the use of these breakers.

Ali, S.A.; Sanclemente, L.W.; Sketchler, B.C. (Chevron Production Co., New Orleans, LA (United States)); LaFontaine-McLarty, J.M. (Western Co., The Woodlands, TX (United States))

1993-11-01

89

Fatty acid conjugation enhances the activities of antimicrobial peptides.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Antimicrobial peptides are small molecules that play a crucial role in innate immunity in multi-cellular organisms, and usually expressed and secreted constantly at basal levels to prevent infection, but local production can be augmented upon an infection. The clock is ticking as rising antibiotic abuse has led to the emergence of many drug resistance bacteria. Due to their broad spectrum antibiotic and antifungal activities as well as anti-viral and anti-tumor activities, efforts are being made to develop antimicrobial peptides into future microbial agents. This article describes some of the recent patents on antimicrobial peptides with fatty acid conjugation. Potency and selectivity of antimicrobial peptide can be modulated with fatty acid tails of variable length. Interaction between membranes and antimicrobial peptides was affected by fatty acid conjugation. At concentrations above the critical miscelle concentration (CMC), propensity of solution selfassembly hampered binding of the peptide to cell membranes. Overall, fatty acid conjugation has enhanced the activities of antimicrobial peptides, and occasionally it rendered inactive antimicrobial peptides to be bioactive. Antimicrobial peptides can not only be used as medicine but also as food additives.

Li Z; Yuan P; Xing M; He Z; Dong C; Cao Y; Liu Q

2013-04-01

90

Btg2 Enhances Retinoic Acid-Induced Differentiation by Modulating Histone H4 Methylation and Acetylation  

Science.gov (United States)

Retinoic acid controls hematopoietic differentiation through the transcription factor activity of its receptors. They act on specific target genes by recruiting protein complexes that deacetylate or acetylate histones and modify chromatin status. The regulation of this process is affected by histone methyltransferases, which can inhibit or activate transcription depending on their amino acid target. We show here that retinoic acid treatment of hematopoietic cells induces the expression of BTG2. Overexpression of this protein increases RAR? transcriptional activity and the differentiation response to retinoic acid of myeloid leukemia cells and CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors. In the absence of retinoic acid, BTG2 is present in the RAR? transcriptional complex, together with the arginine methyltransferase PRMT1 and Sin3A. Overexpressed BTG2 increases PRMT1 participation in the RAR? protein complex on the RAR? promoter, a target gene model, and enhances gene-specific histone H4 arginine methylation. Upon RA treatment Sin3A, BTG2, and PRMT1 detach from RAR? and thereafter BGT2 and PRMT1 are driven to the cytoplasm. These events prime histone H4 demethylation and acetylation. Overall, our data show that BTG2 contributes to retinoic acid activity by favoring differentiation through a gene-specific modification of histone H4 arginine methylation and acetylation levels.

Passeri, Daniela; Marcucci, Antonella; Rizzo, Giovanni; Billi, Monia; Panigada, Maddalena; Leonardi, Luca; Tirone, Felice; Grignani, Francesco

2006-01-01

91

IL-17A Synergistically Enhances Bile Acid-Induced Inflammation during Obstructive Cholestasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During obstructive cholestasis, increased concentrations of bile acids activate ERK1/2 in hepatocytes, which up-regulates early growth response factor 1, a key regulator of proinflammatory cytokines, such as macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2), which, in turn, exacerbates cholestatic liver injury. Recent studies have indicated that IL-17A contributes to hepatic inflammation during obstructive cholestasis, suggesting that bile acids and IL-17A may interact to regulate hepatic inflammatory responses. We treated mice with an IL-17A neutralizing antibody or control IgG and subjected them to bile duct ligation. Neutralization of IL-17A prevented up-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines, hepatic neutrophil accumulation, and liver injury, indicating an important role for IL-17A in neutrophilic inflammation during cholestasis. Treatment of primary mouse hepatocytes with taurocholic acid (TCA) increased the expression of MIP-2. Co-treatment with IL-17A synergistically enhanced up-regulation of MIP-2 by TCA. In contrast to MIP-2, IL-17A did not affect up-regulation of Egr-1 by TCA, indicating that IL-17A does not affect bile acid-induced activation of signaling pathways upstream of early growth response factor 1. In addition, bile acids increased expression of IL-23, a key regulator of IL-17A production in hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, these data identify bile acids as novel triggers of the IL-23/IL-17A axis and suggest that IL-17A promotes hepatic inflammation during cholestasis by synergistically enhancing bile acid-induced production of proinflammatory cytokines by hepatocytes.

O'Brien KM; Allen KM; Rockwell CE; Towery K; Luyendyk JP; Copple BL

2013-09-01

92

Cognitive enhancement as a treatment for drug addictions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Drug addiction continues to be an important public health problem, with an estimated 22.6 million current illicit drug users in the United States alone. For many addictions, including cocaine, methamphetamine, and marijuana addiction, there are no approved pharmacological treatments. Behavioral treatments are effective but effects vary widely across individuals. Treatments that are effective across multiple addictions are greatly needed, and accumulating evidence suggests that one such approach may be pharmacological or behavioral interventions that enhance executive inhibitory control in addicts. Current evidence indicates that most forms of chronic drug use may be associated with significant cognitive impairments, especially in attention, working memory, and response inhibition functions. In some studies, these impairments predict poor treatment retention and outcome. A number of cognitive enhancing agents, including galantamine, modafinil, atomoxetine, methylphenidate, and guanfacine, have shown promising findings in human studies. Specific behavioral interventions, including cognitive remediation, also show promise. However, whether improvement of selective cognitive functions reduces drug use behavior remains to be determined. Cognitive enhancement to improve treatment outcomes is a novel strategy worthy of future research, as are related questions such as whether these approaches may be broadly beneficial to most addicts or best reserved for substance users with specific demonstrated cognitive impairments. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. PMID:22735770

Sofuoglu, Mehmet; DeVito, Elise E; Waters, Andrew J; Carroll, Kathleen M

2012-06-23

93

Surfactant enhanced ricinoleic acid production using Candida rugosa lipase.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, ricinoleic acid was produced on surfactant enhanced castor oil hydrolysis using Candida rugosa lipase. The most effective surfactant was Span 80. Employing fractional factorial design, the most suitable temperature and surfactant concentration were found to be 31 degrees C and 0.257% (w/w in buffer) respectively whereas pH, enzyme concentration, buffer concentration and agitation were identified as the most significant independent variables. A 2(4) full factorial central composite design was applied and the optimal conditions were found to be pH 7.0, enzyme concentration 7.42 mg/g oil, buffer concentration 0.20 g/g oil and agitation 1400 rpm with the maximum response of 76% in 4 h. The most important variable was pH, whereas enzyme and buffer concentrations also showed pronounced effect on response. This is the first report on the application of response surface methodology for optimizing surfactant enhanced ricinoleic acid production using C. rugosa lipase.

Goswami D; Sen R; Basu JK; De S

2010-01-01

94

Surfactant enhanced ricinoleic acid production using Candida rugosa lipase.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, ricinoleic acid was produced on surfactant enhanced castor oil hydrolysis using Candida rugosa lipase. The most effective surfactant was Span 80. Employing fractional factorial design, the most suitable temperature and surfactant concentration were found to be 31 degrees C and 0.257% (w/w in buffer) respectively whereas pH, enzyme concentration, buffer concentration and agitation were identified as the most significant independent variables. A 2(4) full factorial central composite design was applied and the optimal conditions were found to be pH 7.0, enzyme concentration 7.42 mg/g oil, buffer concentration 0.20 g/g oil and agitation 1400 rpm with the maximum response of 76% in 4 h. The most important variable was pH, whereas enzyme and buffer concentrations also showed pronounced effect on response. This is the first report on the application of response surface methodology for optimizing surfactant enhanced ricinoleic acid production using C. rugosa lipase. PMID:19717301

Goswami, Debajyoti; Sen, Ramkrishna; Basu, Jayanta Kumar; De, Sirshendu

2009-08-29

95

Ex vivo acidic preconditioning enhances bone marrow ckit+ cell therapeutic potential via increased CXCR4 expression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: The chemokine receptor CXCR4 modulates endothelial progenitor cell migration, homing, and differentiation, and plays a key role in cardiovascular regeneration. Here we examined the effect of ex vivo acidic preconditioning (AP) on CXCR4 expression and on the regenerative potential of mouse bone marrow (BM) ckit(+) cells. METHODS AND RESULTS: Acidic preconditioning was achieved by exposing BM ckit(+) cells to hypercarbic acidosis (pH 7.0) for 24 h; control cells were kept at pH 7.4. Acidic preconditioning enhanced CXCR4 and stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) mRNA levels, as well as CXCR4 phosphorylation. Acidic preconditioning ability to modulate CXCR4 expression depended on cytosolic calcium [Ca(2+)]i mobilization and on nitric oxide (NO), as determined by [Ca(2+)]i buffering with BAPTA, and by treatment with the NO donor (DETA/NO) and the NO synthase inhibitor (L-NAME). Further, AP increased SDF-1-driven chemotaxis, transendothelial migration, and differentiation toward the endothelial lineage in vitro. In a mouse model of hindlimb ischaemia, control and AP ckit(+) cells were transplanted into the ischaemic muscle; AP cells accelerated blood flow recovery, increased capillary, and arteriole number as well as the number of regenerating muscle fibres vs. control. These effects were abolished by treating AP cells with L-NAME. CONCLUSION: Acidic preconditioning represents a novel strategy to enhance BM ckit(+) cell therapeutic potential via NO-dependent increase in CXCR4 expression.

Cencioni C; Melchionna R; Straino S; Romani M; Cappuzzello C; Annese V; Wu JC; Pompilio G; Santoni A; Gaetano C; Napolitano M; Capogrossi MC

2013-07-01

96

Venous lipodermatosclerosis: treatment by fibrinolytic enhancement and elastic compression.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The value of fibrinolytic enhancement with an anabolic steroid (stanozolol) combined with elastic stockings in treating venous lipodermatosclerosis was assessed in a six-month double-blind cross-over trial. Thirty-four legs of 23 patients in whom other treatments had failed were studied. The patient...

Burnand, K; Clemenson, G; Morland, M; Jarrett, P E; Browse, N L

97

Enhanced external counterpulsation is an effective treatment for Syndrome X.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) was used to treat 30 patients with refractory angina due to cardiac Syndrome X, with an initial improvement in CCS angina class (3.57 to 1.43; pEECP, by improving endothelial function, may be an effective and durable treatment for this often difficult to treat problem. PMID:18590931

Kronhaus, Kenneth D; Lawson, William E

2008-06-30

98

Improved efficiency of organic dye sensitized solar cells through acid treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

We have improved the efficiency of the dye sensitization solar cells (DSSCs) by adopting an innovative and simpler methodology of oxalic acid treatment of TiO2. It is observed that the efficiency of the DSSC is improved to 2.3% after treatment. The improvement has been understood in terms of reduced dark current and enhanced dye loading as supported by UV-Visible, electrical and electrochemical impedance measurements.

Jain, Avani; Veerender, P.; Saxena, Vibha; Gusain, Abhay; Jha, P.; Koiry, S. P.; Chauhan, A. K.; Aswal, D. K.; Gupta, S. K.

2013-02-01

99

Photocatalytic treatment of contaminated groundwater for biological nitrification enhancement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Strengths and weaknesses of biological and photocatalytic treatments as water treatment technologies were reviewed. This investigation concentrated on the treatment of groundwater from an industrial site, using photocatalysis as an alternative to the carbon adsorption system for inhibitor removal. Elimination of bicarbonate and carbonate by lowering the pH was critical for the photocatalytic reaction to take place. The photocatalytic pretreatment was found to dramatically enhance the extent of biological nitrification. The addition of 50 to 350 mg/L hydrogen peroxide enhanced the photocatalytic degradation rate, but had only a minimal effect of biological nitrification. Results were interpreted as confirmation of the potential of photocatalysis to remove inhibition from biological nitrification systems.

Zhang, Z.; Anderson, W. A.; Moo-Young, M. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1998-10-01

100

Enhanced photocatalytic activity of titanium oxide nanotubes after heating treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Titanium oxide nanotubes were obtained by an electrochemical anodization method. Scanning electron microscope results demonstrate that the diameter of the tubes is about 120 nm and the length of the tubes is around 13 microm. Transmission electron microscope results indicate that the nanotubes are assembled by numerous nanoparticles and tube-like structure remains well after heat treatment at 400-600 degrees C. The photocatalysis performance of the nanotubes was evaluated in terms of the decomposition rate of methyl orange under UV irradiation. The results show that the photocatalytic activity was enhanced through the heating treatment of the nanotubes, and the nanotubes heated at 600 degrees C exhibits the best photocatalytic activity. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that there is no phase transformation during the heat treatment. Therefore, the enhanced activity can be attributed to the improvement of nanotubes crystallinity, which may provide more insights about the effect of the crystallinity on the photocatalytic performance.

Liu M; Chang J; Wang H; Yan C; Bell J

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
101

Radio frequency plasma treatments on titanium for enhancement of bioactivity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Titanium and its alloys, when treated in alkali solutions, are able to form calcium phosphate coatings on their surface after immersion in supersaturated solutions. In this study, the surfaces of titanium alloy discs were modified by an alkali treatment and a radio frequency (RF) plasma procedure (150 W and 13.56 MHz) in N(2), CO(2) or N(2)/O(2) (80/20%) atmospheres. After the alkali treatment, atomic force microscopy showed differences in the surface roughness of the samples. X-ray photoelectron microscopy indicated that the chemical composition of the surfaces changed after the different alkali and RF plasma treatments. The contact angles were also modified by approximately 5 degrees , making the original titanium surface more hydrophilic. Immersion in a supersaturated calcium phosphate solution was used to evaluate the bioactivity of the RF plasma-treated samples in vitro. Alkali-treated samples gave more homogeneous and thick coatings that those without alkali treatment. The use of RF plasma treatments enhanced the bioactivity of the samples, in particular for treatments performed in N(2) or N(2)/O(2) atmospheres. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis indicated that coatings had Ca/P ratios between the values of octacalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite. X-ray diffraction confirmed the presence of these two phases in most of the coatings. This study shows that an RF plasma treatment enhanced the bioactivity of titanium surfaces.

Lopez-Heredia MA; Legeay G; Gaillard C; Layrolle P

2008-11-01

102

Carbonate interlayered hydrotalcites-enhanced peroxynitrous acid chemiluminescence for high selectivity sensing of ascorbic acid.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, Mg-Al-carbonate layered double hydroxides (denoted as Mg-Al-CO(3) LDHs) were found to catalyze the chemiluminescence (CL) emission from peroxynitrous acid (ONOOH). The enhanced CL signals resulted from the concentration of peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) onto the LDHs surface by electrostatic attraction, meaning that ONOO(-) can interact with the intercalated carbonate easily and effectively. Moreover, ascorbic acid can react with ONOO(-), or its decomposition products (e.g., ?OH and ?NO(2)), resulting in a decrease in the CL intensity from the Mg-Al-CO(3) LDHs-catalyzed ONOOH reaction. Based on these findings, a sensitive, selective and rapid CL method was developed for the determination of ascorbic acid using Mg-Al-CO(3) LDHs-catalyzed ONOOH as a novel CL system. The CL intensity was proportional to the concentration of ascorbic acid in the range from 5.0 to 5000 nM. The detection limit (S/N = 3) was 0.5 nM and the relative standard deviation (RSD) for nine repeated measurements of 0.1 ?M ascorbic acid was 2.6%. This method has been successfully applied to determine ascorbic acid in commercial liquid fruit juices with recoveries of 97-107%. This work is not only of importance for a better understanding of the unique properties of LDHs-catalyzed CL but also of great potential for extensive applications in many fields, such as luminescence devices, bioanalysis, and labeling probes.

Wang Z; Teng X; Lu C

2012-04-01

103

Zoledronic Acid Improves Early Breast Cancer Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

The addition of zoledronic acid (Zometa®) to adjuvant endocrine therapy in premenopausal women with early stage breast cancer significantly improves clinical outcomes beyond those achieved with endocrine therapy alone, according to findings presented at the 2008 ASCO meeting in Chicago.

104

Adhesion enhancement of polymer surfaces by atmospheric plasma treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

An atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasma (APNEP) developed in the UK by EA Technology Ltd is currently being investigated in collaboration with the University of Surrey. Of the many applications of surface modification that can be induced using plasmas, adhesion enhancement is one of the most commercially important. In this paper, we illustrate the use of an atmospheric plasma to enhance the adhesion characteristics of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). The polymers were treated in the remote afterglow region of an atmospheric pressure plasma to avoid the thermal effects that can cause degradation for thermally sensitive materials when placed in direct contact with the plasma. Reactive (oxygen containing) and inert (oxygen free) atmospheric plasmas rapidly impart adhesion enhancement by a factor of two to ten as measured by 180° peel tests. However, extended exposure to the atmospheric plasma does not impart additional adhesion enhancement as the surface is ablated revealing the underlying polymer with poor adhesive characteristics. In contrast, vacuum plasma treated LDPE and PET show increased adhesion with extended plasma treatment. An adhesion enhancement in excess of two to three orders of magnitude was found to be achievable for vacuum plasma treatment times greater than 10 min.

Shenton, M. J.; Lovell-Hoare, M. C.; Stevens, G. C.

2001-09-01

105

Inhibition of breast cancer cell proliferation in repeated and non-repeated treatment with zoledronic acid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Zoledronic acid is used to treat bone metastases and has been shown to reduce skeletal-related events and exert antitumor activity. The present in vitro study investigates the mechanism of action of Zoledronic Acid on breast cancer cell lines with different hormonal and HER2 patterns. Furthermore, we investigated the efficacy of repeated versus non-repeated treatments. Methods The study was performed on 4 breast cancer cell lines (BRC-230, SkBr3, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). Non-repeated treatment (single exposure of 168?hrs’ duration) with zoledronic acid was compared with repeated treatment (separate exposures, each of 48?hrs’ duration, for a total of 168?hrs) at different dosages. A dose–response profile was generated using sulforhodamine B assay. Apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL assay and biomolecular characteristics were analyzed by western blot. Results Zoledronic acid produced a dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation in all cell lines. Anti-proliferative activity was enhanced with the repeated treatment, proving to be statistically significant in the triple-negative lines. In these lines repeated treatment showed a cytocidal effect, with apoptotic cell death caused by caspase 3, 8 and 9 activation and decreased RAS and pMAPK expression. Apoptosis was not observed in estrogen receptor-positive line: p21 overexpression suggested a slowing down of cell cycle. A decrease in RAS and pMAPK expression was seen in HER2-overexpressing line after treatment. Conclusions The study suggests that zoledronic acid has an antitumor activity in breast cancer cell lines. Its mechanism of action involves the decrease of RAS and RHO, as in osteoclasts. Repeated treatment enhances antitumor activity compared to non-repeated treatment. Repeated treatment has a killing effect on triple-negative lines due to apoptosis activation. Further research is warranted especially in the treatment of triple-negative breast cancer.

Ibrahim Toni; Mercatali Laura; Sacanna Emanuele; Tesei Anna; Carloni Silvia; Ulivi Paola; Liverani Chiara; Fabbri Francesco; Zanoni Michele; Zoli Wainer; Amadori Dino

2012-01-01

106

Hepatic arachidonic acid metabolism is disrupted after hexachlorobenzene treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Hexaclorobenzene (HCB), one of the most persistent environmental pollutants, can cause a wide range of toxic effects including cancer in animals, and hepatotoxicity and porphyria both in humans and animals. In the present study, liver microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism, hepatic PGE production, and cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) activity were investigated in an experimental model of porphyria cutanea tarda induced by HCB. Female Wistar rats were treated with a single daily dose of HCB (100 mg kg-1 body weight) for 5 days and were sacrificed 3, 10, 17, and 52 days after the last dose. HCB treatment induced the accumulation of hepatic porhyrins from day 17 and increased the activities of liver ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (MROD), and aminopyrine N-demethylase (APND) from day 3 after the last dose. Liver microsomes from control and HCB-treated rats generated, in the presence of NADPH, hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs), epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), 11,12-Di HETE, and ?-OH/?-1-OH AA. HCB treatment caused an increase in total NADPH CYP-dependent AA metabolism, with a higher response at 3 days after the last HCB dose than at the other time points studied. In addition, HCB treatment markedly enhanced PGE production and release in liver slices. This HCB effect was time dependent and reached its highest level after 10 days. At this time cPLA2 activity was shown to be increased. Unexpectedly, HCB produced a significant decrease in cPLA2 activity on the 17th and 52nd day. Our results demonstrated for the first time that HCB induces both the cyclooxygenase and CYP-dependent AA metabolism. The effects of HCB on AA metabolism were previous to the onset of a marked porphyria and might contribute to different aspects of HCB-induced liver toxicity such as alterations of membrane fluidity and membrane-bound protein function. Observations also suggested that a possible role of cPLA2 in the early increase of AA metabolism cannot be excluded. However, the existence of other pathway(s) for metabolizable AA generation different from cPLA2 activation is also proposed

2005-04-15

107

Enhancement of taxol-induced apoptosis by inhibition of NF-?B with ursorlic acid  

Science.gov (United States)

Taxol is known to inhibit cell growth and triggers significant apoptosis in various cancer cells, and activation of proliferation factor NF-?B during Taxol-induced apoptosis is regarded as a main reason resulting in tumor cells resistance to Taxol. It has been found that ursorlic acid can inhibit the activation of NF-?B. In order to study whether ursorlic acid can enhance the Taxol-induced apoptosis, we use fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique and probe SCAT3 to compare the difference of caspase-3 activation between Taxol alone and Taxol combined ursorlic acid. With laser scanning confocal microscopy, we find that ursorlic acid, a nontoxic food component, sensitizes ASTC-a-1 cells more efficiently to Taxol-induced apoptosis by advanced activation of caspase 3. The result also suggests that there would be a synergistic effect between Taxol and ursorlic acid, and the more detailed mechanism of synergistic effect needs to be clarified further, such as the correlations among NF-?B, Akt, caspase 8, which leads to the advanced activation of caspase 3 during combined treatment of Taxol and ursorlic acid. Moreover, this may be a new way to improve Taxol-dependent tumor therapy.

Li, Yunlong; Xing, Da

2007-05-01

108

Enhancement of Commercial Antifungal Agents by Kojic Acid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Natural compounds that pose no significant medical or environmental side effects are potential sources of antifungal agents, either in their nascent form or as structural backbones for more effective derivatives. Kojic acid (KA) is one such compound. It is a natural by-product of fungal fermentation commonly employed by food and cosmetic industries. We show that KA greatly lowers minimum inhibitory (MIC) or fungicidal (MFC) concentrations of commercial medicinal and agricultural antifungal agents, amphotericin B (AMB) and strobilurin, respectively, against pathogenic yeasts and filamentous fungi. Assays using two mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) mutants, i.e., sakA?, mpkC?, of Aspergillus fumigatus, an agent for human invasive aspergillosis, with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or AMB indicate such chemosensitizing activity of KA is most conceivably through disruption of fungal antioxidation systems. KA could be developed as a chemosensitizer to enhance efficacy of certain conventional antifungal drugs or fungicides.

Jong H. Kim; Perng-Kuang Chang; Kathleen L. Chan; Natália C. G. Faria; Noreen Mahoney; Young K. Kim; Maria de L. Martins; Bruce C. Campbell

2012-01-01

109

Hydrothermally enhanced electrochemical oxidation of high concentration refractory perfluorooctanoic acid.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A green hydrothermally enhanced electrochemical oxidation (HTEO) technique is developed to treat the high concentration refractory perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) wastewater on boron-doped diamond (BDD) film electrode. Results show that HTEO can demonstrate higher degradation efficiency for PFOA than the normal electrochemical oxidation (EO) process, with the removal of PFOA, total organic carbon (TOC), and organic fluorine in the HTEO process increasing by 1.1, 1.8, and 2.1 times, respectively. The kinetics study indicates that the degradation of PFOA follows a first-order reaction in the HTEO process with the apparent reaction rate constant 3.1 times higher than that in the EO process. The higher degradation efficiency of PFOA is due to the hydrothermal enhancement in electrochemical properties of the electrode and solution. Compared with EO, during the HTEO process, the conductivity and ionic migration rate of the solution is improved by 540% and 60%, respectively. In addition, the Tafel slope is increased to 343 from 279 mV dec(-1), indicating an inhibition effect of oxygen evolution reaction and a more effective oxidation of PFOA. In particular, the hydrothermal condition promotes a high formation rate of hydroxyl radical with the concentration almost 2 times of that in EO, which is considered the inner factor leading to the higher degradation efficiency. The density functional theory simulations demonstrate that the nonterminal C-C bonds in the main carbon chain can be easily destructed in the hydrothermal condition, as confirmed by the experimental detection of intermediates of C(5)F(11)COOH, C(4)F(9)COOH, C(3)F(7)COOH, C(2)F(5)COOH, CF(3)COOH, and some dicarboxylic acids. As a result, a reaction pathway is tentatively proposed.

Xiao H; Lv B; Zhao G; Wang Y; Li M; Li D

2011-12-01

110

Waste acid treatment. Haisan no shori ni tsuite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With regard to methods of treating waste acids discharged from production processes of inorganic chemical products, this paper introduces the physico-chemical treatment technologies represented by the diffusion dialysis method, the acid retardation method that flows acid-salt mixed solution into an anion exchange resin column, and the nitric acid adsorption method. The diffusion dialysis method, for example, flows waste water upward and water downward at nearly the same speed, where acid permeates a membrane and migrates into the water side while removing the acid, and the acid is recovered as aqueous solution on the other side. It is possible with this method to recover the acid at higher concentration than the original solution by setting properly the flow interval of both liquids. Coexisting salt increases the acid removal rate, but on the other hand the recovery rate has decreased in a system in which complex anion is formed, such as copper chloride/hydrochloric acid system. The acid retardation method flows acid and water into an anion exchange resin column continuously, where acid is separated from salt, and the coexisting salt showed an increase in the removal rate in a nitric acid/nitrate system. 6 figs.

Sato, Y. (National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan))

1994-06-01

111

Citric Acid Treatment of Chronic Wounds in Animals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chronic wound infections in animals not responding to conventional treatment modality are the important cause of morbidity. Infection is responsible for delayed wound healing. In the present study, an attempt was made to develop simple and effective treatment modality by using citric acid as a sole antimicrobial agent to control chronic wound infections in animals. Thirty eight cases of chronic wounds not responding to conventional treatment modalities were divided into two groups. Each group included 19 cases. In group 1, 3% citric acid solution and in group 2, 5% citric acid solution was used for local application to find out its efficacy in the treatment of chronic wound infections in animals. Citric acid was found effective in the control of all 38 cases in 7 to 20 applications. In group 1, the wounds healed in 10-20 applications. In group 2, the wounds healed in 7-15 applications. Citric acid treatment was found most effective and economical approach for the successful treatment of chronic infected wounds in animals not responding to conventional antibiotic treatment and local wound care. These results suggest that when healing of chronic wounds in animals is a matter of great concern, the value of topical agents like citric acid should not be forgotten.

B.S. Nagoba,; B.J. Wadher and S.P. Selkar

2011-01-01

112

Bile acids and sterols in urban sewage treatment plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The composition of bile acids, sterols and sterones in water and sludge from an urban sewage treatment plant has been examined for assessment of the possible use of these compounds as pollution biomarkers. Samples were solvent-extracted, hydrolysed, and fractionated by column chromatography to separate acids, hydrocarbons, sterones and sterols. These fractions, except hydrocarbons, were methylated (acids only) and silylated for instrumental analysis. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis was performed in the electron-impact mode, using a non-polar capillary column. Lithocholic acids (3alpha- and 3beta-epimers), coprostanone, coprostanol, cholesterol, cholestenone, and cholestanone were found in sludge and all waters. However, the waters after secondary plant treatment contained mainly lithocholic acids epimers and coprostanone, pointing to these compounds as potential markers for urban treatment plant effluents in natural waters courses.

Chaler R; Simoneit BR; Grimalt JO

2001-08-01

113

Betulinic Acid for Cancer Treatment and Prevention  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Betulinic acid is a natural product with a range of biological effects, for example potent antitumor activity. This anticancer property is linked to its ability to induce apoptotic cell death in cancer cells by triggering the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. In contrast to the cytotoxicity of bet...

Fulda, Simone

114

Plantar wart treatment with combination imiquimod and salicylic acid pads.  

Science.gov (United States)

Treatment of plantar warts is often difficult and may be painful, often employing destructive treatment modalities. We report the successful treatment of a patient with a large plantar wart using Imiquimod 5% cream under occlusion with a 40% salicylic acid pad. This combination treatment modality likely allows successful delivery of Imiquimod through the thick skin on the plantar surface. Once penetrated, an anti-viral state is created by upregulating specific cytokines to eradicate the human papilloma virus (HPV). PMID:12905977

Tucker, Stephen B; Ali, Asra; Ransdell, Brian L

2003-04-01

115

300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan. Revision 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This section provides a description of the Hanford Site, identifies the proposed method of 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) closure, and briefly summarizes the contents of each chapter of this plan.

NONE

1996-03-01

116

300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan. Revision 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This section provides a description of the Hanford Site, identifies the proposed method of 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) closure, and briefly summarizes the contents of each chapter of this plan.

1996-01-01

117

Retinoic acid for treatment of multicentric Castleman's disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Multicentric Castleman's syndrome has an aggressive course with poor prognosis, and its treatment remains uncertain. We report a woman with multicentric Castleman's disease that was successfully treated with prednisone and retinoic acid.

Rieu P; Droz D; Gessain A; Grünfeld JP; Hermine O

1999-10-01

118

Treatment of haemoptysis in pulmonary atresia with tranexamic acid.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report the case of a young woman with continuing haemoptysis, pulmonary atresia, previous shunt surgery, and pulmonary hypertension. She was not suitable for further surgery or for therapeutic embolisation of bronchial vessels. Treatment with tranexamic acid resolved the haemoptysis.

Devine MJ; Radford DJ

2013-04-01

119

A polymer-(tandem drugs) conjugate for enhanced cancer treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A novel strategy for combination chemotherapy (platinum and demethylcantharidin) via a polymer-(tandem drugs) conjugate for enhanced cancer treatment is demonstrated. Cisplatin can be released inside cell by reduction to attack DNA, while DMC will be hydrolyzed subsequently to block DNA-damage-induced defense mechanisms by serine/threonine phosphatase PP2A inhibition. Synergistic effect of the polymer-(tandem drugs) conjugate causes complete suppression of H22 liver tumor xenografts without recurrence.

Zhou D; Xiao H; Meng F; Li X; Li Y; Jing X; Huang Y

2013-06-01

120

Results of acid treatments in hydrothermal direct heat experiment wells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Matrix acid treatments have been employed in two low-to-moderate temperature hydrothermal wells with successful results. These two wells showed flow rate increases of 40% and 50%. The increased flow reduced the payback periods for the heating systems to nearly one-half of what they were before acidization. It is recommended that well designs in certain areas consider accommodating such acid stimulation techniques, if testing suggests they are warranted as a well completion tool.

Strawn, J.A.

1980-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Surgical Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... upper GI series and sometimes a 24-hour PH study. Typically, medical treatments can be just elevating ... causing the problem. And so a 24-hour PH is commonly done. That’s a study performed by ...

122

Rationale of the treatment of hydrofluoric acid burns  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Carney, Shirley A., Hall, M., Lawrence, J. C., and Ricketts, C. R. (1974).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,31, 317-321. Rationale of the treatment of hydrofluoric acid burns. On contact with skin hydrofluoric acid yields hydrogen and fluoride ions, which exhaust the tissue's buffering capacity...

Carney, Shirley A.; Hall, M.; Lawrence, J. C.; Ricketts, C. R.

123

Designing acid treatment of porous weak carbonate collectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Set forth is a procedure for studying the reaction rate of acid solutions in a porous collector area depending in the hydrodynamics and temperature at a given pressure. It establishes that increasing the depth of the treatment of low-permeability collectors depends not on the flow rate of the acid, but on its viscosity and diffusion coefficient.

Kachmar, Y.D.

1981-01-01

124

Enhanced slurry walls as treatment zones for inorganic contaminants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At present, slurry walls are widely used as passive vertical barriers to control the horizontal flow of contaminated ground water. The most commonly employed slurry wall is known as a soil-bentonite cutoff wall and is composed of a backfill mixture of soil, bentonite, and water. To date, slurry walls have not been used as a medium to treat contaminated ground water which passes through the wall. This paper describes the modification of the present mix design through the addition of alternative clay minerals such as those which act as ``molecular sieves`` and have superior adsorption capabilities. In this way the enhanced slurry wall will serve to both impede the rate of ground water flow and remove contaminants from the ground water as it passes through the wall. Geochemical attenuation of lead was studied in an effort to investigate the use of enhanced soil-bentonite slurry walls as active treatment zones for heavy metal ions in solution in the ground water. Distribution coefficients were determined from adsorption isotherms for conventional sand-bentonite and enhanced sand-bentonite-chabazite backfills. These results were 23 ml/g and 144 ml/g, respectively. Using these laboratory data, theoretical breakthrough curves were generated to predict and compare breakthrough time between the conventional barrier and the enhanced barrier. Adsorption test and analytical modeling results demonstrate that adding chabazite to slurry wall backfill does enhance the conventional passive barrier performance.

Evans, J.C.; Adams, T.L.; Dudiak, K.A. [Bucknell Univ., Lewisburg, PA (United States)

1995-12-31

125

Acid treatment removes zinc sulfide scale restriction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports that removal of zinc sulfide (ZnS) scale with acid restored an offshore Louisiana well's production to original rates. The zinc sulfide scale was determined to be in the near well bore area. The selected acid had been proven to control iron sulfide (FeS) scales in sour wells without causing harm to surface production equipment, tubing, and other downhole hardware. The successful removal of the blockage re-established previous production rates with a 105% increase in flowing tubing pressure. On production for a number of months, a high rate, high-pressure offshore well was experiencing unusually rapid pressure and rate declines. A small sample of the restrictive material was obtained during the wire line operations. The well was subsequently shut in while a laboratory analysis determined that zinc sulfide was the major component of the obstruction.

Biggs, K. (Kerr McGee Corp., Lafayette, LA (US)); Allison, D. (Otis Engineering Corp., Lafayette, LA (US)); Ford, W.G.F. (Halliburton Co., Duncan, OK (United States))

1992-08-31

126

300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOERL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion includes closure plan documentation submitted for individual, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units undergoing closure, such as the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Whenever appropriate, 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. This 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System Closure Plan (Revision 2) includes a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Part A, Form 3. Information provided in this closure plan is current as of April 1999.

LUKE, S.N.

1999-05-17

127

300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOERL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion includes closure plan documentation submitted for individual, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units undergoing closure, such as the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Whenever appropriate, 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. This 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System Closure Plan (Revision 2) includes a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Part A, Form 3. Information provided in this closure plan is current as of April 1999

1999-01-01

128

Oleic Acid: Natural variation and potential enhancement in oilseed crops.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oleic acid is a monounsaturated omega 9 fatty acid (MUFA, C18:1) which can be found in various plant lipids and animal fats. Unlike omega 3 (a-linolenic acid, C18:3) and omega 6 (linoleic acid, C18:2) fatty acids which are essential because they cannot be synthesized by humans and must be obtained f...

129

Erythropoietin treatment enhances muscle mitochondrial capacity in humans  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Erythropoietin (Epo) treatment has been shown to induce mitochondrial biogenesis in cardiac muscle along with enhanced mitochondrial capacity in mice. We hypothesized that recombinant human Epo (rhEpo) treatment enhances skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity in humans. In six healthy volunteers rhEpo was administered by sub-cutaneous injection over 8¿weeks with oral iron (100¿mg) supplementation taken daily. Mitochondrial OXPHOS was quantified by high-resolution respirometry in saponin-permeabilized muscle fibers obtained from biopsies of the vastus lateralis before and after rhEpo treatment. OXPHOS was determined with the mitochondrial complex I substrates malate, glutamate, pyruvate, and complex II substrate succinate in the presence of saturating ADP concentrations, while maximal electron transport capacity (ETS) was assessed by addition of an uncoupler. rhEpo treatment increased OXPHOS (from 92¿±¿5 to 113¿±¿7¿pmol·s(-1)·mg(-1)) and ETS (107¿±¿4 to 143¿±¿14¿pmol·s(-1)·mg(-1), p¿

Plenge, Ulla; Belhage, Bo

2012-01-01

130

Fenton-enhanced {gamma}-radiolysis of cyanuric acid  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Degradation of cyanuric acid (OOOT), a stable end product of oxidative decomposition of atrazine, is investigated in a combined field of gamma radiolysis and fenton reaction. The reaction of hydroxyl radical ({center_dot}OH) at pH 6 was carried out by irradiating N{sub 2}O saturated aqueous solutions containing OOOT (1 x 10{sup -3} mol dm{sup -3}), and this resulted only a marginal degradation (20%). However, when the same reaction was carried out in the presence of varying concentrations of ferrous sulfate ((5-10) x 10{sup -5} mol dm{sup -3}), the decay of OOOT has been enhanced to more than 80%. This decay followed a first order kinetics. Nearly similar effects were observed with another triazine derivative, 2,4-dioxohexahydro-1,3,5-triazine (DHT). Two major reaction mechanisms are proposed for the enhanced decay of OOOT. The formation of unstable hydroxyl radical adducts from the reaction of {center_dot}OH which is the result of gamma radiolysis and the Fenton reaction (resulting from the reaction of the added Fe(II) and of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} from the radiolysis of water), is proposed as the first mechanism. The second mechanism, which is likely the major contributor to degradation, is proposed as the reaction of a nucleophilic adduct, Fe(II)OOH, which could directly react with the electron deficient triazine ring. It is highlighted that such degradation reactions must be explored for the complete degradation of the byproducts of the oxidative decomposition of atrazine.

Varghese, Rani [School of Chemical Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686560, Kerala (India); Aravind, Usha K. [School of Chemical Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686560, Kerala (India); Aravindakumar, Charuvila T. [School of Chemical Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686560, Kerala (India)]. E-mail: CT-Aravindakumar@rocketmail.com

2007-04-02

131

Enhancing Motivation for Change in Substance Abuse Treatment  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This TIP, Enhancing Motivation for Change in Substance Abuse Treatment, embraces a fundamentally different way to conceptualize motivation. In this approach, motivation is viewed as a dynamic and changeable state rather than a static trait. This TIP shows how clinicians can influence this change process by developing a therapeutic relationship, one that respects and builds on the client's autonomy and, at the same time, makes the treatment counselor a participant in the change process. The TIP also describes different motivational interventions that can be used at all stages of change, from precontemplation and preparation to action and maintenance. The goal of this TIP is to make readers aware of the research, results, and promise of motivational interventions in the hope that they will be used more widely in clinical practice and treatment programs across the United States.

132

Why does choice enhance treatment effectiveness? Using placebo treatments to demonstrate the role of personal control.  

Science.gov (United States)

In modern health care, individuals frequently exercise choice over health treatment alternatives. A growing body of research suggests that when individuals choose between treatment options, treatment effectiveness can increase, although little experimental evidence exists clarifying this effect. Four studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that exercising choice over treatment alternatives enhances outcomes by providing greater personal control. Consistent with this possibility, in Study 1 individuals who chronically desired control reported less pain from a laboratory pain task when they were able to select between placebo analgesic treatments. Study 2 replicated this finding with an auditory discomfort paradigm. In Study 3, the desire for control was experimentally induced, and participants with high desire for control benefited more from a placebo treatment when they were able to choose their treatment. Study 4 revealed that the benefit of choice on treatment efficacy was partially mediated by thoughts of personal control. This research suggests that when individuals desire control, choice over treatment alternatives improves treatment effectiveness by enhancing personal control. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23915042

Geers, Andrew L; Rose, Jason P; Fowler, Stephanie L; Rasinski, Heather M; Brown, Jill A; Helfer, Suzanne G

2013-08-05

133

Lowering of phytic acid content by enhancement of phytase and acid phosphatase activities during sunflower germination  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a germinação de girassóis híbridos BRS 191 e C11 com finalidade de reduzir o teor de AF e aumentar as atividades de phytases e fosfatases endógenas. A concentração do AF nos aquênios de girassóis híbridos variou de 2,16 a 2,83 g /100g de amostra (p(more) rio para o desenvolvimento da semente. Estes resultados indicam que o AF do girassol hibrido reduz e a atividade de phytase aumenta em períodos distintos da germinação, possibilitando assim a aplicação desta enzima no controle do teor de AF em cereais, melhorando o seu valor nutricional. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to investigate the germination of hybrid sunflowers BRS191 and C11 as a means of lowering phytic acid (PA) content by enhancing the activity of endogenous phytase and acid phosphatase. The concentration of PA in hybrid sunflower achenes varied from 2.16 to 2.83g/100g of sample (p (more) lease of the phosphorus. These results indicated that hybrid sunflower PA reduced and enhance phytase activity at distinct germination periods, which could open up the possibility of applying these enzymes in the control of PA content in cereals, thus improving their nutritional value.

Agostini, Juliana da Silva; Nogueira, Rosicler Balduíno; Ida, Elza Iouko

2010-08-01

134

Treatment plans optimization for contrast-enhanced synchrotron stereotactic radiotherapy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Synchrotron stereotactic radiotherapy (SSRT) is a treatment that involves the targeting of high-Z elements into tumors followed by stereotactic irradiation with monochromatic x-rays from a synchrotron source, tuned at an optimal energy. The irradiation geometry, as well as the secondary particles generated at a higher yield by the medium energy x-rays on the high-Z atoms (characteristic x-rays, photoelectrons, and Auger electrons), produces a localized dose enhancement in the tumor. Iodine-enhanced SSRT with systemic injections of iodinated contrast agents has been successfully developed in the past six years in the team, and is currently being transferred to clinical trials. The purpose of this work is to study the impact on the SSRT treatment of the contrast agent type, the beam quality, the irradiation geometry, and the beam weighting for defining an optimized SSRT treatment plan. METHODS: Theoretical dosimetry was performed using the MCNPX particle transport code. The simulated geometry was an idealized phantom representing a human head. A virtual target was positioned in the central part of the phantom or off-centered by 4 cm. The authors investigated the dosimetric characteristics of SSRT for various contrast agents: Iodine, gadolinium, and gold; and for different beam qualities: Monochromatic x-ray beams from a synchrotron source (30-120 keV), polychromatic x-ray beams from an x-ray tube (80, 120, and 180 kVp), and a 6 MV x-ray beam from a linear accelerator. Three irradiation geometries were studied: One arc or three noncoplanar arcs dynamic arc therapy, and an irradiation with a finite number of beams. The resulting dose enhancements, beam profiles, and histograms dose volumes were compared for iodine-enhanced SSRT. An attempt to optimize the irradiation scheme by weighing the finite x-ray beams was performed. Finally, the optimization was studied on patient specific 3D CT data after contrast agent infusion. RESULTS: It was demonstrated in this study that an 80 keV beam energy was a good compromise for treating human brain tumors with iodine-enhanced SSRT, resulting in a still high dose enhancement factor (about 2) and a superior bone sparing in comparison with lower energy x-rays. This beam could easily be produced at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility medical beamline. Moreover, there was a significant diminution of dose delivered to the bone when using monochromatic x-rays rather than polychromatic x-rays from a conventional tube. The data showed that iodine SSRT exhibits a superior sparing of brain healthy tissue in comparison to high energy treatment. The beam weighting optimization significantly improved the treatment plans for off-centered tumors, when compared to nonweighted irradiations. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the feasibility of realistic clinical plans for low energy monochromatic x-rays contrast-enhanced radiotherapy, suitable for the first clinical trials on brain metastasis with a homogeneous iodine uptake.

Edouard M; Broggio D; Prezado Y; Estève F; Elleaume H; Adam JF

2010-06-01

135

Oral tranexamic Acid for the treatment of melasma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Melasma poses a great challenge as its treatment is unsatisfactory and recurrence is high. Treatment of melasma using tranexamic acid (oral, topical or intralesional) is a novel concept. Objective To compare the efficacy of oral tranexamic acid with routine topical therapies for the treatment of melasma. Methods It is a prospective, interventional, randomized controlled trial conducted among 260 melasma patients. Patients were divided into two groups consisting of 130 patients each. First group (Group A) was given routine treatment measures and oral Tranexamic Acid while second group (Group B) was treated only with routine topical measures. Capsule Tranexamic Acid was prescribed at a dose of 250 mg twice a day for three months and cases were followed for three months. Response was evaluated on the basis of Melasma Assessment Severity Index (MASI). Mean scores between the two groups were then compared. Results Statistically significant decrease in the mean Melasma Assessment Severity Index from baseline to 8 and 12 weeks was observed among group A patients (11.08±2.91 vs 8.95±2.08 at week 8 and vs. 7.84±2.44 at week 12; p0.05 for later). Conclusion Addition of oral tranexamic acid provides rapid and sustained improvement in the treatment of melasma. PMID:23575051

Karn, D; S, K C; Amatya, A; Razouria, E A; Timalsina, M

136

Enhanced external counterpulsation is an effective treatment for Syndrome X.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) was used to treat 30 patients with refractory angina due to cardiac Syndrome X, with an initial improvement in CCS angina class (3.57 to 1.43; p<0.001) and regional ischemia in all treated patients. At a mean of 11.9 months follow-up, 87% of patients had sustained improvement in angina and were without MACE. EECP, by improving endothelial function, may be an effective and durable treatment for this often difficult to treat problem.

Kronhaus KD; Lawson WE

2009-06-01

137

Electron beam treatment with radical scavengers/enhancers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

E-beam treatment of low level contaminated groundwater is best apt to demonstrate the role of scavengers and enhancers, respectively because groundwater already contains some scavengers as natural solutes. The action of ionizing radiation to water is known to result in the formation of ions, molecular and free radical species. For low level contaminations of groundwater (pollutant concentration aqu - and H are of interest for pollutant decomposition. The pollutants have to compete for the free radical species with the natural solutes. 10 figures are discussed. (author)

1994-01-01

138

Polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in rat tissues after chronic treatment with dietetic oils.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The essential fatty acids can be helpful in the prevention of several pathologies. The purpose of this study was to quantify the major n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in tissues of rats fed with flaxseed oil and with a dietetic oil in order to evaluate how their chronic supplementation could influence the correspondent in vivo levels and to study the effectiveness of the dietetic oil compared to flaxseed oil. RESULTS: Fatty acids were successfully extracted from biological samples, subjected to derivatization procedure and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection under gradient elution mode. The developed method showed good linearity, precision and accuracy, with recoveries ranging from 89% to 92%. Animals treated with flaxseed and dietetic oils showed enhanced levels of n-3 fatty acids compared to control groups, with significantly higher levels of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in the brain and in the adipose tissue of the dietetic group compared to the flaxseed group. CONCLUSION: The obtained data underline that the tested oils can effectively enhance the tissue levels of n-3 fatty acids and therefore they could be successfully used in the dietetic treatment of lipid-related diseases.

Rustichelli C; Avallone R; Campioli E; Braghiroli D; Baraldi M

2012-01-01

139

?-Mangostin Enhances Betulinic Acid Cytotoxicity and Inhibits Cisplatin Cytotoxicity on HCT 116 Colorectal Carcinoma Cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Despite the progress in colon cancer treatment, relapse is still a major obstacle. Hence, new drugs or drug combinations are required in the battle against colon cancer. ?-Mangostin and betulinic acid (BA) are cytotoxic compounds that work by inducing the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, and cisplatin is one of the most potent broad spectrum anti-tumor agents. This study aims to investigate the enhancement of BA cytotoxicity by ?-mangostin, and the cytoprotection effect of ?-mangostin and BA on cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity on HCT 116 human colorectal carcinoma cells. Cytotoxicity was investigated by the XTT cell proliferation test, and the apoptotic effects were investigated on early and late markers including caspases-3/7, mitochondrial membrane potential, cytoplasmic shrinkage, and chromatin condensation. The effect of ?-mangostin on four signalling pathways was also investigated by the luciferase assay. ?-Mangostin and BA were more cytotoxic to the colon cancer cells than to the normal colonic cells, and both compounds showed a cytoprotective effect against cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity. On the other hand, ?-mangostin enhanced the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of BA. Combination therapy hits multiple targets, which may improve the overall response to the treatment, and may reduce the likelihood of developing drug resistance by the tumor cells. Therefore, ?-mangostin and BA may provide a novel combination for the treatment of colorectal carcinoma. The cytoprotective effect of the compounds against cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity may find applications as chemopreventive agents against carcinogens, irradiation and oxidative stress, or to neutralize cisplatin side effects.

Abdalrahim F. A. Aisha; Khalid M. Abu-Salah; Zhari Ismail; Amin Malik Shah Abdul Majid

2012-01-01

140

Venous lipodermatosclerosis: treatment by fibrinolytic enhancement and elastic compression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The value of fibrinolytic enhancement with an anabolic steroid (stanozolol) combined with elastic stockings in treating venous lipodermatosclerosis was assessed in a six-month double-blind cross-over trial. Thirty-four legs of 23 patients in whom other treatments had failed were studied. The patients were randomly divided into two groups who were treated with either stanozolol plus elastic stockings or placebo plus elastic stockings for three months, and then vice versa. Treatment with or without stanozolol caused the area of lipodermatosclerosis to decrease, but the rate of healing when patients took stanozolol was double that when they took the placebo, and this was assumed to be biologically important. Stanozolol also reduced the incidence of extravascular fibrin detected in skin biopsy specimens. The elastic stocking with placebo produced significant decreases in leg volume, ankle circumference, and skin thickness. Stanozolol is valuable in treating intractable lipodermatosclerosis, giving relief of pain and reducing induration, inflammation, tenderness, and pigmentation.

Burnand K; Clemenson G; Morland M; Jarrett PE; Browse NL

1980-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Field enhancement sample stacking for analysis of organic acids in traditional Chinese medicine by capillary electrophoresis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A technique known as field enhancement sample stacking (FESS) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) separation has been developed to analyze and detect organic acids in the three traditional Chinese medicines (such as Portulaca oleracea L., Crataegus pinnatifida and Aloe vera L.). In FESS, a reverse electrode polarity-stacking mode (REPSM) was applied as on-line preconcentration strategy. Under the optimized condition, the baseline separation of eight organic acids (linolenic acid, lauric acid, p-coumaric acid, ascorbic acid, benzoic acid, caffeic acid, succinic acid and fumaric acid) could be achieved within 20 min. Validation parameters of this method (such as detection limits, linearity and precision) were also evaluated. The detection limits ranged from 0.4 to 60 ng/mL. The results indicated that the proposed method was effective for the separation of mixtures of organic acids. Satisfactory recoveries were also obtained in the analysis of these organic acids in the above traditional Chinese medicine samples.

Zhu Q; Xu X; Huang Y; Xu L; Chen G

2012-07-01

142

Field enhancement sample stacking for analysis of organic acids in traditional Chinese medicine by capillary electrophoresis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A technique known as field enhancement sample stacking (FESS) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) separation has been developed to analyze and detect organic acids in the three traditional Chinese medicines (such as Portulaca oleracea L., Crataegus pinnatifida and Aloe vera L.). In FESS, a reverse electrode polarity-stacking mode (REPSM) was applied as on-line preconcentration strategy. Under the optimized condition, the baseline separation of eight organic acids (linolenic acid, lauric acid, p-coumaric acid, ascorbic acid, benzoic acid, caffeic acid, succinic acid and fumaric acid) could be achieved within 20 min. Validation parameters of this method (such as detection limits, linearity and precision) were also evaluated. The detection limits ranged from 0.4 to 60 ng/mL. The results indicated that the proposed method was effective for the separation of mixtures of organic acids. Satisfactory recoveries were also obtained in the analysis of these organic acids in the above traditional Chinese medicine samples. PMID:22381886

Zhu, Qianqian; Xu, Xueqin; Huang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Liangjun; Chen, Guonan

2012-02-09

143

Pharmacological enhancement of naltrexone treatment for opioid dependence: a review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Paolo Mannelli, Kathleen S Peindl, Li-Tzy WuDepartment of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USAPurpose: Opioid dependence (OD) is a serious and growing clinical condition with increasing social costs that requires expanding treatment beyond opioid agonist substitution. The opioid antagonist naltrexone has displayed a remarkable association of theoretical effectiveness and poor clinical utility in treating OD due to noncompliant behavior and low acceptability among patients, only partly modified by psychosocial interventions. We reviewed pharmacological studies, including naltrexone depot formulations and combination treatments.Method: We searched PubMed for clinical studies on the use of naltrexone implants and slow-release injections in OD, and investigations using adjunct medications to improve naltrexone maintenance therapy of OD. We discussed the results in view of their application to the clinical practice.Results: Significant reduction in opioid use and improved retention in treatment have been found in several studies using depot naltrexone formulations, some of which are controlled clinical trials. Pilot investigations have gathered initial positive results on the use of naltrexone in combination with serotonin reuptake inhibitors, ?-2 adrenergic, opioid, and ?-aminobutyric acid agonist medications.Conclusion: Current evidence suggests that more research on effectiveness and safety is needed in support of depot naltrexone treatment for OD. Further research comparing slow-release with oral naltrexone and opioid agonist medications will help characterize the role of opioid antagonist-mediated treatment of OD. Preliminary investigations on naltrexone combination treatments suggest the opportunity to continue study of new mixed receptor activities for the treatment of OD and other drug addictions.Keywords: extended-release, naltrexone, implant, injection, depot, combination

Mannelli P; Peindl K; Wu LT

2011-01-01

144

Enhancement of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on all-trans retinoic acid-induced differentiation in human leukemia HL-60 cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) induces complete remission in a high proportion of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL); however, the response is sometimes very slow. Furthermore, relapse and resistance to treatment often occur despite continued treatment with ATRA. Thereafter, combination treatment strategies have been suggested to circumvent these problems. The present study demonstrates that caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a major component of honeybee propolis, enhanced ATRA-induced granulocytic differentiation in HL-60, a human promyelocytic cell line. The differentiation was assessed by Wright-Giemsa stain, nitroblue tetrazolium reduction, and membrane differentiation marker CD11b. In addition, CAPE enhanced ATRA-induced cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase by decreasing the association of cdk2-cyclin E complex. Finally, it was demonstrated that CAPE promoted the ATRA-mediated nuclear transcription activation of RAR? assessed by EMSA assay and enhanced the expression of target genes including RAR?, C/EBP?, and p21 protein resulting in the differentiation development of leukemia. It is suggested that CAPE possesses the potential to enhance the efficiency of ATRA in the differentiation therapy of APL.

2006-10-01

145

Characterization of Unye bentonite after treatment with sulfuric acid  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Unye bentonite was found to consist predominantly of a dioctahedral smectite along with quartz, tridymite, cristobalite, and minor fractions of feldspar and anatase. A considerable amount of Al was retained as a constituent in acid-resistant impurities following the decomposition of the montmorillonite via acid treatment at an acid/clay ratio of 0.4. These impurities were mesoporous with a maximum surface area of 303.9±0.4 m² g-1. A sharp decrease in the d001 lattice sp (more) acing of the montmorillonite to 15.33 Å reflected the reduction of the crystallinity in the activated products. In addition, the increase in the ease with which newly formed hydroxyl groups were lost paralleled the severity of the acid treatment.

Caglar, Bulent; Afsin, Beytullah; Koksal, Engin; Tabak, Ahmet; Eren, Erdal

2013-01-01

146

On the acidity and/or basicity of USY zeolites after basic and acid treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The isopropanol decomposition reaction was used to evaluate the catalytic activity of ultrastable (USY) zeolites with different degrees of dealumination, treated in strongly alkaline medium at various temperatures and contact times. This treatment resulted in the reinsertion of non-framework aluminium, a result of the ultrastabilization process. The samples obtained were also submitted to an acid treatment, leaching the non-framework aluminium that had not been reinserted. The results obtained at 723K showed a large reduction in the acidic activity of the alkaline-treated zeolite, as the treatment conditions became more severe (the longer the treatment time or the higher the temperature, the higher the degree of dealumination). On the other hand, treated samples displayed some isopropanol dehydrogenation activity (basic sites). However, this activity was not very significant and did not depend on the alkaline treatment or ultrastabilization conditions used. The effect of reaction temperature and acid leaching on activity is also shown.

Calsavara V.; Machado N. R. C. F.; Bernardi Jr J. L.; Sousa-Aguiar E. F.

2000-01-01

147

Rabeprazole for the treatment of acid-related disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proton pump inhibitors are widely used for the treatment of acid-related disorders. Rabeprazole is a potent and irreversible inhibitor of H(+)/K(+)-ATPase gastric pump, and it is indicated for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease, Zollinger Ellison syndrome, duodenal and gastric ulcers and for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori in combination with antibiotics. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data show that rabeprazole achieves a pronounced acid suppression from the first administration that is maintained with repeated use; this may translate into faster onset of symptom relief for patients, particularly suitable when the indication is for the on-demand long-term maintenance of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Due to its predominantly nonenzymatic metabolism, rabeprazole has a lower potential for drug-drug interactions. The objective of this article is to update efficacy and safety data of rabeprazole in the treatment of acid-related disorders, following a previous review dated 2008. PMID:22928894

Marelli, Silvia; Pace, Fabio

2012-08-01

148

Rabeprazole for the treatment of acid-related disorders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Proton pump inhibitors are widely used for the treatment of acid-related disorders. Rabeprazole is a potent and irreversible inhibitor of H(+)/K(+)-ATPase gastric pump, and it is indicated for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease, Zollinger Ellison syndrome, duodenal and gastric ulcers and for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori in combination with antibiotics. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data show that rabeprazole achieves a pronounced acid suppression from the first administration that is maintained with repeated use; this may translate into faster onset of symptom relief for patients, particularly suitable when the indication is for the on-demand long-term maintenance of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Due to its predominantly nonenzymatic metabolism, rabeprazole has a lower potential for drug-drug interactions. The objective of this article is to update efficacy and safety data of rabeprazole in the treatment of acid-related disorders, following a previous review dated 2008.

Marelli S; Pace F

2012-08-01

149

Amino Acids in Nectar Enhance Longevity of Female Culex quinquefasciatus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Culex mosquitoes feed on a wide range of nectars consisting of mostly carbohydrates and amino acids however, little is known about the utilization and effects of these different carbohydrates and their accompanying amino acids on longevity. Culex quinquef...

D. A. Hahn E. M. Vrzal S. A. Allan

2010-01-01

150

Skeletal muscle fatty acids shift from oxidation to storage upon dexamethasone treatment in chickens.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of an exogenous glucocorticoid on the lipid metabolism and fatty acid pattern of skeletal muscle in broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) was investigated in vivo and in vitro. Male Arbor Acres chickens were subjected to dexamethasone (DEX) treatment for 3days. We found that DEX retarded body growth, facilitated lipid accumulation in adipose and skeletal muscle tissues, and elevated the thigh monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) to saturated fatty acids (SFA) ratio at fasted state. DEX-treated chickens exhibited increased stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) activity and decreased carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT1) activity in the thigh muscle under fasting conditions and in primary cultured myoblasts. Phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha at Thr172 did not occur in vivo but was increased in vitro by DEX. In cells exposed to DEX, fatty acid transport protein-1 mRNA expression and fatty acid storage were enhanced while fatty acid oxidation was repressed. In conclusion, in oxidative muscle of fasted chickens, DEX stimulated uptake of myocellular fatty acids which was stored with the modified MUFA to SFA ratio in a process that maybe involved SCD1 activation. The altered fatty acid composition together with the inactivation of CPT1 showed an increased tendency towards fatty acid accumulation as opposed to oxidation. These findings provide important insight concerning the influence of glucocorticoids on lipid metabolism. PMID:23036730

Wang, X J; Song, Z G; Jiao, H C; Lin, H

2012-10-02

151

Skeletal muscle fatty acids shift from oxidation to storage upon dexamethasone treatment in chickens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of an exogenous glucocorticoid on the lipid metabolism and fatty acid pattern of skeletal muscle in broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) was investigated in vivo and in vitro. Male Arbor Acres chickens were subjected to dexamethasone (DEX) treatment for 3days. We found that DEX retarded body growth, facilitated lipid accumulation in adipose and skeletal muscle tissues, and elevated the thigh monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) to saturated fatty acids (SFA) ratio at fasted state. DEX-treated chickens exhibited increased stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) activity and decreased carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT1) activity in the thigh muscle under fasting conditions and in primary cultured myoblasts. Phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha at Thr172 did not occur in vivo but was increased in vitro by DEX. In cells exposed to DEX, fatty acid transport protein-1 mRNA expression and fatty acid storage were enhanced while fatty acid oxidation was repressed. In conclusion, in oxidative muscle of fasted chickens, DEX stimulated uptake of myocellular fatty acids which was stored with the modified MUFA to SFA ratio in a process that maybe involved SCD1 activation. The altered fatty acid composition together with the inactivation of CPT1 showed an increased tendency towards fatty acid accumulation as opposed to oxidation. These findings provide important insight concerning the influence of glucocorticoids on lipid metabolism.

Wang XJ; Song ZG; Jiao HC; Lin H

2012-12-01

152

Injectable hyaluronic acid implant for malar and mental enhancement.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The use of a thicker injectable implant version of one of the hyaluronic acid dermal fillers (Restylane SubQ, Q-Med, Uppsala, Sweden) is described. OBJECTIVE: A group of treated patients has been studied for more than 1 year. Restylane SubQ was injected to the submuscular plane of the upper cheeks and chin to observe efficacy of augmentation and side effect profile, and further observations were made of the duration of benefit. METHODS: Patient details--72 patients were treated, 68 for upper cheek augmentation, 2 for chin augmentation, and 2 for both areas. Four patients received second injections 8 weeks after the first to increase augmentation. RESULTS: Patients all showed a persistence of benefit during the posttreatment observation period of up to 64 weeks. Four patients had minor side effects that resolved with local treatment and time. Four patients had second injections to complete augmentation without complications. CONCLUSIONS: Restylane SubQ is a useful injectable agent to augment and lift upper cheeks and recontour chins. Further efficacy studies seem justified.

Lowe NJ; Grover R

2006-07-01

153

Ferulic Acid Enhances Peripheral Nerve Regeneration across Long Gaps.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigated the effect of ferulic acid (FA) on peripheral nerve injury. In the in vitro test, the effect of FA on viability of Schwann cells was studied. In the in vivo test, right sciatic nerves of the rats were transected, and a 15?mm nerve defect was created. A nerve conduit made of silicone rubber tube filled with FA (5 and 25??g/mL), or saline (control), was implanted into the nerve defect. Results show that the number of proliferating Schwann cells increased significantly in the FA-treated group at 25??g/mL compared to that in the control group. After 8 weeks, the FA-treated group at 25??g/mL had a higher rate of successful regeneration across the wide gap, a significantly calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) staining of the lamina I-II regions in the dorsal horn ipsilateral to the injury, a significantly diminished number of macrophages recruited, and a significantly shortening of the latency and an acceleration of the nerve conductive velocity (NCV) of the evoked muscle action potentials (MAPs) compared with the controls. In summary, the FA may be useful in the development of future strategies for the treatment of peripheral nerve injury.

Lee SC; Tsai CC; Yao CH; Chen YS; Wu MC

2013-01-01

154

Recent Advances in Delivery of Drug-Nucleic Acid Combinations for Cancer Treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cancer treatment that uses a combination of approaches with the ability to affect multiple disease pathways has been proven highly effective in the treatment of many cancers. Combination therapy can include multiple chemotherapeutics or combinations of chemotherapeutics with other treatment modalities like surgery or radiation. However, despite the widespread clinical use of combination therapies, relatively little attention has been given to the potential of modern nanocarrier delivery methods, like liposomes, micelles, and nanoparticles, to enhance the efficacy of combination treatments. This lack of knowledge is particularly notable in the limited success of vectors for the delivery of combinations of nucleic acids with traditional small molecule drugs. The delivery of drug-nucleic acid combinations is particularly challenging due to differences in the physicochemical properties of the two types of agents. This review discusses recent advances in the development of delivery methods using combinations of small molecule drugs and nucleic acid therapeutics to treat cancer. This review primarily focuses on the rationale used for selecting appropriate drug-nucleic acid combinations as well as progress in the development of nanocarriers suitable for simultaneous delivery of drug-nucleic acid combinations.

Li J; Wang Y; Zhu Y; Oupický D

2013-04-01

155

Folic acid may be a potential addition to diabetic foot ulcer treatment - a hypothesis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Delayed wound healing in diabetes is a challenging medical and societal problem for which there is currently no efficacious treatment. One of the major contributors of this problem is nitric oxide (NO) deficiency. NO is a critical signalling molecule essential for normal wound repair. Sustained hyperglycaemia in diabetes leads to increased vascular superoxide production, which inactivates NO and causes vascular dysfunction. New therapeutic regiments and strategies to enhance endothelial NO production are a new hope to improve impaired diabetic wound healing. One of the agents that have the ability to improve endothelial NO generation in diabetic patients is folic acid. Folic acid ability to conserve NO bioactivity may be due to homocysteine-lowering effects of folates, antioxidant actions and effects on cofactor availability. Considering these data, we hypothesised that folic acid supplementation may ameliorate delayed diabetic wound healing by increasing NO bioavailability. The potential of exogenous folic acid as an inexpensive and safe oral therapy stimulates ongoing investigations.

Bagheri M; Jahromi BM; Zamani A

2011-12-01

156

Bioaugmentation with resin-acid-degrading bacteria enhances resin acid removal in sequencing batch reactors treating pulp mill effluents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Resin acids are the major toxicants in pulp and paper mill effluents (PPMEs), and they form pitch interfering with papermaking. Efficient and reliable resin acid removal is critically important to prevent toxicity discharge and ensure proper functioning of paper machines. Two resin-acid-degrading bacteria, Pseudomonas abietaniphila BKME-9 and Zoogloea resiniphila DhA-35, were tested in laboratory sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) for their ability to enhance resin acid removal by biomass from a full-scale biotreatment system treating PPMEs. Both bacteria enhanced resin acid removal but not removal of total organic carbon (TOC) by either pH-shocked or starved activated sludge. These two bacteria also increased resin acid removal when the sludge was given high concentration (200 microM) of resin acid. A most-probable-number polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR) assay showed that these two bacteria were initially not detectable (detection limit: 10(2) bacterial cells/ml) in the sludge community and were persistent after inoculation. Both bacteria did not substantially change the indigenous microbial community composition, as assayed by ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA). Our results suggest that it is feasible and potentially useful to enhance resin acid removal by bioaugmentation using resin-acid-degrading bacteria such as BKME-9 and DhA-35.

Yu Z; Mohn WW

2001-03-01

157

Bioaugmentation with resin-acid-degrading bacteria enhances resin acid removal in sequencing batch reactors treating pulp mill effluents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Resin acids are the major toxicants in pulp and paper mill effluents (PPMEs), and they form pitch interfering with papermaking. Efficient and reliable resin acid removal is critically important to prevent toxicity discharge and ensure proper functioning of paper machines. Two resin-acid-degrading bacteria, Pseudomonas abietaniphila BKME-9 and Zoogloea resiniphila DhA-35, were tested in laboratory sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) for their ability to enhance resin acid removal by biomass from a full-scale biotreatment system treating PPMEs. Both bacteria enhanced resin acid removal but not removal of total organic carbon (TOC) by either pH-shocked or starved activated sludge. These two bacteria also increased resin acid removal when the sludge was given high concentration (200 microM) of resin acid. A most-probable-number polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR) assay showed that these two bacteria were initially not detectable (detection limit: 10(2) bacterial cells/ml) in the sludge community and were persistent after inoculation. Both bacteria did not substantially change the indigenous microbial community composition, as assayed by ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA). Our results suggest that it is feasible and potentially useful to enhance resin acid removal by bioaugmentation using resin-acid-degrading bacteria such as BKME-9 and DhA-35. PMID:11235883

Yu, Z; Mohn, W W

2001-03-01

158

Enhancing acid tolerance of Leuconostoc mesenteroides with glutathione.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leuconostoc mesenteroides is a commercially important lactic acid bacterium currently used as a starter for kimchi and kefir. However, its sensitivity to acid stress limits its performance. L. mesenteroides was grown in a medium supplemented with 3.2 or 6.4 mM glutathione (GSH), and cell survival rates were measured during a long-term mild acid challenge (pH 4.0). As a result, GSH was imported by the cells and protected against acid stress; thereafter it was consumed as a nutrient. Acid stress resistance of starter cultures of this bacterium can thus be improved by cultivating it in media supplemented with GSH. PMID:22160366

Kim, Ji Eun; Eom, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Yujin; Ahn, Ji Eun; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Han, Nam Soo

2011-12-09

159

Enhancing acid tolerance of Leuconostoc mesenteroides with glutathione.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Leuconostoc mesenteroides is a commercially important lactic acid bacterium currently used as a starter for kimchi and kefir. However, its sensitivity to acid stress limits its performance. L. mesenteroides was grown in a medium supplemented with 3.2 or 6.4 mM glutathione (GSH), and cell survival rates were measured during a long-term mild acid challenge (pH 4.0). As a result, GSH was imported by the cells and protected against acid stress; thereafter it was consumed as a nutrient. Acid stress resistance of starter cultures of this bacterium can thus be improved by cultivating it in media supplemented with GSH.

Kim JE; Eom HJ; Kim Y; Ahn JE; Kim JH; Han NS

2012-04-01

160

Methods for the control and treatment of acid mine drainage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The drainage of waters from abandoned coal and metal mines is often acidic with an elevated heavy metal content. Interaction between this acid mine drainage and the environment can cause gross pollution. Whilst temporary engineered remediation can lessen the impact, complete amelioration is only possible using active and/or passive treatment systems. Active technologies are costly as they often include the controlled addition of chemicals which can produce a contaminated effluent that requires additional treatment. The study of natural marshland within mining areas had led to the development of using constructed wetlands as a potential treatment option. The chemistry of acid mine drainage often requires the use of aerobic (minewater oxidation) and anaerobic (sulphate reduction) systems and commonly utilises some form of pretreatment system. The science of wetland treatment processes is still not fully understood and as a consequence the full potential of the technology has yet to be realised. There is evidence, however, that the use of passive treatment is a realistic and cost effective method for the remediation of acid mine drainage. 12 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Robinson, J.D.F.; Robb, G.A. [Rust Environmental, Bristol (United Kingdom)

1995-07-01

 
 
 
 
161

Enhancement of the wet properties of transparent chitosan-acetic-acid-salt films using microfibrillated cellulose.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents a new route to enhance the wet properties of chitosan-acetic-acid-salt films using microfibrillated cellulose (MFC). The enhancement makes it easier to form chitosan-acetic-acid-salt films into various shapes at room temperature in the wet state. Chitosan with MFC was compared with the well-known buffer treatment. It was observed that films containing 5 wt % MFC were visually identical to the buffered/unbuffered films without MFC. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy indicated that MFC formed a network with uniformly distributed fibrils and fibril bundles in the chitosan matrix. The addition of MFC reduced the risk of creases and deformation in the wet state because of a greater wet stiffness. The wet films containing MFC were also extensible. Although the stiffness, strength and extensibility were highest for the buffered films, the wet strength of the MFC-containing unbuffered films was sufficient for wet forming operations. The effects of MFC on the mechanical properties of the dry chitosan films were small or absent. It was concluded that the addition of MFC is an acceptable alternative to buffering for shaping chitosan films/products in the wet state. The advantages are that the "extra" processing step associated with buffering is unnecessary and that the film matrix remains more water-soluble. PMID:17645308

Nordqvist, David; Idermark, Johan; Hedenqvist, Mikael S; Gällstedt, Mikael; Ankerfors, Mikael; Lindström, Tom

2007-07-24

162

Enhancement of the wet properties of transparent chitosan-acetic-acid-salt films using microfibrillated cellulose.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This report presents a new route to enhance the wet properties of chitosan-acetic-acid-salt films using microfibrillated cellulose (MFC). The enhancement makes it easier to form chitosan-acetic-acid-salt films into various shapes at room temperature in the wet state. Chitosan with MFC was compared with the well-known buffer treatment. It was observed that films containing 5 wt % MFC were visually identical to the buffered/unbuffered films without MFC. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy indicated that MFC formed a network with uniformly distributed fibrils and fibril bundles in the chitosan matrix. The addition of MFC reduced the risk of creases and deformation in the wet state because of a greater wet stiffness. The wet films containing MFC were also extensible. Although the stiffness, strength and extensibility were highest for the buffered films, the wet strength of the MFC-containing unbuffered films was sufficient for wet forming operations. The effects of MFC on the mechanical properties of the dry chitosan films were small or absent. It was concluded that the addition of MFC is an acceptable alternative to buffering for shaping chitosan films/products in the wet state. The advantages are that the "extra" processing step associated with buffering is unnecessary and that the film matrix remains more water-soluble.

Nordqvist D; Idermark J; Hedenqvist MS; Gällstedt M; Ankerfors M; Lindström T

2007-08-01

163

Lowering of phytic acid content by enhancement of phytase and acid phosphatase activities during sunflower germination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the germination of hybrid sunflowers BRS191 and C11 as a means of lowering phytic acid (PA) content by enhancing the activity of endogenous phytase and acid phosphatase. The concentration of PA in hybrid sunflower achenes varied from 2.16 to 2.83g/100g of sample (p O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a germinação de girassóis híbridos BRS 191 e C11 com finalidade de reduzir o teor de AF e aumentar as atividades de phytases e fosfatases endógenas. A concentração do AF nos aquênios de girassóis híbridos variou de 2,16 a 2,83 g /100g de amostra (p< 0,005). As atividades de fitases e fosfatases de girassóis BRS191 e C11 foram elevadas no 4º e 5º dia de germinação, respectivamente, com liberação do fósforo necessário para o desenvolvimento da semente. Estes resultados indicam que o AF do girassol hibrido reduz e a atividade de phytase aumenta em períodos distintos da germinação, possibilitando assim a aplicação desta enzima no controle do teor de AF em cereais, melhorando o seu valor nutricional.

Juliana da Silva Agostini; Rosicler Balduíno Nogueira; Elza Iouko Ida

2010-01-01

164

New proposal for the treatment of nodular basal cell carcinoma with intralesional 5-aminolevulinic acid.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment modality using a photosensitizer, light and oxygen to cause photochemically-induced selective cell death. Topical PDT is most suitable for thin lesions such as superficial basal cell carcinoma and actinic keratoses in dermatology. Results with PDT as treatment of thicker lesions such as nodular basal cell carcinoma appear to have a limited role because the photosensitizer or the light cannot penetrate deeply enough into the thicker tumor volume. In this preliminary study we use intralesional administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid to enhance the efficacy of the photosensitivity of nodular basal cell carcinomas, thus improving clinical cure.

Cappugi P; Mavilia L; Campolmi P; Reali EF; Mori M; Rossi R

2004-10-01

165

Conjugates of unsaturated fatty acids with propylene glycol as potentially less-irritant skin penetration enhancers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acids (FA) are well known as efficient enhancers for transdermal delivery of drugs; however, their frequent dermal toxicity limits their regular use. In order to utilize the fatty acid as a safe enhancer devoid of its irritant effect, we have synthesized and evaluated a series of fatty acids conjugated to propylene glycol (FA-PG). Each one of the conjugates was prepared as a mono- or di- acyl ester derivative. The effects of the synthetic enhancers on the porcine skin permeability were evaluated in a diffusion cell system using lidocaine as the model drug. In addition, in vivo examinations in rabbits were preformed for skin toxicological evaluation. The results indicate that among the FA-PG conjugates, oleic acid (C18:1(n-9))-PG, linoleic acid (C18:2(n-6))-PG and alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-3))-PG, mono- or di-esters, enhance the penetration of lidocaine relatively to the vehicle (without enhancer). The conjugates of oleic acid (C18:1(n-9)) and linoleic acid (C18:2(n-6)) with PG have demonstrated a similar enhancing effect as the corresponding free fatty acids. Interestingly, although the mono- or the di- conjugates of alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-3)) with PG enhanced the lidocaine flux as the other two fatty acid conjugates, they resulted in a reduced permeability as compared to the action of their free acid. In addition, the mono-conjugates of alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-3)) with PG exhibited elevated skin irritation in rabbits (relative to the fatty acid alone) compared to the significantly reduced irritation of oleate-PG and linoeate-PG mono-conjugates. In conclusion, except saturated FA-PG and alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-3)) - PG mono-conjugates, unsaturated fatty acids (e.g., oleic and linoleic acids) after conjugation to PG may be safe and effective enhancers for delivering topical drugs. PMID:18058312

Ben-Shabat, Shimon; Baruch, Nir; Sintov, Amnon C

2007-11-01

166

Conjugates of unsaturated fatty acids with propylene glycol as potentially less-irritant skin penetration enhancers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fatty acids (FA) are well known as efficient enhancers for transdermal delivery of drugs; however, their frequent dermal toxicity limits their regular use. In order to utilize the fatty acid as a safe enhancer devoid of its irritant effect, we have synthesized and evaluated a series of fatty acids conjugated to propylene glycol (FA-PG). Each one of the conjugates was prepared as a mono- or di- acyl ester derivative. The effects of the synthetic enhancers on the porcine skin permeability were evaluated in a diffusion cell system using lidocaine as the model drug. In addition, in vivo examinations in rabbits were preformed for skin toxicological evaluation. The results indicate that among the FA-PG conjugates, oleic acid (C18:1(n-9))-PG, linoleic acid (C18:2(n-6))-PG and alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-3))-PG, mono- or di-esters, enhance the penetration of lidocaine relatively to the vehicle (without enhancer). The conjugates of oleic acid (C18:1(n-9)) and linoleic acid (C18:2(n-6)) with PG have demonstrated a similar enhancing effect as the corresponding free fatty acids. Interestingly, although the mono- or the di- conjugates of alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-3)) with PG enhanced the lidocaine flux as the other two fatty acid conjugates, they resulted in a reduced permeability as compared to the action of their free acid. In addition, the mono-conjugates of alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-3)) with PG exhibited elevated skin irritation in rabbits (relative to the fatty acid alone) compared to the significantly reduced irritation of oleate-PG and linoeate-PG mono-conjugates. In conclusion, except saturated FA-PG and alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-3)) - PG mono-conjugates, unsaturated fatty acids (e.g., oleic and linoleic acids) after conjugation to PG may be safe and effective enhancers for delivering topical drugs.

Ben-Shabat S; Baruch N; Sintov AC

2007-11-01

167

In vitro evaluation of a series of N-dodecanoyl-L-amino acid methyl esters as dermal penetration enhancers.  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of N-dodecanoyl-L-amino acid methyl esters (1-10) and n-pentyl N-acetylprolinate (11) were evaluated for dermal enhancement properties using an in vitro diffusion cell technique. Methods of synthesis of these compounds were described. Enhancers were applied 1 h prior to drug treatment. Hydrocortisone was used as the model drug and was applied to excised hairless mouse skin as a saturated suspension in propylene glycol. Enhancement ratios (ER) were determined for permeability coefficient, 24 h diffusion cell receptor concentration (Q24), and 24 h full-thickness skin steroid content. Controls received no enhancer pretreatment of the skin. N-Dodecanoyl-L-proline (10) showed the highest Q24 value for total steroid (ER 13.7) while N-dodecanoyl-L-phenylalanine (5) showed the highest total steroid skin retention (ER 16.5). PMID:8877879

Fincher, T K; Yoo, S D; Player, M R; Sowell, J W; Michniak, B B

1996-09-01

168

In vitro evaluation of a series of N-dodecanoyl-L-amino acid methyl esters as dermal penetration enhancers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A series of N-dodecanoyl-L-amino acid methyl esters (1-10) and n-pentyl N-acetylprolinate (11) were evaluated for dermal enhancement properties using an in vitro diffusion cell technique. Methods of synthesis of these compounds were described. Enhancers were applied 1 h prior to drug treatment. Hydrocortisone was used as the model drug and was applied to excised hairless mouse skin as a saturated suspension in propylene glycol. Enhancement ratios (ER) were determined for permeability coefficient, 24 h diffusion cell receptor concentration (Q24), and 24 h full-thickness skin steroid content. Controls received no enhancer pretreatment of the skin. N-Dodecanoyl-L-proline (10) showed the highest Q24 value for total steroid (ER 13.7) while N-dodecanoyl-L-phenylalanine (5) showed the highest total steroid skin retention (ER 16.5).

Fincher TK; Yoo SD; Player MR; Sowell JW Sr; Michniak BB

1996-09-01

169

Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, fetal risks, and ursodeoxycolic acid treatment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this report is to investigate intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Here we report a 36-year-old woman with intrahepatic cholestasis. We observed a complete cure with ursodeoxycholic acid treatment. We discussed the epidemiology, pathomechanism, and therapy of intrahepatic cholestasis of...

Erdin ?lter; E Can Tüfekçi; Osman Batur; Figen Temelli

170

Tranexamic acid: an important adjuvant in the treatment of melasma.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviews an old drug tranexamic acid to its new use in the treatment of melasma. Its mechanism of preventing the activation of melanocyte from UV light, hormone and injured kerationcyte through the inhibition of the plasminogen activator system will be explored. The detail usage for such indication and its safety profile will also be thoroughly evaluated. PMID:23438143

Tse, Tsz Wah; Hui, Edith

2013-03-01

171

Tranexamic acid: an important adjuvant in the treatment of melasma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article reviews an old drug tranexamic acid to its new use in the treatment of melasma. Its mechanism of preventing the activation of melanocyte from UV light, hormone and injured kerationcyte through the inhibition of the plasminogen activator system will be explored. The detail usage for such indication and its safety profile will also be thoroughly evaluated.

Tse TW; Hui E

2013-03-01

172

Macrocyclic aminophosphonic acid complexes for the treatment of calcific tumors  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Particle emitting radionuclides, e.g. Samarium-153, have been complexed with certain macrocyclic aminophosphonic acids wherein the nitrogen and phosphorus are interconnected by an alkylene group or substituted alkylene group. These complexes have been found useful in compositions and formulations for the therapeutic treatment of calcific tumors in animals.

SIMON JAIME; WILSON DAVID A; GARLICH JOSEPH R; TROUTNER DAVID E

173

DEVELOPMENT OF SRB TREATMENT SYSTEMS FOR ACID MINE DRAINAGE  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past decade, significant advances have been made in the development of sulfate- reducing bacteria (SRB) technology to treat acid mine drainage (AMD), Bench-scale testing, field demonstrations, and engineered applications of SRBs for the treatment of AMD will be presented...

174

Peripheral Amino Acid Levels in Schizophrenia and Antipsychotic Treatment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abnormal levels of amino acids have been reported in patients with schizophrenia and have also been investigated as a biomarker to monitor antipsychotic treatment, however results have been inconsistent. The purpose of the present review is to summarize the evidence in the literature of whether amin...

De Luca, Vincenzo; Viggiano, Emanuela; Messina, Giovanni; Viggiano, Alessandro; Borlido, Carol; Viggiano, Andrea

175

POROSITY ENHANCEMENT IN SOME BAKED CLAY SAMPLES UNDER HYDROTHERMAL TREATMENTS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english This paper demonstrates the chemically assisted enhancement in porosity of l °Cal clay samples activated at a temperature of 150 ºC. Aluminosilicates enriched baked clay samples were used and hydro thermally treated with NaOH, KOH, Ba (OH)2 & ZrO. Pore size and surface area analyzer was used for the determination of surface area. Average pore width, pore volume and surface area were calculated. Treatment with NaOH and KOH has shown to be a very good activation pr °Cedu (more) re for high surface area development. Zirconium oxide has caused no pronounced effect on the development of surface area while barium hydroxide showed adverse effect and caused a decline in porosity

AHMAD, IMTIAZ; SHAKIRULLAH, M; ISHAQ, M; ARSALA KHAN, M; UR REHMAN, HABIB; OMER, MUHAMMAD; ULLAH, HAMEED

2007-06-01

176

Treatment benefit in the enhanced external counterpulsation consortium.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study utilized a cohort of 2,289 consecutive patients enrolled in the Enhanced External Counterpulsation (EECP) Consortium to evaluate whether results of university studies showing EECP safety and effectiveness in treating angina can be generalized. EECP was found to be safe and well tolerated with a 4.0% rate of adverse experiences. Angina class improved in 74% of patients with limiting angina (Canadian Cardiovascular Society, CCS, functional class II-IV), with patients most impaired at baseline demonstrating the greatest improvement (39.5% of patients in CCS III and IV improved 2 or more classes). Efficacy was independent of provider setting or experience, women responded as well as men, and although younger patients demonstrated a greater likelihood of improvement, EECP was effective in patients ranging from 19 to 97 years. Extending the benefit of EECP treatment to a wider range of patients may be indicated based on these findings.

Lawson WE; Hui JC; Lang G

2000-01-01

177

Use of zoledronic acid in the treatment of Gorham's disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Gorham's disease (Gorham-Stout syndrome) is a rare condition of unknown etiology involving a localized endothelial proliferation of lymph vessels resulting in destruction with bone resorption. The syndrome is rarely seen in the facial skeleton and has a large variety of prognoses and treatments. A case of this syndrome in a 9-year-old boy is presented. The clinical aspects are described, together with the treatment involving zoledronic acid. Other treatments described in the literature are reviewed. The authors believe that this report is one of the first cases in which a child afflicted in the first decade of life survives.

Avelar RL; Martins VB; Antunes AA; de Oliveira Neto PJ; Andrade ES

2010-03-01

178

Clinical perspective on the treatment of gallstones with ursodeoxycholic acid.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ursodeoxycholic acid (ursodiol) is a naturally occurring bile acid that constitutes about 1-2% of the bile acids in human bile. Although well known for more than 20 years in Japan as a treatment for biliary distress and dyspepsia, ursodiol has been tested as a gallstone-dissolving agent only since 1976. Successful dissolution occurs in 30-80% of subjects with radiolucent gallstones, depending on the size and number of the stones. Calcified or pigment stones do not respond to this treatment. The current theory of the pathogenesis of gallstones is that lithogenic bile, which is supersaturated with cholesterol, is secreted by the liver and is not produced in the gallbladder. Thus, although stones form in the gallbladder, defective hepatic cholesterol and bile acid metabolism are responsible for the abnormal bile. Gallstone-prone individuals show increased hepatocholesterol formation and reduced bile acid synthesis. As the micellar solubility limit in bile is exceeded, cholesterol microcrystals precipitate. Four factors account for ursodiol's effectiveness in gallstone dissolution: (a) biliary cholesterol secretion is diminished markedly during therapy; (b) hepatic bile acid synthesis is not inhibited by ursodiol; (c) the 7 beta-hydroxy group of ursodiol resists bacterial dehydroxylation, which lowers the amount of lithocholic acid formed and the cholestasis and liver damage it can cause; and (d) ursodiol is virtually free of side effects and toxicity; less than 1% of subjects experience transient diarrhea, which does not require discontinuation of treatment, and liver function tests remain normal. In about 50% of subjects, stones may recur within 84 months, and can be retreated with ursodiol.

Salen G

1988-01-01

179

Treatment options for refractory angina pectoris: enhanced external counterpulsation therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Refractory angina pectoris, defined as angina refractory to maximal medical therapy and standard coronary revascularization procedures, remains a significant health problem in the United States and the world. Despite a panoply of recent therapeutic advances, patients with refractory angina pectoris are not adequately treated; therefore, scientists have been investigating new technologies to help these patients. The technique of counterpulsation, studied for almost half a century, is considered a safe, highly beneficial, low-cost, noninvasive treatment for these angina patients and now also for those with heart failure. Recent evidence suggests that enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) therapy may improve symptoms and decrease long-term morbidity via several mechanisms, including improvement in endothelial function, promotion of collateralization, enhancement of ventricular function, improvement in oxygen consumption (Vo(2)), regression of atherosclerosis, and peripheral "training effects" similar to exercise. Numerous clinical trials in the past two decades have shown EECP therapy to be safe and effective for patients with refractory angina, with a clinical response rate averaging 70% to 80%, which is sustained up to 5 years. This review summarizes the current evidence to support EECP's use in treating refractory angina pectoris. PMID:19141261

Soran, Ozlem

2009-02-01

180

Treatment options for refractory angina pectoris: enhanced external counterpulsation therapy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Refractory angina pectoris, defined as angina refractory to maximal medical therapy and standard coronary revascularization procedures, remains a significant health problem in the United States and the world. Despite a panoply of recent therapeutic advances, patients with refractory angina pectoris are not adequately treated; therefore, scientists have been investigating new technologies to help these patients. The technique of counterpulsation, studied for almost half a century, is considered a safe, highly beneficial, low-cost, noninvasive treatment for these angina patients and now also for those with heart failure. Recent evidence suggests that enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) therapy may improve symptoms and decrease long-term morbidity via several mechanisms, including improvement in endothelial function, promotion of collateralization, enhancement of ventricular function, improvement in oxygen consumption (Vo(2)), regression of atherosclerosis, and peripheral "training effects" similar to exercise. Numerous clinical trials in the past two decades have shown EECP therapy to be safe and effective for patients with refractory angina, with a clinical response rate averaging 70% to 80%, which is sustained up to 5 years. This review summarizes the current evidence to support EECP's use in treating refractory angina pectoris.

Soran O

2009-02-01

 
 
 
 
181

Genetic Engineering of Rhizopus for Enhancing Lactic Acid Production  

Science.gov (United States)

The fungus Rhizopus is frequently used to convert, or ferment sugars obtained from agricultural crops to lactic acid. This natural product has long been utilized by the food industry as an additive for preservation, flavor, and acidity. Additionally, it is used for the manufacture of environmental...

182

Electroacupuncture enhances spermatogenesis in rats after scrotal heat treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spermatogenesis is regulated by a cascade of steroid regulated genes in the testis. Recent studies suggested that acupuncture may improve fertility in men with abnormal semen parameters. Yet, the underlying mechanisms in which acupuncture enhances spermatogenesis remain largely unknown. Here we used a scrotal heat-treated rat model to study the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on recovery of spermatogenesis. In this model, spermatogenesis was disrupted by 30 min scrotal heat treatment at 43°C. Ten sessions of EA were given at Baihui (GV20), Guanyuan (CV4), Zusanli (ST36) and Sanyinjiao (SP6) from day 9 to day 36 post-treatment. Sperm motility and production, morphology of the germinal epithelium by Johnsen's scoring, germ cell apoptosis by TUNEL staining, proliferation by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining, as well as serum testosterone and inhibin B levels by immunoassays were evaluated on day 0, 1, 9, 25, 37, 46, 56 and 79. When compared with the heat-treated (H) group, the heat-treated plus EA (H(+)EA) group showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in PCNA-positive cells and inhibin B levels on days 37 and 46, and a higher Johnsen's score till day 56. On day 79, motile spermatozoa could be found in the vas deferens of H(+)EA group only. Consistently, there was a trend of improved motility and increased number of motile epididymal spermatozoa in the H(+)EA group than the H group; while apoptosis of germ cells and serum testosterone levels were similar between the two groups. Taken together, EA enhanced germ cell proliferation through improvement of Sertoli cell functions. This may facilitate the recovery of spermatogenesis and may restore normal semen parameters in subfertile patients. PMID:22553490

Gao, Jing; Zuo, Yan; So, Kam-Hei; Yeung, William S B; Ng, Ernest H Y; Lee, Kai-Fai

2012-01-01

183

Electroacupuncture enhances spermatogenesis in rats after scrotal heat treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Spermatogenesis is regulated by a cascade of steroid regulated genes in the testis. Recent studies suggested that acupuncture may improve fertility in men with abnormal semen parameters. Yet, the underlying mechanisms in which acupuncture enhances spermatogenesis remain largely unknown. Here we used a scrotal heat-treated rat model to study the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on recovery of spermatogenesis. In this model, spermatogenesis was disrupted by 30 min scrotal heat treatment at 43°C. Ten sessions of EA were given at Baihui (GV20), Guanyuan (CV4), Zusanli (ST36) and Sanyinjiao (SP6) from day 9 to day 36 post-treatment. Sperm motility and production, morphology of the germinal epithelium by Johnsen's scoring, germ cell apoptosis by TUNEL staining, proliferation by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining, as well as serum testosterone and inhibin B levels by immunoassays were evaluated on day 0, 1, 9, 25, 37, 46, 56 and 79. When compared with the heat-treated (H) group, the heat-treated plus EA (H(+)EA) group showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in PCNA-positive cells and inhibin B levels on days 37 and 46, and a higher Johnsen's score till day 56. On day 79, motile spermatozoa could be found in the vas deferens of H(+)EA group only. Consistently, there was a trend of improved motility and increased number of motile epididymal spermatozoa in the H(+)EA group than the H group; while apoptosis of germ cells and serum testosterone levels were similar between the two groups. Taken together, EA enhanced germ cell proliferation through improvement of Sertoli cell functions. This may facilitate the recovery of spermatogenesis and may restore normal semen parameters in subfertile patients.

Gao J; Zuo Y; So KH; Yeung WS; Ng EH; Lee KF

2012-01-01

184

Resveratrol and P-glycoprotein Inhibitors Enhance the Anti-skin Cancer Effects of Ursolic Acid.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ursolic acid (UA), present in apples, rosemary, and other sources, is known to inhibit tumor formation and tumor cell viability in multiple systems, including skin. However, various cancers are resistant to UA treatment. Herein, skin carcinoma cells (Ca3/7) as compared to skin papilloma cells (MT1/2) displayed more resistance to UA-induced cytotoxicity. Interestingly, Ca3/7 cells had elevated levels of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an ATP-dependent efflux pump that mediates resistance to chemotherapy in pre-clinical and clinical settings, and not only accumulated less but also more rapidly expelled the P-gp substrate Rhodamine 123 (Rh123) indicating UA is transported by P-gp. To determine if P-gp inhibition can enhance UA-mediated cytotoxicity, cells were challenged with P-gp inhibitors verapamil (VRP) or cyclosporin A (CsA). Alternatively, cells were pre-treated with the natural compound resveratrol (RES), a known chemotherapy sensitizer. VRP and RES enhanced the effects of UA in both cell lines, while CsA only did so in Ca3/7 cells. Similarly, VRP inhibited Rh123 efflux in both lines, while CsA only inhibited Rh123 efflux in Ca3/7 cells. RES did not inhibit Rh123 efflux in either line, indicating the synergistic effects of RES and UA are not manifest by inhibition of P-gp-mediated efflux of UA. These results indicate that the anti-skin cancer effects of UA are enhanced with P-gp inhibitors. In addition, RES and UA interact synergistically, but not through inhibition of P-gp. Implications: Resveratrol and/or p-glycoprotein inhibitors in combination with ursolic acid are an effective anti-skin cancer regimen.

Junco JJ; Mancha A; Malik G; Wei SJ; Kim DJ; Liang H; Slaga TJ

2013-09-01

185

Oral tranexamic Acid for the treatment of melasma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background Melasma poses a great challenge as its treatment is unsatisfactory and recurrence is high. Treatment of melasma using tranexamic acid (oral, topical or intralesional) is a novel concept. Objective To compare the efficacy of oral tranexamic acid with routine topical therapies for the treatment of melasma. Methods It is a prospective, interventional, randomized controlled trial conducted among 260 melasma patients. Patients were divided into two groups consisting of 130 patients each. First group (Group A) was given routine treatment measures and oral Tranexamic Acid while second group (Group B) was treated only with routine topical measures. Capsule Tranexamic Acid was prescribed at a dose of 250 mg twice a day for three months and cases were followed for three months. Response was evaluated on the basis of Melasma Assessment Severity Index (MASI). Mean scores between the two groups were then compared. Results Statistically significant decrease in the mean Melasma Assessment Severity Index from baseline to 8 and 12 weeks was observed among group A patients (11.08±2.91 vs 8.95±2.08 at week 8 and vs. 7.84±2.44 at week 12; p<0.05 for both). While among group B patients the decrease in mean score was significant at 8 weeks and insignificant at 12 weeks follow up (11.60±3.40 vs 9.9±2.61 at 8 weeks and vs. 9.26±3 at 12 weeks; p<0.05 for former but p>0.05 for later). Conclusion Addition of oral tranexamic acid provides rapid and sustained improvement in the treatment of melasma.

Karn D; S KC; Amatya A; Razouria EA; Timalsina M

2012-10-01

186

A Novel Approach to Enhancing Ganoderic Acid Production by Ganoderma lucidum Using Apoptosis Induction  

Science.gov (United States)

Ganoderma lucidum is one of most widely used herbal medicine and functional food in Asia, and ganoderic acids (GAs) are its active ingredients. Regulation of GA biosynthesis and enhancing GA production are critical to using G. lucidum as a medicine. However, regulation of GA biosynthesis by various signaling remains poorly understood. This study investigated the role of apoptosis signaling on GA biosynthesis and presented a novel approach, namely apoptosis induction, to increasing GA production. Aspirin was able to induce cell apoptosis in G. lucidum, which was identified by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUPT nick end labeling assay positive staining and a condensed nuclear morphology. The maximum induction of lanosta-7,9(11), 24-trien-3?-01-26-oic acid (ganoderic acid 24, GA24) production and total GA production by aspirin were 2.7-fold and 2.8-fold, respectively, after 1 day. Significantly lower levels of GA 24 and total GAs were obtained after regular fungal culture for 1.5 months. ROS accumulation and phosphorylation of Hog-1 kinase, a putative homolog of MAPK p38 in mammals, occurred after aspirin treatment indicating that both factors may be involved in GA biosynthetic regulation. However, aspirin also reduced expression of the squalene synthase and lanosterol synthase coding genes, suggesting that these genes are not critical for GA induction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing that GA biosynthesis is linked to fungal apoptosis and provides a new approach to enhancing secondary metabolite production in fungi.

You, Bang-Jau; Lee, Miin-Huey; Tien, Ni; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Hsieh, Hui-Chuan; Tseng, Lin-Hsien; Chung, Yu-Lin; Lee, Hong-Zin

2013-01-01

187

A novel approach to enhancing ganoderic acid production by Ganoderma lucidum using apoptosis induction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ganoderma lucidum is one of most widely used herbal medicine and functional food in Asia, and ganoderic acids (GAs) are its active ingredients. Regulation of GA biosynthesis and enhancing GA production are critical to using G. lucidum as a medicine. However, regulation of GA biosynthesis by various signaling remains poorly understood. This study investigated the role of apoptosis signaling on GA biosynthesis and presented a novel approach, namely apoptosis induction, to increasing GA production. Aspirin was able to induce cell apoptosis in G. lucidum, which was identified by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUPT nick end labeling assay positive staining and a condensed nuclear morphology. The maximum induction of lanosta-7,9(11), 24-trien-3?-01-26-oic acid (ganoderic acid 24, GA24) production and total GA production by aspirin were 2.7-fold and 2.8-fold, respectively, after 1 day. Significantly lower levels of GA 24 and total GAs were obtained after regular fungal culture for 1.5 months. ROS accumulation and phosphorylation of Hog-1 kinase, a putative homolog of MAPK p38 in mammals, occurred after aspirin treatment indicating that both factors may be involved in GA biosynthetic regulation. However, aspirin also reduced expression of the squalene synthase and lanosterol synthase coding genes, suggesting that these genes are not critical for GA induction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing that GA biosynthesis is linked to fungal apoptosis and provides a new approach to enhancing secondary metabolite production in fungi. PMID:23326470

You, Bang-Jau; Lee, Miin-Huey; Tien, Ni; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Hsieh, Hui-Chuan; Tseng, Lin-Hsien; Chung, Yu-Lin; Lee, Hong-Zin

2013-01-10

188

A novel approach to enhancing ganoderic acid production by Ganoderma lucidum using apoptosis induction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ganoderma lucidum is one of most widely used herbal medicine and functional food in Asia, and ganoderic acids (GAs) are its active ingredients. Regulation of GA biosynthesis and enhancing GA production are critical to using G. lucidum as a medicine. However, regulation of GA biosynthesis by various signaling remains poorly understood. This study investigated the role of apoptosis signaling on GA biosynthesis and presented a novel approach, namely apoptosis induction, to increasing GA production. Aspirin was able to induce cell apoptosis in G. lucidum, which was identified by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUPT nick end labeling assay positive staining and a condensed nuclear morphology. The maximum induction of lanosta-7,9(11), 24-trien-3?-01-26-oic acid (ganoderic acid 24, GA24) production and total GA production by aspirin were 2.7-fold and 2.8-fold, respectively, after 1 day. Significantly lower levels of GA 24 and total GAs were obtained after regular fungal culture for 1.5 months. ROS accumulation and phosphorylation of Hog-1 kinase, a putative homolog of MAPK p38 in mammals, occurred after aspirin treatment indicating that both factors may be involved in GA biosynthetic regulation. However, aspirin also reduced expression of the squalene synthase and lanosterol synthase coding genes, suggesting that these genes are not critical for GA induction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing that GA biosynthesis is linked to fungal apoptosis and provides a new approach to enhancing secondary metabolite production in fungi.

You BJ; Lee MH; Tien N; Lee MS; Hsieh HC; Tseng LH; Chung YL; Lee HZ

2013-01-01

189

Efficacy of Combination of Glycolic Acid Peeling With Topical Regimen in Treatment of Melasma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Various treatment modalities are available for management of melasma, ranging from topical and oral to chemical peeling, but none is promising alone. Very few studies are available regarding efficacy of combination of topical treatment with chemical peeling. Combination of chemical peeling and topical regimen can be a good treatment modality in the management of this recalcitrant disorder.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of combination of topical regimen (2% hydroquinone, 1% hydrocortisone and 0.05% tretinoin) with serial glycolic acid peeling in the treatment of melasma in Indian patients.
METHODS: Forty Indian patients of moderate to severe epidermal variety melasma were divided into two groups of 20 each. One Group i.e. peel group received topical regimen (2% hydroquinone, 1% hydrocortisone and 0.05% tretinoin) with serial glycolic acid peeling and other group i.e. control group received topical regimen (2% hydroquinone, 1% hydrocortisone, 0.05% tretinoin).
RESULTS: There was an overall decrease in MASI from baseline in 24 weeks of therapy in both the groups (P value < 0.05). The group receiving the glycolic acid peel with topical regimen showed early and greater improvement than the group which was receiving topical regimen only.
CONCLUSION: This study concluded that combining topical regimen (2% hydroquinone, 1% hydrocortisone and 0.05% tretinoin) with serial glycolic acid peeling significantly enhances the therapeutic efficacy of glycolic acid peeling. The combination of glycolic acid peeling with the topical regimen is a highly effective, safe and promising therapeutic option in treatment of melasma.

J Drugs Dermatol. 2013;12(10):1149-1153.

Chaudhary S; Dayal S

2013-10-01

190

Comparison of clindamycin 1% and benzoyl peroxide 5% gel to a novel composition containing salicylic acid, capryloyl salicylic acid, HEPES, glycolic acid, citric acid, and dioic acid in the treatment of acne vulgaris.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the tolerance and efficacy of 2 facial skin products in subjects with acne using the following acne treatments: 1) treatment A, a combination of salicylic acid, capryloyl salicylic acid, HEPES, glycolic acid, citric acid, and dioic acid, and 2) treatment B (BenzaClin®, clindamycin 1% and benzoyl peroxide 5% gel). The treatment design included the split-face application of treatment A and treatment B and the full-face application of the cleanser, moisturizer, and sunscreen. Data were collected through physician visual assessments, subject irritation questionnaires and assessments, along with clinical photography. Results showed similar tolerance and efficacy for both treatments. PMID:23545907

Baumann, Leslie S; Oresajo, Christian; Yatskayer, Margarita; Dahl, Amanda; Figueras, Kristian

2013-03-01

191

Starter cultures and cattle feed manipulation enhance conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in Cheddar cheese.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a fatty acid (FA) that provides several health benefits to humans. The feeding of fish oil-supplemented diets to dairy cows has been extensively studied as a means to improve the CLA content in milk. Several studies have also been conducted on the ability of many microorganisms to produce CLA by utilizing substrates containing linoleic acid. In the present study, the dietary manipulated milk was used in combination with the CLA-producing culture to manufacture Cheddar cheese. The two diets fed to cattle were control and treatment diets to obtain control and treatment milk, respectively. The treatment diet containing fish oil (0.75% of dry matter) was fed to 32 dairy cows grouped in a pen for 18 d to increase the total CLA content in milk. Treatment milk had a CLA content of 1.60 g/100g of FA compared with 0.58 g/100g of FA in control milk obtained by feeding the control diet. A 2 × 2 factorial design with 3 replicates was used to test the combined effect of the CLA-producing starter culture of Lactococcus lactis (CI4b) versus a commercial CLA nonproducing cheese starter as the control culture, and type of milk (control vs. treatment milk) on CLA content in Cheddar cheese. Chemical composition (moisture, salt, fat, and protein) was not affected by the type of culture used. However, the age of the cheese affected the sensory properties and microbiological counts in the different treatments. Ripening with the CI4b culture was found to be effective in further enhancing the CLA content. The CI4b cheeses made from control milk and treatment milk contained 1.09 and 2.41 (±0.18) g of total CLA/100g of FA after 1 mo of ripening, which increased to 1.44 and 2.61 (±0.18) g of total CLA/100g of FA after 6 mo of ripening, respectively. The use of treatment milk resulted in an increase in the CLA isomers (trans-7,cis-9+cis-9,trans-11, trans-9,cis-11+cis-10,trans-12, trans-10,cis-12, cis-9,cis-11, trans-11,cis-13, cis-11,cis-13, trans-11,trans-13, and trans-9,trans-11). The CI4b culture specifically increased cis-11,cis-13 and trans-10,cis-12 isomers in cheese. The total CLA content in cheese was significantly higher when the CI4b culture was used compared with CLA nonproducing culture cheeses made from control milk and treatment milk after 1 mo [1.09 and 2.14 (±0.18) g of total CLA/100g of FA] and 6 mo [0.99 and 2.05 (±0.18) g of total CLA/100g of FA] of ripening, respectively. The results indicated that the combination of a CLA-producing starter culture and milk from cattle fed fish oil-supplemented diets (0.99 g of CLA/100g of FA) could enhance levels of total CLA in Cheddar cheese by up to 2.6 times compared with cheese made from control milk with CLA nonproducing starter culture (2.61 g of CLA/100g of FA) after 6 mo.

Mohan MS; Anand S; Kalscheur KF; Hassan AN; Hippen AR

2013-04-01

192

Acid Rain Animation (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)  

Science.gov (United States)

This animated slide show explains the causes and effects of acid rain. The slides show how the combustion of fossil fuels causes airborne emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides, the mechanism by which they combine with water to form acids, and some of the effects on human health. A sequence of slides shows the process of acidification of a lake, with examples of healthy and damaged lakes. There are also illustrations of ways acid rain emissions are being reduced, and some suggestions for individuals to reduce energy use so that fewer fossil fuels are burned.

193

Hydrothermal treatment of nanoparticle thin films for enhanced mechanical durability.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mechanical durability of nanoporous all-nanoparticle and polymer-nanoparticle layer-by-layer (LbL) films (80-150 nm thick) on both glass and polycarbonate substrates has been greatly enhanced by hydrothermal treatment (124-134 degrees C). Polymer-nanoparticle films were more durable than all-nanoparticle films after hydrothermal treatment. The optical properties of nanoporous antireflection (AR) films were exploited in an abrasion test (25-100 kPa normal stress) to quantify the extent of abrasive wear observed qualitatively by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Marginal damage was observed under optimal reinforcement conditions. Untreated films not only delaminated from the surface completely but also damaged their underlying glass and polycarbonate substrates during testing. The nature of the substrate was found to play an important role in determining abrasion resistance, regardless of the level of particle fusion in the film. The low-temperature process enables in situ mechanical reinforcement of otherwise delicate nanoparticle assemblies on plastic substrates. Tribochemical wear was found to planarize the nanoscale surface texture of these films, similar to what is observed in chemo-mechanical polishing (CMP). This finding is useful for anyone trying to make robust superhydrophobic or superhydrophilic coatings. To our knowledge, this is the first report on hydrothermal reinforcement of LbL films. PMID:18232719

Gemici, Zekeriyya; Shimomura, Hiroomi; Cohen, Robert E; Rubner, Michael F

2008-01-31

194

Rapid acid treatment of Escherichia coli: transcriptomic response and recovery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Many E. coli genes show pH-dependent expression during logarithmic growth in acid (pH 5–6) or in base (pH 8–9). The effect of rapid pH change, however, has rarely been tested. Rapid acid treatment could distinguish between genes responding to external pH, and genes responding to cytoplasmic acidification, which occurs transiently following rapid external acidification. It could reveal previously unknown acid-stress genes whose effects are transient, as well as show which acid-stress genes have a delayed response. Results Microarray hybridization was employed to observe the global gene expression of E. coli K-12 W3110 following rapid acidification of the external medium, from pH 7.6 to pH 5.5. Fluorimetric observation of pH-dependent tetR-YFP showed that rapid external acidification led to a half-unit drop in cytoplasmic pH (from pH 7.6 to pH 6.4) which began to recover within 20 s. Following acid treatment, 630 genes were up-regulated and 586 genes were down-regulated. Up-regulated genes included amino-acid decarboxylases (cadA, adiY, gadA), succinate dehydrogenase (sdhABCD), biofilm-associated genes (bdm, gatAB, and ymgABC), and the Gad, Fur and Rcs regulons. Genes with response patterns consistent with cytoplasmic acid stress were revealed by addition of benzoate, a membrane-permeant acid that permanently depresses cytoplasmic pH without affecting external pH. Several genes (yagU, ygiN, yjeI, and yneI) were up-regulated specifically by external acidification, while other genes (fimB, ygaC, yhcN, yhjX, ymgABC, yodA) presented a benzoate response consistent with cytoplasmic pH stress. Other genes (the nuo operon for NADH dehydrogenase I, and the HslUV protease) showed delayed up-regulation by acid, with expression rising by 10 min following the acid shift. Conclusion Transcriptomic profiling of E. coli K-12 distinguished three different classes of change in gene expression following rapid acid treatment: up-regulation with or without recovery, and delayed response to acid. For eight genes showing acid response and recovery (fimB, ygaC, yhcN, yhjX, ymgABC, yodA), responses to the permeant acid benzoate revealed expression patterns consistent with sensing of cytoplasmic pH. The delayed acid response of nuo genes shows that NADH dehydrogenase I is probably induced as a secondary result of acid-associated metabolism, not as a direct response to cytoplasmic acidification.

Kannan Geetha; Wilks Jessica C; Fitzgerald Devon M; Jones Brian D; BonDurant Sandra S; Slonczewski Joan L

2008-01-01

195

Poly(L-glutamic acid)-paclitaxel conjugate is a potent enhancer of tumor radiocurability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Conjugating drugs with polymeric carriers is one way to improve selective delivery to tumors. Poly (L-glutamic acid)-paclitaxel (PG-TXL) is one such conjugate. Compared with paclitaxel, its uptake, tumor retention, and antitumor efficacy are increased. Initial studies showed that PG-TXL given 24 h before or after radiotherapy enhanced tumor growth delay significantly more than paclitaxel. To determine if PG-TXL-induced enhancement is obtained in a more clinically relevant setting, we investigated PG-TXL effects on tumor cure. Methods and Materials: Mice bearing 7-mm-diameter ovarian carcinomas were treated with PG-TXL at an equivalent paclitaxel dose of 80 mg/kg, single dose or 5 daily fractions of radiation or both PG-TXL and radiation. Treatment endpoint was TCD50 (radiation dose yielding tumor control in 50% of mice). Acute radioresponse of jejunum, skin, and hair was determined for all treatments. Results: PG-TXL dramatically improved tumor radioresponse, reducing TCD50 of single-dose irradiation from 53.9 (52.2-55.5) Gy to 7.5 (4.5-10.7) Gy, an enhancement factor (EF) of 7.2. The drug improved the efficacy of fractionated irradiation even more, reducing the TCD50 of 66.6 (62.8-90.4) Gy total fractionated dose to only 7.9 (4.3-11.5) Gy, for an EF of 8.4. PG-TXL did not affect normal tissue radioresponse resulting from either single or fractionated irradiation. Conclusion: PG-TXL dramatically potentiated tumor radiocurability after single-dose or fractionated irradiation without affecting acute normal tissue injury. To our knowledge, PG-TXL increased the therapeutic ratio of radiotherapy more than that previously reported for other taxanes, thus, PG-TXL has a high potential to improve clinical radiotherapy.

2003-03-01

196

Omega-3 fatty acids as a putative treatment for traumatic brain injury.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a global public health epidemic. In the US alone, more than 3 million people sustain a TBI annually. It is one of the most disabling injuries as it may cause motor and sensory deficits and lead to severe cognitive, emotional, and psychosocial impairment, crippling vital areas of higher functioning. Fueled by the recognition of TBI as the "signature injury" in our wounded soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan, and its often devastating impact on athletes playing contact sports, interest in TBI and TBI research has increased dramatically. Unfortunately, despite increased awareness of its detrimental consequences, there has been little progress in developing effective TBI interventions. Recent evidence, however, strongly indicates that nutritional intervention may provide a unique opportunity to enhance the neuronal repair process after TBI. To date, two omega-3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), have the most promising laboratory evidence for their neuro-restorative capacities in TBI. Although both animal models and human studies of brain injuries suggest they may provide benefits, there has been no clinical trial evaluating the effects of n-3 fatty acids on resilience to, or treatment, of TBI. This article reviews the known functions of n-3 fatty acids in the brain and their specific role in the cellular and biochemical pathways underlying neurotraumatic injury. We also highlight recent studies on the therapeutic impact of enhanced omega 3 intake in vivo, and how this may be a particularly promising approach to improving functional outcome in patients with TBI.

Hasadsri L; Wang BH; Lee JV; Erdman JW; Llano DA; Barbey AK; Wszalek T; Sharrock MF; Wang HJ

2013-06-01

197

Does treatment readiness enhance the response of African American substance users to Motivational Enhancement Therapy?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The development of effective treatments for African Americans and other ethnic minorities is essential for reducing health disparities in substance use. Despite research suggesting that Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET) may reduce substance use among African Americans, the findings have been inconsistent. This research examined the extent to which readiness-to-change (RTC) affects response to MET among African American substance users. The study was a secondary analysis of the 194 African American substance users participating in a multisite randomized clinical trial evaluating MET originally conducted within the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network. The participants were randomly assigned to receive either three sessions of MET or Counseling-As-Usual (CAU) followed by the ordinary treatment and other services offered at the five participating outpatient programs. Participants were categorized as either high or lower on RTC based on their scores on the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment. The participants reported their substance use at baseline and throughout the 16 weeks after randomization. Among the high RTC participants, those in MET tended to report fewer days of substance use per week over time than participants in CAU. However, among the lower RTC participants, the CAU group tended to report fewer days of substance use over time than MET participants. In contrast to previous thinking, the findings suggest that MET may be more effective for high than lower RTC African American participants. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

Burlew AK; Montgomery L; Kosinski AS; Forcehimes AA

2013-09-01

198

Activated carbon/enhanced biological treatment of a complex groundwater  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Impacted groundwater at the Ott/Story/Cordova Superfund site near Muskegon, Michigan contains a complex mixture of organic compounds and nitrogen. The remediation plan for the site calls for extraction and treatment of 4,600 cubic meters per day of groundwater, estimated to contain 1,500 mg/L of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 80 mg/L of ammonia-nitrogen. Approximately 30% of the COD is comprised of a mixture of 50 Appendix IX compounds, including halogenated and aromatic orcanics. The remaining COD is contributed by an unidentified group of process intermediates and degradation products related to historical production at this former chemical production facility. The objectives for discharge of the treated Groundwater to a local surface water body included removal of known organic compounds and ammonia-nitrogen, as well as numerous unidentified compounds in the site groundwater. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of two activated carbon-enhanced biological treatment systems: granular activated Carbon/fluidized bed (GAC/FB) and powdered activated carbon treatment (PACT{reg_sign}) for achieving the expected standards for surface water discharge. GAC/FB and PACT were initially evaluated using laboratory-scale reactors. The GAC/FB reactor achieved consistent, high removals of all organic compounds; however, consistent nitrification could not be maintained. The two-stage PACT system achieved nearly complete removal of all organic compounds and ammonia. A 9.5-L/minute pilot system was subsequently operated at the site to provide additional performance information for the two-stage PACT process. Three of the most highly impacted site wells were used to supply groundwater to the pilot system. Excellent removal of all known and unknown organic compounds, and nearly complete nitrification was consistently achieved. As a result of the on-site pilot study, a two-stage PACT system is being implemented at the site.

Pugh, L.B.; Rediske, R.R.; Rogers, D.R.; Peden, D.H.

1996-12-31

199

Acridine yellow as solar photocatalyst for enhancing biodegradability and eliminating ferulic acid as model pollutant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The possibility of using acridine yellow G (AYG) as solar photocatalyst for wastewater treatment has been examined in this paper. A phenolic compound, namely ferulic acid, has been employed as target pollutant. The effect of pH, concentration of the substrate and photocatalyst has been investigated. Control of pH is critical in the process, as rate constants obtained at pH 3 (k = 0.020 min{sup -1}) were one order of magnitude higher than in basic media (k = 0.002 min{sup -1} at pH 9), due to differences in the absorption spectrum in the UVA-vis region. Under acidic conditions, 80% removal of the substrate was achieved after 3 h irradiation, although TOC decrease was moderate (around 20%). Nevertheless important detoxification of the solution was measured, and the remaining organic matter showed an enhanced biodegradability. For this reason, a combination of AYG-driven solar photocatalysis with biological treatment seems a good approach to deal with these effluents. Experimental data are consistent with an electron transfer mechanism between the excited photocatalyst and the substrate: involvement of hydroxyl radicals can be ruled out, and photophysical measurements indicate a quenching of the fluorescence of AYG in the presence of ferulic acid. The rate constant for this process was obtained from the Stern-Volmer equation (k{sub q} = 4.4 x 10{sup 9} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}). Finally, based on the Rehm-Weller equation, a {delta}G = -22.8 kcal/mol was calculated, indicating that the process is thermodynamically favourable. (author)

Amat, Ana M.; Arques, Antonio; Santos-Juanes, Lucas; Vercher, Rosa F.; Vicente, R. [Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, EPSA-UPV, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Paseo Viaducto 1, E-03801 Alcoy (Spain); Galindo, Francisco [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica y Organica, Universitat Jaume I, E-12071 Castellon (Spain); Miranda, Miguel A. [Departamento de Quimica e Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica UPV-CSIC, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Apartado 22012, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

2007-05-11

200

Skin laser treatments enhancing transdermal delivery of ALA.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Drug delivery across skin has been limited due to barrier properties of the skin, especially those of the stratum corneum (SC). Use of the laser radiation has been suggested for the controlled removal of the SC. The purpose of this study was to study in vitro the influence of infrared radiation from the erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser (??=?2940 ?nm), and visible from the 2nd harmonic of a neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser (??=?532? nm) on transdermal delivery of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). Pinna skin of the inner side of rabbit ear was used for skin permeation. The light sources were an Er:YAG laser (Key III Plus KaVo) and a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (Lotis TII SL-2132). Permeation study, morphological and structural skin examination by histology and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were carried out. Permeation profiles and histological observations obtained after irradiation with infrared and visible laser radiation differed due to different biophysical effects on irradiated skin. Wavelength of 2940 ?nm required lower energy contribution to produce the same level of permeation than visible radiation at 532 ?nm. Structural analysis by DSC shows a selective impact on the lipidic structure. Laser pretreatment enhanced the delivery of ALA trough the skin by SC ablation.

Gómez C; Costela Á; García-Moreno I; Llanes F; Teijón JM; Blanco MD

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Enhanced formation of cubic ice in aqueous organic acid droplets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The homogeneous nucleation of ice in solution droplets is known to be an important mechanism of ice particle formation in the Earth's upper troposphere. It is known that the metastable cubic phase of ice can form when inorganic solution droplets freeze below about 200 K and that this may influence cloud properties and water vapor in the upper troposphere. However, many tropospheric aerosols contain a large and sometimes dominant proportion of oxygenated organic material in addition to inorganic substances. It is shown here that the threshold freezing temperature below which cubic ice forms and persists is shifted to considerably higher temperatures in solution droplets containing a carboxylic acid (2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid, citric acid, C{sub 6}H{sub 8}O{sub 7}). Cubic and the stable hexagonal ice are the only phases to crystallize in micrometre sized citric acid droplets and therefore always exist in contact with aqueous citric acid solution. It is argued that the extremely high viscosity of low temperature aqueous citric acid solutions plays an important role in stabilizing cubic ice. The implications of these findings for ice clouds in the Earth's atmosphere are discussed.

Murray, Benjamin J [School of Chemistry, Woodhouse Lane, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

2008-04-15

202

Enhanced formation of cubic ice in aqueous organic acid droplets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The homogeneous nucleation of ice in solution droplets is known to be an important mechanism of ice particle formation in the Earth's upper troposphere. It is known that the metastable cubic phase of ice can form when inorganic solution droplets freeze below about 200 K and that this may influence cloud properties and water vapor in the upper troposphere. However, many tropospheric aerosols contain a large and sometimes dominant proportion of oxygenated organic material in addition to inorganic substances. It is shown here that the threshold freezing temperature below which cubic ice forms and persists is shifted to considerably higher temperatures in solution droplets containing a carboxylic acid (2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid, citric acid, C6H8O7). Cubic and the stable hexagonal ice are the only phases to crystallize in micrometre sized citric acid droplets and therefore always exist in contact with aqueous citric acid solution. It is argued that the extremely high viscosity of low temperature aqueous citric acid solutions plays an important role in stabilizing cubic ice. The implications of these findings for ice clouds in the Earth's atmosphere are discussed.

2008-01-01

203

Sludge recycle and reuse in acid mine drainage treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Neutralization of acid mine drainage produces vast quantities of iron-rich sludge, and large quantities of unused lime remain in the sludge after treatment. In a study in which sludge was recycled to increase lime utilization, sludge was mixed with raw acid mine drainage and settled out in an intermediate clarifier. The clarifier supernatant was then treated by lime addition, aeration and sedimentation. The low-pH sludge was withdrawn from the intermediate clarifier. The iron was recovered by acidification and used as wastewater coagulant. The recycle scheme resulted in a 30% decrease in lime requirements, and the resultant coagulant performed well when compared with stock iron coagulant solutions.

Keefer, G.B.; Sack, W.A.

1983-03-01

204

Synthesis and in vitro transdermal penetration enhancing activity of lactam N-acetic acid esters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A homologous series of N-acetic acid esters of 2-pyrrolidinone and 2-piperidinone has been prepared and evaluated for its ability to enhance the skin content and flux of hydrocortisone 21-acetate in hairless mouse skin in vitro. Enhancement ratios (ER) were determined for flux (J), 24-hour diffusion cell receptor cell concentrations (Q24), and 24-h full-thickness mouse skin steroid content (SC) and compared to control values (no enhancer present). In addition, in an attempt to abrogate toxicity, these dermal penetration enhancers were designed to have the potential for biodegradation by dermal esterases. 2-Oxopyrrolidine-alpha acetic acid dodecyl ester (5) showed the highest enhancement ratios for J (ER 67.33) and Q24 (ER 180.66). 2-Oxopiperidine-alpha-acetic acid decyl ester (10) showed a high Q24 (ER 162.07) but a lower J (ER 12.67). 2-Oxopyrrolidine-alpha-acetic acid decyl ester (3) showed the highest enhancement ratio for SC (ER 8.7). The ER Q24 for 3, 5 and 10, as well as other lactam N-acetic acid esters in this work, were significantly higher than the ER found using Azone as enhancer.

Michniak BB; Player MR; Sowell JW Sr

1996-02-01

205

Synthesis and in vitro transdermal penetration enhancing activity of lactam N-acetic acid esters.  

Science.gov (United States)

A homologous series of N-acetic acid esters of 2-pyrrolidinone and 2-piperidinone has been prepared and evaluated for its ability to enhance the skin content and flux of hydrocortisone 21-acetate in hairless mouse skin in vitro. Enhancement ratios (ER) were determined for flux (J), 24-hour diffusion cell receptor cell concentrations (Q24), and 24-h full-thickness mouse skin steroid content (SC) and compared to control values (no enhancer present). In addition, in an attempt to abrogate toxicity, these dermal penetration enhancers were designed to have the potential for biodegradation by dermal esterases. 2-Oxopyrrolidine-alpha acetic acid dodecyl ester (5) showed the highest enhancement ratios for J (ER 67.33) and Q24 (ER 180.66). 2-Oxopiperidine-alpha-acetic acid decyl ester (10) showed a high Q24 (ER 162.07) but a lower J (ER 12.67). 2-Oxopyrrolidine-alpha-acetic acid decyl ester (3) showed the highest enhancement ratio for SC (ER 8.7). The ER Q24 for 3, 5 and 10, as well as other lactam N-acetic acid esters in this work, were significantly higher than the ER found using Azone as enhancer. PMID:8683439

Michniak, B B; Player, M R; Sowell, J W

1996-02-01

206

Identification of a retinoic acid-responsive neural enhancer in the Ciona intestinalis Hox1 gene.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Hox1 gene in the urochordate ascidian Ciona intestinalis (Ci-Hox1) is expressed in the nerve cord and epidermis. We identified a nerve cord enhancer in the second intron of Ci-Hox1, and demonstrated that retinoic acid (RA) plays a major role in activating this enhancer. The enhancer contained a putative retinoic acid-response element (RARE). Mutation of the RARE in the Ci-Hox1 nerve cord enhancer only partially abolished the enhancer activity. Genes encoding RA synthase and the RA receptor were knocked down using specific antisense morpholino oligos (MOs), and injection of embryos with these MOs resulted in the complete disappearance of epidermal expression of Ci-Hox1 and reduction of neural expression. However, nerve cord expression was not completely repressed. These results suggest that the nerve cord enhancer is activated by two partially redundant pathways; one RA-dependent and one RA-independent.

Kanda M; Ikeda T; Fujiwara S

2013-02-01

207

Identification of a retinoic acid-responsive neural enhancer in the Ciona intestinalis Hox1 gene.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Hox1 gene in the urochordate ascidian Ciona intestinalis (Ci-Hox1) is expressed in the nerve cord and epidermis. We identified a nerve cord enhancer in the second intron of Ci-Hox1, and demonstrated that retinoic acid (RA) plays a major role in activating this enhancer. The enhancer contained a putative retinoic acid-response element (RARE). Mutation of the RARE in the Ci-Hox1 nerve cord enhancer only partially abolished the enhancer activity. Genes encoding RA synthase and the RA receptor were knocked down using specific antisense morpholino oligos (MOs), and injection of embryos with these MOs resulted in the complete disappearance of epidermal expression of Ci-Hox1 and reduction of neural expression. However, nerve cord expression was not completely repressed. These results suggest that the nerve cord enhancer is activated by two partially redundant pathways; one RA-dependent and one RA-independent. PMID:23302037

Kanda, Miyuki; Ikeda, Taku; Fujiwara, Shigeki

2013-01-10

208

Valproic acid treatment is associated with altered leukocyte subset development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Valproic acid (VPA) has been used for decades in the treatment of epilepsy and psychiatric disorders, and the long-term use of VPA is regularly accompanied by hematological toxicity, including neutropenia. More recently, it has been demonstrated that VPA can be used as a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) for the treatment of hematological malignancies. In order to determine the specific effects of VPA in both hematological malignancies and normal hematopoiesis, recent studies have demonstrated that VPA treatment affects the differentiation of normal myeloid progenitors in vitro. In this study, we demonstrate that in a large patient population treated for neurological or psychiatric disorders, VPA treatment affects neutrophil as well as lymphocyte subset counts. PMID:23131880

Bartels, Marije; van Solinge, Wouter W; den Breeijen, Hanneke J; Bierings, Marc B; Coffer, Paul J; Egberts, Toine C G

2012-12-01

209

Valproic acid treatment is associated with altered leukocyte subset development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Valproic acid (VPA) has been used for decades in the treatment of epilepsy and psychiatric disorders, and the long-term use of VPA is regularly accompanied by hematological toxicity, including neutropenia. More recently, it has been demonstrated that VPA can be used as a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) for the treatment of hematological malignancies. In order to determine the specific effects of VPA in both hematological malignancies and normal hematopoiesis, recent studies have demonstrated that VPA treatment affects the differentiation of normal myeloid progenitors in vitro. In this study, we demonstrate that in a large patient population treated for neurological or psychiatric disorders, VPA treatment affects neutrophil as well as lymphocyte subset counts.

Bartels M; van Solinge WW; den Breeijen HJ; Bierings MB; Coffer PJ; Egberts TC

2012-12-01

210

Improving secondary sludge biodegradability using free nitrous acid treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study presents a novel strategy based on free nitrous acid (FNA) treatment to improve the biodegradability of secondary sludge. Several experiments were conducted to demonstrate the biocidal effect of FNA on activated sludge. The viable fraction as well as the biological activity of the biomass decreased significantly after 8-48 h treatment with FNA. The biodegradability of the FNA treated sludge was compared to that of the same sludge without FNA treatment by aerobically digesting these sludges with a full-scale activated sludge for 14 and 6 days respectively. Ninety percent of the FNA treated biomass was consumed during the 14-day aerobic digestion compared to 41% achieved with the untreated biomass. During the 6-day aerobic digestion, 50% of the FNA-treated sludge was degraded. The results indicate that FNA treatment substantially increases sludge biodegradability.

Pijuan M; Wang Q; Ye L; Yuan Z

2012-07-01

211

Treatment of hereditary angioneurotic edema with tranexamic acid and cinnarizine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Six out of 7 Finnish patients suffering from hereditary angioneurotic edema were helped during attacks, by treatment with tranexamic acid (AMCA, Cyklokapron, Kabi) in doses of 1.5 g 3 times daily, follow-up time 3-25 months. 3 of these patients also had continuous AMCA treatment, in the course of which 2 remained nearly symptom-free on a dosage of 1 g 2-3 times daily. Even the third one had shorter and milder attacks. One patient, however, had to stop taking AMCA after 6 weeks' treatment, because of fatigue and nausea. Follow-up time for the others was 9-11 months. For comparative purposes, 3 patients were given continuous treatment with an antihistamine, cinnarizine in a dosage of 20-30 mg daily. Two of the patients were helped by it, one becoming nearly symptom-free and the other having fewer and milder attacks; follow-up time 9-10 months.

Ohela K

1976-01-01

212

ADIPIC ACID ENHANCED FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION PROCESS FOR INDUSTRIAL BOILERS. VOLUME 2. TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT. PROJECT SUMMARY  

Science.gov (United States)

The SO sub 2 removal efficiency with the adipic acid averaged 94.3% over a 30-day period, representing a significant improvement in the performance of the system using only limestone. Economic calculations for an industrial boiler adipic-acid-enhanced limestone FGD system indicat...

213

Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, fetal risks, and ursodeoxycolic acid treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this report is to investigate intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Here we report a 36-year-old woman with intrahepatic cholestasis. We observed a complete cure with ursodeoxycholic acid treatment. We discussed the epidemiology, pathomechanism, and therapy of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is a rare disorder of unknown etiology with a clinically distressing maternal course with pruritus and jaundice as the chief complaints. The disease poses little medical risk to the mother, but significant risk to the fetus such as perinatal mortality, preterm delivery, fetal distress, and meconium staining. On the basis of the data in the literature and our own observation we recommend ursodeoxycholic acid treatment in the management of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

Erdin ?lter; E Can Tüfekçi; Osman Batur; Figen Temelli

2005-01-01

214

Effects of fatty acid treatments on the dexamethasone-induced intramuscular lipid accumulation in chickens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoid has an important effect on lipid metabolism in muscles, and the type of fatty acid likely affects mitochondrial utilization. Therefore, we hypothesize that the different fatty acid types treatment may affect the glucocorticoid induction of intramuscular lipid accumulation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The effect of dexamethasone (DEX) on fatty acid metabolism and storage in skeletal muscle of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) was investigated with and without fatty acid treatments. Male Arbor Acres chickens (31 d old) were treated with either palmitic acid (PA) or oleic acid (OA) for 7 days, followed by DEX administration for 3 days (35-37 d old). The DEX-induced lipid uptake and oxidation imbalance, which was estimated by increased fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1) expression and decreased carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 activity, contributed to skeletal muscle lipid accumulation. More sensitive than glycolytic muscle, the oxidative muscle in DEX-treated chickens showed a decrease in the AMP to ATP ratio, a decrease in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) alpha phosphorylation and its activity, as well as an increase in the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ribosomal p70S6 kinase, without Akt activation. DEX-stimulated lipid deposition was augmented by PA, but alleviated by OA, in response to pathways that were regulated differently, including AMPK, mTOR and FATP1. CONCLUSIONS: DEX-induced intramuscular lipid accumulation was aggravated by SFA but alleviated by unsaturated fatty acid. The suppressed AMPK and augmented mTOR signaling pathways were involved in glucocortcoid-mediated enhanced intramuscular fat accumulation.

Wang Xj; Wei Dl; Song Zg; Jiao Hc; Lin H

2012-01-01

215

Treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis with boric acid powder.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A double-blind comparison was made of the use of 14 daily intravaginal gelatin capsules containing 600 mg of boric acid powder versus the use of identical capsules containing 100,000 U nystatin diluted to volume with cornstarch for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis albicans. Cure rates for boric acid were 92% at 7 to 10 days after treatment and 72% at 30 days, whereas the nystatin cure rates were 64% at 7 to 10 days and 50% at 30 days. The speed of alleviation of signs and symptoms was similar for the two drugs. There were no untoward side effects, and cervical cytologic features were not affected. In vitro studies found boric acid to be fungistatic and its effectiveness to be unrelated to pH. Blood boron analyses indicated little absorption from the vagina and a half-life of less than 12 hours. Acceptance by the patients was better than for "messy" vaginal creams, and self-made capsules containing boric acid powder are inexpensive (31 cents for fourteen) compared with the costly medication commonly prescribed.

Van Slyke KK; Michel VP; Rein MF

1981-09-01

216

Valproic acid induces cutaneous wound healing in vivo and enhances keratinocyte motility.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Cutaneous wound healing is a complex process involving several signaling pathways such as the Wnt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. Valproic acid (VPA) is a commonly used antiepileptic drug that acts on these signaling pathways; however, the effect of VPA on cutaneous wound healing is unknown. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We created full-thickness wounds on the backs of C3H mice and then applied VPA. After 7 d, we observed marked healing and reduced wound size in VPA-treated mice. In the neo-epidermis of the wounds, ?-catenin and markers for keratinocyte terminal differentiation were increased after VPA treatment. In addition, ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), collagen I and collagen III in the wounds were significantly increased. VPA induced proliferation and suppressed apoptosis of cells in the wounds, as determined by Ki67 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining analyses, respectively. In vitro, VPA enhanced the motility of HaCaT keratinocytes by activating Wnt/?-catenin, ERK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase)/Akt signaling pathways. CONCLUSIONS: VPA enhances cutaneous wound healing in a murine model and induces migration of HaCaT keratinocytes.

Lee SH; Zahoor M; Hwang JK; Min do S; Choi KY

2012-01-01

217

Comparative study of trichloroacetic acid versus glycolic acid chemical peels in the treatment of melasma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Melasma is a common cause of facial hyperpigmentation with significant cosmetic deformity. Many modalities of treatment are available, but none is satisfactory. Aim: This study was designed to compare the therapeutic response of melasma in Indian women to glycolic acid (GA ...

Kumari Rashmi; Thappa Devinder

218

Chronomodulation of topotecan or X-radiation treatment increases treatment efficacy without enhancing acute toxicity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Topotecan (TPT), a camptothecin analog, is currently used to treat human ovarian and small-cell lung cancer and is in clinical trials for other tumor sites. However, it is unknown whether chronomodulation of TPT treatment is beneficial. We examined the effects of administering TPT or X-radiation (XR) alone at different times of the day or night. Methods: We treated mice bearing human colorectal tumor xenografts at four different times representing the early rest period (9 AM or 3 HALO [hours after light onset]), late rest period (3 PM or 9 HALO), early active period (9 PM or 15 HALO), and late active period (3 AM or 21 HALO) of the mice. We gave either TPT (12 mg/kg, injected i.p.) or XR (4 Gy, directed to the tumor) twice weekly on Days 0, 4, 7, 10 within 2 weeks. Results: Treatment with either TPT or XR at 3 AM demonstrated the greatest efficacy (measured by a tumor regrowth assay) without significantly increasing acute toxicity (assessed by a decrease in leukocyte counts or body weight). Conversely, treatment at 3 PM, in particular, showed increased toxicity without any enhanced efficacy. Conclusions: Our study provided the first evidence that chronomodulation of TPT treatments, consistent with the findings of other camptothecin analogs, is potentially clinically beneficial. Additionally, our findings suggest that chronomodulation of fractionated XR treatments is also potentially clinically beneficial.

2005-05-01

219

Enhancement of vindoline and vinblastine production in suspension-cultured cells of Catharanthus roseus by artemisinic acid elicitation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Elicitation is an important strategy to improve production of secondary metabolites in vitro. Artemisinic acid was studied as a novel elicitor to enhance the yield of terpenoid indole alkaloids in the present paper. Our results demonstrated that the concentrations of vindoline and vinblastine were increased by sixfold and twofold, respectively, compared to those of the control group after treatment with artemisinic acid. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, we investigated the gene expression of four enzymes involved in the biosynthetic pathway of vinblastine in the suspension-cultured cells of Catharanthu sroseus. RT-PCR experiment showed that artemisinic acid was able to up-regulate the transcriptions of tryptophan decarboxylase, geraniol 10-hydroxylase, tabersonine 16-hydroxylase and deacetoxyvindoline 4-hydroxylase.

Liu J; Zhu J; Tang L; Wen W; Lv S; Yu R

2013-07-01

220

Acid Rain Experiments (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)  

Science.gov (United States)

This collection of experiments introduces students to techniques for measuring pH. They will learn how to use pH paper, how to use a garden soil test kit to measure the pH of liquids, how to record their observations, and some lab safety tips. In the experiments, they will measure the pH of some common substances (water, soil, and others), learn about buffering in soils and natural waters, and observe the effects of acid on metals.

 
 
 
 
221

Fluorescence enhancement and cofluorescence in complexes of terbium, dysprosium and europium with trimesic acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fluorescence of terbium, dysprosium and europium was enhanced by about two to three orders of magnitude when they were excited in the presence of trimesic acid in aqueous solutions at pH 6. The fluorescence was enhanced by a further order of magnitude when these lanthanide-trimesate complexes were treated with trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) and Triton X-100. The enhancement following the addition of TOPO is strongly pH dependent. An enhancement in the fluorescence of these rare earths with the carboxylate ligand is observed in the presence of ions such as La3+ and Gd3+, due to cofluorescence. The addition of La or Gd enhances the fluorescence of the lanthanide-trimesic acid complexes by almost two orders of magnitude, leading to detection limits in the sub-ng ml-1 range for these rare earths.

1993-01-01

222

Chitosan nanoparticles for melanoma cancer treatment by Photodynamic Therapy and electrochemotherapy using aminolevulinic acid derivatives.  

Science.gov (United States)

For some time Photodynamic Therapy and electrochemotherapy have been used as alternative therapies against skin cancer. The primary aim of this work was to develop, characterize, and evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of new drug delivery systems based on chitosan nanoparticles containing aminolevulinic acid derivatives such as prodrug (5-ALA and its ester derivative 8-ALA). The second goal of this study was to evaluate the synergistic effect of a combination of classical Photodynamic Therapy and electrochemotherapy, which is routinely utilized to modulate and enhance the permeation of photosensitizers, prodrugs, and other active compounds through the skin, improving the efficiency of PDT in the treatment of cutaneous neoplasms. PMID:23409713

Ferreira, D M; Saga, Y Y; Aluicio-Sarduy, E; Tedesco, A C

2013-01-01

223

Chitosan nanoparticles for melanoma cancer treatment by Photodynamic Therapy and electrochemotherapy using aminolevulinic acid derivatives.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

For some time Photodynamic Therapy and electrochemotherapy have been used as alternative therapies against skin cancer. The primary aim of this work was to develop, characterize, and evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of new drug delivery systems based on chitosan nanoparticles containing aminolevulinic acid derivatives such as prodrug (5-ALA and its ester derivative 8-ALA). The second goal of this study was to evaluate the synergistic effect of a combination of classical Photodynamic Therapy and electrochemotherapy, which is routinely utilized to modulate and enhance the permeation of photosensitizers, prodrugs, and other active compounds through the skin, improving the efficiency of PDT in the treatment of cutaneous neoplasms.

Ferreira DM; Saga YY; Aluicio-Sarduy E; Tedesco AC

2013-01-01

224

Treatment of acid mine drainage by sulfate reducing bacteria with iron in bench scale runs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to treat acid mine drainage (AMD) effectively using sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) at high concentration of sulfate and heavy metals, Fe(0) was added to enhance the activity of SRB. When AMD was treated by SRB and Fe(0) at 25 °C, more than 61% of sulfate was removed and the effluent pH was improved from 2.75 to 6.20 during the operation. Cu(2+) was removed effectively with the removal efficiency at 99%, while only 86% of Fe(2+) was removed during the AMD treatment, without conspicuous change of Mn(2+) in the effluent in the process.

Bai H; Kang Y; Quan H; Han Y; Sun J; Feng Y

2013-01-01

225

Zoledronic acid significantly enhances radiation?induced apoptosis against human fibrosarcoma cells by inhibiting radioadaptive signaling.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Zoledronic acid (ZOL), a third-generation bisphosphonate, inhibits bone resorption, as well as exhibiting direct antitumor activity. To date, however, the combined effects of ZOL and ionizing radiation (IR) have not been assessed in patients with soft tissue sarcoma. We have, therefore, assessed the combined effects of ZOL and IR in fibrosarcoma cells. HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells were treated with ZOL and/or IR, together or sequentially and the antitumor effects were assessed. We found that ZOL significantly enhanced IR-induced apoptosis, especially when cells were treated with ZOL followed by IR. We, therefore, assessed the detailed mechanism of sequential treatment with ZOL and IR. Cells in G2 and M phases, the most radiosensitive phases of the cell cycle, were not increased by low concentrations of ZOL. However, the levels of expression of Akt, ERK1/2 and NF-?B proteins, all of which are related to radioadaptive resistance, were increased within a short time after irradiation with 3 Gy, and this expression was inhibited by a low concentration of ZOL, which blocked the prenylation of small GTPases. This sequential treatment also increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These results suggest that the combination of ZOL with IR may be beneficial in treating patients with soft tissue sarcoma.

Koto K; Murata H; Kimura S; Sawai Y; Horie N; Matsui T; Ryu K; Ashihara E; Maekawa T; Kubo T; Fushiki S

2013-02-01

226

Transgenic overproduction of omega-3 polyunsaturated Fatty acids provides neuroprotection and enhances endogenous neurogenesis after stroke.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Strokes are devastating as there are no current therapies to prevent the long term neurological deficits that they cause. Soon after ischemic stroke, there is proliferation and differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells as an important mechanism for neuronal restoration. However, endogenous neurogenesis by itself is insufficient for effective brain repair after stroke as most newborn neurons do not survive. One fascinating strategy for stroke treatment would thus be maintaining the survival and/or promoting the differentiation of endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells. Using transgenic (Tg) mice over-expressing the C. elegans fat-1 gene encoding an enzyme that converts endogenous omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), we showed that fat-1 Tg mice with chronically elevated brain levels of n-3 PUFAs exhibited less brain damage and significantly improved long-term neurological performance compared to wild type littermates. Importantly, post-stroke neurogenesis occurred more robustly in fat-1 Tg mice after focal ischemia. This was manifested by enhanced neural stem cell proliferation/differentiation and increased migration of neuroblasts to the ischemic sites where neuroblasts matured into resident neurons. Moreover, these neurogenic effects were accompanied by significantly increased oligodendrogenesis. Our results suggest that n-3 PUFA supplementation is a potential neurogenic and oligodendrogenic treatment to naturally improve post-stroke brain repair and long-term functional recovery.

Hu X; Zhang F; Leak RK; Zhang W; Iwai M; Stetler RA; Dai Y; Zhao A; Gao Y; Chen J

2013-11-01

227

Transgenic overproduction of omega-3 polyunsaturated Fatty acids provides neuroprotection and enhances endogenous neurogenesis after stroke.  

Science.gov (United States)

Strokes are devastating as there are no current therapies to prevent the long term neurological deficits that they cause. Soon after ischemic stroke, there is proliferation and differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells as an important mechanism for neuronal restoration. However, endogenous neurogenesis by itself is insufficient for effective brain repair after stroke as most newborn neurons do not survive. One fascinating strategy for stroke treatment would thus be maintaining the survival and/or promoting the differentiation of endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells. Using transgenic (Tg) mice over-expressing the C. elegans fat-1 gene encoding an enzyme that converts endogenous omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), we showed that fat-1 Tg mice with chronically elevated brain levels of n-3 PUFAs exhibited less brain damage and significantly improved long-term neurological performance compared to wild type littermates. Importantly, post-stroke neurogenesis occurred more robustly in fat-1 Tg mice after focal ischemia. This was manifested by enhanced neural stem cell proliferation/differentiation and increased migration of neuroblasts to the ischemic sites where neuroblasts matured into resident neurons. Moreover, these neurogenic effects were accompanied by significantly increased oligodendrogenesis. Our results suggest that n-3 PUFA supplementation is a potential neurogenic and oligodendrogenic treatment to naturally improve post-stroke brain repair and long-term functional recovery. PMID:23971733

Hu, X; Zhang, F; Leak, R K; Zhang, W; Iwai, M; Stetler, R A; Dai, Y; Zhao, A; Gao, Y; Chen, J

2013-11-01

228

Slagment Cement Improve the Cement Resistance Toward Acids Attack During Acidizing Treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Acidizing treatment in past experience shows several zonal isolation problems after the treatment. This study presents the effect of the acid treatment toward class G cement and slagment cement as the improvement method to improve the cement resistance toward the acid. Lab experiments were conducted by immerge the respective cement cubes into 12% HCl/3% HF solution for 40 min before several analysis were conducted. Based on the result, the mass loss and compressive strength loss of the cement cubes decrease as the curing temperature and pressure increase due to more evenly distributed cement chemical composition crystal in high curing condition as shown in Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis. From X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis, only the first layer of the cement cubes shows chemical component change due to the reaction between the acid. This study found that, replacing class G cement to slagment cement can reduce the mass loss and compressive strength loss up to 72% and 82%, respectively.

Nik Khairul Irfan Bin Nik Ab. Lah.; Sonny Irawan

2013-01-01

229

Phthalic acid esters found in municipal organic waste : Enhanced anaerobic degradation under hyper-thermophilic conditions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Contamination of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) with xenobiotic compounds and their fate during anaerobic digestion was investigated. The phthalic acid ester di-(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) was identified as the main contaminant in OFMSW in concentrations more than half of the threshold value for the use as fertilizer on agricultural soil in Denmark. Analysis of DEHP in 4 samples before and after large-scale anaerobic digesters revealed higher concentrations of DEHP per kg dry matter in the effluent than in the influent. The concentration of DEHP and DBP (dibutylphthalate) in OFMSW was monitored in the influent and effluent of anaerobic thermophilic (55degreesC) and hyper-thermophilic CO (68degreesC) laboratory-scale reactor systems. In the thermophilic reactors with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of W 15 days 38-70% of DBP was removed, but no consistent removal of DEHP was observed. However, after treatment of the effluent from the thermophilic reactor in a hyper-thermophilic digester (HRT: 5 days) 0 CO 34-53% of the DEHP content was removed and the DBP removal was increased to further 62-74%. Removal rates (k(h)) of DEHP and DBP were found to be 0.11-0.32 d(-1) and 0.41-0.79 d(-1), which is much higher than in previous investigations. It can be concluded that the higher removal rates are due to the higher temperature and higher initial concentrations per kg dry matter. These results suggest that the limiting factor for DEHP degradation is the bioavailability, which is enhanced at higher temperature and higher degradation of solid organic matter, to which the highly hydrophobic DEHP is adsorbed. The investigated reactor configuration with a thermophilic and a hyper-thermophilic treatment is, therefore, a good option for CD combining high rate degradation of organic matter with high biogas yields and efficient reduction of the phthalic acid ester contamination.

Hartmann, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

2003-01-01

230

Mechanisms for the interactions between acidic oils and surfactant-enhanced alkaline solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An interfacial activity model has been proposed to predict the equilibrium interfacial tension of acidic oil/surfactant-enhanced alkaline systems. The model accounts for a mixed interfacial layer and mixed micelle formation by the acid, ionized acid, and added surfactant. The mass action model was adopted for the formation of micelles in conjunction with an empirical relationship for the critical micelle concentration change. The agreement between model predictions and experiments is satisfactory and confirms the mechanisms proposed. For the acidic oil/alkali system, it has been found that the unionized acid adsorbs onto the interface along with the ionized acid, resulting in lower interfacial tension, but fails to produce ultralow values because the ionic strength is not constant as the pH is varied. It has been also found that the acid lowers the interfacial tension of the oil/added surfactant systems by simultaneously adsorbing onto the interface and reduces the critical micelle concentration of the added surfactant.

Touhami, Y.; Hornof, V.; Neale, G.H. [Univ. of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1996-02-10

231

Recovery of metals from waste printed circuit boards by supercritical water pre-treatment combined with acid leaching process.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) contain a large number of metals such as Cu, Sn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn, and Mn. In this work, an efficient and environmentally friendly process for metals recovery from waste PCBs by supercritical water (SCW) pre-treatment combined with acid leaching was developed. In the proposed process, waste PCBs were pre-treated by SCW, then the separated solid phase product with concentrated metals was subjected to an acid leaching process for metals recovery. The effect of SCW pre-treatment on the recovery of different metals from waste PCBs was investigated. Two methods of SCW pre-treatment were studied: supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) and supercritical water depolymerization (SCWD). Experimental results indicated that SCWO and SCWD pre-treatment had significant effect on the recovery of different metals. SCWO pre-treatment was highly efficient for enhancing the recovery of Cu and Pb, and the recovery efficiency increased significantly with increasing pre-treatment temperature. The recovery efficiency of Cu and Pb for SCWO pre-treatment at 420°C was 99.8% and 80%, respectively, whereas most of the Sn and Cr were immobilized in the residue. The recovery of all studied metals was enhanced by SCWD pre-treatment and increased along with pre-treatment temperature. Up to 90% of Sn, Zn, Cr, Cd, and Mn could be recovered for SCWD pre-treatment at 440°C.

Xiu FR; Qi Y; Zhang FS

2013-05-01

232

Emerging Technology Summary. ACID EXTRACTION TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF METAL CONTAMINATED SOILS  

Science.gov (United States)

The Acid Extraction Treatment System (AETS) is intended to reduce the concentrations and/or teachability of heavy metals in contaminated soils so the soil can be returned to the site from which it originated. The objective of the project was to determine the effectiveness and com...

233

Effect of low molecular weight organic acids on phosphorus adsorption by ferric-alum water treatment residuals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Effects of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs; citric acid, oxalic acid and tartaric acid) on phosphorus (P) adsorption by ferric-alum water treatment residuals (FARs) were studied. Both batch and column experiments indicated that the effects of LMWOAs on P adsorption were closely related to adsorption time. Initially, all acids presented inhibitory function on P adsorption. The inhibition became weaker with time, eventually promoting P adsorption for citric acid and tartaric acid. In the column experiment with a 61-day duration, high P adsorption rates (>55%) were observed for the test groups containing citric acid and tartaric acid. Interestingly, higher pH likely enhanced P adsorption with the effects of LMWOAs and a distinct relationship between LMWOAs' effects on P adsorption and their concentrations was not observed. Moreover, fractionation of the adsorbed P from the FARs demonstrated that oxalic acid reduced P adsorption capacity, while citric acid and tartaric acid increased. Based on the forms of Fe and Al existing in the FARs and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses, LMWOAs can promote P adsorption through activating crystalline Fe/Al and preventing crystallization of amorphous Fe/Al to increase P adsorption sites, and can also inhibit P adsorption by competition with adsorption sites.

Wang C; Wang Z; Lin L; Tian B; Pei Y

2012-02-01

234

Effect of low molecular weight organic acids on phosphorus adsorption by ferric-alum water treatment residuals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effects of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs; citric acid, oxalic acid and tartaric acid) on phosphorus (P) adsorption by ferric-alum water treatment residuals (FARs) were studied. Both batch and column experiments indicated that the effects of LMWOAs on P adsorption were closely related to adsorption time. Initially, all acids presented inhibitory function on P adsorption. The inhibition became weaker with time, eventually promoting P adsorption for citric acid and tartaric acid. In the column experiment with a 61-day duration, high P adsorption rates (>55%) were observed for the test groups containing citric acid and tartaric acid. Interestingly, higher pH likely enhanced P adsorption with the effects of LMWOAs and a distinct relationship between LMWOAs' effects on P adsorption and their concentrations was not observed. Moreover, fractionation of the adsorbed P from the FARs demonstrated that oxalic acid reduced P adsorption capacity, while citric acid and tartaric acid increased. Based on the forms of Fe and Al existing in the FARs and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses, LMWOAs can promote P adsorption through activating crystalline Fe/Al and preventing crystallization of amorphous Fe/Al to increase P adsorption sites, and can also inhibit P adsorption by competition with adsorption sites. PMID:22192585

Wang, Changhui; Wang, Ziyuan; Lin, Lu; Tian, Binghui; Pei, Yuansheng

2011-12-07

235

Enhanced biodegradation of petrochemical wastewater using ozonation and BAC advanced treatment system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The characteristics of degradation/conversion of bio-refractory and the growth of a biofilm are investigated in laboratory-scale pre-ozonation and lifted moving-bed biological activated carbon (BAC) advanced treatment processes treating phenol, benzoic acid, aminobenzoic acid and petrochemical industry wastewater which contains acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). The optimal reaction time and ozone dosage of pre-ozonation for bio-refractory conversion were determined to be 30 min and 100-200mg O{sub 3}/hr, respectively. After pre-ozonation of 30 min treatment, BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio of influent and effluent increased apparently from 20 to 35%, approximately. However, the change of pH in pre-ozonation was inconspicuous. The optimal flow rate of influent and air were controlled at 1.6 1/h and 120-l50nl/min in lifted moving-bed BAC advanced treatment reactor. A COD removal efficiency of 85-95% and 70-90% may be maintained by using an organic loading of 3.2-6.3kg COD/m{sup 3} day and 0.6-1.6 kg-COD/m{sup 3} day with an HRT of 6.0 h as secondary and advanced treatment system, respectively. The time required for the BAC bed to be regenerated by a thermal regeneration is prolonged 4-5 times more than that of GAC system. It can be estimated that the enhanced COD removal capability of the biofilm was not only due to the increase in the COD removal capability of acclimated bacteria, but also due to species succession of bacteria in bio-film ecosystem. (Author)

Lin, Chi-Kang; Tsai, Tsung-Yueh; Liu, Jiunn-Ching; Chen, Mei-Chen [Energy and Resources Labs., ITRI, Hsinchu (Taiwan)

2001-07-01

236

Histopathologically confirmed focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver: gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI characteristics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate enhancement characteristics of histopathologically confirmed focal nodular hyperplasia (FNHs) with gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-seven patients with all histopathologically proven FNHs were retrospectively identified. MRI consisted of T1- and T2-weighted (w) sequences with and without fat saturation (FS), multiphase dynamic T1-w images, and FS T1-w images during the hepatobiliary phase. Standard of reference was surgical resection (n=24) or biopsy (n=3). Images were analyzed for morphology and contrast behavior including signal intensity (SI) measurement on T1-w images normalized to the pre-contrast base line. RESULTS: In total 36 FNHs were evaluated. All FNHs showed enhancement in the arterial phase, significant reduction contrast enhancement ("wash-out") in the late dynamic phases was not present. In the hepatobiliary phase, all FNHs (100%) showed enhancement (overall SI increase, 118% (±91%), P<0.001) with at least partial hyperintensity to the liver. Upon visual comparison, 3 of 36 FNHs appeared with heterogeneous/partial enhancement (8%) and 7 (19%) showed rim-accentuated enhancement. CONCLUSION: The typical enhancement pattern of FNH with gadoxetic acid consists of arterial hyperperfusion, no wash-out during the venous phase, and at least partial hyperintensity compared to the liver in the hepatobiliary phase. Partial hypointensity or rim-accentuated enhancement rarely occurs.

Grieser C; Steffen IG; Seehofer D; Kramme IB; Uktolseya R; Scheurig-Muenkler C; Hamm B; Denecke T

2013-06-01

237

Methane production from organic acids obtained by supercritical water treatment of Japanese beech  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Japanese beech (Fagus crenata) wood was treated in supercritical water at 380°C/30 MPa and 380°C/100 MPa. The hydrolysate (water-soluble portion) was found to contain the fragmented and dehydrated compounds of sugars and organic acids. Although organic acids are expected to be utilized for methane fermentation, the effects of the fragmented and dehydrated compounds of sugars on methane production are not known. The objective of this study is, therefore, to elucidate the potential of supercritical water treatment as a new pretreatment for methane production by evaluating the methane fermentability of the hydrolysate. From the methane fermentation tests for those model compounds with digested sludge, it is found that methane was produced not from the fragmented and dehydrated compounds but from the organic acids. The yield of methane from the hydrolysate obtained at 380°C/30 MPa was higher than that from the hydrolysate obtained at 380°C/100 MPa because the former contains more organic acids than the latter. The maximum yield of methane was seven times greater compared to the untreated wood, indicating that the supercritical water treatment is effective for enhancing the productivity of methane from wood.

Yoshida Kei; Miyafuji Hisashi; Saka Shiro

2010-04-01

238

Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in an aquatic liverwort as possible bioindicators of enhanced UV radiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We examined, under laboratory conditions, the physiological responses of the aquatic liverwort Jungermannia exsertifolia subsp. cordifolia to artificially enhanced ultraviolet (UV) radiation for 82 days, especially considering the responses of five hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. This species lives in mountain streams, where it is exposed to low temperatures and high UV levels, and this combination is believed to increase the adverse effects of UV. Enhanced UV radiation hardly caused any change in several physiological variables indicative of vitality, such as F{sub v}/F{sub m} and chlorophylls/phaeopigments ratio (OD430/OD410). Thus, this liverwort seemed to be tolerant to UV radiation, probably due to the accumulation of three UV-absorbing hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives: p-coumaroylmalic acid, 5''-(7'',8''-dihydroxycoumaroyl)-2-caffeoylmalic acid, and 5''-(7'',8''-dihydroxy-7-O-{beta}-glucosyl-coumaroyl)-2-caffeoylmalic acid. These compounds might serve as bioindicators of enhanced UV radiation. - Several hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives of an aquatic liverwort are induced by enhanced UV radiation and might serve as bioindicators of changes in UV levels.

Arroniz-Crespo, M.; Nunez-Olivera, E. [Universidad de La Rioja, Complejo Cientifico-Tecnologico, Avda. Madre de Dios 51, 26006 Logrono (La Rioja) (Spain); Martinez-Abaigar, J. [Universidad de La Rioja, Complejo Cientifico-Tecnologico, Avda. Madre de Dios 51, 26006 Logrono (La Rioja) (Spain)], E-mail: javier.martinez@unirioja.es

2008-01-15

239

Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in an aquatic liverwort as possible bioindicators of enhanced UV radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We examined, under laboratory conditions, the physiological responses of the aquatic liverwort Jungermannia exsertifolia subsp. cordifolia to artificially enhanced ultraviolet (UV) radiation for 82 days, especially considering the responses of five hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. This species lives in mountain streams, where it is exposed to low temperatures and high UV levels, and this combination is believed to increase the adverse effects of UV. Enhanced UV radiation hardly caused any change in several physiological variables indicative of vitality, such as Fv/Fm and chlorophylls/phaeopigments ratio (OD430/OD410). Thus, this liverwort seemed to be tolerant to UV radiation, probably due to the accumulation of three UV-absorbing hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives: p-coumaroylmalic acid, 5''-(7'',8''-dihydroxycoumaroyl)-2-caffeoylmalic acid, and 5''-(7'',8''-dihydroxy-7-O-?-glucosyl-coumaroyl)-2-caffeoylmalic acid. These compounds might serve as bioindicators of enhanced UV radiation. - Several hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives of an aquatic liverwort are induced by enhanced UV radiation and might serve as bioindicators of changes in UV levels.

2008-01-01

240

Trichloroacetic acid matricectomy in the treatment of ingrowing toenails.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Ingrowing toenails can be treated with conservative therapy or surgery, but frequent relapse can be a problem in conservative therapy and surgical therapy without matricectomy. Thus, permanent nail ablation by partial matricectomy is now accepted as the treatment of choice. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) matricectomy in the treatment of ingrowing nail. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty ingrowing toenail edges in 25 patients were enrolled. TCA matricectomy with 100% trichloroacetic acid after partial nail avulsion was performed. For a few weeks after surgery, postoperative complications such as pain, discharge, and infection were assessed. After a mean follow-up period of 22.9 months, recurrence rate and cosmetic outcomes were investigated to evaluate the effects of the surgery. RESULTS: The wounds almost always healed within 2 weeks without prolonged exudative discharge. Pain was mild and transient. A case of secondary infection occurred. Recurrence was found in only two nails of one patient, and the success rate was 95%, with good cosmetic results. CONCLUSION: TCA matricectomy showed a low recurrence rate with minimal side effects and was easy to perform in outpatient clinic. Therefore, it may be a good alternative treatment of ingrowing toenails.

Kim SH; Ko HC; Oh CK; Kwon KS; Kim MB

2009-06-01

 
 
 
 
241

The treatments of soil Rirang by floatation and Acid leaching  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The treatments of soil Rirang by floatation and acid leaching has been carried out to increase high uranium concentrates of materials, separating associated economical minerals and to reduce the gangue minerals which bothering at chemical processing. The physical treatment has been done by ore preparation and floatation using oleic acid and pine oil, 20 % of pulp at pH 9, condition time at 5 minutes and collections of float fraction was 10 minutes. The chemical processing has been done by dynamic leaching using H2SO4 100 kg/ton, MnO2 20 kg/ton, 50 % of solid with ore size - 65 mesh, temperature at 80 oC and time of leaching was 8 hours. The result of experiments is as follows : Physical treatment by floatation shown that the concentrates of U increased at sink fraction by (1.5 - 2) times against feed sample for all the samples, and in the float fraction the recovery of molybdenite separation is 58 - 81 % and rare earths is 57 - 80 %. The result of dynamic leaching is 76 - 91 %, and recovery uranium increasing from 81.02 % (mixture samples soil before floatation) to 91.16 % ( mixture samples of float fraction)

2000-03-08

242

Treatment of melasma with oral administration of tranexamic acid.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Melasma is a common pigmentary disorder among Asian women. The available therapies such as bleaching agents, chemical peeling, laser, and intense pulsed light are not satisfactory or safe. In the search to find a new treatment therapy for melasma, oral administration of tranexamic acid (TA) was studied clinically in Chinese patients. METHODS: The study enrolled 74 patients. Tranexamic acid tablets were prescribed at a dosage of 250 mg twice daily for a therapeutic period of 6 months. All the patients were followed up for more than 6 months after the treatment. The effects of treatment were evaluated by two physicians independently and by the patient based on improvement of pigmentation and reduction in melasma size. These were graded into four levels: excellent, good, fair, and poor. RESULTS: After 6 months of treatment, the effects were graded as follows: excellent (10.8%, 8/74), good (54%, 40/74), fair (31.1%, 23/74), and poor (4.1%, 3/74). Side effects of TA such as gastrointestinal discomfort (5.4%) and hypomenorrhea (8.1%) were observed, but no severe complications were found. The recurrence of melasma was observed in seven cases (9.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Oral administration of TA is an effective and safe therapy for the treatment of melasma. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE II: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors at www.springer.com/00266.

Wu S; Shi H; Wu H; Yan S; Guo J; Sun Y; Pan L

2012-08-01

243

Treatment of cesium in the highly saline acidic HLLW  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results are presented for the treatment of cesium in the highly saline acidic high level liquid waste (HLLW) by potassium titanium hexacyanoferrate (KTiFC). The properties of KTiFC are given. The removal of cesium-137 from the genuine Chinese highly saline HLLW and from the simulated HLLW with two columns connected in series is carried out. The dynamic Cs capacity is 0.41 mmol/g at 1% Cs breakthrough and 0.71 mmol/g at 90% breakthrough. Part of cesium in cesium-loaded KTiFC can be eluted and recycled with 8 M nitric acid. The Cs-loaded KTiFC inorganic ion exchanger can be immobilized in the stable titanate ceramic waste form after destroyed the cyan

2000-01-01

244

Skin penetration enhancing action of cis-unsaturated fatty acids with omega-9, and omega-12-chain lengths.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The skin penetrative action of high purity cis-omega-12-octadecenoic acid (petroselinic acid, HP-PSA) on rat skin was compared with that of high purity cis-omega-9-octadecenoic acid (oleic acid, HP-OA), following treatment of rat intact skin surface with either 0.05 M HP-PSA or HP-OA in propylene glycol (PG), using Fourier transform/attenuated total reflection (FT-IR/ATR) analysis. Both HP-PSA and HP-OA disordered the lipid structures of the stratum corneum region to a similar extent. Removal of the extractable lipids of the stratum corneum region was marked with HP-PSA/PG but was very slight upon HP-OA/PG treatment. The spectra of the amide II region which originated from proteins suggests that HP-PSA/PG more rapidly disordered the protein structures of both the stratum corneum and the dermis than HP-OA/PG. However, the extent of disordering of the protein structures was presumed to be similar between these two skin penetration enhancers at the maximum level. Enhancement of PG flux in the dermis showed strong positive correlation with the degree of dermis-disordering action of HP-PSA/PG and HP-OA/PG. These results demonstrate that HP-PSA, which has a double bond at an even numbered position (omega-12), more rapidly affects the perturbation of the structures of both the stratum corneum and the dermis than HP-OA, which has the double bond at an odd numbered position (omega-9). Differences in the physicochemical properties of HP-PSA and HP-OA which originate from differences in the double bond position most likely determine the efficacy of these compounds as skin penetration enhancers.

Takeuchi Y; Yamaoka Y; Fukushima S; Miyawaki K; Taguchi K; Yasukawa H; Kishimoto S; Suzuki M

1998-05-01

245

Skin penetration enhancing action of cis-unsaturated fatty acids with omega-9, and omega-12-chain lengths.  

Science.gov (United States)

The skin penetrative action of high purity cis-omega-12-octadecenoic acid (petroselinic acid, HP-PSA) on rat skin was compared with that of high purity cis-omega-9-octadecenoic acid (oleic acid, HP-OA), following treatment of rat intact skin surface with either 0.05 M HP-PSA or HP-OA in propylene glycol (PG), using Fourier transform/attenuated total reflection (FT-IR/ATR) analysis. Both HP-PSA and HP-OA disordered the lipid structures of the stratum corneum region to a similar extent. Removal of the extractable lipids of the stratum corneum region was marked with HP-PSA/PG but was very slight upon HP-OA/PG treatment. The spectra of the amide II region which originated from proteins suggests that HP-PSA/PG more rapidly disordered the protein structures of both the stratum corneum and the dermis than HP-OA/PG. However, the extent of disordering of the protein structures was presumed to be similar between these two skin penetration enhancers at the maximum level. Enhancement of PG flux in the dermis showed strong positive correlation with the degree of dermis-disordering action of HP-PSA/PG and HP-OA/PG. These results demonstrate that HP-PSA, which has a double bond at an even numbered position (omega-12), more rapidly affects the perturbation of the structures of both the stratum corneum and the dermis than HP-OA, which has the double bond at an odd numbered position (omega-9). Differences in the physicochemical properties of HP-PSA and HP-OA which originate from differences in the double bond position most likely determine the efficacy of these compounds as skin penetration enhancers. PMID:9635505

Takeuchi, Y; Yamaoka, Y; Fukushima, S; Miyawaki, K; Taguchi, K; Yasukawa, H; Kishimoto, S; Suzuki, M

1998-05-01

246

Dietary enhancement of selected fatty acid biosynthesis in the digestive gland of Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The fatty acid composition of the digestive gland from the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis subjected to three different dietary regimens for 30 days was analyzed. Samples were collected at the beginning and end of the trial to obtain a comprehensive picture of fatty acid dynamics. Group A was unfed; group B received a diet consisting of 100% Thalassiosira weissflogii and, thus, similar to natural food; and group C received a diet consisting of 100% wheat germ conferring a 18:2?-6 abundance. Results indicate that fatty acid composition of lipid and phospholipid classes was affected by dietary treatments. However, adult mussel homeostatic skills minimized effects, and thus, only wheat germ diet deeply modified the fatty acid composition. Furthermore, in group C, the occurrence of the non-methylene-interrupted trienoic fatty acids was indicative of de novo fatty acid synthesis presumably because of active fatty acid elongation and ?5 desaturation system, also supported by the general ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid decrease.

Ventrella V; Pagliarani A; Nesci S; Trombetti F; Pirini M

2013-01-01

247

Amino fruit acid composition and method for the treatment of skin  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A composition for the treatment of skin consists essentially of a carboxylated, acidic amino acid obtained by acidifying an acidic amino acid with a carboxylic acid. The resultant material, which is also referred to as a tricarboxylic acid or an amino fruit acid, has significant benefit for the treatment of a number of skin conditions. In addition, the composition of the present invention is very noncaustic to skin, even when employed at a pH as low as 0.5. Also disclosed herein are therapeutic methods and compositions which employ the carboxylated acidic amino acids.

KLEIN MARVIN E

248

Amino fruit acid composition and method for the treatment of skin  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A composition for the treatment of skin comprises a carboxylated, acidic amino acid obtained by acidifying an acidic amino acid with a carboxylic acid. The resultant material, which is also referred to as a tricarboxylic acid or an amino fruit acid, has significant benefit for the treatment of a number of skin conditions. In addition, the composition of the present invention is very noncaustic to skin, even when employed at a pH as low as 0.5. Also disclosed herein are therapeutic methods and compositions which employ the carboxylated acidic amino acids.

KLEIN MARVIN E

249

Effects of Enhanced Psychological Test Feedback on Treatment Outcome: Therapeutic Implications of the Barnum Effect.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ascertained whether diagnostic feedback had a positive influence on treatment outcome. Snake-fearful females took psychological tests and were randomly assigned to treatment conditions. The greatest therapeutic improvement resulted for the enhanced-personality-feedback-with-treatment group as compared to the treatment-only group. The…

Halperin, Keith M.; Snyder, C.R.

1979-01-01

250

The role of folic acid in prevention and treatment of depression: an overview of existing evidence and implications for practice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Folic acid is a promising nutrient in relation to augmentation of depression treatment efficiency. Our aim is to present an overview of the potential ways in which folic acid may be associated with depression. METHODS: Search in the databases of PubMed, ProQuest, HEAL- LINK, and HighWire, as well as the Search Engine Google. RESULTS: Data on the correlation of folic acid deficiency and depression is presented along with plausible mechanisms that may account for this association. Secondly, the role of folic acid in the treatment of depression is depicted giving emphasis to the potential of folic acid to enhance patients' responsivess to medication and the therapeutic outcome. DISCUSSION: There is not enough data to justify prescription of folic acid as an aid in patients with severe or chronic depression or mood disorders. However, folic acid levels should be examined in individuals at increased risk for folic acid deficiency or in patients who do not respond to pharmaceutical treatment.

Lazarou C; Kapsou M

2010-08-01

251

Comparison between phosphoric acid and hydrochloric acid in microabrasion technique for the treatment of dental fluorosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To compare the effectiveness of phosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4))-pumice compound with conventional hydrochloric acid (HCl)-pumice compound in treating different severities of dental fluorosis with the microabrasion technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-seven anterior teeth from seven patients with different severities of dental fluorosis were treated. In each patient, half of the teeth were treated with HCl-pumice compound and the other half with H(3)PO(4)-pumice compound (split-mouth design). Both treatment compounds were applied for 30-second periods and treatment continued up to 10 minutes. Before and after treatment, standardized photographs were taken. The photographs were compared by two experienced observers unaware of the modality of treatment. Two indices of aesthetics, improvement in appearance (IA) and degree of stain removal (DSR), were determined according to a visual analog scale. The inter- and intra-correlation coefficients were made; then, statistical analyses were calculated using Mann-Whitney and t-test. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in interobserver evaluation. Improvements in aesthetic indices were observed in all fluorotic teeth by both compounds; however, the mean treatment time with HCl-pumice was significantly lower than H(3)PO(4)-pumice. CONCLUSION: The H(3)PO(4)-pumice compound improved aesthetic indices in fluorotic teeth similar to the HCl-pumice compound.

Bassir MM; Bagheri G

2013-01-01

252

Recycle of Alum recovered from water treatment sludge in chemically enhanced primary treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

An investigation was made to study the feasibility of recovering the Alum from coagulation sludges and reusing it in chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) process to make the CEPT more cost-effective and recover the resource (Alum) efficiently. The optimum condition and efficiency of the acidification method for Alum recovery from coagulation sludge were investigated in the test. The results show that when the recovery rate of Alum reaches its highest level, 84.5%, the reduction rate of sludge is 35.5%. It turns out that the capability of recovered coagulant to remove turbidity, UV(254) and COD are 96%, 46% and 53%, respectively. The results prove that the recovered coagulants could be used in CEPT and the efficiency of recovered coagulant to remove pollutants is similar to that of fresh coagulant. Although some substances will be enriched during recycle, they have little effect on the quality of treated wastewater. The experiments verify that it would be an advisable and cost-effective way to recover Alum from coagulation sludges in water treatment and chemical wastewater treatment, and it could be then recycled to CEPT as well as reduce sludge volume. PMID:18486332

Xu, G R; Yan, Z C; Wang, Y C; Wang, N

2008-04-10

253

Elucidating the role of ferrous ion cocatalyst in enhancing dilute acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently developed iron cocatalyst enhancement of dilute acid pretreatment of biomass is a promising approach for enhancing sugar release from recalcitrant lignocellulosic biomass. However, very little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this enhancement. In the current study, our aim was to identify several essential factors that contribute to ferrous ion-enhanced efficiency during dilute acid pretreatment of biomass and to initiate the investigation of the mechanisms that result in this enhancement. Results During dilute acid and ferrous ion cocatalyst pretreatments, we observed concomitant increases in solubilized sugars in the hydrolysate and reducing sugars in the (insoluble) biomass residues. We also observed enhancements in sugar release during subsequent enzymatic saccharification of iron cocatalyst-pretreated biomass. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy showed that major peaks representing the C-O-C and C-H bonds in cellulose are significantly attenuated by iron cocatalyst pretreatment. Imaging using Prussian blue staining indicated that Fe2+ ions associate with both cellulose/xylan and lignin in untreated as well as dilute acid/Fe2+ ion-pretreated corn stover samples. Analyses by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed structural details of biomass after dilute acid/Fe2+ ion pretreatment, in which delamination and fibrillation of the cell wall were observed. Conclusions By using this multimodal approach, we have revealed that (1) acid-ferrous ion-assisted pretreatment increases solubilization and enzymatic digestion of both cellulose and xylan to monomers and (2) this pretreatment likely targets multiple chemistries in plant cell wall polymer networks, including those represented by the C-O-C and C-H bonds in cellulose.

Wei Hui; Donohoe Bryon S; Vinzant Todd B; Ciesielski Peter N; Wang Wei; Gedvilas Lynn M; Zeng Yining; Johnson David K; Ding Shi-You; Himmel Michael E; Tucker Melvin P

2011-01-01

254

Enhancing effect of dimethylamine in sulfuric acid nucleation in the presence of water – a computational study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We have studied the hydration of sulfuric acid – ammonia and sulfuric acid – dimethylamine clusters using quantum chemistry. We calculated the formation energies and thermodynamics for clusters of one ammonia or one dimethylamine molecule together with 1–2 sulfuric acid and 0–5 water molecules. The results indicate that dimethylamine enhances the addition of sulfuric acid to the clusters much more efficiently than ammonia when the number of water molecules in the cluster is either zero, or greater than two. Further hydrate distribution calculations reveal that practically all dimethylamine-containing two-acid clusters will remain unhydrated in tropospherically relevant circumstances, thus strongly suggesting that dimethylamine assists atmospheric sulfuric acid nucleation much more effectively than ammonia.

V. Loukonen; T. Kurtén; I. K. Ortega; H. Vehkamäki; A. A. H. Pádua; K. Sellegri; M. Kulmala

2010-01-01

255

Treatment of vinasse from tequila production using polyglutamic acid.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vinasse, the wastewater from ethanol distillation, is characterised by high levels of organic and inorganic matter, high exit process temperature (ca. 90°C) and low pH (3.0-4.5). In this study, the treatment of tequila vinasse was achieved by a flocculation-coagulation process using poly-?-glutamic acid (PGA). Results showed that the use of PGA (250-300 ppm) combined with sodium hypochlorite and sand filtration managed to remove about 70% of the turbidity and reduced chemical oxygen demand (COD) by 79.5% with the extra benefit of colour removal. PGA showed its best flocculating activity at pH 2.5-3.5 and a temperature of 30-55°C. Such a treatment may be a solution for small tequila companies for which other solutions to deal with their vinasse may not be economically affordable.

Carvajal-Zarrabal O; Nolasco-Hipólito C; Barradas-Dermitz DM; Hayward-Jones PM; Aguilar-Uscanga MG; Bujang K

2012-03-01

256

Redox regulation of insulin sensitivity due to enhanced fatty acid utilization in the mitochondria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity enhances the risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Loss in insulin sensitivity and diminished ability of muscle to take up and use glucose are characteristics of type 2 diabetes. Paradoxically, regulatory mechanisms that promote utilization of fatty acids appear to initiate diet-induced insulin insensitivity. In this review, we discuss recent findings implicating increased mitochondrial production of the prooxidant H2O2 due to enhanced utilization of fatty acids, as a signal to diminish reliance on glucose and its metabolites for energy. In the short term, the ability to preferentially use fatty acids may be beneficial, promoting a metabolic shift that ensures use of available fat by skeletal muscle and heart while preventing intracellular glucose accumulation and toxicity. However, with prolonged consumption of high dietary fat and ensuing obesity, the near exclusive dependence on fatty acid oxidation for production of energy by the mitochondria drives insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. PMID:23792672

Rindler, Paul M; Crewe, Clair L; Fernandes, Jolyn; Kinter, Michael; Szweda, Luke I

2013-06-21

257

Enhancing thermal conductivity of palmitic acid based phase change materials with carbon nanotubes as fillers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as produced are usually entangled and not ready to be dispersed into organic matrix. CNTs were treated by mechano-chemical reaction with ball milling the mixture of potassium hydroxide and the pristine CNTs. Hydroxide radical functional groups have been introduced on the CNT surfaces, which enabled to make stable and homogeneous CNT composites. Treated CNTs were successfully dispersed into the palmitic acid matrix without any surfactant. Transient short-hot-wire apparatus was used to measure the thermal conductivities of these nanotube composites. Nanotube composites have substantially higher thermal conductivities than the base palmitic acid matrix, with the enhancement increasing with the mass fraction of CNTs in both liquid state and solid state. The enhancements of the thermal conductivity are about 30% higher than the reported corresponding values for palmitic acid based phase change nanocomposites containing 1 wt% CNTs treated by concentrated acid mixture. (author)

Wang, Jifen [School of Urban Development and Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Second Polytechnic University, Shanghai 201209 (China); State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Xie, Huaqing; Li, Yang; Chen, Lifei [School of Urban Development and Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Second Polytechnic University, Shanghai 201209 (China); Xin, Zhong [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

2010-02-15

258

Combination of Active Components Enhances the Efficacy of Prunella in Prevention and Treatment of Lung Cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The efficacy of Prunella extracts in the prevention and treatment of lung cancer has been attributed to different components. In this study, an "active components combination model" hypothesis was proposed to explain the anti-tumor activity of Prunella. The efficacy of Prunella extracts from different regions was compared in vitro and in vivo, and the TNF-? activity in serum of tumor-bearing mice was also evaluated. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze the extracts and identify 26 common peaks. Prunella samples from different regions were classified by the cluster analysis method; both P. vulgaris L. from Bozhou and P. asiatica Nakai from Nanjing, which had the highest activities, were further divided into different classes. Six peaks from the HPLC analysis were very similar, and were identified as caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, rutin, quercetin, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid. The total ratio of these compounds in Prunella from Bozhou and Nanjing were 1.0:14.7:3.9:1.0:4.4:1.4 and 1.0:14.8:4.0:0.8:5.6:1.8, respectively. Total triterpenes and total phenols in Prunella were separated by macroporous resin purification for activity studies. The results showed that total triterpenes and total phenols had anti-lung cancer activity and their combination significantly enhanced the activity. In addition, the combination also significantly increased the TNF-? content compared to total triterpenes or total phenols. The results indicated that the efficacy of Prunella against lung cancer was attributable to multiple components acting at an optimal ratio.

Liang Feng; Xiao-Bin Jia; Jun Jiang; Mao-Mao Zhu; Yan Chen; Xiao-Bin Tan; Feng Shi

2010-01-01

259

Synthesis and assembly of Pd nanoparticles on graphene for enhanced electrooxidation of formic acid.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Monodisperse 4.5 nm Pd nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by solution phase reduction of palladium acetylacetonate with morpholine borane in a mixture of oleylamine and 1-octadecene. These NPs were assembled on graphene uniformly in the form of a monolayer, and showed much enhanced catalysis for electrooxidation of formic acid. The work demonstrates the great potential of graphene as a support to enhance NP catalysis and stability for important chemical oxidation reactions.

Jin T; Guo S; Zuo JL; Sun S

2013-01-01

260

Enzyme-entrapped mesoporous silica for treatment of uric acid disorders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Gout is an abnormality in the body resulting in the accumulation of uric acid mainly in joints. Dissolution of uric acid crystals into soluble allantoin by the enzyme uricase might provide a better alternative for the treatment of gout. This work aims to investigate the feasibility of a transdermal patch loaded with uricase for better patient compliance. Mesoporous silica (SBA-15) was chosen as the matrix for immobilisation of uricase. Highly oriented mesoporous SBA-15 was synthesized, characterized and uricase was physisorbed in the mesoporous material. The percentage adsorption and release of enzyme in borate buffer was monitored. The release followed linear kinetics and greater than 80% enzyme activity was retained indicating the potential of this system as an effective enzyme immobilization matrix. The enzyme permeability was studied with Wistar rat skin and human cadaver skin. It was found that in case of untreated rat skin 10% of enzyme permeated through skin in 100 h. The permeation increased by adding permeation enhancer (combination of oleic acid in propylene glycol (OA in PG)). The permeation enhancement was studied under two concentrations of OA in PG (1%, 5%) in both rat and human cadaver skin and it was found that 1% OA in PG showed better result in rat skin and 5% OA in PG showed good results in human cadaver skin.

Muthukoori S; Narayanan N; Chandra MS; Sethuraman S; Krishnan UM

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
261

Enhanced uptake of water by oxidatively processed oleic acid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A quartz crystal microbalance apparatus has been used to measure the room temperature uptake of water vapour by thin films of oleic acid as a function of relative humidity, both before and following exposure of the films to various partial pressures of gas phase ozone. A rapid increase in the water-sorbing ability of the film is observed as its exposure to ozone is increased, followed by a plateau region in which additional water is taken up more gradually. In this fully-processed region the mass of water taken up by the film is about 4 times that of the unprocessed film. Infrared spectra of the films, measured after variable exposures to ozone, show dramatic increases in both the 'free' and hydrogen-bonded O-H stretching regions, and a decrease in the intensity of olefinic features. These results are consistent with the formation of an oxygenated polymeric product or products, as well as the gas phase products previously identified.

A. Asad; B. T. Mmereki; D. J. Donaldson

2004-01-01

262

Enhanced uptake of water by oxidatively processed oleic acid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A quartz crystal microbalance apparatus has been used to measure the room temperature uptake of water vapour by thin films of oleic acid as a function of relative humidity, both before and following exposure of the films to various partial pressures of gas phase ozone. A rapid increase in the water-sorbing ability of the film is observed as its exposure to ozone is increased, followed by a plateau region in which no additional water is taken up. In this fully-processed region the mass of water taken up by the film is about 4 times that of the unprocessed film. Infrared spectra of the films, measured after variable exposures to ozone, show dramatic increases in both the "free" and hydrogen-bonded O-H stretching regions, and a decrease in the intensity of olefinic features. These results are consistent with the formation of an oxygenated polymeric product or products, as well as the gas phase products previously identified.

A. Asad; B. T. Mmereki; D. J. Donaldson

2004-01-01

263

Light stress is not effective to enhanced crassulacean acid metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clusia minor L., a C3-CAM intermediate, and Clusia multiflora H. B. K., a C3 obligate, present two physiotypes of a similar morphotype occurring sympatrically in the field. Both species, exposed 2 days to high light, show similar responses to this kind of stress: (i) the level of xanthophyll pigments in tested plants during the daycourse adapts to stress, (ii) the levels of antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin clearly increase during the afternoon showing increased de-epoxidation, (iii) the changes in the xanthophyll cycle are similar. Exposure to high light increases the malate levels in C. minor during the afternoon while decreases the day/night changes of the malate levels, and hence the Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) expression. It can be concluded that strong light applied as a single stress factor to well-watered plants is not effective in strengthing the CAM metabolism in a C3-CAM intermediate plant but rather suppresses the CAM activity despite exposure to high light energy. It is suggested that, when water supply is not limiting and other stresses do not prevail, C3 allows to use up the citrate pool, especially in the afternoon and enables a superior daily photon utilization. PMID:20355326

Kornas, Andrzej; Miszalski, Zbigniew; Surówka, Ewa; Fischer-Schliebs, Elke; Lüttge, Ulrich

264

Enhancing fatty acid production by the expression of the regulatory transcription factor FadR.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fatty acids are important precursors to biofuels. The Escherichia coli FadR is a transcription factor that regulates several processes in fatty acid biosynthesis, degradation, and membrane transport. By tuning the expression of FadR in an engineered E. coli host, we were able to increase fatty acid titer by 7.5-fold over our previously engineered fatty acid-producing strain, reaching 5.2±0.5g/L and 73% of the theoretical yield. The mechanism by which FadR enhanced fatty acid yield was studied by whole-genome transcriptional analysis (microarray) and targeted proteomics. Overexpression of FadR led to transcriptional changes for many genes, including genes involved in fatty acid pathways. The biggest transcriptional changes in fatty acid pathway genes included fabB, fabF, and accA. Overexpression of any of these genes alone did not result in a high yield comparable to fadR expression, indicating that FadR enhanced fatty acid production globally by tuning the expression levels of many genes to optimal levels.

Zhang F; Ouellet M; Batth TS; Adams PD; Petzold CJ; Mukhopadhyay A; Keasling JD

2012-11-01

265

Enhancing fatty acid production by the expression of the regulatory transcription factor FadR.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acids are important precursors to biofuels. The Escherichia coli FadR is a transcription factor that regulates several processes in fatty acid biosynthesis, degradation, and membrane transport. By tuning the expression of FadR in an engineered E. coli host, we were able to increase fatty acid titer by 7.5-fold over our previously engineered fatty acid-producing strain, reaching 5.2±0.5g/L and 73% of the theoretical yield. The mechanism by which FadR enhanced fatty acid yield was studied by whole-genome transcriptional analysis (microarray) and targeted proteomics. Overexpression of FadR led to transcriptional changes for many genes, including genes involved in fatty acid pathways. The biggest transcriptional changes in fatty acid pathway genes included fabB, fabF, and accA. Overexpression of any of these genes alone did not result in a high yield comparable to fadR expression, indicating that FadR enhanced fatty acid production globally by tuning the expression levels of many genes to optimal levels. PMID:23026122

Zhang, Fuzhong; Ouellet, Mario; Batth, Tanveer S; Adams, Paul D; Petzold, Christopher J; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Keasling, Jay D

2012-09-28

266

Sulpholane as colour-enhancing and stabilizing agent for silicomolybdic acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Addition of between 20 and 40% v/v sulpholane gives a colour enhancement of silicomolybdic acid better than that achieved with acetone. The beta-silicomolybdic acid is stabilized, and solutions yielding a pH-meter reading of 0>d1-1>d8 give the best results. The photometric measurement is made at about 400 nm. Another advantage of sulpholane is its much lower volatility. PMID:18961300

Flaschka, H; Tice, J J

1973-04-01

267

Sulpholane as colour-enhancing and stabilizing agent for silicomolybdic acid.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Addition of between 20 and 40% v/v sulpholane gives a colour enhancement of silicomolybdic acid better than that achieved with acetone. The beta-silicomolybdic acid is stabilized, and solutions yielding a pH-meter reading of 0>d1-1>d8 give the best results. The photometric measurement is made at about 400 nm. Another advantage of sulpholane is its much lower volatility.

Flaschka H; Tice JJ 4th

1973-04-01

268

Topical Boswellic acids for treatment of photoaged skin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Boswellic acids (BAs) are pentacyclic triterpenes extracted from the gum resins of the tropical tree Boswellia serrata. They are orally administered in traditional Indian medicine for the treatment of several inflammatory disease and cancer because of their anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities as well as stimulatory effects on fibroblasts. The present authors have investigated efficacy, tolerability, and safety of a base cream containing 0.5% BAs in the treatment of clinical manifestations of photoaging of facial skin with a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, split-face study. Fifteen female volunteers applied the creams with or without BAs on the half sides of the face once daily for 30 days. Significant improvements of the Dover's global score for photoaging, tactile roughness, and fine lines, as well as, with noninvasive diagnostic techniques, an increase of elasticity, a decrease of sebum excretion, and a change of echographic parameters were observed with topical BAs in comparison with placebo. The treatment was always well tolerated without adverse effects. The present findings seem to indicate that topical application of BAs may represent a suitable treatment option for selected features of skin photoaging.

Calzavara-Pinton P; Zane C; Facchinetti E; Capezzera R; Pedretti A

2010-01-01

269

Lactic acid fermentation as a tool to enhance the functional features of Echinacea spp  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Extracts and products (roots and/or aerial parts) from Echinacea ssp. represent a profitable market sector for herbal medicines thanks to different functional features. Alkamides and polyacetylenes, phenols like caffeic acid and its derivatives, polysaccharides and glycoproteins are the main bioactive compounds of Echinacea spp. This study aimed at investigating the capacity of selected lactic acid bacteria to enhance the antimicrobial, antioxidant and immune-modulatory features of E. purpurea with the prospect of its application as functional food, dietary supplement or pharmaceutical preparation. Results Echinacea purpurea suspension (5%, wt/vol) in distilled water, containing 0.4% (wt/vol) yeast extract, was fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum POM1, 1MR20 or C2, previously selected from plant materials. Chemically acidified suspension, without bacterial inoculum, was used as the control to investigate functional features. Echinacea suspension fermented with Lb. plantarum C2 exhibited a marked antimicrobial activity towards Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Compared to control, the water-soluble extract from Echinacea suspension fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum 1MR20 showed twice time higher radical scavenging activity on DPPH. Almost the same was found for the inhibition of oleic acid peroxidation. The methanol extract from Echinacea suspension had inherent antioxidant features but the activity of extract from the sample fermented with strain 1MR20 was the highest. The antioxidant activities were confirmed on Balb 3T3 mouse fibroblasts. Lactobacillus plantarum C2 and 1MR20 were used in association to ferment Echinacea suspension, and the water-soluble extract was subjected to ultra-filtration and purification through RP-FPLC. The antioxidant activity was distributed in a large number of fractions and proportional to the peptide concentration. The antimicrobial activity was detected only in one fraction, further subjected to nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS. A mixture of eight peptides was identified, corresponding to fragments of plantaricins PlnH or PlnG. Treatments with fermented Echinacea suspension exerted immune-modulatory effects on Caco-2 cells. The fermentation with Lb. plantarum 1MR20 or with the association between strains C2 and 1MR20 had the highest effect on the expression of TNF-? gene. Conclusions E. purpurea subjected to lactic acid fermentation could be suitable for novel applications as functional food dietary supplements or pharmaceutical preparations.

2013-01-01

270

Lactic acid fermentation as a tool to enhance the functional features of Echinacea spp.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Extracts and products (roots and/or aerial parts) from Echinacea ssp. represent a profitable market sector for herbal medicines thanks to different functional features. Alkamides and polyacetylenes, phenols like caffeic acid and its derivatives, polysaccharides and glycoproteins are the main bioactive compounds of Echinacea spp. This study aimed at investigating the capacity of selected lactic acid bacteria to enhance the antimicrobial, antioxidant and immune-modulatory features of E. purpurea with the prospect of its application as functional food, dietary supplement or pharmaceutical preparation. RESULTS: Echinacea purpurea suspension (5%, wt/vol) in distilled water, containing 0.4% (wt/vol) yeast extract, was fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum POM1, 1MR20 or C2, previously selected from plant materials. Chemically acidified suspension, without bacterial inoculum, was used as the control to investigate functional features. Echinacea suspension fermented with Lb. plantarum C2 exhibited a marked antimicrobial activity towards Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Compared to control, the water-soluble extract from Echinacea suspension fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum 1MR20 showed twice time higher radical scavenging activity on DPPH. Almost the same was found for the inhibition of oleic acid peroxidation. The methanol extract from Echinacea suspension had inherent antioxidant features but the activity of extract from the sample fermented with strain 1MR20 was the highest. The antioxidant activities were confirmed on Balb 3T3 mouse fibroblasts. Lactobacillus plantarum C2 and 1MR20 were used in association to ferment Echinacea suspension, and the water-soluble extract was subjected to ultra-filtration and purification through RP-FPLC. The antioxidant activity was distributed in a large number of fractions and proportional to the peptide concentration. The antimicrobial activity was detected only in one fraction, further subjected to nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS. A mixture of eight peptides was identified, corresponding to fragments of plantaricins PlnH or PlnG. Treatments with fermented Echinacea suspension exerted immune-modulatory effects on Caco-2 cells. The fermentation with Lb. plantarum 1MR20 or with the association between strains C2 and 1MR20 had the highest effect on the expression of TNF-? gene. CONCLUSIONS: E. purpurea subjected to lactic acid fermentation could be suitable for novel applications as functional food dietary supplements or pharmaceutical preparations.

Rizzello CG; Coda R; Macías DS; Pinto D; Marzani B; Filannino P; Giuliani G; Paradiso VM; Di Cagno R; Gobbetti M

2013-01-01

271

Treatment of waste water involved in acid uranium ore processing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The uranium ores lixiviation is one of the hydrometallurgical processes which generate waste waters that need to be treated in accordance with the quality requirement of NTPA - 001/2002. The uranium ores acid lixiviation process generates two types of waste waters: (I) an alkaline solution out of which uranium is extracted by an ionic exchange process and (II) a mixture of mother - water and washing waters from DUNa precipitation. In order to treat wastewater (I) a flow sheet is proposed that includes: the uranium removal to the CMA level using the ion exchange process; the effluent's neutralization with sulphuric acid and reverse osmosis, which recovers more then 80% of water; the treatment of the mineral salts concentrate by crystallization - evaporation. Wastewater (II) is processed using its recirculation in the elution industrial process. The excess is treated by neutralization with sulphuric acid, molybdenum adsorption on active carbon, sulphate removal using calcium chloride; the sodium chloride solution is recycled to add up to the elution of uranium recovered from (I). (authors)

2008-01-01

272

Zoledronic acid infusion for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available John A SunyeczLaurel Highlands Ob/Gyn, Hopwood, Pennsylvania, USA and MenopauseRx, Inc., Uniontown, PA, USAAbstract: Osteoporotic fractures are associated with significant morbidity, reduced quality of life, increased mortality, and high health care costs. Bisphosphonates are standard therapy for treatment of osteoporosis. However, patient compliance and persistence with oral weekly or monthly bisphosphonate therapy are suboptimal and may lead to reduced effectiveness. Zoledronic acid (ZOL) is an intravenous bisphosphonate that is given once yearly for the treatment of osteoporosis via a medically supervised 15-minute infusion. This ensures compliance for a full 12 months. In clinical trials, an annual infusion of ZOL 5 mg has shown sustained efficacy in reducing hip and spine fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. It has also been shown to increase bone density in postmenopausal women with osteopenia (low bone mass) and in men with osteoporosis. Transient flu-like symptoms are the most common adverse effects following ZOL infusion, and these can generally be managed with acetaminophen. The availability of an intravenous bisphosphonate that ensures compliance over a long dosing interval may help to overcome barriers to efficacy resulting from poor long-term compliance with oral agents.Keywords: fractures, intravenous bisphosphonate, osteoporosis, zoledronic acid

John A Sunyecz

2010-01-01

273

Action of successive heat treatments in bovine milk fatty acids  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O estudo mostra a ação sucessiva dos tratamentos térmicos de pasteurização (75 ºC por 15 s) e esterilização comercial por troca indireta de calor (140 ºC for 6 s) sobre o perfil lipídico de leite bovino. Amostras de leite cru foram submetidas à pasteurização e então, à esterilização comercial (ultra-alta temperatura, UHT). A gordura de amostras de leite cru, de leite pasteurizado e de leite esterilizados comercialmente foi extraída. Após transesterifica (more) ção, os ésteres metílicos dos ácidos graxos (FAMEs) foram analisados por cromatografia gasosa com detecção por ionização de chama (GC-FID). A quantificação revelou que para a maioria dos ácidos graxos (FA) encontrados não houve diferença significativa (p > 0,05) entre as amostras de leite cru e leite pasteurizado. Entretanto, foram encontradas diferenças significativas para 21 dos 26 ácidos graxos analisados (p > 0,05) para as amostras de leite cru e de leite esterilizado, incluindo o isômero predominante no leite do ácido linoléico conjugado (CLA-c9t11). Este fato evidencia a ação sucessiva dos tratamentos térmicos no perfil lipídico do leite. Abstract in english The action of successive pasteurization thermal treatments (75 ºC for 15 s) and commercial sterilization by indirect heat exchange (140 ºC for 6 s) was analyzed on the lipid profile of bovine milk. Raw milk samples were submitted to pasteurization and then were submitted to sterilization (ultra-high temperature, UHT). The fat of raw milk, pasteurized milk and commercially sterilized milk samples was extracted. After transesterification, the fatty acid methyl esters (FAM (more) Es) were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The quantification of fatty acids (FA) revealed that for most of the found fatty acids there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between raw milk and pasteurized milk. However, it was found significant differences for 21 of the 26 analyzed fatty acids (p > 0.05) for the raw and sterilized milks, including the predominant isomer of the conjugated linoleic acid (CLAc9t11) of the milk. This fact evidences the successive action of heat treatments on milk lipid profile.

Costa, Edvaldo N.; Lacerda, Ellen C. Q.; Santos, Suian M. S.; Santos, Carilan M. S.; Franco, Marcelo; Silva, Robério R.; Simionato, Julliana I.

2011-11-01

274

Enhancing activity of anthranilic acid on adjuvant arthritis in rats and antibody formation in mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Anthranilic acid (ANA), a metabolite of tryptophan, was examined for its immunopotentiating properties. Administration of ANA (12 mg/kg/day, p.o.) significantly enhanced the development of adjuvant arthritis in rats, although not in a dose-related manner. ANA tended to enhance adjuvant disease moderately suppressed by pretreatment with cyclophosphamide (CY), an immunosuppressive agent. ANA (3-30 mg/kg/day, p.o.) also caused a dose-related enhancement in the antibody formation to sheep erythrocytes (SRBC) in mice.

Kunitomo M; Tanaka Y; Yamada K; Yamaguchi Y; Bandô Y

1989-08-01

275

Chitosan-caffeic acid-genipin films presenting enhanced antioxidant activity and stability in acidic media.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of chitosan films has been limited due to their high degradability in aqueous acidic media. In order to produce chitosan films with high antioxidant activity and insoluble in acid solutions caffeic acid was grafted to chitosan by a radical mechanism using ammonium cerium (IV) nitrate (60 mM). Genipin was used as cross-linker. This methodology originated films with 80% higher antioxidant activity than the pristine film. Also, these films only lost 11% of their mass upon seven days immersion into an aqueous solution at pH 3.5 under stirring. The films surface wettability (contact angle 105°), mechanical properties (68 MPa of tensile strength and 4% of elongation at break), and thermal stability for temperatures lower than 300 °C were not significantly influenced by the covalent linkage of caffeic acid and genipin to chitosan. Due to their characteristics, mainly higher antioxidant activity and lower solubility, these are promising materials to be used as active films.

Nunes C; Maricato É; Cunha Â; Nunes A; da Silva JA; Coimbra MA

2013-01-01

276

Enhanced Cytotoxic Effects of Combined Valproic Acid and the Aurora Kinase Inhibitor VE465 on Gynecologic Cancer Cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing evidence shows that targeting epigenetic changes including acetylation and deacetylation of core nucleosomal histones as well as Aurora kinases hold promise for improving the treatment of human cancers including ovarian cancer. We investigated whether the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, valproic acid (VPA), and the Aurora kinase inhibitor VE465 can have additive or synergistic effects on gynecologic cancer cells. We tested the in vitro antitumor activity of VPA and VE465, alone and in combination, in gynecologic cancer cells and assessed potential mechanisms of action. 3-[4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) analysis revealed that 72?h of treatment with VPA or VE465 alone induced dose-dependent cytotoxic effects in nine gynecologic cancer cell lines (ovarian: 2008/C13, OVCAR3, SKOV3, and A2780; cervical: ME180 and CaSki; endometrial: HEC-1B; and uterine sarcoma: MES-SA and MES-SA/D×5). Co-treatment with VPA and VE465 enhanced cytotoxic effects on five of these cell lines: ovarian: 2008/C13, A2780, and OVCAR3; endometrial: HEC-1B; and cervical: ME180. In ovarian 2008/C13 cells, co-treatment with VPA (2?mM) and VE465 (1??M) induced more apoptosis than either VPA or VE465 alone. Western blot analysis showed that VPA alone increased the expression of cleaved PARP and p21 in a dose-dependent manner in 2008/C13 cells, while co-treatment with VPA and VE465 induced more cleaved PARP than treatment with VPA or VE465 alone did. The combined use of VPA and VE465 enhanced cytotoxic effects in some ovarian cancer cells, via enhanced induction of apoptosis. Targeting epigenetics with the HDAC inhibitor, in combination with Aurora kinase inhibitors, holds promise for more effective therapy of ovarian cancer. PMID:23519775

Li, Yanfang; Liu, Tao; Ivan, Cristina; Huang, Jie; Shen, De-Yu; Kavanagh, John J; Bast, Robert C; Fu, Siqing; Hu, Wei; Sood, Anil K

2013-03-20

277

Enhanced Cytotoxic Effects of Combined Valproic Acid and the Aurora Kinase Inhibitor VE465 on Gynecologic Cancer Cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Increasing evidence shows that targeting epigenetic changes including acetylation and deacetylation of core nucleosomal histones as well as Aurora kinases hold promise for improving the treatment of human cancers including ovarian cancer. We investigated whether the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, valproic acid (VPA), and the Aurora kinase inhibitor VE465 can have additive or synergistic effects on gynecologic cancer cells. We tested the in vitro antitumor activity of VPA and VE465, alone and in combination, in gynecologic cancer cells and assessed potential mechanisms of action. 3-[4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) analysis revealed that 72?h of treatment with VPA or VE465 alone induced dose-dependent cytotoxic effects in nine gynecologic cancer cell lines (ovarian: 2008/C13, OVCAR3, SKOV3, and A2780; cervical: ME180 and CaSki; endometrial: HEC-1B; and uterine sarcoma: MES-SA and MES-SA/D×5). Co-treatment with VPA and VE465 enhanced cytotoxic effects on five of these cell lines: ovarian: 2008/C13, A2780, and OVCAR3; endometrial: HEC-1B; and cervical: ME180. In ovarian 2008/C13 cells, co-treatment with VPA (2?mM) and VE465 (1??M) induced more apoptosis than either VPA or VE465 alone. Western blot analysis showed that VPA alone increased the expression of cleaved PARP and p21 in a dose-dependent manner in 2008/C13 cells, while co-treatment with VPA and VE465 induced more cleaved PARP than treatment with VPA or VE465 alone did. The combined use of VPA and VE465 enhanced cytotoxic effects in some ovarian cancer cells, via enhanced induction of apoptosis. Targeting epigenetics with the HDAC inhibitor, in combination with Aurora kinase inhibitors, holds promise for more effective therapy of ovarian cancer.

Li Y; Liu T; Ivan C; Huang J; Shen DY; Kavanagh JJ; Bast RC Jr; Fu S; Hu W; Sood AK

2013-01-01

278

Enhanced Cytotoxic Effects of Combined Valproic Acid and the Aurora Kinase Inhibitor VE465 on Gynecologic Cancer Cells  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing evidence shows that targeting epigenetic changes including acetylation and deacetylation of core nucleosomal histones as well as Aurora kinases hold promise for improving the treatment of human cancers including ovarian cancer. We investigated whether the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, valproic acid (VPA), and the Aurora kinase inhibitor VE465 can have additive or synergistic effects on gynecologic cancer cells. We tested the in vitro antitumor activity of VPA and VE465, alone and in combination, in gynecologic cancer cells and assessed potential mechanisms of action. 3-[4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) analysis revealed that 72?h of treatment with VPA or VE465 alone induced dose-dependent cytotoxic effects in nine gynecologic cancer cell lines (ovarian: 2008/C13, OVCAR3, SKOV3, and A2780; cervical: ME180 and CaSki; endometrial: HEC-1B; and uterine sarcoma: MES-SA and MES-SA/D×5). Co-treatment with VPA and VE465 enhanced cytotoxic effects on five of these cell lines: ovarian: 2008/C13, A2780, and OVCAR3; endometrial: HEC-1B; and cervical: ME180. In ovarian 2008/C13 cells, co-treatment with VPA (2?mM) and VE465 (1??M) induced more apoptosis than either VPA or VE465 alone. Western blot analysis showed that VPA alone increased the expression of cleaved PARP and p21 in a dose-dependent manner in 2008/C13 cells, while co-treatment with VPA and VE465 induced more cleaved PARP than treatment with VPA or VE465 alone did. The combined use of VPA and VE465 enhanced cytotoxic effects in some ovarian cancer cells, via enhanced induction of apoptosis. Targeting epigenetics with the HDAC inhibitor, in combination with Aurora kinase inhibitors, holds promise for more effective therapy of ovarian cancer.

Li, Yanfang; Liu, Tao; Ivan, Cristina; Huang, Jie; Shen, De-Yu; Kavanagh, John J.; Bast, Robert C.; Fu, Siqing; Hu, Wei; Sood, Anil K.

2013-01-01

279

Retinoic acid enhances skeletal myogenesis in human embryonic stem cells by expanding the premyogenic progenitor population.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are a potential source of material for cell therapy of muscle diseases. To date, it has proven difficult to generate skeletal muscle from hESCs in high yields and within a reasonable timeframe. Further, a hESC-derived Pax3/7-positive skeletal muscle progenitor population has not yet been described. Previous studies have shown that Pax3/7-positive progenitor cells can repopulate the satellite cell niche, indicating the importance of this population for therapy. We sought to optimize the differentiation of hESCs into skeletal muscle in order to characterize myogenesis at a molecular level and shorten the time course. We treated hESCs with retinoic acid (RA) and found an enhancement of skeletal myogenesis, and the expression of the myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) MyoD and myogenin by day 25. Furthermore, we found that RA treatment expanded the muscle progenitor pool, which occurred as a distinct Pax3(+ve) population prior to MRF expression. Non-skeletal muscle tissue types were not significantly affected. Therefore, we have identified a differentiation pathway in hESCs that provides a skeletal muscle progenitor population which can undergo myogenesis more efficiently. We propose that RA could fit into a directed culture method for deriving skeletal muscle from hESCs.

Ryan T; Liu J; Chu A; Wang L; Blais A; Skerjanc IS

2012-06-01

280

Pretreatment of plantar warts with azone enhances the effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is a well characterized precursor in the synthesis of various endogenous porphyrins used in photodynamic therapy (PDT). It is most often administered topically into a tumor which is then irradiated with visible light at established wavelength to sensitize porphyrins accumulated therein. Our main aim in the present study was to increase the penetration of 5-ALA through the altered skin by application of 3% azone (1-dodecyl-azepan-2-one) before the application of 20% 5-ALA in patients with plantar warts: mosaic warts (MW) and myrmecia (MY). We also used 20% 5-ALA only to treat warts in other patients. We compared the therapeutic and cosmetic effects of the two treatment modalities. The lesions treated with modification of 5-ALA-PDT by pretreatment with azone responded with better effectiveness. In 18 patients subjected to 5-ALA-PDT plus 3% azone, we observed 66.7% complete response of MW and 100% of MY following PDT repeated two or three times; whereas in other 18 patients treated with 5-ALA-PDT alone, we observed only 37.5% complete response of MW and 70% of MY. These results provide evidence that the pretreatment with azone should be considered as the step that enhances 5-ALA penetration in tissues and thus increases the effectiveness of applied PDT. PMID:16566731

Ziolkowski, Piotr; Osiecka, Beata J; Siewinski, Maciej; Bronowicz, Andrzej; Ziolkowska, Jolanta; Gerber-Leszczyszyn, Hanna

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Focal nodular hyperplasia: characterisation at gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the enhancement patterns of hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI. METHODS: This retrospective study had institutional review board approval. Gadoxetic acid-enhanced and DW MR images were evaluated in 23 patients with 30 FNHs (26 histologically proven and 4 radiologically diagnosed). The lesion enhancement patterns of the hepatobiliary phase images were classified as heterogeneous or homogeneous signal intensity (SI), and as dominantly high/iso or low SI compared with those of adjacent liver parenchyma. Heterogeneous (any) SI lesions and homogeneous low SI lesions were categorised into the fibrosis group, whereas homogeneous high/iso SI lesions were categorised into the non-fibrosis group. Additionally, lesion SI on T2 weighted images, DW images and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: The lesions showed heterogeneous high/iso SI (n=16), heterogeneous low SI (n=5), homogeneous high/iso SI (n=7) or homogeneous low SI (n=2) at the hepatobiliary phase MR images. The fibrosis group lesions were more likely to show high SI on DW images and T2 weighted images compared with those in the non-fibrosis group (p<0.05). ADC values tended to be lower in the fibrosis group than those in the non-fibrosis group without significance. CONCLUSION: FNH showed variable enhancement patterns on hepatobiliary phase images during gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI. SI on DW and T2 weighted images differed according to the fibrosis component contained in the lesion. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: FNH shows a wide spectrum of imaging findings on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and DW MRI.

An HS; Park HS; Kim YJ; Jung SI; Jeon HJ

2013-08-01

282

Malignant melanoma during treatment with fumaric acid esters - coincidence or treatment-related?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Psoriasis is today generally considered a systemic disease. Systemic therapies are used frequently. In Germany fumaric acid esters - FAE (Fumaderm(®) ) - are employed in more than 50 % of the patients requiring such therapy. We report for the first time the development of melanoma in two patients during their treatment with FAE. The logical question is - are the tumors coincidental or might they be treatment-related? Further investigations of pathways and immunologic effects as well as careful reports of side effects are necessary to estimate the risks of malignancy of FAE.

Barth D; Simon JC; Wetzig T

2011-03-01

283

Could radiotherapy effectiveness be enhanced by electromagnetic field treatment?  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the main goals in radiobiology research is to enhance radiotherapy effectiveness without provoking any increase in toxicity. In this context, it has been proposed that electromagnetic fields (EMFs), known to be modulators of proliferation rate, enhancers of apoptosis and inductors of genotoxicity, might control tumor recruitment and, thus, provide therapeutic benefits. Scientific evidence shows that the effects of ionizing radiation on cellular compartments and functions are strengthened by EMF. Although little is known about the potential role of EMFs in radiotherapy (RT), the radiosensitizing effect of EMFs described in the literature could support their use to improve radiation effectiveness. Thus, we hypothesized that EMF exposure might enhance the ionizing radiation effect on tumor cells, improving the effects of RT. The aim of this paper is to review reports of the effects of EMFs in biological systems and their potential therapeutic benefits in radiotherapy. PMID:23867611

Artacho-Cordón, Francisco; Salinas-Asensio, María del Mar; Calvente, Irene; Ríos-Arrabal, Sandra; León, Josefa; Román-Marinetto, Elisa; Olea, Nicolás; Núñez, María Isabel

2013-07-17

284

Could radiotherapy effectiveness be enhanced by electromagnetic field treatment?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

One of the main goals in radiobiology research is to enhance radiotherapy effectiveness without provoking any increase in toxicity. In this context, it has been proposed that electromagnetic fields (EMFs), known to be modulators of proliferation rate, enhancers of apoptosis and inductors of genotoxicity, might control tumor recruitment and, thus, provide therapeutic benefits. Scientific evidence shows that the effects of ionizing radiation on cellular compartments and functions are strengthened by EMF. Although little is known about the potential role of EMFs in radiotherapy (RT), the radiosensitizing effect of EMFs described in the literature could support their use to improve radiation effectiveness. Thus, we hypothesized that EMF exposure might enhance the ionizing radiation effect on tumor cells, improving the effects of RT. The aim of this paper is to review reports of the effects of EMFs in biological systems and their potential therapeutic benefits in radiotherapy.

Artacho-Cordón F; Salinas-Asensio Mdel M; Calvente I; Ríos-Arrabal S; León J; Román-Marinetto E; Olea N; Núñez MI

2013-01-01

285

Utilization of acetic acid-rich pyrolytic bio-oil by microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: reducing bio-oil toxicity and enhancing algal toxicity tolerance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This work was to utilize acetic acid contained in bio-oil for growth and lipid production of the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The acetic acid-rich bio-oil fraction derived from fast pyrolysis of softwood contained 26% (w/w) acetic acid, formic acid, methanol, furfural, acetol, and phenolics as identified compounds, and 13% (w/w) unidentified compounds. Among those identified compounds, phenolics were most inhibitory to algal growth, followed by furfural and acetol. To enhance the fermentability of the bio-oil fraction, activated carbon was used to reduce the toxicity of the bio-oil, while metabolic evolution was used to enhance the toxicity tolerance of the microalgae. Combining activated carbon treatment and using evolved algal strain resulted in significant algal growth improvement. The results collectively showed that fast pyrolysis-fermentation process was a viable approach for converting biomass into fuels and chemicals.

Liang Y; Zhao X; Chi Z; Rover M; Johnston P; Brown R; Jarboe L; Wen Z

2013-04-01

286

Enhanced external counter pulsation in treatment of refractory angina pectoris: two year outcome and baseline factors associated with treatment failure  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Enhanced external counter pulsation (EECP) is a non-invasive treatment option for patients with refractory angina pectoris ineligible to further traditional treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of EECP on patients at a Scandinavian medical ...

Erdling André; Bondesson Susanne; Pettersson Thomas; Edvinsson Lars

287

Surface plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy in PCR product analysis by peptide nucleic acid probes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Surface plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy (SPFS) was recently developed for PCR product analysis, which allowed for real-time monitoring of hybridization processes and for the detection of trace amounts of PCR products, with a detection limit of 100 fmol on the peptide nucleic acid (P...

Yao, Danfeng; Yu, Fang; Kim, Junyoung; Scholz, Judith; Nielsen, Peter E.; Sinner, Eva-Kathrin; Knoll, Wolfgang

288

Cyclothiazide potently inhibits ?-aminobutyric acid type A receptors in addition to enhancing glutamate responses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ionotropic glutamate and ?-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors mediate critical excitatory and inhibitory actions in the brain. Cyclothiazide (CTZ) is well known for its effect of enhancing glutamatergic transmission and is widely used as a blocker for ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepr...

Deng, Lunbin; Chen, Gong

289

Citric acid enhances the phytoextraction of manganese and plant growth by alleviating the ultrastructural damages in Juncus effusus L.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chelate-assisted phytoextraction by high biomass producing plant species enhances the removal of heavy metals from polluted environments. In this regard, Juncus effusus a wetland plant has great potential. This study evaluated the effects of elevated levels of manganese (Mn) on the vegetative growth, Mn uptake and antioxidant enzymes in J. effusus. We also studied the role of citric acid and EDTA on improving metal accumulation, plant growth and Mn toxicity stress alleviation. Three-week-old plantlets of J. effusus were subjected to various treatments in the hydroponics as: Mn (50, 100 and 500 microM) alone, Mn (500 microM) + citric acid (5 mM), and Mn (500 microM) + EDTA (5 mM). After 2 weeks of treatment, higher Mn concentrations significantly reduced the plant biomass and height. Both citric acid and EDTA restored the plant height as it was reduced at the highest Mn level. Only the citric acid (but not EDTA) was able to recover the plant biomass weight, which was also obvious from the microscopic visualization of mesophyll cells. There was a concentration dependent increase in Mn uptake in J. effusus plants, and relatively more deposition in roots compared to aerial parts. Although both EDTA and citric acid caused significant increase in Mn accumulation; however, the Mn translocation was enhanced markedly by EDTA. Elevated levels of Mn augmented the oxidative stress, which was evident from changes in the activities of antioxidative enzymes in plant shoots. Raised levels of lipid peroxidation and variable changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes were recorded under Mn stress. Electron microscopic images revealed several modifications in the plants at cellular and sub-cellular level due to the oxidative damage induced by Mn. Changes in cell shape and size, chloroplast swelling, increased number of plastoglobuli and disruption of thylakoid were noticed. However, these plants showed a high degree of tolerance against Mn toxicity stress, and it removed substantial amounts of Mn from the media. The EDTA best enhanced the Mn uptake and translocation, while citric acid best recovered the plant growth. PMID:19541411

Najeeb, U; Xu, L; Ali, Shafaqat; Jilani, Ghulam; Gong, H J; Shen, W Q; Zhou, W J

2009-05-22

290

Citric acid enhances the phytoextraction of manganese and plant growth by alleviating the ultrastructural damages in Juncus effusus L  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Chelate-assisted phytoextraction by high biomass producing plant species enhances the removal of heavy metals from polluted environments. In this regard, Juncus effusus a wetland plant has great potential. This study evaluated the effects of elevated levels of manganese (Mn) on the vegetative growth, Mn uptake and antioxidant enzymes in J. effusus. We also studied the role of citric acid and EDTA on improving metal accumulation, plant growth and Mn toxicity stress alleviation. Three-week-old plantlets of J. effusus were subjected to various treatments in the hydroponics as: Mn (50, 100 and 500 ?M) alone, Mn (500 ?M) + citric acid (5 mM), and Mn (500 ?M) + EDTA (5 mM). After 2 weeks of treatment, higher Mn concentrations significantly reduced the plant biomass and height. Both citric acid and EDTA restored the plant height as it was reduced at the highest Mn level. Only the citric acid (but not EDTA) was able to recover the plant biomass weight, which was also obvious from the microscopic visualization of mesophyll cells. There was a concentration dependent increase in Mn uptake in J. effusus plants, and relatively more deposition in roots compared to aerial parts. Although both EDTA and citric acid caused significant increase in Mn accumulation; however, the Mn translocation was enhanced markedly by EDTA. Elevated levels of Mn augmented the oxidative stress, which was evident from changes in the activities of antioxidative enzymes in plant shoots. Raised levels of lipid peroxidation and variable changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes were recorded under Mn stress. Electron microscopic images revealed several modifications in the plants at cellular and sub-cellular level due to the oxidative damage induced by Mn. Changes in cell shape and size, chloroplast swelling, increased number of plastoglobuli and disruption of thylakoid were noticed. However, these plants showed a high degree of tolerance against Mn toxicity stress, and it removed substantial amounts of Mn from the media. The EDTA best enhanced the Mn uptake and translocation, while citric acid best recovered the plant growth.

2009-10-30

291

Citric acid enhances the phytoextraction of manganese and plant growth by alleviating the ultrastructural damages in Juncus effusus L  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chelate-assisted phytoextraction by high biomass producing plant species enhances the removal of heavy metals from polluted environments. In this regard, Juncus effusus a wetland plant has great potential. This study evaluated the effects of elevated levels of manganese (Mn) on the vegetative growth, Mn uptake and antioxidant enzymes in J. effusus. We also studied the role of citric acid and EDTA on improving metal accumulation, plant growth and Mn toxicity stress alleviation. Three-week-old plantlets of J. effusus were subjected to various treatments in the hydroponics as: Mn (50, 100 and 500 {mu}M) alone, Mn (500 {mu}M) + citric acid (5 mM), and Mn (500 {mu}M) + EDTA (5 mM). After 2 weeks of treatment, higher Mn concentrations significantly reduced the plant biomass and height. Both citric acid and EDTA restored the plant height as it was reduced at the highest Mn level. Only the citric acid (but not EDTA) was able to recover the plant biomass weight, which was also obvious from the microscopic visualization of mesophyll cells. There was a concentration dependent increase in Mn uptake in J. effusus plants, and relatively more deposition in roots compared to aerial parts. Although both EDTA and citric acid caused significant increase in Mn accumulation; however, the Mn translocation was enhanced markedly by EDTA. Elevated levels of Mn augmented the oxidative stress, which was evident from changes in the activities of antioxidative enzymes in plant shoots. Raised levels of lipid peroxidation and variable changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes were recorded under Mn stress. Electron microscopic images revealed several modifications in the plants at cellular and sub-cellular level due to the oxidative damage induced by Mn. Changes in cell shape and size, chloroplast swelling, increased number of plastoglobuli and disruption of thylakoid were noticed. However, these plants showed a high degree of tolerance against Mn toxicity stress, and it removed substantial amounts of Mn from the media. The EDTA best enhanced the Mn uptake and translocation, while citric acid best recovered the plant growth.

Najeeb, U.; Xu, L.; Ali, Shafaqat [Institute of Crop Science, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Jilani, Ghulam, E-mail: jilani@uaar.edu.pk [Department of Soil Science, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Punjab 46300 (Pakistan); Gong, H.J. [Institute of Crop Science, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Shen, W.Q. [The University of Nottingham at Ningbo, Ningbo 315100 (China); Zhou, W.J., E-mail: wjzhou@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Crop Science, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

2009-10-30

292

Short-term treatment with tolfenamic acid improves cognitive functions in Alzheimer's disease mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tolfenamic acid lowers the levels of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and amyloid beta (A?) when administered to C57BL/6 mice by lowering their transcriptional regulator specificity protein 1 (SP1). To determine whether changes upstream in the amyloidogenic pathway that forms A? plaques would improve cognitive outcomes, we administered tolfenamic acid for 34 days to hemizygous R1.40 transgenic mice. After the characterization of cognitive deficits in these mice, assessment of spatial learning and memory functions revealed that treatment with tolfenamic acid attenuated long-term memory and working memory deficits, determined using Morris water maze and the Y-maze. These improvements occurred within a shorter period of exposure than that seen with clinically approved drugs. Cognitive enhancement was accompanied by reduction in the levels of the SP1 protein (but not messenger RNA [mRNA]), followed by lowering both the mRNA and the protein levels of APP and subsequent A? levels. These findings provide evidence that tolfenamic acid can disrupt the pathologic processes associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and are relevant to its scheduled biomarker study in AD patients. PMID:23639209

Subaiea, Gehad M; Adwan, Lina I; Ahmed, Aseef H; Stevens, Karen E; Zawia, Nasser H

2013-04-30

293

Treatment of warts with salicyclic acid and lactic acid in flexible collodion wart paint  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One hundred patients with warts (Verruca vulgaris of hands-33; feet-16, hands and feet 10; palmar warts-17 and plantar warts-24) were treated with salicylic acid (16.5%) and lactic acid (16.5%) in flexible collodion wart (SAL) paint. The wart paint was applied twice a week for 3 months. Good response was seen in 82.1% of warts on hands. 46.7% of palmar warts, 54.5% of warts on feet, 84.2% of plantar warts and 57.1% of warts on hands and feet. Overall success rate was 70%. Eighty percent patients completed the study. No adverse effects were observed. During 6 months post treatment follow up recurrence of warts occurred in 11.7% of patients.

Dhar Sandipan; Kumar Bhushan; Kaur Inderjeet

1994-01-01

294

Effects of Enhanced Depression Treatment on Diabetes Self-Care  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

PURPOSE Among patients with diabetes, major depression is associated with more diabetic complications, lower medication adherence, and poorer self-care of diabetes. We reported earlier that enhanced depression care reduces depression symptoms but not hemoglobin A1c level. This study examined effects...

Lin, Elizabeth H. B.; Katon, Wayne; Rutter, Carolyn; Simon, Greg E.; Ludman, Evette J.; Von Korff, Michael; Young, Bessie

295

Systemic treatment with 4-211Atphenylalanine enhances survival of rats with intracranial glioblastoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objective: Increased amino acid transport in brain tumours is used for diagnostic purposes. It has been shown that the ?-emitting radionuclide astatine-211 labeled to L-phenylalanine is taken up by glioblastoma cells. We here tested, if systemic treatment with 4-[211At]astatine-phenylalanine (At-Phe) has a beneficial effect on survival of rats with intracranial glioblastoma. Animals, methods: The rat glioblastoma cell line BT4Ca was implanted into the prefrontal cortex of female BDIX rats by stereotaxic microinjection (10?000 cells/3 µl; n = 83). 3 days after implantation At-Phe or phosphate buffered saline were injected intravenously. A third group was treated twice, i.e., on day 3 and 10. Health condition was assessed each day by using a score system. Rats were sacrificed on days 6, 10, 13 and 17 after implantation, or when showing premortal health condition to measure tumour volume and necrosis. The proliferation index (PI) was assessed after immunohistochemical staining of Ki-67. Results: Survival time of rats treated twice with At-Phe was significantly prolonged. Additionally, both At-Phe-treated groups remained significantly longer in a better health condition. Rats with poor health status had larger tumours than rats with fair health condition. Overall, irrespective of treatment the PI was reduced in rats with poor health condition. Necrosis was larger in rats treated twice with At-Phe. Conclusion: Intravenous treatment with At-Phe enhanced survival time of rats with intracranial glioblastomas and improved health condition. These results encourage studies using local treatment of intracranial glioblastoma with At-Phe, either by repeated local injection or by intracavital application after tumour resection.

Borrmann N; Friedrich S; Schwabe K; Hedrich HJ; Krauss JK; Knapp WH; Nakamura M; Meyer GJ; Walte A

2013-09-01

296

Method for enhancing levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids in thraustochytrid fungi  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a method for enhancing levels of polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in thraustochytrid fungi, using media supplemented with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) to increase viscosity and which comprises: (a) providing a thraustochytrid fungus strain NIO-TH 21, corresponding to the species Ulkenia radiata Gaertner, being the culture with Accession No.; AB22115 of the National Institute of Bioscience and Human-Technology, Japan; (b) inoculating the above said strain in a culture medium; (c) growing the culture for 2 days at a temperature ranging from 25 to 30 DEG C.; (d) obtaining the cultures for use as innoculum using the above said medium to inoculate a medium with different concentrations of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP); (e) growing the culture separately for 2 to 5 days at a temperature ranging from 25 to 30 DEG C.; and (f) harvesting the cells from the above culture by centrifugation and extracting the enhanced amounts of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA).

KUMAR SESHAGIRI RAGHU; CHANDRAMOHAN DORAI RAJASINGAM; DESA EHRLICH

297

A METHOD FOR ENHANCING LEVELS OF POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS IN THRAUSTOCHYTRIDS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a method for enhancing levels of polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in thraustochytrid fungi, using media supplemented with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) to increase viscosity and which comprises: (a) providing a thraustochytrid fungus strain NIO-TH 21, corresponding to the species Ulkenia radiata Gaertner, being the culture with Accession No. AB22115 of the National Institute of Bioscience and Human-Technology, Japan; (b) inoculating the above said strain in a culture medium; (c) growing the culture for 2 days at a temperature ranging from 25 to 30 ·C; (d) obtaining the cultures for use as innoculum using the above said medium to inoculate a medium with different concentrations of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP); (e) growing the culture separately for 2 to 5 days at a temperature ranging from 25 to 30 ·C; and (f) harvesting the cells from the above culture by centrifugation and extracting the enhanced amounts of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA).

KUMAR Seshagiri Raghu; CHANDRAMOHAN Dorai Rajasingam; DESA Ehrlich

298

Effects of aminotriazole treatment on biosyntheses of primary bile acids in vivo.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The influence of aminotriazole treatment on primary bile acid biosynthesis was studied in detail. After administration of aminotriazole to rats, bile was collected for 8 h. The content of chenodeoxycholic acid in the bile was increased to 144% of the control by aminotriazole treatment, but that of cholic acid was decreased to 48.4%. In another experiment, [4-14C]cholesterol was injected into rats immediately after aminotriazole treatment, and then bile was collected. The content of radioactive chenodeoxycholic acid in the bile was significantly increased to 130% of the control, but that of radioactive cholic acid was unchanged. In a similar experiment with [2-14C]mevalonate, the content of radioactive chenodeoxycholic acid in the bile was hardly changed by aminotriazole treatment, but that of radioactive cholic acid was greatly decreased to 41.2% of the control. Aminotriazole treatment did not affect the ratios of tauroconjugate to glycoconjugate of the two bile acids. Thus, aminotriazole treatment affects the syntheses of not only cholesterol (F. Hashimoto, C. Sugimoto and H. Hayashi, Chem. Pharm. Bull., 38, 2532 (1990); F. Hashimoto and H. Hayashi, Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1086, 115 (1991)) but also primary bile acids in vivo. Namely, aminotriazole treatment activated biosynthesis of chenodeoxycholic acid from exogenous cholesterol, but did not affect that of cholic acid. Aminotriazole hardly affected the synthesis of chenodeoxycholic acid through endogenous cholesterol (from mevalonate), but inhibited that of cholic acid.

Hashimoto F; Sugimoto C; Hayashi H

1992-03-01

299

Ursodeoxycholic acid treatment improves hepatocyte ultrastructure in rat liver fibrosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To examine the ultrastructural changes after ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment in hepatocytes from experimentally induced fibrotic livers.METHODS: Liver fibrosis was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats with CCl4 for 12 wk, and the rats were divided into two groups. Group I was treated with saline and group II with UDCA (25 mg/kg per day) for 4 wk. All the rats were killed at wk 16. Mitochondria, nuclei, rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) of hepatocytes were evaluated according to a scoring system.RESULTS: Mitochondria, nuclei, RER and SER injury scores in group II were significantly lower than those in groupI(P < 0.001).CONCLUSION: UDCA alleviates hepatocyte organelle injury in CCl4-induced liver fibrosis.

Nuket Mas, Ilker Tasci, Bilgin Comert, Ramazan Ocal, Mehmet Refik Mas

2008-01-01

300

The 300 area waste acid treatment system closure plan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) is located within operable units 300-FF-2 (source) and 300-FF-5 (groundwater), as designated in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) . Operable units 300-FF-2 and 300-FF-5 are scheduled to be remediated using the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) process. Thus, any remediation of the 300 Area WATS with respect to contaminants not produced by those facilities and soils and groundwater will be deferred to the CERCLA RI/FS process. Final closure activities will be completed in 3 phases and certified in accordance with the 300 Area WATS closure plan by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It is anticipated that the 300 Area WATS closure would take 2 years to complete

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Chitosan-caffeic acid-genipin films presenting enhanced antioxidant activity and stability in acidic media.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of chitosan films has been limited due to their high degradability in aqueous acidic media. In order to produce chitosan films with high antioxidant activity and insoluble in acid solutions caffeic acid was grafted to chitosan by a radical mechanism using ammonium cerium (IV) nitrate (60 mM). Genipin was used as cross-linker. This methodology originated films with 80% higher antioxidant activity than the pristine film. Also, these films only lost 11% of their mass upon seven days immersion into an aqueous solution at pH 3.5 under stirring. The films surface wettability (contact angle 105°), mechanical properties (68 MPa of tensile strength and 4% of elongation at break), and thermal stability for temperatures lower than 300 °C were not significantly influenced by the covalent linkage of caffeic acid and genipin to chitosan. Due to their characteristics, mainly higher antioxidant activity and lower solubility, these are promising materials to be used as active films. PMID:23044128

Nunes, Cláudia; Maricato, Élia; Cunha, Ângela; Nunes, Alexandra; da Silva, José A Lopes; Coimbra, Manuel A

2012-08-17

302

The enhancement of radiosensitivity in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells by zoledronic acid and its potential mechanism.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has a low 5-year patient survival rate. Radiotherapy, as a preoperative or postoperative treatment of surgery, has a crucial role in improving local control and survival of ESCC. Various chemotherapeutic and biologic agents have been used as radio-sensitizers in combination with radiotherapy. Here, we demonstrate that zoledronic acid (ZOL) has a radio-sensitizing effect on ESCC cells. Exposure of ESCC cancer cells to ZOL plus radiation resulted in increased cell death through arresting the cell cycle between S and G2/M phases. ZOL appeared to inhibit proliferation, tube formation and invasion of endothelial cells. These anti-angiogenetic effects were more marked concurrently with irradiation. In addition, synergistic suppressive effects on VEGF expression were observed after combined treatment. Our data suggest that the combination of ZOL and radiation is a promising therapeutic strategy to enhance radiation therapy for ESCC patients.

You Y; Liu J; Wang Z; Zhang Y; Ran Y; Guo X; Liu H; Wang H

2013-01-01

303

Enhancement of bacterial iron and sulfate respiration for in situ bioremediation of acid mine drainage sites: a case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The prevention of acid mine drainage (AMD) in situ is more attractive than down-gradient treatment alternatives that do not involve source control. AMD source control can be achieved by shifting the microbial activity in the sulfidic rock from pyrite oxidation to anaerobic heterotrophic activity. This is achieved by adding biodegradable organic carbon amendments to the sulfidic rock. This technique was applied to an abandoned coal mine pool in Pennsylvania. The pool had a pH of 3.0 to 3.5. Following treatment, near-neutral pH and decreased effluent heavy metal concentrations were achieved. In situ bioremediation by the enhancement of bacterial iron and sulfate reduction is a promising technology for AMD prevention.

Bilgin, A.A.; Harrington, J.M.; Silverstein, J. [ARCADIS G& amp; M, Highlands Ranch, CO (United States)

2007-08-15

304

NIR sensitivity enhancement by laser treatment for Si detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The light absorption coefficient of silicon is high in the short wavelengths, but much lower in the long wavelengths (longer than 900 nm). Thus it is necessary to use thicker silicon wafers to manufacture high-sensitivity light sensors for long wavelength applications. However, this imposes constraints on applied voltage, dark current, response speed, and cost. This then leads to limitations on device characteristics and possible applications. As an alternative to using thicker silicon wafers to enhance the NIR sensitivity of silicon photodiodes, we used an ultra-short pulse laser to form 'black silicon' structures on the surface of silicon photodiodes. At 1064 nm, QE was improved from 25% to 72%. Future research will determine how this technology can also be applied to enhancing the NIR sensitivity of image sensors such as CCDs.

Yamamoto, K. [Solid State Division, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 1126-1, Ichino-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu City (Japan); Sakamoto, A., E-mail: akira-s@ssd.hpk.co.j [Solid State Division, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 1126-1, Ichino-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu City (Japan); Nagano, T. [Solid State Division, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 1126-1, Ichino-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu City (Japan); Fukumitsu, K. [Electron Tube Division, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 314-5, Shimokanzo, Iwata City (Japan)

2010-12-11

305

Heat shock response enhances acid tolerance of Escherichia coli O157:H7.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) has unusual acid tolerance. The influence of heat shock on acid tolerance of O157 was studied. Seven strains of O157 and E. coli K-12 were tested for their ability to survive in minimum glucose medium (pH 2.5) at 37 degrees C. The survival of heat-shocked (10 min at 48 degrees C) cells was about 10-100 times greater compared with untreated cells depending on the strain. No significant difference (P > 0.05) for O157 strain 932 was observed between heat shock-induced and acid adaptation-induced (pH 5.0) acid tolerance. Chloramphenicol prevented heat shock-induced acid tolerance, indicating the requirement of newly synthesized protein(s). Two outer membrane proteins (OMP) (22 and 15 kDa) were synthesized within 10 min of heat shock and were expressed for at least 6 h by cells held at 37 degrees C. N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis suggested that the 22 kDa OMP is a component of an alkyl hydroperoxide reductase. This protein contains a redox active disulphide, which is probably involved in H+ transport. Results indicate that sublethal heat treatment of O157 cells substantially increases their tolerance to acidic conditions. This could have practical implications for foods that receive a mild heat treatment and rely on acid as a preservative.

Wang G; Doyle MP

1998-01-01

306

Infiltrative hepatocellular carcinoma on gadoxetic acid-enhanced and diffusion-weighted MRI at 3.0T.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONCLUSION: DWI provides the highest conspicuity for infiltrative HCC compared to unenhanced T1- and T2WI and gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI. The gadoxetic acid-enhanced 3-min late image is useful in characterizing infiltrative HCC, as it clearly depicts internal reticulation in all tumors.J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2013;00:000-000. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Lim S; Kim YK; Park HJ; Lee WJ; Choi D; Park MJ

2013-10-01

307

Retinoic acid repression of cell-specific helix-loop-helix-octamer activation of the calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptide enhancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have investigated the mechanism underlying repression of calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptide (CT/CGRP) gene expression by retinoic acid. Retinoic acid treatment of the CA77 thyroid C-cell line decreased CT/CGRP promoter activity two- to threefold, which correlates well with the decrease in calcitonin and CGRP mRNA levels. Repression is mediated through the nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RAR) on the basis of the retinoid specificity, the sensitivity of repression (half-maximal repression at 0.2 nM), and the additional repression caused by cotransfection of an alpha-RAR expression vector. The sequences required for retinoic acid repression were localized to an 18-bp element containing cell-specific enhancer activity. The enhancer binds helix-loop-helix (HLH) and octamer transcription factors that act synergistically to activate transcription. Retinoic acid repression requires both these factors since mutations in either motif resulted in the loss of repression. Furthermore, repression was observed only in cell lines containing enhancer activity. We have used electrophoretic mobility shift assays to show that repression does not involve direct DNA binding of RAR or RAR-retinoid X receptor heterodimers. Instead, repression appears to involve interactions with the stimulatory enhancer factors. Following retinoic acid treatment, there was a specific decrease in an enhancer complex containing both HLH and octamer proteins. Formation of the HLH-octamer complex was also specifically blocked by the addition of exogenous RAR-retinoid X receptor protein. These results demonstrate that RAR can repress CT/CGRP gene transcription by interfering with combinatorial activation by cell-specific HLH and octamer proteins. PMID:8413210

Lanigan, T M; Tverberg, L A; Russo, A F

1993-10-01

308

Retinoic acid repression of cell-specific helix-loop-helix-octamer activation of the calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptide enhancer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have investigated the mechanism underlying repression of calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptide (CT/CGRP) gene expression by retinoic acid. Retinoic acid treatment of the CA77 thyroid C-cell line decreased CT/CGRP promoter activity two- to threefold, which correlates well with the decrease in calcitonin and CGRP mRNA levels. Repression is mediated through the nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RAR) on the basis of the retinoid specificity, the sensitivity of repression (half-maximal repression at 0.2 nM), and the additional repression caused by cotransfection of an alpha-RAR expression vector. The sequences required for retinoic acid repression were localized to an 18-bp element containing cell-specific enhancer activity. The enhancer binds helix-loop-helix (HLH) and octamer transcription factors that act synergistically to activate transcription. Retinoic acid repression requires both these factors since mutations in either motif resulted in the loss of repression. Furthermore, repression was observed only in cell lines containing enhancer activity. We have used electrophoretic mobility shift assays to show that repression does not involve direct DNA binding of RAR or RAR-retinoid X receptor heterodimers. Instead, repression appears to involve interactions with the stimulatory enhancer factors. Following retinoic acid treatment, there was a specific decrease in an enhancer complex containing both HLH and octamer proteins. Formation of the HLH-octamer complex was also specifically blocked by the addition of exogenous RAR-retinoid X receptor protein. These results demonstrate that RAR can repress CT/CGRP gene transcription by interfering with combinatorial activation by cell-specific HLH and octamer proteins.

Lanigan TM; Tverberg LA; Russo AF

1993-10-01

309

Successful treatment of recalcitrant cutaneous sarcoidosis with fumaric acid esters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease of unknown origin characterized by the formation of noncaseating granulomas, in particular in the lungs, lymph nodes, eyes, and skin. Systemic treatment for cutaneous sarcoidosis can be used for large disfiguring lesions, generalized involvement, or recalcitrant lesions that did not respond to topical therapy. Case presentations We report three patients with recalcitrant cutaneous sarcoidosis who were treated with oral fumaric acid esters (FAE). Three female patients presented with cutaneous sarcoidosis that have proved to be refractory to various therapies, including corticosteroids and chloroquine. We treated the patients with FAE in tablet form using two formulations differing in strength (Fumaderm® initial, Fumaderm®). Dosage of FAE was performed according to the standard therapy regimen for psoriasis patients. After treatment with FAE (4–12 months), a complete clearance of skin lesions was achieved in the three patients. The side effects observed in this trial correspond to the well-known spectrum of adverse effects of FAE (flush, minor gastrointestinal complaints, lymphopenia). Conclusions On the basis of our findings FAE therapy seems to be a safe and effective regimen for patients with recalcitrant cutaneous sarcoidosis. Nevertheless further investigations are necessary to confirm our preliminary results.

Nowack Ute; Gambichler Thilo; Hanefeld Christoph; Kastner Ulrike; Altmeyer Peter

2002-01-01

310

EVALUATION OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE ACID HYDROLYZATE TREATMENTS FOR XYLITOL PRODUCTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Acid sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzate was submitted to pH shifts in order to remove toxic compounds from the medium. The hydrolyzate was treated with bases containing mono-, di- or tri-valent cations and H2SO4, and its performance as a fermentation medium was evaluated by the production of xylitol by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037. The use of bases containing mono-valent cations was not an efficient method of detoxification, and the use of a tri-valent cation did not show any detectable improvement in detoxification. The treated hydrolyzate recovery (in volume) is greatly affected by the utilized base. Treatment using Al(OH)3 and NaOH showed the best hydrolyzate recovery (87.5%), while the others presented a recovery of about 45% of the original hydrolyzate volume. Considering the whole process, best results were achieved by treatment using Al(OH)3 and NaOH which allowed 0.55 g of xylitol produced from each gram of xylose in the raw hydrolyzate.

P.V. GURGEL; S.A. FURLAN; S.E.R. MARTINEZ; I.M. MANCILHA

1998-01-01

311

EVALUATION OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE ACID HYDROLYZATE TREATMENTS FOR XYLITOL PRODUCTION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Acid sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzate was submitted to pH shifts in order to remove toxic compounds from the medium. The hydrolyzate was treated with bases containing mono-, di- or tri-valent cations and H2SO4, and its performance as a fermentation medium was evaluated by the production of xylitol by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037. The use of bases containing mono-valent cations was not an efficient method of detoxification, and the use of a tri-valent cation did not show (more) any detectable improvement in detoxification. The treated hydrolyzate recovery (in volume) is greatly affected by the utilized base. Treatment using Al(OH)3 and NaOH showed the best hydrolyzate recovery (87.5%), while the others presented a recovery of about 45% of the original hydrolyzate volume. Considering the whole process, best results were achieved by treatment using Al(OH)3 and NaOH which allowed 0.55 g of xylitol produced from each gram of xylose in the raw hydrolyzate.

GURGEL, P.V.; FURLAN, S.A.; MARTINEZ, S.E.R.; MANCILHA, I.M.

1998-09-01

312

Enhancement of seed vigour following insecticide and phenolic elicitor treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thiamethoxam (CGA 293'343) is a novel broad-spectrum neonicotinoid insecticide. It is commercially used as a seed treatment under the trademark Cruiser (CRZ). Although many reports detail its insecticidal, plant-protecting properties, there are minimal reports concerning the effect on seed germination activities which can be key control points of seedling vigour. In this report, we investigated the effect of CRZ, fish protein hydrolysates (FPH; a known elicitor of pentose-phosphate pathway) and the combination of CRZ and FPH (CF) on seed vigour of pea, soybean and corn. Seed vigour was investigated by estimating germination percentage, shoot height, shoot weight, total soluble phenolic content, antioxidant content, G6PDH (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) activity, and GPX (guaiacol peroxidase) activity. Addition of FPH to CRZ (CF) seemed to have a slightly positive effect on seed vigour, especially, CF and FPH treatment for corn and FPH treatment for pea, suggesting that pre-sowing treatments may cause positive/negative effects on seed vigour, depending on the concentration of treatments. Further research will be needed to determine their effects and the optimal concentration for seed priming.

Horii A; McCue P; Shetty K

2007-02-01

313

Enhancement of seed vigour following insecticide and phenolic elicitor treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thiamethoxam (CGA 293'343) is a novel broad-spectrum neonicotinoid insecticide. It is commercially used as a seed treatment under the trademark Cruiser (CRZ). Although many reports detail its insecticidal, plant-protecting properties, there are minimal reports concerning the effect on seed germination activities which can be key control points of seedling vigour. In this report, we investigated the effect of CRZ, fish protein hydrolysates (FPH; a known elicitor of pentose-phosphate pathway) and the combination of CRZ and FPH (CF) on seed vigour of pea, soybean and corn. Seed vigour was investigated by estimating germination percentage, shoot height, shoot weight, total soluble phenolic content, antioxidant content, G6PDH (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) activity, and GPX (guaiacol peroxidase) activity. Addition of FPH to CRZ (CF) seemed to have a slightly positive effect on seed vigour, especially, CF and FPH treatment for corn and FPH treatment for pea, suggesting that pre-sowing treatments may cause positive/negative effects on seed vigour, depending on the concentration of treatments. Further research will be needed to determine their effects and the optimal concentration for seed priming. PMID:16581243

Horii, A; McCue, P; Shetty, K

2006-04-03

314

Treatment of liposclerosis of the leg by fibrinolytic enhancement: a preliminary report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fourteen patients with longstanding lipodermatosclerosis of their lower legs, secondary to venous disease in 11, were treated for three months with stanozolol, a drug that enhances fibrinolytic activity. No other treatment was given and no change made in existing treatment. All the patients improved. Two were cured in three months, three were able to stop treatment in the next three to 11 months, and the other nine continued to improve. Fibrinolytic enhancement, with stanozolol, seems to be a worthwhile addition to the treatment of venous liposclerosis and deserves further study.

Browse NL; Jarrett PE; Morland M; Burnand K

1977-08-01

315

Ursodeoxycholic acid treatment in a rat model of cancer cachexia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia is characterized by loss of both adipose and skeletal muscle tissue and by an increased production of proinflammatory cytokines. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a bile acid used for centuries in the treatment of liver disease, is known to confer anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects as well as beneficial effects on mitochondrial integrity and cell signaling. We hypothesized that UDCA ameliorates the wasting process in the Yoshida hepatoma tumor model. In addition, we sought to establish if UDCA exerts beneficial effects on survival in this model. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-seven male rats were inoculated intraperitoneally with 10(8) Yoshida hepatoma AH-130 cells and treated with placebo or one of two different doses of UDCA, 25 or 100 mg/kg daily. Body weight, body composition, and activity indicators were measured over the course of study up to day 16. UDCA treatment had no effect on tumor growth, loss of body weight, and loss of fat mass. Compared with placebo, low-dose UDCA improved tissue loss in the lung (p?=?0.022) and tended to reduce tissue loss in brown adipocytes (p?=?0.06), gastrocnemius muscle (p?=?0.06), extensor digitorum longus muscle (p?=?0.09), and soleus muscle (p?=?0.07). Compared with placebo, high-dose UDCA tended to reduce the loss of lean body mass (p?=?0.06), lung tissue (p?=?0.1), white adipose tissue (p?=?0.11), and gastrocnemius muscle (p?=?0.11). The activity and food intake were not altered in tumor-bearing rats by either dose of UDCA. Both doses tended to decrease the mortality rate in tumor-bearing rats, (hazard ratio (HR), 0.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.17-1.04; p?=?0.061 for low-dose UDCA; HR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.18-1.05; p?=?0.065 for high-dose UDCA). CONCLUSION: UDCA treatment in the Yoshida hepatoma model showed a trend towards attenuation of tissue loss in animals with progressive weight loss in cancer cachexia. Tumor growth and activity indicators were not altered. Both doses of UDCA tended to reduce the mortality rates in tumor-bearing animals. Larger studies with longer follow-up are required to verify these findings.

Tschirner A; von Haehling S; Palus S; Doehner W; Anker SD; Springer J

2012-03-01

316

Effects of gas atmospheres on poly(lactic acid) film in acrylic acid plasma treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasma polymerized acrylic acid (AA) coatings were deposited on poly(lactic acid) (PLA) films in various gas atmospheres during the pre-treatment of PLA and the deposition of AA, respectively. Therefore, this work was twofold: the argon pretreated PLA films followed by a deposition in argon were investigated against the mixture of argon and oxygen pretreated ones under the same deposition conditions; the plasma deposition of AA operating in different atmospheres (argon, oxygen and nitrogen) was employed to modify the pretreated PLA in oxygen. Chemical and physical changes on the plasma-treated surfaces were examined using contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-FTIR) analysis. The results showed that the discharge gas can have a significant influence on the chemical composition of the PLA surfaces: oxygen plasmas introduced oxygen-containing groups in company with surface etching in pretreatment and deposition, while argon discharges was able to achieve much better hydrophilic behavior and high retention ratio of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) coating before and after washing in water.

Zhao, Yun; Fina, Alberto; Venturello, Alberto; Geobaldo, Francesco

2013-10-01

317

Enhancement in extraction rates by addition of organic acids to aqueous phase in solvent extraction of rare earth metals in presence of diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is well known that the selectivity of rare earth metals by solvent extraction is increased by the addition of a chelating agent such as diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) in the aqueous phase. One of the disadvantages of this method is the decrease in extraction rates due to complexation in the aqueous phase. In this paper, further addition of organic acids to the aqueous phase was examined for the purpose of enhancing the extraction rates in solvent extraction with DTPA. The addition of several kind of organic acids such as formic acid, acetic acid, malonic acid, lactic acid and citric acid was investigated for a Er/Y separation system. A remarkable enhancement in extraction rates ryas observed with a slight decrease in the selectivity by the addition of citric acid or lactic acid. Extraction rates in the presence of both DTPA and citric acid increased with the increase in citric acid concentration and with the increase in proton concentration. A 150 times enhancement in extraction rates was found in the low proton concentration condition. In order to analyze the extraction rates and selectivities obtained, mass transfer equations were presented by considering both the dissociation reaction or rare earth metal-DTPA completes and the complex formation between rare earth metal and organic acid in the aqueous phase. The experimental data were analyzed by these equations. 30 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Matsuyama, H. [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan); Azis, A.; Fujita, M.; Teramoto, M. [Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto (Japan)

1996-02-01

318

The enhancement of pipemidic acid permeation into the pig urinary bladder wall.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of interactions between polycarbophil and calcium on a model drug permeation into the pig urinary bladder wall was investigated. Pipemidic acid was used as a model drug. One percent w/v polycarbophil dispersion significantly increases the permeation of pipemidic acid into the urinary bladder wall. The enhanced absorption of pipemidic acid caused by polycarbophil is significantly less pronounced in polycarbophil dispersions containing calcium. The enhancement of pipemidic acid permeation into the urinary bladder wall could be due to the opening of tight junctions, which causes higher paracellular permeability. In the case of polycarbophil dispersion with calcium some carboxylic groups of polymer are already occupied with calcium, present in the dispersions. As a consequence extracellular calcium binds to polycarbophil in lower extent if compared with polycarbophil dispersion without calcium and transport is increased to a lesser degree. We concluded that the mechanism of drug absorption enhancement caused by polycarbophil could be similar for urinary bladder as described in the literature for intestinal mucosa. PMID:12062499

Kerec, M; Svigelj, V; Bogataj, M; Mrhar, A

2002-06-20

319

The enhancement of pipemidic acid permeation into the pig urinary bladder wall.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The influence of interactions between polycarbophil and calcium on a model drug permeation into the pig urinary bladder wall was investigated. Pipemidic acid was used as a model drug. One percent w/v polycarbophil dispersion significantly increases the permeation of pipemidic acid into the urinary bladder wall. The enhanced absorption of pipemidic acid caused by polycarbophil is significantly less pronounced in polycarbophil dispersions containing calcium. The enhancement of pipemidic acid permeation into the urinary bladder wall could be due to the opening of tight junctions, which causes higher paracellular permeability. In the case of polycarbophil dispersion with calcium some carboxylic groups of polymer are already occupied with calcium, present in the dispersions. As a consequence extracellular calcium binds to polycarbophil in lower extent if compared with polycarbophil dispersion without calcium and transport is increased to a lesser degree. We concluded that the mechanism of drug absorption enhancement caused by polycarbophil could be similar for urinary bladder as described in the literature for intestinal mucosa.

Kerec M; Svigelj V; Bogataj M; Mrhar A

2002-06-01

320

Enhanced treatment of trace pollutants by a novel electrolytic cell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Continuous experiments were conducted to evaluate the electrolytic performance of a novel 3-dimensional electrolytic cell consisting of granular Pt/Ti electrodes. The electric current efficiency to decompose indigotrisulfonate was approx. 96%, while energy consumption was one to two orders of magnitude smaller than that for O{sub 3} treatment. Furthermore, the cell was successfully applied to treat trace endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and chlorinated compounds. Energy consumption was in the range of 2 to 10 Wh/m{sup 3}. From these results, it was concluded that the present electrolytic cell would be a feasible alternative to conventional oxidation processes in water treatment. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

Sakakibara, Y.; Senda, Y.; Obanayama, T.; Nagata, R. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan)

2006-12-15

 
 
 
 
321

Cytogenetic and biochemical effects induced by the treatment with ascorbic acid and citric acid on Picea abies (L.) Karst.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper present the influence of ascorbic acid and citric acid upon the mitotic division, and to the activity of some antioxidant enzymes to Picea abies (L.) Karst. The treatment was made through the germination of seeds in ascorbic acid and citric acid. We observed the stimulator or inhibitor effect of ascorbic acid and citric acid to the mitotic index and estimated the aberrations appearance. Comparative the control, the mitotic index increased at 0.1 % concentration ascorbic acid and decreased at 0.25 % and 0.5 % concentration of the same substance. The citric acid induced a decrease in the dynamics of mitotic index comparative the control. Also, we observed an increase of aberrations appearance to the treatment with citric acid. We established the activity of catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and the influence of ascorbic acid and citric acid to the activity of these antioxidant enzymes. After statistical interpretation emerged that these substances (except 0.25 % ascorbic acid) induced an inhibition of catalase activity and a stimulation of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity.

Ioana-Anca Ieremie; Vlad Artenie

2008-01-01

322

The Dynamics of the Treatment-enhancement Distinction: ADHD as a Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A central issue in the ethical debate on psychopharmacological enhancers concerns the distinction between therapy and enhancement. Although from a theoretical point of view it is difficult to make a clear-cut distinction between treatment (of disease) on the one hand, and enhancement (of normal functioning) on the other, in medical practice and policy debates the counter-positioning of therapy to enhancement is clearly at work. Especially pharmaceutical companies have an interest in occupying the "grey" area between normal and abnormal, treatment and enhancement. This article discusses the dynamics of the treatment-enhancement distinction, and argues that practices that could be labelled "enhancement" can also be understood in terms of medicalisation and "disease mongering". The argument is supported by results from a qualitative empirical study into the experiences and opinions of adults diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Patients are ambivalent about how to understand ADHD: as a disease, a disorder or a normal variation. Intervention with psychopharmacological means can also be understood in different ways. From an insider perspective it is conceived of as a "normalising" of functioning, whereas from an outsider perspective it can be understood as medicalisation of underperformance, or indeed as performance enhancement. This draws attention to new moral issues which are important but under-recognised in the enhancement debate, and which are related to medicalisation.

Maartje Schermer

2007-01-01

323

alpha-Mangostin enhances betulinic acid cytotoxicity and inhibits cisplatin cytotoxicity on HCT 116 colorectal carcinoma cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite the progress in colon cancer treatment, relapse is still a major obstacle. Hence, new drugs or drug combinations are required in the battle against colon cancer. ?-Mangostin and betulinic acid (BA) are cytotoxic compounds that work by inducing the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, and cisplatin is one of the most potent broad spectrum anti-tumor agents. This study aims to investigate the enhancement of BA cytotoxicity by ?-mangostin, and the cytoprotection effect of ?-mangostin and BA on cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity on HCT 116 human colorectal carcinoma cells. Cytotoxicity was investigated by the XTT cell proliferation test, and the apoptotic effects were investigated on early and late markers including caspases-3/7, mitochondrial membrane potential, cytoplasmic shrinkage, and chromatin condensation. The effect of ?-mangostin on four signalling pathways was also investigated by the luciferase assay. ?-Mangostin and BA were more cytotoxic to the colon cancer cells than to the normal colonic cells, and both compounds showed a cytoprotective effect against cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity. On the other hand, ?-mangostin enhanced the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of BA. Combination therapy hits multiple targets, which may improve the overall response to the treatment, and may reduce the likelihood of developing drug resistance by the tumor cells. Therefore, ?-mangostin and BA may provide a novel combination for the treatment of colorectal carcinoma. The cytoprotective effect of the compounds against cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity may find applications as chemopreventive agents against carcinogens, irradiation and oxidative stress, or to neutralize cisplatin side effects.

Aisha AF; Abu-Salah KM; Ismail Z; Majid AM

2012-01-01

324

Enhanced rosmarinic acid production in cultured plants of two species of Mentha.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present investigation an attempt has been made to enhance rosmarinic acid level in plants, grown in vitro, of 2 species of Mentha in presence of 2 precursors in the nutrient media during culture. For in vitro culture establishment and shoot bud multiplication, MS basal media were used supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of different growth regulator like NAA (alpha-napthaleneacetic acid), BAP (6-benzylaminopurine). The medium containing NAA (0.25 mg/L) and BAP (2.5 mg/L) gave the highest potentiality of shoot formation (average 58.0 numbers of shoots) per explant for Mentha piperita L. and the medium containing BAP (2.0 mg/L) gave the highest potentiality of shoot (average 19.2 numbers of shoots) formation per explant for Mentha arvensis L. The complete plants were regenerated in above mentioned media after 8 weeks of subculture. For in vitro enhancement of rosmarinic acid production, the 2 precursors tyrosine (Tyr) and phenylalanine (Phe) were added in the nutrient media at different levels (0.5 mg/L to 15.0 mg/L). Tyrosine was found to be very effective for augmenting rosmarinic acid content in Mentha piperita L. It nearly increased the production up to 1.77 times. In case of Mentha arvensis L., phenylalanine significantly affected the production of rosmarinic acid and the production was nearly 2.03 times more than the control. No significant increase in biomass was observed after addition of these precursors indicating that the added amino acids acting as precursors for rosmarinic acid synthesis were readily utilized in producing rosmarinic acid without promoting growth. Total protein profile also revealed the presence of a specific band in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PMID:23305033

Roy, Debleena; Mukhopadhyay, Sandip

2012-11-01

325

Enhanced rosmarinic acid production in cultured plants of two species of Mentha.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present investigation an attempt has been made to enhance rosmarinic acid level in plants, grown in vitro, of 2 species of Mentha in presence of 2 precursors in the nutrient media during culture. For in vitro culture establishment and shoot bud multiplication, MS basal media were used supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of different growth regulator like NAA (alpha-napthaleneacetic acid), BAP (6-benzylaminopurine). The medium containing NAA (0.25 mg/L) and BAP (2.5 mg/L) gave the highest potentiality of shoot formation (average 58.0 numbers of shoots) per explant for Mentha piperita L. and the medium containing BAP (2.0 mg/L) gave the highest potentiality of shoot (average 19.2 numbers of shoots) formation per explant for Mentha arvensis L. The complete plants were regenerated in above mentioned media after 8 weeks of subculture. For in vitro enhancement of rosmarinic acid production, the 2 precursors tyrosine (Tyr) and phenylalanine (Phe) were added in the nutrient media at different levels (0.5 mg/L to 15.0 mg/L). Tyrosine was found to be very effective for augmenting rosmarinic acid content in Mentha piperita L. It nearly increased the production up to 1.77 times. In case of Mentha arvensis L., phenylalanine significantly affected the production of rosmarinic acid and the production was nearly 2.03 times more than the control. No significant increase in biomass was observed after addition of these precursors indicating that the added amino acids acting as precursors for rosmarinic acid synthesis were readily utilized in producing rosmarinic acid without promoting growth. Total protein profile also revealed the presence of a specific band in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

Roy D; Mukhopadhyay S

2012-11-01

326

The gallic Acid-phospholipid complex improved the antioxidant potential of gallic Acid by enhancing its bioavailability.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Gallic acid (GA) is well known for its antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity, though its effectiveness is restricted due to rapid metabolism and elimination. To overcome these problems, gallic acid-phospholipid complex was prepared and the effect of phospholipid complexation was investigated on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative damage in rat liver. The complex significantly reduced the hepatic marker enzymes in rat serum and restored the antioxidant enzyme levels with respect to CCl4-induced group (P?enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of GA which may be due to its improved absorption and increased bioavailability in rat serum.

Bhattacharyya S; Ahammed SM; Saha BP; Mukherjee PK

2013-09-01

327

The gallic Acid-phospholipid complex improved the antioxidant potential of gallic Acid by enhancing its bioavailability.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gallic acid (GA) is well known for its antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity, though its effectiveness is restricted due to rapid metabolism and elimination. To overcome these problems, gallic acid-phospholipid complex was prepared and the effect of phospholipid complexation was investigated on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative damage in rat liver. The complex significantly reduced the hepatic marker enzymes in rat serum and restored the antioxidant enzyme levels with respect to CCl4-induced group (P?enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of GA which may be due to its improved absorption and increased bioavailability in rat serum. PMID:23800857

Bhattacharyya, Sauvik; Ahammed, Sk Milan; Saha, Bishnu Pada; Mukherjee, Pulok K

2013-06-26

328

Enhanced drinking water supply through harvested rainwater treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

All over the world, an increasing number of areas are experiencing water shortage.A compact treatment unit for harvested rainwater is tested in the present study.Both installation and maintenance costs are significantly lower than conventional systems.Results show that the household-scale unit is able to remove pollutants from rainwater.

Naddeo, Vincenzo; Scannapieco, Davide; Belgiorno, Vincenzo

2013-08-01

329

Clinical effects of enhanced external counterpulsation treatment in patients with ischemic heart failure.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) is a noninvasive treatment that is proven safe and effective in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart failure (HF). The aims of this study are to investigate the clinical effects of EECP therapy in patients with symptomatic CAD and chronic HF, and to find out an answer to the question: Does EECP therapy have any effect on the prognostic markers of HF? METHODS: This study was designed as a prospective cohort study. A total of 68 consecutive patients with symptomatic CAD and chronic HF referred to EECP therapy were enrolled in this study between November 2007 and December 2010; 47 patients (39 males and 8 females, 65 ± 7, years), have undergone EECP treatment, and 21 patients (20 males and 1 female, 62 ± 10 years), who did not want to participate in the EECP program comprised the control group. Statistical analysis was performed using t tests for dependent and independent samples, Mann-Whitney U test, Chi-square and Fischer exact tests. RESULTS: EECP therapy resulted in significant Improvement in post-intervention New York Heart Association functional class (p<0.001), left ventricular ejection fraction (p<0.001), B-type natriuretic peptide levels (p<0.003), uric acid levels (p<0.05), free-T3/free-T4 ratio (p<0.034) and mitral annular E (p<0.05) velocity, compared with baseline, a finding not evident in the control group. CONCLUSION: EECP treatment significantly improved clinical and some biochemical parameters, which are mostly prognostic markers in patients with symptomatic CAD and chronic HF.

Kozda? G; Erta? G; Aygün F; Emre E; Kirba? A; Ural D; Soran O

2012-05-01

330

Clinical effects of enhanced external counterpulsation treatment in patients with ischemic heart failure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) is a noninvasive treatment that is proven safe and effective in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart failure (HF). The aims of this study are to investigate the clinical effects of EECP therapy in patients with symptomatic CAD and chronic HF, and to find out an answer to the question: Does EECP therapy have any effect on the prognostic markers of HF? Methods: This study was designed as a prospective cohort study. A total of 68 consecutive patients with symptomatic CAD and chronic HF referred to EECP therapy were enrolled in this study between November 2007 and December 2010; 47 patients (39 males and 8 females, 65±7, years), have undergone EECP treatment, and 21 patients (20 males and 1 female, 62±10 years), who did not want to participate in the EECP program comprised the control group. Statistical analysis was performed using t tests for dependent and independent samples, Mann-Whitney U test, Chi-square and Fischer exact tests. Results: EECP therapy resulted in significant improvement in post-intervention New York Heart Association functional class (p<0.001), left ventricular ejection fraction (p<0.001), B-type natriuretic peptide levels (p<0.003), uric acid levels (p<0.05), free-T3/free-T4 ratio (p<0.034) and mitral annular E (p<0.05) velocity, compared with baseline, a finding not evident in the control group. Conclusion: EECP treatment significantly improved clinical and some biochemical parameters, which are mostly prognostic markers in patients with symptomatic CAD and chronic HF.

Güliz Kozda?; Gökhan Erta?; Fatih Aygün; Ender Emre; Ahu K?rba?; Dilek Ural; Özlem Soran

2012-01-01

331

Use of glycyrrhetinic acid, glycyrrhizic acid and related compounds for prevention and/or treatment of pulmonary fibrosis  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention pertains to novel uses of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), glycyrrhizic acid (GLA) and related compounds for prevention and/or treatment of pulmonary fibrosis, in particular, irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Also embodied are therapeutic uses of prodrugs, metabolites, derivatives (e.g., acids, esters and ethers), and salts of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) and glycyrrhizic acid (GLA). The present invention also provides for therapeutic or pharmaceutical compositions comprising a compound of the invention in a form that can be combined with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

ZHANG LURONG; ZHANG WEIJIAN; XU JIANHUA; YANG SHANMIN

332

USE OF GLYCYRRHETINIC ACID, GLYCYRRHIZIC ACID AND RELATED COMPOUNDS FOR PREVENTION AND/OR TREATMENT OF PULMONARY FIBROSIS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention pertains to novel uses of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), glycyrrhizic acid (GLA) and related compounds for prevention and/or treatment of pulmonary fibrosis, in particular, irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Also embodied are therapeutic uses of prodrugs, metabolites, derivatives (e.g., acids, esters and ethers), and salts of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) and glycyrrhizic acid (GLA). The present invention also provides for therapeutic or pharmaceutical compositions comprising a compound of the invention in a form that can be combined with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

ZHANG LURONG; ZHANG WEIJIAN; XU JIANHUA; YANG SHANMIN

333

Enhancing Lipid Stability in Irradiated Beef Mince by Oleoresins and/ or Ascorbic Acid during Chilling Storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lipid Oxidation, fatty acids profile and sensory properties of irradiated beef mince (2.5 kGy) treated with oleoresins (rosemary or ginger), ascorbic acid, or combination of ascorbic acid and oleoresins were investigated during 30 days of chilled storage. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) as an indication of lipid oxidation, of irradiated control samples were significantly higher than those of non irradiated control and samples treated with rosemary and ginger oleoresins. By GC-MS analysis, it was found that the relative percentage of total saturated fatty acids (TSFA) increased in all treatments. However, the highest increase was recorded in irradiated control samples compared to non irradiated control samples. Beef mince samples treated with oleoresins (rosemary or ginger) had the best scores for discoloration and off odour. Thus, the addition of oleoresins (rosemary or ginger) to beef mince before irradiation could be an easily applied method to minimize oxidative degradation of irradiated meat

2008-01-01

334

Sewage sludge treatment using microwave-enhanced advanced oxidation process.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A microwave-enhanced advanced oxidation process using hydrogen peroxide (MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP) was used for the release of nutrients and the destruction of solids from secondary municipal sewage sludge in this study. Using a computer statistical software package for designing experiments and for data analyses, four factors including microwave heating temperature, heating time, hydrogen peroxide dosage, and sludge solids content were examined. Experiments were performed at sludge solids content of 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5%, heating temperature of 80, 100 and 120 degrees C, heating time of 1.5, 3 and 9 minutes, and hydrogen peroxide dosage of 0, 1 and 2 wt %, respectively. Overall, the maximum solubilization of nutrients was obtained at 2.5% of total solids content, 2 wt % of hydrogen peroxide, 5 min. of microwave heating and at 120 degrees C. The most significant factor for the solubilization of nutrients using the microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process was the initial sludge concentration. Hydrogen peroxide dosage was also a very significant factor. The maximum yield occurred at an extended heating period of five minutes in this study. Nevertheless, the results indicated that the nutrient release and disintegration of solids were also very substantial over heating periods of 1.5 and 3 minutes. Even with a heating period of 1.5 minutes, the yield was estimated to be about 70% that of the 5 minute heating.

Yin GQ; Liao PH; Lo KV

2008-02-01

335

Sewage sludge treatment using microwave-enhanced advanced oxidation process.  

Science.gov (United States)

A microwave-enhanced advanced oxidation process using hydrogen peroxide (MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP) was used for the release of nutrients and the destruction of solids from secondary municipal sewage sludge in this study. Using a computer statistical software package for designing experiments and for data analyses, four factors including microwave heating temperature, heating time, hydrogen peroxide dosage, and sludge solids content were examined. Experiments were performed at sludge solids content of 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5%, heating temperature of 80, 100 and 120 degrees C, heating time of 1.5, 3 and 9 minutes, and hydrogen peroxide dosage of 0, 1 and 2 wt %, respectively. Overall, the maximum solubilization of nutrients was obtained at 2.5% of total solids content, 2 wt % of hydrogen peroxide, 5 min. of microwave heating and at 120 degrees C. The most significant factor for the solubilization of nutrients using the microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process was the initial sludge concentration. Hydrogen peroxide dosage was also a very significant factor. The maximum yield occurred at an extended heating period of five minutes in this study. Nevertheless, the results indicated that the nutrient release and disintegration of solids were also very substantial over heating periods of 1.5 and 3 minutes. Even with a heating period of 1.5 minutes, the yield was estimated to be about 70% that of the 5 minute heating. PMID:18172812

Yin, Gui Q; Liao, Ping H; Lo, Kwang V

2008-02-01

336

Inhibition of insulin/IGF-1 receptor signaling enhances bile acid toxicity in primary hepatocytes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Modulation of ERBB and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor function is recognized as a potential mechanism to inhibit tumor growth. We and others have shown that inhibition of ERBB1 can enhance bile acid toxicity. Herein, we extend our analyses to examine the impact of insulin/IGF-1 receptor inhibition on primary hepatocyte survival when exposed to the secondary bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) and compare the impact inhibition of this receptor has on bile acid toxicity effects to that of ERBB1/MEK1/2 inhibition. The insulin/IGF-1 receptor inhibitor NVP-ADW742 at concentrations which inhibit both the insulin and IGF-1 receptors had a modest negative impact on hepatocyte viability, and strongly potentiated DCA-induced apoptotic cell death. Identical data were obtained expressing a dominant negative IGF-1 receptor in hepatocytes; a receptor which acts to inhibit both the IGF-1 receptor and the insulin receptor in trans. Inhibition of ERBB1 function using Iressa (gefitinib) or the tyrphostin AG1478 had more modest effects at enhancing DCA lethality than inhibition of the insulin/IGF-1 receptor function. In contrast, over-expression of a dominant negative ERBB1 protein had pleiotropic effects on multiple signaling pathways in an apparently non-specific manner. These findings suggest that novel therapeutic kinase inhibitors, targeted against growth factor receptors, have the potential to promote bile acid toxicity in hepatocyte when bile flow may be impaired.

Dent P; Han SI; Mitchell C; Studer E; Yacoub A; Grandis J; Grant S; Krystal GW; Hylemon PB

2005-11-01

337

Prevention of black spot disease in persimmon fruit by gibberellic acid and iprodione treatments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Black spot disease (BSD) in persimmon fruit, caused by Alternaria alternata, develops primarily in the high humidity environment beneath the calyx. Three treatments with gibberellic acid (GA3, 20 micrograms/ml) applied during fruit development at 30, 20, and 10 days before harvest, reduced decay more effectively than the single commercial treatment of GA3 (50 microgram/ml) applied 10 days before harvest. As a result of GA3 treatment, the calyx of the fruit remained erect till harvest. The correlation coefficent between BSD under the calyx and calyx erectness was r = -0.72. Persimmon fruits treated with GA3 in the orchard and stored at 0 C for 3 mo showed less fruit area becoming covered with black spot during storage compared with untreated fruit. Increasing the number of sprays from one to three resulted in a decreased infected area. Sprays of GA3 also inhibited fruit softening, with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.63 between decayed area and fruit firmness. GA3 at concentrations up to 200 microgram/ml had no effect on fungal development in vitro and in vivo on inoculated fruits. GA3 apparently affects decay development by enhancing resistance of the fruit. Preharvest treatment with GA3 and the fungicide iprodione further reduced the percentage of fruits unmarketable due to BSD.

Perez A; Ben-Arie R; Dinoor A; Genizi A; Prusky D

1995-02-01

338

Enhanced L-(+)-lactic acid production by an adapted strain of Rhizopus oryzae using corncob hydrolysate  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Corncob is an economic feedstock and more than 20 million tons of corncobs are produced annually in China. Abundant xylose can be potentially converted from the large amount of hemicellulosic materials in corncobs, which makes the crop residue an attractive alternative substrate for a value-added production of a variety of bioproducts. Lactic acid can be used as a precursor for poly-lactic acid production. Although current industrial lactic acid is produced by lactic acid bacteria using enriched medium, production by Rhizopus oryzae is preferred due to its exclusive formation of the-isomer and a simple nutrition requirement by the fungus. Production of-L-(+)-lactic acid by R. oryzae using xylose has been reported; however, its yield and conversion rate are poor compared with that of using glucose. In this study, we report an adapted R. oryzae strain HZS6 that significantly improved efficiency of substrate utilization and enhanced production of L-(+)-lactic acid from corncob hydrolysate. It increased L-(+)-lactic acid final concentration, yield, and volumetric productivity more than twofold compared with its parental strain. The optimized growth and fermentation conditions for Strain HZS6 were defined.

Bai, Dongmei; Li, S.Z.

2008-01-01

339

Attention Deficits in Chronic Methamphetamine Users as a Potential Target for Enhancing Treatment Efficacy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Methamphetamine (MA) is a potent, addictive psychostimulant that has dramatic effects on the central nervous system (CNS). The onset of methamphetamine use has been linked to heightened attention, and chronic methamphetamine use has been associated with deficits in different aspects of attention that can significantly persist into abstinence. Attention deficits in chronic methamphetamine users may be associated with severity of methamphetamine use, craving, relapse, and as a result, poor treatment outcomes. This review summarizes evidence that the continuity of attention deficits, especially during abstinence, should be considered as a potential target during methamphetamine use treatment. Implementing attention rehabilitation techniques during treatment may enhance motivation for treatment in chronic methamphetamine users, and may facilitate treatment adherence, craving control and promote relapse prevention. This issue has important clinical implications for enhancing treatment efficacy and as a result, increasing treatment outcomes.

Zahra Alam Mehrjerdi; Alireza Noroozi; Alasdair M. Barr; Hamed Ekhtiari

2012-01-01

340

(+)-z-bisdehydrodoisynolic Acid enhances Basal metabolism and Fatty Acid oxidation in female obese zucker rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have previously reported that the synthetic estrogen, (+)-Z-bisdehydrodoisynolic Acid [(+)-Z-BDDA], attenuated weight gain and cardiovascular risk in obese rodents. To determine if these antiobesity effects were attributed to changes in basal metabolism, we assessed indirect calorimetry and metabolic profile in female obese Zucker (OZR) rats provided (+)-Z-BDDA (0.0002% food admixture) for 11 weeks. Similar to our previous findings, (+)-Z-BDDA reduced weight gain and improved lipid and glucose homeostasis in OZR rats. Furthermore, resting energy expenditure was increased by (+)-Z-BDDA, as evident by heat production and oxygen consumption. We also observed a marked reduction in respiratory quotient (RQ) along with a corresponding induction of hepatic AMPK in rodents provided (+)-Z-BDDA. Collectively, these findings indicate that (+)-Z-BDDA partially attenuated obesity and associated pathologies through increased resting energy expenditure and fatty acid utilization. Further investigation is required to fully elucidate the mechanisms involved as well as to determine the potential therapeutic implications for (+)-Z-BDDA on obesity and its related pathologies.

Banz WJ; Strader AD; Ajuwon KM; Hou Y; Meyers CY; Davis JE

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Clofibric Acid, a Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor Alpha Ligand, Enhances a Suppressive Effect of Cis-diaminedichloroplatinum on Proliferation of Ovarian Carcinoma Cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to elucidate the possible mechanism that clofibric acid (CA), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? ligand, enhances a suppressive effect of cis-diaminedichloroplatinum (CDDP) on proliferation of the ovarian carcinoma line OVCAR-3. These cells was incubated with 0.5 ?M/ml CDDP in the presence or absence of 50 ?M CA or incubated with 50 ?M CA alone for 72 hr. While treatment with CA alone did not affect proliferation of OVCAR-3 cells, simultaneous treatment with CDDP and CA significantly suppressed proliferation of the cells and significantly induced apoptosis compared to that with CDDP alone. Treatment with CDDP and CA significantly decreased the prostaglandin (PG) E2 level in the medium of the cells compared with treatment with CDDP alone. These results suggest the ability of CA to enhance a suppressive effect of CDDP on proliferation of the ovarian carcinoma cells through reduction of PGE2 level.

Yoshihito Yokoyama; Bing Xin; Tatsuhiko Shigeto; Masayuki Futagami; Hideki Mizunuma

2007-01-01

342

Ion beam surface treatment: A new capability for surface enhancement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The emerging capability to produce high average power (5--350 kW) pulsed ion beams at 0.2--2 MeV energies is enabling the authors to develop a new, commercial-scale thermal surface treatment technology called Ion Beam Surface Treatment (IBEST). This new technique uses high energy, pulsed ({<=}250 ns) ion beams to directly deposit energy in the top 2--20 micrometers of the surface of any material. The depth of treatment is controllable by varying the ion energy and species. Deposition of the energy with short pulses in a thin surface layer allows melting of the layer with relatively small energies and allows rapid cooling of the melted layer by thermal diffusion into the underlying substrate. Typical cooling rates of this process (10{sup 9}--10{sup 10} K/sec) cause rapid resolidification, resulting in the production of non-equilibrium microstructures (nano-crystalline and metastable phases) that have significantly improved corrosion, wear, and hardness properties. The authors conducted IBEST feasibility experiments with results confirming surface hardening, noncrystalline grain formation, metal surface polishing, controlled melt of ceramic surfaces, and surface cleaning using pulsed ion beams.

Stinnett, R.W.; McIntyre, D.C.; Buchheit, R.G.; Neau, E.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Greenly, J.B.; Thompson, M.O. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Johnston, G.P. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rej, D.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1994-07-01

343

Mutations in a novel 9-stearoyl-ACP-desaturase gene are associated with enhanced stearic acid levels in soybean seeds  

Science.gov (United States)

Stearic acid (18:0) is typically a minor component of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] oil, accounting for only 2-4 % of the total fatty acid content. Increasing stearic acid levels of soybean oil would lead to enhanced oxidative stability, potentially reducing the need for hydrogenation, a process...

344

Sulfur Hexafluoride Treatment Of Used Nuclear Fuel To Enhance Separations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Reactive Gas Recycling (RGR) technology development has been initiated at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), with a stretch-goal to develop a fully dry recycling technology for Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF). This approach is attractive due to the potential of targeted gas-phase treatment steps to reduce footprint and secondary waste volumes associated with separations relying primarily on traditional technologies, so long as the fluorinators employed in the reaction are recycled for use in the reactors or are optimized for conversion of fluorinator reactant. The developed fluorination via SF6, similar to the case for other fluorinators such as NF3, can be used to address multiple fuel forms and downstream cycles including continued processing for LWR via fluorination or incorporation into a aqueous process (e.g. modified FLUOREX) or for subsequent pyro treatment to be used in advanced gas reactor designs such metal- or gas-cooled reactors. This report details the most recent experimental results on the reaction of SF6 with various fission product surrogate materials in the form of oxides and metals, including uranium oxides using a high-temperature DTA apparatus capable of temperatures in excess of 1000° C . The experimental results indicate that the majority of the fission products form stable solid fluorides and sulfides, while a subset of the fission products form volatile fluorides such as molybdenum fluoride and niobium fluoride, as predicted thermodynamically. Additional kinetic analysis has been performed on additional fission products. A key result is the verification that SF6 requires high temperatures for direct fluorination and subsequent volatilization of uranium oxides to UF6, and thus is well positioned as a head-end treatment for other separations technologies, such as the volatilization of uranium oxide by NF3 as reported by colleagues at PNNL, advanced pyrochemical separations or traditional full recycle approaches. Based on current results of the research at SRNL on SF6 fluoride volatility for UNF separations, SF6 treatment renders all anticipated volatile fluorides studied to be volatile, and all non-volatile fluorides studied to be non-volatile, with the notable exception of uranium oxides. This offers an excellent opportunity to use this as a head-end separations treatment process because: 1. SF6 can be used to remove volatile fluorides from a UNF matrix while leaving behind uranium oxides. Therefore an agent such as NF3 should be able to very cleanly separate a pure UF6 stream, leaving compounds in the bottoms such as PuF4, SrF2 and CsF after the UNF matrix has been pre-treated with SF6. 2. Due to the fact that the uranium oxide is not separated in the volatilization step upon direct contact with SF6 at moderately high temperatures (?1000°C), this fluoride approach may be wellsuited for head-end processing for Gen IV reactor designs where the LWR is treated as a fuel stock, and it is not desired to separate the uranium from plutonium, but it is desired to separate many of the volatile fission products. 3. It is likely that removal of the volatile fission products from the uranium oxide should simplify both traditional and next generation pyroprocessing techniques. 4. SF6 treatment to remove volatile fission products, with or without treatment with additional fluorinators, could be used to simplify the separations of traditional aqueous processes in similar fashion to the FLUOREX process. Further research should be conducted to determine the separations efficiency of a combined SF6/NF3 separations approach which could be used as a stand-alone separations technology or a head-end process

2012-01-01

345

The acid pocket: a target for treatment in reflux disease?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The nadir esophageal pH of reflux observed during pH monitoring in the postprandial period is often more acidic than the concomitant intragastric pH. This paradox prompted the discovery of the "acid pocket", an area of unbuffered gastric acid that accumulates in the proximal stomach after meals and serves as the reservoir for acid reflux in healthy individuals and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients. However, there are differentiating features between these populations in the size and position of the acid pocket, with GERD patients predisposed to upward migration of the proximal margin onto the esophageal mucosa, particularly when supine. This upward migration of acid, sometimes referred to as an "acid film", likely contributes to mucosal pathology in the region of the squamocolumnar junction. Furthermore, movement of the acid pocket itself to a supradiaphragmatic location with hiatus hernia increases the propensity for acid reflux by all conventional mechanisms. Consequently, the acid pocket is an attractive target for GERD therapy. It may be targeted in a global way with proton pump inhibitors that attenuate acid pocket development, or with alginate/antacid combinations that colocalize with the acid pocket and displace it distally, thereby demonstrating the potential for selective targeting of the acid pocket in GERD.

Kahrilas PJ; McColl K; Fox M; O'Rourke L; Sifrim D; Smout AJ; Boeckxstaens G

2013-07-01

346

The acid pocket: a target for treatment in reflux disease?  

Science.gov (United States)

The nadir esophageal pH of reflux observed during pH monitoring in the postprandial period is often more acidic than the concomitant intragastric pH. This paradox prompted the discovery of the "acid pocket", an area of unbuffered gastric acid that accumulates in the proximal stomach after meals and serves as the reservoir for acid reflux in healthy individuals and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients. However, there are differentiating features between these populations in the size and position of the acid pocket, with GERD patients predisposed to upward migration of the proximal margin onto the esophageal mucosa, particularly when supine. This upward migration of acid, sometimes referred to as an "acid film", likely contributes to mucosal pathology in the region of the squamocolumnar junction. Furthermore, movement of the acid pocket itself to a supradiaphragmatic location with hiatus hernia increases the propensity for acid reflux by all conventional mechanisms. Consequently, the acid pocket is an attractive target for GERD therapy. It may be targeted in a global way with proton pump inhibitors that attenuate acid pocket development, or with alginate/antacid combinations that colocalize with the acid pocket and displace it distally, thereby demonstrating the potential for selective targeting of the acid pocket in GERD. PMID:23629599

Kahrilas, Peter J; McColl, Kenneth; Fox, Mark; O'Rourke, Lisa; Sifrim, Daniel; Smout, Andre J P M; Boeckxstaens, Guy

2013-04-30

347

Use of electroporation to accelerate the skin permeability enhancing action of oleic acid.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rat skin permeability after treatment by electroporation (newly developed frog type electrode, 100V, 10 pulses), oleic acid/propylene glycol (PG) and a combination of both were investigated using Fourier transformed infrared attenuated total reflectance (FT-IR/ATR) analysis. Electroporation immediately disordered the stratum corneum lipid structure up to a certain threshold level. This action lasted throughout the experiment. This may be attributed to the formation of long lifetime of metastable lipid structures, which may allow molecules to pass to the inside of the stratum corneum due to the electroporation-induced fluidized lipid membranes. Electroporation also altered the protein structure of the stratum corneum. When electroporation was combined with 0.05 M oleic acid/PG, uptake of oleic acid and PG into the stratum corneum was remarkably accelerated compared to the application of only 0.05 M oleic acid/PG to the skin. This indicates that electroporation enables oleic acid and PG to penetrate the stratum corneum easily by disrupting the structure of the latter. PG transfer into the dermis from the epidermis was accelerated, not because of the direct action of electroporation on the dermis, but because electroporation induced the rapidly disordering action of oleic acid on the stratum corneum. Lipid-soluble indomethacin permeated the skin more rapidly when the skin was treated with electroporation plus oleic acid/PG than with 0.05 M oleic acid/PG in vitro.

Takeuchi Y; Miyawaki K; Kamiyabu S; Fukushima S; Yamaoka Y; Kishimoto S; Taguchi K; Masai H; Kamata Y

2000-07-01

348

Enhanced washing durability of hydrophobic coating on cellulose fabric using polycarboxylic acids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nine polycarboxylic acids were used to improve washing durability of hydrophobic cellulose fabric finished by sol-gel method. By simultaneous forming ester-bridge between cellulose and silica layer by ester bond, polycarboxylic acids could anchor silica coating onto cellulose fabric to strengthen the adhesion of organic-inorganic hybrid coating. The wettability of treated fabrics was characterized by water contact angle, spray test and hydrostatic pressure test. The results showed that all investigated polycarboxylic acids could improve the durability. The polycarboxylic acid with proper distance between terminal carboxylic acid groups and number of carboxylic acid groups showed the highest durability. 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) led to the best durability of hydrophobic cellulose fabric with water contact angle of 137.6{sup o} (recovery percentage of 94.2%) after 30 washing times. The effect of BTCA on durability was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. This study demonstrated that the surface treatment using polycarboxylic acids and mixed organosilanes is a promising alternative for achieving durable hydrophobic fabrics.

Huang Wenqi [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Xing Yanjun, E-mail: yjxing@dhu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Key Laboratory of Science and Technology of Eco-Textile (Donghua University), Ministry of Education, Shanghai 201620 (China); Yu Yunyi [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Shang Songmin [Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Hong Kong); Dai Jinjin [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

2011-02-15

349

Treatment of liposclerosis of the leg by fibrinolytic enhancement: a preliminary report.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fourteen patients with longstanding lipodermatosclerosis of their lower legs, secondary to venous disease in 11, were treated for three months with stanozolol, a drug that enhances fibrinolytic activity. No other treatment was given and no change made in existing treatment. All the patients improved...

Browse, N L; Jarrett, P E; Morland, M; Burnand, K

350

Use of enhanced counterpulsation in the treatment of refractory angina pectoris and congestive heart failure.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) is a Food and Drug Administration approved non-pharmacological treatment for angina pectoris refractory to medical management and for use in the treatment of congestive heart failure. EECP improves quality of life, symptoms and exercise duration in these patients.

Kumar A; Aronow WS

2009-01-01

351

Use of enhanced counterpulsation in the treatment of refractory angina pectoris and congestive heart failure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) is a Food and Drug Administration approved non-pharmacological treatment for angina pectoris refractory to medical management and for use in the treatment of congestive heart failure. EECP improves quality of life, symptoms and exercise duration in these patients. PMID:20043608

Kumar, Anil; Aronow, Wilbert S

352

Ozonolysis mechanism of lignin model compounds and microbial treatment of organic acids produced.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Treatment methods comprising ozonolysis and microbial treatment of lignin discharged from the pulp manufacture industries were investigated by using a sulfite pulp wastewater and a lignin model compound, i.e. sodium lignosulfonate. Dynamic behaviors for the formations of intermediate derivatives such as muconic acid, maleic acid, and oxalic acid produced from the ozonolysis of sulfite pulp wastewater were observed from data of UV absorption at 280 nm by a spectrophotometer and at 210 nm by high performance liquid chromatography. The microorganisms that were isolated by the enrichment culture method were used to degrade the organic acids such as oxalic acid and acetic acid. Time courses of biological degradation of these organic acids indicated diauxic growth, which was found in a culture with mixed substrates. In the treatment of sodium lignosulfonate, the ozonolysis and microbial treatment using activated sludge converted sodium lignosulfonate into carbon dioxide and water almost completely.

Nakamura Y; Daidai M; Kobayashi F

2004-01-01

353

Large neutral amino acids in the treatment of PKU: from theory to practice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Notwithstanding the success of the traditional dietary phenylalanine restriction treatment in phenylketonuria (PKU), the use of large neutral amino acid (LNAA) supplementation rather than phenylalanine restriction has been suggested. This treatment modality deserves attention as it might improve cog...

van Spronsen, Francjan J.; de Groot, Martijn J.; Hoeksma, Marieke; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; van Rijn, Margreet

354

[The investigation of humic acid by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Humic acid (HA), which are organic compounds widely existing in the oceans, rivers and soil, has important significance for the environmental monitoring of soil and water. In this paper, ai ming at the problem of Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) applying for HA detection in water, the characteristics of the humic acid on silver colloids was studied by means of SERS. The influence of laser irradiation time, HA concentrations and pH value on the surface-enhanced effects of HA were investigated. The experimental results show that the SERS spectra of HA is ideal when the laser irradiation time between 20-30 min. The SERS of different HA concentrations was detected. It was found that the relative intensity at 1 379 cm(-1) increased as a linear function of the concentration of HA with correlation coefficient R2 of 0.993. The SERS of HA was found to be very sensitive to pH, the SERS spectra of HA was very weak at neutral pH, but at acidic pH and alkaline pH a remarkable increase of SERS intensity occurred. The SERS of HA in running water was detected too. The experimental results show that it is feasible to detect HA in natural water by means of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

Zhang WJ; Li Y; Guo JJ; Xiao Q; Yu L

2013-05-01

355

[The investigation of humic acid by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy].  

Science.gov (United States)

Humic acid (HA), which are organic compounds widely existing in the oceans, rivers and soil, has important significance for the environmental monitoring of soil and water. In this paper, ai ming at the problem of Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) applying for HA detection in water, the characteristics of the humic acid on silver colloids was studied by means of SERS. The influence of laser irradiation time, HA concentrations and pH value on the surface-enhanced effects of HA were investigated. The experimental results show that the SERS spectra of HA is ideal when the laser irradiation time between 20-30 min. The SERS of different HA concentrations was detected. It was found that the relative intensity at 1 379 cm(-1) increased as a linear function of the concentration of HA with correlation coefficient R2 of 0.993. The SERS of HA was found to be very sensitive to pH, the SERS spectra of HA was very weak at neutral pH, but at acidic pH and alkaline pH a remarkable increase of SERS intensity occurred. The SERS of HA in running water was detected too. The experimental results show that it is feasible to detect HA in natural water by means of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. PMID:23905329

Zhang, Wen-Juan; Li, Ying; Guo, Jin-Jia; Xiao, Qiong; Yu, Li

2013-05-01

356

Tauroursodeoxycholic acid enhances the pre-implantation embryo development by reducing apoptosis in pigs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Apoptosis is an important determinant of the normal development of pre-implantation embryos in vitro. Recently, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis has been extensively investigated in a wide variety of diseases. Efficient functioning of the ER is essential for most cellular activities and survival. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), an endogenous bile acid, has been reported to attenuate ER stress-mediated cell death by interrupting the classic pathways of apoptosis. Therefore, in this study, the anti-apoptotic effect of TUDCA on ER stress-induced apoptosis was examined in pre-implantation pig embryos. Also, tunicamycin was used to investigate the effects of ER stress on pig embryo development. After in vitro maturation and fertilization, presumptive pig embryos were cultured in NCSU-23 medium supplemented with TUDCA or TM for 6 days at 39 °C, 5% CO(2) in air. All data were analysed using one-way anova and Duncan's multiple range test in the statistical analysis system (SAS). In addition, we also determined the optimal TM and TUDCA concentrations. Samples were treated with TM at concentrations of 0, 1, 2 or 5 ?m and with TUDCA at concentrations of 0, 100, 200 or 300 ?m. When TM was used during in vitro culture, only 8.2% (8/97) of the embryos developed to the blastocyst stage when the treatment concentration was 1 ?m compared with 27.4% (28/102) of the embryos in the control group (p < 0.05). In contrast, the frequency of blastocyst formation and the number of cells were higher when treated with 200 ?m TUDCA compared with the control group (32.8% and 39.5 vs 22.2% and 35.6, p < 0.05). Moreover, the developmental rate to the blastocyst stage embryo in the group treated with TM and TUDCA was not significantly different from that of the control group (17.8%, 26/142 vs 24.9%, 36/145). Furthermore, the blastocyst cell number was enhanced (31.9 vs 36.9) and apoptosis reduced (TUNEL-positive nuclei number, 6.0 vs 3.2) by TUDCA treatment in pig embryos. In the real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis, the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-XL gene was shown to be increased in the blastocyst stage because of TUDCA treatment, whereas expression of pro-apoptotic Bax was decreased. In addition, we also found that TUDCA decreased the rate of TM-induced apoptosis in the pre-implantation stage. Taken together, our results indicate that TUDCA improves the developmental competence of pig embryos by modulating ER stress-induced apoptosis during the pre-implantation stage.

Kim JS; Song BS; Lee KS; Kim DH; Kim SU; Choo YK; Chang KT; Koo DB

2012-10-01

357

Conductivity enhancement of conjugated polymer after HCl-methanol treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Polymer conductivity is key factor to improve the performance of the electronic and photonic devices. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) films were soaked into 0.03, 0.14, 0.41, and 1.13 M concentrations of HCl-methanol solution for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 min. The resulting films were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, conductivity measurements, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The characteristic FTIR absorption peaks of poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) of the films decreased as the soaking time increased. While PSS absorption peaks appeared in the HCl-methanol soaking solution and increased with the soaking time. The conductivity of PEDOT:PSS film was approximately 1.20 x 10-6 S/cm before soaking in the HCl-methanol solution. The conductivity of PEDOT:PSS was enhanced nearly three orders of magnitude after soaking the films into the HCl-methanol solvent. The surface of PEDOT:PSS film was initially very smooth. However, numerous humps appeared on the surface of the films after soaking PEDOT:PSS film into the HCl-methanol solution for 10, 20, and 30 min. The number of humps was reduced and disappeared thereafter.

2009-08-31

358

Ursodeoxycholic acid in the treatment of liver diseases.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ursodeoxycholic acid is a dihydroxy bile acid with a rapidly expanding spectrum of usage in acute and chronic liver diseases. The various mechanisms of action of this hydrophilic bile acid include direct cytoprotection, detergent action on dysfunctional microtubules, immunomodulation and induction o...

Saksena, S.; Tandon, R. K.

359

A sulfated polysaccharide, fucoidan, enhances the immunomodulatory effects of lactic acid bacteria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide contained in brown algae, has a variety of immunomodulatory effects, including antitumor and antiviral effects. On the other hand, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) also have immunomodulatory effects such as anti-allergic effects. In this study, we demonstrated that fucoidan enhances the probiotic effects of LAB on immune functions. By using Peyer's patch cells and spleen cells in vitro, fucoidan amplified interferon (IFN)-? production in response to a strain of LAB, Tetragenococcus halophilus KK221, and this activity was abolished by desulfation of fucoidan. Moreover, this IFN-? response was abolished by interleukin (IL)-12 neutralization. These results indicate that fucoidan enhanced IL-12 production in response to KK221, resulting in promoting IFN-? production. In an in vivo study, Th1/Th2 immunobalance was most improved by oral administration of both fucoidan and KK221 to ovalbumin-immunized mice. These findings suggest that fucoidan can enhance a variety of beneficial effects of LAB on immune functions.

Kawashima T; Murakami K; Nishimura I; Nakano T; Obata A

2012-03-01

360

Postharvest BTH treatment induced disease resistance and enhanced reactive oxygen species metabolism in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) fruit  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Benzo (1, 2, 3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester (BTH) is a novel synthetic elicitor capable of inducing disease resistance in many plants. Fruits were dipped in BTH at 100 mg/L for 10 min, and then stored at room temperature (22 ± 2 °C, relative humidity 55–60 %). The results showed that BTH significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the lesion area of fruits inoculated with Trichothecium roseum and the natural disease incidence of fruits during storage at room temperature. The treatment effectively maintained cell membrane integrity and decreased the production of lipid peroxidation and malondialdehyde. BTH treatment markedly enhanced the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide, (H2O2) while decreased the rate of superoxide anion (O 2 ·? ) production. Furthermore, BTH observably increased the activities of NADPH oxidase (NOX, EC1.6.3.1), superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC1.15.1.1), peroxidase (POD, EC1.11.1.7), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC1.11.1.11), and glutathione reductase (GR, EC1.6.4.2), while inhibited the catalase (CAT, EC1.11.1.6) activity. These results indicated that BTH treatment increased the disease resistance of muskmelon fruits by enhancing their antioxidant system activity after harvest, and suggested that postharvest treatment with BTH could be promising in reducing decay and reducing or/and substituting chemical fungicides to control postharvest diseases in fruits.

Ren Y; Wang Y; Bi Y; Ge Y; Wang Y; Fan C; Li D; Deng H

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
361

Glycolic acid peels versus amino fruit acid peels in the treatment of melasma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Chemical peels are becoming more popular as a treatment modality for melasma. OBJECTIVE: To compare the therapeutic effects of glycolic acid (GA) peels and amino fruit acid (AFA) peels in patients with melasma. METHODS: In this single-blind, randomized right-left comparison study, patients received 12 serial peels on the two halves of the face at 2-week intervals for 6 months. Clinical evaluation based on the modified Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI) scores was performed at baseline and at 3 and 6 months. RESULTS: The modified MASI scores at 3 and 6 months in both application areas decreased significantly from baseline (p<.05). When the two applications were compared with each other, there was no statistically significant difference between GA and AFA in terms of regression of melasma (p>.05). During the application, it was observed that AFA peels caused fewer problems than GA peels did. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results of this study, GA and AFA peels for melasma therapy were efficacious, but the AFA peel was found to be less irritating and was better tolerated.

Ilknur T; Biçak MU; Demirta?o?lu M; Ozkan S

2010-04-01

362

Enhancing and modulating the intrinsic acidity of imidazole and pyrazole through beryllium bonds.  

Science.gov (United States)

The structure and electronic properties of the complexes formed by the interaction of imidazole and pyrazole with different BeXH(BeX2) (X = H, Me, F, Cl) derivatives have been investigated via B3LYP/6-311+G(3df,2p)//B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) calculations. The formation of these azole:BeXH(BeX2) complexes is accompanied by a dramatic enhancement of the intrinsic acidity of the azole, as the deprotonated azole is much more stable after the aforementioned interaction. Most importantly, the increase in acidity is so large that the azole:BeXH or azole:BeX2 complexes behave as NH acids, which are stronger than typical oxyacids such as phosphoric acid and oxalic acid. Interestingly, the increase in acidity can be tuned through appropriate selection of the substituents attached to the Be atom, permitting us to modulate the electron-accepting ability of the BeXH or BeX2 molecule. PMID:23292320

Mó, Otilia; Yáñez, Manuel; Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José

2013-01-08

363

Enhancing and modulating the intrinsic acidity of imidazole and pyrazole through beryllium bonds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The structure and electronic properties of the complexes formed by the interaction of imidazole and pyrazole with different BeXH(BeX2) (X = H, Me, F, Cl) derivatives have been investigated via B3LYP/6-311+G(3df,2p)//B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) calculations. The formation of these azole:BeXH(BeX2) complexes is accompanied by a dramatic enhancement of the intrinsic acidity of the azole, as the deprotonated azole is much more stable after the aforementioned interaction. Most importantly, the increase in acidity is so large that the azole:BeXH or azole:BeX2 complexes behave as NH acids, which are stronger than typical oxyacids such as phosphoric acid and oxalic acid. Interestingly, the increase in acidity can be tuned through appropriate selection of the substituents attached to the Be atom, permitting us to modulate the electron-accepting ability of the BeXH or BeX2 molecule.

Mó O; Yáñez M; Alkorta I; Elguero J

2013-10-01

364

ENHANCING SOLUBILITY AND DISSOLUTION OF MEFENAMIC ACID BY FREEZE DRYING USING ?-CYCLODEXTRIN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mefenamic acid, an anti-inflammatory drug, exhibits poor water solubility, dissolution and flow properties. Thus, the aim of the present study was to improve the solubility and dissolution rate of Mefenamic acid by preparing microparticle by Freeze drying technique. Mefenamic acid microparticle containing different ratio of ?-cyclodextrin were produced by Freeze drying using water and Isopropyl alcohol as solvent system to enhance solubility and dissolution rate. The prepared formulations containing different ratio of drug and polymer were evaluated for in vitro dissolution and solubility. The prepared formulations were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimeter, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Dissolution profile of the Freeze dried microparticle was compared with its physical mixture and pure sample. Freeze dried microparticle exhibited decreased crystallinity and the solubility and dissolution of the microparticle containing different ratio of drug and ?-cyclodextrin were significant improved compared with its physical mixture and pure sample of Mefenamic acid. Dissolution of microparticle containing 1:3 w/w (FD 3) showed higher % release i.e. 98.6 % in 60 min compare to other formulation. Consequently, hence, from the above result it can be conclude that Freeze dried microparticle of Mefenamic acid is a useful technique to improve the solubility and dissolution of poorly water soluble drug like Mefenamic acid.

Dixit Mudit; Yoshita Bhardwaj; Kulkarni Parthasarathi Keshavarao; Panner Selvam

2011-01-01

365

[Timing- and concentration effect of belowground treatment with jasmonic acid on maize seedlings chemical defense response].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Biochemical and gene expression analysis methods were adopted to investigate the defensive substances and the defense-related genes expression in the roots and leaves of maize (Zea mays L. ) cultivar Gaoyou 115 after underground treatment with 10, 50, 100 and 200 micromol x L(-1) of jasmonic acid (JA) for 3-48 h, aimed to explore the timing- and concentration effect of belowground treatment with JA on the chemical defense response of maize. The chemical defense response of both treated roots and non-treated leaves of Gaoyou 115 was related to the time span of JA treatment and the concentration of JA. After treated with JA for 3-12 h, the gene expression of Bx9, PAL, PR-2a, MPI and FPS in treated roots was directly induced, resulting in an increase of DIMBOA content and a decrease of total phenol content, with the strongest induction effect detected at 100 micromol x L(-1) of JA, followed by at 50 micromol x L(-1), and at 10 micromol x L(-1). The induction effect weakened with time. Underground treatment with JA indirectly affected the chemical defense response of non-treated leaves. After underground treatment with 50 micromol x L(-1) of JA for 3 h, the gene expression of Bx9 and FPS in non-treated leaves was induced, which caused a consequent increase of leaf DIMBOA content. Within 6-24 h of JA treatment, the gene expression of Bx9, PAL, PR-1, MPI and TPS in leaves was enhanced, while the leaf DIMBOA and total phenol contents were declined. For most of the parameters measured, the direct induction effect on roots was much more significant and started earlier than the indirect induction effect on leaves, and an increasing trend was observed in the induction effect with increasing JA concentration.

Feng YJ; Wang JW; Luo SM

2009-08-01

366

[Timing- and concentration effect of belowground treatment with jasmonic acid on maize seedlings chemical defense response].  

Science.gov (United States)

Biochemical and gene expression analysis methods were adopted to investigate the defensive substances and the defense-related genes expression in the roots and leaves of maize (Zea mays L. ) cultivar Gaoyou 115 after underground treatment with 10, 50, 100 and 200 micromol x L(-1) of jasmonic acid (JA) for 3-48 h, aimed to explore the timing- and concentration effect of belowground treatment with JA on the chemical defense response of maize. The chemical defense response of both treated roots and non-treated leaves of Gaoyou 115 was related to the time span of JA treatment and the concentration of JA. After treated with JA for 3-12 h, the gene expression of Bx9, PAL, PR-2a, MPI and FPS in treated roots was directly induced, resulting in an increase of DIMBOA content and a decrease of total phenol content, with the strongest induction effect detected at 100 micromol x L(-1) of JA, followed by at 50 micromol x L(-1), and at 10 micromol x L(-1). The induction effect weakened with time. Underground treatment with JA indirectly affected the chemical defense response of non-treated leaves. After underground treatment with 50 micromol x L(-1) of JA for 3 h, the gene expression of Bx9 and FPS in non-treated leaves was induced, which caused a consequent increase of leaf DIMBOA content. Within 6-24 h of JA treatment, the gene expression of Bx9, PAL, PR-1, MPI and TPS in leaves was enhanced, while the leaf DIMBOA and total phenol contents were declined. For most of the parameters measured, the direct induction effect on roots was much more significant and started earlier than the indirect induction effect on leaves, and an increasing trend was observed in the induction effect with increasing JA concentration. PMID:19947207

Feng, Yuan-Jiao; Wang, Jian-Wu; Luo, Shi-Ming

2009-08-01

367

Unexpected acidity enhancement triggered by AlH3 association to phosphines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The complexes formed by the interaction between a series of phosphines R-PH(2) (R = H, CH(3), c-C(3)H(5), C(6)H(5)) and AlH(3) have been investigated through the use of high-level G4 ab initio calculations. These very stable complexes behave as much stronger acids than the isolated phosphines. This dramatic acidity enhancement, which can be as high as 174 kJ mol(-1), results from a much greater stabilization of the anionic deprotonated species with respect to the neutral one, upon AlH(3) association. This effect depends quantitatively on the nature of the substituent R and is smaller for R = C(6)H(5) because of the conjugation of the P lone pair with the aromatic system. More unexpectedly, however, the phosphine-alane complexes, RPH(2):AlH(3), are more acidic than the corresponding phosphine-borane RPH(2):BH(3) analogues. This unexpected result is due to the enhanced stability of the anionic deprotonated species for complexes involving AlH(3), because the delocalization of the newly created P lone pair with the P-Al bonding density is more favorable when the Lewis acid is aluminum trihydride than when it is borane. PMID:22630168

Martín-Sómer, Ana; Lamsabhi, Al Mokhtar; Mó, Otilia; Yáñez, Manuel

2012-06-08

368

Unexpected acidity enhancement triggered by AlH3 association to phosphines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The complexes formed by the interaction between a series of phosphines R-PH(2) (R = H, CH(3), c-C(3)H(5), C(6)H(5)) and AlH(3) have been investigated through the use of high-level G4 ab initio calculations. These very stable complexes behave as much stronger acids than the isolated phosphines. This dramatic acidity enhancement, which can be as high as 174 kJ mol(-1), results from a much greater stabilization of the anionic deprotonated species with respect to the neutral one, upon AlH(3) association. This effect depends quantitatively on the nature of the substituent R and is smaller for R = C(6)H(5) because of the conjugation of the P lone pair with the aromatic system. More unexpectedly, however, the phosphine-alane complexes, RPH(2):AlH(3), are more acidic than the corresponding phosphine-borane RPH(2):BH(3) analogues. This unexpected result is due to the enhanced stability of the anionic deprotonated species for complexes involving AlH(3), because the delocalization of the newly created P lone pair with the P-Al bonding density is more favorable when the Lewis acid is aluminum trihydride than when it is borane.

Martín-Sómer A; Lamsabhi AM; Mó O; Yáñez M

2012-06-01

369

A Dysfunctional Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Enhances Fitness of Staphylococcus epidermidis During ?-Lactam Stress  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT A recent controversial hypothesis suggested that the bactericidal action of antibiotics is due to the generation of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS), a process requiring the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid [TCA] cycle). To test this hypothesis, we assessed the ability of oxacillin to induce ROS production and cell death in Staphylococcus epidermidis strain 1457 and an isogenic citric acid cycle mutant. Our results confirm a contributory role for TCA-dependent ROS in enhancing susceptibility of S. epidermidis toward ?-lactam antibiotics and also revealed a propensity for clinical isolates to accumulate TCA cycle dysfunctions presumably as a way to tolerate these antibiotics. The increased protection from ?-lactam antibiotics could result from pleiotropic effects of a dysfunctional TCA cycle, including increased resistance to oxidative stress, reduced susceptibility to autolysis, and a more positively charged cell surface.

Chittezham Thomas, Vinai; Kinkead, Lauren C.; Janssen, Ashley; Schaeffer, Carolyn R.; Woods, Keith M.; Lindgren, Jill K.; Peaster, Jonathan M.; Chaudhari, Sujata S.; Sadykov, Marat; Jones, Joselyn; Mohamadi AbdelGhani, Sameh M.; Zimmerman, Matthew C.; Bayles, Kenneth W.; Somerville, Greg A.; Fey, Paul D.

2013-01-01

370

Optimization of substrate concentration for enhanced citric acid production by aspergillus niger M-101  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studying the effect of different sugar concentration of beet molasses on citric acid accumulation in batch fermentation, 150 g/litre sugar concentration was found to be optimal for maximum citric acid production (27.25+-2.35 g/litre) using Aspergillus niger M-101. Y/sup p/x/ value for product formation increased with increase in sugar concentration through out the study. Qp value for citric acid production also increased with increase in sugar concentration and reached the maximum (0.141 g/litre/h) at 150 g/litre sugar concentration but with further increase in sugar concentration, the value decreased. When culture was grown at different substrate concentrations, the kinetic parameters monitored for Y/sub x/s/, Y/sub p/s/ and Y/sub p/x/, Q/sub p/, Q/sub s/ and q/sub p/ showed significant enhancement (p

2009-01-01

371

ENHANCED MOBILITY OF DENSE NONAQUEOUS-PHASE LIQUIDS (DNAPLs) USING DISSOLVED HUMIC ACIDS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The specific objectives of this subtask are as follows: ? Evaluate the suitability of using humic acids to enhance the solubility and mobility of DNAPL contaminants sorbed to soils. ? Evaluate the toxicity and bioavailablity of the DNAPLs to biodegrading microorganisms. To meet the first objective, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) evaluated a set of humic acids (two) with different chemical compositions and polarities for the following: ? Ability of the humates to mobilize/solubilize selected (three) DNAPLs ? Mobilization/solubilization in batch soil?water experiments (one soil) ? Removal rate via biotreatment with a well-established active microbial culture. The second objective was met by evaluating the inhibiting effects of a leonardite-derived humic acid on active microbial populations.

EDWIN S. OLSON; JOHN R. GALLAGHER; MARC D. KURZ

1998-10-01

372

Fractionation of sugarcane bagasse using a combined process of dilute acid and ionic liquid treatments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biorefineries processing lignocellulose will produce chemicals and fuels from chemical constituents, cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin to replace fossil-derived products. Fractionation of sugarcane bagasse into three pure streams of chemical constituents was addressed through dissolution of constituents with the ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMiM]CH(3)COO) or 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methyl sulfate ([BMiM]MeSO(4)). Constituents were isolated from the reaction mixture with the anti-solvents acetone (?), acetone-water (AW), and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Delignification was enhanced by NaOH, although resulting in impure product streams. Xylose pre-extraction (75 % w/w) by dilute acid pretreatment, prior to ionic liquid treatment, improved lignin purity after anti-solvent separation. Fractionation efficiency of the combined process was maximized (84 %) by ionic liquid treatment at 125 °C for 120 min, resulting in 80.2 % (w/w) lignin removal and 76.5 % (w/w) lignin recovery. Ionic liquids achieved similar degrees of delignification, although fully digestible cellulose-rich solids were produced only by [EMiM]CH(3)COO treatment. PMID:22639365

Diedericks, Danie; van Rensburg, Eugéne; Görgens, Johann F

2012-05-26

373

Fractionation of sugarcane bagasse using a combined process of dilute acid and ionic liquid treatments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Biorefineries processing lignocellulose will produce chemicals and fuels from chemical constituents, cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin to replace fossil-derived products. Fractionation of sugarcane bagasse into three pure streams of chemical constituents was addressed through dissolution of constituents with the ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMiM]CH(3)COO) or 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methyl sulfate ([BMiM]MeSO(4)). Constituents were isolated from the reaction mixture with the anti-solvents acetone (?), acetone-water (AW), and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Delignification was enhanced by NaOH, although resulting in impure product streams. Xylose pre-extraction (75 % w/w) by dilute acid pretreatment, prior to ionic liquid treatment, improved lignin purity after anti-solvent separation. Fractionation efficiency of the combined process was maximized (84 %) by ionic liquid treatment at 125 °C for 120 min, resulting in 80.2 % (w/w) lignin removal and 76.5 % (w/w) lignin recovery. Ionic liquids achieved similar degrees of delignification, although fully digestible cellulose-rich solids were produced only by [EMiM]CH(3)COO treatment.

Diedericks D; van Rensburg E; Görgens JF

2012-08-01

374

ENHANCEMENT OF SPHINGOSINE KINASE 1 CATALYTIC ACTIVITY BY DELETION OF 21 AMINO ACIDS FROM THE COOH-TERMINUS*  

Science.gov (United States)

Sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) responds to a variety of growth factor signals by increasing catalytic activity as it translocates to the plasma membrane (PM). Several studies have identified amino acids residues involved in translocation yet how SphK1 increases its catalytic activity remains to be elucidated. Herein, we report that deletion of 21 amino acids from the COOH terminus of SphK1 (1-363) results in increased catalytic activity relative to wild-type SphK1 (1-384) which is independent of the phosphorylation state of Serine 225 and PMA stimulation. Importantly, HEK293 cells stably expressing the 1-363 protein exhibit enhanced cell growth under serum-deprived cell culture conditions. Together the evidence indicates that the COOH-terminal region of SphK1 encompasses a structural element that is necessary for the increase in catalytic activity in response to PMA treatment and that its deletion renders SphK1 constitutively active with respect to PMA treatment.

Hengst, Jeremy A.; Guilford, Jacquelyn M.; Conroy, Elizabeth J.; Wang, Xujun; Yun, Jong K.

2009-01-01

375

Enhancement of sphingosine kinase 1 catalytic activity by deletion of 21 amino acids from the COOH-terminus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) responds to a variety of growth factor signals by increasing catalytic activity as it translocates to the plasma membrane (PM). Several studies have identified amino acids residues involved in translocation yet how SphK1 increases its catalytic activity remains to be elucidated. Herein, we report that deletion of 21 amino acids from the COOH-terminus of SphK1 (1-363) results in increased catalytic activity relative to wild-type SphK1 (1-384) which is independent of the phosphorylation state of Serine 225 and PMA stimulation. Importantly, HEK293 cells stably expressing the 1-363 protein exhibit enhanced cell growth under serum-deprived cell culture conditions. Together the evidence indicates that the COOH-terminal region of SphK1 encompasses a structural element that is necessary for the increase in catalytic activity in response to PMA treatment and that its deletion renders SphK1 constitutively active with respect to PMA treatment.

Hengst JA; Guilford JM; Conroy EJ; Wang X; Yun JK

2010-02-01

376

Enhancement of sphingosine kinase 1 catalytic activity by deletion of 21 amino acids from the COOH-terminus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) responds to a variety of growth factor signals by increasing catalytic activity as it translocates to the plasma membrane (PM). Several studies have identified amino acids residues involved in translocation yet how SphK1 increases its catalytic activity remains to be elucidated. Herein, we report that deletion of 21 amino acids from the COOH-terminus of SphK1 (1-363) results in increased catalytic activity relative to wild-type SphK1 (1-384) which is independent of the phosphorylation state of Serine 225 and PMA stimulation. Importantly, HEK293 cells stably expressing the 1-363 protein exhibit enhanced cell growth under serum-deprived cell culture conditions. Together the evidence indicates that the COOH-terminal region of SphK1 encompasses a structural element that is necessary for the increase in catalytic activity in response to PMA treatment and that its deletion renders SphK1 constitutively active with respect to PMA treatment. PMID:19914200

Hengst, Jeremy A; Guilford, Jacquelyn M; Conroy, Elizabeth J; Wang, Xujun; Yun, Jong K

2009-11-13

377

Lamellar transition-metal molybdate-CTA mesostructured composites (metal = Ni, Co): one-pot synthesis and application in treatment of acid fuchsine.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new family of lamellar transition-metal (Ni, Co) molybdate-cetyltrimethylammonium (CTA) mesostructured composites has been synthesized by a simple chemical precipitation method. These lamellar mesostructured composites display enhanced capability in treatment of acid fuchsine in comparison with the corresponding metal molybdates and lamellar molybdenum oxide-CTA. PMID:19885461

Yao, Hong-Bin; Li, Xiao-Bo; Liu, Shu-Juan; Yu, Shu-Hong

2009-10-06

378

Lamellar transition-metal molybdate-CTA mesostructured composites (metal = Ni, Co): one-pot synthesis and application in treatment of acid fuchsine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A new family of lamellar transition-metal (Ni, Co) molybdate-cetyltrimethylammonium (CTA) mesostructured composites has been synthesized by a simple chemical precipitation method. These lamellar mesostructured composites display enhanced capability in treatment of acid fuchsine in comparison with the corresponding metal molybdates and lamellar molybdenum oxide-CTA.

Yao HB; Li XB; Liu SJ; Yu SH

2009-11-01

379

External Treatment of Broiler Chickens with Lactic-Acid-Producing Bacteria Before Slaughter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lactic-acid-producing bacterial cultures were applied to the skin of live broilers 24 hours before slaughter to determine whether inoculation with the cultures could affect the numbers of bacteria that are normally found on the skin of processed broiler carcasses. The cultures contained 10,000 to 100,000 cfu/mL and were suspended in 250 mL of a pH 6.0 nutrient medium (including glucose, peptone, beef extract, yeast extract, a surfactant, and salts) intended to enhance the survival and growth of the cultures. With broilers suspended by the feet, feathers were moved aside and the liquid suspension was sprayed directly on the skin. Sprayed broilers were then returned to a pen. In each of three replications, 4 six-wk-old broilers were sprayed and 4 broilers were kept as untreated controls. The following day, broilers were processed in a research processing facility and defeathered carcasses were sampled by rinsing for 1 min in 200 mL of peptone water after removal of heads and feet. Coliforms, E. coli, lactic-acid bacteria, and Campylobacter in carcass rinses were enumerated by standard methods. After removal of aliquots for plating, the remaining sample volume was enriched to detect Salmonella. No differences were found in log10(cfu/mL) of coliforms, E. coli, or lactic-acid bacteria between the treated and control carcasses. Salmonella bacteria were present on some carcasses, but with no difference between treatments. Campylobacter spp. were present in only one replication, so numbers of Campylobacter could not be analyzed statistically. Spraying lactic-acid-producing bacteria with nutrients on the skin of live broilers on the day before processing appears to have no effect on numbers of bacteria that are present on the skin after defeathering.

J.A. Cason; R.J. Buhr; A. Hinton; Jr.; M.E. Berrang; N.A. Cox

2005-01-01

380

Case Report: Valproic Acid and Risperidone Treatment Leading to Development of Hyperammonemia and Mania  

Science.gov (United States)

This case report describes two children who developed hyperammonemia together with frank manic behavior during treatment with a combination of valproic acid and risperidone. One child had been maintained on valproic acid for years and risperidone was added. In the second case, valproic acid was introduced to a child who had been treated with…

Carlson, Teri; Reynolds, Charles A.; Caplan, Rochelle

2007-01-01