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Sample records for acid supplemented feeding

  1. Efficacy of essence oil supplementation to feeds on volatile fatty acid production

    Ahmet Tekeli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Determine the effect of some plant extract supplementation to Total Mixed Ration (TMR, concentrate and hay on volatile fatty acid (VFA production at 8 and 24 hours (h using in vitro gas production technique in cattle. Material and methods. Three fistulated Holstein dairy cows were used for rumen fluid collection for application of in vitro gas production technique. Four essence oils (T. vulgaris, O. vulgare, S. aromaticum, Z. officinale were used as plant extracts. Results. Essence oil supplementations to the examined feed groups had significant effect only on C2/C3 VFA level at 8 h in all feed groups (p<0.05. C2/C3 VFA level at 8 h significantly increased in the groups with Oregano 25 ppm supplementation for TMR and concentrate and in the groups with Thymol 25 ppm supplementation for hay. C3 VFA level at 8 h significantly increased in the group that received Syzygium 200 ppm supplementation for hay. Different plant extracts supplemented to TMR, concentrate and hay significantly affected C2, C3, IC4, IC5, C5 and C2/C3 VFA levels at 24 h (p<0.05. Conclusions. The findings of the study indicate that moderate doses of plant extracts result in increased VFA levels in ruminants while higher doses demonstrate the opposite effect.

  2. Effect of Six Feed Supplements on Ruminal Degradation Characteristics and Amino Acid Profile of Sheep

    Demba B. Jallow

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the influence of degradation characteristics of six feed supplements on ruminal volatile fatty acid and amino acid production and profile using three ruminally cannulated male sheep. The sheep were fed a concentrate to forage ratio of 35:65. The supplements came from Soybean Meal (SBM, Corn Meal (CM, Meat and Bone Meal (MBM, Feather Meal (FtM, Blood Meal (BM, and distillers Dried Gain with Soluble (DDGs. Sheep were fed at 6 h interval for 42 days. Ruminal parameters such as pH, NH4+, temperature, NO3-, and Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA were measured over a 12 h period after feeding. Concentrations of pH, NH4+, and NO3- showed significant difference (p<0.001 across all dietary treatments. Sheep fed BM had higher pH (6.64 vs. 5.81, NH4+ (262.31 vs. 1.95 ppm, and NO3- (559.71 vs. 77.40 ppm values than did those fed CM whereas FtM showed intermediate values. The C2/ (C3+C4 ratio of the major VFA showed a significant difference (p<0.001. Ruminal profile (% of the sum of amino acids measured was similar among feeds, except Asp, isoleucine, lysine, and proline, respectively. Specific first limiting AA was methionine for SBM while lysine was co-limiting for FtM and DDGs. In general, ruminal parameters were clearly influenced by dietary treatments, with a lower ruminal pH and a higher NH4+ in BM than CM. Overall, the concentration of both total EAA and NEAA were similar among feeds, but numerically SBM had more EAA concentrations followed by CM, MBM, DDGs, BM, and FtM.

  3. Prophylactic Supplementation of Caprylic Acid in Feed Reduces Salmonella Enteritidis Colonization in Commercial Broiler Chicks

    Salmonella Enteritidis is a major foodborne pathogen for which chickens serve as reservoir hosts. Reducing Salmonella Enteritidis carriage in chickens would reduce contamination of poultry meat and eggs with this pathogen. We investigated the prophylactic efficacy of feed supplemented with caprylic ...

  4. SUPPLEMENTATION OF VITAMIN E AND C IN FEED ON MEAT QUALITY, THIOBARBITURIC ACID REACTIVE SUBSTANCE (TBARS AND MYOGLOBIN LEVEL OF MUSCOVY DUCK MEAT

    E. Tugiyanti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to analyze vitamin E and C supplementation in feed on meet quality,thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and myoglobin level of muscovy duck. This researchused 84 Indonesian muscovy duck divided into 7 group of experimental diet, namely E0C0 : basal feedwithout vitamin E and C supplementation, E400 : basal feed with 400 IU of vitamin E supplementation,E600 : basal feed with 600 IU of vitamin E supplementation, C400 : basal feed with 400mg vof itamin Csupplementation, C600 : basal feed with 600mg of vitamin C supplementation, E200C200 : basal with 200 IUof vitamin E and 200mg of vitamin C supplementation, E300C300 : basal feed with 300 IU of vitamin Eand 300mg of vitamin C. A completely randomized design was applied and each treatment had 4replications. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance. Analysis of variance showed thattreatments significantly affect (P>0.01 meat quality, myoglobin level and TBARS level. Vitamin E andC was proven able to improve final pH of muscovy duck meat. Supplementation of 300 IU of vitamin Eand 300mg of vitamin C at feed with 21% of protein and 3100 kcal/kg of energy could improve DIA,cooking loss, flavor, and color of muscovy duck meat; however, the highest meat tenderness wasresulted from 400 IU vitamin E supplementation.

  5. Feed Supplementation with Thermo-Tolerant, Lactic Acid-Producing Bacteria as Probiotics for Swine Husbandry

    This research work had an objective to employ the thermo tolerant, lactic acid-producing bacteria, Bacillus coagulans strain NF17 as feed additive for swine raising. The bacterial isolate NF17, kept in the culture collection of Khon Kaen University that could tolerate high temperature and produce lactic acid, was employed in this experiment. Cell suspension of isolate NF17 was exposed to gamma irradiation at various doses (1-5 KGy). The isolated survivors were screened on the basis of forming larger colonies and clear zones than the parent strain NF17 when grown on Glucose- Yeast extract-Peptone (GYP) containing CaCO3. We obtained 55 effective isolates which the isolate L5I2 to 14(5), designated as K14 was chosen for further experiments. Isolate K14 together with the parent strain were characterized using morphological, physiological and biochemical tests. They were all identified as Bacillus coagulans. All isolates had optimal growth pH of 6.5 and grew best at 42.50 oC. The strain K14 could tolerate the temperature as high as 59 oC and was then employed in the fermentation of food waste that collected from the university cafeteria. It was found that food waste could support growth of Bacillus K14 and produce about 107 to 108 CFU/g food waste within 1-3 days. Nutritional value of the fermented food waste in the form of protein was also increased. When mixing this selected bacterium as feed additive in daily pig rations, it was found that Bacillus K14 helped increase feed conversion ratio and reduced the mortality in weaned piglets. Experiments were also performed with the growing pigs. It showed that Bacillus Sp. K14 significantly improved the feed conversion ratio

  6. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation and feeding level on dairy performance, milk fatty acid composition, and body fat changes in mid-lactation goats.

    Ghazal, S; Berthelot, V; Friggens, N C; Schmidely, P

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this trial was to study the interaction between the supplementation of lipid-encapsulated conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 4.5 g of cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and 4.5 g of trans-10,cis-12 C18:2) and feeding level to test if milk performance or milk fatty acid (FA) profile are affected by the interaction between CLA and feeding level. Twenty-four dairy goats were used in an 8-wk trial with a 3-wk adaptation to the experimental ration that contained corn silage, beet pulp, barley, and a commercial concentrate. During the third week, goats were assigned into blocks of 2 goats according to their dry matter intake (DMI), raw milk yield, and fat yield. Each block was randomly allocated to control (45 g of Ca salt of palm oil/d) or CLA treatment. Within each block, one goat was fed to cover 100% (FL100) of the calculated energy requirements and the other was fed 85% of the DMI of the first goat (FL85). Individual milk production and composition were recorded weekly, and milk FA composition was analyzed in wk 3, 5, and 7. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation reduced milk fat content and fat yield by 17 and 19%, respectively, independent of the feeding level. It reduced both the secretion of milk FA synthesized de novo, and those taken up from the blood. No interaction between CLA and feeding level was observed on milk secretion of any group of FA. The CLA supplementation had no effect on DMI, milk yield, protein, and lactose yields but it improved calculated net energy for lactation balance. Goats fed the FL100 × CLA diet tended to have the highest DMI and protein yield. The interaction between CLA and feeding level was not significant for any other variables. Compared with the goats fed FL100, those fed FL85 had lower DMI, lower net energy for lactation balance, and lower digestible protein in the intestine balance. The body weight; milk yield; milk fat, protein, and lactose yields; and fat, protein, lactose, and urea contents in milk were not affected by

  7. Feed supplemented with organic acids does not affect starch digestibility, nor intestinal absorptive or secretory function in broiler chickens.

    Ruhnke, I; Röhe, I; Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Knorr, F; Mader, A; Hafeez, A; Zentek, J

    2015-04-01

    The current study aimed to determine the impact of acidified feed on apparent ileal starch digestibility, intestinal transport and barrier function and intestinal glucose transporter expression. The experiment included a control group and a treatment group with broilers fed a standard diet without or with 1.5% of a commercial organic acid product (64% formic acid, 25% propionic acid, 11% water). Broilers were fed with the experimental diets from hatching until days 32-35. Starch digestibility was determined using 0.2% titanium dioxide as ingestible marker. Gene expressions of the intestinal sodium glucose transporter 1 (SGLT-1) and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT-2) were analysed using qPCR analysis. Additionally, SGLT-1 function and chloride secretion were analysed in Ussing chamber experiments. Jejunal samples were sequentially exposed to 10 mm glucose, 100 μm phloridzin, 100 μm histamine and 100 μm carbachol. Apparent ileal starch digestibility (±SEM) of the control group (97.5 ± 0.35%) and the acid-treated group (97.0 ± 0.59%) did not differ (p = 0.674). The mean tissue conductance of intestinal samples obtained from the control group and the treatment group was similar [10.6 mS/cm(2) (±0.68) and 9.4 mS/cm(2) (±0.80) respectively (p = 0.147)]. The mean short-circuit currents (ΔIsc ) of the samples exposed to glucose, phloridzin, histamine and carbachol did not differ (p > 0.05). Additionally, no differences in the expression of SGLT-1 and GLUT-2 could be observed (p = 0.942, p = 0.413). Based on this study, the consumption of feed supplemented with organic acids was not associated with effects on ileal starch digestibility and functional traits of jejunal tissues, indicating that these additives have no major impact on the small intestinal function in broilers. PMID:25865420

  8. Extraction of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from water hyacinth using inexpensive contraptions, and the use of the VFAs as feed supplements in conventional biogas digester

    Sankar Ganesh, P.; Ramasamy, E.V.; Gajalakshmi, S.; Abbasi, S.A. [Pondicherry Univ., Pondicherry (India). Centre for Pollution Control and Energy Technology

    2004-07-01

    Water hyacinth is an aquatic weed and a readily available organic waste which can be fermented anaerobically. However, it cannot be fed to conventional biogas digesters because the phytomass is lighter than water and therefore floats on top of the digester contents and clogs the digester. This study used a simple and low-cost apparatus to extract volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from water hyacinth. The VFAs were then used as a supplement feed in cow dung-fed floating dome biogas digesters which are widely used in third World countries. The objective was to provide such digesters with feed derived from phytomass, particularly for times when animal dung is in short supply. The extraction of VFA occurs by aerobic degradation of water hyacinth. Methanogenesis takes place when the VFAs are fed into the biogas digesters, resulting in methane rich biogas. This newly developed VFA extraction method enables phytomass to be used as a feed supplement for biogas digesters without the adverse effects of solid accumulation, frothing or clogging that occurs with phytomass feed. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Effect of wheat dried distillers grains and enzyme supplementation on growth rates, feed conversion ratio and beef fatty acid profile in feedlot steers.

    He, Z X; He, M L; Zhao, Y L; Xu, L; Walker, N D; Beauchemin, K A; McAllister, T A; Yang, W Z

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) the effect of wheat dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) inclusion, and (2) dietary feed enzyme (FE; Econase XT) supplementation in a finishing diet containing wheat DDGS on fatty acid profile of the pars costalis diaphragmatis muscle of beef cattle. A total of 160 crossbred yearling steers with initial BW of 495 ± 38 kg were blocked by BW and randomized into 16 pens (10 head/pen). The pens were randomly assigned to one of the four treatments: (1) control (CON; 10% barley silage and 90% barley grain-based concentrate, dry matter (DM) basis); (2) diet containing 30% wheat DDGS in place of barley grain without FE (WDG); (3) WDG diet supplemented with low FE (WDGL; 1 ml FE/kg DM); and (4) WDG diet supplemented with high FE (2 ml FE/kg DM). The pars costalis diaphragmatis muscle samples were collected from cattle at slaughter at the end of the finishing period (120 days) with a targeted live weight of 650 kg. No differences in organic matter intake, final BW and average daily gain were observed among treatments. However, steers fed WDG had greater (Pacids (PUFA) in muscle tended to be greater (Pacid (VA) in muscle and also resulted in a higher (Pacids. These results suggest that inclusion of wheat DDGS in finishing diets may improve fatty acid profile of beef muscle which could benefit human health. PMID:26051447

  10. Enhancement of lipid stability of broiler breast meat and meat products fed on alpha lipoic acid and alpha tocopherol acetate supplemented feed

    Sohaib Muhammad

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was designed to investigate the effect of alpha lipoic acid (ALA and alpha tocopherol acetate (ATA on the antioxidant potential, lipid stability and the quality of the broiler breast meat and meat products. The treatment plan was as (T1 = control feed, T2 = 200 mg ATA + 25 mg ALA/kg feed, T3 = 200 mg ATA + 75 mg ALA/kg feed, T4 = 200 mg ATA + 150 mg ALA/kg feed, T5 = Oxidized oil (4%, T6 = 200 mg ATA + 150 mg ALA + Oxidized oil (4%/kg feed. After two weeks of acclimatization the birds were fed with ALA and ATA enriched diet. The results revealed that maximum deposition of ALA took place in T4 which contain maximum dose of ALA. The TBARS and DPPH values of the broiler breast meat were in T4 (0.14 ± 0.01 MDA/kg of meat, 76.69 ± 0.14% and in T5 were (0.24 ± 0.15 MDA/Kg of meat, 44.98 ± 0.04% accordingly. ATA concentration were also highest in T4 (206.43 ± 0.22 mg/g of meat and lowest in T5 (79.09 ± 0.06 mg/g of meat. Sensory evaluation results showed that nuggets and patties made of T5 containing oxidized oil were least liked and T4 got highest score. In a nutshell, 150 mg/kg feed dietary supplementation of ALA with constant level of ATA can ameliorate the antioxidant potential, lipid stability and nutritional qualities of broiler breast meat and meat products.

  11. Effect of in-feed supplementation of trans-cinnamaldehyde and caprylic acid on chicken cecal microbiome in response to Salmonella Enteritidis

    Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) is a major foodborne pathogen causing enteric illnesses in humans, with undercooked eggs and poultry meat as the primary sources of infection. Our previous research revealed that in-feed supplementation of two GRAS (generally recognized as safe)-status, natural compounds,...

  12. Influence of apple and citrus pectins, processed mango peels, a phenolic mango peel extract, and gallic Acid as potential feed supplements on in vitro total gas production and rumen methanogenesis.

    Geerkens, Christian Hubert; Schweiggert, Ralf Martin; Steingass, Herbert; Boguhn, Jeannette; Rodehutscord, Markus; Carle, Reinhold

    2013-06-19

    Several food processing byproducts were assessed as potential feed and feed supplements. Since their chemical composition revealed a high nutritional potential for ruminants, the Hohenheim in vitro gas test was used to investigate total gas, methane, and volatile fatty acid production as well as protozoal numbers after ruminal digestion of different substrate levels. Processing byproducts used were low- and high-esterified citrus and apple pectins, integral mango peels, and depectinized mango peels. In addition, the effect of a phenolic mango peel extract and pure gallic acid was investigated. The highest decrease in methane production (19%) was achieved by supplementing high levels of low-esterified citrus pectin to the hay-based diet. Interestingly, total gas production was not affected at the same time. Showing valuable nutritional potential, all byproducts exhibited, e.g., high metabolizable energy (11.9-12.8 MJ/kg DM). In conclusion, all byproducts, particularly low-esterified citrus pectin, revealed promising potential as feed and feed supplements. PMID:23687998

  13. Effects of Environmental Temperature and Dietary Ascorbic Acid on the Diurnal Feeding Pattern of Broilers

    Kutlu, Hasan Rüştü

    2000-01-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the diurnal feeding patterns of broiler chickens given a choice between ascorbic acid (AA) supplemented and unsupplemented feeds under heated or unheated conditions. Broiler chickens were offered supplemented (with 200 mg AA/kg feed) and unsupplemented feeds, and the feeding behaviour for each feed was monitored by continuous recording of the weight of the feed container for 4 days under unheated (UH) and the next 4 days under heated (H) cond...

  14. The influence of supplement feed preparation on the fatty acid composition of carp and Chironomidae larvae in a semi-intensive production system

    Živić Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine how extruded and pelleted feed affects the fatty acid composition of carp meat and Chironomidae larvae, two-month-old carp specimens were set in two fishponds (L1 and L2. The fatty acid composition of extruded and pelleted feed is characterized by a significantly higher content of ω-3 fatty acids and higher ω-3 to ω-6 fatty acids ratio (ω-3/ω-6 in extruded (11.34±0.12% and 0.315±0.005, respectively compared to pelleted feed (7.72±0.08%, 0.180±0.001, respectively. The fatty acid composition of carp meat is characterized by higher ω-3 fatty acid content and ω-3/ω-6 in carp fed with extruded feed (L1, 6.98±0.53% and 0.295±0.022, respectively compared to carp fed with extruded feed (L2, 5.46±0.07% and 0.232±0.009, respectively. Chironomidae larvae from the fishpond L2 had significantly higher ω-3 fatty acid content (8.22±0.89%, and therefore higher ω-3/ω-6 (0.81±0.09 in comparison to Chironomidae from the L1 fishpond where these parameters were 4.48±0.06% and 0.21±0.01, respectively. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31075 i br. 173040

  15. Supplementation of branched-chain amino acids to a reduced-protein diet improves growth performance in piglets: involvement of increased feed intake and direct muscle growth-promoting effect.

    Zheng, Liufeng; Wei, Hongkui; Cheng, Chuanshang; Xiang, Quanhang; Pang, Jiaman; Peng, Jian

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether supplementing branched-chain amino acids (AA) (BCAA) along with a reduced-protein diet increases piglet growth, and whether elevated feed intake and muscle growth-promoting effect contribute to this improvement. In Expt 1, twenty-eight weanling piglets were randomly fed one of the following four diets: a positive control (PC) diet, a reduced-protein negative control (NC) diet, an NC diet supplemented with BCAA to the same levels as in the PC diet (test 1 (T1)) and an NC diet supplemented with a 2-fold dose of BCAA in T1 diet (test 2 (T2)) for 28 d. In Expt 2, twenty-one weanling piglets were randomly assigned to NC, T1 and pair-fed T1 (P) groups. NC and T1 diets were the same as in Expt 1, whereas piglets in the P group were individually pair-fed with the NC group. In Expt 1, the NC group had reduced piglet growth and feed intake compared with the PC group, which were restored in T1 and T2 groups, but no differences were detected between T1 and T2 groups. In Expt 2, T1 and P groups showed increases in growth and mass of some muscles compared with the NC group. Increased feed intake after BCAA supplementation was associated with increased mRNA expressions of agouti-related peptide and co-express neuropeptide Y (NPY) and phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), as well as decreased mRNA expressions of melanocortin-4 receptor and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript and phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α in the hypothalamus. No differences were observed among PC, T1 and T2 groups except for higher NPY mRNA expression in the T2 group than in the PC group (Expt 1). Phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K1 in muscle was enhanced after BCAA supplementation, which was independent of change in feed intake (Expt 2). In conclusion, supplementing BCAA to reduced-protein diets increases feed intake and muscle mass, and contributes to better growth

  16. Dried, irradiated sewage solids as supplemental feed for cattle

    Sewage solids were collected as 'primary settled solids' and then dried and gamma-irradiated (using 60Co or 177Cs) to absorbed dosage of about one magarad to minimize viable parasites and pathogenic organisms. Nutrient composition and bioassays suggested prospective usage as supplemental feed for ruminants. In a large-scale experiment, beef cows grazing poor-quality rangeland forage during late gestation-early lactation were given either no supplemental feed or cottonseed meal or experimental supplement comprised of 62% sewage solids. Supplements were provided for 13 weeks until rangeland forage quality improved seasonably. Supplemental cottenseed meal for cows improved weaning weights of calves by about 11% over unsupplemented controls; whereas, supplement with 62% sewage solids improved calf weaning weights by about 7%. Hazards or risks to animals or to human health appear to be slight when sewage solids of this type are fed as supplemental feeds to cattle in production programs of this type. (Auth.)

  17. Response of laying hens to feeding low-protein amino acid-supplemented diets under high ambient temperature: performance, egg quality, leukocyte profile, blood lipids, and excreta pH

    Torki, Mehran; Mohebbifar, Ahmad; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Zardast, Afshin

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine whether, by using a low-protein amino acid-supplemented diet, the health status, stress response, and excreta quality could be improved without affecting the productive performance of heat-stressed laying hens. The requirements for egg production, egg mass, and feed conversion ratio were also estimated using second-order equations and broken-line regression. A total of 150 Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL-Lite) hens were divided randomly into five groups of 30 with five replicates of six hens. The hens were raised for an 8-week period (52 to 60 weeks) in wire cages situated in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. The five experimental diets (ME; 2,720 kcal/kg) varied according to five crude protein (CP) levels: normal-CP diet (control, 16.5 % CP) and low-CP diets containing 15.0, 13.5, 12.0, or 10.5 % CP. All experimental diets were supplemented with crystalline amino acids at the levels sufficient to meet their requirements. The results showed that under high temperature conditions, all productive performance and egg quality parameters in the birds fed with 15.0, 13.5, and 12.0 % CP diets were similar to those of birds fed with control diet (16.5 % CP), whereas feeding 10.5 % CP diet significantly decreased egg production and egg mass. Estimations of requirements were of 13.93 and 12.77 % CP for egg production, 14.62 and 13.22 % CP for egg mass, and 12.93 and 12.26 % CP for feed conversion ratio using quadratic and broken-line models, respectively. Egg yolk color index, blood triglyceride level, and excreta acidity were also significantly higher in birds fed with 12.0 and 10.5 % CP diets compared with those of control birds. The heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, as a stress indicator, was significantly decreased by 15.0, 13.5, and 12 % CP diets. On the basis of our findings, reducing dietary CP from 16.5 to 12.0 % and supplementing the diets with the essential amino acids showed merit for improving the

  18. Effect of Organic Acids Supplement on Performance of Broiler Chickens

    Ján Kopecký

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to evaluate effect of organic acids on broiler performance. Totally 180 chickens of Ross 308 hybrid were divided to three groups. Experimental group no. 1 (n=60 received acetic acid in drinking water with concentration 0.25% from day 1 to day 42. Experimental group no. 2 (n=60 received citric acid in drinking water with concentration 0.25% from day 1 to day 42. Control group (n=60 received drinking water without any additives. The average body weight, feed consumption, mortality and carcass characteristics were analyzed and compared finally. The results showed no significant effects of diets with addition of organic acids (P<0.05 on body weight. Supplementation of citric acid caused decrease in total feed consumption. Addition of organic acids affected positive total mortality of broiler chickens. There were no significant effects of organic acids supplementation on carcass characteristics.

  19. Glucose polymer supplementation of feeds for very low birthweight infants.

    Raffles, A; Schiller, G; Erhardt, P; Silverman, M

    1983-01-01

    The feeds of 14 very low birthweight infants (birth weight less than 1500 g) were supplemented with a glucose polymer (Caloreen) at the rate of 6 g/kg body weight daily. Seven day periods of supplementation were alternated with seven day periods of normal feeding. Adding the glucose polymer significantly increased the rate of weight gain in these infants from 105 g/week to 140 g/week; growth rates in terms of length and head circumference were not affected. No adverse effects were noted. Gluc...

  20. Optimized Batch Fermentation of Cheese Whey-Supplemented Feedlot Waste Filtrate to Produce a Nitrogen-Rich Feed Supplement for Ruminants †

    Erdman, M D; Reddy, C. Adinarayana

    1986-01-01

    An optimized batch fermentation process for the conversion of cattle feedlot waste filtrate, supplemented with cheese whey, into a nitrogenous feed supplement for ruminants is described. Feedlot waste filtrate supplemented with cheese whey (5 g of whey per 100 ml) was fermented by the indigenous microbial flora in the feedlot waste filtrate. Ammonium hydroxide was added to the fermentation not only to maintain a constant pH but also to produce ammonium salts of organic acids, which have been ...

  1. Dried, irradiated sewage solids as supplemental feed for cattle

    Smith, G.S.; Kiesling, H.E.; Ray, E.E.; Orcasberro, R.; Trujillo, P.; Herbel, C.H.

    1979-01-01

    Sewage solids were collected as primary settled solids and then dried and gamma-irradiated (using /sup 60/Co or /sup 137/Cs) to absorbed dosage of about one megarad to minimize viable parasites and pathogenic organisms. Nutrient composition and bioassays with rumen microbes suggested prospective usage as supplemental feed for ruminants. Short-term experiments with sheep and then with cattle further suggested that usage of nutrients could be beneficial and that accumulation of heavy metals was not excessive. A longer-term feeding trial with cattle fed sewage solids as 20% of diet for 68 days demonstrated that tissue uptake of elements such as Cu, Fe and Pb was measurably increased, but not sufficient to exceed ranges considered normal. Likewise, of 22 refractory organic compounds having toxicological interest, only a few were detectible in adipose tissue and none of these exceeded levels that have been reported in tissues from cattle produced conventionally. In a large-scale experiment, beef cows grazing poor-quality rangeland forage during late gestation-early lactation were given either no spplemental feed or cottonseed meal or experimental supplement comprised of 62% sewage solids. Supplements were provided for 13 weeks until rangeland forage quality improved seasonably. Supplemental cottonseed meal for cows improved weaning weights of calves by about 11% over unsupplemented controls; whereas, supplement with 62% sewage solids improved calf weaning weights by about 7%. Hazards or risks to animals or to human health appear to be slight when sewage solids of this type are fed as supplemental feeds to cattle in production programs of this type.

  2. Plasma Fatty Acid Profile of Gestating Ewes Supplemented with Fishmeal

    Mamun M. Or-Rashid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The very long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (>18C cannot be adequately synthesized by ruminant tissues to meet their requirements; therefore, their concentration in body depends on the supply through feed. It may be possible to improve the essential fatty acid status of ruminant animals, during gestation by manipulating the maternal diet with Fishmeal (FM. The objectives of this research were to (1 determine the effect of fishmeal supplementation on the plasma fatty acid profile of ewes during late gestation and (2 determine the status of the plasma docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3 of lambs born to these ewes. Approach: Eight gestating ewes [Rideau-Arcott, 97±5 kg initial body weight, 100 days of gestation] were used in a completely randomized design. Ewes were individually-housed and fed either a control diet (supplemented with soybean meal or a fishmeal supplemented diet. Blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture for plasma fatty acids analysis on 100, 114, 128 and 142 days of “gestation”. Blood samples from the lambs were also collected via jugular venipuncture immediately after birth and before receiving their mothers’ colostrum. Plasma fatty acids were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. Results: The ewes from both groups, i.e., control and fishmeal supplemented, had a similar fatty acid profile prior to supplementation (at 100 days, p>0.05. Thereafter, there was an increase in eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n3, docosahexaenoic acid, total n3-PUFA and total very long chain n3-PUFA (>C18 contents in plasma for the fishmeal supplemented ewes compared to the control (p0.05 in total saturated fatty acids, total monounsaturated fatty acids, total conjugated linoleic acid, total trans-18:1, total cis-18:1, or total n6-PUFA contents in ewe plasma between control and fishmeal supplemented groups. Lambs born to ewes fed the fishmeal supplemented diet had greater (pConclusion: The ewes supplemented

  3. Gamma-irradiated sewage solids as supplemental feed for ruminants

    Sewage represents a vast resource of nutrients that could be useful in supplemental feeding of livestock, especially ruminants, which can subsist on cellulosic and hemicellulosic herbage when supplemented with nitrogen and minerals. A large scale, long term research project at New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, and Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, has evaluated dried solids from primary (''undigested'') sewage sludge as a supplemental feed for cattle and sheep. Dried sewage solids were subjected to γ-irradiation, 10 Gy (1 Mrad), using 137Cs, as a means of pathogen reduction. Digestibility of energy was about 60%, digestibility of N about 70%, and biological value of N (retention of absorbed N) about 65%. Intake and digestibility of poor quality roughages were improved about equally by experimental supplements with sewage solids or cottonseed meal. Reproduction of beef cows on arid range was improved, and calf weaning weights increased about equally by cottonseed meal and by experimental supplements with 50% or more sewage solids. Mature ewes fed irradiated sewage solids as 7% of total diet for over two years reproduced as well as ewes fed conventionally, but ewe lambs fed 7% irradiated sewage solids from weaning through early mating (at 8 months old) reproduced poorly. Tissue uptakes of heavy metals and halogenated hydrocarbons were low, and no induction of mixed function oxidase was observed. Prospective benefits from use of sewage products seem substantial and risks of toxicants seem manageable. Constraints on feeding of sewage products could be removed by means of appropriate selection and processing of sludges and application of technology to ensure safety and efficacy of products. (author)

  4. Effect of feeding supplemental copper on performance, fatty acid profile and on cholesterol contents and oxidative stability of meat of rabbits

    Skřivanová, V.; Skřivan, M.; Marounek, Milan; Baran, M.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 54, - (2001), s. 329-339. ISSN 0003-942X R&D Projects: GA MZe QD0211; GA AV ČR KSK5020115 Keywords : rabbit * copper * fatty acids Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 0.640, year: 2001

  5. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Amino Acids

    Williams Melvin

    2005-01-01

    Abstract This is the third in a series of six articles to discuss the major classes of dietary supplements (vitamins; minerals; amino acids; herbs or botanicals; metabolites, constituents/extracts, or combinations). The major focus is on efficacy of such dietary supplements to enhance exercise or sport performance.

  6. Optimization of stocking density for the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus Selenka, under feed-supplement and non-feed-supplement regimes in pond culture

    Qin, Chuanxin; Dong, Shuanglin; Tan, Fuyi; Tian, Xiangli; Wang, Fang; Dong, Yunwei; Gao, Qinfeng

    2009-09-01

    Optimal stocking densities were investigated for the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus Selenka under feed-supplement and non-feed-supplement regimes in net enclosures for 333 d. Substantial weight loss occurred during the aestivation phase (AE). Decreased growth rates were also observed during the winter phase (WT). In contrast, sea cucumbers showed rapid growth during the spring (SP) and autumn (AU) phases. Feeding regimes considerably influenced the growth performance, i.e., sea cucumbers grew faster under feed-supplement regime than under non-feed-supplement regime ( P < 0.05). The average survival rates of sea cucumbers under feed-supplement regime were higher than those under non-feed-supplement regime for both the autumn phase and spring phase, but the differences were only significant for the latter phase ( P < 0.05). The fitted B-N curves showed that the optimal stocking densities, in terms of net production, were 22.3 ind. m-2 for feed-supplement regime and 14.1 ind. m-2 for non-feed-supplement regime.

  7. Optimization of Stocking Density for the Sea Cucumber,Apostichopus japonicus Selenka, Under Feed-Supplement and Non-Feed-Supplement Regimes in Pond Culture

    QIN Chuanxin; DONG Shuanglin; TAN Fuyi; TIAN Xiangli; WANG Fang; DONG Yunwei; GAO Qinfeng

    2009-01-01

    Optimal stocking densities were investigated for the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus Selenka under feed-supplement and non-feed-supplement regimes in net enclosures for 333 d. Substantial weight loss occurred during the aestivation phase (AE).Decreased growth rates were also observed during the winter phase (WT). In contrast, sea cucumbers showed rapid growth during the spring (SP) and autumn (AU) phases. Feeding regimes considerably influenced the growth performance, i.e., sea cucumbers grew faster under feed-supplement regime than under non-feed-supplement regime (P< 0.05). The average survival rates of sea cucumbers under feed-supplement regime were higher than those under non-feed-supplement regime for both the autumn phase and spring phase,but the differences were only significant for the latter phase (P<0.05). The fitted B-N curves showed that the optimal stocking densities, in terms of net production, were 22.3 ind. m-2 for feed-supplement regime and 14.1 ind. m-2 for non-feed-supplement regime.

  8. EFFECT OF FEEDS SUPPLEMENTED WITH ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS ON MILK PRODUCTION OF INDIGENOUS COWS

    KIRAN KUMAR DIVYA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous cows, on farm level, kept on feeding supplemented with powdered root of Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus Willd.. It was observed that feeding Shatavari roots supplemented feed increased percentage milk yield, fat, solid not fat (SNF and total solids significantly without altering quality and natural attributes of milk. Significant residual effect of feeding Shatavari roots supplemented feed was also observed in terms of percentage increase in milk yield, fat, solid not fat (SNF and total solids (TS up to ten days after Shatavari roots supplemented was stopped to cows.

  9. Radiation disinfection of manure for animal feed supplement

    Radiation disinfection of manure for animal feed supplement. Radiation treatment for disinfection of manure have been investigated on manure collected during the dry and rainy seasons. Total bacterial counts of non-irradiated dewatered manure with water content of around 13.44% were found to be 1.0x106 up to 1.4x108 per g during the dry season, and 2.0x105 up to 1.7x107 per g during the rainy season, while coliforms, enterobecteriacease, staphylococcus, streptococcus, and pseudomonas were found to be 1.0x106 up to 1.4x108 per g, 1.0x104 up to 1.2x106 per g, 4.0x105 up to 2.2x107 per g, 1.8x103 per g, and 1.0x102 up to 5.4x103 per g, respectively. About 30% of the total coliforms were found to be escherichia coli. Irradiation dose of 4 kGy eliminated salmonella from all samples observed. No. Shigella Vibrio, and parasites were detected in the samples. Total nitrogen of the dewatered manure ranged between 1.87 and 2.33%, phosphorus between 1.25 and 4.38%, and potassium between 0.66 and 2.18%. Heavy metal elements were found only in very small amounts, hence the dewatered manure could be applied as animal feed or soil conditioner. A combination of irradiation at 4 kGy and storage for 3 months was synergistically effective to eliminate coliform, E. coli, and salmonella in the dewatered manure. From nutritional point of view, the manure is still acceptable for animal feed supplement. (author). 13 refs

  10. Análise dos teores de ácidos cianídrico e fítico em suplemento alimentar: multimistura Analysis of hydrogen cyanide and phytic acid contents in feeding supplements: multimixture

    Elizabete Helbig

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo objetivou quantificar o teor de ácido cianídrico em folhas de mandioca, que receberam tratamento prévio antes da secagem, e a concentração de ácido fítico na multimistura submetida à cocção úmida. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se a multimistura produzida pela Pastoral da Criança da cidade de Pelotas (RS, constituída por: farelos de trigo (30% e arroz (30%: farinhas de milho (15% e trigo (10%; pós de casca de ovo (5%, de folha de mandioca (5% e de sementes (5%, abóbora ou girassol. Foi realizada orientação ao fornecedor da folha de mandioca sobre a forma recomendada de preparo antes da secagem. RESULTADOS: O conteúdo de ácidos cianídrico e fitatos no suplemento alimentar foram respectivamente de 85mg.kg-1 e 35.90mg.100-1. CONCLUSÃO: Verificou-se que a mudança na forma de secagem das folhas de mandioca foi eficiente para a redução de glicosídeos cianogênicos, e que o processo de torrefação dos ingredientes foi suficiente para produzir a redução de ácido fítico da multimistura aos níveis preconizados pela legislação, não sendo observadas diferenças estatisticamente significantes quando comparadas as amostras que também foram tratadas com calor úmido.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to quantify the amount of hydrogen cyanide in cassava leaves that were treated before drying and the concentration of phytic acid in a multimixture submitted to wet cooking. METHODS: The multimixture produced by the Pastoral da Criança of the city of Pelotas (RS consisting of wheat flour (30%, rice flour (30%, corn flour (15%, wheat (10%, egg shell powder (5%, cassava leaves (5% and pumpkin or sunflower seeds (5% was used. The supplier was advised on how to process the cassava leaves before drying them. RESULTS: The hydrogen cyanide and phytic acid contents of the feeding supplement are 85mg.kg-1 and 35.90mg.100-1 respectively. CONCLUSION: Changing the way the cassava leaves were dried was efficient to reduce

  11. Feed supplementation with red seaweeds, Chondrus crispus and Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii, affects performance, egg quality, and gut microbiota of layer hens.

    Kulshreshtha, Garima; Rathgeber, Bruce; Stratton, Glenn; Thomas, Nikhil; Evans, Franklin; Critchley, Alan; Hafting, Jeff; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of red seaweed supplementation to standard poultry diets on production performance, egg quality, intestinal histology, and cecal short-chain fatty acids in Lohmann Brown Classic laying hens. A total of 160 birds were randomly assigned to 8 treatment groups. Control hens were fed a basal layer diet; positive control hens were fed a diet containing 2% inulin; and 6 treatment groups were fed a diet containing one of the following; 0.5, 1, or 2% Chondrus crispus (CC0.5, CC1, and CC2, respectively) and one of the same 3 levels of Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG0.5, SG1, and SG2, respectively). Dietary supplementation had no significant effect on the feed intake, BW, egg production, fecal moisture content, and blood serum profile of the birds. The feed conversion ratio per gram of egg was significantly more efficient (P = 0.001) for CC2 and SG2 treatments. Moreover, SG1 supplementation increased egg yolk weight (P = 0.0035) and birds with CC1 supplementation had higher egg weight (P = 0.0006). The SG2 and CC2 groups had greater (P chicken. Additionally, the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids, including acetic acid, propionic acid, n-butyric acid, and i-butyric acid, were significantly higher (P egg quality, and overall gut health in layer hens. PMID:25352682

  12. Effect of feed supplement on Milk Production, Fat % Total Serum Protein and Minerals in Lactating Buffalo

    R.K. Verma

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to see the effect of feed supplement “Khurak” on milk yielding buffalo. The buffaloes were divided in two group. One group was offered “Khurak” as feed supplement for 7 days. Significant increase was observed in milk production, Total serum protein and calcium in khurak supplemented group (Treatment group. [Vet. World 2009; 2(5.000: 193-194

  13. Effect of feed supplement on Milk Production, Fat % Total Serum Protein and Minerals in Lactating Buffalo

    Verma, R. K.; Praveen Kumar; A. Adil and G.K. Arya

    2009-01-01

    A study was carried out to see the effect of feed supplement “Khurak” on milk yielding buffalo. The buffaloes were divided in two group. One group was offered “Khurak” as feed supplement for 7 days. Significant increase was observed in milk production, Total serum protein and calcium in khurak supplemented group (Treatment group). [Vet. World 2009; 2(5.000): 193-194

  14. Feeding strategies to design the fatty acid profile of sheep milk and cheese

    Anna Nudda

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The majority of sheep milk produced in the world is transformed into cheese. Feeding is a major factor affecting the quality of sheep milk and, therefore, of sheep cheese. Because fat is the main compound of cheese, this review gives an update on the effects of feeding and nutrition on milk fat content and deeply discusses feeding strategies aimed at increasing the levels of healthy fatty acids (FA, such as conjugated linoleic acid and omega-3 FA, in milk and cheese in the human diet. In addition, the use of alternative feed resources such as by-products, aromatic plants, and phenolic compounds in the sheep diet and their effects on milk and cheese FA composition are also discussed. Among feeding strategies, grazing and the use of supplements rich in oils seem to be the best and the cheapest strategies to improve the nutritional value of the fatty acid profile in sheep cheese.

  15. Fatty acid profile and proliferation of bovine blood mononuclear cells after conjugated linoleic acid supplementation

    Renner Lydia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA are in focus of dairy cattle research because of its milk fat reducing effects. Little is known about the impact of CLA on immune function in dairy cows. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the effects of a long term supplementation of dairy cows with CLA on the fatty acid profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC and their proliferation ex vivo. Results The supplementation of dairy cows with either 100 g/d of a control fat preparation (CON, n = 15, 50 g/d of the control fat preparation and 50 g/d CLA supplement – containing 12.0% cis-9, trans-11 and 11.9% trans-10, cis-12 CLA of total fatty acid methyl esters – (CLA-50, n = 15 or 100 g/d of the CLA supplement (CLA-100, n = 16 did not influence the major fatty acids (C18:0, C16:0, cis-9 C18:1, cis-9, cis-12 C18:2, cis-5, cis-8, cis-11, cis-14 C20:4 in the lipid fraction of PBMC. The proportion of trans-10, cis-12 CLA of total fatty acids was increased in both CLA supplemented groups, but there was no effect on the cis-9, trans-11 isomer. Furthermore, the proportion of trans-9 C18:1 and cis-12 C24:1 was reduced in the CLA-100 group. The mitogen stimulated cell proliferation was not influenced by CLA feeding. Conclusion CLA supplementation influenced the FA profile of some minor FA in PBMC, but these changes did not lead to differences in the mitogen induced activation of the cells.

  16. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in horses

    Tanja Hess

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA are a family of essential fatty acids with many biological activities. These fatty acids are incorporated into cell membranes, changing their structural and functional characteristics. N-3 PUFA can act by modulating inflammatory responses at different levels. Omega-3 PUFA can be converted in the body to longer-chain n-3 PUFA at a limited rate and are differently converted in body systems. It appears that when specific longer-chain n-3 PUFA are desired these need to be supplemented directly in the diet. In different species some evidence indicates a potential effect on improving insulin sensitivity. Recently, a novel class of n-3 PUFA-derived anti-inflammatory mediators have been recognized, termed E-series and D-series resolvins, formed from EPA and DHA, respectively. N-3 PUFA derived resolvins and protectins are heavily involved in the resolution of inflammation. Supplementation with n-3 fatty acids in horses may help manage chronic inflammatory conditions such as osteoarthritis, equine metabolic syndrome, laminitis, and thereby help to improve longevity of sport horse.

  17. Effect of supplementation, breed, season and location on feed intake and performance of scavenging chickens in Vietnam

    Minh, Do Viet

    2005-01-01

    The aims of the studies were to evaluate the nutrient status of local and improved scavenging hens in different seasons and locations by crop content analysis (Paper I), and the effects of scavenging and supplementing energy, protein, lysine and methionine on feed intake, performance, carcass quality and economic efficiency of different breeds of growing chickens and laying hens (Paper II, III and IV). In Paper I, the nutrient, metabolisable energy (ME) and amino acid intakes of scavenging Ri...

  18. Use of natural feed supplements that help to improve health status of calves

    Luboš ZÁBRANSKÝ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The basis for each cattle farming are healthy and strong individuals. The aim of this study was to determine which of the given feed supplements have the greatest effect on liveweight gain of calves in the early period after weaning from mother to infant milk substitutes. The research was conducted from July 2014 to December 2014. After the birth calves were weaned into individual boxes in the barn, where during the first 21 days of life their feeding ration was enriched with feed supplements. On the basis of the added supplement calves were divided into three experimental groups and one control group. First weighing of calves was done after birth and the second after 30 days. From the results of observations it can be concluded that feed supplements are accepted positively by calves in the first days of life and have a positive beneficial effect on weight gain and general health of calves.

  19. MILK QUALITY OF DAIRY GOAT BY GIVING FEED SUPPLEMENT AS ANTIOXIDANT SOURCE

    Mardalena; L. Warly; E. Nurdin; W.S.N. Rusmana; Farizal

    2011-01-01

    Free radical levels can be higher than the level of endogenous antioxidants in the body so that uncomfortable conditions in the body of dairy goats could happen. To anticipate this uncomfortable conditions will be given feed supplement (FS) as source of antioxidants (AOX). FS contain mixture pineapple rind meal and antioxidant minerals (AOXM) each 25 ppm Zn and 10 ppm Cu. This experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of feed supplements as antioxidant source on milk quality of dai...

  20. Weight gain, feed conversion efficiency and plasma free lysine as response criteria in evaluating supplements of lysine plus threonine and lysine plus tryptophan to deficient diets for rats.

    Frydrych, Z; Heger, J

    1986-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted on growing male SPF-rats to compare weight gain, feed conversion efficiency and plasma free lysine concentration as response criteria in evaluating adequacy of lysine plus threonine and lysine plus tryptophan supplements to the deficient diets. Two basal semisynthetic diets were prepared limiting in lysine and threonine (Expt. 1) and lysine and tryptophan (Expt. 2). The addition of graded supplements to the basal diets of L-lysine X HCl alone (0.2; 0.4; 0.6; 0.8 and 1.0% of diet) induced imbalance of amino acids resulting in low level of daily weight gain and feed conversion efficiency. Plasma free lysine concentration started to grow linearly from the first supplement of L-lysine X HCl. If rats were fed the diets containing identical supplements of L-lysine X HCl in combination with two supplements of L-threonine (0.2 and 0.4% of diet, Expt. 1) or L-tryptophan (0.05 and 0.1% of diet, Expt. 2), plasma free lysine started to increase before supplements of amino acids were adequate to support maximum weight gain and feed conversion efficiency. this difference in response seems to be caused by different feeding regiment during the growth period of the experiments (ad libitum) and training period prior to blood sampling (feeding twice daily). PMID:3098208

  1. Designed Amino Acid Feed in Improvement of Production and Quality Targets of a Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibody.

    Fatemeh Torkashvand

    Full Text Available Cell culture feeds optimization is a critical step in process development of pharmaceutical recombinant protein production. Amino acids are the basic supplements of mammalian cell culture feeds with known effect on their growth promotion and productivity. In this study, we reported the implementation of the Plackett-Burman (PB multifactorial design to screen the effects of amino acids on the growth promotion and productivity of a Chinese hamster ovary DG-44 (CHO-DG44 cell line producing bevacizumab. After this screening, the amino acid combinations were optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM to determine the most effective concentration in feeds. Through this strategy, the final monoclonal antibody (mAb titre was enhanced by 70%, compared to the control group. For this particular cell line, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine and glycine had the highest positive effects on the final mAb titre. Simultaneously, the impact of the designed amino acid feed on some critical quality attributes of bevacizumab was examined in the group with highest productivity. The product was analysed for N-glycan profiles, charge variant distribution, and low molecular weight forms. The results showed that the target product quality has been improved using this feeding strategy. It was shown how this strategy could significantly diminish the time and number of experiments in identifying the most effective amino acids and related concentrations in target product enhancement. This model could be successfully applied to other components of culture media and feeds.

  2. Effect of glutamic acid on broilers given submarginal crude protein with adequate essential amino acids using feeds high and low in potassium.

    Moran, E T; Stilborn, H L

    1996-01-01

    Broiler males were examined for their response to feeds containing CP 1 to 2% below levels advocated by NRC (1994) and when supplemented with L-glutamic acid. Crude protein and glutamic acid treatments were imposed in starting, growing, and finishing feeds over 7 wk with K at high and low levels likely to occur in practice (0.80 vs 0.65 to 0.55%). All feeds were formulated to be isocaloric (3.20 kcal ME/g) and satisfy NRC (1994) essential amino acid (EAA) minimum requirements. Improved live weight gain occurred during the first 6 wk with supplementation of glutamic acid to the low CP feed but not when intact protein per se was used to increase CP. A similar advantage in growth was obtained from glutamic acid in response to its addition at equivalence of 1 to 2% CP as well as when dietary adjustments maintained low CP. Response to altered K could not be interpreted because of concurrent differences in glutamic acid and AMEn intakes. High glutamic acid levels did not decrease abdominal fat unless CP increased concurrently, whereas carcass back bruising and drumstick deformations were relieved by supplemental glutamic acid independent of CP. Increased weight gain from glutamic acid was only evident with drumsticks and debris that included the back when carcasses were cone-deboned. Supplemental glutamic acid is believed to improve the rate of connective tissue formation during rapid growth. PMID:8650101

  3. Biomass of Spirulina maxima enriched by biosorption process as a new feed supplement for swine

    Saeid, A.; Chojnacka, K.; Korczyński, M.; Korniewicz, D.; Dobrzański, Z.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the new mineral feed additives with Cu produced in a biosorption process from a semi-technical scale. The natural biomass of edible microalga Spirulina sp. was enriched with Cu(II) and then used as a mineral supplement in feeding experiments on swine to assess its nutrition properties. A total of 24 piglets divided into two groups (control and experimental) were used to determine the bioavailability of a new generation of mineral feed additives based on Spirulina maxima....

  4. [Supplementation of swine feed rations with zeolite during cage rearing].

    Bartko, P; Chabada, J; Vrzgula, L; Solár, I; Blazovský, J

    1983-07-01

    The effect of the addition of zeolite to pig feed ration was studied in the cage rearing system under production conditions. Zeolite was mixed in the COS I and COS II feed mixtures directly in the feed plant, the mixing ratio being 100 kg feed mixture + 5 kg zeolite. The feed mixture was administered in granular form ad libitum. The test group had 648 weanlings and the control group 674 weanlings; the piglets, kept in two-story cages in four sections, were arranged so that the test group could be a mirror-like reflection of the control group. The trial lasted 45 days. The piglets given the fortified feed ration had daily weight gains higher by 0.017 kg and feed consumption lower by 0.234 kg per 1 kg of gain, as compared with the control animals. The costs of the feed ration required for producing a kilogram of gain were 8.55 Cz. crowns in the zeolite group and 9.422 crowns in the control group. PMID:6312666

  5. A Comparison of Diets Supplemented with a Feed Additive Containing Organic Acids, Cinnamaldehyde and a Permeabilizing Complex, or Zinc Oxide, on Post-Weaning Diarrhoea, Selected Bacterial Populations, Blood Measures and Performance in Weaned Pigs Experimentally Infected with Enterotoxigenic E. coli †

    Stensland, Ingunn; Kim, Jae Cheol; Bowring, Bethany; Collins, Alison M.; Mansfield, Josephine P.; Pluske, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary This experiment was conducted to assess the effects of three diets on diarrhoea, performance (weight change, feed intake and feed conversion ratio), selected bacterial populations and blood measures of weaner pigs infected with enterotoxigenic E. coli. The three diets were: base diet (no antimicrobial compounds), base diet containing zinc oxide, and base diet containing a feed additive (blend of organic acids, cinnamaldehyde and permeabilizing complex). Only feeding zinc oxide decreased diarrhoea, with zinc oxide-fed pigs performing better than base diet-fed pigs. Zinc oxide-fed pigs performed similarly to pigs fed the organic acids, cinnamaldehyde and permeabilizing complex. Significant interactions between treatment and day after weaning were found for some bacterial populations, although the implications of such findings require further examination. Abstract The effects of feeding a diet supplemented with zinc oxide (ZnO) or a blend of organic acids, cinnamaldehyde and a permeabilizing complex (OACP) on post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD) and performance in pigs infected with enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) were examined. Additionally, changes in selected bacterial populations and blood measures were assessed. A total of 72 pigs weaned at 22 d of age and weighing 7.2 ± 1.02 kg (mean ± SEM) was used. Treatments were: base diet (no antimicrobial compounds); base diet + 3 g ZnO/kg; base diet + 1.5 g OACP/kg. Dietary treatments started on the day of weaning and were fed ad libitum for 3 weeks. All pigs were infected with an F4 ETEC on d 4, 5 and 6 after weaning. The incidence of PWD was lower in pigs fed ZnO (p = 0.026). Overall, pigs fed ZnO grew faster (p = 0.013) and ate more (p = 0.004) than the base diet-fed pigs, with OACP-fed pigs performing the same (p > 0.05) as both the ZnO- and base diet-fed pigs. Feed conversion ratio was similar for all diets (p > 0.05). The percentage of E. coli with F4 fimbriae was affected a day by treatment interaction (p

  6. Differential expression of cholangiocyte and ileal bile acid transporters following bile acid supplementation and depletion

    N. Sertac Kip; Konstantinos N. Lazaridis; Anatoliy I. Masyuk; Patrick L. Splinter; Robert C. Huebert; Nicholas F. LaRusso

    2004-01-01

    AIM: We have previously demonstrated that cholangiocytes,the epithelial cells lining intrahepatic bile ducts, encode two functional bile acid transporters via alternative splicing of a single gene to facilitate bile acid vectorial transport.Cholangiocytes possess ASBT, an apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter to take up bile acids, and t-ASBT, a basolateral alternatively spliced and truncated form of ASBT to efflux bile acids. Though hepatocyte and ileal bile acid transporters are in part regulated by the flux of bile acids,the effect of alterations in bile acid flux on the expression of t-ASBT in terminal ileocytes remains unclear. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that expression of ASBT and t-ASBT in cholangiocytes and ileocytes was regulated by bile acid flux. METHODS: Expression of ASBT and t-ASBT message and protein in cholangiocytes and ileocytes isolated from pairfed rats given control (C) and 1% taurocholate (TCA) or 5% cholestyramine (CY) enriched diets, were assessed by both quantitative RNase protection assays and quantitative immunoblotting. The data obtained from each of the control groups were pooled to reflect the changes observed following TCA and CY treatments with respect to the control diets.Cholangiocyte taurocholate uptake was determined using a novel microperfusion technique on intrahepatic bile duct units (IBDUs) derived from C, TCA and CY fed rats.RESULTS: In cholangiocytes, both ASBT and t-ASBT message RNA and protein were significantly decreased in response to TCA feeding compared to C diet. In contrast,message and protein of both bile acid transporters significantly increased following CY feeding compared to C diet. In the ileum, TCA feeding significantly up-regulated both ASBT and t-ASBT message and protein compared to C diet, while CY feeding significantly down-regulated message and protein of both bile acid transporters compared to C diet. As anticipated from alterations in cholangiocyte ASBT expression, the uptake of

  7. High performance liquid chromatographic method fo pyrantel tartrate in swine feeds and supplements.

    Goras, J T

    1981-11-01

    A new method for the determination of pyrantel tartrate in swine feed an supplements has been developed because the current official AOAC method is not applicable to feeds co-medicated with tylosin. The new method involves: (a) leaching of drug from feed with methanolic NaCl solution, (b) removal of interfering substances by ion pair liquid-liquid extraction and high performance liquid chromatography, and (c) quantitation of pyrantel tartrate by monitoring the ultraviolet absorption of the effluent stream at 313nm. The method of standard addition is used to compensate for the effect of the feed matrix on drug recovery. No interference is encountered from tylosin, carbadox, lincomycin, non-drug components of feeds and supplements, or potential degradation products of pyrantel tartrate, i.e., cis isomer of pyrantel tartrate and (E)-N-(3-methylaminopropyl)-2-thiopheneacrylamide. Results for the assay of 3 lots each of feeds and supplements containing 0.0106 and 0.106% pyrantel tartrate, respectively, were within +/-4% of label claim. Coefficients of variation ranged from 1.6 to 1.8% for feeds and from 1.9 to 3.9% for supplements. PMID:7309651

  8. Fatty Acid and Phytosterol Content of Commercial Saw Palmetto Supplements

    Brian L. Lindshield

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05 concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g, individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g, and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05 concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g. Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols.

  9. A Comprehensive Review on Physiological and Nutritional Properties of Prebiotics as Poultry Feed Supplement - See more at: http://sciencebeingjournal.com/octa-journal-biosciences/comprehe

    Subha Ganguly

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article highlights the effect of dietary prebiotics viz., dietary organic acid (OA supplements, mannan oligosaccharide (MOS and β-glucan supplementation on different body growth parameters of poultry birds at their various growing stages. The article stresses on the effect on live body weight gain, dressing percentage, weight of vital organs and muscles and mean villus lengths in digestive tract of poultry birds along with their application as growth promoters in commercial poultry feed.

  10. The enhanced reproduction of cow parent brahman cross post partum with feed supplement multinutrient block medicated

    One of the problems in breeding Brahman Cross cattle reproduction efficiency is low due to the length of postpartum anestrus and the high number of services per conception is partly due to the low nutrient content of rations. This study aims to improve the performance of reproductive cows parent Brahman Cross post partum through feeding strategy supplement Multi nutrient Block plus Medicated (MBPM) which starts with the correct parent condition score so that it can accelerate the process appear oestrus post partum then increasing conception rate to minimize the number of service per conception as well as to improve the growth calf produced. This research uses 16 cows parent Brahman Cross post partum not exceeding 90 days comprising 9 tails were given feed supplements MBPM compared with 7 tail not given feed supplements MBPM as control. Research results show that feeding supplements MBPM can enhanced reproductive cow parent Brahman Cross post partum i.e. : maintain parent condition score in early post partum until the occurrence of pregnant, accelerating day 24,8 appear oestrus post partum, number service per conception = 1 and conception rate can reach 60%, maintaining the levels of urea plasma of blood and blood glucose levels within normal limits either at the time of post partum and oestrus post partum. Feeding supplements MBPM on cows parent Brahman Cross post partum can give added daily gain 0,51 kg on calf is suckling. (author)

  11. Milk production responses to different strategies for feeding supplements to grazing dairy cows.

    Auldist, M J; Marett, L C; Greenwood, J S; Wright, M M; Hannah, M; Jacobs, J L; Wales, W J

    2016-01-01

    Milk production responses of grazing cows offered supplements in different ways were measured. Holstein-Friesian cows, averaging 45 d in milk, were allocated into 8 groups of 24, with 2 groups randomly assigned to each of 4 feeding strategies. These were control: cows grazed a restricted allowance of perennial ryegrass pasture supplemented with milled wheat grain fed in the milking parlor and alfalfa hay offered in the paddock; FGM: same pasture and allowance as the control supplemented with a formulated grain mix containing wheat grain, corn grain, and canola meal fed in the parlor and alfalfa hay fed in the paddock; PMRL: same pasture and allowance as the control, supplemented with a PMR consisting of the same FGM but mixed with alfalfa hay and presented on a feed pad after each milking; and PMRH: same PMR fed in the same way as PMRL but with a higher pasture allowance. For all strategies, supplements provided the same metabolizable energy and grain:forage ratio [75:25, dry matter (DM) basis]. Each group of 24 cows was further allocated into 4 groups of 6, which were randomly assigned to receive 8, 12, 14, or 16 kg of DM supplement/cow per d. Thus, 2 replicated groups per supplement amount per dietary strategy were used. The experiment had a 14-d adaptation period and a 14-d measurement period. Pasture allowance, measured to ground level, was approximately 14 kg of DM/d for control, FGM, and PMRL cows, and 28 kg of DM/d for the PMRH cows, and was offered in addition to the supplement. Positive linear responses to increasing amounts of supplement were observed for yield of milk, energy-corrected milk, fat, and protein for cows on all 4 supplement feeding strategies. Production of energy-corrected milk was greatest for PMRH cows, intermediate for FGM and PMRL cows, and lowest for control cows. Some of these differences in milk production related to differences in intake of pasture and supplement. Milk fat concentration decreased with increasing amount of supplement

  12. Impacts of wildlife baiting and supplemental feeding on infectious disease transmission risk: a synthesis of knowledge.

    Sorensen, Anja; van Beest, Floris M; Brook, Ryan K

    2014-03-01

    Baiting and supplemental feeding of wildlife are widespread, yet highly controversial management practices, with important implications for ecosystems, livestock production, and potentially human health. An often underappreciated threat of such feeding practices is the potential to facilitate intra- and inter-specific disease transmission. We provide a comprehensive review of the scientific evidence of baiting and supplemental feeding on disease transmission risk in wildlife, with an emphasis on large herbivores in North America. While the objectives of supplemental feeding and baiting typically differ, the effects on disease transmission of these practices are largely the same. Both feeding and baiting provide wildlife with natural or non-natural food at specific locations in the environment, which can result in large congregations of individuals and species in a small area and increased local densities. Feeding can lead to increased potential for disease transmission either directly (via direct animal contact) or indirectly (via feed functioning as a fomite, spreading disease into the adjacent environment and to other animals). We identified numerous diseases that currently pose a significant concern to the health of individuals and species of large wild mammals across North America, the spread of which are either clearly facilitated or most likely facilitated by the application of supplemental feeding or baiting. Wildlife diseases also have important threats to human and livestock health. Although the risk of intra- and inter-species disease transmission likely increases when animals concentrate at feeding stations, only in a few cases was disease prevalence and transmission measured and compared between populations. Mostly these were experimental situations under controlled conditions, limiting direct scientific evidence that feeding practices exacerbates disease occurrence, exposure, transmission, and spread in the environment. Vaccination programs utilizing

  13. Effect of feed supplementation with a-ketoglutarate, combined with vitamin B6 or C, on the performance and haemoglobin and amino acid levels in growing rats

    Pierzynowski, Stefan Grzegorz; Filip, Rafal; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2007-01-01

    for 9 d (n=16) or 18 d (n=10). No significant differences in average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), or feed efficiency were seen between the dextrose-treated control group and the AKG treated groups. The highest ADG and ADFI were seen in the AKG 2B rats. The AKG 2B and AKG 2C...

  14. Feed supplemented with polyphenolic byproduct from olive mill wastewater processing improves the redox status in blood and tissues of piglets.

    Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Stagos, Dimitrios; Petrotos, Konstantinos; Kokkas, Stylianos; Kantas, Dimitrios; Goulas, Panagiotis; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, a polyphenolic byproduct from olive mill wastewater (OMWW) was used for making piglet feed with antioxidant activity. For examining the antioxidant capacity of the feed, 30 piglets of 20 d old were divided into two groups receiving basal or experimental feed for 30 d. Blood and tissue samples were drawn at days 2, 20, 35 and 50 post-birth. The tissues collected were brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, quadriceps muscle, pancreas, spleen and stomach. The antioxidant effects of the experimental feed were assessed by measuring oxidative stress biomarkers in blood and tissues. The oxidative stress markers were total antioxidant capacity (TAC), glutathione (GSH), catalase activity (CAT), protein carbonyls (CARB) and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS). The results showed that piglets fed with diet supplemented with OMWW polyphenols had significantly increased antioxidant mechanisms in blood and the majority of the tested tissues as shown by increases in TAC, CAT and GSH compared to control group. Moreover, piglets fed with the experimental feed exhibited decreased oxidative stress-induced damage to lipids and proteins as shown by decreases in TBARS and CARB respectively. This is the first study in which OMWW polyphenols were used for making pig feed with antioxidant activity. PMID:26561741

  15. CANOLA CROP TAKES UP SELENIUM PROVIDES BIOFUEL AND FEED SUPPLEMENT

    Many of the Brassica plant taxi that are candidates for phytoremediation of selenium also produce products that be used for refining into biodiesel, as well as selenium enriched animal feeds. These include canola (Brassica napus) that is planted in the Westside soils of central California (Oxalis si...

  16. Harvesting and Processing Zooplankton for Use as Supplemental Fry Feed

    We present the methods that we used to capture and dry large zooplankton from ponds to feed to channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus fry. Using a submersible pump and canister filter, we were able to capture about 1.0 kg (wet weight; 200 g in terms of dry weight) of zooplankton from well-fertilized po...

  17. The effect of propolis feed supplementation on hygiene and performance

    M. G. Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a natural substance produced by worker bees from trees and leaf buds. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of two concentrations (200, 400 mg/kg diet of propolis on some performance traits and hygienic parameters of broiler chickens body weight, feed conversion, feed consumption, during an eight weeks experiment, weights of internal organs, and dressing percentage also recorded. The results showed that using propolis at 400 mg/kg in the diet lead to significant increase (P<0.05 in eighth-week body weight (2306.27 g, feed consumption especially in the fourth week, maximum daily growth rate (55.52 gm was obtained from the treatment of 400 mg/kg in the seventh week period. Also propolis lead to improve feed conversion efficiency in the second, third and fourth week of age for the broilers fed diet with 400 mg/kg (1.35, 1.59, 1.95, respectively. Average of proportional weights for each of the liver, heart, thighs, and dressing percentage (74.0% were improved among birds of this treatment, too.

  18. A Double-Blind, Randomised, Controlled Trial to Study the Effects of an Enteral Feed Supplemented with Glutamine, Arginine, and Omega-3 Fatty Acid in Predicted Acute Severe Pancreatitis

    Callum B Pearce

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Context :Current best evidence is in favour of early institution of enteral feeding in acute severe pancreatitis with promising results from trials in immunonutrition on other patient groups. Objective: To identify which groups of patients and products are associated with benefit, we investigated immunonutrition in patients with predicted acute severe pancreatitis. Design :A randomised trial of a study feed containing glutamine, arginine, tributyrin and antioxidants versus an isocaloric isonitrogenous control feed was undertaken. Patients: Thirty-one patients with a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis predicted to develop severe disease: 15 study feeds and 16 control feeds. Interventions: Enteral feeding via nasojejunal tube for 3 days. If patients required further feeding the study was continued up to 15 days. Main outcome measures :Reduction in Creactive protein (CRP by 40 mg/L after 3 days of enteral feeding was the primary endpoint. Carboxypeptidase B activation peptide (CAPAP levels were taken at regular intervals. Results :After 3 days of feeding, in the study group 2/15 (13% of patients had reduced their CRP by 40 mg/L or more. In the control group 6/16 (38% of patients had reduced their CRP by this amount. This difference was found to be near the statistical significant limit (P=0.220. Conclusions :The cause of the unexpectedly higher CRP values in the study group is unclear. The rise in CRP was without a commensurate rise in CAPAP or outcome measures so there was no evidence that this represented pancreatic necrosis. The contrast between the CRP and CAPAP results is of interest and we believe that specific pancreatic indices such as CAPAP should be considered in larger future studies.

  19. Influence of pectin supplementation on feed fermentation characteristics in rats and pigs

    Tian, L.

    2016-01-01

    The physiological effects of dietary fiber (DFs) depend on several factors including structural features of the DFs, composition and activity of colonic microbiota, and products formed during fermentation. In this thesis, the influence of pectin supplementation to feed fermentation characteristics in rats and pigs was studied. The non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) present in the selected feed ingredient oats were characterized. Distinct populations of arabinoxylans (AXs) were observed in oats,...

  20. New legislation on the marketing and use of feed: status of nutritional supplements

    Simona Sturzu,

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The term "nutritional supplements" for animals is found first in the "Proposal for the European Parliament and of the Board amending Directive 93/74/EEC on feedingstuffs intended for particular nutritional purposes and amending Directives 74/63/EEC, 79/373/EEC and 82/471/EEC”, submitted by the European Commission to the European Parliament and Council Director for approval on July 28, 1997. The proposal was not approved, for the reasons that this category of "supplement animal nutrition” is already regulated at EU level onlegislation to feed, supplementary feed, feed premixes, food for particular nutritional purposes. In order to harmonize the conditions for the marketing and use of feed, to clarify of divergences anduncertainties due existing legislative vacuum, in order to ensure a high level of protection of public health and to provide adequate information to users and consumers, The Regulation (EC No 767/2009 of the European Parliament and the Council on the marketing and use of feed, amending Regulation (EC No 1831/2003 and repealing Council Directive 79/373/EEC, Council Directive 80/511/EEC, Directives 82/471/CEE, 83/228/EEC, 93/74/EEC, 93/113/EC and 96/25/EC and Commission Decision 2004/217/EC (1 aproved. The new regulation simplifies and clarifies the existing procedures and renewal the legislation for themarketing and use of feed materials, compound feed and bioproteine, including dietary feed.

  1. The Effect of Prebiotic and Probiotic Feed Supplementation on the Wax Glands of Worker Bees (Apis Mellifera

    Silvia Pătruică

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the effects of acidifying substances (lactic acid or acetic acid, Enterobiotics products(Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-14 and Bifidobacterium lactis BI-04 and Enterolactis Plus (Lactobacillus casei onthe wax glands of worker bees. The research was conducted in Timis County, Romania, between March 25 and April20, 2011, on 110 colonies of bees (Apis mellifera carpatica, allocated to 11 experimental treatment groups. Coloniesin the experimental groups were given three weekly feeds of sugar syrup supplemented with acidifying substances(lactic acid or cider vinegar and/or probiotic products (Enterobiotics or Enterolactis Plus. Three weeks after theadministration of the experimental diets, 10 worker bees from each treatment group were sampled for histologicalexamination of their wax glands. Gland development was shown to be influenced by administration of prebioticand/or probiotic supplements. Wax gland cell sizes ranged from 25.1 microns for the control group to between 27.8and 31.8 microns in the group fed with acidifying substances and between 26.9 and 29.2 microns in bees fed withprobiotic products. Bees supplemented with both lactic acid and probiotic product (group LE9 and LE10 showedmean wax cell sizes of 31.8 microns.

  2. Influence of pectin supplementation on feed fermentation characteristics in rats and pigs

    Tian, L.

    2016-01-01

    The physiological effects of dietary fiber (DFs) depend on several factors including structural features of the DFs, composition and activity of colonic microbiota, and products formed during fermentation. In this thesis, the influence of pectin supplementation to feed fermentation characteristics i

  3. MILK QUALITY OF DAIRY GOAT BY GIVING FEED SUPPLEMENT AS ANTIOXIDANT SOURCE

    Mardalena

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Free radical levels can be higher than the level of endogenous antioxidants in the body so that uncomfortable conditions in the body of dairy goats could happen. To anticipate this uncomfortable conditions will be given feed supplement (FS as source of antioxidants (AOX. FS contain mixture pineapple rind meal and antioxidant minerals (AOXM each 25 ppm Zn and 10 ppm Cu. This experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of feed supplements as antioxidant source on milk quality of dairy goats. Sixteen Etawah dairy goats in the second lactation were used in the experiment that conducted using randomized block design with 4 treatments and 4 replicates. The treatments were R0 (grass + concentrate, R1 (R0 + FS containing 0.04 % AOX, R2 (R0 + FS containing 0.06% AOX, R3 (R0 + FS containing 0.08 % AOX. The data collected were analyzed using Anova. The result of phytochemicals analysis indicated that feed supplement contained flavonoid, polyphenols, sesqiuterpen, mopnoterpen, steroids, quinones and saponins. The results of study showed that there were difference (p0.05 on milk yield, milk fat, milk protein and milk antioxidant. The conclusion of this study was the feed supplements containing 0.08 AOX produced the best response to milk quality of dairy goats.

  4. Bioassay based screening of steroid derivatives in animal feed and supplements

    Rijk, J.C.W.; Ashwin, H.M.; Kuijk, van S.J.A.; Groot, M.J.; Heskamp, H.H.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2011-01-01

    Receptor binding transcription activation bioassays are valuable tools for the screening of steroid hormones in animal feed and supplements. However, steroid derivatives often lack affinity for their cognate receptor and do not show any direct hormonal activity by themselves. These compounds are thu

  5. Effects of supplementation frequency on ruminal fermentation and digestion by steers fed medium-quality hay and supplemented with a soybean hull and corn gluten feed blend.

    Drewnoski, M E; Poore, M H

    2012-03-01

    Reducing the frequency of supplementation to beef cattle would reduce labor and vehicle maintenance costs and could have the potential to increase profits if performance is not negatively affected. Six ruminally cannulated beef steers (362 ± 18 kg of BW) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design to determine the effect of supplementation frequency (daily or on alternate days) on digestion and ruminal parameters when feeding medium-quality hay and supplementing with a mixture of soybean hulls and corn gluten feed. Dietary treatments consisted of ad libitum fescue hay (8.8% CP and 34.8% ADF) that was supplemented at 1% of BW daily (SD), supplemented at 2% of BW on alternate days (SA), or not supplemented (NS). The supplement (14.6% CP and 29.8% ADF) contained 47% soybean hull pellets, 47% corn gluten feed pellets, 2% feed grade limestone, and 4% molasses (as fed). Each period consisted of a 12-d adaptation phase followed by 6 d of total fecal, urine, and ort collection. All supplement offered was consumed within 2 h. Ruminal fluid was collected every 4 h for 2 d. Hay intake was reduced (P gluten feed, producers can reduce the frequency of supplementation to every other day without reducing digestibility or N retention. PMID:22064733

  6. Comparison of protein and energy supplementation to mineral supplementation on feeding behavior of grazing cattle during the rainy to the dry season transition.

    Brandão, Rita Kelly Couto; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Silva, Robério Rodrigues; Dias, Daniel Lucas Santos; Mendes, Fabrício Bacelar Lima; Lins, Túlio Otávio Jardim D'Almeida; Filho, George Abreu; de Souza, Sinvaldo Oliveira; Barroso, Daniele Soares; de Almeida Rufino, Luana Marta; Tosto, Manuela Silva Libânio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of protein-energy or mineral supplementation on the ingestive behavior of dairy steers on pasture in the post-weaning phase during the rainy to dry season transition. Twenty-two ½ Holstein-Zebu dairy steers with an average initial body weight of 234 ± 16 kg were distributed into a completely randomized design into two groups: protein-energy supplementation and mineral supplementation offered ad libitum. The steers receiving protein-energy supplementation showed higher (P rumination and time per period in idle (P > 0.05). The supply of protein-energy supplement does not change the feeding behavior, except for an increase in the time spent feeding at the trough. The intake of protein-energy supplement improved the of DM and NDF feed efficiencies in grazing cattle during the rainy to the dry season transition. PMID:27386377

  7. Effects of supplemental feeding interval on adult cows in western Texas.

    Huston, J E; Lippke, H; Forbes, T D; Holloway, J W; Machen, R V

    1999-11-01

    Two experiments involving Brangus and Hereford x Brangus cows (3 to 10 yr) were conducted at four locations in western Texas to determine the effects of supplemental feeding interval on serum urea nitrogen (SUN) patterns, intake of supplement and forage, and winter changes in live body weight and condition score. Treatments were control (Control; no supplemental feed) and the equivalent of .91 kg/d of cottonseed meal (CSM) fed daily (Daily), three times per week (3T/WK), or one time per week (WK). At each location, one pasture group was given all four treatments (four cows/treatment) using Calan gates. In Exp. 1, conducted in 1994-95, blood samples were obtained for determining SUN during the last week of the study. Experiment 2, conducted in 1995-96, included both an individually fed herd and four additional herds at each location that were group-fed the four treatments. Experiment 2 included estimates of intakes of both CSM and forage in both individually fed and group-fed herds. A bolus containing chromium (Cr-bolus) was used to estimate fecal output in the individually fed cows. A double marker technique was used to determine total (Cr-bolus) and CSM (Yb) intakes in the group-fed cows. Data included initial and final cow weights and condition scores (Exp. 1 and 2), SUN patterns (Exp. 1), and supplement, forage, and total intakes (Exp. 2). Feeding CSM to range cows increased SUN concentrations (Exp. 1), reduced losses in live body weight and body condition score (Exp. 1 and 2), and tended to decrease forage intake by the approximate amount of the supplement (Exp. 2). Generally, providing supplement as infrequently as once per week reduced losses in live body weight and body condition score compared with control and was as effective as once daily supplementation. For the group-fed cows, supplement intake, forage intake, and live body weight change were more variable within groups with once daily feeding than when supplement was fed less frequently. These data

  8. Isolation of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Malaysian Non-Broiler Chicken (Gallus gallus) Intestine with Potential Probiotic for Broiler Feeding

    Tengku Haziyamin Tengku Abdul Hamid; and Ezureen Ezani

    2011-01-01

    Probiotic supplement can function as substitute for antibiotics especially in the broiler chicken feeding which can form an integral part of organic farming. Broiler forms one of an important protein source in South East Asia. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are important inhabitants of animal intestine and are useful source of probiotic microorganisms. Non-broiler chicken could be an ideal source of probiotic microorganisms that can be utilized for large scale broiler feeding. Our studies have su...

  9. The effect of vaccination against Newcastle disease and feed supplementation on production in village chicken in Bamenda area of Cameroon

    A study was carried out in Ndop and Santa zones of the Bamenda area in the Republic of Cameroon on the effect of vaccination against Newcastle disease and feed supplementation on production in backyard poultry. The results of the study showed that there was an increase in egg production and weight gain in the vaccinated birds which received feed supplement as compared to the non-vaccinated and without feed supplements. The mortality pattern did not reflect the effect of feed supplementation suggesting that other factors may be responsible for mortality. An economic analysis of the impact of the two interventions on backyard poultry production was carried out using the partial farm budget analysis. It was evident from the results that feed supplementation was beneficial to rural poultry performance and that the inclusion of a vaccination programme against Newcastle disease made the intervention even more beneficial. (author)

  10. Effects of Supplementation of Eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis) Leaf Meal on Feed Intake and Rumen Fermentation Efficiency in Swamp Buffaloes.

    Thao, N T; Wanapat, M; Kang, S; Cherdthong, A

    2015-07-01

    Four rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to investigate the effects of Eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis) leaf meal (ELM) supplementation as a rumen enhancer on feed intake and rumen fermentation characteristics. The dietary treatments were as follows: T1 = 0 g ELM/hd/d; T2 = 40 g ELM/hd/d; T3 = 80 g ELM/hd/d; T4 = 120 g ELM/hd/d, respectively. Experimental animals were kept in individual pens and concentrate was offered at 0.3% BW while rice straw was fed ad libitum. The results revealed that voluntary feed intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients were similar among treatments. Ruminal pH, temperature and blood urea nitrogen concentrations were not affected by ELM supplementation; however, ELM supplementation resulted in lower concentration of ruminal ammonia nitrogen. Total volatile fatty acids, propionate concentration increased with the increasing level of EML (pzoospores and total viable bacteria, amylolytic, cellulolytic bacteria were unchanged. In addition, nitrogen utilization and microbial protein synthesis tended to increase by the dietary treatments. Based on the present findings, it is suggested that ELM could modify the rumen fermentation and is potentially used as a rumen enhancer in methane mitigation and rumen fermentation efficiency. PMID:26104399

  11. Use of a molasses–based liquid feed supplement to deliver Ivermectin to cattle to control ectoparasites

    Two different dosages of ivermectin were used to medicate a liquid molasses feed supplement for free-choice consumption by cattle. Calves that fed on supplement medicated at 25 ppm with ivermectin had a 14 day mean consumption of 0.62 ± 0.07 kg supplement/animal/day producing an average dose of 15....

  12. Effect of dietary taurine supplementation on growth, feed efficiency, and nutrient composition of juvenile sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria)

    Juvenile sablefish were fed a low taurine, basal feed with seven graded levels of supplemental taurine to determine taurine requirements for growth and feed efficiency. The basal feed was plant based, formulated primarily with soy and corn proteins with a minimal (9%) amount of fishmeal. The unsuppl...

  13. Acidic organic compounds in beverage, food, and feed production.

    Quitmann, Hendrich; Fan, Rong; Czermak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Organic acids and their derivatives are frequently used in beverage, food, and feed production. Acidic additives may act as buffers to regulate acidity, antioxidants, preservatives, flavor enhancers, and sequestrants. Beneficial effects on animal health and growth performance have been observed when using acidic substances as feed additives. Organic acids could be classified in groups according to their chemical structure. Each group of organic acids has its own specific properties and is used for different applications. Organic acids with low molecular weight (e.g. acetic acid, lactic acid, and citric acid), which are part of the primary metabolism, are often produced by fermentation. Others are produced more economically by chemical synthesis based on petrochemical raw materials on an industrial scale (e.g. formic acid, propionic and benzoic acid). Biotechnology-based production is of interest due to legislation, consumer demand for natural ingredients, and increasing environmental awareness. In the United States, for example, biocatalytically produced esters for food applications can be labeled as "natural," whereas identical conventional acid catalyst-based molecules cannot. Natural esters command a price several times that of non-natural esters. Biotechnological routes need to be optimized regarding raw materials and yield, microorganisms, and recovery methods. New bioprocesses are being developed for organic acids, which are at this time commercially produced by chemical synthesis. Moreover, new organic acids that could be produced with biotechnological methods are under investigation for food applications. PMID:24275825

  14. MILK QUALITY OF DAIRY GOAT BY GIVING FEED SUPPLEMENT AS ANTIOXIDANT SOURCE

    M. Mardalena

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Free radical levels can be higher than the level of endogenous antioxidants in the body so thatuncomfortable conditions in the body of dairy goats could happen. To anticipate this uncomfortableconditions will be given feed supplement (FS as source of antioxidants (AOX. FS contain mixturepineapple rind meal and antioxidant minerals (AOXM each 25 ppm Zn and 10 ppm Cu. Thisexperiment was carried out to investigate the effect of feed supplements as antioxidant source on milkquality of dairy goats. Sixteen Etawah dairy goats in the second lactation were used in the experimentthat conducted using randomized block design with 4 treatments and 4 replicates. The treatments wereR0 (grass + concentrate, R1 (R0 + FS containing 0.04 % AOX, R2 (R0 + FS containing 0.06% AOX,R3 (R0 + FS containing 0.08 % AOX. The data collected were analyzed using Anova. The result ofphytochemicals analysis indicated that feed supplement contained flavonoid, polyphenols, sesqiuterpen,mopnoterpen, steroids, quinones and saponins. The results of study showed that there were difference(p<0.05 among treatments on blood and milk cholesterol and milk lactose, but there were no difference(P>0.05 on milk yield, milk fat, milk protein and milk antioxidant. The conclusion of this study was thefeed supplements containing 0.08 AOX produced the best response to milk quality of dairy goats.

  15. Effects of supplemental feeding on gastrointestinal parasite infection in Rocky Mountain Elk (Cervus elaphus)

    Hines, Alicia M.; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Cross, Paul C.; Rogerson, Jared D.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of management practices on the spread and impact of parasites and infectious diseases in wildlife and domestic animals are of increasing concern worldwide, particularly in cases where management of wild species can influence disease spill-over into domestic animals. In the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA, winter supplemental feeding of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) may enhance parasite and disease transmission by aggregating elk on feedgrounds. In this study, we tested the effect of supplemental feeding on gastrointestinal parasite infection in elk by comparing fecal egg/oocyst counts of fed and unfed elk. We collected fecal samples from fed and unfed elk at feedground and control sites from January to April 2006, and screened all samples for parasites. Six different parasite types were identified, and 48.7% of samples were infected with at least one parasite. Gastrointenstinal (GI) nematodes (Nematoda: Strongylida), Trichuris spp., and coccidia were the most common parasites observed. For all three of these parasites, fecal egg/oocyst counts increased from January to April. Supplementally fed elk had significantly higher GI nematode egg counts than unfed elk in January and February, but significantly lower counts in April. These patterns suggest that supplemental feeding may both increase exposure and decrease susceptibility of elk to GI nematodes, resulting in differences in temporal patterns of egg shedding between fed and unfed elk.

  16. Recent advances in the risk assessment of melamine and cyanuric acid in animal feed

    Melamine can be present at low levels in food and feed mostly from its legal use as a food contact material in laminates and plastics, as a trace contaminant in nitrogen supplements used in animal feeds, and as a metabolite of the pesticide cyromazine. The mechanism of toxicity of melamine involves dose-dependent formation of crystals with either endogenous uric acid or a structural analogue of melamine, cyanuric acid, in renal tubules resulting in potential acute kidney failure. Co-exposure to melamine and cyanuric acid in livestock, fish, pets and laboratory animals shows higher toxicity compared with melamine or cyanuric acid alone. Evidence for crystal formation between melamine and other structural analogs i.e. ammelide and ammeline is limited. Illegal pet food adulterations with melamine and cyanuric acid and adulteration of milk with melamine resulted in melamine–cyanuric acid crystals, kidney damage and deaths of cats and dogs and melamine–uric acid stones, hospitalisation and deaths of children in China respectively. Following these incidents, the tolerable daily intake for melamine was re-evaluated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the World Health Organisation, and the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This review provides an overview of toxicology, the adulteration incidents and risk assessments for melamine and its structural analogues. Particular focus is given to the recent EFSA risk assessment addressing impacts on animal and human health of background levels of melamine and structural analogues in animal feed. Recent research and future directions are discussed. - Highlights: ► Melamine in food and feed. ► Forms crystals in kidney with uric acid or cyanuric acid. ► Toxicity higher with cyanuric acid. ► Recent EFSA risk assessment. ► Animal and human health

  17. Recent advances in the risk assessment of melamine and cyanuric acid in animal feed

    Dorne, Jean Lou, E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [Unit on Contaminants, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43121 Parma (Italy); Doerge, Daniel R. [NCTR, Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Vandenbroeck, Marc [Unit on Contaminants, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43121 Parma (Italy); Fink-Gremmels, Johanna [University of Utrecht (Netherlands); Mennes, Wim [RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Knutsen, Helle K. [Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo (Norway); Vernazza, Francesco [Dietary and Chemical Monitoring, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43121 Parma (Italy); Castle, Laurence [FERA, York (United Kingdom); Edler, Lutz [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Benford, Diane [Food Standard Agency, London (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-01

    Melamine can be present at low levels in food and feed mostly from its legal use as a food contact material in laminates and plastics, as a trace contaminant in nitrogen supplements used in animal feeds, and as a metabolite of the pesticide cyromazine. The mechanism of toxicity of melamine involves dose-dependent formation of crystals with either endogenous uric acid or a structural analogue of melamine, cyanuric acid, in renal tubules resulting in potential acute kidney failure. Co-exposure to melamine and cyanuric acid in livestock, fish, pets and laboratory animals shows higher toxicity compared with melamine or cyanuric acid alone. Evidence for crystal formation between melamine and other structural analogs i.e. ammelide and ammeline is limited. Illegal pet food adulterations with melamine and cyanuric acid and adulteration of milk with melamine resulted in melamine–cyanuric acid crystals, kidney damage and deaths of cats and dogs and melamine–uric acid stones, hospitalisation and deaths of children in China respectively. Following these incidents, the tolerable daily intake for melamine was re-evaluated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the World Health Organisation, and the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This review provides an overview of toxicology, the adulteration incidents and risk assessments for melamine and its structural analogues. Particular focus is given to the recent EFSA risk assessment addressing impacts on animal and human health of background levels of melamine and structural analogues in animal feed. Recent research and future directions are discussed. - Highlights: ► Melamine in food and feed. ► Forms crystals in kidney with uric acid or cyanuric acid. ► Toxicity higher with cyanuric acid. ► Recent EFSA risk assessment. ► Animal and human health.

  18. The Optimizing of Growth and Quality of Chlorella vulgaris as ASUH feed supplement for Broiler

    Salvia Salvia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorella is spherical single celled freshwater micro-algae.   Chlorella  has potentials as element of ration or natural ASUH (safe, healthy, whole and halal feed supplement for it contains nutrition and active component, decreases cholesterol level and resulting darker yolk.  Chlorella vulgaris  is type of green algae   which, its economical potential need to be revealed. Variety of components of growing media is one of factors determining quality of microalgae. In terms of mass production, it is important to find correct, cheap and easy to feed nutrition for breeders. The objective of the research is to find out the optimizing of growth and quality of Chlorella vulgaris   as ASUH feed supplement for broiler. Test using sedgwick rafter method conducted to find out the optimizing of growth and quality of  Chlorella vulgaris  while AOAC method applied to test quality of its nutrition. The result shows that.  Chlorella vulgaris  grew well at technical medium 10 % of Phyto-s, crude protein 57.63%, fat  5.84%, b Carotene 6.44 mg/gram, Vitamin C 4.12 mg/gram and vitamin E 1.32 mg/gram. We can say that Chlorella vulgaris  potential to be natural and ASUH feed supplement and Phyto-s can be used as nutrition for mass production.

  19. Effect of different feed supplements on selected quality indicators of chicken meat

    Peter Haščík

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of different feed additives (bee pollen extract, propolis extract, and probiotic on meat quality of broiler chickens. A total of 180 one day-old broiler chicks of mixed sex (Ross 308 were randomly divided into 3 groups. Dietary treatments were as follows: basal diet, free of supplements (control group; C;  basal diet  plus 400 mg bee pollen extract per 1 kg of feed mixtures and 3.3 g probiotic preparation added to drinking water (group E1; basal diet  plus 400 mg propolis extract per 1 kg of feed mixtures and 3.3 g probiotic preparation added to drinking water (group E2. In the experiment, the probiotic preparation based on Lactobacillus fermentum (1.109 CFU.g-1 of bearing medium was used. Fattening period lasted for 42 days. Feed mixtures were produced without any antibiotic preparations and coccidiostatics. Meat quality was evaluated by following technological properties: cooling, freezing and roasting loss; colour parameters based on CIELab system; and shear force. Both dietary supplementations led to decrease in cooling (p ≤0.05 and freezing (p ≥0.05 losses compared with control. On the contrary, the supplemented diet tended to increase roasting losses (p ≤0.05 and shear force values in thigh muscle (p ≤0.05. Significantly higher L* values (p ≤0.05 in breast and thigh muscles, as well as the b* values in thigh muscle, were found when broiler chickens were fed the supplements, especially bee pollen extract and probiotics. In addition, the supplements improve redness (a* of meat. The redness of breast muscle appeared to be the most affected (p ≥0.05 by propolis extract plus probiotics supplementation, while thigh muscle had the highest value (p ≤0.05 in bee pollen extract plus probiotics supplemented group. These findings suggested that the supplements have a beneficial effect on quality of chicken meat due to positive changes in most of quality indicators investigated in the

  20. Monitoring of the folic acid supplementation program in the Netherlands

    de Jong-van den Berg, L.T.

    2008-01-01

    In November of 1993, the Dutch government recommended daily folic acid supplementation of 0.4 or 0.5 mg for all women planning pregnancy, starting 4 weeks before conception until 8 weeks after. In 1995, a one-time mass media campaign was conducted, and due to this campaign, the use of folic acid in

  1. Development of feeding systems and strategies of supplementation to enhance rumen fermentation and ruminant production in the tropics

    2013-01-01

    The availability of local feed resources in various seasons can contribute as essential sources of carbohydrate and protein which significantly impact rumen fermentation and the subsequent productivity of the ruminant. Recent developments, based on enriching protein in cassava chips, have yielded yeast fermented cassava chip protein (YEFECAP) providing up to 47.5% crude protein (CP), which can be used to replace soybean meal. The use of fodder trees has been developed through the process of pelleting; Leucaena leucocephala leaf pellets (LLP), mulberry leaf pellets (MUP) and mangosteen peel and/or garlic pellets, can be used as good sources of protein to supplement ruminant feeding. Apart from producing volatile fatty acids and microbial proteins, greenhouse gases such as methane are also produced in the rumen. Several methods have been used to reduce rumen methane. However, among many approaches, nutritional manipulation using feed formulation and feeding management, especially the use of plant extracts or plants containing secondary compounds (condensed tannins and saponins) and plant oils, has been reported. This approach could help todecrease rumen protozoa and methanogens and thus mitigate the production of methane. At present, more research concerning this burning issue - the role of livestock in global warming - warrants undertaking further research with regard to economic viability and practical feasibility. PMID:23981662

  2. Nicotinic acid supplementation in diet favored intramuscular fat deposition and lipid metabolism in finishing steers.

    Yang, Zhu-Qing; Bao, Lin-Bin; Zhao, Xiang-Hui; Wang, Can-Yu; Zhou, Shan; Wen, Lu-Hua; Fu, Chuan-Bian; Gong, Jian-Ming; Qu, Ming-Ren

    2016-06-01

    Nicotinic acid (NA) acting as the precursor of NAD(+)/NADH and NADP(+)/NADPH, participates in many biochemical processes, e.g. lipid metabolism. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary NA on carcass traits, meat quality, blood metabolites, and fat deposition in Chinese crossbred finishing steers. Sixteen steers with the similar body weight and at the age of 24 months were randomly allocated into control group (feeding basal diet) and NA group (feeding basal diet + 1000 mg/kg NA). All experimental cattle were fed a 90% concentrate diet and 10% forage straw in a 120-day feeding experiment. The results showed that supplemental NA in diet increased longissimus area, intramuscular fat content (17.14% vs. 9.03%), marbling score (8.08 vs. 4.30), redness (a*), and chroma (C*) values of LD muscle, but reduced carcass fat content (not including imtramuscular fat), pH24 h and moisture content of LD muscle, along with no effect on backfat thickness. Besides, NA supplementation increased serum HDL-C concentration, but decreased the serum levels of LDL-C, triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acid, total cholesterol, and glycated serum protein. In addition, NA supplementation increased G6PDH and ICDH activities of LD muscle. These results suggested that NA supplementation in diet improves the carcass characteristics and beef quality, and regulates the compositions of serum metabolites. Based on the above results, NA should be used as the feed additive in cattle industry. PMID:27048556

  3. Omega-3 fatty acid profile of eggs from laying hens fed diets supplemented with chia, fish oil, and flaxseed.

    Coorey, Ranil; Novinda, Agnes; Williams, Hannah; Jayasena, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of diets supplemented with fish oil, flaxseed, and chia seed on the omega-3 fatty acid composition and sensory properties of hens' eggs. No significant difference in yolk fat content was found between treatments. The fatty acid composition of egg yolk was significantly affected by the dietary treatments. Inclusion of chia at 300 g/kg into the diet produced eggs with the highest concentration of omega-3 fatty acid. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were only detected in eggs from laying hens fed the diet supplemented with fish oil. Diet had a significant effect on color, flavor and overall acceptability of eggs. Types and levels of omega-3 fatty acids in feed influence the level of yolk omega-3 fatty acids in egg yolk. Inclusion of chia into the hens' diet significantly increased the concentration of yolk omega-3 fatty acid without significant change in sensory properties. PMID:25557903

  4. Effect of feeding intensity and time on feed on intramuscular fatty acid composition of Simmental bulls.

    Sami, A S; Augustini, C; Schwarz, F J

    2004-06-01

    Seventy-two Simmental bulls, weighing 489 kg initially and approximately 15 months old, were divided into four groups to determine the effects of feeding intensity and time on feed on intramuscular fatty acid (FA) composition. Two groups of 18 bulls each were extensively (E) or intensively (I) fed on maize silage and concentrates with a daily gain of 943 g (E) or 1371 g (I). Half of each group were slaughtered after 100 days (S) or 138 days (L) on feed. In addition to carcass fatness parameters, intramuscular FA composition was also measured. Only small differences in the sum of saturated FA (SFA) percentages were found with 47.7 and 47.5% FA methyl esters (FAME) for SE and LE, respectively, and 48.7% FAME for each of SI and LI. Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) significantly increased with longer, and higher feeding intensity to 44.2% FAME (LI), whereas the other groups had similar contents of 41.9, 42.2 and 42.0% FAME (SE, LE and SI respectively). Polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) decreased with higher feeding intensity to 8.39% (SI) and 6.71% (LI) FAME (p < 0.05) in comparison with 9.48% (SE) and 9.54% (LE). Intensive feeding decreased the ratio of PUFA : SFA to 0.17 (SI) and 0.14 (LI, p < 0.05) in comparison with 0.20 (SE and LE). The mean conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentration was 0.41% FAME. Time on feed had only a small effect on the FA composition compared with feeding intensity. No significant relationships were detected between meat quality attributes and the pattern of FA. PMID:15189422

  5. Effects of supplemental feeding and aggregation on fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations in elk

    Forristal, Victoria E.; Creel, Scott; Taper, Mark L.; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Cross, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    Habitat modifications and supplemental feeding artificially aggregate some wildlife populations, with potential impacts upon contact and parasite transmission rates. Less well recognized, however, is how increased aggregation may affect wildlife physiology. Crowding has been shown to induce stress responses, and increased glucocorticoid (GC) concentrations can reduce immune function and increase disease susceptibility. We investigated the effects of supplemental feeding and the aggregation that it induces on behavior and fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations (fGCM) in elk (Cervus elaphus) using observational and experimental approaches. We first compared fGCM levels of elk on supplemental feedgrounds to neighboring elk populations wintering in native habitats using data from 2003 to 2008. We then experimentally manipulated the distribution of supplemental food on feedgrounds to investigate whether more widely distributed food would result in lower rates of aggression and stress hormone levels. Contrary to some expectations that fed elk may be less stressed than unfed elk during the winter, we found that elk on feedgrounds had fecal GC levels at least 31% higher than non-feedground populations. Within feedgrounds, fGCM levels were strongly correlated with local measures of elk density (r2 = 0.81). Dispersing feed more broadly, however, did not have a detectable effect on fGCM levels or aggression rates. Our results suggest that increases in aggregation associated with winter feedgrounds affects elk physiology, and the resulting increases in fGCM levels are not likely to be mitigated by management efforts that distribute the feed more widely. Additional research is needed to assess whether these increases in fGCMs directly alter parasite transmission and disease dynamics.

  6. Presence and content of kynurenic acid in animal feed.

    Turski, M P; Zgrajka, W; Siwicki, A K; Paluszkiewicz, P

    2015-02-01

    Kynurenic acid (KYNA) was found to be an antagonist of iontropic glutamate receptors and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Furthermore, it was documented that KYNA is an agonist of G-protein coupled GPR35 receptors which are mainly present in the gastrointestinal tract. It was also found that KYNA is present in the gastrointestinal tract and that its concentration gradually increases along it. The origin of KYNA in the gastrointestinal tract is not known. Both might be synthesized from tryptophan in it or absorbed from food and other dietary products. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the concentration of KYNA in animal feed. The results indicate that the highest concentration of KYNA was found in animal feeds intended for livestock. The lower amount of KYNA was detected in animal feeds for fish. Interestingly, the lowest amount of KYNA was found in dog and cat feeds. Furthermore, an analysis of KYNA content in animal food ingredients was conducted. The concentration of KYNA found in one of the ingredients – rapeseed meal – was several times higher in comparison to animal feeds studied. The content of KYNA in the remaining feed ingredients tested was significantly lower. This is the first report on the concentration of KYNA in animal feeds. There is a need for further detailed analysis leading to establishing a set of guidelines for animal feeding. PMID:25040314

  7. Effect of supplementation of arachidonic acid (AA) or a combination of AA plus docosahexaenoic acid on breastmilk fatty acid composition

    Smit, EN; Koopmann, M; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ

    2000-01-01

    We investigated whether supplementation with arachidonic acid (20:4 omega 6; AA), ora combination of AA and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 omega 3; DHA) would affect human milk polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition. Ten women were daily supplemented with 300 mg AA, eight with 300 mg AA, 110 mg e

  8. NEW BIOLOGICAL DIETARY FEED SUPPLEMENT FOR LAYING HENS WITH MICROELEMENTS BASED ON DUCKWEED (LEMNA MINOR

    Zuzanna Witkowska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the applicability of enriched duckweed (Lemna minor as a dietary supplement witch microelements is reported. In our previous studies, the technology of new feed additives with microelements based on duckweed biomass was elaborated. Here, we report the evaluation of the properties of a new product. The effect of duckweed enriched with microelements on the productivity parameters of laying hens was studied in zootechnical research. Birds feed was supplemented with duckweed enriched by biosorption process with microelements (Cu(II, Zn(II, Co(II, Cr(III. In the feeding experiment, laying hens were divided into four experimental groups and one control group. The feeding experiment was conducted for 41 days. Samples of egg yolk, albumen, eggshells, blood, feathers and droppings were collected and the content of metal ions was determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer with ultrasonic nebulizer. The amount of a given microelement transferred into the egg yolk and egg white was calculated. The eggshells thicknesses were measured with micrometer screw. The research showed that enriched Lemna minor improved the egg quality parameters. In all experimental groups, the increase of eggshell thickness was observed. In three of four experimental groups of hens, fed with diet containing biological form of microelements (Co(II, Zn(II, Cr(III, the quantity of given microelement in the egg content increased. Therefore, the biosorption process can be applied not only for the supplementation of microelements in hens feed, but also to produce eggs biofortified with microelements-new functional food for human.

  9. Homologous human milk supplement for very low birth weight preterm infant feeding

    Thayana Regina de Souza Grance

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To develop a homologous human milk supplement for very low-birth weight infant feeding, using an original and simplified methodology, to know the nutritional composition of human milk fortified with this supplement and to evaluate its suitability for feeding these infants. METHODS: For the production and analysis of human milk with the homologous additive, 25 human milk samples of 45mL underwent a lactose removal process, lyophilization and then were diluted in 50mL of human milk. Measurements of lactose, proteins, lipids, energy, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and osmolality were performed. RESULTS: The composition of the supplemented milk was: lactose 9.22±1.00g/dL; proteins 2.20±0.36g/dL; lipids 2.91±0.57g/dL; calories 71.93±8.69kcal/dL; osmolality 389.6±32.4mOsmol/kgH2O; sodium 2.04±0.45mEq/dL; potassium 1.42±0.15mEq/dL; calcium 43.44±2.98mg/dL; and phosphorus 23.69±1.24mg/dL. CONCLUSIONS: According to the nutritional contents analyzed, except for calcium and phosphorus, human milk with the proposed supplement can meet the nutritional needs of the very low-birth weight preterm infant.

  10. The feeding value of the ration based on alfalfa haylage supplemented with high moisture corn in wether sheep

    Vranić Marina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the experiment were to examine the effects of high moisture corn (HMC supplementation to alfalfa haylage (Medicago sativa L. (AH on feed intake, digestibility and nitrogen (N balance in wether sheep. The study consisted of three feeding treatments incorporating AH only and AH supplemented with 5 or 10 g HMC d-1kg-1 body weight of Suffolk wethers. Inclusion of HMC in the AH based ration had negative linear effects on acid detergent fibre (ADF intake (p<0.001 and digestibility (p<0.05 while a positive on the digestibility of dry matter (DM (p<0.05, organic matter (OM (p<0.01 and the digestibility of OM in DM (D-value (p<0.01. A positive associative response of AH and HMC was observed for DM and OM ad libitum intake (g kg-1M0.75d-1 (quadratic, p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively. Negative linear effects of AH and HMC were observed for nitrogen (N intake (p<0.05. The inclusion of HMC into AH based ration did not influence N balance in wether sheep. It was concluded that a positive associative response of the two forages was recorded for a limited number of parameters, probably due to lower quality of HMC than required for improved utilization of the AH based ration.

  11. The effect of feed supplementation on the onset of puberty in Brazilian dairy heifers

    Most Brazilian dairy production is conducted by small holders whose general management skills and feeding programmes are often deficient. One common problem directly attributed to underfeeding is that heifers rarely reach sexual maturity before 15 months of age. Two experiments were carried out using growing heifers to determine the effect of protein supplementation (0.3 kg/heifer/day of a mixture of commercial concentrate with 18.59% crude protein (CP) and cottonseed meal with 28.43% CP) on sexual maturity (Experiment 1); and protein supplementation plus anthelmintic treatment (benzimidazole, 10 mg/kg body weight) on sexual maturity (Experiment 2). All but one of the 23 females in the supplemented group (96%), and only 12 of the 23 heifers in the control group (52%) reached sexual maturity before 18 months of age (P<0.01) in Experiment 1. The first ovulation occurred at 513 ± 44 and 573 ± 36 days (x-bar ± SE, P<0.01) in supplemented and control groups, respectively. Daily body weight gains from beginning of the trial to the first ovulation were 378 ± 0.02 and 331 ± 0.04 g for supplemented and control groups. Height at withers and body condition score did not differ between the two groups. In Experiment 2, only 52.2% of the heifers in the not-supplemented groups (11 of 23), but 95.7% in supplemented groups (22 of 23), reached sexual maturity before the age of 18 months (P<0.01). Groups that had received supplementation presented higher concentrations of haemoglobin and elevated hematocrit throughout the year than the controls (P<0.01). Animals with anthelmintic treatment had better growth performance than the controls (P<0.01). (author) 19 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  12. Influence of pasture-based feeding systems on fatty acids, organic acids and volatile organic flavour compounds in yoghurt.

    Akbaridoust, Ghazal; Plozza, Tim; Trenerry, V Craige; Wales, William J; Auldist, Martin J; Ajlouni, Said

    2015-08-01

    The influence of different pasture-based feeding systems on fatty acids, organic acids and volatile organic flavour compounds in yoghurt was studied. Pasture is the main source of nutrients for dairy cows in many parts of the world, including southeast Australia. Milk and milk products produced in these systems are known to contain a number of compounds with positive effects on human health. In the current study, 260 cows were fed supplementary grain and forage according to one of 3 different systems; Control (a traditional pasture based diet offered to the cows during milking and in paddock), PMR1 (a partial mixed ration which contained the same supplement as Control but was offered to the cows as a partial mixed ration on a feedpad), PMR 2 (a differently formulated partial mixed ration compared to Control and PMR1 which was offered to the cows on a feedpad). Most of the yoghurt fatty acids were influenced by feeding systems; however, those effects were minor on organic acids. The differences in feeding systems did not lead to the formation of different volatile organic flavour compounds in yoghurt. Yet, it did influence the relative abundance of these components. PMID:26143651

  13. Rumen Degradability and Small Intestinal Digestibility of the Amino Acids in Four Protein Supplements.

    Wang, Y; Jin, L; Wen, Q N; Kopparapu, N K; Liu, J; Liu, X L; Zhang, Y G

    2016-02-01

    The supplementation of livestock feed with animal protein is a present cause for public concern, and plant protein shortages have become increasingly prominent in China. This conflict may be resolved by fully utilizing currently available sources of plant protein. We estimated the rumen degradability and the small intestinal digestibility of the amino acids (AA) in rapeseed meal (RSM), soybean meal (SBM), sunflower seed meal (SFM) and sesame meal (SSM) using the mobile nylon bag method to determine the absorbable AA content of these protein supplements as a guide towards dietary formulations for the dairy industry. Overall, this study aimed to utilize protein supplements effectively to guide dietary formulations to increase milk yield and save plant protein resources. To this end, we studied four cows with a permanent rumen fistula and duodenal T-shape fistula in a 4×4 Latin square experimental design. The results showed that the total small intestine absorbable amino acids and small intestine absorbable essential amino acids were higher in the SBM (26.34% and 13.11% dry matter [DM], respectively) than in the SFM (13.97% and 6.89% DM, respectively). The small intestine absorbable Lys contents of the SFM, SSM, RSM and SBM were 0.86%, 0.88%, 1.43%, and 2.12% (DM basis), respectively, and the absorbable Met contents of these meals were 0.28%, 1.03%, 0.52%, and 0.47% (DM basis), respectively. Among the examined food sources, the milk protein score of the SBM (0.181) was highest followed by those of the RSM (0.136), SSM (0.108) and SFM (0.106). The absorbable amino acid contents of the protein supplements accurately reflected protein availability, which is an important indicator of the balance of feed formulation. Therefore, a database detailing the absorbable AA should be established. PMID:26732449

  14. Supplement feeding in late gestation to improve the performance of ewes in a dry area

    Nutritionally, late gestation is an extremely critical production phase in the ewe flock. This is the period of the majority of foetal growth and the period when the majority of the ewe's mammary system develops. Restriction, during foetal life, will exhibit suboptimal development of the small and large intestine, deposit less bone, less muscle and fatter to weaning, and may resulted lower birth weights and weaning weights of lambs. It is essential that a specialized feeding program be used pre-lambing to support the nutrient requirements in the ewe flock. Supplement feeding pregnant ewes with molasses and cottonseed meal resulted in a higher weight of lambs at birth day, 3 months old and 6 month old In this study, the effect of supplementary feeding on the performance of pregnant ewes, grazing in a dry area of Borazjan, located at northern of Bushehr province in south Iran, was considered. In a completely randomize design, thirty pregnant ewes with average body weight of 43.2 ± 3.4 Kg, were tested for supplementary feeding with 2 treatment groups against a control group. The supplementary feeding started from 120 d of gestation and prolonged till parturition. All animals were grazed in dry land pasture and cereal crops residues all the day times but the treatment groups received concentrate supplement mixed up of: I) wheat bran +sugar cane molasses +cotton seed meal +vitamins and II) wheat bran +sugar cane molasses +urea +vitamins to provide extra macro and micro nutrients with different portion of rumen degradable and undegradable protein between treatments as described. The lambing rate was recorded and the live weight of lambs was measured at birthday, 3 and 6-month age. Results showed that the lambing rate, based on the number of lambs per groups, were similar in both treatment groups and the control as well. As it is shown in Table II, lams born from the ewes received supplement feed, had significantly (P < 0.05) higher birth weight comparing to the control

  15. LITHOCHOLIC ACID FEEDING RESULTS IN DIRECT HEPATO-TOXICITY INDEPENDENT OF NEUTROPHIL FUNCTION IN MICE

    Woolbright, Benjamin L.; Li, Feng; Xie, Yuchao; Farhood, Anwar; Fickert, Peter; Trauner, Michael; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2014-01-01

    Lithocholic acid (LCA) supplementation in the diet results in intrahepatic cholestasis and bile infarcts. Previously we showed that an innate immune response is critical for cholestatic liver injury in the bile duct ligated mice. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the role of neutrophils in the mechanism of liver injury caused by feeding mice a diet containing LCA. C57BL/6 mice were given control or 1% LCA containing diet for 24–96h and then examined for parameters of hepatoto...

  16. Measurement of natural radioactivity in animal feed supplements samples by gamma-ray spectrometry

    The objective of the present work is to determine the radiation levels found in animal feed supplements due to natural radioactivity. Knowledge of the radiation levels in samples of animal and poultry feed supplements is important, because they directly or indirectly form part of the human diet. In order to obtain this data, gamma-ray spectrometry technique was used, employing a p-type HPGe detector of 30% of relative efficiency, with an energy resolution of 1.9 KeV for the 60Co 1332.46 KeV line. The radioactivity due to radionuclides 40K, 226Ra, 238U, 232Th and its respective decay series was measured. The accommodation recipient of the samples was a 250 cc cylindrical plastic container. The 238U series radioactivity was calculated through 214Pb and 214Bi activities, and the 232Th series' activity was calculated through the 228Ac, 212Pb, 212Bi and 208Tl values. The animal feed supplements samples measured in this work were samples received in this laboratory for radioactivity test certification. Among the samples, the radioactivity concentration of Uranium-238, Thorium-232, Radium-226 and Potassium-40 in animal supplement was found to be in the range of 1.4 ± 0.2 to 32.7 ± 5.7 Bq/kg, 1.8 ± 0.2 to 44.5 ± 6.6 Bq/kg, 4.0 ± 1. 2 to 105.2 ± 10.2 Bq/kg and 13.1 ± 3.6 to 397.2 ± 19.9 Bq/kg respectively. (author)

  17. Performance and Fatty Acid Profile of Japanese Quails Fed on Diets Supplemented with Used Restaurant Oil

    The experiment was designed to study the effects of replacing cotton seed oil (CSO) with Used Restaurant Oil (URO) in Japanese quail diets on performance, fatty acid composition of the carcass and egg and concentration of iodine metabolites. URO was added to the diets at 0, 1, 2 or 4 % at the expense of CSO (4 %) in the control diet during a 10-week trial period. Feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion, mortality rate, triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the levels of used restaurant ,oi). Replacing 25,% or 50 % of CSO with URO had no significant (p>0.05) effect on linoleic acid content of carcass and egg. In contrary, linoleic acid content was reduced significantly (p<0.05) in the carcass and egg of the group which fed on the diet with 4 % URO. It can be concluded that used restaurant oil can be supplemented to the Japanese quail diets at the levels of 1 % and 2 % without any determine effect on the performance and the fatty acid profile of carcass and egg. rat supplementation to broiler chicken is a long standing practice for improving the consistency and palatability of the diets; increasing the energy density of broiler meat; stimulating growth and utilization of food and energy; feed efficiency; egg size, yield, and hatch ability (Carew and Hill, 1964; Vermeersch and Vanschoubroek, 1968 and Summers and Lesson, 1979 ). Poultry required fat in the diet as a source of essential fatty acids and to facilitate supply and absorption of vitamins (Clarke et al, 1977). Oil may be added to poultry diets in order to meet the 1% linoleic acid requirements

  18. Assessing the economic impacts of commercial poultry feeds supplementation and vaccinating against Newcastle disease in local chickens, in Kenya

    Despite of the rapid growth in poultry population in the past decade, various constraints continue to adversely affect the productivity of local birds in Kenya. Sustainable cost effective interventions are necessary if full potential is to be realised. The impact of Newcastle disease (ND) control using vaccination and commercial poultry feed supplementation was assessed in 16 farms found in Kiambu district (ECZ II). Information on flock size, flock structure and disease control was gathered from these farms. F strain ND vaccine administration and commercial poultry feed supplementation was also done. Generally there was a notable increase in flock size when birds were supplemented and vaccinated. There was marked increase in numbers of growers and chicks with feed supplementation and vaccination. It was economically profitable to supplement and vaccinate local birds as returns were >1.0. Vaccination gave the highest return on investment (3,36) and feed supplementation the least (1,15). The high cost of commercial poultry feed discourages farmers from supplementing local chicken; therefore farm formulations using locally available materials should be encouraged. There is need to produce thermostable vaccines locally to use in local birds which would bring vaccine costs further down. (author)

  19. Immunological effects of feeding macroalgae and various vitamin E supplements in Norwegian white sheep-ewes and their offspring

    Novoa-Garrido, Margarita; Aanesen, Lise; Lind, Vibeke; Larsen, Hans Jørgen S.; Jensen, Søren K; Govasmark, Espen; Steinshamn, Håvard

    2014-01-01

    It is assumed that ewes raised in areas with long indoor winter feeding periods need to be supplemented with vitamins or other substances that help to maintain the health status of the animals. Various supplements are available on the market, but the most widely used supplemental antioxidant and vitamin E source is synthetic all-rac-α-tocopheryl acteate. The objective of the present study was to compare potential vitamin E and immune stimulant sources with synthetic vitamin E regarding bioact...

  20. Effects of dietary methionine on feed utilization, plasma amino acid profiles and gene expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Rolland, Marine

    acids (EAA) compared to dietary requirements. Supplementation with amino acids in crystalline from (CAA) is a common practice to balance the dietary amino acid profile to achieve high growth performances. However, complete substitution of fish meal using plant proteins and CAAs often results in poorer...... first study are presented in Paper I and show that the protein source itself (fish meal or plant based) does not affect the plasma EAA profiles, but rather that plasma EAA levels reflect the dietary level. Supplementation with histidine, lysine and threonine in crystalline form to a plant based diet was...... described as an apparent “accumulation” in the plasma, compared to fish fed similar dietary level but in protein bound form. The study further showed that the nitrogen excretion resulting from feeding an AA deficient diet was higher than for the fish meal control diet. Supplementation of the plant meal diet...

  1. Meat quality of suckling lambs supplemented with contents of crude glycerin in creep feeding

    Ana Carolina Ribeiro Sanquetta de Pellegrin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of crude glycerin in the supplement provided in creep feeding on the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of meat from suckling lambs kept in pasture ryegrass. Thirty two suckling lambs, sixteen male and sixteen female, were distributed into 4 diets with different concentrations of crude glycerin: 0, 10, 20 and 30% crude glycerin, in the replacement of corn, in the isoproteic supplement (18% CP provided daily in amounts equivalent to 2% of body weight. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with each variable data submitted to analysis of variance at 5% significance and the significant results subjected to regression analysis. There was no effect (P>0,05 of contents of crude glycerin on the chemical composition and cholesterol content of lamb meat. On the other hand, there was increased linearly (P>0,05 pH and cooking losses by the use of crude glycerin. No influence (P>0,05 of crude glycerin concentration on the texture profile analysis (TPA, sensorial analysis by triangular test and even when was evaluated attributes color, tenderness and juiciness of lamb meat. Up to 30% of crude glycerin in the supplement provided in creep feeding for suckling lambs grazing ryegrass do not compromise the physical-chemical and sensorial quality of the lamb meat.

  2. Effects of some selective supplemental feeds on the survival and growth of catfish (Clarias batrachus Lin.) fry

    Rahman, M. A.; Bhadra, A.; Begum, N.; Hussain, M.G.

    1997-01-01

    Feeding experiments were conducted for 21 days to study the effect of live food (Tubifex sp.) and three prepared supplemental feeds on the growth and survival of 13 day old magur (C. batrachus) fry. It was observed that the growth of fry varied significantly (p

  3. Ileal amino acid digestibility and performance of growing pigs fed wheat-based diets supplemented with xylanase.

    Barrera, M; Cervantes, M; Sauer, W C; Araiza, A B; Torrentera, N; Cervantes, M

    2004-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of supplementation of xylanase to a wheat-based diet on the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of AA and the performance of growing pigs fed diets limiting in AA. In Exp. 1, eight pigs (average initial BW = 20.5+/-1.2 kg) fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum, were fed four diets according to a repeated 4 x 4 Latin square design. Diet 1 was a basal diet that contained 97.6% wheat. Diets 2, 3, and 4 were the basal diet supplemented with xylanase at rates of 5,500, 11,000, and 16,500 units of xylanase activity (XU), respectively (as-fed basis). There were linear and quadratic effects (0.062 lysine, 0.12% threonine, and 0.05% methionine. Diet 6 (positive control diet) was a wheat-soybean meal diet that contained 18.2% CP (as-fed basis). The total contents of lysine, threonine, and methionine were similar for Diets 5 and 6. There was a linear effect of xylanase supplementation on ADG (P = 0.093) and feed:gain ratio (P = 0.089), and a quadratic effect on ADG (P = 0.067) and feed:gain ratio (P = 0.074). But, the greatest response was obtained with the supplementation of 11,000 XU. The supplementation of lysine, threonine, and methionine to Diet 1 increased (P = 0.001) ADG and ADFI and improved (P = 0.01) feed:gain ratio. There was no difference (P = 0.508) in the performance of pigs fed the AA-supplemented or control diet. In conclusion, the supplementation of xylanase to a diet in which wheat provided the sole source of protein and energy improved the AID of AA, ADG, and feed:gain ratio; however, this improvement was very small compared with that obtained with the supplementation of synthetic amino acids. PMID:15309946

  4. Growing and laying performance of Japanese quail fed diet supplemented with different concentrations of acetic acid

    Youssef A. Attia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of acetic acid on growing and laying performance of Japanese Quail (JQ, 180 15-day-old JQ were divided into 4 groups. During the growing (15-42 days of age and laying (43-84 days of age periods, the groups fed the same basal diets supplemented with 0, 1.5, 3 and 6% of acetic acid. Each diet was fed to five replicates of 9 JQ (3 males:6 females during the growing period. During the laying period, 128 birds were housed in 32 cages (4 birds per cage, 1 male and 3 females, 8 replicates per treatment. Birds were housed in wire cages (46L×43W×20H cm in an open room. Acetic acid supplementation at 3% in the diets significantly increased the growth and laying rate and the Haugh unit score. The liver percentage significantly decreased with acetic acid at 6%. Acetic acid at 3% significantly increased hemoglobin concentrations at 6 weeks of age and increased weight of day old chicks hatched. Acetic acid affected the immune system as manifested by an excess of cellular reactions in the intestine as well as lymphoid hyperplasia in the spleen tissue. Degenerative changes in the covering epithelium of the intestinal villi were noted at the 6% concentration of acetic acid. Hepatocyte vacuolation and fatty changes were also observed at this concentration of treatment. In conclusion, 3% acetic acid may be used as a feed supplement for JQ during the growing and laying period to improve the productive performance.

  5. The Effect of Probiotic and Prebiotic Feed Supplementation on Chicken Health and Gut Microflora: A Review

    Ruth T.S. Ofongo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Commercial poultry production is ranked among the highest source of animal protein in the world. Microbial infections caused by bacteria (Salmonella, Clostridium perfringes and parasites particularly Eimeria has continued to challenge the poultry industry. Antibiotic Growth Promoters (AGP have been traditionally used to counter microbial infections in poultry. But due to public health concerns, the use of AGP in poultry is either restricted or out rightly banned in several countries. Hence, this review is aimed at highlighting alternative feed supplements that can enhance performance and protect the chickens from microbial infections. The study found that dietary supplements containing probiotic, prebiotic and enzymes are able to enhance performance while protecting the chickens from microbial infection.

  6. Recent advances in the risk assessment of melamine and cyanuric acid in animal feed.

    Dorne, Jean Lou; Doerge, Daniel R; Vandenbroeck, Marc; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna; Mennes, Wim; Knutsen, Helle K; Vernazza, Francesco; Castle, Laurence; Edler, Lutz; Benford, Diane

    2013-08-01

    Melamine can be present at low levels in food and feed mostly from its legal use as a food contact material in laminates and plastics, as a trace contaminant in nitrogen supplements used in animal feeds, and as a metabolite of the pesticide cyromazine. The mechanism of toxicity of melamine involves dose-dependent formation of crystals with either endogenous uric acid or a structural analogue of melamine, cyanuric acid, in renal tubules resulting in potential acute kidney failure. Co-exposure to melamine and cyanuric acid in livestock, fish, pets and laboratory animals shows higher toxicity compared with melamine or cyanuric acid alone. Evidence for crystal formation between melamine and other structural analogs i.e. ammelide and ammeline is limited. Illegal pet food adulterations with melamine and cyanuric acid and adulteration of milk with melamine resulted in melamine-cyanuric acid crystals, kidney damage and deaths of cats and dogs and melamine-uric acid stones, hospitalisation and deaths of children in China respectively. Following these incidents, the tolerable daily intake for melamine was re-evaluated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the World Health Organisation, and the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This review provides an overview of toxicology, the adulteration incidents and risk assessments for melamine and its structural analogues. Particular focus is given to the recent EFSA risk assessment addressing impacts on animal and human health of background levels of melamine and structural analogues in animal feed. Recent research and future directions are discussed. PMID:22306862

  7. Water Intake and Utilization in Mithun (Bos frontalis):Effect of Environmental Temperature, Rearing System and Concentrate Feed Supplement

    D. T. Pal; A. Dhali; S. K. Mondal; C. Rajkhowa; K. M. Bujarbaruah

    2008-01-01

    Seasonal and sexual variations as well as the effect of dry feed supplement on total drinking water intake and its utilization were observed in mithun (Bos frontalis)-a semi-wild animal found in North Eastern Hill Region (NEHR) of India. In a completely randomized design, twelve adult mithuns (B. frontalis) as per their sex and body weight were assigned in two different rearing systems (free grazing and free grazing with dry concentrate feed supplementation), and ten growing male mithuns as per their body weight assigned in two different levels of dry concentrate feed supplementation (1.0 kg and 2.0 kg dry concentrate feeds on green forage based diet) and in two different seasons (summer and winter). It was observed that the environmental temperature had a significant effect on drinking water intake by mithuns. Drinking water consumption (per unit of body weight) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in summer than in winter. Supplementation of concentrate feed on free grazing animals resulted in increase in water consumption. Total water consumption (drinking as well as performed water) was found to be 15.18 litres per 100 kg body weight by growing mithun. Feed dry matter and digestible nutrient intakes by growing mithun were observed to be increased with the increase of supplementation of dry concentrate feed. Roughage to concentrate ratio did not affect the nutrient digestibility. Mithun calves drank an average of 4.30 litres water for each kg of dry matter intake. Metabolic water was significantly (P<0.01) increased with the increase of supplementation of concentrate feed whereas water turn over, which depends upon the body weight of the animals, did not differ significantly on offering of lower or higher level of dry feed. Faecal water loss of growing mithun was decreased with the increase in intake of concentrate feed and was estimated to be 33~46% of total water intake. Excretion of water through faeces of mithun was about 3.8% of body weight. It could

  8. Lithocholic acid feeding results in direct hepato-toxicity independent of neutrophil function in mice.

    Woolbright, Benjamin L; Li, Feng; Xie, Yuchao; Farhood, Anwar; Fickert, Peter; Trauner, Michael; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2014-07-01

    Lithocholic acid (LCA) supplementation in the diet results in intrahepatic cholestasis and bile infarcts. Previously we showed that an innate immune response is critical for cholestatic liver injury in the bile duct ligated mice. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the role of neutrophils in the mechanism of liver injury caused by feeding mice a diet containing LCA. C57BL/6 mice were given control or 1% LCA containing diet for 24-96 h and then examined for parameters of hepatotoxicity. Plasma ALT levels were significantly increased by 48 h after LCA feeding, which correlated with both neutrophil recruitment to the liver and upregulation of numerous pro-inflammatory genes. The injury was confirmed by histology. Deficiency in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression or inhibition of neutrophil function failed to protect against the injury. Bile acid levels were quantified in plasma and bile of LCA-fed mice after 48 and 96 h. Only the observed biliary levels of taurochenodeoxycholic acid and potentially tauro-LCA caused direct cytotoxicity in mouse hepatocytes. These data support the conclusion that neutrophil recruitment occurs after the onset of bile acid-induced necrosis in LCA-fed animals, and is not a primary mechanism of cell death when cholestasis occurs through accumulation of hydrophobic bile acids. PMID:24742700

  9. Mathematical modeling of convective air drying of quinoa-supplemented feed for laboratory rats

    Antonio Vega-Gálvez

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Drying kinetics of quinoa-supplemented feed for laboratory rats during processing at 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90ºC was studied and modeled in this work. Desorption isotherm was obtained at 60ºC giving a monolayer moisture content of 0.04 g water/g d.m. The experimental drying curves showed that drying process took place only in the falling rate period. Several thin-layer drying equations available in the literature were evaluated based on determination coefficient (r², sum squared errors (SSE and Chi-square (χ2 statisticals. In comparison to the experimental moisture values, the values estimated with the Logarithmic model gave the best fit quality (r² >0.994, SSE < 0.00015 and χ2 < 0.00018, showing this equation could predict very accurately the drying time of rat feed under the operative conditions applied.

  10. Maternal folic acid supplement intake and semen quality in Danish sons

    Jacobsen, Kristoffer; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Thulstrup, Ane Marie;

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether maternal folic acid supplement intake during pregnancy is related to better semen quality in male offspring.......To examine whether maternal folic acid supplement intake during pregnancy is related to better semen quality in male offspring....

  11. Supplemental feeding with glycerol or propylene glycol of dairy cows in early lactation - Effects on metabolic status, body condition, and milk yield

    Lomander, H; Frössling, J; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne;

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this field study was to evaluate the effect of supplemental feeding with glycerol or propylene glycol to dairy cows in early lactation on metabolic status, body condition and milk yield. In total, 673 newly calved cows from 12 commercial Swedish dairy herds were randomized to daily...... supplementation with 450 g of glycerol (GLY), 300 g of propylene glycol (PG), or nothing (control, CON). Supplements were fed twice daily from 0 to 21 d in milk (DIM) as a top dress on concentrates. For each cow, data on parity, breed, calving date, monthly test-day milk yield, and cases of diseases were...... collected. Blood samples were taken at approximately 2, 5, and 8 wk postpartum (pp) and analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and insulin. Samples taken within 3 wk pp were also analyzed for insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Measurements of body condition...

  12. Fatty acid profile of eggs of semi-heavy layers fed feeds containing linseed oil

    JG Souza

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in chicken eggs by adding oils to the diets has been extensively studied. This experiment aimed at evaluating possible changes in the fatty acid profile of the eggs of layers fed diets supplemented with linseed and soybean oils. The experiment was performed using 192 29 week-old laying hens, distributed in a completely randomized design, into six treatments with four replicates of eight birds each. Treatments consisted of a control diet (no vegetable oil and diets including 2% of vegetable oil. Linseed oil replaced 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% soybean oil in the diets, corresponding to 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% of linseed oil in the diet. A pool of two egg yolks from each treatment was submitted to lipid extraction and fatty acid methylation, and subsequent gas chromatography (GC analysis to detect seven fatty acids. Saturated (myristic and palmitic fatty acids concentration was affected by lipid dietary source, with the lowest concentration in birds were fed feeds containing linseed oil. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA concentration in the eggs was influenced by different levels of linseed oil inclusion. Linoleic acid egg content increased when linseed oil was used on diet as compared to the control diet. Linseed oil was considered an excellent source of linolenic acid incorporation in the eggs.

  13. Effects of dietary cottonseed oil and tannin supplements on protein and fatty acid composition of bovine milk.

    Aprianita, Aprianita; Donkor, Osaana N; Moate, Peter J; Williams, S Richard O; Auldist, Martin J; Greenwood, Jae S; Hannah, Murray C; Wales, William J; Vasiljevic, Todor

    2014-05-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of diets supplemented with cottonseed oil, Acacia mearnsii-condensed tannin extract, and a combination of both on composition of bovine milk. Treatment diets included addition of cottonseed oil (800 g/d; CSO), condensed tannin from Acacia mearnsii (400 g/d; TAN) or a combination of cottonseed oil (800 g/d) and condensed tannin (400 g/d; CPT) with a diet consisting of 6·0 kg dry matter (DM) of concentrates and alfalfa hay ad libitum, which also served as the control diet (CON). Relative to the CON diet, feeding CSO and CPT diets had a minor impact on feed intake and yield of lactose in milk. These diets increased yields of milk and protein in milk. In contrast to the TAN diet, the CSO and CPT diets significantly decreased milk fat concentration and altered milk fatty acid composition by decreasing the proportion of saturated fatty acids but increasing proportions of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The CPT diet had a similar effect to the CSO diet in modifying fatty acid profile. Overall, reduction in milk fat concentration and changes in milk fatty acid profile were probably due to supplementation of linoleic acid-rich cottonseed oil. The TAN diet had no effect on feed intake, milk yield and milk protein concentration. However, a reduction in the yields of protein and lactose occurred when cows were fed this diet. Supplemented tannin had no significant effect on fat concentration and changes in fatty acid profile in milk. All supplemented diets did not affect protein concentration or composition, nitrogen concentration, or casein to total protein ratio of the resulting milk. PMID:24594257

  14. Effect of Feeding Palm Oil By-Products Based Diets on Muscle Fatty Acid Composition in Goats

    Abubakr, Abdelrahim; Alimon, Abdul Razak; Yaakub, Halimatun; Abdullah, Norhani; Ivan, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the effects of feeding palm oil by-products based diets on different muscle fatty acid profiles in goats. Thirty-two Cacang × Boer goats were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments: (1) control diet (CD), (2) 80% decanter cake diet (DCD), (3) 80% palm kernel cake diet (PKCD) and (4) CD plus 5% palm oil (PO) supplemented diet (CPOD). After 100 days of feeding, four goats from each group were slaughtered and longissimus dorsi (LD), infraspinatus (IS) and...

  15. Effect of feeding extruded flaxseed with different grains on the performance of dairy cows and milk fatty acid profile.

    Neveu, C; Baurhoo, B; Mustafa, A

    2014-03-01

    Sixteen Holsteins cows were used in a Latin square design experiment to determine the effects of extruded flaxseed (EF) supplementation and grain source (i.e., corn vs. barley) on performance of dairy cows. Extruded flaxseed diets contained 10% [dry matter (DM) basis] of an EF product that consisted of 75% flaxseed and 25% ground alfalfa meal. Four lactating Holsteins cows fitted with rumen fistulas were used to determine the effects of dietary treatments on ruminal fermentation. Intakes of DM (23.2 vs. 22.2 kg/d), crude protein (4.2 vs. 4.0 kg/d), and neutral detergent fiber (8.3 vs. 7.9 kg/d) were greater for cows fed EF diets than for cows fed diets without EF. Milk yield and composition were not affected by dietary treatments. However, 4% fat-corrected milk (30.5% vs. 29.6 kg/d) and solids-corrected milk (30.7 vs. 29.9 kg/d) were increased by EF supplementation. Ruminal pH and total volatile fatty acid concentration were not influenced by EF supplementation. However, feeding barley relative to corn increased molar proportions of acetate and butyrate and decreased that of propionate. Ruminal NH3-N was lower for cows fed barley than for cows fed corn. Milk fatty acid composition was altered by both grain source and EF supplementation. Cows fed EF produced milk with higher polyunsaturated and lower saturated fatty acid concentrations than cows fed diets without EF. Feeding EF or corn increased the milk concentration of C18:0, whereas that of C16:0 was decreased by EF supplementation only. Extruded flaxseed supplementation increased milk fat α-linolenic acid content by 60% and conjugated linoleic acid content by 29%. Feeding corn relative to barley increased milk conjugated linoleic acid by 29% but had no effect on milk α-linolenic concentration. Differences in animal performance and milk fatty acid composition were mainly due to EF supplementation, whereas differences in ruminal fermentation were mostly due to grain source. PMID:24418278

  16. In Vitro Test of Feed Supplements Quality in Urea Multi nutrient Molase Block (UMMB) Derived from Several Areas

    This research was conducted due to the huge number of UMMB manufacturers in the suburbs, using local supplements which feed quality is not yet known. Feed supplements of UMMB came from P3TIR as sample A (from soy sauce dregs), and sample B (from soy oil cake), South Sulawesi, Bali, Bandung, Padang as Saka Block, Wonosobo, Sleman, Blora, Malang, and Boyolali. Quality parameters which are measured are dry matter (DM), crude fibre (CF), crude fatty acid (CFA), Ash, crude protein (CP), Ca, P, NaCl and comparison of bacterium and protozoa ratio with 32P. Result of analysis shows highest ash content (mineral) of UMMB was found in soy oil cake of P3TIR, which is equal to 28.88% Saka block from Padang is the lowest which is equal to 11.94%. The highest crude protein is from P3TIR and the lowest is from Malang equal to 32.21 and 5.21 % respectively. The highest crude fibre is form Blora 15.55% and Malang is lowest 4.83. The highest crude fat is from soy sauce dregs from P3TIR 9.43 and Bandung is the lowest with 0.81. The highest ratio of bacterium and protozoa of UMMB come from Malang 27 : 1 and the lowest is from Boyolali 2 : 1 and in grass 0.25 : 1. Source of protein mostly comes from coconut oil cakes. All energy source come from, brans, with dried cassava flour added, milled maize seed, waste of tapioca etc. While for mineral source used are TSP, agriculture calcify, sulfur and there are some added with scallop-shell or prawn-head. (author)

  17. Use of inexpensive feed supplementation to improve reproductive efficiency of Pelibuey sheep in the tropics. Effect of pre- and post-partum supplementation

    The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of pre- and post-partum supplementation of Pelibuey ewes on the nutritional status and resumption of ovarian activity of the dams, as well as on the performance of the lambs. Pregnant Pelibuey ewes (n = 109) were used. Two months before the expected lambing data, 52 of animals were randomly assigned to a supplemented group, while the other 57 remained non-supplemented. After lambing, half of the animals from each feeding group were assigned to the opposite treatment. Supplementation consisted of a concentrate containing 3000 kcal/kg and 16% crude protein, and was supplied daily in amounts equal to 2% body weight. The animals in all groups gained weight during the last 2 months of pregnancy. All groups lost weight during lactation, but the loss was larger in the groups that were not supplemented during lactation. Net weight loss from the beginning to the end of the experiment was significantly smaller (P<0.05) in the 2 groups that were supplemented during lactation than in the other 2 groups. There were no effects of supplementation on the intervals from lambing to first ovulation or to first oestrus. Pre-partum supplementation increased the birth weight of the lambs, and post-partum supplementation increased the weaning weight of the lambs. It is concluded that there was a beneficial effect of supplementation of Pelibuey ewes during lactation, since it caused a significant increase on the growth rate of the lambs and a reduction in the weight loss and body conditions loss of the dams during lactation. Under the conditions of this trial, pre-partum supplementation did not provide an additional advantage if the ewes were supplemented during lactation. (author). 11 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs

  18. The influence of protein feed supplements for composition of cow milk

    Čermák Bohuslav

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In two experiments at three experimental groups(each n=9 cows the supplement of protein through extracted soja and AMINOTEK were observed. Average daily milk yield depend on month after calving. (1st x= 28  s´=20,2, 2nd x=35 s=25,6, 3nd x=31 s=26,8. The differences among basic milk nutriments were not statistical significant during experiment. The contents of milk nutriments were decreased at the control group and at the both experiment groups in January. A tendency to higher level of proteins, methionine and cystine  was at the experiment groups. The content of lysine is constant. We observed increase content of oil acid in milk tested dairy cow. These dairy cows were fed by AMINOTEK suplement. The oil acid could be basic component in another non-saturated acid in milk fat (NNKT. Again was find higher delegacy linol acid.

  19. Effect of benzoic acid supplementation on acid-base status and mineralmetabolism in catheterized growing pigs

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Fernández, José Adalberto; Sørensen, Kristina Ulrich;

    2010-01-01

    Benzoic acid (BA) in diets for growing pigs results in urinary acidification and reduced ammonia emission. The objective was to study the impact of BA supplementation on the acid-base status and mineral metabolism in pigs. Eight female 50-kg pigs, fitted with a catheter in the abdominal aorta, were...

  20. Regeneration of the intestinal mucosa in Eimeria and E. Coli challenged broilers supplemented with amino acids.

    Gottardo, E T; Prokoski, K; Horn, D; Viott, A D; Santos, T C; Fernandes, J I M

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the regeneration of the intestinal mucosa in Eimeria and E. coli challenged broilers supplemented with glutamine, arginine, and threonine. Six hundred male broilers at one d of age from the Cobb strain were utilized. The design was completely randomized using a 2×3 factorial design (unchallenged and challenged and 3 diets). A commercial diet was used as a control and 2 other diets were formulated with glutamine (1.5 and 3% Aminogut®), arginine (1 and 2% L-Arginine), and threonine (1 and 2% L-threonine). The animals that consumed diets supplemented with amino acids presented better (Pexperimental feeds reflected in greater protein levels in poultry house litter, and they did not interfere with ammonia production. The supplementation of diets with trophic amino acids can positively contribute to the regeneration and proliferation of the intestinal mucosa in broilers and to the maintenance of zootechnical performance when submitted to enteric challenges. PMID:26846258

  1. Organic acids for control of Salmonella in different feed materials

    Koyuncu, Sevinc; Andersson, Mats Gunnar; Löfström, Charlotta;

    2013-01-01

    FA, propionic acid (PA) and sodium formate (SF) was investigated. Four Salmonella strains isolated from feed were assayed for their acid tolerance. Also, the effect of lower temperatures (5°C and 15°C) compared to room temperature was investigated in rape seed and soybean meal. Results The efficacy....... Typhimurium. The tolerance of the S. Infantis strain compared with the S. Typhimurium strain was statistically significant (p<0.05). The lethal effect of FA on the S. Typhimurium strain and the S. Infantis strain was lower at 5°C and 15°C compared to room temperatures. Conclusions Acid treatment of Salmonella...... tolerance between different Salmonella strains, and the treatment temperature....

  2. Effect of age of feed restriction and microelement supplementation to control ascites on production and carcass characteristics of broilers.

    Camacho, M A; Suárez, M E; Herrera, J G; Cuca, J M; García-Bojalil, C M

    2004-04-01

    Three experiments were conducted, from January until September 2001, to estimate the optimized age to apply feed restriction to control mortality from ascites, with no negative effects on production and carcass characteristics of broilers. For each experiment, 1,200 1-d-old mixed Ross x Peterson chicks were reared in floor pens (50 chicks in each) and fed commercial feed. Feed restriction was applied for 8 h/d for 14 d at 21 or 28 d of age in experiment 1, 14 or 21 d in experiment 2, and 7 or 14 d in experiment 3. In experiments 2 and 3, a microelement supplement (without or with) was tested; the control groups received feed ad libitum and no supplement. Body weight gain, feed conversion, total mortality, and mortality from ascites, leg problems, and carcass characteristics were considered at the end of each experiment. The data were analyzed as a completely randomized design, or as a 2 x 2 factorial to estimate main and interaction effects (experiments 2 and 3). Additional analyses, including the control, were done; means comparisons were by orthogonal contrasts. The production and carcass characteristics of the restricted groups were lower than the control but were not statistically different in experiments 2 and 3, although the optimized age for feed restriction was at 7 d. Total mortality and mortality from ascites decreased by restriction, but leg problems increased without supplement. The results indicated that quantitative feed restriction and microelement supplementation at 7 d of age reduced mortality from ascites and leg problems and permitted compensatory growth sufficient to equal the production characteristics of the control group at 49 d of age. However, it is necessary to determine the specific microelements to be supplemented and to estimate the effects of season and genetic line. PMID:15109050

  3. Nutrient Utilization, Lactational Performance, and Profitability of Dairy Cows by Feeding Protein Supplements in High-Forage Lactation Diets

    Neal, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Due to the increasing cost of soybean meal and concerns of excess N being excreted into the environment, new protein supplements have been developed. Two products that have shown potential in increasing N utilization efficiency are slow release urea (SRU; Optigen) and ruminal escape protein derived from yeast (YMP; DEMP). The objective of this study was to assess the effects of feeding these 2 supplements in high-forage [(54% of total dietary dry matter (DM)] dairy diets on nutrient utilizati...

  4. Economic benefits of using prebiotic and probiotic products as supplements in stimulation feeds administered to bee colonies

    PATRUICA, Silvia; HUTU, Ioan

    2013-01-01

    Spring stimulation feeding of honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera carpatica) is a very important technique for the encouragement of productive foraging. In addition to improving bee health by creating favorable conditions for the development of a beneficial intestinal bacterial flora, the use of prebiotic and probiotic supplements in the feed promotes good colony development, thus increasing the forager population. This paper presents the results for the economic benefit measured following use ...

  5. Effect of Feeding Different Protein and Energy Supplements on Performance and Health of Beef Calves During the Backgrounding Period

    Austin, Robert Jesse

    2001-01-01

    EFFECT OF FEEDING DIFFERENT PROTEIN AND ENERGY SUPPLEMENTS ON PERFORMANCE AND HEALTH OF BEEF CALVES DURING THE BACKGROUNDING PERIOD By R. Jesse Austin Committee Chair: Joseph P. Fontenot Animal and Poultry Sciences (ABSTRACT) Newly received or weaned calves are highly susceptible to the incidence of bovine respiratory disease. In addition to high levels of stress, decreased feed intake and exposure to foreign antigens result in increased morbidity and possib...

  6. CHOICE FEEDING AND AMINO ACID REQUIREMENTS FOR BROILERS

    B. Indarsih; R.A.E.Pym

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted as a completely randomized design, with a factorial arrangement to determine the response of commercial broilers to choice feeding and limiting amino acids on growth and carcass performance. A total of 432 male birds were weighed at one-d-old and randomly distributed to 48 wire-floored brooder cage each 1.0 m2. There were 2 sexes and 4 dietary treatments with 6 replicates each of 9 birds. Birds were given one of three dietary regimens with dietary change every 7 days. ...

  7. Effect of pre-partum prilled fat supplementation on feed intake, energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes

    Shikha Sharma; Mahendra Singh; Ashwani Kumar Roy; Sunita Thakur

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of pre-partum prilled fat feeding on dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Advance pregnant Murrah buffaloes were either received a dietary supplement of prilled fat at 100 g/day for 35 days pre-partum and at 150 g/day for 95 days post-partum (supplemented group [SG]) or did not receive fat supplement (control group [CG]). DMI and the yields of milk and milk component were measured. A body conditi...

  8. Improving animal productivity and reproductive efficiency: Strategic supplementation of feeds with legume forages and non-conventional plant resources

    Identification and evaluation of potential plant resources and their dissemination among rural farmers have been attempted. The work was done in three phases. In the first phase, laboratory evaluation of proximate components, in vitro digestibility and energy contents was carried out. Fifteen plant species were evaluated in this phase. Some of the plant species (Sesbania, Dhaincha, Lathyrus, Crotalaria and Leucaena) were promising, containing relatively large amounts of protein (18 - 34%) and having high digestibility values (53 - 60%). Some species contained reasonably good levels of metabolizd energy (6.5- 8.5 MJ/kg). In the second phase, four promising species (Sesbania, Lathyrus, Crotalaria and Leucaena) were offered as supplements to lactating and growing cattle, in four in vivo feeding trials carried out on-station. Supplementation with Sesbania gave significantly (P <0.01) higher milk yields, resulting from increased feed intake and digestibility of organic matter (OM) and crude fibre (CF). Lathyrus also gave similar results in terms of milk yield and digestibility but had little effect on feed intake. Leucaena supplementation also significantly (P <0.05) increased milk yield but not feed intake or digestibility. Crotalaria gave a significant (P <0.05) increase in live-weight gain of growing calves. In the third phase, Sesbania, Lthyrus and Leucaena forages were grown by rural smallholders for feeding to their cattle. The forages were fed to lactating cows as supplements to straw-based diets. All the forage supplements resulted in increased milk yield compared to the control diets, however, Sesbania gave the best result in terms of output. The practice of cultivating legume forages and feeding to cattle receiving straw diets created enormous interest among the farmers as the increase in milk yield was cost effective. (author)

  9. Study Of Trace Elements On UMMB As A Feed Supplement n Ruminant

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the trace element contents in Urea Molasses Multi nutrient Block (UMMB) as ruminant feed supplement such as Mn, Fe, Cu, Se and Pb. The X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF) was used for measuring of these trace elements. The samples counting were done all at once by putting . the sample on the surface of detector and irradiated by radioisotope excitation source for a half an hour. the result indicates that the UMMB no. I contains Mn: 5.31 ppm, Fe: 53.76 ppm, Cu: 0.65 ppm, and Pb: 17.5 ppm, UMMB No.2 contains Mn: 0.35 ppm, Fe: 20.36 ppm, and Pb: 5.84 ppm, and UMMB no.3 consist of Mn: 3.12 ppm, Fe: 58.82 ppm, Cu: 3.12 ppm, Se: 1.84 ppm and Pb: 112.24 ppm. The trace elements content in each UMMB were in normal level and also not in poisoning level to be used for woof supplement

  10. Effect of Feed Supplementation with Propolis on Liver and Kidney Morphology in Broiler Chickens

    I. Babińska*, K. Kleczek1, W. Makowski1 and J. Szarek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a resin-like mixture produced by bees and composed of natural substances demonstrating a broad range of biological activity, e.g. antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidizing, immunostimulating and immunomodulating effects. Among abundant research on its properties has been carried out but a few reports concerning the use of this substance in animal production, particularly in poultry breeding are available. There is little information about its effects upon the morphology of individual organs and tissues predisposed to damage as a result of intensive fattening of poultry. A-day old 400 chicks were divided into equal four groups. Group 1 and 2 served as negative and positive control, respectively. Group 3 and 4 were kept on propolis (10 and 50 mg/kg of feed supplemented feed for 42 days, respectively. At the end, randomly selected 12 birds from each group were killed humanly. Gross lesions were noted and liver and kidney samples were processed for histopathological studies. The results demonstrated a protective effect of propolis particularly upon the liver of broiler chickens, in which it reduced the intensity of regressive lesions. This protective effect was noticeable especially in the group of birds receiving a higher dose of propolis.

  11. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of copper compounds (E4) as feed additives for all species: cupric chelate of amino acids hydrate, based on a dossier submitted by Zinpro Animal Nutrition Inc.

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed

    2013-01-01

    Cupric chelate of amino acids hydrate is safe for all animal species/categories up to the authorised maximum of total copper content in complete feed. Consumption surveys include copper from foodstuffs of animal origin. Since the supplementation of animal feed with copper-containing compounds has not essentially changed over the last decade, no change in the contribution of foodstuffs originating from supplemented animals to the overall copper intake of consumers is expected. No concerns for ...

  12. Short communication: Effects of prepartum diets supplemented with rolled oilseeds on Brix values and fatty acid profile of colostrum.

    Salehi, R; Ambrose, D J; Oba, M

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of oilseeds supplemented in prepartum diets on colostrum quality. Thirty-nine dry pregnant Holstein cows (14 primiparous and 25 multiparous cows) were blocked by body condition score and parity and assigned to 1 of 3 experimental diets containing rolled oilseeds at 8% of dietary dry matter (canola seed or sunflower seed) or no oilseed (control) at 35 d before the expected calving date. Canola seed is high in oleic acid and sunflower seed is high in linoleic acid content. Colostrum samples were collected at the first milking after calving, and concentrations of nutrient composition, fatty acid profile, and Brix value (an indicator IgG concentration) were determined. Cows fed sunflower seeds before calving produced colostrum with greater crude protein content (15.0 vs. 12.9%), colostral Brix values (24.3 vs. 20.3%), and conjugated linoleic acid concentration (18:2 cis-9,trans-11; 0.64 vs. 0.48%) compared with those fed canola seed. Positive effects of feeding sunflower seed might be mediated by ruminal metabolism of linoleic acid and subsequent enhanced production of conjugated linoleic acid. Oilseed supplementation in prepartum diets of dairy cows also altered fatty acid profile of colostrum in a way to reflect fatty acid profile of the supplemented oilseeds except for oleic acid. In conclusion, prepartum feeding of sunflower seed increased colostral Brix value, an indicator of colostral IgG concentration, compared with that of canola seed, but its mode of action and effects on health and productivity of calves need to be investigated. PMID:26971161

  13. CHLORINATED DIOXINS AND FURANS FROM KELP AND COPPER SULFATE: INITIAL INVESTIGATIONS OF DIOXIN FORMATION IN MINERAL FEED SUPPLEMENTS

    In 2002, dioxins were discovered in animal feed ingredients during a random sampling by Irish officials and subsequently traced to particular mineral supplements produced at a Minnesota plant in the United States. These products sold under the names of SQM Mineral Products and C...

  14. Stress, nutrition and parental care in a teleost fish: exploring mechanisms with supplemental feeding and cortisol manipulation.

    Zolderdo, A J; Algera, D A; Lawrence, M J; Gilmour, K M; Fast, M D; Thuswaldner, J; Willmore, W G; Cooke, S J

    2016-04-15

    Parental care is an essential life-history component of reproduction for many animal species, and it entails a suite of behavioural and physiological investments to enhance offspring survival. These investments can incur costs to the parent, reducing their energetic and physiological condition, future reproductive capabilities and survival. In fishes, relatively few studies have focused on how these physiological costs are mediated. Male smallmouth bass provide parental care for developing offspring until the brood reaches independence. During this energetically demanding life stage, males cease active foraging as they vigorously defend their offspring. Experimental manipulation of cortisol levels (via implantation) and food (via supplemental feeding) in parental males was used to investigate the fitness consequences of parental care. Improving the nutritional condition of nest-guarding males increased their reproductive success by reducing premature nest abandonment. However, supplemental feeding and cortisol treatment had no effect on parental care behaviours. Cortisol treatment reduced plasma lymphocyte numbers, but increased neutrophil and monocyte concentrations, indicating a shift in immune function. Supplemental feeding improved the physiological condition of parental fish by reducing the accumulation of oxidative injury. Specifically, supplemental feeding reduced the formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) on DNA nucleotides. Increasing the nutritional condition of parental fish can reduce the physiological cost associated with intensive parental activity and improve overall reproductive success, illustrating the importance of nutritional condition as a key modulator of parental fitness. PMID:26896551

  15. Evaluation of an experimental chlorate product as a pre-harvest feed supplement to reduce Salmonella in meat producing birds

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of experimental chlorate product (ECP) feed supplementation on Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) in the crop and ceca of market-age broilers. In trial 1, 160 market-age broilers were randomly assigned to 8 treatment groups, and replicated twice, with 20 broile...

  16. Prospects of in ovo feeding and nutrient supplementation for poultry: the science and commercial applications--a review.

    Kadam, Mukund M; Barekatain, Mohammad R; Bhanja, Subrat K; Iji, Paul A

    2013-12-01

    In ovo supplementation of poultry embryos was first reported several decades ago, but it is only recently that concerted research has been directed at developing the technology for this process to be routinely used by the poultry industry. Although the technology of in ovo feeding was patented more than 10 years ago, it has not been widely adopted by the poultry industry. This review examines the early development of the enteric system of the poultry embryo; defines and distinguishes between in ovo feeding and in ovo nutrient administration; highlights the importance of early feeding of the chick; and discusses the development of in ovo feeding technology and its effects on hatchability, growth, gut health and immune response of chicks. The range of possible nutrients that can be administered is also explored. The limitations associated with embryo development and nutrient metabolism are highlighted, leading to the prediction of the future role of in ovo feeding in the poultry industry. PMID:23847062

  17. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation during bed rest: effect on recovery

    Stein, T. P.; Donaldson, M. R.; Leskiw, M. J.; Schluter, M. D.; Baggett, D. W.; Boden, G.

    2003-01-01

    Bed rest is associated with a loss of protein from the weight-bearing muscle. The objectives of this study are to determine whether increasing dietary branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) during bed rest improves the anabolic response after bed rest. The study consisted of a 1-day ambulatory period, 14 days of bed rest, and a 4-day recovery period. During bed rest, dietary intake was supplemented with either 30 mmol/day each of glycine, serine, and alanine (group 1) or with 30 mmol/day each of the three BCAAs (group 2). Whole body protein synthesis was determined with U-(15)N-labeled amino acids, muscle, and selected plasma protein synthesis with l-[(2)H(5)]phenylalanine. Total glucose production and gluconeogenesis from alanine were determined with l-[U-(13)C(3)]alanine and [6,6-(2)H(2)]glucose. During bed rest, nitrogen (N) retention was greater with BCAA feeding (56 +/- 6 vs. 26 +/- 12 mg N. kg(-1). day(-1), P supplementation on either whole body, muscle, or plasma protein synthesis or the rate of 3-MeH excretion. Muscle tissue free amino acid concentrations were increased during bed rest with BCAA (0.214 +/- 0.066 vs. 0.088 +/- 0.12 nmol/mg protein, P glucose production and gluconeogenesis from alanine were unchanged with bed rest but were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) with the BCAA group in the recovery phase. In conclusion, the improved N retention during bed rest is due, at least in part, to accretion of amino acids in the tissue free amino acid pools. The amount accreted is not enough to impact protein kinetics in the recovery phase but does improve N retention by providing additional essential amino acids in the early recovery phase.

  18. Effect of feeding thoroughbred horses a high unsaturated or saturated vegetable oil supplemented diet for 6 months following a 10 month fat acclimation.

    Harris, P A; Pagan, J D; Crandell, K G; Davidson, N

    1999-07-01

    This study looked at the effect of feeding diets supplemented with either a predominantly saturated or unsaturated vegetable oil over a prolonged period to exercising horses. Eight Thoroughbred horses were assigned to 2 diet treatments and for 10 months were fed Timothy hay and oats, together with a fortified sweet feed supplemented with either a predominantly unsaturated (Un) or a saturated (S) vegetable oil so that approximately 19% DE (Digestible Energy) came from dietary fat and approximately 12% from either the Un or S source (AC). An increased amount of Un or S fortified sweet feed, replacing the oats, was then fed for a further 6 months (HF) so that approximately 27% DE came from fat and approximately 20% from the Un or S vegetable oil. Standardised incremental treadmill exercise (8-12 m/s) tests (STEP) and duplicate oral glucose tolerance tests (TOL) were carried out after 3, 6 and 9 months of the AC diet and after 3 and 6 months on the HF diet. There was no significant effect of dietary treatment or when the tests were undertaken (time) on the insulin or lactate responses to the STEP tests. Overall there was a significant (P effect of time and treatment on the glucose response, but there was no difference between treatments at the first and last tests or between the results for these tests or between the endAC and endHF tests. No significant effect of treatment or time was seen on the TOL glucose response (% change from Time '0') although there was a trend for the glucose concentrations to be lower and the insulin responses higher (nonsignificant) in the S treatment group. No significant effect of treatment on haematological parameters, monitored monthly, was found. Total protein and gamma glutamyl transferase remained within the normal range throughout. There was a significant effect of treatment (P effect of time. Overall, the total resting plasma fatty acid content was significantly higher (P effects of feeding either diet on apparent coat condition or

  19. Reducing Reliance on Supplemental Winter Feeding in Elk (Cervus canadensis): An Applied Management Experiment at Deseret Land and Livestock Ranch, Utah

    Mangus, Dax L

    2011-01-01

    Wildlife managers have fed elk in North America for nearly 100 years. Giving winter feed to elk can compensate for a shortage of natural winter range and may boost elk populations while also helping prevent commingling with livestock and depredation of winter feed intended for livestock. In contrast to these benefits of supplemental feeding, there are economic and environmental costs associated with feeding, and elk herds that winter on feeding grounds have a higher risk of contracting and ...

  20. Metabolomic analysis of amino acid and energy metabolism in rats supplemented with chlorogenic acid

    Ruan, Zheng; Yang, Yuhui; Zhou, Yan; Wen, Yanmei; Ding, Sheng; Liu, Gang; Wu, Xin; Deng, Zeyuan; Assaad, Houssein; Wu, Guoyao

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) supplementation on serum and hepatic metabolomes in rats. Rats received daily intragastric administration of either CGA (60 mg/kg body weight) or distilled water (control) for 4 weeks. Growth performance, serum biochemical profiles, and hepatic morphology were measured. Additionally, serum and liver tissue extracts were analyzed for metabolomes by high-resolution 1H nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics and multivariate statistics. CGA did not affect rat growth performance, serum biochemical profiles, or hepatic morphology. However, supplementation with CGA decreased serum concentrations of lactate, pyruvate, succinate, citrate, β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, while increasing serum concentrations of glycine and hepatic concentrations of glutathione. These results suggest that CGA supplementation results in perturbation of energy and amino acid metabolism in rats. We suggest that glycine and glutathione in serum may be useful biomarkers for biological properties of CGA on nitrogen metabolism in vivo. PMID:24927697

  1. Chitosan and its oligosaccharide derivatives (chito-oligosaccharides) as feed supplements in poultry and swine nutrition.

    Swiatkiewicz, S; Swiatkiewicz, M; Arczewska-Wlosek, A; Jozefiak, D

    2015-02-01

    Chitosan is a non-toxic polyglucosamine, widespread in nature, which is deacetylated to varying degrees form of chitin, a component of exoskeleton of shrimps, crabs and insects. Because chitosan contains reactive functional groups, that is, amino acids and hydroxyl groups, it is characterised by antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, antitumor, immunostimulatory and hypocholesterolemic properties when fed as dietary additive for farm animals. This article reviews and discusses the results of studies on the effects of dietary chitosan and its oligosaccharide derivatives on performance and metabolic response in poultry and pigs, that is, haematological, biochemical and immunological blood characteristics, microbiological profile of intestines, intestinal morphology and digestibility of nutrients, as well as on the quality of meat and eggs. The results of most of the experiments presented in this review indicate that chitosan used as a feed additive for poultry and pigs has some beneficial, biological effects, including immunomodulatory, anti-oxidative, antimicrobial and hypocholesterolemic properties. These properties of chitosan, unlike many other kinds of feed additives, were often reflected in improved growth performance (body weight gain and/or feed conversion ratio) of young animals, that is, broiler chickens and weaned pigs. PMID:25041091

  2. The Potential Benefits and Adverse Effects of Phytic Acid Supplement in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Omoruyi, F. O.; Budiaman, A.; Y. Eng; Olumese, F. E.; Hoesel, J. L.; Ejilemele, A.; Okorodudu, A. O.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effect of phytic acid supplement on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was investigated. Diabetic rats were fed rodent chow with or without phytic acid supplementation for thirty days. Blood and organ samples were collected for assays. The average food intake was the highest and the body weight gain was the lowest in the group fed phytic acid supplement compared to the diabetic and normal control groups. There was a downward trend in intestinal amylase activity in the gro...

  3. Milk yield, feed efficiency and metabolic profiles in Jersey and Holstein cows assigned to different fat supplementation strategies

    Alstrup, Lene; Nielsen, M.O.; Lund, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to analyse the combined effect of lactation stage and fat supplementation. Either protected or unprotected fat was fed to dairy cows to quantify effects on dry matter intake (DMI), mammary nutrient uptake, energy corrected milk (ECM) yield, milk composition, and energy, N and feed...... energy efficiency in Jersey cows but increased energy efficiency in Holstein cows. Because fat supplementation reduced dietary protein concentration and increased milk production, protein intake was lower and N efficiency was higher on WCR and RPF than on CON. Metabolite concentrations in jugular vein...... efficiency. Additionally, we studied the effect of adding Hydroxy-methionine-analogue-isobutyrate (HMBi) to the ration supplemented with protected fat. A total of 107 Holstein cows and 54 Jersey cows were assigned to one of four different mixed dietary treatments: Control (CON), control supplemented with...

  4. The effect of supplementing rumen undegradable unsaturated fatty acids on marbling in early-weaned steers.

    Mangrum, K S; Tuttle, G; Duckett, S K; Sell, G S; Krehbiel, C R; Long, N M

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if supplementation with a rumen undegradable unsaturated fatty acids (FA) source improved marbling deposition in early-weaned steers. All steers (Angus, = 23; Angus × Hereford, = 24) were weaned at 150 ± 5 d of age. Steers were blocked by BW and breed and then randomly assigned to either control (CON; average 1.5 kg of corn gluten feed [CGF], = 23) or isocaloric supplementation containing a rumen undegradable fat source (RUF; 200 g of Megalac-R added to an average of 1.06 kg of CGF, = 24) offered 5 d/wk for 110 d. All steers had ad libitum access to pastures throughout treatment and received supplements individually. Steer BW and blood samples were collected at 0, 55, and 110 d of supplementation, and real-time ultrasound measurements were collected at d 110. Following treatment, steers were transported to Oklahoma State University for finishing and subsequent harvesting at a commercial plant. All data were analyzed using the PROC MIXED procedure of SAS either as repeated measures or ANOVA depending on parameters. There were no significant changes in BW from the beginning of treatment to harvest due to treatment. Ultrasound data showed that RUF steers tended ( = 0.08) to have more i.m. fat than CON at d 110. Serum concentrations of FA showed a treatment × day interaction ( marbling scores than those of CON carcasses. All other carcass measures were similar between treatments. The percentage of total lipids was increased ( = 0.011) in steaks from RUF compared to CON. There was a decrease ( marbling deposition in early-weaned steers without impacting other carcass measures. PMID:27065154

  5. The dominant detritus-feeding invertebrate in Arctic peat soils derives its essential amino acids from gut symbionts.

    Larsen, Thomas; Ventura, Marc; Maraldo, Kristine; Triadó-Margarit, Xavier; Casamayor, Emilio O; Wang, Yiming V; Andersen, Nils; O'Brien, Diane M

    2016-09-01

    Supplementation of nutrients by symbionts enables consumers to thrive on resources that might otherwise be insufficient to meet nutritional demands. Such nutritional subsidies by intracellular symbionts have been well studied; however, supplementation of de novo synthesized nutrients to hosts by extracellular gut symbionts is poorly documented, especially for generalists with relatively undifferentiated intestinal tracts. Although gut symbionts facilitate degradation of resources that would otherwise remain inaccessible to the host, such digestive actions alone cannot make up for dietary insufficiencies of macronutrients such as essential amino acids (EAA). Documenting whether gut symbionts also function as partners for symbiotic EAA supplementation is important because the question of how some detritivores are able to subsist on nutritionally insufficient diets has remained unresolved. To answer this poorly understood nutritional aspect of symbiont-host interactions, we studied the enchytraeid worm, a bulk soil feeder that thrives in Arctic peatlands. In a combined field and laboratory study, we employed stable isotope fingerprinting of amino acids to identify the biosynthetic origins of amino acids to bacteria, fungi and plants in enchytraeids. Enchytraeids collected from Arctic peatlands derived more than 80% of their EAA from bacteria. In a controlled feeding study with the enchytraeid Enchytraeus crypticus, EAA derived almost exclusively from gut bacteria when the worms fed on higher fibre diets, whereas most of the enchytraeids' EAA derived from dietary sources when fed on lower fibre diets. Our gene sequencing results of gut microbiota showed that the worms harbour several taxa in their gut lumen absent from their diets and substrates. Almost all gut taxa are candidates for EAA supplementation because almost all belong to clades capable of biosynthesizing EAA. Our study provides the first evidence of extensive symbiotic supplementation of EAA by microbial

  6. Evaluation of lesser-known feed supplements for dairy cattle in the North-East of Thailand

    Fodder tree plants, namely the coral tree and leucaena together with cassava have been introduced and recommended to farmers as high protein feed for dairy cattle supplementation, particularly in the dry season. The coral tree (Erythrina subumbrans) and leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) were introduced to dairy farmers as tree fodders and to provide shade for grazing cattle. Cassava hay production to provide a supplementary feed for dairy cows was recommended to smallholder dairy farmers. Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Cranzt) was planted in a 0.32 ha plot and intercropped with two types of legumes, cowpea and stylosanthes, to improve soil fertility on 24 smallholder dairy farms. The dry matter (DM) yield of cassava hay was 6.83 ton/ha, while the yield of cowpea pods, residues and stylosanthes were 6.95 (fresh weight), 0.89 and 3.51 ton DM/ha, respectively. On each of the 24 farms the cassava hay was fed as a supplement, at 2 kg/h/d to two milking cows for a 60-day period, with another two milking cows being a non-supplemented control. Milk yield in cows supplemented with cassava hay (13.8 kg/h/d) tended to be higher than in the control group (12.4 kg/h/d). Milk fat (35.6 g/kg) from the supplemented cows was also higher (P <0.05) than from the control group (29.8 g/kg). Cassava hay supplementation as the forage diet improved milk yield and quality, especially during the dry season. It is, therefore, recommended that these feed resources be established on-farm to ensure sustainable dairy production. (author)

  7. Effect of dietary supplementation of Melissa officinalis and combination of Achillea millefolium and Crataegus oxyacantha on broiler growth performance, fatty acid composition and lipid oxidation of chicken meat

    Dana Marcinčáková

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This experimental study investigated the effect of feeding of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L. and combination of hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha L. and yarrow (Achillea millefolium L. on growth performance of chicken, meat composition, fatty acid profile and oxidative stability. Ninety one-day-old commercial broiler chicks (ROSS 308 were divided into 3 groups, and fed 41 days, as follows: control (C with standard diet without antioxidants supplementation; second group (L with standard diet supplemented with ground lemon balm (2% and third group (HY with standard diet supplemented with ground hawthorn (1% and yarrow (1%. Final body weight and total feed intake were not influenced by plant supplementation. However, feed conversion ratio was the lowest (P0.05 by plants supplementation, but the proportions of various carcass parts (breast and leg were higher in L and HY groups. Feeding of plants had no effect on the chemical composition of thigh meat. However, in breast meat fed by HY diet higher content of dry matter and crude protein (P<0.05 was found. In breast (L the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids was decreased and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA proportion was increased compared with control group (P<0.05. In thigh HY the proportion of saturated fatty acids was increased and PUFA was decreased compared with control. Results of thiobarbituric value method showed that supplementation with lemon balm, and mainly combination of hawthorn and yarrow in the diet significantly influenced reduction of lipid oxidation processes in thigh during chilling storage (4°C, 11 days.

  8. Production of hatchery-bred early juvenile Milkfish (Chanos chanos in nursery ponds through supplemental feeding

    Cecilia J. Jaspe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hatchery-bred early juvenile Milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskål, 1755 (average weight of 0.45g were stocked in a 500 m2 nursery pond at a density of 16 juveniles/m2 during the dry months (March-May. The early juveniles were reared for two months with natural food followed by supplementalfeeding. Upon the harvest the fish reached an average weight of 9.30 g and a survival rate of 86.9%. Afeed conversion ratio (FCR of 1.08 was attained, with specific growth rate (SGR of 4.96%/day. Thehigh survival rate and good production could be attributed to the time of the year when the nurseryproduction trial was conducted. The nursery of milkfish in ponds during the summer months ensuressufficient supply of natural food and stable water quality during the crucial phase in the nurseryproduction. This strategy of rearing early juveniles (< 1g of milkfish in nursery ponds at high stockingdensities using a combination of natural food and supplemental feeding could be one of the alternativeapproaches in the nursery production of this fish.

  9. Effect of feeding palm oil by-products based diets on muscle fatty acid composition in goats.

    Abdelrahim Abubakr

    Full Text Available The present study aims to evaluate the effects of feeding palm oil by-products based diets on different muscle fatty acid profiles in goats. Thirty-two Cacang × Boer goats were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments: (1 control diet (CD, (2 80% decanter cake diet (DCD, (3 80% palm kernel cake diet (PKCD and (4 CD plus 5% palm oil (PO supplemented diet (CPOD. After 100 days of feeding, four goats from each group were slaughtered and longissimus dorsi (LD, infraspinatus (IS and biceps femoris (BF were sampled for analysis of fatty acids. Goats fed the PKCD had higher (P<0.05 concentration of lauric acid (C12:0 than those fed the other diets in all the muscles tested. Compared to the other diets, the concentrations of palmitic acid (C16:0 and stearic acid (C18:0 were lower (P<0.05 and that of linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6 was higher (P<0.05 in the muscles from goats fed the CD. It was concluded that palm kernel cake and decanter cake can be included in the diet of goats up to 80% with more beneficial than detrimental effects on the fatty acid profile of their meat.

  10. Effect of supplementation of feed with Flaxseed (Linumusitatisimum) oil on libido and semen quality of Nilli-Ravi buffalo bulls

    Shah, Syed Mazhar Hussain; Ali, Shujait; Zubair, Muhammad; Jamil, Huma; Ahmad, Nazir

    2016-01-01

    Background The current study was designed to investigate the effect of supplementation of Flaxseed (Linumusitatisimum) oil on libido and semen quality of Nilli-Ravi buffalo bulls. Methods In this study, 12 adult healthy bulls kept at the Semen Production Unit, Qadirabad district Sahiwal, were used. These bulls were divided into three equal groups, A, B and C. Group A was kept as control, while in groups B and C supplementation of feed was provided by using flaxseed oil @125 ml/day and 250 ml/...

  11. Milk yield and reproductive performance of dairy heifers and cows supplemented with polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Félix Gonzalez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine productive and fertility responses of Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows to supplementation with extruded linseed and soybean as sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Supplementation had a positive effect on profitability, with significant increases in milk yield in supplemented cows, but not in heifers. Treatments had no effect on milk fat content, but higher milk protein contents were observed with supplementation. A higher conception rate was found for supplemented heifers, but not for cows. Fat sources containing PUFAs are recommended for dairy cattle supplementation, since they improve fertility in heifers and milk yield in cows.

  12. Effects of dietary incorporation of potato protein concentrate and supplementation of methionine on growth and feed utilization of rainbow trout

    Xie, S.; Jokumsen, Alfred

    1998-01-01

    and supplementation of methionine in the diet of rainbow trout. When the proportion of PPC exceeded 56 g kg-1 the growth of fish decreased while both growth and feed utilization decreased when the dietary PPC was 111 g kg-1. Protein productive value and condition factor of the fish decreased and......Four diets (1, 2, 3 and 4) were formulated to contain different potato protein concentrate (PPC) levels (0, 22, 56, and 111 g kg-1). Diet 5 contained 56 g kg-1 PPC and 17 g kg-1 methionine. A growth trial was conducted to investigate the effect on growth and feed utilization of incorporation of PPC...

  13. The Impact of the Sea-buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) Supplement in the Feed Ration on the Quality of Poultry Products

    Pebriansyah, Akhir

    2014-01-01

    Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) (SB) is a shrub which belongs to the family Elaeagnaceae, it have been used in Asia, Europe, and North America for human consumption, cosmetics, and also animal feeding as a dried by-product after fruit processing for juices. This study was aimed to find any positive effect of the SB supplement in feed ration on the laying hens´ productivity and quality of eggs. Two experiments were conducted at the ITP (International Testing of Poultry) in Ústrašice, Czech...

  14. Dietary Supplementation with Allspice Pimenta dioica Reduces the Occurrence of Streptococcal Disease during First Feeding of Mozambique Tilapia Fry.

    Yılmaz, Sevdan; Ergün, Sebahattin

    2014-09-01

    Abstract Allspice Pimenta dioica as a feed additive was studied for its effects on growth performance and disease resistance in Mozambique Tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus. Five isonitrogenous (36% crude protein) and isocaloric (18.5 kJ/g) diets were formulated to contain 0 (control), 5, 10, 15, or 20 g of allspice/kg of fish feed. In a 50-d feeding trial, 15 plastic tanks (21 L) were stocked with 35 fish fry (0.012 g) each. After the feeding trial, fish were exposed to Streptococcus iniae and mortalities were recorded. The second-order polynomial regression indicated that the dietary allspice level of 10 g/kg provided the best growth performance and feed utilization. The greatest survival after pathogen challenge was also obtained from the diet supplemented with allspice at 10 g/kg. Therefore, allspice acts as a growth promoter to improve feed utilization and weight gain in Mozambique Tilapia fry and acts an antimicrobial agent to enhance disease resistance during first feeding of fry. These results suggest that allspice can be used as an alternative to antibiotics in controlling streptococcal disease in tilapia culture. Received October 19, 2012; accepted January 20, 2014. PMID:25229484

  15. Pre- and post-partum feed supplementation to improve sheep productivity in small-holder farms in southern Chile

    Two experiments were carried out to assess the effect of feed supplementation in ewes during the pre- and post-partum period and subsequent ewe-lamb growth rates and reproductive performance during their first breeding season. In the first experiment, 50 Romney Marsch ewes on one farm were used and half were supplemented for 50 days before and after lambing with 500 g dry matter of grassland silage/day, and half were not supplemented. In the second experiment, six small flocks of Criollo ewes belonging to Mapuche farmers were used. Three flocks (total 30 ewes) were supplemented with a commercial multinutrient block (molasses, urea and mineral salts) for 50 days before and after lambing. The other 3 flocks (total 45 ewes) were maintained without supplementation. In both experiments, ewe live weight, body condition score (BCS), lamb birth weight and the subsequent ewe-lamb growth rate and reproductive performance were evaluated. The birth weight of ewe-lambs born to the supplemented dams in Experiment 1 was not statistically different (P>0.05) from the control group (3.9 kg vs. 4.2 kg). There was, however, a significant improvement (P0.05). However, differences (P<0.05) were found between ewe-lambs born to the supplemented dams and non-supplemented dams on weaning weight (21.8 vs. 17.2 kg), BCS, the age at onset of luteal activity (269 vs. 290 days) and pregnancy rate at the end of the first breeding season (55.6 vs. 30%). The results indicates that pre- and post-partum supplementation of ewes can improve ewe-lamb performance within their first reproductive season. (author). 19 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  16. An investigation of appetite-related peptide transcript expression in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) brain following a Camelina sativa meal-supplemented feeding trial.

    Tuziak, Sarah M; Rise, Matthew L; Volkoff, Hélène

    2014-10-25

    Camelina sativa is a hardy oilseed crop with seeds that contain high levels of ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and protein, which are critical components of fish feed. Camelina might thus be used as a cheaper and more sustainable supplement to fish-based products in aquaculture. Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, is a species of interest in the aquaculture industry due to a decrease in wild populations and subsequent collapse of some cod fisheries. As cod are carnivorous fish, it is necessary to determine how this species physiologically tolerates plant-based diets. In this study, juvenile Atlantic cod were subjected to 13 weeks of either 15 or 30% camelina meal (CM)-supplemented diets or a control fish meal feed. Growth and food intake were evaluated and the mRNA expression of appetite-related hormones [pro-melanin-concentrating hormone (pmch), hypocretin (synonym: orexin, hcrt), neuropeptide Y (npy) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (cart)] was assessed using quantitative real-time PCR in brain regions related to food intake regulation (telencephalon/preoptic area, optic tectum/thalamus and hypothalamus). CM inclusion diets caused decreases in both growth and food intake in Atlantic cod. Optic tectum pmch transcript expression was significantly higher in fish fed the 30% CM diet compared to fish fed the 15% CM diet. In the hypothalamus, compared to fish fed the control diet, hcrt expression was significantly higher in fish fed the 30% CM diet, while npy transcript expression was significantly higher in fish fed the 15% CM diet. cart mRNA expression was not affected by diet in any brain region. Further studies are needed to determine which factors (e.g. anti-nutritional factors, palatability and nutritional deficits) contribute to reduced feed intake and growth, as well as the maximum CM inclusion level that does not negatively influence feed intake, growth rate and the transcript expression of appetite-related factors in Atlantic cod. PMID:25151310

  17. Ameliorative Effect of Chronic Supplementation of Protocatechuic Acid Alone and in Combination with Ascorbic Acid in Aniline Hydrochloride Induced Spleen Toxicity in Rats.

    Khairnar, Upasana; Upaganlawar, Aman; Upasani, Chandrashekhar

    2016-01-01

    Background. Present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of protocatechuic acid alone and in combination with ascorbic acid in aniline hydrochloride induced spleen toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods. Male Wistar rats of either sex (200-250 g) were used and divided into different groups. Spleen toxicity was induced by aniline hydrochloride (100 ppm) in drinking water for a period of 28 days. Treatment group received protocatechuic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.), ascorbic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.), and combination of protocatechuic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and ascorbic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o.) followed by aniline hydrochloride. At the end of treatment period serum and tissue parameters were evaluated. Result. Rats supplemented with aniline hydrochloride showed a significant alteration in body weight, spleen weight, feed consumption, water intake, hematological parameters (haemoglobin content, red blood cells, white blood cells, and total iron content), tissue parameters (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, and nitric oxide content), and membrane bound phosphatase (ATPase) compared to control group. Histopathology of aniline hydrochloride induced spleen showed significant damage compared to control rats. Treatment with protocatechuic acid along with ascorbic acid showed better protection as compared to protocatechuic acid or ascorbic acid alone in aniline hydrochloride induced spleen toxicity. Conclusion. Treatment with protocatechuic acid and ascorbic acid in combination showed significant protection in aniline hydrochloride induced splenic toxicity in rats. PMID:27418998

  18. Ameliorative Effect of Chronic Supplementation of Protocatechuic Acid Alone and in Combination with Ascorbic Acid in Aniline Hydrochloride Induced Spleen Toxicity in Rats

    Upasana Khairnar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of protocatechuic acid alone and in combination with ascorbic acid in aniline hydrochloride induced spleen toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods. Male Wistar rats of either sex (200–250 g were used and divided into different groups. Spleen toxicity was induced by aniline hydrochloride (100 ppm in drinking water for a period of 28 days. Treatment group received protocatechuic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o., ascorbic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o., and combination of protocatechuic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o. and ascorbic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o. followed by aniline hydrochloride. At the end of treatment period serum and tissue parameters were evaluated. Result. Rats supplemented with aniline hydrochloride showed a significant alteration in body weight, spleen weight, feed consumption, water intake, hematological parameters (haemoglobin content, red blood cells, white blood cells, and total iron content, tissue parameters (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, and nitric oxide content, and membrane bound phosphatase (ATPase compared to control group. Histopathology of aniline hydrochloride induced spleen showed significant damage compared to control rats. Treatment with protocatechuic acid along with ascorbic acid showed better protection as compared to protocatechuic acid or ascorbic acid alone in aniline hydrochloride induced spleen toxicity. Conclusion. Treatment with protocatechuic acid and ascorbic acid in combination showed significant protection in aniline hydrochloride induced splenic toxicity in rats.

  19. Effect of lipid supplementation on milk fatty acid focus on rumenic acid.

    Esperanza Prieto-Manrique

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to review the effect of the lipid supplementation on the concentration of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-c9t11 or rumenic acid and other unsaturated fatty acids in bovine milk. The study addressed the concept and origin of the CLA-c9t11 in ruminants. There is an international trend to improve nutrition quality , which implies an increase in consumption of animal protein, including the healthy and rich in CLA-c9t11 dairy products. CLA-c9t11 has proved to have anticancer effects in animal models. CLA-c9t11 in the bovine milk results from the consumption of unsaturated fatty acids and from the extent of rumen biohydrogenation. Supplementation with unsaturated fatty acids of vegetable origin allows to increase the concentration of CLA-c9t11 and to decrease the proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk, but the response varies depending on the source of fat used, its level, and its interaction with basal diet

  20. The Use of Local Mineral Formulas as a Feed Block Supplement for Beef Cattle Fed on Wild Forages

    Khalil

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present research was carried out to study the diversity of mineral contents of wild forages and to evaluate the beneficial effect of mineral feed supplement formulated by using locally available materials on the performances of beef cattle. The present research was initiated by analyzing mineral contents of wild forages grown around Limau Manis campus areas. Forage samples were collected at 9 sampling areas scattered at plantation, conservation and idle lands. Samples were then analyzed for macro minerals of Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, and S and micro minerals of Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, and Zn. Feeding trial was then conducted to evaluate the beneficial effect of supplementation of local mineral formulas (LMF produced by using locally available materials on the performances of cattle. Feeding trial was conducted for 6 weeks by using 9 Simmentals cross bred heifers. The trial consisted of 3 treatments, i.e., P1: only grass without supplementation, P2: grass + LMF and P3: grass + mineral premix enriched LMF. Variables measured were: body weight, feed intake, FCR, feed cost and net return. Results showed that the highest macro mineral content of wild forages was Na of about 13.05±2.22 g/kg, varied from 4.1 to 23.8 g/kg, followed by K (11.09±1.43 g/kg and Ca (6.10±1.09 g/kg DM. Three minerals of Mg, P, and S were found in relatively small concentrations of 1.34±0.30, 0.83±0.23, and 0.17±0.01 g/kg, respectively. Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn were found in relatively high concentrations. The highest concentration of micro minerals was Fe of about 613.8±128.9 mg/kg, followed by Mn of 143.9±23.3 mg/kg, while Zn and Cu were found in relatively small amount of about 31.3±5.5 and 13.2±2.5 mg/kg, respectively. Heifers supplemented with LMF (P2 and mineral premix enriched LMF (P3 showed higher body weight gain, lower FCR and net return than those cattle fed only grass (P1. The most profitable feeding strategy was by supplementation of heifers with mineral premix

  1. Effect of phosphorous supplementation in the formulated fish feed on carcass quality of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L.

    Sarkar, M.R.U.; Yakupitiyage, A.; Lin, C.K.; Little, D.C.

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of phosphorus supplementation in the formulated fish diet on carcass quality of Nile tilapia in net-cages suspended in fertilized earthen ponds. In the experiment 3% di-calcium phosphate (DCP), 3% triple supper phosphate (TSP) and 7% 16:20 inorganic fertilizer were added as phosphorous sources to three diets containing fish meal as main protein ingredient. Feeding tilapia in net-cages with these diets significantly (p

  2. Impact of acetic acid concentration of fermented liquid feed on growth performance of piglets

    Canibe, Nuria; Pedersen, Anni Øyan; Jensen, Bent Borg

    2010-01-01

    acid in FLF on feed intake of weaners. Three experimental FLF diets were prepared to contain varying levels of acetic acid (30, 60, and 120 mM). Twenty piglets per treatment, weaned at 4 weeks of age and housed individually, were fed the experimental diets during six weeks starting at weaning. Feed...

  3. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation: lipid content and hepatic histology in healthy Wistar rats

    Lilia Ferreira Santos-Zago

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the effects of the consumption of two commercial conjugated linoleic acid (CLA mixtures on lipid content and liver histology of healthy rats. The investigation was carried out using thirty rats divided into three groups: C (control, AE (AdvantEdge®CLA, and CO (CLA One®. The concentration of CLA was 2% of feed consumption, and the animals were supplemented daily for 42 days. The total lipid content of the liver was determined, and the histology of the organ was examined by Transmission Electronic Microscopy. The results of total liver lipid contents did not exhibit significant differences between the groups. With regard to hepatic histology, it was observed that although fat globules were visibly present in higher numbers and bigger size in the CLA groups, the organ histology was considered normal since both cytoplasm and organelles showed integrity. It was concluded that even though liver microscopic images indicated the presence of fat globules in the liver, from a statistical point of view, the supplementation for 42 days did not bring about lipid accumulation, nor did it alter hepatic histology.

  4. Development and field evaluation of animal feed supplementation packages for improving meat and milk production in ruminant livestock using locally available feed resources

    Molasses is a major by-product of the sugar industry in Mauritius and is still under-utilized for livestock production because of legislation and handling problems. A combination of urea, molasses and other feed ingredients can be used to produce urea-molasses multinutrient blocks (UMMB) that can be fed to livestock as a supplement. The main objective of UMMB supplementation is to provide a constant source of degradable nitrogen throughout the day, to promote growth of rumen microbes in ruminants fed poor quality forage. In Mauritius, studies were undertaken to evaluate the effect of UMMB supplementation on milk production, reproduction parameters and live weight change. Sixty cows were initially involved, 30 receiving UMMB over and above their normal ration and 30 constituting the control group. These studies have shown that UMMB improved milk yield of cows although the animals were already fed a dairy concentrate. Cows that calved resumed ovarian activity slightly earlier in the treatment group (67±32 days) than those in the control group (73±36 days). Body condition was not affected by UMMB supplementation. (author)

  5. Effects of Yeast (Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Feed Supplement on Milk Production and its Composition in Tunisian Holstein Friesian Cows

    Maamouri O.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 105-day feed trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of probiotic feed supplement containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae on milk yield and its composition in Holstein Friesian cows. The trial was conducted in the region of Sidi Bouzid in the west of Tunisia. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been investigated on eight Holstein Friesian cows randomly divided into two groups of four animals on the basis of age, body weight, average milk yield, and lactation number. The first group was supplemented with 2.5 g/cow/day of probiotic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (2.5 1010 CFU/day and the second group (control was without the yeast. The study showed that supplementation with 2.5 g of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae per cow per day or 2.5 1010 CFU/day tended (P < 0.06 to increase milk production by 1.1 kg/cow. By cons, there was a significant increase of fat (P < 0.01; 52.8 and 46.9 g/cow/day and protein (P < 0.05; 41.7 and 38.7 g/cow/day content both for treated and control group, respectively. It is concluded that supplementation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 2.5 1010 CFU/day in the diet of dairy cows may have positive influence on milk fat and protei n yield (g/cow/day.

  6. Glutamine and glutamic acid supplementation enhances performance of broiler chickens under the hot and humid tropical condition

    Joshua O. Olubodun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Day-old (day 1 commercial broiler chickens were fed i basal diet (control, ii basal diet +0.5% AminoGut (AG, or iii basal diet +1% AG from 1 to 42 d of age under the hot and humid tropical environment. AminoGut is a commercial dietary supplement containing a mixture of L-glutamine (Gln and L-glutamic (Glu acid. Weight gain and feed conversion ratio during the starter (1 to 21 d and overall (1 to 42 d periods improved linearly and quadratically with AG supplementation when compared to control. Supplementing birds with AG significantly reduced overall mortality rate. At 21 and 42 d of age, intestinal (duodenum and ileum villi height and crypt depth showed both linear and quadratic positive responses to AG supplementation. Intestinal amylase activity increased linearly and quadratically on d 21, and linearly only on d 42. In conclusion, Gln and Glu supplementation was beneficial in improving the growth performance and survivability of broiler chickens under the hot and humid tropical environment.

  7. The effects of increasing garlic powder and monensin supplementation on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth performance and blood parameters of growing calves.

    Gholipour, A; Foroozandeh Shahraki, A D; Tabeidian, S A; Nasrollahi, S M; Yang, W Z

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of increasing garlic powder and monensin supplementation on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth performance and blood metabolites of growing calves. Forty Holstein calves (BW = 100 ± 11 kg) were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (n = 10) in a complete randomized design. Experimental treatments consisted of the following: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet supplemented with 0.0003% of dietary dry matter (DM) sodium monensin, (iii) low level of garlic powder (Low-GAR; 0.5% of dietary DM) and (iv) high level of garlic powder (High-GAR; 1% of dietary DM). DM intake (DMI) and DM digestibility were (p garlic powder decreased the blood low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and non-esterified fatty acids (p garlic powder could be used as an alternative to monensin for growing calves under the current feeding conditions. PMID:26608665

  8. 2-Hydroxy-4-Methylselenobutanoic Acid as New Organic Selenium Dietary Supplement to Produce Selenium-Enriched Eggs.

    Tufarelli, V; Ceci, E; Laudadio, V

    2016-06-01

    Food-based strategies need to be developed to improve the selenium (Se) status of individuals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a new organic Se [2-hydroxy-4-methylselenobutanoic acid (HMSeBA)] on selected performance criteria and Se deposition in egg of laying hens. Isa Brown laying hens, 18 weeks of age were randomly allocated to two dietary treatments and fed for 10 weeks. The hens were fed two corn-soybean meal-based diets comprising a control basal diet without Se supplementation and a test diet supplemented with Se at 0.2 mg/kg from HMSeBA. No difference was observed among dietary treatments on feed intake, egg weight and laying rate, whereas egg yolk fatty acid profile and vitamin E content were positively influenced by HMSeBA supplementation. Hens fed Se-supplemented diet exhibited greater (P hens' productive traits. Moreover, HMSeBA offers an efficient alternative to fortify eggs with Se, which can consequently lead to greater supply of Se for humans. PMID:26521985

  9. Influence of Bacillus spp culture supplementation through feed or drinking water on the performance of layer chiken

    I.P Kompiang

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Three thousands 65 weeks old layers were used and divided into 3 groups of 1000 birds, and further divided into 4 sum group (250 birds/group as treatment replicates, and distributed randomly.Layer in group 1 were fed a basal diet + antibiotic (AB, group 2 were fed a basal diet + 10^9 CFU Bacillus spp culture (PB-M and group 3 were fed a basal diet and Bacillus spp culture was supplemented in their drinking water (10^9 CFU/litre (PB-A. The trial was conducted for 14 weeks (2 weeks adaptation period, 10 weeks the feeding treatments, and 2 weeks post treatment, where the AB group continues supplemented with antibiotic, while the PB-M and PB-A group, the Bacillus spp culture supplementation was withdrawned. During the treatment period,% HD production and its FCR of the bird supplemented with Bacillus spp culture were highly significant (P<0.001 better than the one receiving antibiotic. There was no significant different between the PB-M and the PB-A groups. Prosentage HD production and its FCR during post treatment, the birds previously supplemented with Bacillus spp culture were remained significantly better than the one recieving antibiotic. The birds which were previously supplemented with Bacillus spp culture in the feed had significantly (P<0.01 better % HD production and FCR.It is concluded that Bacillus spp culture, could be used to replace antibiotics as a growth promotor, it even gave better results.

  10. Supplementation of female calves in creep feeding system and productive and nutritional parameters of beef cows on tropical pasture

    Lívia Vieira de Barros

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The performance of female calves in creep-feeding system receiving only mineral mixture or multiple supplements; and milk production and pasture intake and digestibility of beef cows on Urochloa decumbens pastures, were assessed. Forty-eight suckling female calves aged 5 months on average, with an initial weight of 125.4 ± 1.34 kg, and their respective mothers initially weighing 435.2 ± 10.3 kg, were used. The experimental design was completely randomized. Supplements contained approximately 25% crude protein (CP and a progressive substitution of soybean meal (SM by cottonseed meal 38% protein (CM at the levels of 0, 33, 67 and 100% for treatments CM0, CM33, CM67 and CM100, respectively. Urea was added to supplements in order to adjust the protein content of the supplements .In the control-group (MM animals were fed only mineral mixture, ad libitum. The average daily gain (in g was 687.8, 733.2, 820.0, 760.6 and 764.5, respectively, for treatments MM, CM0, CM33, CM67 and CM100. Female calves supplemented with multiple supplements showed highest weight gain. No effect of CM levels in the multiple supplement were verified (P>0.10 on average daily gain. The intakes in kg/day of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC, digested DM and total digestible nutrients were superior (P0.10. As a conclusion, utilizing multiple supplements in the pre-weaning period provides highest weight gain to female calves.

  11. Effect of feeding management and seasonal variation on fatty acid composition of Mexican soft raw goats’ milk cheese

    Fernando Pérez-Gíl Romo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding management and seasonal variation (summer and winter 2007 on fatty acid composition of Mexican soft raw goats’ milk cheese. Four groups were formed. During the summer, group A grazed on a natural semiarid rangeland. group B was kept in confinement, fed with concentrate grains and lucerne hay. Through the winter group C grazed on the same rangeland with supplementation and group D was fed as the group B. Thereafter, four kinds of cheeses were manufactured from milk of each animal group: grazed-summer (GS, indoor- summer (IS, grazed-winter (GW and indoor-winter (IW. Results of this study indicated that fat content in cheese was affected by season. Moreover, during the summer period, pasture-based regime increased monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations; however, winter season could diminish the cheese desirable fatty acid profile.

  12. Haemato-immunological indices in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss fry fed with Aloe vera extract supplemented feed

    Masoud Haghighi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of Aloe vera extract on the immunity responses and haematological parameters in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss fry to develop alternative drug to chemotherapeutics in aquaculture. Methods: Six hundred rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss fry were randomly allocated into two treatment groups including 1 placebo-treated group (control, 2 Aloe vera extract-treated group, each of three replicates. The fishes were hand-fed once a day with diet medicated AE or placebo at the rate of 1% in feed in the first feeding for 10 weeks. At the end of the identical every two weeks 24 h after feeding, some of haematological and immunological parameters were analyzed. Results: The results showed that serum total protein, albumin and globulin, respiratory burst activity, phagocytic activity and serum lysozyme activity vary among the two treatment groups which were found to be higher in Aloe vera extract-treated group (P0.05. Conclusions: It was concluded that supplementation of AE at a rate of 1% in feed registered higher immunological responses in compared to placebo group. Therefore, supplementation of AE in fish diets enhances non-specific immune system in fish. It may use in fish diets particularly at time of outbreaks.

  13. Potensi Serbuk Daun Kelor (Moringa oleifera Sebagai Anthelmintik Terhadap Infeksi Ascaris suum dan Feed Supplement pada Babi

    Muhammad Ulqiya Syukron

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pig ascariasis is an intestinal parasitic disease caused by Ascaris suum. The economic losses in pig ascariasis are caused by a bad feed conversion ratio (FCR and rejection of some organs after animal slaughtering. An anthelmintic utilization and farm management improvement are the common prevention action, however, recently the utilization of herbs as an athelmintic has been developed, one of them is Moringa oleifera leaves. Moringa oleifera leaves are also a potential for a sources of animal food because of their high nutrients. This intervention research aimed to examine the anthelmintic effect of Moringa oleifera leaves and its potency as feed supplement. Experimental design used was ccompletely randomized design split time (CRD Split Time with six treatments namely Moringa oleifera 5% and an infection of infective larvae of A. suum (1, Moringa oleifera 5% (2, positive control (3, Moringa oleifera 10% (4, Moringa oleifera 10% and infection of infective larvae of A. suum (5, and no treatment as negative control (6. Each treatment was imposed on four female landrace piglets aged 8 weeks and weighed around 11 kg. The results showed that Moringa oleifera 5% and 10% of the feed could inhibit the egg production of A.suum and had a significant effect (P<0.05 on weight gain of piglets. It can be concluded that Moringa oleifera leave have an anthelmintic effect to prevent the infection of A. suum and a potential for a feed supplement on pigs.

  14. Haemato-immunological indices in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry fed with Aloe vera extract supplemented feed

    Masoud Haghighi; Mostafa Sharif Rohani; Hamid Pourmoghim; Tayebeh Toliat; Meysam Samadi; Meysam Tavoli; Maryam Islami; Rahmat Yusefi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of Aloe vera extract on the immunity responses and haematological parameters in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry to develop alternative drug to chemotherapeutics in aquaculture. Methods:Six hundred rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry were randomly allocated into two treatment groups including 1) placebo-treated group (control), 2) Aloe vera extract-treated group, each of three replicates. The fishes were hand-fed once a day with diet medicated AE or placebo at the rate of 1%in feed in the first feeding for 10 weeks. At the end of the identical every two weeks 24 h after feeding, some of haematological and immunological parameters were analyzed. Results:The results showed that serum total protein, albumin and globulin, respiratory burst activity, phagocytic activity and serum lysozyme activity vary among the two treatment groups which were found to be higher in Aloe vera extract-treated group (P0.05). Conclusions: It was concluded that supplementation of AE at a rate of 1%in feed registered higher immunological responses in compared to placebo group. Therefore, supplementation of AE in fish diets enhances non-specific immune system in fish. It may use in fish diets particularly at time of outbreaks.

  15. CHOICE FEEDING AND AMINO ACID REQUIREMENTS FOR BROILERS

    B. Indarsih

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted as a completely randomized design, with a factorial arrangement todetermine the response of commercial broilers to choice feeding and limiting amino acids on growth andcarcass performance. A total of 432 male birds were weighed at one-d-old and randomly distributed to48 wire-floored brooder cage each 1.0 m2. There were 2 sexes and 4 dietary treatments with 6 replicateseach of 9 birds. Birds were given one of three dietary regimens with dietary change every 7 days. Allgroups were fed free choice of summit and dilution diets. The estimated dietary level of crude protein atday-old was 240 g/kg and the level at 42 d was either 120, 150 or 180 g/kg for females or 130, 160 and190 g/kg for males. At 43 d of age, all birds from each dietary treatment were slaughtered formeasurement of body composition. Results reveal that lysine requirement for maximum gain in thisstudy was higher than NRC recommendation. The free choice-fed bird was significantly higher, in termsof growth and body composition than that obtained on the low dietary protein regimen.

  16. CHOICE FEEDING AND AMINO ACID REQUIREMENTS FOR BROILERS

    B. Indarsih

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted as a completely randomized design, with a factorial arrangement to determine the response of commercial broilers to choice feeding and limiting amino acids on growth and carcass performance. A total of 432 male birds were weighed at one-d-old and randomly distributed to 48 wire-floored brooder cage each 1.0 m2. There were 2 sexes and 4 dietary treatments with 6 replicates each of 9 birds. Birds were given one of three dietary regimens with dietary change every 7 days. All groups were fed free choice of summit and dilution diets. The estimated dietary level of crude protein at day-old was 240 g/kg and the level at 42 d was either 120, 150 or 180 g/kg for females or 130, 160 and 190 g/kg for males. At 43 d of age, all birds from each dietary treatment were slaughtered for measurement of body composition. Results reveal that lysine requirement for maximum gain in this study was higher than NRC recommendation. The free choice-fed bird was significantly higher, in terms of growth and body composition than that obtained on the low dietary protein regimen.Keyword

  17. [Feed supplementation with selenium in relation to the vitamin E-selenium deficiency syndrome in pigs (author's transl)].

    Pedersen, K B; Simesen, M G

    1977-01-01

    After the addition of selenium to swine feed (max. 0.1 ppm) was legalized in Denmark in 1975, a marked reduction has occurred in the incidence of hepatosis dietetica (HD) in the material received at the State Veterinary Serum Laboratory for diagnostic examination, while the incidence of mulberry heart disease (MHD) appears to be unchanged (Table I). In a material collected before the addition of selenium to swine feed was permitted, the selenium content in liver and heart was found to be significantly lower in the pigs that had died of MHD than in normal pigs, but higher than in pigs that had died of HD (Table II). These observations tend to support the view that feed supplementation with selenium is more effective to prevent HD than MHD. PMID:866121

  18. Effects of Feeding Garlic and Juniper Berry Essential Oils on Milk Fatty Acid Composition of Dairy Cows.

    Yang, Wen Zhu; He, Mao Long

    2016-01-01

    Essential oils (EOs) from plant extracts have been reported to have an antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Several of the gram-positive bacteria are involved in ruminal biohydrogenation of fatty acids (FAs), thus suggesting that feeding EOs could lower biohydrogenation of FA because of a decrease in the number of bacteria involved in that process. As a result, milk FA profiles are expected to be modified. In addition, monensin was approved as an antibiotic to be fed in dairy cattle, and it was reported that dairy cows supplemented with monensin produced milk containing higher concentration of 18:1 t10 and 18:1 t11. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two EOs (garlic and juniper berry oils) and monensin on FA profiles of milk fat. Four ruminally fistulated Holstein dairy cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experiment. Cows were fed for ad libitum intake a total mixed ration without supplementation (control), or supplemented with monensin (330 mg/head per day), garlic oil (5 g/head per day), or juniper berry oil (2 g/head per day). The FA composition of saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated was not affected by supplementation of EO and monensin. However, proportion of conjugated linoleic acid trans 10, cis 12 (CLA t10, c12) was higher (P milk fat with minimal overall effects on FA of milk fat. The results also confirm the increase of 18:1 t10 in milk fat by feeding monensin to dairy cows. PMID:27127411

  19. Effect of Linseed Supplementation on Carcass, Meat Quality and Fatty Acid Composition in Pigs

    Matjaž Červek

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of linseed supplementation on carcass, meat quality and fatty acid profile of fat tissue was studied. No differences in carcass and meat quality traits were observed, the exception being drip loss that was lower in pigs supplemented with linseed. As regards fatty acids, linseed supplementation led to the increased content of unsaturated, polyunsaturated and n-3 fatty acids and decreased content of saturated fatty acids and n-6/n-3 ratio in the subcutaneous and intramuscular fat of pigs.

  20. SRAT CHEMISTRY AND ACID CONSUMPTION DURING SIMULATED DWPF MELTER FEED PREPARATION

    Koopman, D; David Best, D; Bradley Pickenheim, B

    2008-12-03

    Due to higher than expected hydrogen generation during the Tank 51-Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) qualification run, DWPF engineering requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to expand the ongoing catalytic hydrogen generation program. The work presented in this Technical Report was identified as part of SRNL/Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) meetings to define potential causes of catalytic hydrogen generation as well as from an external technical review panel commissioned to evaluate SRNL hydrogen related data and programs. New scope included improving the understanding of SRAT/SME process chemistry, particularly as it related to acid consumption and hydrogen generation. The expanded hydrogen program scope was covered under the technical task request (TTR): HLW-DWPF-TTR-2007-0016. A task technical and quality assurance plan (TT&QAP) was issued to cover focus areas raised in meetings with LWO plus a portion of the recommendations made by the review panel. A supporting analytical study plan was issued. It was also noted in the review of catalytic hydrogen generation that control of the DWPF acid stoichiometry was an important element in controlling hydrogen generation. A separate TTR was issued to investigate ways of improving the determination of the acid requirement during processing: HLWDWPF-TTR-0015. A separate TT&QAP was prepared for this task request. This report discusses some progress on this task related to developing alternative acid equations and to performing experimental work to supplement the existing database. Simulant preparation and preliminary flowsheet studies were already documented. The prior work produced a sufficient quantity of simulant for the hydrogen program and melter feed rheology testing. It also defined a suitable acid addition stoichiometry. The results presented in this report come from samples and process data obtained during sixteen 22-L SRAT/SME simulations that were performed in the second half of 2007 to produce eight SME

  1. Effect of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnancy on Preeclampsia: The Folic Acid Clinical Trial Study

    Shi Wu Wen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is hypertension with proteinuria that develops during pregnancy and affects at least 5% of pregnancies. The Effect of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnancy on Preeclampsia: the Folic Acid Clinical Trial (FACT aims to recruit 3,656 high risk women to evaluate a new prevention strategy for PE: supplementation of folic acid throughout pregnancy. Pregnant women with increased risk of developing PE presenting to a trial participating center between 80/7 and 166/7 weeks of gestation are randomized in a 1 : 1 ratio to folic acid 4.0 mg or placebo after written consent is obtained. Intent-to-treat population will be analyzed. The FACT study was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research in 2009, and regulatory approval from Health Canada was obtained in 2010. A web-based randomization system and electronic data collection system provide the platform for participating centers to randomize their eligible participants and enter data in real time. To date we have twenty participating Canadian centers, of which eighteen are actively recruiting, and seven participating Australian centers, of which two are actively recruiting. Recruitment in Argentina, UK, Netherlands, Brazil, West Indies, and United States is expected to begin by the second or third quarter of 2013. This trial is registered with NCT01355159.

  2. Antioxidant protection of proteins and lipids in processed pork loin chops through feed supplementation with avocado.

    Hernández-López, Silvia H; Rodríguez-Carpena, Javier G; Lemus-Flores, Clemente; Galindo-García, Jorge; Estévez, Mario

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to analyze the impact of dietary avocado on the oxidative stability of lipids and proteins during pork processing. Loins from control (fed basic diet) and treated pigs (fed on avocado-supplemented diet) were roasted (102 °C/20 min) and subsequently packed in trays wrapped with oxygen-permeable films and chilled at 4 °C for 12 days. At each processing stage (raw, cooked and cooked & chilled), pork samples from both groups were analyzed for the concentration of TBARS, the loss of tryptophan and free thiols, and the formation of protein carbonyls, disulphide bonds and Schiff bases. Processing led to a depletion of tryptophan and sulfur-containing amino acids and an increase of lipid and protein oxidation products. Dietary avocado was not able to protect against the oxidation of tryptophan and thiols but cooked & chilled loins from treated pigs had significantly lower concentration of lipid and protein carbonyls than control counterparts. Likewise, dietary avocado alleviated the formation of Schiff bases during cooking. These results illustrate the benefits of dietary avocado on the oxidative stability of processed pork loins. PMID:27478235

  3. Field bean (Vicia faba var. minor as a protein feed for growing lambs with and without protected lysine and methionine supplementation

    Marco Badii

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two Appenninica lambs were submitted to a growth trial from day 60 to day 110 of age (on average and the com-  position of gains was estimated by means of the comparative slaughter technique. Sixteen different diets, based on wheat  straw as the forage and on field bean (Vicia faba var. minor as the sole protein feed, were tested both by means of ANOVA  and of response surface analysis, a multiple regression method designed to study additive and interaction effects. This  study thus examined the combined effect of 4 levels of dietary CP (13, 15, 18, 20% DM and 4 levels of rumen protected  lysine and methionine, replacing 4 levels of field bean CP (0, 1, 2, 3 percent units, upon intakes, gains, digestibility and  retentions of nutrients within gains. The animals had rather high gains (250 g/d on average and retention efficiencies both  of feed nitrogen and energy. Dietary CP levels higher than 18% and amino acid supplementation appeared of no use in  improving the lambs’ performance. It is concluded that field bean may represent a valid alternative to soy bean as a pro-  tein feed for growing ruminants in the so-called “organic” animal production where transgenic soy is banned. 

  4. Effects of prepartum diets supplemented with rolled oilseeds on calf birth weight, postpartum health, feed intake, milk yield, and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    Salehi, R; Colazo, M G; Oba, M; Ambrose, D J

    2016-05-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of supplemental fat (no oilseed vs. oilseed) during late gestation and the source of fat (canola vs. sunflower seed), on dry matter intake (DMI), plasma metabolite concentrations, milk production and composition, calf birth weight, postpartum health disorders, ovarian function and reproductive performance in dairy cows. Pregnant Holstein cows, blocked by body condition and parity, were assigned to 1 of 3 diets containing rolled canola seed (high in oleic acid; n=43) or sunflower (high in linoleic acid; n=45) at 8% of dry matter, or no oilseed (control; n=43), for the last 35±2 d of pregnancy. After calving, all cows received a common lactation diet. Blood samples were collected at wk -3 (i.e., 2 wk after initiation of prepartum diets) and at wk +1, +2, +3, +4 and +5 postpartum to determine the concentration of fatty acids (mEq/dL), β-hydroxybutyrate (mg/dL), and glucose (mg/dL). Ovarian ultrasonography was performed twice weekly to determine the first appearance of dominant (10mm) and preovulatory-size (≥16mm) follicles, and ovulation. Uterine inflammatory status based on the proportion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN; subclinical endometritis: >8% PMN) was assessed at d 25±1 postpartum. Significant parity by treatment interactions were observed for DMI and milk yield. Prepartum oilseed supplementation, more specifically sunflower seed supplementation, increased postpartum DMI in primiparous cows without affecting prepartum DMI or milk yield. Contrarily, in multiparous cows, prepartum oilseed supplementation decreased both prepartum and postpartum DMI and milk yield during the first 2 wk. Regardless of parity, prepartum feeding of canola reduced postpartum DMI compared with those fed sunflower. Mean fatty acids concentrations at wk -3 were greater in cows given supplemental oilseed than those fed no oilseeds. Gestation length and calf birth weight were increased in cows given supplemental oilseed prepartum

  5. Role of live microbial feed supplements with reference to anaerobic fungi in ruminant productivity:A review

    Anil K Puniya; Ravinder Kumar; Abdelfattah Z M Salem; Sanjay Kumar; Sumit S Dagar; Gareth W Grififth; Monica Puniya; Sreenivas R Ravella; Nikhil Kumar; Tejpal Dhewa

    2015-01-01

    To keep the concept of a safe food supply to the consumers, animal feed industries world over are showing an increasing interest in the direct-fed microbials (DFM) for improved animal performance in terms of growth or productivity. This becomes al the more essential in a situation, where a number of the residues of antibiotics and/or other growth stimulants reach in milk and meat with a number of associated potential risks for the consumers. Hence, in the absence of growth stimulants, a positive manipulation of the rumen microbial ecosystem to enhance the feedstuff utilization for improved production ef-ifciency by ruminants has become of much interest to the researchers and entrepreneurs. A few genera of live microbes (i.e., bacteria, fungi and yeasts in different types of formulations from paste to powder) are infrequently used as DFM for the domestic ruminants. These DFM products are live microbial feed supplements containing natural y occurring microbes in the rumen. Among different DFM possibilities, anaerobic rumen fungi (ARF) based additives have been found to improve ruminant productivity consistently during feeding trials. Administration of ARF during the few trials conducted, led to the increased weight gain, milk production, and total tract digestibility of feed components in ruminants. Anaerobic fungi in the rumen display very strong cel-wal degrading cel ulolytic and xylanolytic activities through rhizoid development, resulting in the physical disruption of feed structure paving the way for bacterial action. Signiifcant improvements in the ifber digestibil-ity were found to coincide with increases in ARF in the rumen indicating their role. Most of the researches based on DFM have indicated a positive response in nutrient digestion and methane reducing potential during in vivo and/or in vitro sup-plementation of ARF as DFM. Therefore, DFM especial y ARF wil gain popularity but it is necessary that al the strains are thoroughly studied for their

  6. Effects of short-term oilseed supplementation on plasma fatty acid composition, progesterone and prostaglandin F metabolite in lactating beef cows.

    Scholljegerdes, E J; Lekatz, L A; Vonnahme, K A

    2014-05-01

    Twenty-four 3-year-old Angus cows (512.2±21.6 kg) and six ruminally cannulated beef heifers (523.1±16.9 kg) were used to determine the impact of feeding oilseeds starting at the beginning of estrous synchronization until maternal recognition of pregnancy on plasma fatty acid composition. Starting ~60 days postpartum cows were synchronized with the Select Synch+controlled internal drug-release (CIDR) device and timed artificial insemination (AI) protocol. The day CIDR was inserted; cattle were randomly assigned to one of the three treatments being grazing only (CON) or a supplement containing whole soybeans (SOY); or whole flaxseed (FLX). Cattle continued to receive these diets for 28 days. Blood was collected every 3 days until 10 days after insemination and then every day until 18 days after insemination. All cattle grazed a common pasture and supplemented cattle were individually fed their respective supplements once daily. Ruminally cannulated heifers were used to evaluate the impact supplements had on forage intake, which was reduced (P=0.05) with oilseed supplementation. Feeding oilseeds increased total fatty acid intake (Pflax-fed cattle did not exhibit an increase (P=0.02) until day 15 of supplementation over that of CON. Plasma concentrations for 18:3n-3 was greater (Pbreeding had an effect on serum progesterone (P=0.01) with day 16 after timed AI being lower compared with other days. Feeding oilseeds during the time of estrous synchronization will not only increase the energy density of the diet but will provide key fatty acids around the time of maternal recognition of pregnancy. PMID:24572170

  7. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid and S-Adenosylmethionine Supplementation in Predementia Syndromes and Alzheimer's Disease: A Review

    Francesco Panza; Vincenza Frisardi; Cristiano Capurso; Alessia D'Introno; Colacicco, Anna M.; Alessandra Di Palo; Imbimbo, Bruno P; Gianluigi Vendemiale; Antonio Capurso; Vincenzo Solfrizzi

    2009-01-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that nutritional supplements can improve cognition; however, which supplements are effective remains controversial. In this review article, we focus on dietary supplementation suggested for predementia syndromes and Alzheimer’s disease (AD), with particular emphasis on S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Very recent findings confirmed that SAM can exert a direct effect on glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity. AD is accomp...

  8. Feed supplementation of dairy cattle in the North-Eastern region of Thailand

    Experiments were carried out to study the effects of urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks (UMMB) on milk production and reproductive performance in dairy cattle. The rate of decline in the milk yield of cows before supplementation with UMMB was - 0.0126 kg/d. This changed to an increasing trend after supplementation, to + 0.0142 kg/d in Experiment I, and a similar trend was observed in Experiment II. Supplementation with UMMB resulted in a significant decline in services per conception (P <0.01), from 2.54 to 1.88, and reduced the mean calving to conception interval (days open) from 127.2 ± 11.3 days to 92.4 ± 6.6 days. The UMMB supplement also reduced the interval from calving to first service and calving interval from 77.5 days and 405.4 days before UMMB supplementation to 65.9 days and 365.1 days after UMMB supplementation. On-farm trials were carried out to study the effects of medicated UMMB (MUMB). Forty-six dairy cross-bred heifers were divided into three treatment groups. The MUMB containing fenbendazole at 0.5 g/kg of UMMB was given to one group, UMMB to another group and the third group was not supplemented. Faecal egg counts per gram, packed cell volume and body condition score were evaluated before supplementation and every 30 days after supplementation commenced. Average daily gain was also recorded at 60 days before and after supplementation. The MUMB supplementation led to zero faecal egg counts by 30 days after its introduction, and faecal egg counts of the UMMB supplemented group were lower than without supplementation. The PCVs of the MUMB group animals were higher than in the UMMB group animals and those without supplementation after 60 days. Average daily gain (kg) after 60 days in the MUMB group (0.73 ± 0.17) was significantly higher (P <0.05) than for the UMMB (0.51 ± 0.19) and control groups (0.42 ± 0.16). (author)

  9. Breast-feeding and Vitamin D Supplementation Rates in the Ochsner Health System

    Ponnapakkam, Tulasi; Ravichandran, Anisha; Bradford, Elease; Tobin, Gregory; Gensure, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Breast-feeding imparts many benefits to both mothers and infants. Because of these numerous recognized benefits, there has been an effort to increase breast-feeding rates nationwide; increasing breast-feeding rates was one of the goals of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Healthy People 2010 initiative. This study examined the breast-feeding rate at the Ochsner Clinic Foundation by conducting a retrospective chart review of patients aged 0–12 months who visited any branch of t...

  10. Glucose supplementation-induced changes in the Auxenochlorella protothecoides fatty acid composition suitable for biodiesel production.

    Krzemińska, Izabela; Oleszek, Marta

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluates the effect of different concentrations of glucose supplementation on growth, lipid accumulation, and the fatty acid profile in the Auxenochlorella protothecoides. Addition of glucose promoted the growth rate and decreased the chlorophyll content. Compared with photoautotrophic cells, an increase in the lipid content was observed in mixotrophic cells. The glucose addition induced changes in the fatty acid profile. Higher content of saturated fatty acids was found in the case of cells growing in the glucose-free medium. Oleic acid was the predominant component in mixotrophic cells supplemented with 5gL(-1) glucose, while linoleic acids dominated in cultures supplemented with both 1 and 3gL(-1) glucose. The use of glucose was associated with decreased levels of linolenic acid and PUFA. The changes in the fatty acid profile in mixotrophic cells are favourable for biodiesel production. PMID:27485282

  11. Benefits of Docosahexaenoic Acid, Folic Acid, Vitamin D and Iodine on Foetal and Infant Brain Development and Function Following Maternal Supplementation during Pregnancy and Lactation

    Nancy L. Morse

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Scientific literature is increasingly reporting on dietary deficiencies in many populations of some nutrients critical for foetal and infant brain development and function. Purpose: To highlight the potential benefits of maternal supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and other important complimentary nutrients, including vitamin D, folic acid and iodine during pregnancy and/or breast feeding for foetal and/or infant brain development and/or function. Methods: English language systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, cross-sectional and case-control studies were obtained through searches on MEDLINE and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials from January 2000 through to February 2012 and reference lists of retrieved articles. Reports were selected if they included benefits and harms of maternal supplementation of DHA, vitamin D, folic acid or iodine supplementation during pregnancy and/or lactation. Results: Maternal DHA intake during pregnancy and/or lactation can prolong high risk pregnancies, increase birth weight, head circumference and birth length, and can enhance visual acuity, hand and eye co-ordination, attention, problem solving and information processing. Vitamin D helps maintain pregnancy and promotes normal skeletal and brain development. Folic acid is necessary for normal foetal spine, brain and skull development. Iodine is essential for thyroid hormone production necessary for normal brain and nervous system development during gestation that impacts childhood function. Conclusion: Maternal supplementation within recommended safe intakes in populations with dietary deficiencies may prevent many brain and central nervous system malfunctions and even enhance brain development and function in their offspring.

  12. Effect of Alpha-lipoic Acid Supplementation on Serum Lipid Profile in Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Elham Mirtaheri

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: In the present study, serum lipid profile was not significantly affected by ALA intervention. However, ALA supplementation aiming at prevention or treatment of dyslipidemia in RA patients should be further investigated. Keywords: Lipoic acid, Supplementation, Rheumatoid arthritis, Women, Lipid profile

  13. Supplemental feeding for ecotourism reverses diel activity and alters movement patterns and spatial distribution of the southern stingray, Dasyatis americana.

    Mark J Corcoran

    Full Text Available Southern stingrays, Dasyatis americana, have been provided supplemental food in ecotourism operations at Stingray City Sandbar (SCS, Grand Cayman since 1986, with this site becoming one of the world's most famous and heavily visited marine wildlife interaction venues. Given expansion of marine wildlife interactive tourism worldwide, there are questions about the effects of such activities on the focal species and their ecosystems. We used a combination of acoustic telemetry and tag-recapture efforts to test the hypothesis that human-sourced supplemental feeding has altered stingray activity patterns and habitat use at SCS relative to wild animals at control sites. Secondarily, we also qualitatively estimated the population size of stingrays supporting this major ecotourism venue. Tag-recapture data indicated that a population of at least 164 stingrays, over 80% female, utilized the small area at SCS for prolonged periods of time. Examination of comparative movements of mature female stingrays at SCS and control sites revealed strong differences between the two groups: The fed animals demonstrated a notable inversion of diel activity, being constantly active during the day with little movement at night compared to the nocturnally active wild stingrays; The fed stingrays utilized significantly (p<0.05 smaller 24 hour activity spaces compared to wild conspecifics, staying in close proximity to the ecotourism site; Fed stingrays showed a high degree of overlap in their core activity spaces compared to wild stingrays which were largely solitary in the spaces utilized (72% vs. 3% overlap respectively. Supplemental feeding has strikingly altered movement behavior and spatial distribution of the stingrays, and generated an atypically high density of animals at SCS which could have downstream fitness costs for individuals and potentially broader ecosystem effects. These findings should help environmental managers plan mitigating measures for existing

  14. Supplemental feeding for ecotourism reverses diel activity and alters movement patterns and spatial distribution of the southern stingray, Dasyatis americana.

    Corcoran, Mark J; Wetherbee, Bradley M; Shivji, Mahmood S; Potenski, Matthew D; Chapman, Demian D; Harvey, Guy M

    2013-01-01

    Southern stingrays, Dasyatis americana, have been provided supplemental food in ecotourism operations at Stingray City Sandbar (SCS), Grand Cayman since 1986, with this site becoming one of the world's most famous and heavily visited marine wildlife interaction venues. Given expansion of marine wildlife interactive tourism worldwide, there are questions about the effects of such activities on the focal species and their ecosystems. We used a combination of acoustic telemetry and tag-recapture efforts to test the hypothesis that human-sourced supplemental feeding has altered stingray activity patterns and habitat use at SCS relative to wild animals at control sites. Secondarily, we also qualitatively estimated the population size of stingrays supporting this major ecotourism venue. Tag-recapture data indicated that a population of at least 164 stingrays, over 80% female, utilized the small area at SCS for prolonged periods of time. Examination of comparative movements of mature female stingrays at SCS and control sites revealed strong differences between the two groups: The fed animals demonstrated a notable inversion of diel activity, being constantly active during the day with little movement at night compared to the nocturnally active wild stingrays; The fed stingrays utilized significantly (pecotourism site; Fed stingrays showed a high degree of overlap in their core activity spaces compared to wild stingrays which were largely solitary in the spaces utilized (72% vs. 3% overlap respectively). Supplemental feeding has strikingly altered movement behavior and spatial distribution of the stingrays, and generated an atypically high density of animals at SCS which could have downstream fitness costs for individuals and potentially broader ecosystem effects. These findings should help environmental managers plan mitigating measures for existing operations, and develop precautionary policies regarding proposed feeding sites. PMID:23527144

  15. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Formulations in Cardiovascular Disease: Dietary Supplements are Not Substitutes for Prescription Products.

    Fialkow, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid products are available as prescription formulations (icosapent ethyl, omega-3-acid ethyl esters, omega-3-acid ethyl esters A, omega-3-carboxylic acids) and dietary supplements (predominantly fish oils). Most dietary supplements and all but one prescription formulation contain mixtures of the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Products containing both EPA and DHA may raise low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). In clinical trials, the EPA-only prescription product, icosapent ethyl, did not raise LDL-C compared with placebo. To correct a common misconception, it is important to note that omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements are not US FDA-approved over-the-counter drugs and are not required to demonstrate safety and efficacy prior to marketing. Conversely, prescription products are supported by extensive clinical safety and efficacy investigations required for FDA approval and have active and ongoing safety monitoring programs. While omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements may have a place in the supplementation of diet, they generally contain lower levels of EPA and DHA than prescription products and are not approved or intended to treat disease. Perhaps due to the lack of regulation of dietary supplements, EPA and DHA levels may vary widely within and between brands, and products may also contain unwanted cholesterol or fats or potentially harmful components, including toxins and oxidized fatty acids. Accordingly, omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements should not be substituted for prescription products. Similarly, prescription products containing DHA and EPA should not be substituted for the EPA-only prescription product, as DHA may raise LDL-C and thereby complicate the management of patients with dyslipidemia. PMID:27138439

  16. Enzyme supplementation to improve the nutritional value of fibrous feed ingredients in swine diets fed in dry or liquid form.

    Moran, K; de Lange, C F M; Ferket, P; Fellner, V; Wilcock, P; van Heugten, E

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of xylanase supplementation (with or without), feeding method (dry or liquid), and feedstuff (corn distiller's dried grains with solubles [DDGS] or wheat middlings) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of GE and nutrients, intestinal morphology, ileal and cecal pH, and VFA concentrations. Sixty-four growing pigs (25.87 ± 0.38kg initial BW) were blocked by BW and sex and randomly assigned to 8 dietary treatments. Within each feedstuff, diets were fed either liquid or dry, without or with xylanase (24,000 birch xylan units/kg feed), for 16 d. Diets contained 3.32 and 3.19 Mcal/kg ME for DDGS- and wheat middlings-based diets, respectively. Pigs were fed restricted at 3 times maintenance ME requirements. Liquid diets were prepared by steeping DDGS or wheat middlings with water (1:3, wt/vol) with or without xylanase for 24 h followed by mixing with a basal ingredient mixture and water to achieve a final ratio of 1:2.5 (wt/vol). During steeping of wheat middlings, some fiber degradation occurred. When xylanase was added in dry wheat middlings diets, AID of GE ( wheat middlings diets without xylanase (64.50 vs. 54.67% and 52.88 vs. 31.69%, respectively), but supplementation of xylanase did not impact AID of GE and NDF when liquid wheat middlings diets were fed. Xylanase in liquid DDGS diets increased ( wheat middlings diets improved ( wheat middlings diets without xylanase (80.37 vs. 78.07% and 80.23 vs. 77.94%, respectively). However, there was no effect of xylanase in DDGS diets. Pigs fed DDGS diets had greater concentrations of butyrate in the cecum ( = 0.001) than pigs fed wheat middlings diets (27.6 vs. 20.4 mmol/L). Pigs fed DDGS diets with xylanase had deeper crypts ( wheat middlings diets. Results suggest that liquid feeding and xylanase supplementation had limited potential to enhance nutrient digestibility in pigs fed DDGS-based diets. However, xylanase supplementation in dry wheat

  17. Thermoradiation treatment of sewage sludge to eliminate pathogens for safe use as fertilizer and animal feed supplement

    A research program titled ''Waste Resources Utilization'' using a new technique, ''thermoradiation'' to destroy pathogenic organisms in sewage sludge is described. The thermoradiated sewage sludge will be used to study the feasibility of (1) use for safe land application as fertilizer and soil conditioner and (2) use as a feed supplement for ruminant animals. Experiments to date have shown good results for sludge disinfection of resistant bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Thermoradiation experiments are being carried out at a temperature of 650C combined with 160 krad gamma dose for a total of 2000 pounds of dried treated sludge. The sludge will be shipped to New Mexico State University for the feeding studies and land application studies

  18. A randomized trial on folic acid supplementation and risk of recurrent colorectal adenoma

    Background: Evidence from observational studies suggests that inadequate folate status enhances colorectal carcinogenesis, but results from some randomized trials do not support this hypothesis. Objective: To assess the effect of folic acid supplementation on recurrent colorectal adenoma, we conduc...

  19. Development and field evaluation of animal feed supplementation packages (AFRA project II-17 - RAF/5/041). Project summary

    The Joint FAO/IAEA programme has supported animal production research in Africa for many years through country Technical Co-operation (TC) Projects, Regional Projects (AFRA) and Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP). These activities have helped to build up the infrastructure needed in the countries concerned to conduct much of the research in animal reproduction and nutrition. In the past the Agency has provided technical assistance in defining reproductive indices of ruminant livestock species and identifying nutritional constraints to productivity of animals maintained on smallholder farms under various topographical and environmental conditions. In view of the satisfactory progress of AFRA Project VIII in identifying the major constraints to livestock productivity in the region, and the recognition of many Member States of the importance of supplementary feeding for improving milk and meat production, a regional strategy was proposed for developing affordable and sustainable supplementation packages for improving productivity from smallholder farms using locally available feed resources. The new Regional Project was initiated in 1997 with the following objectives: 1. To produce a supplementary feed in the form of a convenient and easy-to-use package for improving milk and meat production in peri-urban areas 2. To promote the uptake of this technology through demonstrations of its advantages in terms of increased productivity and benefit: cost ratio 3. To maximize the use of locally available feed material such as molasses, cereal bran, legume tree leaves, oil seed meals, etc. for feeding ruminant livestock, thereby reducing the use of high cost concentrate feeds 4. To promote technical co-operation amongst developing countries (TCDC) in the region and take advantage of established infrastructure and available human and technical resources to solve problems of common interest. From 1997 until 2000 the project has been operational with 13 Member States

  20. Herbs, thyme essential oil and condensed tannin extracts as dietary supplements for broilers, and their effects on performance, digestibility, volatile fatty acids and organoleptic properties.

    Cross, D E; McDevitt, R M; Acamovic, T

    2011-04-01

    1. Herbs, thyme essential oil (EO) and condensed tannin (CT) extracts were compared for their effects, as dietary supplements, on broiler growth performance, nutrient digestibility and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles in the gut. Cooked meat from the birds fed on diets with 4 herbs and an EO extract was compared by a taste panel against those fed on the control treatment, for organoleptic properties in the meat. 2. Female broiler chicks were fed on wheat-soybean meal diets from 0-42 d of age. These chicks were given either the basal diet (control), or the basal diet with one of rosemary, garlic or yarrow herbs, mimosa, cranberry or grapeseed CT's, or thyme EO supplements (8 treatments in total). Body weight (BW) and feed consumption (FC) were measured. 3. The garlic supplement tended to improve growth rate over the first 7 d, while mimosa CT and thyme EO supplements reduced weight gains. The mimosa supplement in diets significantly reduced FC to d 21. Meanwhile, the addition of a cranberry supplement reduced the digestibility of DM, OM and N, compared with the controls. Dietary thyme EO, yarrow, rosemary and garlic supplements modified caecal isovaleric and isobutyric acid proportions (presented as 'Other VFA'; p < 0.05). Dietary herb significantly affected the intensity of meat flavour, and the potential of observing both garlic and abnormal flavours. There were large differences between the consumption of red and white meat samples, while meat temperature affected several flavour attributes. 4. Broiler performance and digestibility for birds given dietary garlic and grapeseed CT supplements were similar to the controls, and these supplements appear suitable for dietary inclusion. Careful choices are necessary when selecting dietary plant extract supplements for broilers, but beneficial effects can be observed. PMID:21491246

  1. Use of vitamin D supplements during infancy in an international feeding trial

    Lehtonen, Eveliina; Ormisson, Anne; Nucci, Anita;

    2014-01-01

    age). Less than 2% of infants in the U.S.A. and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the infants received vitamin D...... ages of 1 month and 6 months. SUBJECTS: Infants (n 2159) with a biological family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with increased human leucocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes from twelve European countries, the USA, Canada and Australia. RESULTS: Daily use of vitamin D...... supplements during the first 6 months of life in the European countries, whereas in Canada only half and in the U.S.A. and Australia very few were given supplementation....

  2. Supplemental protein sources for steers fed corn-based diets: II. Growth and estimated metabolizable amino acid supply.

    Ludden, P A; Jones, J M; Cecava, M J; Hendrix, K S

    1995-05-01

    Seventy Simmental-cross steers (average initial weight 301 +/- 24 kg) were individually fed in a 175-d completely randomized design experiment to evaluate the effects of source and level of protein in the diet on gain and feed efficiency. Steers were allotted to 1 of 10 treatments (seven steers per treatment) in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments plus a urea-supplemented control diet. Main factors were source of supplemental protein (soybean meal [SBM], a high ruminal escape soybean meal [SP; SoyPLUS], or a combination of corn gluten meal and blood meal [CB; 50:50 on a nitrogen basis]) and level of each protein source (20, 30, or 40% of total dietary CP). Based on 18-h in situ ruminal incubation, escape N content of the protein sources was 66.0, 82.5, and 90.8% of total N and metabolizable amino acid (MAA) content was 29.1, 33.4, and 67.8 g/100 g of DM for SBM, SP, and CB respectively. The steers were fed 12.5% CP diets based on cracked corn (70%) on d 0 through 70 and were switched to a common 11.5% CP urea-supplemented cracked corn diet (80%) on d 71. The steers were housed in individual confinement stalls and had ad libitum access to feed. Replacing urea with SBM or SP increased (P .05) 28- or 70-d ADG or DMI but did increase (P .05) on 175-d DMI or efficiency; however, feeding SBM increased (P .05) by treatment. Replacing urea with SBM or CB in the first 70 d decreased (P carcass quality grade, dressing percentage, and longissimus muscle area.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7665379

  3. The effect of long-term taurine supplementation and fructose feeding on glucose and lipid homeostasis in Wistar rats

    Larsen, Lea Hüche; Orstrup, Laura Kofoed Hvidsten; Hansen, Svend Høime;

    2013-01-01

    The nonprotein amino acid taurine has been shown to counteract the negative effects of a high-fructose diet in rats with regard to insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Here we examined the long-term (26 weeks) effects of oral taurine supplementation (2% in the drinking water) in fructose-fed Wistar...... rats.The combination of fructose and taurine caused a significant increase in fasting glucose compared to the control diet without changing hepatic phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase mRNA levels. The combination of fructose and taurine also improved glucose tolerance compared to control. Neither a high......-fructose diet nor taurine supplementation induced significant changes in body weight, body fat or total calorie intake, fasting insulin levels, HOMA-IR, or insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle.Fructose alone caused a decrease in liver triglyceride content, with taurine supplementation...

  4. Conjugated linoleic acid and calcium co-supplementation improves bone health in ovariectomised mice

    Park, Yooheon; Kim, Jonggun; Scrimgeour, Angus G.; Condlin, Michelle L.; Kim, Daeyoung; Park, Yeonhwa

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a significant health concern for the elderly; conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to improve overall bone mass when calcium is included as a co-supplement. However, potential effects of CLA and calcium on bone mass during a period of bone loss have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine how dietary calcium modulates the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in preventing bone loss, using an ovariectomised mouse model. CLA supplementation si...

  5. Effect of strategic feed supplementation on productive and reproductive performance in dual-purpose cows

    Six experiments were carried out to study the effect of strategic supplementation during the critical period of the dry season on milk production and reproductive performance in two locations (Tucupido and Tucacas) in Venezuela. Fish meal as a source of undergrade protein was used in two experiments without significant biological responses on production or reproductive performance. However, in two other experiments using either fish meal or cotton-seed meal, higher milk production and improved reproductive performance were found in supplemented animals that had higher body condition at calving (e.g. 15.3 vs 13.3 kg milk/cow/day and 136 vs 200 days interval from calving to conception for cotton-seed supplemented cows with ≥ 2.5 body condition -Nird and non-supplemented cows with <2.5 body condition, P <0.05). In another experiment, cows were supplemented with multinutrient blocks (Urea-molasses blocks - UMB) in the pre-partum period and with undergrade protein during the post-partum period. There was an interaction between pre-partum supplementation and body condition. Cows with Nird <2.5 at calving and consuming UMB had an inferior reproductive response compared to those without blocks (days to resumption to ovarian cyclicity 90.2 vs 62.8, days open 140.4 vs 98.2, pregnancy rate at 200 days post-partum 60 vs 80, respectively, P<0.05). In the last experiment, lipid supplementation and calf rearing systems (restricted suckling and artificial rearing) were compared. Lipid supplementation did not affect production or reproductive performance whereas cows with restricted suckling had longer calving-conception intervals than cows without suckling (117.0 vs 93.0 days, P<0.05). (author). 29 refs, 2 figs, 5 tabs

  6. Influence of Feed Supplementation with Cannabis Sativa on Quality of Broilers Carcass

    Rifat Ullah Khan1*, F. R. Durrani1, Naila Chand1 and Haseeb Anwar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A project was planned to study the effect of feeding powdered seeds of Cannabis sativa on the carcass quality of broiler chicks. A total of 160 day-old broiler chicks of equal weight were randomly divided into four equal groups A, B, C and D. Each group was further divided into four replicates with 10 chicks in each replicate. Dried crushed Cannabis sativa seeds were added to the feed of groups B, C and D at the rate of 5, 10 and 20% of offered feed respectively, while group A served as a control. The studied parameters were body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR, dressing percentage, mortality and economics. After an experimental period of 42 days, the data were analyzed statistically. It was revealed from the results that body weight gain was significantly higher (P<0.05, while feed intake was significantly lower (P<0.05, in group D compared to the control. FCR was significantly better in birds of group D compared to controls. Differences in dressing percentage and mortality were non significant between the treated and control groups. Return per chick (in rupees was significantly higher in group D compared to groups A and B (P<0.05. It was concluded from these results that seeds of Cannabis sativa have remarkable impact on growth of broiler chicks and can help in alleviating feed expenditure incurred on raising broiler chicks.

  7. Tambaqui responses to stress due to transport after feeding with b-glucan supplemented diets

    Edsandra Campos Chagas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the physiological responses to stress of tambaquis (Colossoma macropomum fed with β-glucan supplemented diet undergoing transportation in a closed system. To do so, tambaquis (35.06±0.80g; 11.8±0.09cm were fed with a β-glucan supplemented diet (0; 0.1; 0.2; 0.4; and 0.8%.kg-1 for 60 days. After this period, fishes were transported on road for 3h in a closed system. Responses to stress were evaluated through hormonal, biochemical, and hematological indicators within the following periods: before transportation, immediately after transportation, and 24 and 48h after transportation. Immediately after transportation, there was a significant increase in the plasma concentrations of cortisol and glucose in all treatments when compared to the concentration before transportation; there was an increase in the hemoglobin concentration in fishes fed without a b-glucan supplementation diet; and there was an increase in the mean corpuscular hemoglobin in fishes fed without supplementation or supplemented with 0.1 and 0.2% of b-glucan. The results allowed us to establish that the hormonal, biochemical, and hematological changes occurred immediately after transportation, with return to the basal concentrations after 24h. β-glucan supplementation in the tambaqui diet wasn’t effective to relieve the responses to stress due to transport.

  8. Lipid profiles of blood serum and fatty acid composition of meat of hybrid duck fed diet supplemented with Noni (Morinda citrifolia fruit meal

    David Kurniawan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Noni fruit is a medicinal plant with biological activity like antioxidant that could potentially be used as a feed additive in poultry. This research investigated the effect of noni fruit powder as feed additive on lipid profiles of blood and meat fatty acid compositions of meat of hybrid duck. One hundred twenty 2-week-old hybrid ducks crossing between Peking and Khaki Campbell duck were subjected. They were randomly allotted to 24 experimental units. Each experimental unit was 70x80x40 cm in size and it was used for 5 ducks up to they reached 56 days of age. Each unit was equipped with waterer and feeder. The ducks were raised on litter-type floor. The basal experimental diet was formulated according to the standards of National Research Council (1994. The method used for this study was experimental with 4 different treatments in 6 replications. The treatments were as follow: P0: basal feed without supplementation of noni fruit powder as control; P1: basal feed + 1 % noni fruit powder; P2: basal feed + 2 % noni fruit powder; P3: basal feed + 3 % noni fruit powder. Data were analyzed by one-way of Completely Randomized Design ANOVA and if there was significant effect followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Result showed that using noni fruit powder as feed additive had no significant effect (P>0.05 on lipid profiles of blood and fatty acid composition of meat.

  9. Influence of Feed Supplementation with Cannabis Sativa on Quality of Broilers Carcass

    Rifat Ullah Khan1*, F. R. Durrani1, Naila Chand1 and Haseeb Anwar

    2010-01-01

    A project was planned to study the effect of feeding powdered seeds of Cannabis sativa on the carcass quality of broiler chicks. A total of 160 day-old broiler chicks of equal weight were randomly divided into four equal groups A, B, C and D. Each group was further divided into four replicates with 10 chicks in each replicate. Dried crushed Cannabis sativa seeds were added to the feed of groups B, C and D at the rate of 5, 10 and 20% of offered feed respectively, while group A served as a con...

  10. Effect of Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation on Early Inflammatory Responses during Cutaneous Wound Healing

    Na-Young Park

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory response is considered the most important period that regulates the entire healing process. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, a class of linoleic acid positional and geometric isomers, is well known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We hypothesized that dietary CLA supplementation accelerates cutaneous wound healing by regulating antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions. To investigate wound closure rates and inflammatory responses, we used a full-thickness excisional wound model after 2-week treatments with control, 0.5%, or 1% CLA-supplemented diet. Mice fed dietary CLA supplementation had reduced levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory markers. Moreover, the wound closure rate was improved significantly in mice fed a 1% CLA-supplemented diet during early stage of wound healing (inflammatory stage. We conclude that dietary CLA supplementation enhances the early stage of cutaneous wound healing as a result of modulating oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.

  11. Effects of multi-nutrient feed supplement in beef cattle on methane production, manure quality and rice yield

    The objective of the experiments was to determine the effect of a multi-nutrient feed supplement (MFS) on methane production, and the effect of processing on animal waste to produce compost to improve crop production. Methane is one of the gases that contribute towards global warming and a significant proportion of global methane is produced by rumen fermentation and the breakdown of animal waste. The first of the integrated experimental program carried was the effect of the additional MFS in corn leaf silage with concentrate diet compared to MFS in a low quality of basal diet (rice straw) with a concentrate in beef cattle. Rumen fermentation products including methane gas production were measured along with digestibility, and DLWG. The second phase of the experiment involved the measurement of manures for the nutrient content of the compost and the effect of compost applications on rice yield. The results of the Experiment 1 showed that MFS supplementation increase dry matter digestibility by 15.6%, feed consumption by 7.5%, DLWG by 200% and improve the feed conversion ratio by 187%. The enhanced nutrition improved microbial populations and decreasing methane product from 88.0 to 21.7 mM. The result of the in vitro study found that the feed commonly supplied by farmers to their animal could be improved by the use of MFS with methane production decreasing from 42 ml to 25 ml. An in vivo experiment using the same rations showed an increase of 5.9, 11.4, 6.6, 4.6, 26.4% in DM consumption, CP consumption, GE consumption, DM digestibility and DLWG, respectively, and improving feed efficiency by 21.3%. N total content of compost derived from control and MFS feeding treatments without and with improved manure management was 168, 156, 150 and 146 g/day. Compost application to paddy rice also increased rice yields 76.5% for dried rice harvesting, and 67.4% for dried rice milling. (author)

  12. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation in different stages on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and meat quality in broiler chickens.

    Guo, Z Y; Li, J L; Zhang, L; Jiang, Y; Gao, F; Zhou, G H

    2014-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of basal dietary supplementation with 500 mg/kg alpha-lipoic acid (LA) on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and meat quality in different stages in broiler chickens. A total of 240 Arbor Acre chickens were randomly assigned into 4 treatment groups, each treatment containing 6 replicates of 10 chickens each. Group 1 was the control group without LA supplementation; Group 2 was supplied with LA in the starter period; Group 3 was supplied with LA in the grower period; and Group 4 was supplied with LA in the whole period. The results showed that LA supplementation improved average feed intake and body weight gain in all three experimental groups, especially in Group 2. LA supplementation significantly decreased abdominal fat yield in Groups 3 and 4. LA supplementation all improved hepatic total antioxidant capacity, the level of glutathione, the activities of total superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase, in particular in Group 4. LA supplementation decreased the activity of liver xanthine oxidase (XO) in all experimental groups, and that of liver monoamine oxidase in Group 3. The activities of liver CAT and XO in Group 2 were higher than that in Group 3. LA supplementation elevated the pH24 h and decreased drip loss in breast meat in Groups 3 and 4. In conclusion, LA supplementation can improve growth performance, antioxidant properties and meat quality in broiler chicken. LA supplementation in the starter period can improve growth performance and supplementation in the grower - and in the whole period can improve carcass characteristics. There was no significant difference in meat quality of broiler chickens fed on LA-supplemented diet in different stages. PMID:25162760

  13. The effects of different thermal treatments and organic acid levels in feed on microbial composition and activity in gastrointestinal tract of broilers.

    Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Vahjen, W; Mader, A; Knorr, F; Ruhnke, I; Röhe, I; Hafeez, A; Villodre, C; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2014-06-01

    Thermal treatments of feed and organic acids are known to affect the gastrointestinal microbiota in chickens. The present study evaluated the effect of different thermal processes including pelleting (P), long-term conditioning at 85°C for 3 min (L), expanding at 110°C (E110), and 130°C for 3 to 5 s (E130) as well as organic acid (63.75% formic acid, 25.00% propionic acid, and 11.25% water) inclusion levels (0, 0.75, and 1.5%) on gastrointestinal microbiota in broilers. In total, 960 one-day-old chicks were randomly assigned to 8 replicates using a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement. At d 35, bacterial cell numbers in the crop, ileum, and cecum, and bacterial metabolites in the crop, gizzard, ileum, and cecum were determined. The inclusion of 1.5% organic acids increased cell numbers of all clostridial clusters in the crop. The organic acid supplementation increased the propionic acid concentration in the crop and gizzard and there was a decrease in lactic acid concentration. In the ileum, the 0% organic acid group had the highest numbers of Lactobacillus spp. and enterobacteria. Inclusion of 1.5% organic acids increased ileal acetate concentration. Increasing the feed processing temperature led to an increase of lactobacilli in the crop and ileum, whereas clostridia and enterobacteria seemed unaffected. Similarly, lactate concentrations increased in the ileum, but short-chain fatty acids remained identical. In the crop, an increase for acetate was found for the E130 group compared with all other thermal treatments. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that thermal treatments and organic acid supplementation to broiler diets more markedly influenced the bacterial status of the crop compared with the downstream segments and their effects decreased along the length of gastrointestinal tract. Whereas organic acids markedly modified bacterial composition and activity in the crop, expansion increased lactobacilli and lactate in the crop and ileum. PMID:24879694

  14. Irradiated Palm Oil Waste (Sludge) As Feed Supplement For Nila Gift Fish (Oreochromis niloticus)

    The objective of the experiment was to study the fish weight development after being fed with irradiated palm oil waste pellet. Irradiated Palm oil waste pellet was produced from palm oil waste (sludge) with some additional materials, i.e. rice bran, fish powder, soybean powder, tapioca powder. The mixture was then irradiated with a dose of 4 kGy to decontaminate pathogen microbe and other contaminant microbes, the experiment have been carried out in 4 treatments. Treatment A was male fish which was being fed with irradiated sludge palm oil waste pellet and commercial pelletized feed (2:1), treatment C was female with the same feed as A, treatment B was male fish feed with commercial pelletized, treatment D was female fish with the same feed as B. Each treatment was placed in a pond. The feed with the amount of 3% of total body weight was given to the fishes 2 times per day. The result of this experiment showed that the male fish weight receiving treatment A and B were 195.37 g and 175.12 g. The female fish weight at treatments C and D were 170.28 g and 160.15 g, respectively. Data obtained from this experiment showed that the treatment of irradiated sludge palm oil waste pellet and commercial pelletized (2:1) were more efficient as fish feeding compared to commercial pellets

  15. Physiologic, health, and production responses of dairy cows supplemented with an immunomodulatory feed ingredient during the transition period.

    Brandão, A P; Cooke, R F; Corrá, F N; Piccolo, M B; Gennari, R; Leiva, T; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2016-07-01

    This study compared physiological, health, and productive parameters in dairy cows supplemented or not with Omnigen-AF (OMN; Phibro Animal Health, Teaneck, NJ) during the transition period. Thirty-eight nonlactating, multiparous, pregnant Holstein × Gir cows were ranked by body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS), and assigned to receive (n=19) or not (CON; n=19) OMN at 56 g/cow daily (as-fed basis) beginning 35 d before expected date of calving. Before calving, cows were maintained in single drylot pen with ad libitum access to corn silage, and received (as-fed basis) 3kg/cow daily of a concentrate. After calving, cows were moved to an adjacent drylot pen, milked twice daily, offered (as-fed basis) 35kg/cow daily of corn silage, and individually received a concentrate formulated to meet their nutritional requirements after both milkings. Cows received OMN individually as top-dressing in the morning concentrate feeding. Before calving, cow BW and BCS were recorded weekly and blood samples were collected every 5 d beginning on d -35 relative to expected calving date. After calving and until 46 d in milk, BW and BCS were recorded weekly, individual milk production was recorded, and milk samples were collected daily for total solids and somatic cell count analyses. Blood was sampled daily from 0 to 7 d in milk, every other day from 9 to 21 d in milk, and every 5 d from 26 to 46 d in milk. On 30 and 46 d in milk, cows were evaluated for endometritis via cytobrush technique, based on % of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells in 100 total cell count (PMN + endometrial cells). On 48.7±1.6 d in milk, 9 cows/treatment received a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection (0.25μg/kg of BW), and blood was sampled hourly from -2 to 8 h, at 12-h intervals from 12 to 72 h, and at 24-h intervals form 96 to 120 h relative to LPS administration. No treatment differences were detected on BW, BCS, serum concentrations of cortisol, fatty acids, insulin, glucose, haptoglobin, cortisol, and

  16. Homo-fermentative production of D-lactic acid by Lactobacillus sp. employing casein whey permeate as a raw feed-stock.

    Prasad, Saurav; Srikanth, Katla; Limaye, Anil M; Sivaprakasam, Senthilkumar

    2014-06-01

    Casein whey permeate (CWP), a lactose-enriched dairy waste effluent, is a viable feed stock for the production of value-added products. Two lactic acid bacteria were cultivated in a synthetic casein whey permeate medium with or without pH control. Lactobacillus lactis ATCC 4797 produced D-lactic acid (DLA) at 12.5 g l(-1) in a bioreactor. The values of Leudking-Piret model parameters suggested that lactate was a growth-associated product. Batch fermentation was also performed employing CWP (35 g lactose l(-1)) with casein hydrolysate as a nitrogen supplement in a bioreactor. After 40 h, L. lactis produced 24.3 g lactic acid l(-1) with an optical purity >98 %. Thus CWP may be regarded as a potential feed-stock for DLA production. PMID:24563313

  17. Enhancement of stress resistance of the guppy Poecilia reticulata through feeding with vitamin C supplement

    Lim, L C; Dhert, P.; Chew, W.Y.; Dermaux, V.; Nelis, H.; Sorgeloos, P.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the use of vitamin C supplement in formulated diets and live Artemia juveniles to enhance the stress resistance of the guppy Poecilia reticulata. To evaluate the stress resistance, fish were subjected to osmotic shock in pre-aerated water containing 35 ppt sodium chloride. Ascorbyl acid-poly phosphate and ascorbyl palmitate were used as vitamin C sources for formulated diets and live Artemia juveniles, respectively. Results showed that guppies fed moist formulated diet...

  18. Lipid peroxidation during n-3 fatty acid and vitamin E supplementation in humans.

    Allard, J P; Kurian, R; Aghdassi, E; Muggli, R; Royall, D

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate in healthy humans the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake, alone or in combination with dL-alpha-tocopherol acetate (vitamin E) supplements on lipid peroxidation. Eighty men were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to take daily for 6 wk either menhaden oil (6.26 g, n-3 fatty acids) or olive oil supplements with either vitamin E (900 IU) or its placebo. Antioxidant vitamins, phospholipid composition, malondialdehyde (MDA), and lipid peroxides were measured in the plasma at baseline and week 6. At the same time, breath alkane output was measured. Plasma alpha-tocopherol concentration increased in those receiving vitamin E (P < 0.0001). In those supplemented with n-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA increased in plasma phospholipids (P < 0.0001) and plasma MDA and lipid peroxides increased (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). Breath alkane output did not change significantly and vitamin E intake did not prevent the increase in lipid peroxidation during menhaden oil supplementation. The results demonstrate that supplementing the diet with n-3 fatty acids resulted in an increase in lipid peroxidation, as measured by plasma MDA release and lipid peroxide products, which was not suppressed by vitamin E supplementation. PMID:9168460

  19. THE EFFECT OF METHANOGENIC INHIBITOR FEED ON PROPIONIC ACID AND LAMB MEAT CHEMICAL QUALITY

    E. Suryanto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effect of medium chain fatty acids (MCFA on propionic acids and lamb meat chemical quality. The treatment given was R1: feed without medium chain fatty acids (MCFA, while R2 dan R3 were the feed contained 1.0% and 1.5% of MCFA, respectively. The twelve heads of lambs yearling weight of 16-17 kg were used as materials. Biological trial was done for three months and then was slaughtered. Before being slaughtered, the animal was taken rumen fluid to be analyzed for propionic acid. The carcass was sampled to be analyzed for chemical composition, cholesterol and fatty acids content. This study showed that methanogenic inhibitor feed with 1.0-1.5% MCFA could be used as sheep feed, and the results: the propionic acid content in rumen increased 29.59 – 36.11%. The cholesterol content decreased 7.14-10.06%. For the meat fatty acids composition, unsaturated fatty acids increased 9.05 – 17.96%. while saturated fatty acid decreased 6.59 – 11.88%.

  20. Maternal High Folic Acid Supplement Promotes Glucose Intolerance and Insulin Resistance in Male Mouse Offspring Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Yifan Huang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Maternal nutrition may influence metabolic profiles in offspring. We aimed to investigate the effect of maternal folic acid supplement on glucose metabolism in mouse offspring fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Sixty C57BL/6 female mice were randomly assigned into three dietary groups and fed the AIN-93G diet containing 2 (control, 5 (recommended folic acid supplement, RFolS or 40 (high folic acid supplement, HFolS mg folic acid/kg of diet. All male offspring were fed HFD for eight weeks. Physiological, biochemical and genetic variables were measured. Before HFD feeding, developmental variables and metabolic profiles were comparable among each offspring group. However, after eight weeks of HFD feeding, the offspring of HFolS dams (Off-HFolS were more vulnerable to suffer from obesity (p = 0.009, glucose intolerance (p < 0.001 and insulin resistance (p < 0.001, compared with the controls. Off-HFolS had reduced serum adiponectin concentration, accompanied with decreased adiponectin mRNA level but increased global DNA methylation level in white adipose tissue. In conclusion, our results suggest maternal HFolS exacerbates the detrimental effect of HFD on glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in male offspring, implying that HFolS during pregnancy should be adopted cautiously in the general population of pregnant women to avoid potential deleterious effect on the metabolic diseases in their offspring.

  1. Supplemental arginine administered in ovo or in the feed reduces the susceptibility of broilers to pulmonary hypertension syndrome.

    Saki, A; Haghighat, M; Khajali, F

    2013-01-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted to determine if in ovo and in-feed arginine (ARG) supplementation is effective in the prevention of pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS) in broiler chickens reared at high altitude. 2. In Experiment I, a total of 300 fertile eggs were divided into two equal groups. On d 5 of incubation, one group was injected with 0.5 ml of ARG (20 mg/ml) and the other remained untreated and served as controls. After hatching, male chicks (64 chickens per treatment) were selected and given a commercial maize-soyabean meal diet up to 48 d of age. 3. In Experiment II, a total of 128 male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to two treatments, a control group that were fed on a basal diet that met ARG requirements and the second was fed on the basal diet supplemented with 1.5 g ARG per kg of diet. 4. Cumulative mortality from ascites was recorded in both experiments. Results from Experiment I indicated that in ovo injection of ARG significantly decreased ascites mortality of broilers (18.8 vs. 43.8%). Results from Experiment II showed a similar effect so that ascites mortality in the group that were given Arg supplement was significantly lower than the control (28.1 vs. 43.8%). PMID:24286504

  2. Improvement of zebu cattle productivity in the Sahel region: Feed supplementation on smallholder farms in peri-urban Dakar

    Two studies were conducted in the peri-urban area of Dakar to collect baseline information on feeding, milk production, reproduction, body weight and body condition (Phase I), and to examine the influence of supplementation with local by-products on productive and reproductive parameters of indigenous cattle in traditional smallholder farms (Phase II). Baseline data collected from smallholder farms between 1994 and 1996 indicated delayed first calving, long calving intervals, decreasing body condition score (BCS) and body weight and low milk yields as major problems associated with cattle productivity in the region. Fertility was related to forage availability; animals showed high fertility after the rainy season and low fertility during the dry season. Supplementation during the critical period of the dry season using agro-industrial by-products (brewer's grains, molasses, groundnut cake, oyster shell and salt) had beneficial effects on productivity. Supplementation reduced loss in body weight and body condition, maintained milk yield and growth rate of the calves during the dry season and reduced length of 'days open' and the calving interval. (author)

  3. Feed intake, digestibility, body weight and carcass parameters of Afar rams fed tef (Eragrostis tef) straw supplemented with graded levels of concentrate mix.

    Hagos, Tesfay; Melaku, Solomon

    2009-04-01

    The experiment was conducted at Alamata Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia using 20 Afar rams with an initial body weight (BW) of 18.2 +/- 1.76 (mean +/- SD) kg. The objectives were to study the effect of supplementation with concentrate mix consisting of wheat bran (WB), noug seed cake (NSC) and sesame seed cake (SSC) at the ratio of 2:1:1 on dry matter (DM) basis, respectively on feed intake, digestibility, BW gain and carcass parameters of Afar rams fed tef (Eragrostis tef) straw basal diet. The experiment was arranged with four treatments and five replications in a randomized complete block design. The treatments included feeding sole tef straw (T1, control), and daily supplementation with the concentrate mix offered at 150 (T2, low), 250 (T3, medium) and 350 (T4, high) g DM per head. Total DM intake, crude protein (CP) digestibility, daily BW gain (P < 0.001), DM and organic matter (OM) digestibility, and carcass parameters (P < 0.05) were higher in the supplemented than in the control treatment. Intake of tef straw reduced as the level of supplementation increased, whereas the contrary was true for CP intake. Performance in carcass parameters was better for the medium compared to the low level of concentrate mix supplementation. Moreover, the medium level of supplementation did not substitute tef straw intake. Therefore, it is concluded that the medium level of concentrate mix supplement maintained the utilization of the roughage feed and resulted in better carcass parameters. PMID:18777140

  4. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid and S-Adenosylmethionine Supplementation in Predementia Syndromes and Alzheimer's Disease: A Review

    Francesco Panza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence indicates that nutritional supplements can improve cognition; however, which supplements are effective remains controversial. In this review article, we focus on dietary supplementation suggested for predementia syndromes and Alzheimer’s disease (AD, with particular emphasis on S-adenosylmethionine (SAM and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. Very recent findings confirmed that SAM can exert a direct effect on glutathione S-transferase (GST activity. AD is accompanied by reduced GST activity, diminished SAM, and increased S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH, the downstream metabolic product resulting from SAM-mediated transmethylation reactions, when deprived of folate. Therefore, these findings underscored the critical role of SAM in maintenance of neuronal health, suggesting a possible role of SAM as a neuroprotective dietary supplement for AD patients. In fact, very recent studies on early-stage AD patients and moderate- to late-stage AD patients were conducted with a nutriceutical supplementation that included SAM, with promising results. Given recent findings from randomized clinical trials (RCTs in which n-3 PUFA supplementation was effective only in very mild AD subgroups or mild cognitive impairment (MCI, we suggest future intervention trials using measures of dietary supplementation (dietary n-3 PUFA and SAM plus B vitamin supplementation to determine if such supplements will reduce the risk for cognitive decline in very mild AD and MCI. Therefore, key supplements are not necessarily working in isolation and the most profound impact, or in some cases the only impact, is noted very early in the course of AD, suggesting that nutriceutical supplements may bolster pharmacological approaches well past the window where supplements can work on their own. Recommendations regarding future research on the effects of SAM or n-3 PUFA supplementation on predementia syndromes and very mild AD include properly designed RCTs that are

  5. Feeding a Diet Enriched in Docosahexaenoic Acid to Lactating Dams Improves the Tolerance Response to Egg Protein in Suckled Pups

    Caroline Richard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding a maternal diet supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA during the suckling period on the development of the immune system and oral tolerance (OT in offspring. Dams were randomized to consume one of two nutritionally adequate diets throughout the suckling period: control (N = 12, 0% DHA or DHA (N = 8, 0.9% DHA diet. At 11 days, pups from each dam were randomly assigned to a mucosal OT challenge: the placebo or the ovalbumin (OVA treatment. At three weeks, plasma immunoglobulins and splenocyte cytokine production ex vivo were measured. OVA-tolerized pups had a lower Th2 (IL-13 response to OVA despite the presence of more activated T cells and memory cells (CD27+, all p < 0.05. Feeding a high DHA diet improved the ability of splenocytes to respond to mitogens toward a skewed Th1 response and led to a higher IL-10 and a lower TGF-β production after stimulation with OVA (all p < 0.05. Untolerized DHA-fed pups had lower plasma concentrations of OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (p for interaction < 0.05. Overall, feeding a high DHA maternal diet improves the tolerance response in untolerized suckled pups in a direction that is thought to be beneficial for the establishment of OT.

  6. Chemical composition, fatty acid content and antioxidant potential of meat from goats supplemented with Moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaves, sunflower cake and grass hay.

    Qwele, K; Hugo, A; Oyedemi, S O; Moyo, B; Masika, P J; Muchenje, V

    2013-03-01

    The present study determined the chemical composition, fatty acid (FA) content and antioxidant capacity of meat from goats supplemented with Moringa oleifera leaves (MOL) or sunflower cake (SC) or grass hay (GH). The meat from goat supplemented with MOL had higher concentrations of total phenolic content (10.62±0.27 mg tannic acid equivalent E/g). The MOL significantly scavenged 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic-acid (ABTS) radical to 93.51±0.19% (93.51±0.19%) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical to 58.95±0.3% than other supplements. The antioxidative effect of MOL supplemented meat on catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid oxidation (LO) was significantly (P<0.05) higher than other meat from goat feed on grass hay or those supplemented with sunflower seed cake. The present study indicated that the anti-oxidative potential of MOL may play a role in improving meat quality (chemical composition, colour and lipid stability). PMID:23273450

  7. Corn oil or corn grain supplementation to steers grazing endophyte-free tall fescue. II. Effects on subcutaneous fatty acid content and lipogenic gene expression.

    Duckett, S K; Pratt, S L; Pavan, E

    2009-03-01

    Twenty-eight Angus steers (289 kg) were finished on a high-concentrate diet (85% concentrate: 15% roughage; CONC), or endophyte-free tall fescue pastures with corn grain supplement (0.52% of BW; PC), corn oil plus soybean hull supplement (0.10% of BW corn oil plus 0.45% of BW soybean hulls; PO), or no supplement (pasture only; PA). Subcutaneous adipose tissues were processed for total cellular RNA extraction and fatty acid composition by GLC. Relative expression of genes involved in lipogenesis [fatty acid synthase (FASN), acetyl-CoA carboxylase, lipoprotein lipase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)] and activators of transcription [(peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma), C/EBPalpha, sterol regulatory binding protein-1, signal transducer and activator of transcription-5, and Spot-14] was determined by real-time quantitative PCR. Housekeeping gene (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and beta-actin) expression was used in analysis to normalize expression data. Total fatty acid content was greatest (P Corn grain supplementation increased (P 0.05) between PO and PA. Corn oil supplementation increased (P Corn grain supplementation to grazing steers did not alter (P > 0.05) the cis-9, trans-11 CLA isomer compared with PA. Oil supplementation increased (P < 0.001) linoleic acid (C18:2) content by 56, 98 and 262% compared with CONC, PC, and PA, respectively. Relative mRNA expression of SCD was upregulated (P < 0.001) by 46-, 18- and 7-fold, respectively, for CONC, PC, and PO compared with PA. Relative FASN mRNA expression was also upregulated (P = 0.004) by 9- and 5-fold, respectively, for CONC and PC compared with PA. Grain feeding, either on CONC or supplemented on pasture, upregulated FASN and SCD mRNA to increase MUFA and de novo fatty acids in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Upregulation of SCD with grain feeding and reduced tissue CLA concentrations suggest that the decreased CLA concentrations were the result of limited substrate (trans-11 vaccenic acid

  8. High pressure liquid chromatographic determination of carbadox and pyrantel tartrate in swine feed and supplements.

    Lowie, D M; Teague, R T; Quick, F E; Foster, C L

    1983-05-01

    A rapid yet reliable procedure for the simultaneous extraction and assay of carbadox and pyrantel tartrate is described. The feed is extracted with water-acetonitrile-methanol and cleaned up on a short alumina column. The eluant is separated by high pressure liquid chromatography and the compounds are detected at different wavelengths. The drugs of interest are well resolved in all feeds studied. The procedure has also been applied to a wide range of feeds which contained either one of the drugs or both in combination. No significant interferences were observed. Spiked sample recoveries were 97% for carbadox and 101% for pyrantel tartrate. Ruggedness test coefficients of variation were 2.0% for carbadox and 2.1% for pyrantel tartrate. PMID:6863181

  9. The effect of water, ascorbic acid, and cranberry derived supplementation on human urine and uropathogen adhesion to silicone rubber

    Habash, MB; Van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Reid, G

    1999-01-01

    In this study, urine was collected from groups of volunteers following the consumption of water, ascorbic acid, or cranberry supplements. Only ascorbic acid intake consistently produced acidic urine. Photospectroscopy data indicated that increased water consumption produced urine with lower protein

  10. Vitamin D supplementation prevents hypocalcemia and cortical bone loss associated with chronic feeding in female mice

    Dietary cholecalciferol supplementation alone or combined with calcium has shown great promise in improving bone health, which has been attributed to endocrine actions involved in calcium regulation and/or paracrine/autocrine actions within bone. Indeed, we and others have suggested that dietary su...

  11. Neutrophil fatty acid composition: effect of a single session of exercise and glutamine supplementation.

    Lagranha, C J; Alba-Loureiro, T C; Martins, E F; Pithon-Curi, T C; Curi, R

    2008-06-01

    The fatty acid composition of immune cells appears to contribute to variations of cell function. The independent and combined effects of a single session of exercise (SSE) and glutamine supplementation (GS) on neutrophil fatty acid composition were investigated. Compared to control (no treatment given--i.e. neither SSE or GS), single session of exercise decreased myristic, palmitic and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids, and increased lauric, oleic, linoleic, arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids whereas glutamine supplementation combined with SSE (GS+SSE) increased oleic acid. Polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio and Unsaturation index were higher in neutrophils from the SSE and GS groups as compared with control. These findings support the proposition that SSE and GS may modulate neutrophil function through alterations in fatty acid composition. PMID:17721676

  12. Feed intake, digestibility, and carcass characteristics of lambs fed a diet supplemented with soluble fibre

    Bodas, Raúl; López, Secundino; Rodríguez, Ana Belén; Andrés, Sonia; Mantecón, Ángel R; Giráldez, Francisco Javier

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-six Merino lambs (8-9 weeks of age and 15.3 +/- 0.13 kg of initial liveweight) were used to evaluate the effects of the inclusion of 120 g sugar beet pulp (replacing barley) and the addition of 20 g sodium bicarbonate per kg concentrate on feed intake, digestibility, animal performance and carcass characteristics in fattening lambs. Animals were housed individually and fed barley straw and the corresponding experimental concentrate feed ad libitum [ basal diet composed of (g/kg) barley...

  13. Growth and acid production of Candida species in human saliva supplemented with glucose.

    Samaranayake, L P; Hughes, A; Weetman, D A; MacFarlane, T W

    1986-05-01

    Growth characteristic and acid production of oral isolates of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata in glucose supplemented and glucose-free, pooled, human whole saliva were examined. Both Candida species exhibited sigmoidal growth curves in batch cultures of mixed saliva, supplemented with glucose. The growth of Candida in saliva was accompanied by a rapid decline in pH from 7.5 to 3.2 over 48 h and the major acidic components initiating and sustaining this pH drop were pyruvates and acetates. These acidic metabolites may play an important role in the pathogenesis of oral Candida infections. PMID:3091791

  14. Dietary medium chain fatty acid supplementation leads to reduced VLDL lipolysis and uptake rates in comparison to linoleic acid supplementation

    Schalkwijk, D.B. van; Pasman, W.J.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Verheij, E.R.; Rubingh, C.M.; Bochove, K. van; Vaes, W.H.J.; Adiels, M.; Freidig, A.P.; Graaf, A.A. de

    2014-01-01

    Dietary medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) and linoleic acid follow different metabolic routes, and linoleic acid activates PPAR receptors. Both these mechanisms may modify lipoprotein and fatty acid metabolism after dietary intervention. Our objective was to investigate how dietary MCFA and linoleic a

  15. Enzyme Supplementation of Broiler Feeds with Reduced Mineral and Energy Levels

    JO Nunes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT An experiment was conducted with the purpose of evaluating enzyme blends on the performance, carcass traits, and bone mineralization of broilers. In total, 928 one-day-old Cobb 500 male chicks of were used. A completely randomized design with four treatments with eight replicates of 29 birds each was adopted. The evaluated treatments were: 1- Positive Control (PC, feed containing the nutritional recommendations of the genetic company's manual; 2- Negative Control (NC, feed with reductions of 75 kcal/kg AME and 0.10 and 0.12 percent points of phosphorus and calcium, respectively; 3 - NC + enzyme blend (amylase + b-glucanase, xylanase, and phytase; 250 g/t of feed and 4 - NC + enzyme complex (phytase, amylase, xylanase, glucanase, pectinase, cellulase, and protease; 200 g/t of feed. Birds fed the diet with reduced nutrient levels (NC presented the worst performance (p0.05 carcass or parts yields. The broilers fed the reduced-nutrient and energy diet presented lower (p<0.05 tibial ash, calcium, and phosphorus contents that the other treatments. The use of enzyme combinations improved the performance of broilers fed diets with reduced nutrient and energy levels.

  16. Modulation of post-partum reproductive performance in dairy cows through supplementation of long- or short-chain fatty acids during transition period.

    Ulfina, G G; Kimothi, S P; Oberoi, P S; Baithalu, R K; Kumaresan, A; Mohanty, T K; Imtiwati, P; Dang, A K

    2015-12-01

    Thirty-six cross-bred cows were used to study the effect of long-chain (flaxseed) or short-chain (butyric acid) fatty acid supplementation on metabolic status, ovarian function and reproduction performance during transition period. Control cows received a routine feed of transition diet, while the cows in two treatment groups were supplemented with either 750-g crushed flaxseed or 250 g butyric acid per cow per day. Ovarian activity was monitored by transrectal ultrasonography on 10th, 20th and 30th days post-partum. Blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture into heparinized polystyrene tubes; plasma was prepared and stored under -20 °C until analysis. Results indicated that cows in flaxseed group were in positive energy balance as indicated by lower NEFA and Beta hydroxy Butyrate and higher glucose concentrations. Uterine involution was completed well within 30 days post-partum in all the cows in flaxseed fed group compared to 76.9% in butyric acid supplemented and 61.5% in control groups. The size of dominant follicle and corpus luteum was significantly higher (p Cows fed on diets supplemented with flaxseed exhibited post-partum heat earlier and bred sooner (p cows. It has been noticed that supplementation of flaxseed and butyric acid enhanced involution of uterus, early resumption of cyclicity and thereby early breeding. However, in view of the encouraging results obtained for flaxseed supplemented group, its organic nature and easier availability at farmer's gate, we concluded that flaxseed can be safely included in transition diet to modulate reproductive performance of dairy cattle. PMID:25879374

  17. FBRM and PVM investigations of the double feed semi-batch crystallization of 6-aminopenicillanic acid

    Min SU; Lin WANG; Hua SUN; Jingkang WANG

    2009-01-01

    6-Aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA) is a crucial pharmaceutical intermediate in the chemistry of semi-synthetic antibiotics. The focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) technology and particle vision measurement (PVM) technology were employed to the processes of online-monitoring of 6-APA crystallization behavior in a double-feeding semi-batch crystallizer. Experiments were carried out with four kinds of double-feeding policies and the results were compared with the traditional single-feeding. Records and analysis of FBRM indicated that the nucleation of double feeding policy was much higher than single policy, and chord length of 6-APA was almost determined and had little change after the nucleation peak. Ostwald ripening process had no significant effect on further growth of 6-APA crystal. PVM images showed that the crystal habit of 6-APA was continuously changed during the crystallization process. The development of (002) face in the final crystal for the five feeding policies were different.

  18. Gene expression profiles in rat mesenteric lymph nodes upon supplementation with Conjugated Linoleic Acid during gestation and suckling

    Rivero Montserrat

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diet plays a role on the development of the immune system, and polyunsaturated fatty acids can modulate the expression of a variety of genes. Human milk contains conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, a fatty acid that seems to contribute to immune development. Indeed, recent studies carried out in our group in suckling animals have shown that the immune function is enhanced after feeding them with an 80:20 isomer mix composed of c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA. However, little work has been done on the effects of CLA on gene expression, and even less regarding immune system development in early life. Results The expression profile of mesenteric lymph nodes from animals supplemented with CLA during gestation and suckling through dam's milk (Group A or by oral gavage (Group B, supplemented just during suckling (Group C and control animals (Group D was determined with the aid of the specific GeneChip® Rat Genome 230 2.0 (Affymettrix. Bioinformatics analyses were performed using the GeneSpring GX software package v10.0.2 and lead to the identification of 89 genes differentially expressed in all three dietary approaches. Generation of a biological association network evidenced several genes, such as connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (Timp1, galanin (Gal, synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1, growth factor receptor bound protein 2 (Grb2, actin gamma 2 (Actg2 and smooth muscle alpha actin (Acta2, as highly interconnected nodes of the resulting network. Gene underexpression was confirmed by Real-Time RT-PCR. Conclusions Ctgf, Timp1, Gal and Syt1, among others, are genes modulated by CLA supplementation that may have a role on mucosal immune responses in early life.

  19. Effects of inclusion of poultry by-product meal and enzyme-prebiotic supplementation in grower diets on performance and feed digestibility of broilers.

    Kirkpinar, F; Açikgöz, Z; Bozkurt, M; Ayhan, V

    2004-04-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of level of inclusion of poultry by-product and enzyme-prebiotic supplementation on grower diet digestibility and the performance of broilers. 2. Six grower diets were formulated to provide a similar nutrient profile with the exception of using three graded levels of poultry by-product, namely 0, 25, 40 g/kg of the diet with and without supplementation of enzyme preparation at the rate of 1 kg per tonne of feed and prebiotic preparation at the rate of 2 kg per tonne of feed. The experimental diets were used from 3 to 6 weeks of age. 3. Body weights, feed intake and feed conversion efficiency were not affected by poultry by-product; however, enzyme-prebiotic had a significant positive effect on feed conversion efficiency at 0 to 6 weeks in experiment 1. 4. Crude protein digestibility was decreased by feeding the diet containing poultry by-product while ether extract digestibility was increased by poultry by-product at the rate of 25 g per kg of feed only. Dry matter retention, crude fibre digestibility and organic matter retention were not affected by poultry by-product. Dry matter and organic matter retentions, crude protein, ether extract and crude fibre digestibilities were not affected by enzyme-prebiotic. 5. Protein efficiency ratio (PER) values were increased by poultry by-product at the rate of 40 g per kg of feed and addition of enzyme-prebiotic. PMID:15222425

  20. Evaluation, in an animal model study, of the effect of diet composition change and diet supplementation with b-group vitamins on the liver fatty acid profile

    Zuzanna Goluch-Koniuszy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Contemporary diet of men is characterised by a significant contribution of processed and puri- fied products impoverished by technological processing in, e.g., B-group vitamins taking part in the synthesis of fatty acids. One of the means to prevent their insufficient intake is supplementation of food products with those components. Hence, an animal model study was undertaken in order to determine whether modification of diet composition in which whole-grain components (whole grains of wheat and maize are isocalorically substituted with white flour and saccharose, and its complementary supplementation with B-group vitamins may trigger changes in the profile of fatty acids synthesized in liver of rats. Material and methods. The study was conducted on 30 male rats aged 5 months. Group I was receiving the basal feed mixture (Labofed B, which contained among other things whole grains of wheat and maize. Groups II-III, in free access, were administered modified feed mixture in which 83.5% of wheat present in the basal diet was substituted with wheat flour, and 50% of maize – with saccharose. Contents of vitamin B1 , B2 ,B6  and PP and basic chemical composition in the feed mixture are determined by HPLC method and the fatty acid profile with the modified Folch method using gas chromatography. Groups I and II were receiving water to drink, whereas the animals from group III were administered 25 ml of an aqueous solution of vitamins in the following doses: B1 – 0.94 mg, B2 – 0.48 mg, B6 – 0.5 mg, PP – 1.9 mg. In group III – to supplement differences in contents of those vitamins between feed mixtures resulting from the exchange of components, which to some extent simulated the mode of supplementation in humans. Concentration of glucose was determined in blood serum and the amount of fat was determined with Soxhlet method in the dissected animals liver and the fatty acid profile with the modified Folch method using gas

  1. High dose folic acid supplementation improves arterial endothelial function of coronary patients independent of homocysteine level

    KS Woo; P Chook; M Qiao; AKY Chan; LLT Chan; WWM Chan; DS Celermajer

    2003-01-01

    @@ Background Hyperhomocysteinemia (prevalent in rural northern China)is an emerging risk factor for arterial endothelial dysfunction in CAD, which can be improved with folic acid supplementation. Such homocysteine-lowerying dosage of folio acid ( < 1 mg/d ) can reduce restenosis after PTCA, but not the cardiovascular events.Folic acid has additional vascular protection in antixidation, NO synthase protection, angiogenesis-promotion and cytokines reduction.

  2. Acute supplementation of amino acids increases net protein accretion in IUGR fetal sheep

    Brown, Laura D.; Rozance, Paul J.; Thorn, Stephanie R.; FRIEDMAN, Jacob E.; Hay, William W.

    2012-01-01

    Placental insufficiency decreases fetal amino acid uptake from the placenta, plasma insulin concentrations, and protein accretion, thus compromising normal fetal growth trajectory. We tested whether acute supplementation of amino acids or insulin into the fetus with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) would increase net fetal protein accretion rates. Late-gestation IUGR and control (CON) fetal sheep received acute, 3-h infusions of amino acids (with euinsulinemia), insulin (with euglycemia...

  3. Utilization of Condensed Distillers Solubles as Nutrient Supplement for Production of Nisin and Lactic Acid from Whey

    Liu, Chuanbin; Hu, Bo; Chen, Shulin; Glass, Richard W.

    The major challenge associated with the rapid growth of the ethanol industry is the usage of the coproducts, i.e., condensed distillers solubles (CDS) and distillers dried grains, which are currently sold as animal feed supplements. As the growth of the livestock industries remains flat, alternative usage of these coproducts is urgently needed. CDS is obtained after the removal of ethanol by distillation from the yeast fermentation of a grain or a grain mixture by condensing the thin stillage fraction to semisolid. In this work, CDS was first characterized and yeast biomass was proven to be the major component of CDS. CDS contained 7.50% crude protein but with only 42% of that protein being water soluble. Then, CDS was applied as a nutrient supplement for simultaneous production of nisin and lactic acid by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (ATCC 11454). Although CDS was able to support bacteria growth and nisin production, a strong inhibition was observed when CDS was overdosed. This may be caused by the existence of the major ethanol fermentation byproducts, especially lactate and acetate, in CDS. In the final step, the CDS based medium composition for nisin and lactic acid production was optimized using response surface methodology.

  4. The Effect of Dietary Vegetable Oilseeds Supplement on Fatty Acid Profiles in Milk Fat from Lactating Dairy Cows

    LIU Shi-jun; WANG Jia-qi; BU Deng-pan; WEI Hong-yang; ZHOU Ling-yun; LUO Qiu-jiang

    2007-01-01

    To determine the effect of dietary supplementation with vegetable oilseeds on the composition of bovine milk fatty acids(FAs), 40 Holstein dairy cows were used with a complete randomized design. At the beginning of the experiment, the cows were 150±25 day in milk (DIM). Total duration of the experiment was six weeks. Measurements were made during the last three weeks. Cows in four treatments were fed with a basal diet (CT) or basal diet supplemented with either whole full fat soybean (WFS), full fat expanded soybean (FPS) or whole full fat soybean with whole cottonseed and full fat expanded soybean (MIX). The composition of the milk fat was analyzed by gas chromatography. Relative to control, the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentration in milk fat from cows on FPS was significantly increased by 83.88% (P<0.05). The proportions of C12:0 were decreased by 35.7, 35.51, and 38.65% in milk fat from cows on WFS, MIX, and FPS compared with cows on CT. Similar decreases in C14:0 were 23.83, 24.85, and 31.48% in WFS, MIX, and FPS treatments, respectively.Feeding vegetable oilseeds increased the proportion of healthy FAs (mainly CLA), whereas decreased the concentration of C12:0 and C14:0. Therefore, milk and dairy products would have higher nutritive and therapeutic value.

  5. Effect of feeding maize silage supplemented with concentrate and legume hay on growth in Nellore ram lambs

    Venkateswarlu Malisetty

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The main intension of this research work is to develop a feeding system for growing Nellore ram lambs by feeding maize silage based rations supplemented with concentrate and or legume hay at certain levels to investigate the growth rate. Materials and Methods: Experimental animals (Nellore ram lambs were purchased from local sandy and maize silage was prepared at village by using silos (9''L X 9''W X 8''D and concentrate mixture was prepared at feed mill located at department by using locally available ingredients. Animals were housed in well ventilated sheds and were dewormed and vaccinated against diseases. Fortnightly body weights were taken by using spring balance and calculated the total weight gain and ADG. The experimental animals were divided into seven groups based on their body weight to contain six in each and were fed intensively for five months with sole maize silage (R-I, silage + concentrate at 0.5 per cent body weight (R-II, silage + concentrate at 1.0 per cent body weight (R-III, silage + concentrate at 1.5 per cent body weight (R-IV, silage + lucerne hay (R-V and silage + GN haulms (R-VI and sweet sorghum bagasse based complete diet (R-VII to study the growth rate. Results: Significantly (P<0.01 increase in ADG was observed in ram lambs fed R-IV ration was 16.58, 20.49, 24.10, 29.74, 38.28 and 62.01 per cent, respectively in comparison to those fed R-VII, R-V, R-III, R-VI, R-II and R-I rations. Almost similar ADG was noticed in lambs fed R-III, R-V and R-VII rations and the supplementation of concentrate at 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% of body weight plus maize silage ad lib has increased the growth/gain in ram lambs by 62.48, 99.81 and 163.25 per cent, respectively in comparison to sole silage feeding. Similarly, supplementation of lucerne hay and groundnut haulms with maize silage has increased the weight gain by 109.31 and 84.97 per cent, respectively in comparison to sole maize silage fed animals. Sole sweet sorghum bagasse

  6. Research and application of radiation degraded chitosan for poultry feed supplement to enhance efficiency in raising chickens

    Irradiated chitosan in dry flek form was carried out on the gamma Co-60 source. The obtained results showed that the molecular weight of chitosan after irradiation was decreased with the increase of absorbed dose. Chitosans were irradiated of 20-30 kGy their molecular weight was 282 kDa and 10 kDa at dose of 300 kGy. The effect of irradiated chitosan on the growth development and the survival ratio of breeding chickens in the process were also studied. Field test results showed that the chicken feed supplemented by 300 ppm chitosan with molecular weight of 282 kDa, the weight of chickens increased by 113% and survival ratio was 100% while the normal survival ratio was only 93.34%. (author)

  7. Safety and Health Benefits of Novel Dietary Supplements Consisting Multiple Phytochemicals, Vitamins, Minerals and Essential Fatty Acids in High Fat Diet Fed Rats.

    Ramprasath, Vanu Ramkumar; Jones, Peter J H

    2016-07-01

    The objective was to determine safety and efficacy of health supplements "Beyond Tangy Tangerine," a multivitamin/mineral complex and combination of multivitamin/mineral complex, "Osteofx," a bone healthy supplement and "Ultimate Essential Fatty Acids" in Sprague Dawley rats consuming high-fat diets. Initially a pilot study was conducted which confirmed palatability and acceptability of supplements. In a second study, rats (n = 15/group) were randomized to Control; Multivitamin/mineral complex (2 g/kg BW) or Combination (2 g Multivitamin/mineral complex, 1.5 g Bone healthy supplement and 0.34 g Essential fatty acids/kg BW). No differences were observed in BW change, feed intake, organ weights or bone mineral composition with supplementations compared to control. Multivitamin/mineral complex supplementation decreased abdominal white adipose tissue weights (WAT) (p = .005), total (p = .033) and fat mass (p = .040), plasma IL-6 (p = .016) and ALKP (p = .038) and elevated plasma calcium (p < .001), phosphorus (p = .038), total protein (p = .002), albumin (p = .014) and globulin (p = .018), compared to control. Similarly, combination supplementation reduced WAT (p < .001), total (p = .023) and fat mass (p = .045), plasma triglycerides (p = .018), IL-6 (p = .002) and ALKP (p < .001) with increases in plasma calcium (p = .031), phosphorus (p < .001) compared to control. Results indicate that consuming either supplement can be considered safe and improves overall health by reducing inflammation, abdominal fat mass and plasma triglycerides, as well as promote bone health. PMID:26317447

  8. Examination of facilitators and barriers to home-based supplemental feeding with ready-to-use food for underweight children in western Uganda.

    Ickes, Scott Bradley; Jilcott, Stephanie B; Myhre, Jennifer A; Adair, Linda S; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Handa, Sudhanshu; Bentley, Margaret E; Ammerman, Alice S

    2012-01-01

    Poor complementary feeding practices and low-quality complementary foods are significant causes of growth faltering and child mortality throughout the developing world. Ready-to-use foods (RUF) are energy-dense, lipid-based products that do not require cooking or refrigeration that have been used to prevent and treat malnutrition among vulnerable children. The effectiveness of these products in improving child nutritional status depends on household use by caregivers. To identify the key facilitators and barriers that influence appropriate in-home RUF consumption by supplemental feeding program beneficiaries, we conducted individual interviews among caregivers (n = 80), RUF producers (n = 8) and program staff (n = 10) involved in the Byokulia Bisemeye mu Bantu supplemental feeding program in Bundibugyo, Uganda. By documenting caregiver perceptions and feeding practices related to RUF, we developed a conceptual framework of factors that affect appropriate feeding with RUF. Findings suggest that locally produced RUF is well received by caregivers and children, and is perceived by caregivers and the community to be a healthy supplemental food for malnourished children. However, child feeding practices, including sharing of RUF within households, compromise the nutrient delivery to the intended child. Interventions and educational messages informed by this study can help to improve RUF delivery to targeted beneficiaries. PMID:22136223

  9. The effect of folic acid, protein energy and multiple micronutrient supplements in pregnancy on stillbirths

    Bhutta Zulfiqar A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy is a state of increased requirement of macro- and micronutrients, and malnourishment or inadequate dietary intake before and during pregnancy, can lead to adverse perinatal outcomes including stillbirths. Many nutritional interventions have been proposed during pregnancy according to the nutritional status of the mother and baseline risk factors for different gestational disorders. In this paper, we have reviewed three nutritional interventions including peri-conceptional folic acid supplementation, balanced protein energy supplementation and multiple micronutrients supplementation during pregnancy. This paper is a part of a series to estimate the effect of interventions on stillbirths for input to Live Saved Tool (LiST model. Methods We systematically reviewed all published literature to identify studies evaluating effectiveness of peri-conceptional folic acid supplementation in reducing neural tube defects (NTD, related stillbirths and balanced protein energy and multiple micronutrients supplementation during pregnancy in reducing all-cause stillbirths. The primary outcome was stillbirths. Meta-analyses were generated where data were available from more than one study. Recommendations were made for the Lives Saved Tool (LiST model based on rules developed by the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG. Results There were 18 studies that addressed peri-conceptional folic acid supplementation for prevention of neural tube defects (NTDs. Out of these, 7 studies addressed folic acid supplementation while 11 studies evaluated effect of folic acid fortification. Pooled results from 11 fortification studies showed that it reduces primary incidence of NTDs by 41 % [Relative risk (RR 0.59; 95 % confidence interval (CI 0.52-0.68]. This estimate has been recommended for inclusion in the LiST as proxy for reduction in stillbirths. Pooled results from three studies considered to be of low quality and suggest that

  10. The safety assessment of Pythium irregulare as a producer of biomass and eicosapentaenoic acid for use in dietary supplements and food ingredients.

    Wu, Lei; Roe, Charles L; Wen, Zhiyou

    2013-09-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6, n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5, n-3), and arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4 n-6), have multiple beneficial effects on human health and can be used as an important ingredient in dietary supplements, food, feed and pharmaceuticals. A variety of microorganisms has been used for commercial production of these fatty acids. The microorganisms in the Pythium family, particularly Pythium irregulare, are potential EPA producers. The aim of this work is to provide a safety assessment of P. irregulare so that the EPA derived from this species can be potentially used in various commercial applications. The genus Pythium has been widely recognized as a plant pathogen by infecting roots and colonizing the vascular tissues of various plants such as soybeans, corn and various vegetables. However, the majority of the Pythium species (including P. irregulare) have not been reported to infect mammals including humans. The only species among the Pythium family that infects mammals is P. insidiosum. There also have been no reports showing P. irregulare to contain mycotoxins or cause potentially allergenic responses in humans. Based on the safety assessment, we conclude that P. irregulare can be considered a safe source of biomass and EPA-containing oil for use as ingredients in dietary supplements, food, feed and pharmaceuticals. PMID:23900800

  11. Branched-Chain Amino Acid Supplementation in Combination with Voluntary Running Improves Body Composition in Female C57BL/6 Mice.

    Platt, Kristen M; Charnigo, Richard J; Shertzer, Howard G; Pearson, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Exercise is an inexpensive intervention that may be used to reduce obesity and its consequences. In addition, many individuals who regularly exercise utilize dietary supplements to enhance their exercise routine and to accelerate fat loss or increase lean mass. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are a popular supplement and have been shown to produce a number of beneficial effects in rodent models and humans. Therefore, we hypothesized that BCAA supplementation would protect against high fat diet (HFD)-induced glucose intolerance and obesity in mice with and without access to exercise. We subjected 80 female C57BL/6 mice to a paradigm of HFD feeding, exercise in the form of voluntary wheel running, and BCAA supplementation in the drinking water for 16 weeks (n = 10 per group). Body weight was monitored weekly, while food and water consumption were recorded twice weekly. During the 5th, 10th, and 15th weeks of treatment, glucose tolerance and body composition were analyzed. Exercise significantly improved glucose tolerance in both control-fed and HFD-fed mice. BCAA supplementation, however, did not significantly alter glucose tolerance in any treatment group. While BCAA supplements did not improve lean to fat mass ratio in sedentary mice, it significantly augmented the effects of exercise on this parameter. PMID:26716948

  12. Industry experience in promoting weekly iron-folic acid supplementation in the Philippines.

    Garcia, Josel; Datol-Barrett, Eva; Dizon, Maynilad

    2005-12-01

    After participating in a pilot project under a government-industry partnership to promote the adoption of weekly iron-folic acid supplementation among women of reproductive age in the Philippines in 1998, United Laboratories (UNILAB), the Philippines' largest private pharmaceutical company, decided in April 2002 to launch a weekly iron-folic acid supplement for pregnant and non-pregnant women under the brand name Femina. The business objective set for the Femina brand was to build the category of preventive iron-folic acid supplements in line with the Philippine Department of Health's advocacy on weekly supplementation as an alternate to daily dosing to reduce the prevalence of anemia in the country. The brand was supported with an integrated mix of traditional advertising media with complementary direct-to-consumer educational programs that aimed to create awareness of iron-deficiency anemia, its causes and effects, and the role of weekly intake of iron-folic acid in preventing the condition. Aggressive marketing support for 1 year was successful in creating awareness among the target women. Significant lessons derived from consumers identified opportunity areas that can be further addressed in developing advocacy programs on weekly iron supplementation implemented on a nationwide scale in the future. PMID:16466091

  13. Folic acid supplementation for pregnant women and those planning pregnancy: 2015 update.

    Chitayat, David; Matsui, Doreen; Amitai, Yona; Kennedy, Deborah; Vohra, Sunita; Rieder, Michael; Koren, Gideon

    2016-02-01

    During the last decade critical new information has been published pertaining to folic acid supplementation in the prevention of neural tube defects (NTDs) and other folic acid-sensitive congenital malformations. These new data have important implications for women, their families, and health care professionals. We performed a review looking for the optimal dosage of folic acid that should be given to women of reproductive age who are planning or not avoiding conception to propose updated guidelines and thus help health care providers and patients. In addition to fortification of dietary staples with folic acid, women of reproductive age should supplement before conception with 0.4-1.0 mg of folic acid daily as part of their multivitamins. In the United States all enriched rice is also fortified with folic acid at 0.7 mg per pound of raw rice. However, this is not the case in many countries, and it has been estimated that only 1% of industrially milled rice is fortified with folic acid. In countries where rice is the main staple (eg, China), this does not allow effective folate fortification. Whereas the incidence of NTDs is around 1/1000 in the United States, it is 3- to 5-fold higher in Northern China and 3-fold higher in India. A recent population-based US study estimated that the reduction in NTD rates by folic acid is more modest than previously predicted. The potential of NTD prevention by folic acid is underutilized due to low adherence with folic acid supplementation, and calls for revising the policy of supplementation have been raised. We identified groups of women of reproductive age who may benefit from higher daily doses of folic acid, and this should be considered in current practice. These include women who have had previous pregnancies with NTDs, those who did not plan their pregnancy and hence did not supplement, and women with low intake or impaired adherence to daily folic acid supplementation. In addition, women with known genetic variations in

  14. Development of feeding strategy for ruminant livestock by nuclear techniques

    In tropical and subtropical areas crop residues and agro-industrial byproducts are used for feeding ruminant livestock under limited or zero grazing conditions. In order to increase feeding efficiency and livestock productivity supplementation are essential to meet deficient nutrients fbr the diets. For the assessment the impact by supplements or supplementation for feed utilization efficiency nuclear techniques like isotope dilution method are unique for the purpose. For the evaluation the impact by supplementation or supplements by various nitrogen sources together with salts and minerals for energy utilization efficiency carbon-14 labelled acetate was used for tracer to measure outflow rates for volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from rumen by Angora goat bucks.The supplemented diets led to increased VFAs outflow rates from rumen. The conclusion was that ruminant diets composed by crop residues and agro-industrial by-products need supplementation for deficient nutrients to increase feed energy utilization efficiency by ruminant livestock

  15. Effects of supplemental feeding on survivorship, reproduction, and dispersal in San Joaquin kit foxes

    1993-02-01

    Previous field studies at the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California indicated that a decline in tie population size of the endangered San Joaquin kit fox might be linked to declining prey abundance. To evaluate whether kit fox populations we limited by food resources; survival probabilities, sources of mortality, reproductive success, and dispersal rates were compared between foxes with access to supplemental food and foxes without access to supplemental food (controls). Of foxes born in 1988, the probabilities of supplementary fed foxes surviving to age one and age two were higher than corresponding probabilities of control foxes. Survival probabilities of fed foxes from the 1988 cohort also were higher than the average survival probabilities of foxes born in the previous eight years. Most foxes that died during their first year of life died in June, July, or August. Monthly probabilities of survival were higher for fed pups than control pups curing the months of July and August of 1988. Survival probabilities of fed foxes originally r captured as adults and fed foxes born in 1989 were not significantly different than survival probabilities of corresponding control groups. Most foxes for which a cause of death could be determined were lolled by predators. Average dispersal distances were not significantly different between fed and control groups but the two longest dispersal distances were made by control foxes. These results indicate that food availability affects survival, reproduction, and dispersal by kit foxes and provides evidence that kit fox populations may at times be limited by food abundance.

  16. Feeding Supplemental Iodine to Adult Mink;Effect on Thyroid Hormones in Adult and offspring

    RossE.Jones; RichardJ.Aulerich; 等

    1993-01-01

    We fed adult mink diets containing supplemental iodine,from o 50 320ppm,for one or seven months prior to breeding.Bllod samples collected from the adults and their offspring(kits)at 4wk post-partum were assayed for total thyroxine(T4),triiodothyronine(T3),reverse T3(rT3),and T4-binding indices.As expected T4 concentrations of the adult and kit mink varied inversely with the level of supplemental iodine.In addition,T3 and r T3 concentrations decreased gradually in kits from the long-term experiment in response to the increased dietary iodine of the dams.T3 concentrations of kits from dams fed iodine short-term decreased markedly while r T3 concentrations were elevated greatly in response to increased dietary iodine of the dam.These decreases in hormone levels are due to serum odine blocking the thyroid uptake of iodine and subsequent decrease of hormone synthesis,Excess iodine may also block the effect of thyroid stimulating hormone.The T4-binding indices of the adults,in general,were depressed,while the T4-binding indices of the kits were more variable.These effects are probably due to fluctuations in thyroglobulin.

  17. VITAMIN B6, B12 AND FOLIC ACID SUPPLEMENTATION AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF RANDOMIZED TRIALS

    Despite their important role in cognitive function, the value of B vitamin supplementation is unknown. A systematic review of the effect of vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid supplementation on cognitive function was performed. Literature search conducted in MEDLINE with supplemental articles from re...

  18. Coincidence of remission of postpartum Graves' disease and use of omega-3 fatty acid supplements

    Breese McCoy Sarah J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract I developed Graves' Disease four months postpartum. After one year on propylthiouracil, I learned that omega-3 fatty acids may reduce inflammation associated with certain autoimmune disorders, although no investigations for thyroiditis have been reported. Within eight weeks of beginning flaxseed oil supplements, TSH levels normalized, but fell somewhat when flaxseed was decreased and PTU discontinued. During another pregnancy, plasma TSH normalized, but was again suppressed by four weeks postpartum, then undetectable by four months. This time, flaxseed supplementation alone coincided with TSH normalization. Omega-3 fatty acids should be investigated as a potential treatment for autoimmune thyroid disease.

  19. Effects of various feed supplements containing fish protein hydrolysate or fish processing by-products on the innate immune functions of juvenile coho salmon (oncorhynchus kisutch)

    Murray, A.L.; Pascho, R.J.; Alcorn, S.W.; Fairgrieve, W.T.; Shearer, K.D.; Roley, D.

    2003-01-01

    Immunomodulators administered to fish in the diet have been shown in some cases to enhance innate immune defense mechanisms. Recent studies have suggested that polypeptide fractions found in fish protein hydrolysates may stimulate factors in fish important for disease resistance. For the current study, groups of coho salmon were reared on practical feeds that contained either fish meal (Control diet), fish meal supplemented with cooked fish by-products, or fish meal supplemented with hydrolyzed fish protein alone, or with hydrolyzed fish protein and processed fish bones. For each diet group, three replicate tanks of fish were fed the experimental diets for 6 weeks. Morphometric measurements, and serologic and cellular assays were used to evaluate the general health and immunocompetence of fish in the various feed groups. Whereas the experimental diets had no effect on the morphometric and cellular measurements, fish fed cooked by-products had increased leucocrit levels and lower hematocrit levels than fish from the other feed groups. Innate cellular responses were increased in all feed groups after feeding the four experimental diets compared with pre-feed results. Subgroups of fish from each diet group were also challenged with Vibrio anguillarum (ca. 7.71 ?? 105 bacteria ml-1) at 15??C by immersion. No differences were found in survival among the various feed groups.

  20. Greenhouse gas reduction and improved sustainability of animal husbandry using amino acids in swine, poultry feeds.

    Tsujimoto, Susumu; Takagi, Tomo; Osada, Takashi; Ogino, Akifumi

    2013-05-01

    In Annex 1 countries, nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions from swine and poultry excreta have been calculated and the N2 O reduction potential of each country by using amino acids in feed could also be calculated, then a comparison made among the countries. The N2 O reduction rates were approximately 25% for these Annex 1 countries and amino acids were able to make a large contribution to that reduction. Greenhouse gases (GHG) which are N2 O combined with methane (CH4 ) were estimated to reduce by 24.8% in Japan when amino acids were introduced into the feed, but only a 7.2% reduction was estimated in France. Purification, which is mainly used for manure treatment in Japan, emits much more N2 O and less CH4 , whereas the liquid system which is mainly used in France emits more CH4 and less N2 O based on the emission factors from the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change data base. Changing the French manure treatment system to the Japanese style with amino acids in feed would reduce GHG emissions by 23.4%. Reduction of the arable land use in Japan by changing crop formulations supported by adding amino acids to feed was also quantified as about 10% and led to an increase in the production of meat using the same arable land area. PMID:23607750

  1. High Physiological Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Affects Muscle Fatty Acid Composition and Glucose and Insulin Homeostasis in Obese Adolescents

    Frida Dangardt; Yun Chen; Eva Gronowitz; Jovanna Dahlgren; Peter Friberg; Birgitta Strandvik

    2012-01-01

    Obese adolescents have high concentrations of saturated fatty acids and low omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCUFAs) in plasma phospholipids. We aimed to investigate effects of omega-3 LCPUFA supplementation to obese adolescents on skeletal muscle lipids and glucose and insulin homeostasis. Twenty-five obese adolescents (14–17 years old, 14 females) completed a randomized double-blind crossover study supplying capsules containing either 1.2 g omega-3 LCPUFAs or placebo, for 3 m...

  2. The influence of long chain polyunsaturate supplementation on docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid in baboon neonate central nervous system

    Sarkadi-Nagy Eszter A

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA are major components of the cerebral cortex and visual system, where they play a critical role in neural development. We quantitatively mapped fatty acids in 26 regions of the four-week-old breastfed baboon CNS, and studied the influence of dietary DHA and ARA supplementation and prematurity on CNS DHA and ARA concentrations. Methods Baboons were randomized into a breastfed (B and four formula-fed groups: term, no DHA/ARA (T-; term, DHA/ARA supplemented (T+; preterm, no DHA/ARA (P-; preterm and DHA/ARA supplemented (P+. At four weeks adjusted age, brains were dissected and total fatty acids analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Results DHA and ARA are rich in many more structures than previously reported. They are most concentrated in structures local to the brain stem and diencephalon, particularly the basal ganglia, limbic regions, thalamus and midbrain, and comparatively lower in white matter. Dietary supplementation increased DHA in all structures but had little influence on ARA concentrations. Supplementation restored DHA concentrations to levels of breastfed neonates in all regions except the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Prematurity per se did not exert a strong influence on DHA or ARA concentrations. Conclusion 1 DHA and ARA are found in high concentration throughout the primate CNS, particularly in gray matter such as basal ganglia; 2 DHA concentrations drop across most CNS structures in neonates consuming formulas with no DHA, but ARA levels are relatively immune to ARA in the diet; 3 supplementation of infant formula is effective at restoring DHA concentration in structures other than the cerebral cortex. These results will be useful as a guide to future investigations of CNS function in the absence of dietary DHA and ARA.

  3. Effect of chamomile supplements to feeding doses on antimicrobial parameters in poultry

    Zuzana Jakubcova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to a ban of use of antibiotic growth promoters in the poultry industry it is necessary to look for alternative solutions. The use of some herbs showing antimicrobial effects can be one of such alternatives. In this experiment, effects of three different concentrations of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla extract, (0.3%; 0.6% and 1.2% in feeding doses on the microbial population in the gastrointestinal tract of growing broiler chickens were studied. The main attention was paid to the population of Clostridium perfringens and to numbers of coliform microbes. Clostridia were cultivated under anaerobic conditions at 46 °C on the Tryptone Sulfite Neomycin (TSN agar for a period of 24 hours. Coliform microbes were grown on the violet red bile lactose (VRBL agar at 37 °C for a period of 24 hours. The experiment lasted 39 days and involved 80 chicks that were slaughtered in the course of their growth period at the age of 18, 25, 32 and 39 days; there were 5 chicks in each group. The obtained results indicated that increasing doses of chamomile in the feeding ration decreased numbers of coliform microbes in the digestive tract of chicks and also reduced the population of C. perfingens.

  4. A Review: Supplementation of Foods with Essential Fatty Acids-Can It Turn a Breeze without Further Ado?

    Ganesh, Vijayalakshmi; Hettiarachchy, Navam S

    2016-07-01

    This paper focuses on the critical aspects of supplementation of foods with essential fatty acids (EFAs), the need, health benefits of supplementation and the constraints of the process. Current trend of supplementation of foods with EFAs has been gaining momentum and more research pioneers due to the health benefits in par with the direct intake of EFA supplements. Technologies including encapsulation, nanotechnology, molecular complexing, genetic engineering and more emerging means, hold promise to food supplementation with EFAs. Food trials with adoption of various technologies, studies of bioavailability and health benefits are still underway and crucial before EFA supplementation in foods can hit the market on a global scale. PMID:26147443

  5. Scientific opinion on the safety and efficacy of iron compounds (E1 as feed additives for all species: iron chelate of amino acids, hydrate, based on a dossier submitted by Zinpro Animal Nutrition Inc.

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of iron chelate of amino acids, hydrate, as source of iron is considered safe for all animal species/categories when used up to the currently authorised maximum content of total iron in complete feed, with the exception of bovines and poultry for which the maximum tolerated level is 450 mg/kg complete feed, and pets, for which the maximum tolerated level is 600 mg/kg complete feed. The FEEDAP Panel is not in the position to derive a maximum safe iron concentration in feed for horses or fish. Consumption surveys include iron-containing foodstuffs of animal origin. Since the supplementation of animal feed with iron-containing compounds has not essentially changed during the last decades, it is reasonable to assume that the iron levels in food of animal origin used in exposure scenarios originated from animals fed iron-supplemented diets. Since iron chelate of amino acids, hydrate, will be used as a substitute for other iron compounds, its use in animal nutrition would not modify consumer exposure to iron. The additive should be considered as a skin, eye and respiratory irritant and, owing to its residual peptide component, as a skin/respiratory sensitiser. Considering the high background concentration of iron in soil and water, the supplementation of feed with iron chelate of amino acids, hydrate, is not expected to pose an environmental risk. Iron chelate of amino acids, hydrate, is an effective source of iron for all animal species and categories. The FEEDAP Panel recommends that the maximum iron contents in complete feed be reduced as follows: bovines and poultry, 450 mg Fe/kg; and pets, 600 mg Fe/kg.

  6. Development of feed supplement Urea Molasses Multi nutrient Block (UMMB) using protein source from soy bean flour and gliricidia sepium (Gs) for ruminant animal

    The aim of this activities is to develop formula of feed supplement UMMB-Gs for ruminant animal. The development of feed supplement was carried out on a laboratory and field scale. The activities on laboratory scale include biological evaluation of feed supplement used isotope technique P-32 in order to measure ratio bacteria and protozoa and growth rate of microbial cell in rumen liquid by in vitro studies. Two feed supplement were developed, these were UMMB-TK and UMMB-Gs. Two UMMB-TK were produced at pesantren Al Hikmah and Famor Satwa. Gliricidia sepium meal combined with UMMB-BK were tested on Goat of PE, buffaloes and beef cattle by in vitro studies in order to measure growth rate of microbial cell in rumen liquid using P-32. On the next activity the effect of UMMB-Gs on production and fat concentration of milk from dairy cattle was done. Statistical analysis used were test, 3x3 latin square design and randomize block design respectively. Quality control of UMMB indicated that ratio of bacteria and protozoa was 14 : 1 on UMMB-BK formulas, whereas on UMMB-TK1 it was found 19 : 1 and UMMB-TK2 was 17 : 1 respectively. These results were better then control (grass only). The value of feed control was 1 : 4. The result of UMMB-BK combinated with Gs on laboratory scale was capable of increasing growth rate of microbial cell on rumen liquid of Goat PE, buffaloes and beef cattle. The values were 102.01%; 205.7% and 73.7% respectively compared to control. Field trial of UMMB-Gs increased milk production and fat concentration on dairy cattle. It mean that nuclear technique has a potential role on the finding of a new feed supplement formulas and capable of giving positive impact, when UMMB feed supplement was able to create job field for small business of UMMB product based on local feed resources. (author)

  7. Fatty acid amide supplementation decreases impulsivity in young adult heavy drinkers.

    van Kooten, Maria J; Veldhuizen, Maria G; de Araujo, Ivan E; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Small, Dana M

    2016-03-01

    Compromised dopamine signaling in the striatum has been associated with the expression of impulsive behaviors in addiction, obesity and alcoholism. In rodents, intragastric infusion of the fatty acid amide oleoylethanolamide increases striatal extracellular dopamine levels via vagal afferent signaling. Here we tested whether supplementation with PhosphoLean™, a dietary supplement that contains the precursor of the fatty acid amide oleoylethanolamide (N-oleyl-phosphatidylethanolamine), would reduce impulsive responding and alcohol use in heavy drinking young adults. Twenty-two individuals were assigned to a three-week supplementation regimen with PhosphoLean™ or placebo. Impulsivity was assessed with self-report questionnaires and behavioral tasks pre- and post-supplementation. Although self-report measures of impulsivity did not change, supplementation with PhosphoLean™, but not placebo, significantly reduced false alarm rate on a Go/No-Go task. In addition, an association was found between improved sensitivity on the Go/No-Go task and reduced alcohol intake. These findings provide preliminary evidence that promoting fatty acid derived gut-brain dopamine communication may have therapeutic potential for reducing impulsivity in heavy drinkers. PMID:26656766

  8. Peroxydisulfate Oxidation of L-Ascorbic Acid for Its Direct Spectrophotometric Determination in Dietary Supplements

    Salkić, M.; Selimović, A.; Pašalić, H.; Keran, H.

    2014-03-01

    A selective and accurate direct spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of L-as cor bic acid in dietary supplements. Background correction was based on the oxidation of L-ascorbic acid by potassi um peroxydisulfate in an acidic medium. The molar absorptivity of the proposed method was 1.41 · 104 l/(mol · cm) at 265 nm. The method response was linear up to an L-ascorbic acid concentration of 12.00 μg/ml. The detection limit was 0.11 μg/ml, and the relative standard deviation was 0.9 % (n = 7) for 8.00 μg/ml L-ascorbic acid. Other compounds commonly found in the dietary supplements did not interfere with the detection of L-ascorbic acid. The proposed procedure was successfully applied to the determination of L-ascorbic acid in these supplements, and the results obtained agreed with those obtained by iodine titration.

  9. Effect of fatty acid profile in vegetable oils and antioxidant supplementation on dairy cattle performance and milk fat depression.

    He, M; Armentano, L E

    2011-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of unprotected vegetable oils differing in fatty acid profiles with or without a commercial antioxidant (Agrado Plus, Novus International, St. Charles, MO) on dairy cattle performance, milk fatty acid profiles, and milk fat depression. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were blocked by production (high and low) and assigned to Agrado Plus or no Agrado Plus diets as the main plot in this experiment. The 6 cows in each of the fixed effect groups (high with and without Agrado, low with and without Agrado) were then assigned to a 6 × 6 Latin square as a split plot with 21-d periods. The 6 dietary treatments in the split-plot Latin square were no added oil (control), or 5% DM as oil from palm (PO), high-oleic safflower (OSAF), high-linoleic safflower (LSAF), linseed (LNSD), or corn (CO). Added oil replaced corn starch in the total mixed ration. Diets were formulated to have similar crude protein and neutral detergent fiber, and consisted of 41.2% alfalfa silage, 18.3% corn silage, and 40.5% concentrate mix (dry matter basis). Feeding Agrado Plus did not affect milk, milk fat, or milk protein production or milk fatty acid composition in this study. No significant differences were found between oil feeding versus control for dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk protein yield, but oils other than PO significantly decreased milk fat concentration and proportion and yield of milk short- and medium-chain fatty acids (C(<16)). Feeding PO effectively maintained milk fat yield (1.18 kg/d) and concentration (3.44%), whereas the oils rich in linoleic acid (CO and LSAF) significantly decreased milk fat yield (0.98 and 0.86 vs. 1.14 kg/d) and concentration (3.05 and 2.83 vs. 3.41%) compared with control. Similar lactation performance between OSAF and LNSD suggests that oleic and linolenic acids are roughly equal in potency of milk fat depression. PMID:21524540

  10. Stable isotope and signature fatty acid analyses suggest reef manta rays feed on demersal zooplankton.

    Lydie I E Couturier

    Full Text Available Assessing the trophic role and interaction of an animal is key to understanding its general ecology and dynamics. Conventional techniques used to elucidate diet, such as stomach content analysis, are not suitable for large threatened marine species. Non-lethal sampling combined with biochemical methods provides a practical alternative for investigating the feeding ecology of these species. Stable isotope and signature fatty acid analyses of muscle tissue were used for the first time to examine assimilated diet of the reef manta ray Manta alfredi, and were compared with different zooplankton functional groups (i.e. near-surface zooplankton collected during manta ray feeding events and non-feeding periods, epipelagic zooplankton, demersal zooplankton and several different zooplankton taxa. Stable isotope δ(15N values confirmed that the reef manta ray is a secondary consumer. This species had relatively high levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA indicating a flagellate-based food source in the diet, which likely reflects feeding on DHA-rich near-surface and epipelagic zooplankton. However, high levels of ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and slightly enriched δ(13C values in reef manta ray tissue suggest that they do not feed solely on pelagic zooplankton, but rather obtain part of their diet from another origin. The closest match was with demersal zooplankton, suggesting it is an important component of the reef manta ray diet. The ability to feed on demersal zooplankton is likely linked to the horizontal and vertical movement patterns of this giant planktivore. These new insights into the habitat use and feeding ecology of the reef manta ray will assist in the effective evaluation of its conservation needs.

  11. Effect of Feeding with Algae on Fatty Acid Profile of Goat’S Milk

    Kouřimská L.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine whether the inclusion of algae Chlorella vulgaris in dairy goats’ diets would change the fatty acid profile and increase the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in goat’s milk. White short-haired dairy goats on 2nd and 3rd lactations were fed 5 and 10 g of dried algae supplementation for six weeks. The fatty acids profile of milk was analyzed using gass chromatography (flame ionization detector (FID. The addition of dried algae caused changes of the profile of fatty acids in the milk. The more algae were added to the diet, the greater the changes in the fatty acids profile of milk were found. A statistically significant effect (P = 0.0390 was found between the control group and the group supplemented with 10 g of Chlorella vulgaris per goat per day. The greatest effect of dietary treatment was seen in the relative reduction of palmitic acid content and increased oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids content. Results suggested that the addition of algae also increased the nutritional quality of goat’s milk. There was a positive change in the ratio of SFA:MUFA:PUFA in terms of reducing the proportion of saturated fatty acids, as well as a change in the ratio of n-6 and n-3 PUFAs

  12. B vitamin supplementation reduces excretion of urinary dicarboxylic acids in autistic children.

    Kałużna-Czaplińska, Joanna; Socha, Ewa; Rynkowski, Jacek

    2011-07-01

    Urinary dicarboxylic acids are an important source of information about metabolism and potential problems especially connected with energy production, intestinal dysbiosis, and nutritional individuality in autistic children. A diet rich in vitamins and macroelements is a new idea of intervention in autism. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that vitamin B2, vitamin B6, and magnesium supplementation is effective in reducing the level of dicarboxylic acids in the urine of autistic children. We examined the levels of succinic, adipic, and suberic acids in the urine of autistic children before and after vitamin supplementation. Thirty children with autism received magnesium (daily dose, 200 mg), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine; daily dose, 500 mg), and vitamin B2 (riboflavin; daily dose, 20 mg). The treatment was provided for a period of 3 months. Organic acids were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Before supplementation, the levels of succinic, adipic, and suberic acids in the urine of autistic children were 41.47 ± 50.40 μmol/mmol creatinine, 15.61 ± 15.31 μmol/mmol creatinine, 8.02 ± 6.08 μmol/mmol creatinine; and after supplementation, the levels were 9.90 ± 8.26 μmol/mmol creatinine, 2.92 ± 2.41 μmol/mmol creatinine, and 2.57 ± 3.53 μmol/mmol creatinine, respectively. The results suggest that the supplementation reduces the level of dicarboxylic acid in the urine of autistic children. PMID:21840465

  13. Phytopigments and fatty acids in the gut of the deposit-feeding heart urchin

    Boon, A.R.; Duineveld, G.C.A.

    2012-01-01

    As part of a broader study on benthic–pelagic coupling in the southern North Sea, specimens of the common heart urchin Echinocardium cordatum were sampled for analyses on phytopigments and fatty acids in their guts. Results were interpreted in the context of feeding and ecological functioni

  14. Feeding responses by female Pieris brassicae butterflies to carbohydrates and amino acids

    Romeis, J.; Wäckers, F.L.

    2000-01-01

    Most Lepidoptera feed during the adult stage on carbohydrate-rich food sources, primarily floral nectar. However, little is known about the factors leading to the acceptance of a possible food source. It is reported that butterflies select for nectar rich in sucrose and amino acids. This suggests th

  15. Feeding responses by female Pieris brassicae butterflies to carbohydrates and amino acids

    Romeis, J.; Wäckers, F.L.

    2000-01-01

    Most Lepidoptera feed during the adult stage on carbohydrate- rich food sources, primarily floral nectar. However, little is known about the factors leading to the acceptance of a possible food source. It is reported that butterflies select for nectar rich in sucrose and amino acids. This suggests t

  16. Use of vitamin E to protect highly unsaturated fatty acids in poultry feeds

    Vitamin E can protect sensitive compounds from oxidative degradation but at high concentrations it acts as a prooxidant to accelerate oxidative degradation process. The addition of polyunsaturated acids to poultry feeds provides a straightforward approach to improve the nutritional quality of poultr...

  17. Lactic acid fermentation of food waste for swine feed.

    Yang, S Y; Ji, K S; Baik, Y H; Kwak, W S; McCaskey, T A

    2006-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB, Lactobacillus salivarius) inoculation on the microbial, physical and chemical properties of food waste mixture (FWM) stored at ambient temperature (25 degrees C) for 10 and 30 days. A complete pig diet including restaurant food waste, bakery by-product, barley and wheat bran, and broiler poultry litter was amended with LAB at the levels of 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.5% and 1.0% and fermented anaerobically. These treatments were compared with intact FWM before storage and non-anaerobically stored FWM. Non-anaerobic storage of FWM showed microbial putrefaction with the loss (P 0.05) when LAB-added levels were over 0.2%. Based on these observations the optimum level of LAB addition to FWM was 0.2%. PMID:16257200

  18. Single amino acid supplementation in aminoacidopathies : a systematic review

    van Vliet, Danique; Derks, Terry G. J.; van Rijn, Margreet; de Groot, Martijn J.; MacDonald, Anita; Heiner-Fokkema, M. Rebecca; van Spronsen, Francjan J.

    2014-01-01

    Aminoacidopathies are a group of rare and diverse disorders, caused by the deficiency of an enzyme or transporter involved in amino acid metabolism. For most aminoacidopathies, dietary management is the mainstay of treatment. Such treatment includes severe natural protein restriction, combined with

  19. Folic acid supplementation reduces oxidative stress and hepatic toxicity in rats treated chronically with ethanol

    Lee, Soo-Jung; Kang, Myung-Hee; Min, Hyesun

    2011-01-01

    Folate deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia are found in most patients with alcoholic liver disease. Oxidative stress is one of the most important mechanisms contributing to homocysteine (Hcy)-induced tissue injury. However it has not been examined whether exogenous administration of folic acid attenuates oxidative stress and hepatic toxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo effect of folic acid supplementation on oxidative stress and hepatic toxicity induced by chronic et...

  20. Effect of Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation on Early Inflammatory Responses during Cutaneous Wound Healing

    Yunsook Lim; Na-Young Park; Giuseppe Valacchi

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory response is considered the most important period that regulates the entire healing process. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a class of linoleic acid positional and geometric isomers, is well known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We hypothesized that dietary CLA supplementation accelerates cutaneous wound healing by regulating antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions. To investigate wound closure rates and inflammatory responses, we used a full-thickness e...

  1. Aerobic growth of campylobacter in media supplemented with a-ketoglutaric, lactic, and/or fumaric acids

    A study was conducted to examine the ability of Campylobacter spp. to grow aerobically in media supplemented with selected organic acids. Basal broth media composed of tryptose, yeast extract, and a mineral-vitamin solution was supplemented with a-ketoglutaric, lactic, and/or fumaric acids. The fina...

  2. Dietary supplementation with methylseleninic acid, but not selenomethionine, reduces spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice

    Dietary supplementation with methylseleninic acid reduces spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice Lin Yan*, Lana C. DeMars The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with methylseleninic acid (MSeA) on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in...

  3. Vitamin E supplementation does not prevent ethanol-reduced hepatic retinoic acid levels in rats

    Chronic, excessive ethanol intake can increase retinoic acid (RA) catabolism by inducing cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1). Vitamin E (VE) is an antioxidant implicated in CYP2E1 inhibition. In the current study, we hypothesized that VE supplementation inhibits CYP2E1 and decreases RA catabolism, thereby ...

  4. Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation improves fasting and postprandial plasma lipid profiles in hypertriglyceridemic men.

    Background: The effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the concentrations of different subclasses of VLDL, LDL and HDL particles, and their mean diameters in fasting and postprandial plasma has not been studied. Objective: To determine the effects of DHA supplementation on the concentrations of a...

  5. The influence of feeding linoleic, gamma-linolenic and docosahexaenoic acid rich oils on rat brain tumor fatty acids composition and fatty acid binding protein 7 mRNA expression

    Abdi Khosro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental studies indicate that gamma linolenic acid (GLA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA may inhibit glioma cells growth but effects of oral consumption of these fatty acids on brain tumor fatty acid composition have not been determined in vivo. Methods GLA oil (GLAO; 72% GLA, DHA oil (DHAO; 73% DHA were fed to adult wistar rats (1 mL/rat/day starting one week prior to C6 glioma cells implantation and continued for two weeks after implantation. Control group were fed same amount of high linoleic acid safflower oil (74–77% linoleic acid. Fatty acid composition of tumor samples was determined in a set of 8–12 animals in each group and serum fatty acid in 6 animals per each group. Gene expression of tumor fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ and retinoid × receptor-α (RXR-α were determined in a set of 18 animals per group. Results DHAO feeding increased EPA of brain tumors and decreased ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids. Serum levels of EPA were also increased in DHAO group. A similar trend in serum and tumor levels of DHA were observed in DHAO group but it did not achieve statistical significance. GLAO increased serum concentration of GLA but had no significant effect on tumor GLA or dihomo-gamma linolenic acid (DGLA concentrations. Gene expression of FABP7 was up-regulated in tumors of DHAO group but no other significant effects were observed on EGFR, PPAR-γ or RXR-α expression, and expression of these genes in tumors of GLAO were not different from SFO group. Conclusion Dietary supplementation of DHA containing oil could be an effective way to increase levels of long chain n-3 fatty acids in brain tumors and this increase may be mediated partly by up-regulation of FABP7 expression.

  6. Influence of goats feeding on the fatty acids content in milk

    Željka Klir

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated the possibility of modeling the content of fatty acids of milk fat, in order to increase the contents of desirable n-3 unsaturated fatty acids and decrease saturated fatty acid with adequate nutrition of goats. Previous studies showed that the milk of goats on pasture increased content of caproic (C6:0, caprylic (C8:0, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, rumenic acid, cis-9, trans-11 C18:2, linolenic (C18:3, eicosapentaenoic (C20:5 and docosahexaenoic (C22:6 and total content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. In the same group of goats lower content of palmitoleic (C16:1, linoleic (C18:2 and total n-6 unsaturated fatty acids was found, as well as lower n-6/n-3 ratio compared with group of goats kept indoors and fed with alfalfa hay. In milk of goats fed with diets supplemented with safflower oil, content of CLA significantly increased, while goats fed with diets supplement with linseed oil had significantly higher content of C18:3 in milk, compared with group of goats fed without addition of these oils. Goats fed with addition of protected fish oil had significant transfer of eicosapentaenoic-EPA and docosahexaenoic-DHA fatty acids in milk. Protected fish oil reduced the negative impact of long chain fatty acids on the activity of ruminal microorganisms, consumption and digestibility of fiber, as well as inhibition of synthesis of fatty acids in milk gland. When adding unprotected fish oil, increase of stearic (C18:0 and oleic (C18:1 fatty acids occurred, because of the biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in rumen.

  7. Folic acid supplement use in the prevention of neural tube defects.

    Delany, C

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, planned folic acid fortification for the prevention of Neural Tube Defects (NTD) was postponed. Concurrently, the economic recession may have affected dietary folic acid intake, placing increased emphasis on supplement use. This study examined folic acid supplement use in 2009. A cross-sectional survey of 300 ante-natal women was undertaken to assess folic acid knowledge and use. Associations between demographic, obstetric variables and folic acid knowledge and use were examined. A majority, 284\\/297 (96%), had heard of folic acid, and 178\\/297 (60%) knew that it could prevent NTD. Most, 270\\/297 (91%) had taken it during their pregnancy, but only 107\\/297 (36%) had used it periconceptionally. Being older, married, planned pregnancy and better socioeconomic status were associated with periconceptional use. Periconceptional folic acid use in 2009 was very low, little changed from economic status were associated with periconceptional use. Periconceptional folic acid use in 2009 was very low, little changed from earlier years. Continuous promotion efforts are necessary. Close monitoring of folic acid intake and NTD rates is essential, particularly in the absence of fortification.

  8. Enhancement of growth performance in pre-weaning suckling Boer kids supplemented with creep feed containing alfalfa

    Nay Naing Htoo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study examined the effects of creep feed (CF supplementation (with or without Alfalfa on the pre-weaning growth performance of nursing goat kids. Materials and Methods: A total of forty eight (48, 7 days old, single born kids (live weight 4.4±0.09 kg were divided into three treatment groups, each containing eight males and eight females. All three groups had access to their dams’ milk (DM. The kids from the first treatment group had free access to CF containing alfalfa (CFA while those from the second group had free access to CF without alfalfa. The third treatment group (control had access to their DM only. All three groups were kept isolated from the dams from 800 to 1200 h and from 1400 to 1800 h while having access to CF. Results: Total weight gain and average daily gain of kids from CFA group (11.2±0.36 kg, 145.2±4.64 g was significantly higher (p<0.05 than kids from CF (7.9±0.49 kg, 102.9±6.43 g and DM (5.5±0.43 kg, 71.1±5.56 g groups. The weaning weight of kids from CFA group (15.6±0.39 kg was significantly higher (p<0.05 than those from CF (12.1±0.56 kg and DM (9.9±0.59 kg groups. Conclusion: This result shows that supplementation of CF combined with alfalfa from birth to weaning enhances growth performance of cross-bred Boer goat kids.

  9. Changes in fatty acid concentrations in tissues of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, as a consequence of dietary carnitine, lysine and lipid supplements

    Ozorio, E.O.A.; Uktolseja, J.L.A.; Huisman, E.A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the effect of different dietary carnitine (200 and 1000 mg/kg diet) and fat (90 and 190 g/kg diet) supplementation on growth and fatty acid concentrations of fish fed either with a low- (13 g/kg) or a high-lysine (21 g/kg) diet. African catfish (22?7 g/fish), Clarias gariepinus Burchell, juveniles were stocked (sixteen aquaria, twenty-five fish per aquarium) and fed for a maximum of 74 d. Dietary lysine had a clear effect on growth performance and feed conver...

  10. Effects of Dietary L-carnitine Supplementation on Growth, Muscle Fatty acid Composition and Economic Profit of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Dikel, S.; Ünalan, B.; Eroldoğan, O.T.; Hunt, A. Özlüer

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effect of dietary L-carnitine on growth, proximate and muscle fatty acid compositions of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were investigated. The fish were fed with diets containing 300 mg kg-1 L-carnitine (LC300), other group was fed with diets containing 600 mg kg-1 L-carnitine (LC600) and control group was not supplementary L-carnitine for 63 days. The weight gain of LC600 fed with L-carnitine supplemented was found to be 7.73% higher than in control group. Feed co...

  11. Effects of feeding camelina (seeds or meal) on milk fatty acid composition and butter spreadability.

    Hurtaud, C; Peyraud, J L

    2007-11-01

    The nutritional and rheological properties of butter depend on the fatty acid composition of milk. Therefore, feeding oilseeds rich in unsaturated fatty acids is likely to affect butter properties. The aim of this trial was to examine to what extent feeding the linolenic acid-rich cruciferous plant camelina can affect the fatty acid composition of dairy products and the properties of butter. A control diet composed of 60% corn silage-based ration and completed with high-energy and nitrogenous concentrates was compared with 2 experimental diets designed to provide the same amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids via either camelina seed (630 g/d, CS diet) or camelina meal (2 kg/d, CM diet). The diets were isoenergetic and isonitrogenous. The trial followed a double 3 x 3 Latin-square design with 4-wk periods on 6 Holstein dairy cows. The camelina diets tended to decrease dry matter intake but did not have a significant effect on milk production. They generated a slight decrease in milk protein and a strong decrease in milk fat yield and content. The CM diet led to a stronger decrease in fat content. Camelina generated a greater proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids, notably C18:1 trans isomers, including trans-10 and trans-11 C18:1, which increased by 11.0- and 2.6-fold, respectively, with the CM diet. Camelina also led to an increase in conjugated linoleic acids, particularly rumenic acid, cis-9, trans-11 C18:2. Camelina did not affect parameters of buttermaking except churning time with milk from CM fed cows, which was longer. The butters of camelina diets were softer at all temperatures tested, especially with the CM diet. In conclusion, feeding camelina can modify milk fatty acid profile and butter spreadability. PMID:17954754

  12. The potential influence of plant-based feed supplements on sperm quantity and quality in livestock: a review.

    Clément, C; Witschi, U; Kreuzer, M

    2012-05-01

    The reproductive performance of male livestock is of economic importance, and improving semen quantity and quality, especially for artificial insemination, additionally helps to avoid the loss of valuable genotypes. The review focuses on the impact of oxidative stress on sperm production and quality in livestock, and the potential role of plant based anti-oxidants to control this impact. From scientific reports dealing with livestock, the paper compiles evidence on effective dietary measures affecting sperm production and quality. Where little or no data are available on livestock, it refers to sources regarding other mammals, including man. The review concentrates on the use of distinct plants as feed supplements rather than on ways to treat deficiencies and imbalances in energy or macro- and micronutrients. Feeding of maca (Lepidium meyenii) and khat (Catha edulis) has been shown to positively affect sperm production and quality in animals. Some evidence points to favourable effects of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala and Leucaena pallida), sesbania (Sesbania sesban), pomegranate (Punica granatum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) as well, but studies are either superficial or results are partially contradictory. Finally, the review considers the potential usefulness of medicinal herbs. The list of such plants includes Chinese herbs such as Lycium barbarum, Astralagus membranaceus, Acanthopanacis senticosi, Magnolia officinalis, Cornus officinalis and Psoralea corylifolia and the Indonesian plant Eurycoma longifolia. European candidate plants are Tribulus terrestris and Pendulum murex. Future research should include the screening of other plants, concentrating on the large number of plants rich in metabolites because of their presumed effectiveness. The modes of action often require clarification for the plants with demonstrated effects. PMID:22575847

  13. Oocyte production in Nellore cows supplemented with long-chain fatty acid soaps

    Moacir Rogério de Souza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of long-chain fatty acid soaps (LCFAS of soybean oil on the production and quality of aspirated cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC of lactating Nellore (Bos taurus indicus cows. The effects of LCFAS on the plasma concentration of lipoproteins, total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, urea N, and insulin were also addressed. Thirty lactating Nellore cows were randomly assigned to one of two dietary groups. Cows were grazed on a Tifton 85 pasture throughout the experiment (100 days. Treatments consisted of a supplement with no fat included (CONT; and a supplement containing 47.2 g/kg of LCFAS on a dry matter basis. After 14 days of treatment, animals were subjected to 4.93±1.55 rounds of consecutive ovum pickup (OPU at intervals of 21.71±11.76 days. Blood samples were collected from all cows throughout the experiment at 25-day intervals (four samples per cow. Cows that were fed LCFAS supplements and cows that were fed CONT supplements had similar numbers of total aspirated oocytes (viable and not viable by OPU and grades of viable oocytes. Plasma concentrations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL were increased in cows supplemented with LCFAS. Plasma concentrations of LDL and total cholesterol were increased by LCFAS supplementation after 50 days on dietary treatment and insulin concentration was increased from 75 days on treatment. Long-chain fatty acid soaps from soybean oil added at 47.2 g/kg have no effect on the number of aspirated COC or their quality in Nellore lactating cows even with changes in plasma concentration of HDL, LDL, total cholesterol, and insulin. Thus, this supplementation has no benefits when the main objective is to improve oocyte production and quality.

  14. The effects of phosphatidylserine and omega-3 fatty acid-containing supplement on late life depression

    Teruhisa Komori

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Late life depression is often associated with a poor response to antidepressants; therefore an alternative strategy for therapy is required. Although several studies have reported that phosphatidylserine (PS may be effective for late life depression and that omega-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA have also proven beneficial for many higher mental functions, including depression, no concrete conclusion has been reached. This study was performed to clarify the effect of PS and omega-3 fatty acid-containing supplement for late life depression by not only clinical evaluation but also salivary cortisol levels. Eighteen elderly subjects with major depression were selected for the study. In all, insufficient improvement had been obtained by antidepressant therapy for at least 6 months. The exclusion criteria from prior brain magnetic resonance images (MRI included the presence of structural MRI findings compatible with stroke or other gross brain lesions or malformations, but not white matter hypersensitivities. They took a supplement containing PS 100 mg, DHA 119 mg and EPA 70 mg three times a day for 12 weeks. The effects of the supplement were assessed using the 17-item Hamilton depression scale (HAM-D17 and the basal levels and circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol. The study adopted them as indices because: salivary cortisol levels are high in patients with depression, their circadian rhythm related to salivary cortisol is often irregular, and these symptoms are alleviated as depression improves. The mean HAM-D17 in all subjects taking the supplement was significantly improved after 12 weeks of taking the supplement. These subjects were divided into 10 non-responders and 8 responders. The basal levels and circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol were normalized in the responders while not in non-responders. PS and omega-3 fatty acids, or other elements of the supplement, may be effective for late life depression, associated with the correction of basal

  15. Interactions between prebiotics, probiotics, polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols: diet or supplementation for metabolic syndrome prevention?

    Peluso, Ilaria; Romanelli, Luca; Palmery, Maura

    2014-05-01

    The metabolic syndrome can be prevented by the Mediterranean diet, characterized by fiber, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols. However, the composition of the Mediterranean diet, which can be viewed as a natural multiple supplement, is poorly controlled, and its beneficial effects poorly predictable. The metabolic syndrome is associated with intestinal dysbiosis and the gut microbioma seems to be the main target and player in the interactions occurring between probiotics, prebiotics, omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and polyphenols. From the reviewed evidence, it is reasonable to manage growth and metabolism of gut microflora with specific prebiotics and polyphenols. Even though the healthy properties of functional foods and nutraceuticals still need to be fully elucidated, available data suggest that well-designed supplements, containing the better ratio of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants, specific probiotic strains, and selected polyphenols and prebiotics, could be useful in metabolic syndrome prevention and treatment. PMID:24467635

  16. Relative bioavailability of iron and folic acid from a new powdered supplement compared to a traditional tablet in pregnant women

    O'Connor Deborah L

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deficiencies of iron and folic acid during pregnancy can lead to adverse outcomes for the fetus, thus supplements are recommended. Adherence to current tablet-based supplements is documented to be poor. Recently a powdered form of micronutrients has been developed which may decrease side-effects and thus improve adherence. However, before testing the efficacy of the supplement as an alternate choice for supplementation during pregnancy, the bioavailability of the iron needs to be determined. Our objective was to measure the relative bioavailability of iron and folic acid from a powdered supplement that can be sprinkled on semi-solid foods or beverages versus a traditional tablet supplement in pregnant women. Methods Eighteen healthy pregnant women (24 – 32 weeks gestation were randomized to receive the supplements in a crossover design. Following ingestion of each supplement, the changes (over baseline in serum iron and folate over 8 hours were determined. The powdered supplement contained 30 mg of iron as micronized dispersible ferric pyrophosphate with an emulsifier coating and 600 μg folic acid; the tablet contained 27 mg iron from ferrous fumarate and 1000 μg folic acid. Results Overall absorption of iron from the powdered supplement was significantly lower than the tablet (p = 0.003. There was no difference in the overall absorption of folic acid between supplements. Based on the differences in the area under the curve and doses, the relative bioavailability of iron from powdered supplement was lower than from the tablet (0.22. Conclusion The unexpected lower bioavailability of iron from the powdered supplement is contrary to previously published reports. However, since pills and capsules are known to be poorly accepted by some women during pregnancy, it is reasonable to continue to explore alternative micronutrient delivery systems and forms of iron for this purpose. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00789490

  17. Supplementation of conjugated linoleic acid in dairy cows reduces endogenous glucose production during early lactation.

    Hötger, Kristin; Hammon, Harald M.; Weber, Claudia; Görs, Solvig; Tröscher, Arnulf; Bruckmaier, Rupert M; Metges, Cornelia C.

    2013-01-01

    Trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation causes milk fat depression in dairy cows, but CLA effects on glucose metabolism are not clear. The objective of the study was to investigate glucose metabolism, especially endogenous glucose production (eGP) and glucose oxidation (GOx), as well as hepatic genes involved in endogenous glucose production in Holstein cows supplemented either with 50 g of rumen-protected CLA (9% trans-10,cis-12 and 10% cis-9,trans-11; CLA; n=10) or 50...

  18. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin C (ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by VITAC EEIG

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C (formerly known as antiscorbutic vitamin is essential for primates, guinea pigs and fish. Vitamin C, in the form of ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate, is safe for all animal species. Setting a maximum content in feed and water for drinking is not considered necessary. Data on the vitamin C consumption of consumers are based on the levels of vitamin C in foodstuffs, including food of animal origin, produced in accordance with current EU legislation on the supplementation of feed with vitamin C. The exposure is far below the guidance level. Any potential contribution of the use of vitamin C in feed is therefore already considered in the above data. Consequently, the use of vitamin C in animal nutrition is not of concern for consumer safety. In the absence of inhalation toxicity studies it would be prudent to assume that inhalation of dust from the additives presents a health hazard to workers and measures should be taken to minimise inhalation exposure. In the absence of data, ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate should be considered as irritant to skin and eyes and as dermal sensitisers. The supplementation of feed with vitamin C does not pose a risk to the environment. Ascorbic acid and sodium calcium ascorbyl phosphate are regarded as effective sources of vitamin C when added to feed or water for drinking.

  19. The time effect of chronic ethanol feeding on phospholipid fatty acids

    Nakamura, M.T.; Tang, A.B.; Halsted, C.H.; Phinney, S.D. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States))

    1992-02-26

    The authors have previously shown that chronic ethanol feeding reduces arachidonic acid (AA) and other products of {delta}6 and {delta}5 desaturases in various tissues including muscle, the largest phospholipid (PL) pool. In this study they investigated the time-course effect of ethanol feeding on tissue fatty acid (FA) profiles. Five Yucatan micropigs were fed 89 kcal/kg body wt of diet containing ethanol and fat as 40 and 34% of energy, respectively. Five control pigs were pairfed corn starch instead of ethanol. Corn oil, 61% linoleic acid (LA), supplied most of dietary fat. PL fatty acids were quantitated by thin layer and gas chromatography. Below are FA profiles of control/ethanol groups by wt%. Underlined values differ p<0.05. In liver PL, ethanol resulted in increased LA but decreased palmitic acid, AA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) at 2 months. These changes remained constant for 12 months, whereas alpha-linolenic acid and DHA showed a progressive decline. For muscle, however, significant differences were not seen until 12 months. These results indicate time differences in ethanol effect on w6 and w3 FA composition, and that liver and muscle differ in their rates of response to ethanol. Their findings suggest that ethanol affects both desaturase activity and the precursor pool, and thus may alter membrane function.

  20. Effect of feeding carp with fat-supplemented pelleted diets on histological appearance of the intestine and hepatopancreas

    Piotr Epler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixty two-year-old carps, Cyprinus carpio L. were kept in a closed water circulation system for five months. Fish were assigned to five groups (12 fish per group and fed ad libitum on Aller Classic pelleted feed for carp: standard or standard pelleted mixture supplemented with 6% oils. The control group (IK received standard pellets, group IIS+Rz – sunflower oil + rapeseed oil (50% : 50%; group IIIS+L – sunflower oil + linseed oil (80% : 20%; group IVR – fish oil; and group VSK – pork scratchings at the level of 6%. At the end of the experiment, 10 carps from each group were slaughtered and their body length and weight were measured to calculate mean body weight gains and mean individual gains. Fragments of intestine and hepatopancreas were histologically and morphometrically analyzed. The mean weight gains of fish at the end of the experiment, which were the highest for diet IIIS+L, and the lowest for VSK and IK diets, were fully confirmed by histological analysis, which showed that the lowest gains in biomass and mean individual weight were due to digestive disturbances associated mainly with lipid metabolism. These disturbances did not occur in groups IIS+Rz, IIIS+L and IVR.

  1. Enhancement of growth performance in pre-weaning suckling Boer kids supplemented with creep feed containing alfalfa

    Htoo, Nay Nang; Khaing, Aung Tun; Abba, Yusuf; Htin, Nwe Nwe; Abdullah, Jesse Faez Firdaus; Kyaw, Than; Khan, Mohd Azam Khan Goriman; Lila, Mohd Azmi Mohd

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study examined the effects of creep feed (CF) supplementation (with or without Alfalfa) on the pre-weaning growth performance of nursing goat kids. Materials and Methods: A total of forty eight (48), 7 days old, single born kids (live weight 4.4±0.09 kg) were divided into three treatment groups, each containing eight males and eight females. All three groups had access to their dams’ milk (DM). The kids from the first treatment group had free access to CF containing alfalfa (CFA) while those from the second group had free access to CF without alfalfa. The third treatment group (control) had access to their DM only. All three groups were kept isolated from the dams from 800 to 1200 h and from 1400 to 1800 h while having access to CF. Results: Total weight gain and average daily gain of kids from CFA group (11.2±0.36 kg, 145.2±4.64 g) was significantly higher (pkids from CF (7.9±0.49 kg, 102.9±6.43 g) and DM (5.5±0.43 kg, 71.1±5.56 g) groups. The weaning weight of kids from CFA group (15.6±0.39 kg) was significantly higher (pkids. PMID:27065636

  2. The Effect of Supplementing Air-Dried Moringa stenopetala Leaf to Natural Grass Hay on Feed Intake and Growth Performances of Arsi-Bale Goats

    Aberra Melesse

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The most constraining factor in goat production in the tropics is underfeeding mainly attributed to limitations of feed both in quantity and quality. This study was conducted to assess the effect of supplementing different levels of air-dried Moringa stenopetala leaf (MSL as a protein source on nutrient intake and growth performances of Arsi-Bale male goats. A total of 24 yearling goats with average initial body weight of 13.6 ± 0.25 kg were used in the study. The goats were blocked by live weight into four groups (n = 6 per group and the groups were then randomly allocated into four supplemented treatments. All goats received a basal diet of natural grass hay ad libitum and 340 g/head/day concentrate. The treatments were the control diet with no supplementation (Treatment 1, T1 and diets supplemented with MSL at a rate of 120 g/head/day (Treatment 2, T2, 170 g/head/day (Treatment 3, T3 and 220 g/head/day (Treatment 4, T4. The duration of the experiment was 75 days. The results indicated that the average daily feed intake was (p < 0.001 higher in goats supplemented with T3 and T4 diets. The total dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein intakes of goats fed with T3 and T4 supplementations were (p < 0.001 also higher than those reared in T1 and T2 diets. Goats reared in T3 and T4 diets had lower (p < 0.05 feed conversion ratio than those fed with T1 and T2 diets. The final body weight in goats reared in T3 and T4 diets was 18.2 kg and 18.5 kg, respectively, being (p < 0.05 higher than those of T1 (15.8 kg and T2 (16.3 kg. The average daily weight gain in goats fed with T3 and T4 diets was 111 and 114 g/goat/day, respectively, which was (p < 0.05 higher than those reared in the control (T1 (54.0 g/goat/day and T2 (58.1 g/goat/day diets. It can thus be concluded that goats reared at high level of MSL supplementation (T3 and T4 had better nutrient intake, feed conversion efficiency and growth performances, suggesting its potential as a good

  3. Feeding strategies for enhanced lactobionic acid production from whey by Pseudomonas taetrolens.

    Alonso, Saúl; Rendueles, Manuel; Díaz, Mario

    2013-04-01

    High-level production of lactobionic acid from whey by Pseudomonas taetrolens under fed-batch fermentation was achieved in this study. Different feeding strategies were evaluated according to the physiological status and fermentation performance of P. taetrolens. A lactobionic acid titer of 164 g/L was obtained under co-feeding conditions affording specific and volumetric productivities of 1.4 g/g h and 2.05 g/L h, respectively. Flow cytometry assessment revealed that P. taetrolens cells exhibited a robust physiological status, which makes them particularly well-suited for employing concentrated nutrient solutions to further prolong the growth and production phases. Such detailed knowledge of the physiological status has been revealed to be a key issue to further support the development of high-yield lactobionic acid production processes under feeding strategies. The present study has demonstrated the feasibility of P. taetrolens to achieve high-level bio-production of lactobionic acid from whey through fed-batch cultivation, suggesting its major potential for industrial-scale implementation. PMID:23500570

  4. The potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of sea bass, Lates calcarifer

    Erlinda S. Ganzon-Naret

    2013-01-01

    A feeding trial was conducted for 12 weeks to evaluate the potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with dietary microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of juvenile sea bass, Lates calcarifer. Fifteen sea bass juveniles (mean initial weight of 0.96 g and mean initial total length (TL) of 4.2 cm) were stocked at three replicates into each of the twelve 100 L conical fibreglass tanks containing 90 L sea water in a closed recirculating system with filt...

  5. The potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of sea bass, Lates calcarifer

    Erlinda S. Ganzon-Naret

    2013-01-01

    A feeding trial was conducted for 12 weeks to evaluate the potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with dietary microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of juvenile sea bass, Lates calcarifer. Fifteen sea bass juveniles (mean initial weight of 0.96 g and mean initial total length (TL) of 4.2 cm) were stocked at three replicates into each of the twelve 100 L conical fibreglass tanks containing 90 L sea water in a closed recirculating system with ...

  6. A Comprehensive Review on Physiological and Nutritional Properties of Prebiotics as Poultry Feed Supplement - See more at: http://sciencebeingjournal.com/octa-journal-biosciences/comprehe

    Subha Ganguly

    2015-01-01

    The present article highlights the effect of dietary prebiotics viz., dietary organic acid (OA) supplements, mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) and β-glucan supplementation on different body growth parameters of poultry birds at their various growing stages. The article stresses on the effect on live body weight gain, dressing percentage, weight of vital organs and muscles and mean villus lengths in digestive tract of poultry birds along with their application as growth promoters in commercial poul...

  7. Expression of cationic amino acid transporters, carcass traits, and performance of growing pigs fed low-protein amino acid-supplemented versus high protein diets.

    Morales, A; Grageola, F; García, H; Araiza, A; Zijlstra, R T; Cervantes, M

    2013-01-01

    Free amino acids (AA) appear to be absorbed faster than protein-bound AA (PB-AA). We conducted an experiment to assess the effect of feeding pigs with a partially free (F-AA) or totally PB-AA diet on expression of selected genes and performance of pigs. The expression of cationic AA transporters b(0,+) and CAT-1 in intestinal mucosa, liver, and longissimus (LM) and semitendinosus (SM) muscles, as well as that of myosin in LM and SM, was analyzed. Twelve pigs (31.7 ± 2.7 kg) were used. The F-AA diet was based on wheat, supplemented with 0.59% L-Lys, 0.33% L-Thr, and 0.10% DL-Met. The PB-AA diet was formulated with wheat-soybean meal. Average daily feed intake was 1.53 kg per pig. The expression of b(0,+) and CAT-1 was analyzed in jejunal and ileal mucosa, liver, LM, and SM; myosin expression was also analyzed in both muscles. Pigs fed the PB-AA diet tended to have higher weight gain and feed efficiency (P pigs fed the F-AA diet; CAT-1 tended to be lower in liver but higher in LM of PB-AA pigs. Myosin expression was not affected. Intestinal AA absorption was faster in pigs fed the F-AA diet, but AA uptake by the liver seemed to be faster in pigs fed the PB-AA. Performance and expression of AA transporters and myosin suggest that the dietary content of free or protein-bound AA does not affect their availability for protein synthesis in pigs. PMID:24222247

  8. Effect of folic acid supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Yu-Hao Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Folic acid is widely used to lower homocysteine concentrations and prevent adverse cardiovascular outcomes. However, the effect of folic acid on cardiovascular events is not clear at the present time. We carried out a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effects of folic acid supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We systematically searched Medline, EmBase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, reference lists of articles, and proceedings of major meetings for relevant literature. We included randomized placebo-controlled trials that reported on the effects of folic acid on cardiovascular events compared to placebo. Of 1594 identified studies, we included 16 trials reporting data on 44841 patients. These studies reported 8238 major cardiovascular events, 2001 strokes, 2917 myocardial infarctions, and 6314 deaths. Folic acid supplementation as compared to placebo had no effect on major cardiovascular events (RR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.93-1.04, stroke (RR, 0.89; 95% CI,0.78-1.01, myocardial infarction (RR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.93-1.07, or deaths from any cause (RR, 1.00;95% CI, 0.96-1.05. Moreover, folic acid as compared to placebo also had no effect on the following secondary outcomes: risk of revascularization (RR, 1.05; 95%CI, 0.95-1.16, acute coronary syndrome (RR, 1.06; 95%CI, 0.97-1.15, cancer (RR, 1.08; 95%CI, 0.98-1.21, vascular death (RR, 0.94; 95%CI,0.88-1.02, or non-vascular death (RR, 1.06; 95%CI, 0.97-1.15. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Folic acid supplementation does not effect on the incidence of major cardiovascular events, stroke, myocardial infarction or all cause mortality.

  9. Folic acid supplementation inhibits recurrence of colorectal adenomas: A randomized chemoprevention trial

    Richard Jaszewski; Adhip PN Majumdar; Sabeena Misra; Martin Tobi; Nadeem Ullah; Jo Ann Naumoff; Omer Kucuk; Edi Levi; Bradley N Axelrod; Bhaumik B Patel

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether folic acid supplementation will reduce the recurrence of colorectal adenomas,the precursors of colorectal cancer, we performed a double-blind placebo-controlled trial in patients with adenomatous polyps.METHODS: In the current double-blind, placebo-controlled trial at this VA Medical Center, patients with colorectal adenomas were randomly assigned to receive either a daily 5 mg dose of folic acid or a matched identical placebo for 3 years. All polyps were removed at baseline colonoscopy and each patient had a follow up colonoscopy at 3 years. The primary endpoint was a reduction in the number of recurrent adenomas at 3 years.RESULTS: Of 137 subjects, who were eligible after confirmation of polyp histology and run-in period to conform compliance, 94 completed the study; 49 in folic acid group and 45 in placebo group. Recurrence of adenomas at 3-year was compared between the two groups. The mean number of recurrent polyps at 3-year was 0.36 (SD, 0.69) for folic acid treated patients compared to 0.82 (SD, 1.17) for placebo treated subjects, resulting in a 3-fold increase in polyp recurrence in the placebo group. Patients below 70 years of age and those with left-sided colonic adenomas or advanced adenomas responded better to folic acid supplementation.CONCLUSION: High dose folic acid supplementation is associated with a significant reduction in the recurrence of colonic adenomas suggesting that folic acid may be an effective chemopreventive agent for colorectal neoplasia.

  10. Effects of stocking rate and corn gluten feed supplementation on performance of young beef cows grazing winter-stockpiled tall fescue-red clover pasture.

    Driskill, R; Russell, J R; Strohbehn, D R; Morrical, D G; Barnhart, S K; Lawrence, J D

    2007-06-01

    A winter grazing experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of stocking rate and corn gluten feed supplementation on forage mass and composition and the BW and BCS of bred 2-yr-old cows grazing stockpiled forage during winter. Two 12.2-ha blocks containing Fawn, endophyte-free, tall fescue and red clover were each divided into 4 pastures of 2.53 or 3.54 ha. Hay was harvested from the pastures in June and August of 2003 and 2004, and N was applied at 50.5 kg/ha at the initiation of stockpiling in August. On October 22, 2003, and October 20, 2004, twenty-four 30-mo-old Angus-Simmental and Angus cows were allotted by BW and BCS to strip-graze for 147 d at 0.84 or 1.19 cow/ha. Eight similar cows were allotted to 2 dry lots and fed tall fescue-red clover hay ad libitum. Corn gluten feed was fed to cows in 2 pastures to maintain a mean BCS of 5 (9-point scale) at each stocking rate and in the dry lots (high supplementation level) or when weather prevented grazing (low supplementation level) in the remaining 2 pastures at each stocking rate. Mean concentrations of CP in yr 1 and 2 and IVDMD in yr 2 were greater (P corn gluten feed supplemented to cows in yr 1 and 2 were 46 and 60 kg/ cow and did not differ (P = 0.33, yr 1; P = 0.50, yr 2) between cows fed hay or grazing stockpiled forage in either year. Estimated production costs were greater for cows in the dry lots because of hay feeding. PMID:17296771

  11. Effect of lipid supplementation on milk odd- and branched-chain fatty acids in dairy cows.

    Baumann, E; Chouinard, P Y; Lebeuf, Y; Rico, D E; Gervais, R

    2016-08-01

    Eight ruminally fistulated, multiparous Holstein cows were arranged in a double 4×4 Latin square with 14-d periods to investigate the effects of lipid supplementation on performance, rumen parameters, the milk odd- and branched-chain fatty acid (OBCFA) profile, and the relationships between milk OBCFA and rumen parameters. Lipid supplementation is known to inhibit microbial growth in the rumen, decrease de novo microbial fatty acid synthesis, and increase the uptake of circulating fatty acids by the mammary gland; treatments were selected to isolate these effects on the milk OBCFA profile. The 4 treatments were (1) a lipid-free emulsion medium infused in the rumen (CTL), (2) soybean oil as a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids infused in the rumen (RSO), (3) saturated fatty acids (38% 16:0, 40% 18:0) infused in the rumen (RSF), and (4) saturated fatty acids infused in the abomasum (ASF). Fat supplements were provided continuously as emulsions at a rate of 450g/d. Preplanned contrasts compared CTL to RSO, RSO to RSF, and RSF to ASF. Infusing RSO slightly decreased ruminal pH, but did not affect volatile fatty acids profile and milk fat concentration as compared with CTL. The yields of energy-corrected milk, fat, and protein were greater with RSF compared with RSO. The concentration of odd-chain fatty acids was decreased by RSO, whereas even-chain iso fatty acids were not affected. Milk fat concentration of 17:0 + cis-9 17:1 was higher for RSF than for RSO, due to the saturated fatty acids supplement containing 2% 17:0 + cis-9 17:1. Limited differences were observed in the milk OBCFA profile between RSF and ASF. A multiple regression analysis yielded the following equation for predicting rumen pH based on milk fatty acids: pH=6.24 - (0.56×4:0) + (1.67 × iso 14:0) + (4.22 × iso 15:0) + (9.41×22:0). Rumen propionate concentration was negatively correlated with milk fat concentration of iso 14:0 and positively correlated with milk 15:0, whereas the acetate

  12. Conjugated linoleic acid of dairy foods is affected by cows’ feeding system and processing of milk

    Juan Pablo Avilez Ruiz; Marcelo Wladimir Alonzo; Manuel Delgado Pertíñez

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The distribution of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in dairy products commercially available in Chile is poorly understood. This study aimed to assess the content of CLA in dairy cow products from Chile and the effect of processing fresh milk into dairy products. Samples of raw milk were categorized into two groups based on the animal feeding system utilized by the dairy farm: 1) grazing based systems (Los Lagos region); and 2) housing systems using total mixed ration (TMR) diets (Los...

  13. Lithocholic Acid Feeding Induces Segmental Bile Duct Obstruction and Destructive Cholangitis in Mice

    Fickert, Peter; Fuchsbichler, Andrea; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Wagner, Martin; Zollner, Gernot.; Krause, Robert; Zatloukal, Kurt; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Denk, Helmut; Trauner, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We determined the mechanisms of hepatobiliary injury in the lithocholic acid (LCA)-fed mouse, an increasingly used model of cholestatic liver injury. Swiss albino mice received control diet or 1% (w/w) LCA diet (for 1, 2, and 4 days), followed by assessment of liver morphology and ultrastructure, tight junctions, markers of fibrosis and key proteins of hepatobiliary function, and bile flow and composition. As expected LCA feeding led to bile infarcts, which were followed by a destructive chol...

  14. Content and distribution of phytanic acid diastereomers in organic milk as affected by feed composition

    Che, Brita Ngum; Kristensen, Troels; Nebel, Caroline; Dalsgaard, Trine; Hellgren, Lars; Young, Jette Feveile; Larsen, Mette K.

    2013-01-01

    Phytanic acid (PA) is a bioactive compound found in milk that is derived from the phytol chain of chlorophyll, and the content of PA in milk fat depends on the availability of phytol from feed. In this study, the content of PA diastereomers was analyzed in milk sampled from five organic herds twi...... related to the amount of grazed clovers, where a higher intake resulted in a higher share of the RRR isomer. © 2012 American Chemical Society....

  15. Evaluation of hippuric acid content in goat milk as a marker of feeding regimen.

    Carpio, A; Bonilla-Valverde, D; Arce, C; Rodríguez-Estévez, V; Sánchez-Rodríguez, M; Arce, L; Valcárcel, M

    2013-09-01

    Organic producers, traders, and consumers must address 2 issues related to milk: authentication of the production system and nutritional differentiation. The presence of hippuric acid (HA) in goat milk samples has been proposed as a possible marker to differentiate the feeding regimen of goats. The objective of this work is to check the hypothesis that HA could be a marker for the type of feeding regimen of goats by studying the influence of production system (conventional or organic) and feeding regimen (with or without grazing fodder). With this purpose, commercial cow and goat milk samples (n=27) and raw goat milk samples (n=185; collected from different breeds, localizations, and dates) were analyzed. Samples were grouped according to breed, feeding regimen, production system, and origin to compare HA content by ANOVA and honestly significant difference Tukey test at a confidence level of ≥95%. Hippuric acid content was obtained by analyzing milk samples with capillary electrophoresis. This method was validated by analyzing part of the samples with HPLC as a reference technique. Sixty-nine raw goat milk samples (of the total 158 samples analyzed in this work) were quantified by capillary electrophoresis. In these samples, the lowest average content for HA was 7±3 mg/L. This value corresponds to a group of conventional raw milk samples from goats fed with compound feed. The highest value of this group was 28±10 mg/L, corresponding to goats fed compound feed plus grass. Conversely, for organic raw goat milk samples, the highest concentration was 67±14 mg/L, which corresponds to goats fed grass. By contrast, the lowest value of this organic group was 26±10 mg/L, which belongs to goats fed organic compounds. Notice that the highest HA average content was found in samples from grazing animals corresponding to the organic group. This result suggests that HA is a good marker to determine the type of goats feeding regimen; a high content of HA represents a diet

  16. Sustainable improvement of livestock production through strategic supplementation with urea-molasses multi-nutrient block (UMMB) and other feed resources available in Pakistan

    Livestock are a vital source of meat and milk, and livestock production is an integral part of agriculture in Pakistan. The ruminant feeding system is based on low quality roughages that can be improved by creating conditions in the rumen for maximizing fibre digestion. A solidified urea-molasses multi-nutrient Block (UMMB), prepared with commonly available, cheap ingredients to provide critical nutrients for microbial fermentation, was formulated and tested. Another constraint to livestock production is the scarcity and fluctuation of quality and quantity of animal feed supply throughout the year. To overcome these problems, particularly in salt-affected wastelands, non-conventional and low-cost feed resources require evaluation. The present project attempts to introduce new management practices based on proven technologies for improvement of productivity and reproductive efficiency of livestock. Pilot farms were selected to evaluate the effects of UMMB feeding and various studies conducted on cattle and buffalo have shown its positive effects. Supplementation with UMMB resulted in improvements in intake of low quality roughages, digestibility, weight gain, milk production and resumption of post-partum oestrus. Supplementation of animals raised on low quality fodders with UMMB may be an alternative to other forms of supplementation especially when these become unavailable or too expensive. The cheapest source of nitrogen as well as of energy available has proved to be UMMB. The UMMB technology can also be utilized for the control of parasites in livestock through its potential as a carrier of anthelmintics, traditional herbal medicines and plants with anthelmintic properties. Effectiveness of medicated UMMB feed blocks to control gastrointestinal parasites in sheep and goat was tested. The medicated UMMB and conventional anthelmintics were both found to be highly effective but conventional therapies were thought to be most appropriate for application in most

  17. Antimicrobial ability and growth promoting effects of feed supplemented with probiotic bacterium isolated from gut microlfora of Cirrhinus mrigala

    Anita Bhatnagar; Ritu Lamba

    2015-01-01

    The present studies were conducted to isolate, select, identify and characterize gut bacteria as antimicrobial and growth promoting agent for the feed of economical y important ifsh Cirrhinus mrigala. Intestinal microlfora were isolated, counted, and identiifed, and their in vitro antibacterial properties were determined. The results have revealed that occurrence of Gram-negative rods was around 75%and of Gram-positive rods was 25%. Among the isolates Gram-positive were main-tained in nutrient agar slants at 4°C. Of these, eight strains were replica-plated on agar seeded with Aeromonas hydrophila and only one strain CM2 (C. mrigala 2) exhibited antibacterial properties in vitro showing inhibition against ifsh pathogen by wel diffusion assay. This isolated strain was identiifed as Bacil us cereus. This bacterium was mass cultured and incorpo-rated in the pel eted diet (40%protein and 18 kJ g–1 gross energy) of C. mrigala to investigate its effect on growth perfor-mance, digestibility, nutrient retention and activities of digestive enzymes. The results of feeding trial revealed signiifcantly (P<0.05) high growth performance in terms of speciifc growth rate, growth percent gain in body weight (BD) (272.4±1.5)%, high apparent protein digestibility ((79.9±0.30)%) and low food conversion ratio in the group of ifshes fed on diet containing B. cereus in comparison to the ifshes fed on diet without probiotics. The carcass composition also revealed high accumula-tion of proteins ((15.28±0.15) g 100 g–1) in ifshes fed on diet containing probiotics. Intestinal enzyme activities of protease, amylase and cel ulase were also signiifcantly (P<0.05) high in the group of ifshes fed on diet supplemented with probiotics indicating the extracel ular enzyme production by B. cereus. These results indicate that probiotics stimulate the digestion through the supply of digestive enzyme and certain essential nutrients to animals. Also signiifcantly (P<0.05) low excretion of

  18. Effect of n-3 fatty acid supplementation on blood glucose, lipid profile and cytokines in humans: A pilot study

    Raghu, B.; Venkatesan, P

    2008-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of n-3 fatty acid supplementation on blood glucose, lipid profile and cytokines in humans. Twenty adult healthy subjects were supplemented with 1g/day fish oil concentrate capsules for 2 weeks. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and again after 2 week intervention. Fish oil supplementation significantly lowered fasting serum concentrations of total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, very low density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein...

  19. Conversion of distiller's grain into fuel alcohol and a higher-value animal feed by dilute-acid pretreatment.

    Tucker, Melvin P; Nagle, Nicholas J; Jennings, Edward W; Ibsen, Kelly N; Aden, Andy; Nguyen, Quang A; Kim, Kyoung H; Noll, Sally L

    2004-01-01

    Over the past three decades ethanol production in the United States has increased more than 10-fold, to approx 2.9 billion gal/yr (mid-2003), with ethanol production expected to reach 5 billion gal/yr by 2005. The simultaneous coproduction of 7 million t/yr of distiller's grain (DG) may potentially drive down the price of DG as a cattle feed supplement. The sale of residual DG for animal feed is an important part of corn dry-grind ethanol production economics; therefore, dry-grind ethanol producers are seeking ways to improve the quality of DG to increase market penetration and help stabilize prices. One possible improvement is to increase the protein content of DG by converting the residual starch and fiber into ethanol. We have developed methods for steam explosion, SO2, and dilute-sulfuric acid pretreatment of DG for evaluation as a feedstock for ethanol production. The highest soluble sugar yields (approximately 77% of available carbohydrate) were obtained by pretreatment of DG at 140 degrees C for 20 min with 3.27 wt% H2SO4. Fermentation protocols for pretreated DG were developed at the bench scale and scaled to a working volume of 809 L for production of hydrolyzed distiller's grain (HDG) for feeding trials. The pretreated DG was fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae D5A, with ethanol yields of 73% of theoretical from available glucans. The HDG was air-dried and used for turkey-feeding trials. The inclusion of HDG into turkey poult (as a model non-ruminant animal) diets at 5 and 10% levels, replacing corn and soybean meal, showed weight gains in the birds similar to controls, whereas 15 and 20% inclusion levels showed slight decreases (-6%) in weight gain. At the conclusion of the trial, no negative effects on internal organs or morphology, and no mortality among the poults, was found. The high protein levels (58-61%) available in HDG show promising economics for incorporation of this process into corn dry-grind ethanol plants. PMID:15054259

  20. Impact of potato psyllid (Hemiptera: Triozidae) feeding on free amino acid composition in potato

    Xiang-Bing Yang; Nasir S. A. Malik; Jose L. Perez; Tong-Xian Liu

    2011-01-01

    The impacts of potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli) feeding on potato foliage on the free amino acids (FAAs) composition in potato leaf and tubers were determined under greenhouse conditions.The free amino acids in plant extracts were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography,and in both leaf and tuber samples,at least 17 FAAs were detected.Psyllid feeding significantly changed the levels of several FAAs in both leaf and tuber samples.The concentration of leucine increased 1.5-fold,whereas that of serine and proline increased 2- and 3-fold,respectively.In contrast,the concentrations of glutamic acid,aspartic acid and lyscine were significantly reduced by 42.0%,52.1% and 27.5%,respectively.There were also significant changes in the levels of FAAs in the Zebra chip (ZC) infected tubers compared with the healthy tubers,and the levels of six of the FAAs increased,and the levels of nine of the FAAs decreased.The results from this study indicate that potato psyllid causes major changes in free amino acid composition of plant tissues,and this change in plant metabolism may contribute to the plant stress as indicated by increased levels of proline in the leaves and hence promoting the development of plant diseases such as ZC disease.

  1. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation and white matter changes in major depression.

    Chhetry, Binod Thapa; Hezghia, Adrienne; Miller, Jeffrey M; Lee, Seonjoo; Rubin-Falcone, Harry; Cooper, Thomas B; Oquendo, Maria A; Mann, J John; Sublette, M Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    White matter abnormalities are implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD). As omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are low in MDD and affect myelination, we hypothesized that PUFA supplementation may alleviate depression through improving white matter integrity. Acutely depressed MDD patients (n = 16) and healthy volunteers (HV, n = 12) had 25-direction diffusion tensor imaging before and after 6 weeks of fish oil supplementation. Plasma phospholipid omega-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and omega-6 PUFA arachidonic acid (AA) levels were determined before and after supplementation using high-throughput extraction and gas chromatography and expressed as a percentage of total phospholipids (PUFA%). Fractional anisotropy (FA) was computed using a least-squares-fit diffusion tensor with non-linear optimization. Regression analyses were performed with changes in PUFA levels or Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores as predictors, voxel-wise difference maps of FA as outcome, covariates age and sex, with family-wise correction for multiple comparisons. Increases in plasma phospholipid DHA% (but not EPA% or AA%) after fish oil predicted increases in FA in MDD but not HV, in a cluster including genu and body of the corpus callosum, and anterior corona radiata and cingulum (cluster-level p depression severity predicted increased FA in left corticospinal tract and superior longitudinal fasciculus (cluster-level p depression severity after fish oil supplementation suggests therapeutic effects of omega-3 PUFAs may be related to improvements in white matter integrity. PMID:26802812

  2. Efficacy of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) supplement in management of constipation among nursing home residents

    Kim Jung; Kim Mi; Lee Do; Jang Seok; Baek Eun; An Hyang; Lee Kang; Park Jong; Ha Nam

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Constipation is a significant problem in the elderly, specifically nursing home and/or extended-care facility residents are reported to suffer from constipation. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as diarrhea and constipation effect. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of this LAB supplement in the management o...

  3. Memory and Motor Coordination Improvement by Folic Acid Supplementation in Healthy Adult Male Rats

    Shooshtari, Maryam Khombi; Moazedi, Ahmad Ali; Parham, Gholam Ali

    2012-01-01

    Objective(s) Previous studies have shown that vitamin B as well as folate supplementation has been implicated in cognitive and neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson's diseases. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of folic acid on passive avoidance task and motor coordination in healthy adult male rats. Materials and Methods Animals were randomly divided into five groups with 10 in each. 1) Sham treated (Veh); received same volume of normal saline as ...

  4. Coincidence of remission of postpartum Graves' disease and use of omega-3 fatty acid supplements

    Breese McCoy Sarah J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract I developed Graves' Disease four months postpartum. After one year on propylthiouracil, I learned that omega-3 fatty acids may reduce inflammation associated with certain autoimmune disorders, although no investigations for thyroiditis have been reported. Within eight weeks of beginning flaxseed oil supplements, TSH levels normalized, but fell somewhat when flaxseed was decreased and PTU discontinued. During another pregnancy, plasma TSH normalized, but was again suppressed by four w...

  5. Ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, and oregano supplements reduce stress-induced deterioration of chicken meat quality.

    Young, J F; Stagsted, J; Jensen, S K; Karlsson, A H; Henckel, P

    2003-08-01

    In order to ameliorate a negative effect of stress on meat quality characteristics, chickens were fed a diet supplemented with a combination of ascorbic acid (1,000 ppm) and alpha-tocopherol (200 ppm) or oregano (3%), which has a high content of antioxidants. Chickens were slaughtered by cervical dislocation in the stable (no stress) or after transport and electrical stunning at the slaughter plant (stress). Activities of antioxidative enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathion peroxidase) in pectoralis major (PM), iliotibialis (IL), and liver were unaffected by supplementation. However, erythrocyte stability, which is a more complex model system for determining oxidative status, increased with ascorbic acid-alpha-tocopherol supplementation and tended to increase after oregano supplementation. In nonstressed birds, this improved antioxidative status was reflected in decreased TBA-reactive substances (TBARS) in PM and liver of ascorbic acid-alpha-tocopherol-supplemented chickens and likewise in liver from oregano-supplemented chickens compared to that of nonstressed control birds. However, postmortem temperature, pH, and water-holding capacity were not affected by supplementation. Drip loss from oregano-supplemented chickens showed increased protein oxidation in specific bands, but this did not relate to water-holding capacity or antioxidative status. When exposed to stress, the concentration of TBARS in the control animals increased in PM and IL. Ascorbic acid-alpha-tocopherol supplementation protected IL, and oregano supplementation protected PM from stress-induced increases in TBARS. This differential effect between muscles may indicate differences in protection mechanisms. In conclusion, ascorbic acid-alpha-tocopherol and oregano supplements to chickens protect against stress-induced increase in TBARS, in different muscles. PMID:12943308

  6. Reduction of the crude protein content of diets supplemented with essential amino acids for piglets weighing 15 to 30 kilograms

    Juliana Beatriz Toledo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the reduction of crude protein (CP in diets supplemented with synthetic amino acids for piglets of 15 to 30 kg. In the performance assay (Exp I, 60 piglets with initial weight of 15.34±0.87 kg and final weight of 30.08±1.59 kg were distributed in a randomized block design with six replicates, five treatments and two animals per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of five diets in which the CP was reduced by 1.5 percentage points, resulting in low-protein diets (19.24, 17.74, 16.24, 14.74 and 13.24%, meeting the requirements of amino acids with inclusion of L-lysine, DL-methionine, L-threonine, L-tryptophan, L-valine and L-isoleucine. The average daily gain and feed conversion according to the Linear Response Plateau model (LRP were estimated at 14.23 and 14.79% of CP, respectively. As the CP levels were reduced, there was an increase in the essential:non-essential amino acids ratio. The plasma urea concentration decreased linearly, indicating that there was a better use for amino acids with the CP reduction. In the nitrogen balance (Exp II, 30 crossbred barrow piglets with average weight of 21.69±4.46 kg were housed in metabolic cages, distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments and six replicates, and the experimental unit consisted of a piglet. The biological protein value in the diets remained above the ideal (70%, in which the level of 13.24% CP corresponded to the highest value. There was no difference in levels of urea in blood and urine. Reduction of protein levels is efficient in decreasing the pollution effect in the excreta, with lower nitrogen excretion in feces and urine.

  7. Isolation of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Malaysian Non-Broiler Chicken (Gallus gallus Intestine with Potential Probiotic for Broiler Feeding

    Tengku Haziyamin Tengku Abdul Hamid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic supplement can function as substitute for antibiotics especially in the broiler chicken feeding which can form an integral part of organic farming. Broiler forms one of an important protein source in South East Asia. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are important inhabitants of animal intestine and are useful source of probiotic microorganisms. Non-broiler chicken could be an ideal source of probiotic microorganisms that can be utilized for large scale broiler feeding. Our studies have successfully identified, through morphological and biochemical tests, 11 LAB isolates from gastrointestinal tract of local non-broiler chicken (Gallus gallus. These isolates have the ability to utilize lactose as part of their metabolism process and all showed negative reactions on catalase test. Out of the eleven (11 isolates, three (3 isolates were Gram-positive cocci and remaining isolates were of Gram-positive bacilli. Three isolates (E4, E11 and E17 showed at least 10 mm inhibitory effects on disc diffusion test against pathogenic bacteria Salmonella typhimurium. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that one isolate (E17 has 89% similarity with Lactobacillus rhamnosus. These LAB strains isolated from Malaysian domestic non-broiler chicken gastrointestinal tract can potentially be used as a component for probiotics formulation in poultry feeding.ABSTRAK: Makanan tambahan probiotik boleh berfungsi sebagai pengganti antibiotik terutamanya dalam pemakanan ayam pedaging yang akan membentuk bahagian kamiran dalam penternakan organik. Ayam pedaging merupakan sumber protein penting di Asia Tenggara. Bakteria asid laktik (lactic acid bacteria (LAB merupakan penghuni penting dalam usus haiwan dan merupakan sumber penting dalam mikroorganisma probiotik. Ayam bukan pedaging sesuai dijadikan sumber mikroorganisma probiotik agar dapat digunakan sebagai pemakanan ayam pedaging secara besar-besaran. Kajian telah berjaya mengenal pasti, melalui kaedah morfologi dan

  8. Conjugated linoleic acid and calcium co-supplementation improves bone health in ovariectomised mice.

    Park, Yooheon; Kim, Jonggun; Scrimgeour, Angus G; Condlin, Michelle L; Kim, Daeyoung; Park, Yeonhwa

    2013-09-01

    Osteoporosis is a significant health concern for the elderly; conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to improve overall bone mass when calcium is included as a co-supplement. However, potential effects of CLA and calcium on bone mass during a period of bone loss have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine how dietary calcium modulates the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in preventing bone loss, using an ovariectomised mouse model. CLA supplementation significantly prevented ovariectomy-associated weight and fat mass gain, compared to non-supplemented controls. CLA significantly increased bone markers without major changes in bone mineral composition in the femur compared to respective controls. CLA treatment increased serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) significantly (p=0.0172), while serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 concentration was not changed by CLA. Meanwhile, CLA significantly reduced femur tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity, suggesting potential reduction of osteoclastogenesis. The data suggest that CLA, along with dietary calcium, has great potential to be used to prevent bone loss and weight gain associated with menopause. PMID:23578644

  9. Effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil supplementation on feed intake, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen utilization of goats.

    Chanjula, Pin; Pongprayoon, Sahutaya; Kongpan, Sirichai; Cherdthong, Anusorn

    2016-06-01

    This experiment was evaluation of the effects of increasing concentrations of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil (CGWVO) in diets on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen balance of goats. Four crossbred male (Thai Native × Anglo Nubian) goats, with an average initial body weight (BW) of 31.5 ± 1.90 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments contained 0, 2, 4, and 6 % of dietary dry matter (DM) of CGWVO. Based on this experiment, there were significantly different (P > 0.05) among treatment groups regarding DM intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients (DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, and ADF), which goats receiving 6 % of CGWVO had lower daily DMI and nutrient intake than those fed on 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO. Ruminal pH, NH3-N, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration were unchanged by dietary treatments, except that for 6 % of CGWVO supplementation, NH3-N, and BUN were lower (P absorption and retention were similar among treatments, except that for 6 % of CGWVO which N absorption was lower (P < 0.05) than among treatments while the difference between the diets 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO were not significant. Based on this study, CGWVO levels up to 4 % in total mixed ration could be efficiently utilized for goats. This study was a good approach in exploiting the use of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil for goat production. PMID:27026232

  10. Effects of Prepartum Dietary Energy Level and Nicotinic Acid Supplementation on Immunological, Hematological and Biochemical Parameters of Periparturient Dairy Cows Differing in Parity

    Reka Tienken

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The periparturient period is critical according to health, productivity and profitability. As this period is fundamental for the success of the lactation period, the interest in improving periparturient health by dietary supplements increased in recent years. The present study investigated the effects of feeding nicotinic acid (NA combined with varying dietary energy densities on immunological, hematological and biochemical parameters of periparturient cows differing in parity. Thirty-six multiparous and 20 primiparous dairy cows were enrolled in the study 42 days before expected parturition date until 100 days postpartum with the half of the cows being supplemented with 24 g of NA/d. After parturition a diet with 30% concentrate was fed to all cows which was followed by different concentrate escalation strategies. Dietary NA supplementation was ceased on day 24 postpartum. Dietary NA increased (P = 0.010 serum nicotinamide concentrations (mean of 3.35 ± 1.65 µg/mL, whereas NA could not be detected. Present data emphasize that periparturient cows are faced with major physiological challenges and that both parity-groups have different prerequisites to adapt to those changes irrespective of NA supplementation. The overfeeding of energy to cows which were similar in body condition score had only minor effects on periparturient immune system function and the metabolism of those cows.

  11. Development and field evaluation of animal feed supplementation packages. Proceedings of the final review meeting of an IAEA Technical Co-operation Regional AFRA Project

    Inadequate nutrition is one of the major constraints limiting livestock production in African countries. The ruminants in the smallholder sector depend on natural pasture and fibrous crop residues for their survival, growth, reproduction and production. Since quality and quantity of the natural pasture vary with season, animals dependent on it are subjected to nutritional stress in the dry season when feed resources are senesced and in short supply leading to decreased animal productivity. The main objective of the IAEA Technical Co-operation Regional AFRA Project 11-17 (RAF/5/041) was the improvement of ruminant livestock production in AFRA Member States. It had two main components: (a) the development and dissemination of cost-effective and sustainable feed supplementation packages which are based on locally available feed resources; and (b) establishment of the 'Self-coating Radioimmunoassay' technique for measuring progesterone in the milk and blood of ruminants. The project has developed a number of feed supplementation packages using feed resources available on-farm and by-products from agro-industrial processes. The packages involve the use of multi-nutrient blocks containing molasses and urea or poultry litter, ensilage of fibrous crop residues with poultry litter, leguminous fodder, mineral blocks etc. These packages have been evaluated on-station and on-farm to assess their potential to enhance productivity of ruminants. The cost-benefit ratio for feeding supplementation packages has been established. As a result of their use, income of the farmers has been shown to increase substantially. Needless to say, the scientists, agricultural extension officers, policy makers and the governments must work hand-in-hand to capitalize on this and ensure wider application and extension of the packages, and develop strategies for sustaining them. Radioimmunoassay for progesterone has been used in this project mainly for the assessment of ovarian activity in order to

  12. Keto analogue and amino acid supplementation and its effects on ammonemia and performance under thermoneutral conditions.

    Camerino, Saulo Rodrigo Alves e Silva; Lima, Rafaela Carvalho Pereira; França, Thássia Casado Lima; Herculano, Edla de Azevedo; Rodrigues, Daniela Souza Araújo; Gouveia, Marcos Guilherme de Sousa; Cameron, L C; Prado, Eduardo Seixas

    2016-02-01

    Alterations of cerebral function, fatigue and disturbance in cognitive-motor performance can be caused by hyperammonemia and/or hot environmental conditions during exercise. Exercise-induced hyperammonemia can be reduced through supplementation with either amino acids or combined keto analogues and amino acids (KAAA) to improve exercise tolerance. In the present study, we evaluated KAAA supplementation on ammonia metabolism and cognitive-motor performance after high-intensity exercise under a low heat stress environment. Sixteen male cyclists received a ketogenic diet for 2 d and were divided into two groups, KAAA (KEx) or placebo (CEx) supplementation. The athletes performed a 2 h cycling session followed by a maximum test (MAX), and blood samples were obtained at rest and during exercise. Cognitive-motor tasks were performed before and after the protocol, and the exhaustion time was used to evaluate physical performance. The hydration status was also evaluated. The CEx group showed a significant increase (∼ 70%) in ammonia concentration at MAX, which did not change in the KEx group. The non-supplemented group showed a significant increase in uremia. Both the groups had a significant increase in blood urate concentrations at 120 min, and an early significant increase from 120 min was observed in the CEx group. There was no change in the glucose concentrations of the two groups. A significant increase in lactate was observed at the MAX moment in both groups. There was no significant difference in the exhaustion times between the groups. No changes were observed in the cognitive-motor tasks after the protocol. We suggest that KAAA supplementation decreases ammonia concentration during high-intensity exercise but does not affect physical or cognitive-motor performances under a low heat stress environment. PMID:26679329

  13. Folic acid supplementation attenuates hyperhomocysteinemia-induced preeclampsia-like symptoms in rats

    Jun Wang; Yan Cui; Jing Ge; Meijing Ma

    2012-01-01

    Folic acid participates in the metabolism of homocysteine and lowers plasma homocysteine levels directly or indirectly. To establish a hyperhomocysteinemic pregnant rat model, 2 mL of DL-homocysteine was administered daily by intraperitoneal injection at a dose of 200 mg/kg from day 10 to day 19 of gestation. Folic acid was administered by intragastric administration at a dose of 20 mg/kg during the period of preeclampsia induction. Results showed that systolic blood pressure, proteinuria/creatinine ratio, and plasma homocysteine levels in the hyperhomocysteinemic pregnant rats increased significantly, and that body weight and brain weight of rat pups significantly decreased. Folic acid supplementation markedly reversed the above-mentioned abnormal changes of hyperhomocysteinemic pregnant rats and rat pups. These findings suggest that folic acid can alleviate the symptoms of hyperhomocysteinemia- induced preeclampsia in pregnant rats without influencing brain development of rat pups.

  14. Folic acid supplementation in early pregnancy and asthma in children aged six

    MARTINUSSEN, Marit P.; RISNES, Kari R.; JACOBSEN, Geir W.; BRACKEN, Michael B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess whether folic acid intake during the first trimester of pregnancy is related to asthma in the offspring by the age of 6 years. Study design Prospective cohort study of 1,499 women who were followed from first trimester of pregnancy. Their children were followed until they were 6 years old. Results 51% of the women used folic acid in the month before conception and 88% in the third month of pregnancy. The adjusted OR per 100 microgram increase in average daily intake of folic acid was 0.98 (95% CI:0.93-1.04). For categories of daily folate intake, there was no evidence of associations with childhood asthma nor evidence of any dose response relation for any time period (all ptrend>0.05) Conclusion Our results do not support any association of folic acid supplementation in pregnancy and asthma risk in offspring by age 6 years. PMID:21982024

  15. Evaluation of Rice Bran and Wheat Bran as Supplemental Feed Compared to a Commercial Feed for Monoculture of GIFT Strain of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Bangladesh

    Hossain, Md. Sakhawat; HOSSAIN Md. Arshad; MAMUN Md. Abdullah-Al; ALI Md. Zulfikar; BULBUL Mahbuba; Koshio, Shunsuke; Kader, Md. Abdul; コシオ, シュンスケ; 越塩, 俊介

    2011-01-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of rice bran and wheat bran as supplementary feed in comparison to a commercial feed for monoculture of GIFT strain of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Four experimental diets such as commercial tilapia diet, rice bran, wheat bran, and a mixture of rice bran and wheat bran (50:50) were assigned to four treatments designated as T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively. Triplicate groups of fish (initial mean weight 2.80 g) were delivered the test diet...

  16. The Effect of Carnitine Supplementation on Hyperammonemia and Carnitine Deficiency Treated with Valproic Acid in a Psychiatric Setting

    Nakamura, Masaru; Nagamine, Takahiko

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of levocarnitine (active isoform of carnitine, L-Carnitine) supplementation on serum ammonia and carnitine levels simultaneously, and their clinical outcomes in valproic acid-treated psychiatric subjects.

  17. Algae in fish feed: performances and fatty acid metabolism in juvenile Atlantic Salmon.

    Fernando Norambuena

    Full Text Available Algae are at the base of the aquatic food chain, producing the food resources that fish are adapted to consume. Previous studies have proven that the inclusion of small amounts (<10% of the diet of algae in fish feed (aquafeed resulted in positive effects in growth performance and feed utilisation efficiency. Marine algae have also been shown to possess functional activities, helping in the mediation of lipid metabolism, and therefore are increasingly studied in human and animal nutrition. The aim of this study was to assess the potentials of two commercially available algae derived products (dry algae meal, Verdemin (derived from Ulva ohnoi and Rosamin (derived from diatom Entomoneis spp. for their possible inclusion into diet of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar. Fish performances, feed efficiency, lipid metabolism and final product quality were assessed to investigated the potential of the two algae products (in isolation at two inclusion levels, 2.5% and 5%, or in combination, in experimental diets specifically formulated with low fish meal and fish oil content. The results indicate that inclusion of algae product Verdemin and Rosamin at level of 2.5 and 5.0% did not cause any major positive, nor negative, effect in Atlantic Salmon growth and feed efficiency. An increase in the omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA content in whole body of fish fed 5% Rosamin was observed.

  18. Nutrient acquisition across a dietary shift: fruit feeding butterflies crave amino acids, nectivores seek salt.

    Ravenscraft, Alison; Boggs, Carol L

    2016-05-01

    Evolutionary dietary shifts have major ecological consequences. One likely consequence is a change in nutrient limitation-some nutrients become more abundant in the diet, others become more scarce. Individuals' behavior should change accordingly to match this new limitation regime: they should seek out nutrients that are deficient in the new diet. We investigated the relationship between diet and responses to nutrients using adult Costa Rican butterflies with contrasting feeding habits, testing the hypothesis that animals will respond more positively to nutrients that are scarcer in their diets. Via literature searches and our own data, we showed that nitrogen and sodium are both at lower concentration in nectar than in fruit. We therefore assessed butterflies' acceptance of sodium and four nitrogenous compounds that ranged in complexity from inorganic nitrogen (ammonium chloride) to protein (albumin). We captured wild butterflies, offered them aqueous solutions of each substance, and recorded whether they accepted (drank) or rejected each substance. Support for our hypothesis was mixed. Across the sexes, frugivores were four times more likely to accept amino acids (hydrolyzed casein) than nectivores, in opposition to expectation. In males, nectivores accepted sodium almost three times more frequently than frugivores, supporting expectations. Together, these results suggest that in butterflies, becoming frugivorous is associated with an increased receptivity to amino acids and decreased receptivity to sodium. Nectivory and frugivory are widespread feeding strategies in organisms as diverse as insects, birds, and bats; our results suggest that these feeding strategies may put different pressures on how animals fulfill their nutritional requirements. PMID:26267402

  19. The effect of grape seed extract and vitamin C feed supplementation on some blood parameters and HSP70 gene expression of broiler chickens suffering from chronic heat stress

    Hosna Hajati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, the effect of hydroalcoholic grape seed extract (GSE and vitamin C feed supplementation on some blood parameters and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70 gene expression of broiler chickens suffering from chronic heat stress was investigated. Experimental diets included control diet (with no additive, 3 levels of GSE (150, 300, 450 mg/kg, and one level of vitamin C (300 mg/kg. Each diet was fed to 5 replicates of 12 male chicks each, from d 1 to 42. The birds suffered from chronic daily heat stress under 34±1°C temperature with 65 to 70% relative humidity for 5 h from 29 to 42 d of age. Results showed that 300 mg/kg GSE supplementation increased body weight of broilers both before and after heat stress condition (at 28 and 42 d, respectively. Also, birds fed 300 mg GSE/kg diet had higher European production efficiency factor during the whole period of the experiment. Supplementation of GSE decreased the concentration of serum glucose at 28 and 42 d; at 42 d (during heat stress condition and at 450 mg/kg diet it decreased cholesterol, triglyceride, lowand very low density lipoprotein concentration of serum blood. Vitamin C supplementation decreased serum cholesterol concentration of broilers suffering from heat stress. HSP70 gene expression in heart and liver of broilers reduced by GSE and vitamin C supplementation pre- and during chronic heat stress condition.

  20. Docosahexaenoic Acid supplementation, vascular function and risk factors for cardiovascular disease: a randomized controlled trial in young adults

    Singhal, A.; Lanigan, J; Storry, C.; Low, S.; Birbara, T.; Lucas, A; Deanfield, J

    2013-01-01

    Background A high consumption of omega‐3 long‐chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, and particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has been suggested to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, while DHA supplementation may have benefits for secondary prevention, few studies have investigated the role of DHA in the primary prevention of CVD. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DHA supplementation improves endothelial function and risk factors for CVD. Methods and Results Healthy v...

  1. Evaluation of urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks as a feed supplement for cattle production and as a carrier for anthelmintic medication in Myanmar

    Dairy and beef production in Myanmar is expanding, due to increasing demands from a growing population but animal productivity, is often low due to inadequate nutritional resources. The benefits of feeding different formulations of urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks (UMMB) to dairy and beef cattle were investigated before attempting to transfer this feed supplementation technology to farmers. Several studies indicated that supplementation with UMMB resulted in increased milk production, improved live-weight gain and intake of the available feeds, Supplementation with UMMB was cost effective with a cost : benefit ratio of more than 1 : 2. In addition, supplementation with UMMB resulted in a substantial reduction in the calving to first service interval, calving to conception interval and the number of services per conception. The time to first oestrus for dairy heifers was also reduced. UMMB will, therefore, have a substantial impact on dairy and beef cattle production once this technology is passed on to farmers. Infection with gastrointestinal nematode parasites is frequently a problem in cattle production in tropical areas where commercial anthelmintics are not often used due to their high cost and/or unavailability. Three local herbal remedies, leaves of Ananas comosus, Momordica charantia and Anona squamosa were assessed for their anthelmintic efficacy. All three plants reduced faecal worm egg counts of infected cattle after weekly bolus doses for at least two weeks. Comparison of bolus doses with A. comosus or M. charantia with albendazole showed similar levels of efficacy (94%) in reducing faecal worm egg counts. Assessment of these plants after inclusion in UMMB showed similar efficacy (>79%) to UMMB containing fenbendazole (89%) and suggests further work be conducted to confirm dose rates and benefits of treatment before introduction for on-farm application. (author)

  2. The potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of sea bass, Lates calcarifer

    Erlinda S. Ganzon-Naret

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted for 12 weeks to evaluate the potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with dietary microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of juvenile sea bass, Lates calcarifer. Fifteen sea bass juveniles (mean initial weight of 0.96 g and mean initial total length (TL of 4.2 cm were stocked at three replicates into each of the twelve 100 L conical fibreglass tanks containing 90 L sea water in a closed recirculating system with filtered and aerated sea water. Four isonitrogenous, isolipidic and isocaloric experimental diets were formulated. The control diet (C0 contained fish meal, soybean meal, shrimp meal and squid meal as major protein sources. Legume seed meals of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, yellow mungbeans (Phaseolus aureus, and green mungbeans (Vigna radiata were incorporated in the practical diets D1, D2 and D3 respectively at 18-20% replacing an equivalent amount of 6-7g fish meal protein and supplemented with microbial phytase at the level of 300U kg-1 diet. Growth rate, feed conversion ratio (FCR, protein efficiency ratio (PER and apparent net protein utilization (ANPU of sea bass were significantly (P < 0.05 higher in control diet than those given different legume based diets supplemented with phytase. Histological examination of the liver tissues for the different dietary treatments did not manifest any abnormalities. Phytase supplementation also improved bone ash, phosphorus (P concentration as well as P content in the carcass for fish in legume fed groups. Results from the present study showed that incorporation of dietary microbial phytase in legume based diets slightly improve the growth performance and P availability in sea bass juveniles.

  3. The potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of sea bass, Lates calcarifer

    Erlinda S. Ganzon-Naret

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A feeding trial was conducted for 12 weeks to evaluate the potential use of legume-based diets supplemented with dietary microbial phytase on the growth performance and feed efficiency of juvenile sea bass, Lates calcarifer. Fifteen sea bass juveniles (mean initial weight of 0.96 g and mean initial total length (TL of 4.2 cm were stocked at three replicates into each of the twelve 100 L conical fibreglass tanks containing 90 L sea water in a closed recirculating system with filtered and aerated sea water. Four isonitrogenous, isolipidic and isocaloric experimental diets were formulated. The control diet (C0 contained fish meal, soybean meal, shrimp meal and squid meal as major protein sources. Legume seed meals of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, yellow mungbeans ((Phaseolus aureus,and green mungbeans ((Vigna radiata were incorporated in the practical diets D1, D2 and D3 respectively at 18-20% replacing an equivalent amount of 6-7g fish meal protein and supplemented with microbial phytase at the level of 300U kg-1 diet. Growth rate, feed conversion ratio (FCR, protein efficiency ratio (PER and apparent net protein utilization (ANPU of sea bass were significantly (P < 0.05 higher in control diet than those given different legume based diets supplemented with phytase. Histological examination of the liver tissues for the different dietary treatments did not manifest any abnormalities. Phytase supplementation also improved bone ash, phosphorus (P concentration as well as P content in the carcass for fish in legume fed groups. Results from the present study showed that incorporation of dietary microbial phytase in legume based diets slightly improve the growth performance and P availability in sea bass juveniles.

  4. Insulin secretion after dietary supplementation with conjugated linoleic acids and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in normal and insulin-resistant mice.

    Sörhede Winzell, Maria; Pacini, Giovanni; Ahrén, Bo

    2006-01-01

    Insulin secretion after dietary supplementation with conjugated linoleic acids and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in normal and insulin-resistance mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 290: E347-E354, 2006. First published September 27, 2005; doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00163.2005.-Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) improve insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant rodents. However, the effects of these fatty acids on insulin secretion are not known but are of ...

  5. Oral conjugated linoleic acid supplementation enhanced glycogen resynthesis in exercised human skeletal muscle.

    Tsao, Jung-Piao; Liao, Su-Fen; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Hou, Chien-Wen; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Wang, Hsueh-Fang; Cheng, I-Shiung

    2015-01-01

    Present study examined the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation on glycogen resynthesis in exercised human skeletal muscle. Twelve male participants completed a cross-over trial with CLA (3.8 g/day for 8 week) or placebo supplements by separation of 8 weeks. CLA is a mixture of trans-10 cis-12 and cis-9 trans-11 isomers (50:50). On experiment day, all participants performed 60-min cycling exercise at 75% VO2 max, then consumed a carbohydrate meal immediately after exercise and recovered for 3 h. Biopsied muscle samples from vastus lateralis were obtained immediately (0 h) and 3 h following exercise. Simultaneously, blood and gaseous samples were collected for every 30 min during 3-h recovery. Results showed significantly increased muscle glycogen content with CLA after a single bout of exercise (P Gaseous exchange data showed no beneficial effect of CLA on fat oxidation, instead lower non-esterified fatty acid and glycerol levels were found at 0 h. Our findings conclude that CLA supplementation can enhance the glycogen resynthesis rate in exercised human skeletal muscle. PMID:25385360

  6. The impact of chosen oils seeds and food oils to supplementation of last fattening pig period on fatty acids structure in pig muscle fat

    Bohuslav Čermák

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acids profile in broilers feed is possible to influence their share in a desired structure, which can balance the n-6: n-3 ratio in food, according to the consumers needs. Flax seed to lactating goats can be used as nutritional supplement to reduce saturated fatty acids  and increase polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk. A significant increase in CLA in milk was achieved  by suplementation to  goats. The experimental groups of pigs was fed in the last month of fattening with a basal diet which incorporated various fats resources (lean seed 100 g/ kg, linseed oil-2%, raps press seed 150g/kg (110g fat, raps oil 2%. The indicators (food intake, body weight gain, and the conversion were established during the experiment, and in the end, the content of essential fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic acids in pigs meat were determined. The data was analyzed and statistically interpreted. There are some variations of the determined fatty acids content in muscles as well as in muscles fat in the for experimental groups compared to the control group. The content of SFA was reduced and the content of PUFA and MUFA fatty acids are increased. 

  7. Retinol and Riboflavin Supplementation Decreases the Prevalence of Anemia in Chinese Pregnant Women Taking Iron and Folic Acid Supplements 1-3

    Aiguo, M.; Schouten, E.G.; Zhang, F.Z.; Kok, F.J.; Yang, F.; Jiang, D.C.; Sun, Y.Y.; Han, X.X.

    2008-01-01

    In rural China, many pregnant women in their third trimester suffer from anemia (48%) and iron deficiency (ID; 42%), often with coexisting deficiencies of retinol and riboflavin. We investigated the effect of retinol and riboflavin supplementation in addition to iron plus folic acid on anemia and su

  8. Effect of high rape cake content supplemented in enzymes on the nutritional value of a broiler diet and intestinal lactic acid bacteria number

    Banaszkiewicz Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The studies were designed to determine an effect of partial replacement of soybean meal with rape cake supplemented with enzymes on the nutritional value of diets and the number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB in the ileum and caecum of broilers. The experiment 1 (growth trial was carried out on 120 one-day-old broiler chickens Ross 308 which were randomly divided into four homogenous groups, 30 birds per group (15 males and 15 females. Each treatment consisted of six replicates of 5 birds. A control diet contained soybean meal whereas in the experimental, a part of the soybean meal was replaced by 15% rape cake from the Kaszub cultivar and supplemented with enzyme preparations containing xylanase or phytase added individually or in combination. On the 21st day of experiment six birds from each group were scarified and the ileum and caeca were isolated for lactic acid bacteria (LAB determination. The experiment 2 (digestibility trial was carried out on 60 sevenday-old chickens divided into four treatments of 20 birds (4 replications of 5 birds to determine nutrient digestibility of diets used in the growth trial. The digestibility test was carried out by the total collection method. The inclusion of 15 % rape cake instead of soybean meal and the addition of enzyme preparations did not decrease body weight gain and feed intake. The feed conversion ratio (FCR was higher in the group fed the diet in which phytase was added separately. A simultaneous application of xylanase and phytase statistically (P<0.05 increased the digestibility of crude fibre and N-free extracts. The lactic acid bacteria number was the highest in the caecum and ileum of birds fed the diet containing the xylanase preparation, whereas xylanase and phytase preparations added in combination had no effect on lactic acid bacteria number.

  9. EFFECT OF FEED PROCESSING ON VOLATILE FATTY ACID PRODUCTION RATES MEASURED WITH 13 C-ACETATE IN GRAZING LACTATING DAIRY COWS

    Róbert Tóthi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of processed cereal grain supplementation on volatile fatty acid (VFA production rates of grazing, lactating Holstein-Friesian cows were measured in a 5x5 Latin square experiment. The experimental treatments were as follows: control (only grazing, no supplement addition, NS, pelleted barley (PB, pelleted maize (PM, toasted and subsequently pelleted barley (TPB, and toasted and subsequently pelleted maize (TPM as supplements. An isotope dilution technique using stable isotope of carbon (13C as an internalmarker was employed for the estimation of VFA production. At the beginning of a 3-hour long allowed grazing time, 100 mg of 99% enriched 13C2 Na-acetate were introduced in the rumen and repeated after grazing with 50 mg isotope, after which the cows were starved for 6 hours until evening milking. During grazing disappearance rate (kdis and production rate (kprod of acetate, propionate and butyrate were significantly higher (P≤0.05 in supplemented than in NS cows. Moreover the effec t of barley grain and pelleting treatment was higher than the effect of maize grain and toasting. During starvation significantly higher (P≤0.05 kdis and kprod of VFAs were observed in PM and TPM treatments. Total VFA production for the experimental period (grazing + starvation were 49.5, 78.7, 69.9, 88.5, 80.8 mol/day for NS, PB, TPB, PM and TPM, respectively. The higher VFA productions measured in supplemented animals emphasis the extensive digestion that occurs in the rumen after feeding processed grains. In methodological terms, 13C2 Naacetate labelling appears to be a useful means for examining the VFA acetate production in ruminants.

  10. THE EFFECT OF OMEGA-3 FATTY ACID SUPPLEMENTATION ON THE INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE TO ECCENTRIC STRENGTH EXERCISE

    Kelly B. Jouris

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3 have anti-inflammatory properties. However, it is not known if omega-3 supplementation attenuates exercise-induced inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that omega-3 supplementation reduces inflammation that is induced by eccentric arm curl exercise. Healthy adult men and women (n=11; 35 ± 10 y performed eccentric biceps curls on two occasions, once after 14d of dietary omega-3 restriction (control trial and again after 7d of 3,000 mg/d omega-3 supplementation (omega-3 trial. Before and 48 h after eccentric exercise, signs of inflammation was assessed by measuring soreness ratings, swelling (arm circumference and arm volume, and temperature (infrared skin sensor. Arm soreness increased (p < 0.0001 in response to eccentric exercise; the magnitude of increase in soreness was 15% less in the omega-3 trial (p = 0.004. Arm circumference increased after eccentric exercise in the control trial (p = 0.01 but not in the omega-3 trial (p = 0.15. However, there was no difference between trials (p = 0.45. Arm volume and skin temperature did not change in response to eccentric exercise in either trial. These findings suggest that omega-3 supplementation decreases soreness, as a marker of inflammation, after eccentric exercise. Based on these findings, omega-3 supplementation could provide benefits by minimizing post-exercise soreness and thereby facilitate exercise training in individuals ranging from athletes undergoing heavy conditioning to sedentary subjects or patients who are starting exercise programs or medical treatments such as physical therapy or cardiac rehabilitation

  11. The effect of ascorbic acid supplementation on endosulfan toxicity in rabbits.

    Ozdem, Sebahat; Nacitarhan, Cahit; Gulay, Mehmet S; Hatipoglu, Fatma S; Ozdem, Sadi S

    2011-06-01

    We investigated the endosulfan-induced alterations and the effect of vitamin C supplementation on endosulfan-induced alterations in serum biochemical markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity in rabbits. Basal, 4th and 6th week serum levels of total oxidant status (TOS), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total protein sulfhydryl (T-SH) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were measured in rabbits administered endosulfan (1 mg/kg) alone or in combination with vitamin C (20 mg/kg) for 6 weeks. Control rabbits received either vehicles or vitamin C. Serum TOS, TBARS and AOPP levels at 4th and 6th week were significantly higher whereas T-SH levels were significantly lower than basal values in endosulfan-administered rabbits. GST increased significantly at 4th week but decreased below basal value at 6th week. Similarly, TAC decreased significantly at 6th week. Vitamin C supplementation increased TAC at 4th and 6th weeks in controls and increased T-SH and GST and decreased TOS, TBARS and AOPP at 4th week in endosulfan-administered rabbits. TAC increased significantly at 6th week by vitamin C supplementation in endosulfan-administered rabbits. There were significant increments in TBARS and decrements in TAC and GST levels at 6th week compared to 4th week in endosulfan-administered rabbits. Present findings indicated to an increased and progressively uncompensated oxidant stress in endosulfan-administered rabbits that was substantially ameliorated by vitamin C supplementation through an improvement in antioxidant capacity. It was suggested that vitamin C supplementation might be helpful in preventing the detrimental effects of increased oxidative stress caused by endosulfan exposure. PMID:21245203

  12. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation enhances hippocampal functionality in aged mice

    Debora eCutuli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available As major components of neuronal membranes, omega-3 polyunsaturated acids (n-3 PUFA exhibit a wide range of regulatory functions, modulating from synaptic plasticity to neuroinflammation, from oxidative stress to neuroprotection. Recent human and animal studies indicated the n-3 PUFA neuroprotective properties in aging, with a clear negative correlation between n-3 PUFA levels and hippocampal deficits. The present multidimensional study was aimed at associating cognition, hippocampal neurogenesis, volume, neurodegeneration and metabolic correlates to verify n-3 PUFA neuroprotective effects in aging. To this aim 19 month-old mice were given n-3 PUFA mixture, or olive oil or no dietary supplement for 8 weeks during which hippocampal-dependent mnesic functions were tested. At the end of behavioral testing morphological and metabolic correlates were analyzed. n-3 PUFA supplemented aged mice exhibited better object recognition memory, spatial and localizatory memory, and aversive response retention, without modifications in anxiety levels in comparison to controls. These improved hippocampal cognitive functions occurred in the context of an enhanced cellular plasticity and a reduced neurodegeneration. In fact, n-3 PUFA supplementation increased hippocampal neurogenesis and dendritic arborization of newborn neurons, volume, neuronal density and microglial cell number, while it decreased apoptosis, astrocytosis and lipofuscin accumulation in the hippocampus. The increased levels of some metabolic correlates (blood Acetyl-L-Carnitine and brain n-3 PUFA concentrations found in n-3 PUFA supplemented mice also pointed towards an effective neuroprotection.On the basis of the present results n-3 PUFA supplementation appears to be a useful tool in health promotion and cognitive decline prevention during aging.

  13. Lithocholic acid feeding induces segmental bile duct obstruction and destructive cholangitis in mice.

    Fickert, Peter; Fuchsbichler, Andrea; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Wagner, Martin; Zollner, Gernot; Krause, Robert; Zatloukal, Kurt; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Denk, Helmut; Trauner, Michael

    2006-02-01

    We determined the mechanisms of hepatobiliary injury in the lithocholic acid (LCA)-fed mouse, an increasingly used model of cholestatic liver injury. Swiss albino mice received control diet or 1% (w/w) LCA diet (for 1, 2, and 4 days), followed by assessment of liver morphology and ultrastructure, tight junctions, markers of fibrosis and key proteins of hepatobiliary function, and bile flow and composition. As expected LCA feeding led to bile infarcts, which were followed by a destructive cholangitis with activation and proliferation of periductal myofibroblasts. At the ultrastructural level, small bile ducts were frequently obstructed by crystals. Biliary-excreted fluorescence-labeled ursodeoxycholic acid accumulated in bile infarcts, whereas most infarcts did not stain with India ink injected into the common bile duct; both findings are indicative of partial biliary obstruction. Expression of the main basolateral bile acid uptake proteins (sodium-taurocholate cotransporter and organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1) was reduced, the canalicular transporters bile salt export pump and multidrug-related protein 2 were preserved, and the basolateral transporter multidrug-related protein 3 and the detoxifying enzyme sulfotransferase 2a1 were induced. Thus, we demonstrate that LCA feeding in mice leads to segmental bile duct obstruction, destructive cholangitis, periductal fibrosis, and an adaptive transporter and metabolic enzyme response. PMID:16436656

  14. Salmonella fecal excretion control in broiler chickens by organic acids and essential oils blend feed added

    A Borsoi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Salmonellosis is an important disease with economic impact as it may affect animal performance and may result in foodborne disease in humans through the eggs and carcass contamination. Regarding the Salmonella control, it is possible to decrease its fecal excretion and the contamination of chicken carcasses by adding organic acids to the feed or drinking water at appropriate times. The aim of this study was to test a blend of organic acids and essential oils in broilers challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis (SE, and to verify the fecal excretion of Salmonella. Sixty broilers were placed in four groups. One group was the negative control. Another group was orally inoculated at 1 day-old with 10(5 CFU/mL of SE as a positive SE control. Two groups (T3 and T4 were orally inoculated at 1 day-old with 10(5 CFU/mL of SE and their feed was separately treated with 0.5 and 1% of organic acids and essential oils, respectively. To assess the fecal excretion of SE, cloacal swabs were collected from all birds at 2, 6, 13 and 20 days after inoculation. The T3 and T4 groups showed a reduction in fecal excretion of SE at 6 and 20 days after inoculation.

  15. Folic acid supplementation before and during pregnancy in the Newborn Epigenetics STudy (NEST

    Kurtzberg Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Folic acid (FA added to foods during fortification is 70-85% bioavailable compared to 50% of folate occurring naturally in foods. Thus, if FA supplements also are taken during pregnancy, both mother and fetus can be exposed to FA exceeding the Institute of Medicine's recommended tolerable upper limit (TUL of 1,000 micrograms per day (μg/d for adult pregnant women. The primary objective is to estimate the proportion of women taking folic acid (FA doses exceeding the TUL before and during pregnancy, and to identify correlates of high FA use. Methods During 2005-2008, pre-pregnancy and pregnancy-related data on dietary supplementation were obtained by interviewing 539 pregnant women enrolled at two obstetrics-care facilities in Durham County, North Carolina. Results Before pregnancy, 51% of women reported FA supplementation and 66% reported this supplementation during pregnancy. Before pregnancy, 11.9% (95% CI = 9.2%-14.6% of women reported supplementation with FA doses above the TUL of 1,000 μg/day, and a similar proportion reported this intake prenatally. Before pregnancy, Caucasian women were more likely to take FA doses above the TUL (OR = 2.99; 95% = 1.28-7.00, compared to African American women, while women with chronic conditions were less likely to take FA doses above the TUL (OR = 0.48; 95%CI = 0.21-0.97. Compared to African American women, Caucasian women were also more likely to report FA intake in doses exceeding the TUL during pregnancy (OR = 5.09; 95%CI = 2.07-12.49. Conclusions Fifty-one percent of women reported some FA intake before and 66% during pregnancy, respectively, and more than one in ten women took FA supplements in doses that exceeded the TUL. Caucasian women were more likely to report high FA intake. A study is ongoing to identify possible genetic and non-genotoxic effects of these high doses.

  16. Effects of oregano essential oil supplementation to diets of broiler chicks with delayed feeding after hatching. Morphological development of small intestine segments

    Şenay Sarıca

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of oregano essential oil (OEO on the morphological development of small intestine of broilers with different feeding times (immediate, 24, 48 or 72 h posthatching delayed feeding from d 0 to 14. The diets were supplemented with: no, 250 or 500 mg/kg of the OEO (OEO250 and OEO500, respectively. Fasting for 72 h significantly increased the weight and length of small intestine segments of broilers on d 14. The OEO250 and OEO500 significantly increased the jejunum villus height of chickens fed immediately and the duodenum villus height of broilers fasted for 48 h. The duodenum villus surface area of chickens fasted for 48 h and the ileum villus surface area of broilers fasted for 24 h were significantly increased by the OEO250. The OEO500 significantly enhanced the duodenum villus surface area of broilers fasted for 24 h and their ileum villus surface area fasted for 48 h. The crypt depths of small intestine segments of broilers fasted for 72 h were significantly reduced by OEO250 and OEO500. In conclusion, the dose of phenolic compounds in OEO reaching the small intestine might be enough for protecting the intestinal epithelial cells from damages of toxins and for removing the negative effects of delayed feeding on the morphological development of all the small intestine segments of broiler chicks on d 14.

  17. Addition of formic acid or starter cultures to liquid feed. Effect on pH, microflora composition, organic acid concentration and ammonia concentration.

    Canibe, N; Miquel, N; Miettinen, H; Jensen, B B

    2001-01-01

    Some of the charateristics of good quality fermented liquid feed (FLF) are low pH, high numbers of lactic acid bacteria, and low numbers of enterobacteria. In order to test strategies to avoid a proliferation of enterobacteria during the initial phase of FLF elaboration, two in vitro studies were carried out. Addition of various doses of formic acid or two different starter cultures were tested. Adding 0.1% formic acid or L. plantarum VTT E-78076 to the liquid feed seemed to be addecuate ways of inhibiting the growth of enterobacteria, without depleting the growth of lactic acid bacteria. PMID:15954629

  18. Meat quality and tissue fatty acid profiles in rabbits fed diets supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid

    Marounek, Milan; Skřivanová, V.; Dokoupilová, A.; Czauderna, M.; Berladyn, A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 12 (2007), s. 552-561. ISSN 0375-8427 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : rabbits * conjugated linoleic acid * fatty acids Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 0.645, year: 2007

  19. Biohydrogenation of Fatty Acids Is Dependent on Plant Species and Feeding Regimen of Dairy Cows

    Petersen, Majbritt Bonefeld; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2014-01-01

    and LA between single plant species and feeding regimens. Rumen fluid was collected from cows fed either total mixed ration (TMR), species-rich silage (HERB), or grass silage (GRASS). Five single species (alfalfa, birdsfoot trefoil, chicory, English plantain, and salad burnet) and a grass......–clover mixture (white clover and ryegrass) were incubated in three replicas up to 30 h and subsequently analyzed for fatty acid content. Michaelis–Menten kinetics was applied for quantifying the BH rate. BH proceeded at the lowest rate in alfalfa and salad burnet (P < 0.005), and independent of species BH rate...

  20. Stability in fish feed and bioavailability to rainbow trout of two ascorbic acid forms

    Skelbaek, T.; Andersen, Niels Gerner; Winning, M.; Westergaard, S.

    The stability in warm pelleted fish feed and the bioavailability to rainbow trout of crystalline ascorbic acid (AA) and a synthetic polymer-coated AA product (PCAA) were compared. The AA loss during pelleting was 29% for crystalline AA and 19% for PCAA. After 6 weeks at room temperature 73% of PCAA...... haemorrhage in the gastrointestinal system. This was interpreted as vitamin C deficiency symptoms. We did not observe any difference in growth between fish given a diet containing AA and those given an AA-free diet....

  1. Metabolic responses, performance, and reticuloruminal pH of early-lactating cows fed concentrates treated with lactic acid, with or without inorganic phosphorus supplementation.

    Khol-Parisini, A; Humer, E; Harder, H; Mickdam, E; Zebeli, Q

    2016-08-01

    Recent data indicate beneficial effects of treating grains with lactic acid (LA) in alleviating the need for inorganic phosphorus supplementation during ruminal fermentation in vitro. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding concentrates treated with LA with or without inorganic phosphorus supplementation on feed intake, performance, blood variables, and reticuloruminal pH in dairy cows. A total of 16 early-lactating cows (12 Simmental and 4 Brown Swiss) were included in this study from d 1 until d 37 postpartum. Cows were fed 3 total mixed rations differing in supplementation of inorganic phosphorus and treatment of concentrates. The control (CON) and LA (+P) diets included a concentrate mixture containing 0.8% monocalcium phosphate, and the LA (-P) diet contained no inorganic phosphorus source. The concentrates of the LA (+P) and LA (-P) diets were treated with 5% LA for 24h before feeding, and the concentrate of the CON diet was not treated. Dry matter intake and milk yield were recorded daily, and milk composition and blood variables were determined on several occasions during the trial. Reticuloruminal pH was measured using indwelling sensors that allowed for continuous measurement during the experimental period. Data showed depressed dry matter intake in cows receiving LA-treated concentrates, but milk yield, body weight, and body weight changes remained similar among treatment groups. Cows receiving the LA-treated diets had lower concentrations of serum nonesterified fatty acids, cholesterol, and insulin, and they tended to have higher serum phosphorus levels. On the other hand, reticuloruminal pH was lower and duration of the pH being metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and liver variables, as well as the tendency for greater systemic phosphorus circulation, suggest that diets including concentrates treated with 5% LA may allow for savings of inorganic phosphorus supplementation in dairy cows. Treatment with 5% LA enhanced cows' risk of

  2. Fatty Acid Metabolism in the Digestive Tract of Lactating Cows Fed Tallow in Increasing Amounts at Two Feed Levels

    Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Børsting, Christian Friis; Hvelplund, Torben

    1992-01-01

    Long-chain fatty acid metabolism in the digestive tract was studied in lactating cows fed at two levels of dry matter intake (L, 8.6 kg DM and H, 12.6 kg DM), with 0, 4 and 6% added tallow at low feed level (L0, L4 and L6), and 0, 2, 4 and 6% fat at high feed level (H0, H2, H4 and H6). Mean fatty...... diet. As a mean 68% of the unsaturated C18 fatty acids were hydrogenated in the rumen. Fatty acid and crude fat true digestibilities decreased with increasing fat intakes owing to a decrease in stearic acid (C18:0) digestibility.......Long-chain fatty acid metabolism in the digestive tract was studied in lactating cows fed at two levels of dry matter intake (L, 8.6 kg DM and H, 12.6 kg DM), with 0, 4 and 6% added tallow at low feed level (L0, L4 and L6), and 0, 2, 4 and 6% fat at high feed level (H0, H2, H4 and H6). Mean fatty...... acid balance from mouth to duodenum was about zero when corrected for endogenous fatty acids from bile. However, regression analysis showed a microbial synthesis of 68 g at zero fatty acid intake, and a trend which indicated declining de novo synthesis of fatty acids with increasing fat level in the...

  3. Unaffected Arm Muscle Hypercatabolism in Dysphagic Subacute Stroke Patients: The Effects of Essential Amino Acid Supplementation

    Roberto Aquilani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in muscle protein turnover of the unaffected side of stroke patients could contribute to physical disability. We investigated whether hypercatabolic activity occurred in unaffected arm muscle and whether supplemented essential amino acids (EAAs could limit muscle hypercatabolism (MH. Thirty-eight dysphagic subacute stroke subjects (<3 months after acute event (29 males + 9 females; 69.7 ± 11.4 yrs were enrolled and randomized to receive 8 g/day EAAs (n = 19; EAA group or isocaloric placebo (maltodextrin; n = 19, Plac group. Before randomization, all patients had their arterial (A and venous (V amino acids measured and muscle (A − V differences calculated in the unaffected arm. Eight matched and healthy subjects served as controls. When compared to healthy controls, the entire stroke population showed significant muscle release (= negative value A − V of the amino acid phenylalanine (phenyl- indicating a prevalence of MH. Moreover, randomized EAA and Plac groups had similar rates of MH. After 38 days from the start of the protocol, the EAA group but not the Plac group had MH converted to balanced protein turnover or anabolic activity. We concluded that muscle protein metabolism of the unaffected arm of dysphagic subacute stroke individuals could be characterized by MH which can be corrected by supplemented EAAs.

  4. Unaffected Arm Muscle Hypercatabolism in Dysphagic Subacute Stroke Patients: The Effects of Essential Amino Acid Supplementation

    Aquilani, Roberto; Boselli, Mirella; D'Antona, Giuseppe; Baiardi, Paola; Boschi, Federica; Viglio, Simona; Iadarola, Paolo; Pasini, Evasio; Barbieri, Annalisa; Dossena, Maurizia; Bongiorno, Andria Innocenza; Verri, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in muscle protein turnover of the unaffected side of stroke patients could contribute to physical disability. We investigated whether hypercatabolic activity occurred in unaffected arm muscle and whether supplemented essential amino acids (EAAs) could limit muscle hypercatabolism (MH). Thirty-eight dysphagic subacute stroke subjects (<3 months after acute event) (29 males + 9 females; 69.7 ± 11.4 yrs) were enrolled and randomized to receive 8 g/day EAAs (n = 19; EAA group) or isocaloric placebo (maltodextrin; n = 19, Plac group). Before randomization, all patients had their arterial (A) and venous (V) amino acids measured and muscle (A − V) differences calculated in the unaffected arm. Eight matched and healthy subjects served as controls. When compared to healthy controls, the entire stroke population showed significant muscle release (= negative value A − V) of the amino acid phenylalanine (phenyl-) indicating a prevalence of MH. Moreover, randomized EAA and Plac groups had similar rates of MH. After 38 days from the start of the protocol, the EAA group but not the Plac group had MH converted to balanced protein turnover or anabolic activity. We concluded that muscle protein metabolism of the unaffected arm of dysphagic subacute stroke individuals could be characterized by MH which can be corrected by supplemented EAAs. PMID:25431770

  5. Folic acid supplements and colorectal cancer risk: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Qin, Tingting; Du, Mulong; Du, Haina; Shu, Yongqian; Wang, Meilin; Zhu, Lingjun

    2015-07-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the effects of folic acid supplementation on colorectal cancer risk, but conflicting results were reported. We herein performed a meta-analysis based on relevant studies to reach a more definitive conclusion. The PubMed and Embase databases were searched for quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published before October 2014. Eight articles met the inclusion criteria and were subsequently analyzed. The results suggested that folic acid treatment was not associated with colorectal cancer risk in the total population (relative risk [RR] = 1.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.82-1.22, P = 0.974). Moreover, no statistical effect was identified in further subgroup analyses stratified by ethnicity, gender, body mass index (BMI) and potential confounding factors. No significant heterogeneity or publication bias was observed. In conclusion, our meta-analysis demonstrated that folic acid supplementation had no effect on colorectal cancer risk. However, this finding must be validated by further large studies.

  6. Omega-3 fatty acids in the gravid pig uterus as affected by maternal supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids.

    Brazle, A E; Johnson, B J; Webel, S K; Rathbun, T J; Davis, D L

    2009-03-01

    Two experiments evaluated the ability of maternal fatty acid supplementation to alter conceptus and endometrial fatty acid composition. In Exp. 1, treatments were 1) the control, a corn-soybean meal diet; 2) flax, the control diet plus ground flax (3.75% of diet); and 3) protected fatty acids (PFA), the control plus a protected fish oil source rich in n-3 PUFA (Gromega, JBS United Inc., Sheridan, IN; 1.5% of diet). Supplements replaced equal parts of corn and soybean meal. When gilts reached 170 d of age, PG600 (PMSG and hCG, Intervet USA, Millsboro, DE) was injected to induce puberty, and dietary treatments (n = 8/treatment) were initiated. When detected in estrus, gilts were artificially inseminated. On d 40 to 43 of gestation, 7 gilts in the control treatment, 8 gilts in the PFA treatment, and 5 gilts in the flax treatment were pregnant and were slaughtered. Compared with the control treatment, the flax treatment tended to increase eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA: C20:5n-3) in fetuses (0.14 vs. 0.25 +/- 0.03 mg/g of dry tissue; P = 0.055), whereas gilts receiving PFA had more (P flax and PFA diets increased (P flax, and PFA diet, respectively) in the chorioallantois. In the endometrium, EPA and docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5n-3) were increased by the flax diet (P flax diet selectively increased EPA, and the PFA diet selectively increased DHA in the fetus and endometrium. In Exp. 2, gilts were fed diets containing PFA (1.5%) or a control diet beginning at approximately 170 of age (n = 13/treatment). A blood sample was collected after 30 d of treatment, and gilts were artificially inseminated when they were approximately 205 d old. Conceptus and endometrial samples were collected on d 11 to 19 of pregnancy. Plasma samples indicated that PFA increased (P breeding, affected endometrial, conceptus, and fetal fatty acid composition in early pregnancy. Dynamic day effects in fatty acid composition indicate this may be a critical period for maternal fatty acid resources to

  7. Population Diversity of Yeasts and Lactic Acid Bacteria in Pig Feed Fermented with Whey, Wet Wheat Distillers' Grains, or Water at Different Temperatures▿

    Olstorpe, Matilda; Lyberg, Karin; Lindberg, Jan Erik; Schnürer, Johan; Passoth, Volkmar

    2008-01-01

    The diversity of populations of yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in pig feeds fermented at 10, 15, or 20°C was characterized by rRNA gene sequencing of isolates. The feeds consisted of a cereal grain mix blended with wet wheat distillers' grains (WWDG feed), whey (W feed), or tap water (WAT feed). Fermentation proceeded for 5 days without disturbance, followed by 14 days of daily simulated feed outtakes, in which 80% of the contents were replaced with fresh feed mixtures. In WWDG feed, Pi...

  8. Proteomics identifies molecular networks affected by tetradecylthioacetic acid and fish oil supplemented diets

    Wrzesinski, Krzysztof; León, Ileana R.; Kulej, Katarzyna;

    2013-01-01

    antioxidant properties of TTA. BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study for the first time explores the effect of fish oil and TTA - tetradecyl-thioacetic acid and the combination of those two as diet supplements on mitochondria metabolism in a comprehensive and systematic manner. We show that fish oil and TTA...... carried out. The results of this work provide an excellent starting point for further studies that will help to understand the metabolic effects of fish oil and TTA and will hopefully help to design dietary programs directed towards reduction of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and associated diseases....

  9. Evaluation of the environmental implications of the incorporation of feed-use amino acids in the manufacturing of pig and broiler feeds using Life Cycle Assessment.

    Mosnier, E; van der Werf, H M G; Boissy, J; Dourmad, J-Y

    2011-12-01

    The incorporation of feed-use (FU) amino acids (AAs) in diets results in a reduced use of protein-rich ingredients such as soybean meal, recognized to have elevated contributions to environmental impacts. This study investigated whether the incorporation of L-lysine.HCl, L-threonine and FU-methionine reduces the environmental impacts of pig and broiler feeds using Life Cycle Assessment. The following impact categories were considered: climate change, eutrophication, acidification, terrestrial ecotoxicity, cumulative energy demand and land occupation. Several feeds were formulated either to minimize the cost of the formulation (with or without AA utilization), to maximize AA incorporation (i.e. the cost of AA was considered to be similar to that of soybean meal), or to minimize greenhouse gas emissions. For both pig and broiler feeds, calculations were made first using only cereals and soybean meal as main ingredients and then using cereals and several protein-rich ingredients (soybean meal, rapeseed meal and peas). In addition, these calculations were performed using two types of soybean meal (from Brazil, associated with recent deforestation or not). For broiler feeds, two types of maize (from France, irrigated, with mineral fertilization v. not irrigated, with animal manure fertilization) were also tested. Regarding the feeds formulated to minimize cost, incorporation of AA decreased the values for eutrophication, terrestrial ecotoxicity and cumulative energy demand of both pig and broiler feeds, regardless of the base ingredients. Reduction in climate change and acidification due to the incorporation of AA depended on the nature of the feed ingredients, with the effect of AA incorporation being greater when combined with ingredients with high impacts such as soybean meal associated with deforestation. Feeds formulated to maximize AA incorporation generally had a similar composition to those formulated to minimize cost, suggesting that the costs of AA were not

  10. Effects of phytoestrogen supplementation in the feed on the shell gland of laying hens at the end of the laying period.

    Wistedt, A; Ridderstråle, Y; Wall, H; Holm, L

    2012-08-01

    Shell quality decreases as laying hens age and the aim of present study was to investigate how a supplement of daidzein, a natural phytoestrogen in soya, affects key factors in the shell gland and eggshell quality in late-stage laying hens. Hybrids of Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL) and Lohmann Brown (LB), received either a daidzein diet (50 mg/kg feed) or a control diet from 60 to 72 weeks of age. Both the total number of capillaries and capillaries with carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity were higher in the LSL hybrid than in the LB. After daidzein supplementation the number of CA positive capillaries was unaffected in the LSL but increased in the LB hybrid indicating a higher sensitivity to daidzein in this hybrid. Estrogen receptor alpha and beta (ERα, ERβ) were localized and the complete picture of the two ERs can now be described in shell gland of domestic hens. Nuclear and cytoplasmic staining was generally stronger for ERβ, while membrane associated staining was present only for ERα. Interestingly, capillary endothelium contained only ERβ and since estrogen regulation of CA is well documented, the presence of an endothelial ER provides one possible route for the increase in CA positive capillaries found in LB hybrids. Eggshell quality or egg production was not affected by daidzein supplementation. The hybrids used in this study showed anatomical differences and reacted differently to daidzein supplementation, but if this can be explained by the divergences in ERβ localization noted between the hybrids remains to be clarified. PMID:22835656

  11. Effects of formic acid and phytase supplementation on digestibility and use of phosphorus and zinc in growing pigs.

    Blank, R; Naatjes, M; Baum, C; Köhling, K; Ader, P; Roser, U; Susenbeth, A

    2012-12-01

    Two studies, arranged according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design, were conducted to assess effects of dietary acidification on fungal 3-phytase (PHY) efficacy in growing pigs. In Exp. 1, effects of supplementing 500 units/kg feed of PHY and 4.7 g/kg HCOOH either alone or in combination on the use of P and Zn in growing pigs fed a pelleted diet based on wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and soybean (Glycine max) meal were investigated. In Exp. 2 the same dietary treatments were fed except that PHY supplementation was increased to 1000 units/kg. In both experiments, PHY supplementation increased (P < 0.05) P digestibility and retention. A PHY × HCOOH supplementation interaction on P balance was observed (P < 0.05), indicating that the combination of the additives may increase P digestibility and retention. Effects of HCOOH and PHY on Zn use followed a similar pattern. Supplementation of 1000 units/kg of PHY further increased P and Zn retention compared to supplementation of 500 units/kg. In conclusion, the present study indicated that HCOOH supplementation to diets with microbial PHY may increase PHY efficacy. PMID:23365333

  12. Performance, serum biochemical responses, and gene expression of intestinal folate transporters of young and older laying hens in response to dietary folic acid supplementation and challenge with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide.

    Jing, M; Munyaka, P M; Tactacan, G B; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C; O, K; House, J D

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary folic acid (FA) supplementation on performance, serum biochemical indices, and mRNA abundance of intestinal folate transporters in young and older laying hens after acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Two experiments were conducted separately involving 48 Shaver White young laying hens (24 wk of age) in experiment 1 and 48 Shaver White older laying hens (58 wk of age) in experiment 2. Birds were fed 2 diets in a complete randomized design. The diets were wheat-soybean meal based, with or without supplemental 4 mg of FA/kg of diet. Birds were fed for 8 wk, during which time feed consumption and egg production were monitored. At the end of each feeding experiment, 6 hens from each dietary treatment were injected intravenously with 8 mg/kg of BW of either Escherichia coli LPS or sterile saline. Four hours after injection, blood and intestinal samples were collected for further analysis. Compared with the control, dietary FA supplementation increased egg weight and egg mass and decreased serum glucose levels in the young laying hens, and reduced serum uric acid in the older laying hens (P laying hens after LPS challenge (P laying hens. In summary, in addition to improving production performance, there were effects of dietary FA supplementation and its interaction with LPS challenge on biochemical constituents, and age played a role in the development of responses to diet and bacterial LPS infections. PMID:24570431

  13. Deletion of GPR40 fatty acid receptor gene in mice blocks mercaptoacetate-induced feeding.

    Li, Ai-Jun; Wiater, Michael F; Wang, Qing; Wank, Stephen; Ritter, Sue

    2016-05-15

    Both increased and decreased fatty acid (FA) availability contribute to control of food intake. For example, it is well documented that intestinal FA reduces feeding by triggering enterondocrine secretion of satietogenic peptides, such as cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). In contrast, mechanisms by which decreased FA availability increase feeding are not well understood. Over the past three decades substantial research related to FA availability and increased feeding has involved use of the orexigenic compound mercaptoacetate (MA). Because MA reportedly inhibits FA oxidation, it has been assumed that reduced FA oxidation accounts for the orexigenic action of MA. Recently, however, we demonstrated that MA antagonizes G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40), a membrane receptor for long and medium chain FA. We also demonstrated that, by antagonizing GPR40, MA inhibits GLP-1 secretion and attenuates vagal afferent activation by FA. Because both vagal afferent activation and GLP-1 inhibit food intake, we postulated that inhibition of GPR40 by MA might underlie the orexigenic action of MA. We tested this hypothesis using male and female GPR40 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. Using several testing protocols, we found that MA increased feeding in WT, but not GPR40 KO mice, and that GPR40 KO mice gained more weight than WT on a high-fat diet. Metabolic monitoring after MA or saline injection in the absence of food did not reveal significant differences in respiratory quotient or energy expenditure between treatment groups or genotypes. These results support the hypothesis that MA stimulates food intake by blocking FA effects on GPR40. PMID:26984894

  14. Supplementation with Abscisic Acid Reduces Malaria Disease Severity and Parasite Transmission.

    Glennon, Elizabeth K K; Adams, L Garry; Hicks, Derrick R; Dehesh, Katayoon; Luckhart, Shirley

    2016-06-01

    Nearly half of the world's population is at risk for malaria. Increasing drug resistance has intensified the need for novel therapeutics, including treatments with intrinsic transmission-blocking properties. In this study, we demonstrate that the isoprenoid abscisic acid (ABA) modulates signaling in the mammalian host to reduce parasitemia and the formation of transmissible gametocytes and in the mosquito host to reduce parasite infection. Oral ABA supplementation in a mouse model of malaria was well tolerated and led to reduced pathology and enhanced gene expression in the liver and spleen consistent with infection recovery. Oral ABA supplementation also increased mouse plasma ABA to levels that can signal in the mosquito midgut upon blood ingestion. Accordingly, we showed that supplementation of a Plasmodium falciparum-infected blood meal with ABA increased expression of mosquito nitric oxide synthase and reduced infection prevalence in a nitric oxide-dependent manner. Identification of the mechanisms whereby ABA reduces parasite growth in mammals and mosquitoes could shed light on the balance of immunity and metabolism across eukaryotes and provide a strong foundation for clinical translation. PMID:27001761

  15. Dexamethasone inhibits the maturation of newly formed neurons and glia supplemented with polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Heberden, Christine; Meffray, Emmanuelle; Goustard-Langelier, Bénédicte; Maximin, Elise; Lavialle, Monique

    2013-11-01

    Stress bears a negative impact on adult neurogenesis. High levels of corticoids have been shown to inhibit neural stem cell proliferation, and are considered responsible for the loss of neural precursors. Their effects on the differentiation of the glial and neuronal lineages have been less studied. We examined the effect of dexamethasone (Dex), a synthetic glucocorticoid, on the differentiation of rat neural stem cells in vitro. Dex had no effect on the differentiation of cells cultured under standard conditions. Since we previously determined that NSC, when cultured under classical conditions, were deprived of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and displayed phospholipid compositions very different from the in vivo figures [1], we examined the effect of Dex under PUFA supplementation. Dex impaired neuron and oligodendrocyte maturation in PUFA-supplemented cells, demonstrated by the reduction of neurite lengths and oligodendrocyte sizes. This effect was mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), since it was eliminated by mifepristone, a GR antagonist, and could be relayed by a reduction of ERK phosphorylation. We determined that GR was associated with PPAR β and α under basal conditions, and that this association was disrupted when PUFA were added in combination with Dex. We assumed that this effect on the receptor status enabled the effect of Dex on PUFA supplemented cells, since we determined that the binding to the glucocorticoid response element was higher in cells incubated with PUFA and Dex. In conclusion, corticoids can impair NSC differentiation, and consequently impact the entire process of neurogenesis. PMID:23907015

  16. Environmental assessment of Ronozyme (R) p5000 CT phytase as an alternative to inorganic phosphate supplementation to pig feed used in intensive pig production

    Nielsen, Per H.; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    used as an alternative to inorganic phosphorus supplementation to feed and the study addresses the environmental implications of substituting inorganic phosphorus with Ronozyme Phytase in intensive pig production in Denmark. Methods. Life cycle assessment is used as an analytical tool, and modelling of...... intensive pig production is justified by major advantages in terms of avoided contributions to global warming, acidification, photochemical ozone formation and particularly nutrient enrichment and by significant energy savings and particularly phosphate savings. A single trade-off in terms of agricultural...

  17. Environmental Assessment of Ronozyme® P5000 CT Phytase as an Alternative to Inorganic Phosphate Supplementation to Pig Feed Used in Intensive Pig Production

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    inorganic phosphorus supplementation to feed and the study addresses the environmental implications of substituting inorganic phosphorus with Ronozyme Phytase in intensive pig production in Denmark. Life cycle assessment is used as an analytical tool, and modelling of the two considered systems is...... avoided contributions to global warming, acidification, photochemical ozone formation and particularly nutrient enrichment and by significant energy savings and particularly phosphate savings. A single trade-off in terms of agricultural land use for enzyme production is small and unimportant unless use of...

  18. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of niacin (nicotinic acid and nicotinamide as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by Lonza Benelux BV

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The term ‘niacin’ is used as a generic description of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide with pyridine as the basic structure. Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide function mainly as precursors of the co-enzymes NAD and NADP. Thus, nicotinamide has physiologically critical roles in mitochondrial respiration and in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids. Oral administration routes of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide via feed or water for drinking were considered bioequivalent. Niacin is safe for the target animals with a margin of safety that is at least ten times the requirements and use levels. The FEEDAP Panel assumes that exposure figures for a population already include the contribution of edible tissues and products of animals fed niacin-supplemented diets. Information on niacin metabolism and the limited data available on retention in edible tissues and products indicate that supplemental levels in feeds even far higher than the requirements (1–35 mg/kg feed are highly unlikely to lead the tolerable upper intake level being exceeded. The FEEDAP Panel considers that the use of niacin in animal nutrition is not of safety concern for consumers. Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide are not irritant to skin, but can cause irritancy to eyes and mucous membranes. They are unlikely to cause skin sensitisation. Workers might be exposed to a respirable dust when handling nicotinic acid, which should be regarded as being potentially harmful to their health. Nicotinamide is considered to be of no concern for inhalation exposure. The use of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide in animal nutrition does not pose a risk to the environment. Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide are regarded as effective sources of niacin in animal nutrition.

  19. Effect of dietary linseed oil and Ganoderma lucidum or olive leaves supplementation on fatty acid composition and oxidative status of rabbits

    Tina Trebušak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of natural antioxidant supplementation on the oxidative stress induced by a high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in rabbit diets. Forty-eight SIKA rabbits (24 male, 24 female were penned individually and after a 5-d adaptation period divided into 4 homogeneous groups (2.58±0.3 kg. The CONT– group received a diet with 60 g/kg palm fat, while the other 3 groups received a diet with 60 g/kg linseed oil which was either unsupplemented (CONT+ or supplemented with 10 g/kg of Ganoderma lucidum (REISHI or 10 g/kg of olive leaves (OLIVE. Rabbits were euthanised at 102 d of age, 22 d after the start of the experiment. Live weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion rate were recorded. The fatty acid composition of back (M. longissimus dorsi and hind leg muscle (thigh muscle, adipose tissue (abdominal fat and liver were determined. To evaluate the oxidative status of rabbits, the malondialdehyde (MDA concentration in the plasma, liver and both muscles was measured. DNA damage in the leukocytes was measured. Linseed oil addition increased the PUFA ratio and decreased the proportion of saturated fatty acids in all tissues (P<0.001, with no detrimental effect on productive performance of rabbits compared to palm fat. Linseed oil also reduced n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in all tissues (P<0.001. However, linseed oil addition increased the oxidative stress by increasing MDA concentrations in the liver and muscles (P<0.001, but did not affect the plasma MDA concentrations and the extent of DNA damage in the blood leukocytes compared to palm fat. Addition of olive leaves tended to decrease the concentration of MDA in the liver Addition of olive leaves tended to decrease the concentration of MDA in the liver compared to CONT+ (P=0.059, with no effect of Ganoderma lucidum.

  20. Modification of the Technical Properties of Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 by Supplementing the Growth Medium with Unsaturated Fatty Acids

    Muller, J. A.; Ross, R. P.; Sybesma, W. F. H.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Stanton, C.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of supplementing growth medium with unsaturated fatty acids on the technical properties of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533, such as heat and acid tolerance, and inhibition of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection. Our results showed that the membrane composition and morphology of L. johnsonii NCC 533 were significantly changed by supplementing a minimal Lactobacillus medium with oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids. The ratio of saturated to unsaturated plus cyclic fatty acids in the bacterial membrane decreased by almost 2-fold when minimal medium was supplemented with unsaturated fatty acids (10 μg/ml). The subsequent acid and heat tolerance of L. johnsonii decreased by 6- and 20-fold when the strain was grown in the presence of linoleic and linolenic acids, respectively, compared with growth in oleic acid (all at 10 μg/ml). Following acid exposure, significantly higher (P < 0.05) oleic acid content was detected in the membrane when growth medium was supplemented with linoleic or linolenic acid, indicating that saturation of the membrane fatty acids occurred during acid stress. Cell integrity was determined in real time during stressed conditions using a fluorescent viability kit in combination with flow cytometric analysis. Following heat shock (at 62.5°C for 5 min), L. johnsonii was unable to form colonies; however, 60% of the bacteria showed no cell integrity loss, which could indicate that the elevated heat inactivated vital processes within the cell, rendering it incapable of replication. Furthermore, L. johnsonii grown in fatty acid-enriched minimal medium had different adhesion properties and caused a 2-fold decrease in S. enterica serovar Typhimurium UK1-lux invasion of HT-29 epithelial cells compared with bacteria grown in minimal medium alone. This could be related to changes in the hydrophobicity and fluidity of the membrane. Our study shows that technical

  1. Rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid supplementation to dairy cows in late pregnancy and early lactation: effects on milk composition, milk yield, blood metabolites and gene expression in liver

    Meyer Heinrich HD

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is a collective term for isomers of octadecadienoic acid with conjugated double-bond system. Thus, it was the objective to investigate whether milk composition and metabolic key parameters are affected by adding CLA to the diet of dairy cows in the first four weeks of lactation. Methods A study was carried out with five primiparous cows fed a CLA supplemented diet compared to five primiparous cows without CLA supplementation. CLA supplemented cows received 7.5 g CLA/day (i.e. 50% cis(c9,trans(t11- and 50% t10,c12-CLA starting two weeks before expected calving and 20 g CLA/day (i.e. 50% c9,t11- and 50% t10,c12-CLA throughout day 1 to 28 of lactation. Results The CLA supplement was insufficiently accepted by the animals: only 61.5% of the intended amount was ingested. Fed CLA were detectable in milk fat, whereas contents of c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA in milk fat were higher for CLA supplemented cows compared to the control group. On average over the entire treatment period, there was a decrease of saturated fatty acids (FA in milk fat of CLA supplemented cows, combined with a higher content of monounsaturated and trans FA. Our study revealed no significant effects of c9,t11- and t10,c12-CLA supplementation either on milk yield and composition or on metabolic key parameters in blood. Furthermore the experiment did not indicate significant effects of c9,t11- and t10,c12-CLA-supplementation on gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARα, PPARγ, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in liver tissue. Conclusions Feeding c9,t11- and t10,c12-CLA during the first weeks after calving did not affect metabolic key parameters of blood serum or milk composition of fresh cows. Milk fatty acid composition was changed by feeding c9,t11- and t10,c12-CLA resulting in higher contents of these isomers in milk fat. High contents of long chain FA in

  2. Effect of dietary supplementation of Pulvis Curcuma Longa on the voluntary feed intake, nutrient digestibility and Growth performance of Broiler rabbits under summer stress

    Basavaraj

    Full Text Available Eighteen four weeks’ old weaned Broiler rabbits of comparable body weights were allotted to three dietary treatment groups of six rabbits in each group namely T0 (basal control diet, T1 (basal diet added with Turmeric (Curcuma longa Rhizoid Powder, TRP, at the ratio of 150mg and T2 ( basal diet added with TRP at the ratio of 300mg/100g diet. Feeding cum growth trial and digestion trial were during summer months of April, May and June to study voluntary feed intake, growth rate and nutrient utilization by the experimental animals. TRP included in the diets of experimental groups consisting 6.72 % CP, 5.04% ether extract, 3.96% crude fibre, 7.85% total ash. Depression in voluntary feed intake due to summer stress did not alter due to the inclusion of turmeric powder. The weekly mean body weight gain, feed conversion efficiency and digestibility of nutrients did not show significant difference by the supplementation of turmeric rhizome powder in the diets of rabbit in present study. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(8.000: 369-372

  3. Suppression of fat deposition in broiler chickens by (-)-hydroxycitric acid supplementation: A proteomics perspective.

    Peng, Mengling; Han, Jing; Li, Longlong; Ma, Haitian

    2016-01-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) suppresses fatty acid synthesis in animals, but its biochemical mechanism in poultry is unclear. This study identified the key proteins associated with fat metabolism and elucidated the biochemical mechanism of (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. Four groups (n = 30 each) received a diet supplemented with 0, 1000, 2000 or 3000 mg/kg (-)-HCA for 4 weeks. Of the differentially expressed liver proteins, 40 and 26 were identified in the mitochondrial and cytoplasm respectively. Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 components (PDHA1 and PDHB), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD), aconitase (ACO2), a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (DLST), enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHS1) and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) were upregulated, while NADP-dependent malic enzyme (ME1) was downregulated. Biological network analysis showed that the identified proteins were involved in glycometabolism and lipid metabolism, whereas PDHA1, PDHB, ECHS1, and ME1 were identified in the canonical pathway by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The data indicated that (-)-HCA inhibited fatty acid synthesis by reducing the acetyl-CoA supply, via promotion of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (upregulation of PDHA1, PDHB, ACO2, and DLST expression) and inhibition of ME1 expression. Moreover, (-)-HCA promoted fatty acid beta-oxidation by upregulating ECHS1 expression. These results reflect a biochemically relevant mechanism of fat reduction by (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. PMID:27586962

  4. Suppression of fat deposition in broiler chickens by (-)-hydroxycitric acid supplementation: A proteomics perspective

    Peng, Mengling; Han, Jing; Li, Longlong; Ma, Haitian

    2016-01-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) suppresses fatty acid synthesis in animals, but its biochemical mechanism in poultry is unclear. This study identified the key proteins associated with fat metabolism and elucidated the biochemical mechanism of (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. Four groups (n = 30 each) received a diet supplemented with 0, 1000, 2000 or 3000 mg/kg (-)-HCA for 4 weeks. Of the differentially expressed liver proteins, 40 and 26 were identified in the mitochondrial and cytoplasm respectively. Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 components (PDHA1 and PDHB), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD), aconitase (ACO2), a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (DLST), enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHS1) and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) were upregulated, while NADP-dependent malic enzyme (ME1) was downregulated. Biological network analysis showed that the identified proteins were involved in glycometabolism and lipid metabolism, whereas PDHA1, PDHB, ECHS1, and ME1 were identified in the canonical pathway by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The data indicated that (-)-HCA inhibited fatty acid synthesis by reducing the acetyl-CoA supply, via promotion of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (upregulation of PDHA1, PDHB, ACO2, and DLST expression) and inhibition of ME1 expression. Moreover, (-)-HCA promoted fatty acid beta-oxidation by upregulating ECHS1 expression. These results reflect a biochemically relevant mechanism of fat reduction by (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. PMID:27586962

  5. The Effect of Coenzyme Q10 and Lipoic Acid Added to the Feed of Hens on Physical Characteristics of Eggs

    Dušan Terčič

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate whether inclusions of coenzyme Q10, alpha lipoic acid and their combination into diets of hens improve egg quality characteristics. Forty-eight, 33 weeks old Lohmann Brown hens were assigned randomly to four groups of 12 hens each and fed either a basal diet or basal diet supplemented with 2 g/kg coenzyme Q10, 0.4 g/kg alpha lipoic acid and 2 g/kg coenzyme Q10 plus 0.4 g/kg alpha lipoic acid. The diets were fed for 12 weeks. Eggs were weekly examined for interior or exterior quality characteristics. There were no effects of dietary treatments on egg shape index. Coenzyme Q10 supplementation resulted in a reduction in egg shell colour (darker shells and yolk colour (paler yolks and higher incidence of blood and meat spots, which reduce the internal quality of the egg. Alpha lipoic acid had no effect on egg weight, egg shell colour, egg shell density, egg shell weight, egg shell thickness, yolk colour, incidence of blood and meat spots but increased shell strength, albumen height and Haugh units values were noted. Egg shell strength for hens supplemented with alpha lipoic acid was greater than for control hens. The results of the experiment indicated that alpha lipoic acid supplementation to the diet of layers may be of practical value due to the increased egg shell strength and better albumen characteristics without any adverse effect on other egg quality traits.

  6. The Effect of Coenzyme Q10 and Lipoic Acid Added to the Feed of Hens on Physical Characteristics of Eggs

    Dušan Terčič

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate whether inclusions of coenzyme Q10, alpha lipoic acid and their combination into diets of hens improve egg quality characteristics. Forty-eight, 33 weeks old Lohmann Brown hens were assigned randomly to four groups of 12 hens each and fed either a basal diet or basal diet supplemented with 2 g/kg coenzyme Q10, 0.4 g/kg alpha lipoic acid and 2 g/kg coenzyme Q10 plus 0.4 g/kg alpha lipoic acid. The diets were fed for 12 weeks. Eggs were weekly examined for interior or exterior quality characteristics. There were no effects of dietary treatments on egg shape index. Coenzyme Q10 supplementation resulted in a reduction in egg shell colour (darker shells and yolk colour (paler yolks and higher incidence of blood and meat spots, which reduce the internal quality of the egg. Alpha lipoic acid had no effect on egg weight, egg shell colour, egg shell density, egg shell weight, egg shell thickness, yolk colour, incidence of blood and meat spots but increased shell strength, albumen height and Haugh units values were noted. Egg shell strength for hens supplemented with alpha lipoic acid was greater than for control hens. The results of the experiment indicated that alpha lipoic acid supplementation to the diet of layers may be of practical value due to the increased egg shell strength and better albumen characteristics without any adverse effect on other egg quality traits.

  7. Dietary supplementation of cumin (Cuminum cyminum preventing streptococcal disease during first-feeding of Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus

    Sevdan Yılmaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary cumin (Cuminum cyminum powder (CP as a feed additive on growth performance and disease resistance during first-feeding of Mozamique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus. Five isonitrogenous (40% crude protein and isocaloric (18.9 kj g-1 diets were formulated to contain 0 (control, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2.0% CP. In a 45-day feeding trial, 15 plastic tanks (21 L were stocked with 40 fry (0.012 ± 0.001 g each. After feeding experiment, fish were infected with Streptococcus iniae and mortalities were recorded. The second-order polynomial regression indicated that a dietary CP level of 1.14% provided the best survival rate challenge infection with S. iniae, growth performance and feed utilization. In conclusion, CP can be used as growth promoter to improve feed utilization and weight gain in tilapia fry, and it can be also used as an antimicrobial agent during first-feeding of O. mossambicus. Therefore, CP can be suggested as an alternative to antibiotics in controlling streptococcal disease in tilapia culture.

  8. The clinical benefits of long-term supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids in cystic fibrosis patients - A pilot study.

    Hanssens, L; Thiébaut, I; Lefèvre, N; Malfroot, A; Knoop, C; Duchateau, J; Casimir, G

    2016-05-01

    Effectiveness of omega-3 supplementation in cystic fibrosis (CF) remains controversial. This study sought to evaluate clinical status, exercise tolerance, inflammatory parameters, and erythrocyte fatty acid profile after 1 year of oral omega-3 supplementation in CF patients. Fifteen ΔF508-homozygous patients undergoing chronic azithromycin were randomized to receive omega-3 fish oil supplementation at a dose of 60mg/Kg/day or placebo. In comparison with the previous year, in the supplemented group, the number of pulmonary exacerbations decreased at 12 months (1.7 vs. 3.0, pomega-3 supplementation offers several clinical benefits as to the number of exacerbations and duration of antibiotic therapy in CF patients. PMID:27154364

  9. Supplementation with different energy and protein sources on the feeding behavior and performance of dairy heifers grazing Marandu during the dry season

    Ricardo Dias Signoretti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of supplementation different energy and protein sources in the dry season of the year, on body development and diurnal feeding behavior of crossbred Gir x Holstein dairy heifers 12.8 ± 4.6 months old, 215.50 ± 43.2 kg average body weight were distributed in Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pasture with supplements being offered daily in proportion of 0.75% of the body weight. A completely randomized block design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement was used, with six replicates per treatment. Supplements contained whole soybean (WS or whole cottonseed (WC as the protein sources and citrus pulp (CPU or corn (C as the energy sources. Marandu grass pasture was managed according a rotational grazing system, six days grazing and 30 days of rest period. It was recorded the animals weight, height at withers, heart girt, rump length and corporal score after the grazing cycle. The considered behavioral variables were grazing time, ruminating time, idle time, trough time. No significant differences on the initial, heart girt, height at withers, rump length and corporal score final and initial to protein and energy sources. However, a significant effect was observed (P<0.05 in heifers supplemented with WC had greater final body weight and heart girt and average daily gain live weight (271.1 kg, 152.2 cm and 0.382 kg/animal, respectively in comparison to those with WS (251.1 kg, 148.7 cm and 0.255 kg/animal, respectively. The CPU base supplement resulted in smaller grazing time and greater ruminating and idle time (P>0.05. The WS base supplemented animals had kept lesser time eating supplement in comparison to the WC base supplemented ones (P<0.05, with no variation in grazing, rumination or idle times regarding protein font (P>0.05. The hour of the day influenced all the considered behaviors (P<0.01.

  10. Effect of plant proteins and crystalline amino acid supplementation on postprandial plasma amino acid profiles and metabolic response in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Rolland, Marine; Larsen, Bodil Katrine; Holm, Jørgen;

    2015-01-01

    The use of aquafeeds formulated with plant protein sources supplemented with crystalline amino acids (CAAs) is believed to influence amino acid (AA) uptake patterns and AA metabolic fate. Oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion rates were measured in rainbow trout (468.5 +/- A 86.5 g) force fed 0...

  11. Potential use of green macroalgae Ulva lactuca as a feed supplement in diets on growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab A; Younis, El-Sayed M I; Al-Asgah, Nasser A

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of diet containing the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca, on the growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Four experimental diets were formulated: D1 as a control group and D2, D3 and D4 which included 10%, 20% and 30% U. lactuca meal, respectively. 180 African catfish, weighing 9.59 ± 0.43 g, and with an average length of 11.26 ± 0.21, (mean ± SE) were divided into four groups corresponding to the different feeding regimes. The final body weight of the fish showed insignificant differences (P > 0.05) between the control and fish fed D2, whereas, there was a significant difference (P catfish fed a diet with U. lactuca included at 20% and 30% levels showed poorer growth and feed utilization than the control group and fish fed diets containing 10% of U. lactuca. PMID:27081367

  12. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation caused reduction of perilipin1 and aberrant lipolysis in epididymal adipose tissue

    Highlights: ► Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation suppresses perilipin1 in epididymal fat. ► Conjugated linoleic acid inhibits promoter activity of perilipin1 in 3T3-L1 cells. ► Conjugated linoleic acids elevate basal but blunt hormone-stimulated lipolysis. -- Abstract: Perilipin1, a coat protein of lipid droplet, plays a key role in adipocyte lipolysis and fat formation of adipose tissues. However, it is not clear how the expression of perilipin1 is affected in the decreased white adipose tissues (WAT) of mice treated with dietary supplement of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA). Here we obtained lipodystrophic mice by dietary administration of CLA which exhibited reduced epididymal (EPI) WAT, aberrant adipocytes and decreased expression of leptin in this tissue. We found both transcription and translation of perilipin1 was suppressed significantly in EPI WAT of CLA-treated mice compared to that of control mice. The gene expression of negative regulator tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and the positive regulator Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ (PPARγ) of perilipin1 was up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively. In cultured 3T3-L1 cells the promoter activity of perilipin1 was dramatically inhibited in the presence of CLA. Using ex vivo experiment we found that the basal lipolysis was elevated but the hormone-stimulated lipolysis blunted in adipose explants of CLA-treated mice compared to that of control mice, suggesting that the reduction of perilipin1 in white adipose tissues may at least in part contribute to CLA-mediated alternation of lipolysis of WAT.

  13. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation caused reduction of perilipin1 and aberrant lipolysis in epididymal adipose tissue

    Cai, Demin [College of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Li, Hongji [Key Laboratory of Animal Biochemistry and Nutrition, Ministry of Agriculture, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Zhou, Bo [College of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Han, Liqiang [Key Laboratory of Animal Biochemistry and Nutrition, Ministry of Agriculture, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Zhang, Xiaomei [College of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Yang, Guoyu, E-mail: haubiochem@163.com [Key Laboratory of Animal Biochemistry and Nutrition, Ministry of Agriculture, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Yang, Guoqing, E-mail: gqyang@yeah.net [College of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan Province, People' s Republic of China (China)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation suppresses perilipin1 in epididymal fat. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conjugated linoleic acid inhibits promoter activity of perilipin1 in 3T3-L1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conjugated linoleic acids elevate basal but blunt hormone-stimulated lipolysis. -- Abstract: Perilipin1, a coat protein of lipid droplet, plays a key role in adipocyte lipolysis and fat formation of adipose tissues. However, it is not clear how the expression of perilipin1 is affected in the decreased white adipose tissues (WAT) of mice treated with dietary supplement of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA). Here we obtained lipodystrophic mice by dietary administration of CLA which exhibited reduced epididymal (EPI) WAT, aberrant adipocytes and decreased expression of leptin in this tissue. We found both transcription and translation of perilipin1 was suppressed significantly in EPI WAT of CLA-treated mice compared to that of control mice. The gene expression of negative regulator tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF{alpha}) and the positive regulator Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) of perilipin1 was up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively. In cultured 3T3-L1 cells the promoter activity of perilipin1 was dramatically inhibited in the presence of CLA. Using ex vivo experiment we found that the basal lipolysis was elevated but the hormone-stimulated lipolysis blunted in adipose explants of CLA-treated mice compared to that of control mice, suggesting that the reduction of perilipin1 in white adipose tissues may at least in part contribute to CLA-mediated alternation of lipolysis of WAT.

  14. 鱼油在鲤饲料中的适宜用量%Optimum level of fish oil supplementation in carp (Cyprinus carpio) feed

    任泽林; 郭庆; 霍启光; 卢建军

    2001-01-01

    在高蛋白质半纯化饲料中分别添加0、30、50、70、90 g/kg的未加抗氧化剂的新鲜鱼油,投喂58 g左右2龄鲤(Cyprinus carpio)鱼种46 d,结果表明:添加新鲜鱼油量为30 g/kg时,鲤生产性能最佳;鲤肝体比(HSI)、肝胰脏脂肪含量、肌肉营养不良症和肌肉渗出性损失随着鱼油添加量的增加而持续上升,而肌肉和肾脏氧化稳定性则随着鱼油添加量的增加而持续下降,当添加鱼油量升至30、70、70、50、70、70 g/kg时,上述6项指标与对照组差异显著(P<0.05)。综合各项指标,未添加抗氧化剂的新鲜鱼油在高蛋白质鲤饲料中适宜用量以不超过30 g/kg为宜。%Juvenile carp of 58 g were fed a high protein semi-purified feed supplemented with 0, 30, 50, 70, 90 g/kg fresh fish oil with no supplemention of antioxidant (Peroxide value,POV,0.64 mmol/kg ) for 46 days. The results showed that the carp had the best performance at 30 g/kg supplementation of fish oil. With the increment of fish oil supplementation, hepatopancreas somatic indices (HSI), fat content in hepatopancreas, muscular dystrophy and muscular exudative losses were increased, while oxidative stabilities of muscle and kidney were reduced. There were significant differences in fat content in hepatopancreas, muscular dystrophy, and oxidative stabilities of muscle and kidney between the control group (no fish oil supplementation) and the 70 g/kg or higher fish oil supplemented groups (P<0.05). HSI of the control group was significantly different with that at 30 g/kg or higher fish oil supplemented groups (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the muscular exudative losses was significantly different at 50 g/kg or higher fish oil supplemented groups(P<0.05). In conclusion, fresh fish oil with no supplemention of antioxidant should be supplemented in carp feed with high protein at no more than 30 g/kg.

  15. Near-infrared Spectral Detection of the Content of Soybean Fat Acids Based on Genetic Multilayer Feed forward Neural Network

    CHAI Yu-hua; PAN Wei; NING Hai-long

    2005-01-01

    In the paper, a method of building mathematic model employing genetic multilayer feed forward neural network is presented, and the quantitative relationship of chemical measured values and near-infrared spectral data is established. In the paper, quantitative mathematic model related chemical assayed values and near-infrared spectral data is established by means of genetic multilayer feed forward neural network, acquired near-infrared spectral data are taken as input of network with the content of five kinds of fat acids tested from chemical method as output,weight values of multilayer feed forward neural network are trained by genetic algorithms and detection model of neural network of soybean is built. A kind of multilayer feed forward neural network trained by genetic algorithms is designed in the paper. Through experiments, all the related coefficients of five fat acids can approach 0.9 which satisfies the preliminary test of soybean breeding.

  16. Enhancing the performance of cut-and-carry based dairy production in selected peri-urban areas of the United Republic of Tanzania through strategic feed supplementation

    A survey was conducted in 81 smallholder farms in the peri-urban areas of Morogoro (Site I: n=52) and Dar es Salaam (Site II: n=29). The results showed that food supply was insufficient and of poor quality resulting in the poor performance of cows. In order to investigate the effect of farm-formulated concentrate (FC) or urea-molasses multinutrient-blocks (UMMB) in improving the productive and reproductive performance of dairy cattle, two feeding trials were carried out in 56 farms, 48 at Site I and 8 at Site II. The cost:benefit analysis determined their suitability for incorporation in dry season feeding. The FC was given to 14 farms at Site I (n=37 cows) to be incorporated in the diet of cows at the rate of 0.8 kg per litre of milk produced. The UMMB was tested in 18 farms (14 at Site I and 4 at Site II), fed to 27 cows (18 in Site I and 9 in Site II) at approximately 0.7 - 1.0 kg per cow per day. The Control group comprised of 14 farms (10 at Site I and 4 at Site II) with 28 cows (20 at Site I and 8 at Site II). The supplements were introduced to the farms after successful on-station trials for acceptability by dairy cows. Chemical composition and in sacco rumen degradability of the major feeds showed low CP content and degradability. Supplementation of forage with FC and UMMB was associated with increased milk production of 1.26 and 1.5 litres per cow/day and BCS and body weight changes of 0.2 and 4 kg and 0.25 and 8 kg, respectively. The improvement in milk yield, BCS and body weight change were significantly different in the UMMB supplemented cows (P0.05), and the control groups. Both supplementation strategies had no significant effect on reproductive performance. However, there was a slight reduction in the number of days postpartum (DPP) to first progesterone rise (65.3 vs 77.6), DPP to conception oestrus (120.2 vs 128.7), and calving interval (400 vs 414.5 days) in the UMMB supplemented cows compared to non-supplemented control animals. Conception rate

  17. Amino acids composition and protein quality evaluation of marine species and meals for feed formulations in cephalopods

    Cerezo Valverde, Jesús; Martínez-Llorens, Silvia; TOMÁS VIDAL, ANA; Jover Cerda, Miguel; Rodriguez, Carmen; Estefanell, Juan; Gairin, Joan I.; Domingues, Pedro Miguel; Rodriguez, Carlos J.; Garcia Garcia, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The amino acid composition and protein levels of three species of cephalopods (Octopus vulgaris, Loligo gahi and Todarodes sagittatus), the natural diets of common octopus (O. vulgaris) and different kinds of meals were determined in order to optimise the content of these nutrients in artificial feeds. Arginine, leucine and lysine were the most abundant essential amino acids in cephalopods, while glutamate and aspartate represented the main non-essential amino acids. Arginine and leucine were...

  18. Impact of enriching larval brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) with a supplement containing polyunsaturated fatty acids on their growth and mortality

    Prusińska Maja; Kushniry Olga; Khudyi Oleksii; Khuda Lidiia; Kolman Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the impact the commercial supplement S.presso (INVE Aquaculture, Belgium), a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids to enrich the proximate composition of brine shrimp (Artemia sp.), had on their growth and mortality. Four different enrichment protocols were investigated: the supplement was given in one or two doses at various time intervals. The results indicate that while S.presso increased nauplius mortality slightly, administering the appropriate dose ...

  19. Long-term ω-3 fatty acid supplementation induces anti-stress effects and improves learning in rats

    Pérez, Miguel Á; Terreros, Gonzalo; Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies

    2013-01-01

    Chronic stress leads to secretion of the adrenal steroid hormone corticosterone, inducing hippocampal atrophy and dendritic hypertrophy in the rat amygdala. Both alterations have been correlated with memory impairment and increased anxiety. Supplementation with ω-3 fatty acids improves memory and learning in rats. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ω-3 supplementation on learning and major biological and behavioral stress markers. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly assig...

  20. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Diabetic Nephropathy Progression in Patients with Diabetes and Hypertriglyceridemia

    Eugene Han; Yujung Yun; Gyuri Kim; Yong-Ho Lee; Hye Jin Wang; Byung-Wan Lee; Bong Soo Cha; Beom Seok Kim; Eun Seok Kang

    2016-01-01

    Beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acid (O3FA) supplementation in a wide range of disease condition have been well studied. However, there is limited information regarding the effects of O3FAs on chronic kidney disease (CKD), especially in diabetic nephropathy (DN) with hypertriglyceridemia. We investigate whether O3FA supplementation could help maintain renal function in patients with diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia. Total 344 type 2 diabetic patients with a history of O3FA supplementatio...

  1. Effects of supplementation with protected polyunsaturated fatty acids on productive and hormonal parameters of embryo recipient heifers

    Juan Camilo Angel Cardona; Harold Ospina Patino; Mônica Marcela Ramirez Hernandez; Carolina Heller Pereira; Kendall Swanson

    2016-01-01

    Supplementation with protected polyunsaturated fatty acids (PPUFA) has positive effects on cow reproduction. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding a source of PPUFA to energy supplements for embryo recipient heifers on productive performance and plasma concentrations of progesterone, cholesterol and insulin. For this purpose, 44 Angus x Hereford embryo recipient heifers (average body weight = 385 kg) raised on pasture were studied in a completely randomized de...

  2. Biodegradable polymers from organic acids by using activated sludge enriched by aerobic periodic feeding.

    Dionisi, Davide; Majone, Mauro; Papa, Viviana; Beccari, Mario

    2004-03-20

    This article describes a new process for the production of biopolymers (polyhydroxyalkanoates, PHAs) based on the aerobic enrichment of activated sludge to obtain mixed cultures able to store PHAs at high rates and yields. Enrichment was obtained through the selective pressure established by feeding the carbon source in a periodic mode (feast and famine regime) in a sequencing batch reactor. A concentrated mixture of acetic, lactic, and propionic acids (overall concentration of 8.5 gCOD L(-1)) was fed every 2 h at 1 day(-1) overall dilution rate. Even at such high organic load (8.5 gCOD L(-1) day(-1)), the selective pressure due to periodic feeding was effective in obtaining a biomass with a storage ability much higher than activated sludges. The immediate biomass response to substrate excess (as determined thorough short-term batch tests) was characterized by a storage rate and yield of 649 mgPHA (as COD) g biomass (as COD)(-1) h(-1) and 0.45 mgPHA (as COD) mg removed substrates (as COD(-1)), respectively. When the substrate excess was present for more than 2 h (long-term batch tests), the storage rate and yield decreased, whereas growth rate and yield significantly increased due to biomass adaptation. A maximum polymer fraction in the biomass was therefore obtained at about 50% (on COD basis). As for the PHA composition, the copolymer poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate/beta-hydroxyvalerate) with 31% of hydroxyvalerate monomer was produced from the substrate mixture. Comparison of the tests with individual and mixed substrates seemed to indicate that, on removing the substrate mixture for copolymer production, propionic acid was fully utilized to produce propionylCoA, whereas the acetylCoA was fully provided by acetic and lactic acid. PMID:14966798

  3. GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF WEANLING PIGS FED DIETS SUPPLEMENTED WITH CHLOROACETIC ACID

    N. AMAECHI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of chloroacetic acid on growth performance and heamatological parameters of weanling pigs. Thirty-six cross-bred weanling pigs (Landrace × Duroc were allotted randomly to four treatment groups, with three replicates of three weanling pigs in each group. Control (T1 weanling pigs were given a standard basal diet; Treatment 2, 3 and 4 were diets of 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 percents levels of inclusion of chloroacetic acid respectively. After six weeks, blood and intestinal samples were collected from one animal per replicate. Data on feed intake and weight gain were collected daily. Results showed that chloroacetic acid did improve the animal growth performance. There was a decrease in pH. There was significant differences (P<0.05 on white blood cell and mean corpuscular haemoglobin across the treatment. There was no significant difference (P<0.05 across the treatments on pack cell volume and red blood cell count. This study showed that chloroacetic acid influenced some haematological parameters, decreased the pH of the gastro-intestinal tract of the animals. Further studies will be needed to better understand the mechanisms underlying the effects observed when chloroacetic acid is fed to weanling pigs.

  4. Effect of supplementing essential fatty acids to pregnant nonlactating Holstein cows and their preweaned calves on calf performance, immune response, and health.

    Garcia, M; Greco, L F; Favoreto, M G; Marsola, R S; Wang, D; Shin, J H; Block, E; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P; Staples, C R

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of supplementing saturated or unsaturated fatty acids (FA) during late gestation of cows and during the preweaning period of calves on growth, health, and immune responses of calves. During the last 8wk of pregnancy, Holstein cattle (n=96) were fed no fat supplement (control), a saturated FA (SFA) supplement enriched in C18:0, or an unsaturated FA supplement enriched in the essential FA linoleic acid. Newborn calves were fed a milk replacer (MR) with either low linoleic acid (LLA; coconut oil) or high linoleic acid (HLA; coconut oil and porcine lard) concentration as the sole feedstuff during the first 30d. A grain mix with minimal linoleic acid was offered between 31 and 60d of life. At 30 and 60d of life, concentrations of linoleic acid in plasma were increased in calves born from dams supplemented with essential FA compared with SFA (44.0 vs. 42.5% of total FA) and in calves consuming HLA compared with LLA MR (46.3 vs. 40.8% of total FA). Total n-3 FA concentration was increased in plasma of calves fed HLA compared with LLA MR (1.44 vs. 1.32%) primarily due to increased α-linolenic acid. Prepartum supplementation with SFA tended to improve dry matter intake (48.8 vs. 46.7kg) and improved average daily gain (0.50 vs. 0.46kg/d) by calves without affecting efficiency of gain or circulating concentrations of anabolic metabolites or hormones. Increasing mean intake of linoleic acid from approximately 4.6 to 11.0g/d during the first 60d of life increased average daily gain (0.50 vs. 0.45kg/d) without a change in dry matter intake, thus improving feed efficiency (0.63 vs. 0.59kg of gain/kg of dry matter intake). Improved weight gain in calves fed HLA MR was accompanied by increased or tendency to increase plasma concentrations of glucose (92.7 vs. 89.9g/dL) and insulin-like growth factor I (59.5 vs. 53.2g/dL), increased hematocrit (36.0 vs. 34.4%) and concentration of blood lymphocytes (4.61 vs. 4.21×10(3)/μL), lowered plasma

  5. Altered maternal thyroid function: Effect of L-carnitine supplementation on fetal and neonatal myocardial free fatty acid oxidation,in vitro

    Kumar, Ratan

    1998-01-01

    Effect of L-carnitine supplementation on myocardial free fatty acid oxidation,in vitro, in offsprings born of hypothyroid and hyperthyroid mothers was studied in rats. L-carnitine supplementation stimulated myocardial fatty acid oxidation during gestational period in offspring born of control and hyperthyroid mothers. In contrast L-carnitine supplementation induced stimulation in myocardial fatty acid oxidation was very less in fetuses born of hypothyroid mothers. However, in neonates born of...

  6. Soybean meal enriched with microelements by biosorption--a new biological feed supplement for laying hens. Part I. Performance and egg traits.

    Witkowska, Z; Chojnacka, K; Korczyński, M; Świniarska, M; Saeid, A; Opaliński, S; Dobrzański, Z

    2014-05-15

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of soybean meal enriched with Cu(II), Zn(II), Fe(II) and Cr(III) by biosorption on egg traits (egg weight, eggshell strength, eggshell thickness, yolk colour, albumen height) and performance of laying hens. Also, the effect of increased microelement doses in biological form on egg quality parameters and hens performance was investigated. A consumer questionnaire was undertaken to evaluate the organoleptic parameters of the eggs. Generally, our study showed that in the groups fed with the new biological supplement, egg quality parameters improved, including eggshell strength, eggshell thickness, albumen height and yolk colour. The biological form of microelements also improved the feed conversion rate, especially in the group fed with a biological form of Cr(III). Moreover, the new supplement improved organoleptic parameters of the eggs, in comparison to the inorganic form of microelements as well as to chelate. Enriched soybean meal could constitute an alternative for currently used feed additives with microelements. PMID:24423506

  7. In vitro sensitivity of poultry Brachyspira intermedia isolates to essential oil components and in vivo reduction of Brachyspira intermedia in rearing pullets with cinnamaldehyde feed supplementation.

    Verlinden, M; Pasmans, F; Mahu, M; Vande Maele, L; De Pauw, N; Yang, Z; Haesebrouck, F; Martel, A

    2013-05-01

    Cecal enteritis due to Brachyspira infections tends to be chronic in laying hens. Limited availability of antimicrobial drugs for use in laying hens emphasizes the need for alternative control measures. A broth microdilution method was used to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of 20 Brachyspira intermedia field isolates from laying hen flocks to components of essential oils (EO). Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions, obtained for 8 EO components, were all monomodal. Cinnamaldehyde had the lowest MIC values (40 to 80 mg/L), followed by nerolidol, capsaicin, carvacrol, and thymol (80 to 320 mg/L), eugenol (160 to 640 mg/L), and linalool (320 to 1,280 mg/L). The MIC ranges of piperine were mostly above the test range of 1,280 mg/L. In an in vivo experiment, coated trans-cinnamaldehyde was supplemented to the feed of rearing pullets. A completely randomized experimental design with 4 treatments and 3 replicates each (replicate = group of seven 1-d-old laying hen chickens) was applied. The negative and positive controls received a conventional feed during the whole trial. The positive controls were orally inoculated on 3 consecutive days (d 22, 23, and 24) with 1 mL of 1.0 × 10(8) cfu/mL of a B. intermedia field isolate. Two treatment groups (preventive and curative), identically inoculated, received the coated trans-cinnamaldehyde-supplemented feed (500 mg/kg of trans-cinnamaldehyde), the preventive group from d 1, the curative from d 25. On d 32, ceca were collected for bacteriologic Brachyspira enumeration. The mean enumeration of Brachyspira cells was decreased (P poultry Brachyspira isolates, including isolates with acquired resistance for classic antimicrobial drugs. Reduction of Brachyspira colonization in young pullets was obtained, in a curative way, in an in vivo study using feed supplemented with coated trans-cinnamaldehyde. Further studies are necessary to investigate the mode of action of the coated trans-cinnamaldehyde in reducing

  8. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in primary nephrotic syndrome: effects on plasma lipids and coagulopathy.

    Hall, A V; Parbtani, A; Clark, W F; Spanner, E; Huff, M W; Philbrick, D J; Holub, B J

    1992-12-01

    The effect of fish oil dietary supplementation on the dyslipidemia and coagulopathy of seven patients with nephrotic syndrome and hypoalbuminemia due to primary kidney disease was studied. Plasma lipids, platelet aggregation studies, simplate bleeding time, and fibrinogen levels were determined before and after 6 wk of treatment with fish oil (15 g/day of MaxEPA; 2.7 g of eicosapentenoic acid (EPA) and 1.8 g of docosahexenoic acid. Urea kinetics were determined from urine-urea concentration, urinary proteina, and urine volume. A 3-day dietary intake record was obtained from each patient before and after 6 wk of fish oil supplementation. There was no significant dietary change in protein, fat, or carbohydrate intake over the time period of the study. At study end, total triglycerides decreased from 2.98 +/- 1.31 to 2.18 +/- 1.14 mmol/L (P = 0.002), and very low-density lipoprotein-triglycerides decreased from 2.35 +/- 1.34 to 1.28 +/- 1.07 mmol/L (P = 0.01). Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol increased from 5.18 +/- 1.74 to 7.35 +/- 2.83 mmol/L (P = 0.005). No significant changes occurred in bleeding time, platelet count, hematocrit, red blood cell flexibility, or whole blood viscosity. Platelet aggregation responses to collagen and arachidonic acid were consistently reduced after treatment, but there was no change in platelet response to ADP. The platelet membrane phospolipids showed a significantly increased incorporation of EPA after the fish oil diet (P = 0.03).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1477328

  9. Production of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates by sequential feeding of xylose and octanoic acid in engineered Pseudomonas putida KT2440

    Le Meur Sylvaine

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is able to synthesize large amounts of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHAs. To reduce the substrate cost, which represents nearly 50% of the total PHA production cost, xylose, a hemicellulose derivate, was tested as the growth carbon source in an engineered P. putida KT2440 strain. Results The genes encoding xylose isomerase (XylA and xylulokinase (XylB from Escherichia coli W3110 were introduced into P. putida KT2440. The recombinant KT2440 exhibited a XylA activity of 1.47 U and a XylB activity of 0.97 U when grown on a defined medium supplemented with xylose. The cells reached a maximum specific growth rate of 0.24 h-1 and a final cell dry weight (CDW of 2.5 g L-1 with a maximal yield of 0.5 g CDW g-1 xylose. Since no mcl-PHA was accumulated from xylose, mcl-PHA production can be controlled by the addition of fatty acids leading to tailor-made PHA compositions. Sequential feeding strategy was applied using xylose as the growth substrate and octanoic acid as the precursor for mcl-PHA production. In this way, up to 20% w w-1 of mcl-PHA was obtained. A yield of 0.37 g mcl-PHA per g octanoic acid was achieved under the employed conditions. Conclusions Sequential feeding of relatively cheap carbohydrates and expensive fatty acids is a practical way to achieve more cost-effective mcl-PHA production. This study is the first reported attempt to produce mcl-PHA by using xylose as the growth substrate. Further process optimizations to achieve higher cell density and higher productivity of mcl-PHA should be investigated. These scientific exercises will undoubtedly contribute to the economic feasibility of mcl-PHA production from renewable feedstock.

  10. n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation and Leukocyte Telomere Length in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Barden, Anne; O'Callaghan, Nathan; Burke, Valerie; Mas, Emile; Beilin, Lawrence J; Fenech, Michael; Irish, Ashley B; Watts, Gerald F; Puddey, Ian B; Huang, Rae-Chi; Mori, Trevor A

    2016-03-01

    DNA telomere shortening associates with the age-related increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Reducing oxidative stress, could modify telomere erosion during cell replication, and CVD risk in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The effect of n-3 fatty acids and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) on telomere length was studied in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial in CKD. Eighty-five CKD patients were randomized to: n-3 fatty acids (4 g); CoQ (200 mg); both supplements; or control (4 g olive oil), daily for 8 weeks. Telomere length was measured in neutrophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) at baseline and 8 weeks, with and without correction for cell counts. Main and interactive effects of n-3 fatty acids and CoQ on telomere length were assessed adjusting for baseline values. F₂-isoprostanes were measured as markers of oxidative stress. There was no effect of n-3 fatty acids or CoQ on neutrophil or PBMC telomere length. However, telomere length corrected for neutrophil count was increased after n-3 fatty acids (p = 0.015). Post-intervention plasma F₂-isoprostanes were negative predictors of post-intervention telomere length corrected for neutrophil count (p = 0.025).The effect of n-3 fatty acids to increased telomere length corrected for neutrophil count may relate to reduced oxidative stress and increased clearance of neutrophils with shorter telomeres from the circulation. This may be a novel mechanism of modifying CVD risk in CKD patients. PMID:27007392

  11. Feed Feeds: Managing Feeds Using Feeds

    Wilde, Erik; Pesenson, Igor

    2008-01-01

    Feeds have become an important information channel on the Web, but the management of feed metadata so far has received little attention. It is hard for feed publishers to manage and publish their feed information in a unified format, and for feed consumers to manage and use their feed subscription data across various feed readers, and to share it with other users. We present a system for managing feed metadata using feeds, which we call "feed feeds". Because these feeds are Atom feeds, the wi...

  12. Large Neutral Amino Acid Supplementation Exerts Its Effect through Three Synergistic Mechanisms: Proof of Principle in Phenylketonuria Mice.

    Danique van Vliet

    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria (PKU was the first disorder in which severe neurocognitive dysfunction could be prevented by dietary treatment. However, despite this effect, neuropsychological outcome in PKU still remains suboptimal and the phenylalanine-restricted diet is very demanding. To improve neuropsychological outcome and relieve the dietary restrictions for PKU patients, supplementation of large neutral amino acids (LNAA is suggested as alternative treatment strategy that might correct all brain biochemical disturbances caused by high blood phenylalanine, and thereby improve neurocognitive functioning.As a proof-of-principle, this study aimed to investigate all hypothesized biochemical treatment objectives of LNAA supplementation (normalizing brain phenylalanine, non-phenylalanine LNAA, and monoaminergic neurotransmitter concentrations in PKU mice.C57Bl/6 Pah-enu2 (PKU mice and wild-type mice received a LNAA supplemented diet, an isonitrogenic/isocaloric high-protein control diet, or normal chow. After six weeks of dietary treatment, blood and brain amino acid and monoaminergic neurotransmitter concentrations were assessed.In PKU mice, the investigated LNAA supplementation regimen significantly reduced blood and brain phenylalanine concentrations by 33% and 26%, respectively, compared to normal chow (p<0.01, while alleviating brain deficiencies of some but not all supplemented LNAA. Moreover, LNAA supplementation in PKU mice significantly increased brain serotonin and norepinephrine concentrations from 35% to 71% and from 57% to 86% of wild-type concentrations (p<0.01, respectively, but not brain dopamine concentrations (p = 0.307.This study shows that LNAA supplementation without dietary phenylalanine restriction in PKU mice improves brain biochemistry through all three hypothesized biochemical mechanisms. Thereby, these data provide proof-of-concept for LNAA supplementation as a valuable alternative dietary treatment strategy in PKU. Based on these

  13. Long-term omega-3 fatty acid supplementation prevents expression changes in cochlear homocysteine metabolism and ameliorates progressive hearing loss in C57BL/6J mice.

    Martínez-Vega, Raquel; Partearroyo, Teresa; Vallecillo, Néstor; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Pajares, María A; Varela-Nieto, Isabel

    2015-12-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential nutrients well known for their beneficial effects, among others on cognitive development and maintenance, inflammation and oxidative stress. Previous studies have shown an inverse association between high plasma levels of PUFAs and age-related hearing loss, and the relationship between low serum folate and elevated plasma homocysteine levels and hearing loss. Therefore, we used C57BL/6J mice and long-term omega-3 supplementation to evaluate the impact on hearing by analyzing their auditory brainstem response (ABR) and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) thresholds. The omega-3 group showed significantly lower ABR hearing thresholds (~25 dB sound pressure level) and higher DPOAE amplitudes in mid-high frequencies when compared to the control group. These changes did not correlate with alterations between groups in plasma homocysteine or serum folate levels as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and a microbiological method, respectively. Aging in the control group was associated with imbalanced cytokine expression toward increased proinflammatory cytokines as determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction; these changes were prevented by omega-3 supplementation. Genes involved in homocysteine metabolism showed decreased expression during aging of control animals, and only alterations in Bhmt and Cbs were significantly prevented by omega-3 feeding. Western blotting showed that omega-3 supplementation precluded the CBS protein increase detected in 10-month-old controls but also produced an increase in BHMT protein levels. Altogether, the results obtained suggest a long-term protective role of omega-3 supplementation on cochlear metabolism and progression of hearing loss. PMID:26321228

  14. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of copper compounds (E4 as feed additives for all species: cupric chelate of amino acids hydrate, based on a dossier submitted by Zinpro Animal Nutrition Inc.

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cupric chelate of amino acids hydrate is safe for all animal species/categories up to the authorised maximum of total copper content in complete feed. Consumption surveys include copper from foodstuffs of animal origin. Since the supplementation of animal feed with copper-containing compounds has not essentially changed over the last decade, no change in the contribution of foodstuffs originating from supplemented animals to the overall copper intake of consumers is expected. No concerns for consumer safety are expected from the use of cupric chelate of amino acids hydrate in animal nutrition, which would substitute for other copper sources. The additive should be considered as a skin and eye irritant and, owing to its amino acid/peptide component, as a skin/respiratory sensitiser. Potential risks to soil organisms have been identified as a result of the application of piglet manure. Levels of copper in other types of manure are too low to create a potential risk within the timescale considered. There might also be a potential environmental concern related to the contamination of sediment resulting from drainage and the run-off of copper to surface water. In order to draw a final conclusion, further model validation is needed and some further refinement to the assessment of copper-based feed additives in livestock needs to be considered, for which additional data would be required. The use of copper-containing additives in aquaculture up to the authorised maximum of total copper content in complete feeds is not expected to pose an appreciable risk to the environment. The extent to which copper-resistant bacteria contribute to the overall antibiotic resistance situation cannot be quantified at present. Cupric chelate of amino acids hydrate is recognised as an efficacious source of copper to meet animal requirements.

  15. Effect of Dietary Supplementation of the Combination of Gallic and Linoleic Acid in Thigh Meat of Broilers

    Lee, Kyung Haeng; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Il Suk; Lee, Jun Heon; Jo, Cheorun

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the combined effect of dietary supplementation of gallic and linoleic acid (GL) on the antioxidative effect and quality of thigh meat from broilers. Broilers received 3 dietary treatments: i) commercial finisher diet (control), ii) 0.5% GL (gallic:linoleic acid = 1 M:1 M), and iii) 1.0% GL during the 22 to 36 d. The pH value of broiler thigh meat was increased by GL supplementation. Water holding capacity of the thigh meat was enhanced by the 1.0% dieta...

  16. Myenteric neurons and intestinal mucosa of diabetic rats after ascorbic acid supplementation

    Priscila de Freitas; Maria Raquel Martal Natali; Renata Virginia Fernandes Pereira; Marcilio Hubner Miranda Nero; Jacqueline Nelisis Zanoni

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of ascorbic acid (AA) dietary supplementation on myenteric neurons and epithelial cell proliferation of the jejunum of adult rats with chronic diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Thirty rats at 90 d of age were divided into three groups: Non-diabetic, diabetic and diabetic treated with AA (DA) (1 g/L). After 120 d of treatment with AA the animals were killed. The myenteric neurons were stained for myosin-V and analyzed quantitatively in an area of 11.2 mm2/animal. We further measured the cellular area of 500 neurons per group. We also determined the metaphasic index (MI) of the jejunum mucosa layer of about 2500 cells in the intestinal crypts, as well as the dimensions of 30 villi and 30 crypts/animal. The data area was analyzed using the Olympus BX40 microscope. RESULTS: There was an increase of 14% in the neuronal density (792.6±46.52 vs 680.6±30.27) and 4.4% in the cellular area (303.4±5.19 vs 291.1 ±6.0) respectively of the diabetic group treated with AA when compared to control diabetic animals. There were no significant differences in MI parameters, villi height or crypt depths among the groups. CONCLUSION: Supplementation with AA in the diabetic animal promoted moderate neuroprotection. There was no observation of alteration of the cellular proliferation of the jejunum mucosa layer of rats with chronic diabetes meilitus with or without supplementation with AA.

  17. Impact of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Memory Functions in Healthy Older Adults.

    Külzow, Nadine; Witte, A Veronica; Kerti, Lucia; Grittner, Ulrike; Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Hahn, Andreas; Flöel, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    As the process of Alzheimer's disease (AD) begins years before disease onset, searching for prevention strategies is of major medical and economic importance. Nutritional supplementation with long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (LC-n3-FA) may exert beneficial effects on brain structure and function. However, experimental evidence in older adults without clinical dementia is inconsistent, possibly due to low sensitivity of previously employed test batteries for detecting subtle improvements in cognition in healthy individuals. Here we used LOCATO, recently described as a robust and sensitive tool for assessing object-location memory (OLM) in older adults, to evaluate the impact of LC-n3-FA supplementation on learning and memory formation. In a double-blind placebo-controlled proof-of-concept study, 44 (20 female) cognitively healthy individuals aged 50-75 years received either LC-n3-FA (2,200 mg/day, n = 22) or placebo (n = 22) for 26 weeks. Before and after intervention, memory performance in the OLM-task (primary) was tested. As secondary outcome parameters, performance in Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), dietary habits, omega-3-index, and other blood-derived parameters were assessed. Omega-3 index increased significantly in the LC-n3-FA group compared with the placebo group. Moreover, recall of object locations was significantly better after LC-n3-FA supplementation compared with placebo. Performance in the AVLT was not significantly affected by LC-n3-FA. This double-blind placebo-controlled proof-of-concept study provides further experimental evidence that LC-n3-FA exert positive effects on memory functions in healthy older adults. Our findings suggest novel strategies to maintain cognitive functions into old age. PMID:26890759

  18. Effects of an energy-dense diet and nicotinic acid supplementation on production and metabolic variables of primiparous or multiparous cows in periparturient period.

    Tienken, Reka; Kersten, Susanne; Frahm, Jana; Meyer, Ulrich; Locher, Lena; Rehage, Jürgen; Huber, Korinna; Kenéz, Ákos; Sauerwein, Helga; Mielenz, Manfred; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    It is well observed that feeding energy-dense diets in dairy cows during the dry period can cause metabolic imbalances after parturition. Especially dairy cows with high body condition score (BCS) and fed an energy-dense diet were prone to develop production diseases due to metabolic disturbances postpartum. An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of an energy-dense diet and nicotinic acid (NA) on production and metabolic variables of primiparous and multiparous cows in late pregnancy and early lactation which were not pre-selected for high BCS. Thirty-six multiparous and 20 primiparous German Holstein cows with equal body conditions were fed with energy-dense (60% concentrate/40% roughage mixture; HC group) or adequate (30% concentrate/70% roughage mixture; LC group) diets prepartum. After parturition, concentrate proportion was dropped to 30% for all HC and LC groups and was increased to 50% within 16 days for LC and within 24 days for HC cows. In addition, half of the cows per group received 24 g NA supplement per day and cow aimed to attenuate the lipid mobilisation postpartum. Feeding energy-dense diets to late-pregnant dairy cows elevated the dry matter (p period. However, this did not result in any metabolic deviation postpartum as the effects of prepartum concentrate feeding were not carried over into postpartum period. Multiparous cows responded more profoundly to energy-dense feeding prepartum compared with primiparous cows, and parity-related differences in the transition from late pregnancy to lactation were obvious pre- and postpartum. The supplementation with 24 g NA did not reveal any effect on energy metabolism. This study clearly showed that energy-dense feeding prepartum did not result in metabolic imbalances postpartum in multiparous and primiparous cows not selected for high BCS. A genetic predisposition for an anabolic metabolic status as indicated by high BCS may be crucial for developing production diseases at the onset of

  19. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Nutritional strategies for ruminants fed on local feed supplemented with molasses multi-nutrient blocks

    At the request of the Government of Indonesia, an IAEA expert undertook a three-week mission from 18 June 1989 to 7 July 1989 at the Centre for the Application of Isotopes and Radiation (PAIR/BATAN), National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta, within the framework of a project entitled: ''Assessment of molasses/multi-nutrient blocks for ruminants in Indonesia (with emphasis on small-farm holders)'' (INS/88/013 - 11.66 - Agricultural Production). The project involves field evaluations of supplementation strategies at a number of provinces and is backed by controlled laboratory studies at PAIR/BATAN. Recent field studies confirm the potential for improved production from goats, sheep, dairy cattle and buffaloes in response to supplementation. The increased production is justified by cost/benefit analysis but further improvements should be possible when least cost supplements are devised for local conditions. The Expert worked closely with the leader of the group in the Animal Nutrition and Production Section, Dr. C. Hendratno, and her staff to interpret, summarize and report on results of recently completed, existing field studies; to initiate new field studies in different provinces of Java; to develop nuclear and other techniques for use in planned intensive laboratory studies aimed at identifying the ingredients in urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks that are responsible for their success as supplements for goats, dairy cattle and buffaloes in a number of locations in Java. (author)

  20. Amino acid supplementation and impact on immune function in the context of exercise.

    Cruzat, Vinicius Fernandes; Krause, Maurício; Newsholme, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Moderate and chronic bouts of exercise may lead to positive metabolic, molecular, and morphological adaptations, improving health. Although exercise training stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), their overall intracellular concentration may not reach damaging levels due to enhancement of antioxidant responses. However, inadequate exercise training (i.e., single bout of high-intensity or excessive exercise) may result in oxidative stress, muscle fatigue and muscle injury. Moreover, during the recovery period, impaired immunity has been reported, for example; excessive-inflammation and compensatory immunosuppression. Nutritional supplements, sometimes referred to as immuno-nutrients, may be required to reduce immunosuppression and excessive inflammation. Herein, we discuss the action and the possible targets of key immuno-nutrients such as L-glutamine, L-arginine, branched chain amino acids (BCAA) and whey protein. PMID:25530736

  1. Physiological and performance responses to supplementation with thiamin and pantothenic acid derivatives.

    Webster, M J

    1998-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological and performance responses to supplementation with allithiamin and pantethine. On two separate occasions, six highly trained cyclists [maximum O2 consumption or VO2max 61.8 (2.1) ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)] performed a 50-km steady-state ride on a cycle ergometer at a workload corresponding to approximately 60% of VO2max followed by a 2000-m time trial. For 7 days prior to each ride, subjects daily ingested either a placebo (PL) or a combination of 1 g of allithiamin and 1.8 g of a 55%/45% pantethine/pantothenic acid compound (AP). Treatments were administered using a randomized, double-blind, counter-balanced design. During the 50km ride, measures of heart rate, respiratory gas exchange and ratings of perceived exertion were recorded at 5, 15, 25, 35 and 45 km. Blood samples were collected at 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 km and analyzed for lactate, glucose and free fatty acids. Blood samples for the analysis of lactate were also collected 3 and 5 min after the completion of the 2000-m time trial. There were no significant differences in any of the measured parameters between experimental conditions. Time to complete the 2000-m time trial was also not significantly different between experimental conditions [PL 178.2 (8.4), AP 170.7 (10.2) s; P=0.58]. These results suggest that, despite the reported enhanced absorption properties, supplementation with allithiamin and pantethine does not alter exercise metabolism or exercise performance. PMID:9650731

  2. Investigation of Food Acceptability and Feeding Practices for Lipid Nutrient Supplements and Blended Flours Used to Treat Moderate Malnutrition

    Wang, Richard J.; Trehan, Indi; LaGrone, Lacey N.; Weisz, Ariana J.; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie M.; Maleta, Kenneth M.; Manary, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine acceptability and feeding practices associated with different supplementary food items and identify practices associated with weight gain. Methods: Caregivers (n = 409) whose children had been enrolled in a trial comparing a fortified corn-soy blended flour (CSB++), soy ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF), and soy/whey…

  3. Potential therapeutic effects of branched-chain amino acids supplementation on resistance exercise-based muscle damage in humans

    da Luz Claudia R

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA supplementation has been considered an interesting nutritional strategy to improve skeletal muscle protein turnover in several conditions. In this context, there is evidence that resistance exercise (RE-derived biochemical markers of muscle soreness (creatine kinase (CK, aldolase, myoglobin, soreness, and functional strength may be modulated by BCAA supplementation in order to favor of muscle adaptation. However, few studies have investigated such effects in well-controlled conditions in humans. Therefore, the aim of this short report is to describe the potential therapeutic effects of BCAA supplementation on RE-based muscle damage in humans. The main point is that BCAA supplementation may decrease some biochemical markers related with muscle soreness but this does not necessarily reflect on muscle functionality.

  4. Persistent fibrosis in the liver of choline-deficient and iron-supplemented L-amino acid-defined diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis rat due to continuing oxidative stress after choline supplementation

    Takeuchi-Yorimoto, Ayano, E-mail: ayano.takeuchi@astellas.com [Drug Safety Research Labs, Astellas Pharma Inc., Osaka 532-8514 (Japan); Noto, Takahisa [Drug Safety Research Labs, Astellas Pharma Inc., Osaka 532-8514 (Japan); Yamada, Atsushi [Drug Safety Research Division, Astellas Research Technologies Co., Ltd., Osaka 532-8514 (Japan); Miyamae, Yoichi; Oishi, Yuji; Matsumoto, Masahiro [Drug Safety Research Labs, Astellas Pharma Inc., Osaka 532-8514 (Japan)

    2013-05-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by combined pathology of steatosis, lobular inflammation, fibrosis, and hepatocellular degeneration, with systemic symptoms of diabetes or hyperlipidemia, all in the absence of alcohol abuse. Given the therapeutic importance and conflicting findings regarding the potential for healing the histopathologic features of NASH in humans, particularly fibrosis, we investigated the reversibility of NASH-related findings in Wistar rats fed a choline-deficient and iron-supplemented L-amino acid-defined (CDAA) diet for 12 weeks, with a recovery period of 7 weeks, during which the diets were switched to a choline-sufficient and iron-supplemented L-amino acid-defined (CSAA) one. Analysis showed that steatosis and inflammation were significantly resolved by the end of the recovery period, along with decreases in AST and ALT activities within 4 weeks. In contrast, fibrosis remained even after the recovery period, to an extent similar to that in continuously CDAA-fed animals. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemical investigations revealed that expression of some factors indicating oxidative stress (CYP2E1, 4-HNE, and iNOS) were elevated, whereas catalase and SOD1 were decreased, and a hypoxic state and CD34-positive neovascularization were evident even after the recovery period, although the fibrogenesis pathway by activated α-SMA-positive hepatic stellate cells via TGF-β and TIMPs decreased to the CSAA group level. In conclusion, persistent fibrosis was noted after the recovery period of 7 weeks, possibly due to sustained hypoxia and oxidative stress supposedly caused by capillarization. Otherwise, histopathological features of steatosis and inflammation, as well as serum AST and ALT activities, were recovered. - Highlights: ► NASH-like liver lesions are induced in rats by feeding a CDAA diet. ► Steatosis and lobular inflammation are resolved after switching to a

  5. Persistent fibrosis in the liver of choline-deficient and iron-supplemented L-amino acid-defined diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis rat due to continuing oxidative stress after choline supplementation

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by combined pathology of steatosis, lobular inflammation, fibrosis, and hepatocellular degeneration, with systemic symptoms of diabetes or hyperlipidemia, all in the absence of alcohol abuse. Given the therapeutic importance and conflicting findings regarding the potential for healing the histopathologic features of NASH in humans, particularly fibrosis, we investigated the reversibility of NASH-related findings in Wistar rats fed a choline-deficient and iron-supplemented L-amino acid-defined (CDAA) diet for 12 weeks, with a recovery period of 7 weeks, during which the diets were switched to a choline-sufficient and iron-supplemented L-amino acid-defined (CSAA) one. Analysis showed that steatosis and inflammation were significantly resolved by the end of the recovery period, along with decreases in AST and ALT activities within 4 weeks. In contrast, fibrosis remained even after the recovery period, to an extent similar to that in continuously CDAA-fed animals. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemical investigations revealed that expression of some factors indicating oxidative stress (CYP2E1, 4-HNE, and iNOS) were elevated, whereas catalase and SOD1 were decreased, and a hypoxic state and CD34-positive neovascularization were evident even after the recovery period, although the fibrogenesis pathway by activated α-SMA-positive hepatic stellate cells via TGF-β and TIMPs decreased to the CSAA group level. In conclusion, persistent fibrosis was noted after the recovery period of 7 weeks, possibly due to sustained hypoxia and oxidative stress supposedly caused by capillarization. Otherwise, histopathological features of steatosis and inflammation, as well as serum AST and ALT activities, were recovered. - Highlights: ► NASH-like liver lesions are induced in rats by feeding a CDAA diet. ► Steatosis and lobular inflammation are resolved after switching to a

  6. Can breeder reproductive status, performance and egg quality be enhanced by supplementation and transition of n-3 fatty acids?

    Delezie, E; Koppenol, A; Buyse, J; Everaert, N

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of n-3 fatty acid (FA) supplemented diets on breeder performance, productivity and egg quality. Breeders (n = 480) were fed the supplemented diet from 18 weeks onwards; the inclusion level of n-3 FA was increased from 1.5% to 3.0% from 34 weeks of age onwards until 48 weeks of age. Ross-308 broiler breeders (n = 480) were fed one of four different diets: a basal diet rich in n-6 FA (control diet) or one of three diets rich in n-3 FA. For the n-3 FA diets, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) were fed to the broiler breeders at different ratios formulated to obtain EPA/DHA ratios of 1/1, 1/2 or 2/1. Differences in performance, reproduction and egg quality parameters due to n-3 supplementation were noted more for the 1.5% followed by the 3.0% fed broilers than their 1.5% supplemented counterparts. Egg weight (p EPA- and DHA-fed breeders, a higher proportional abdominal fat percentage (p = 0.025) and proportional albumen weight (%) (p = 0.041) were found respectively. Dietary treatments did not affect reproduction. It can be concluded that the results of the present experiment indicate no significant differences between treatments at 1.5% inclusion levels. However, increasing this level to 3.0% is not recommended due to the rather negative effects on the measured parameters. It should be further investigated whether these adverse effects were obtained due to (i) the higher supplementation level, (ii) combining a supplementation level of 1.5% with 3% or (iii) the duration of supplementation. PMID:26854179

  7. Effect of Supplemental Feeding with Glycerol or Propylene Glycol in Early Lactation on the Fertility of Swedish Dairy Cows

    Lomander, H; Gustafsson, H; Frössling, J; Ingvartsen, K L; Larsen, T; Svensson, C

    2012-01-01

    semi-parametric survival models (Cox proportional hazards models) controlling for the effect of parity, breed, calving season, milk yield and the clustering effect of herd. There was no difference in time to FLA between the cows in group C and in group GLY or PG. No differences in time to FAI or in...... 450 g GLY, 300 g PG or nothing (control, C). The supplements were given twice daily during 0–21 days in milk as a top dress on concentrates. Data on calving date, insemination dates, gynaecological examinations, as well as breed, parity and monthly milk yield were collected. From a subset of 308 cows...... in seven herds, milk samples for progesterone analysis were taken twice weekly and used to determine the time for onset of luteal activity. The effects of supplements on the intervals from calving to first luteal activity (FLA), first AI (FAI) and conception (CON), respectively, were analysed using...

  8. Immunological effects of feeding macroalgae and various vitamin E supplements in Norwegian white sheep-ewes and their offspring

    Novoa-Garrido, M; Aanensen, L; Lind, V;

    2014-01-01

    vitamin E source is synthetic all-rac-α-tocopheryl acteate. The objective of the present study was to compare potential vitamin E and immune stimulant sources with synthetic vitamin E regarding bioactivity associated with immunological parameters in order to identify alternatives to synthetic vitamin E...... for small ruminants. Sources tested were meal of the seaweed Ascophylum nodosum and natural RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate. Forty pregnant ewes were randomly allocated to four treatment group with two replicates (5 ewes in each replicate). The treatments were supplements containing seaweed (SW: 546 g...... Ascophylum nodosum/kg), natural vitamin E (NatE: 562.5 mg RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate/kg), synthetic vitamin E (SyntE: 1125 mg all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate/kg), or no extra seaweed or vitamin E (control). The supplements were fed at an isoenergetic daily rate, on average 144 g DM/ewe for SW and 114 g DM/ewe for...

  9. Supplemental Feeding for Ecotourism Reverses Diel Activity and Alters Movement Patterns and Spatial Distribution of the Southern Stingray, Dasyatis americana

    Corcoran, Mark J.; Wetherbee, Bradley M.; Shivji, Mahmood S; Potenski, Matthew D.; Chapman, Demian D.; Harvey, Guy M.

    2013-01-01

    Southern stingrays, Dasyatis americana, have been provided supplemental food in ecotourism operations at Stingray City Sandbar (SCS), Grand Cayman since 1986, with this site becoming one of the world’s most famous and heavily visited marine wildlife interaction venues. Given expansion of marine wildlife interactive tourism worldwide, there are questions about the effects of such activities on the focal species and their ecosystems. We used a combination of acoustic telemetry and tag-recapture...

  10. The effect of alpha-linolenic acid supplementation on ADHD symptoms in children: a randomized controlled double-blind study

    Gal Dubnov-Raz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is the most common neuro-developmental disorder in childhood. Its pharmacologic treatment mostly includes methylphenidate, yet many parents seek alternative, "natural", therapeutic options, commonly omega-3 fatty acids. Previous studies of supplementation with fish oil or long-chain omega-3 fatty acids to children with ADHD yielded mixed results. The use of alpha-linolenic acid, a medium-chained, plant-based omega-3 fatty acid (18:3 n-3, has not been sufficiently examined in this population. Methods: Forty untreated children with ADHD, aged 6-16 years, were randomized to receive either 2gr/day of oil containing 1gr alpha-linolenic acid or placebo, for 8 weeks. Before and after supplementation, the children underwent a physician assessment of ADHD symptoms and a computerized continuous performance functions test. The children's parents and teachers filled out Conners' and DSM questionnaires. Results: Seventeen (42.5% children completed the study, 8 in the supplementation group, 9 in the placebo group. Main drop-out reasons were capsule size, poor compliance, and a sense of lack of effect. No significant difference was found in any of the measured variables tested before and after supplementation, in both study groups. No between-group difference was found in the changes of the various measures of ADHD symptoms throughout the study period. Conclusion: Supplementation of 2gr/day of oil containing 1gr alpha-linolenic acid did not significantly reduce symptoms in children with ADHD. Future studies in this field should consider an alternative method to deliver the oil, a higher dose, and a larger sample size.

  11. Summary of the co-ordinated research project on development of feed supplementation strategies for improving the productivity of dairy cattle on smallholder farms in Africa

    Livestock are an important and integral part of most farming systems in Africa. Recent nutritional research has demonstrated the possibility of substantial increases in the productivity of milk-producing animals fed poor quality roughages through small alterations to the feed base. In some cases, improvements have been demonstrated at the farm level: milk yield has increased, body condition of the animals has improved and age at puberty and the interval between calvings have been reduced. These advances have been brought about by the addition of critical nutrients to the diet, e.g. nitrogen or minerals for the rumen micro-organisms or rumen non-degradable protein or all of these. The introduction of improved feeding practices such as strategic supplementation using locally available feed resources (e.g. tree legume leaves, brewers waste, fish waste, multinutrient blocks, etc.) will not only enhance milk production but will also introduce a sustainable fanning practice that will ensure a continuous supply of milk and milk products to local populations. To introduce effective supplementation there is a need to identify the nutrient or combination of nutrients that are the limiting factors for achieving optimum rumen fermentative digestion of the basal diet or the efficiency of utilization of the major products of digestion. In many of the dairying systems operating in Africa this is far from easy, mainly because of the difficulties encountered in effectively measuring feed intake and selection and the efficiency with which the nutrients absorbed are used for productive purposes. In order to circumvent these difficulties it may be possible to measure biochemical indicators in the cows themselves that provide an assessment of nutrient status. The specific objectives of the co-ordinated research project (CRP) were to: - btain baseline information on production and reproductive parameters using a comprehensive survey, progesterone radioimmunoassay and clinical

  12. The Pattern of Fatty Acids Displaced by EPA and DHA Following 12 Months Supplementation Varies between Blood Cell and Plasma Fractions

    Walker, Celia G.; West, Annette L.; Browning, Lucy M; Jackie Madden; Gambell, Joanna M; Jebb, Susan A.; Calder, Philip C.

    2015-01-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are increased in plasma lipids and blood cell membranes in response to supplementation. Whilst arachidonic acid (AA) is correspondingly decreased, the effect on other fatty acids (FA) is less well described and there may be site-specific differences. In response to 12 months EPA + DHA supplementation in doses equivalent to 0–4 portions of oily fish/week (1 portion: 3.27 g EPA+DHA) multinomial regression analysis was used to identify...

  13. Effect of Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on the Participation of Vasodilator Factors in Aorta from Orchidectomized Rats

    Villalpando, Diva M.; Navarro, Rocío; del Campo, Lara; Largo, Carlota; Muñoz, David; Tabernero, María; Baeza, Ramiro; Otero, Cristina; García, Hugo S.; Ferrer, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Benefits of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) against cardiovascular diseases have been reported. Vascular tone regulation is largely mediated by endothelial factors whose release is modulated by sex hormones. Since the incidence of cardiovascular pathologies has been correlated with decreased levels of sex hormones, the aim of this study was to analyze whether a diet supplemented with the specific PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) could prevent vascular changes induced by an impaired gon...

  14. Fatty acid profile of milk and Cacioricotta cheese from Italian Simmental cows as affected by dietary flaxseed supplementation.

    Santillo, A; Caroprese, M; Marino, R; d'Angelo, F; Sevi, A; Albenzio, M

    2016-04-01

    The study aimed to determine the effects of adding flaxseed to the diet on the fatty acid profile of the milk of Italian Simmental cows and on the Cacioricotta cheese thereby produced. The experiment involved 24 Italian Simmental cows divided into 2 groups of 12 animals according to the diet fed: a control diet (CO) with no flaxseed supplementation, and a diet supplemented with whole flaxseed (FS). Milk yield and composition was not significantly changed by diet, whereas saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were increased by flaxseed supplementation. Cows fed flaxseed showed higher percentages of long-chain fatty acids: in particular, linolenic acids, mainly represented by C18:3n-3, and n-3 series were higher in the FS group than in the CO group. The percentage of MUFA was higher by about 12% in FS than in CO, mainly due to the contribution of C18:1 cis-9. The percentage of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in milk was not significantly changed by flaxseed supplementation. Furthermore, atherogenic and thrombogenic indices were lower by about 30 and 16%, respectively, in the FS group compared with the CO group. The fatty acid profile of Cacioricotta cheese produced using Italian Simmental cow milk showed higher levels of MUFA, PUFA, and n-3, and improved atherogenic and thrombogenic indices in FS than in CO, confirming the ability to transfer beneficial molecules from milk into cheese. In particular, cheese-making technology contributed to the increased CLA content in Cacioricotta cheese. PMID:26851850

  15. Effect of Taurine Supplementation on the Alterations in Amino Acid Content in Skeletal Muscle with Exercise in Rat

    Keisuke Ishikura; Teruo Miyazaki; Song-Gyu Ra; Shoji Endo; Yusuke Nakamura; Takashi Matsuzaka; Shumpei Miyakawa; Hajime Ohmori

    2011-01-01

    Taurine included abundantly in skeletal muscle, particularly in the slow-twitch fibers, enhances exercise performance. However, the exact mechanisms for this effect have been unclear. The present study investigated the influence of taurine supplementation on amino acids profile in skeletal muscles as one of mechanisms in the enhancement of exercise performance induced by taurine. In the rats that received taurine solution, amino acids concentrations were comprehensively quantified in two port...

  16. Lack of periconceptional vitamins or supplements that contain folic acid and diabetes mellitus–associated birth defects

    Correa, Adolfo; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Moore, Cynthia A.; Hobbs, Charlotte A.; Cleves, Mario A.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany J.; Waller, D. Kim; Reece, E. Albert

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to examine the risk of birth defects in relation to diabetes mellitus and the lack of use of periconceptional vitamins or supplements that contain folic acid. STUDY DESIGN The National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997-2004) is a multicenter, population-based case-control study of birth defects (14,721 cases and 5437 control infants). Cases were categorized into 18 types of heart defects and 26 noncardiac birth defects. We estimated odds ratios for independent and joint effects of preexisting diabetes mellitus and a lack of periconceptional use of vitamins or supplements that contain folic acid. RESULTS The pattern of odds ratios suggested an increased risk of defects that are associated with diabetes mellitus in the absence vs the presence of the periconceptional use of vitamins or supplements that contain folic acid. CONCLUSION The lack of periconceptional use of vitamins or supplements that contain folic acid may be associated with an excess risk for birth defects due to diabetes mellitus. PMID:22284962

  17. Modulation of the Antioxidant System Efficacy in Irradiated Rats Supplemented with Vitamin B12 cobalamin and Folic Acid

    The present study has been performed to investigate the possible curative and protective role of supplemented vitamin B12 and folic acid in the irradiation induced changes in certain biochemical parameters in hepatic tissue and blood. The biochemical analysis was done at one and fourteen days post irradiation. The data revealed serious effects of radiation exposure on the membrane integrity as reflected by increased serum potassium associated with decreased sodium levels. Oxidation of lipid and protein with antioxidant disorders were recorded after radiation exposure as reflected by increased contents of carbonyl and Gamma glutamyl transferase. The results showed significant increase in the level of lipid peroxide product (malonaldehyde) and significant decrease in the level of antioxidant defense system (glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, super oxid dismutase, catalase and glucose-6-phospate dehydrogenase) after one and fourteen day's supplementation with vitamin B12 and folic acid. Supplemented of vitamin B12 and folic acid before radiation exposure attenuated the harmful effects of irradiation on the most chosen parameters. The beneficial role of supplemented vitamin B12 and folic acid may be related to its ability in quenching free radicals scavenging reactive oxygen species and improving regeneration in the biological tissues

  18. Effects of prebiotic and mycotoxin binder feed supplementation on the quality of the eggs produced by the hens in the end of their laying period

    conducted at the Animal Husbandry Faculty's Experimental Farm in Iasi, Romania, during a period of 4 weeks. A total of 90 hens, 57-week-old ISA Brown layers were allocated to a completely randomized experimental design with three treatments, with 30 birds each. Dietary treatments consisted in feeding hens a corn soybean meal basal diet with supplementation of 0.1% Bio-Mos (treatment A1) and of 0.2% Mycosorb (treatment A2). The parameters studied included: living weight and feed intake dynamics, feed conversion ratio, laying intensity, egg mass production, egg weight, eggshell weight, eggshell thickness, shell index, Haugh Index. Both groups received fodder additives given superior results, concerning the production performances, the internal and external egg quality, as shown. Major influence on the laying hens' health and production is given by the relationship existing between intestinal bacterial population, gut morphology, immune system and nutrients absorption, as previously stated in the reference literature. Some production indexes were improved due to the supplementation of the laying hens feed with Bio-Mos (+ 0,1%) and Mycosorb (+ 0,2% ): - egg mass production increased with 1.67%, respectively with 3.00%; - feed conversion ratio decreased with 1.85%, respectively with 6.61%. - Some egg quality indexes were also improved: - shell thickness increased with 3.86% at the eggs respectively with 2.84%, these effects being mostly observed since the 4th week of usage;- - the amount of eggs with unconformities decreased. Thus, the amount of integer shell eggs was 5.60% higher in A1 treatment, respectively 3.98% higher in A2 treatment, as compared to the control group

  19. Natural Pig Plasma Immunoglobulins Have Anti-Bacterial Effects: Potential for Use as Feed Supplement for Treatment of Intestinal Infections in Pigs

    Hedegaard, Chris Juul; Strube, Mikael Lenz; Hansen, Marie B.;

    2016-01-01

    plasma and given as a feed supplement can be used in modern swine production as an efficient and cost-effective means for reducing both occurrence of PWD and antibiotics usage and with a potential for the prevention and treatment of other intestinal infectious diseases even if the causative agent might......There is an increasing demand for non-antibiotics solutions to control infectious disease in intensive pig production. Here, one such alternative, namely pig antibodies purified from slaughterhouse blood was investigated in order to elucidate its potential usability to control post......-weaning diarrhoea (PWD), which is one of the top indications for antibiotics usage in the pig production. A very cost-efficient and rapid one-step expanded bed adsorption (EBA) chromatography procedure was used to purify pig immunoglobulin G from slaughterhouse pig plasma (more than 100 litres), resulting in >85...

  20. Growth performance of fingerlings of the Indian major carp, Catla catla (Ham.) fed with feeds supplemented with different seaweeds

    Kotnala, S.; Dhar, P.; Das, Partha; Chatterji, A.

    in an oven for 24 hours. Before use, these pellets were grounded to powder form in a mixture and preserved in airtight containers for further use. The average weight of fry at the beginning of the experiment was recorded and 40 numbers of randomly... as unconventional source of plant proteins to develop suitable fish feeds (edwards et al., 1985; Devaraj et al., 1986). In tropical developing countries, where algal production rates are high, algae have been receiving increasing attention as an alternate protein...

  1. Potential of fodder tree/shrub legumes as a feed resource for dry season supplementation of smallholder ruminant animals

    Fodder tree/shrub legumes have the potential for alleviating some of the feed shortages and nutritional deficiencies experienced in the dry season on smallholder farms. Zambia has a wide range of naturally occurring tree/shrub species that can be used as fodder for ruminants. Over the years a number of trees have been selected for their agronomic qualities and are currently being used in arable farming systems to promote soil fertility and erosion control. There is a need to evaluate them for use as fodder for ruminants in the dry season. Because of their high content of protein, minerals and vitamins and availability in the dry season, fodder tree/shrub legumes have the capacity to complement the feeding of crop-residues and natural pastures. Tree/shrub legumes also have other advantages in that they are available on-farm and can also be used as a source of food, timber and medicines at village level. Being deep rooted, fodder trees are rarely affected by seasonal climatic changes. The main limitation to their use as a feed resource for ruminants is the high tannin content which may have detrimental effects on the performance of animals. A number of techniques including, wilting, sun-drying, treatment with chemicals and ammoniation have been developed to minimize their adverse effects. Controlled intake through stall feeding or mixing of tree/shrub fodder with basal diets could also be used to mitigate their toxic effects. Research is currently under way to establish rumen microbes that have capacity to detoxify tannins. To promote increased use of fodder trees on smallholder farms, farmers must be provided with information on the good quality fodder trees and the approaches to effectively utilise them. They should also be encouraged to start planting fodder trees in their food crop farming systems or establishing fodder gardens on fallow lands. (author)

  2. Potensi Serbuk Daun Kelor (Moringa oleifera) Sebagai Anthelmintik Terhadap Infeksi Ascaris suum dan Feed Supplement pada Babi

    Muhammad Ulqiya Syukron; I Made Damriyasa; Nyoman Adi Suratma

    2015-01-01

    Pig ascariasis is an intestinal parasitic disease caused by Ascaris suum. The economic losses in pig ascariasis are caused by a bad feed conversion ratio (FCR) and rejection of some organs after animal slaughtering. An anthelmintic utilization and farm management improvement are the common prevention action, however, recently the utilization of herbs as an athelmintic has been developed, one of them is Moringa oleifera leaves. Moringa oleifera leaves are also a potential for a sources of ani...

  3. Feeding Value and in vitro Digestibility of Date-Palm Leaves Supplemented with Different Supplementary Energy

    N. Ziaei; S.M.M. Sharifi Hosseini

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feeding value and also the effect of different supplementary energy on increasing in vitro DM digestibility of date-palms leaves obtained in pruning. A randomized complete design with different energy supplementary with 3 replicates was conducted. Harvested date-palm leaves were air-dried, ground through a 5 mm screen, then palm leaves (L) ensiled with different levels of urea (U) and other supplementary energy. Combination, mixture was packed tightly...

  4. The Effect of Coenzyme Q10 and Lipoic Acid Added to the Feed of Hens on Physical Characteristics of Eggs

    Dušan Terčič; Barbara Kotnik; Gregor Gorjanc; Petra Jazbec Križman; Antonija Holcman

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether inclusions of coenzyme Q10, alpha lipoic acid and their combination into diets of hens improve egg quality characteristics. Forty-eight, 33 weeks old Lohmann Brown hens were assigned randomly to four groups of 12 hens each and fed either a basal diet or basal diet supplemented with 2 g/kg coenzyme Q10, 0.4 g/kg alpha lipoic acid and 2 g/kg coenzyme Q10 plus 0.4 g/kg alpha lipoic acid. The diets were fed for 12 weeks. Eggs were weekly examined for...

  5. Effect of feeding ractopamine hydrochloride (Optaflexx) with or without supplemental zinc and chromium propionate on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of finishing steers.

    Bohrer, B M; Edenburn, B M; Boler, D D; Dilger, A C; Felix, T L

    2014-09-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine the effects of feeding ractopamine hydrochloride (Optaflexx) with or without supplemental Zn propionate (KemTRACE Zn) and Cr propionate (KemTRACE Cr) to finishing steers on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality. Angus cross steers (n = 142; BW = 527 ± 14 kg) were blocked by BW into 4 blocks (6 pens/block, 5 to 6 steers/pen). Steers targeted at an average 12th rib back fat thickness of 1.3 cm via ultrasound, by block, were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary supplements for the final 35 d of feeding before slaughter: 1) no supplementation, where analyzed Zn and Cr were 49.82 and 0.98 mg/kg (DM basis), respectively (CONT), 2) 300 mg ractopamine hydrochloride·steer(-1) · d(-1), where analyzed Zn and Cr were 49.38 and 0.96 mg/kg (DM basis), respectively (RAC), or 3) 300 mg ractopamine hydrochloride, 1.0 g of Zn supplied as Zn propionate (KemTRACE Zn), and 3 mg of Cr supplied as Cr propionate (KemTRACE Cr) steer(-1) · d(-1), where analyzed Zn and Cr were 159.73 and 1.25 mg/kg (DM basis), respectively (RAC+TM). All steers were fed the same basal diet of 20% corn silage, 20% dried distillers grains, 50% corn, and 10% mineral-vitamin supplement (DM basis). Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design with a fixed effect of treatment and a random effect of block. Average daily gain and G:F were increased (P < 0.01) by 16% in steers fed RAC when compared with steers fed CONT. However, ADG and G:F were not different (P ≥ 0.61) between steers fed RAC and RAC+TM. Furthermore, HCW was increased (P = 0.04) by 1.87% (6.61 kg) in steers fed RAC when compared with steers fed CONT, whereas HCW was not different (P = 0.80) between steers fed RAC and RAC+TM. Back fat thickness and marbling were not different (P ≥ 0.14) between steers fed RAC and CONT or (P ≥ 0.34) between steers fed RAC and RAC+TM. Warner-Bratzler shear force tended to be greater (less tender; P = 0.06) in steers fed RAC when

  6. Supplementing an emissions tax by a feed-in tariff for renewable electricity to address learning spillovers

    In the presence of learning spillovers related to renewable energy technologies, an optimal strategy to mitigate climate change should complement an emissions tax by a subsidy for renewables. This article addresses the question how such subsidy should be designed. It is shown that the widely-used approach of a revenue-neutral fixed feed-in tariff can yield an optimal outcome under restrictive conditions only. It has to be adapted continuously as the electricity price changes. Moreover, funding the tariff by a surcharge on the electricity price has important implications for the design of the emission tax. The optimal tax rate has to be below the Pigovian level, differentiated across fossil fuels and adapted over time as the patterns of technological development change. These requirements may pose a formidable challenge for practical decision-making. However, it is important to point out that the eventual choices made with respect to the design and funding of a feed-in tariff have to be based on a careful and more comprehensive policy assessment, including, inter alia, economic effects beyond the electricity sector and existing institutional constraints. - Highlights: • Learning spillovers may warrant a combination of emissions and technology policies. • A revenue-neutral feed-in tariff can correct learning spillovers efficiently. • Optimal implementation of this approach is tedious in practice though. • Tariff and emissions tax have to be differentiated and adapted continuously. • Eventual policy decision depends on institutional constraints and economy-wide effects

  7. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infancy increases length- and weight-for-age but not BMI to 6 years when controlling for effects of maternal smoking.

    Currie, L M; Tolley, E A; Thodosoff, J M; Kerling, E H; Sullivan, D K; Colombo, J; Carlson, S E

    2015-07-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are added to infant formula but their effect on long-term growth of children is under studied. We evaluated the effects of feeding LCPUFA-supplemented formula (n = 54) compared to control formula (n = 15) throughout infancy on growth from birth-6 years. Growth was described using separate models developed with the MIXED procedure of SAS(®) that included maternal smoking history and gender. Compared to children fed control formula, children who consumed LCPUFA supplemented formula had higher length-/stature-/and weight-for-age percentiles but not body mass index (BMI) percentile from birth to 6 years. Maternal smoking predicted lower stature (2-6 years), higher weight-for-length (birth-18 months) and BMI percentile (2-6 years) independent of LCPUFA effects. Gender interacted with the effect of LCPUFA on stature, and the relationship between smoking and BMI, with a larger effect for boys. Energy intake did not explain growth differences. A relatively small control sample is a limitation. PMID:25936840

  8. Dietary supplementation with glutamine and γ-aminobutyric acid improves growth performance and serum parameters in 22- to 35-day-old broilers exposed to hot environment.

    Hu, H; Bai, X; Shah, A A; Wen, A Y; Hua, J L; Che, C Y; He, S J; Jiang, J P; Cai, Z H; Dai, S F

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed using 360 21-day-old chicks to determine the influences of diet supplementation with glutamine (5 g/kg), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, 100 mg/kg) or their combinations on performance and serum parameters exposed to cycling high temperatures. From 22 to 35 days, the experimental groups (2 × 2) were subjected to circular heat stress by exposing them to 30-34 °C cycling, while the positive control group was exposed to 23 °C constant. The blood of broilers was collected to detect serum parameters on days 28 and 35. Compared with the positive control group, the cycling high temperature decreased (p Diet supplemented with GABA also increased (p < 0.05) weight gain and the serum levels of TP, T4, ALP, GABA and glutamine. In addition, the significant interactions (p < 0.05) between glutamine and GABA were found in the feed consumption, weight gain and the serum ALP, CK, LDH, GABA, T3 and T4 levels of heat-stressed chickens. This research indicated that dietary glutamine and GABA improved the antistress ability in performance and serum parameters of broilers under hot environment. PMID:25980810

  9. Assessing the effect of farmers' supplementation strategy on feed intake and live weight of goats grazing natural range and crop fields of Zamfara reserve in semi-arid Nigeria

    In the semi-arid Nigeria goats are raised extensively on natural grazing lands, crop residues, farm weeds and sometimes supplemented with industrial crop by-products. Under the extensive production system, supplementation has frequently been advocated as the main solution to the nutritional constraints livestock face during the long dry season (2 and 3). In order to design experiments to assess the optimum level of supplementation for the local producers, there is the need to assess their current practices. This experiment was therefore designed to test the farmers' feeding practices so as to ascertain its potential. This would serve as a baseline for designing future supplementation experiments with grazing animals. This on-farm study was conducted in Zamfara reserve northwestern Nigeria between July, 2002 and June, 2003 to assess feed intake and live weight of 12 indigenous Red Sokoto castrated bucks, separated into two groups of six, supplemented and unsupplemented respectively. The unsupplemented group grazed natural pasture and crop stubble of crop fields, whereas the supplemented group grazed natural pasture, crop stubbles and concentrate supplementation. Concentrate supplement (wheat offal) was fed at 1% of the metabolic weight of the animals, mean of the farmers offer. The total faecal collection method and grab samples of feed were used to estimate total intake of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and metabolisable energy (ME) according to 3. Live weight of the animal was recorded at five weekly intervals. Results of the study indicated that nutrients intake of supplemented animals were generally higher than those of the unsupplemented group, but not significantly different (P > 0.05). However, supplementation significantly (P < 0.05) affected the live weight of the supplemented goats during early dry season in December. During this period feed became more available to the grazing animals from crop residues. It was therefore

  10. Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation during Pregnancy: A Potential Tool to Prevent Membrane Rupture and Preterm Labor

    Emanuela Pietrantoni

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are required to maintain the fluidity, permeability and integrity of cell membranes. Maternal dietary supplementation with ω-3 PUFAs during pregnancy has beneficial effects, including increased gestational length and reduced risk of pregnancy complications. Significant amounts of ω-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA are transferred from maternal to fetal blood, hence ensuring high levels of DHA in the placenta and fetal bloodstream and tissues. Fetal DHA demand increases exponentially with gestational age, especially in the third trimester, due to fetal development. According to the World Health Organization (WHO and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO, a daily intake of DHA is recommended during pregnancy. Omega-3 PUFAs are involved in several anti-inflammatory, pro-resolving and anti-oxidative pathways. Several placental disorders, such as intrauterine growth restriction, premature rupture of membranes (PROM and preterm-PROM (pPROM, are associated with placental inflammation and oxidative stress. This pilot study reports on a preliminary evaluation of the significance of the daily DHA administration on PROM and pPROM events in healthy pregnant women. Further extensive clinical trials will be necessary to fully elucidate the correlation between DHA administration during pregnancy and PROM/pPROM occurrence, which is related in turn to gestational duration and overall fetal health.

  11. The performance of village chickens in selected rural areas of Uganda, given Newcastle disease I-2 thermostable vaccine, Levamisole[registered] treatment and feed supplementation

    Poultry health and management interventions for Newcastle disease, endo-parasite control and feed supplementation were introduced to a free-range poultry production system in six villages in two Agro-ecological zones of Uganda to improve chicken productivity. Newcastle disease vaccination using a locally produced I-2 thermostable vaccine of Embryo-infective dose (EID50) of 108 per ml and LaSota cold chain vaccine of Embryo infective dose (EID50) of 109 ml, one for each zone, where given to chickens by the eye drop method on a 3 month-interval-vaccination schedule for 9 months. Endo parasite control using Levamisole[registered] was given twice in the wet and once in the dry season. Feed supplementation, using commercial chick mash, at estimated quantity of 30 gm per chick per day was provided for chicks for 3 months in two villages. Serum-samples, collected one month after each vaccination from 8 chickens per household were tested by the Haemagglutination inhibition test (HI). Faecal samples, also collected from 4 chickens per household were used to establish the helminth parasite infestation rates. The chick numbers and their weights were established weekly in each household for 3 months. Protection in chickens against Newcastle disease increased to mean HI log2 titres of 4.5 and 3.7 with mean protection levels of 83% and 80% for I-2 thermostable and LaSota vaccines respectively. Mean parasite infestation rates dropped by 27%. Mean chick survival rates improved by 29% and chick age weights increased significantly. Overall, there was an increase in poultry stock numbers, mean household flock sizes and egg production. The health interventions were cost effective by cost benefit analysis. (author)

  12. Effects of daily milk supplementation on improving the physical and mental function as well as school performance among children: results from a school feeding program

    Rahmani, Khadijeh; Djazayery, Abolghasem; Habibi, Mohsen Ibrahim; Heidari, Homa; Dorosti-Motlagh, Ahmad Reza; Pourshahriari, Mahsima; Azadbakht, Leila

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: School feeding programs are important interventions for improving the nutritional status of students. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of milk supplementation on physical, mental and school performance of students. METHODS: This case-control population-based intervention was conducted on 469 students from 4 schools in a medium socio-economic status region in Tehran. The schools were chosen by Iranian ministry of education and training and they were allocated in case and control groups randomly. All the students in the first to third classes in the intervention schools were daily consumed sterilized and homogenized milk for three months (250 ml each). Anthropometric measurements were done according to the standard methods. For evaluating the mental function, the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children (verbal, non-verbal, total Intelligent Quotient) were conducted on students. School performance was assessed by grade-point averages of each student. RESULTS: The weight of children was significantly different between control and intervention group at the end of the study among girls (23.0 ± 3.8 vs. 23.8 ± 4.3 kg; p < 0.05). Psychological tests’ scores were significantly different between the control and the intervention groups (p < 0.05) at the end of the trial among boys. The grade-point average was significantly different at the end of the trial between the intervention and the control group among girls (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: School feeding programs focus on milk supplementation had beneficial effects on the physical function and school performances specifically among girls in Iran. PMID:22091261

  13. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of niacin (nicotinic acid and nicotinamide as a feed additive for all animal species based on a dossier submitted by Vertellus Specialties Belgium BV

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The term ‘niacin’ is used as a generic description of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide with pyridine as the basic structure. Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide function mainly as precursors of the co-enzymes NAD and NADP. Thus, nicotinamide has physiologically critical roles in mitochondrial respiration and in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids. Niacin is safe for the target animals with a margin of safety that is at least ten times the requirements and use levels. The FEEDAP Panel assumes that exposure figures for a population already include the contribution of edible tissues and products of animals fed niacin-supplemented diets. Information on niacin metabolism and the limited data available on retention in edible tissues and products indicate that supplemental levels in feeds even far higher than the requirements (1–35 mg/kg feed are highly unlikely to lead the tolerable upper intake level being exceeded. The FEEDAP Panel considers that the use of niacin in animal nutrition is not of safety concern for consumers. Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide are not irritant to skin, but can cause irritancy to eyes and mucous membranes. They are unlikely to cause skin sensitisation. Workers might be exposed to a respirable dust when handling nicotinic acid and nicotinamide, which should be regarded as being potentially harmful to their health. The use of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide in animal nutrition does not pose a risk to the environment. Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide are regarded as effective sources of niacin in animal nutrition.

  14. Essential fatty acid supplementation during lactation is required to maximize the subsequent reproductive performance of the modern sow.

    Rosero, David S; Boyd, R Dean; McCulley, Mark; Odle, Jack; van Heugten, Eric

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplemental essential fatty acids (EFA) on sow reproductive efficiency and to estimate the concentrations of EFA required by the lactating sow for maximum subsequent reproduction. Data were collected on 480 sows (PIC Camborough) balanced by parity, with 241 and 239 sows representing Parity 1, and 3-5 (P3+), respectively. Sows were assigned randomly, within parity, to a 3×3 factorial arrangement plus a control diet without added lipids. Factors included linoleic (2.1%, 2.7%, and 3.3%) and α-linolenic acid (0.15%, 0.30%, and 0.45%), obtained by adding 4% of different mixtures of canola, corn and flaxseed oils to diets. Diets were corn-soybean meal based with 12% wheat middlings. The benefits of supplemental EFA were more evident for the subsequent reproduction of mature P3+ sows. For these sows, supplemental α-linolenic acid improved the proportion of sows that farrowed relative to sows weaned (linear P=0.080; 82.8, 80.5, and 92.8% for sows fed 0.15%, 0.30%, and 0.45% α-linolenic acid, respectively). In addition, supplemental linoleic acid, fed to Parity 1 and P3+ sows, tended to increase subsequent litter size (linear P=0.074; 13.2, 13.8 and 14.0 total pigs born for 2.1%, 2.7% and 3.3% linoleic acid, respectively). These results demonstrate that a minimum dietary intake of both α-linolenic and linoleic acid is required for the modern lactating sow to achieve a maximum reproductive outcome through multiple mechanisms that include rapid return to estrus, increased maintenance of pregnancy and improved subsequent litter size. PMID:27037065

  15. Maintenance of essential amino acid synthesis pathways in the Blattabacterium cuenoti symbiont of a wood-feeding cockroach.

    Tokuda, Gaku; Elbourne, Liam D H; Kinjo, Yukihiro; Saitoh, Seikoh; Sabree, Zakee; Hojo, Masaru; Yamada, Akinori; Hayashi, Yoshinobu; Shigenobu, Shuji; Bandi, Claudio; Paulsen, Ian T; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Lo, Nathan

    2013-06-23

    In addition to harbouring intestinal symbionts, some animal species also possess intracellular symbiotic microbes. The relative contributions of gut-resident and intracellular symbionts to host metabolism, and how they coevolve are not well understood. Cockroaches and the termite Mastotermes darwiniensis present a unique opportunity to examine the evolution of spatially separated symbionts, as they harbour gut symbionts and the intracellular symbiont Blattabacterium cuenoti. The genomes of B. cuenoti from M. darwiniensis and the social wood-feeding cockroach Cryptocercus punctulatus are each missing most of the pathways for the synthesis of essential amino acids found in the genomes of relatives from non-wood-feeding hosts. Hypotheses to explain this pathway degradation include: (i) feeding on microbes present in rotting wood by ancestral hosts; (ii) the evolution of high-fidelity transfer of gut microbes via social behaviour. To test these hypotheses, we sequenced the B. cuenoti genome of a third wood-feeding species, the phylogenetically distant and non-social Panesthia angustipennis. We show that host wood-feeding does not necessarily lead to degradation of essential amino acid synthesis pathways in B. cuenoti, and argue that ancestral high-fidelity transfer of gut microbes best explains their loss in strains from M. darwiniensis and C. punctulatus. PMID:23515978

  16. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, essentiality and requirements: why and how to provide supplementation

    Nieto, Susana

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipids comprize from 50-60% of the structural matter of the brain and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6, DHA is the most  important omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid in the brain phospholipids comprizing 25% of the total fatty acids of the grey matter. The majority of the DHA present in the human brain is incorporated during the brain growth spurt which starts at week 26 of gestation and imposes a high demand for the fatty acid until about 2 years of age. DHA is required during brain development when neuronal and glial differentiation and migration, and active myelination and synaptogenesis take place. The fatty acid must be incorporated into the brain lipids as preformed DHA because less than 5% of its precursor (alpha linolenic acid, LNA is converted to DHA. The human foetus has a limited ability to synthesize DHA from LNA, and therefore it must be largely supplied from maternal sources. Maternal DHA available for foetal nutrition can be provided from three main sources: adipose tissue, which is the main reservoir for the fatty acid; through biosynthesis from the precursor LNA, which occurs mainly in the liver; and as preformed DHA from dietary sources. In the postnatal period DHA is provided by the mother to the newborn through milk secretion. Western nutrition provides low LNA and DHA and Expert Nutrition Committees suggest that mothers should receive DHA supplementation during pregnancy and lactation. At present DHA supplementation can be provided from different sources: as purified free DHA, as an ethyl ester derivative, extracted from single-cell algae oils, from egg yolk phospholipids, or in the form of sn-2 DHA monoacylglycerol. In this review we revise and discuss the evidence of DHA requirements for the newborn, the need for maternal supplementation during pregnancy and nursing, and the alternatives at present for providing DHA supplementation.Los lípidos comprenden entre el 50-60% de la estructura del cerebro, y el

  17. Endurance exercise and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA supplementation up-regulate CYP17A1 and stimulate testosterone biosynthesis.

    Rosario Barone

    Full Text Available A new role for fat supplements, in particular conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, has been delineated in steroidogenesis, although the underlying molecular mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. The aims of the present study were to identify the pathway stimulated by CLA supplementation using a cell culture model and to determine whether this same pathway is also stimulated in vivo by CLA supplementation associated with exercise. In vitro, Leydig tumour rat cells (R2C supplemented with different concentrations of CLA exhibited increasing testosterone biosynthesis accompanied by increasing levels of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein. In vivo, trained mice showed an increase in free plasma testosterone and an up-regulation of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein. The effect of training on CYP17A1 expression and testosterone biosynthesis was significantly higher in the trained mice supplemented with CLA compared to the placebo. The results of the present study demonstrated that CLA stimulates testosterone biosynthesis via CYP17A1, and endurance training led to the synthesis of testosterone in vivo by inducing the overexpression of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein in the Leydig cells of the testis. This effect was enhanced by CLA supplementation. Therefore, CLA-associated physical activity may be used for its steroidogenic property in different fields, such as alimentary industry, human reproductive medicine, sport science, and anti-muscle wasting.

  18. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Diabetic Nephropathy Progression in Patients with Diabetes and Hypertriglyceridemia.

    Eugene Han

    Full Text Available Beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acid (O3FA supplementation in a wide range of disease condition have been well studied. However, there is limited information regarding the effects of O3FAs on chronic kidney disease (CKD, especially in diabetic nephropathy (DN with hypertriglyceridemia. We investigate whether O3FA supplementation could help maintain renal function in patients with diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia. Total 344 type 2 diabetic patients with a history of O3FA supplementation for managing hypertriglyceridemia were included. Reduction in urine albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR and glomerular filtrate rate (GFR were examined. Subgroup analyses were stratified according to the daily O3FA doses. Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and urine ACR significantly reduced after O3FA supplementation. Overall, 172 (50.0% patients did not experience renal function loss, and 125 (36.3% patients had a GFR with a positive slope. The patients treated with O3FAs at 4g/day showed greater maintenance in renal function than those treated with lower dosages (p < 0.001. This dose dependent effect remains significant after adjustment for multiple variables. O3FA supplementation in diabetic patients with hypertriglyceridemia shows benefits of reducing albuminuria and maintaining renal function. The effects are dependent on the dose of daily O3FA supplementation.

  19. A Comparative Study of Alternate Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation Regimes in Childhood Anaemia

    Bhuwan R Sharma

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of anaemia among children less than five years of age in India is around 70%. Anaemia in young children puts them at a higher risk of experiencing health problems such as stunted growth, mental retardation, and increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of IFA supplementation (daily vs. biweekly vs. weekly regime on haemoglobin levels of young children. Materials and Methods: A total 740 children in age group of six months to five years were included in this community based interventional study using Systemic random sampling. The children having mild to moderate anaemia were then divided into three groups A, B and C by simple random sampling and were given Iron and Folic acid supplementation daily, biweekly and weekly respectively. Follow up data was collected after 3 months and analysed using appropriate tests. Results: Prevalence of Anaemia was 91.1% among study participants. Comparison after 3 months showed significant change in haemoglobin levels in all three groups with mean improvement of 1.31 gm%, 0.89 gm% and 0.85 gm% in group A, B and C respectively. However, no significant difference was noted among the groups in pre as well as post intervention phase. Conclusion: Weekly regime is as effective as daily or biweekly regime in improving haemoglobin levels in children. Moreover, it has better compliance, lesser side effects and cost of therapy. So, the same should be recommended for prophylaxis as well as treatment of mild to moderate anaemia cases. [Natl J Med Res 2014; 4(1.000: 33-36

  20. Dietary L-arginine supplement alleviates hepatic heat stress and improves feed conversion ratio of Pekin ducks exposed to high environmental temperature.

    Zhu, W; Jiang, W; Wu, L Y

    2014-12-01

    The current intensive indoor production system of commercial Pekin ducks never allows adequate water for swimming or wetting. Therefore, heat stress is a key factor affecting health and growth of ducks in the hot regions and season. Experiment 1 was conducted to study whether heat stress was deleterious to certain organs of ducks. Forty-one-day-old mixed-sex Pekin ducks were randomly allocated to four electrically heated battery brooders comprised of 10 ducks each. Ducks were suddenly exposed to 37 °C ambient temperature for 3 h and then slaughtered, in one brooder at 21 days and in another brooder at 49 days of age. The results showed that body weight and weight of immune organs, particularly liver markedly decreased in acute heat stress ducks compared with the control. Experiment 2 was carried out to investigate the influences of dietary L-arginine (Arg) supplement on weight and compositions of certain lymphoid organs, and growth performance in Pekin ducks, under daily cyclic hot temperature environment. A total of 151-day-old mixed-sex Pekin ducks were randomly divided into one negative control and two treatment groups, fed experimental diets supplemented with 0, 5, and 10 g L-Arginine (L-Arg)/kg to the basal diet respectively. Ducks were exposed to cyclic high temperature simulating natural summer season. The results showed that the addition of L-Arg improves feed conversion ratio (FCR) during a period of 7-week trial, as well as increases hepatic weight relative to body weight at 21 days, while decreases the hepatic water content at 49 days of age. This study indicated that the liver was more sensitive to acute heat stress, and the hepatic relative weight and chemical composition could be regulated by dietary L-Arg supplementation in Pekin ducks being reared at high ambient temperature. These beneficial effects of Arg on liver might be a cause of improved FCR. PMID:24773570

  1. Feeding of wheat bran and sugar beet pulp as sole supplements in high-forage diets emphasizes the potential of dairy cattle for human food supply.

    Ertl, P; Zebeli, Q; Zollitsch, W; Knaus, W

    2016-02-01

    Besides the widely discussed negative environmental effects of dairy production, such as greenhouse gas emissions, the feeding of large amounts of potentially human-edible feedstuffs to dairy cows is another important sustainability concern. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the effects of a complete substitution of common cereal grains and pulses with a mixture of wheat bran and sugar beet pulp in a high-forage diet on cow performance, production efficiency, feed intake, and ruminating behavior, as well as on net food production potential. Thirteen multiparous and 7 primiparous mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments in a change-over design with 7-wk periods. Cows were fed a high-forage diet (grass silage and hay accounted for 75% of the dry matter intake), supplemented with either a cereal grain-based concentrate mixture (CON), or a mixture of wheat bran and dried sugar beet pulp (WBBP). Human-edible inputs were calculated for 2 different scenarios based on minimum and maximum potential recovery rates of human-edible energy and protein from the respective feedstuffs. Dietary starch and neutral detergent fiber contents were 3.0 and 44.1% for WBBP, compared with 10.8 and 38.2% in CON, respectively. Dietary treatment did not affect milk production, milk composition, feed intake, or total chewing activity. However, chewing index expressed in minutes per kilogram of neutral detergent fiber ingested was 12% lower in WBBP compared with CON. In comparison to CON, the human-edible feed conversion efficiencies for energy and protein, defined as human-edible output per human-edible input, were 6.8 and 5.3 times higher, respectively, in WBBP under the maximum scenario. For the maximum scenario, the daily net food production (human-edible output minus human-edible input) increased from 5.4 MJ and 250 g of crude protein per cow in CON to 61.5 MJ and 630 g of crude protein in the WBBP diet. In conclusion, our data suggest

  2. Effect of strategic feed supplementation with multinutrient blocks on productive and reproductive performance in dual-purpose cows

    The study was carried out on four commercial farms in Guarico state, Venezuela to evaluate the effectiveness of multinutrient blocks (UMB) on the body condition score (BCS), milk production and reproductive performance of dual-purpose cows. Forty crossbred animals (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) in each farm were randomly allocated to supplemented and not-supplemented groups through a period of 105 days. The UMB composition was: 46% sugar-cane molasses, 10% urea, 10% Glyricidia sepium, 5% mineral mixture, 11% calcium hydroxide, 5% triple superphosphate, 10% maize crop residue and 3% animal fat. UMB intake was recorded every two days and individual milk production was registered daily or twice a week. Block consumption was higher during the dry season than in the rainy season. There were no significant differences in total milk production during the first 15 weeks of lactation between treatments in Farms 1 and 3. Body condition at calving and during the early post-partum period may explain some of the improvements on reproductive performance which occurred during the dry season. This indicates the importance of nutritional status of cows before calving on post-partum reproductive activity. 25 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  3. No association between alcohol supplementation and autoantibodies to DNA damage in postmenopausal women in a controlled feeding study.

    Mahabir, S; Baer, D J; Johnson, L L; Frenkel, K; Dorgan, J F; Cambell, W; Hartman, T J; Clevidence, B; Albanes, D; Judd, J T; Taylor, P R

    2005-08-01

    Alcohol consumption is linked to increased breast cancer risk. Since oestrogens increase breast cancer risk, possibly through oxidative damage, and we have shown that alcohol consumption increases serum oestrogens, we tested whether moderate alcohol supplementation increased oxidative DNA damage among healthy postmenopausal women not on hormone replacement therapy in a randomized controlled crossover study. We used serum 5-hydroxymethyl-2-deoxyuridine (5-HMdU) autoantibodies (aAbs) as a marker of oxidative DNA damage. The results showed no evidence for increased or decreased levels of oxidative DNA damage among women who consumed 15 g or 30 g alcohol per day for 8 weeks compared with women in the 0 g alcohol group. We conclude that among healthy women, it is possible that an 8-week trial of moderate alcohol supplementation might be too short to make enough 5-HMdU aAbs to compare differences by alcohol dose. In future studies, a panel of biomarkers for DNA damage should be used. PMID:16030435

  4. Effect of different forage species supplemented with two carbohydrate sources on short and medium chain fatty acids in sheep milk

    G. Piredda

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Sixty four Sarda dairy sheep fed with diets based on fresh forage were allocated to eight groups to evaluate the effect of corn or beet pulp based supplementation on milk fatty acid composition. Four forage species were compared: annual ryegrass (RY, Lolium rigidum Gaudin, sulla (SU, Hedysarum coronarium L., burr medic (BM, Medicago polymorpha L., and garland, a daisy forb, (CH, Chrysanthemum coronarium L.. The supplements were iso-nitrogenous but differed in carbohydrate composition consisting either of 60% (DM of corn (concentrate C or 40% sugar beet pulp (concentrate BP. The supplementation was iso-energetic (500 and 530 g/d, respectively. Overall during winter period (growing stage of the forages SU and RY groups showed higher levels of atherogenicity index and C16:0. In winter period BP outperformed C for palmitic acid. In spring AI showed a trend similar to that of winter. Moreover C concentrate gave a better level of AI and myristic acid than BP. This study confirms that forage species and, to a lesser extent, carbohydrate source in the supplement markedly affect mediumchain FA profile and hence atherogenicity index in sheep milk.

  5. Effects of ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol supplementation on basal testosterone cortisol ratio in male sprague dawley rats

    Background: Basal testosterone cortisol ratio is considered very important to maintain homeostasis. Increase in this ratio has various beneficial effects on body. In this study we determined the effects of ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol supplementation on basal testosterone cortisol ratio in male Sprague Dawley rats. Methods: It was quasi experimental study carried out in department of Physiology, Army Medical College Rawalpindi in collaboration with National Institute of Health, Islamabad during October 2006 to September 2007. Forty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups with ten rats in each group and above mentioned antioxidants supplementation were given along with standard diet for one month. After this, blood samples were taken and analyzed for serum testosterone and cortisol by ELISA and malondialdehyde levels colorimetrically. Data were analysed on SPSS version 13 and p<0.05 was considered significant. Results: There was no significant rise in testosterone cortisol ratio in rats supplemented with single antioxidant; however rats supplemented with combination of ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol revealed significant rise in testosterone cortisol ratio with a fall in malondialdehyde levels. Conclusions: Synergistic effects of ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol resulted in a decline in reactive oxygen species induced lipid peroxidation and rise of testosterone cortisol ratio. (author)

  6. The effect of different oil supplementations on laying performance and fatty acid composition of egg yolk

    Zoran Škrtić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine effects of different combinations of rapeseed and fish oil - instead of soybean oil - on the performance of laying hens and on the profile of fatty acids in egg yolks, especially on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA, when such oils are added to the diet of laying hens. The research was carried out on 90 laying hens of the Hy-Line hybrid ranging in age from 32 to 36 weeks old. Hens were divided into three groups (30 laying hens per groups and fed with a commercial mixture that contained 17% of crude protein and 11.6 MJ ME. The research lasted for 28 days. The control group (C was given diets with soybean oil supplemented in the amount of 5%, and experimental groups (E1 and E2 were fed diets that contained a combination of fish and rapeseed oils in different amounts. Diets given to the E1 group contained 3.5% of fish oil and 1.5% of rapeseed oil, while the E2 group was fed diets with 1.5% of fish oil and 3.5% of rapeseed oil. Production characteristics of hens were monitored during the whole experiment. Portion of saturated (SFA and unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and PUFA, as well as α-linolenic (αLNA, C:18:3n-3 eicosapentaenoic (EPA, C20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic (DHA, C22:6n-3 acid were shown as a percentage of total fatty acids contained in yolk. There were statistically significant differences (P0.05 among investigated groups. Higher content of MUFA was noticed in both experimental groups, if compared to the control (E1 41.37%: E2 40.72%, C 36.95%, P<0.05. Content of αLNA differed significantly (P<0.001 between E1 and the control group, and the content of DHA differed significantly (P<0.001 between E1 and the control group, as well as between E2 and the control group. Total n-3 PUFA was increased in the E1 group for 2.10, and in the E2 group for 1.41 times than in the control group. The ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFA was the lowest (P<0.05 in egg yolks of the E1 group (4.01, followed by that of the E2 group

  7. Conjugated linoleic acid of dairy foods is affected by cows’ feeding system and processing of milk

    Juan Pablo Avilez Ruiz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The distribution of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA in dairy products commercially available in Chile is poorly understood. This study aimed to assess the content of CLA in dairy cow products from Chile and the effect of processing fresh milk into dairy products. Samples of raw milk were categorized into two groups based on the animal feeding system utilized by the dairy farm: 1 grazing based systems (Los Lagos region; and 2 housing systems using total mixed ration (TMR diets (Los Angeles region. Simultaneously, commercial samples of condensed milk, powdered milk, butter and Gouda cheese were analyzed. Furthermore, samples of raw milk and processed products (powdered and sweetened condensed milk were also analyzed. Dairy farms based on grazing systems had higher levels of CLA in raw milk than TMR farms. In addition, average values of CLA were 1.72 g 100 g−1 of total fatty acids, in spring milk in the Los Lagos region, and 0.42 g 100 g−1 in summer milk, in the Los Angeles region. Similarly, the CLA content of dairy products was higher than that of raw milk. Milk processing affected the transferring of CLA from fresh milk into the final products. Sweetened condensed milk presented lower CLA values than raw and powdered milk. In conclusion, this study indicates the importance of the production systems to the CLA content as well as the effects of milk processing into dairy products. To sum up, more research is needed to elucidate the exact effect of the processing conditions of dairy products on the CLA content.

  8. Changes in Plasma Phospholipid Fatty Acid Patterns and their Impact on Plasma Triglyceride Levels Following Fish Oil Supplementation

    Cormier H; Rudkowska I; Lemieux S; Couture P; Julien P; Vohl MC

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to test for associations between changes in fatty acids (FAs) and changes in plasma triglyceride (TG) levels after an n-3 FA supplementation and to test whether SNPs from the FADS gene cluster were associated with plasma FA levels or with specific FA patterns. A total of 210 subjects completed a 2-wk run-in period followed by 6-wk supplementation with 5g/d of fish oil. FA profiles of plasma phospholipids (PPLs) were obtained and 19 SNPs fr...

  9. Bio-desulfurization of biogas using acidic biotrickling filter with dissolved oxygen in step feed recirculation.

    Chaiprapat, Sumate; Charnnok, Boonya; Kantachote, Duangporn; Sung, Shihwu

    2015-03-01

    Triple stage and single stage biotrickling filters (T-BTF and S-BTF) were operated with oxygenated liquid recirculation to enhance bio-desulfurization of biogas. Empty bed retention time (EBRT 100-180 s) and liquid recirculation velocity (q 2.4-7.1 m/h) were applied. H2S removal and sulfuric acid recovery increased with higher EBRT and q. But the highest q at 7.1 m/h induced large amount of liquid through the media, causing a reduction in bed porosity in S-BTF and H2S removal. Equivalent performance of S-BTF and T-BTF was obtained under the lowest loading of 165 gH2S/m(3)/h. In the subsequent continuous operation test, it was found that T-BTF could maintain higher H2S elimination capacity and removal efficiency at 175.6±41.6 gH2S/m(3)/h and 89.0±6.8% versus S-BTF at 159.9±42.8 gH2S/m(3)/h and 80.1±10.2%, respectively. Finally, the relationship between outlet concentration and bed height was modeled. Step feeding of oxygenated liquid recirculation in multiple stages clearly demonstrated an advantage for sulfide oxidation. PMID:25569031

  10. Influence of glycerol and ornithine feeding on clavulanic acid production by Streptomyces clavuligerus

    J. C. Teodoro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of glycerol and ornithine feeding on clavulanic acid (CA production by Streptomyces clavuligerus was investigated. In batch experiments, CA maximum concentration (Cp max ranged randomly from 430 to 560 mg.L-1, with a maximum increase of 10% in relation to the control run, without ornithine. However, the maximum volumetric productivity of CA (Pp max of 13.7 mg.L-1.h-1 was obtained with 0.66 g.L-1 of ornithine, 44.2% higher than the Pp max in the control run. In fed-batch experiments, Cp max varied within the narrow range from 1.254 to 1.405 g.L-1, 2.5 times higher than that obtained in the control run. The presence of ornithine increased the Pp max, although it influenced only slightly the Cp max. Concerning glycerol, the highest CA production of 1.6 g.L-1 was obtained in the fed-batch with glycerol and ornithine (180 and 3.7 g.L−1 in a 10-L bioreactor, showing a positive effect of ornithine and glycerol, in the proper proportion (48.6:1, on CA biosynthesis.

  11. The Effect of Prebiotic and Probiotic Feed Supplementation on the Wax Glands of Worker Bees (Apis Mellifera)

    Silvia Pătruică; Gabi Dumitrescu; Adrian Stancu; Marian Bura; Ioan Bănăţean Dunea

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of acidifying substances (lactic acid or acetic acid), Enterobiotics products(Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-14 and Bifidobacterium lactis BI-04) and Enterolactis Plus (Lactobacillus casei) onthe wax glands of worker bees. The research was conducted in Timis County, Romania, between March 25 and April20, 2011, on 110 colonies of bees (Apis mellifera carpatica), allocated to 11 experimental treatment groups. Coloniesin the experimental groups were given three week...

  12. Effect of Vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation on neuropsychiatric symptoms and immune response in HIV-positive patients

    Adhikari, Prabha M.; Chowta, Mukta N.; Ramapuram, John T.; Rao, Satish B.; Udupa, Karthik; Acharya, Sahana D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Micronutrients such as B12 and folic acid deficiencies are found in higher number in HIV-infected patients. Objective: We conducted a study to examine the effect of Vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation on neuropsychiatric manifestations, CD4 count, and anthropometric measurements in HIV-positive patients. Materials and Methods: Three different groups of HIV patients, namely, HIV patients with tuberculosis, HIV patients with neuropsychiatric manifestations, and asymptomatic HIV patients with 50 patients in each group were included in the study. Baseline and follow-up CD4 count, anthropometric measurements, neuropsychiatric assessments, Vitamin B12, and folic acid estimation were done. Results: The prevalence of folic acid deficiency was 27.1% in Group I, 31.9% in Group II, and 23.4% in Group III. The prevalence of Vitamin B12 deficiency was 8.16% in Group I, 6.12% in Group II, and 4.16% in Group III. HIV patients with neuropsychiatric manifestations were noted to have the lowest mean mini–mental score. After the supplementation of vitamins, anthropometric measurements, MMSE as well as Hamilton depression scores, improved in all the three groups whereas Hamilton anxiety scores improved only in Group III. The CD4 count also improved in Groups I and II after the supplementation of vitamins. Conclusion: Folic acid deficiency was highest among neuropsychiatric patients. The majority of people who had a folic acid deficiency have shown improvement in their neuropsychiatric assessment scores as well as CD4 count after its supplementation. PMID:27365952

  13. Assessment of nutritional value of single-cell protein from waste-activated sludge as a protein supplement in poultry feed.

    Nkhalambayausi-Chirwa, Evans M; Lebitso, Moses T

    2012-12-01

    The amount of protein wasted through sludge in Gauteng, South Africa, amounts to 95 000 metric tonne/yr, with the order of magnitude of the national protein requirement of approximately 145 000 metric tonne/yr. Waste-activated sludge (WAS) from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that treat domestic wastewater contains protein in a ratio of 2:1 against fishmeal. This protein source has not been utilized because of the high content of toxic heavy metals and other potential carcinogenic pollutants in the sludge. In this study, a pretreatment method of modified aqua regia dilute acid wash was used to lower the metal content by approximately 60%. However, this resulted in a 33% loss of amino acids in the acid-washed WAS. A feed substitution test in poultry with different fishmeal-sludge ratios (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% WAS as percent substitution of fishmeal) showed no impact of sludge single-cell protein (SCP) on mortality rate. However, sludge substitution in the feed yielded weight gains and cost savings up to 46%. PMID:23342942

  14. Polymorphisms in Fatty Acid Desaturase (FADS Gene Cluster: Effects on Glycemic Controls Following an Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA Supplementation

    Patrick Couture

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in desaturase activity are associated with insulin sensitivity and may be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Polymorphisms (SNPs in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS gene cluster have been associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS and serum fatty acid composition. Objective: To investigate whether common genetic variations in the FADS gene cluster influence fasting glucose (FG and fasting insulin (FI responses following a 6-week n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA supplementation. Methods: 210 subjects completed a 2-week run-in period followed by a 6-week supplementation with 5 g/d of fish oil (providing 1.9 g–2.2 g of EPA + 1.1 g of DHA. Genotyping of 18 SNPs of the FADS gene cluster covering 90% of all common genetic variations (minor allele frequency ≥ 0.03 was performed. Results: Carriers of the minor allele for rs482548 (FADS2 had increased plasma FG levels after the n-3 PUFA supplementation in a model adjusted for FG levels at baseline, age, sex, and BMI. A significant genotype*supplementation interaction effect on FG levels was observed for rs482548 (p = 0.008. For FI levels, a genotype effect was observed with one SNP (rs174456. For HOMA-IS, several genotype*supplementation interaction effects were observed for rs7394871, rs174602, rs174570, rs7482316 and rs482548 (p = 0.03, p = 0.01, p = 0.03, p = 0.05 and p = 0.07; respectively. Conclusion: Results suggest that SNPs in the FADS gene cluster may modulate plasma FG, FI and HOMA-IS levels in response to n-3 PUFA supplementation.

  15. The effect of supplementation level of concentrate feeding (25 vs. 75%) on rice straw treated with urine on Ongole Crossbred cattle productivity and methane emission

    .3 and 240.4 L/d, respectively. This was an unexpected result. Normally, methane production will lower in higher quality feeding regimes. This phenomenon might be explained by an effect of rice straw, the roughage supplemented with. Rice straw is highly fibre fibrous feed and low digestibility; therefore the retention time in gastrointestinal tract will be longer, and within this period the fermentation process resulting methane. This reason might be different at high quality concentrate supplementation that might activate microbial fermentation in straw in which resulting a shorter retention time. However, this shorter retention time did not resulting in lower methane production, because when rumen distension lowers it will sign animal to eat, and therefore, the total daily DMI in both treatments was similar (6.72 and 7.59 kg/d). This result agreed with the statement of Shibata et al., that methane production is highly correlated with DMI. The significant different of LWG, however, if taken into calculation of methane production per kg LWG found the C75 was lower (P = 0.0186) than that of C25, being 205.8 vs. 967.2 L/kg LWG, respectively. The present study showed that supplementation of high quality concentrate in the low quality diet such as rice straw, did not lower the methane production quantitatively, but if the animal product such as live weight gain taking in the consideration, the significant mitigation of methane was clearly observed. The results of the present study are similar to our previous study by using soybean pulp to supplement Napier grass hay. This study showed that high quality concentrate feeding could relatively maintain methane production at promising level by increasing the production, and suggested that combination of rice straw treated with urine and wheat bran and beer cake - both was by-product of food industries could lead to a significant productivity and mitigation of methane from cattle or other ruminants in tropical climates. (author)

  16. [Effect of amino acid supplements to barley meal on the nitrogen metabolism of growing castrated male swine (20-65 kg live weight)].

    Wecke, C; Gebhardt, G

    1981-03-01

    In 56 N-balance experiments of the influence of differentiated amino acid supplements to coarse barley meal enriched with energy, minerals and additives on the nitrogen metabolism of castrated male pigs, was investigated. The joint supplement of lysine and methionine remained without result in comparison with the sole supplementation of lysine. Only the additional supplementation of threonine resulted in the further improvement of protein utilisation. The results corroborate the effect of the amino acid lysine limiting the performance in barley protein and prove that threonine takes the second place in the sequence of limitation. PMID:6791610

  17. The effect of long-term acidifying feeding on digesta organic acids, mineral balance, and bone mineralization in growing pigs

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Højberg, Ole; Sørensen, Kristina Ulrich;

    2014-01-01

    , calcium carbonate (CaCO3) was added to provide equimolar levels of Ca. The pigs were fed the diets from 36 kg until slaughter at 113 kg BW, and they were housed in balance cages for 12 d from 60 to 66 kg BW. Supplementation of BA and/or CaCl2 had only minor effect on accumulation of digesta organic acids...

  18. Fatty Acid Profile of Milk and Cheese from Dairy Cows Supplemented a Diet with Palm Kernel Cake

    Ronaldo Oliveira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lipid supplements (oilseeds vegetables are included in ruminant diet to increase its energy density and improve fatty acid composition of milk and consequently of fresh cheese. Milk and cheeses were evaluated from crossbred Holstein × Zebu, fed diets enriched with 0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% inclusion levels of palm kernel cake in concentrated supplement, which were supplied daily (3.0 kg. Milk and fresh cheese (p = 0.001 fatty acids C12:0 exhibited quadratic negative values. Milk fatty acids C13:0, C20:0, C18:2t10c12, and C20:2n-6 presented positive quadratic values. The milk C18:2n-6 decreased linearly and in fresh cheese exhibited an increasing linear effect (p = 0.016. However, the fatty acids grouped in milk fat were not affected. The medium-chain fatty acids varied negatively and quadratically (p = 0.045. There was no effect on milk and fresh cheese chemical composition (p > 0.05. The milk fat was increased (p = 0.0065 quadratically (minimum point of 24.7%. Thus, the addition of palm kernel cake to cow diets negatively altered the fatty acid profile, it raises the percentage of lauric (C12 and tridecanoic (C13 acids fat which is not beneficial to human health from a nutraceutical perspective, although it did not influence the atherogenicity index.

  19. Effect of branched-chain amino acid supplementation on the oxidized/reduced state of plasma albumin in rats with chronic liver disease

    Kuwahata, Masashi; Kubota, Hiroyo; Katsukawa, Misaki; Ito, Shunsuke; Ogawa, Aki; Kobayashi, Yukiko; Nakamura, Yasushi; Kido, Yasuhiro

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether continuous supplementation with branched-chain amino acids phosphorylates ribosomal protein S6, a downstream effector of mammalian target of rapamycin, and improves hypoalbuminemia of rats with chronic liver disease. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a casein diet (control group) or a branched-chain amino acid-supplemented casein diet (branched-chain amino acid group) for 11 weeks with repeated injections of carbon tetrachloride. Throughout this experimental period, no signific...

  20. Habitual Diets Rich in Dark-Green Vegetables Are Associated with an Increased Response to ω-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation in Americans of African Ancestry123

    O’Sullivan, Aifric; Armstrong, Patrice; Schuster, Gertrud U.; Pedersen, Theresa L.; Allayee, Hooman; Stephensen, Charles B.; Newman, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Although substantial variation exists in individual responses to omega-3 (ω-3) (n–3) fatty acid supplementation, the causes for differences in response are largely unknown. Here we investigated the associations between the efficacy of ω-3 fatty acid supplementation and a broad range of nutritional and clinical factors collected during a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in participants of African ancestry, randomly assigned to receive either 2 g eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + 1 g docosahe...

  1. Effects of calcium soap of rice bran oil fatty acids supplementation alone and with DL-α-tocopherol acetate in lamb diets on performance, digestibility, ruminal parameters and meat quality.

    Bhatt, R S; Sahoo, A; Karim, S A; Agrawal, A R

    2016-06-01

    Thirty-six Malpura lambs (28 day old and 6.7 ± 0.25 kg BW) were distributed equally in three groups having six males and six female. They were ad libitum fed individually three different experimental diets containing calcium soap of fatty acids (CA-FA) at 0 (T1 ) and 40 (T2 and T3 ) g/kg concentrate up to six months of age. Animals in T3 were supplemented additionally with 40 mg DL-α-tocopherol acetate/kg of concentrate. The roughage moiety included ad libitum dry Prosopis cineraria and fresh Azadirachata indica leaves. All the lambs were allowed to suckle from their dam up to weaning (90 day of age). Supplementation of Ca-FA improved weight gain and feed conversion ratio during both pre- (28-90 days) and post-weaning (91-180 days) phases; however, no effect of DL-α-tocopherol was observed. Metabolic parameters during post-weaning phase revealed non-significant effect on digestibility but improved nitrogen balance in the test groups. The effect on biochemical attributes did not show any significant alteration in ruminal parameters, blood biochemicals and urinary purine derivatives. Carcass traits revealed higher (p grade rice bran oil in lamb ration provided additional energy intake, improved N utilization, gain and feed conversion ratio besides improving dressing yield and meat quality with CLA enriched fatty acid profile. DL-α-tocopherol acetate when supplemented at 40 mg/kg feed reduced lipid oxidation of meat products thus improving its keeping quality. PMID:26211674

  2. Predictors of preconceptional folic acid or multivitamin supplement use: a cross-sectional study of Danish pregnancy planners

    Cueto HT

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Heidi T Cueto,1 Anders H Riis,1 Elizabeth E Hatch,2 Lauren A Wise,2,4 Kenneth J Rothman,2,3 Ellen M Mikkelsen11Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 2Department of Epidemiology, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; 3RTI Health Solutions, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 4Slone Epidemiology Center, Boston University, Boston, MA, USAPurpose: Compliance with the Danish preconceptional folic acid (FA recommendation – a daily supplement of 400 µg – is reported to be poor. Uncertainty remains, however, about the prevalence of compliers and health-related predictors of compliance in the preconceptional period.Methods: We used self-reported baseline data from 5383 women, aged 18–40 years, enrolled in an Internet-based prospective cohort study of Danish pregnancy planners during 2007–2011. We estimated the prevalence proportions of FA or multivitamin (MV use in relation to selected sociodemographic, lifestyle, reproductive, and medical characteristics. Multivariate binomial regression was used to obtain prevalence proportion differences with 95% confidence intervals for each level of study predictors, adjusted for all other predictors.Results: Overall, 7.7% of women used FA supplements, 20.4% used MV supplements, 34.0% used both, 1.5% used other single vitamins or minerals, and 36.4% did not use any dietary supplements. The prevalence of FA or MV supplement use was higher among older women, women with higher education and income, and women with healthy lifestyle factors such as being a nonsmoker, nondrinker, physically active, maintaining a normal body mass index and having regular pap smears. Greater intercourse frequency and a history of spontaneous abortion were also positively associated with FA or MV supplement use. We found no clear association between use of FA or MV supplements and a diagnosis of hypertension, diabetes, thyroid disease, pelvic inflammatory disease, or

  3. Insulin Signaling in Liver and Adipose Tissues in Periparturient Dairy Cows Supplemented with Dietary Nicotinic Acid

    Kinoshita, Asako; Kenéz, Ákos; Locher, Lena; Meyer, Ulrich; Dänicke, Sven; Rehage, Jürgen; Huber, Korinna

    2016-01-01

    The glucose homeostasis in dairy cattle is very well controlled, in line with the metabolic adaptation during the periparturient period. Former studies showed that nicotinic acid (NA) lowered plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations and increased insulin sensitivity in dairy cows. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether the expression of proteins involved in hepatic and adipose insulin signaling and protein expression of hepatic glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) were affected by dietary NA and dietary concentrate intake in periparturient dairy cows. Twenty pluriparous German Holstein cows were fed with the same diet from about 21 days before the expected calving date (d-21) to calving. After calving, cows were randomly assigned in 4 groups and fed with diets different in concentrate proportion (“HC” with 60:40% or “LC” with 30:70% concentrate-to-roughage ratio) and supplemented with NA (24 g/day) (NA) or without (CON) until d21. Biopsy samples were taken from the liver, subcutaneous (SCAT) and retroperitoneal (RPAT) adipose tissues at d-21 and d21. Protein expression of insulin signaling molecules (insulin receptor (INSR), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ)) and hepatic GLUT2 was measured by Western Blotting. The ratio of protein expression at d21/at d-21 was calculated and statistically evaluated for the effects of time and diet. Cows in HC had significantly higher dietary energy intake than cows in LC. In RPAT a decrease in PI3K and PKCζ expression was found in all groups, irrespectively of diet. In the liver, the GLUT2 expression was significantly lower in cows in NA compared with cows in CON. In conclusion, insulin signaling might be decreased in RPAT over time without any effect of diet. NA was able to modulate hepatic GLUT2 expression, but its physiological role is unclear. PMID:26766039

  4. The Role for Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation in Older Adults

    Alessio Molfino

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Optimal nutrition is one of the most important determinants of healthier ageing, reducing the risk of disability, maintaining mental and physical functions, and thus preserving and ensuring a better quality of life. Dietary intake and nutrient absorption decline with age, thus increasing the risk of malnutrition, morbidity and mortality. Specific nutrients, particularly long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, might have the potential of preventing and reducing co-morbidities in older adults. Omega-3 PUFAs are able to modulate inflammation, hyperlipidemia, platelet aggregation, and hypertension. Different mechanisms contribute to these effects, including conditioning cell membrane function and composition, eicosanoid production, and gene expression. The present review analyzes the influence of omega-3 PUFAs status and intake on brain function, cardiovascular system, immune function, muscle performance and bone health in older adults. Omega-3 FAs may have substantial benefits in reducing the risk of cognitive decline in older people. The available data encourage higher intakes of omega-3 PUFAs in the diet or via specific supplements. More studies are needed to confirm the role of omega-3 FAs in maintaining bone health and preventing the loss of muscle mass and function associated with ageing. In summary, omega-3 PUFAs are now identified as potential key nutrients, safe and effective in the treatment and prevention of several negative consequences of ageing.

  5. Gene expression profiles in rat mesenteric lymph nodes upon supplementation with Conjugated Linoleic Acid during gestation and suckling

    Selga, Elisabet; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J.; Franch, Àngels; Ramírez-Santana, Carolina; Rivero, Montserrat; Ciudad, Carlos J.; Castellote, Cristina; Noé, Véronique

    2011-01-01

    Background Diet plays a role on the development of the immune system, and polyunsaturated fatty acids can modulate the expression of a variety of genes. Human milk contains conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a fatty acid that seems to contribute to immune development. Indeed, recent studies carried out in our group in suckling animals have shown that the immune function is enhanced after feeding them with an 80:20 isomer mix composed of c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA. However, little work has been done ...

  6. Effects of supplementation with 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid isopropyl ester on splanchnic amino acid metabolism and essential amino acid mobilization in postpartum transition Holstein cows

    Dalbach, Kristine Foged; Larsen, Mogens; Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl;

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid isopropyl ester (HMBi) supplementation on splanchnic AA metabolism, essential AA (EAA) mobilization, and plasma AA status in postpartum transition dairy cows. The EAA mobilization was calculated by...... during the first 29 DIM. Extra-splanchnic EAA mobilization can be crucial to sustain milk protein yield in the postpartum transition period and HMBi is a fast-working Met source that can improve Met status of postpartum transition cows....... difference: EAA excretion in milk protein − net portal absorption of EAA or net splanchnic release of EAA. Eight Holstein cows fitted with permanent indwelling catheters in the hepatic portal vein, hepatic vein, mesenteric vein, and an artery in the dry period preceding second parturition were used in the...

  7. 76 FR 7106 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Formic Acid

    2011-02-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 573 Food Additives Permitted in Feed and.... SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the regulations for food additives permitted... Part 573 Animal feeds, Food additives. Therefore, under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...

  8. The effects of moderate alcohol supplementation on estrone sulfate and DHEAS in postmenopausal women in a controlled feeding study

    Albanes Demetrius

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have demonstrated that moderate alcohol consumption (15 g/d, 30 g/d for 8 weeks resulted in significantly increased levels of serum estrone sulfate and DHEAS in 51 postmenopausal women in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. We now report on the relationships between serum estrone sulfate and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS levels after 4 weeks of moderate alcohol supplementation, and compare the results to the 8 weeks data to elucidate time-to-effect differences. Methods Postmenopausal women (n = 51 consumed 0 (placebo, 15 (1 drink, and 30 (2 drinks g alcohol (ethanol/ day for 8 weeks as part of a controlled diet in a randomized crossover design. Blood samples were drawn at baseline, at 4 weeks and at 8 weeks. Changes in estrone sulfate and DHEAS levels from placebo to 15 g and 30 g alcohol per day were estimated using linear mixed models. Results and Discussion At week 4, compared to the placebo, estrone sulfate increased an average 6.9% (P = 0.24 when the women consumed 15 g of alcohol per day, and 22.2% (P = 0.0006 when they consumed 30 g alcohol per day. DHEAS concentrations also increased significantly by an average of 8.0% (P Conclusions These data indicate that the hormonal effects due to moderate alcohol consumption are seen early, within 4 weeks of initiation of ingestion.

  9. Folate Deficiency and Folic Acid Supplementation: The Prevention of Neural-Tube Defects and Congenital Heart Defects

    Andrew E. Czeizel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Diet, particularly vitamin deficiency, is associated with the risk of birth defects. The aim of this review paper is to show the characteristics of common and severe neural-tube defects together with congenital heart defects (CHD as vitamin deficiencies play a role in their origin. The findings of the Hungarian intervention (randomized double-blind and cohort controlled trials indicated that periconceptional folic acid (FA-containing multivitamin supplementation prevented the major proportion (about 90% of neural-tube defects (NTD as well as a certain proportion (about 40% of congenital heart defects. Finally the benefits and drawbacks of three main practical applications of folic acid/multivitamin treatment such as (i dietary intake; (ii periconceptional supplementation; and (iii flour fortification are discussed. The conclusion arrived at is indeed confirmation of Benjamin Franklin’s statement: “An ounce of prevention is better than a pound of care”.

  10. A 9-wk docosahexaenoic acid-enriched supplementation improves endurance exercise capacity and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in adult rats.

    Le Guen, Marie; Chaté, Valérie; Hininger-Favier, Isabelle; Laillet, Brigitte; Morio, Béatrice; Pieroni, Gérard; Schlattner, Uwe; Pison, Christophe; Dubouchaud, Hervé

    2016-02-01

    Decline in skeletal muscle mass and function starts during adulthood. Among the causes, modifications of the mitochondrial function could be of major importance. Polyunsaturated fatty (ω-3) acids have been shown to play a role in intracellular functions. We hypothesize that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation could improve muscle mitochondrial function that could contribute to limit the early consequences of aging on adult muscle. Twelve-month-old male Wistar rats were fed a low-polyunsaturated fat diet and were given DHA (DHA group) or placebo (control group) for 9 wk. Rats from the DHA group showed a higher endurance capacity (+56%, P supplementation could be of potential interest for the muscle function in adults and for fighting the decline in exercise tolerance with age that could imply energy-sensing pathway, as suggested by changes in phospho-AMPK/AMPK ratio. PMID:26646102

  11. 'Leaves and eats shoots': direct terrestrial feeding can supplement invasive red swamp crayfish in times of need.

    Jonathan Grey

    Full Text Available We used stable isotope analyses to characterise the feeding dynamics of a population of red swamp crayfish in Lake Naivasha, Kenya, after the crash of submerged macrophytes and associated macroinvertebrates, and during a natural draw-down of the lake water level. We expected a heavy reliance upon a diet of detrital matter to sustain the population as a consequence, and indeed, for the majority of the crayfish population caught from the lake, we saw a concomitant shift in isotopic values reflecting a dietary change. However, we also caught individual crayfish that had occupied the footprints of hippopotamus and effectively extended their range beyond the lake up to 40 m into the riparian zone. Isotopic analysis confirmed limited nocturnal observations that these individuals were consuming living terrestrial plants in the vicinity of the footprints. These are the first empirical data to demonstrate direct use of terrestrial resources by an aquatic crayfish species and further highlight the traits that make red swamp crayfish such opportunistic and successful invaders.

  12. Chemometric analysis of the interactions among different parameters describing health conditions, breast cancer risk and fatty acids profile in serum of rats supplemented with conjugated linoleic acids.

    Białek, Agnieszka; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Tokarz, Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    We investigated how different doses of conjugated linoleic acids applied for various periods of time influence breast cancer risk and fatty acids profile in serum of rats treated or not with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). We also search for interactions among parameters describing health conditions and cancer risk. Animals were divided into 18 groups with different diet modifications (vegetable oil, 1.0%, 2.0% additions of CLA) and different periods of supplementation. In groups treated with DMBA mammary adenocarcinomas appeared. Due to the complexity of experiment apart from statistical analysis a chemometric tool-Partial Least Square method was applied. Analysis of pairs of correlated parameters allowed to identify some regularities concerning the relationships between fatty acid profiles and clinical features of animals. Fatty acids profile was the result of prolonged exposure to high dose of CLA and DMBA administration. These two factors underlined the differences in fatty acids profiles among clusters of animals. PMID:26926361

  13. Effects of Linseed Oil or Whole Linseed Supplementation on Performance and Milk Fatty Acid Composition of Lactating Dairy Cows

    Suksombat, Wisitiporn; Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Meeprom, Chayapol; Mirattanaphrai, Rattakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of linseed oil or whole linseed supplementation on performance and milk fatty acid composition of lactating dairy cows. Thirty six Holstein Friesian crossbred lactating dairy cows were blocked by milking days first and then stratified random balanced for milk yields and body weight into three groups of 12 cows each. The treatments consisted of basal ration (53:47; forage:concentrate ratio, on a dry matter [DM] basis, respectively) suppl...

  14. The effects of moderate alcohol supplementation on estrone sulfate and DHEAS in postmenopausal women in a controlled feeding study

    Mahabir, Somdat; Baer, David J; Johnson, Laura L; Dorgan, Joanne F; Campbell, William; Brown, Ellen; Hartman, Terryl J; Clevidence, Beverly; Albanes, Demetrius; Judd, Joseph T; Taylor, Philip R

    2004-01-01

    Background We have demonstrated that moderate alcohol consumption (15 g/d, 30 g/d) for 8 weeks resulted in significantly increased levels of serum estrone sulfate and DHEAS in 51 postmenopausal women in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. We now report on the relationships between serum estrone sulfate and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels after 4 weeks of moderate alcohol supplementation, and compare the results to the 8 weeks data to elucidate time-to-effect differences. Methods Postmenopausal women (n = 51) consumed 0 (placebo), 15 (1 drink), and 30 (2 drinks) g alcohol (ethanol)/ day for 8 weeks as part of a controlled diet in a randomized crossover design. Blood samples were drawn at baseline, at 4 weeks and at 8 weeks. Changes in estrone sulfate and DHEAS levels from placebo to 15 g and 30 g alcohol per day were estimated using linear mixed models. Results and Discussion At week 4, compared to the placebo, estrone sulfate increased an average 6.9% (P = 0.24) when the women consumed 15 g of alcohol per day, and 22.2% (P = 0.0006) when they consumed 30 g alcohol per day. DHEAS concentrations also increased significantly by an average of 8.0% (P < 0.0001) on 15 g of alcohol per day and 9.2% (P < 0.0001) when 30 g alcohol was consumed per day. Trend tests across doses for both estrone sulfate (P = 0.0006) and DHEAS (P < 0.0001) were significant. We found no significant differences between the absolute levels of serum estrone sulfate at week 4 versus week 8 (P = 0.32) across all doses. However, absolute DHEAS levels increased from week 4 to week 8 (P < 0.0001) at all three dose levels. Conclusions These data indicate that the hormonal effects due to moderate alcohol consumption are seen early, within 4 weeks of initiation of ingestion. PMID:15353002

  15. Efficient production of l-lactic acid using co-feeding strategy based on cane molasses/glucose carbon sources.

    Xu, Ke; Xu, Ping

    2014-02-01

    L-Lactic acid is an important platform chemical, which ought to be produced under cost control to meet its huge demand. Cane molasses, a waste from sugar manufacturing processes, is hopeful to be utilized as a cheap carbon source for L-lactic acid fermentation. Considering that cane molasses contains nutrients and hazardous substances, efficient production of L-lactic acid was developed by using a co-feeding strategy based on the utilization of cane molasses/glucose carbon sources. Based on the medium optimization with response surface method, 168.3g/L L-lactic acid was obtained by a Bacillus coagulans strain H-1 after 78h fed-batch fermentation, with a productivity of 2.1g/Lh and a yield of 0.88g/g. Since cane molasses is a feasible carbon source, the co-feeding fermentation might be a promising alternative for the economical production of L-lactic acid. PMID:24333698

  16. Energetic values and performace of broilers feeding sorghum and soybean meal based diets supplemented with B-glucanase and B-xylanase

    Evandro de Abreu Fernandes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Grains, brans, and vegetable meals may contain non-starch polysaccharides (NSP, which increases viscosity in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT and interfere with the digestion and absorption of nutrients. This study aimed to evaluate the performance and determine the metabolizable energy of a sorghum-based broiler diet with and without the supplementation of an enzymatic complex. The experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design with 1200 chickens, using sorghum-based feed with and without the addition of 50 g of enzyme-CCE complex (?-glucanase and ?-xylanase, and with two levels of metabolizable energy (ME kg-1: ME; ME + CCE; reduced ME (-50 kcal kg-1; and reduced ME + CCE. The data were subjected to an analysis of variance and the means were compared using a Tukey’s test at the 5% significance level. At 42 and 47 days of age, the living weight of the birds fed with the reduced ME was low, while birds fed with reduced ME + CCE had the same weight as those fed with other energy diets (ME and ME + CCE. Feed conversion was poorest at 47 days of age for the birds on reduced ME diet. In the metabolic test (with fattening diets to determine AME and AMEn, the reduced ME diet had the lowest result, confirming the effect of the addition of enzymes. The addition of CCE to sorghum-based diets provides enough enzymatic activity to increase the metabolizable energy of the diet (50 kcal of AME and influence the growth performance of broilers at the slaughtering age.

  17. Implementation of a programme to market a complementary food supplement (Ying Yang Bao) and impacts on anaemia and feeding practices in Shanxi, China.

    Sun, Jing; Dai, Yaohua; Zhang, Shuaiming; Huang, Jian; Yang, Zhenyu; Huo, Junsheng; Chen, Chunming

    2011-10-01

    In China, a full fat soy powder mixed with multiple micronutrient powders (Ying Yang Bao (YYB)) was developed, and the efficacy of YYB was shown in controlling anaemia and improving child growth and development. However, prior to 2008, there was no sustainable way to provide YYB to vulnerable populations, except through free distribution by the government. This study was to test the concept of public-private partnership (PPP) to deliver YYB and to evaluate the effectiveness of marketing YYB through PPP. Programme activities included development of a complementary food supplement (CFS) national standard, product concept test, product development and marketing, behavior change communication, monitoring and evaluation. Baseline and end-line surveys were used to evaluate product awareness, purchasing and the impacts of the project on anaemia and feeding practices. A Chinese CFS standard was approved. Caregivers and their 6- to-24-month-old children participated in the baseline (n=226) and the end-line survey (n=221). A concept test at the baseline survey showed that 78% of caregivers were willing to buy YYB at 0.1 USD. After developing the product and implementing the intervention for 8 months, 59.6% of surveyed caregivers purchased YYB. While not significant, the prevalence of anaemia was marginally lower at the end line (28.8%) than at the baseline (36.2%). For those purchasing YYB, the risk of anaemia was significantly reduced by 87% of odds (Paccess and use through market channels. The YYB project may be effective for reducing anaemia and improving feeding practices. PMID:21929638

  18. THE EFFECT OF COTTONSEED AND SOYBEAN SUPPLEMENTATION ON CLA ISOMERS AND OTHER UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS COMPOSITION IN SHEEP MILK

    Marmaryan G. Y.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the supplementation effect of different treatments of whole cottonseed and full fat soybean on the diet of dairy ewes and the milk fatty acid profile and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA content. The results indicate for both diets it is most suitable to use the second treatment in order to increase the level of cis- 9,trans-11 CLA isomer in milk. In the level of trans-10,cis-12 and cis-9, cis-11 no changes were observed in neither of the diets.

  19. Survey on the Quality of the Top-Selling European and American Botanical Dietary Supplements Containing Boswellic Acids.

    Meins, Jürgen; Artaria, Christian; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Abdel-Tawab, Mona

    2016-04-01

    In consideration of the increasing popularity of frankincense and the widely published quality problems associated with botanical dietary supplements, a survey was conducted for the first time on the quality of frankincense containing botanical dietary supplements. Six US products representing 78 % of the units sold and 70 % of the market value, and 11 European products representing 30 % of the units sold and 40 % of the market value were tested for their boswellic acid composition profile, label compliance, and claimed health benefits. Special focus was also set on the statements made with regard to the frankincense applied.Only five products out of seventeen disclosed all relevant information for the Boswellia extract, mentioning the species, the part of plant used, and the boswellic acid content. Whereas all products but one claimed to use Boswellia serrata, three products did not mention the resin as the part applied and 10 products did not declare the boswellic acid content. Apart from the different boswellic acid composition determined with a sensitive LC/MS method, 41 % of the products did not comply with the label declaration. Hence, one product from Italy did not contain any of the six characteristic boswellic acids (KBA, AKBA, αBA, βBA, AαBA, AβBA) at all and another US product contained only traces, suggesting the absence of frankincense or the use of Boswellia frereana instead of B. serrata. In another product, the ratios of the individual boswellic acids were different from B. serrata gum resin, indicating the use of another species such as Boswellia sacra or Boswellia carterii. Furthermore, two products revealed different boswellic acid contents from those declared on the label. Further, two products did not declare the use of manipulated Boswellia gum resin extract being enriched in acetyl-11-keto-boswellic acid content reaching up to 66 %. In addition, consumers could be misled by outdated literature or references to in vitro studies

  20. AMINO ACIDS PROFILE OF THE LIGNOCELLULOSIC FEED TREATED WITH CELLULASE-FREE LIGNOLYTIC MUTANTS OF PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS

    Vijaya Lakshmi Chalamcherla

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Defining and quantifying amino acid requirements will become an important consideration in the next generation of feeding schemes for dairy cattle beyond the current emphasis on identification of limiting amino acids. In this context different amino acid profiles of untreated, urea treated, fungal treated, and urea plus fungal treated lignocellulosic feed by both P. ostreatus wild and its two cellulase-minus/ less lignolytic mutants were analyzed. Cellulase-free mutant strains were obtained after 20 minutes of exposure to UV light and 0.4 seconds to X-rays. A UV mutant of P. ostreatus (POM1 exhibited better performance than the X-ray mutant (POM2 in terms of production of less cellulolytic and more lignolytic enzymes. Urea treatment of straw enhanced the total amino acid content by less than a factor of two, while the fungal treatment improved it by 13-14 times. Fungal treatment of urea-treated straw improved the total amino acid content by a factor of 15, indicating the importance of urea in the straw. Further, the fungal treatment of urea-treated straw enhanced the quantity of amino acids such as glutamine, glycine, aspergine, etc. by 15-20 times. The quantity of limiting amino acids such as methionine, lysine, and histidine was also enhanced by 8 to 10 times through the fungal treatment. Maximum amounts of all the amino acids were found in urea plus fungal (POM1 treated paddy straw than in only fungal treated and only urea treated paddy straws.