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1

Enhancement of the ferromagnetic order of graphite after sulphuric acid treatment  

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We have studied the changes in the ferromagnetic behavior of graphite powder and graphite flakes after treatment with diluted sulphuric acid. We show that this kind of acid treatment enhances substantially the ferromagnetic magnetization of virgin graphite micrometer size powder as well as in graphite flakes. The anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) amplitude at 300 K measured in a micrometer size thin graphite flake after acid treatment reaches values comparable to polycryst...

Barzola-quiquia, J.; Bo?hlmann, W.; Esquinazi, P.; Schadewitz, A.; Ballestar, A.; Dusari, S.; Schultze-nobre, L.; Kersting, B.

2011-01-01

2

Enhanced blood compatibility of metallocene polyethylene subjected to hydrochloric Acid treatment for cardiovascular implants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Blood compatibility of metallocene polyethylene (mPE) was investigated after modifying the surface using hydrochloric acid. Contact angle of the mPE exposed to HCl poses a decrease in its value which indicates increasing wettability and better blood compatibility. Surface of mPE analyzed by using FTIR revealed no significant changes in its functional groups after treatment. Furthermore, scanning electron microscope images supported the increasing wettability through the modifications like pit formations and etching on the acid rendered surface. To evaluate the effect of acid treatment on the coagulation cascade, prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were measured. Both PT and APTT were delayed significantly (P < 0.05) after 60?min exposure implying improved blood compatibility of the surfaces. Hemolysis assay of the treated surface showed a remarkable decrease in the percentage of lysis of red blood cells when compared with untreated surface. Moreover, platelet adhesion assay demonstrated that HCl exposed surfaces deter the attachment of platelets and thereby reduce the chances of activation of blood coagulation cascade. These results confirmed the enhanced blood compatibility of mPE after HCl exposure which can be utilized for cardiovascular implants like artificial vascular prostheses, implants, and various blood contacting devices. PMID:24955370

Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Mohandas, Hemanth; Sivakumar, Gunalan; Kasi, Palaniappan; Sudheer, Theertha; Avineri Veetil, Sruthi; Murugesan, Selvakumar; Supriyanto, Eko

2014-01-01

3

Enhanced Blood Compatibility of Metallocene Polyethylene Subjected to Hydrochloric Acid Treatment for Cardiovascular Implants  

Science.gov (United States)

Blood compatibility of metallocene polyethylene (mPE) was investigated after modifying the surface using hydrochloric acid. Contact angle of the mPE exposed to HCl poses a decrease in its value which indicates increasing wettability and better blood compatibility. Surface of mPE analyzed by using FTIR revealed no significant changes in its functional groups after treatment. Furthermore, scanning electron microscope images supported the increasing wettability through the modifications like pit formations and etching on the acid rendered surface. To evaluate the effect of acid treatment on the coagulation cascade, prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were measured. Both PT and APTT were delayed significantly (P < 0.05) after 60?min exposure implying improved blood compatibility of the surfaces. Hemolysis assay of the treated surface showed a remarkable decrease in the percentage of lysis of red blood cells when compared with untreated surface. Moreover, platelet adhesion assay demonstrated that HCl exposed surfaces deter the attachment of platelets and thereby reduce the chances of activation of blood coagulation cascade. These results confirmed the enhanced blood compatibility of mPE after HCl exposure which can be utilized for cardiovascular implants like artificial vascular prostheses, implants, and various blood contacting devices.

Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Mohandas, Hemanth; Sivakumar, Gunalan; Kasi, Palaniappan; Sudheer, Theertha; Avineri Veetil, Sruthi; Murugesan, Selvakumar; Supriyanto, Eko

2014-01-01

4

Enhanced photocatalytic performance of ZnS for reversible amination of ?-oxo acids by hydrothermal treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

To understand how life could have originated on early Earth, it is essential to know what biomolecules and metabolic pathways are shared by extant organisms and what organic compounds and their chemical reaction channels were likely to have been primordially available during the initial phase of the formation of prebiotic metabolism. In a previous study, we demonstrated for the first time the reversible amination of ?-oxo acids on the surface of photo-illuminated ZnS. The sulfide mineral is a typical component at the periphery of submarine hydrothermal vents which has been frequently argued as a very attractive venue for the origin of life. In this work, in order to simulate more closely the precipitation environments of ZnS in the vent systems, we treated newly-precipitated ZnS with hydrothermal conditions and found that its photocatalytic power was significantly enhanced because the relative crystallinity of the treated sample was markedly increased with increasing temperature. Since the reported experimental conditions are believed to have been prevalent in shallow-water hydrothermal vents of early Earth and the reversible amination of ?-oxo acids is a key metabolic pathway in all extant life forms, the results of this work provide a prototypical model of the prebiotic amino acid redox metabolism. The amino acid dehydrogenase-like chemistry on photo-irradiated ZnS surfaces may advance our understanding of the establishment of archaic non-enzymatic metabolic systems. PMID:22638837

Wang, Wei; Li, Qiliang; Liu, Xiaoyang; Yang, Yanqiang; Su, Wenhui

2012-08-01

5

Enhancing decomposition rate of perfluorooctanoic acid by carbonate radical assisted sonochemical treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a recalcitrant organic pollutant in wastewater because of its wide range of applications. Technologies for PFOA treatment have recently been developed. In this study, PFOA decomposition by sonochemical treatment was investigated to determine the effects of NaHCO3 concentrations, N2 saturation, and pH on decomposition rates and defluorination efficiencies. The results showed that PFOA decomposition by ultrasound treatment only (150 W, 40 kHz), with or without saturated N2, was reaction. The extent and rate of PFOA decomposition and defluorination efficiencies of PFOA, however, greatly increased with the addition of carbonate radical reagents. PFOA was completely decomposed after 4h of sonochemical treatment with a carbonate radical oxidant and saturated N2. Without saturated N2, PFOA was also decomposed to a high (98.81%) degree. The highest PFOA decomposition and defluorination efficiencies occurred in N2 saturated solution containing an initial NaHCO3 concentration of 30 mM. Sonodecomposition of PFOA with CO3(-) radical was most favorable in a slightly alkaline environment (pH=8.65). There isn't any shorter-chain perfluorinated carboxylic acids detected except fluorine ions in final reaction solution. PMID:24751291

Phan Thi, Lan-Anh; Do, Huu-Tuan; Lo, Shang-Lien

2014-09-01

6

Enhanced suppression of tumor growth by concomitant treatment of human lung cancer cells with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid and arsenic trioxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The efficacy of arsenic trioxide (ATO) against acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and relapsed APL has been well documented. ATO may cause DNA damage by generating reactive oxygen intermediates. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, modulates gene and protein expression via histone-dependent or -independent pathways that may result in chromatin decondensation, cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis. We investigated whether ATO and SAHA act synergistically to enhance the death of cancer cells. Our current findings showed that combined treatment with ATO and SAHA resulted in enhanced suppression of non-small-cell lung carcinoma in vitro in H1299 cells and in vivo in a xenograft mouse model. Flow cytometric analysis of annexin V+ cells showed that apoptotic cell death was significantly enhanced after combined treatment with ATO and SAHA. At the doses used, ATO did not interfere with cell cycle progression, but SAHA induced p21 expression and led to G1 arrest. A Comet assay demonstrated that ATO, but not SAHA, induced DNA strand breaks in H1299 cells; however, co-treatment with SAHA significantly increased ATO-induced DNA damage. Moreover, SAHA enhanced acetylation of histone H3 and sensitized genomic DNA to DNase I digestion. Our results suggest that SAHA may cause chromatin relaxation and increase cellular susceptibility to ATO-induced DNA damage. Combined administration of SAHA and ATO may be an effective approach to the treatment of lung cancer. -- Highlights: ? ATO and SAHA are therapeutic agents with different action modes. ? Combination of ATO and SAHA synergistically inhibits tumor cell growth. ? SAHA loosens chromatin structure resulting in increased sensitivity to DNase I. ? ATO-induced DNA damage and apoptosis are enhanced by co-treatment with SAHA.

2011-11-15

7

Large enhancement of photoluminescence in SrTiO3:Pr3+ powders by fluorhydric acid treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have investigated the effect of fluorhydric acid (HF) treatment on the photoluminescence (PL) properties of SrTiO3:Pr3+ powders prepared by sol-gel method. The red emission intensity increased significantly up to 18 times when the powders were subjected into a water-diluted 5% HF solution for 10 min. The origin of the PL enhancement was ascribed to the increase of oxygen vacancies in HF-treated SrTiO3:Pr3+ powders. This study also manifested that HF etching is more effective to improve the red PL intensity than vacuum-annealing for the sol-gel made SrTiO3:Pr3+ powders.

2010-08-01

8

Plasma treatment induces internal surface modifications of electrospun poly(L-lactic) acid scaffold to enhance protein coating  

Science.gov (United States)

Advanced biomaterials should also be bioactive with regard to desirable cellular responses, such as selective protein adsorption and cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. To enhance cell-material interactions, surface modifications have commonly been performed. Among the various surface modification approaches, atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma has been used to change a hydrophobic polymer surface to a hydrophilic surface. Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA)-derived scaffolds lack cell recognition signals and the hydrophobic nature of PLLA hinders cell seeding. To make PLLA surfaces more conducive to cell attachment and spreading, surface modifications may be used to create cell-biomaterial interfaces that elicit controlled cell adhesion and maintain differentiated phenotypes. In this study, (He) gaseous atmospheric plasma glow discharge was used to change the characteristics of a 3D-type polymeric scaffold from hydrophobic to hydrophilic on both the outer and inner surfaces of the scaffold and the penetration efficiency with fibronectin was investigated. Field-emission scanning electron microscope images showed that some grooves were formed on the PLLA fibers after plasma treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data also showed chemical changes in the PLLA structure. After plasma treatment, -CN (285.76 eV) was increased in C1s and -NH2 (399.70 eV) was increased significantly and -N=CH (400.80 eV) and -NH3+ (402.05 eV) were newly appeared in N1s. These changes allowed fibronectin to penetrate into the PLLA scaffold; this could be observed by confocal microscopy. In conclusion, helium atmospheric pressure plasma treatment was effective in modifying the polymeric scaffold, making it hydrophilic, and this treatment can also be used in tissue engineering research as needed to make polymers hydrophilic.

Jin Seo, Hyok; Hee Lee, Mi; Kwon, Byeong-Ju; Kim, Hye-Lee; Jin Lee, Seung; Kim, Bong-Jin; Wang, Kang-Kyun; Kim, Yong-Rok; Park, Jong-Chul

2013-08-01

9

Plasma treatment induces internal surface modifications of electrospun poly(L-lactic) acid scaffold to enhance protein coating  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Advanced biomaterials should also be bioactive with regard to desirable cellular responses, such as selective protein adsorption and cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. To enhance cell-material interactions, surface modifications have commonly been performed. Among the various surface modification approaches, atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma has been used to change a hydrophobic polymer surface to a hydrophilic surface. Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA)-derived scaffolds lack cell recognition signals and the hydrophobic nature of PLLA hinders cell seeding. To make PLLA surfaces more conducive to cell attachment and spreading, surface modifications may be used to create cell-biomaterial interfaces that elicit controlled cell adhesion and maintain differentiated phenotypes. In this study, (He) gaseous atmospheric plasma glow discharge was used to change the characteristics of a 3D-type polymeric scaffold from hydrophobic to hydrophilic on both the outer and inner surfaces of the scaffold and the penetration efficiency with fibronectin was investigated. Field-emission scanning electron microscope images showed that some grooves were formed on the PLLA fibers after plasma treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data also showed chemical changes in the PLLA structure. After plasma treatment, -CN (285.76 eV) was increased in C1s and -NH{sub 2} (399.70 eV) was increased significantly and –N=CH (400.80 eV) and –NH{sub 3}{sup +} (402.05 eV) were newly appeared in N1s. These changes allowed fibronectin to penetrate into the PLLA scaffold; this could be observed by confocal microscopy. In conclusion, helium atmospheric pressure plasma treatment was effective in modifying the polymeric scaffold, making it hydrophilic, and this treatment can also be used in tissue engineering research as needed to make polymers hydrophilic.

Jin Seo, Hyok; Hee Lee, Mi; Kwon, Byeong-Ju; Kim, Hye-Lee; Park, Jong-Chul [Cellbiocontrol Laboratory, Department of Medical Engineering, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Jin Lee, Seung [Department of Industrial Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bong-Jin; Wang, Kang-Kyun; Kim, Yong-Rok [Department of Chemistry, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-08-21

10

Amino acid treatment enhances protein recovery from sediment and soils for metaproteomic studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Characterization of geomicrobial protein expression provides information necessary to better understand the unique biological pathways that occur within soil microbial communities and the role they play in regulating atmospheric CO2 levels and the Earth’s climate. A significant challenge in studying soil microbial proteins is their initial dissociation from the complex mixture of particles found in natural soil. Due to bias of the most robust cells, the removal of intact bacterial cells limits the characterization of the complete representation of a microbial community. However, in-situ lysis of bacterial cells leads to the expulsion of proteins to the soil surface, which can lead to potentially high levels of adsorption due to the physicochemical properties of both the protein and the soil. We investigated various compounds for their ability to block protein adsorption soil sites prior to in-situ lysis of bacterial cells, as well as their compatibility with both tryptic digestion and mass spectrometric analysis. The treatments were tested by adding lysed Escherichia coli proteins to representative treated and untreated soil samples. The results show that it is possible to significantly increase protein identifications through blockage of binding sites on a variety of soil textures; use of an optimized desorption buffer further increases the number of identifications.

Nicora, Carrie D.; Anderson, Brian J.; Callister, Stephen J.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Jansson, Janet K.; Mason, Olivia U.; David, Maude; Jurelevicius, Diogo D.; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.

2013-10-01

11

Salirasib (farnesyl thiosalicylic acid) for brain tumor treatment: a convection-enhanced drug delivery study in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our aim was to assess the ability of convection-enhanced drug delivery (CED), a novel approach of direct delivery of drugs into brain tissue and brain tumors, to treat brain tumors using salirasib (farsnesyl thiosalicylic acid). CED was achieved by continuous infusion of drugs via intracranial catheters, thus enabling convective distribution of high drug concentrations over large volumes while avoiding systemic toxicity. Several phase II/III CED-based trials are currently in progress but have yet to overcome two major pitfalls of this methodology (the difficulty in attaining efficient CED and the significant nonspecific neurotoxicity caused by high drug doses in the brain). In this study, we addressed both issues by employing our previously described novel CED imaging and increased efficiency methodologies to exclusively target the activated form of the Ras oncogene in a 9L gliosarcoma rat model. The drug we used was salirasib, a highly specific Ras inhibitor shown to exert its suppressive effects on growth and migration of proliferating tumor cells in in vitro and in vivo models, including human glioblastoma, without affecting normal tissues. The results show a significant decrease in tumor growth rate in salirasib-treated rats relative to vehicle-treated rats as well as a significant correlation between CED efficacy and tumor growth rate with no observed toxicity despite drug concentrations an order of magnitude higher than previously detected in the brain. The results show that CED of salirasib is efficient and nontoxic for the treatment of glioblastoma in a rat model, thus suggesting that it may be considered for clinical application. PMID:19001442

Goldberg, Liat; Ocherashvilli, Aharon; Daniels, Dianne; Last, David; Cohen, Zvi R; Tamar, Gregory; Kloog, Yoel; Mardor, Yael

2008-11-01

12

Enhancement of nitric oxide removal by ammonia on a low-rank coal based carbon by sulphuric acid treatment  

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This work presents a study of the effect of wet sulphuric acid treatment and gas-phase treatment with SO2 + O2 + H2O on the catalytic activity of a low-rank coal-based carbon for the nitric oxide reduction with ammonia. Carbons were characterized by N2 adsorption, TPD, and FTIR in order to assess how the surface chemistry and the texture of carbons change after the treatments. A great amount of oxygenated functional groups both CO2 and CO evolving ones are produced by liquid-phase sulphuric a...

2011-01-01

13

Diagnostic significance of gadolinium-DTPA (diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in thrombolytic treatment for acute myocardial infarction: its potential in assessing reperfusion.  

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The diagnostic value of gadolinium-DTPA (diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in patients treated by thrombolysis for acute myocardial infarction was assessed in 27 consecutive patients who had a first acute myocardial infarction (14 anterior, 13 inferior) and who underwent thrombolytic treatment and coronary arteriography within 4 hours of the onset of symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed 93 hours (range 15-241) after the onset of symptoms. ...

Wall, E. E.; Dijkman, P. R.; Roos, A.; Doornbos, J.; Laarse, A.; Manger Cats, V.; Voorthuisen, A. E.; Matheijssen, N. A.; Bruschke, A. V.

1990-01-01

14

Gamma aminobutyric acid B and 5-hydroxy tryptamine 2A receptors functional regulation during enhanced liver cell proliferation by GABA and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticles treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Liver is one of the major organs in vertebrates and hepatocytes are damaged by many factors. The liver cell maintenance and multiplication after injury and treatment gained immense interest. The present study investigated the role of Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) coupled with chitosan nanoparticles in the functional regulation of Gamma aminobutyric acid B and 5-hydroxy tryptamine 2A receptors mediated cell signaling mechanisms, extend of DNA methylation and superoxide dismutase activity during enhanced liver cell proliferation. Liver injury was achieved by partial hepatectomy of male Wistar rats and the GABA and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticles treatments were given intraperitoneally. The experimental groups were sham operated control (C), partially hepatectomised rats with no treatment (PHNT), partially hepatectomised rats with GABA chitosan nanoparticle (GCNP), 5-HT chitosan nanoparticle (SCNP) and a combination of GABA and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticle (GSCNP) treatments. In GABA and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticle treated group there was a significant decrease (Ptryptamine 2A when compared to PHNT. The cyclic adenosine monophosphate content and its regulatory protein, presence of methylated DNA and superoxide dismutase activity were decreased in GCNP, SCNP and GSCNP when compared to PHNT. The Gamma aminobutyric acid B and 5-hydroxy tryptamine 2A receptors coupled signaling elements played an important role in GABA and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticles induced liver cell proliferation which has therapeutic significance in liver disease management. PMID:23748019

Shilpa, Joy; Pretty, Mary Abraham; Anitha, Malat; Paulose, Cheramadathikudyil Skaria

2013-09-01

15

Sec61alpha synthesis is enhanced during translocation of nascent chains of collagen type IV in F9 teratocarcinoma cells after retinoic acid treatment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Nascent procollagen peptides and other secretory proteins are transported across the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane through a protein-conducting channel called translocon. Sec61alpha, a multispanning membrane translocon protein, has been implicated as being essential for translocation of polype [...] ptide chains into the cisterns of the ER. Sec61alpha forms a protein complex with collagen and Hsp47, an ER-resident heat shock protein that binds specifically to collagen. However, it is not known whether Sec61alpha is ubiquitously produced in collagen-producing F9 teratocarcinoma cells or under heat shock treatment. Furthermore, the production and utilization of Sec61alpha may depend on the stage of cell differentiation. Cultured F9 teratocarcinoma cells are capable of differentiation in response to low concentrations of retinoic acid. This differentiation results in loss of tumorigenicity. Mouse F9 cells were grown in culture medium at 37ºC and 43ºC (heat shock treatment) treated or not with retinoic acid, and labeled in certain instances with 35S-methionine. Membrane-bound polysomes of procollagen IV were then isolated. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis were performed using polyclonal antibodies against collagen IV, Hsp47 and Sec61alpha. Under retinoic acid-untreated conditions, F9 cells produced undetectable amounts of Sec61alpha. Sec61alpha, Hsp47 and type IV collagen levels were increased after retinoic acid treatment. Heat shock treatment did not alter Sec61alpha levels, suggesting that Sec61alpha production is probably not affected by heat shock. These data indicate that the enhanced production of Sec61alpha in retinoic acid-induced F9 teratocarcinoma cells parallels the increased synthesis of Hsp47 and collagen type IV.

L.R., Ferreira; C.E.E., Velano; E.C., Braga; C.C., Paula; H., Martéli Junior; J.J., Sauk.

16

Sec61alpha synthesis is enhanced during translocation of nascent chains of collagen type IV in F9 teratocarcinoma cells after retinoic acid treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nascent procollagen peptides and other secretory proteins are transported across the endoplasmic reticulum (ER membrane through a protein-conducting channel called translocon. Sec61alpha, a multispanning membrane translocon protein, has been implicated as being essential for translocation of polypeptide chains into the cisterns of the ER. Sec61alpha forms a protein complex with collagen and Hsp47, an ER-resident heat shock protein that binds specifically to collagen. However, it is not known whether Sec61alpha is ubiquitously produced in collagen-producing F9 teratocarcinoma cells or under heat shock treatment. Furthermore, the production and utilization of Sec61alpha may depend on the stage of cell differentiation. Cultured F9 teratocarcinoma cells are capable of differentiation in response to low concentrations of retinoic acid. This differentiation results in loss of tumorigenicity. Mouse F9 cells were grown in culture medium at 37ºC and 43ºC (heat shock treatment treated or not with retinoic acid, and labeled in certain instances with 35S-methionine. Membrane-bound polysomes of procollagen IV were then isolated. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis were performed using polyclonal antibodies against collagen IV, Hsp47 and Sec61alpha. Under retinoic acid-untreated conditions, F9 cells produced undetectable amounts of Sec61alpha. Sec61alpha, Hsp47 and type IV collagen levels were increased after retinoic acid treatment. Heat shock treatment did not alter Sec61alpha levels, suggesting that Sec61alpha production is probably not affected by heat shock. These data indicate that the enhanced production of Sec61alpha in retinoic acid-induced F9 teratocarcinoma cells parallels the increased synthesis of Hsp47 and collagen type IV.

Ferreira L.R.

2003-01-01

17

Sec61alpha synthesis is enhanced during translocation of nascent chains of collagen type IV in F9 teratocarcinoma cells after retinoic acid treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nascent procollagen peptides and other secretory proteins are transported across the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane through a protein-conducting channel called translocon. Sec61alpha, a multispanning membrane translocon protein, has been implicated as being essential for translocation of polypeptide chains into the cisterns of the ER. Sec61alpha forms a protein complex with collagen and Hsp47, an ER-resident heat shock protein that binds specifically to collagen. However, it is not known whether Sec61alpha is ubiquitously produced in collagen-producing F9 teratocarcinoma cells or under heat shock treatment. Furthermore, the production and utilization of Sec61alpha may depend on the stage of cell differentiation. Cultured F9 teratocarcinoma cells are capable of differentiation in response to low concentrations of retinoic acid. This differentiation results in loss of tumorigenicity. Mouse F9 cells were grown in culture medium at 37 degrees C and 43 degrees C (heat shock treatment) treated or not with retinoic acid, and labeled in certain instances with 35S-methionine. Membrane-bound polysomes of procollagen IV were then isolated. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis were performed using polyclonal antibodies against collagen IV, Hsp47 and Sec61alpha. Under retinoic acid-untreated conditions, F9 cells produced undetectable amounts of Sec61alpha. Sec61alpha, Hsp47 and type IV collagen levels were increased after retinoic acid treatment. Heat shock treatment did not alter Sec61alpha levels, suggesting that Sec61alpha production is probably not affected by heat shock. These data indicate that the enhanced production of Sec61alpha in retinoic acid-induced F9 teratocarcinoma cells parallels the increased synthesis of Hsp47 and collagen type IV. PMID:12532224

Ferreira, L R; Velano, C E E; Braga, E C; Paula, C C; Marteli, H; Sauk, J J

2003-01-01

18

Evaluation of seed and seedling emergence enhancement of some population of Sahandy savory (Satureja sahendica) by gibberlic acid, potasium nitrate, pre-cooling, physical and chemical scarification treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

In greenhouse experiment, the seed samples of 3 populations were treated with treatments including: cold stratification, Gibberlic Acid (50 ppm and 100 ppm), Potassium nitrate (0.2%, 0.4%), physical scarification (sand paper), chemical scarification (Ethylic alcohol 70%) and distilled water (control), then these treated seed samples were sown in pots as randomize design with three replication. The germination characteristics including: germination percentage, speed of germination, length of root and shoot, seedling length, ratio of root length by shoot length, vigor index, fresh weight arid dry weight, ratio of dry weight by fresh weight were evaluated during 45 days of experiment. Comparing between three populations of Sahandy savory, seed germination characteristics of the Ghazvin population was higher than the other two populations. According to effect of treatment on germination seed characteristics, the species of savory and their population, it was concluded that effect of Gibberlic Acid and Potassium nitrate was higher than physical scarification and chemical scarification comparing with control. With more effective of gibberlic acid and KNO3 and cold treatment on seed germination enhancement of the population, it was clarified that the type of dormancy of some population of Sahandy savory was physiological dormancy. PMID:24506025

Alizadeh, M A; Arab, H A; Tabaie, R; Nasiri, M

2013-10-15

19

Post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 using aerobic moving bed biofilm process: Enhanced removal of aromatic amines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Biofilm process was applied as post-treatment of anaerobically degraded an azo dye. ? More than 65% of the dye total metabolites was completely mineralized. ? Based on HPLC analysis, more than 80% of 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate was removed. ? Inhibition of biofilm growth was increased with increasing the initial dye concentration. ? Considerable porous morphology was observed in the SEM photographs of the biofilm. - Abstract: The application of aerobic moving bed biofilm process as post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 was investigated in this study. The main objective of this work was to enhance removal of anaerobically formed the dye aromatic metabolites. Three separate sequential treatment systems were operated with different initial dye concentrations of 100, 500 and 1000 mg/L. Each treatment system consisted of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (An-SBR) followed by an aerobic moving bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor (MB-SBBR). Up to 98% of the dye decolorization and more than 80% of the COD removal occurred anaerobically. The obtained results suggested no significant difference in COD removal as well as the dye decolorization efficiency using three An-SBRs receiving different initial dye concentrations. Monitoring the dye metabolites through HPLC suggested that more than 80% of anaerobically formed 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate was completely removed in the aerobic biofilm reactors. Based on COD analysis results, at least 65-72% of the dye total metabolites were mineralized during the applied treatment systems. According to the measured biofilm mass and also based on respiration-inhibition test results, increasing the initial dye concentration inhibited the growth and final mass of the attached-growth biofilm in MB-SBBRs.

2011-11-15

20

Post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 using aerobic moving bed biofilm process: Enhanced removal of aromatic amines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: {yields} Biofilm process was applied as post-treatment of anaerobically degraded an azo dye. {yields} More than 65% of the dye total metabolites was completely mineralized. {yields} Based on HPLC analysis, more than 80% of 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate was removed. {yields} Inhibition of biofilm growth was increased with increasing the initial dye concentration. {yields} Considerable porous morphology was observed in the SEM photographs of the biofilm. - Abstract: The application of aerobic moving bed biofilm process as post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 was investigated in this study. The main objective of this work was to enhance removal of anaerobically formed the dye aromatic metabolites. Three separate sequential treatment systems were operated with different initial dye concentrations of 100, 500 and 1000 mg/L. Each treatment system consisted of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (An-SBR) followed by an aerobic moving bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor (MB-SBBR). Up to 98% of the dye decolorization and more than 80% of the COD removal occurred anaerobically. The obtained results suggested no significant difference in COD removal as well as the dye decolorization efficiency using three An-SBRs receiving different initial dye concentrations. Monitoring the dye metabolites through HPLC suggested that more than 80% of anaerobically formed 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate was completely removed in the aerobic biofilm reactors. Based on COD analysis results, at least 65-72% of the dye total metabolites were mineralized during the applied treatment systems. According to the measured biofilm mass and also based on respiration-inhibition test results, increasing the initial dye concentration inhibited the growth and final mass of the attached-growth biofilm in MB-SBBRs.

Hosseini Koupaie, E., E-mail: ehssan.hosseini.k@gmail.com [Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology (AUT), Hafez Ave., Tehran 15875-4413 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alavi Moghaddam, M.R., E-mail: alavim@yahoo.com [Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology (AUT), Hafez Ave., Tehran 15875-4413 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi, S.H., E-mail: h_hashemi@sbu.ac.ir [Environmental Science Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-11-15

 
 
 
 
21

INHIBITIVE ENHANCEMENT OF ISONIASID TREATMENT ON Mycobacterium tuberculosis THROUGH TRITERPENOID CARBOCYLIC ACID FROM RED ALGAE Euchema spinosum  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Anti-mycobacterial bioactivity of non polar compounds from red algae Euchema spinosum of Barang Lompo Island was studied. A triterpenoid carbocylic acid has been isolated from the chloroform fraction of Euchema spinosum, and its structure was determined by spectroscopic evidences including IR and 2D NMR and compared to previous data. The isolate was active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis at concentration 4 ?g/mL, and could also increase the sensitivity of this pathogen to ...

Massi, Muhammad Nasrum

2012-01-01

22

Enhancement of colposcopic image by sulphosalicylic acid.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Acetic acid is used conventionally for enhancement of the colposcopic image. We used sulphosalicylic acid instead of acetic acid in 50 normal cases. The normal appearance was enhanced in all cases. The image was also enhanced in 70% cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 90% cases of cervical condyloma accuminata. The image was not inferior to that with acetic acid in any of the cases.

Khilnani P

1993-01-01

23

[Folic acid treatment of epileptics].  

Science.gov (United States)

The author describes the regimen of treatment with folic acid employed in 137 patients with epilepsy. The drug was given to 81 patients to control a complex of disturbances (psychic, neurologic, somatic) caused by folic acid hypovitaminosis secondary to a prolonged use of diphenin, phenobarbital and hexamidine and to another 56 patients to prevent its depletion and to improve the psychic condition. The author considers the questions of the theoretical justification of the pathogenetic treatment with folic acid of epileptic patients. PMID:3630498

Vaintrub, M Ia

1987-01-01

24

Lack of enhancement of experimental photocarcinogenesis by topical retinoic acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A controversy exists regarding the ability of retinoic acid to enhance photocarcinogenesis. Divergent results have been obtained with albino hairless mice. We examined this issue with the lightly pigmented variety. We followed two designs: 1. ultraviolet light and topical retinoic acid were given concomitantly while the retinoic acid was continued for many weeks after stopping irradiation; 2. tumors were first induced by ultraviolet light and then treated topically with retinoic acid. In both studies, retinoic acid did not enhance photocarcinogenesis with regard to latent period, tumor yield or tumor progression. It appears that different treatment schedules and different varieties of mice can produce widely disparate results. (orig.)

1981-01-01

25

A novel method for enhancing on-stream stability of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) gasoline hydro-upgrading catalyst. Post-treatment of HZSM-5 zeolite by combined steaming and citric acid leaching  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article describes a novel modification method consisting of steaming and subsequent citric acid leaching to finely tune acidity and pore structure of HZSM-5 zeolite and thereby to enhance the on-stream stability of the zeolite derived fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) gasoline hydro-upgrading catalyst. A series of dealuminated HZSM-5 zeolites and their derived catalysts were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), {sup 27}Al MAS NMR, nitrogen adsorption, temperature programmed desorption of ammonium (NH{sub 3}-TPD) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy of chemisorbed pyridine. The results showed that the citric acid leaching could preferentially remove the extra-framework Al (EFAl) species formed by steaming treatment and thus reopen the EFAl-blocked pore channels of the steamed zeolite. The steaming treatment at a suitable temperature and subsequent citric acid leaching not only decreased the strength of acid sites to a desirable degree but also increased the ratio of medium and strong Lewis acidity to medium and strong Broensted acidity, both of which conferred the resulting catalyst with superior selectivity to aromatics, good hydroisomerization activity and gasoline research octane number (RON) preservability, as well as enhanced on-stream stability. The results fully demonstrated that the treatments by steaming and followed citric acid leaching can serve as an important method for adjusting the physicochemical properties of HZSM-5 zeolite. (author)

Lin, Xiuying [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Fan, Yu.; Shi, Gang; Liu, Haiyan [The Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Co., China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Liu, Zhihong [Science and Technology Management Department, PetroChina Company, Ltd., World Tower, 16 Andelu, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100011 (China); Bao, Xiaojun [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); The Key Laboratory of Catalysis, China National Petroleum Co., China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China)

2007-07-30

26

Treatment of acid mine drainage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper discusses the generation of acid mine drainage (AMD) and its discharge into the environment surrounding abandoned mines and the methods for its treatment. It reports on case studies and research programmes on AMD including the Mine Environment Neutral Drainage (MEND) programme in Canada, treatment of water in disused, copper, zinc, tin and lead mines around Wheal Jare in the United Kingdom, treatment of the River Pelenna water in South Wales for removal of iron; and clean up of water of the River Don in south Yorkshire polluted by discharges from the Bullhouse Colliery. Abandoned minewater sites in England and Wales being tackled by the Coal Authority are listed. 36 refs.

McGinness, S. [House of Commons Library, London (United Kingdom). Science and Environment Section

1999-02-02

27

Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

... Research News From NIH Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents ... that people who are trying to end their addiction to marijuana can benefit from a treatment program ...

28

Bile acids in treatment of ocular disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bear bile has been included in Asian pharmacopeias for thousands of years in treatment of several diseases, ranging from sore throat to hemorrhoids. The hydrophilic bile acids tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) are the major bile acids of bear bile. Both of these are available as synthetic formulations and are approved by the health administrations of several countries for treatment of cirrhosis and gallstones. This review briefly covers the use of bear bile in ...

Boatright, Jeffrey H.; Nickerson, John M.; Moring, Anisha G.; Pardue, Machelle T.

2009-01-01

29

Enhancing itaconic acid production by Aspergillus terreus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aspergillus terreus is successfully used for industrial production of itaconic acid. The acid is formed from cis-aconitate, an intermediate of the tricarboxylic (TCA) cycle, by catalytic action of cis-aconitate decarboxylase. It could be assumed that strong anaplerotic reactions that replenish the pool of the TCA cycle intermediates would enhance the synthesis and excretion rate of itaconic acid. In the phylogenetic close relative Aspergillus niger, upregulated metabolic flux through glycolysis has been described that acted as a strong anaplerotic reaction. Deregulated glycolytic flux was caused by posttranslational modification of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK1) that resulted in formation of a highly active, citrate inhibition-resistant shorter form of the enzyme. In order to avoid complex posttranslational modification, the native A. niger pfkA gene has been modified to encode for an active shorter PFK1 fragment. By the insertion of the modified A. niger pfkA genes into the A. terreus strain, increased specific productivities of itaconic acid and final yields were documented by transformants in respect to the parental strain. On the other hand, growth rate of all transformants remained suppressed which is due to the low initial pH value of the medium, one of the prerequisites for the accumulation of itaconic acid by A. terreus mycelium. PMID:20461508

Tevz, Gregor; Bencina, Mojca; Legisa, Matic

2010-08-01

30

Method of acid treatment of a bed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is proposed for acid treatment of a bed. It consists of injecting into the bed sulfuric acid and diluent. It is distinguished by the fact that in order to improve the effectiveness of treating the bed by increasing the reaction rate of the acid with the carbonates, a solution of strong acid salts which form water-soluble compounds with the sulfuric acid is injected as the diluent. The magnesium chloride, sodium nitrate or potassium hypochlorous acid are used as the strong acid salt.

Komisarov, A.I.; Yarovoy, V.A.

1982-01-01

31

Treatment of hydrofluoric acid burns  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A chemical-plant worker sustained hydrofluoric acid burns during cleaning procedures. Intra-arterial perfusion and intralesional injections of calcium gluconate solution prevented progression of the burns into deeper tissue layers.

Thiele, B.; Winter, U.J.; Mahrle, G.; Steigleder, G.K.

1986-01-31

32

Enhanced integrated nonthermal treatment system study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the Enhanced Nonthermal Treatment Systems (ENTS) study is to evaluate alternative configurations of one of the five systems evaluated in the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) study. Five alternative configurations are evaluated. Each is designed to enhance the final waste form performance by replacing grout with improved stabilization technologies, or to improve system performance by improving the destruction efficiency for organic contaminants. AU enhanced systems are alternative configurations of System NT-5, which has the following characteristics: Nonthermal System NT-5: (1) catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) to treat organic material including organic liquids, sludges, and soft (or combustible) debris, (2) thermal desorption of inorganic sludge and process residue, (3) washing of soil and inorganic debris with treatment by CWO of removed organic material, (4) metal decontamination by abrasive blasting, (5) stabilization of treated sludge, soil, debris, and untreated debris with entrained contamination in grout, and (6) stabilization of inorganic sludge, salts and secondary waste in polymer. System NT-5 was chosen because it was designed to treat combustible debris thereby minimizing the final waste form volume, and because it uses grout for primary stabilization. The enhanced nonthermal systems were studied to determine the cost and performance impact of replacing grout (a commonly used stabilization agent in the DOE complex) with improved waste stabilization methods such as vitrification and polymer.

Biagi, C.; Schwinkendorf, B.; Teheranian, B.

1997-02-01

33

Surgical Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Live Surgical Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux Shawnee Mission Medical Center Shawnee Mission, Kansas May 21, 2009 Welcome to this “OR-Live” webcast presentation live from Shawnee Mission ...

34

Fenton-enhanced ?-radiolysis of cyanuric acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Degradation of cyanuric acid (OOOT), a stable end product of oxidative decomposition of atrazine, is investigated in a combined field of gamma radiolysis and fenton reaction. The reaction of hydroxyl radical (·OH) at pH 6 was carried out by irradiating N2O saturated aqueous solutions containing OOOT (1 x 10-3 mol dm-3), and this resulted only a marginal degradation (20%). However, when the same reaction was carried out in the presence of varying concentrations of ferrous sulfate ((5-10) x 10-5 mol dm-3), the decay of OOOT has been enhanced to more than 80%. This decay followed a first order kinetics. Nearly similar effects were observed with another triazine derivative, 2,4-dioxohexahydro-1,3,5-triazine (DHT). Two major reaction mechanisms are proposed for the enhanced decay of OOOT. The formation of unstable hydroxyl radical adducts from the reaction of ·OH which is the result of gamma radiolysis and the Fenton reaction (resulting from the reaction of the added Fe(II) and of the H2O2 from the radiolysis of water), is proposed as the first mechanism. The second mechanism, which is likely the major contributor to degradation, is proposed as the reaction of a nucleophilic adduct, Fe(II)OOH, which could directly react with the electron deficient triazine ring. It is highlighted that such degradation reactions must be explored for the complete degradation of the byproducts of the oxidative decomposition of atrazine

2007-04-02

35

Effect of Enhancing Urea-Humic Acid Mixture with Refined Acid Sulphate Soil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Acid Sulphate Soil (ASS is a problem soil partly because of its high acidity. This low pH could be exploited to reduce ammonia loss from urea by reducing soil microsite pH. The use Humic Acid (HA to control ammonia loss from urea has been reported but the cost of this material is high. This laboratory study compared the effect of enhancing urea-humic acid mixtures with acid sulphate soil on NH3 loss, pH, exchangeable ammonium and available nitrate contents. Approach: Humic acid, acid sulfate soil and soil used in the incubation study were analyzed for selected soil physical-chemical properties using standard procedures. Urea-HA-ASS mixtures were prepared and ammonia volatilization of the mixtures was evaluated by the closed-dynamic air flow system. The treatments were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Standard procedures were used to determine ammonia loss, soil pH, exchangeable ammonium and available nitrate at 22 days of incubation. Data obtained were analyzed using analysis of variance and Duncan's test using Statistical Analysis System (SAS version 9.2. Results: Urea amended with 0.75 g ASS significantly reduced ammonia volatilization. Although the use of appropriate amount of acid sulphate soil to control ammonia loss is possible, excessive use of this material is not recommended because of Fe in it. Conclusion: Urea amended with 0.75 g ASS reduced ammonia.

Mohd T.M. Yusuff

2009-01-01

36

Cognitive enhancers for the treatment of anxiety disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditional treatments for anxiety disorders include cognitive-behavioral therapy and anxiolytic medications. Although these treatments are more effective than placebo, there is still considerable room for further improvement. Unfortunately, combining these different modalities is generally not substantially better than monotherapies. Recently, researchers have turned their attention toward translating preclinical research on the neural circuitry underlying fear extinction to clinical applications for the treatment of anxiety disorders with the goal to augment the learning process during exposure-based procedures with cognitive enhancers. This review examines d-cycloserine, cortisol, catecholamines, yohimbine, oxytocin, modafinil, as well as nutrients and botanicals as agents to augment treatment for anxiety disorders. D-cycloserine shows the most empirical support. Other promising agents include cortisol, catecholamines, yohimbine, and possibly oxytocin. Less support comes from studies that examined nutrients and botanicals, such as caffeine, nicotine, and omega-3 fatty acid. Limitations of the exiting literature and future research directions are discussed. PMID:23542909

Hofmann, Stefan G; Fang, Angela; Gutner, Cassidy A

2014-01-01

37

Corrosion inhibitor for well acidizing treatments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a treatment fluid useful for increasing the permeability of a subterranean formation in the vicinity of a borehole penetrating the formation, comprising: an aqueous solution of an acid selected from the group consisting of hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid, formic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, and mixtures thereof. The acid is present in an amount effective to increase the permeability of the formation being treated; and an effective amount of a corrosion inhibiting composition which prevents the formation of sludge. The corrosion inhibiting composition comprising a mixture of: 80-90 weight percent propargyl alcohol; 5-10 weight percent 2 ethoxy ethanol; 0.5-3.0 weight percent polyethylene glycol.

Briggs, G.L.

1987-10-06

38

Induction of system A amino acid transport activity through long-term treatment with ouabain: possible correlation with enhanced (Na"+/K"+)ATPase activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mouse embryo fibroblast cells (C3H-10T1/2) and the methylcholanthrene-transformed derivative (MCA-10T1/2) were treated with basal modified Eagles medium at varying ouabain concentrations ranging from 0.05 mM to 0.5 mM for 16 h in culture. After replacing the ouabain-containing medium with BME, System A ("3H-AlB uptake) and the (Na"+/K"+)ATPase pump activity (ouabain-sensitive "8"6Rb"+ uptake) was increased 10-fold and 3-fold, respectively (at 0.4 mM ouabain) in confluent C3H-10T1/2 cells. System A and the (Na"+/K"+)ATPase activity was increased 15-fold and 5-fold, respectively in confluent MCA-10T1/2 cells but the increase was maximal at 0.2 mM ouabain. This treatment with ouabain increased the [Na"+]/sub i//[K"+]/sub i/ as measured by atomic absorption, and thereby decreased the Na"+ and K"+ electrochemical gradients. Their data show that the transformed cells were more sensitive to the internal ion inversion by ouabain than the C3H-10T1/2 cells. It appears, from data on hypertonicity and lipophilic cations that neither the chemical Na"+ gradient nor the negative membrane potential are the primary driving forces of System A transport

1987-05-01

39

Ethacrynic acid: a novel radiation enhancer in human carcinoma cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Because agents that interfere with thiol metabolism and glutathione S-transferase (GST) functions have been shown to enhance antitumor effects of alkylating agents in vitro and in vivo, the present study was conceived on the basis that an inhibitor of GST would enhance the radiation response of some selected human carcinoma cells. Ethacrynic acid (EA) was chosen for the study because it is an effective inhibitor of GST and is a well known diuretic in humans. Methods and Materials: Experiments were carried out with well-established human tumor cells in culture growing in Eagle's minimum essential medium (MEM) supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS). Cell lines used were MCF-7, MCF-7 adriamycin resistant (AR) cells (breast carcinoma), HT-29 cells (colon carcinoma), DU-145 cells (prostate carcinoma), and U-373 cells (malignant glioma). Cell survival following the exposure of cells to drug alone, radiation alone, and a combined treatment was assayed by determining the colony-forming ability of single plated cells in culture to obtain dose-survival curves. The drug enhancement ratio was correlated with levels of GST. Results: The cytotoxicity of EA was most pronounced in MCF-7, U-373, and DU-145 cells compared to MCF-7 AR and HT-29 cells. The levels of GST activity were found to be lower in those EA-sensitive cells. A significant radiation enhancement was obtained with EA-sensitive cells exposed to nontoxic concentrations of the drug immediately before or after irradiation. The sensitizer enhancement ratio (SER) of MCF-7 cells was 1.55 with EA (20 ?g/ml), while the SER of MCF-7 AR was less than 1.1. Based on five different human tumor cells, a clear inverse relationship was demonstrated between the magnitude of SER and GST levels of tumor cells prior to the combined treatment. Conclusion: The present results suggest that EA, which acts as both a reversible and irreversible inhibitor of GST activity, could significantly enhance the radiation response of human cancer cells and the level of GST in tumor cells may predict the magnitude of radiation enhancement with EA. Ethacrynic acid would be an excellent drug as a radiosensitizer for further in vivo tumor study

1996-01-15

40

Enhancing effect of saccharides on the mutagenicity of 2-chloro-4-methylthiobutanoic acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mutagenicity of 2-chloro-4-methylthiobutanoic acid (CMBA), a nitrite-treated Sanma fish mutagen, in Salmonella typhimurium TA100 was enhanced by addition of D-glucose during the CMBA-treatment. Several other monosaccharides also enhanced the mutagenicity of CMBA, and the order of the enhancing potency was found to be D-mannose, D-glucose>D-fructose, D-ribose, D-galactose. A disaccharide, maltose, showed only little enhancement. No enhancement was found with L-glucose. We investigated whether saccharides affect uptake of [methyl-14C]CMBA into S. typhimurium TA100. Saccharides which enhanced CMBA-induced mutagenesis increased the uptake. L-Glucose did not enhance the uptake. There was good correlation between the enhanced mutagenesis and increased radioactivity in Salmonella, suggesting that the enhancing effect of monosaccharide on the CMBA-induced mutagenesis results from the enhanced uptake of the mutagen into bacteria. PMID:10894898

Kimura, S; Arimoto-Kobayashi, S; Hayatsu, H

2000-07-20

 
 
 
 
41

Passive Endwall Treatments for Enhancing Stability  

Science.gov (United States)

These lecture notes were presented at the von Karman Institutes lecture series on Advances in Axial Compressor Aerodynamics, May 2006. They provide a fairly extensive overview of what's been learned from numerous investigations of various passive casing endwall technologies that have been proposed for alleviating the stall limiting physics associated with the compressor endwall flow field. The lecture notes are organized to give an appreciation for the inventiveness and understanding of the earliest compressor technologists and to provide a coherent thread of understanding that has arisen out of the early investigations. As such the lecture notes begin with a historical overview of casing treatments from their infancy through the earliest proposed concepts involving blowing, suction and flow recirculation. A summary of lessons learned from these early investigations is provided at the end of this section. The lecture notes then provide a somewhat more in-depth overview of recent advancements in the development of passive casing treatments from the late 1990's through 2006, including advancements in understanding the flow mechanism of circumferential groove casing treatments, and the development of discrete tip injection and self-recirculating casing treatments. At the conclusion of the lecture notes a final summary of lessons learned throughout the history of the development of passive casing treatments is provided. Finally, a list of future needs is given. It is hoped that these lecture notes will be a useful reference for future research endeavors to improve our understanding of the fluid physics of passive casing treatments and how they act to enhance compressor stability, and that they will perhaps provide a springboard for future research activities in this area of interest

Hathaway, Michael D.

2007-01-01

42

Enhancement of mononuclear procoagulant activity by platelet 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Platelets induce generation of procoagulant tissue factor activity (TFa) by mononuclear leukocytes, and also enhance the TFa induced by endotoxin. Our present investigation demonstrated that arachidonic acid, which by itself had no effect on mononuclear TFa, greatly enhanced platelet-induced TFa. The effect was concentration dependent for both platelets and arachidonate (1-20 microM); other fatty acids tested were inactive. The enhancing effect of arachidonate was more pronounced if platelets...

1986-01-01

43

Clavulanic acid increases dopamine release in neuronal cells through a mechanism involving enhanced vesicle trafficking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Clavulanic acid is a CNS-modulating compound with exceptional blood-brain barrier permeability and safety profile. Clavulanic acid has been proposed to have anti-depressant activity and is currently entering Phase IIb clinical trials for the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Studies have also shown that clavulanic acid suppresses anxiety and enhances sexual functions in rodent and primate models by a mechanism involving central nervous system (CNS) modulation, although its detaile...

2011-01-01

44

ACID EXTRACTION TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF METAL CONTAMINATED SOILS  

Science.gov (United States)

The Acid Extraction Treatment System (AETS) reduces the concentrations and/or leachability of heavy metals in contaminated soils so the soil can be returned to the site from which it originated. he objective of the project was to determine the effectiveness and commercial viabili...

45

Pharmacological enhancement of treatment for amblyopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mohammad A RashadOphthalmology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, EgyptBackground: The purpose of this study was to compare a weight-adjusted dose of carbidopa-levodopa as treatment adjunctive to occlusion therapy with occlusion therapy alone in children and adults with different types of amblyopia.Methods: This prospective study included 63 patients with amblyopia classified into two groups, ie, an occlusion group which included 35 patients who received occlusion therapy only and a pharmacological enhancement group which included 28 patients who received oral carbidopa-levodopa together with occlusion therapy for 6 weeks.Results: The mean logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR of the eyes with amblyopia was not significantly different in the occlusion group (0.52, 0.52, and 0.51 than in the pharmacological enhancement group (0.58, 0.49, and 0.56 at three follow-up visits (at months 1, 3, and 12, respectively. There was a highly significant improvement in mean logMAR of amblyopic eyes compared with baseline in both occlusion groups (from 0.68 to 0.52, from 0.68 to 0.52, and from 0.68 to 0.51 and in the pharmacological enhancement group (from 0.81 to 0.58, from 0.81 to 0.49, and from 0.81 to 0.56 at the month 1, 3, and 12 visits (P = 0.01, P = 0.01, and P = 0.001, respectively. The improvement of mean logMAR in the subgroup of patients older than 12 years was greater in the pharmacological enhancement group (42.5% than in the occlusion group (30%. The improvement of mean logMAR in the subgroup of patients with severe amblyopia was greater in the pharmacological enhancement group (34.3% than in the occlusion group (22%.Conclusion: Significant improvement was reported in both groups at all follow-up visits over 1 year. Regardless of the etiology of amblyopia, levodopa-carbidopa may be added to part-time occlusion in older patients as a means of increasing the plasticity of the visual cortex. Levodopa may add to the effect of occlusion in severe amblyopia and bilateral amblyopia.Keywords: amblyopia, levodopa, carbidopa, occlusion

Rashad MA

2012-03-01

46

Breaker enhancer for crosslinked borates : novel self-generating acid  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Borate cross-linked guar fluids are often used as a proppant fluid in fractured reservoirs due to their high stability in high temperature and high shear conditions. However, borate fluids can leave an insoluble polymer residue that remains in the proppant pack after the gels have been broken with oxidizer breakers. The residues have been shown to impair proppant pack conductivity, and residual unbroken gels at a high pH are susceptible to re-crosslinking when exposed to multivalent ions. This study described a novel self-generating acid that was used as a breaker enhancer for crosslinked borates. The breakers were designed to cleave to the polymer chains at random sites, resulting in a mixture of residual fragments that remained crosslinked. A series of long-term proppant pack conductivity tests were conducted using a proppant at a closure stress of 4000 psi. The experimental studies demonstrated that the addition of the self-generating acid dramatically improved the regain conductivity of the proppant pack. Use of the acid also facilitated the removal of polymer residues from wells after treatment. 9 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs.

Maley, D.; O' Neil, B. [Trican Well Service Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2010-07-01

47

Betulinic Acid for Cancer Treatment and Prevention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Betulinic acid is a natural product with a range of biological effects, for example potent antitumor activity. This anticancer property is linked to its ability to induce apoptotic cell death in cancer cells by triggering the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. In contrast to the cytotoxicity of betulinic acid against a variety of cancer types, normal cells and tissue are relatively resistant to betulinic acid, pointing to a therapeutic window. Compounds that exert a direct action on mitochondria present promising experimental cancer therapeutics, since they may trigger cell death under circumstances in which standard chemotherapeutics fail. Thus, mitochondrion-targeted agents such as betulinic acid hold great promise as a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of human cancers.

Simone Fulda

2008-06-01

48

Multifunctional Nucleic Acids for Tumor Cell Treatment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We report on a multifunctional nucleic acid, termed AptamiR, composed of an aptamer domain and an antimiR domain. This composition mediates cell specific delivery of antimiR molecules for silencing of endogenous micro RNA. The introduced multifunctional molecule preserves cell targeting, anti-proliferative and antimiR function in one 37-nucleotide nucleic acid molecule. It inhibits cancer cell growth and induces gene expression that is pathologically damped by an oncomir. These findings will have a strong impact on future developments regarding aptamer- and antimiR-related applications for tumor targeting and treatment.

Pofahl, Monika; Wengel, Jesper

2014-01-01

49

Evaluation of Seed and Seedling Emergence Enhancement of Some Population of Sahandy Savory (Satureja sahendica) by Gibberlic Acid, Potasium Nitrate, Pre-cooling, Physical and Chemical Scarification Treatment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In greenhouse experiment, the seed samples of 3 populations were treated with treatments including: cold stratification, Gibberlic Acid (50 ppm and 100 ppm), Potassium nitrate (0.2%, 0.4%), physical scarification (sand paper), chemical scarification (Ethylic alcohol 70%) and distilled water (control), then these treated seed samples were sown in pots as randomize design with three replication. The germination characteristics including: germination percentage, speed of germination, lengt...

Alizadeh, M. A.; Arab, H. A.; Tabaie, R.; Nasiri, M.

2013-01-01

50

Organic acid enhanced electrodialytic extraction of lead from contaminated soil fines in suspension  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The implementation of soil washing technology for the treatment of heavy metal contaminated soils is limited by the toxicity and unwieldiness of the remaining heavy metal contaminated sludge. In this work, the feasibility of combining electrodialytic remediation with heterotrophic leaching for decontamination of the sludge was investigated. The ability of 11 organic acids to extract Pb from the fine fraction of contaminated soil (grains <63 mu m) was investigated, and application of the acids as enhancing reagents during electrodialytic remediation (EDR) of Pb-contaminated soil fines in suspension was tested. Five of the acids showed the ability to extract Ph from the soil fines in excess of the effect caused solely by pH changes. Addition of the acids, however, severely impeded EDR, hence promotion of EDR by combination with heterotrophic leaching was rejected. In contrast, enhancement of EDR with nitric acid gave promising results.

Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

2007-01-01

51

Removal of coagulant aluminum from water treatment residuals by acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sediment sludge during coagulation and sedimentation in drinking water treatment is called "water treatment residuals (WTR)". Polyaluminum chloride (PAC) is mainly used as a coagulant in Japan. The recycling of WTR has been desired; one method for its reuse is as plowed soil. However, WTR reuse in this way is inhibited by the aluminum from the added PAC, because of its high adsorption capacity for phosphate and other fertilizer components. The removal of such aluminum from WTR would therefore be advantageous for its reuse as plowed soil; this research clarified the effect of acid washing on aluminum removal from WTR and on plant growth in the treated soil. The percentage of aluminum removal from raw WTR by sulphuric acid solution was around 90% at pH 3, the percentage decreasing to 40% in the case of a sun-dried sample. The maximum phosphate adsorption capacity was decreased and the available phosphorus was increased by acid washing, with 90% of aluminum removal. The enhancement of Japanese mustard spinach growth and the increased in plant uptake of phosphates following acid washing were observed. PMID:24835954

Okuda, Tetsuji; Nishijima, Wataru; Sugimoto, Mayo; Saka, Naoyuki; Nakai, Satoshi; Tanabe, Kazuyasu; Ito, Junki; Takenaka, Kenji; Okada, Mitsumasa

2014-09-01

52

Weak acidity of vinyl CH bonds enhanced by halogen substitution.  

Science.gov (United States)

As shown by the rates of proton-deuteron exchange in ethylenes with halogen substituents, the weak acidity of vinyl CH bonds is enhanced by halogen substitution. Relative rates of exchange in basic deuterium oxide reflect the relative acidities. Substitution in the ? position has the strongest effect. Less electronegative halogens such as bromine increase the acidity more than does fluorine. The vinyl CH acid strengths correlate closely with the energies of deprotonation of isolated molecules into isolated anions, as computed with the MP2/cc-pVQZ model. The smaller deprotonation energies are associated with the stronger acids. Atomic charges from a natural bond order analysis done with the MP2/aug-cc-pVQZ model show that the negative charge becomes more dispersed in the anions of the stronger acids. Results are given for 13 haloethylenes and for 6 halogen-substituted butadienes, cyclopropenes, and a cyclobutene. PMID:24475982

Craig, Norman C; Matlin, Albert R

2014-02-21

53

Enhancement of nucleation during hanging drop protein crystallization using HF treatment of cover glasses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We examined a simple approach, i.e., etching cover glasses using hydrofluoric acid (HF), to determine whether cover glass treatment enhances nucleation in hanging drop protein crystallization. Hen egg white lysozyme and proteinase K were used as the model proteins. We found that the treatment increased the success rate of crystallization. The results indicated that the simple treatment, which is easy to adopt without changing much in the hanging drop method, can be utilized as an alternative method to enhance protein crystallization screens (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

Guo, Yun-Zhu; Yin, Da-Chuan; Lu, Qin-Qin; Wang, Xi-Kai; Liu, Jun [Key Laboratory for Space Bioscience and Biotechnology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072, Shaanxi (China)

2010-02-15

54

Use of solvents prior to acid treatment of wells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The oil of productive beds of certain fields in Stavropol is characterized by an increased content of silica gel tars and asphaltenes. This had led to a decrease in the effectiveness of acid treatments because of the formation of highly viscous emulsions and the clogging of porous channels. Laboratory studies and industrial tests have indicated the possibility and advisability of using hydrocarbon solvents for the desorption of aslphlt--tar deposits in the fields of Stavropol. The addition of 0.5% surfactant substances increases the dissolving capability of the hydrocarbon solvents (condensate, kerosene, benzene). Industrial tests made at borehole 119 - Western Mekteb, and the 33rd Achikulak, have yielded positive results. The use of solvents makes it possible to desorb asphalt--tar substance deposits in the facing zone and enhances the breakdown of oil--acid emulsions that are formed in the process of acid treatment of seams with increased asphalt--tar substance content, and increases the well's productivity.

Sergeev, B.Z.; Kalashnev, V.V.; Zhurik, I.V.; Khodzhaev, R.G.; Esipenko, A.I.

1978-01-01

55

Microwave treatment of naphthenic acids in water.  

Science.gov (United States)

Naphthenic acids (NAs) are natural constituents of bitumen and crude oil. These compounds are concentrated as part of the oil sands process water (OSPW) during petroleum refining and separation from oil sands. NAs are considered among the major water contaminants in OSPW due to their toxicity and environmental recalcitrance. A laboratory scale microwave system was developed and experiments were conducted to determine the efficiency of NA degradation during microwave treatment. The effects of water source and quality (deionized lab water and river water) and of TiO(2) catalyst in the degradation process were also investigated. Degradation kinetic parameters for both total NAs and individual z-family were calculated. The microwave system degraded OSPW NAs and commercial Fluka NAs in river water in the presence of TiO(2) rapidly, producing half-life values of 3.32 and 3.61 hours, respectively. Toxicity assessments of the NA samples pre-and post-treatment indicated that the microwave system reduced overall toxicity of water containing Fluka NAs from high (5 min. IC(50) v/v = 15.85%) to moderate (5 min. IC(50) v/v = 36.45%) toxicity levels. However, a slight increase in toxicity was noted post-treatment in OSPW NAs. PMID:20623403

Mishra, Sabyasachi; Meda, Venkatesh; Dalai, Ajay K; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; McMartin, Dena W

2010-08-01

56

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection of lysophosphatidic acid  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering using silver nanoparticles was applied to detect various forms of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) to examine its potential application as an alternative to current detection methods of LPA as biomarkers of ovarian cancer. Enhancement of the Raman modes of the molecule, especially those related to the acyl chain within the 800–1300 cm?1 region, was observed. In particular, the C–C vibration mode of the gauche-bonded chain around 1100 cm?1 was enhanced to a...

Seballos, Leo; Zhang, Jin Z.; Sutphen, Rebecca

2005-01-01

57

An integrated sandstone acidizing fluid selection and simulation to optimize treatment design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An optimized design of a matrix treatment involves fluid selection and acidizing simulations to predict the outcome of the treatment. Many matrix acidizing treatment designs and fluid selections have been successfully accomplished by utilizing expert system technology. However, none of these present a complete and optimized result (i.e., by utilizing the output of the expert system to predict the acidizing outcome using an acidizing numerical simulator). In the meantime, several acidizing computer simulation studies have been conducted separately. This paper presents a study which integrates the treatment design, particularly the fluid selection process, and acidizing simulation for sandstone formations. Required parameters for sandstone acidizing such as acid type, concentration, volume, and injection rate/pressure are first selected using an expert system. The output from the expert system is further used for the input to an acidizing numerical simulator (UTACID). A new sandstone acidizing reaction model, appropriate for a high-temperature environment, and anisotropic medium have been implemented into UTACID to enhance the performance of the simulator. The expert system and the simulator have been integrated to provide an optimization tool for sandstone acidizing treatment design and simulation.

Sumotarto, U.; Hill, A.D.; Sepehrnoori, K.

1995-12-31

58

Effect of Enhancing Urea-Humic Acid Mixture with Refined Acid Sulphate Soil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: Acid Sulphate Soil (ASS) is a problem soil partly because of its high acidity. This low pH could be exploited to reduce ammonia loss from urea by reducing soil microsite pH. The use Humic Acid (HA) to control ammonia loss from urea has been reported but the cost of this material is high. This laboratory study compared the effect of enhancing urea-humic acid mixtures with acid sulphate soil on NH3 loss, pH, exchangeable ammonium and available nitrate conten...

Yusuff, Mohd T. M.; Ahmed, Osumanu H.; Majid, Nik M. A.

2009-01-01

59

Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and nucleic acids encoding same  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

Brown, Kimberly; Harris, Paul; Zaretsky, Elizabeth; Re, Edward; Vlasenko, Elena; McFarland, Keith; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo

2012-10-16

60

Enhancement of arachidonic acid signaling pathway by nicotinic acid receptor HM74A  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

HM74A is a G protein-coupled receptor for nicotinic acid (niacin), which has been used clinically to treat dyslipidemia for decades. The molecular mechanisms whereby niacin exerts its pleiotropic effects on lipid metabolism remain largely unknown. In addition, the most common side effect in niacin therapy is skin flushing that is caused by prostaglandin release, suggesting that the phospholipase A2 (PLA2)/arachidonic acid (AA) pathway is involved. Various eicosanoids have been shown to activate peroxisome-proliferator activated receptors (PPAR) that play a diverse array of roles in lipid metabolism. To further elucidate the potential roles of HM74A in mediating the therapeutic effects and/or side effects of niacin, we sought to explore the signaling events upon HM74A activation. Here we demonstrated that HM74A synergistically enhanced UTP- and bradykinin-mediated AA release in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner in A431 cells. Activation of HM74A also led to Ca2+-mobilization and enhanced bradykinin-promoted Ca2+-mobilization through Gi protein. While HM74A increased ERK1/2 activation by the bradykinin receptor, it had no effects on UTP-promoted ERK1/2 activation.Furthermore, UTP- and bradykinin-mediated AA release was significantly decreased in the presence of both MAPK kinase inhibitor PD 098059 and PKC inhibitor GF 109203X. However, the synergistic effects of HM74A were not dramatically affected by co-treatment with both inhibitors, indicating the cross-talk occurred at the receptor level. Finally, stimulation of A431 cells transiently transfected with PPRE-luciferase with AA significantly induced luciferase activity, mimicking the effects of PPAR? agonist rosiglitazone, suggesting that alteration of AA signaling pathway can regulate gene expression via endogenous PPARs

2006-06-23

 
 
 
 
61

TREATMENT TANK CORROSION STUDIES FOR THE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING PROCESS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radioactive waste is stored in high level waste tanks on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is aggressively seeking to close the non-compliant Type I and II waste tanks. The removal of sludge (i.e., metal oxide) heels from the tank is the final stage in the waste removal process. The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed and investigated by SRR to aid in Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) as an option for sludge heel removal. Corrosion rate data for carbon steel exposed to the ECC treatment tank environment was obtained to evaluate the degree of corrosion that occurs. These tests were also designed to determine the effect of various environmental variables such as temperature, agitation and sludge slurry type on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel. Coupon tests were performed to estimate the corrosion rate during the ECC process, as well as determine any susceptibility to localized corrosion. Electrochemical studies were performed to develop a better understanding of the corrosion mechanism. The tests were performed in 1 wt.% and 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with HM and PUREX sludge simulants. The following results and conclusions were made based on this testing: (1) In 1 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, carbon steel corroded at a rate of less than 25 mpy within the temperature and agitation levels of the test. No susceptibility to localized corrosion was observed. (2) In 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, the carbon steel corrosion rates ranged between 15 and 88 mpy. The most severe corrosion was observed at 75 C in the HM/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. Pitting and general corrosion increased with the agitation level at this condition. No pitting and lower general corrosion rates were observed with the PUREX/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. The electrochemical and coupon tests both indicated that carbon steel is more susceptible to localized corrosion in the HM/oxalic acid environment than in the PUREX/oxalic acid environment. (3) The corrosion rates for PUREX/8 wt.% oxalic acid were greater than or equal to those observed for the PUREX/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid. No localized corrosion was observed in the tests with the 8 wt.% oxalic acid. Testing with HM/8 wt.% oxalic acid simulant was not performed. Thus, a comparison with the results with 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid, where the corrosion rate was 88 mpy and localized corrosion was observed at 75 C, cannot be made. (4) The corrosion rates in 1 and 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid solutions were temperature dependent: (a) At 50 C, the corrosion rates ranged between 90 to 140 mpy over the 30 day test period. The corrosion rates were higher under stagnant conditions. (b) At 75 C, the initial corrosion rates were as high as 300 mpy during the first day of exposure. The corrosion rates increased with agitation. However, once the passive ferrous oxalate film formed, the corrosion rate decreased dramatically to less than 20 mpy over the 30 day test period. This rate was independent of agitation. (5) Electrochemical testing indicated that for oxalic acid/sludge simulant mixtures the cathodic reaction has transport controlled reaction kinetics. The literature suggests that the dissolution of the sludge produces a di-oxalatoferrate ion that is reduced at the cathodic sites. The cathodic reaction does not appear to involve hydrogen evolution. On the other hand, electrochemical tests demonstrated that the cathodic reaction for corrosion of carbon steel in pure oxalic acid involves hydrogen evolution. (6) Agitation of the oxalic acid/sludge simulant mixtures typically resulted in a higher corrosion rates for both acid concentrations. The transport of the ferrous ion away from the metal surface results in a less protective ferrous oxalate film. (7) A mercury containing species along with aluminum, silicon and iron oxides was observed on the interior of the pits formed in the HM/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant at 75 C. The pitting rates in the agitated and non-agitated solution were 2 mils/day and 1 mil/day, respectively. A mechanism

Wiersma, B.

2011-08-24

62

Treatment Tank Corrosion Studies For The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning Process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive waste is stored in high level waste tanks on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is aggressively seeking to close the non-compliant Type I and II waste tanks. The removal of sludge (i.e., metal oxide) heels from the tank is the final stage in the waste removal process. The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed and investigated by SRR to aid in Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) as an option for sludge heel removal. Corrosion rate data for carbon steel exposed to the ECC treatment tank environment was obtained to evaluate the degree of corrosion that occurs. These tests were also designed to determine the effect of various environmental variables such as temperature, agitation and sludge slurry type on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel. Coupon tests were performed to estimate the corrosion rate during the ECC process, as well as determine any susceptibility to localized corrosion. Electrochemical studies were performed to develop a better understanding of the corrosion mechanism. The tests were performed in 1 wt.% and 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with HM and PUREX sludge simulants. The following results and conclusions were made based on this testing: (1) In 1 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, carbon steel corroded at a rate of less than 25 mpy within the temperature and agitation levels of the test. No susceptibility to localized corrosion was observed. (2) In 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, the carbon steel corrosion rates ranged between 15 and 88 mpy. The most severe corrosion was observed at 75 C in the HM/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. Pitting and general corrosion increased with the agitation level at this condition. No pitting and lower general corrosion rates were observed with the PUREX/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. The electrochemical and coupon tests both indicated that carbon steel is more susceptible to localized corrosion in the HM/oxalic acid environment than in the PUREX/oxalic acid environment. (3) The corrosion rates for PUREX/8 wt.% oxalic acid were greater than or equal to those observed for the PUREX/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid. No localized corrosion was observed in the tests with the 8 wt.% oxalic acid. Testing with HM/8 wt.% oxalic acid simulant was not performed. Thus, a comparison with the results with 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid, where the corrosion rate was 88 mpy and localized corrosion was observed at 75 C, cannot be made. (4) The corrosion rates in 1 and 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid solutions were temperature dependent: (a) At 50 C, the corrosion rates ranged between 90 to 140 mpy over the 30 day test period. The corrosion rates were higher under stagnant conditions. (b) At 75 C, the initial corrosion rates were as high as 300 mpy during the first day of exposure. The corrosion rates increased with agitation. However, once the passive ferrous oxalate film formed, the corrosion rate decreased dramatically to less than 20 mpy over the 30 day test period. This rate was independent of agitation. (5) Electrochemical testing indicated that for oxalic acid/sludge simulant mixtures the cathodic reaction has transport controlled reaction kinetics. The literature suggests that the dissolution of the sludge produces a di-oxalatoferrate ion that is reduced at the cathodic sites. The cathodic reaction does not appear to involve hydrogen evolution. On the other hand, electrochemical tests demonstrated that the cathodic reaction for corrosion of carbon steel in pure oxalic acid involves hydrogen evolution. (6) Agitation of the oxalic acid/sludge simulant mixtures typically resulted in a higher corrosion rates for both acid concentrations. The transport of the ferrous ion away from the metal surface results in a less protective ferrous oxalate film. (7) A mercury containing species along with aluminum, silicon and iron oxides was observed on the interior of the pits formed in the HM/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant at 75 C. The pitting rates in the agitated and non-agitated solution were 2 mils/day and 1 mil/day, respectively. A mechanism

2011-01-01

63

Electron beam treatment with radical scavengers/enhancers.  

Science.gov (United States)

E-beam treatment of low level contaminated groundwater is best apt to demonstrate the role of scavengers and enhancers, respectively because groundwater already contains some scavengers as natural solutes. The action of ionizing radiation to water is know...

P. Gehringer

1994-01-01

64

Enhancing Residential Treatment for Drug Court Participants  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the authors describe and evaluate the impact of increased access to residential treatment added to traditional drug court services in Orange County, California, with a goal of increasing program retention, successful completion, and graduation rates for a high-risk drug offender population participating in drug court between January…

Koob, Jeff; Brocato, Jo; Kleinpeter, Christine

2011-01-01

65

Nucleic acid molecules conferring enhanced ethanol tolerance and microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to ethanol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention provides isolated nucleic acid molecules which encode a mutant acetaldehyde-CoA/alcohol dehydrogenase or mutant alcohol dehydrogenase and confer enhanced tolerance to ethanol. The invention also provides related expression vectors, genetically engineered microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to ethanol, as well as methods of making and using such genetically modified microorganisms for production of biofuels based on fermentation of biomass materials.

Brown, Steven; Guss, Adam; Yang, Shihui; Karpinets, Tatiana; Lynd, Lee; Shao, Xiongjun

2014-01-14

66

Cognitive enhancers for the treatment of ADHD  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with multiple cognition-related phenotypic features in both children and adults. This review aims to clarify the role of cognition in ADHD and how prevailing treatments, which are often highly effective at reducing the clinical symptoms of the disorder, fare in modulating ADHD-related cognitive processes. First, we consider how the broad construct of cognition can be conceptualized in the context of ADHD. Second, we review the avai...

Bidwell, L. Cinnamon; Mcclernon, F. Joseph; Kollins, Scott H.

2011-01-01

67

The Enhancement of Catharanthine Content in Catharanthus roseus Callus Culture Treated with Naphtalene Acetic Acid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research aim was to examine the enhancement of catharanthine content in Catharanthus roseus callus culture added with different concentration of Naphtalene Acetic Acid (NAA. NAA treatment produced callus that formed hairy roots. Fresh and dry weight of callus increased as the increasing of NAA concentration. The catharanthine content of C. roseus callus culture was increased by adding NAA as well. The highest catharanthine content was found in 2.5 ppm NAA added callus.

DINGSE PANDIANGAN

2006-09-01

68

?-Mangostin Enhances Betulinic Acid Cytotoxicity and Inhibits Cisplatin Cytotoxicity on HCT 116 Colorectal Carcinoma Cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite the progress in colon cancer treatment, relapse is still a major obstacle. Hence, new drugs or drug combinations are required in the battle against colon cancer. ?-Mangostin and betulinic acid (BA) are cytotoxic compounds that work by inducing the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, and cisplatin is one of the most potent broad spectrum anti-tumor agents. This study aims to investigate the enhancement of BA cytotoxicity by ?-mangostin, and the cytoprotection effect of ?-mangostin and ...

Aisha, Abdalrahim F. A.; Abu-salah, Khalid M.; Zhari Ismail; Amin Malik Shah Abdul Majid

2012-01-01

69

Apparent Enhanced Solubility of Single-Wall Carbon Nano tubes in a Deuterated Acid Mixture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An apparent enhanced solubility of single-wall carbon nano tubes (SWNTs) in the deuterated form of the standard 3 : 1 sulfuric (H2SO4) to nitric (HNO3) acid mixture treatment is reported and attributed to the stronger interaction of deuterium bonds with the single-wall carbon nano tube surface. UV-Visible spectroscopy was used to characterize the apparent enhanced solubility of the SWNTs treated in deuterated forms of the acid mixture in comparison to the standard acid mix, while FTIR was used to analyze the nature of the functional groups generated on the SWNTs as a result of the different acid treatments. The apparent enhanced solubility reported here is consistent with the limited number of computational and experimental results published in the literature regarding the interaction of carbon nano tubes with deuterated solvents; however, a detailed understanding of the underlying mechanism responsible for this observation is currently lacking. The apparent increased solubility observed here could potentially be utilized in many applications where carbon nano tube dispersion is required.

2008-01-01

70

Apparent Enhanced Solubility of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes in a Deuterated Acid Mixture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An apparent enhanced solubility of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs in the deuterated form of the standard 3 : 1 sulfuric (H2SO4 to nitric (HNO3 acid mixture treatment is reported and attributed to the stronger interaction of deuterium bonds with the single-wall carbon nanotube surface. UV-Visible spectroscopy was used to characterize the apparent enhanced solubility of the SWNTs treated in deuterated forms of the acid mixture in comparison to the standard acid mix, while FTIR was used to analyze the nature of the functional groups generated on the SWNTs as a result of the different acid treatments. The apparent enhanced solubility reported here is consistent with the limited number of computational and experimental results published in the literature regarding the interaction of carbon nanotubes with deuterated solvents; however, a detailed understanding of the underlying mechanism responsible for this observation is currently lacking. The apparent increased solubility observed here could potentially be utilized in many applications where carbon nanotube dispersion is required.

L. Catherine Brinson

2008-04-01

71

Aspects of enhanced three-dimensional radiotherapy treatment planning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Advances in computer technology have led to the availability of sophisticated three-dimensional treatment planning systems for use in many radiotherapy centers. However, additional complexity in both the planning and delivery of treatments has accompanied their use. Thus, even more computer-aided tools are beginning to appear to address these needs. Aspects of recent enhancements to 3-D treatment planning at the University of Michigan are presented. (authors). 78 refs., 8 figs

1995-12-01

72

Aspects of enhanced three-dimensional radiotherapy treatment planning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Advances in computer technology have led to the availability of sophisticated three-dimensional treatment planning systems for use in many radiotherapy centers. However, additional complexity in both the planning and delivery of treatments has accompanied their use. Thus, even more computer-aided tools are beginning to appear to address these needs. Aspects of recent enhancements to 3-D treatment planning at the University of Michigan are presented. (authors). 78 refs., 8 figs.

Ten Haken, R.K.; Fraass, B.A.; Kessler, M.L.; McShan, D.L. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Medical Center

1995-12-01

73

Appearance of hepatocellular adenomas on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate enhancement characteristics of hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs) using gadoxetic acid as a hepatocyte-specific MR contrast agent. Twenty-four patients with histopathologically proven HCAs were retrospectively identified. MRI consisted of T1- and T2-weighted (w) sequences with and without fat saturation (fs), multiphase dynamic T1-w images, and fs T1-w images during the hepatobiliary phase. Standard of reference was surgical resection (n = 19) or biopsy (n = 5). Images were analysed for morphology and contrast behaviour including signal intensity (SI) measurement on T1-w images normalised to the pre-contrast base line. In total 34 HCAs were evaluated. All HCAs showed enhancement in the arterial phase; 38 % of HCAs showed reduced contrast enhancement (''wash-out'') in the venous phase. All HCAs showed enhancement (SI increase, 56 {+-} 53 %; P <0.001) in the hepatobiliary phase, although liver uptake was stronger (96 {+-} 58 %). Thus, 31 of all HCAs (91 %) appeared hypointense to the surrounding liver in the hepatobiliary phase, while 3 out of 34 lesions were iso-/hyperintense. Gadoxetic acid accumulates in HCAs in the hepatobiliary phase, although significantly less than in surrounding liver. Thus, HCA appears in the vast majority of cases as a hypointense lesion on hepatobiliary phase images. (orig.)

Denecke, Timm; Steffen, Ingo G.; Kroencke, Thomas; Haenninen, Enrique Lopez; Hamm, Bernd; Grieser, Christian [Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Klinik fuer Radiologie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany); Agarwal, Sheela; Saini, Sanjay [Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Seehofer, Daniel; Neuhaus, Peter [Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Klinik fuer Allgemein, Viszeral- und Transplantationschirurgie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany); Kramme, Incken-Birthe [Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Institut fuer Pathologie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany)

2012-08-15

74

Energetic particle-induced enhancements of stratospheric nitric acid  

Science.gov (United States)

Inclusion of complete ion chemistry in the calculation of minor species production during energetic particle deposition events leads to significant enhancement in the calculated nitric acid concentration during precipitation. An ionization rate of 1.2 x 10(exp 3)/cu cm/s imposed for 1 day increases HNO3 from 3 x 10(exp 5) to 6 x 10(exp 7)/cu cm at 50 km. With an ionization rate of 600 cu cm/s, the maximum HNO3 is 3 x 10(exp 7)/cu cm. Calculations which neglect negative ions predict the nitric acid will fall during precipitation events. The decay time for converting HNO3 into odd nitrogen and hydrogen is more than 1 day for equinoctial periods at 70 deg latitude. Examination of nitric acid data should yield important information on the magnitude and frequency of charged particle events.

Aikin, Arthur C.

1994-01-01

75

Atypical enhancement pattern of focal liver lesions on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR hepatobiliary imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gadoxetic acid (Primovist or Eovist; Bayer Schering Pharma, Berlin, Germany), otherwise known as gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA), is a hepatobiliary-specific contrast agent. Gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging is useful for the evaluation of focal liver lesions. In particular, hepatobiliary phase imaging that is acquired 20 minutes after injection has several merits because it reflects an aspect of hepatocyte function. Normal liver parenchyma demonstrates significant enhancement on the hepatobiliary phase due to selective uptake of gadoxetic acid by functioning hepatocytes, while most malignant liver lesions including hepatocellular carcinoma appear hypointense in comparison with adjacent liver parenchyma during the hepatobiliary phase. However, 10-27% of hepatocellular carcinoma nodules appear isointense or hyperintense during the hepatobiliary phase, and are considered to demonstrate a type of hepatocyte function. There is no relationship between the degree of enhancement on the hepatobiliary phase and tumor differentiation. Organic anion transport polypeptide such as OATP1B3 plays a role in the uptake of gadoxetic acid. The degree of OATP1B3 expression in the tumor affects the degree of tumor enhancement during the hepatobiliary phase. Focal nodular hyperplasia usually appears isointense or hyperintense during the hepatobiliary phase. However, it has been reported that a certain percentage of lesions appear hypointense. Arterial-enhancing pseudolesions such as arterioportal shunt usually appear isointense during the hepatobiliary phase, reflecting normal hepatocyte function. However, it has been reported that a certain percentage of lesions appear hypointense. As for hepatic adenoma, some researchers reported that these lesions appear hypointense, while the others reported that these lesions appear isointense or hyperintense during the hepatobiliary phase. Other than tumorous lesions, there are certain clinical conditions that demonstrate hypointense areas during the hepatobiliary phase. Focal liver inflammation sometimes appears hypointense during the hepatobiliary phase. Radiation hepatitis in the acute stage usually appears hypointense during the hepatobiliary phase. Liver parenchyma after percutaneous transhepatic portal embolization appears hypointense during the hepatobiliary phase. An awareness of atypical enhancement patterns during the hepatobiliary phase images may improve the accuracy of diagnosing focal liver lesions using gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging. (author)

2010-09-01

76

Betulinic Acid for Cancer Treatment and Prevention  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Betulinic acid is a natural product with a range of biological effects, for example potent antitumor activity. This anticancer property is linked to its ability to induce apoptotic cell death in cancer cells by triggering the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. In contrast to the cytotoxicity of betulinic acid against a variety of cancer types, normal cells and tissue are relatively resistant to betulinic acid, pointing to a therapeutic window. Compounds that exert a direct action on mitochon...

Fulda, Simone

2008-01-01

77

Betulinic acid for cancer treatment and prevention  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Betulinic acid is a natural product with a range of biological effects, for example potent antitumor activity. This anticancer property is linked to its ability to induce apoptotic cell death in cancer cells by triggering the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. In contrast to the cytotoxicity of betulinic acid against a variety of cancer types, normal cells and tissue are relatively resistant to betulinic acid, pointing to a therapeutic window. Compounds that exert a direct action on mitochon...

Fulda, Simone

2008-01-01

78

Lowering of phytic acid content by enhancement of phytase and acid phosphatase activities during sunflower germination  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this work was to investigate the germination of hybrid sunflowers BRS191 and C11 as a means of lowering phytic acid (PA) content by enhancing the activity of endogenous phytase and acid phosphatase. The concentration of PA in hybrid sunflower achenes varied from 2.16 to 2.83g/100g of sample (p < 0.05). The phytase and acid phosphatase activities of sunflowers BRS191 and C11 were the highest on the 4th and 5th days of germination, respectively, with the release of the phosphor...

Juliana da Silva Agostini; Rosicler Balduíno Nogueira; Elza Iouko Ida

2010-01-01

79

Slagment Cement Improve the Cement Resistance Toward Acids Attack During Acidizing Treatment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Acidizing treatment in past experience shows several zonal isolation problems after the treatment. This study presents the effect of the acid treatment toward class G cement and slagment cement as the improvement method to improve the cement resistance toward the acid. Lab experiments were conducted by immerge the respective cement cubes into 12% HCl/3% HF solution for 40 min before several analysis were conducted. Based on the result, the mass loss and compressive strength loss of the cement...

2013-01-01

80

Dynamic hydroxymethylation of deoxyribonucleic acid marks differentiation-associated enhancers  

Science.gov (United States)

Enhancers are developmentally controlled transcriptional regulatory regions whose activities are modulated through histone modifications or histone variant deposition. In this study, we show by genome-wide mapping that the newly discovered deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) modification 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is dynamically associated with transcription factor binding to distal regulatory sites during neural differentiation of mouse P19 cells and during adipocyte differentiation of mouse 3T3-L1 cells. Functional annotation reveals that regions gaining 5hmC are associated with genes expressed either in neural tissues when P19 cells undergo neural differentiation or in adipose tissue when 3T3-L1 cells undergo adipocyte differentiation. Furthermore, distal regions gaining 5hmC together with H3K4me2 and H3K27ac in P19 cells behave as differentiation-dependent transcriptional enhancers. Identified regions are enriched in motifs for transcription factors regulating specific cell fates such as Meis1 in P19 cells and PPAR? in 3T3-L1 cells. Accordingly, a fraction of hydroxymethylated Meis1 sites were associated with a dynamic engagement of the 5-methylcytosine hydroxylase Tet1. In addition, kinetic studies of cytosine hydroxymethylation of selected enhancers indicated that DNA hydroxymethylation is an early event of enhancer activation. Hence, acquisition of 5hmC in cell-specific distal regulatory regions may represent a major event of enhancer progression toward an active state and participate in selective activation of tissue-specific genes.

Serandour, Aurelien A.; Avner, Stephane; Oger, Frederik; Bizot, Maud; Percevault, Frederic; Lucchetti-Miganeh, Celine; Palierne, Gaelle; Gheeraert, Celine; Barloy-Hubler, Frederique; Peron, Christine Le; Madigou, Thierry; Durand, Emmanuelle; Froguel, Philippe; Staels, Bart; Lefebvre, Philippe; Metivier, Raphael; Eeckhoute, Jerome; Salbert, Gilles

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

[Enhancers on the transmembrane transport of chlorogenic acid].  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the influence of the difference enhancers on the transport mechanism of chlorogenic acid (CGA) across Caco-2 cells model, a RP-HPLC method was adopted to detect the concentrations of CGA. At the concentrations of 20 to 80 microg x mL(-1), the difference of absorption rate constants (K(a)) was not statistically significant. At the concentrations of 40 and 20 microg x mL(-1), the ratios of apparent permeability coefficients (P(app)) of the apical to basolateral and the basolateral to apical were 1.14 and 1.18, respectively. With the effect of enhancers K(a) and P(app) increased, the absorption half-life (T1/2) decreased. CGA passed through the Caco-2 cell membrane mainly by passive transport. It showed that monocarboxylic acid transporter (MCT) could be involved in the across membrane transport process of CGA. Borneol had no effect on the cell membrane transport processes. The order of increasing absorption of CGA caused by the enhancers was sodium lauryl sulphate > sodium taurocholate > carbomer. PMID:24761618

Ren, Jing; Deng, Sheng-Qi; Jiang, Xue-Hua; Wang, Ling-Ling; Xiao, Yu

2014-02-01

82

Enhancement of shortening velocity, power, and acto-myosin crossbridge (CB) kinetics following long-term treatment with propionyl-L-carnitine, coenzyme Q10, and omega-3 fatty acids in BIO TO-2 cardiomyopathic Syrian hamsters papillary muscle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Impaired functions of myocardial muscle cells in human and animals, is a primary defect associated with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The pathophysiological mechanisms implicated in the DCM are yet to be clarified and an effective therapy is still not available. The BIO TO-2 cardiomyopathic Syrian Hamsters (CMSHs) represent an animal model of idiopathic DCM. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term treatment (2 months) with propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC), coenzyme Q(10), omega-3 fatty acids and a combination of these three agents (formulation HS12607) on mechanical properties and acto-myosin crossbridges (CBs) kinetics of left ventricular (LV) papillary muscle from control and treated 10 month old BIO TO-2 CMSHs. Isometric and isotonic contractile properties of isolated papillary muscle from control and treated CMSHs were investigated, and acto-myosin CB number, force and kinetics were calculated using Huxley's equations. Mechanical parameter values were higher in treated than in control hamsters, particularly when substances were administered together in a coformulation (HS12607). Compared to control, HS12607-treated papillary muscles showed a significant increase of maximum peak isometric tension (P(o)) (30.06 +/- 4.91 vs. 19.74 +/- 5.00 mN/mm(2)), maximum extent of muscle shortening (0.13 +/- 0.03 vs. 0.07 +/- 0.02 L/L(max)), maximum unloaded shortening velocity (1.18 +/- 0.24 vs. 0.53 +/- 0.13 L/L(max) s(-1)) and maximum peak of power output (5.52 +/- 1.61 vs. 1.58 +/- 0.83). The curvature of the hyperbolic force-velocity relationships did not differ between control and treated hamsters. When compared to controls, acto-myosin CB number increased in treated hamsters [(6.67 +/- 1.91) 10(10)/mm(2) vs. (3.55 +/- 2.08) 10(10)/mm(2)], whereas the unitary force of single CB was similar in control and treated animals. The peak value of the rate constant for CB attachment (f(1)) and detachment (g(2)) was higher in treated animals when compared to control. (93.87 +/- 25.82 vs.47.28 +/- 10.88 s(-1) and 214.40 +/- 44.64 vs. 95.56 +/- 23.49 s(-1), respectively). In conclusion, the present study illustrates that supplementation with PLC, CoQ(10) and omega-3 fatty acids improved motor parameters, energetic, and CB kinetics of BIO TO-2 CMSH papillary muscle indicating that these naturally occurring substances may be a valid adjuvant to conventional therapy in DCM. PMID:20533397

Vargiu, Romina; Littarru, Gian Paolo; Fraschini, Matteo; Perinu, Anna; Tiano, Luca; Capra, Alessandro; Mancinelli, Rino

2010-01-01

83

Venous lipodermatosclerosis: treatment by fibrinolytic enhancement and elastic compression.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The value of fibrinolytic enhancement with an anabolic steroid (stanozolol) combined with elastic stockings in treating venous lipodermatosclerosis was assessed in a six-month double-blind cross-over trial. Thirty-four legs of 23 patients in whom other treatments had failed were studied. The patients were randomly divided into two groups who were treated with either stanozolol plus elastic stockings or placebo plus elastic stockings for three months, and then vice versa. Treatment with or wit...

Burnand, K.; Clemenson, G.; Morland, M.; Jarrett, P. E.; Browse, N. L.

1980-01-01

84

Surgical Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Acid Reflux Shawnee Mission Medical Center Shawnee Mission, Kansas May 21, 2009 Welcome to this “OR-Live” ... live from Shawnee Mission Medical Center in Merriam, Kansas. During the program it’s easy for you to ...

85

Enhanced Production of Docosahexaenoic Acid in Mammalian Cells  

Science.gov (United States)

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), one of the important polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with pharmaceutical and nutraceutical effects, may be obtained through diet or synthesized in vivo from dietary a-linolenic acid (ALA). However, the acumulation of DHA in human body or other mammals relies on the intake of high dose of DHA for a certain period of time, and the bioconversion of dietary ALA to DHA is very limited. Therefore the mammalian cells are not rich in DHA. Here, we report a new technology for increased prodution of DHA in mammalian cells. By using transient transfection method, Siganus canaliculatus ?4 desaturase was heterologously expressed in chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, and simultaneously, mouse ?6-desaturase and ?5-desaturase were overexpressed. The results demonstrated that the overexpression of ?6/?5-desaturases significantly enhanced the ability of transfected cells to convert the added ALA to docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) which in turn get converted into DHA directly and efficiently by the heterologously expressed ?4 desaturase. This technology provides the basis for potential utility of these gene constructs in the creation of transgenic livestock for increased production of DHA/related products to meet the growing demand of this important PUFA.

Zhu, Guiming; Jiang, Xudong; Ou, Qin; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Mingfu; Sun, Guozhi; Wang, Zhao; Sun, Jie; Ge, Tangdong

2014-01-01

86

Inhibition of breast cancer cell proliferation in repeated and non-repeated treatment with zoledronic acid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Zoledronic acid is used to treat bone metastases and has been shown to reduce skeletal-related events and exert antitumor activity. The present in vitro study investigates the mechanism of action of Zoledronic Acid on breast cancer cell lines with different hormonal and HER2 patterns. Furthermore, we investigated the efficacy of repeated versus non-repeated treatments. Methods The study was performed on 4 breast cancer cell lines (BRC-230, SkBr3, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Non-repeated treatment (single exposure of 168?hrs’ duration with zoledronic acid was compared with repeated treatment (separate exposures, each of 48?hrs’ duration, for a total of 168?hrs at different dosages. A dose–response profile was generated using sulforhodamine B assay. Apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL assay and biomolecular characteristics were analyzed by western blot. Results Zoledronic acid produced a dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation in all cell lines. Anti-proliferative activity was enhanced with the repeated treatment, proving to be statistically significant in the triple-negative lines. In these lines repeated treatment showed a cytocidal effect, with apoptotic cell death caused by caspase 3, 8 and 9 activation and decreased RAS and pMAPK expression. Apoptosis was not observed in estrogen receptor-positive line: p21 overexpression suggested a slowing down of cell cycle. A decrease in RAS and pMAPK expression was seen in HER2-overexpressing line after treatment. Conclusions The study suggests that zoledronic acid has an antitumor activity in breast cancer cell lines. Its mechanism of action involves the decrease of RAS and RHO, as in osteoclasts. Repeated treatment enhances antitumor activity compared to non-repeated treatment. Repeated treatment has a killing effect on triple-negative lines due to apoptosis activation. Further research is warranted especially in the treatment of triple-negative breast cancer.

Ibrahim Toni

2012-11-01

87

Hepatic arachidonic acid metabolism is disrupted after hexachlorobenzene treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hexaclorobenzene (HCB), one of the most persistent environmental pollutants, can cause a wide range of toxic effects including cancer in animals, and hepatotoxicity and porphyria both in humans and animals. In the present study, liver microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism, hepatic PGE production, and cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) activity were investigated in an experimental model of porphyria cutanea tarda induced by HCB. Female Wistar rats were treated with a single daily dose of HCB (100 mg kg-1 body weight) for 5 days and were sacrificed 3, 10, 17, and 52 days after the last dose. HCB treatment induced the accumulation of hepatic porhyrins from day 17 and increased the activities of liver ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (MROD), and aminopyrine N-demethylase (APND) from day 3 after the last dose. Liver microsomes from control and HCB-treated rats generated, in the presence of NADPH, hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs), epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), 11,12-Di HETE, and ?-OH/?-1-OH AA. HCB treatment caused an increase in total NADPH CYP-dependent AA metabolism, with a higher response at 3 days after the last HCB dose than at the other time points studied. In addition, HCB treatment markedly enhanced PGE production and release in liver slices. This HCB effect was time dependent and reached its highest level after 10 days. At this time cPLA2 activity was shown to be increased. Unexpectedly, HCB produced a significant decrease in cPLA2 activity on the 17th and 52nd day. Our results demonstrated for the first time that HCB induces both the cyclooxygenase and CYP-dependent AA metabolism. The effects of HCB on AA metabolism were previous to the onset of a marked porphyria and might contribute to different aspects of HCB-induced liver toxicity such as alterations of membrane fluidity and membrane-bound protein function. Observations also suggested that a possible role of cPLA2 in the early increase of AA metabolism cannot be excluded. However, the existence of other pathway(s) for metabolizable AA generation different from cPLA2 activation is also proposed

2005-04-15

88

Ex vivo acidic preconditioning enhances bone marrow ckit+ cell therapeutic potential via increased CXCR4 expression  

Science.gov (United States)

Aims The chemokine receptor CXCR4 modulates endothelial progenitor cell migration, homing, and differentiation, and plays a key role in cardiovascular regeneration. Here we examined the effect of ex vivo acidic preconditioning (AP) on CXCR4 expression and on the regenerative potential of mouse bone marrow (BM) ckit+ cells. Methods and results Acidic preconditioning was achieved by exposing BM ckit+ cells to hypercarbic acidosis (pH 7.0) for 24 h; control cells were kept at pH 7.4. Acidic preconditioning enhanced CXCR4 and stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) mRNA levels, as well as CXCR4 phosphorylation. Acidic preconditioning ability to modulate CXCR4 expression depended on cytosolic calcium [Ca2+]i mobilization and on nitric oxide (NO), as determined by [Ca2+]i buffering with BAPTA, and by treatment with the NO donor (DETA/NO) and the NO synthase inhibitor (L-NAME). Further, AP increased SDF-1-driven chemotaxis, transendothelial migration, and differentiation toward the endothelial lineage in vitro. In a mouse model of hindlimb ischaemia, control and AP ckit+ cells were transplanted into the ischaemic muscle; AP cells accelerated blood flow recovery, increased capillary, and arteriole number as well as the number of regenerating muscle fibres vs. control. These effects were abolished by treating AP cells with L-NAME. Conclusion Acidic preconditioning represents a novel strategy to enhance BM ckit+ cell therapeutic potential via NO-dependent increase in CXCR4 expression.

Cencioni, Chiara; Melchionna, Roberta; Straino, Stefania; Romani, Marta; Cappuzzello, Claudia; Annese, Valentina; Wu, Joseph C.; Pompilio, Giulio; Santoni, Angela; Gaetano, Carlo; Napolitano, Monica; Capogrossi, Maurizio C.

2013-01-01

89

Acid and Temperature Treatments Result in Increased Germination of Seeds of Three Fescue Species  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Efficient germination of fescue seeds is essential for successful establishment of meadows and pastures. This research was conducted to ascertain the effects of various acid and temperature treatments on seed germination in three fescue species: Festuca rubra, F. ovina, and F. pratensis. Seeds from different cultivars, populations, or lots were exposed either to four concentrations of sulfuric acid at three different time intervals (12 treatments or six different temperatures at three different time intervals (18 treatments. Despite all belonging to the genus Festuca, the seed from different species responded differently to the treatments. The three optimum treatments for F. rubra seed involved soaking in a 75% solution of sulfuric acid for 20 minutes (improved the germination rate by 19%, soaking in a 50% solution of sulfuric acid for 30 minutes (improved the germination rate by 18% and exposure to either 60°C or 70°C for 90 minutes (improved the germination rate by 17%. For F. ovina seed, optimal treatments included soaking seeds for either 10 or 20 minutes in a 50% sulfuric acid solution (both treatments improved germination rates by 13% or exposing seeds for 30 minutes in a 25% sulfuric acid solution and 80°C for 60 minutes (improved germination rate by 12%. Two optimal treatments were identified for F. pratensis seed. Whereas the first involved soaking the seeds in a 75% sulfuric acid solution for 30 minutes (improved germination rates by 22%, the second involved either exposing the seeds to 90°C for 90 or 60 minutes, or exposing the seeds to 80°C for 90 minutes (improved germination rate by 21%. Our findings indicate that if fescue seed is to be sown during the autumn (two to three months after seed collecting, treating it with acid and temperature can significantly enhance its germination.

Dragoslav J. DOKIC

2012-11-01

90

Bile acids and sterols in urban sewage treatment plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The composition of bile acids, sterols and sterones in water and sludge from an urban sewage treatment plant has been examined for assessment of the possible use of these compounds as pollution biomarkers. Samples were solvent-extracted, hydrolysed, and fractionated by column chromatography to separate acids, hydrocarbons, sterones and sterols. These fractions, except hydrocarbons, were methylated (acids only) and silylated for instrumental analysis. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis was performed in the electron-impact mode, using a non-polar capillary column. Lithocholic acids (3alpha- and 3beta-epimers), coprostanone, coprostanol, cholesterol, cholestenone, and cholestanone were found in sludge and all waters. However, the waters after secondary plant treatment contained mainly lithocholic acids epimers and coprostanone, pointing to these compounds as potential markers for urban treatment plant effluents in natural waters courses. PMID:11572384

Chaler, R; Simoneit, B R; Grimalt, J O

2001-08-24

91

Photocatalytic treatment of contaminated groundwater for biological nitrification enhancement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Strengths and weaknesses of biological and photocatalytic treatments as water treatment technologies were reviewed. This investigation concentrated on the treatment of groundwater from an industrial site, using photocatalysis as an alternative to the carbon adsorption system for inhibitor removal. Elimination of bicarbonate and carbonate by lowering the pH was critical for the photocatalytic reaction to take place. The photocatalytic pretreatment was found to dramatically enhance the extent of biological nitrification. The addition of 50 to 350 mg/L hydrogen peroxide enhanced the photocatalytic degradation rate, but had only a minimal effect of biological nitrification. Results were interpreted as confirmation of the potential of photocatalysis to remove inhibition from biological nitrification systems.

Zhang, Z.; Anderson, W. A.; Moo-Young, M. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1998-10-01

92

Acid mine water aeration and treatment system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An in-line system is provided for treating acid mine drainage which basically comprises the combination of a jet pump (or pumps) and a static mixer. The jet pump entrains air into the acid waste water using a Venturi effect so as to provide aeration of the waste water while further aeration is provided by the helical vanes of the static mixer. A neutralizing agent is injected into the suction chamber of the jet pump and the static mixer is formed by plural sections offset by 90 degrees.

Ackman, Terry E. (Finleyville, PA); Place, John M. (Bethel Park, PA)

1987-01-01

93

Pipecolic acid enhances resistance to bacterial infection and primes salicylic acid and nicotine accumulation in tobacco.  

Science.gov (United States)

Distinct amino acid metabolic pathways constitute integral parts of the plant immune system. We have recently identified pipecolic acid (Pip), a lysine-derived non-protein amino acid, as a critical regulator of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and basal immunity to bacterial infection in Arabidopsis thaliana. In Arabidopsis, Pip acts as an endogenous mediator of defense amplification and priming. For instance, Pip conditions plants for effective biosynthesis of the phenolic defense signal salicylic acid (SA), accumulation of the phytoalexin camalexin, and expression of defense-related genes. Here, we show that tobacco plants respond to leaf infection by the compatible bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tabaci (Pstb) with a significant accumulation of several amino acids, including Lys, branched-chain, aromatic, and amide group amino acids. Moreover, Pstb strongly triggers, alongside the biosynthesis of SA and increases in the defensive alkaloid nicotine, the production of the Lys catabolites Pip and ?-aminoadipic acid. Exogenous application of Pip to tobacco plants provides significant protection to infection by adapted Pstb or by non-adapted, hypersensitive cell death-inducing P. syringae pv maculicola. Pip thereby primes tobacco for rapid and strong accumulation of SA and nicotine following bacterial infection. Thus, our study indicates that the role of Pip as an amplifier of immune responses is conserved between members of the rosid and asterid groups of eudicot plants and suggests a broad practical applicability for Pip as a natural enhancer of plant disease resistance. PMID:24025239

Vogel-Adghough, Drissia; Stahl, Elia; Návarová, Hana; Zeier, Juergen

2013-09-11

94

[Advances in the research of treatment of hydrofluoric acid burn].  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is one of the most common inorganic acids used widely in industrial circle. HF not only causes cutaneous burn, but also induces systemic toxicity by its unique injury mechanism. Accurate and timely diagnosis and treatment are critical after HF burns. To date, the strategies for treating HF burns have been developed, mainly including topical treatments and systematic support. However, there is no standard treatment strategy with wide acceptance in the world. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of the advances in the research of strategies for the treatment of HF burns. PMID:24351537

Wang, Xin-gang; Zhang, Yuan-hai; Han, Chun-mao

2013-08-01

95

Surfactant enhanced ricinoleic acid production using Candida rugosa lipase.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, ricinoleic acid was produced on surfactant enhanced castor oil hydrolysis using Candida rugosa lipase. The most effective surfactant was Span 80. Employing fractional factorial design, the most suitable temperature and surfactant concentration were found to be 31 degrees C and 0.257% (w/w in buffer) respectively whereas pH, enzyme concentration, buffer concentration and agitation were identified as the most significant independent variables. A 2(4) full factorial central composite design was applied and the optimal conditions were found to be pH 7.0, enzyme concentration 7.42 mg/g oil, buffer concentration 0.20 g/g oil and agitation 1400 rpm with the maximum response of 76% in 4 h. The most important variable was pH, whereas enzyme and buffer concentrations also showed pronounced effect on response. This is the first report on the application of response surface methodology for optimizing surfactant enhanced ricinoleic acid production using C. rugosa lipase. PMID:19717301

Goswami, Debajyoti; Sen, Ramkrishna; Basu, Jayanta Kumar; De, Sirshendu

2010-01-01

96

300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan. Revision 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This section provides a description of the Hanford Site, identifies the proposed method of 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) closure, and briefly summarizes the contents of each chapter of this plan

1996-01-01

97

300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan. Revision 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This section provides a description of the Hanford Site, identifies the proposed method of 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) closure, and briefly summarizes the contents of each chapter of this plan.

NONE

1996-03-01

98

[Hemoperfusion in the treatment of acute valproic acid intoxication].  

Science.gov (United States)

Valproic acid is increasingly used in the treatment of epilepsy, and also prescribed for bipolar affective disorders, schizoaffective disorders, schizophrenia and migraine prophylaxis. Valproic acid intoxication with suicide attempt is a relatively common clinical problem that can result in coma, respiratory depression, pancytopenia, hemodynamic instability and death. The drug's relatively low molecular weight, small volume of distribution and saturable protein-binding render it potentially amenable to exracorporeal removal (hemodialysis, hemoperfusion or hemofiltration ), but published experience is scarce. We describe a case report involving valproic acid intoxication with ingestion of ethanol, who was successfully treated with charcoal hemoperfusion. With this treatment the half-life of valproic acid was reduced with rapid lowering of valproic acid levels and clinical improvement. Based on our experience in this patient and a review of previously reported cases, charcoal hemoperfusion should be considered for serious valproic acid intoxication because free as well as bound drug fractions are eliminated via this technique. PMID:17725457

Peces, R; Fernández, E J; Sánchez, R J; Peces, C; Montero, A; Selgas, R

2007-01-01

99

Designing acid treatment of porous weak carbonate collectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Set forth is a procedure for studying the reaction rate of acid solutions in a porous collector area depending in the hydrodynamics and temperature at a given pressure. It establishes that increasing the depth of the treatment of low-permeability collectors depends not on the flow rate of the acid, but on its viscosity and diffusion coefficient.

Kachmar, Y.D.

1981-01-01

100

Treatment of Acid Mine Drainage by Reverse Osmosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report documents a study on the treatment of acid mine drainage by reverse osmosis. The objective of the study was to determine the feasibility of utilizing reverse osmosis to abate pollution due to acid mine drainage, and produce a water which could ...

1970-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Surgical Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... an upper GI series and sometimes a 24-hour PH study. Typically, medical treatments can be just ... and trying not to lay down three, four hours after they have eaten, try not to eat ...

102

Surgical Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... more detail with a diagram. But the long story short is that we’re going to take ... an upper GI series and sometimes a 24-hour PH study. Typically, medical treatments can be just ...

103

300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOERL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion includes closure plan documentation submitted for individual, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units undergoing closure, such as the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Whenever appropriate, 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. This 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System Closure Plan (Revision 2) includes a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Part A, Form 3. Information provided in this closure plan is current as of April 1999.

LUKE, S.N.

1999-05-17

104

300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOERL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion includes closure plan documentation submitted for individual, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units undergoing closure, such as the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Whenever appropriate, 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. This 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System Closure Plan (Revision 2) includes a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Part A, Form 3. Information provided in this closure plan is current as of April 1999

1999-01-01

105

Erythropoietin Treatment Enhances Muscle Mitochondrial Capacity in Humans  

Science.gov (United States)

Erythropoietin (Epo) treatment has been shown to induce mitochondrial biogenesis in cardiac muscle along with enhanced mitochondrial capacity in mice. We hypothesized that recombinant human Epo (rhEpo) treatment enhances skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity in humans. In six healthy volunteers rhEpo was administered by sub-cutaneous injection over 8?weeks with oral iron (100?mg) supplementation taken daily. Mitochondrial OXPHOS was quantified by high-resolution respirometry in saponin-permeabilized muscle fibers obtained from biopsies of the vastus lateralis before and after rhEpo treatment. OXPHOS was determined with the mitochondrial complex I substrates malate, glutamate, pyruvate, and complex II substrate succinate in the presence of saturating ADP concentrations, while maximal electron transport capacity (ETS) was assessed by addition of an uncoupler. rhEpo treatment increased OXPHOS (from 92?±?5 to 113?±?7?pmol·s?1·mg?1) and ETS (107?±?4 to 143?±?14?pmol·s?1·mg?1, p?treatment induces an upregulation of OXPHOS and ETS in human skeletal muscle.

Plenge, Ulla; Belhage, Bo; Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia; Andersen, Peter Riis; Lundby, Carsten; Dela, Flemming; Stride, Nis; Pott, Frank Christian; Helge, J?rn W.; Boushel, Robert

2012-01-01

106

Erythropoietin treatment enhances mitochondrial function in human skeletal muscle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Erythropoietin (Epo treatment has been shown to induce mitochondrial biogenesis in cardiac muscle along with enhanced mitochondrial capacity in mice. We hypothesized that recombinant human Epo (rhEpo treatment enhances skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS capacity in humans. In six healthy volunteers rhEpo was administered by sub-cutaneous injection over eight weeks with oral iron (100 mg supplementation taken daily. Mitochondrial OXPHOS was quantified by high-resolution respirometry in saponin-permeabilized muscle fibers obtained from biopsies of the vastus lateralis before and after rhEpo treatment. OXPHOS was determined with the mitochondrial complex I substrates malate, glutamate, pyruvate and complex II substrate succinate in the presence of saturating ADP concentrations, while maximal electron transport capacity (ETS was assessed by addition of an uncoupler. rhEpo treatment increased OXPHOS (from 92±5 to 113±7 pmol.sec-1.mg-1 and ETS (107±4 to 143±14 pmol.sec-1.mg-1, P<0.05, demonstrating that Epo treatment induces an upregulation of OXPHOS and ETS in human skeletal muscle.

RobertBoushel

2012-03-01

107

Enhancement of surface properties of oil fly ash by chemical treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, surface modification of oil fly ash (OFA), a by-product generated by oil power plants, was achieved by chemical treatment. A mixture of sulfuric and nitric acids was used to modify the surface in order to attach a carboxylic functional group to the surface of OFA. The goal of surface modification of OFA is to make its surface more compatible with nonpolar polymers in order to produce OFA/polymer composite materials with improved dispersion of OFA, and to increase OFA surface area in order to support its use as adsorbent materials in adsorptive separation and purification applications. Different acid compositions were used for treatment by gradually increasing the nitric acid concentration from 0 to 20%. Also, the effect of oxidation on surface modification was examined by introducing air to enhance the oxidation of OFA. FTIR analysis was performed to identify the different functional groups attached to OFA surface before and after the chemical treatment. Evaluation of different structural changes during the surface modification was investigated by XRD analysis. Surface morphology and spot analysis was studied by SEM technique to identify the composition of different elements present in the OFA such as carbon, oxygen and sulfur. BET analysis showed major increase in surface area after modification as well as pore size and micropore volume of OFA particles. The maximum increase in surface area was obtained with 15 vol.% HNO 3. Also, carboxylic functionalization of OFA was enhanced when air was injected.

Shawabkeh, Reyad; Khan, Muhammad J.; Al-Juhani, Abdulhadi A.; Al-Abdul Wahhab, Hamad I.; Hussein, Ibnelwaleed A.

2011-12-01

108

Molecular mechanisms of hyperthermia-induced apoptosis enhanced by docosahexaenoic acid: implication for cancer therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

To develop a non-toxic enhancer for hyperthermia-induced cell death as a potential cancer treatment, we studied the effect and mechanism of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on hyperthermia-induced apoptosis. Treatment with 20?M DHA and 44°C for 10min induced significant apoptosis, increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and caspase-3 activation in U937 cells, but heat or DHA alone did not induce notable apoptosis. Decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potentials were dramatically increased by the combined treatment, accompanied by increased pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein tBid, and decreased anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Combined hyperthermia-DHA treatment induced significant phosphorylation of protein kinase C (PKC)-? (p-PKC-?), and apoptosis in a DHA dose-dependent manner. Using both 20?M DHA and 44°C for 10min induced significant PKC-? cleavage and its translocation to mitochondria. These results were also seen in HeLa cells. However, MAPKs and Akt were not affected by the treatment. In conclusion, DHA enhances hyperthermia-induced apoptosis significantly via a mitochondria-caspase-dependent pathway; its underlying mechanism involves elevated intracellular ROS, mitochondria dysfunction, and PKC-? activation. PMID:24661947

Cui, Zheng-Guo; Piao, Jin-Lan; Kondo, Takashi; Ogawa, Ryohei; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Zhao, Qing-Li; Feril, Loreto B; Inadera, Hidekuni

2014-05-25

109

Enhanced lipid extraction from algae using free nitrous acid pretreatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lipid extraction has been identified as a major bottleneck for large-scale algal biodiesel production. In this work free nitrous acid (FNA) is presented as an effective and low cost pretreatment to enhance lipid recovery from algae. Two batch tests, with a range of FNA additions, were conducted to disrupt algal cells prior to lipid extraction by organic solvents. Total accessible lipid content was quantified by the Bligh and Dyer method, and was found to increase with pretreatment time (up to 48 h) and FNA concentration (up to 2.19 mg HNO2-N/L). Hexane extraction was used to study industrially accessible lipids. The mass transfer coefficient (k) for lipid extraction using hexane from algae treated with 2.19 mg HNO2-N/L FNA was found to be dramatically higher than for extraction from untreated algae. Consistent with extraction results, cell disruption analysis indicated the disruption of the cell membrane barrier. PMID:24632439

Bai, Xue; Naghdi, Forough Ghasemi; Ye, Liu; Lant, Paul; Pratt, Steven

2014-05-01

110

Enhancement of Commercial Antifungal Agents by Kojic Acid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Natural compounds that pose no significant medical or environmental side effects are potential sources of antifungal agents, either in their nascent form or as structural backbones for more effective derivatives. Kojic acid (KA is one such compound. It is a natural by-product of fungal fermentation commonly employed by food and cosmetic industries. We show that KA greatly lowers minimum inhibitory (MIC or fungicidal (MFC concentrations of commercial medicinal and agricultural antifungal agents, amphotericin B (AMB and strobilurin, respectively, against pathogenic yeasts and filamentous fungi. Assays using two mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK mutants, i.e., sakA?, mpkC?, of Aspergillus fumigatus, an agent for human invasive aspergillosis, with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 or AMB indicate such chemosensitizing activity of KA is most conceivably through disruption of fungal antioxidation systems. KA could be developed as a chemosensitizer to enhance efficacy of certain conventional antifungal drugs or fungicides.

Maria de L. Martins

2012-10-01

111

Hydrothermally enhanced electrochemical oxidation of high concentration refractory perfluorooctanoic acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

A green hydrothermally enhanced electrochemical oxidation (HTEO) technique is developed to treat the high concentration refractory perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) wastewater on boron-doped diamond (BDD) film electrode. Results show that HTEO can demonstrate higher degradation efficiency for PFOA than the normal electrochemical oxidation (EO) process, with the removal of PFOA, total organic carbon (TOC), and organic fluorine in the HTEO process increasing by 1.1, 1.8, and 2.1 times, respectively. The kinetics study indicates that the degradation of PFOA follows a first-order reaction in the HTEO process with the apparent reaction rate constant 3.1 times higher than that in the EO process. The higher degradation efficiency of PFOA is due to the hydrothermal enhancement in electrochemical properties of the electrode and solution. Compared with EO, during the HTEO process, the conductivity and ionic migration rate of the solution is improved by 540% and 60%, respectively. In addition, the Tafel slope is increased to 343 from 279 mV dec(-1), indicating an inhibition effect of oxygen evolution reaction and a more effective oxidation of PFOA. In particular, the hydrothermal condition promotes a high formation rate of hydroxyl radical with the concentration almost 2 times of that in EO, which is considered the inner factor leading to the higher degradation efficiency. The density functional theory simulations demonstrate that the nonterminal C-C bonds in the main carbon chain can be easily destructed in the hydrothermal condition, as confirmed by the experimental detection of intermediates of C(5)F(11)COOH, C(4)F(9)COOH, C(3)F(7)COOH, C(2)F(5)COOH, CF(3)COOH, and some dicarboxylic acids. As a result, a reaction pathway is tentatively proposed. PMID:22013988

Xiao, Hanshuang; Lv, Baoying; Zhao, Guohua; Wang, Yujing; Li, Mingfang; Li, Dongming

2011-12-01

112

Enhanced degradation of a model naphthenic acid compound in bioreactors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation focused on naphthenic acids (NA) which are natural organic compounds found in the Athabasca oil sands. NAs are released from the oil sands during aqueous extraction at elevated pH. The eventual biodegradation of oil sands leads to the formation of NAs. Since NAs are corrosive to refinery processes and toxic to aquatic algae and other microorganisms, a caustic soda extraction method is needed for the extraction of NAs. A study was conducted to develop a microbial consortium capable of biodegrading a model NA compound (trans 4-methyl-1-cyclohexane carboxylic acid) and to experimentally determine the biokinetic parameters associated with biodegradation of that compound. Biodegradation in bioreactors with freely suspended cells was then investigated. Low molecular mass NAs are more readily biodegraded than high molecular mass NAs. It is important to understand and quantify the growth kinetics of biodegradation for individual compounds as a basis for evaluating and engineering enhanced biodegradation systems. NA growth and biodegradation kinetics were quantified during batch, continuous and immobilized cell tests in a bioreactor. The yield for microbial degradation was 0.3 mg biomass/mg of substrate. The growth of this consortium on the model NA compound was up to 5 times slower than that of other environmental contaminants. The maximum degradation rate occurred in the immobilized cell system. The degradation rates increased from batch systems to a continuously stirred tank reactor and an immobilized cell system. tabs., figs.

Paslawski, J.; Hill, G.; Nemati, M. [Saskatchewan Univ., Regina, SK (Canada); Headley, J. [National Water Research Inst., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

2007-07-01

113

Erythropoietin treatment enhances muscle mitochondrial capacity in humans  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Erythropoietin (Epo) treatment has been shown to induce mitochondrial biogenesis in cardiac muscle along with enhanced mitochondrial capacity in mice. We hypothesized that recombinant human Epo (rhEpo) treatment enhances skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity in humans. In six healthy volunteers rhEpo was administered by sub-cutaneous injection over 8¿weeks with oral iron (100¿mg) supplementation taken daily. Mitochondrial OXPHOS was quantified by high-resolution respirometry in saponin-permeabilized muscle fibers obtained from biopsies of the vastus lateralis before and after rhEpo treatment. OXPHOS was determined with the mitochondrial complex I substrates malate, glutamate, pyruvate, and complex II substrate succinate in the presence of saturating ADP concentrations, while maximal electron transport capacity (ETS) was assessed by addition of an uncoupler. rhEpo treatment increased OXPHOS (from 92¿±¿5 to 113¿±¿7¿pmol·s(-1)·mg(-1)) and ETS (107¿±¿4 to 143¿±¿14¿pmol·s(-1)·mg(-1), p¿

Plenge, Ulla; Belhage, Bo

2012-01-01

114

Elucidating the role of ferrous ion cocatalyst in enhancing dilute acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Recently developed iron cocatalyst enhancement of dilute acid pretreatment of biomass is a promising approach for enhancing sugar release from recalcitrant lignocellulosic biomass. However, very little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this enhancement. In the current study, our aim was to identify several essential factors that contribute to ferrous ion-enhanced efficiency during dilute acid pretreatment of biomass and to initiate the investigat...

Wei Hui; Donohoe Bryon S; Vinzant Todd B; Ciesielski Peter N; Wang Wei; Gedvilas Lynn M; Zeng Yining; Johnson David K; Ding Shi-You; Himmel Michael E; Tucker Melvin P

2011-01-01

115

Salicylic acid enhances Jaceosidin and Syringin production in cell cultures of Saussurea medusa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Addition of 20 muM salicylic acid to Saussurea medusa cell cultures at day 6 resulted in jaceosidin and syringin productions up to 95 mg l(-1 )and 631 mg l(-1) which were, respectively, about 2.5- and 2.7-fold higher than in the control. The biomass was increased from 8 to 12 g l(-1). Expression of chalcone synthase gene (chs) increased sharply after 12 h treatment and was sustained up to 48 h; chalcone isomerase gene (chi) expression reached a peak at 24 h and decreased after 48 h; and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity increased by 7.5-fold (96 U mg(-1) protein) higher than in the control after 24 h. These results indicate that salicylic acid enhances the production of jaceosidin and syringin which is accompanied by induction of the related phenylpropanoid biosynthetic enzymes. PMID:16786264

Yu, Zhen-Zhen; Fu, Chun-Xiang; Han, Ying-Shan; Li, Yong-Xing; Zhao, De-Xiu

2006-07-01

116

Enhanced Osteogenicity of Bioactive Composites with Biomimetic Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose. This study aimed to explore if initiation of biomimetic apatite nucleation can be used to enhance osteoblast response to biodegradable tissue regeneration composite membranes. Materials and Methods. Bioactive thermoplastic composites consisting of poly(?-caprolactone/DL-lactide) and bioactive glass (BAG) were prepared at different stages of biomimetic calcium phosphate deposition by immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). The modulation of the BAG dissolution and the osteogenic response of rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were analyzed. Results. SBF treatment resulted in a gradual calcium phosphate deposition on the composites and decreased BAG reactivity in the subsequent cell cultures. Untreated composites and composites covered by thick calcium phosphate layer (14 days in SBF) expedited MSC mineralization in comparison to neat polymers without BAG, whereas other osteogenic markers—alkaline phosphatase activity, bone sialoprotein, and osteocalcin expression—were initially decreased. In contrast, surfaces with only small calcium phosphate aggregates (five days in SBF) had similar early response than neat polymers but still demonstrated enhanced mineralization. Conclusion. A short biomimetic treatment enhances osteoblast response to bioactive composite membranes.

Meretoja, Ville V.; Tirri, Teemu; Seppala, Jukka V.; Narhi, Timo O.

2014-01-01

117

On the acidity and/or basicity of USY zeolites after basic and acid treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The isopropanol decomposition reaction was used to evaluate the catalytic activity of ultrastable (USY zeolites with different degrees of dealumination, treated in strongly alkaline medium at various temperatures and contact times. This treatment resulted in the reinsertion of non-framework aluminium, a result of the ultrastabilization process. The samples obtained were also submitted to an acid treatment, leaching the non-framework aluminium that had not been reinserted. The results obtained at 723K showed a large reduction in the acidic activity of the alkaline-treated zeolite, as the treatment conditions became more severe (the longer the treatment time or the higher the temperature, the higher the degree of dealumination. On the other hand, treated samples displayed some isopropanol dehydrogenation activity (basic sites. However, this activity was not very significant and did not depend on the alkaline treatment or ultrastabilization conditions used. The effect of reaction temperature and acid leaching on activity is also shown.

V. Calsavara

2000-03-01

118

Valproic acid in the treatment of Sydenham chorea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Severe cases of Sydenham chorea are still difficult to manage because optimal therapy has not been found. In this report severe chorea responded to valproic acid therapy after trials with diazepam and haloperidol had failed. The literature is reviewed and the possible mechanism of action of valproate in this movement disorder is discussed. Valproic acid is proposed as an effective treatment for severe cases of Sydenham chorea. PMID:3939747

Alvarez, L A; Novak, G

1985-01-01

119

Laser Treatment of Sintered Silicon Carbide Surface for Enhanced Hydrophobicity  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, laser treatment of sintered SiC surfaces is carried out to enhance the surface hydrophobicity. Morphological and metallurgical changes of the treated surfaces are evaluated using optical and scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Microhardness and fracture toughness are measured using indentation tests. The residual stresses present are determined using the XRD technique. The wetting characteristics of the treated surfaces are assessed through contact angle measurements. It is found that the laser-treated surfaces consist of fine grooves and pillars and that the resulting surface roughness enhances the surface hydrophobicity. The fracture toughness of the treated surface is reduced possibly because of the microhardness increase at the surface. The residual stress formed in the surface region is on the order of 1.8 GPa, and it is compressive.

Yilbas, Bekir Sami; Bhushan, Bharat

2014-01-01

120

Fenton-enhanced {gamma}-radiolysis of cyanuric acid  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Degradation of cyanuric acid (OOOT), a stable end product of oxidative decomposition of atrazine, is investigated in a combined field of gamma radiolysis and fenton reaction. The reaction of hydroxyl radical ({center_dot}OH) at pH 6 was carried out by irradiating N{sub 2}O saturated aqueous solutions containing OOOT (1 x 10{sup -3} mol dm{sup -3}), and this resulted only a marginal degradation (20%). However, when the same reaction was carried out in the presence of varying concentrations of ferrous sulfate ((5-10) x 10{sup -5} mol dm{sup -3}), the decay of OOOT has been enhanced to more than 80%. This decay followed a first order kinetics. Nearly similar effects were observed with another triazine derivative, 2,4-dioxohexahydro-1,3,5-triazine (DHT). Two major reaction mechanisms are proposed for the enhanced decay of OOOT. The formation of unstable hydroxyl radical adducts from the reaction of {center_dot}OH which is the result of gamma radiolysis and the Fenton reaction (resulting from the reaction of the added Fe(II) and of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} from the radiolysis of water), is proposed as the first mechanism. The second mechanism, which is likely the major contributor to degradation, is proposed as the reaction of a nucleophilic adduct, Fe(II)OOH, which could directly react with the electron deficient triazine ring. It is highlighted that such degradation reactions must be explored for the complete degradation of the byproducts of the oxidative decomposition of atrazine.

Varghese, Rani [School of Chemical Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686560, Kerala (India); Aravind, Usha K. [School of Chemical Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686560, Kerala (India); Aravindakumar, Charuvila T. [School of Chemical Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686560, Kerala (India)]. E-mail: CT-Aravindakumar@rocketmail.com

2007-04-02

 
 
 
 
121

Treatment of facial molluscum contagiosum with trichloroacetic acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Molluscum contagiosum (MC) virus is a common cutaneous infection in the pediatric population, most commonly affecting school-aged children. Spontaneous clearing of lesions usually occurs over time; however, treatment is often sought due to cosmetic significance, pruritus, or concerns of transmission and autoinoculation. Chemical destruction with cantharidin, which is derived from blister beetle extract, is very safe and highly effective, making it the treatment of choice in the pediatric population. However, treatment of facial lesions or those in the diaper area are not recommended with this agent. Trichloroacetic acid is a safe and effective agent frequently utilized in dermatologic practice, most commonly in the treatment of verrucae. We have successfully used topical trichloroacetic acid to treat facial molluscum contagiousum and present the following technique for proper application. PMID:19689517

Bard, Susan; Shiman, Michael I; Bellman, Betty; Connelly, Elizabeth Alvarez

2009-01-01

122

77 FR 12227 - Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule: Uncovered Finished Water Reservoirs; Public...  

Science.gov (United States)

...FRL-9641-3] Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule: Uncovered Finished Water Reservoirs; Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental...requirement in the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2 rule). At this meeting,...

2012-02-29

123

Enhancement of glycated chitosan in laser cancer treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

Glycated chitosan (GC), a novel immunoadjuvant, has been used in combination with selective photothermal interaction in treatment of metastatic tumors. It has shown to be able to induce anti-tumor immunity and to enhance treatment efficacy. To further study the effects of glycated chitosan, photodynamic therapy (PDT) was used as the mechanism of direct tumor killing. Specifically, Photofrin-based PDT was used to treat EMT6 mammary tumors in mice and mTHPC-based PDT was used to treat Line 1 lung tumors in mice. In both cases, GC was administered immediately after the PDT treatment around the treated tumors. With EMT6 tumors, the use of GC improved the PDT-mediated tumor cure rate from 37.5% to 62.5% with 0.1 ml of 0.5% GC solution and to 75% with 0.1 ml of 1.5% GC solution. With the Line 1 tumors, the non-curative PDT treatment was converted into a 37.5% cure-rate by using a post-PDT peritumoral injection of 0.09 ml of 1.67% GC solution. In comparison, the treatments with GC alone or GC plus PDT light (no photosensitizer) produced no tumor regression and had no influence on the tumor growth rate, when compared to non-treated control tumors. GC was also used for the treatment of B16 melanoma in mice, using a combination of in situ application of GC and an irradiation of an 805-nm laser. The survival rates of the mice bearing melanoma tumors increased significantly when the laser and GC were applied, particularly when GC was applied 24 hours prior to the laser irradiation. These results strongly suggested that glycated chitosan played a significant role in the treatment of tumors.

Chen, Wei R.; Jeong, Sang W.; Korbelik, Mladen; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Martin, Steven D.; Sun, Jinghai; Liu, Hong; Nordquist, Robert E.

2004-07-01

124

Cyclosporine A and palmitic acid treatment synergistically induce cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment can cause severe side effects. Patients taking immunosuppressant after organ transplantation often display hyperlipidemia and obesity. Elevated levels of free fatty acids have been linked to the etiology of metabolic syndromes, nonalcoholic fatty liver and steatohepatitis. The contribution of free fatty acids to CsA-induced toxicity is not known. In this study we explored the effect of palmitic acid on CsA-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells. CsA by itself at therapeutic exposure levels did not induce detectible cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Co-treatment of palmitic acid and CsA resulted in a dose dependent increase in cytotoxicity, suggesting that fatty acid could sensitize cells to CsA-induced cytotoxicity at the therapeutic doses of CsA. A synergized induction of caspase-3/7 activity was also observed, indicating that apoptosis may contribute to the cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that CsA reduced cellular oxygen consumption which was further exacerbated by palmitic acid, implicating that impaired mitochondrial respiration might be an underlying mechanism for the enhanced toxicity. Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) attenuated palmitic acid and CsA induced toxicity, suggesting that JNK activation plays an important role in mediating the enhanced palmitic acid/CsA-induced toxicity. Our data suggest that elevated FFA levels, especially saturated FFA such as palmitic acid, may be predisposing factors for CsA toxicity, and patients with underlying diseases that would elevate free fatty acids may be susceptible to CsA-induced toxicity. Furthermore, hyperlipidemia/obesity resulting from immunosuppressive therapy may aggravate CsA-induced toxicity and worsen the outcome in transplant patients. -- Highlights: ? Palmitic acid and cyclosporine (CsA) synergistically increased cytotoxicity. ? The impairment of mitochondrial functions may contribute to the enhanced toxicity. ? Inhibition of JNK activity attenuated palmitate/ CsA induced toxicity. ? Palmitate sensitizes cells to the toxicity induced by CsA at therapeutic exposure. ? Elevated free fatty acids may predispose the patients to CsA-induced toxicity.

Luo, Yi, E-mail: yi.luo@pfizer.com; Rana, Payal; Will, Yvonne

2012-06-01

125

POROSITY ENHANCEMENT IN SOME BAKED CLAY SAMPLES UNDER HYDROTHERMAL TREATMENTS  

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This paper demonstrates the chemically assisted enhancement in porosity of l °Cal clay samples activated at a temperature of 150 ºC. Aluminosilicates enriched baked clay samples were used and hydro thermally treated with NaOH, KOH, Ba (OH)2 & ZrO. Pore size and surface area analyzer was used for the determination of surface area. Average pore width, pore volume and surface area were calculated. Treatment with NaOH and KOH has shown to be a very good activation pr °Cedure for high surface a...

2007-01-01

126

Mechanism involved in enhancement of osteoblast differentiation by hyaluronic acid  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research highlights: {yields} In this study was to investigate the effects of HA on osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. {yields} MG63 cells were incubated with BMP-2 and HA for various time periods. {yields} Phosphorylation of Smad 1/5/8, p38, and ERK proteins was determined by western blot analysis. To elucidate the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated Smad 1/5/8, stimulated cells were subjected to immunofluorescence microscopy. {yields} HA enhanced BMP-2 induces osteoblastic differentiation in MG63 cells via down-regulation of BMP-2 antagonists and ERK phosphorylation. -- Abstract: Objectives: Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is expected to be utilized to fill bone defects and promote healing of fractures. However, it is unable to generate an adequate clinical response for use in bone regeneration. Recently, it was reported that glycosaminoglycans, including heparin, heparan sulfate, keratan sulfate, dermatan sulfate, chondroitin-4-sulfate, chondroitin-6-sulfate, and hyaluronic acid (HA), regulate BMP-2 activity, though the mechanism by which HA regulates osteogenic activities has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HA on osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. Materials and methods: Monolayer cultures of osteoblastic lineage MG63 cells were incubated with BMP-2 and HA for various time periods. To determine osteoblastic differentiation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the cell lysates was quantified. Phosphorylation of Smad 1/5/8, p38, and ERK proteins was determined by Western blot analysis. To elucidate the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated Smad 1/5/8, stimulated cells were subjected to immunofluorescence microscopy. To further elucidate the role of HA in enhancement of BMP-2-induced Smad signaling, mRNA expressions of the BMP-2 receptor antagonists noggin and follistatin were detected using real-time RT-PCR. Results: BMP-2-induced ALP activation, Smad 1/5/8 phosphorylation, and nuclear translocation were up-regulated when MG63 cells were cultured with both BMP-2 and HA. Western blot analysis revealed that phosphorylation of ERK protein was diminished by HA. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of noggin and follistatin induced by BMP-2 were preferentially blocked by HA. Conclusions: These results indicate that HA enhanced BMP-2 induces osteoblastic differentiation in MG63 cells via down-regulation of BMP-2 antagonists and ERK phosphorylation.

Kawano, Michinao [Division of Maxillofacial Diagnostic and Surgical Science, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Department of Health Promotion, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Ariyoshi, Wataru [Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Department of Health Promotion, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Iwanaga, Kenjiro [Division of Maxillofacial Diagnostic and Surgical Science, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Okinaga, Toshinori [Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Department of Health Promotion, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Habu, Manabu [Division of Maxillofacial Diagnostic and Surgical Science, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Yoshioka, Izumi [Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Medicine of Sensory and Motor Organs, University of Miyazaki, Kiyotake, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan); Tominaga, Kazuhiro [Division of Maxillofacial Diagnostic and Surgical Science, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Oral Bioresearch Center, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Nishihara, Tatsuji, E-mail: tatsujin@kyu-dent.ac.jp [Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Department of Health Promotion, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Oral Bioresearch Center, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan)

2011-02-25

127

An adult case of cerebral malakoplakia successfully cured by treatment with antibiotics, bethanechol and ascorbic acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cerebral malakoplakia is a very rare chronic inflammatory disease. We herein report the case of a 49-year-old female who presented with a slowly progressive speech disturbance and right hemiparesis. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed irregular enhanced mass lesions with numerous scattered areas of calcification in the left insula, thalamus and basal ganglia. Histopathologically, the biopsy specimen showed basophilic laminated inclusion bodies and intracellular and extracellular calculospherules, usually with a typical targetoid appearance (Michaelis-Gutmann bodies). Treatment with antibiotics, bethanechol and ascorbic acid improved her symptoms in association with a decrease in the abnormal calcification and enhancement. The cerebral malakoplakia mimicked a brain tumor in terms of the patient's clinical course and neuroradiological image findings; however, it was successfully cured with medical treatment. This case provides evidence that the pathogenesis of cerebral malakoplakia is deeply tied to bacterial infection and that medical treatment is effective in cases of this disease. PMID:24863007

Fudaba, Hirotaka; Ooba, Hiroshi; Abe, Tatsuya; Kamida, Tohru; Wakabayashi, Yukihiro; Nagatomi, Hirofumi; Fujiki, Minoru

2014-07-15

128

A comparison of tiaprofenic acid, mefenamic acid and placebo in the treatment of dysmenorrhoea in general practice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The efficiency and side-effects of tiaprofenic acid, mefenamic acid and placebo were compared in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea. The trial was a double-blind prospective randomized 3-way crossover study during 6 successive menstrual cycles following a 2-cycle run-in period and involved 50 women with primary dysmenorrhoea selected from 96 volunteers between 16 and 35 years of age. Overall pain was significantly less (p less than 0.05) on treatment with tiaprofenic acid than on treatment with mefanemic acid, placebo, or the women's usual treatments. Both active treatments were well tolerated but more side-effects were reported during treatment with mefenamic acid. PMID:1520205

Tilyard, M W; Dovey, S M

1992-05-01

129

Slag Treatment Followed by Acid Leaching as a Route to Solar-Grade Silicon:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Refining of metallurgical-grade silicon was studied using a process sequence of slag treatment, controlled cooling, and acid leaching. A slag of the Na2O-CaO-SiO2 system was used. The microstructure of grain boundaries in the treated silicon showed enhanced segregation of impurities, and the formation of CaSi2 and other Ca-rich phases. Boron and phosphorus were found in the grain boundary phases of silicon after the slag treatment and were successfully removed together with most of the metall...

Meteleva-fischer, Y. V.; Yang, Y.; Boom, R.; Kraaijveld, B.; Kuntzel, H.

2012-01-01

130

Solar enhanced wastewater treatment in waste stabilization ponds.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the most popular off-site wastewater treatment plants used in the tropics is the waste stabilization pond (WSP). Although it has several advantages, its use in urban areas is limited because of its large land area requirement. Hence, this research is aimed at investigating if a solar-enhanced WSP (SEWSP) can increase treatment efficiency and consequently reduce the land area requirement. The SEWSPs of varying sizes, made of a metallic tank with inlet and outlet valves and a solar reflector, were constructed to increase the incident sunlight intensity. Wastewater samples collected from the inlet and outlet of the SEWSPs were examined for physio-chemical and biological characteristics for a period of 2 months. The parameters examined were total suspended solids, dissolved oxygen, 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), coliform, and Escherichia coli. The efficiencies of the SEWSPs, with respect to these parameters, fluctuated with temperature variation, with the shallowest SEWSP giving the highest treatment efficiency. The research revealed that the cost of treating wastewater using SEWSPs was approximately 2 times lower than the conventional WSP for the same treatment efficiencies. PMID:19472946

Agunwamba, J C; Utsev, J T; Okonkwo, W I

2009-05-01

131

Controlled aggregation in conjugated polymer nanoparticles via organic acid treatments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Understanding and controlling aggregation structures of conjugated polymers (CPs) in aqueous solutions is critical to improving the physical and photophysical properties of CPs for biological applications. Here, we present spectroscopic evidence, including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic results, that different organic acid treatment induces different aggregation structures and photophysical properties of CPs in water. Conjugated polymer nanoparticles (CPNs) were fabricated by ...

Ko, Yoon-joo; Mendez, Eladio; Moon, Joong Ho

2011-01-01

132

Rock specific hydraulic fracturing and matrix acidizing to enhance a geothermal system — Concepts and field results  

Science.gov (United States)

Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) are engineered reservoirs developed to extract economic amounts of heat from low permeability and/or porosity geothermal resources. To enhance the productivity of reservoirs, a site specific concept is necessary to actively make reservoir conditions profitable using specially adjusted stimulation treatments, such as multi fracture concepts and site specific well path design. The results of previously performed stimulation treatments in the geothermal research well GtGrSk4/05 at Groß Schönebeck, Germany are presented. The reservoir is located at a 4100-4300 m depth within the Lower Permian of the NE German Basin with a bottom-hole temperature of 150 °C. The reservoir rock is classified by two lithological units from bottom to top: volcanic rocks (andesitic rocks) and siliciclastics ranging from conglomerates to fine-grained sandstones (fluvial sediments). The stimulation treatments included multiple hydraulic stimulations and an acid treatment. In order to initiate a cross-flow from the sandstone layer, the hydraulic stimulations were performed in different depth sections (two in the sandstone section and one in the underlying volcanic section). In low permeability volcanic rocks, a cyclic hydraulic fracturing treatment was performed over 6 days in conjunction with adding quartz in low concentrations to maintain a sustainable fracture performance. Flow rates of up to 150 l/s were realized, and a total of 13,170 m 3 of water was injected. A hydraulic connection to the sandstone layer was successfully achieved in this way. However, monitoring of the water level in the offsetting well EGrSk3/90, which is 475 m apart at the final depth, showed a very rapid water level increase due to the stimulation treatment. This can be explained by a connected fault zone within the volcanic rocks. Two gel-proppant treatments were performed in the slightly higher permeability sandstones to obtain long-term access to the reservoir rocks. During each treatment, a total of 100 ton of high strength proppants was injected with 500 m 3 of cross-linked gel. The subsequent production test in conjunction with flowmeter logging showed an improvement of productivity by a factor of more than 4. Due to assumed residual drilling mud (constituents: calcite, dolomite, and aragonite) in the near-wellbore vicinity, an acid matrix stimulation was performed thereafter using a coil tubing unit. The following nitrogen lift test demonstrated another increase of productivity by 30-50% to an overall increase by a factor of 5.5-6.2.

Zimmermann, Günter; Blöcher, Guido; Reinicke, Andreas; Brandt, Wulf

2011-04-01

133

Acid Mine Drainage (AMD): causes, treatment and case studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) generation and its associated technical issues. As AMD is recognized as one of the more serious environmental problems in the mining industry, its causes, prediction and treatment have become the focus of a number of research initiatives commissioned by governments, the mining industry, universities and research establishments, with additional inputs from the general public and environmental groups. In industry, contamination from AMD is associated with construction, civil engineering, mining and quarrying activities. Its environmental impact, however, can be minimized at three basic levels: through primary prevention of the acid-generating process; secondary control, which involves deployment of acid drainage migration prevention measures; and tertiary control, or the collection and treatment of effluent.

Akcil, A.; Koldas, S. [Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

2006-07-01

134

?-Mangostin Enhances Betulinic Acid Cytotoxicity and Inhibits Cisplatin Cytotoxicity on HCT 116 Colorectal Carcinoma Cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Despite the progress in colon cancer treatment, relapse is still a major obstacle. Hence, new drugs or drug combinations are required in the battle against colon cancer. ?-Mangostin and betulinic acid (BA are cytotoxic compounds that work by inducing the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, and cisplatin is one of the most potent broad spectrum anti-tumor agents. This study aims to investigate the enhancement of BA cytotoxicity by ?-mangostin, and the cytoprotection effect of ?-mangostin and BA on cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity on HCT 116 human colorectal carcinoma cells. Cytotoxicity was investigated by the XTT cell proliferation test, and the apoptotic effects were investigated on early and late markers including caspases-3/7, mitochondrial membrane potential, cytoplasmic shrinkage, and chromatin condensation. The effect of ?-mangostin on four signalling pathways was also investigated by the luciferase assay. ?-Mangostin and BA were more cytotoxic to the colon cancer cells than to the normal colonic cells, and both compounds showed a cytoprotective effect against cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity. On the other hand, ?-mangostin enhanced the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of BA. Combination therapy hits multiple targets, which may improve the overall response to the treatment, and may reduce the likelihood of developing drug resistance by the tumor cells. Therefore, ?-mangostin and BA may provide a novel combination for the treatment of colorectal carcinoma. The cytoprotective effect of the compounds against cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity may find applications as chemopreventive agents against carcinogens, irradiation and oxidative stress, or to neutralize cisplatin side effects.

Amin Malik Shah Abdul Majid

2012-03-01

135

Structural-phase transformations in bentonite after acid treatment  

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Full Text Available The methods of X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray microanalysis, electron microscopy, BET and cation exchange capacity (CEC were used for investigation of the structural-phase transformations in bentonite under the influence of hydrochloric acid and temperature treatment (100-800ºC. It is established that in HCl medium during temperature treatment, dehydration and dehydroxilation of montmorillonite occur. The presence of gypsum and barium chloride results in an intercalation of interlayer space of montmorillonite by Ca and Ba ions Temperature treatment of intercalated montmorillonite leads to the formation of pores.

Vlasova M.

2003-01-01

136

Enhancement of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on all-trans retinoic acid-induced differentiation in human leukemia HL-60 cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) induces complete remission in a high proportion of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL); however, the response is sometimes very slow. Furthermore, relapse and resistance to treatment often occur despite continued treatment with ATRA. Thereafter, combination treatment strategies have been suggested to circumvent these problems. The present study demonstrates that caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a major component of honeybee propolis, enhanced ATRA-induced granulocytic differentiation in HL-60, a human promyelocytic cell line. The differentiation was assessed by Wright-Giemsa stain, nitroblue tetrazolium reduction, and membrane differentiation marker CD11b. In addition, CAPE enhanced ATRA-induced cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase by decreasing the association of cdk2-cyclin E complex. Finally, it was demonstrated that CAPE promoted the ATRA-mediated nuclear transcription activation of RAR? assessed by EMSA assay and enhanced the expression of target genes including RAR?, C/EBP?, and p21 protein resulting in the differentiation development of leukemia. It is suggested that CAPE possesses the potential to enhance the efficiency of ATRA in the differentiation therapy of APL

2006-10-01

137

Field enhancement sample stacking for analysis of organic acids in traditional Chinese medicine by capillary electrophoresis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A technique known as field enhancement sample stacking (FESS) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) separation has been developed to analyze and detect organic acids in the three traditional Chinese medicines (such as Portulaca oleracea L., Crataegus pinnatifida and Aloe vera L.). In FESS, a reverse electrode polarity-stacking mode (REPSM) was applied as on-line preconcentration strategy. Under the optimized condition, the baseline separation of eight organic acids (linolenic acid, lauric acid, p-coumaric acid, ascorbic acid, benzoic acid, caffeic acid, succinic acid and fumaric acid) could be achieved within 20 min. Validation parameters of this method (such as detection limits, linearity and precision) were also evaluated. The detection limits ranged from 0.4 to 60 ng/mL. The results indicated that the proposed method was effective for the separation of mixtures of organic acids. Satisfactory recoveries were also obtained in the analysis of these organic acids in the above traditional Chinese medicine samples. PMID:22381886

Zhu, Qianqian; Xu, Xueqin; Huang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Liangjun; Chen, Guonan

2012-07-13

138

Epibrassinolide induces changes in indole-3-acetic acid, abscisic acid and polyamine concentrations and enhances antioxidant potential of radish seedlings under copper stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, the effects of epibrassinolide (EBL) on indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA) and polyamine (PA) tissue concentrations and antioxidant potential of 7-day-old Raphanus sativus L. cv. 'Pusa chetki' seedlings grown under Cu stress were investigated. EBL treatment alone or in combination with Cu enhanced free and bound IAA titers when compared with the metal alone. Modest increases in free and bound ABA contents were observed for EBL treatment alone. However, the combination of EBL with Cu caused major increases in both forms of ABA, over Cu alone. Among the PAs analyzed, only putrescine and cadaverine concentrations were enhanced by EBL treatment alone. By contrast, a significant decline in putrescine and spermine contents was found in seedlings treated with EBL plus Cu. EBL treatments alone or in combination with Cu enhanced activities of guaiacol peroxidase (EC1.11.1.7), catalase (EC 1.11.1.6), superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1) and glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2) and protein contents in comparison with metal and control treatments. A major decrease in malondialdehyde content was also recorded for EBL treatments with or without Cu. An increase in phytochelatin content was also observed in seedlings treated with EBL alone or in combination with Cu. Major improvement in radical scavenging activities, as attested by the antioxidant activity assay using DPPH (1,1-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl), and elevated deoxyribose and reducing powers, along with increased contents of ascorbic acid, total phenols and proline, also suggest a major influence of EBL application in mitigating copper-induced oxidative stress in radish seedlings. PMID:20681975

Choudhary, Sikander Pal; Bhardwaj, Renu; Gupta, Bishan Datt; Dutt, Prabhu; Gupta, Rajinder Kumar; Biondi, Stefania; Kanwar, Mukesh

2010-11-01

139

Permeability enhancers dramatically increase zanamivir absolute bioavailability in rats: implications for an orally bioavailable influenza treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have demonstrated that simple formulations composed of the parent drug in combination with generally regarded as safe (GRAS) permeability enhancers are capable of dramatically increasing the absolute bioavailability of zanamivir. This has the advantage of not requiring modification of the drug structure to promote absorption, thus reducing the regulatory challenges involved in conversion of an inhaled to oral route of administration of an approved drug. Absolute bioavailability increases of up to 24-fold were observed when Capmul MCM L8 (composed of mono- and diglycerides of caprylic/capric acids in glycerol) was mixed with 1.5 mg of zanamivir and administered intraduodenally to rats. Rapid uptake (t(max) of 5 min) and a C(max) of over 7200 ng/mL was achieved. Variation of the drug load or amount of enhancer demonstrated a generally linear variation in absorption, indicating an ability to optimize a formulation for a desired outcome such as a targeted C(max) for enzyme saturation. No absorption enhancement was observed when the enhancer was given 2 hr prior to drug administration, indicating, in combination with the observed tmax, that absorption enhancement is temporary. This property is significant and aligns well with therapeutic applications to limit undesirable drug-drug interactions, potentially due to the presence of other poorly absorbed polar drugs. These results suggest that optimal human oral dosage forms of zanamivir should be enteric-coated gelcaps or softgels for intraduodenal release. There continues to be a strong need and market for multiple neuraminidase inhibitors for influenza treatment. Creation of orally available formulations of inhibitor drugs that are currently administered intravenously or by inhalation would provide a significant improvement in treatment of influenza. The very simple GRAS formulation components and anticipated dosage forms would require low manufacturing costs and yield enhanced convenience. These results are being utilized to design prototype dosage forms for initial human pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:23613954

Holmes, Eric H; Devalapally, Harikrishna; Li, Libin; Perdue, Michael L; Ostrander, Gary K

2013-01-01

140

Lactic Acid--The Latest Performance Enhancing Drug  

Science.gov (United States)

Accumulation of lactic acid has long been considered to contribute to muscle fatigue, a major limitation to improvement of athletic performance. However, recent findings have shed new light on the role of lactic acid in muscle fatigue.

David Allen (University of Sydney;Institute of Biomedical Research); HÃÂ¥kan Westerblad (The Karolinska Institute;)

2004-08-20

 
 
 
 
141

Amino Acids in Nectar Enhance Longevity of Female Culex quinquefasciatus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Culex mosquitoes feed on a wide range of nectars consisting of mostly carbohydrates and amino acids however, little is known about the utilization and effects of these different carbohydrates and their accompanying amino acids on longevity. Culex quinquef...

D. A. Hahn E. M. Vrzal S. A. Allan

2010-01-01

142

Enantioseparation of Amino Acids by Micelle-Enhanced Ultrafiltration : Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Copper(II) Amino Acid Interactions  

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A micelle-enhanced ultrafiltration system, which can potentially be used for large scale separations, has been used to investigate the resolution of amino acid enantiomers. For this purpose amino acid derivatives were synthesized, which in combination with copper(II) ions were used as chiral selectors. In the presence of non-ionic surfactants these selectors show for several amino acids high operational enantioselectivities of up to 14.5 for phenylglycine using cholesteryl l-glutamate as a se...

Bruin, T. J. M.

2000-01-01

143

Sequential treatment with monofluorophosphate and zoledronic acid in osteoporotic rats.  

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Abstract Objective Osteoporosis is the consequence of an imbalance in bone remodeling caused by excessive resorption or inappropriate bone formation. This paper proposes a sequential treatment with monofluorophosphate (MFP) and zoledronic acid (Z), together with changes in the calcium content in the diet. Method Seven-week-old female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups (n = 21 per group): (1) sham-operated rats (Sham); (2) ovariectomized (OVX) rats fed with a normal calcium diet (OVX); (3) OVX rats fed with a normal calcium diet and treated sequentially with monofluorophosphate and zoledronic acid (OVX.G1); (4) OVX rats sequentially fed with a low calcium diet and then a high calcium diet, without treatment (OVX.G2); (5): OVX rats fed with a low calcium diet and then a high calcium diet, treated sequentially with monofluorophosphate and zoledronic acid (OVX.G3). Results After 150 days, the OVX.G3 group showed a similar bone volume to that of the Sham group due to an increase in trabecular number. Dual X-ray absorptiometry bone analysis showed an increase of 9.8% compared with OVX rats. Additionally, an increase in the fracture load at the cortical bone and higher fracture load, ultimate load and stiffness in the compression test were found. Conclusion The sequential treatment with monofluorophosphate and zoledronic acid increases trabecular bone mass, bone mineral density and bone strength. PMID:24205901

Brance, M L; Brun, L R; Di Loreto, V E; Lupo, M; Rigalli, A

2014-08-01

144

Controlled aggregation in conjugated polymer nanoparticles via organic acid treatments  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding and controlling aggregation structures of conjugated polymers (CPs) in aqueous solutions is critical to improving the physical and photophysical properties of CPs for biological applications. Here, we present spectroscopic evidence, including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic results, that different organic acid treatment induces different aggregation structures and photophysical properties of CPs in water. Conjugated polymer nanoparticles (CPNs) were fabricated by treating a non-aqueous soluble, primary amine-containing poly(phenylene ethynylene) (PPE-NH2) with organic acids followed by dialysis. CPNs formed by acetic acid (AA) treatment (CPN-AAs) exhibit characteristics of loose aggregation with minimal ?-? stacking, while CPNs formed by tartaric acid (TA) treatment (CPN-TAs) exhibit a high degree of ?-? stacking among PPE-NH2 chains. The controlled aggregation for a specific application was demonstrated by comparing the fluorescence quenching abilities of the CPN-AAs and the CPN-TAs. A doubled Stern-Volmer constant was obtained from the densely packed CPN-TAs compared to that of the loosely aggregated CPN-AAs.

Ko, Yoon-Joo; Mendez, Eladio; Moon, Joong Ho

2011-01-01

145

Rapid acid treatment of Escherichia coli: transcriptomic response and recovery  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Many E. coli genes show pH-dependent expression during logarithmic growth in acid (pH 5–6 or in base (pH 8–9. The effect of rapid pH change, however, has rarely been tested. Rapid acid treatment could distinguish between genes responding to external pH, and genes responding to cytoplasmic acidification, which occurs transiently following rapid external acidification. It could reveal previously unknown acid-stress genes whose effects are transient, as well as show which acid-stress genes have a delayed response. Results Microarray hybridization was employed to observe the global gene expression of E. coli K-12 W3110 following rapid acidification of the external medium, from pH 7.6 to pH 5.5. Fluorimetric observation of pH-dependent tetR-YFP showed that rapid external acidification led to a half-unit drop in cytoplasmic pH (from pH 7.6 to pH 6.4 which began to recover within 20 s. Following acid treatment, 630 genes were up-regulated and 586 genes were down-regulated. Up-regulated genes included amino-acid decarboxylases (cadA, adiY, gadA, succinate dehydrogenase (sdhABCD, biofilm-associated genes (bdm, gatAB, and ymgABC, and the Gad, Fur and Rcs regulons. Genes with response patterns consistent with cytoplasmic acid stress were revealed by addition of benzoate, a membrane-permeant acid that permanently depresses cytoplasmic pH without affecting external pH. Several genes (yagU, ygiN, yjeI, and yneI were up-regulated specifically by external acidification, while other genes (fimB, ygaC, yhcN, yhjX, ymgABC, yodA presented a benzoate response consistent with cytoplasmic pH stress. Other genes (the nuo operon for NADH dehydrogenase I, and the HslUV protease showed delayed up-regulation by acid, with expression rising by 10 min following the acid shift. Conclusion Transcriptomic profiling of E. coli K-12 distinguished three different classes of change in gene expression following rapid acid treatment: up-regulation with or without recovery, and delayed response to acid. For eight genes showing acid response and recovery (fimB, ygaC, yhcN, yhjX, ymgABC, yodA, responses to the permeant acid benzoate revealed expression patterns consistent with sensing of cytoplasmic pH. The delayed acid response of nuo genes shows that NADH dehydrogenase I is probably induced as a secondary result of acid-associated metabolism, not as a direct response to cytoplasmic acidification.

Jones Brian D

2008-02-01

146

Accumulation of eicosapolyenoic acids enhances sensitivity to abscisic acid and mitigates the effects of drought in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.  

Science.gov (United States)

IgASE1, a C?? ?(9)-specific polyunsaturated fatty acid elongase from the marine microalga Isochrysis galbana, is able to convert linoleic acid and ?-linolenic acid to eicosadienoic acid and eicosatrienoic acid in Arabidopsis. Eicosadienoic acid and eicosatrienoic acid are precursors of arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid, which are synthesized via the ?(8) desaturation biosynthetic pathways. This study shows that the IgASE1-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis exhibited altered morphology (decreased leaf area and biomass) and enhanced drought resistance compared to wild-type plants. The transgenic Arabidopsis were hypersensitive to abscisic acid (ABA) during seed germination, post-germination growth, and seedling development. They had elevated leaf ABA levels under well-watered and dehydrated conditions and their stomata were more sensitive to ABA. Exogenous application of eicosadienoic acid and eicosatrienoic acid can mimic ABA and drought responses in the wild type plants, similar to that found in the transgenic ones. The transcript levels of genes involved in the biosynthesis of ABA (NCED3, ABA1, AAO3) as well as other stress-related genes were upregulated in this transgenic line upon osmotic stress (300 mM mannitol). Taken together, these results indicate that these two eicosapolyenoic acids or their derived metabolites can mitigate the effects of drought in transgenic Arabidopsis, at least in part, through the action of ABA. PMID:24609499

Yuan, Xiaowei; Li, Yaxiao; Liu, Shiyang; Xia, Fei; Li, Xinzheng; Qi, Baoxiu

2014-04-01

147

Seed washing, exogenous application of gibberellic acid, and cold stratification enhance the germination of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) seed  

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Seed germination in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) is a slow and lengthy process which has delayed breeding efforts. In this study, seed from ripe fruit of the sweet cherry cultivar ‘Lambert’ were collected and, after removing the endocarp, various dormancy-breaking treatments such as seed washing, the application of exogenous gibberellic acid (GA3), or cold stratification were evaluated for their ability to enhance the percentage and rate of seed germination. The results indicated that s...

Javanmard, T.; Zamani, Z.; Keshavarz Afshar, R.; Hashemi, M.; Struik, P. C.

2014-01-01

148

Flaxseed Soluble Dietary Fibre Enhances Lactic Acid Bacterial Survival and Growth in Kefir and Possesses High Antioxidant Capacity  

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This study investigated the capability and efficiency of flaxseed soluble dietary fibre /mucilage to enhance bacterial survival and growth in kefir as well as the antioxidant activity of the mucilage. Crude flaxseed mucilage was extracted using a microwave method, followed by enzymatic and dialysis treatments to obtain pure mucilage. The antioxidant activities of the pure and crude mucilage were measured using different assays. Microbial analyses, pH and total titratable acidity (TTA) were...

2013-01-01

149

Betulinic Acid Selectively Increases Protein Degradation and Enhances Prostate Cancer-Specific Apoptosis: Possible Role for Inhibition of Deubiquitinase Activity  

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Inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) of protein degradation is a valid anti-cancer strategy and has led to the approval of bortezomib for the treatment of multiple myeloma. However, the alternative approach of enhancing the degradation of oncoproteins that are frequently overexpressed in cancers is less developed. Betulinic acid (BA) is a plant-derived small molecule that can increase apoptosis specifically in cancer but not in normal cells, making it an attractive anti-cancer ...

Reiner, Teresita; Parrondo, Ricardo; Las Pozas, Alicia; Palenzuela, Deanna; Perez-stable, Carlos

2013-01-01

150

Optimization of germination time and heat treatments for enhanced availability of minerals from leguminous sprouts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Germinated legumes are highly nutritious food especially for their enhanced iron bioavailability primarily because of reduction of phytates and increase in ascorbic acid with an advancement of germination period. Length of germination time followed by different heat treatments affect the nutritive value of leguminous sprouts. To optimize germination time and heat treatments for enhanced availability of iron from leguminous sprouts, three legumes namely, mungbean, chickpea and cowpea were germinated for three time periods followed by cooking of sprouts by two cooking methods ie. pressure cooking and microwaving. Optimized germination time for mungbean was 12, 16 and 20 h; 36, 48 and 60 h for chickpea and 16, 20 and 24 h for cowpea. Germination process increased ascorbic acid significantly in all the three legumes, the values being 8.24 to 8.87 mg/100 g in mungbean, 9.34 to 9.85 mg/100 g in chickpea and 9.12 to 9.68 mg/100 g in cowpea. Soaking and germination significantly reduced the phytin phosphorus in all the three legumes, the percent reduction being 5.3 to 16.1% during soaking and 25.7 to 46.4% during germination. The reduction in phytin phosphorus after pressure cooking was 9.6% in mungbean, 18.4% in chickpea and 6.1% in cowpea. The corresponding values during microwaving were 8.4, 19.7 and 4.5%. Mineral bioavailability as predicted by phytate:iron enhanced significantly with an increase in germination time. Further reduction i.e. 0.9 to 16.3% was observed in three legumes after the two heat treatments. The study concluded that the longer germination periods ie. 20 h for mungbean, 60 h for chickpea and 24 h for cowpea followed by pressure cooking for optimized time were suitable in terms of better iron availability. PMID:24803714

Bains, Kiran; Uppal, Veny; Kaur, Harpreet

2014-05-01

151

Ferulic acid enhances the vasorelaxant effect of epigallocatechin gallate in tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced inflammatory rat aorta.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previously, we demonstrated synergistic enhancement of vasorelaxation by combination treatment with Trp-His and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) in intact rat aorta. The aim of the present study was to determine whether this vasorelaxant synergy could be recapitulated in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?)-induced inflammatory rat aorta, and to determine the extent of its modulation by anti-inflammatory phenolic acids. Synergistic enhancement of vasorelaxation in rat aorta by Trp-His and EGCg was significantly attenuated in the presence of TNF-?, an effect that was reversed by the addition of ferulic acid (FA, 250 ?M). Moreover, FA markedly enhanced EGCg-induced vasorelaxation, but not Trp-His-induced vasorelaxation, in TNF-?-treated aorta. Structure-activity analysis showed that the unsaturated 2-propenoic moiety and the methoxy group of FA were important for the enhancement of vasorelaxation by EGCg. The stimulation of EGCg-induced vasorelaxation by FA was antagonized by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine acetate, while FA enhanced vasorelaxant properties of the endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase activator acetylcholine in TNF-?-treated inflammatory aorta. Moreover, the EGCg-stimulated NO production was also enhanced by FA in TNF-?-treated aorta. These data indicate that stimulation of NO production by FA enhances the vasorelaxant properties of EGCg in TNF-?-induced inflammatory aorta. PMID:24794014

Zhao, Jian; Suyama, Aki; Tanaka, Mitsuru; Matsui, Toshiro

2014-07-01

152

Enhancing acid tolerance of Leuconostoc mesenteroides with glutathione.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leuconostoc mesenteroides is a commercially important lactic acid bacterium currently used as a starter for kimchi and kefir. However, its sensitivity to acid stress limits its performance. L. mesenteroides was grown in a medium supplemented with 3.2 or 6.4 mM glutathione (GSH), and cell survival rates were measured during a long-term mild acid challenge (pH 4.0). As a result, GSH was imported by the cells and protected against acid stress; thereafter it was consumed as a nutrient. Acid stress resistance of starter cultures of this bacterium can thus be improved by cultivating it in media supplemented with GSH. PMID:22160366

Kim, Ji Eun; Eom, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Yujin; Ahn, Ji Eun; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Han, Nam Soo

2012-04-01

153

Exogenous jasmonic acid can enhance tolerance of wheat seedlings to salt stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Jasmonic acid (JA) is regarded as endogenous regulator that plays an important role in regulating stress responses, plant growth and development. To investigate the physiological mechanisms of salt stress mitigated by exogenous JA, foliar application of 2mM JA was done to wheat seedlings for 3days and then they were subjected to 150mM NaCl. Our results showed that 150mM NaCl treatment significantly decreased plant height, root length, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, the concentration of glutathione (GSH), chlorophyll b (Chl b) and carotenoid (Car), the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), enhanced the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the rate of superoxide radical ( [Formula: see text] ) generation in the wheat seedlings when compared with the control. However, treatments with exogenous JA for 3days significantly enhanced salt stress tolerance in wheat seedlings by decreasing the concentration of MDA and H2O2, the production rate of [Formula: see text] and increasing the transcript levels and activities of SOD, POD, CAT and APX and the contents of GSH, Chl b and Car, which, in turn, enhanced the growth of salt stressed seedlings. These results suggested that JA could effectively protect wheat seedlings from salt stress damage by enhancing activities of antioxidant enzymes and the concentration of antioxidative compounds to quench the excessive reactive oxygen species caused by salt stress and presented a practical implication for wheat cultivation in salt-affected soils. PMID:24726929

Qiu, Zongbo; Guo, Junli; Zhu, Aijing; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Manman

2014-06-01

154

POROSITY ENHANCEMENT IN SOME BAKED CLAY SAMPLES UNDER HYDROTHERMAL TREATMENTS  

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Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the chemically assisted enhancement in porosity of l °Cal clay samples activated at a temperature of 150 ºC. Aluminosilicates enriched baked clay samples were used and hydro thermally treated with NaOH, KOH, Ba (OH2 & ZrO. Pore size and surface area analyzer was used for the determination of surface area. Average pore width, pore volume and surface area were calculated. Treatment with NaOH and KOH has shown to be a very good activation pr °Cedure for high surface area development. Zirconium oxide has caused no pronounced effect on the development of surface area while barium hydroxide showed adverse effect and caused a decline in porosity

IMTIAZ AHMAD

2007-06-01

155

Treatment of spent Ni-Cd batteries by acid lixiviation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work reports on the results of laboratory experiences for the treatment of spent Ni-Cd batteries, using a hydro metallurgical process. The stages of mechanical preparation, lixiviation and extraction with organic solvents are described. The mechanical separation involving a sequence of shearing, drying, crushing and magnetic separation, resulted in the separation into a fine fraction of more than 95% of the cadmium and nickel in the spent batteries, leaving a big fraction of almost all iron and non metallic materials. Lixiviation trials were performed with the fine fraction and modifying the variables of temperature, acidity, reaction time and degree of oxidation of the solution. The incidence of the medium used was evaluated depending on whether it was sulfuric acid or chlorhydric acid solution. Under some conditions more than 90% of the cadmium and nickel could be dissolved, in short periods of no more than 2 hours and it was observed that in the concentrations studied, the chlorhydric acid solutions are more effective than the sulfuric acid ones. DEPHA (Di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid) extractants from the sulfuric solutions and TBP (tributyl phosphate) for the chlorhydrics were used for the extractions using organic solvents. Both extractants are effective in separating the cadmium and nickel contents in the lixiviation solutions but when using the TBPS solution, less steps are needed in the extraction as well as in the re-extraction. The results obtained from these studies show that this method can be used for recycling spent Ni-Cd batteries (CW)

2006-12-01

156

Lowering of phytic acid content by enhancement of phytase and acid phosphatase activities during sunflower germination  

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Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the germination of hybrid sunflowers BRS191 and C11 as a means of lowering phytic acid (PA content by enhancing the activity of endogenous phytase and acid phosphatase. The concentration of PA in hybrid sunflower achenes varied from 2.16 to 2.83g/100g of sample (p O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a germinação de girassóis híbridos BRS 191 e C11 com finalidade de reduzir o teor de AF e aumentar as atividades de phytases e fosfatases endógenas. A concentração do AF nos aquênios de girassóis híbridos variou de 2,16 a 2,83 g /100g de amostra (p< 0,005. As atividades de fitases e fosfatases de girassóis BRS191 e C11 foram elevadas no 4º e 5º dia de germinação, respectivamente, com liberação do fósforo necessário para o desenvolvimento da semente. Estes resultados indicam que o AF do girassol hibrido reduz e a atividade de phytase aumenta em períodos distintos da germinação, possibilitando assim a aplicação desta enzima no controle do teor de AF em cereais, melhorando o seu valor nutricional.

Juliana da Silva Agostini

2010-08-01

157

Lowering of phytic acid content by enhancement of phytase and acid phosphatase activities during sunflower germination  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a germinação de girassóis híbridos BRS 191 e C11 com finalidade de reduzir o teor de AF e aumentar as atividades de phytases e fosfatases endógenas. A concentração do AF nos aquênios de girassóis híbridos variou de 2,16 a 2,83 g /100g de amostra (p[...] s atividades de fitases e fosfatases de girassóis BRS191 e C11 foram elevadas no 4º e 5º dia de germinação, respectivamente, com liberação do fósforo necessário para o desenvolvimento da semente. Estes resultados indicam que o AF do girassol hibrido reduz e a atividade de phytase aumenta em períodos distintos da germinação, possibilitando assim a aplicação desta enzima no controle do teor de AF em cereais, melhorando o seu valor nutricional. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to investigate the germination of hybrid sunflowers BRS191 and C11 as a means of lowering phytic acid (PA) content by enhancing the activity of endogenous phytase and acid phosphatase. The concentration of PA in hybrid sunflower achenes varied from 2.16 to 2.83g/100g o [...] f sample (p

Juliana da Silva, Agostini; Rosicler Balduíno, Nogueira; Elza Iouko, Ida.

158

On the acidity and/or basicity of USY zeolites after basic and acid treatment  

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The isopropanol decomposition reaction was used to evaluate the catalytic activity of ultrastable (USY) zeolites with different degrees of dealumination, treated in strongly alkaline medium at various temperatures and contact times. This treatment resulted in the reinsertion of non-framework aluminium, a result of the ultrastabilization process. The samples obtained were also submitted to an acid treatment, leaching the non-framework aluminium that had not been reinserted. The results obtaine...

Calsavara, V.; Machado, N. R. C. F.; Bernardi Jr, J. L.; Sousa-aguiar, E. F.

2000-01-01

159

Enhancing effect of dimethylamine in sulfuric acid nucleation in the presence of water – a computational study  

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We have studied the hydration of sulfuric acid – ammonia and sulfuric acid – dimethylamine clusters using quantum chemistry. We calculated the formation energies and thermodynamics for clusters of one ammonia or one dimethylamine molecule together with 1–2 sulfuric acid and 0–5 water molecules. The results indicate that dimethylamine enhances the addition of sulfuric acid to the clusters much more efficiently than ammonia when the number of water molecules in the cluster is eithe...

Loukonen, V.; Kurte?n, T.; Ortega, I. K.; Vehkama?ki, H.; Pa?dua, A. A. H.; Sellegri, K.; Kulmala, M.

2010-01-01

160

Organising pneumonia associated with fumaric acid ester treatment for psoriasis.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

INTRODUCTION: We present the case of a 49-year old male who presented with dyspnoea, cough, weight loss, night sweats and general malaise. He had been on treatment with oral fumaric acid esters (FAE, Fumaderm(R); Biogen Idec GmbH, Ismaning, Germany) for 6 months. METHODS: Report of a case. RESULTS: His chest X-ray showed patchy infiltrates in the left upper lobe which failed to resolve under empiric antibiotic therapy. A computed tomography of thorax revealed bilateral, mostly peripheral foci of consolidation with air bronchograms. Transbronchial biopsies showed a pattern of organising pneumonia (OP). CONCLUSIONS: Therapy with oral prednisolone (40 mg\\/day) resulted in a rapid clinical and radiological improvement. An association of FAE and OP has not previously been reported. Please cite this paper as: Deegan AP, Kirby B, Rogers S, Crotty TB and McDonnell TJ. Organising pneumonia associated with fumaric acid ester treatment for psoriasis.

Deegan, Alexander Paul

2012-02-01

 
 
 
 
161

Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, fetal risks, and ursodeoxycolic acid treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this report is to investigate intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Here we report a 36-year-old woman with intrahepatic cholestasis. We observed a complete cure with ursodeoxycholic acid treatment. We discussed the epidemiology, pathomechanism, and therapy of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is a rare disorder of unknown etiology with a clinically distressing maternal course with pruritus and jaundice as the chief complaints. The disease poses little medical risk to the mother, but significant risk to the fetus such as perinatal mortality, preterm delivery, fetal distress, and meconium staining. On the basis of the data in the literature and our own observation we recommend ursodeoxycholic acid treatment in the management of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

Erdin ?lter

2005-01-01

162

Enhancing Anaerobic Treatment of Wastewaters Containing Oleic Acid.  

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INTRODUCTIONLipids are one of the major organic pollutants in municipal and industrial wastewaters. Although domestic sewage typically contains about 40-100 mg/I lipids (Forster, 1992; Quéméneur and Marty, 1994), it is industrial wastewaters that are of greater concern when considering the higher lipid concentrations in the discharged effluents. Typical industries that generate lipids-containing wastewaters are dairy, edible oil and fat refinery, slaughterhouse and meatproc...

1997-01-01

163

Hyaluronic acid as a treatment for ankle osteoarthritis  

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Viscosupplementation refers to the concept of synovial fluid replacement with intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid (HA) for the relief of pain associated with osteoarthritis (OA). Intra-articular viscosupplementation was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1997. It is currently indicated only for the treatment of pain associated with knee OA. However, OA can occur in several of the weight-bearing joints of the foot and ankle. Ankle OA produces chronic disability tha...

Sun, Shu-fen; Chou, Yi-jiun; Hsu, Chien-wei; Chen, Wen-ling

2009-01-01

164

Analytic treatments of matter-enhanced solar-neutrino oscillations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mikheyev and Smirnov have pointed out that flavor oscillations of solar neutrinos could be greatly enhanced. The Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein mechanism depends on the effective electron neutrino mass that arises from charged-current scattering off solar electrons, a phenomenon first discussed by Wolfenstein. Two analytic treatments, the adiabatic approximation and Landau-Zener (LZ) approximation, have been used in studies of this mechanism. I discuss a simple extension of the LZ approximation that merges naturally with the adiabatic approximation and is free of certain troublesome pathologies that arise in the conventional treatment. In this extension the solar density is approximated as in the conventional treatment, except that the starting and ending densities are the physical ones. Results of this finite LZ approximation are compared to those from the standard LZ approximation, the adiabatic approximation, and ''exact'' numerical integrations. The new approximation is virtually exact regardless of the point of origin of the neutrino in the solar core. This approximation is used to efficiently calculate the solar-neutrino capture rates for /sup 37/Cl, /sup 71/Ga, and /sup 98/Mo. The spatial extent of the solar core, the contributions of minor neutrino species, and the effects of 8B neutrino capture to excited nuclear states are treated with care. Limits imposed on ?m2 and sin22theta/sub v/ by the nonzero /sup 37/Cl capture rate are derived by considering the expected uncertainties in standard-solar-model flux estimates. Those oscillation parameters are determined that could account for the /sup 37/Cl puzzle and yet lead to a /sup 71/Ga counting rate above the minimum astronomical value

1987-04-15

165

Starter cultures and cattle feed manipulation enhance conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in Cheddar cheese.  

Science.gov (United States)

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a fatty acid (FA) that provides several health benefits to humans. The feeding of fish oil-supplemented diets to dairy cows has been extensively studied as a means to improve the CLA content in milk. Several studies have also been conducted on the ability of many microorganisms to produce CLA by utilizing substrates containing linoleic acid. In the present study, the dietary manipulated milk was used in combination with the CLA-producing culture to manufacture Cheddar cheese. The two diets fed to cattle were control and treatment diets to obtain control and treatment milk, respectively. The treatment diet containing fish oil (0.75% of dry matter) was fed to 32 dairy cows grouped in a pen for 18 d to increase the total CLA content in milk. Treatment milk had a CLA content of 1.60 g/100g of FA compared with 0.58 g/100g of FA in control milk obtained by feeding the control diet. A 2 × 2 factorial design with 3 replicates was used to test the combined effect of the CLA-producing starter culture of Lactococcus lactis (CI4b) versus a commercial CLA nonproducing cheese starter as the control culture, and type of milk (control vs. treatment milk) on CLA content in Cheddar cheese. Chemical composition (moisture, salt, fat, and protein) was not affected by the type of culture used. However, the age of the cheese affected the sensory properties and microbiological counts in the different treatments. Ripening with the CI4b culture was found to be effective in further enhancing the CLA content. The CI4b cheeses made from control milk and treatment milk contained 1.09 and 2.41 (±0.18) g of total CLA/100g of FA after 1 mo of ripening, which increased to 1.44 and 2.61 (±0.18) g of total CLA/100g of FA after 6 mo of ripening, respectively. The use of treatment milk resulted in an increase in the CLA isomers (trans-7,cis-9+cis-9,trans-11, trans-9,cis-11+cis-10,trans-12, trans-10,cis-12, cis-9,cis-11, trans-11,cis-13, cis-11,cis-13, trans-11,trans-13, and trans-9,trans-11). The CI4b culture specifically increased cis-11,cis-13 and trans-10,cis-12 isomers in cheese. The total CLA content in cheese was significantly higher when the CI4b culture was used compared with CLA nonproducing culture cheeses made from control milk and treatment milk after 1 mo [1.09 and 2.14 (±0.18) g of total CLA/100g of FA] and 6 mo [0.99 and 2.05 (±0.18) g of total CLA/100g of FA] of ripening, respectively. The results indicated that the combination of a CLA-producing starter culture and milk from cattle fed fish oil-supplemented diets (0.99 g of CLA/100g of FA) could enhance levels of total CLA in Cheddar cheese by up to 2.6 times compared with cheese made from control milk with CLA nonproducing starter culture (2.61 g of CLA/100g of FA) after 6 mo. PMID:23403190

Mohan, M S; Anand, S; Kalscheur, K F; Hassan, A N; Hippen, A R

2013-04-01

166

Increased Production of Fatty Acids and Triglycerides in Aspergillus oryzae by Enhancing Expressions of Fatty Acid Synthesis-Related Genes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Microbial production of fats and oils is being developedas a means of converting biomass to biofuels. Here we investigate enhancing expression of enzymes involved in the production of fatty acids and triglycerides as a means to increase production of these compounds in Aspergillusoryzae. Examination of the A.oryzaegenome demonstrates that it contains twofatty acid synthases and several other genes that are predicted to be part of this biosynthetic pathway. We enhancedthe expressionof fatty acid synthesis-related genes by replacing their promoters with thepromoter fromthe constitutively highly expressedgene tef1. We demonstrate that by simply increasing the expression of the fatty acid synthasegenes we successfullyincreasedtheproduction of fatty acids and triglyceridesby more than two fold. Enhancement of expression of the fatty acid pathway genes ATP-citrate lyase and palmitoyl-ACP thioesteraseincreasedproductivity to a lesser extent.Increasing expression ofacetyl-CoA carboxylase caused no detectable change in fatty acid levels. Increases in message level for each gene were monitored usingquantitative real-time RT-PCR. Our data demonstrates that a simple increase in the abundance of fatty acid synthase genes can increase the detectable amount of fatty acids.

Tamano, Koichi; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Culley, David E.; Deng, Shuang; Collett, James R.; Umemura, Myco; Koike, Hideaki; Baker, Scott E.; Machida, Masa

2013-01-01

167

Acridine yellow as solar photocatalyst for enhancing biodegradability and eliminating ferulic acid as model pollutant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The possibility of using acridine yellow G (AYG) as solar photocatalyst for wastewater treatment has been examined in this paper. A phenolic compound, namely ferulic acid, has been employed as target pollutant. The effect of pH, concentration of the substrate and photocatalyst has been investigated. Control of pH is critical in the process, as rate constants obtained at pH 3 (k = 0.020 min{sup -1}) were one order of magnitude higher than in basic media (k = 0.002 min{sup -1} at pH 9), due to differences in the absorption spectrum in the UVA-vis region. Under acidic conditions, 80% removal of the substrate was achieved after 3 h irradiation, although TOC decrease was moderate (around 20%). Nevertheless important detoxification of the solution was measured, and the remaining organic matter showed an enhanced biodegradability. For this reason, a combination of AYG-driven solar photocatalysis with biological treatment seems a good approach to deal with these effluents. Experimental data are consistent with an electron transfer mechanism between the excited photocatalyst and the substrate: involvement of hydroxyl radicals can be ruled out, and photophysical measurements indicate a quenching of the fluorescence of AYG in the presence of ferulic acid. The rate constant for this process was obtained from the Stern-Volmer equation (k{sub q} = 4.4 x 10{sup 9} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}). Finally, based on the Rehm-Weller equation, a {delta}G = -22.8 kcal/mol was calculated, indicating that the process is thermodynamically favourable. (author)

Amat, Ana M.; Arques, Antonio; Santos-Juanes, Lucas; Vercher, Rosa F.; Vicente, R. [Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, EPSA-UPV, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Paseo Viaducto 1, E-03801 Alcoy (Spain); Galindo, Francisco [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica y Organica, Universitat Jaume I, E-12071 Castellon (Spain); Miranda, Miguel A. [Departamento de Quimica e Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica UPV-CSIC, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Apartado 22012, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

2007-05-11

168

Polystyrene sulphonic acid resins with enhanced acid strength via macromolecular self-assembly within confined nanospace  

Science.gov (United States)

Tightening environmental legislation is driving the chemical industries to develop efficient solid acid catalysts to replace conventional mineral acids. Polystyrene sulphonic acid resins, as some of the most important solid acid catalysts, have been widely studied. However, the influence of the morphology on their acid strength—closely related to the catalytic activity—has seldom been reported. Herein, we demonstrate that the acid strength of polystyrene sulphonic acid resins can be adjusted through their reversible morphology transformation from aggregated to swelling state, mainly driven by the formation and breakage of hydrogen bond interactions among adjacent sulphonic acid groups within the confined nanospace of hollow silica nanospheres. The hybrid solid acid catalyst demonstrates high activity and selectivity in a series of important acid-catalysed reactions. This may offer an efficient strategy to fabricate hybrid solid acid catalysts for green chemical processes.

Zhang, Xiaomin; Zhao, Yaopeng; Xu, Shutao; Yang, Yan; Liu, Jia; Wei, Yingxu; Yang, Qihua

2014-01-01

169

Bile Acids Enhance Invasiveness of Cryptosporidium spp. into Cultured Cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bile salts such as sodium taurocholate (NaTC) are routinely used to induce the excystation of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Here we show that NaTC significantly enhanced the invasion of several cultured cell lines by freshly excysted Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis sporozoites. A variety of purified bile salts or total bile from bovine also enhanced the invasion of cultured cells by C. parvum. Further studies demonstrated that NaTC increased protein secretion and gliding motilit...

Feng, Hanping; Nie, Weijia; Sheoran, Abhineet; Zhang, Quanshun; Tzipori, Saul

2006-01-01

170

Mammalian cell sialic acid enhances invasion by Trypanosoma cruzi.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have used a Chinese hamster ovary cell mutant (Lec2) that express much less sialic acid on the surface than the parental cell line (Pro5) to investigate whether sialic acid plays a role during cell invasion by Trypanosoma cruzi. Trypomastigotes derived from a tissue culture (corresponding to bloodstream trypomastigotes) and metacyclic trypomastigotes (corresponding to infective stages of the insect vector) invaded the Lec2 mutant less efficiently than the parental cell line. Invasion of th...

Schenkman, R. P.; Vandekerckhove, F.; Schenkman, S.

1993-01-01

171

Enhanced formation of cubic ice in aqueous organic acid droplets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The homogeneous nucleation of ice in solution droplets is known to be an important mechanism of ice particle formation in the Earth's upper troposphere. It is known that the metastable cubic phase of ice can form when inorganic solution droplets freeze below about 200 K and that this may influence cloud properties and water vapor in the upper troposphere. However, many tropospheric aerosols contain a large and sometimes dominant proportion of oxygenated organic material in addition to inorganic substances. It is shown here that the threshold freezing temperature below which cubic ice forms and persists is shifted to considerably higher temperatures in solution droplets containing a carboxylic acid (2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid, citric acid, C6H8O7). Cubic and the stable hexagonal ice are the only phases to crystallize in micrometre sized citric acid droplets and therefore always exist in contact with aqueous citric acid solution. It is argued that the extremely high viscosity of low temperature aqueous citric acid solutions plays an important role in stabilizing cubic ice. The implications of these findings for ice clouds in the Earth's atmosphere are discussed

2008-01-01

172

Recovery of metals from waste printed circuit boards by supercritical water pre-treatment combined with acid leaching process.  

Science.gov (United States)

Waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) contain a large number of metals such as Cu, Sn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn, and Mn. In this work, an efficient and environmentally friendly process for metals recovery from waste PCBs by supercritical water (SCW) pre-treatment combined with acid leaching was developed. In the proposed process, waste PCBs were pre-treated by SCW, then the separated solid phase product with concentrated metals was subjected to an acid leaching process for metals recovery. The effect of SCW pre-treatment on the recovery of different metals from waste PCBs was investigated. Two methods of SCW pre-treatment were studied: supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) and supercritical water depolymerization (SCWD). Experimental results indicated that SCWO and SCWD pre-treatment had significant effect on the recovery of different metals. SCWO pre-treatment was highly efficient for enhancing the recovery of Cu and Pb, and the recovery efficiency increased significantly with increasing pre-treatment temperature. The recovery efficiency of Cu and Pb for SCWO pre-treatment at 420°C was 99.8% and 80%, respectively, whereas most of the Sn and Cr were immobilized in the residue. The recovery of all studied metals was enhanced by SCWD pre-treatment and increased along with pre-treatment temperature. Up to 90% of Sn, Zn, Cr, Cd, and Mn could be recovered for SCWD pre-treatment at 440°C. PMID:23474342

Xiu, Fu-Rong; Qi, Yingying; Zhang, Fu-Shen

2013-05-01

173

The substrates of memory: defects, treatments, and enhancement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent work has added strong support to the long-standing hypothesis that the stabilization of both long-term potentiation and memory requires rapid reorganization of the spine actin cytoskeleton. This development has led to new insights into the origins of cognitive disorders, and raised the possibility that a diverse array of memory problems, including those associated with diabetes, reflect disturbances to various components of the same mechanism. In accord with this argument, impairments to long-term potentiation in mouse models of Huntington's disease and in middle-aged rats have both been linked to problems with modulatory factors that control actin polymerization in spine heads. Complementary to the common mechanism hypothesis is the idea of a single treatment for addressing seemingly unrelated memory diseases. First tests of the point were positive: Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), a potent activator of actin signaling cascades in adult spines, rescued potentiation in Huntington's disease mutant mice, middle-aged rats, and a mouse model of Fragile-X syndrome. A similar reversal of impairments to long-term potentiation was obtained in middle-aged rats by up-regulating BDNF production with brief exposures to ampakines, a class of drugs that positively modulate AMPA-type glutamate receptors. Work now in progress will test if chronic elevation of BDNF enhances memory in normal animals. PMID:18374328

Lynch, Gary; Rex, Christopher S; Chen, Lulu Y; Gall, Christine M

2008-05-01

174

Synthesis and in vitro transdermal penetration enhancing activity of lactam N-acetic acid esters.  

Science.gov (United States)

A homologous series of N-acetic acid esters of 2-pyrrolidinone and 2-piperidinone has been prepared and evaluated for its ability to enhance the skin content and flux of hydrocortisone 21-acetate in hairless mouse skin in vitro. Enhancement ratios (ER) were determined for flux (J), 24-hour diffusion cell receptor cell concentrations (Q24), and 24-h full-thickness mouse skin steroid content (SC) and compared to control values (no enhancer present). In addition, in an attempt to abrogate toxicity, these dermal penetration enhancers were designed to have the potential for biodegradation by dermal esterases. 2-Oxopyrrolidine-alpha acetic acid dodecyl ester (5) showed the highest enhancement ratios for J (ER 67.33) and Q24 (ER 180.66). 2-Oxopiperidine-alpha-acetic acid decyl ester (10) showed a high Q24 (ER 162.07) but a lower J (ER 12.67). 2-Oxopyrrolidine-alpha-acetic acid decyl ester (3) showed the highest enhancement ratio for SC (ER 8.7). The ER Q24 for 3, 5 and 10, as well as other lactam N-acetic acid esters in this work, were significantly higher than the ER found using Azone as enhancer. PMID:8683439

Michniak, B B; Player, M R; Sowell, J W

1996-02-01

175

Treatment of acid-effluent by diffusion-dialysis and acid-retardation. Kakusan tosekiho, acid retardation ho ni yoru haisan no shori  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recently, in various production engineering of inorganic chemistry system, a large quantity of acids such as nitric acid and hydrocholoric acid have been used, the examples that acid and slats with high concentration are included in the sewer, treatment technique of acid-effluent in the sewer has been known as the diffusion-dialysis, acid-retardation using anion exchange resin. In this report, treatment and properties of acid-effluent recovery and effect of a coexisting slat by the diffusion-dialysis and acid retardation were compared. In the acid retardation, the concentration beyond the solution system can be recovered when the flow interval between waste acid and water was selected appropriately. In the diffusion-dialysis, it has a tendency that rate of recovery was low in the week acid. However, even in the case of which metal irons form complex anion, it is possible that acid and slat were separated well. 7 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Sato, Y.; Murayama, K.; Nakai, T. (National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan))

1992-03-10

176

The treatments of soil Rirang by floatation and Acid leaching  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The treatments of soil Rirang by floatation and acid leaching has been carried out to increase high uranium concentrates of materials, separating associated economical minerals and to reduce the gangue minerals which bothering at chemical processing. The physical treatment has been done by ore preparation and floatation using oleic acid and pine oil, 20 % of pulp at pH 9, condition time at 5 minutes and collections of float fraction was 10 minutes. The chemical processing has been done by dynamic leaching using H2SO4 100 kg/ton, MnO2 20 kg/ton, 50 % of solid with ore size - 65 mesh, temperature at 80 oC and time of leaching was 8 hours. The result of experiments is as follows : Physical treatment by floatation shown that the concentrates of U increased at sink fraction by (1.5 - 2) times against feed sample for all the samples, and in the float fraction the recovery of molybdenite separation is 58 - 81 % and rare earths is 57 - 80 %. The result of dynamic leaching is 76 - 91 %, and recovery uranium increasing from 81.02 % (mixture samples soil before floatation) to 91.16 % ( mixture samples of float fraction)

2000-03-01

177

Retinoic acid enhances adhesiveness, laminin and integrin beta 1 synthesis, and retinoic acid receptor expression in F9 teratocarcinoma cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The teratocarcinoma-derived F9 cells respond to retinoic acid (RA) and RA plus dibutyrylcyclic adenosine monophosphate (dcAMP) by differentiating into endoderm cells, which elaborate a laminin and type IV collagen-rich matrix. We found that the induction of differentiation is accompanied by a small but consistent increase in cell adhesiveness to a variety of substrates, including laminin. Therefore we investigated biochemical mechanisms involved in this phenomenon. Endoglycosidase treatment showed that laminin contains complex and hybrid oligosaccharide structures. RA enhanced general biosynthesis of laminin without a specific increase in galactose incorporation: this sugar was mainly in polylactosamine structures in the A chain of laminin and as terminal galactose alpha 1,3 galactose in the B chain. Laminin receptor analysis showed that RA decreased laminin binding protein-37 (LBP-37) but increased the amount of beta 1 integrin, suggesting the involvement of beta 1 integrin in the attachment process. Northern blot analysis showed increased expression of retinoid receptors within hours of RA exposure. These studies demonstrate that RA increases cell to substrate interactions by increasing the biosynthesis of laminin and beta 1 integrin. These effects are most likely subsequent to the RA-induced biosynthesis of the retinoid receptors. PMID:7512975

Ross, S A; Ahrens, R A; De Luca, L M

1994-05-01

178

Enhancing Arabidopsis Salt and Drought Stress Tolerance by Chemical Priming for Its Abscisic Acid Responses  

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Drought and salt stress tolerance of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants increased following treatment with the nonprotein amino acid -aminobutyric acid (BABA), known as an inducer of resistance against infection of plants by numerous pathogens. BABA-pretreated plants showed earlier and higher expression of the salicylic acid-dependent PR-1 and PR-5 and the abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent RAB-18 and RD-29A genes following salt and drought stress. However...

Jakab, Gabor; Ton, Jurriaan; Flors, Victor; Zimmerli, Laurent; Me?traux, Jean-pierre; Mauch-mani, Brigitte

2011-01-01

179

Enhancing Arabidopsis salt and drought stress tolerance by chemical priming for its abscisic acid responses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Drought and salt stress tolerance of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants increased following treatment with the nonprotein amino acid ?-aminobutyric acid (BABA), known as an inducer of resistance against infection of plants by numerous pathogens. BABA-pretreated plants showed earlier and higher expression of the salicylic acid-dependent PR-1 and PR-5 and the abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent RAB-18 and RD-29A genes following salt and drought stress...

Jakab, Gabor; Ton, Jurriaan; Flors, Victor; Zimmerli, Laurent; Me?traux, Jean-pierre; Mauch-mani, Brigitte

2006-01-01

180

Comparison of the ability of organic acids and EDTA to enhance the phytoextraction of metals from a multi-metal contaminated soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chelates have been shown to enhance the phytoextraction of metal from contaminated soil. In this study, we evaluated the ability of chelates to enhance the phytoextraction of metals by barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli) from soils contaminated with multiple metals. The results revealed that EDTA increased the ability of barnyard grass to take up Cd, Cu and Pb, but that it resulted in increased soil leaching. Conversely, citric acid induced the removal of Cd, Cu and Pb from soil without increasing the risk of leaching. Furthermore, E.crus-galli showed no signs of phytotoxicity in response to treatment with citric acid, whereas its shoot growth decreased in response to treatment with EDTA (p < 0.05). Taken together, these results demonstrate that citric acid is a good agent for the enhancement of the phytoextraction of metals. PMID:19806283

Kim, Sung-Hyun; Lee, In-Sook

2010-02-01

 
 
 
 
181

Differentiation of HL-60 myeloid leukemia cells induced by all-trans retinoic acid is enhanced in combination with caffeic acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated a possible enhancement of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-induced differentiation of HL-60 human myeloid leukemia cells by caffeic acid (CA), a widely distributed plant phenolic compound. Our results showed that CA, in the concentration of 13 or 52 micro M, had no or minimal influence on cell differentiation, whereas the differentiating activity of ATRA was potentiated by CA treatment. We proved, using flow cytometric detection of the CD66b surface molecule, a synergistic effect of CA: at day 10, 18.3% of CD66b-positive cells were detected after treatment with ATRA only, and 33% when CA and ATRA were combined together. NBT-assay confirmed that this additive effect of CA on ATRA-induced differentiation. Proliferating activity as assessed by MTT-assay was generally not affected by CA at given concentrations. However, cell proliferation was significantly reduced by 52 micro M CA at 96-h intervals. This effect was markedly enhanced when CA, at both concentrations, and ATRA were combined. The possibility to enhance the differentiation potential of ATRA by CA may improve outcomes in the therapy of acute promyelocytic leukemia. PMID:15254783

Veselská, Renata; Zitterbart, Karel; Auer, Jan; Neradil, Jakub

2004-08-01

182

KINETIC ASPECTS OF CATION-ENHANCED AGGREGATION IN AQUEOUS HUMIC ACIDS. (R822832)  

Science.gov (United States)

The cation-enhanced formation of hydrophobic domains in aqueous humic acids has been shown to be a slow process, consistent with the evolution and disintegration of humic acid configurations over periods lasting from days to weeks. After the addition of a magnesium salt to a humi...

183

Interleukin-1 family members are enhanced in psoriasis and suppressed by vitamin D and retinoic acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interleukin (IL)-1 family comprise 11 members that play an important role in immune regulation and inflammatory process. Retinoids exert complex effects on the immune system, having anti-inflammatory effects in chronic dermatological diseases. Vitamin D (vitD) and analogs have been shown to suppress TNF-?-induced IL-1? in human keratinocytes (KCs). In the present study, we investigated IL-1 family members in psoriasis and the effects of vitD and retinoic acid (RA) on these members. We analyzed IL-1 family members gene expression in psoriatic skin and in ex vivo skin organ culture exposed to TNF-?, IL-17 or broadband UVB; afterwards, treatment with vitD or RA was performed and IL-1 family members mRNA was evaluated. Similarly, KCs were stimulated with IL-17 and subsequently treated with vitD. IL-1 family members were enhanced in psoriatic skin and in ex vivo skin organ cultures after pro-inflammatory stimuli (TNF-?, IL-17 and UVB). RA and vitD were able to suppress this enhancement. PMID:23435685

Balato, Anna; Schiattarella, Maria; Lembo, Serena; Mattii, Martina; Prevete, Nella; Balato, Nicola; Ayala, Fabio

2013-04-01

184

The effect of various treatment conditions on natural zeolites: ion exchange, acidic, thermal and steam treatments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two different natural zeolites having different phase compositions were obtained from different regions of Turkey and modified by ion-exchange (0.5M NH(4)NO(3)) and acid leaching using 1M HCl. The natural and modified samples were treated at low temperature (LT), high temperature (HT) and steam (ST) conditions and characterised by XRF, XRD, BET, FTIR, DR-UV-Vis, NH(3)-TPD and TGA. Ion-exchange with NH(4)(+) of natural zeolites results in the exchange of the Na(+) and Ca(2+) cations and the partial exchange of the Fe(3+) and Mg(2+) cations. However, steam and acidic treatments cause significant dealumination and decationisation, as well as loss of crystalline, sintering of phases and the formation of amorphous material. The presence of mordenite and quartz phases in the natural zeolites increases the stability towards acid treatment, whereas the structure of clinoptilolite-rich zeolites is mostly maintained after high temperature and steam treatments. The natural and modified zeolites treated at high temperature and in steam were found to be less stable compared with synthetic zeolites, resulting in a loss of crystallinity, a decrease in the surface area and pore volume, a decrease in the surface acidity as well as dealumination, and decationisation. PMID:22331036

Ates, Ayten; Hardacre, Christopher

2012-04-15

185

The effect of acid treatment on the structure and surface acidity of tetraalkylammonium-montmorillonites.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of tetrabutylammonium (Bu4N+) and tetrapentylammonium (Pe4N+) cations on the modification of the organo-montmorillonite structure upon acid-treatment was investigated. Samples were treated with HCl for various times (2-12 h). Structural changes were followed by MAS NMR spectroscopy. The 29Si MAS NMR spectra of initial Na-saturated form (Na-SAz) showed gradual decrease of the intensity of the resonance assigned to SiO4 cross-linked in the tetrahedral sheets Q3(0Al) while signals arising from the reaction product Q31OH and Q4(0Al) became more pronounced upon acid treatment. The Q3(0Al) signal almost completely disappeared for Na-SAz treated for 8 h on contrary to Bu4N-SAz and Pe4N-SAz showing signal of relatively high intensity even after 12 h. The 27Al MAS NMR measurement proved that more than one half of Al remained in the reaction product of Bu4N-SAz and Pe4N-SAz after 8 h treatment, while Al content dropped below 5% for Na-SAz. Formation of acid sites was investigated via pyridine adsorption. Only physically adsorbed and H-bonded pyridine was detected for acid-untreated samples. In contrast, the IR spectra of the samples partially decomposed in HCl revealed bands of pyridine adsorbed on Brønsted acid sites. Strongly bonded pyridine was able to bear up heating even at 230°C. PMID:23332795

Pálková, Helena; Hronský, Viktor; Jankovi?, L'uboš; Madejová, Jana

2013-04-01

186

Nitric-phosphoric acid treatment of TRU wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A general process is being developed for the treatment of solid TRU and hazardous organic waste. Experimental data indicates that 100 lb/hr of aliphatic organic (plastics) and 1,000 lb/hr of non-aliphatic organic compounds can be quantitatively oxidized in a 1,000 gallon reaction vessel. The process uses dilute nitric acid in a concentrated phosphoric acid media as the main oxidant for the organic compounds. Phosphoric acid allows oxidation at temperatures up to 200{degrees}C and is relatively non-corrosive on 304-L stainless steel, especially at room temperature. Many organic materials have been completely oxidized to CO{sub 2}, CO, and inorganic acids in a 0.1M HNO{sub 3}/14.8M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} solution. Addition of 0.001M Pd{sup 2+} reduces the CO to near 1% of the released carbon gases. To accomplish complete oxidation the solution temperature must be maintained above 130--150{degrees}C. Organic materials quantitatively destroyed include neoprene, cellulose, EDTA, TBP, tartaric acid, and nitromethane. The oxidation is usually complete in a few hours for soluble organic materials. The oxidation rate for non-aliphatic organic solids is moderately fast and surface area dependent. Polyethylene is quantitatively oxidized in 1.0M HNO{sub 3}/13.8M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} solution while contained in pressure vessels heated with microwave energy. This is probably due to the high concentrations of NO{sub 2}{center_dot} obtained in the reaction environment.

Smith, J.R.; Pierce, R.A.; Sturcken, E.F.

1993-09-30

187

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids enhance cerebral angiogenesis and provide long-term protection after stroke.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stroke is a devastating neurological disorder and one of the leading causes of death and serious disability. After cerebral ischemia, revascularization in the ischemic boundary zone provides nutritive blood flow as well as various growth factors to promote the survival and activity of neurons and neural progenitor cells. Enhancement of angiogenesis and the resulting improvement of cerebral microcirculation are key restorative mechanisms and represent an important therapeutic strategy for ischemic stroke. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that post-stroke angiogenesis would be enhanced by omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), a major component of dietary fish oil. To this end, we found that transgenic fat-1 mice that overproduce n-3 PUFAs exhibited long-term behavioral and histological protection against transient focal cerebral ischemia (tFCI). Importantly, fat-1 transgenic mice also exhibited robust improvements in revascularization and angiogenesis compared to wild type littermates, suggesting a potential role for n-3 fatty acids in post-stroke cerebrovascular remodeling. Mechanistically, n-3 PUFAs induced upregulation of angiopoietin 2 (Ang 2) in astrocytes after tFCI and stimulated extracellular Ang 2 release from cultured astrocytes after oxygen and glucose deprivation. Ang 2 facilitated endothelial proliferation and barrier formation in vitro by potentiating the effects of VEGF on phospholipase C?1 and Src signaling. Consistent with these findings, blockade of Src activity in post-stroke fat-1 mice impaired n-3 PUFA-induced angiogenesis and exacerbated long-term neurological outcomes. Taken together, our findings strongly suggest that n-3 PUFA supplementation is a potential angiogenic treatment capable of augmenting brain repair and improving long-term functional recovery after cerebral ischemia. PMID:24794156

Wang, Jiayin; Shi, Yejie; Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Feng; Hu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Wenting; Leak, Rehana K; Gao, Yanqin; Chen, Ling; Chen, Jun

2014-08-01

188

Enhancement of vindoline and vinblastine production in suspension-cultured cells of Catharanthus roseus by artemisinic acid elicitation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Elicitation is an important strategy to improve production of secondary metabolites in vitro. Artemisinic acid was studied as a novel elicitor to enhance the yield of terpenoid indole alkaloids in the present paper. Our results demonstrated that the concentrations of vindoline and vinblastine were increased by sixfold and twofold, respectively, compared to those of the control group after treatment with artemisinic acid. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, we investigated the gene expression of four enzymes involved in the biosynthetic pathway of vinblastine in the suspension-cultured cells of Catharanthu sroseus. RT-PCR experiment showed that artemisinic acid was able to up-regulate the transcriptions of tryptophan decarboxylase, geraniol 10-hydroxylase, tabersonine 16-hydroxylase and deacetoxyvindoline 4-hydroxylase. PMID:23864440

Liu, Jinwei; Zhu, Jianhua; Tang, Le; Wen, Wei; Lv, Shuangshuang; Yu, Rongmin

2014-01-01

189

Enhanced photoluminescence emission of 3-aminobenzoic acid by complexation with M cations [M = cobalt, zinc  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: •Novel complexes have been synthesized by a simple refluxing reaction. •This approach is expected to prepare other inorganic organic hybrid complexes. •These complexes could show huge photoluminescence emission enhancement. -- Abstract: Novel M (M = zinc or cobalt)-3-aminobenzoic acid complexes have been synthesized by a simple refluxing reaction using M (acetate) and 3-aminobenzoic acid for the precursors. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), UV–Vis spectra and photoluminescence (PL). And the results confirmed that the complexes could show huge photoluminescence emission enhancement. The formation mechanism of the morphologies and the superstructures of the complexes were proposed based on the time-dependent evolution process. Because of the promotion to transfer energy between the metal and 3-aminobenzoic acid, these interlayer complexes could show huge photoluminescence emission enhancement in the near-UV region (410 nm) compared with pure 3-aminobenzoic acid

2013-11-25

190

Novel treatment using thioglycolic acid for pincer nails.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors developed a novel treatment using thioglycolic acid (TGA) to chemically soften pincer nails. The objective was to describe a new treatment method for pincer nails by applying TGA to soften the nail and then fix it in the correct position. A total of 104 patients (nine men and 95 women; mean age, 56 years) with 106 pincer nails underwent our treatment. A small hole was made on the markedly incurvated side of the pincer nail, and a super-elastic wire was inserted into the hole and bent backwards; 5% TGA was then applied for 6-7 h prior to reduction. Favorable reduction was achieved in 66% of patients within 1 day of the procedure, in 30% within 2-4 days and in 4% 5 days or more later. No patient required surgery. No post-procedure infection, rash, continuous pain or nail cut out was evident. In eight cases, recurrences of nail deformity were observed within the 1-year follow-up period. Our novel method, which consists of administrating TGA via a hole in the nail plate, is a useful treatment for pincer nails. PMID:22963208

Okada, Kikuzo; Okada, Eijiro

2012-12-01

191

Enhanced endothelialization guided by fibronectin functionalized plasma polymerized acrylic acid film  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The plasma polymerized acrylic acid (PPAA) films with high carboxyl concentration were fabricated by low temperature plasma polymerization technology. Vacuum thermal treatment was used to modify the PPAA films. The stability of the PPAA film was evidenced by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The result of toluidine blue-O (TBO) method showed that the -COOH concentration on the surface of the PPAA films decreased from 20.73 nM to17.90 nM after vacuum thermal treatment. Fibronectin (Fn) was successfully covalently immobilized onto the modified surface PPAA via a covalent bond reacted with carboxyl groups. Diffuse reflectance Fourier infrared transform spectroscopy (DRFTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were utilized to characterize the layer-by-layer PPAA surface modification. From the evaluation of immunostaining for actin and Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), the surface of Fn-immobilized thermal treated PPAA films could be used to enhance the adhesion and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Especially, the exposure of RGD domain existing in the immobilized Fn was ascertained by ELISA, which was one of main improvement factors of HUVEC's adhesion and proliferation. This study demonstrated a promising surface modification used for vascular devices.

He Tingting; Yang Zhilu; Chen Rui; Wang Jin, E-mail: jinxxwang@263.net; Leng Yongxiang; Sun Hong; Huang Nan

2012-07-01

192

Treatment of waste water involved in acid uranium ore processing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The uranium ores lixiviation is one of the hydrometallurgical processes which generate waste waters that need to be treated in accordance with the quality requirement of NTPA - 001/2002. The uranium ores acid lixiviation process generates two types of waste waters: (I) an alkaline solution out of which uranium is extracted by an ionic exchange process and (II) a mixture of mother - water and washing waters from DUNa precipitation. In order to treat wastewater (I) a flow sheet is proposed that includes: the uranium removal to the CMA level using the ion exchange process; the effluent's neutralization with sulphuric acid and reverse osmosis, which recovers more then 80% of water; the treatment of the mineral salts concentrate by crystallization - evaporation. Wastewater (II) is processed using its recirculation in the elution industrial process. The excess is treated by neutralization with sulphuric acid, molybdenum adsorption on active carbon, sulphate removal using calcium chloride; the sodium chloride solution is recycled to add up to the elution of uranium recovered from (I). (authors)

2008-05-28

193

Phthalic acid esters found in municipal organic waste : Enhanced anaerobic degradation under hyper-thermophilic conditions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Contamination of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) with xenobiotic compounds and their fate during anaerobic digestion was investigated. The phthalic acid ester di-(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) was identified as the main contaminant in OFMSW in concentrations more than half of the threshold value for the use as fertilizer on agricultural soil in Denmark. Analysis of DEHP in 4 samples before and after large-scale anaerobic digesters revealed higher concentrations of DEHP per kg dry matter in the effluent than in the influent. The concentration of DEHP and DBP (dibutylphthalate) in OFMSW was monitored in the influent and effluent of anaerobic thermophilic (55degreesC) and hyper-thermophilic CO (68degreesC) laboratory-scale reactor systems. In the thermophilic reactors with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of W 15 days 38-70% of DBP was removed, but no consistent removal of DEHP was observed. However, after treatment of the effluent from the thermophilic reactor in a hyper-thermophilic digester (HRT: 5 days) 0 CO 34-53% of the DEHP content was removed and the DBP removal was increased to further 62-74%. Removal rates (k(h)) of DEHP and DBP were found to be 0.11-0.32 d(-1) and 0.41-0.79 d(-1), which is much higher than in previous investigations. It can be concluded that the higher removal rates are due to the higher temperature and higher initial concentrations per kg dry matter. These results suggest that the limiting factor for DEHP degradation is the bioavailability, which is enhanced at higher temperature and higher degradation of solid organic matter, to which the highly hydrophobic DEHP is adsorbed. The investigated reactor configuration with a thermophilic and a hyper-thermophilic treatment is, therefore, a good option for CD combining high rate degradation of organic matter with high biogas yields and efficient reduction of the phthalic acid ester contamination.

Hartmann, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

2003-01-01

194

Enhancement of phosphatidylinositol turnover and cyclic nucleotide accumulation by chronic anethole trithione treatment in rat submaxillary glands.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of chronic treatment with anethole trithione (ANTT) on the phosphatidylinositol (PI) turnover and cyclic (c)AMP and cGMP accumulation in rat submaxillary glands (SMG) has been compared with the effect of chronic treatment with atropine and a cholinesterase inhibitor, diisopropylfluorophosphate (dyflos, DFP). Experiments were performed 24, 48 and 24 h after the last dose of ANTT, atropine and dyflos, respectively. ANTT and atropine enhanced carbachol-stimulated [32P] incorporation into phosphatidic acid in the SMG slices, while dyflos showed no effect. Pilocarpine-stimulated in-vivo incorporation of [3H]myoinositol into inositol phosphates was significantly enhanced by ANTT, but not by atropine or by dyflos. Phospholipase C-dependent hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate was significantly enhanced by ANTT and atropine, but not by dyflos. Pilocarpine-stimulated in-vivo accumulation of cAMP and cGMP was enhanced by ANTT and atropine, but dyflos reduced cAMP accumulation without affecting cGMP accumulation. The enhancement of PI turnover and cyclic nucleotide accumulation seems to contribute to the development of supersensitivity of the salivary gland caused by chronic treatment with ANTT and atropine, while reduction of cAMP accumulation may be responsible for the subsensitivity caused by dyflos. PMID:2568464

Ukai, Y; Taniguchi, N; Yamazaki, A; Kimura, K

1989-04-01

195

Enhancement of Commercial Antifungal Agents by Kojic Acid  

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Natural compounds that pose no significant medical or environmental side effects are potential sources of antifungal agents, either in their nascent form or as structural backbones for more effective derivatives. Kojic acid (KA) is one such compound. It is a natural by-product of fungal fermentation commonly employed by food and cosmetic industries. We show that KA greatly lowers minimum inhibitory (MIC) or fungicidal (MFC) concentrations of commercial medicinal and agricultural antifungal ag...

2012-01-01

196

Fluorescence enhancement and cofluorescence in complexes of terbium, dysprosium and europium with trimesic acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fluorescence of terbium, dysprosium and europium was enhanced by about two to three orders of magnitude when they were excited in the presence of trimesic acid in aqueous solutions at pH 6. The fluorescence was enhanced by a further order of magnitude when these lanthanide-trimesate complexes were treated with trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) and Triton X-100. The enhancement following the addition of TOPO is strongly pH dependent. An enhancement in the fluorescence of these rare earths with the carboxylate ligand is observed in the presence of ions such as La3+ and Gd3+, due to cofluorescence. The addition of La or Gd enhances the fluorescence of the lanthanide-trimesic acid complexes by almost two orders of magnitude, leading to detection limits in the sub-ng ml-1 range for these rare earths

1993-09-24

197

Fluorescence enhancement and cofluorescence in complexes of terbium, dysprosium and europium with trimesic acid  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fluorescence of terbium, dysprosium and europium was enhanced by about two to three orders of magnitude when they were excited in the presence of trimesic acid in aqueous solutions at pH 6. The fluorescence was enhanced by a further order of magnitude when these lanthanide-trimesate complexes were treated with trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) and Triton X-100. The enhancement following the addition of TOPO is strongly pH dependent. An enhancement in the fluorescence of these rare earths with the carboxylate ligand is observed in the presence of ions such as La[sup 3+] and Gd[sup 3+], due to cofluorescence. The addition of La or Gd enhances the fluorescence of the lanthanide-trimesic acid complexes by almost two orders of magnitude, leading to detection limits in the sub-ng ml[sup -1] range for these rare earths.

Panigrahi, B.S.; Peter, Susy; Viswanathan, K.S.; Mathews, C.K. (Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India))

1993-09-24

198

Psychosocial Treatments for Bipolar Depression: A 1-Year Randomized Trial From the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program  

Science.gov (United States)

Context Psychosocial interventions have been shown to enhance pharmacotherapy outcomes in bipolar disorder. Objective To examine the benefits of 4 disorder-specific psychotherapies in conjunction with pharmacotherapy on time to recovery and the likelihood of remaining well after an episode of bipolar depression. Design Randomized controlled trial. Setting Fifteen clinics affiliated with the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder. Patients A total of 293 referred outpatients with bipolar I or II disorder and depression treated with protocol pharmacotherapy were randomly assigned to intensive psychotherapy (n=163) or collaborative care (n=130), a brief psychoeducational intervention. Interventions Intensive psychotherapy was given weekly and biweekly for up to 30 sessions in 9 months according to protocols for family-focused therapy, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, and cognitive behavior therapy. Collaborative care consisted of 3 sessions in 6 weeks. Main Outcome Measures Outcome assessments were performed by psychiatrists at each pharmacotherapy visit. Primary outcomes included time to recovery and the proportion of patients classified as well during each of 12 study months. Results All analyses were by intention to treat. Rates of attrition did not differ across the intensive psychotherapy (35.6%) and collaborative care (30.8%) conditions. Patients receiving intensive psychotherapy had significantly higher year-end recovery rates (64.4% vs 51.5%) and shorter times to recovery than patients in collaborative care (hazard ratio, 1.47; 95% confidence interval, 1.08–2.00; P=.01). Patients in intensive psychotherapy were 1.58 times (95% confidence interval, 1.17–2.13) more likely to be clinically well during any study month than those in collaborative care (P=.003). No statistically significant differences were observed in the outcomes of the 3 intensive psychotherapies. Conclusions Intensive psychosocial treatment as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy was more beneficial than brief treatment in enhancing stabilization from bipolar depression. Future studies should compare the cost-effectiveness of models of psychotherapy for bipolar disorder. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00012558

Miklowitz, David J.; Otto, Michael W.; Frank, Ellen; Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A.; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Kogan, Jane N.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Marangell, Lauren B.; Gyulai, Laszlo; Araga, Mako; Gonzalez, Jodi M.; Shirley, Edwin R.; Thase, Michael E.; Sachs, Gary S.

2013-01-01

199

Improvement of the Efficacy of 5-aminolevulinic Acid-mediated Photodynamic Treatment in Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma HSC-4  

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Ever since protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) was discovered to accumulate preferentially in cancer cells after 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) treatment, photodynamic treatment or therapy (PDT) has been developed as an exciting new treatment option for cancer patients. However, the level of PpIX accumulation in oral cancer is fairly low and insufficient for PDT. Ferrochelatase (FECH) and ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2) are known to regulate PpIX accumulation. In addition, serum enhances PpIX e...

2013-01-01

200

The vitamin-like dietary supplement para-aminobenzoic acid enhances the antitumor activity of ionizing radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To determine whether para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) alters the sensitivity of tumor cells to ionizing radiation in vitro and in vivo. Methods and Materials: Cellular proliferation was assessed by WST-1 assays. The effects of PABA and radiation on tumor growth were examined with chick embryo and murine models. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were used to quantify p21CIP1 and CDC25A levels. Results: Para-aminobenzoic acid enhanced (by 50%) the growth inhibitory activity of radiation on B16F10 cells, whereas it had no effect on melanocytes. Para-aminobenzoic acid enhanced (50-80%) the antitumor activity of radiation on B16F10 and 4T1 tumors in vivo. The combination of PABA and radiation therapy increased tumor apoptosis. Treatment of tumor cells with PABA increased expression of CDC25A and decreased levels of p21CIP1. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that PABA might represent a compound capable of enhancing the antitumor activity of ionizing radiation by a mechanism involving altered expression of proteins known to regulate cell cycle arrest

2006-06-01

 
 
 
 
201

Bioelectrochemical treatment of acid mine drainage dominated with iron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Treatment of AMD dominated with Fe is problematic due to its low pH. ? The goal of AMD treatment is pH increasing and Fe controlled removal. ? An MFC could fulfill both these requirements by treating AMD at the aerated cathode. ? The performance was proportional to the charge transfer up to 880 C. ? The treated AMD met the discharge limits both for Fe (>99% recovery) and pH (7.9). - Abstract: Treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) dominated with iron (Fe), the most common metal, is a long-term expensive commitment, the goal of which is to increase the pH and remove Fe. In the present study, a proton exchange membrane microbial fuel cell (MFC) showed promise for the efficient treatment of an AMD dominated with ferric iron (pH 2.4 ± 0.1; 500 mg L?1 Fe3+). Briefly, Fe3+ was reduced to Fe2+ at the cathode of the MFC, followed by Fe2+ re-oxidation and precipitation as oxy(hydroxi)des. Oxygen reduction and cation transfer to the cathode of the MFC further caused a rise in pH. A linear relationship was observed between the charge transferred in the MFC and the performance of the system up to 880 C. Optimal conditions were found at a charge of 662 C, achieved within 7 d at an acetate concentration of 1.6 g L?1 in a membrane MFC. This caused the pH to rise to 7.9 and resulted in a Fe removal of 99%. Treated effluent met the pH discharge limits of 6.5–9. The maximum power generation achieved under these conditions averaged 8.6 ± 2.3 W m?3, which could help reduce the costs of full-scale bioelectrochemical treatment of AMD dominated with Fe.

2012-11-30

202

Dietary enhancement of selected fatty acid biosynthesis in the digestive gland of Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fatty acid composition of the digestive gland from the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis subjected to three different dietary regimens for 30 days was analyzed. Samples were collected at the beginning and end of the trial to obtain a comprehensive picture of fatty acid dynamics. Group A was unfed; group B received a diet consisting of 100% Thalassiosira weissflogii and, thus, similar to natural food; and group C received a diet consisting of 100% wheat germ conferring a 18:2?-6 abundance. Results indicate that fatty acid composition of lipid and phospholipid classes was affected by dietary treatments. However, adult mussel homeostatic skills minimized effects, and thus, only wheat germ diet deeply modified the fatty acid composition. Furthermore, in group C, the occurrence of the non-methylene-interrupted trienoic fatty acids was indicative of de novo fatty acid synthesis presumably because of active fatty acid elongation and ?5 desaturation system, also supported by the general ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid decrease. PMID:23298257

Ventrella, Vittoria; Pagliarani, Alessandra; Nesci, Salvatore; Trombetti, Fabiana; Pirini, Maurizio

2013-01-30

203

CHF enhancement in flow boiling system with TSP and boric acid solutions under atmospheric pressure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, the effects of tri-sodium phosphate (TSP) and boric acid on CHF enhancement were studied. Both TSP and boric acid are used to control pH in nuclear power plants. TSP is a kind of surfactant, and several surfactants, include TSP, have been reported to have an effect on enhancement of heat transfer. Nothing has yet been reported for the case of boric acid. CHF experiments were performed with mass flux ranging from 100-500 kg/m2 s and inlet subcooling temperature of 50 oC under atmospheric pressure. The test section was a vertical circular SS316 tube having an inner diameter of 10.98 mm. Its heated length was 224 mm, and it was heated by a heat flux control system using DC electricity. Fluids in the test loop were plain water, TSP solutions, and boric acid solutions. TSP solutions had three concentrations (0.2, 0.4, 0.6%), and boric acid solutions had four concentrations (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8%). In the case of TSP, 21.4% enhancement of CHF was observed at the inlet subcooling temperature of 50 oC and extremely low mass flux (100 kg/m2 s). In the case of boric acid, 12.4% enhancement of CHF was observed at inlet subcooling temperature of 50 oC and extremely low mass flux 100 kg/m2 s.

2010-10-01

204

Sumatra success : acid tunnelling succeeded where conventional acid treatments, proppant frac failed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article described an acid-tunneling technology developed by BJ Services which provides an economic and efficient stimulation alternative for wells completed openhole in carbonate reservoirs. The patented process, called StimTunnel, uses coiled tubing to convey a jointed nozzle that jets acid at the formation rock, dissolving it to create several mechanically stable, stimulated tunnels in the formation. These tunnels, and a range of wormholes and expanded pores, increase reservoir contact and improve productivity by distributing inflow across more surface area. The process has been used to get more oil out of a mature field in the Indonesian province of South Sumatra. The oil pools in the Ogan Komering Block were discovered in 1988 but have resisted efforts at well stimulation. Drill bits are not used in the StimTunnel concept. Instead, hydrochloric acid is used to dissolve the carbonate rock. Prior to StimTunnel treatment, the 9 wells in the Ogan Komering Block were averaging 638 bbls of oil per day. One year following treatment, the wells averaged 1,494 bbls of oil per day, a sustained increase in production of 134 per cent. 1 ref., 3 figs.

Roche, P.

2009-03-15

205

An endogenous factor enhances ferulic acid decarboxylation catalyzed by phenolic acid decarboxylase from Candida guilliermondii  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The gene for a eukaryotic phenolic acid decarboxylase of Candida guilliermondii was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli for the first time. The structural gene contained an open reading frame of 504 bp, corresponding to 168 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 19,828 Da. The deduced amino sequence exhibited low similarity to those of functional phenolic acid decarboxylases previously reported from bacteria with 25-39% identity and to those of PAD1 and FDC1 proteins...

2012-01-01

206

Anacardic Acid Enhances the Proliferation of Human Ovarian Cancer Cells  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Anacardic acid (AA) is a mixture of 2-hydroxy-6-alkylbenzoic acid homologs. Certain antitumor activities of AA have been reported in a variety of cancers. However, the function of AA in ovarian cancer, to date, has remained unknown. Methods Ovarian cancer cell lines were exposed to AA, after which cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and migration assays were performed. Phalloidin staining was used to observe lamellipodia formation. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting were used to assess the mRNA and protein expression levels of Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and caspase 3. Results Our results showed that AA promotes ovarian cancer cell proliferation, inhibits late apoptosis, and induces cell migration and invasion, as well as lamellipodia formation. AA exposure significantly up-regulated PI3K and VEGF mRNA and protein expression, while, in contrast, it down-regulated caspase 3 mRNA and protein expression in comparison to untreated control cells. Conclusion Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time that AA may potentiate the proliferation, invasion, metastasis and lamellipodia formation in ovarian cancer cell lines via PI3K, VEGF and caspase 3 pathways.

Xiu, Yin-Ling; Zhao, Yang; Gou, Wen-Feng; Chen, Shuo; Takano, Yasuo; Zheng, Hua-Chuan

2014-01-01

207

trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid enhances in vitro maturation of porcine oocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (t10c12 CLA) supplementation on oocyte maturation and embryo development in pigs. Compared with the control, supplementation of 50?µM t10c12 CLA to in vitro maturation (IVM) medium significantly increased the proportion of oocytes at the metaphase-II (MII) stage and subsequent parthenogenetic embryo development in terms of cleavage rate, blastocyst formation rate, and cell numbers in blastocysts. The t10c12 CLA-treated oocytes resumed meiotic maturation and progressed to the MII stage significantly faster than those of control. The expression of phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase 3/1 (p-MAPK3/1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) in cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) at 5, 10, and 22?hr of IVM were significantly increased in the t10c12 CLA-treatment group. The level of p-MAPK3/1 in t10c12 CLA-treated MII oocytes was also higher (P?Treatment of COCs with NS398 also significantly suppressed cumulus expansion and nuclear maturation, which was overcome by t10c12 CLA. Yet, this simulatory effect of t10c12 CLA was blocked in the presence of both U0126 and NS398. The t10c12 CLA treatment significantly reduced reactive oxygen species level and increased glutathione concentrations in MII oocyte. In conclusion, supplementation of t10c12 CLA during porcine oocyte maturation exerts its beneficial effects on nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation, which contributes to enhancing subsequent embryo development. PMID:24167106

Jia, Baoyu; Wu, Guoquan; Fu, Xiangwei; Mo, Xianhong; Du, Ming; Hou, Yunpeng; Zhu, Shien

2014-01-01

208

Selective enhancement and suppression of frog gustatory responses to amino acids  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Properties of the receptor sites for L-amino acids in taste cells of the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) were examined by measuring the neural activities of the glossopharyngeal nerve under various conditions. (a) The frogs responded to 12 amino acids, but the responses to the amino acids varied with individual frogs under natural conditions. The frog tongues, however, exhibited similar responses after an alkaline treatment that removes Ca2+ from the tissue. The variation in the responses under n...

1981-01-01

209

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF SUMATRIPTAN SUCCINATE NASAL IN-SITU GEL USING FULVIC ACID AS NOVEL PERMEATION ENHANCER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sumatriptan succinate is a 5-HT1D (5-hydroxy tryptamine 1D-receptor agonist, used in the treatment of migraine and cluster headache Sumatriptan succinate has been shown to have a low oral bioavailability in human volunteers (15% because of high first pass metabolism.. Subcutaneous administration is an alternative; however, dislike of injections or inability to self-administer by this route makes subcutaneous treatment unacceptable to some individuals. These all above things justify a need of nasal drug delivery. To improve the nasal retention time of Sumatriptan succinate, it has been formulated as in situ mucoadhesive gel by using Pluronic PF127 and carbopol 974P. The objective of this work was to improve the nasal bioavailability of Sumatriptan succinate by increasing its nasal retention time as well as by means of nasal permeation. Nasal permeation of Sumatriptan succinate was improved by using fulvic acid extracted from Shilajit as a novel permeation enhancer. For the same the nasal in situ gel of Sumatriptan succinate and its complex with fulvic acid extracted from shilajit was made by cold method. The prepared in-situ gel was evaluated for gelation temperature, drug content, mucoadhesive force, gel strength and viscosity measurement. Further insitu gels prepared with and without permeation enhancer (Fulvic acid were evaluated for its In vitro drug diffusion study by Fran’s Diffusion Cell. The data of In vitro drug diffusion study of insitu gel prepared with and without permeation enhancer showed non Fickian or anomalous diffusion mechanism. The optimized batch C3 and F3 of insitu gel prepared with and without permeation enhancer respectively shows drug release in a controlled manner with higher permeation rate for 250min.. The drug permeation study across sheep nasal mucosa was conducted using C3 and F3 batch. The study showed that the insitu gel having fulvic acid have a significantly higher permeability as compared to the insitu gel which do not contain the fulvic acid. The higher permeation rate of C3 formulation as compare to F3 formulation is might be due to polymeric polyphenolic nature of fulvic acid because of which it have a tendency to interact with number of component resulting in higher permeation rate.

Shyam D. Badgujar

2010-10-01

210

Short-term treatment with tolfenamic acid improves cognitive functions in Alzheimer's disease mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tolfenamic acid lowers the levels of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and amyloid beta (A?) when administered to C57BL/6 mice by lowering their transcriptional regulator specificity protein 1 (SP1). To determine whether changes upstream in the amyloidogenic pathway that forms A? plaques would improve cognitive outcomes, we administered tolfenamic acid for 34 days to hemizygous R1.40 transgenic mice. After the characterization of cognitive deficits in these mice, assessment of spatial learning and memory functions revealed that treatment with tolfenamic acid attenuated long-term memory and working memory deficits, determined using Morris water maze and the Y-maze. These improvements occurred within a shorter period of exposure than that seen with clinically approved drugs. Cognitive enhancement was accompanied by reduction in the levels of the SP1 protein (but not messenger RNA [mRNA]), followed by lowering both the mRNA and the protein levels of APP and subsequent A? levels. These findings provide evidence that tolfenamic acid can disrupt the pathologic processes associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and are relevant to its scheduled biomarker study in AD patients. PMID:23639209

Subaiea, Gehad M; Adwan, Lina I; Ahmed, Aseef H; Stevens, Karen E; Zawia, Nasser H

2013-10-01

211

Could Radiotherapy Effectiveness Be Enhanced by Electromagnetic Field Treatment?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the main goals in radiobiology research is to enhance radiotherapy effectiveness without provoking any increase in toxicity. In this context, it has been proposed that electromagnetic fields (EMFs), known to be modulators of proliferation rate, enhancers of apoptosis and inductors of genotoxicity, might control tumor recruitment and, thus, provide therapeutic benefits. Scientific evidence shows that the effects of ionizing radiation on cellular compartments and functions are strengthen...

Artacho-Cordón Francisco; Salinas-Asensio María del Mar; Calvente Irene; Ríos-Arrabal Sandra; León Josefa; Román-Marinetto Elisa; Olea Nicolás; Núñez María Isabel

2013-01-01

212

Charge delocalization and enhanced acidity in tricationic superelectrophiles.  

Science.gov (United States)

This Article presents the results from studies related to the chemistry of tricationic superelectrophiles. A series of triaryl methanols were ionized in Brønsted superacids, and the corresponding tricationic intermediates were formed. The trications are found to participate in two types of reactions; both are characteristic of highly charged organic cations. One set of reactions occurs through charge migration. A second set of reactions occurs through deprotonation of an unusually acidic site on the tricationic species. One of the tricationic intermediates has been directly observed by low temperature NMR spectroscopy. These highly charged ions and their reactions have also been studied using density functional theory calculations. As a result of charge migration, electron density at a carbocation site is found to increase with progression from monocationic to pentacationic structures. PMID:21744820

Naredla, Rajasekhar Reddy; Zheng, Chong; Nilsson Lill, Sten O; Klumpp, Douglas A

2011-08-24

213

Stearidonic acid as a supplemental source of ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to enhance status for improved human health.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is substantial evidence to show that consumption and increased blood levels of the very long-chain (VLC) ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (?-3 PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are associated with health benefits. The consumption of oily fish is an effective way of increasing EPA and DHA intake and status, but intake in most Western countries remains below the levels recommended for optimal health. The reasons for this include not liking the taste, a concern about sustainability of fish supplies, or potential chemical and heavy metal contamination. Alternative dietary sources of ?-3 fatty acids to enhance EPA and DHA status in the body would therefore be beneficial. There are many non-fish food sources of the essential plant-derived ?-3 fatty acid ?-linolenic acid, but conversion from this to longer-chain EPA and especially to DHA is poor. Stearidonic acid (SDA) is an intermediate fatty acid in the biosynthetic pathway from ?-linolenic acid to VLC ?-3 PUFAs and the conversion from SDA is more efficient than from ?-linolenic acid. However, there are few food sources rich in SDA. Oil crops naturally rich in SDA or enriched through genetic modification may offer an alternative supplemental oil to boost the population status of VLC ?-3 PUFAs. This review discusses the currently available evidence that increased SDA consumption can increase red blood cell EPA content, although this is less than the effect of supplementation directly with EPA. There is now a need for trials specifically designed to assess whether an increased SDA consumption would translate into improved human health outcomes. PMID:23102888

Walker, Celia G; Jebb, Susan A; Calder, Philip C

2013-02-01

214

The 300 area waste acid treatment system closure plan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) is located within operable units 300-FF-2 (source) and 300-FF-5 (groundwater), as designated in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) . Operable units 300-FF-2 and 300-FF-5 are scheduled to be remediated using the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) process. Thus, any remediation of the 300 Area WATS with respect to contaminants not produced by those facilities and soils and groundwater will be deferred to the CERCLA RI/FS process. Final closure activities will be completed in 3 phases and certified in accordance with the 300 Area WATS closure plan by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It is anticipated that the 300 Area WATS closure would take 2 years to complete

1996-01-01

215

Ursodeoxycholic acid treatment improves hepatocyte ultrastructure in rat liver fibrosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To examine the ultrastructural changes after ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA treatment in hepatocytes from experimentally induced fibrotic livers.METHODS: Liver fibrosis was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats with CCl4 for 12 wk, and the rats were divided into two groups. Group I was treated with saline and group II with UDCA (25 mg/kg per day for 4 wk. All the rats were killed at wk 16. Mitochondria, nuclei, rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER of hepatocytes were evaluated according to a scoring system.RESULTS: Mitochondria, nuclei, RER and SER injury scores in group II were significantly lower than those in groupI(P < 0.001.CONCLUSION: UDCA alleviates hepatocyte organelle injury in CCl4-induced liver fibrosis.

Nuket Mas, Ilker Tasci, Bilgin Comert, Ramazan Ocal, Mehmet Refik Mas

2008-02-01

216

Enhancing effect of dimethylamine in sulfuric acid nucleation in the presence of water – a computational study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We have studied the hydration of sulfuric acid – ammonia and sulfuric acid – dimethylamine clusters using quantum chemistry. We calculated the formation energies and thermodynamics for clusters of one ammonia or one dimethylamine molecule together with 1–2 sulfuric acid and 0–5 water molecules. The results indicate that dimethylamine enhances the addition of sulfuric acid to the clusters much more efficiently than ammonia when the number of water molecules in the cluster is either zero, or greater than two. Further hydrate distribution calculations reveal that practically all dimethylamine-containing two-acid clusters will remain unhydrated in tropospherically relevant circumstances, thus strongly suggesting that dimethylamine assists atmospheric sulfuric acid nucleation much more effectively than ammonia.

V. Loukonen

2010-05-01

217

Enhancing effect of dimethylamine in sulfuric acid nucleation in the presence of water – a computational study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We have studied the hydration of sulfuric acid – ammonia and sulfuric acid – dimethylamine clusters using quantum chemistry. We calculated the formation energies and thermodynamics for clusters of one ammonia or one dimethylamine molecule together with 1–2 sulfuric acid and 0–5 water molecules. The results indicate that dimethylamine enhances the addition of sulfuric acid to the clusters much more efficiently than ammonia when the number of water molecules in the cluster is either zero, or greater than two. Further hydrate distribution calculations reveal that practically all dimethylamine-containing two-acid clusters will remain unhydrated in tropospherically relevant circumstances, thus strongly suggesting that dimethylamine assists atmospheric sulfuric acid nucleation much more effectively than ammonia.

V. Loukonen

2010-02-01

218

Elucidating the role of ferrous ion cocatalyst in enhancing dilute acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently developed iron cocatalyst enhancement of dilute acid pretreatment of biomass is a promising approach for enhancing sugar release from recalcitrant lignocellulosic biomass. However, very little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this enhancement. In the current study, our aim was to identify several essential factors that contribute to ferrous ion-enhanced efficiency during dilute acid pretreatment of biomass and to initiate the investigation of the mechanisms that result in this enhancement. Results During dilute acid and ferrous ion cocatalyst pretreatments, we observed concomitant increases in solubilized sugars in the hydrolysate and reducing sugars in the (insoluble biomass residues. We also observed enhancements in sugar release during subsequent enzymatic saccharification of iron cocatalyst-pretreated biomass. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy showed that major peaks representing the C-O-C and C-H bonds in cellulose are significantly attenuated by iron cocatalyst pretreatment. Imaging using Prussian blue staining indicated that Fe2+ ions associate with both cellulose/xylan and lignin in untreated as well as dilute acid/Fe2+ ion-pretreated corn stover samples. Analyses by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed structural details of biomass after dilute acid/Fe2+ ion pretreatment, in which delamination and fibrillation of the cell wall were observed. Conclusions By using this multimodal approach, we have revealed that (1 acid-ferrous ion-assisted pretreatment increases solubilization and enzymatic digestion of both cellulose and xylan to monomers and (2 this pretreatment likely targets multiple chemistries in plant cell wall polymer networks, including those represented by the C-O-C and C-H bonds in cellulose.

Wei Hui

2011-11-01

219

Elucidating the Role of Ferrous Ion Cocatalyst in Enhancing Dilute Acid Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recently developed iron cocatalyst enhancement of dilute acid pretreatment of biomass is a promising approach for enhancing sugar release from recalcitrant lignocellulosic biomass. However, very little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this enhancement. In the current study, our aim was to identify several essential factors that contribute to ferrous ion-enhanced efficiency during dilute acid pretreatment of biomass and to initiate the investigation of the mechanisms that result in this enhancement. During dilute acid and ferrous ion cocatalyst pretreatments, we observed concomitant increases in solubilized sugars in the hydrolysate and reducing sugars in the (insoluble) biomass residues. We also observed enhancements in sugar release during subsequent enzymatic saccharification of iron cocatalyst-pretreated biomass. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy showed that major peaks representing the C-O-C and C-H bonds in cellulose are significantly attenuated by iron cocatalyst pretreatment. Imaging using Prussian blue staining indicated that Fe{sup 2+} ions associate with both cellulose/xylan and lignin in untreated as well as dilute acid/Fe{sup 2+} ion-pretreated corn stover samples. Analyses by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed structural details of biomass after dilute acid/Fe{sup 2+} ion pretreatment, in which delamination and fibrillation of the cell wall were observed. By using this multimodal approach, we have revealed that (1) acid-ferrous ion-assisted pretreatment increases solubilization and enzymatic digestion of both cellulose and xylan to monomers and (2) this pretreatment likely targets multiple chemistries in plant cell wall polymer networks, including those represented by the C-O-C and C-H bonds in cellulose.

Wei, H.; Donohoe, B. S.; Vinzant, T. B.; Ciesielski, P. N.; Wang, W.; Gedvilas, L. M.; Zeng, Y.; Johnson, D. K.; Ding, S. Y.; Himmel, M. E.; Tucker, M. P.

2011-01-01

220

Synthesis and assembly of Pd nanoparticles on graphene for enhanced electrooxidation of formic acid  

Science.gov (United States)

Monodisperse 4.5 nm Pd nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by solution phase reduction of palladium acetylacetonate with morpholine borane in a mixture of oleylamine and 1-octadecene. These NPs were assembled on graphene uniformly in the form of a monolayer, and showed much enhanced catalysis for electrooxidation of formic acid. The work demonstrates the great potential of graphene as a support to enhance NP catalysis and stability for important chemical oxidation reactions.Monodisperse 4.5 nm Pd nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by solution phase reduction of palladium acetylacetonate with morpholine borane in a mixture of oleylamine and 1-octadecene. These NPs were assembled on graphene uniformly in the form of a monolayer, and showed much enhanced catalysis for electrooxidation of formic acid. The work demonstrates the great potential of graphene as a support to enhance NP catalysis and stability for important chemical oxidation reactions. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr33060a

Jin, Tao; Guo, Shaojun; Zuo, Jing-Lin; Sun, Shouheng

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
221

Enhanced ethylene emissions from red and Norway spruce exposed to acidic mists  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Acidic cloudwater is believed to cause needle injury and to decrease winter hardiness in conifers. During simulations of these adverse conditions, rates of ethylene emissions from and levels of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) in both red and Norway spruce needles increased as a result of treatment with acidic mists but amounts of 1-malonyl(amino)cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid remained unchanged. However, release of significant quantities of ethylene by another mechanism independent of ACC was also detected from brown needles. Application of exogenous plant growth regulators such as auxin, kinetic, abscisic acid and gibberellic acid (each 0.1 millimolar) had no obvious effects on the rates of basal or stress ethylene production from Norway spruce needles. The kinetics of ethylene formation by acidic mist-stressed needles suggest that there is no active inhibitive mechanism in spruce to prevent stress ethylene being released once ACC has been formed.

Chen, Yimin; Wellburn, A.R. (Univ. of Lancaster (England))

1989-09-01

222

Enhancing thermal conductivity of palmitic acid based phase change materials with carbon nanotubes as fillers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as produced are usually entangled and not ready to be dispersed into organic matrix. CNTs were treated by mechano-chemical reaction with ball milling the mixture of potassium hydroxide and the pristine CNTs. Hydroxide radical functional groups have been introduced on the CNT surfaces, which enabled to make stable and homogeneous CNT composites. Treated CNTs were successfully dispersed into the palmitic acid matrix without any surfactant. Transient short-hot-wire apparatus was used to measure the thermal conductivities of these nanotube composites. Nanotube composites have substantially higher thermal conductivities than the base palmitic acid matrix, with the enhancement increasing with the mass fraction of CNTs in both liquid state and solid state. The enhancements of the thermal conductivity are about 30% higher than the reported corresponding values for palmitic acid based phase change nanocomposites containing 1 wt% CNTs treated by concentrated acid mixture. (author)

Wang, Jifen [School of Urban Development and Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Second Polytechnic University, Shanghai 201209 (China); State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Xie, Huaqing; Li, Yang; Chen, Lifei [School of Urban Development and Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Second Polytechnic University, Shanghai 201209 (China); Xin, Zhong [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

2010-02-15

223

Enhancing fatty acid production by the expression of the regulatory transcription factor FadR.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acids are important precursors to biofuels. The Escherichia coli FadR is a transcription factor that regulates several processes in fatty acid biosynthesis, degradation, and membrane transport. By tuning the expression of FadR in an engineered E. coli host, we were able to increase fatty acid titer by 7.5-fold over our previously engineered fatty acid-producing strain, reaching 5.2±0.5g/L and 73% of the theoretical yield. The mechanism by which FadR enhanced fatty acid yield was studied by whole-genome transcriptional analysis (microarray) and targeted proteomics. Overexpression of FadR led to transcriptional changes for many genes, including genes involved in fatty acid pathways. The biggest transcriptional changes in fatty acid pathway genes included fabB, fabF, and accA. Overexpression of any of these genes alone did not result in a high yield comparable to fadR expression, indicating that FadR enhanced fatty acid production globally by tuning the expression levels of many genes to optimal levels. PMID:23026122

Zhang, Fuzhong; Ouellet, Mario; Batth, Tanveer S; Adams, Paul D; Petzold, Christopher J; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Keasling, Jay D

2012-11-01

224

Enhancing fatty acid production by the expression of the regulatory transcription factor FadR  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fatty acids are important precursors to biofuels. The Escherichia coli FadR is a transcription factor that regulates several processes in fatty acid biosynthesis, degradation, and membrane transport. By tuning the expression of FadR in an engineered E. coli host, we were able to increase fatty acid titer by 7.5-fold over our previously engineered fatty acid-producing strain, reaching 5.2±0.5g/L and 73% of the theoretical yield. The mechanism by which FadR enhanced fatty acid yield was studied by whole-genome transcriptional analysis (microarray) and targeted proteomics. Overexpression of FadR led to transcriptional changes for many genes, including genes involved in fatty acid pathways. The biggest transcriptional changes in fatty acid pathway genes included fabB, fabF, and accA. Overexpression of any of these genes alone did not result in a high yield comparable to fadR expression, indicating that FadR enhanced fatty acid production globally by tuning the expression levels of many genes to optimal levels.

Zhang, Fuzhong; Ouellet, Mario

2012-01-01

225

Water solubility enhancement of some organic pollutants and pesticides by dissolved humic and fulvic acids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water solubility enhancements by dissolved humic and fulvic acids from soil and aquatic origins and by synthetic organic polymers have been determined for selected organic pollutants and pesticides (p,p'-DDT,2,4,5,2',5'-PCB, 2,4,4'-PCB, 1,2,3,-trichlorobenzene, and lindane). Significant solubility enhancements of relatively water-insoluble solutes by dissolved organic matter (DOM) of soil and aquatic origins may be described in terms of a partition-like interaction of the solutes with the microscopic organic environment of the high-molecular-weight DOM species; the apparent solute solubilities increase linearly with DOM concentration and show no competitive effect between solutes. The K/sub dom/ values of solutes with soil-derived humic acid are approximately 4 times greater than with soil fulvic acid and 5-7 times greater than with aquatic humic and fulvic acids. The effectiveness of DOM in enhancing solute solubility appears to be largely controlled by the DOM molecular size and polarity. The relative inability of high-molecular-weight poly(acrylic acids) to enhance solute solubility is attributed to their high polarities and extended chain structures that do not permit the formation of a sizable intramolecular nonpolar environment. 41 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.

Chiou, C.T.; Malcolm, R.L.; Brinton, T.I.; Kile, D.E.

1986-05-01

226

Water solubility enhancement of some organic pollutants and pesticides by dissolved humic and fulvic acids  

Science.gov (United States)

Water solubility enhancements by dissolved humic and fulvic acids from soil and aquatic origins and by synthetic organic polymers have been determined for selected organic pollutants and pesticides (p,p???-DDT, 2,4,5,2???,5???-PCB, 2,4,4???-PCB, 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene, and lindane). Significant solubility enhancements of relatively water-insoluble solutes by dissolved organic matter (DOM) of soil and aquatic origins may be described in terms of a partition-like interaction of the the solutes with the microscopic organic environment of the high-molecular-weight DOM species; the apparent solute solubilities increase linearly with DOM concentration and show no competitive effect between solutes. With a given DOM sample, the solute partition coefficient (Kdom) increases with a decrease of solute solubility (Sw) or with an increase of the solute's octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow). The Kdom values of solutes with soil-derived humic acid are approximately 4 times greater than with soil fulvic acid and 5-7 times greater than with aquatic humic and fulvic acids. The effectiveness of DOM in enhancing solute solubility appears to be largely controlled by the DOM molecular size and polarity. The relative inability of high-molecular-weight poly(acrylic acids) to enhance solute solubility is attributed to their high polarities and extended chain structures that do not permit the formation of a sizable intramolecular nonpolar environment.

Chiou, C. T.; Malcolm, R. L.; Brinton, T. I.; Kile, D. E.

1986-01-01

227

The histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid enhances acquisition, extinction, and reconsolidation of conditioned fear  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Histone modifications contribute to the epigenetic regulation of gene expression, a process now recognized to be important for the consolidation of long-term memory. Valproic acid (VPA), used for many years as an anticonvulsant and a mood stabilizer, has effects on learning and memory and enhances the extinction of conditioned fear through its function as a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDAC). Here we report that VPA enhances long-term memory for both acquisition and extinction of cued-fear....

Bredy, Timothy W.; Barad, Mark

2008-01-01

228

Tauroursodeoxycholic acid enhances the pre-implantation embryo development by reducing apoptosis in pigs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Apoptosis is an important determinant of the normal development of pre-implantation embryos in vitro. Recently, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis has been extensively investigated in a wide variety of diseases. Efficient functioning of the ER is essential for most cellular activities and survival. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), an endogenous bile acid, has been reported to attenuate ER stress-mediated cell death by interrupting the classic pathways of apoptosis. Therefore, in this study, the anti-apoptotic effect of TUDCA on ER stress-induced apoptosis was examined in pre-implantation pig embryos. Also, tunicamycin was used to investigate the effects of ER stress on pig embryo development. After in vitro maturation and fertilization, presumptive pig embryos were cultured in NCSU-23 medium supplemented with TUDCA or TM for 6 days at 39 °C, 5% CO(2) in air. All data were analysed using one-way anova and Duncan's multiple range test in the statistical analysis system (SAS). In addition, we also determined the optimal TM and TUDCA concentrations. Samples were treated with TM at concentrations of 0, 1, 2 or 5 ?m and with TUDCA at concentrations of 0, 100, 200 or 300 ?m. When TM was used during in vitro culture, only 8.2% (8/97) of the embryos developed to the blastocyst stage when the treatment concentration was 1 ?m compared with 27.4% (28/102) of the embryos in the control group (p TUDCA compared with the control group (32.8% and 39.5 vs 22.2% and 35.6, p TUDCA was not significantly different from that of the control group (17.8%, 26/142 vs 24.9%, 36/145). Furthermore, the blastocyst cell number was enhanced (31.9 vs 36.9) and apoptosis reduced (TUNEL-positive nuclei number, 6.0 vs 3.2) by TUDCA treatment in pig embryos. In the real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis, the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-XL gene was shown to be increased in the blastocyst stage because of TUDCA treatment, whereas expression of pro-apoptotic Bax was decreased. In addition, we also found that TUDCA decreased the rate of TM-induced apoptosis in the pre-implantation stage. Taken together, our results indicate that TUDCA improves the developmental competence of pig embryos by modulating ER stress-induced apoptosis during the pre-implantation stage. PMID:22151574

Kim, J-S; Song, B-S; Lee, K-S; Kim, D-H; Kim, S-U; Choo, Y-K; Chang, K-T; Koo, D-B

2012-10-01

229

Enhanced cytotoxic effects of the combined valproic acid and the Aurora kinase inhibitor VE465 on gynecologic cancer cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increasing evidence shows that targeting epigenetic changes including acetylation and deacetylation of core nucleosomal histones as well as Aurora kinases hold promise for improving the treatment of human cancers including ovarian cancer. We investigated whether the histone deacetylase inhibitor, valproic acid (VPA and the Aurora kinase inhibitor VE465 can have additive or synergistic effects on gynecologic cancer cells. We tested the in vitro antitumor activity of VPA and VE465, alone and in combination, in gynecologic cancer cells and assessed potential mechanisms of action. 3-[4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT analysis revealed that 72 hours of treatment with VPA or VE465 alone induced dose-dependent cytotoxic effects in nine gynecologic cancer cell lines (ovarian: 2008/C13, OVCAR3, SKOV3, and A2780; cervical: ME180 and CaSki; endometrial: HEC-1B; and uterine sarcoma: MES-SA and MES-SA/D×5. Co-treatment with VPA and VE465 enhanced cytotoxic effects on five of these cell lines: ovarian: 2008/C13, A2780, and OVCAR3; endometrial: HEC-1B; and cervical: ME180. In ovarian 2008/C13 cells, co-treatment with VPA (2 mM and VE465 (1?M induced more apoptosis than either VPA or VE465 alone. Western blot analysis showed that VPA alone increased the expression of cleaved PARP and p21 in a dose-dependent manner in 2008/C13 cells, while co-treatment with VPA and VE465 induced more cleaved PARP than treatment with VPA or VE465 alone did. The combined use of VPA and VE465 enhanced cytotoxic effects in some ovarian cancer cells, via enhanced induction of apoptosis. Targeting epigenetics with the histone deacetylase inhibitor, in combination with Aurora kinase inhibitors, holds promise for more effective therapy of ovarian cancer.

WeiHu

2013-03-01

230

Cognitive Treatment of Obsessions: Enhancing Dissemination with Video Components  

Science.gov (United States)

Contemporary cognitive treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) dates back to 1985, and rests on the premise that infrequent unwanted intrusions are essentially universal. As such, it is not the intrusion that is the focus of treatment but rather the interpretation or appraisal placed upon the intrusion. A number of cognitive domains are…

Whittal, Maureen L.; Robichaud, Melisa; Woody, Sheila R.

2010-01-01

231

Cognitive deficits in marijuana users: effects on motivational enhancement therapy plus cognitive behavioral therapy treatment outcome  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Clinical variables that affect treatment outcome for marijuana dependent individuals are not yet well understood, including the effects of cognitive functioning. To address this, level of cognitive functioning and treatment outcome were investigated. Twenty marijuana-dependent outpatients were administered a neuropsychological battery at treatment entry. All patients received 12 weekly individual sessions of combined motivational enhancement therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. The Wilco...

Aharonovich, Efrat; Brooks, Adam C.; Nunes, Edward V.; Hasin, Deborah S.

2008-01-01

232

Could Radiotherapy Effectiveness Be Enhanced by Electromagnetic Field Treatment?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the main goals in radiobiology research is to enhance radiotherapy effectiveness without provoking any increase in toxicity. In this context, it has been proposed that electromagnetic fields (EMFs, known to be modulators of proliferation rate, enhancers of apoptosis and inductors of genotoxicity, might control tumor recruitment and, thus, provide therapeutic benefits. Scientific evidence shows that the effects of ionizing radiation on cellular compartments and functions are strengthened by EMF. Although little is known about the potential role of EMFs in radiotherapy (RT, the radiosensitizing effect of EMFs described in the literature could support their use to improve radiation effectiveness. Thus, we hypothesized that EMF exposure might enhance the ionizing radiation effect on tumor cells, improving the effects of RT. The aim of this paper is to review reports of the effects of EMFs in biological systems and their potential therapeutic benefits in radiotherapy.

Núñez María Isabel

2013-07-01

233

Novel hyaluronic acid-methotrexate conjugates for osteoarthritis treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hyaluronic acid (HA) provides synovial fluid viscoelasticity and has a lubricating effect. Injections of HA preparations into the knee joint are widely used as osteoarthritis therapy. The current HA products reduce pain but do not fully control inflammation. Oral methotrexate (MTX) has anti-inflammatory efficacy but is associated with severe adverse events. Based on the rationale that a conjugation of HA and MTX would combine the efficacy of the two clinically evaluated agents and avoid the risks of MTX alone, we designed HA-MTX conjugates in which the MTX connects with the HA through peptides susceptible to cleavage by lysosomal enzymes. Intra-articular injection of our HA-MTX conjugate (conjugate 4) produced a significant reduction of the knee swelling in antigen-induced arthritis rat, whereas free MTX, HA or a mixture of HA and MTX showed no or marginal effects on the model. The efficacy of conjugate 4 was almost the same as that of MTX oral treatment. Conjugate 4 has potential as a compound for the treatment of osteoarthritis. PMID:19457673

Homma, Akie; Sato, Haruhiko; Okamachi, Akira; Emura, Takashi; Ishizawa, Takenori; Kato, Tatsuya; Matsuura, Tetsu; Sato, Shigeo; Tamura, Tatsuya; Higuchi, Yoshinobu; Watanabe, Tomoyuki; Kitamura, Hidetomo; Asanuma, Kentaro; Yamazaki, Tadao; Ikemi, Masahisa; Kitagawa, Hironoshin; Morikawa, Tadashi; Ikeya, Hitoshi; Maeda, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Koichi; Nohmi, Kenji; Izutani, Noriyuki; Kanda, Makoto; Suzuki, Ryochi

2009-07-01

234

Examining the Effect of the Life Enhancement Treatment for Substance Use (LETS ACT) on Residential Substance Abuse Treatment Retention  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Effective, parsimonious behavioral interventions that target reinforcement are needed for substance users with depression to improve mood as well as treatment retention. The Life Enhancement Treatment for Substance Use (LETS ACT; Daughters et al., 2008) is a behavioral activation-based approach tailored to increase levels of positive reinforcement among depressed substance users while in substance abuse treatment. The current study tested the efficacy of LETS ACT compared to a contact-time ma...

Magidson, Jessica F.; Gorka, Stephanie M.; Macpherson, Laura; Hopko, Derek R.; Blanco, Carlos; Lejuez, C. W.; Daughters, Stacey B.

2011-01-01

235

Using Enhanced and Integrated Services to Improve Response to Standard Methadone Treatment: Changing the Clinical Infrastructure of Treatment Networks  

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Outcomes are presented from opioid-dependent outpatients (N = 81) participating in a new community-based initiative designed to improve access to enhanced substance abuse and psychiatric services in the publicly-supported methadone maintenance treatment network in Baltimore, Maryland. The initiative, entitled Community Access to Specialized Treatment (CAST), is located at the Addiction Treatment Services (ATS), a program within this network. Network programs referred patients engaged in unrem...

Neufeld, Karin; Kidorf, Michael; King, Van; Stoller, Ken; Clark, Michael; Peirce, Jessica; Brooner, Robert K.

2010-01-01

236

Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) synthase enhances thermotolerance of mushroom Agaricus bisporus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most mushrooms are thermo-sensitive to temperatures over 23°C, which greatly restricts their agricultural cultivation. Understanding mushroom's innate heat-tolerance mechanisms may facilitate genetic improvements of their thermotolerance. Agaricus bisporus strain 02 is a relatively thermotolerant mushroom strain, while strain 8213 is quite thermo-sensitive. Here, we compared their responses at proteomic level to heat treatment at 33°C. We identified 73 proteins that are differentially expressed between 02 and 8213 or induced upon heat stress in strain 02 itself, 48 of which with a known identity. Among them, 4 proteins are constitutively more highly expressed in 02 than 8213; and they can be further upregulated in response to heat stress in 02, but not in 8213. One protein is encoded by the para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) synthase gene Pabs, which has been shown to scavenge the reactive oxygen species in vitro. Pabs mRNA and its chemical product PABA show similar heat stress induction pattern as PABA synthase protein and are more abundant in 02, indicating transcriptional level upregulation of Pabs upon heat stress. A specific inhibitor of PABA synthesis impaired thermotolerance of 02, while exogenous PABA or transgenic overexpression of 02 derived PABA synthase enhanced thermotolerance of 8213. Furthermore, compared to 8213, 02 accumulated less H2O2 but more defense-related proteins (e.g., HSPs and Chitinase) under heat stress. Together, these results demonstrate a role of PABA in enhancing mushroom thermotolerance by removing H2O2 and elevating defense-related proteins. PMID:24614118

Lu, Zhonglei; Kong, Xiangxiang; Lu, Zhaoming; Xiao, Meixiang; Chen, Meiyuan; Zhu, Liang; Shen, Yuemao; Hu, Xiangyang; Song, Siyang

2014-01-01

237

Enhancement of uranyl fluorescence using trimesic acid: Ligand sensitization and co-fluorescence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Trimesic acid (TMA) was shown to sensitize and enhance uranyl fluorescence in aqueous medium, with the enhancement being a maximum at pH 5.0. Fluorescence spectra and lifetime data together suggest that TMA complexes with uranyl (UO22+). The fluorescence of UO22+ in its acid complex is further enhanced by more than two orders of magnitude following the addition of Y3+; a process referred to as co-fluorescence, leading to the possibility of detecting uranium at sub ng/mL level. The present study demonstrates, for the first time, fluorescence enhancement of the uranyl species due to co-fluorescence. - Highlights: ? Trimesic acid was shown to sensitize and enhance the fluorescence of uranium in aqueous medium. ? This ligand also exhibited co-fluorescence of uranium with Y3+. ? To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of co-fluorescence in uranium. ? The enhancement of uranium fluorescence, resulted in detection limits in the ng/mL regime.

2011-09-01

238

Enhancement of uranyl fluorescence using trimesic acid: Ligand sensitization and co-fluorescence  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Trimesic acid (TMA) was shown to sensitize and enhance uranyl fluorescence in aqueous medium, with the enhancement being a maximum at pH 5.0. Fluorescence spectra and lifetime data together suggest that TMA complexes with uranyl (UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}). The fluorescence of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} in its acid complex is further enhanced by more than two orders of magnitude following the addition of Y{sup 3+}; a process referred to as co-fluorescence, leading to the possibility of detecting uranium at sub ng/mL level. The present study demonstrates, for the first time, fluorescence enhancement of the uranyl species due to co-fluorescence. - Highlights: > Trimesic acid was shown to sensitize and enhance the fluorescence of uranium in aqueous medium. > This ligand also exhibited co-fluorescence of uranium with Y{sup 3+}. > To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of co-fluorescence in uranium. > The enhancement of uranium fluorescence, resulted in detection limits in the ng/mL regime.

Maji, S. [Chemistry Group, Materials Chemistry Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Viswanathan, K.S., E-mail: vish@igcar.gov.in [Chemistry Group, Materials Chemistry Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

2011-09-15

239

Light quality treatments enhance somatic seedling production in three southern pine species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Embryogenic cultures of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.), longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) and slash pine x longleaf pine hybrids were initiated from immature seeds on an initiation medium containing 13.57 microM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2.22 microM benzylaminopurine. Embryogenic cultures proliferated and somatic embryos developed, matured and germinated following a modified protocol and media originally developed for radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don.) somatic seedling production. A discrete, light-sensitive pre-germination stage and a later germination (radicle emergence) stage were identified by the differential response of somatic embryos to light of different wavelengths. Different light quality treatments were applied during the pre-germination and germination steps, using cool white fluorescent bulbs or light-emitting diodes (LEDs), or both. In general, red wavelengths provided by LEDs during these steps resulted in higher frequencies of somatic embryo germination (up to 64%) and conversion (up to 50%), longer tap roots and more first-order lateral roots than the standard cool white fluorescent treatments or treatment with blue wavelengths from LEDs. In addition, exposure to red light allowed germination of somatic embryos of some clones that failed to produce germinants under fluorescent light. Germination and conversion were further enhanced by sequential application of cool white fluorescent light and red light, resulting in up to 100% germination and conversion in one experiment. Longleaf pine somatic embryos were especially responsive to the light quality treatments, resulting in the first report of somatic seedling production for this species. PMID:16356915

Merkle, Scott A; Montello, Paul M; Xia, Xiuqin; Upchurch, Bruce L; Smith, Dale R

2006-02-01

240

Reducing cannabinoid abuse and preventing relapse by enhancing endogenous brain levels of kynurenic acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the reward circuitry of the brain, ?-7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (?7nAChRs) modulate effects of ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), marijuana's main psychoactive ingredient. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous negative allosteric modulator of ?7nAChRs. Here we report that the kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) inhibitor Ro 61-8048 increases brain KYNA levels and attenuates cannabinoid-induced increases in extracellular dopamine in reward-related brain areas. In the self-administration model of drug abuse, Ro 61-8048 reduced the rewarding effects of THC and the synthetic cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 in squirrel monkeys and rats, respectively, and it also prevented relapse to drug-seeking induced by reexposure to cannabinoids or cannabinoid-associated cues. The effects of enhancing endogenous KYNA levels with Ro 61-8048 were prevented by positive allosteric modulators of ?7nAChRs. Despite a clear need, there are no medications approved for treatment of marijuana dependence. Modulation of KYNA offers a pharmacological strategy for achieving abstinence from marijuana and preventing relapse. PMID:24121737

Justinova, Zuzana; Mascia, Paola; Wu, Hui-Qiu; Secci, Maria E; Redhi, Godfrey H; Panlilio, Leigh V; Scherma, Maria; Barnes, Chanel; Parashos, Alexandra; Zara, Tamara; Fratta, Walter; Solinas, Marcello; Pistis, Marco; Bergman, Jack; Kangas, Brian D; Ferré, Sergi; Tanda, Gianluigi; Schwarcz, Robert; Goldberg, Steven R

2013-11-01

 
 
 
 
241

Reducing cannabinoid abuse and preventing relapse by enhancing endogenous brain levels of kynurenic acid  

Science.gov (United States)

In the reward circuitry of the brain, alpha-7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (?7nAChRs) modulate effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), marijuana’s main psychoactive ingredient. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous negative allosteric modulator of ?7nAChRs. Here we report that the kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) inhibitor Ro 61-8048 increases brain KYNA levels and attenuates cannabinoid-induced increases in extracellular dopamine in reward-related brain areas. In the self-administration model of drug abuse, Ro 61-8048 reduced the rewarding effects of THC and the synthetic cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 in squirrel monkeys and rats, respectively, and it also prevented relapse to drug-seeking induced by re-exposure to cannabinoids or cannabinoid-associated cues. The effects of enhancing endogenous KYNA levels with Ro 61-8048 were prevented by positive allosteric modulators of ?7nAChRs. Despite a clear need, there are currently no medications approved for treatment of marijuana dependence. Modulation of KYNA provides a novel pharmacological strategy for achieving abstinence from marijuana and preventing relapse.

Justinova, Zuzana; Mascia, Paola; Wu, Hui-Qiu; Secci, Maria E.; Redhi, Godfrey H.; Panlilio, Leigh V.; Scherma, Maria; Barnes, Chanel; Parashos, Alexandra; Zara, Tamara; Fratta, Walter; Solinas, Marcello; Pistis, Marco; Bergman, Jack; Kangas, Brian D.; Ferre, Sergi; Tanda, Gianluigi; Schwarcz, Robert; Goldberg, Steven R.

2013-01-01

242

Bioelectrochemical treatment of acid mine drainage dominated with iron  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Treatment of AMD dominated with Fe is problematic due to its low pH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The goal of AMD treatment is pH increasing and Fe controlled removal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An MFC could fulfill both these requirements by treating AMD at the aerated cathode. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The performance was proportional to the charge transfer up to 880 C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The treated AMD met the discharge limits both for Fe (>99% recovery) and pH (7.9). - Abstract: Treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) dominated with iron (Fe), the most common metal, is a long-term expensive commitment, the goal of which is to increase the pH and remove Fe. In the present study, a proton exchange membrane microbial fuel cell (MFC) showed promise for the efficient treatment of an AMD dominated with ferric iron (pH 2.4 {+-} 0.1; 500 mg L{sup -1} Fe{sup 3+}). Briefly, Fe{sup 3+} was reduced to Fe{sup 2+} at the cathode of the MFC, followed by Fe{sup 2+} re-oxidation and precipitation as oxy(hydroxi)des. Oxygen reduction and cation transfer to the cathode of the MFC further caused a rise in pH. A linear relationship was observed between the charge transferred in the MFC and the performance of the system up to 880 C. Optimal conditions were found at a charge of 662 C, achieved within 7 d at an acetate concentration of 1.6 g L{sup -1} in a membrane MFC. This caused the pH to rise to 7.9 and resulted in a Fe removal of 99%. Treated effluent met the pH discharge limits of 6.5-9. The maximum power generation achieved under these conditions averaged 8.6 {+-} 2.3 W m{sup -3}, which could help reduce the costs of full-scale bioelectrochemical treatment of AMD dominated with Fe.

Lefebvre, Olivier [Centre for Water Research, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore, 1 Engineering Dr. 2, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Research Institute - Mines and Environment, University of Quebec in Abitibi-Temiscamingue (UQAT), Rouyn-Noranda, Canada J9X 5E4 (Canada); Neculita, Carmen M. [Research Institute - Mines and Environment, University of Quebec in Abitibi-Temiscamingue (UQAT), Rouyn-Noranda, Canada J9X 5E4 (Canada); Yue, Xiaodi [Centre for Water Research, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore, 1 Engineering Dr. 2, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Ng, How Yong, E-mail: howyongng@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Water Research, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore, 1 Engineering Dr. 2, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

2012-11-30

243

Diiodothyropropionic Acid (DITPA) in the Treatment of MCT8 Deficiency  

Science.gov (United States)

Context: Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) is a thyroid hormone-specific cell membrane transporter. MCT8 deficiency causes severe psychomotor retardation and abnormal thyroid tests. The great majority of affected children cannot walk or talk, and all have elevated serum T3 levels, causing peripheral tissue hypermetabolism and inability to maintain weight. Treatment with thyroid hormone is ineffective. In Mct8-deficient mice, the thyroid hormone analog, diiodothyropropionic acid (DITPA), does not require MCT8 to enter tissues and could be an effective alternative to thyroid hormone treatment in humans. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect and efficacy of DITPA in children with MCT8 deficiency. Methods: This was a multicenter report of four affected children given DITPA on compassionate grounds for 26–40 months. Treatment was initiated at ages 8.5–25 months, beginning with a small dose of 1.8 mg, increasing to a maximal 30 mg/d (2.1–2.4 mg/kg · d), given in three divided doses. Results: DITPA normalized the elevated serum T3 and TSH when the dose reached 1 mg/kg · d and T4 and rT3 increased to the lower normal range. The following significant changes were also observed: decline in SHBG (in all subjects), heart rate (in three of four), and ferritin (in one of four). Cholesterol increased in two subjects. There was no weight loss and weight gain occurred in two. None of the treated children required a gastric feeding tube or developed seizures. No adverse effects were observed. Conclusion: DITPA (1–2 mg/kg · d) almost completely normalizes thyroid tests and reduces the hypermetabolism and the tendency for weight loss. The effects of earlier commencement and long-term therapy remain to be determined.

Verge, Charles F.; Konrad, Daniel; Cohen, Michal; Di Cosmo, Caterina; Dumitrescu, Alexandra M.; Marcinkowski, Teresa; Hameed, Shihab; Hamilton, Jill; Weiss, Roy E.

2012-01-01

244

Enhancing the efficacy of cisplatin in ovarian cancer treatment – could arsenic have a role  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Ovarian cancer affects more than 200,000 women each year around the world. Most women are not diagnosed until the disease has already metastasized from the ovaries with a resultant poor prognosis. Ovarian cancer is associated with an overall 5 year survival of little more than 50%. The mainstay of front-line therapy is cytoreductive surgery followed by chemotherapy. Traditionally, this has been by the intravenous route only but there is more interest in the delivery of intraperitoneal chemotherapy utilizing the pharmaco-therapeutic advantage of the peritoneal barrier. Despite three large, randomized clinical trials comparing intravenous with intraperitoneal chemotherapy showing improved outcomes for those receiving at least part of their chemotherapy by the intraperitoneal route. Cisplatin has been the most active drug for the treatment of ovarian cancer for the last 4 decades and the prognosis for women with ovarian cancer can be defined by the tumor response to cisplatin. Those whose tumors are innately platinum-resistant at the time of initial treatment have a very poor prognosis. Although the majority of patients with ovarian cancer respond to front-line platinum combination chemotherapy the majority will develop disease that becomes resistant to cisplatin and will ultimately succumb to the disease. Improving the efficacy of cisplatin could have a major impact in the fight against this disease. Arsenite is an exciting agent that not only has inherent single-agent tumoricidal activity against ovarian cancer cell lines but also multiple biochemical interactions that may enhance the cytotoxicity of cisplatin including inhibition of deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA repair. In vitro studies suggest that arsenite may enhance the activity of cisplatin in other cell types. Arsenic trioxide is already used clinically to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia demonstrating its safety profile. Further research in ovarian cancer is warranted to define its possible role in this disease.

Helm C William

2009-01-01

245

Effects of gas atmospheres on poly(lactic acid) film in acrylic acid plasma treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasma polymerized acrylic acid (AA) coatings were deposited on poly(lactic acid) (PLA) films in various gas atmospheres during the pre-treatment of PLA and the deposition of AA, respectively. Therefore, this work was twofold: the argon pretreated PLA films followed by a deposition in argon were investigated against the mixture of argon and oxygen pretreated ones under the same deposition conditions; the plasma deposition of AA operating in different atmospheres (argon, oxygen and nitrogen) was employed to modify the pretreated PLA in oxygen. Chemical and physical changes on the plasma-treated surfaces were examined using contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-FTIR) analysis. The results showed that the discharge gas can have a significant influence on the chemical composition of the PLA surfaces: oxygen plasmas introduced oxygen-containing groups in company with surface etching in pretreatment and deposition, while argon discharges was able to achieve much better hydrophilic behavior and high retention ratio of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) coating before and after washing in water.

Zhao, Yun; Fina, Alberto; Venturello, Alberto; Geobaldo, Francesco

2013-10-01

246

Effects of Enhanced Depression Treatment on Diabetes Self-Care  

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PURPOSE Among patients with diabetes, major depression is associated with more diabetic complications, lower medication adherence, and poorer self-care of diabetes. We reported earlier that enhanced depression care reduces depression symptoms but not hemoglobin A1c level. This study examined effects of depression interventions on self-management among depressed diabetic patients.

Lin, Elizabeth H. B.; Katon, Wayne; Rutter, Carolyn; Simon, Greg E.; Ludman, Evette J.; Von Korff, Michael; Young, Bessie; Oliver, Malia; Ciechanowski, Paul C.; Kinder, Leslie; Walker, Edward

2006-01-01

247

13-cis retinoic acid in combination with interferon-? enhances radiation sensitivity of human squamous cell carcinoma cells of the oral cavity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Preclinical and clinical trials demonstrated the antiproliferative and chemopreventive potential of 13-cis retinoic acid in combination with interferon-?. The present study was designed to determine the radiosensitizing potential of both drugs after single and combined treatment of human squamous-cell carcinoma cells of the oral cavity in vitro. Material and methods: The study was performed using the human squamous-cell carcinoma cell line SCC4, which was originally established from a tumor of the overal cavity. Based on clonogenic assays, the inhibition of clonogenic activity and radiosensitizing potential of 13-cis retinoic acid and interferon-? after single or combined treatment without and with subsequent irradiation was determined. Results: 13-cis retinoic acid (10 ?M) and interferon-? (50 IU/ml) showed significant inhibition of clonogenic activity after single treatment. A combined treatment protocol resulted at least in a highly significant additive inhibition of clonogenicity. Treatment with both drugs (5 ?M 13-cis retinoic acid, 25 IU/ml IFN-?) prior and post irradiation of the cells resulted in a pronounced enhancement of radiation toxicity resulting in significantly decreased SF2- and ?-values. Combined treatment with both drugs was significantly more effective than single drug treatment. Conclusions: The data presented indicate that pre- and post-irradiation treatment with 13-cis retinoic acid and interferon-? significantly enhance the radiosensitivity on human squamous-cell carcinoma cells, SCC4, in vitro. Therefore, they support the initiation of clinical trials to test the radio-oncological value of such a treatment regime for squamous-cell carcinomas. (orig.)

1999-11-01

248

Cytogenetic and biochemical effects induced by the treatment with ascorbic acid and citric acid on Picea abies (L. Karst.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper present the influence of ascorbic acid and citric acid upon the mitotic division, and to the activity of some antioxidant enzymes to Picea abies (L. Karst. The treatment was made through the germination of seeds in ascorbic acid and citric acid. We observed the stimulator or inhibitor effect of ascorbic acid and citric acid to the mitotic index and estimated the aberrations appearance. Comparative the control, the mitotic index increased at 0.1 % concentration ascorbic acid and decreased at 0.25 % and 0.5 % concentration of the same substance. The citric acid induced a decrease in the dynamics of mitotic index comparative the control. Also, we observed an increase of aberrations appearance to the treatment with citric acid. We established the activity of catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and the influence of ascorbic acid and citric acid to the activity of these antioxidant enzymes. After statistical interpretation emerged that these substances (except 0.25 % ascorbic acid induced an inhibition of catalase activity and a stimulation of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity.

Vlad Artenie

2008-05-01

249

Palmitic acid and DGAT1 deficiency enhance osteoclastogenesis, while oleic acid-induced triglyceride formation prevents it.  

Science.gov (United States)

Both obesity and diabetes mellitus are associated with alterations in lipid metabolism as well as a change in bone homeostasis and osteoclastogenesis. We hypothesized that increased fatty acid levels affect bone health by altering precursor cell differentiation and osteoclast activation. Here we show that palmitic acid (PA, 16:0) enhances receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL)-stimulated osteoclastogenesis and is sufficient to induce osteoclast differentiation even in the absence of RANKL. TNF? expression is crucial for PA-induced osteoclastogenesis, as shown by increased TNF? mRNA levels in PA-treated cells and abrogation of PA-stimulated osteoclastogenesis by TNF? neutralizing antibodies. In contrast, oleic acid (OA, 18:1) does not enhance osteoclast differentiation, leads to increased intracellular triglyceride accumulation, and inhibits PA-induced osteoclastogenesis. Adenovirus-mediated expression of diacylglycerol acyl transferase 1 (DGAT1), a gene involved in triglyceride synthesis, also inhibits PA-induced osteoclastogenesis, suggesting a protective role of DGAT1 for bone health. Accordingly, Dgat1 knockout mice have larger bone marrow-derived osteoclasts and decreased bone mass indices. In line with these findings, mice on a high-fat PA-enriched diet have a greater reduction in bone mass and structure than mice on a high-fat OA-enriched diet. Thus, we propose that TNF? mediates saturated fatty acid-induced osteoclastogenesis that can be prevented by DGAT activation or supplementation with OA. PMID:24272998

Drosatos-Tampakaki, Zoi; Drosatos, Konstantinos; Siegelin, Yasemin; Gong, Shan; Khan, Salmiyeh; Van Dyke, Thomas; Goldberg, Ira J; Schulze, P Christian; Schulze-Späte, Ulrike

2014-05-01

250

ENHANCED NUTRIENT REMOVAL FROM ON-SITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

Nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) runoffs impact streams and ecosystems. Furthermore, on-site wastewater treatment systems are important sources of nutrient discharges because effluents from septic tanks typically contain high concentrations of organic matter, nitrogen and ph...

251

LEVERAGING TECHNOLOGY TO ENHANCE ADDICTION TREATMENT AND RECOVERY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Technology such as the Internet and mobile phones offers considerable promise for affecting the assessment, prevention, and treatment of and recovery from substance use disorders. Technology may enable entirely new models of behavioral health care within and outside of formal systems of care. This article reviews the promise of technology-based therapeutic tools for affecting the quality and reach of addiction treatment and recovery support systems, as well as the empirical support to date fo...

Marsch, Lisa A.

2012-01-01

252

Flaxseed Soluble Dietary Fibre Enhances Lactic Acid Bacterial Survival and Growth in Kefir and Possesses High Antioxidant Capacity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated the capability and efficiency of flaxseed soluble dietary fibre /mucilage to enhance bacterial survival and growth in kefir as well as the antioxidant activity of the mucilage. Crude flaxseed mucilage was extracted using a microwave method, followed by enzymatic and dialysis treatments to obtain pure mucilage. The antioxidant activities of the pure and crude mucilage were measured using different assays. Microbial analyses, pH and total titratable acidity (TTA were measured in kefir samples, supplemented with probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis and pure or crude flaxseed mucilage during 28 cold storage periodat 4 ºC. The results showed that for all kefir samples, the total bacteria counts were above7.9 log cfu/mL at the end of cold storage period. However, kefir samples supplemented with pure flaxseed mucilage enhanced significantly (P < 0.05 higher viability of bacteria (9.5 log cfu/mL and acidity (0.78% TTA. An overall pH decline of 0.2 was observed during cold storage period. The total phenolic content (TPC in crude mucilage was significantly (P < 0.05 higher than pure mucilage (10.5 ± 0.2 and 5.7 ± 0.1 mg Gallic acid equivalent /g flaxseed, respectively. The mucilage from crude flaxseed exhibited strong antioxidant activity; Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC value of 51.2 ± 3.3 ?mol Trolox equivalent /g, 53.7 ± 2.8% discoloration for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and 68.3 ± 9.2% Beta-Carotene bleaching which was well in agreement with high TPC. This study demonstrated that flaxseed mucilage acts as a good source of prebiotic, enhancing lactic acid bacteria growth in kefir model in addition of their high antioxidant beneficiary.

Mehri HadiNezhad

2013-07-01

253

Betaine and Beet Molasses Enhance L-Lactic Acid Production by Bacillus coagulans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lactic acid is an important chemical with various industrial applications, and it can be efficiently produced by fermentation, in which Bacillus coagulans strains present excellent performance. Betaine can promote lactic acid fermentation as an effective osmoprotectant. Here, positive effect of betaine on fermentation by B. coagulans is revealed. Betaine could enhance lactic acid production by protecting l-LDH activity and cell growth from osmotic inhibition, especially under high glucose concentrations and with poor organic nitrogen nutrients. The fermentation with 0.05 g/L betaine could produce 17.9% more lactic acid compared to the fermentation without betaine. Beet molasses, which is rich in sucrose and betaine, was utilized in a co-feeding fermentation and raised the productivity by 22%. The efficient lactic acid fermentation by B. coagulans is thus developed by using betaine and beet molasses. PMID:24956474

Xu, Ke; Xu, Ping

2014-01-01

254

Betaine and Beet Molasses Enhance L-Lactic Acid Production by Bacillus coagulans  

Science.gov (United States)

Lactic acid is an important chemical with various industrial applications, and it can be efficiently produced by fermentation, in which Bacillus coagulans strains present excellent performance. Betaine can promote lactic acid fermentation as an effective osmoprotectant. Here, positive effect of betaine on fermentation by B. coagulans is revealed. Betaine could enhance lactic acid production by protecting l-LDH activity and cell growth from osmotic inhibition, especially under high glucose concentrations and with poor organic nitrogen nutrients. The fermentation with 0.05 g/L betaine could produce 17.9% more lactic acid compared to the fermentation without betaine. Beet molasses, which is rich in sucrose and betaine, was utilized in a co-feeding fermentation and raised the productivity by 22%. The efficient lactic acid fermentation by B. coagulans is thus developed by using betaine and beet molasses.

Xu, Ke; Xu, Ping

2014-01-01

255

46 CFR 54.25-20 - Low temperature operation-ferritic steels with properties enhanced by heat treatment (modifies...  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Low temperature operation-ferritic steels with properties enhanced by heat treatment (modifies...Steels § 54.25-20 Low temperature operationâferritic steels with properties enhanced by heat treatment...

2010-10-01

256

The Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Valproic Acid Enhances Acquisition, Extinction, and Reconsolidation of Conditioned Fear  

Science.gov (United States)

Histone modifications contribute to the epigenetic regulation of gene expression, a process now recognized to be important for the consolidation of long-term memory. Valproic acid (VPA), used for many years as an anticonvulsant and a mood stabilizer, has effects on learning and memory and enhances the extinction of conditioned fear through its…

Bredy, Timothy W.; Barad, Mark

2008-01-01

257

A Sustainable Approach for Acid Rock Drainage Treatment using Clinoptilolite  

Science.gov (United States)

Problems related to acid rock drainage (ARD) occur along many highways of British Columbia. The ARD problem at Pennask Creek along Highway 97C in the Thompson-Okanagan region is an ideal site for pilot study to investigate a possible remediation solution. The highway was opened in 1991. An ARD problem was identified in 1997. Both sides of Highway 97C are producing acidified runoff from both cut rock surface and a fractured ditch. This runoff eventually enters Pennask Creek, the largest spawning source of rainbow trout in British Columbia. The current remediation technique using limestone for ARD treatment appears to be unnecessarily expensive, to generate additional solid waste and to not be optimally effective. A soil mineral natural zeolite - clinoptilolite - which is inexpensive and locally available, has a high metal adsorption capacity and a significant buffering capacity. Moreover, the clinoptilolite materials could be back-flushed and reused on site. An earlier batch adsorption study from our laboratory demonstrated that clinoptilolite has a high adsorption capacity for Cu, Zn, Al, with adsorption concentrations 131, 158 and 215 mg/kg clinoptilolite, respectively, from ARD of pH 3.3. Removal of metals from the loaded clinoptilolite by back-flushing was found to depend on the pH, with an optimum pH range for extraction of 2.5 to 4.0 for a contact time of one hour. The rank of desorption effectiveness was EDTA > NaCl > NaNO3 > NaOAC > NaHCO3 > Na2CO3 > NaOH > Ca(OH)2. A novel process involving cyclic adsorption on clinoptilolite followed by regeneration of the sorbent by desorption is examined for the removal of heavy metals from acid rock drainage. Experimental results show that the adsorption of zinc and copper depends on the pH and on external mass transfer. Desorption is assisted by adding NaCl to the water. A slurry bubble column was able to significantly reduce the time required for both adsorption and desorption in batch tests. XRD analysis indicated that the original structure of the sorbent is retained over multiple adsorption/ desorption cycles. Clinoptilolite in a slurry bubble column appears to be a promising sorbent for treatment of ARD leachate.

Li, L. Y.; Xu, W.; Grace, J. R.

2009-04-01

258

Treatment Options for GERD or Acid Reflux Disease: A Review of the Research for Adults  

Science.gov (United States)

... for Adults" /> Consumer Summary – Sept. 23, 2011 Treatment Options for GERD or Acid Reflux Disease: A Review ... or not eating foods that make GERD worse. Treatment options for GERD may be different for each person. ...

259

Bile acid changes after high-dose ursodeoxycholic acid treatment in primary sclerosing cholangitis: relation to disease progression  

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High-dose (28-30mg/kg/day) ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment improves serum liver tests in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) but does not improve survival and is associated with increased rates of serious adverse events. The mechanism for the latter undesired effect remains unclear. High-dose UDCA could result in the production of hepatotoxic bile acids, such as lithocholic acid (LCA), due to limited small bowel absorption of UDCA and conversion of UDCA by bacteria in the...

Sinakos, Emmanouil; Marschall, Hanns-ulrich; Kowdley, Kris V.; Befeler, Alex; Keach, Jill; Lindor, Keith

2010-01-01

260

Study of the interaction of nucleic acids with acridine orange-CTMAB and determination of nucleic acids at nanogram levels based on the enhancement of resonance light scattering  

Science.gov (United States)

The resonance light scattering (RLS) of acridine orange (AO) are greatly enhanced by both nucleic acid and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTMAB). Based on this, nucleic acids can be sensitively determined. The interaction of AO with nucleic acid in the presence of CTMAB is studied by using RLS, absorption spectroscopy, zeta potential assay, transmission electron microscope (TEM) image and molecular molding. On its surface, nucleic acid acts as the template to promote the assembly of both AO and CTMAB in close proximity, which formatted large AO-nucleic acid-CTMAB association. Therefore, RLS intensity of cationic dye is greatly enhanced.

Liu, Rutao; Yang, Jinghe; Sun, Changxia; Li, Lei; Wu, Xia; Li, Zhengmin; Qi, Chuansong

2003-07-01

 
 
 
 
261

Chitosan-caffeic acid-genipin films presenting enhanced antioxidant activity and stability in acidic media.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of chitosan films has been limited due to their high degradability in aqueous acidic media. In order to produce chitosan films with high antioxidant activity and insoluble in acid solutions caffeic acid was grafted to chitosan by a radical mechanism using ammonium cerium (IV) nitrate (60 mM). Genipin was used as cross-linker. This methodology originated films with 80% higher antioxidant activity than the pristine film. Also, these films only lost 11% of their mass upon seven days immersion into an aqueous solution at pH 3.5 under stirring. The films surface wettability (contact angle 105°), mechanical properties (68 MPa of tensile strength and 4% of elongation at break), and thermal stability for temperatures lower than 300 °C were not significantly influenced by the covalent linkage of caffeic acid and genipin to chitosan. Due to their characteristics, mainly higher antioxidant activity and lower solubility, these are promising materials to be used as active films. PMID:23044128

Nunes, Cláudia; Maricato, Élia; Cunha, Ângela; Nunes, Alexandra; da Silva, José A Lopes; Coimbra, Manuel A

2013-01-01

262

Enhanced drinking water supply through harvested rainwater treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

Decentralized drinking water systems represent an important element in the process of achieving the Millennium Development Goals, as centralized systems are often inefficient or nonexistent in developing countries. In those countries, most water quality related problems are due to hygiene factors and pathogens. A potential solution might include decentralized systems, which might rely on thermal and/or UV disinfection methods as well as physical and chemical treatments to provide drinking water from rainwater. For application in developing countries, decentralized systems major constraints include low cost, ease of use, environmental sustainability, reduced maintenance and independence from energy sources. This work focuses on an innovative decentralized system that can be used to collect and treat rainwater for potable use (drinking and cooking purposes) of a single household, or a small community. The experimented treatment system combines in one compact unit a Filtration process with an adsorption step on GAC and a UV disinfection phase in an innovative design (FAD - Filtration Adsorption Disinfection). All tests have been carried out using a full scale FAD treatment unit. The efficiency of FAD technology has been discussed in terms of pH, turbidity, COD, TOC, DOC, Escherichia coli and Total coliforms. FAD technology is attractive since it provides a total barrier for pathogens and organic contaminants, and reduces turbidity, thus increasing the overall quality of the water. The FAD unit costs are low, especially if compared to other water treatment technologies and could become a viable option for developing countries.

Naddeo, Vincenzo; Scannapieco, Davide; Belgiorno, Vincenzo

2013-08-01

263

Omega-3 fatty acids as coadjuvant treatment in AIDS.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is able to replicate in many human cells such as helper lymphocytes, monocytes/macrophages and glial cells. Monocytes/macrophages must be considered an important reservoir of HIV in vivo and a producer of cytokines such as Interleukin-1 (IL1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). These substances lead to an autocrine feedback loop that produces an increased virus replication and a secondary induction of other cytokines such as Interleukin 6 (IL6) and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). These cytokines all together may be responsible for many clinical aspects of the disease such as headache, fever, anorexia, subtle cognitive changes, motor disfunctions and cachexia. The future strategies in the treatment of AIDS must be a combination of drugs acting on different points of viral replication and with synergistic potential. Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3) can be considered a candidate for their pleiotropic effects on immunological and metabolic systems. In particular, their use is considered for their ability to decrease IL1 and TNF production by monocytes/macrophages, as demonstrated by many authors. The decreased induction of these cytokines and consequently of IL6 and acute phase proteins may have beneficial effects on many clinical manifestations of AIDS such as cachexia. PMID:8289691

Razzini, E; Baronzio, G F

1993-10-01

264

Phosphite treatment of phosphorus acid salts and compositions produced thereby  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The properties of salts of dialkylphosphorodithioic acids are improved by treating said salts or their acid precursors with phosphites, especially triaryl phosphites. This process reduces the tendency of the salts to stain and corrode metal parts, especially copper parts, when incorporated in lubricants and functional fluids. The process may also be used to treat mixed metal salts of dialkylphosphorodithioic and carboxylic acids.

Clason, D.L.; Schroeck, C.W.

1981-04-21

265

Characteristics of cyclic AMP enhancement of retinoic acid induction of increased transglutaminase activity in HL60 cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

When the human myeloid leukemia cell line (HL60) is induced to differentiate with retinoic acid (RA), there is a concentration-dependent increase in transglutaminase (TGase) activity which peaks on day 5. While dibutyryl 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (db-cAMP) alone produced only a slight increase in TGase activity in HL60 cells, the concomitant addition of db-cAMP (100 microM) with RA (10(-12)-10(-4) M) potentiates RA induction of TGase activity. Maximal increases in TGase activity (2- to 10-fold) were observed with 10(-4)-10(-7) M RA and when db-cAMP was present from 24 to 48 h after the addition of RA. The cyclic nucleotide enhancement was dose-dependent from 10 to 100 microM of cAMP. Less marked increases were observed with 8-bromo-cAMP and with the phosphodiesterase inhibitor theophylline. Although the simultaneous addition of PGE1 or PGE2 (10(-8)-10(-6) M) produced no enhancement of RA-induced TGase activity, adding PGE1 or PGE2 24 or 48 h following RA treatments produced an enhancement of TGase activity. The phosphodiesterase inhibitor potentiated the increases produced by db-cAMP and the prostaglandins. Dibutyryl cAMP enhanced the ability of RA to induce the cells to reduce nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT), a functional measure of differentiation, at lower concentrations of RA and with shorter treatment durations. cAMP potentiates RA-induced TGase activity in HL60 cells and the combination appears to be associated with enhanced RA-induced differentiation. PMID:2903078

Maddox, A M; Haddox, M K

1988-01-01

266

Leveraging technology to enhance addiction treatment and recovery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Technology such as the Internet and mobile phones offers considerable promise for affecting the assessment, prevention, and treatment of and recovery from substance use disorders. Technology may enable entirely new models of behavioral health care within and outside of formal systems of care. This article reviews the promise of technology-based therapeutic tools for affecting the quality and reach of addiction treatment and recovery support systems, as well as the empirical support to date for this approach. Potential models for implementing technology-based interventions targeting substance use disorders are described. Opportunities to optimize the effectiveness and impact of technology-based interventions targeting addiction and recovery, along with outstanding research needs, are discussed. PMID:22873192

Marsch, Lisa A

2012-01-01

267

Enhancement in extraction rates by addition of organic acids to aqueous phase in solvent extraction of rare earth metals in presence of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is well known that the selectivity of rare earth metals by solvent extraction is increased by the addition of a chelating agent such as diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) in the aqueous phase. One of the disadvantages of this method is the decrease in extraction rates due to complexation in the aqueous phase. In this paper, further addition of organic acids to the aqueous phase was examined for the purpose of enhancing the extraction rates in solvent extraction with DTPA. The addition of several kind of organic acids such as formic acid, acetic acid, malonic acid, lactic acid and citric acid was investigated for a Er/Y separation system. A remarkable enhancement in extraction rates was observed with a slight decrease in the selectivity by the addition of citric acid or lactic acid. Extraction rates in the presence of both DTPA and citric acid increased with the increase in citric acid concentration and with the increase in proton concentration. A 150 times enhancement in extraction rates was found in the low proton concentration condition. In order to analyze the extraction rates and selectivities obtained, mass transfer equations were presented by considering both the dissociation reaction of rare earth metal-DTPA complexes and the complex formation between rare earth metal and organic acid in the aqueous phase. The experimental data were analyzed by these equations. (author)

1996-02-01

268

Acidifying Effect of an N-Oxide Group - A Useful Motif in Enhancing Acidity towards Superacidic Values  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

DFT calculations carried out on trams-decahydronaphthalene and 4b,8b-dihydronaphthalene, important structural features of many alkaloids, revealed that they are moderately acidic carbon acids in the gas-phase and in DMSO solution. Substitution with a nitrogen atom of a neighbouring C(sp(3))-H fragment bonded to an acidic centre reduces the corresponding acidity in both phases. Following that, oxidation of the nitrogen atom to an N-oxide group enhances the acidity significantly. This acidifyin...

Vianello, Robert

2009-01-01

269

Oil production enhancement through a standardized brine treatment. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to permit the environmentally safe discharge of brines produced from oil wells in Pennsylvania to the surface waters of the Commonwealth and to rapidly brings as many wells as possible into compliance with the law, the Pennsylvania Oil and Gas Association (POGAM) approached the Pennsylvania State University to develop a program designed to demonstrate that a treatment process to meet acceptable discharge conditions and effluent limitations can be standardized for all potential stripper wells brine discharge. After the initial studies, the first phase of this project was initiated. A bench-scale prototype model was developed for conducting experiments in laboratory conditions. The experiments pursued in the laboratory conditions were focused on the removal of ferrous iron from synthetically made brine. Iron was selected as the primary heavy metals for studying the efficiency of the treatment process. The results of a number of experiments in the lab were indicative of the capability of the proposed brine treatment process in the removal of iron. Concurrent with the laboratory experiments, a comprehensive and extensive kinetic study was initiated. This study was necessary to provide the required data base for process modeling. This study included the investigation of the critical pH as well as the rate and order of reactions of the studied elements: aluminum, lead, zinc, and copper. In the second phase of this project, a field-based prototype was developed to evaluate and demonstrate the treatment process effectiveness. These experiments were conducted under various conditions and included the testing on five brines from different locations with various dissolved constituents. The outcome of this research has been a software package, currently based on iron`s reactivity, to be used for design purposes. The developed computer program was refined as far as possible using the results from laboratory and field experiments.

Adewumi, A.; Watson, R.; Tian, S.; Safargar, S.; Heckman, S.; Drielinger, I.

1995-08-01

270

Ion beam surface treatment: A new capability for surface enhancement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The emerging capability to produce high average power (5--350 kW) pulsed ion beams at 0.2--2 MeV energies is enabling the authors to develop a new, commercial-scale thermal surface treatment technology called Ion Beam Surface Treatment (IBEST). This new technique uses high energy, pulsed (?250 ns) ion beams to directly deposit energy in the top 2--20 micrometers of the surface of any material. The depth of treatment is controllable by varying the ion energy and species. Deposition of the energy with short pulses in a thin surface layer allows melting of the layer with relatively small energies and allows rapid cooling of the melted layer by thermal diffusion into the underlying substrate. Typical cooling rates of this process (10"9--10"1"0 K/sec) cause rapid resolidification, resulting in the production of non-equilibrium microstructures (nano-crystalline and metastable phases) that have significantly improved corrosion, wear, and hardness properties. The authors conducted IBEST feasibility experiments with results confirming surface hardening, noncrystalline grain formation, metal surface polishing, controlled melt of ceramic surfaces, and surface cleaning using pulsed ion beams

1994-06-20

271

alpha-Mangostin enhances betulinic acid cytotoxicity and inhibits cisplatin cytotoxicity on HCT 116 colorectal carcinoma cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the progress in colon cancer treatment, relapse is still a major obstacle. Hence, new drugs or drug combinations are required in the battle against colon cancer. ?-Mangostin and betulinic acid (BA) are cytotoxic compounds that work by inducing the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, and cisplatin is one of the most potent broad spectrum anti-tumor agents. This study aims to investigate the enhancement of BA cytotoxicity by ?-mangostin, and the cytoprotection effect of ?-mangostin and BA on cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity on HCT 116 human colorectal carcinoma cells. Cytotoxicity was investigated by the XTT cell proliferation test, and the apoptotic effects were investigated on early and late markers including caspases-3/7, mitochondrial membrane potential, cytoplasmic shrinkage, and chromatin condensation. The effect of ?-mangostin on four signalling pathways was also investigated by the luciferase assay. ?-Mangostin and BA were more cytotoxic to the colon cancer cells than to the normal colonic cells, and both compounds showed a cytoprotective effect against cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity. On the other hand, ?-mangostin enhanced the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of BA. Combination therapy hits multiple targets, which may improve the overall response to the treatment, and may reduce the likelihood of developing drug resistance by the tumor cells. Therefore, ?-mangostin and BA may provide a novel combination for the treatment of colorectal carcinoma. The cytoprotective effect of the compounds against cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity may find applications as chemopreventive agents against carcinogens, irradiation and oxidative stress, or to neutralize cisplatin side effects. PMID:22402764

Aisha, Abdalrahim F A; Abu-Salah, Khalid M; Ismail, Zhari; Majid, Amin Malik Shah Abdul

2012-01-01

272

Histone deacetylase inhibitors valproic acid and sodium butyrate enhance prostaglandins release in lipopolysaccharide-activated primary microglia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Modifications of histone deacetylases (HDACs) may be involved in microglia-driven neuroinflammatory responses. Recent studies suggest that several inflammatory molecules can regulate the extent of neurodegeneration and regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS). In the present study, we investigated the effects of HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) valproic acid (VPA) and sodium butyrate (NaBut) on the release of prostaglandins (PGs) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglia. We found that VPA and NaBut significantly enhanced LPS-induced release of PGE2, PGD2 and 8-iso-PGF2?. In addition, both compounds increased cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase immunoreactivity and gene expression in LPS-stimulated microglia. Interestingly, treatment of activated microglia with HDACi also enhanced the gene expression and the release of different pro-inflammatory cytokines. Microglia activation with LPS leads to I?B-? degradation, as well as p38, ERK1/2 and JNK MAPKs phosphorylation and thus activation, which is not affected by treatment with VPA and NaBut. Furthermore, VPA and NaBut treatment induced histone acetylation at H3-K18 in microglia. We suggest that VPA and NaBut-driven increase in PGs release in LPS-activated microglia might be regulated at the transcriptional level and involves histone hyperacetylation. Our data demonstrate that VPA and NaBut are able to modulate microglia responses to inflammatory insults and thus possibly can regulate the CNS degenerative and regenerative processes. PMID:24480366

Singh, V; Bhatia, H S; Kumar, A; de Oliveira, A C P; Fiebich, B L

2014-04-18

273

SULFUR HEXAFLUORIDE TREATMENT OF USED NUCLEAR FUEL TO ENHANCE SEPARATIONS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reactive Gas Recycling (RGR) technology development has been initiated at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), with a stretch-goal to develop a fully dry recycling technology for Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF). This approach is attractive due to the potential of targeted gas-phase treatment steps to reduce footprint and secondary waste volumes associated with separations relying primarily on traditional technologies, so long as the fluorinators employed in the reaction are recycled for use in the reactors or are optimized for conversion of fluorinator reactant. The developed fluorination via SF{sub 6}, similar to the case for other fluorinators such as NF{sub 3}, can be used to address multiple fuel forms and downstream cycles including continued processing for LWR via fluorination or incorporation into a aqueous process (e.g. modified FLUOREX) or for subsequent pyro treatment to be used in advanced gas reactor designs such metal- or gas-cooled reactors. This report details the most recent experimental results on the reaction of SF{sub 6} with various fission product surrogate materials in the form of oxides and metals, including uranium oxides using a high-temperature DTA apparatus capable of temperatures in excess of 1000{deg}C . The experimental results indicate that the majority of the fission products form stable solid fluorides and sulfides, while a subset of the fission products form volatile fluorides such as molybdenum fluoride and niobium fluoride, as predicted thermodynamically. Additional kinetic analysis has been performed on additional fission products. A key result is the verification that SF{sub 6} requires high temperatures for direct fluorination and subsequent volatilization of uranium oxides to UF{sub 6}, and thus is well positioned as a head-end treatment for other separations technologies, such as the volatilization of uranium oxide by NF{sub 3} as reported by colleagues at PNNL, advanced pyrochemical separations or traditional full recycle approaches. Based on current results of the research at SRNL on SF{sub 6} fluoride volatility for UNF separations, SF{sub 6} treatment renders all anticipated volatile fluorides studied to be volatile, and all non-volatile fluorides studied to be non-volatile, with the notable exception of uranium oxides. This offers an excellent opportunity to use this as a head-end separations treatment process because: 1. SF{sub 6} can be used to remove volatile fluorides from a UNF matrix while leaving behind uranium oxides. Therefore an agent such as NF{sub 3} should be able to very cleanly separate a pure UF{sub 6} stream, leaving compounds in the bottoms such as PuF{sub 4}, SrF{sub 2} and CsF after the UNF matrix has been pre-treated with SF{sub 6}. 2. Due to the fact that the uranium oxide is not separated in the volatilization step upon direct contact with SF{sub 6} at moderately high temperatures (? 1000{deg}C), this fluoride approach may be wellsuited for head-end processing for Gen IV reactor designs where the LWR is treated as a fuel stock, and it is not desired to separate the uranium from plutonium, but it is desired to separate many of the volatile fission products. 3. It is likely that removal of the volatile fission products from the uranium oxide should simplify both traditional and next generation pyroprocessing techniques. 4. SF{sub 6} treatment to remove volatile fission products, with or without treatment with additional fluorinators, could be used to simplify the separations of traditional aqueous processes in similar fashion to the FLUOREX process. Further research should be conducted to determine the separations efficiency of a combined SF{sub 6}/NF{sub 3} separations approach which could be used as a stand-alone separations technology or a head-end process.

Gray, J.; Torres, R.; Korinko, P.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Becnel, J.; Garcia-Diaz, B.; Adams, T.

2012-09-25

274

Enhancing Lipid Stability in Irradiated Beef Mince by Oleoresins and/ or Ascorbic Acid during Chilling Storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lipid Oxidation, fatty acids profile and sensory properties of irradiated beef mince (2.5 kGy) treated with oleoresins (rosemary or ginger), ascorbic acid, or combination of ascorbic acid and oleoresins were investigated during 30 days of chilled storage. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) as an indication of lipid oxidation, of irradiated control samples were significantly higher than those of non irradiated control and samples treated with rosemary and ginger oleoresins. By GC-MS analysis, it was found that the relative percentage of total saturated fatty acids (TSFA) increased in all treatments. However, the highest increase was recorded in irradiated control samples compared to non irradiated control samples. Beef mince samples treated with oleoresins (rosemary or ginger) had the best scores for discoloration and off odour. Thus, the addition of oleoresins (rosemary or ginger) to beef mince before irradiation could be an easily applied method to minimize oxidative degradation of irradiated meat

2008-01-01

275

Amino Acids Enhance Adaptive Behaviour of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa in the Cystic Fibrosis Lung Environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sputum of cystic fibrosis (CF patients is a nutrient-rich environment. Higher amino acid content of CF sputum compared to normal sputum plays a major role in the CF-specific phenotype of P. aeruginosa. Presence of amino acids in the sputum-like environment influenced P. aeruginosa quorum-sensing activity and the formation of an unknown exopolysaccharide in the biofilm. Lipopolysaccharides isolated from P. aeruginosa grown in the presence of amino acids enhanced the release of cytokine IL-8 by human kidney and lung epithelial cells. The results of this study provide additional evidence on the role of amino acids towards adaptation of P. aeruginosa to the CF lung environment.

Dinesh Diraviam Sriramulu

2010-04-01

276

Cisplatin enhances the efficacy of 5-aminolevulinic acid mediated photodynamic therapy in human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has become a promising option for the treatment of head and neck, and other forms of cancer. 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is one of the popular photosensitizers used in PDT. It is a heme precursor and is converted to a photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX. In this present study, the combination of anticancer drug cisplatin (CDDP)- and ALA- mediated PDT was used to study the cytotoxicity in vitro as well as in vivo. Human head and neck cancer cells AMC-HN3 were treated with cisplatin- and ALA-mediated PDT individually, and also in combination. Several approaches like confocal microscopic study, cytotoxicity assay, etc have been performed to study the intracellular accumulation of protophorphyrin IX in cells and its effectiveness in PDT, when treated in combination with chemotherapy drug, cisplatin (CDDP). The combination of treatments efficacy was also studied in tumor xenograft model. Compared to the individual treatments, combination of CDDP and PDT was found to be more cytotoxic in AMC-HN3, and also more effective in reducing the tumor volume in mice xenograft. Thus, with the combined therapy, not only the efficacy of treatment can be enhanced, but the doses of the drugs can also be lowered. This in turn can reduce the side effects of the chemotherapy drugs. Therefore, this study may lead to a potential drug-PDT combination that may be a useful treatment modality for human head and neck cancer. PMID:23846261

Ahn, Jin-Chul; Biswas, Raktim; Mondal, Arindam; Lee, Young-Ki; Chung, Phil-Sang

2014-03-01

277

ENHANCED PRODUCTION OF GYMNEMIC ACID USING HR BIOELICITOR EXTRACTED FROM XANTHOMONAS SPP.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Use of Gymnema sylvestre, commonly known as periploca of woods an Indian medicinal woody climber has increased recently due to the pharmaceutical potential of gymnemic acids, found in its leaves. Gymnemic acids have been reported to effect a natural treatment for diabetes. This study developed a novel cell culture system for in vitro growth and production of this species, suggesting a possible technology for large scale production of gymnemic acids. Leaf explants grown in Murashige and Skoog salts supplemented with IAA 1.5mg/l and BA 0.5mg/l gave maximum percentage of callus formation compared to other treatments evaluated. The growth rate and gymnemic acid accumulation in the callus suspension culture was determined. The HR protein from Xanthomonas spp. was used as an elicitor for the production of gymnemic acid. When compared to non-elicited cultures, two fold increase of gymnemic acids yield in elicited cultures was observed. The quantification of gymnemic acid was done using HPLC. The total gynemagenin after 21st day of incubation was 30.2389mg/100ml. This method can be used economically in pilot scale studies.

C.Subathra Devi

2012-01-01

278

CuO thin film based uric acid biosensor with enhanced response characteristics.  

Science.gov (United States)

An efficient reagentless uric acid biosensor has been realized using a copper oxide (CuO) thin film matrix grown onto platinum (Pt) coated corning glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The p-type CuO matrix successfully introduces redox property in the electrode and provides enhanced electron communication features. Sensing response obtained by the bioelectrocatalytic oxidation of uric acid by uricase/CuO/Pt/glass electrode was studied without any external mediator using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and photometric assay. The studies reveal that the uricase/CuO/Pt/glass bio-electrode exhibits good linearity over a wide range of 0.05 mM to 1.0mM uric acid concentration with enhanced response of 2.7 mA/mM and high shelf life (>14 weeks). A low Michaelis-Menten constant (K(m)) of 0.12 mM, indicate that the immobilized enzyme (uricase) has enhanced affinity towards its analyte (uric acid). The results confirm promising application of the p-type CuO thin film matrix for the realization of a reagentless integrated implantable biosensor. PMID:22647533

Jindal, Kajal; Tomar, Monika; Gupta, Vinay

2012-01-01

279

Fractionation of sugarcane bagasse using a combined process of dilute acid and ionic liquid treatments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biorefineries processing lignocellulose will produce chemicals and fuels from chemical constituents, cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin to replace fossil-derived products. Fractionation of sugarcane bagasse into three pure streams of chemical constituents was addressed through dissolution of constituents with the ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMiM]CH(3)COO) or 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methyl sulfate ([BMiM]MeSO(4)). Constituents were isolated from the reaction mixture with the anti-solvents acetone (?), acetone-water (AW), and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Delignification was enhanced by NaOH, although resulting in impure product streams. Xylose pre-extraction (75 % w/w) by dilute acid pretreatment, prior to ionic liquid treatment, improved lignin purity after anti-solvent separation. Fractionation efficiency of the combined process was maximized (84 %) by ionic liquid treatment at 125 °C for 120 min, resulting in 80.2 % (w/w) lignin removal and 76.5 % (w/w) lignin recovery. Ionic liquids achieved similar degrees of delignification, although fully digestible cellulose-rich solids were produced only by [EMiM]CH(3)COO treatment. PMID:22639365

Diedericks, Danie; van Rensburg, Eugéne; Görgens, Johann F

2012-08-01

280

Treatment and prevention systems for acid mine drainage and halogenated contaminants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Embodiments include treatments for acid mine drainage generation sources (10 perhaps by injection of at least one substrate (11) and biologically constructing a protective biofilm (13) on acid mine drainage generation source materials (14). Further embodiments include treatments for degradation of contaminated water environments (17) with substrates such as returned milk and the like.

Jin, Song (Fort Collins, CO); Fallgren, Paul H. (Laramie, WY); Morris, Jeffrey M. (Laramie, WY)

2012-01-31

 
 
 
 
281

Case Report: Valproic Acid and Risperidone Treatment Leading to Development of Hyperammonemia and Mania  

Science.gov (United States)

This case report describes two children who developed hyperammonemia together with frank manic behavior during treatment with a combination of valproic acid and risperidone. One child had been maintained on valproic acid for years and risperidone was added. In the second case, valproic acid was introduced to a child who had been treated with…

Carlson, Teri; Reynolds, Charles A.; Caplan, Rochelle

2007-01-01

282

Enhanced rosmarinic acid production in cultured plants of two species of Mentha.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present investigation an attempt has been made to enhance rosmarinic acid level in plants, grown in vitro, of 2 species of Mentha in presence of 2 precursors in the nutrient media during culture. For in vitro culture establishment and shoot bud multiplication, MS basal media were used supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of different growth regulator like NAA (alpha-napthaleneacetic acid), BAP (6-benzylaminopurine). The medium containing NAA (0.25 mg/L) and BAP (2.5 mg/L) gave the highest potentiality of shoot formation (average 58.0 numbers of shoots) per explant for Mentha piperita L. and the medium containing BAP (2.0 mg/L) gave the highest potentiality of shoot (average 19.2 numbers of shoots) formation per explant for Mentha arvensis L. The complete plants were regenerated in above mentioned media after 8 weeks of subculture. For in vitro enhancement of rosmarinic acid production, the 2 precursors tyrosine (Tyr) and phenylalanine (Phe) were added in the nutrient media at different levels (0.5 mg/L to 15.0 mg/L). Tyrosine was found to be very effective for augmenting rosmarinic acid content in Mentha piperita L. It nearly increased the production up to 1.77 times. In case of Mentha arvensis L., phenylalanine significantly affected the production of rosmarinic acid and the production was nearly 2.03 times more than the control. No significant increase in biomass was observed after addition of these precursors indicating that the added amino acids acting as precursors for rosmarinic acid synthesis were readily utilized in producing rosmarinic acid without promoting growth. Total protein profile also revealed the presence of a specific band in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PMID:23305033

Roy, Debleena; Mukhopadhyay, Sandip

2012-11-01

283

Behavioral Treatment for Marijuana Dependence: Randomized Trial of Contingency Management and Self-Efficacy Enhancement  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective The purpose of the present study was to develop a treatment for marijuana dependence specifically designed to enhance self-efficacy. Method The participants were 215 marijuana-dependent men and women randomized to one of three 9-week outpatient treatments: a condition intended to enhance self-efficacy through successful completion of treatment-related tasks (Mot ivational Enhancement plus Cognitive-Behavioral treatment plus Contingency Management reinforcing completion of treatment homework; MET+CBT+CMHomework); a condition that controlled for all elements except for reinforcement of homework (MET+CBT + Contingency Management reinforcing drug abstinence ; MET+CBT+CMAbstinence); or a Case Management control condition (CaseM). Participants in the two MET+CBT conditions were also asked to complete interactive voice recordings three times per week during treatment to confirm homework completion. Results All patients showed modest improvements over time through 14 months, with few between-treatment effects on outcomes. Latent Class Growth Models, however, indicated that a subsample of patients did extremely well over time. This subsample was more likely to have been treated in the CMAbstinence condition. In turn, this treatment effects appears to have been accounted for by days of continuous abstinence accrued during treatment, and by pre-post increases in self-efficacy. Conclusions The most effective treatments may be those that elicit abstinence while increasing self-efficacy.

Litt, Mark D.; Kadden, Ronald M.; Petry, Nancy M.

2012-01-01

284

Enhanced incorporation of fatty acid into phosphatidyl choline that parallels histamine discharge in mast cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purified rat peritoneal and pleural mast cells preincubated briefly with radioactively labeled fatty acid were treated with A23187, which bypasses primary receptors in stimulating exocytosis. An enhanced incorporation of fatty acid into phosphatidyl choline (PC) that occurred in parallel with histamine release at 24-25 degrees C was observed and was initially proportional to the total amount of histamine discharged. Enhanced PC labeling and histamine secretion were also proportional at temperatures ranging from 17-37 degrees C. Both radioactive linoleic and palmitic acids were incorporated selectively at the beta-position of the glycerol backbone of PC. PC labeling by [3H]choline was not detectably different in control and stimulated cells, and phosphatidic acid did not exhibit selectively enhanced beta-acylation. Thus, the stimulated labeling in A23187-treated cells may occur secondary to the action of a phospholipase A2 that favors PC as a substrate. Other peritoneal cell types exhibit a very similar A23187-stimulated selective labeling of PC. Therefore, autoradiography has been used to provide a direct demonstration that in purified preparations, mast cells are the principal cell type engaged in A23187-elicited incorporation of fatty acid into PC. The efficacy of this approach has relied on special procedures devised to obtain significantly different autoradiographic grain densities between control and stimulated preparations that can be attributed to differences in the level of [3H]palmitate-labeled PC. Preliminary tests using compound 48/80 as a secretory stimulus for mast cells have identified a similar selectively enhanced PC labeling. In either case, however, consideration of possible relationships between PC metabolism and the secretory process are premature since they have not been tested directly

1984-01-01

285

Humic Acids Enhanced U(VI) Attenuation in Acidic Waste Plumes: An In-situ Remediation Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

In the process of extracting plutonium for nuclear weapons production during the Cold War, large volumes of acidic waste solutions containing low-level radionuclides were discharged for decades into unlined seepage basins in several US Department of Energy (DOE) weapon facilities such as the Savannah River Site (SRS), Oak Ridge (OR), and 300 Area of the Hanford Site. Although the basins have been capped and some sites have gone through many years of active remediation, groundwaters currently remain acidic with pH values as low as 3.0 near the basins, and uranium concentrations remain much higher than its maximum contaminant level (MCL). A sustainable U biogeochemical remediation method has not yet been developed, especially under acidic conditions (pH 3-5). Bioreduction-based U remediation requires permanent maintenance of reducing conditions through indefinite supply of electron donor, and when applied in acidic plumes a high-cost pretreatment procedure is required. Methods based on precipitation of phosphate minerals depend on maintenance of high P concentrations. Precipitating of uranyl vanadates can lower U to below its MCL, but this approach is only effective at near-neutral pH. There is an urgent need for developing a sustainable method to control U mobility in acidic conditions. In this paper, we propose a method of using humic acids (HAs) to attenuate contaminant U mobility in acidic waste plumes. Our laboratory experiment results show that HAs are able to strongly and quickly adsorb onto aquifer sediments from the DOE’s SRS and OR. With a moderate addition of HA, U adsorption increased to near 100% at pH below 5.0. Because U partitioning onto the HA modified mineral surfaces is so strong, U concentration in groundwaters can be sustainably reduced to below its MCL. We conducted flow through experiments for U desorption by acidic groundwater leaching at pH 3.5 and 4.5 from HA-treated SRS contaminated sediments. The results show that desorption of both U and HA by groundwater leaching are non-detectable over a long period of time (200 days and > 100 PV without further addition of HA). As a natural reactive agent for in-situ remediation, HAs are cost-effective (enormous reservoir in nature), nontoxic, resistant to biodegradation, soluble, and easily introducible to the subsurface. This method has high potential to efficiently and sustainably enhance natural attenuation of U within acidic waste plumes.

Wan, J.; Dong, W.; Tokunaga, T. K.

2010-12-01

286

Enhancement of circulatory antioxidants by alpha-ketoglutarate during sodium valproate treatment in Wistar rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of alpha-ketoglutarate (alpha-KG) on sodium valproate-induced hyperammonemia and hepatotoxicity were studied in biochemical experiments in rats. The levels of ammonia, urea, serum transaminases, hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were significantly increased in sodium valproate-treated rats. These levels were significantly decreased in alpha-KG- and sodium valproate-treated rats. Further, non-enzymatic (vitamins C and E) and enzymatic (superoxide dismutase and catalase) antioxidants were significantly decreased in sodium valproate-treated rats and were increased in alpha-KG- and sodium valproate-treated rats. These biochemical alterations during alpha-KG treatment could be due to (i) its ability to act as an ubiquitous collector of amino groups in body tissues, (ii) the participation of alpha-KG in the non-enzymatic oxidative decarboxylation in the hydrogen peroxide decomposition process and (iii) enhancing the proper metabolism of fats which could suppress oxygen radical generation and, thus, prevent the lipid peroxidative damages in rats. PMID:12856823

Murugesan, Vidya; Subramanian, Perumal

2003-01-01

287

External Treatment of Broiler Chickens with Lactic-Acid-Producing Bacteria Before Slaughter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lactic-acid-producing bacterial cultures were applied to the skin of live broilers 24 hours before slaughter to determine whether inoculation with the cultures could affect the numbers of bacteria that are normally found on the skin of processed broiler carcasses. The cultures contained 10,000 to 100,000 cfu/mL and were suspended in 250 mL of a pH 6.0 nutrient medium (including glucose, peptone, beef extract, yeast extract, a surfactant, and salts intended to enhance the survival and growth of the cultures. With broilers suspended by the feet, feathers were moved aside and the liquid suspension was sprayed directly on the skin. Sprayed broilers were then returned to a pen. In each of three replications, 4 six-wk-old broilers were sprayed and 4 broilers were kept as untreated controls. The following day, broilers were processed in a research processing facility and defeathered carcasses were sampled by rinsing for 1 min in 200 mL of peptone water after removal of heads and feet. Coliforms, E. coli, lactic-acid bacteria, and Campylobacter in carcass rinses were enumerated by standard methods. After removal of aliquots for plating, the remaining sample volume was enriched to detect Salmonella. No differences were found in log10(cfu/mL of coliforms, E. coli, or lactic-acid bacteria between the treated and control carcasses. Salmonella bacteria were present on some carcasses, but with no difference between treatments. Campylobacter spp. were present in only one replication, so numbers of Campylobacter could not be analyzed statistically. Spraying lactic-acid-producing bacteria with nutrients on the skin of live broilers on the day before processing appears to have no effect on numbers of bacteria that are present on the skin after defeathering.

J.A. Cason

2005-01-01

288

[Treatment of Chagas disease with benznidazole and thioctic acid].  

Science.gov (United States)

A multicenter, randomized, triple blind and controlled trial was designed to determine whether the combination with thioctic acid (TA), an antioxidant agent, can reduce the intolerance rate to Benznidazol (BZ) in patients infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Four regimens were assigned randomly for 3 age intervals, administrating placebo or TA orally at daily doses of 50 to 100 mg in association with BZ at a dose of 5 mg/k/day for 30 days. In some, medication was given during a run-in period. Safety controls were carried out on days 10, 20, 37 and 52 days after therapy initiation. A total of 249 patients between 15 and 44 years old were enrolled. At the end of the trial, 70.3% of the patients had completed the treatment, while 17.7% required its suspension due to BZ related adverse reactions. The proportion of individuals affected with at least one side effect ranged from 54.8% to 58%; however, none were serious. Reported side effects included: cutaneous maculopapular rush (28%), pruritus (13.6%), headache (8%), epigastralgia (6.2%), fever (6.2%), fatigue (4.3%), nausea (4%), myalgias (4.3%), others (21.5%). The incidence of these reactions did not differ significantly among the 4 therapeutic regimens, nor even among the age intervals considered. It can be concluded that the association with TA did not prevent the occurrence of adverse reactions related to BZ administration. However, a single month cycle of this parasiticide permitted a high compliance rate to therapy among infected outpatients. PMID:15034949

Sosa-Estani, Sergio; Armenti, Alejandro; Araujo, Graciela; Viotti, Rodolfo; Lococo, Bruno; Ruiz Vera, Basilio; Vigliano, Carlos; de Rissio, Ana M; Segura, Elsa L

2004-01-01

289

Enhancing fluorescence intensity of Ellagic acid in Borax-HCl-CTAB micelles  

Science.gov (United States)

Ellagic acid (C 14H 6O 8), a naturally occurring phytochemical, found mainly in berries and some nuts, has anticarcinogenic and antioxidant properties. It is found that fluorescence of Ellagic acid (EA) is greatly enhanced by micelle of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant. Based on this effect, a sensitive proposed fluorimetric method was applied for the determination of Ellagic acid in aqueous solution. In the Borax-HCl buffer, the fluorescence intensity of Ellagic acid in the presence of CTAB is proportional to the concentration of Ellagic acid in range from 8.0 × 10 -10 to 4.0 × 10 -5 mol L -1; and the detection limits are 3.2 × 10 -10 mol L -1 and 5.9 × 10 -10 mol L -1 excited at 266 nm and 388 nm, respectively. The actual samples of pomegranate rinds are simply manipulated and satisfactorily determined. The interaction mechanism studies argue that the negative EA-Borax complex is formed and solubilized in the cationic surfactant CTAB micelle in this system. The fluorescence intensity of EA enhances because the CTAB micelle provides a hydrophobic microenvironment for EA-Borax complex, which can prevent collision with water molecules and decrease the energy loss of EA-Borax complex.

Wang, Feng; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Guokui; Li, Kexiang; Tang, Bo

2011-03-01

290

Raman and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy of amino acids and peptide  

Science.gov (United States)

Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is potentially tool in the characterization of biomolecules such as amino acids, complicated peptides and proteins, and even tissues or living cells. Amino acids and short peptides contain different functional groups. Therefore, they are suitable for the investigations of the competitive-interactions of these functional groups with colloidal silver surfaces. In this paper, Normal Raman and SERS of amino acids Leucine and Isoleucine and short peptide Leu-Leu were measured on the silver colloidal substrate. Raman shifts that stem from different vibrational mode in the molecular inner structure, and the variations of SERS of the samples were analyzed in this study. The results show that different connection of one methyl to the main chains of the isomer amino acids resulted in different vibration modes in the Normal Raman spectra of Leucine and Isoleucine. In the SERS spectra of the isomer amino acids, all frequency shifts are expressed more differently than those in Normal Raman spectra of solid state. Orientation of this isomer amino acids, as well as specific-competitive interactions of their functional groups with the colloidal silver surface, were speculated by detailed spectral analysis of the obtained SERS spectra. In addition, the dipeptide Leu-Leu, as the corresponding homodipeptide of Leucine, was also measured adsorbed on the colloidal silver surface. The SERS spectrum of Leu-Leu is different from its corresponding amino acid Leucine but both of them are adsorbed on the silver surface through the carboxylate moiety.

Yuan, Xiaojuan; Gu, Huaimin; Wu, Jiwei; Kang, Jian; Dong, Xiao

2009-08-01

291

Caffeic acid phenethyl ester synergistically enhances docetaxel and paclitaxel cytotoxicity in prostate cancer cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evidence is growing for the beneficial role of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM) in prostate diseases. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a promising component of propolis that possesses SERM activity. This study aimed at investigating the modulatory impact of CAPE on docetaxel (DOC) and paclitaxel (PTX) cytotoxicity in prostate cancer cells and exploring the possible underlying mechanisms for this chemomodulation. CAPE significantly increased DOC and PTX potency in PC-3, DU-145 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Combination index calculations showed synergistic interaction of CAPE/DOC and CAPE/PTX cotreatments in all the tested cell lines. Subsequent mechanistic studies in PC-3 cells indicated that cyclin D1 and c-myc were significantly reduced in the combined treatment groups with concurrent increase in p27kip. DNA-ploidy analysis indicated a significant increase in the percentage of cells in pre-G1 in CAPE/DOC and CAPE/PTX cotreatments. Decreased Bcl-2/Bax ratio together with increased caspase-3 activity and protein abundance were observed in the same groups. Estrogen receptor-? (ER-?) and its downstream tumor suppressor forkhead box O1 levels were significantly elevated in CAPE and combination groups compared to DOC or PTX-alone. ER-? and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor protein abundance were reduced in the same groups. CAPE significantly reduced AKT, ERK and ER-? (Ser-167) phosphorylation in PC-3 cells. CAPE-induced inhibition of AKT phosphorylation was more prominent (1.7-folds higher) in cells expressing ER-? such as PC-3 compared to LNCaP. In conclusion, CAPE enhances the antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of DOC and PTX in prostate cancer cells. This can be, at least partly, attributed to CAPE augmentation of DOC and PTX proapoptotic effects in addition to CAPE-induced alterations in ER-? and ER-? abundance. PMID:23847086

Tolba, Mai F; Esmat, Ahmed; Al-Abd, Ahmed M; Azab, Samar S; Khalifa, Amani E; Mosli, Hisham A; Abdel-Rahman, Sherif Z; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B

2013-08-01

292

Lamellar transition-metal molybdate-CTA mesostructured composites (metal = Ni, Co): one-pot synthesis and application in treatment of acid fuchsine.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new family of lamellar transition-metal (Ni, Co) molybdate-cetyltrimethylammonium (CTA) mesostructured composites has been synthesized by a simple chemical precipitation method. These lamellar mesostructured composites display enhanced capability in treatment of acid fuchsine in comparison with the corresponding metal molybdates and lamellar molybdenum oxide-CTA. PMID:19885461

Yao, Hong-Bin; Li, Xiao-Bo; Liu, Shu-Juan; Yu, Shu-Hong

2009-11-28

293

Lactic Acid Recovery in Electro-Enhanced Dialysis: Modelling and Validation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A dynamic model is derived for simultaneous transport of multiple ions through anion exchange membranes based on an irreversible thermodynamics approach. This model accounts for the convective transport of the dissociated and undissociated species in the module channels, and the diffusion and migration across the boundary layers and membranes. The model is validated for Donnan dialysis recovery of different monoprotic carboxylic acids. Simulations are used to evaluate the potential enhancement of lactate fluxes under current load conditions, referred as Electro-Enhanced Dialysis operation. This model is a useful tool to understand the transport mechanism in such electrochemical system.

Prado Rubio, Oscar Andres; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

2009-01-01

294

Conductivity enhancement of conjugated polymer after HCl-methanol treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Polymer conductivity is key factor to improve the performance of the electronic and photonic devices. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) films were soaked into 0.03, 0.14, 0.41, and 1.13 M concentrations of HCl-methanol solution for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 min. The resulting films were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, conductivity measurements, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The characteristic FTIR absorption peaks of poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) of the films decreased as the soaking time increased. While PSS absorption peaks appeared in the HCl-methanol soaking solution and increased with the soaking time. The conductivity of PEDOT:PSS film was approximately 1.20 x 10{sup -6} S/cm before soaking in the HCl-methanol solution. The conductivity of PEDOT:PSS was enhanced nearly three orders of magnitude after soaking the films into the HCl-methanol solvent. The surface of PEDOT:PSS film was initially very smooth. However, numerous humps appeared on the surface of the films after soaking PEDOT:PSS film into the HCl-methanol solution for 10, 20, and 30 min. The number of humps was reduced and disappeared thereafter.

Kang, K.S., E-mail: kkang@inha.ac.k [Creative Research Center for Electroactive Paper (EAPap) Actuator, Mechanical Engineering Department, Inha University, 253 Yonghyun-Dong Nam-Ku, Incheon, 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Chen, Y.; Han, K.J.; Yoo, K.H.; Kim, J. [Creative Research Center for Electroactive Paper (EAPap) Actuator, Mechanical Engineering Department, Inha University, 253 Yonghyun-Dong Nam-Ku, Incheon, 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

2009-08-31

295

Conductivity enhancement of conjugated polymer after HCl-methanol treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polymer conductivity is key factor to improve the performance of the electronic and photonic devices. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) films were soaked into 0.03, 0.14, 0.41, and 1.13 M concentrations of HCl-methanol solution for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 min. The resulting films were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, conductivity measurements, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The characteristic FTIR absorption peaks of poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) of the films decreased as the soaking time increased. While PSS absorption peaks appeared in the HCl-methanol soaking solution and increased with the soaking time. The conductivity of PEDOT:PSS film was approximately 1.20 x 10-6 S/cm before soaking in the HCl-methanol solution. The conductivity of PEDOT:PSS was enhanced nearly three orders of magnitude after soaking the films into the HCl-methanol solvent. The surface of PEDOT:PSS film was initially very smooth. However, numerous humps appeared on the surface of the films after soaking PEDOT:PSS film into the HCl-methanol solution for 10, 20, and 30 min. The number of humps was reduced and disappeared thereafter.

2009-08-31

296

Excimer laser treatment for aluminium alloy mechanical property enhancement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An excimer laser beam is focused (1-3 Jcm{sup 2}) on to an aluminium alloy (AlSi7Mg) surface target in a nitrogen atmosphere (760 Torr). A nitride layer (5 mm{sup 2} area per laser spot) is obtained by nitrogen diffusion in the bulk with a depth of several micrometres during the induced laser-plasma time interaction on the surface. For chemical, structural and tribological analyses, 1 x 1 cm{sup 2} samples are processed by scanning the laser beam on the surface, either by locating the laser-plasma spots side by side or by overlapping them. Different experimental conditions are investigated (laser fluence, laser pulse number, overlapping rate of laser-plasma spots), and then various analysis such as NRA, XRD, GIXD, SEM, EDS are performed. When a step-by-step process is used, the nitrogen concentration appears to be inhomogeneous depending on the surface location, and the surface roughness is too high for further applications. Nevertheless, the overlapping process yields homogeneous chemical composition layers with smooth surfaces. Tests are performed to characterise the friction behaviour of the treated surface under fretting conditions, and tribological results clearly indicate the best experimental conditions to be used for the enhancement of mechanical properties. (orig.) 16 refs.

Sicard, E.; Boulmer-Leborgne, C. [Orleans Univ. (France). GREMI; Andreazza-Vignolle, C.; Andreazza, P. [CRMD, Universite d`Orleans, BP 6752, 45067, Orleans, cedex2 (France); Langlade, C.; Vannes, B. [IFOS, Ecole centrale de Lyon, 36 avenue de collongue, BP 163, 69131, Ecully, cedex (France)

1998-03-01

297

Enhanced washing durability of hydrophobic coating on cellulose fabric using polycarboxylic acids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nine polycarboxylic acids were used to improve washing durability of hydrophobic cellulose fabric finished by sol-gel method. By simultaneous forming ester-bridge between cellulose and silica layer by ester bond, polycarboxylic acids could anchor silica coating onto cellulose fabric to strengthen the adhesion of organic-inorganic hybrid coating. The wettability of treated fabrics was characterized by water contact angle, spray test and hydrostatic pressure test. The results showed that all investigated polycarboxylic acids could improve the durability. The polycarboxylic acid with proper distance between terminal carboxylic acid groups and number of carboxylic acid groups showed the highest durability. 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) led to the best durability of hydrophobic cellulose fabric with water contact angle of 137.6o (recovery percentage of 94.2%) after 30 washing times. The effect of BTCA on durability was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. This study demonstrated that the surface treatment using polycarboxylic acids and mixed organosilanes is a promising alternative for achieving durable hydrophobic fabrics.

2011-02-15

298

Enhanced rat sciatic nerve regeneration through silicon tubes implanted with valproic acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Valproic acid (VPA) is an effective antiepileptic drug and mood stabilizer. It has recently been demonstrated that VPA could promote neurite outgrowth, activate the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway, and increase B-cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 (bcl-2)and growth cone-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) levels in spinal cord. We hypothesized that VPA could enhance axonal regeneration in the rat. In the present research, we demonstrate the effect of VPA on peripheral nerve regeneration and recovery of motor function through a silicon tube implanted with VPA. The left sciatic nerves were exposed through dorsal-splitting incisions, and 8-mm nerve sections were excised at the middle of the thigh. Then, a 1.0-cm-long silicone tube (internal diameter,1.0 mm; exterior diameter, 2.0 mm) was used to bridge the nerve deficit, anchored to the proximal and distal terminals of the excised deficit of sciatic nerves with 9-0 nylon epineural suture. Sterile petroleum jelly was used to seal the ends of the tubes to avoid leakage. The rats in the VPA group and control group were locally delivered 10 muL VPA injection (400 mg/5 mL) and normal saline, respectively, after the operation. The sciatic nerve index (SFI) was observed in each animal at 2-week intervals and electrophysiology was studied at 4-week intervals for 12 weeks. Histological and morphometrical analyses were performed at the end of the experiment (12 weeks after the operation). Using the digital image-analysis system, the thickness of the myelin sheath was measured, and total numbers of regenerated axons were counted. There was a significant difference in SFI, electrophysiological index (motor-nerve conduct velocity, amplitude of activity potential), and morphometrical results (regenerated axon number and thickness of myelin sheath) in nerve regeneration between the VPA group and controls ( P < 0.05). The results demonstrated that VPA is able to enhance sciatic nerve regeneration in rats, suggesting the potential clinical application of VPA for the treatment of peripheral nerve injury in humans. PMID:18496777

Wu, Fei; Xing, Danmou; Peng, Zhengren; Rao, Ting

2008-05-01

299

Advances in Treatment Integrity Research: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on the Conceptualization, Measurement, and Enhancement of Treatment Integrity  

Science.gov (United States)

Documenting treatment integrity is an important issue in research and practice in any discipline concerned with prevention and intervention. However, consensus concerning the dimensions of treatment integrity and how they should be measured has yet to emerge. Advances from three areas in which significant treatment integrity work has taken…

Schulte, Ann C.; Easton, Julia E.; Parker, Justin

2009-01-01

300

Post treatment method for the recovery of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the process of uranium recovery from wet-process phosphoric acid, post treatment of the raffinate phosphoric acid is very important to prevent damage to the rubber linings of the acid evaporators and to recover the solvent for reuse. A simple and continuous method using an inclined parallel-corrugated-plate separator to remove the organic solvent entrainment from the raffinate phosphoric acid is established herein

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Sonochemical effects on free phenolic acids under ultrasound treatment in a model system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sonochemical effects on seven free phenolic acids under ultrasound treatment in a model system have been investigated. The degradation products have also been tentatively identified by FTIR and HPLC-UV-ESIMS. Five phenolic acids (protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid) proved to be stable, while two others (caffeic acid and sinapic acid) were degraded under ultrasound treatment. The nature of the solvent and the temperature has been identified as important factors in determining the degradation reaction. Liquid height, ultrasonic intensity, and duty cycle of the ultrasound exposure affected only the degradation rate and did not change the nature of the degradation. The degradation rates of caffeic acid and sinapic acid decreased with increasing temperature. The degradation kinetics of these two acids under ultrasound conformed to zeroth-order reactions at -5 to 25 °C. Both decomposition and polymerization reactions occurred when caffeic acid and sinapic acid were subjected to ultrasound. Degradation products, such as the corresponding decarboxylation products and their dimers, have been tentatively identified. PMID:23339884

Qiao, Liping; Ye, Xingqian; Sun, Yujing; Ying, Jieqi; Shen, Yan; Chen, Jianchu

2013-07-01

302

Reduction of ringing artifacts in the arterial phase of gadoxetic acid-enhanced dynamic MR imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We assessed what MR imaging parameters affected ringing artifacts during the arterial phase of gadoxetic acid-enhanced dynamic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We tested various parameters, including imaging matrices, choice of either sequential or elliptical centric phase-encoding scheme, scanning time, and contrast injection rate using new simulation software on a personal computer and visually evaluated clinical MR images retrospectively using a 4-point scale to assess ringing artifacts. The simulation study revealed that square matrices, short scanning time, slow injection rate, and sequential view ordering effectively reduced ringing artifacts, findings confirmed in clinical practice using gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging. Significantly fewer artifacts resulted using a slow injection rate (P<0.05) and using square matrices in the arterial (P<0.05), portal (P<0.01), and hepatocytic (P<0.05) phases. Choice of square matrix, slower injection rate, shorter scanning time, and sequential view ordering could reduce ringing artifacts. (author)

2012-06-01

303

Expression of Sec61a in F9 and P19 teratocarcinoma cells after retinoic acid treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nascent procollagen peptides and other secretory proteins are transported across the endoplasmic reticulum (RE membrane through a protein-conducting channel called the translocon. Sec61alpha, a multispanning membrane translocon protein, has been implicated as essential for translocation of polypeptides chains into the cisterns of the ER. However, it is not known whether Sec61alpha is ubiquitously expressed in collagen producing teratocarcinoma cells. Furthermore, the production, expression, and utilization of Sec61alpha may depend on the cell differentiation stage. Stem cells from many cultured teratocarcinoma cell lines such as F9 and P19 cells are capable of differentiation in response to low retinoic acid concentrations. This differentiation of the tumorigenic stem cells results in tumorigenicity loss. For this study, mouse F9 and P19 teratocarcinoma cells were grown in culture medium treated with or without retinoic acid. Expression of Sec61alpha was determined by reverse trancriptase polimerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. In untreated conditions, F9 cells expressed undetected Sec61alpha amounts. It was also demonstrated that Sec61alpha expression is stimulated in F9 cells after retinoic acid treatment for 72 hours. No changes were found in Sec61alpha expression in P19 cells after retinoic acid treatment. These data indicate that the expression of Sec61alpha is enhanced with retinoic acid induced differentiation of F9 teratocarcinoma cells.

Ferreira L. R.

2003-01-01

304

Reduction of Endogenous Kynurenic Acid Formation Enhances Extracellular Glutamate, Hippocampal Plasticity, and Cognitive Behavior  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

At endogenous brain concentrations, the astrocyte-derived metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA) antagonizes the ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and, possibly, the glycine co-agonist site of the NMDA receptor. The functions of these two receptors, which are intimately involved in synaptic plasticity and cognitive processes, may, therefore, be enhanced by reductions in brain KYNA levels. This concept was tested in mice with a targeted deletion of kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II), a major...

Potter, Michelle C.; Elmer, Greg I.; Bergeron, Richard; Albuquerque, Edson X.; Guidetti, Paolo; Wu, Hui-qiu; Schwarcz, Robert

2010-01-01

305

Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibition enhances memory acquisition through activation of PPAR-? nuclear receptors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) increase endogenous levels of anandamide (a cannabinoid CB1-receptor ligand) and oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide (OEA and PEA, ligands for ?-type peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear receptors, PPAR-?) when and where they are naturally released in the brain. Using a passive-avoidance task in rats, we found that memory acquisition was enhanced by the FAAH inhibitor URB597 or by the PPAR-? agonist WY14643, and these enhancemen...

2009-01-01

306

The endogenous danger signal, crystalline uric acid, signals for enhanced antibody immunity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Studies have shown that the immune system can recognize self-antigens under conditions (eg, cell injury) in which the self-tissue might elaborate immune-activating endogenous danger signals. Uric acid (UA) is an endogenous danger signal recently identified to be released from dying cells. Prior work has shown that UA activates immune effectors of both the innate and adaptive immune system, including neutrophils and cytotoxic T-cell immunity. However, it was unclear whether UA could enhance an...

Behrens, Marshall D.; Wagner, Wolfgang M.; Krco, Christopher J.; Erskine, Courtney L.; Kalli, Kimberly R.; Krempski, James; Gad, Ekram A.; Disis, Mary L.; Knutson, Keith L.

2008-01-01

307

Valproic acid enhances tubulin acetylation and apoptotic activity of paclitaxel on anaplastic thyroid cancer cell lines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The introduction of paclitaxel into multimodal therapy for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma has failed to improve overall survival. Toxicity rules out the high doses required, especially in older patients. The search for strategies to enhance paclitaxel antineoplastic activity and reduce its side effects is thus advisable. The study aimed to determine whether the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) improves the anticancer action of paclitaxel and elucidate the mechanisms unde...

2007-01-01

308

Systematic Procedure for Integrated Process Operation: Reverse Electro-Enhanced Dialysis (REED) during Lactic Acid Fermentation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The integration of lactic acid fermentation and Reverse Electro-Enhanced Dialysis (REED) is investigated based upon previously developed mathematical models. A goal driven process and operation design procedure is proposed and partially investigated. The conceptual analysis of the processes integration shows the need for an additional pH controller in the fermenten A PI controller is implemented and tested. The complete control structure for the integrated system consists of this PI controlle...

Prado Rubio, Oscar Andres; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

2011-01-01

309

Fatty-Acid Binding Proteins Modulate Sleep and Enhance Long-Term Memory Consolidation in Drosophila  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sleep is thought to be important for memory consolidation, since sleep deprivation has been shown to interfere with memory processing. However, the effects of augmenting sleep on memory formation are not well known, and testing the role of sleep in memory enhancement has been limited to pharmacological and behavioral approaches. Here we test the effect of overexpressing the brain-type fatty acid binding protein (Fabp7) on sleep and long-term memory (LTM) formation in Drosophila melanogaster. ...

Gerstner, Jason R.; Vanderheyden, William M.; Shaw, Paul J.; Landry, Charles F.; Yin, Jerry C. P.

2011-01-01

310

A Novel Approach to Enhancing Ganoderic Acid Production by Ganoderma lucidum Using Apoptosis Induction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ganoderma lucidum is one of most widely used herbal medicine and functional food in Asia, and ganoderic acids (GAs) are its active ingredients. Regulation of GA biosynthesis and enhancing GA production are critical to using G. lucidum as a medicine. However, regulation of GA biosynthesis by various signaling remains poorly understood. This study investigated the role of apoptosis signaling on GA biosynthesis and presented a novel approach, namely apoptosis induction, to increasing GA producti...

You, Bang-jau; Lee, Miin-huey; Tien, Ni; Lee, Meng-shiou; Hsieh, Hui-chuan; Tseng, Lin-hsien; Chung, Yu-lin; Lee, Hong-zin

2013-01-01

311

Differentiating mass-forming intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma from atypical hepatocellular carcinoma using gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aim: To examine the differential features of mass-forming intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) from atypical hypovascular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and methods: The institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived informed patient consent. Seventy patients with pathologically proven ICCs (35) and hypovascular atypical HCCs (35) who had undergone preoperative gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI were enrolled in this study. Images were analysed for the shape of the lesions and presence of hyperintensity on the T1-weighted image (T1WI) and hypo- or hyperintense areas on the T2-weighted image (T2WI). In addition, images were analysed for the presence of linear hyperintensity or multifocal, tiny, hyperintense foci on T2WI and the presence of rim enhancement during early dynamic phases and a central enhancement with a hypointense rim (target appearance) on the 10 and 20 min hepatobiliary phase images. The significance of these findings was determined by the X2 test. Results: Univariate analysis revealed that the following significant parameters favour ICC or hypovascular HCC; the presence of T2 hypo- and hyperintense areas and target appearance on the 10 min hepatobiliary phase images favour ICC, and the presence of T2 linear hyperintensity and T2 multifocal hyperintense foci favour hypovascular HCC (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that only target appearance on the 10 min hepatobiliary phase was predictive of ICC (p = 0.002) as 30 ICCs (85.7%) showed this feature. However, the target appearance was also observed in all six scirrhous HCCs. Conclusion: A target appearance on the 10 min hepatobiliary phase images is the best predictor for identifying mass-forming ICC at gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI.

2012-08-01

312

Differentiating mass-forming intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma from atypical hepatocellular carcinoma using gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aim: To examine the differential features of mass-forming intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) from atypical hypovascular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and methods: The institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived informed patient consent. Seventy patients with pathologically proven ICCs (35) and hypovascular atypical HCCs (35) who had undergone preoperative gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI were enrolled in this study. Images were analysed for the shape of the lesions and presence of hyperintensity on the T1-weighted image (T1WI) and hypo- or hyperintense areas on the T2-weighted image (T2WI). In addition, images were analysed for the presence of linear hyperintensity or multifocal, tiny, hyperintense foci on T2WI and the presence of rim enhancement during early dynamic phases and a central enhancement with a hypointense rim (target appearance) on the 10 and 20 min hepatobiliary phase images. The significance of these findings was determined by the X{sup 2} test. Results: Univariate analysis revealed that the following significant parameters favour ICC or hypovascular HCC; the presence of T2 hypo- and hyperintense areas and target appearance on the 10 min hepatobiliary phase images favour ICC, and the presence of T2 linear hyperintensity and T2 multifocal hyperintense foci favour hypovascular HCC (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that only target appearance on the 10 min hepatobiliary phase was predictive of ICC (p = 0.002) as 30 ICCs (85.7%) showed this feature. However, the target appearance was also observed in all six scirrhous HCCs. Conclusion: A target appearance on the 10 min hepatobiliary phase images is the best predictor for identifying mass-forming ICC at gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI.

Chong, Y.S. [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.K., E-mail: jmyr@dreamwiz.com [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, M.W.; Kim, S.H.; Lee, W.J.; Rhim, H.C.; Lee, S.J. [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2012-08-15

313

CHF enhancement in flow boiling system with TSP and boric acid solutions under atmospheric pressure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In several studies, it was demonstrated that surfactant affects the heat transfer with the change of fluid property related with bubble formation and behavior due to the decrease of surface tension. G. Hetsroni et al. showed in their experiments with Habon G surfactant that the heat transfer of the boiling process is enhanced considerably by the addition of a small amount of surfactant. It was also experimented by Rozenblit et al. on how flow changes in surfactant solution. It showed that gas bubbles in air-water solution with surfactant are smaller in size but much larger in number than in pure air-water mixture, at all flow regimes. In recent, an experiment was performed by Jeong et al. which was on flow boiling CHF enhancement with TSP surfactant solutions under atmospheric pressure in SS316 circular tube. It was represented that the addition of TSP surfactant helps to increase wettability by reducing surface tension and the increment is vary with the concentration of TSP, mass flux, and subcooling. Tri-sodium phosphate (TSP, Na3PO4·12H2O) and boric acid (H3BO3) are used in nuclear power plant for maintaining high pH level during accidents. It is noticed that boric acid concentration is about 2000 ppm at normal condition and about 4000 ppm in IRWST. In this study, the variation of the CHF is observed in water with TSP or boric acid at circular tube of flow boiling water system under atmospheric pressure. Same procedure of the experiment is performed on several concentrations of TSP or boric acid, and it was shown that TSP and boric acid are effective for the CHF enhancement from the results of the experiment

2009-05-01

314

Inter-treatment compensation of treatment setup variation to enhance the radiotherapeutic ratio  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: In radiotherapy, treatment setup error has been one of the major causes of dose variation in the treated volume. With the data acquired from on-line electronic portal imaging, it is now possible not only to adjust the patient setup, but also to modify the treatment plan during the course of clinical treatment based on the setup error measured for each individual patient. In this work, daily clinical portal images were retrospectively analyzed to study (1) the number of initial daily portal images required to give adequate prediction of the systematic and random deviations of treatment setup, and (2) the potential therapeutic gain when the inter-treatment planning modification was established using the setup error of each individual patient. Methods and Materials: Only those patients whose treatment positions had not been adjusted during the course of treatment were selected for the retrospective study. Daily portal images of 27 lung, 25 pelvis, and 12 head and neck (h and n) cancer patients were obtained from two independent clinics with similar setup procedures. The anterior-to-posterior field was analyzed for the pelvis and lung treatments, and the right lateral field for the h and n treatments. Between 13 to 30 daily portal images were acquired for each patient and were analyzed using a 2D alignment tool. Systematic and random deviations of the treatment setup were calculated for each individual patient. The statistical confidence on the convergence of both systematic and random deviations with time were tested to determine the number of initial daily portal images needed to predict these deviations. In addition, a mean deviation for each site was also calculated using the setup errors from all patients. Two treatment planning schemes were simulated to evaluate margin design and prescription dose adjustment. Therapeutic scores were quantified in terms of tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). In the first planning scheme, a uniform margin based on the mean deviation and fixed prescription dose were used for all treatment plans. In the second, the same margin and prescription dose were used only for the initial planning. These were adjusted, by reducing the treatment field margin and escalating the prescription dose, whenever necessary in order to improve the therapeutic scores of the initial plan. Results: For those patients whose setup variations did not drift with time, the systematic and random deviations for the treatment course were found to be within ±1 mm for the former and ±0.5 mm for the latter at ? 90% confidence level using ? 8 initial daily portal images. Six pelvic patients and three lung patients exhibited the setup error that drifted with time and required more frequent portal image verification. The distribution of setup errors for the individual patients deviated from the mean deviation by 4.7, 2.1 and 1.5 mm, for the treatment of pelvis, lung and h and n respectively. These values were used to determine thresholds when the margin and prescription dose need to be modified on an individual patient basis. Our results show that dose could be escalated safely in at least 80% of the pelvis treatments, 63% of the lung treatments and 41% of h and n treatment if the inter-treatment modification is used. These will increase the TCP about 15% for the lung treatment, 18% for the pelvis treatment, and 4% for the h and n treatment with the NTCP at the same level. Conclusion: Our work demonstrates a different approach for the use of on-line portal images. This approach focuses on modification of the treatment plan, rather than treatment setup adjustment. Our results show the potential to improve the therapeutic ratio based upon feedback from the initial radiation treatments. This strategy can help direct the modification of both the prescription dose and treatment margin, leading to individually optimized dose escalation of conformal therapy

1995-01-01

315

Diagnostic efficacy of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI for hepatocellular carcinoma and dysplastic nodule  

Science.gov (United States)

AIM: To evaluate the relationship between the signal intensity of hepatobiliary phase images on gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological grade. METHODS: Fifty-nine patients with 82 hepatocellular lesions were evaluated retrospectively. Hepatobiliary phase images on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI were classified into 3 groups: low, iso or high. Angiography-assisted computed tomography (CT) findings were also classified into 3 groups: CT during arterial portography, and CT hepatic arteriography: A: iso, iso or low; B: slightly low, iso or low; and C: low, high. We correlated angiography-assisted CT, hepatobiliary phase findings during gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and histological grades. Furthermore, correlations between MRI findings and histological grade for each hemodynamic pattern were performed. Correlations among radiological and pathological findings were statistically evaluated using the chi-square test and Fisher’ s exact test. RESULTS: There was a significant correlation between histological grade and hemodynamic pattern (P 0.05). CONCLUSION: Signal intensity in the hepatobiliary phase correlated with histological grade in the lesions that maintained portal blood flow, but did not correlate in lesions that showed decreased or defective portal blood flow.

Saito, Kazuhiro; Moriyasu, Fuminori; Sugimoto, Katsutoshi; Nishio, Ryota; Saguchi, Toru; Nagao, Toshitaka; Taira, Junichi; Akata, Soichi; Tokuuye, Koichi

2011-01-01

316

Diagnostic efficacy of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI for hepatocellular carcinoma and dysplastic nodule  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the relationship between the signal intensity of hepatobiliary phase images on gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and histological grade. METHODS: Fifty-nine patients with 82 hepatocellular lesions were evaluated retrospectively. Hepatobiliary phase images on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI were classified into 3 groups: low, iso or high. Angiography-assisted computed tomography (CT findings were also classified into 3 groups: CT during arterial portography, and CT hepatic arteriography: A: iso, iso or low; B: slightly low, iso or low; and C: low, high. We correlated angiography-assisted CT, hepatobiliary phase findings during gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and histological grades. Furthermore, correlations between MRI findings and histological grade for each hemodynamic pattern were performed. Correlations among radiological and pathological findings were statistically evaluated using the chi-square test and Fisher’ s exact test. RESULTS: There was a significant correlation between histological grade and hemodynamic pattern (P < 0.05. There was a significant correlation between histological grade and signal intensity in the hepatobiliary phase (P < 0.05 in group A lesions. There was no significant correlation between histological grade and signal intensity in the hepatobiliary phase in group B or C lesions (P > 0.05. CONCLUSION: Signal intensity in the hepatobiliary phase correlated with histological grade in the lesions that maintained portal blood flow, but did not correlate in lesions that showed decreased or defective portal blood flow.

Kazuhiro Saito

2011-01-01

317

Gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid enhanced magnetic resonance imagings in cardiomyopathic hamsters. Histopathologic correlation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the significance of gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, the findings were correlated with histopathological findings in cardiomyopathic hamsters (Bio 14.6). In hamsters given 1 mBq of Gd-DTPA, autoradiography revealed uptake of Gd-DTPA corresponding to the fibrotic tissue. According to the degree of fibrosis and inflammation, the tissue was graded into three. The ratio of contrast enhancement in the fibrotic area to that in the normal area was significantly higher in grade 1 than grades 2 and 3, and in grade 2 than grade 3. Next, hamsters in various age groups were given 0.2 mmol/kg intravenously. In the age group of 2-5 month, contrast enhancement was homogeneously observed in the entire myocardium. In the age group of 8-10 years, it was entirely observed, partly with heterogeneous enhancement. In the age group of 11-12 years, contrast enhancement was not different from that in the normal hamsters. Histological examination revealed that fibrosis changed from grade 1 through grade 3 with advancing age. In conclusion, MR imaging for myocardiopathy showed signal intensity reflecting the fibrotic tissue. Contrast enhancement of MR imaging was stronger when much more inflammatory cells were involved and fibrotic tissues were filled with much more blood vessels. Thus MR imaging may be a promising tool for evaluating the severity of myocardiopathy. (N.K.)

1995-06-01

318

ENHANCING SOLUBILITY AND DISSOLUTION OF MEFENAMIC ACID BY FREEZE DRYING USING ?-CYCLODEXTRIN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mefenamic acid, an anti-inflammatory drug, exhibits poor water solubility, dissolution and flow properties. Thus, the aim of the present study was to improve the solubility and dissolution rate of Mefenamic acid by preparing microparticle by Freeze drying technique. Mefenamic acid microparticle containing different ratio of ?-cyclodextrin were produced by Freeze drying using water and Isopropyl alcohol as solvent system to enhance solubility and dissolution rate. The prepared formulations containing different ratio of drug and polymer were evaluated for in vitro dissolution and solubility. The prepared formulations were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimeter, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Dissolution profile of the Freeze dried microparticle was compared with its physical mixture and pure sample. Freeze dried microparticle exhibited decreased crystallinity and the solubility and dissolution of the microparticle containing different ratio of drug and ?-cyclodextrin were significant improved compared with its physical mixture and pure sample of Mefenamic acid. Dissolution of microparticle containing 1:3 w/w (FD 3 showed higher % release i.e. 98.6 % in 60 min compare to other formulation. Consequently, hence, from the above result it can be conclude that Freeze dried microparticle of Mefenamic acid is a useful technique to improve the solubility and dissolution of poorly water soluble drug like Mefenamic acid.

Dixit Mudit

2011-09-01

319

Effects of cold work, sensitization treatment and its combination on corrosion behavior of stainless steels in nitric acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the Purex reprocessing process, the spent nuclear fuels from light water reactors are dissolved in nitric acid to separate and recover the fissile materials such as Uranium and Plutonium from the radioactive fission products. To ensure safety and reliable operation of the reprocessing plant, superior corrosion resistance is required to the structural materials of the plant, and stainless steels have been used as one of the main structural materials because of its very good performance in a nitric acid environment. Corrosion behavior of stainless steels was investigated in nitric acid for the effect of cold work, sensitization heat treatment and its combination. Corrosion rate of solution-treated Type 304 with extra low carbon (304 ELC) increased with time and reached constant values after 1,000 h of immersion time. Constant corrosion rates, however, were obtained for 25Cr-20Ni-Nb (310 Nb) from the initial stage of immersion. Cold work mitigated corrosion of the solution-treated stainless steels. The effect of cold work was different on the two stainless steels with sensitization heat treatment, showing accelerated corrosion for 304 ELC. The corrosion resistance of 310 Nb was superior to 304ELC after all the treatments. Chromium concentration of the sensitization treated 304 ELC was lower in the grain-boundary region than that of the solution-treated one, although no chromium carbide precipitation was observed. This might be the cause of corrosion enhancement by sensitization treatment

1997-03-09

320

Imaging features of small hepatocellular carcinomas with microvascular invasion on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objectives: Detection of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) before microvascular invasion (MVI) occurs is important due to the poor outcomes associated with MVI. We retrospectively investigated the imaging features of small HCCs with MVI on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging. Methods: Fifty patients (40 men and 10 women; mean age, 54 years) with 58 surgically proven small (2 cm or less) HCCs were evaluated by gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI. Signal intensities on imaging sequences and the presence of the typical dynamic enhancement pattern (arterial enhancement and washout) were assessed. Fisher's exact tests were performed to evaluate the relationships between the presence of MVI, tumor size, and imaging findings. Results: None of the 12 small HCCs with diameters of 1 cm or less had MVI, while 15 (33%) of the 46 small HCCs with diameters of 1.1–2.0 cm had MVI (p = 0.025, Fisher's exact test). Among the small HCCs with diameters of 1.1–2.0 cm, all HCCs with MVI showed the typical dynamic pattern and hyperintensity on T2- and diffusion-weighted images. Most HCCs (54 lesions, 93%) were hypointense on hepatobiliary phase images regardless of the presence of MVI. Conclusions: All small HCCs with MVI showed typical dynamic pattern and hyperintensity on T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted images, while atypical dynamic pattern and size of less than 1 cm in diameter may suggest absence of MVI

2012-10-01

 
 
 
 
321

ENHANCED MOBILITY OF DENSE NONAQUEOUS-PHASE LIQUIDS (DNAPLs) USING DISSOLVED HUMIC ACIDS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The specific objectives of this subtask are as follows: ? Evaluate the suitability of using humic acids to enhance the solubility and mobility of DNAPL contaminants sorbed to soils. ? Evaluate the toxicity and bioavailablity of the DNAPLs to biodegrading microorganisms. To meet the first objective, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) evaluated a set of humic acids (two) with different chemical compositions and polarities for the following: ? Ability of the humates to mobilize/solubilize selected (three) DNAPLs ? Mobilization/solubilization in batch soil?water experiments (one soil) ? Removal rate via biotreatment with a well-established active microbial culture. The second objective was met by evaluating the inhibiting effects of a leonardite-derived humic acid on active microbial populations.

EDWIN S. OLSON; JOHN R. GALLAGHER; MARC D. KURZ

1998-10-01

322

Omega-3 Free Fatty Acids Suppress Macrophage Inflammasome Activation by Inhibiting NF-?B Activation and Enhancing Autophagy  

Science.gov (United States)

The omega-3 (?3) fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can suppress inflammation, specifically IL-1? production through poorly understood molecular mechanisms. Here, we show that DHA reduces macrophage IL-1? production by limiting inflammasome activation. Exposure to DHA reduced IL-1? production by ligands that stimulate the NLRP3, AIM2, and NAIP5/NLRC4 inflammasomes. The inhibition required Free Fatty Acid Receptor (FFAR) 4 (also known as GPR120), a G-protein coupled receptor (GPR) known to bind DHA. The exposure of cells to DHA recruited the adapter protein ?-arrestin1/2 to FFAR4, but not to a related lipid receptor. DHA treatment reduced the initial inflammasome priming step by suppressing the nuclear translocation of NF-?B. DHA also reduced IL-1? levels by enhancing autophagy in the cells. As a consequence macrophages derived from mice lacking the essential autophagy protein ATG7 were partially resistant to suppressive effects of DHA. Thus, DHA suppresses inflammasome activation by two distinct mechanisms, inhibiting the initial priming step and by augmenting autophagy, which limits inflammasome activity.

Williams-Bey, Yolanda; Boularan, Cedric; Vural, Ali; Huang, Ning-Na; Hwang, Il-Young; Shan-Shi, Chong; Kehrl, John H.

2014-01-01

323

Sebum Free Fatty Acids Enhance the Innate Immune Defense of Human Sebocytes by Upregulating ?-Defensin-2 Expression  

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Various sebum free fatty acids (FFAs) have shown antibacterial activity against a broad range of Gram-positive bacteria, resulting in the suggestion that they are accountable, at least partially, for the direct antimicrobial activity of the skin surface. In this study, we examined the effects of sebum FFAs on the antimicrobial peptide (AMP)-mediated innate immune defense of human sebocytes. Incubation of lauric acid, palmitic acid, or oleic acid (OA) with human sebocytes dramatically enhanced...

Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Kao, Mandy C.; Zhang, Liangfang; Zouboulis, Christos C.; Gallo, Richard L.; Huang, Chun-ming

2010-01-01

324

Treatment with Docosahexaenoic Acid, but Not Eicosapentaenoic Acid, Delays Ca2+-Induced Mitochondria Permeability Transition in Normal and Hypertrophied Myocardium  

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Intake of fish oil containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) prevents heart failure; however, the mechanisms are unclear. Mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening contributes to myocardial pathology in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, and treatment with DHA + EPA delays MPTP opening. Here, we assessed: 1) whether supplementation with both DHA and EPA is needed for optimal prevention of MPTP opening, and 2) whether this benefit occurs in hyper...

Khairallah, Ramzi J.; O Shea, Karen M.; Brown, Bethany H.; Khanna, Nishanth; Des Rosiers, Christine; Stanley, William C.

2010-01-01

325

Fluorescence enhancement of Tb 3+ in Tb-aromatic acid complexes: correlation of synergistic enhancement with the structure of the ligand  

Science.gov (United States)

Fluorescence enhancement of Tb 3+ has been studied, using aromatic carboxylic acids as ligands. These ligands enhance the fluorescence of Tb 3+ by about three orders of magnitude. The enhancement is observed to be due to ligand sensitized fluorescence. The fluorescence of Tb 3+ in some of these complexes is further enhanced by an order of magnitude by the addition of trioctyl phosphine oxide (TOPO), a phenomenon referred to as synergism. However, the pattern of synergism displayed by TOPO is not uniform, and is found to vary with the ligand. While with some aromatic acids, TOPO displayed maximum synergism near pH 6, in others it did so around pH 4. In a few cases, TOPO did not display any synergism at all, at any of the pH values. These observations are discussed in detail and the results are rationalized on the basis of the structure of the aromatic acids.

Panigrahi, B. S.; Peter, Susy; Viswanathan, K. S.; Mathews, C. K.

1995-11-01

326

Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of amorphous polyethylene terephthalate for enhanced heatsealing properties  

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An atmospheric pressure plasma system has been used to treat amorphous polyethylene terephthalate (APET) to enhance its heatseal properties to a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film. The plasma treated APET sheet material was thermoformed into trays for use in the food packaging industry and heatsealed to a PET film. The heatsealing properties of the resulting package were assessed using the burst test technique. It was found that the plasma treatment significantly enhanced the adhesive prop...

Dowling, Denis P.; Tynan, J.; Ward, P.; et al.

2012-01-01

327

Effect of acidic treatment on carbon nano tubes for immobilization of cellulase enzyme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The effect of acidic treatment on MWCNTs functionalization was studied by mixing different ratios (1:1, 1:2, and 1:3 v/v %) of nitric acid and sulphuric acid, respectively. The effect of these treatments on the structure of MWCNTs was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Filed emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Results showed that the optimum ratio 1:3 (v/v %) is best suitable in imparting carboxylic acid and hydroxyl groups which are required for immobilization of cellulase enzyme on functionalized CNTs. (author)

2009-11-03

328

Poly-?-Glutamate Capsule-Degrading Enzyme Treatment Enhances Phagocytosis and Killing of Encapsulated Bacillus anthracis?  

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The poly-?-d-glutamic acid capsule confers antiphagocytic properties on Bacillus anthracis and is essential for virulence. In this study, we showed that CapD, a ?-polyglutamic acid depolymerase encoded on the B. anthracis capsule plasmid, degraded purified capsule and removed the capsule from the surface of anthrax bacilli. Treatment with CapD induced macrophage phagocytosis of encapsulated B. anthracis and enabled human neutrophils to kill encapsulated organisms. A second glutamylase, PghP...

2007-01-01

329

Increasing cellular level of phosphatidic acid enhances FGF-1 production in long term-cultured rat astrocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

We found in a previous study that both mRNA expression and release of fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1) are greater in rat astrocytes that are long term-cultured for one month (W/M cells) than in the cells cultured for one week (W/W cells). However, FGF-1 does not enhance phosphorylation of Akt, MEK, and ERK in W/M cells, while it does in W/W cells. In this work we studied the mechanism to cause these differences between W/W and W/M cells in culture. As it is known that long term culture generates oxidative stress, we characterized the stresses which W/M cells undergo in comparison with W/W cells. The levels of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and mitochondrial Bax were higher in W/M cells than in W/W cells. W/M cells recovered their ability to respond to FGF-1 to enhance phosphorylation of Akt, MEK, and ERK in the presence of antioxidants. Oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) had no effect on mRNA expression of FGF-1 in W/W cells, although H2O2 enhances release of FGF-1 from W/W cells without inducing apoptosis. The influence of cell density was studied on mRNA expression of FGF-1 and cellular response to FGF-1, as an increasing cell density is observed in W/M cells. The increasing cell density enhanced mRNA expression of FGF-1 in W/W cells without suppression of responses to FGF-1. The decrease in cell density lowered the FGF-1 mRNA expression in W/M cells without recovery of the response to FGF-1 to enhance phosphorylation of Akt, MEK, and ERK. These findings suggest that oxidative stress attenuate sensitivity to FGF-1 and higher cell density may enhance FGF-1 expression in W/M cells. In addition, we found that the cellular level of phosphatidic acid (PA) increased in H2O2-treated W/W and W/M cells and decreased by the treatment with antioxidants, and that PA enhances the mRNA expression of FGF-1 in the W/W cells. These findings suggest that the increasing PA production may enhance FGF-1 expression to protect astrocytes against oxidative stress induced by long-term culture. PMID:24690199

Nagayasu, Yuko; Morita, Shin-Ya; Hayashi, Hideki; Miura, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Kazuki; Michikawa, Makoto; Ito, Jin-Ichi

2014-05-14

330

Improvement of the performance of a hydroxyaluminum phthalocyanine photoelectrochemical cell by a phthalic acid treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Effects of a phthalic acid treatment on the performance of hydroxyaluminum phthalocyanine (PcAlOH) photoelectrochemical cells have been investigated. PcAlOH thin films have been prepared by vacuum deposition on tin oxide substrates. The acid treatment induces a dimorphic transformation of the -form PcAlOH to a new polymorph n-PcAlOH absorbing on a larger range (550-900 nm). Photoelectrochemical studies with BQ/HQ and I/sub 3//sup -//I/sup -/ redox couples showed that the phthalic acid treatment improved strongly the performance of PcAlOH cells.

Perrier, G.; Dao, L.H.

1987-05-01

331

Tolerability and Efficacy of Retinoic Acid Given after Full-face Peel Treatment of Photodamaged Skin  

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Objective: All-trans retinoic acid is a well-established topical treatment of photodamaged skin. This study assessed the tolerance and efficacy of all-trans retinoic acid after full-face treatment with a chemical peel. Design: This was a split-face, randomized study. One side of each face was treated with peel and the other side with peel and all-trans retinoic acid (3%). Four treatments were given during the 10-week study period. Setting: Physician office. Participants: Fifteen female subjec...

Gold, Michael H.; Hu, Judy Y.; Biron, Julie A.; Yatskayer, Margarita; Dahl, Amanda; Oresajo, Christian

2011-01-01

332

Enhanced biological phosphorus removal - results of experiences in three large waste water treatment plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Within a scientific project especially the operation of four real-size sewage treatment plants with different processes of enhanced biological phosphorus removal is investigated under the aspect of efficiency, stability, practicability and costs of the enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Three plants and first results are explained and compared as well with one another as with data, which are generally regarded as favourable conditions for the enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Between the plants there are significant differences in the degree of P-elimination mainly due to different characteristics of the wastewater. An important influence on P-effluent concentrations may be exacted by P-resolution in the final clarifier. (orig.)

1994-09-01

333

Acetate induced enhancement of photocatalytic hydrogen peroxide production from oxalic acid and dioxygen.  

Science.gov (United States)

The addition of acetate ion to an O2-saturated mixed solution of acetonitrile and water containing oxalic acid as a reductant and 2-phenyl-4-(1-naphthyl)quinolinium ion (QuPh(+)-NA) as a photocatalyst dramatically enhanced the turnover number of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production. In this photocatalytic H2O2 production, a base is required to facilitate deprotonation of oxalic acid forming oxalate dianion, which acts as an actual electron donor, whereas a Brønsted acid is also necessary to protonate O2(•-) for production of H2O2 by disproportionation. The addition of acetate ion to a reaction solution facilitates both the deprotonation of oxalic acid and the protonation of O2(•-) owing to a pH buffer effect. The quantum yield of the photocatalytic H2O2 production under photoirradiation (? = 334 nm) of an O2-saturated acetonitrile-water mixed solution containing acetate ion, oxalic acid and QuPh(+)-NA was determined to be as high as 0.34, which is more than double the quantum yield obtained by using oxalate salt as an electron donor without acetate ion (0.14). In addition, the turnover number of QuPh(+)-NA reached more than 340. The reaction mechanism and the effect of solvent composition on the photocatalytic H2O2 production were scrutinized by using nanosecond laser flash photolysis. PMID:23631436

Yamada, Yusuke; Nomura, Akifumi; Miyahigashi, Takamitsu; Ohkubo, Kei; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

2013-05-01

334

Enhanced zero-valent metal permeable wall treatment of contaminated groundwater  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On-going research at the University of Central Florida, supported by NASA, is investigating the use of sonicated zero-valent metal permeable treatment walls to remediate chlorinated solvent contaminated groundwater. Use of ultrasound within the treatment wall is proposed to enhance and/or restore the activity of the zero-valent metal. Batch studies designed to evaluate the destruction of chlorinated hydrocarbons using enhanced zero-valent metal reduction found a nearly three-fold increase in reaction rates after ultrasound treatment. Column studies substantiated these results. It is hypothesized that ultrasound serves to remove corrosion products from the iron surface and will prolong the reactive life and efficiency of the permeable treatment wall, thus decreasing long-term costs of wall construction and maintenance

1997-02-09

335

Acid-digestion treatment of plutonium-containing waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Radioactive Acid-Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) has been constructed at Hanford to demonstrate the application of the acid-digestion process for treating combustible transuranic wastes and scrap materials. The RADTU, with its original tray digestion vessel, has recently completed a six-month campaign processing potentially contaminated non-glovebox wastes from a Hanford plutonium facility. During this campaign, it processed 2100 kg largely cellulosic wastes at an average sustained processing rate of 3 kg/h as limited by the acid-waste contact and the water boil-off rate from the acid feeds. The on-line operating efficiency was nearly 50% on a twelve-hour day, five-day week basis. Following this campaign, a new annular high-rate digester has been installed for testing. In preliminary tests with simulated wastes, the new digester demonstrated a sustained capacity of 10 kg/h with greatly improved intimacy of contact between the digestion acid and the waste. The new design also doubles the heat-transfer surface, which is expected to provide at least twice the water boil-off rate of the previous tray digester design. Following shakedown testing with simulated and low-level wastes, the new unit will be used to process combustible plutonium scrap and waste from Hanford plutonium facilities for the purposes of volume reduction, plutonium recovery, and stabilization of the final waste form. (author)

1980-06-06

336

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of hypertriglyceridaemia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypertriglyceridaemia (HTG) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease; high-risk patients with HTG, such as those with metabolic syndrome or diabetes, may benefit from hypolipidaemic therapies. Several lipid-lowering drugs act by reducing triglyceride (TG) levels, including fibrates, nicotinic acid and omega-3 fatty acids. The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dose-dependently reduce plasma TG levels; the effect tends to be greater in patients with higher TG levels at baseline. Evidence from clinical trials suggests that EPA+DHA doses of ? 2 g/day are required to achieve significant effects. The optimal TG-lowering doses of EPA+DHA are 3-4 g/day, with little evidence to support lipid-altering efficacy of doses of EPA and DHA <1g/day. Predicted changes in fasting serum TG levels at the recommended dietary intakes of EPA and/or DHA of 200-500 mg/day are -3.1% to -7.2%. Reductions of plasma TG levels at the optimal doses are from 25-35% up to 45% in the presence of severely elevated TG levels (? 500 mg/dl; ? 5.65 mmol/l), along with a reduction in non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and an increase in HDL-C. This observation has also been confirmed in statin-treated patients. PMID:23856442

Pirillo, Angela; Catapano, Alberico Luigi

2013-12-20

337

Combined process for 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid treatment-Coupling of an electrochemical system with a biological treatment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A coupled process was studied for the removal of a chlorinated pesticide: 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). A home-made electrochemical flow cell was used for the pre-treatment and a biological treatment was then carried out using activated sludge supplied by a local wastewater treatment plant. 2,4-D was used as a target compound for the study. Several parameters were monitored during the biological treatment, like dissolved organic carbon (DOC), the target compound and the major by-pro...

Fontmorin, Jean-marie; Fourcade, Florence; Geneste, Florence; Floner, Didier; Huguet, Samuel; Amrane, Abdelatif

2013-01-01

338

Enhanced External Counterpulsation as a New Treatment Modality for Patients with Erectile Dysfunction  

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Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) is a noninvasive treatment modality which can increase arterial blood flow in peripheral and coronary arterial disease. Several studies have demonstrated an increase in the flow of the internal iliacal artery and in carotid and renal perfusion during EECP treatment. We investigated the effect of EECP in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED). Thirteen patients were treated with EECP for 20 days, 1 h per day. Patients reported a significant improvemen...

Froschermaier, Stefan E.; Werner, D.; Leike, Steffen; Schneider, M.; Waltenberger, J.; Daniel, W. G.; Wirth, Manfred P.

2014-01-01

339

Enhancement of micropollutant degradation at the outlet of small wastewater treatment plants  

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The aim of this work was to evaluate low-cost and easy-to-operate engineering solutions that can be added as a polishing step to small wastewater treatment plants to reduce the micropollutant load to water bodies. The proposed design combines a sand filter/constructed wetland with additional and more advanced treatment technologies (UV degradation, enhanced adsorption to the solid phase, e.g., an engineered substrate) to increase the elimination of recalcitrant compounds. The removal of five ...

Rossi, Luca; Queloz, Pierre; Brovelli, Alessandro; Margot, Jonas; Barry, David Andrew

2013-01-01

340

Enhancement of Micropollutant Degradation at the Outlet of Small Wastewater Treatment Plants  

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The aim of this work was to evaluate low-cost and easy-to-operate engineering solutions that can be added as a polishing step to small wastewater treatment plants to reduce the micropollutant load to water bodies. The proposed design combines a sand filter/constructed wetland with additional and more advanced treatment technologies (UV degradation, enhanced adsorption to the solid phase, e.g., an engineered substrate) to increase the elimination of recalcitrant compounds. The removal of five ...

Rossi, Luca; Queloz, Pierre; Brovelli, Alessandro; Margot, Jonas; Barry, D. A.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Pharmacological enhancement of exposure-based treatment in PTSD: a qualitative review  

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There is a good amount of evidence that exposure therapy is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Notwithstanding its efficacy, there is room for improvement, since a large proportion of patients does not benefit from treatment. Recently, an interesting new direction in the improvement of exposure therapy efficacy for PTSD emerged. Basic research found evidence of the pharmacological enhancement of the underlying learning and memory processes of exposure therapy. Th...

Kleine, Rianne A.; Rothbaum, Barbara O.; Agnes van Minnen

2013-01-01

342

Malic acid or orthophosphoric acid-heat treatments for protecting sunflower (Helianthus annuus) meal proteins against ruminal degradation and increasing intestinal amino acid supply.  

Science.gov (United States)

The protection of sunflower meal (SFM) proteins by treatments with solutions of malic acid (1 M) or orthophosphoric acid (0.67 M) and heat was studied in a 3 × 3 Latin-square design using three diets and three rumen and duodenum cannulated wethers. Acid solutions were applied to SFM at a rate of 400 ml/kg under continuous mixing. Subsequently, treated meals were dried in an oven at 150°C for 6 h. Diets (ingested at 75 g/kg BW0.75) were isoproteic and included 40% Italian ryegrass hay and 60% concentrate. The ratio of untreated to treated SFM in the concentrate was 100 : 0 in the control diet and around 40 : 60 in diets including acid-treated meals. The use of acid-treated meals did not alter either ruminal fermentation or composition of rumen contents and led to moderate reductions of the rumen outflow rates of untreated SFM particles, whereas it did not affect their comminution and mixing rate. In situ effective estimates of by-pass (BP) and its intestinal effective digestibility (IED) of dry matter (DM), CP and amino acids (AAs) were obtained considering both rates and correcting the particle microbial contamination in the rumen using 15N infusion techniques. Estimates of BP and IED decreased applying microbial correction, but these variations were low in agreement with the small contamination level. Protective treatments increased on average the BP of DM (48.5%) and CP (267%), mainly decreasing both the soluble fraction and the degradation rate but also increasing the undegradable fraction, which was higher using orthophosphoric acid. Protective treatments increased the IED of DM (108%) and CP, but this increase was lower using orthophosphoric acid (11.8%) than malic acid (20.7%). Concentrations of AA were similar among all meals, except for a reduction in lysine concentrations using malic acid (16.3%) or orthophosphoric acid (20.5%). Protective treatments also increased on average the BP of all AA, as well as the IED of most of them. Evidence of higher increases for those AA showing a high resistance to degradation in the untreated meal were also observed. The total supply of metabolisable AA was increased by 3.87 times for sulphur-containing AA, whereas that of lysine was increased by 2.5 times, mainly because of lysine losses with heat treatments. These treatments and especially that with malic acid would be useful to increase the protein value of these meals but their combined use with lysine-rich protein concentrates would improve the metabolisable protein profile. PMID:23032153

Arroyo, J M; González, J; Ouarti, M; Silván, J M; Ruiz del Castillo, M L; de la Peña Moreno, F

2013-02-01

343

Performance Enhancement and Immunity Profile of Broiler Treated Feed Additive Containing Lactic Acid Bacteria and Ganoderma lucidum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of feed additive containing lactic acid bacteria (LAB and Ganoderma lucidum (GL on body weight gain (BWG, feed efficiency (FE, performance index (PI, antibody titer (AT against Newcastle disease and histopathology of broilers. Bacteria used were Lactobacillus salivarius and Pediococcus pentosaceus, which were isolated from broiler’s intestine. A number of 195 unsexed day old chicks (Cobb strain were arranged in a completely randomized design and consisted of 5 treatments, each in 3 equal replicates. The treatments were as followed T0: control/without-feed additive, T1: 1% LAB (109 cfu g-1, T2: 1% GL, T3: 1% of LAB 109 cfu g-1 + GL (1:1, T4: commercial antibiotic. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and conti-nued to Duncan’s multiple range test. The results showed that T2, T3, T4 treatments significantly improved (P<0.05 BWG, FE and PI of broilers. Broilers fed T3 had the highest PI, followed by T4, T1, T2 and T0. Broilers fed T3 had the highest AT value followed by T0, T2, T4, and T1. Histopathology profile showed that broiler fed T3 had no lesion on liver and intestine compared to others. The result of this experiment indicated that additive containing 0.25% L. salivarius, 0.25% P. pentosaceus, and 0.5% G. lucidum was able to enhance broiler performance.

A. Sofyan

2012-12-01

344

An unusual and serious complication of topical wart treatment with monochloroacetic acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous chemical agents are used in the topical treatment of warts. Monochloroacetic acid (MCAA) is one of these agents, which is used in low or high concentrations in most European countries. MCAA is a strong organic acid which is irritating and corrosive to the skin and has a high systemic toxicity. In addition to wart treatment, it is used for industrial purposes, such as the synthesis of certain organic chemicals. We present a case of joint deformity manifesting after the use of a preparation containing MCAA for topical wart treatment. This underlines the need to reassess the safety of MCAA use for topical wart treatment. PMID:19126020

Baser, Nesrin Tan; Yalaz, Burcin; Yilmaz, Ali Cemal; Tuncali, Dogan; Aslan, Gurcan

2008-12-01

345

Fungal treatment followed by FeCl3 treatment to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis of poplar wood for high sugar yields.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungal treatment followed by FeCl3 treatment was used to improve saccharification of wood from Populus tomentosa. Combined treatments accumulated lignin and slightly degraded cellulose, whereas almost all hemicelluloses were removed. The white rot fungus, Trametes orientalis, and the brown rot fungus, Fomitopsis palustris, both accompanied by FeCl3 post-treatment resulted in 98.8 and 99.7 % of hemicelluloses loss at 180 °C, respectively, which were over twice than that of hot water pretreatment at the same level. In addition, the solid residue from the T. orientalis-assisted and F. palustris-assisted FeCl3 treatment at 180 °C released 84.5 and 95.4 % of reducing sugars, respectively: 1.4- and 1.6-fold higher than that of FeCl3 treatment alone at the same temperature. Combined treatments disrupted the intact cell structure and increased accessible surface area of cellulose therefore enhancing the enzymatic digestibility, as evidenced by XRD and SEM analysis data. PMID:23907674

Wang, Wei; Yuan, Tong Qi; Cui, Bao Kai

2013-12-01

346

Anacardic acid enhances the anticancer activity of liposomal mitoxantrone towards melanoma cell lines – in vitro studies  

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Full Text Available Mateusz Legut, Dominik Lipka, Nina Filipczak, Adriana Piwoni, Arkadiusz Kozubek, Jerzy GubernatorDepartment of Lipids and Liposomes, Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Wroc?aw, Wroc?aw, PolandAbstract: This paper describes a novel formulation of antineoplastic drug: mitoxantrone loaded into liposomal carriers enriched with encapsulated anacardic acid in the liposomal bilayer using a vitamin C gradient. Anacardic acid is a potent epigenetic agent with anticancer activity. This is the first liposomal formulation to combine an actively encapsulated drug and anacardic acid. The liposomes were characterized in terms of basic parameters, such as size, zeta potential, optimal drug-to-lipid ratio, loading time and temperature, and stability at 4°C and in human plasma in vitro. The formulation was found to be stable, and the loading process was rapid and efficient (drug-to-lipid ratio of up to 0.3 with over 90% efficiency in 5 minutes. The cytotoxicity of these formulations was assessed using the human melanoma cell lines A375 and Hs294T and the normal human dermal fibroblast line. The results showed that anacardic acid and to a smaller extent vitamin C significantly increased the cytotoxicity of the drug towards melanoma compared to ammonium sulfate liposomes. On the other hand, vitamin C and anacardic acid both protected normal cells from damage caused by the drug. The formulation combining anacardic acid, vitamin C, and mitoxantrone showed promising results in terms of cytotoxicity and cytoprotection. Therefore, it has potential for anticancer treatment.Keywords: anacardic acid, vitamin C, ascorbic acid, liposomes, mitoxantrone, melanoma

Legut M

2014-01-01

347

Enhanced transformation of diphenylarsinic acid in soil under sulfate-reducing conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) is known to be the major contaminant in soils where diphenylchloroarsine and diphenylcyanoarsine were abandoned after World Wars I and II. In this study, experimental model studies were performed to elucidate key factors regulating the transformation of DPAA under anaerobic soil conditions. The elimination of DPAA in Gleysol soils (Qiqihar and Shindori soils) was more rapid than in Mollisol and Regosol soils (Heihe and Ikarashi soils, respectively) during a 5-week incubation. No clear relationship between decreasing rates of DPAA concentrations and soil Eh values was found. The Ikarashi soil showed the slowest decrease in DPAA concentrations among the four soils, but the transformation of DPAA was notably enhanced by addition of exogenous sulfate together with acetate, cellulose or rice straw. Addition of molybdate, a specific inhibitor of sulfate reduction, resulted in the stagnation of DPAA transformation, suggesting that indigenous sulfate reducers play a role in DPAA transformation under anaerobic conditions. Arsenate, phenylarsonic acid, phenylmethylarsinic acid, diphenylmethylarsine oxide and three unknown compounds were detected as metabolites of DPAA. This is the first study to reveal enhancement of DPAA transformation under sulfate-reducing conditions. PMID:23069334

Guan, Ling; Hisatomi, Shihoko; Fujii, Kunihiko; Nonaka, Masanori; Harada, Naoki

2012-11-30

348

Operational Lessons Learned During Bioreactor Demonstrations for Acid Rock Drainage Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) has emphasized the development of biologically-based treatment technologies for acid rock drainage (ARD). Progressively evolving technology demonstrations have resulted in significant advances in sul...

349

Operational Lessons Leaned During bioreactor Demonstrations for Acid Rock Drainage Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) has emphasized the development of biologically-based treatment technologies for acid rock drainage (ARD). Progressively evolving technology demonstrations have resulted in significant advances in sulf...

350

Supplementation With Highly Purified Docosahexaenoic Acid Ethyl Ester Was Associated With Enhancement of Hepatic Fatty Acid Oxidation and Greater Apparent Absorption of Docosahexaenoic Acid in Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fish oil-derived fatty acid ethyl ester (EE has been widely utilized as a supplement in Europe and United States. However, few studies have assessed the apparent absorption of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA between non-purified DHA-EE (L-DHAEE and highly purified DHA-EE (H-DHAEE. This study evaluated the effects of L-DHAEE and H-DHAEE on lipid metabolism and apparent absorption of DHA in rats. Groups of male Wistar rats were fed AIN93G diet containing 2.8% L-DHAEE or 1.0% H-DHAEE for 4 or 8 weeks. As parameters of lipid metabolism and apparent absorption of DHA-EE, serum and liver lipid contents, fecal EE excretion, lipid-metabolizing enzyme activities, and organ fatty acid composition were measured. The L-DHAEE diet increased fecal DHA-EE and total EE excretion compared with the H-DHAEE diet. In rats fed DHA-EE for 4 weeks, H-DHAEE was more efficacious than L-DHAEE at increasing liver DHA content, partly owing to the enhancement of apparent absorption. In addition, rats fed the H-DHAEE diet had higher fatty acid ?-oxidation activity in peroxisomes than rats fed the L-DHAEE diet for 8 weeks. These results suggest that H-DHAEE supplementation may have beneficial functions in the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases as compared with L-DHAEE supplementation.

Kenji Fukunaga

2013-07-01

351

Effect of Acetic Acid in TiCl4 Post-Treatment on Nanoporous TiO2 Electrode in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell  

Science.gov (United States)

Titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) is adopted as a post-treatment on the nanoporous titanium oxide (TiO2) layers to enhance the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). A TiCl4 post-treatment is capable of improving electron transport and dye-loading on the surface of TiO2 layers. In this study, the TiCl4 solution mixed with acetic acid was employed to enhance the condition of the TiCl4 post-treatment. Since acetic acid in the TiCl4 solution prevents the formation of impurities and facilitates the crystallization, it improves dye adsorption and electron transport properties. To analyze the performance of the cell, we measured X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer--Emmett--Teller (BET) surface measurements, UV--vis spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and photocurrent--voltage (I--V) measurements.

Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Son, Min-Kyu; Kim, Jin-Kyoung; Kim, Byung-Man; Hong, Na-Yeong; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Kim, Hee-Je

2012-09-01

352

Acetic acid enhanced purification of crude cellulose from sugarcane bagasse: Structural and morphological characterization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Crude cellulose prepared from alkali-extracted sugarcane bagasse was subjected to a rapid purification treatment with a mixture of 80% acetic acid-68% nitric acid (10/1, v/v at 120 °C for 15 min. The yields of the preparations decreased slightly from 57.3%-58.6% in the crude cellulose preparations to 50.3%-51.9% in the purified cellulose samples. The purification treatment removed large amounts of resistant hemicelluloses strongly associated to the cellulose. XRD analysis revealed that the structure of both the crude and purified cellulose was cellulose I. Compared to the crude cellulose, a slight increase in the crystallinity index of the purified cellulose was observed by FTIR, XRD, and CP/MAS 13C NMR analyses. In addition, SEM showed that the macrofibril surface of the crude cellulose was almost free of trenches, but many terraces, steps, and kinks formed in the preparations after the purification.

Jing Bian

2012-11-01

353

Reverse Osmosis Treatment of Concentrated Ferrous Iron Acid Mine Drainage.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 4,000 gpd reverse osmosis unit was tested on a severely polluted ferrous iron acid mine discharge near Morgantown, West Virginia. The water recovery rate was limited to fifty percent due to membrane fouling problems. The role of ferrous iron fouling cou...

R. C. Wilmoth R. B. Scott

1970-01-01

354

MODULAR FIELD-BIOREACTOR FOR ACID MINE DRAINAGE TREATMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

The presentation focuses on the improvements to engineered features of a passive technology that has been used for remediation of acid rock drainage (ARD). This passive remedial technology, a sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) bioreactor, takes advantage of the ability of SRB that,...

355

Tranexamic acid for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding: efficacy and safety  

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Tranexamic acid has proven to be an effective treatment for heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB). It reduces menstrual blood loss (MBL) by 26%–60% and is significantly more effective than placebo, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, oral cyclical luteal phase progestins, or oral etamsylate, while the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system reduces MBL more than tranexamic acid. Other treatments used for HMB are oral contraceptives, danazol, and surgical interventions (endometrial ablation ...

Leminen, Henri; Hurskainen, Ritva

2012-01-01

356

Regeneration of spent hydrodesulfurization catalysts employing presulfiding treatment and heteropoly acids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The removal of metals, especially vanadium, from spent hydrofining catalyst is accomplished by a two-step process. Treatment with a gaseous sulfur-containing reagent brings the metals to the surface of the catalyst and converts them to sulfides, which are then efficiently removed by contact with a heteropoly acid such as molybdophosphoric acid. Treatment of deactivated hydrodesulfurization catalysts such as Co-Mo supported on alumina by this process results in substantially complete regeneration of catalytic activity.

Mohan, R. R.; Silbernagel, B. G.; Singhal, G. H.

1981-06-09

357

Therapeutic paracetamol treatment in older persons induces dietary and metabolic modifications related to sulfur amino acids  

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Sulfur amino acids are determinant for the detoxification of paracetamol (N-acetyl-p-aminophenol) through sulfate and glutathione conjugations. Long-term paracetamol treatment is common in the elderly, despite a potential cysteine/glutathione deficiency. Detoxification could occur at the expense of anti-oxidative defenses and whole body protein stores in elderly. We tested how older persons satisfy the extra demand in sulfur amino acids induced by long-term paracetamol treatment, focusing on ...

2012-01-01

358

Electron beam combined with hydrothermal treatment for enhancing the enzymatic convertibility of sugarcane bagasse  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of microbial cellulolytic enzymes is the most efficient process to liberate glucose from cellulose in biomass without the formation of fermentation inhibitors. A combination of pretreatment technologies is an alternative way to increase the access of enzymes to cellulose, and consequently, the conversion yield. In this way, the present study reports on the enzymatic hydrolysis of SCB submitted to three kinds of pretreatment: electron beam processing (EBP), and EBP followed by hydrothermal (TH) and diluted acid (AH) treatment. SCB samples were irradiated using a radiation dynamics electron beam accelerator, and then submitted to thermal and acid (0.1% sulfuric acid) hydrolysis for 40 and 60 min at 180 °C. These samples were submitted to enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) using commercial preparations, including Celluclast 1.5 L and beta-glycosidase. The addition of diluted acid improved TH treatment allowing for a shorter application time. EBP with 50 kGy increased the enzymatic hydrolysis yield of cellulose by 20% after TH and 30% after AH. - Highlights: ? We study the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose in sugarcane bagasse. ? We study the combination of three pretreatments: electron beam processing, EBP followed by hydrothermal and by diluted acid treatment. ? The electron beam processing increased the enzymatic hydrolysis from 8% to 15% with 20 kGy. ? The enzymes used were commercial preparations, as Celluclast 1.5 L and ?-glycosidase. ? The EBP with 50 kGy increased on 20% the yield of EH of cellulose after TH and 30% after AH.

2012-08-01

359

Comparative study of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and cephalexin in the treatment of bacteriuria during pregnancy.  

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A comparative clinical trial of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and cephalexin was carried out in 80 women with bacteriuria of pregnancy. Treatment was randomly allocated and consisted of either one tablet of amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid (250 and 125 mg, respectively) three times daily or cephalexin (250 mg) three times daily for 7 days. Overall bacteriological cure rates at 2 weeks were 77% in the amoxicillin-clavulanic acid group and 74% in the cephalexin group. At 6 weeks the respective ra...

1985-01-01

360

PERIODS OF VERTEBRAL COLUMN SENSITIVITY TO BORIC ACID TREATMENT IN CD-1 MICE IN UTERO  

Science.gov (United States)

Periods of vertebral column sensitivity to boric acid treatment in CD-1 mice in utero. Cherrington JW, Chernoff N. Department of Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA. jana_cherrington@hotmail.com Boric acid (BA) has many uses as...

 
 
 
 
361

Effects of exogenous salicylic acid pre-treatment on cadmium toxicity and leaf lipid content in Linum usitatissimum L.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of salicylic acid (SA) on cadmium (Cd) toxicity in flax plants were studied by investigating plant growth, lipid peroxidation and fatty acid composition. Cadmium inhibited biomass production as well as the absorption of K, Ca, Mg and Fe. Furthermore, it dramatically increased Cd accumulation in both roots and shoots. The pre-soaking of dry flax grains in SA-containing solutions partially protected seedlings from Cd toxicity during the following growth period. SA treatment decreased the uptake and the transport of Cd, alleviated the Cd-induced inhibition of Ca, Mg and Fe absorption and promoted plant growth. At leaf level, Cd significantly decreased both total lipid (TL) and chlorophyll (Chl) content and enhanced electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation as indicated by malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation. Concomitantly, Cd caused a shift in fatty acid composition, resulting in a lower degree of their unsaturation. SA pre-soaking ameliorated the increased electrolyte leakage as well as Chl, MDA and TL content. SA particularly increased the percentage of linolenic acid and lowered that of palmitic acid by the same proportion. These results suggest that SA could be used as a potential growth regulator and a stabilizer of membrane integrity to improve plant resistance to Cd stress. PMID:20399499

Belkhadi, A; Hediji, H; Abbes, Z; Nouairi, I; Barhoumi, Z; Zarrouk, M; Chaïbi, W; Djebali, W

2010-07-01

362

Integration of on-chip isotachophoresis and functionalized hydrogels for enhanced-sensitivity nucleic acid detection.  

Science.gov (United States)

We introduce an on-chip electrokinetic assay to perform high-sensitivity nucleic acid (NA) detection. This assay integrates electrokinetic sample focusing using isotachophoresis (ITP) with a background signal-removal strategy that employs photopatterened, DNA-functionalized hydrogels. In this multistage assay, ITP first enhances hybridization kinetics between target NAs and end-labeled complementary reporters. After enhanced hybridization, migration through a DNA-functionalized hydrogel region removes excess reporters through affinity interactions. We demonstrate our assay on microRNAs, an important class of low-abundance biomarkers. The assay exhibits 4 orders of magnitude dynamic range, near 1 pM detection limits starting from less than 100 fg of microRNA, and high selectivity for mature microRNA sequences, all within a 10 min run time. This new microfluidic framework provides a unique quantitative assay for NA detection. PMID:22803507

Garcia-Schwarz, Giancarlo; Santiago, Juan G

2012-08-01

363

Synergistic permeability enhancing effect of lysophospholipids and fatty acids on lipid membranes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The permeability-enhancing effects of the two surfactants, 1-paltnitoyl-2-lyso-sn-gycero-3-pllosplloclloline (lysoPPC) and palmitic acid (PA), on lipid membranes that at physiological temperatures are in the gel, fluid, and liquid-ordered phases were determined using the concentration-dependent self-quenching properties of the hydrophilic marker, calcein. Adding lysoPPC to lipid membranes in the gel-phase induced a time-dependent calcein release curve that can be described by the sum of two exponentials, whereas RA induces a considerably more complex release curve. However, when lysoPPC and PA were added simultaneously in equimolar concentrations, a dramatic synergistic permeability-enhancing effect was observed. In contrast, when both lysoPPC and PA are added to liposomal membranes that are in the fluid or liquid-ordered phases, no effect on the transmembrane permeation of calcein was observed.

Davidsen, Jesper; Jørgensen, K.

2002-01-01

364

Cholesterol-derived bile acids enhance the chaperone activity of ?-crystallins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human lens membranes contain the highest cholesterol concentration of any known biological membranes, but it significantly decreases with age. Oxygenation of cholesterol generates numerous forms of oxysterols (bile acids). We previously showed that two forms of the bile acid components--ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA)--suppressed lens epithelial cell death and alleviated cataract formation in galactosemic rat lenses. We investigated whether these compounds also suppress the thermal aggregation of human lens crystallins. Total water-soluble (WS) proteins were prepared from human lenses, and recombinant human crystallins (?A-, ?B-, ?B2-, and ?C-crystallin) were generated by a prokaryotic expression system and purified by liquid chromatography. The light scattering of proteins in the presence or absence of UDCA or TUDCA was measured using a spectrofluorometer set at Ex/Em = 400/400 nm. Protein blot analysis was conducted for detection of ?-crystallins in the human lens WS proteins. High concentrations of UDCA and TUDCA significantly suppressed thermal aggregation of total lens WS proteins, which contained a low level of ?A-/?B-crystallin. Spectroscopic analysis with each recombinant human lens crystallin indicated that the bile acids did not suppress the thermal aggregation of ?C-, ?B2-, ?A-, or ?B-crystallin. Combination of ?-crystallin and bile acid (either UDCA or TUDCA) suppressed thermal aggregation of each individual crystallin as well as a non-crystallin protein, insulin. These results suggest that UDCA or TUDCA protects the chaperone activity of ?-crystallin. It is believed that these two naturally occurring intermediate waste products in the lens enhance the chaperone activity of ?-crystallin. This finding may lead to the development of UDCA and TUDCA as anticataract agents. PMID:21380614

Song, Shuhua; Liang, Jack J N; Mulhern, Michael L; Madson, Christian J; Shinohara, Toshimichi

2011-09-01

365

Changes in Growth, Auxin- and Ribonucleic Acid Metabolism in Wheat Coleoptile Sections Following Pulse Treatment with Indole-3-Acetic Acid  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Growth reactions of wbeat coleoptile sections following a brief pretreament in indole-3-acetic acid (LAA) were studied. The growth versus concentration curves 24 hours after the treatment showed a minimum value surrounded by bigber values. The minimum was never at concentrations lower than 10-5M lAA but it could be found at higher concentrations after short pretreatment periods. The growth versus time curves reveated that the hormone treatment cansed the growth rate initially to increase but later on to decrease. The decrease was followed by a second increase for some treatments. Analysis of IAA content after the pretreatment showed that the attered growth patterns could be ascribed to declining auxin content with time, but not to thc actual concentration in the sections. The results indicate that the metabolic activation brought about by IAA leads to its own disappearance. Such a phenomenon was mirroretl in effects of IAA on hte net synthesis of ribonucleic acid.

Truelsen, T.A.; Galston, A.W.

1966-01-01

366

Acidic fibroblast growth factor enhances regeneration of processes by postnatal mammalian retinal ganglion cells in culture.  

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Postnatal rat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were identified with specific fluorescent labels and placed in culture. Under these conditions, the outgrowth of processes by RGCs was found to be promoted to a far greater degree by acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) than by basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The effect of aFGF and bFGF on process extension by solitary RGCs was quantified after 24 hr in culture, a time when neither a FGF nor bFGF enhanced RGC survival. The action of aFGF on...

Lipton, S. A.; Wagner, J. A.; Madison, R. D.; D Amore, P. A.

1988-01-01

367

Enhanced fumaric acid production from brewery wastewater and insight into the morphology of Rhizopus oryzae 1526.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present work explores brewery wastewater as a novel substrate for fumaric acid production employing the filamentous fungal strain Rhizopus oryzae 1526 through submerged fermentation. The effects of different parameters such as substrate total solid concentrations, fermentation pH, incubation temperature, flask shaking speed, and inoculum size on the fungal morphologies were investigated. Different morphological forms (mycelium clumps, suspended mycelium, and solid/hairy pellets) of R. oryzae 1526 were obtained at different applied fermentation pH, incubation temperature, flask shaking speed, and inoculum size. Among all the obtained morphologies, pellet morphology was found to be the most favorable for enhanced production of fumaric acid for different studied parameters. Scanning electron microscopic investigation was done to reveal the detailed morphologies of the pellets formed under all optimized conditions. With all the optimized growth conditions (pH 6, 25 °C, 200 rpm, 5% (v/v) inoculum size, 25 g/L total solid concentration, and pellet diameter of 0.465 ± 0.04 mm), the highest concentration of fumaric acid achieved was 31.3 ± 2.77 g/L. The results demonstrated that brewery wastewater could be used as a good substrate for the fungal strain R. oryzae 1526 in submerged fermentation for the production of fumaric acid. PMID:24469587

Das, Ratul Kumar; Brar, Satinder Kaur

2014-03-01

368

Acid treatment of kerogen-agglomerated oil shale  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a method of upgrading kerogen-agglomerated oil shale. It comprises: contacting oil shale with a two-phase mixture comprising an added organic liquid and water to form kerogen-rich agglomerates and mineral-rich particles; separating the kerogen-rich agglomerates from the mineral-rich particles and water utilizing at least one screen, the screen having a size that prevents passage fa the kerogen-rich agglomerates and allows for passage fa the mineral-rich particles and water, thereby producing solid, kerogen-rich agglomerates, and contacting the solid, kerogen-rich agglomerates with an acid-containing solution having a pH of less than about 3 to form acid-treated, kerogen-rich agglomerates.

So, B.Y.C.; Marker, T.L.; Tampa, G.E.

1992-02-25

369

Hypertonic saline reduces inflammation and enhances the resolution of oleic acid induced acute lung injury  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertonic saline (HTS reduces the severity of lung injury in ischemia-reperfusion, endotoxin-induced and ventilation-induced lung injury. However, the potential for HTS to modulate the resolution of lung injury is not known. We investigated the potential for hypertonic saline to modulate the evolution and resolution of oleic acid induced lung injury. Methods Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used in all experiments. Series 1 examined the potential for HTS to reduce the severity of evolving oleic acid (OA induced acute lung injury. Following intravenous OA administration, animals were randomized to receive isotonic (Control, n = 12 or hypertonic saline (HTS, n = 12, and the extent of lung injury assessed after 6 hours. Series 2 examined the potential for HTS to enhance the resolution of oleic acid (OA induced acute lung injury. Following intravenous OA administration, animals were randomized to receive isotonic (Control, n = 6 or hypertonic saline (HTS, n = 6, and the extent of lung injury assessed after 6 hours. Results In Series I, HTS significantly reduced bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL neutrophil count compared to Control [61.5 ± 9.08 versus 102.6 ± 11.89 × 103 cells.ml-1]. However, there were no between group differences with regard to: A-a O2 gradient [11.9 ± 0.5 vs. 12.0 ± 0.5 KPa]; arterial PO2; static lung compliance, or histologic injury. In contrast, in Series 2, hypertonic saline significantly reduced histologic injury and reduced BAL neutrophil count [24.5 ± 5.9 versus 46.8 ± 4.4 × 103 cells.ml-1], and interleukin-6 levels [681.9 ± 190.4 versus 1365.7 ± 246.8 pg.ml-1]. Conclusion These findings demonstrate, for the first time, the potential for HTS to reduce pulmonary inflammation and enhance the resolution of oleic acid induced lung injury.

Costello Joseph F

2008-07-01

370

Silk production in a spider involves acid bath treatment  

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We studied physiological conditions during the spinning of dragline silk by the garden cross spider, Araneus diadematus. Silk is converted from the liquid feedstock in the gland into a solid thread via a tapering tubular duct and exits at a spigot. The distal part of the tubule appears specialized for ion transport and the management of the pH inside the lumen. Thus, it appears that spider silk in vivo, like some industrial polymers in vitro, is spun through an acid bath.

Vollrath, F.; Knight, D. P.; Hu, X. W.

1998-01-01

371

Effects of fluoride treatment on phosphoric acid-etching in primary teeth: an AFM observation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of fluoride application on 37% phosphoric acid-etching by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in primary tooth samples based on a clinical protocol used in a pediatric dental hospital. Enamel samples were prepared from 36 exfoliated and non-carious primary teeth. Primary tooth samples were randomly assigned to one of the four groups based on the timing of acid-etching with 37% phosphoric acid after an acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) pre-treatment. Group 1 received no fluoride application, Group 2 was pre-treated with fluoride and then received acid-etching 2 weeks later. One week separated the fluoride treatment and the acid-etching in Group 3, while Group 4 received acid-etching immediately after the fluoride treatment. The vestibular enamel surfaces of each primary tooth sample were scanned in air at a resolution of 512 x 512 pixels and a scan speed of 0.8 line/s. On the enamel surfaces of the primary teeth after APF pre-treatment, debris were observed although the teeth were smoother than they were prior to APF. As a result, it was concluded that APF treatment is responsible for decreased primary tooth surface roughness. The enamel surfaces etched for 20s showed that acid-etching was effective not only in removing scratches and debris, but also for evaluating enamel rod characteristics. Primary tooth enamel surfaces after etching showed minute structures caused by the decreased hydroxyapatite nanoparticle space, compared to those before etching. Also, acid-etching showed significantly increased roughness effects (p<0.0001, n=9). Finally, as more time elapsed after APF pre-treatment, the roughness was decreased to a lesser degree (p=0.005, n=9). We suggest that primary teeth etching 2 weeks after APF pre-treatment used clinically in pediatric hospitals may be effective to obtain properly etched enamel surfaces. PMID:20219379

Choi, Samjin; Rhee, Yeri; Park, Jeong-Hoon; Lee, Gi-Ja; Kim, Kyung-Sook; Park, Jae-Hong; Park, Young-Guk; Park, Hun-Kuk

2010-07-01

372

Using Laboratory Activities Enhanced with Concept Cartoons to Support Progression in Students' Understanding of Acid-Base Concepts  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of an intervention based on a series of laboratory activities enhanced with concept cartoons. The purpose of the intervention was to enhance students' understanding of acid-base chemistry for eight grade students' from two classes in a Turkish primary school. A pretest-posttest non-equivalent…

Ozmen, Haluk; Demircioglu, Gokhan; Burhan, Yasemin; Naseriazar, Akbar; Demircioglu, Hulya

2012-01-01

373

CAPSULE REPORT: ADIPIC ACID-ENHANCED LIME/LIMESTONE TEST RESULTS AT THE EPA ALKALI SCRUBBING TEST FACILITY  

Science.gov (United States)

The fifth in a series of reports describing the results of the Shawnee Lime and Limestone Wet Scrubbing Test Program, this report describes the results of adipic acid-enhanced limestone wet scrubbing systems. rimary objective of this program was to enhance sulfur oxide removal an...

374

Desire for Penile Girth Enhancement and the Effects of the Self-Injection of Hyaluronic Acid Gel  

Science.gov (United States)

Penile girth enhancement is a controversial subject but demands for enhancement are increasing steadily. Although various fillers have been widely used for soft tissue augmentation, there is no reliable material for this particular situation. Here we report a case of an acute hypersensitivity reaction in a man after his first self-injection of a filler material, which, he claimed, was hyaluronic acid gel for penile girth enhancement and glans penis augmentation.

Coskuner, Enis Rauf; Canter, Halil Ibrahim

2012-01-01

375

Tolfenamic acid enhances pancreatic cancer cell and tumor response to radiation therapy by inhibiting survivin protein expression.  

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Survivin is overexpressed in most human cancers, including pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Expression of survivin is regulated by specificity protein (Sp) proteins and related to resistance to radiation therapy. Tolfenamic acid induces Sp protein degradation in several cancer cell lines. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether tolfenamic acid inhibits survivin expression and sensitizes pancreatic cancer cells/tumor to radiotherapy. Panc1 and L3.6pl cells have been used to study the effect of radiation on survivin expression and to investigate the efficacy of tolfenamic acid in enhancing the response to radiation therapy. In addition, an orthotopic model for human pancreatic cancer has been used to confirm the efficacy of tolfenamic acid to enhance tumor response to radiation in vivo. Pancreatic cancer cell lines express variable levels of survivin mRNA/protein, which correlate with their radiosensitivity. Radiation increased survivin promoter activity and protein expression in Panc1 and L3.6pl cells and tolfenamic acid inhibited both constitutive and radiation-induced survivin protein expression and enhanced the response of pancreatic cancer cells to radiation therapy. In vivo studies show that tolfenamic acid enhanced the radiation-induced apoptosis associated with decreased survivin expression in tumors and this correlates with the enhanced response of these tumors to the radiation. Thus, tolfenamic acid significantly enhances pancreatic cancer cells/tumor response to radiation therapy. The underlying mechanism includes tolfenamic acid-induced degradation of Sp proteins, which in tumor decreases expression of the Sp-dependent antiapoptotic protein survivin. These preclinical data suggest that tolfenamic acid has the potential to increase the response of pancreatic adenocarcinoma to radiation therapy. PMID:19258429

Konduri, Santhi; Colon, Jimmie; Baker, Cheryl H; Safe, Stephen; Abbruzzese, James L; Abudayyeh, Ala; Basha, Md Riyaz; Abdelrahim, Maen

2009-03-01

376

Ras Isoprenylation and pAkt Inhibition by Zoledronic Acid and Fluvastatin Enhances Paclitaxel Activity in T24 Bladder Cancer Cells  

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Full Text Available Background: Bisphosphonates interfere with the mevalonate pathway and inhibit the prenylation of small GTP-binding proteins such as ras and rap. We hypothesized that zoledronic acid would synergistically inhibit T24 bladder cancer cell growth in combination with fluvastatin and paclitaxel. Methods: Increasing doses of fluvastatin, zoledronic acid, and paclitaxel were investigated as single agents and in combination, and synergistic interactions were evaluated by the Chou-Talalay method. Western blots were used to assess effects on signal transduction pathways. Results: Growth of T24 was significantly inhibited with IC50 values of 2.67 ± 0.61 mM for fluvastatin and 5.35 ± 1.35 mM for zoledronic acid after 72 hours treatment. Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate and farnesyl pyrophosphate was able to block, in part, this inhibitory activity. The combinations of zoledronic acid and paclitaxel, zoledronic acid and fluvastatin, and fluvastatin and paclitaxel were all synergistic. Both fluvastatin and zoledronic acid inhibited Ras and Rap prenylation, and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and AKT. The degree of inhibition of phosphorylation of these key signaling transduction pathways appears to closely correlate with their synergistic interactions. Conclusions: Zoledronic acid enhances fluvastatin and paclitaxel activity against T24 in a synergistic manner and this is mediated largely by inhibition of both the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways via isoprenylation inhibition.

Shaojuan Li

2011-02-01

377

Chemical Synthesis Pharmaceutical Wastewater Containing Sulfadiazine (SD and Ketoprofen(KP Treatment by Acid Separating  

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Full Text Available Containing sulfadiazine (SD and ketoprofen (KP on the synthesis of pharmaceutical wastewater has a stronger effect on treatment of microbes. It is not used to be dealt with by wastewater treatment. This study shows that acid separation can improve bio-chemistry catabolism of the synthesis of pharmaceutical wastewater clearly. The acid separation to increase the biodegradability of waste water is conducive to aerobic and anaerobic bacteria domesticated, screened and compound treatment. Aerobic and anaerobic wastewater treatment can be done well after acid separated. Analysis of experimentation has proved that COD (chemical oxygen demand of original wastewater falls below 150 mg·L-1 from 2 52 5 mg·L-1, at last reaches to 145 mg·L-1 finally. The total removal rate of COD is about 94%. According to test it can be gotten that acid separation of the best conditions is :pH=2, acid sparating process time is 40 minut. Tests show that pretreatment of acid separation to high concentration of chemical synthesis is the key to pharmaceutical wastewater which is done by aerobic and anaerobic bacteria after acid separation.

CHEN Xi

2009-06-01

378

Sewage treatment after uranium processing with using the sulfuric-acid scheme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A technological scheme for treatment of the sewage, produced after sulfuric-acid scheme of uranium refining is developed. The sewage treatment includes uranium-containing precipitate segregation, ammonia flowing,