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Sample records for acid sulfates

  1. Acid Sulfate Alteration on Mars

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Acid sulfate alteration has been identified at all three landing sites visited by NASA rover missions (Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity). Spirit landed in Gusev crater in 2004 and discovered Fe-sulfates and materials that have been extensively leached by acid sulfate solutions. Opportunity landing on the plains of Meridiani Planum also in 2004 where the rover encountered large abundances of jarosite and hematite in sedimentary rocks. Curiosity landed in Gale crater in 2012 and has characterized fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments. Jarosite and hematite were discovered in some of the lacustrine sediments. The high elemental abundance of sulfur in surface materials is obvious evidence that sulfate has played a major role in aqueous processes at all landing sites on Mars. The sulfate-rich outcrop at Meridiani Planum has an SO3 content of up to 25 wt.%. The interiors of rocks and outcrops on the Columbia Hills within Gusev crater have up to 8 wt.% SO3. Soils at both sites generally have between 5 to 14 wt.% SO3, and several soils in Gusev crater contain around 30 wt.% SO3. After normalization of major element compositions to a SO3-free basis, the bulk compositions of these materials are basaltic, with a few exceptions in Gusev crater and in lacustrine mudstones in Gale crater. These observations suggest that materials encountered by the rovers were derived from basaltic precursors by acid sulfate alteration under nearly isochemical conditions (i.e., minimal leaching). There are several cases, however, where acid sulfate alteration minerals (jarosite and hematite) formed in open hydrologic systems, e.g., in Gale crater lacustrine mudstones. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the

  2. CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION IN ACID SULFATE LANDSCAPES

    Chuxia Lin

    2012-01-01

    Oxidation of sulfide minerals produces sulfuric acid and consequently creates Acid Sulfate Landscapes (ASLs), which represent one of the most degraded types of land-surface environments. Although acid sulfate-producing weathering is a naturally occurring process, it is markedly facilitated by human intervention. Mining is by far the dominant anthropogenic cause for the creation of inland acid sulfate footprints while land reclamation in coastal lowlands is the driver for the formation of coas...

  3. Sulfate metabolism. I. Sulfate uptake and redistribution of acid rain sulfate by edible plants

    Sulfur is the major component of polluted air in industrialized societies. Atmospheric sulfur is converted to sulfuric acid through a series of chemical reactions which can eventually reenter many ecosystems. When edible plants are grown in soils containing varying amounts of sulfate, the roots take up and transport inorganic sulfate to the stems and leaves. The sulfate taken up by the roots and the amount transported to the stem and leaves was found to be a function of the concentration of sulfate in the soil. Inorganic sulfate taken up by a corn plant seedling can be rapidly converted to organic sulfate by the root system. Nine days after one of a pair of pea plants was inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate (dilute H235SO4) it was found that the sulfate was translocated not only in the inoculated plant, but also to the uninoculated pea plant in the same container. Also, when the leaves of a mature potato plant were inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate it was found that the sulfate was translocated into the edible potatoes. Fractionation of the potatoes showed that most of the sulfate was water soluble of which 30% was inorganic sulfate and 70% was in the form of organic sulfur. One third of the non-water soluble translocated acid rain sulfate was equally divided between lipid and non-lipid organic sulfur of the potato. 9 references, 2 figures, 5 tables

  4. CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION IN ACID SULFATE LANDSCAPES

    Chuxia Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of sulfide minerals produces sulfuric acid and consequently creates Acid Sulfate Landscapes (ASLs, which represent one of the most degraded types of land-surface environments. Although acid sulfate-producing weathering is a naturally occurring process, it is markedly facilitated by human intervention. Mining is by far the dominant anthropogenic cause for the creation of inland acid sulfate footprints while land reclamation in coastal lowlands is the driver for the formation of coastal ASLs. The projected climate change highlights the possibility of an increase in the frequency and severity of extreme weather events such as droughts and heavy rains, which is likely to accelerate the acid generation in some circumstances and increase the frequency and magnitude of acid discharge. Sea level rise as a result of global warming will cause additional problems with the coastal ASLs. This is a review article. The following aspects are covered: (a the overriding biogeochemical processes leading to acid sulfate-producing weathering, (b a brief introduction to the inland acid sulfate landscapes, (c a brief introduction to the coastal acid sulfate landscapes, (d the likely impacts of climate change on ASLs and (e the possible measures to combat climate change-induced environmental degradation in the identified key acid sulfate footprints. The projected climate change is like to significantly affect the acid sulfate landscapes in different ways. Appropriate management strategies and cost-effective technologies need to be developed in order to minimize the climate change-induced ecological degradation.

  5. Acid Sulfate Alteration in Gusev Crater, Mars

    Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Catalano, J. G.

    2016-01-01

    dust. The Moessbauer parameters are not definitive for mineralogical speciation (other than octahedrally-coordinated Fe(3+) but are consistent with a schwertmannite-like phase (i.e., a nanophase ferric oxide). The high oxidation state and values of Moessbauer parameters (center shift and quadrupole splitting) for the high-SO3 samples imply ferric sulfate (i.e., oxidized sulfur), although the hydration state cannot be constrained. In no case is there an excess of SO3 over available cations (i.e., no evidence for elemental sulfur), and Fe sulfide (pyrite) has been detected in only one Gusev sample. The presence of both high-SiO2 (and low total iron and SO3) and high SO3 (and high total iron as ferric sulfate) can be accommodated by a two-step geochemical model developed with the Geochemist's Workbench. (1) Step 1 is anoxic acid sulfate leaching of Martian basalt at high water-to rock ratios (greater than 70). The result is a high-SiO2 residue0, and anoxic conditions are required to solubilize Fe as Fe(2+). (2) Step 2 is the oxic precipitation of sulfate salts from the leachate. Oxic conditions are required to produce the high concentrations of ferric sulfate with minor Mg-sulfates and no detectable Fe(2+)-sulfates.

  6. Controls of Soluble Al in Experimental Acid Sulfate Conditions and Acid Sulfate Soils

    LINCHUXIA; M.D.MELVILLE

    1997-01-01

    The controls of soluble Al concentration were examined in three situations of acid sulfate conditions:1) experimental acid sulfate conditions by addition of varying amounts of Al(OH)3(gibbsite) into a sequence of H2SO4 solutions;2)experimental acid sulfate conditions by addition of the same sequence of H2SO4 solutions into two non-cid sulfacte soil samples with known amounts of acid oxalate extractable Al; and 3) actual acid sulfate soil conditions.The experiment using gibbsite as an Al-bearing mineral showed that increase in the concentration of H2SO4 solution increased the soluble Al concentration,accompanied by a decrease i the solution pH, Increasing amount of gibbsite added to the H2SO4 solutions also increased soluble Al concentration,but resulted in an increase in solution pH.Within the H2SO4 concentration range of 0.0005-0.5mol L-1 and the Al(OH)3 range of 0.01-0.5g(in 25 mL of H2SO4 solutions),the input of H2SO4 had the major control on soluble Al Concentration and pH .The availability of Al(OH)3,however,was responsible for the spread fo the various sample points,with a tendency that the samples containing more gibbsite had a higher soluble Al concentration than those containing less gibbsite at equivalent pH levels.The experimental results from treatment of soil samples with H2SO4 solutions and the analytical results of acid sulfate soils also showed the similar trend.

  7. SULFATION OF ARABINOGALACTAN BY SULFAMIC ACID IN DIOXANE MEDIUM

    Наталья Юрьевна Васильева

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sulfation of arabinogalactan (AG by sulfamic acid in the presence of urea at temperatures 70–95 °C in dioxane medium was studied. The growth of sulfation temperature from 70 to 95 °C increases a degree of AG sulfation. According to NMR 13C spectroscopy data sulfate groups are fixed at С2 and C4 positions of galactose unit of basic chain and at C6 position of terminal galactose units of basic and side chains of arabinogalactan. The sulfation of AG by complex sulfamic acid – urea in dioxane medium makes possible to increase the environmental safety and efficiency of the process as compared to the known sulfation methods.

  8. Biological functions of iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate

    Thelin, Martin A.; Bartolini, Barbara; Axelsson, Jakob; Gustafsson, Renata; Tykesson, Emil; Pera, Edgar; Oldberg, Åke; Maccarana, Marco; Malmstrom, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The presence of iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate changes the properties of the polysaccharides because it generates a more flexible chain with increased binding potentials. Iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate influences multiple cellular properties, such as migration, proliferation, differentiation, angiogenesis and the regulation of cytokine/growth factor activities. Under pathological conditions such as wound healing, inflammation and cancer, iduronic acid has diverse...

  9. Characteristics of Phosphorus in Some Eastern Australian Acid Sulfate Soils

    2002-01-01

    Forty-five acid sulfate topsoil samples (depth < 0.5 m) from 15 soil cores were collected from 11 locations along the New South Wales coast, Australia. There was an overall trend for the concentration of the HC1extractable P to increase along with increasing amounts of organic C and the HCl-extractable trivalent metals in the topsoils of some less-disturbed acid sulfate soils (pH <4.5). This suggests that inorganic P in these soils probably accumulated via biological cycling and was retained by complexation with trivalent metals or their oxides and hydroxides. While there was no clear correlation between pH and the water-extractable P, the concentration of the water-extractable P tended to increase with increasing amounts of the HCl-extractable P. This disagrees with some established models which suggest that the concentration of solution P in acid soils is independent of total P and decreases with increasing acidity. The high concentration of sulfate present in acid sulfate soils appeared to affect the chemical behavior of P in these soil systems. Comparison was made between a less disturbed wetland acid sulfate soil and a more intensively disturbed sugarcane acid sulfate soil.The results show that reclamation of wetland acid sulfate soils for sugarcane production caused a significant decrease in the HCl-extractable P in the topsoil layer as a result of the reduced bio-cycling of phosphorus following sugarcane farming. Simulation experiment shows that addition of hydrated lime had no effects on the immobilization of retained P in an acid sulfate soil sample within a pH range 3.5~4.6. When the pH was raised to above 4.6, soluble P in the soil extracts had a tendency to increase with increasing pH until the 15th extraction (pH 5.13). This, in combination with the poor pH-soluble P relationship observed from the less-disturbed acid sulfate soils, suggests that soluble P was not clearly pH-dependent in acid sulfate soils with pH < 4.5.

  10. Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage with Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    Hauri, James F.; Schaider, Laurel A.

    2009-01-01

    Sulfate reducing bacteria have been shown to be effective at treating acid mine drainage through sulfide production and subsequent precipitation of metal sulfides. In this laboratory experiment for undergraduate environmental chemistry courses, students design and implement a set of bioreactors to remediate acid mine drainage and explain observed…

  11. Analytical Methods for Environmental Risk Assessment of Acid Sulfate Soils: A Review

    2001-01-01

    Assessment of acid sulfate soil risk is an important step for acid sulfate soil management and its reliability depends very much on the suitability and accuracy of various analytical methods for estimating sulfide-derived potential acidity, actual acidity and acid-neutralizing capacity in acid sulfate soils. This paper critically reviews various analytical methods that are currently used for determination of the above parameters, as well as their implications for environmental risk assessment of acid sulfate soils.

  12. Acid Sulfate Soils in Australia:Characteristics,Problems and Management

    C.LIN

    1999-01-01

    Acid sulfate soils(ASS) are widely distributod in Australia.This has only been recognised recently when intensive research on ASS has been done in this county.This paper reviews aspects concerning a )the distribution and acid potential,b) controls on acidic status,and c) problems and management of ASS problems from ASS exist but insufficient attention was paid to them.

  13. Electrochemical treatment of acidic aqueous ferrous sulfate and copper sulfate as models for acid mine drainage.

    Bunce, N J; Chartrand, M; Keech, P

    2001-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a serious environmental problem in the mining industry. The present work describes electrolytic reduction of solutions of synthetic AMD, comprising FeSO4/H2SO4 and CuSO4/H2SO4, in flow-through cells whose anode and cathode compartments were separated using ion exchange membranes. In the case of FeSO4/H2SO4 at constant flow rate, the pH of the effluent from the catholyte increased progressively with current at a variety of cathodes, due to electrolytic reduction of H+ ions to elemental hydrogen. Near-quantitative removal of iron was achieved by sparging air into the catholyte effluent, thereby precipitating iron outside the electrochemical cell, and avoiding fouling of the electrodes. The anode reaction was the oxidation of water to O2, a proton-releasing process. Using cation exchange membranes and sodium sulfate as the supporting electrolyte in the anode compartment, the efficiency of the process was compromised at high currents by transport of H+ competitively with Na+ from the anode to the cathode compartments. Higher efficiencies were obtained when anion exchange membranes were used, and in this case no additional supporting electrolyte other than dilute H2SO4 was needed, the net reaction being the electrochemically driven transfer of the elements of H2SO4 from the cathode to the anode compartments. Current efficiencies approximately 50% were achieved, the loss of efficiency being accounted for by ohmic heating of the solutions. In the case of CuSO4/H2SO4 and anion exchange membranes at high currents, reduction of Cu2+ and H+ ions and transport of SO4(2-) ions out of the catholyte caused unacceptably high potentials to be generated. PMID:11763043

  14. Oxydesulfurization of coal by acidic iron sulfate solutions

    Mixon, D.A.; Vermeulen, T.

    1981-08-01

    To facilitate by-product recovery and eliminate elemental sulfur formation in coal oxydesulfurization, high-sulfur bituminous coal has been treated with aqueous ferric sulfate/sulfuric acid and oxygen at 100 to 150/sup 0/C. The rate of pyrite oxidation increases with oxygen partial pressure, temperature, and fineness of grinding. This reaction rate is relatively insensitive to sulfuric acid and ferric sulfate concentrations, so that pyrite removal may be satisfactorily performed in solutions containing 25% H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and 12% Fe/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 3/ (weight percentages relative to total H/sub 2/O plus H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/); preliminary data suggest that such a leaching solution is only mildly corrosive to T316 stainless steel, at 150/sup 0/C or below, in the presence of oxygen. To provide an accurate assessment of coal oxydesulfurization stoichiometry, an analytical technique based on uv spectrophotometry has been developed for the determination of elemental sulfur in coal. Prepared coal samples are extracted for 24 hours with cyclohexane. Other exploratory oxydesulfurization runs have shown that vanadium oxides are not effective catalysts at 100/sup 0/C, with oxygen. Nor are lauryl sulfate or sulfates of zinc, copper, or manganese effective additives in the ferric sulfate/sulfuric acid/oxygen system at 150/sup 0/C. Elemental chlorine has been shown to be capable of removing significant amounts of organic sulfur from coal, at 74/sup 0/C, but suffers the drawback of chlorinating the coal's orgaic matrix. Hydrogen peroxide in aqueous sulfuric acid is an effective reagent for pyrite removal at 100/sup 0/C, but is unduly expensive.

  15. Two Dermatan Sulfate Epimerases Form Iduronic Acid Domains in Dermatan Sulfate*

    Pacheco, Benny; Malmström, Anders; Maccarana, Marco

    2009-01-01

    A second dermatan sulfate epimerase (DS-epi2) was identified as a homolog of the first epimerase (DS-epi1), which was previously described by our group. DS-epi2 is 1,222 amino acids long and has an ∼700-amino acid N-terminal epimerase domain that is highly conserved between the two enzymes. In addition, the C-terminal portion is predicted to be an O-sulfotransferase domain. In this study we found that DS-epi2 has epimerase activity, which involves conversion of d-glucu...

  16. Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols

    Kravitz, Ben

    2009-07-28

    We used a general circulation model of Earth\\'s climate to conduct geoengineering experiments involving stratospheric injection of sulfur dioxide and analyzed the resulting deposition of sulfate. When sulfur dioxide is injected into the tropical or Arctic stratosphere, the main additional surface deposition of sulfate occurs in midlatitude bands, because of strong cross-tropopause flux in the jet stream regions. We used critical load studies to determine the effects of this increase in sulfate deposition on terrestrial ecosystems by assuming the upper limit of hydration of all sulfate aerosols into sulfuric acid. For annual injection of 5 Tg of SO2 into the tropical stratosphere or 3 Tg of SO2 into the Arctic stratosphere, neither the maximum point value of sulfate deposition of approximately 1.5 mEq m−2 a−1 nor the largest additional deposition that would result from geoengineering of approximately 0.05 mEq m−2 a−1 is enough to negatively impact most ecosystems.

  17. Development of a rapid method for simultaneous separation of hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate and heparin by capillary electrophoresis.

    Zhao, Ting; Song, Xinlei; Tan, Xiaoqing; Xu, Linghua; Yu, Mingxiu; Wang, Siyi; Liu, Xiumei; Wang, Fengshan

    2016-05-01

    This study reports the use of diethylenetriamine as background electrolyte for the simultaneous separation of hyaluronan acid, chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate and heparin. The analytes were baseline separated by using an uncoated fused silica capillary at 37°C with a run time of 23min. The migration order, with hyaluronan acid at first and heparin at last, was related to the sulfation degree. The effect of salt concentration on resolution and migration order was also investigated. The developed method was applied to the simultaneous determination of hyaluronan acid and chondroitin sulfate in mouse plasma. Interferences in plasma were removed by protein precipitation and glycosaminoglycans were further purified by ethanol precipitation. The method was validated over the concentration range from 50 to 600μg/mL for hyaluronan acid and 500 to 6000μg/mL for chondroitin sulfate in mouse plasma. Results from assay validations showed that the method was selective and robust. PMID:26877013

  18. 75 FR 78243 - Propionic Acid and Salts, Urea Sulfate, Methidathion, and Methyl Parathion; Registration Review...

    2010-12-15

    ... AGENCY Propionic Acid and Salts, Urea Sulfate, Methidathion, and Methyl Parathion; Registration Review... pesticides propionic acid and salts, case no. 4078, urea sulfate, case no. 7213, methidathion, case no. 0034... pesticides in the table below--propionic acid and salts, case 4078, urea sulfate, case no. 7213,...

  19. Inactivation of Prions by Acidic Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate

    Peretz, David; Supattapone, Surachai; Giles, Kurt; Vergara, Julie; Freyman, Yevgeniy; Lessard, Pierre; Safar, Jiri G; Glidden, David V.; McCulloch, Charles; Nguyen, Hoang-Oanh B.; Scott, Michael; Stephen J DeArmond; Prusiner, Stanley B.

    2006-01-01

    Prompted by the discovery that prions become protease-sensitive after exposure to branched polyamine dendrimers in acetic acid (AcOH) (S. Supattapone, H. Wille, L. Uyechi, J. Safar, P. Tremblay, F. C. Szoka, F. E. Cohen, S. B. Prusiner, and M. R. Scott, J. Virol. 75:3453-3461, 2001), we investigated the inactivation of prions by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in weak acid. As judged by sensitivity to proteolytic digestion, the disease-causing prion protein (PrPSc) was denatured at room temperat...

  20. Reversibility of soil solution acidity and of sulfate retention in acid forest soils

    Alewell, C.; Matzner, E. (Universitaet Bayreuth, Bayreuth (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Bodenoekologie)

    1993-11-01

    To quantify the effects of reduced sulfate input on the chemistry of soil solution and soil S storage in acid forest soils, an experiment with undisturbed soil columns from two different sites was implemented. The acid cambisol of the Solling is subjected to a high sulfate input and especially the B-horizon has a high sulfate content. On the contrary, the podzol of the Fuhrberg site is subjected to low input and has low sulfate content. Undisturbed soil columns were taken from both sites and were irrigated at 6[degree]C with a precipitation rate of 3 mmd[sup -1] over 10 mo. In treatment No. 1, an artificial throughfall with pH 5.2 and reduced sulfate load (45[mu]mol L[sup -1]) was applied. In treatment No. 2, an artificial throughfall representing a high sulfate deposition (427 [mu]mol L[sup -1], pH 3.2) was used. In the case of the Solling soil, the pH of soil solution was unaffected by treatments during the entire experiment. Alkalinity of the soil solution was slightly increased in treatment No. 1 at a depth of 20 cm. While treatment No. 1 resulted in a reduction of the sulfate concentrations of the soil solution in the top soil, sulfate concentrations were unaffected at a depth of 40 cm. The B-horizon of the Solling soil prevented deacidification of the soil solution by desorption of previously stored sulfate. In the case of the Fuhrberg soil, treatment No. 1 resulted in reduced sulfate concentrations of the soil solution even in deeper soil layers with concentrations approaching input levels. The pH of the solution was slightly elevated and the alkalinity of the solution increased. Organic S compounds in the soil seemed to have no influence on sulfate release in either soils. 37 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Estimation of interfacial acidity of sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles

    Arghya Dey; G Naresh Patwari

    2011-11-01

    An enhancement in the excited state proton transfer (ESPT) processes of coumarin-102 (C-102) dye was observed upon addition of salicylic acid and hydrochloric acid in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micellar solution. The phenomenon was observed only in the micellar medium of anionic surfactant SDS and not in case of cationic (CTAB) or neutral (Trition X -100) surfactants. ESPT of C-102 was also observed in aqueous solutions but on addition of very high concentrations of hydrochloric acid. However, on comparing the ratio of the protonated species from the emission spectra in the presence and absence of SDS micelle, a conclusive estimation of the local proton concentration at the Stern layer of SDS micelles could be evaluated.

  2. 75 FR 51055 - Propionic Acid and Salts, and Urea Sulfate; Registration Review Proposed Decisions; Notice of...

    2010-08-18

    ... AGENCY Propionic Acid and Salts, and Urea Sulfate; Registration Review Proposed Decisions; Notice of... urea sulfate and opens a public comment period on the proposed decisions. Registration review is EPA's.... Urea sulfate is used as a desiccant on ] cotton. No food crop uses remain and all tolerances for...

  3. Characteristics of Soluble and Exchangeable Acidity in an Extremely Acidified Acid Sulfate Soil

    C.Lin; M.D.MELVILLE; 等

    1999-01-01

    An extremely acidified acid sulfate soil(ASS) was investigated to characterise its soluble and exchangeable acidity,The results showed that soluble acidity of a sample dtermined by titration with a KOH soulution was much significantly greater than that indicated by pH measured using a pH meter,paricularly for the extremely acidic soil samples,This is because the total soluble acidity of the extremely acidic soil samples was mainly composed of various soluble Al and Fe species,possibly in forms of Al sulfate complexes(e.g.,AlSO4+) and feerous Fe(Fe2+)_,It is therefore suggested not to use pH alone as an indicator of soluble acidity in ASS,particularly for extremely acidic ASS,It is also likely that AlSO4+ actively participated in cation exchange reactions.It appears that the possible involvement of this Al sulfate cation in the cation adsorption has significant effect on increasing the amount of acidity being adsorbed by the soils.

  4. Dermatan Sulfate Epimerase 1-Deficient Mice Have Reduced Content and Changed Distribution of Iduronic Acids in Dermatan Sulfate and an Altered Collagen Structure in Skin▿

    Maccarana, Marco; Kalamajski, Sebastian; Kongsgaard, Mads; Magnusson, S. Peter; Oldberg, Åke; Malmström, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Dermatan sulfate epimerase 1 (DS-epi1) and DS-epi2 convert glucuronic acid to iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate biosynthesis. Here we report on the generation of DS-epi1-null mice and the resulting alterations in the chondroitin/dermatan polysaccharide chains. The numbers of long blocks of adjacent iduronic acids are greatly decreased in skin decorin and biglycan chondroitin/dermatan sulfate, along with a parallel decrease in iduronic-2-O-sulfated-galactosamine-4-O-sulfated struct...

  5. Acid sulfate soils are an environmental hazard in Finland

    Pihlaja, Jouni

    2016-04-01

    Acid sulfate soils (ASS) create significant threats to the environment on coastal regions of the Baltic Sea in Finland. The sediments were deposited during the ancient Litorina Sea phase of the Baltic Sea about 7500-4500 years ago. Finland has larger spatial extent of the ASS than any other European country. Mostly based on anthropogenic reasons (cultivation, trenching etc.) ASS deposits are currently being exposed to oxygen which leads to chemical reaction creating sulfuric acid. The acidic waters then dissolve metals form the soil. Acidic surface run off including the metals are then leached into the water bodies weakening the water quality and killing fish or vegetation. In constructed areas acidic waters may corrode building materials. Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) is mapping ASS deposits in Finland. The goal is to map a total of 5 million hectares of the potentially ASS affected region. It has been estimated that the problematic Litorina Sea deposits, which are situated 0-100 m above the recent Baltic Sea shoreline, cover 500 000 hectares area. There are several phases in mapping. The work begins at the office with gathering the existing data, interpreting airborne geophysical data and compiling a field working plan. In the field, quality of the soil is studied and in uncertain cases samples are taken to laboratory analyses. Also electrical conductivity and pH of soil and water are measured in the field. Laboratory methods include multielemental determinations with ICP-OES, analyses of grain size and humus content (LOI), and incubation. So far, approximately 60 % of the potential ASS affected regions in Finland are mapped. Over 15 000 sites have been studied in the field and 4000 laboratory analyses are done. The spatial database presented in the scale of 1: 250 000 can be viewed at the GTK's web pages (http://gtkdata.gtk.fi/hasu/index.html).

  6. Dermatan Sulfate Epimerase 1-Deficient Mice Have Reduced Content and Changed Distribution of Iduronic Acids in Dermatan Sulfate and an Altered Collagen Structure in Skin

    Maccarana, M.; Kalamajski, S.; Kongsgaard, M.; Magnusson, S.P.; Oldberg, A.; Malmstrom, A.

    2009-01-01

    Dermatan sulfate epimerase 1 (DS-epi1) and DS-epi2 convert glucuronic acid to iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate biosynthesis. Here we report on the generation of DS-epi1-null mice and the resulting alterations in the chondroitin/dermatan polysaccharide chains. The numbers of long blocks...... of adjacent iduronic acids are greatly decreased in skin decorin and biglycan chondroitin/dermatan sulfate, along with a parallel decrease in iduronic-2-O-sulfated-galactosamine-4-O-sulfated structures. Both iduronic acid blocks and iduronic acids surrounded by glucuronic acids are also decreased in...... versican-derived chains. DS-epi1-deficient mice are smaller than their wild-type littermates but otherwise have no gross macroscopic alterations. The lack of DS-epi1 affects the chondroitin/dermatan sulfate in many proteoglycans, and the consequences for skin collagen structure were initially analyzed. We...

  7. Uptake of Ambient Organic Gases to Acidic Sulfate Aerosols

    Liggio, J.; Li, S.

    2009-05-01

    The formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere has been an area of significant interest due to its climatic relevance, its effects on air quality and human health. Due largely to the underestimation of SOA by regional and global models, there has been an increasing number of studies focusing on alternate pathways leading to SOA. In this regard, recent work has shown that heterogeneous and liquid phase reactions, often leading to oligomeric material, may be a route to SOA via products of biogenic and anthropogenic origin. Although oligomer formation in chamber studies has been frequently observed, the applicability of these experiments to ambient conditions, and thus the overall importance of oligomerization reactions remain unclear. In the present study, ambient air is drawn into a Teflon smog chamber and exposed to acidic sulfate aerosols which have been formed in situ via the reaction of SO3 with water vapor. The aerosol composition is measured with a High Resolution Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), and particle size distributions are monitored with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). The use of ambient air and relatively low inorganic particle loading potentially provides clearer insight into the importance of heterogeneous reactions. Results of experiments, with a range of sulfate loadings show that there are several competing processes occurring on different timescales. A significant uptake of ambient organic gases to the particles is observed immediately followed by a slow shift towards higher m/z over a period of several hours indicating that higher molecular weight products (possibly oligomers) are being formed through a reactive process. The results suggest that heterogeneous reactions can occur with ambient organic gases, even in the presence of ammonia, which may have significant implications to the ambient atmosphere where particles may be neutralized after their formation.

  8. Acid Release from an Acid Sulfate Soil Sample Under Successive Extractions with Different Extractants

    2000-01-01

    An acid sulfate soil sample was successively extracted with deionized water, 1 mol L-1 KCI and 0.000 5 mol L-1 Ca(OH)2 solutions. The results showed that only very small amounts of acidity were extracted by deionized water, possibly through slow jarosite hydrolysis. Acid release through jarosite hydrolysis was greatly enhanced by Ca(OH)2 extraction at the expense of the added OH- being neutralized by the acid released. Successive extraction of the sample with KCI removed the largest amounts of acidity from the sample. However, it is likely that the major form of acidity released by KC1 extraction was exchangeable acidity. The results also show the occurrence of low or non charged A1 and Fe species in water and Ca(OH)2 extracts after first a few extractions. It appears that such a phenomenon was related to a decreasing EC value with increasing number of extractions.

  9. Decontamination of acid mine water from Ronneburg/Thueringen which is high in sulfates and metals using sulfate-reducing bacteria. Subproject. Final report

    The authors analyzed and developed the fundamentals of a microbiological water treatment process for decontamination of acid water from a uranium mine which is high in sulfates and heavy metals. The process is based on microbiological sulfate reduction. In the pre-phase of the project, sulfate-reducing microorganisms were isolated and cultivation methods for these microorganisms developed

  10. Sulfate Mineral Formation from Acid-weathered Phyllosilicates: Implications for the Aqueous History of Mars

    Craig, Patricia; Ming, Douglas; Rampe, Elizabeth

    2014-11-01

    Phyllosilicates on Mars are common in Noachian terrains whereas sulfates are found in the younger Hesperian terrains and suggest alteration under more acidic conditions. Phyllosilicates that formed during the Noachian era would have been exposed to the prevailing acidic conditions during the Hesperian. The purpose of this project is to characterize the effects of acid-weathering on phyllosilicates to better understand the aqueous history of Mars. Nontronite, montmorillonite, and saponite were exposed to H2SO4 solutions at water-rock (WR) ratios of 50 and 25.X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of all three acid-treated minerals showed progressive collapse of the phyllosilicate basal spacing with increasing acid concentration. Bassanite formed as an intermediate phase in weathered nontronite and montmorillonite from extracted interlayer Ca. The octahedral cation determined which sulfate formed at high acid concentration: rhomboclase from nontronite, alunogen from montmorillonite, hexahydrite and kieserite from saponite. Gypsum and anhydrite also formed as intermediate phases in nontronite treated at WR=25, showing a change in sulfate hydration state with changing acid concentration (i.e. water activity). Scanning electron microscopy analyses detected phases not identified by XRD. Al-sulfate was found in nontronite weathered at WR=25 and Ca-sulfate in weathered saponite. Near-infrared reflectance spectra of the weathered samples showed decreasing intensity of the hydration/hydroxylation bands and a change or disappearance of metal-OH bands indicating dehydration and dissociation of the interlayers and octahedral layers, respectively, with increased acid weathering.Sulfate mineral formation from acid-weathered phyllosilicates may explain the presence of phyllosilicates and sulfates in close proximity to each other on Mars, such as in Gale Crater. The CheMin XRD instrument on Curiosity may find evidence for acid-weathered phyllosilicates in Mt. Sharp by comparing the 001

  11. Spectral identification of hydrated sulfates on Mars and comparison with acidic environments on Earth

    Bishop, Janice L.; Darby Dyar, M.; Lane, Melissa D.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2004-10-01

    We interpret recent spectral data of Mars collected by the Mars Exploration Rovers to contain substantial evidence of sulfate minerals and aqueous processes. We present visible/near-infrared (VNIR), mid-IR and Mössbauer spectra of several iron sulfate minerals and two acid mine drainage (AMD) samples collected from the Iron Mountain site and compare these combined data with the recent spectra of Mars. We suggest that the sulfates on Mars are produced via aqueous oxidation of sulfides known to be present on Mars from Martian meteorites. The sulfate-rich rock outcrops observed in Meridiani Planum may have formed in an acidic environment similar to AMD environments on Earth. Because microorganisms are typically involved in the oxidation of sulfides to sulfates in terrestrial AMD sites, sulfate-rich rock outcrops on Mars may be a good location to search for evidence of life on that planet. Whether or not life evolved on Mars, following the trail of sulfate minerals is likely to lead to aqueous processes and chemical weathering. Our results imply that sulfate minerals formed in Martian soils via chemical weathering, perhaps over very long time periods, and that sulfate minerals precipitated following aqueous oxidation of sulfides to form the outcrop rocks at Meridiani Planum.

  12. Raman scattering spectra and crystal structure of acid potassium-lithium sulfate

    Paper presents the results of the comprehensive investigation into Raman scattering in potassium-lithium acid sulfate crystal. A model of crystal structure is suggested on the basis of the study data. The suggested consistent model of the crystalline structure of potassium-lithium acid sulfate crystal describes well both spectrum high-frequency and low-frequency sections and may be used to analyze models of phase transformation

  13. Reactive Crystallization of Calcium Sulfate Dihydrate from Acidic Wastewater and Lime

    邓立聪; 张亦飞; 陈芳芳; 曹绍涛; 游韶玮; 刘艳; 张懿

    2013-01-01

    The present work focused on the recycle of the sulfate and the metal ions from acidic wastewater dis-charged by nonferrous metallurgical industry. The effects of the temperature, the reactant concentration, the stirring speed and the metal ions on the reactive crystallization process of calcium sulfate between sulfuric acid and lime were systematically investigated. The morphology of the precipitated crystals evolved from platelet-like and nee-dle-like shape to rod-like shape when the temperature was increased from 25 to 70 °C. An increase in the agglom-eration of calcium sulfate was found with increasing lime concentration. Metal ions markedly retard the rate of crystallization of calcium sulfate dihydrate. The crystallization of gypsum was slowed with the existence of Mg2+in the solution, and the morphology of gypsum was transformed from platelet-like shape to rod-like shape when Mg2+concentration reached 0.08 mol·L-1. The amorphous ferric hydroxide was coated on the calcium sulfate after the co-precipitation process while Zn2+and Al3+ions in the solution enhanced the agglomeration of the calcium sulfate by absorbing on the surface of the crystals. Comprehensive acidic wastewater containing heavy metals was effi-ciently purified by the two stage lime neutralization technology, and highly agglomerated gypsum precipitates with needle-like shape were obtained. The precipitates could be purified by sulfuric acid washing, and the metal ions were effectively separated from the calcium sulfate by-products.

  14. Ferrous iron oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: inhibition with benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and sodium lauryl sulfate

    Onysko, S.J.; Kleinmann, R.L.P.; Erickson, P.M.

    1984-07-01

    Thiobacillus ferrooxidans promote indirect oxidation of pyrite through the catalysis of the oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric iron, which is an effective oxidant of pyrite. These bacteria also may catalyze direct oxidation of pyrite by oxygen. A number of organic compounds, under laboratory conditions, can apparently inhibit both the oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric iron by T. ferrooxidans and the weathering of pyritic material by mixed cultures of acid mine drainage microorganisms. In this study, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and sodium lauryl sulfate at low concentrations (5 to 10 mg/liter) each effectively inhibited bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron in batch cultures of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The rate of chemical oxidation of ferrous iron in low-pH, sterile batch reactors was not substantially affected at the tested concentrations (5 to 50 mg/liter) of any of the compounds.

  15. Sulfate, chloride and fluoride retention in Andosols exposed to volcanic acid emissions

    Delmelle, Pierre; Delfosse, Thomas; Delvaux, Bruno

    2003-12-01

    The continuous emissions of SO{sub 2}, HCl and HF by Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, represent a substantial source of atmospheric S-, Cl- and F-containing acid inputs for local ecosystems. We report on the effects of such acid depositions on the sulfate, chloride and fluoride contents in soils (0-40 cm) from two distinct transects located downwind from the volcano. The first transect corresponds to relatively undifferentiated Vitric Andosols, and the second transect to more weathered Eutric Andosols. These soils are exposed to various rates of volcanogenic acid addition, with the Vitric sites being generally more affected. Prolonged acid inputs have led to a general pH decrease and reduced exchangeable base cation concentrations in the Andosols. The concentrations of 0.5 M NH{sub 4}F- and 0.016 M KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}-extractable sulfate (NH{sub 4}F-S and KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}-S, respectively) indicate that volcanic S addition has increased the inorganic sulfate content of the Vitric and Eutric soils at all depths. In this process, the rate of sulfate accumulation is also dependent on soil allophane contents. For all soils, NH{sub 4}F extracted systematically more (up to 40 times) sulfate than KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. This difference suggests sulfate incorporation into an aluminum hydroxy sulfate phase, whose contribution to total inorganic sulfate in the Vitric and Eutric Andosols is estimated from {approx}34 to 95% and {approx}65 to 98%, respectively. The distribution of KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}-extractable chloride in the Vitric and Eutric Andosols exposed to volcanic Cl inputs reveals that added chloride readily migrates through the soil profiles. In contrast, reaction of fluoride with Al and Fe oxyhydroxides and allophanes is an important sink mechanism in the Masaya Andosols exposed to airborne volcanic F. Fluoride dominates the anion distribution in all soil horizons, although F is the least concentrated element in the volcanic emissions and depositions. The soil anion

  16. Sulfate, chloride and fluoride retention in Andosols exposed to volcanic acid emissions

    The continuous emissions of SO2, HCl and HF by Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, represent a substantial source of atmospheric S-, Cl- and F-containing acid inputs for local ecosystems. We report on the effects of such acid depositions on the sulfate, chloride and fluoride contents in soils (0-40 cm) from two distinct transects located downwind from the volcano. The first transect corresponds to relatively undifferentiated Vitric Andosols, and the second transect to more weathered Eutric Andosols. These soils are exposed to various rates of volcanogenic acid addition, with the Vitric sites being generally more affected. Prolonged acid inputs have led to a general pH decrease and reduced exchangeable base cation concentrations in the Andosols. The concentrations of 0.5 M NH4F- and 0.016 M KH2PO4-extractable sulfate (NH4F-S and KH2PO4-S, respectively) indicate that volcanic S addition has increased the inorganic sulfate content of the Vitric and Eutric soils at all depths. In this process, the rate of sulfate accumulation is also dependent on soil allophane contents. For all soils, NH4F extracted systematically more (up to 40 times) sulfate than KH2PO4. This difference suggests sulfate incorporation into an aluminum hydroxy sulfate phase, whose contribution to total inorganic sulfate in the Vitric and Eutric Andosols is estimated from ∼34 to 95% and ∼65 to 98%, respectively. The distribution of KH2PO4-extractable chloride in the Vitric and Eutric Andosols exposed to volcanic Cl inputs reveals that added chloride readily migrates through the soil profiles. In contrast, reaction of fluoride with Al and Fe oxyhydroxides and allophanes is an important sink mechanism in the Masaya Andosols exposed to airborne volcanic F. Fluoride dominates the anion distribution in all soil horizons, although F is the least concentrated element in the volcanic emissions and depositions. The soil anion distribution reflects preferential retention of fluoride over sulfate and chloride, and of

  17. High aerosol acidity despite declining atmospheric sulfate concentrations over the past 15 years

    Weber, Rodney J.; Guo, Hongyu; Russell, Armistead G.; Nenes, Athanasios

    2016-04-01

    Particle acidity affects aerosol concentrations, chemical composition and toxicity. Sulfate is often the main acid component of aerosols, and largely determines the acidity of fine particles under 2.5 μm in diameter, PM2.5. Over the past 15 years, atmospheric sulfate concentrations in the southeastern United States have decreased by 70%, whereas ammonia concentrations have been steady. Similar trends are occurring in many regions globally. Aerosol ammonium nitrate concentrations were assumed to increase to compensate for decreasing sulfate, which would result from increasing neutrality. Here we use observed gas and aerosol composition, humidity, and temperature data collected at a rural southeastern US site in June and July 2013 (ref. ), and a thermodynamic model that predicts pH and the gas-particle equilibrium concentrations of inorganic species from the observations to show that PM2.5 at the site is acidic. pH buffering by partitioning of ammonia between the gas and particle phases produced a relatively constant particle pH of 0-2 throughout the 15 years of decreasing atmospheric sulfate concentrations, and little change in particle ammonium nitrate concentrations. We conclude that the reductions in aerosol acidity widely anticipated from sulfur reductions, and expected acidity-related health and climate benefits, are unlikely to occur until atmospheric sulfate concentrations reach near pre-anthropogenic levels.

  18. Impact of mitigation strategies on acid sulfate soil chemistry and microbial community.

    Wu, Xiaofen; Sten, Pekka; Engblom, Sten; Nowak, Pawel; Österholm, Peter; Dopson, Mark

    2015-09-01

    Potential acid sulfate soils contain reduced iron sulfides that if oxidized, can cause significant environmental damage by releasing large amounts of acid and metals. This study examines metal and acid release as well as the microbial community capable of catalyzing metal sulfide oxidation after treating acid sulfate soil with calcium carbonate (CaCO3) or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2). Leaching tests of acid sulfate soil samples were carried out in the laboratory. The pH of the leachate during the initial flushing with water lay between 3.8 and 4.4 suggesting that the jarosite/schwertmannite equilibrium controls the solution chemistry. However, the pH increased to circa 6 after treatment with CaCO3 suspension and circa 12 after introducing Ca(OH)2 solution. 16S rRNA gene sequences amplified from community DNA extracted from the untreated and both CaCO3 and Ca(OH)2 treated acid sulfate soils were most similar to bacteria (69.1% to 85.7%) and archaea (95.4% to 100%) previously identified from acid and metal contaminated environments. These species included a Thiomonas cuprina-like and an Acidocella-like bacteria as well as a Ferroplasma acidiphilum-like archeon. Although the CaCO3 and Ca(OH)2 treatments did not decrease the proportion of microorganisms capable of accelerating acid and metal release, the chemical effects of the treatments suggested their reduced activity. PMID:25933291

  19. Insights Into the Aqueous History of Mars from Acid-Sulfate Weathered Phyllosilicates

    Craig, P. I.; Ming, D. W.; Rampe, E. B.; Morris, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    Phyllosilicates on Mars are thought to have formed during Mars' earliest Noachian geologic era (approx. 4.1-3.7 Ga). Sulfate formation, on the other hand, requires more acidic conditions which are thought to have occurred later during Mars' Hesperian era (approx. 3.7-3.0 Ga). Therefore, regions on Mars where phyllosilicates and sulfates are found in close proximity to each other provide evidence for the aqueous conditions during this global transition. Both phyllosilicates and sulfates form in the presence of water and thus give clues to the aqueous history of Mars and its potential for habitability. Phyllosilicates that formed during the Noachian era would have been weathered by the prevailing acidic conditions that define the Hesperian. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to characterize the alteration products of acid-sulfate weathered phyllosilicates in laboratory experiments, focusing on the Fe/Mg-smectites commonly identified on Mars. We also compare our results to observations of phyllosilicates and sulfates on Mars in regions such as Endeavour Crater and Mawrth Vallis to understand the formation process of sulfates and constrain the aqueous history of these regions.

  20. Remote sensing of acid sulfate soils using multispectral and gamma-ray data

    Acid sulfate soils are a significant environmental problem in coastal regions of Australia. Drainage and disturbance of coastal lands can result in acid soil degradation and the release of sulfuric acid and toxic metals into coastal waters. Remote sensing can provide a useful tool for detection of these soils and monitoring of their disturbance. As acid sulfate soils become oxidised with exposure to air, iron-minerals are produced and precipitate at the surface. This results from the breakdown of pyrite to form hydrated iron minerals and elemental sulfur, the oxidation of which produces acidity. The concentration of iron minerals at the surface can be an indicator of the level of acid sulfate soil activity in the near subsurface. These iron minerals include goethite, ferrihydrite and jarosite. Space-borne remote sensing scanners such as Landsat TM are capable of detecting iron minerals as a result of ferric ion absorption of solar radiation. Hyperspectral scanners are capable of further discrimination of individual minerals. This paper will discuss spectral characteristics of active acid sulfate soils and demonstrate the use of spectral unmixing algorithms on Landsat TM to detect problem areas at the surface. This method matches multispectral data to material reflectance-spectra known as end-members. These end-members or materials are then resolved mathematically as to their respective contributions to the overall reflectance (Bierwirth, 1990). In this way, abundances for particular materials can be derived.Digital elevation data was used to distinguish between the iron minerals due to weathering of bedrock in upland areas and acid sulfate soils on the plains. Also, the results of a high resolution (200m linespacing) airborne gamma-ray survey are presented. This data senses the concentration of radioelements down to about 40 cm depth and is largely unaffected by vegetation. Concentrations of gamma-emitting elements can indicate the type and depth of alluvium that

  1. Identifying sources of acidity and spatial distribution of acid sulfate soils in the Anglesea River catchment, southern Australia

    Wong, Vanessa; Yau, Chin; Kennedy, David

    2015-04-01

    Globally, coastal and estuarine floodplains are frequently underlain by sulfidic sediments. When exposed to oxygen, sulfidic sediments oxidise to form acid sulfate soils, adversely impacting on floodplain health and adjacent aquatic ecoystems. In eastern Australia, our understanding of the formation of these coastal and estuarine floodplains, and hence, spatial distribution of acid sulfate soils, is relatively well established. These soils have largely formed as a result of sedimentation of coastal river valleys approximately 6000 years BP when sea levels were one to two metres higher. However, our understanding of the evolution of estuarine systems and acid sulfate soil formation, and hence, distribution, in southern Australia remains limited. The Anglesea River, in southern Australia, is subjected to frequent episodes of poor water quality and low pH resulting in closure of the river and, in extreme cases, large fish kill events. This region is heavily reliant on tourism and host to a number of iconic features, including the Great Ocean Road and Twelve Apostles. Poor water quality has been linked to acid leakage from mining activities and Tertiary-aged coal seams, peat swamps and acid sulfate soils in the region. However, our understanding of the sources of acidity and distribution of acid sulfate soils in this region remains poor. In this study, four sites on the Anglesea River floodplain were sampled, representative of the main vegetation communities. Peat swamps and intertidal marshes were both significant sources of acidity on the floodplain in the lower catchment. However, acid neutralising capacity provided by carbonate sands suggests that there are additional sources of acidity higher in the catchment. This pilot study has highlighted the complexity in the links between the floodplain, upper catchment and waterways with further research required to understand these links for targeted acid management strategies.

  2. Acidification of musts in warm regions with tartaric acid and calcium sulfate at industrial scale

    Gómez Juan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acidification of musts is necessary in warm areas where high temperatures during ripening accelerate breathing com- bustion of tartaric acid and, in particular, malic acid in the berries. L(+ tartaric acid, L(- or D,L malic acid and lactic acids are the only chemical acidifiers authorized by the OIV and European Community regulations. The use of calcium sulfate (gypsum: CaSO4·2H2O is also authorized in the European Community as a complementary acidifier in generous and generous liquor 42 wines from Spain (a practice known as plastering, provided that the residual sulfate content in the wine does not exceed 2.5 g/L expressed as potassium sulfate. However, this practice is not yet approved by OIV. To predict the effect on pH of different acidi- fiers, several chemical modeling approaches have been described in the literature, in particular a simplified model where the acidity of wine is considered to be due to a monoprotic acid. The aim of this work is to verify this model at pilot and industrial scale in the acidification of musts with tartaric and calcium sulfate, added either individually and in combination, using doses up to 3 g/L and to study the modifications that these practices produce on the compositions of the resulting wines. This work sup- plies useful information to study this practice in OIV in order to consider its approval.

  3. Sulfate, chloride and fluoride retention in Andosols exposed to volcanic acid emissions.

    Delmelle, Pierre; Delfosse, Thomas; Delvaux, Bruno

    2003-01-01

    The continuous emissions of SO(2), HCl and HF by Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, represent a substantial source of atmospheric S-, Cl- and F-containing acid inputs for local ecosystems. We report on the effects of such acid depositions on the sulfate, chloride and fluoride contents in soils (0-40 cm) from two distinct transects located downwind from the volcano. The first transect corresponds to relatively undifferentiated Vitric Andosols, and the second transect to more weathered Eutric Andosols. These soils are exposed to various rates of volcanogenic acid addition, with the Vitric sites being generally more affected. Prolonged acid inputs have led to a general pH decrease and reduced exchangeable base cation concentrations in the Andosols. The concentrations of 0.5 M NH(4)F- and 0.016 M KH(2)PO(4)-extractable sulfate (NH(4)F-S and KH(2)PO(4)-S, respectively) indicate that volcanic S addition has increased the inorganic sulfate content of the Vitric and Eutric soils at all depths. In this process, the rate of sulfate accumulation is also dependent on soil allophane contents. For all soils, NH(4)F extracted systematically more (up to 40 times) sulfate than KH(2)PO(4). This difference suggests sulfate incorporation into an aluminum hydroxy sulfate phase, whose contribution to total inorganic sulfate in the Vitric and Eutric Andosols is estimated from approximately 34 to 95% and approximately 65 to 98%, respectively. The distribution of KH(2)PO(4)-extractable chloride in the Vitric and Eutric Andosols exposed to volcanic Cl inputs reveals that added chloride readily migrates through the soil profiles. In contrast, reaction of fluoride with Al and Fe oxyhydroxides and allophanes is an important sink mechanism in the Masaya Andosols exposed to airborne volcanic F. Fluoride dominates the anion distribution in all soil horizons, although F is the least concentrated element in the volcanic emissions and depositions. The soil anion distribution reflects preferential retention

  4. Dispersion Process and Effect of Oleic Acid on Properties of Cellulose Sulfate- Oleic Acid Composite Film

    Guo Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The cellulose sulfate (CS is a newly developed cellulose derivative. The work aimed to investigate the effect of oleic acid (OA content on properties of CS-OA film. The process of oleic acid dispersion into film was described to evaluate its effect on the properties of the film. Among the formulations evaluated, the OA addition decreased the solubility and water vapor permeability of the CS-OA film. The surface contact angle changed from 64.2° to 94.0° by increasing CS/OA ratio from 1:0 to 1:0.25 (w/w. The TS increased with OA content below 15% and decreased with OA over 15%, but the ε decreased with higher OA content. The micro-cracking matrices and micro pores in the film indicated the condense structure of the film destroyed by the incorporation of oleic acid. No chemical interaction between the OA and CS was observed in the XRD and FTIR spectrum. Film formulation containing 2% (w/w CS, 0.3% (w/w glycerol and 0.3% (w/w OA, showed good properties of mechanic, barrier to moisture and homogeneity.

  5. Impacts of Sulfate Seed Acidity and Water Content on Isoprene Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation.

    Wong, Jenny P S; Lee, Alex K Y; Abbatt, Jonathan P D

    2015-11-17

    The effects of particle-phase water and the acidity of pre-existing sulfate seed particles on the formation of isoprene secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was investigated. SOA was generated from the photo-oxidation of isoprene in a flow tube reactor at 70% relative humidity (RH) and room temperature in the presence of three different sulfate seeds (effloresced and deliquesced ammonium sulfate and ammonium bisulfate) under low NOx conditions. High OH exposure conditions lead to little isoprene epoxydiol (IEPOX) SOA being generated. The primary result is that particle-phase water had the largest effect on the amount of SOA formed, with 60% more SOA formation occurring with deliquesced ammonium sulfate seeds as compared to that on effloresced ones. The additional organic material was highly oxidized. Although the amount of SOA formed did not exhibit a dependence on the range of seed particle acidity examined, perhaps because of the low amount of IEPOX SOA, the levels of high-molecular-weight material increased with acidity. While the uptake of organics was partially reversible under drying, the results nevertheless indicate that particle-phase water enhanced the amount of organic aerosol material formed and that the RH cycling of sulfate particles may mediate the extent of isoprene SOA formation in the atmosphere. PMID:26460477

  6. Algae as an electron donor promoting sulfate reduction for the bioremediation of acid rock drainage.

    Ayala-Parra, Pedro; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, Jim A

    2016-11-01

    This study assessed bioremediation of acid rock drainage in simulated permeable reactive barriers (PRB) using algae, Chlorella sorokiniana, as the sole electron donor for sulfate-reducing bacteria. Lipid extracted algae (LEA), the residues of biodiesel production, were compared with whole cell algae (WCA) as an electron donor to promote sulfate-reducing activity. Inoculated columns containing anaerobic granular sludge were fed a synthetic medium containing H2SO4 and Cu(2+). Sulfate, sulfide, Cu(2+) and pH were monitored throughout the experiment of 123d. Cu recovered in the column packing at the end of the experiment was evaluated using sequential extraction. Both WCA and LEA promoted 80% of sulfate removal (12.7mg SO4(2-) d(-1)) enabling near complete Cu removal (>99.5%) and alkalinity generation raising the effluent pH to 6.5. No noteworthy sulfate reduction, alkalinity formation and Cu(2+) removal were observed in the endogenous control. In algae amended-columns, Cu(2+) was precipitated with biogenic H2S produced by sulfate reduction. Formation of CuS was evidenced by sequential extraction and X-ray diffraction. LEA and WCA provided similar levels of electron donor based on the COD balance. The results demonstrate an innovative passive remediation system using residual algae biomass from the biodiesel industry. PMID:27318730

  7. The effect of copper sulfate, potassium permanganate, and peracetic acid on Ichthyobodo necator in channel catfish

    Ichthyobodo necator is a single celled biflagellate that can cause significant mortalities in fish, particularly young, tank-reared fish. Copper sulfate (CuSO4), potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and peracetic acid (PAA) were evaluated for effectiveness against Ichthybodosis in juvenile channel catfis...

  8. Kinetics of Reductive Acid Leaching of Cadmium-Bearing Zinc Ferrite Mixture Using Hydrazine Sulfate

    Zhang, Chun; Zhang, Jianqiang; Min, Xiaobo; Wang, Mi; Zhou, Bosheng; Shen, Chen

    2015-09-01

    The reductive acid leaching kinetics of synthetic cadmium-bearing zinc ferrite was investigated, and the influence of reaction temperature, sulfuric acid and hydrazine sulfate were studied. The results illustrated that an increase in the reaction temperature, initial sulfuric acid and hydrazine sulfate significantly enhanced the extraction efficiencies of cadmium, zinc and iron. The leaching kinetics were controlled by a surface chemical reaction based on a shrinking core model. The empirical equation applied was found to fit well with the kinetics analysis; the leaching processes of cadmium, zinc and iron were similar and the activation energies were 79.9 kJ/mol, 77.9 kJ/mol and 79.7 kJ/mol, respectively. The apparent orders of cadmium-bearing zinc ferrite dissolution with respect to sulfuric acid concentration were 0.83, 0.83 and 0.84 for Cd, Zn and Fe, respectively.

  9. Suppression of rice methane emission by sulfate deposition in simulated acid rain

    Gauci, Vincent; Dise, Nancy B; Howell, Graham; Jenkins, Meaghan E.

    2008-01-01

    Sulfate in acid rain is known to suppress methane (CH4) emissions from natural freshwater wetlands. Here we examine the possibility that CH4 emissions from rice agriculture may be similarly affected by acid rain, a major and increasing pollution problem in Asia. Our findings suggest that acid rain rates of SO2-4 deposition may help to reduce CH4 emissions from rice agriculture. Emissions from rice plants treated with simulated acid rain at levels of SO2-4 consistent with the range of depositi...

  10. Zinc-Nickel Codeposition in Sulfate Solution Combined Effect of Cadmium and Boric Acid

    Y. Addi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of cadmium and boric acid on the electrodeposition of zinc-nickel from a sulfate has been investigated. The presence of cadmium ion decreases zinc in the deposit. In solution, cadmium inhibits the zinc ion deposition and suppresses it when deposition potential value is more negative than −1.2 V. Low concentration of CdSO4 reduces the anomalous nature of Zn-Ni deposit. Boric acid decreases current density and shifts potential discharge of nickel and hydrogen to more negative potential. The combination of boric acid and cadmium increases the percentage of nickel in the deposit. Boric acid and cadmium.

  11. An ultracapacitor circuit for reducing sulfation in lead acid batteries for Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    The nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries used in most hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) provide satisfactory performance, but are quite expensive. In spite of their lower energy density, lead acid batteries would be much more economical except they are prone to sulfation in HEV applications. However, sulfation can be greatly reduced by a circuit that uses an ultracapacitor in conjunction with the battery. The resulting system will provide much cheaper energy storage if ultracapacitor prices can be reduced to levels predicted by some manufacturers. (author)

  12. Microbial sulfate reduction and metal attenuation in pH 4 acid mine water

    Alpers Charles N; Wilkin Richard T; Church Clinton D; Rye Robert O; McCleskey R Blaine

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Sediments recovered from the flooded mine workings of the Penn Mine, a Cu-Zn mine abandoned since the early 1960s, were cultured for anaerobic bacteria over a range of pH (4.0 to 7.5). The molecular biology of sediments and cultures was studied to determine whether sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were active in moderately acidic conditions present in the underground mine workings. Here we document multiple, independent analyses and show evidence that sulfate reduction and associated ...

  13. Sulfation of metal-organic framework: Opportunities for acid catalysis and proton conductivity

    Goesten, M.G.; Stavitski, E.; Juan-Alcaniz, J.; Ramos-Fernandez, E.V.; Sai Sankar Gupta, K.B.; van Bekkum, H.; Gascon, J. and Kapteijn, F.

    2011-05-24

    A new post-functionalization method for metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been developed to introduce acidity for catalysis. Upon treatment with a mixture of triflic anhydride and sulfuric acid, chemically stable MOF structures MIL-101(Cr) and MIL-53(Al) can be sulfated, resulting in a Broensted sulfoxy acid group attached to up to 50% of the aromatic terephthalate linkers of the structure. The sulfated samples have been extensively characterized by solid-state NMR, XANES, and FTIR spectroscopy. The functionalized acidic frameworks show catalytic activity similar to that of acidic polymers like Nafion{reg_sign} display in the esterification of n-butanol with acetic acid (TOF {approx} 1 min{sup -1} {at} 343 K). Water adsorbs strongly up to 4 molecules per sulfoxy acid group, and an additional 2 molecules are taken up at lower temperatures in the 1-D pore channels of S-MIL-53(Al). The high water content and Broensted acidity provide the structure S-MIL-53(Al) a high proton conductivity up to moderate temperatures.

  14. Boric acid and sodium sulfate production from ulexite concentrate. Vacuum crystallization process

    South America reserves of boron minerals are concentrated in the Central Andes. Ulexite is one of the most important borates in these deposits. The mineral is associated with impurities such as sand, clays, chlorides and sulfates. At present, boric acid is produced in Argentina by leaching the ulexite with sulfuric acid and it is recovered through a process of liquid-solid separation and then, by a cooling crystallization process. The residual slurry rejected and the periodical bleedings of the crystallization residual solution produce adverse environmental effects. This paper reports and improved process to produce boric acid using concentrated ulexite as raw material instead or ore. Anhydrous sodium sulfate is obtained as a by-product using a fractional crystallization process: vacuum crystallization for boric acid and evaporating crystallization for sodium sulfate. It has been developed to minimize the pollution problems through the decreasing of residual solids production and avoiding the bleeding of residual solutions. The fractional crystallization process has been studied with the equilibrium diagrams of the H3 B O3 - Na2 S O4 - H2 O at different temperatures. (author)

  15. The role of sulfate and ionic strength on the shift from acid to alkaline mine drainage in southwest Pennsylvania

    Four Mile Run, Latrobe, PA, receives discharges from abandoned deep mines. In 1971, the effluent was characterized as having low pH, high acidity, and high concentrations of iron, manganese, and sulfate. After 22 yr of neglect, the water flow rate, pH, and alkalinity all increased, while the acidity, iron, manganese, and sulfate concentrations decreased. The overall loading of iron and sulfate to the stream has not changed significantly. This change from acid to alkaline drainage is fairly typical for mine effluent in the surrounding area. However, the mechanism for change is not well understood. Laboratory studies have shown that the neutralization rate of marble chips (CaCO3) is depressed by high ionic strength or elevated levels of sulfate. The decrease in sulfate levels may be an important factor contributing to the change in water quality discharged into Four Mile Run. A similar kinetic phenomenon may occur with mine spoils and anoxic drains

  16. Characteristics of Some Heavy Metals in AcidSulfate{1mmTopsoils, Eastern Australia

    2001-01-01

    Forty-five acid sulfate topsoil samples (depth < 0.5 m) from 15soil cores at 11 locations along the New South Wales coast, Australia,were selected to investigate the chemical behavior of Zn, Mn, Cr, Coand Pb in these soils. The amount of HCl-extractable Mn was muchsmaller than the mean value of the total Mn documented for other soils.This may be attributed to enhanced mobilization of Mn from the soilsunder the extremely acidic and seasonally flooded conditionsencountered in the investigated soils.   The pH-dependency of soluble Zn and Mn was strongly affected by theavailability of acid reactive Zn and Mn compounds. There were fairlygood relationships between soluble Zn and acid reactive Zn compounds,and between soluble Mn and acid reactive Mn compounds. Soluble Zn andsoluble Mn concentrations were important controls on exchangeable Znand Mn concentrations, respectively.   In contrast to the suggestion by other authors that adsorption of Cowas closely associated with Mn oxides present in soils, theexchangeable Co in the investigated acid sulfate soils was not clearlyrelated to the abundance of Mn minerals. In addition to the fact thatthere are few Mn minerals present in the soils, this might also bebecause the availability of cation exchange sites on the crystalsurfaces of Mn oxides was reduced under extremely acidic conditions.

  17. Fluctuations of sulfate, S-bearing amino acids and magnesium in a giant clam shell

    T. Yoshimura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We used micro-X-ray fluorescence combined with X-ray photoabsorption spectroscopy to investigate speciation-specific sulfur profiles in the inner shell layer of a giant clam (Hippopus hippopus. The sulfate, S-bearing amino acids, and total sulfur profiles indicated that inorganic sulfate was the dominant component in the shell of this bivalve. Sulfur profiles in the inner shell layer showed clear annual fluctuations that varied by more than one order of magnitude, from K-edge XANES and comparison of Mg and S-bearing amino acids profiles indicated that a pronounced effect of the organic fraction or disordered phases were observed in aragonitic shell of H. hippopus rather than regulated substitution into the aragonite crystal lattice.

  18. Synergistic extraction of uranium from acidic sulfate leach liquor using D2EHPA mixed with TOPO

    Uranium extraction from sulfate leach liquor acid by D2EHPA and TOPO mixture in kerosene was investigated. The effect of different factors affecting the extraction mechanism such as sulfate leach liquor acid, D2EHPA and TOPO concentrations and temperature have been studied. The mathematical treatment for the obtained date suggested that the composition of synergistic extraction species is (UO2(D)2T). The logarithm of the apparent equilibrium constant, log Kex, of synergistic extraction reaction has been evaluated, to be 3.35 ± 0.1. The effect of temperature on extraction process was investigated and the apparent values of the thermodynamics parameters (∆H, ∆G and ∆S) were 38.2 kJ/mol, -19.1 kJ/mol and 192.5 J/mol respectively. (author)

  19. Production of furans from pulp sheet over sulfated solid acid catalysts

    Hongdan Zhang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Furans are high value-added biomass-derived chemicals that can be used to replace petrochemicals. In this study, sulfated solid acid catalysts were prepared by precipitation and impregnation and were used for the conversion of a cellulosic pulp sheet into furans. The physicochemical properties of the prepared sulfated solid acid with different calcination temperatures and different mol ratios of Ti-Al were characterized using XRD, elemental analysis, TG, and NH3-TPD. Furthermore, the effects of various processing parameters such as temperature, time, and catalyst dosage on the reaction performance were studied. The combined yield of 5-hydroxymethyl-furfural and furfural reached 8.9% and 4.5% of pulp sheet mass with a 5% dosage of SO42-/TiO2-Al2O3 catalyst at 220 oC for 30 min. The activity for recovered catalyst was also investigated in this study.

  20. Fractionation of microimpurities during precipitation of basic zirconium sulfate out of nitric acid solutions

    A study was made on fractionation of microimpurities during precipitation of basic zirconium sulfate out of concentrated with respect to ZrO2 nitric acid solutions. Investigation into fractionation of Sc(3), Cr(3), Mn(2), Fe(3), Co(2), CU(2), Zn(2) and Y(3) microirpurities during hydrolytic precipitation of basic zirconium sulfate out of nitric acid solutions showed that a majority of microimpurities are characterized by high distribution factors and concentrate in mother liquor. Adsorption isotherms were constructed for Cu(2) and Fe(3) microimpurities. The assumption about the effect of microimpurity nature (ionic charge and radius, the electron structure) on precipitation mechanism was made on the base of obtained data

  1. Variation in the Activity Coefficient of Zinc Sulfate in the Presence of Sulfuric Acid

    Begar, A.; Djeghlal, M. A.; Saada, A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study concerns the dissolution process of sphalerite in synthetic aqueous solution of sulfuric acid in the absence of oxygen, which allows zinc sulfate to be obtained from a sphalerite. The reaction product of the reaction solution in the absence of oxygen is determined using the Pitzer model used to calculate the various activity coefficients. As the leaching experiments of the present study covered the temperature range from 25° C to 200° C, it is necessa...

  2. Soil Quality Assessment of Acid Sulfate Paddy Soils with Different Productivities in Guangdong Province, China

    LIU Zhan-jun; ZHOU Wei; SHEN Jian-bo; LI Shu-tian; LIANG Guo-qing; WANG Xiu-bin; SUN Jing-wen; AI Chao

    2014-01-01

    Land conversion is considered an effective measure to ensure national food security in China, but little information is available on the quality of low productivity soils, in particular those in acid sulfate soil regions. In our study, acid sulfate paddy soils were divided into soils with high, medium and low levels based on local rice productivity, and 60 soil samples were collected for analysis. Twenty soil variables including physical, chemical and biochemical properties were determined. Those variables that were signiifcantly different between the high, medium and low productivity soils were selected for principal component analysis, and microbial biomass carbon (MBC), total nitrogen (TN), available silicon (ASi), pH and available zinc (AZn) were retained in the minimum data set (MDS). After scoring the MDS variables, they were integrated to calculate a soil quality index (SQI), and the high, medium and low productivity paddy soils received mean SQI scores of 0.95, 0.83 and 0.60, respectively. Low productivity paddy soils showed worse soil quality, and a large discrepancy was observed between the low and high productivity paddy soils. Lower MBC, TN, ASi, pH and available K (AK) were considered as the primary limiting factors. Additionally, all the soil samples collected were rich in available P and AZn, but deifcient in AK and ASi. The results suggest that soil AK and ASi deifciencies were the main limiting factors for all the studied acid sulfate paddy soil regions. The application of K and Si on a national basis and other sustainable management approaches are suggested to improve rice productivity, especially for low productivity paddy soils. Our results indicated that there is a large potential for increasing productivity and producing more cereals in acid sulfate paddy soil regions.

  3. Alleviating aluminum toxicity in an acid sulfate soil from Peninsular Malaysia by calcium silicate application

    A. A. Elisa; Ninomiya, S.; J. Shamshuddin; Roslan, I.

    2016-01-01

    In response to human population increase, the utilization of acid sulfate soils for rice cultivation is one option for increasing production. The main problems associated with such soils are their low pH values and their associated high content of exchangeable Al, which could be detrimental to crop growth. The application of soil amendments is one approach for mitigating this problem, and calcium silicate is an alternative soil amendment that could be used. Therefore, the ma...

  4. Sulfated Steroid–Amino Acid Conjugates from the Irish Marine Sponge Polymastia boletiformis

    Vangelis Smyrniotopoulos; Margaret Rae; Sylvia Soldatou; Yuanqing Ding; Wolff, Carsten W.; Grace McCormack; Coleman, Christina M.; Daneel Ferreira; Deniz Tasdemir

    2015-01-01

    Antifungal bioactivity-guided fractionation of the organic extract of the sponge Polymastia boletiformis, collected from the west coast of Ireland, led to the isolation of two new sulfated steroid-amino acid conjugates (1 and 2). Extensive 1D and 2D NMR analyses in combination with quantum mechanical calculations of the electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra, optical rotation, and 13C chemical shifts were used to establish the chemical structures of 1 and 2. Both compounds exhibited mode...

  5. Sulfate reduction at low pH to remediate acid mine drainage

    Sánchez-Andrea, Irene, E-mail: irene.sanchezandrea@wur.nl [Departamento de Biología Molecular, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University, Dreijenplein 10, 6703 HB Wageningen (Netherlands); Sanz, Jose Luis [Departamento de Biología Molecular, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Bijmans, Martijn F.M. [Wetsus, Centre of Sustainable Water Technology, P.O. Box 1113, 8900 CC Leeuwarden (Netherlands); Stams, Alfons J.M. [Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University, Dreijenplein 10, 6703 HB Wageningen (Netherlands); IBB – Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Acid mine drainage (AMD) is an important environmental concern. • Remediation through biological sulfate reduction and metal recovery can be applied for AMD. • Microbial community composition has a major impact on the performance of bioreactors to treat AMD. • Acidophilic SRB are strongly influenced by proton, sulfide and organic acids concentration. - Abstract: Industrial activities and the natural oxidation of metallic sulfide-ores produce sulfate-rich waters with low pH and high heavy metals content, generally termed acid mine drainage (AMD). This is of great environmental concern as some heavy metals are highly toxic. Within a number of possibilities, biological treatment applying sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is an attractive option to treat AMD and to recover metals. The process produces alkalinity, neutralizing the AMD simultaneously. The sulfide that is produced reacts with the metal in solution and precipitates them as metal sulfides. Here, important factors for biotechnological application of SRB such as the inocula, the pH of the process, the substrates and the reactor design are discussed. Microbial communities of sulfidogenic reactors treating AMD which comprise fermentative-, acetogenic- and SRB as well as methanogenic archaea are reviewed.

  6. Sulfate reduction at low pH to remediate acid mine drainage

    Highlights: • Acid mine drainage (AMD) is an important environmental concern. • Remediation through biological sulfate reduction and metal recovery can be applied for AMD. • Microbial community composition has a major impact on the performance of bioreactors to treat AMD. • Acidophilic SRB are strongly influenced by proton, sulfide and organic acids concentration. - Abstract: Industrial activities and the natural oxidation of metallic sulfide-ores produce sulfate-rich waters with low pH and high heavy metals content, generally termed acid mine drainage (AMD). This is of great environmental concern as some heavy metals are highly toxic. Within a number of possibilities, biological treatment applying sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is an attractive option to treat AMD and to recover metals. The process produces alkalinity, neutralizing the AMD simultaneously. The sulfide that is produced reacts with the metal in solution and precipitates them as metal sulfides. Here, important factors for biotechnological application of SRB such as the inocula, the pH of the process, the substrates and the reactor design are discussed. Microbial communities of sulfidogenic reactors treating AMD which comprise fermentative-, acetogenic- and SRB as well as methanogenic archaea are reviewed

  7. Solubility of strontium sulfate in phosphoric acid and in solutions of the CaO-SrO-P2O5-H2O system

    Solubility of strontium sulfate in phosphoric acid aqueous solutions containing 5-40 wt. % P2O5 as well as in phosphoric acid solutions saturated by calcium dihydrophosphate is studied by isothermal method in the temperature range of 25-100 Deg C. It is ascertained that strontium sulfate solubility depends on phosphoric acid concentration being approximately an order lower than calcium sulfate stable phase solubility in similar conditions. In phosphoric acid solutions saturated by calcium dihydrophosphate calcium sulfate solubility is higher than that of strontium sulfate in diluted phosphoric acid solutions (up to 20 wt. % P2O5) and lower in more concentrated solutions

  8. The effects of acid deposition on sulfate reduction and methane production in peatlands

    Murray, Georgia L.; Hines, Mark E.; Bayley, Suzanne E.

    1992-01-01

    Peatlands, as fens and bods, make up a large percentage of northern latitude terrestrial environments. They are organic rich and support an active community of anaerobic bacteria, such as methanogenic and sulfate-reducing bacteria. The end products of these microbial activities, methane and hydrogen sulfide, are important components in the global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and sulfur. Since these two bacterial groups compete for nutritional substrates, increases in sulfate deposition due to acid rain potentially can disrupt the balance between these processes leading to a decrease in methane production and emission. This is significant because methane is a potent greenhouse gas that effects the global heat balance. A section of Mire 239 in the Experimental Lakes Area, in Northwestern Ontario, was artificially acidified and rates of sulfate reduction and methane production were measured with depth. Preliminary results suggested that methane production was not affected immediately after acidification. However, concentrations of dissolved methane decreased and dissolved sulfide increased greatly after acidification and both took several days to recover. The exact mechanism for the decrease in methane was not determined. Analyses are under way which will be used to determine rates of sulfate reduction. These results will be available by Spring and will be discussed.

  9. Iduronic Acid in Chondroitin/Dermatan Sulfate: Biosynthesis and Biological Function

    Malmström, Anders; Bartolini, Barbara; Thelin, Martin A.; Pacheco, Benny; Maccarana, Marco

    2012-01-01

    The ability of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) to convey biological information is enriched by the presence of iduronic acid. DS-epimerases 1 and 2 (DS-epi1 and 2), in conjunction with DS-4-O-sulfotransferase 1, are the enzymes responsible for iduronic acid biosynthesis and will be the major focus of this review. CS/DS proteoglycans (CS/DS-PGs) are ubiquitously found in connective tissues, basement membranes, and cell surfaces or are stored intracellularly. Such wide distr...

  10. Sulfated steroid-amino acid conjugates from the Irish marine sponge Polymastia boletiformis.

    Smyrniotopoulos, Vangelis; Rae, Margaret; Soldatou, Sylvia; Ding, Yuanqing; Wolff, Carsten W; McCormack, Grace; Coleman, Christina M; Ferreira, Daneel; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2015-04-01

    Antifungal bioactivity-guided fractionation of the organic extract of the sponge Polymastia boletiformis, collected from the west coast of Ireland, led to the isolation of two new sulfated steroid-amino acid conjugates (1 and 2). Extensive 1D and 2D NMR analyses in combination with quantum mechanical calculations of the electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra, optical rotation, and 13C chemical shifts were used to establish the chemical structures of 1 and 2. Both compounds exhibited moderate antifungal activity against Cladosporium cucumerinum, while compound 2 was also active against Candida albicans. Marine natural products containing steroidal and amino acid constituents are extremely rare in nature. PMID:25812034

  11. Sulfated Steroid–Amino Acid Conjugates from the Irish Marine Sponge Polymastia boletiformis

    Vangelis Smyrniotopoulos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Antifungal bioactivity-guided fractionation of the organic extract of the sponge Polymastia boletiformis, collected from the west coast of Ireland, led to the isolation of two new sulfated steroid-amino acid conjugates (1 and 2. Extensive 1D and 2D NMR analyses in combination with quantum mechanical calculations of the electronic circular dichroism (ECD spectra, optical rotation, and 13C chemical shifts were used to establish the chemical structures of 1 and 2. Both compounds exhibited moderate antifungal activity against Cladosporium cucumerinum, while compound 2 was also active against Candida albicans. Marine natural products containing steroidal and amino acid constituents are extremely rare in nature.

  12. Sulfated Steroid–Amino Acid Conjugates from the Irish Marine Sponge Polymastia boletiformis

    Smyrniotopoulos, Vangelis; Rae, Margaret; Soldatou, Sylvia; Ding, Yuanqing; Wolff, Carsten W.; McCormack, Grace; Coleman, Christina M.; Ferreira, Daneel; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Antifungal bioactivity-guided fractionation of the organic extract of the sponge Polymastia boletiformis, collected from the west coast of Ireland, led to the isolation of two new sulfated steroid-amino acid conjugates (1 and 2). Extensive 1D and 2D NMR analyses in combination with quantum mechanical calculations of the electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra, optical rotation, and 13C chemical shifts were used to establish the chemical structures of 1 and 2. Both compounds exhibited moderate antifungal activity against Cladosporium cucumerinum, while compound 2 was also active against Candida albicans. Marine natural products containing steroidal and amino acid constituents are extremely rare in nature. PMID:25812034

  13. Preparation of metal-resistant immobilized sulfate reducing bacteria beads for acid mine drainage treatment.

    Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Haixia; Han, Xuemei

    2016-07-01

    Novel immobilized sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) beads were prepared for the treatment of synthetic acid mine drainage (AMD) containing high concentrations of Fe, Cu, Cd and Zn using up-flow anaerobic packed-bed bioreactor. The tolerance of immobilized SRB beads to heavy metals was significantly enhanced compared with that of suspended SRB. High removal efficiencies of sulfate (61-88%) and heavy metals (>99.9%) as well as slightly alkaline effluent pH (7.3-7.8) were achieved when the bioreactor was fed with acidic influent (pH 2.7) containing high concentrations of multiple metals (Fe 469 mg/L, Cu 88 mg/L, Cd 92 mg/L and Zn 128 mg/L), which showed that the bioreactor filled with immobilized SRB beads had tolerance to AMD containing high concentrations of heavy metals. Partially decomposed maize straw was a carbon source and stabilizing agent in the initial phase of bioreactor operation but later had to be supplemented by a soluble carbon source such as sodium lactate. The microbial community in the bioreactor was characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of partial 16S rDNA genes. Synergistic interaction between SRB (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans) and co-existing fermentative bacteria could be the key factor for the utilization of complex organic substrate (maize straw) as carbon and nutrients source for sulfate reduction. PMID:27058913

  14. Mechanistic modeling of biocorrosion caused by biofilms of sulfate reducing bacteria and acid producing bacteria.

    Xu, Dake; Li, Yingchao; Gu, Tingyue

    2016-08-01

    Biocorrosion is also known as microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). Most anaerobic MIC cases can be classified into two major types. Type I MIC involves non-oxygen oxidants such as sulfate and nitrate that require biocatalysis for their reduction in the cytoplasm of microbes such as sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and nitrate reducing bacteria (NRB). This means that the extracellular electrons from the oxidation of metal such as iron must be transported across cell walls into the cytoplasm. Type II MIC involves oxidants such as protons that are secreted by microbes such as acid producing bacteria (APB). The biofilms in this case supply the locally high concentrations of oxidants that are corrosive without biocatalysis. This work describes a mechanistic model that is based on the biocatalytic cathodic sulfate reduction (BCSR) theory. The model utilizes charge transfer and mass transfer concepts to describe the SRB biocorrosion process. The model also includes a mechanism to describe APB attack based on the local acidic pH at a pit bottom. A pitting prediction software package has been created based on the mechanisms. It predicts long-term pitting rates and worst-case scenarios after calibration using SRB short-term pit depth data. Various parameters can be investigated through computer simulation. PMID:27071053

  15. Sulfur isotope evidence for the contemporary formation of pyrite in a coastal acid sulfate soil

    The sulfur isotopic composition of pyrite (FeS2), greigite (Fe3S4) and pore-water sulfate was determined for a typical coastal acid sulfate soil (ASS). Greigite occurs only in the partially oxidised upper-most pyrite sediments as blackish clusters within vertical fissures and other macro-pores. The concentration of pyrite was an order of magnitude greater than greigite in this layer, continuing through the underlying reduced estuarine sediments. δ34S of pyrite (0.45 per mil) associated with greigite accumulations were distinctly different to the bulk average for pyrite (-3.7 per mil), but similar to greigite (0.9 per mil). Greigite is meta-stable under reducing conditions, readily transforming to pyrite. The transformation of iron monosulfides (including greigite) to pyrite is a sulfur-isotope conservative process and therefore, these observations indicate that pyrite is forming from greigite at the oxic/anoxic boundary

  16. Microbial sulfate reduction and metal attenuation in pH 4 acid mine water.

    Church, Clinton D; Wilkin, Richard T; Alpers, Charles N; Rye, Robert O; McCleskey, R Blaine

    2007-01-01

    Sediments recovered from the flooded mine workings of the Penn Mine, a Cu-Zn mine abandoned since the early 1960s, were cultured for anaerobic bacteria over a range of pH (4.0 to 7.5). The molecular biology of sediments and cultures was studied to determine whether sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were active in moderately acidic conditions present in the underground mine workings. Here we document multiple, independent analyses and show evidence that sulfate reduction and associated metal attenuation are occurring in the pH-4 mine environment. Water-chemistry analyses of the mine water reveal: (1) preferential complexation and precipitation by H2S of Cu and Cd, relative to Zn; (2) stable isotope ratios of 34S/32S and 18O/16O in dissolved SO4 that are 2-3 per thousand heavier in the mine water, relative to those in surface waters; (3) reduction/oxidation conditions and dissolved gas concentrations consistent with conditions to support anaerobic processes such as sulfate reduction. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses of sediment show 1.5-micrometer, spherical ZnS precipitates. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses of Penn Mine sediment show a high biomass level with a moderately diverse community structure composed primarily of iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria. Cultures of sediment from the mine produced dissolved sulfide at pH values near 7 and near 4, forming precipitates of either iron sulfide or elemental sulfur. DGGE coupled with sequence and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA gene segments showed populations of Desulfosporosinus and Desulfitobacterium in Penn Mine sediment and laboratory cultures. PMID:17956615

  17. Microbial sulfate reduction and metal attenuation in pH 4 acid mine water

    Alpers Charles N

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sediments recovered from the flooded mine workings of the Penn Mine, a Cu-Zn mine abandoned since the early 1960s, were cultured for anaerobic bacteria over a range of pH (4.0 to 7.5. The molecular biology of sediments and cultures was studied to determine whether sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB were active in moderately acidic conditions present in the underground mine workings. Here we document multiple, independent analyses and show evidence that sulfate reduction and associated metal attenuation are occurring in the pH-4 mine environment. Water-chemistry analyses of the mine water reveal: (1 preferential complexation and precipitation by H2S of Cu and Cd, relative to Zn; (2 stable isotope ratios of 34S/32S and 18O/16O in dissolved SO4 that are 2–3 ‰ heavier in the mine water, relative to those in surface waters; (3 reduction/oxidation conditions and dissolved gas concentrations consistent with conditions to support anaerobic processes such as sulfate reduction. Scanning electron microscope (SEM analyses of sediment show 1.5-micrometer, spherical ZnS precipitates. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE analyses of Penn Mine sediment show a high biomass level with a moderately diverse community structure composed primarily of iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria. Cultures of sediment from the mine produced dissolved sulfide at pH values near 7 and near 4, forming precipitates of either iron sulfide or elemental sulfur. DGGE coupled with sequence and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA gene segments showed populations of Desulfosporosinus and Desulfitobacterium in Penn Mine sediment and laboratory cultures.

  18. Characteristics of Some Heavy Metals in Acid Sulfate Topsoile,Eastern Australia

    C.LIN; D.MCCONCHIE; 等

    2001-01-01

    Forty-five acid sulfate topsoil samples(depth<0.5m)from 15 soil cores at 11 locations along the New South Wales coast,Australia,were selected to investigate the chemical behavior of Zn,Mn,Cr,Co and Pb in these soils.The amount of HCl-extractable Mn was much smaller than the mean value of the total Mn documented for other soils of HCl-extractable Mn was much smaller than the mean value of the total Mn documented for other soils.This may be attributed to enhanced mobilization of Mn from the soils under the extrenely acidic and seasonally flooded conditions encountered in the investigated soils.The pH-dependency of soluble Zn and Mn was strongly affected by the availabiltiy of acid reactive Zn and Mn compounds .There were fairly good relationships between soulble Zn and acid reactive Zn compounds, and between soluble Mn and acid reactive Mn compounds .Soluble Zn and soluble Mn concentations were important controls on exchangeable Zn and Mn Concentrations respectively.In contrast to the suggestion by other authors that adsorption of Co was closely associated with Mn oxides present in soils,the exchangeable Co in the investigated acid sulfate soils was not clearly realt to the abundance of Mn minerals.In addition to the fact that there are few Mn minerals present in the soils,this might also be because the availabiliy of cation exchange sites on the crystal surfaces of Mn oxides was reduced under extremely acidic conditions.

  19. Supported zirconium sulfate on carbon nanotubes as water-tolerant solid acid catalyst

    A new solid acid of zirconium sulfate (CZ) was successfully supported on carbon nanotube (CNT) for esterification reaction. Preparation conditions of the supported CZ have been investigated, to obtain highest catalytic activity for esterification reaction. XRD, TEM, BET, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and in situ FTIR analysis has also been carried out to understand the characteristics of the catalyst. In the esterification of acrylic acid with n-octanol, the supported CZ exhibited high catalytic activity and stability. The catalytic activity was nearly unchanged during four times of reuse. XRD and TEM analysis indicated that CZ was finely dispersed on CNT. XPS analysis shows that the CZ species was preserved and the chemical environment of the CZ has changed after loaded on CNT. This finding show that CNT as CZ support is an efficient water-tolerant solid acid

  20. Impeded Acidification of Acid Sulfate Soils in an Inten- sively Drained Sugarcane Land

    2001-01-01

    Recent research results suggest that acidification of acid sulfate soils may be inhibited in well-drained estuarine floodplains in eastern Australia by the absence of natural creek levees. The lack of natural levees has allowed the inundation of the land by regular tidal flooding prior to the construction of flood mitigation work. Such physiographical conditions prevent the development of pre-drainage pyrite-derived soil acidifica- tion that possibly occurred at many levee-protected sites in eastern Australian estuarine floodplains during extremely dry spells. Pre-drainage acidification is considered as an important condition for accumulation of soluble Fe and consequently, the creation of favourable environments for catalysed pyrite oxidation. Under current intensively drained conditions, the acid materials produced by ongoing pyrite oxidation can be rapidly removed from soil pore water by lateral leaching and acid buffering, resulting in low concentrations of soluble Fe in the pyritic layer, which could reduce the rate of pyrite oxidation.

  1. Refractory status epilepticus after inadvertent intrathecal injection of tranexamic acid treated by magnesium sulfate.

    Hatch, D M; Atito-Narh, E; Herschmiller, E J; Olufolabi, A J; Owen, M D

    2016-05-01

    We present a case of accidental injection of tranexamic acid during spinal anesthesia for an elective cesarean delivery. Immediately following intrathecal injection of 2mL of solution, the patient complained of severe back pain, followed by muscle spasm and tetany. As there was no evidence of spinal block, the medications given were checked and a 'used' ampoule of tranexamic acid was found on the spinal tray. General anesthesia was induced but muscle spasm and tetany persisted despite administration of a non-depolarizing muscle relaxant. Hemodynamic instability, ventricular tachycardia, and status epilepticus developed, which were refractory to phenytoin, diazepam, and infusions of thiopental, midazolam and amiodarone. Magnesium sulfate was administered postoperatively in the intensive care unit, following which the frequency of seizures decreased, eventually stopping. Unfortunately, on postoperative day three the patient died from cardiopulmonary arrest after an oxygen supply failure that was not associated with the initial event. This report underlines the importance of double-checking medications before injection in order to avoid a drug error. As well, it suggests that magnesium sulfate may be useful in stopping seizures caused by the intrathecal injection of tranexamic acid. PMID:26775897

  2. Iron Monosulfide Distribution in Three Coastal Floodplain Acid Sulfate Soils, Eastern Australia

    2000-01-01

    The distribution of iron monosulfide (quantified as acid volatile sulfur: SAV) was compared with geo chemical properties that are known to affect its formation and accumulation in three coastal Holocene acid sulfate soils (ASS) at Tuckean Swamp, McLeods Creek and Bungawalbyn Swamp respectively. These proper ties included pH, reactive iron (FeR), pore-water sulfate (SO42-) and organic carbon (OC). Iron monosulfide was concentrated at the oxic/anoxic boundary. The Tuckean Swamp and McLeods Creek sites are Holocene sediments, whereas the Bungawalbyn Swamp is a Holocene peat. The concentration of SAV averaged 0.2 g kg-1 in a 0.5 m thick soil layer at the Tuckean Swamp, but was an order of magnitude lower in the oxic/anoxic transition layers at McLeods Creek and Bungawalbyn Swamp. The SAV mineral greigite (FesS4) was identified in the Tuckean Swamp by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy with quantitative energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX). Very small concentrations of greigite were also observed in the McLeods Creek, based on crystal morphology and elemental composition. The concentration of SAV was a small fraction of the total reduced sulfur, representing at most 3% of the pyrite sulfur. However, the presence of this highly reactive sulfide mineral, distributed within pores where oxygen diffusion is most rapid, has important implications to the potential rate of acid production from these sediments.

  3. Iduronic Acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate affects directional migration of aortic smooth muscle cells

    B. Bartolini; Thelin, M.A.; Svensson, L; Ghiselli, G.; Kuppevelt, T.H. van; Malmstrom, A.; Maccarana, M.

    2013-01-01

    Aortic smooth muscle cells produce chondroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) proteoglycans that regulate extracellular matrix organization and cell behavior in normal and pathological conditions. A unique feature of CS/DS proteoglycans is the presence of iduronic acid (IdoA), catalyzed by two DS epimerases. Functional ablation of DS-epi1, the main epimerase in these cells, resulted in a major reduction of IdoA both on cell surface and in secreted CS/DS proteoglycans. Downregulation of IdoA led to ...

  4. Temperature effect on adiolysis of deaerated acid aqueous solutions of ferrous sulfate

    In the course of γ-radiolysis (60Co, dose rate=3.75 Gr/c, doses=1.575-3.375 kGr) of deaerated acid aqueous solution 3.6x10-3 mol/l of ferrous sulfate in the 20-250 deg C range the hydrogen molecules radiochemical yield per 100 eV of absorbed energy G(H2) decreases from 3.82±0.12 to 2.72±0.26, whereas G(Fe3+) independently of temperature is equal 8.34±0.36

  5. Similarities Across Mars: Acidic Fluids at Both Meridiani Planum and Gale Crater in the Formation of Magnesium-Nickel Sulfates

    Yen, Albert S.; Ming, Douglas W.; Gellert, Ralf; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Vaniman, David T.; Thompson, Lucy M.; Morris, Richard V.; Clark, Benton C.; Arvidson, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    In-situ identification of sulfates at the martian surface by the Mars Exploration Rovers and the Mars Science Laboratory have included calcium sulfates with various states of hydration (gypsum, bassanite, anhydrite), iron sulfates of likely fumarolic origin, massive deposits of iron hydroxysulfates indicative of an acidic history, and minor occurrences of magnesium sulfates. Recent measurements by the Opportunity and Curiosity Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometers (APXS) have indicated the presence of Ni-substituted Mg-sulfates at the Meridiani Planum and Gale Crater landing sites. The Opportunity rover has traversed nearly 43 km and is currently exploring the impact breccias of the rim of Endeavour crater, near a location where signatures of aqueous alteration have been established from orbit. APXS analyses of subsurface materials excavated by a rover wheel show clear evidence for a Mg(Ni)-sulfate with Mg:Ni (is) approximately 100:1 (molar). On the other side of the planet, Curiosity is continuing its climb up Mount Sharp after driving (is) approximately 13 km since landing. Over the last 4 km of the traverse, there have been multiple chemical analyses of erosionally-resistant nodules and dendritic features in a finely laminated mudstone unit which also indicate Mg(Ni)-sulfate (Mg:Ni (is) approximately 30:1, molar). The geologic settings for the Endeavour rim and the Mount Sharp mudstones are clearly different, but similar formation conditions for these sulfates may be possible. Ni(2+) readily substitutes for Mg(2+) in a variety of geochemical processes due to their comparable ionic radii. The availability of soluble Ni at the time of Mg-sulfate precipitation suggests acidic solutions. The fluids responsible for alteration in the Endeavour rim and for the formation of nodules in Gale mudstones may have had similar chemical characteristics at the time the Mg-sulfates were formed.

  6. Effect of sulfate on methanogenic communities that degrade unsaturated and saturated long-chain fatty acids (LCFA)

    Sousa, D.Z.; Alves, J.I.; Alves, M. M.; Smidt, Hauke; Stams, A.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria involved in the degradation of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA), in the presence of sulfate as electron acceptor, were studied by combined cultivation-dependent and molecular techniques. The bacterial diversity in four mesophilic sulfate-reducing enrichment cultures, growing on oleate (C18:1, unsaturated LCFA) or palmitate (C16:0, saturated LCFA), was studied by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiling of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified 16S rRNA gene ...

  7. Application of acidic calcium sulfate and e-polylysine to pre-rigor beef rounds for reduction of pathogens

    Foodborne illness continues to be a serious public health problem and is a major concern for the United States food industry. This study evaluated the effectiveness of warm solutions of acidic calcium sulfate (ACS), lactic acid (LA), episolon-polylysine (EPL), ACS plus EPL, and sterile distilled wa...

  8. Iron Absorption from Two Milk Formulas Fortified with Iron Sulfate Stabilized with Maltodextrin and Citric Acid

    Fernando Pizarro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fortification of milk formulas with iron is a strategy widely used, but the absorption of non-heme iron is low. The purpose of this study was to measure the bioavailability of two iron fortified milk formulas designed to cover toddlers´ nutritional needs. These milks were fortified with iron sulfate stabilized with maltodextrin and citric acid. Methods: 15 women (33–47 years old participated in study. They received on different days, after an overnight fast, 200 mL of Formula A; 200 mL of Formula B; 30 mL of a solution of iron and ascorbic acid as reference dose and 200 mL of full fat cow’s milk fortified with iron as ferrous sulfate. Milk formulas and reference dose were labeled with radioisotopes 59Fe or 55Fe, and the absorption of iron measured by erythrocyte incorporation of radioactive Fe. Results: The geometric mean iron absorption corrected to 40% of the reference dose was 20.6% for Formula A and 20.7% for Formula B, versus 7.5% of iron fortified cow’s milk (p < 0.001. The post hoc Sheffé indeed differences between the milk formulas and the cow’s milk (p < 0.001. Conclusion: Formulas A and B contain highly bioavailable iron, which contributes to covering toddlers´ requirements of this micronutrient.

  9. Calcium Sulfate with Stearic Acid as an Encouraging Carrier for Reindeer Bone Protein Extract

    Pekka Jalovaara

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Various bone proteins and growth factors in specific concentrations are required for bone formation. If the body cannot produce sufficient quantities of these factors, bone trauma can be healed with an implant that includes the required factors in a carrier. This study was designed to evaluate various calcium salt candidates that can be used as carrier with reindeer bone protein extract to induce ectopic bone formation in the muscle pouch model of mouse. The bone protein extract was either impregnated into the disc form of carrier or mixed with carrier powder before implantation. The radiographic analysis indicated increased bone formation in all of the active groups containing the bone protein extract compared to the controls within 21 days follow-up. The highest bone formation was seen in the group with calcium sulfate with stearic acid where new bone and calcified cartilage were clearly visible. The greatest bone formation occurred in the groups that had bone protein extract readily available. This indicates that the bone forming factors in sufficient concentrations are required at the early stage of bone formation. The calcium sulfate with stearic acid was the most suitable and effective carrier for reindeer bone protein extract.

  10. Kinetics and Mechanistic Chemistry of Oxidation of Butacaine Sulfate by Chloramine-B in Acid Medium

    Shubha, Jayachamarajapura Pranesh; Kotabagi, Vinutha [Bosco Institute of Technology, Bangalore (India); Puttaswamy [Bangalore Univ., Bangalore (India)

    2012-11-15

    Butacaine sulfate is an ester of p-aminobenzoic acid which has been widely used as a local anaesthetic and it is a long standing agent particularly for spinal anaesthesia. For this reason, a kinetic study of oxidation of butacaine sulfate by sodium N-chlorobenzenesulfonamide (chloramine-B or CAB) has been carried out in HClO{sub 4} medium at 303 K in order to explore this redox system mechanistic chemistry. The rate shows a first-order dependence on both [CAB]{sub o}, and [substrate]{sub o}, and a fractional-order dependence on acid concentration. Decrease of dielectric constant of the medium, by adding methanol, increases the rate of the reaction. Variation of ionic strength and addition of benzenesulfonamide or NaCl have no significant effect on the rate. The reaction was studied at different temperatures and the activation parameters have been evaluated. The stoichiometry of the reaction has been found to be 1:2 and the oxidation products have been identified by spectral analysis. The observed results have been explained by plausible mechanism and the related rate law has been deduced.

  11. Characterization of the sulfate-reducing bacterial population in sediments of acid mining lakes

    With respect to remediation of acid mine drainage (AMD), concomitant alteration of redox conditions, formation of metal sulfides and alkalinity generation are of special interest. The majority of lakes formed in the Lusatian lignite mining district bear waters of low pH and high ionic strength. For several of these acid mining lakes, sulfate-reducing activities have been demonstrated. The aim of our study was to find out which bacteria are responsible for these activities, whether these SRB exhibit special traits to thrive under extreme conditions, and whether the population differed from those inhabiting freshwater and marine environments. For this purpose we estimated the most probable number (MPN) of culturable SRB in surface sediments of three mining lakes (ML) and obtained isolates from the same sites. The strains were characterised physiologically and phylogenetically. (orig.)

  12. Morphologies, mechanical properties and thermal stability of poly(lactic acid) toughened by precipitated barium sulfate

    Yang, Jinian; Wang, Chuang; Shao, Kaiyun; Ding, Guoxin; Tao, Yulun; Zhu, Jinbo

    2015-11-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA)-based composites were prepared by blending PLA with precipitated barium sulfate (BaSO4) modified with stearic acid. The morphologies, mechanical properties and thermal stability of samples with increased mass fraction of BaSO4 were investigated. Results showed that PLA was toughened and reinforced simultaneously by incorporation of precipitated BaSO4 particles. The highest impact toughness and elongation at break were both achieved at 15% BaSO4, while the elastic modulus increased monotonically with increasing BaSO4 loading. Little effect of BaSO4 on the thermal behavior of PLA was observed in the present case. However, the thermal stability of PLA/BaSO4 composites at high temperature was enhanced.

  13. Mobility of radium and heavy metals from uranium mine tailings in acid sulfate soils

    This study was aimed at determining whether heavy metals in tailings from Ranger Uranium Mine change in chemical form in such a way that they will become more mobile, or bioavailable, after they are mixed with extremely acidic soils from downstream of the mine. Four soils were studied: two samples were acid sulfate (jarositic or pyritic) materials and two were acidic materials overlying acid sulfate horizons. Copper, iron, manganese, lead, uranium and zinc fractions were determined in soils to which uranium mill tailings had been added. Total and exchangeable 226 Ra were also determined in selected samples. The tailings-soil mixtures were incubated for up to 4 months and included a comparison of reactions under continuously moist conditions and when subjected to a saturation and drying cycle. The tailings had considerably grater concentrations of total Mn, Pb, U and 226 Ra than the soils. The metals in the tailings occurred as relatively immobile forms. In the non-pyritic soils, the distribution of the metals between the fractions did not change much during 4 months of reaction. In the pyritic soil, which underwent oxidation and acidification during incubation, there were 2- to 3-fold increases in the exchangeable fractions of Fe, Mn,Cu and U. The metals in the tailings and soil behaved similarly. There appeared to be more likelihood of increased mobility of metals from oxidation of pyritic materials than from addition of tailings. The fraction of total 226 Ra that was exchangeable decreased from 11% in the original tailings to 2-7% after reaction with three of the soils but increased to 44% in one soil. At estimated long-term erosion rates, the tailings are not likely to be a source of heavy metal pollution, but addition of 226Ra to soils presents a possible radiological hazard. 19 refs., 12 tabs., 8 figs

  14. Alleviating aluminum toxicity in an acid sulfate soil from Peninsular Malaysia by calcium silicate application

    Elisa, A. A.; Ninomiya, S.; Shamshuddin, J.; Roslan, I.

    2016-03-01

    In response to human population increase, the utilization of acid sulfate soils for rice cultivation is one option for increasing production. The main problems associated with such soils are their low pH values and their associated high content of exchangeable Al, which could be detrimental to crop growth. The application of soil amendments is one approach for mitigating this problem, and calcium silicate is an alternative soil amendment that could be used. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to ameliorate soil acidity in rice-cropped soil. The secondary objective was to study the effects of calcium silicate amendment on soil acidity, exchangeable Al, exchangeable Ca, and Si content. The soil was treated with 0, 1, 2, and 3 Mg ha-1 of calcium silicate under submerged conditions and the soil treatments were sampled every 30 days throughout an incubation period of 120 days. Application of calcium silicate induced a positive effect on soil pH and exchangeable Al; soil pH increased from 2.9 (initial) to 3.5, while exchangeable Al was reduced from 4.26 (initial) to 0.82 cmolc kg-1. Furthermore, the exchangeable Ca and Si contents increased from 1.68 (initial) to 4.94 cmolc kg-1 and from 21.21 (initial) to 81.71 mg kg-1, respectively. Therefore, it was noted that calcium silicate was effective at alleviating Al toxicity in acid sulfate, rice-cropped soil, yielding values below the critical level of 2 cmolc kg-1. In addition, application of calcium silicate showed an ameliorative effect as it increased soil pH and supplied substantial amounts of Ca and Si.

  15. Recovery and separation of sulfuric acid and iron from dilute acidic sulfate effluent and waste sulfuric acid by solvent extraction and stripping.

    Qifeng, Wei; Xiulian, Ren; Jingjing, Guo; Yongxing, Chen

    2016-03-01

    The recovery and simultaneous separation of sulfuric acid and iron from dilute acidic sulfate effluent (DASE) and waste sulfuric acid (WSA) have been an earnest wish for researchers and the entire sulfate process-based titanium pigment industry. To reduce the pollution of the waste acid and make a comprehensive use of the iron and sulfuric acid in it, a new environmentally friendly recovery and separation process for the DASE and the WSA is proposed. This process is based on the reactive extraction of sulfuric acid and Fe(III) from the DASE. Simultaneously, stripping of Fe(III) is carried out in the loaded organic phase with the WSA. Compared to the conventional ways, this innovative method allows the effective extraction of sulfuric acid and iron from the DASE, and the stripping of Fe(III) from the loaded organic phase with the WSA. Trioctylamine (TOA) and tributyl phosphate (TBP) in kerosene (10-50%) were used as organic phases for solvent extraction. Under the optimal conditions, about 98% of Fe(III) and sulfuric acid were removed from the DASE, and about 99.9% of Fe(III) in the organic phase was stripped with the WSA. PMID:26546698

  16. Preparation of manganese sulfate from low-grade manganese carbonate ores by sulfuric acid leaching

    Lin, Qing-quan; Gu, Guo-hua; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Ren-feng; Liu, You-cai; Fu, Jian-gang

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a method for preparing pure manganese sulfate from low-grade ores with a granule mean size of 0.47 mm by direct acid leaching was developed. The effects of the types of leaching agents, sulfuric acid concentration, reaction temperature, and agitation rate on the leaching efficiency of manganese were investigated. We observed that sulfuric acid used as a leaching agent provides a similar leaching efficiency of manganese and superior selectivity against calcium compared to hydrochloric acid. The optimal leaching conditions in sulfuric acid media were determined; under the optimal conditions, the leaching efficiencies of Mn and Ca were 92.42% and 9.61%, respectively. Moreover, the kinetics of manganese leaching indicated that the leaching follows the diffusion-controlled model with an apparent activation energy of 12.28 kJ·mol-1. The purification conditions of the leaching solution were also discussed. The results show that manganese dioxide is a suitable oxidant of ferrous ions and sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate is an effective precipitant of heavy metals. Finally, through chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis, the obtained product was determined to contain 98% of MnSO4·H2O.

  17. Origin of dimethylsulfide, non-sea-salt sulfate, and methanesulfonic acid in eastern Antarctica

    Cosme, E.; Hourdin, F.; Genthon, C.; Martinerie, P.

    2005-02-01

    Ignoring the origin of atmospheric chemicals is often a strong limitation to the full interpretation of their measurement. In this article, this question is addressed in the case of the sulfur species in Antarctica, with an original method of retrotransport of tracers. The retrotransport model is derived from the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique Zoom-Tracers (LMD-ZT) atmospheric general circulation model, optimized for polar climate and expanded to simulate atmospheric sulfur chemistry. For two East Antarctic scientific stations (Dumont d'Urville and Vostok) the effects of transport and chemistry and the influence of oceanic, volcanic, and anthropogenic sources on dimethylsulfide (DMS), non-sea-salt (nss) sulfate, and methanesulfonic acid (MSA) concentrations are evaluated in summer and winter. The oceanic source largely dominates, but other sources can episodically be significant. The meridional origin and the age of DMS, MSA, and biogenic nss sulfate are also estimated. The latitudes of origin of MSA and nss sulfate are similar in summer, but they differ markedly in winter. This is a signature of their different chemical production scheme. Also, the interannual variability of the origin of the sulfur species at Vostok is weak compared to that at Dumont d'Urville. Acknowledging that the DMS concentrations in the ocean have no interannual variability in the model, this result suggests unsurprisingly that inland Antarctic stations may be better observation sites to monitor large-scale DMS bioproductivity variability than coastal sites are. The combination of slower chemistry and more intense atmospheric circulation in winter leads to unexpected results, such as a younger DMS in winter than in summer at Vostok.

  18. Cholesterol versus cholesterol sulfate: effects on properties of phospholipid bilayers containing docosahexaenoic acid.

    Schofield, M; Jenski, L J; Dumaual, A C; Stillwell, W

    1998-09-01

    The important omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is present at high concentration in some membranes that also contain the unusual sterol cholesterol sulfate (CS). The association between these lipids and their effect on membrane structure is presented here. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), MC540 fluorescence, erythritol permeability, pressure/area isotherms on lipid monolayers and molecular modeling are used to compare the effect of CS and cholesterol on model phospholipid membranes. By DSC, CS decreases the main phase transition temperature and broadens the transitions of dipalmitolyphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), 1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (18:0,18:1 PC) and 1-stearoyl-2-docosahexaenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (18:0,22:6 PC) to a much larger extent than does cholesterol. In addition CS produces a three-component transition in 18:0,18:1 PC bilayers that is not seen with cholesterol. In a mixed phospholipid bilayer composed of 18:0,18:1 PC/18:0,22:6 PC (1:1, mol/mol), CS at 2.5 membrane mol% or more induces lateral phase separation while cholesterol does not. CS decreases lipid packing density and increases permeability of 18:0,18:1 PC and 18:0,22:6 PC bilayers to a much larger extent than cholesterol. CS disrupts oleic acid-containing bilayers more than those containing DHA. Molecular modeling confirms that the anionic sulfate moiety on CS renders this sterol more polar than cholesterol with the consequence that CS likely resides higher (extends further into the aqueous environment) in the bilayer. CS can therefore be preferentially accommodated into DHA-enriched bilayers where its tetracyclic ring system may fit into the delta 4 pocket of DHA, a location excluded to cholesterol. It is proposed that CS may in part replace the membrane function of cholesterol in DHA-rich membranes. PMID:9807808

  19. Microwave-assisted digestion using nitric acid for heavy metals and sulfated ash testing in active pharmaceutical ingredients.

    Pluhácek, T; Hanzal, J; Hendrych, J; Milde, D

    2016-04-01

    The monitoring of inorganic impurities in active pharmaceutical ingredients plays a crucial role in the quality control of the pharmaceutical production. The heavy metals and residue on ignition/sulfated ash methods employing microwave-assisted digestion with concentrated nitric acid have been demonstrated as alternatives to inappropriate compendial methods recommended in United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) and European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.). The recoveries using the heavy metals method ranged between 89% and 122% for nearly all USP and Ph. Eur. restricted elements as well as the recoveries of sodium sulfate spikes were around 100% in all tested matrices. The proposed microwave-assisted digestion method allowed simultaneous decomposition of 15 different active pharmaceutical ingredients with sample weigh up to 1 g. The heavy metals and sulfated ash procedures were successfully applied to the determination of heavy metals and residue on ignition/sulfated ash content in mycophenolate mofetil, nicergoline and silymarin. PMID:27209695

  20. Factors Controlling Deoxygenation of "Floodwater" Overlying an Acid Sulfate Soil: Experimental Modeling

    C. LIN; P. G. HASKINS; J. LIN

    2003-01-01

    An incubation experiment was conducted to simulate the effect of flooding on water deoxygenation in acid sulfate soil floodplain systems. The originally oxygenated "floodwater" could be deoxygenated immediately following "flooding" and it is likely that this was caused mainly by decomposition of organic debris from the inundated plants. Deoxygenation eventually led to the depletion of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the "floodwater"and it is highly possible that this resulted in the transformations of ferric Fe to ferrous Fe, sulfate to hydrogen sulfide, and organic nitrogen to ammonia (ammonification). The accumulation of these reduced substances allows the "floodwater" to develop DO-consuming capacity (DOCC). When the "floodwater" is mixed with the introduced oxygenated water, apart from the dilution effects, the reduced substances contained in the "floodwater" oxidize to further consume DO carried by the introduced water. However, it appears that the DO drop in the mixed water can only last for a few hours if no additional DO-depleted "floodwater" is added.Entry of atmospheric oxygen into the water can raise the DO level of the mixed water and lower water pH through the oxidation of the reduced substances.

  1. Ferrous iron oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: inhibition with benzoic acid, sorbic acid and sodium lauryl sulfate

    Onysko, S.J.

    1984-07-01

    Acid mine drainage is formed by the weathering or oxidation of pyritic material exposed during coal mining. The rate of pyritic material oxidation can be greatly accelerated by certain acidophilic bacteria such as Thiobacillus ferrooxidans which catalyse the oxidation of ferrous to ferric iron. A number of organic compounds, under laboratory conditions, can apparently inhibit both the oxidation of ferrous to ferric iron by T. ferrooxidans and the weathering of pyritic material by mixed cultures of acid mine drainage micro-organisms. Sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), an anionic surfactant has proved effective in this respect. Benzoic acid, sorbic acid and SLS at low concentrations, each effectively inhibited bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron in batch cultures of T. ferrooxidans. The rate of chemical oxidation of ferrous iron in low pH, sterile, batch reactors was not substantially affected at the tested concentrations of any of the compounds.

  2. Improved detection of coastal acid sulfate soil hotspots through biomonitoring of metal(loid) accumulation in water lilies (Nymphaea capensis).

    Stroud, Jacqueline L; Collins, Richard N

    2014-07-15

    Anthropogenically disturbed coastal acid sulfate soils along the east coast of Australia, and worldwide, periodically result in the discharge of acid waters containing high concentrations of metals. Identifying priority sites (hotspots) within a catchment for acid sulfate soil remediation activities typically involves long-term monitoring of drainwater chemistry, including the capture of data on unpredictable rain-induced groundwater discharge events. To improve upon this monitoring approach, this study investigated using the water lily (Nymphaea capensis) as a biomonitor of drainage waters to identify hotspots in three acid sulfate soil impacted catchments (83 km(2)) in north-eastern New South Wales, Australia. In one catchment where the location of hotspots was known, water lily lamina concentrations of a suite of metal(loid)s were significantly (pcatchment-scale water lily sampling program undertaken in catchments with unidentified hotspots revealed within catchment variation of plant metal concentrations up to 70-fold. High resolution maps produced from these results, therefore, provided strong evidence for the location of potential hotspots which were confirmed with measurements of drainwater chemistry during rain-induced groundwater discharge events. Median catchment lily accumulation was ca. 160 mg Al kg(-1) and 1,300 mg Fe kg(-1), with hotspots containing up to 6- and 10-fold higher Al and Fe concentrations. These findings suggest that biomonitoring with N. capensis can be an important tool to rapidly identify priority sites for remediation in acid sulfate soil impacted landscapes. PMID:24805963

  3. Gas Chromatographic Determination of Sulfuric Acid and Application to Urinary Sulfate

    Masuoka,Noriyoshi

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available A new gas chromatographic method for the determination of sulfate was developed. In this method, sulfate was quantitatively converted to a volatile derivative, dimethyl sulfate, by a two-step procedure. First, sulfate was converted to silver sulfate by reaction with silver oxide, and then to dimethyl sulfate by reaction with methyl iodide. The derivative was analyzed by gas chromatography. Methyl methanesulfonate was used as an internal standard. The method was applied to the determination of total urinary sulfate. Phosphate and chloride ions, which interfered with the present method, were eliminated with the use of basic magnesium carbonate and an excess of silver oxide, respectively. Recovery was over 96% when 5 to 40 mumol/ml of sulfate was added to human urine samples.

  4. Impeded Acidification of Acid Sulfate Soils in an Inter—sively Drained Sugarcane Land

    C.LIN; R.T.BUSH; 等

    2001-01-01

    Recent research results suggest that acidification of acid sulfate soils may be inhibited in well-drained estuarine floodplains in eastern Australia by the absence of natural creek levees,The lack of natural levees has allowed the inuudation of the land by regular tidal flooding prior to the construction of flood mitigation work.Such physiographical conditions prevent the development of pre-draingae pyrite-derived soil acidifica-tion that possibly occurred at many levee-protected sites in eastern Australian estuarine floodplains during extremely dry spells.Pre-drainage acidification is considered as an important condition for accumulation of soluble Fe and consequently,the creation of favourable environments for catalysed pyrite oxidation.Under current intensively drained onditions,the acid materials produced by ongoing pyrite oxidation can be rapidly removed from soil pore water by lateral leaching and acid buffering,resulting in low concentrations of soluble Fe in the pyritic layer,which could reduce the rate of pyrite oxidation.

  5. Effects of Multiple Soil Conditioners on a Mine Site Acid Sulfate Soil for Vetiver Growth

    LIN Chu-Xia; LONG Xin-Xian; XU Song-Jun; CHU Cheng-Xing; MAI Shao-Zhi; JIANG Dian

    2004-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of various soil treatments on the growth of vetiver grass ( Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash) with the objective of formulating appropriate soil media for use in sulfide-bearing mined areas. An acidic mine site acid sulfate soil (pH 2.8) was treated with different soil conditioner formula including hydrated lime, red mud (bauxite residues), zeolitic rock powder, biosolids and a compound fertilizer. Soils treated with red mud and hydrated lime corrected soil acidity and reduced or eliminated metal toxicity enabling the establishment of vetiver grass.Although over-liming affected growth, some seedlings of vetiver survived the initial strong alkaline conditions. Addition of appropriate amounts of zeolitic rock powder also enhanced growth, but over-application caused detrimental effects. In this experiment, soil medium with the best growth performance of vetiver was 50 g of red mud, 10 g of lime, 30 g of zeolitic rock powder and 30 g of biosolids with 2000 g of mine soils (100% survival rate with the greatest biomass and number of new shoots), but adding a chemical fertilizer to this media adversely impacted plant growth. In addition, a high application rate of biosolids resulted in poorer growth of vetiver, compared to a moderate application rate.

  6. Preparation and application of zirconium sulfate supported on SAPO-34 molecular sieve as solid acid catalyst for esterification

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • SAPO-34 supported zirconium sulfate solid acid catalyst was prepared. • Esterification of acetic acid with ethanol can be catalyzed by ZS/SAPO-34. • The hydration of ZS is vital to the acidic property and catalytic performance. • The ZS/SAPO-34 catalyst treated at 200 °C shows good reusability. - Abstract: Zirconium sulfate (ZS) was supported on SAPO-34 molecular sieve by using an incipient wetness impregnation method with zirconium sulfate as the precursor. The as-prepared catalysts were used as solid acid catalyst for esterification reaction of acetic acid with ethanol. The influence of calcination temperature on the acidic property, catalytic activity, and reusability of ZS/SAPO-34 catalysts were mainly investigated. FT-IR, SEM, EDS and TG analysis have been carried out to demonstrate the characteristics of ZS/SAPO-34 catalysts. It was found that the 30 wt%ZS/SAPO-34 catalysts display the property of superacid irrespective of calcination temperature. The ZS/SAPO-34 catalyst treated at 200 °C can enhance the interaction between the supported ZS and SAPO-34 and keep the catalyst remaining substantially active after several reaction cycles. However, further increasing calcination temperature will cause the transfer of ZS from hydrate to anhydrous phase, and thus the decrease of activity

  7. Role of dissimilatory sulfate reduction in wetlands constructed for acid coal mine drainage (AMD) treatment. Master's thesis

    Five constructed wetlands with different organic substrates were exposed to the same quantity/quality of acid mine drainage (AMD). During the 16-month exposure to AMD, all wetlands accumulated S in the forms of organic and reduced inorganic S and Fe in the form of iron sulfides. Iron sulfide and probably most of the organic S(C-bonded S) accumulation were end products of bacterial dissimilatory sulfate reduction. Results of study support the notion that sulfate reduction and accumulation of Fe sulfides contribute to Fe retention in wetlands exposed to AMD. Detailed information is provided

  8. Contemporaneous deposition of phyllosilicates and sulfates: Using Australian acidic saline lake deposits to describe geochemical variability on Mars

    Baldridge, A.M.; Hook, S.J.; Crowley, J.K.; Marion, G.M.; Kargel, J.S.; Michalski, J.L.; Thomson, B.J.; de Souza, Filho C.R.; Bridges, N.T.; Brown, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of the origin of the Martian sulfate and phyllosilicate deposits have led to the hypothesis that there was a marked, global-scale change in the Mars environment from circum-neutral pH aqueous alteration in the Noachian to an acidic evaporitic system in the late Noachian to Hesperian. However, terrestrial studies suggest that two different geochemical systems need not be invoked to explain such geochemical variation.Western Australian acidic playa lakes have large pH differences separated vertically and laterally by only a few tens of meters, demonstrating how highly variable chemistries can coexist over short distances in natural environments. We suggest diverse and variable Martian aqueous environments where the coetaneous formation of phyllosilicates and sulfates at the Australian sites are analogs for regions where phyllosilicates and sulfates coexist on Mars. In these systems, Fe and alkali earth phyllosilicates represent deep facies associated with upwelling neutral to alkaline groundwater, whereas aluminous phyllosilicates and sulfates represent near-surface evaporitic facies formed from more acidic brines. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Perlecan Heparan Sulfate Is Required for the Inhibition of Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation by All-trans-Retinoic Acid.

    Tran-Lundmark, Karin; Tannenberg, Philip; Rauch, Bernhard H; Ekstrand, Johan; Tran, Phan-Kiet; Hedin, Ulf; Kinsella, Michael G

    2015-02-01

    Smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation is a key process in stabilization of atherosclerotic plaques, and during restenosis after interventions. A clearer understanding of SMC growth regulation is therefore needed to design specific anti-proliferative therapies. Retinoic acid has been shown to inhibit proliferation of SMCs both in vitro and in vivo and to affect the expression of extracellular matrix molecules. To explore the mechanisms behind the growth inhibitory activity of retinoic acid, we hypothesized that retinoids may induce the expression of perlecan, a large heparan sulfate proteoglycan with anti-proliferative properties. Perlecan expression and accumulation was induced in murine SMC cultures by all-trans-retinoic acid (AtRA). Moreover, the growth inhibitory effect of AtRA on wild-type cells was greatly diminished in SMCs from transgenic mice expressing heparan sulfate-deficient perlecan, indicating that the inhibition is perlecan heparan sulfate-dependent. In addition, AtRA influenced activation and phosphorylation of PTEN and Akt differently in wild-type and mutant SMCs, consistent with previous studies of perlecan-dependent SMC growth inhibition. We demonstrate that AtRA regulates perlecan expression in SMCs and that the inhibition of SMC proliferation by AtRA is, at least in part, secondary to an increased expression of perlecan and dependent upon its heparan sulfate-chains. PMID:25078760

  10. Exchangeable and secondary mineral reactive pools of aluminium in coastal lowland acid sulfate soils.

    Yvanes-Giuliani, Yliane A M; Waite, T David; Collins, Richard N

    2014-07-01

    The use of coastal floodplain sulfidic sediments for agricultural activities has resulted in the environmental degradation of many areas worldwide. The generation of acidity and transport of aluminium (Al) and other metals to adjacent aquatic systems are the main causes of adverse effects. Here, a five-step sequential extraction procedure (SEP) was applied to 30 coastal lowland acid sulfate soils (CLASS) from north-eastern New South Wales, Australia. This enabled quantification of the proportion of aluminium present in 'water-soluble', 'exchangeable', 'organically-complexed', 'reducible iron(III) (oxyhydr)oxide/hydroxysulfate-incorporated' and 'amorphous Al mineral' fractions. The first three extractions represented an average of 5% of 'aqua regia' extractable Al and their cumulative concentrations were extremely high, reaching up to 4000 mg·kg(-1). Comparison of Al concentrations in the final two extractions indicated that 'amorphous Al minerals' are quantitatively a much more important sink for the removal of aqueous Al derived from the acidic weathering of these soils than reducible Fe(III) minerals. Correlations were observed between soil pH, dissolved and total organic carbon (DOC and TOC) and Al concentrations in organic carbon-rich CLASS soil horizons. These results suggest that complexation of Al by dissolved organic matter significantly increases soluble Al concentrations at pH values >5.0. As such, present land management practices would benefit with redefinition of an 'optimal' soil from pH ≥5.5 to ~4.8 for the preservation of aquatic environments adjacent to organic-rich CLASS where Al is the sole or principle inorganic contaminant of concern. Furthermore, it was observed that currently-accepted standard procedures (i.e. 1 M KCl extraction) to measure exchangeable Al concentrations in these types of soils severely underestimate exchangeable Al and a more accurate representation may be obtained through the use of 0.2 M CuCl2. PMID:24727041

  11. Methylsulfonylmethane and boswellic acids versus glucosamine sulfate in the treatment of knee arthritis: Randomized trial.

    Notarnicola, Angela; Maccagnano, Giuseppe; Moretti, Lorenzo; Pesce, Vito; Tafuri, Silvio; Fiore, Alessandra; Moretti, Biagio

    2016-03-01

    Until now glucosamine sulfate (GS) has been the most widely used supplement and has been shown to be efficacious in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) and boswellic acids (BA) are new effective supplements for the management of inflammation and joint degeneration, according to previous experimental studies. The aim of our study is to test the effectiveness of association of MSM and BA in comparison with GS in knee arthritis.In this prospective randomized clinical trial, MEBAGA (Methylsulfonylmethane and Boswellic Acids versus Glucosamine sulfate in the treatment of knee Arthritis), 120 participants affected by arthritis of the knee were randomly assigned to an experimental group (MB group) or a control group (GS group) treated for 60 days with 5 g of MSM and 7.2 mg of BA or with 1500 mg of GS daily, respectively. At the 2-month (T1) and 6-months (T2) follow-up , the efficacy of these two nutraceuticals was assessed using the visual analog pain scale (VAS) and the Lequesne Index (LI) for joint function, along with the use of anti-inflammatory drugs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and anti-cyclooxygenase-2).The repeated measures ANOVA analysis shows that for VAS, LI, and the use of anti-inflammatory drugs scores there are improvements due to the time in the two groups (respectively, F=26.0; P<0.0001; F=4.15; P=0.02; F=3.38; P=0.04), with a tendency to better values for the MB group at T2.On the basis of these preliminary data, we could support the efficacy of the MSM in association with BA in the treatment of OA. These results are consistent with the anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective effects previously occurred in experimental studies. This new combination of integration (MSM and BS) has presented good results and satisfactory in comparison with GS, until now the cornerstone of the treatment of arthritis in according to guidelines. PMID:26684635

  12. Assignment of hexuronic acid stereochemistry in synthetic heparan sulfate tetrasaccharides with 2-O-sulfo uronic acids using electron detachment dissociation

    Agyekum, Isaac; Patel, Anish B.; Zong, Chengli; Boons, Geert Jan; Amster, I. Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The present work focuses on the assignment of uronic acid stereochemistry in heparan sulfate (HS) oligomers. The structural elucidation of HS glycosaminoglycans is the subject of considerable importance due to the biological and biomedical significance of this class of carbohydrates. They are highly

  13. Characterization of specific membrane fatty acids as chemotaxonomic markers for sulfate-reducing bacteria involved in anaerobic oxidation of methane

    Elvert, M.; Boetius, A.; Knittel, K.; Jørgensen, BB

    2003-01-01

    Membrane fatty acids were extracted from a sediment core above marine gas hydrates at Hydrate Ridge, NE Pacific. Anaerobic sediments from this environment are characterized by high sulfate reduction rates driven by the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). The assimilation of methane carbon into...... bacterial biomass is indicated by carbon isotope values of specific fatty acids as low as -103parts per thousand. Specific fatty acids released from bacterial membranes include C(16:1omega5c) , C(17:1omega6c) , and cyC(17:0omega5,6) , all of which have been fully characterized by mass spectrometry. These...

  14. Experimental and theoretical enthalpies of formation of glycine-based sulfate/bisulfate amino acid ionic liquids.

    Zhu, Jing-Fang; He, Ling; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Ming; Tao, Guo-Hong

    2012-01-12

    The experimental and theoretical enthalpies of formation of several structural-similar glycine-based sulfate/bisulfate amino acid ionic liquids including glycine sulfate (Gly(2)SO(4), 1), glycine bisulfate (GlyHSO(4), 2), N,N-dimethylglycine sulfate ([DMGly](2)SO(4), 3), N,N-dimethylglycine bisulfate ([DMGly]HSO(4), 4), N,N-dimethylglycine methyl ester sulfate ([DMGlyC(1)](2)SO(4), 5), N,N-dimethylglycine methyl ester bisulfate ([DMGlyC(1)]HSO(4), 6), N,N,N-trimethylglycine methyl ester sulfate ([TMGlyC(1)](2)SO(4), 7), and N,N,N-trimethylglycine methyl ester bisulfate ([TMGlyC(1)]HSO(4), 8) were studied. Their experimental enthalpies of formation were obtained from the corresponding energies of combustion determined by the bomb calorimetry method. The enthalpies of formation of these amino acid ionic liquids are in the range from -1406 kJ mol(-1) to -1128 kJ mol(-1). Systematic theoretical study on these amino acid ionic liquids were performed by quantum chemistry calculation using the Gaussian03 suite of programs. The geometric optimization and the frequency analyses are carried out using the B3LYP method with the 6-31+G** basis set. Their calculated enthalpies of formation were derived from the single point energies carried out with the HF/6-31+G**, B3LYP/6-31+G**, B3LYP/6-311++G**, and MP2/6-311++G** level of theory, respectively. The relevance of experimental and calculated enthalpies of formation was studied. The calculated enthalpies of formation are in good agreement with their experimental data in less than 3% error. PMID:22148242

  15. Comparison of chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic Acid doped conductive polypyrrole films for adipose stem cells.

    Björninen, Miina; Siljander, Aliisa; Pelto, Jani; Hyttinen, Jari; Kellomäki, Minna; Miettinen, Susanna; Seppänen, Riitta; Haimi, Suvi

    2014-09-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy) is a conductive polymer that has aroused interest due to its biocompatibility with several cell types and high tailorability as an electroconductive scaffold coating. This study compares the effect of hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) doped PPy films on human adipose stem cells (hASCs) under electrical stimulation. The PPy films were synthetized electrochemically. The surface morphology of PPy-HA and PPy-CS was characterized by an atomic force microscope. A pulsed biphasic electric current (BEC) was applied via PPy films non-stimulated samples acting as controls. Viability, attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hASCs were evaluated by live/dead staining, DNA content, Alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization assays. Human ASCs grew as a homogenous cell sheet on PPy-CS surfaces, whereas on PPy-HA cells clustered into small spherical structures. PPy-CS supported hASC proliferation significantly better than PPy-HA at the 7 day time point. Both substrates equally triggered early osteogenic differentiation of hASCs, although mineralization was significantly induced on PPy-CS compared to PPy-HA under BEC. These differences may be due to different surface morphologies originating from the CS and HA dopants. Our results suggest that PPy-CS in particular is a potential osteogenic scaffold coating for bone tissue engineering. PMID:24823653

  16. A sulfated polysaccharide, fucoidan, enhances the immunomodulatory effects of lactic acid bacteria.

    Kawashima, Tadaomi; Murakami, Katsura; Nishimura, Ikuko; Nakano, Takahisa; Obata, Akio

    2012-03-01

    Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide contained in brown algae, has a variety of immunomodulatory effects, including antitumor and antiviral effects. On the other hand, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) also have immunomodulatory effects such as anti-allergic effects. In this study, we demonstrated that fucoidan enhances the probiotic effects of LAB on immune functions. By using Peyer's patch cells and spleen cells in vitro, fucoidan amplified interferon (IFN)-γ production in response to a strain of LAB, Tetragenococcus halophilus KK221, and this activity was abolished by desulfation of fucoidan. Moreover, this IFN-γ response was abolished by interleukin (IL)-12 neutralization. These results indicate that fucoidan enhanced IL-12 production in response to KK221, resulting in promoting IFN-γ production. In an in vivo study, Th1/Th2 immunobalance was most improved by oral administration of both fucoidan and KK221 to ovalbumin-immunized mice. These findings suggest that fucoidan can enhance a variety of beneficial effects of LAB on immune functions. PMID:22160132

  17. Tough and elastic hydrogel of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate as potential cell scaffold materials.

    Ni, Yilu; Tang, Zhurong; Cao, Wanxu; Lin, Hai; Fan, Yujiang; Guo, Likun; Zhang, Xingdong

    2015-03-01

    Natural polysaccharides are extensively investigated as cell scaffold materials for cellular adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation due to their excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability, and biofunctions. However, their application is often severely limited by their mechanical behavior. In this study, a tough and elastic hydrogel scaffold was prepared with hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS). HA and CS were conjugated with tyramine (TA) and the degree of substitution (DS) was 10.7% and 11.3%, respectively, as calculated by (1)H NMR spectra. The hydrogel was prepared by mixing HA-TA and CS-TA in presence of H2O2 and HRP. The sectional morphology of hydrogels was observed by SEM, static and dynamic mechanical properties were analyzed by Shimadzu electromechanical testing machine and dynamic mechanical thermal analyzer Q800. All samples showed good ability to recover their appearances after deformation, the storage modulus (E') of hydrogels became higher as the testing frequency went up. Hydrogels also showed fatigue resistance to cyclic compression. Mesenchymal stem cells encapsulated in hydrogels showed good cell viability as detected by CLSM. This study suggests that the hydrogels have both good mechanical properties and biocompatibility, and may serve as model systems to explore mechanisms of deformation and energy dissipation or find some applications in tissue engineering. PMID:25445680

  18. Effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate on folding and thermal stability of acid-denatured cytochrome c: A spectroscopic approach

    Xu, Qi; Keiderling, Timothy A

    2004-01-01

    The molten globule (MG) state can be an intermediate in the protein folding pathway; thus, its detailed description can help understanding protein folding. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), an anionic surfactant that is commonly used to mimic hydrophobic binding environments such as cell membranes, is known to denature some native state proteins, including horse cytochrome c (cyt c). In this article, refolding of acid denatured cyt c is studied under the influence of SDS to form MG-like states at...

  19. Biocompatibility Assessment of Novel Collagen-Sericin Scaffolds Improved with Hyaluronic Acid and Chondroitin Sulfate for Cartilage Regeneration

    Sorina Dinescu; Bianca Gălăţeanu; Mădălina Albu; Adriana Lungu; Eugen Radu; Anca Hermenean; Marieta Costache

    2013-01-01

    Cartilage tissue engineering (CTE) applications are focused towards the use of implantable biohybrids consisting of biodegradable scaffolds combined with in vitro cultured cells. Hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) were identified as the most potent prochondrogenic factors used to design new biomaterials for CTE, while human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) were proved to display high chondrogenic potential. In this context, our aim was not only to build novel 3D porous scaffol...

  20. Gaseous Nitrogen Losses from Coastal Acid Sulfate Soils:A Short-Term Study

    B. C. T. MACDONALD; O. T. DENMEAD; I.WHITE; G. BYRANT

    2011-01-01

    NOx and N2O emissions from coastal acid sulfate soils (CASS) cultivated for sugarcane production were investigated on the coastal lowlands of northern New South Wales, Australia. Two series of short-term measurements were made using chambers and micrometeorological techniques. Series 1 occurred during the wet season, the water-filled pore space (WFPS) was between 60%-80% and the site flooded during the measurements. Measurements were made directly after the harvest of soybean crop, which fixed an estimated 100 kg N ha-1, and the emission amounted to 3.2 kg NOx-N ha-1 (12 d) and 1.8 kg N2O-N ha-1 (5 d). Series 2 was made towards the end of the dry season when the WFPS was less than 60%. In Series 2, after an application of 50 kg N ha-1, emissions were markedly less, amounting to 0.9 kg N ha-1 over 10 d. During both series when the soil was moist, emissions of NOx were larger than those of N2O. The emission of NOx appeared to be haphazard, with little time dependence, but there was a clear diurnal cycle for N2O, emphasising the need for continuous measurement procedures for both gases. Theseresults suggest that agricultural production on CASS could be important sources of greenhouse gases and nitrogen practices will need to be optimised to reduce the offsite effects of atmospheric warming, acidification or nitrification. Many questions still remain unanswered such as the emissions during the soybean bean filling stage and crop residue decomposition, the longer-term losses following the fertiliser application and emissions from CASS under different land uses.

  1. FROM GENE TO STRUCTURE: Formation of Iduronic Acid in Dermatan Sulfate by Two DS-epimerases

    Pacheco, Benny

    2008-01-01

    During embryonic development and adult life a wide range of cell behaviors such as differentiation, proliferation and migration are in effect to maintain tissue integrity and function. An integral part of these dynamic processes is the interplay between the cells and their environment, i.e. the extracellular space. Complex polysaccharides, such as dermatan sulfate play a key role in these processes. Dermatan sulfate is a long linear polysaccharide of a repeating disaccharide unit consisti...

  2. Metal and acidity fluxes controlled by precipitation/dissolution cycles of sulfate salts in an anthropogenic mine aquifer

    Cánovas, C. R.; Macías, F.; Pérez-López, R.

    2016-05-01

    Underground mine drainages are extremely difficult to study due to the lack of information about the flow path and source proximity in relation to the outflow adit. Geochemical processes controlling metals and acidity fluxes in a complex anthropogenic mine aquifer in SW Spain during the dry and rainy season were investigated by geochemical and statistical tools. High concentrations of acidity, sulfate, metals and metalloids (e.g. Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Ni, Co) were observed due to intense sulfide oxidation processes. The high residence time inside the anthropogenic aquifer, around 40 days, caused the release of significant quantities of metals linked to host rocks (e.g. Al, Ca, Ge, Li, Mg, REE). The most outstanding characteristic of the acid mine drainage (AMD) outflows is the existence of higher Fe/SO4 molar ratios than those theoretical of pyrite (0.50) during most of the monitored period, due to a fire which occurred in 1949 and remained active for decades. Permanent and temporal retention mechanisms of acidity and metals were observed in the galleries. Once released from sulfide oxidation, Pb and As are sorbed on Fe oxyhydroxysulfate or precipitated as low solubility minerals (i.e. anglesite) inside the galleries. The precipitation of evaporitic sulfate salts during the dry season and the subsequent re-dissolution after rainfall control the fluxes of acidity and main metals (i.e. Fe, Mg, Al) from this anthropogenic aquifer. Some elements, such as Cd, Cu, Ni, REE and Zn, are retained in highly soluble sulfate salts while other elements, such as Ge, Pb and Sc, have a lower response to washout processes due to its incorporation in less soluble sulfate salts. In this way, metal concentration during the washout processes would be controlled by the proportion and solubility of each type of evaporitic sulfate salt stored during the dry season. The recovery of metals of economic interest contained in the AMD could help to self-finance the remediation of these waters in

  3. The geochemistry during management of lake acidification caused by the rewetting of sulfuric (pH < 4) acid sulfate soils

    Highlights: • The dynamic geochemistry of a lake acidification event and its management was assessed. • Sulfate complexes dominated the aqueous metal speciation at low pH. • Iron oxydroxysulfate minerals (schwertmannite, jarosite) were identified. • Aerial additions of limestone to the acidic water slowly returned the pH to near neutral. • Coating of the limestone with gypsum and metal precipitates limited its neutralisation efficiency. - Abstract: Understanding the geochemistry and kinetics of acidification events arising from acid sulfate soils is important to enable effective management and risk assessment. Large-scale exposure and oxidation of acid sulfate soils occurred during a drought in the Lower Lakes (Murray–Darling Basin) of South Australia. We examined the geochemical changes that occurred in one region (Boggy Lake) that experienced surface water acidification and was subsequently neutralised via aerial limestone (CaCO3) dosing and dilution via natural lake refill. Very low pH (< 3) and high concentrations (≈10–1000 mg/L Fe, Al, Mn) of dissolved metals were initially found in surface water. The water chemistry exhibited pH-dependent enhancement of constituents typically associated with acid sulfate soils (SO4, Al and Fe). Geochemical speciation calculations indicated that most (60–80%) of the acidity was present as dissolved metal-sulfate complexes at low pH. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses showed that the orange-brown precipitates present after an initial limestone dosing were secondary oxyhydroxysulfate minerals (schwertmannite, jarosite). Further limestone dosing resulted in neutralisation of the pH, reduction in dissolved metal concentrations, dissolution of jarosite and schwertmannite precipitates, and formation of other metal oxyhydroxide phases. The results were consistent with a pE-pH diagram constructed for metal-sulfur geochemistry. Assessment of the measured and simulated (using PHREEQC) pH and Ca/Cl ratio during limestone

  4. Bile salts of the West Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris: novel bile alcohol sulfates and absence of bile acids.

    Kuroki, S; Schteingart, C D; Hagey, L R; Cohen, B I; Mosbach, E H; Rossi, S S; Hofmann, A F; Matoba, N; Une, M; Hoshita, T

    1988-04-01

    The bile salts present in gallbladder bile of the West Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris, an herbivorous marine mammal of the tropical and subtropical margins of the Atlantic Ocean, were found to consist of a mixture of bile alcohol sulfates. Bile acids, previously believed to be present in all mammals, were not detected. Using chromatography, mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, the major bile alcohol was identified as 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,6 beta,7 alpha-25,26-pentol; that is, it had the nuclear structure of alpha-muricholic acid and the side chain structure of bufol. This compound has not been described previously and the trivial name "alpha-trichechol" is proposed. The second most abundant compound was 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,7 alpha,25,26-tetrol. Other bile alcohols were tentatively identified as 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,6 beta,7 beta,25,26-pentol (named beta-trichechol), 3 alpha,6 alpha,7 beta, 25-26-pentol (named omega-trichechol) and 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,6 beta,7 alpha,26-tetrol. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra of the four 6,7 epimers of 3,6,7 trihydroxy bile acids are described and discussed. All bile alcohols were present as ester sulfates, the sulfate group being tentatively assigned to the 26-hydroxy group. 12-Hydroxy compounds were not detected. The manatee is the first mammal found to lack bile acids, presumably because it lacks the enzymes required for oxidation of the 26-hydroxy group to a carboxylic acid. Trichechols, like other bile salts, are water-soluble end products of cholesterol metabolism; whether they also function as biological surfactants in promoting biliary cholesterol secretion or lipid digestion is unknown. PMID:3392467

  5. Thermal stability and surface acidity of mesoporous silica doubly doped by incorporation of sulfate and zirconium ions

    A sulfated Si-Zr-MCM-41 solid with highly ordered mesostructure was synthesized through a templated synthesis route where the CTAB surfactant was used as template. During the synthesis procedure, various amounts of (NH4)2SO4 were added into the mixed solution of Zr and Si precursors to in situ sulfate the MCM-41 solids, aiming to enhance the acidity and thermal stability. The resultant materials showed a long-range ordered hexagonal arrangement with high surface area larger than 797 m2/g and an average pore size distributed at approximate 2.5-2.8 nm. The high-resolution TEM observations confirmed that the order of the mesostructure gained when the molar ratio of SO42-/(ZrO2 + SiO2) increased from 0.1 to 0.3 but decreased as it reached 0.5, which is consistent with the results of 29Si MAS-NMR and XRD analysis. Compared to Si-MCM-41, the (Q2 + Q3)/Q4 ratio derived from the NMR spectra of the Zr-doped sample was higher, indicating that zirconium atoms were incorporated into the silica framework. Unexpectedly, in situ sulfation does not enhance the surface Broensted acidity, most likely due to the sulfur retained within the bulk of the materials; however, it indeed improved the thermal stability of the solid and long-range order of the structure

  6. Partition of Chiral pharmaceutical intermediate R(-)-Mandelic Acid in Aqueous Two-Phase System of Poly(ethylene glycol)-Ammonium Sulfate

    Xu Xiaoping; Li Zhongqin; Chen Jiebo; Huang Xinghua

    2004-01-01

    An aqueous two-phase system of poly (ethylene glycol)-ammonium sulfate was employed to separate R (-)-mandelic acid.The result showed that R (-)-mandelic acid has priority to partition in PEG-rich top phase. This indicated that aqueous two-phase is a very suitable system for separation of R(-)-mandelic acid.

  7. Ruthenium sulfate complexes forming during electrochemical dissolution of Ni-Fe-Ru alloys in sulfuric acid solutions

    Ruthenium sulfate complexes, prepared by anodic dissolution of Ni-Fe-Ru alloys in sulfuric acid solutions, have been studied. Ruthenium oxidation states in the complexes, their charge, dimensions, are determined, and Fe effect on the formation of different forms of complexes is clarified. Using the method of gel-chromatography, it is established, that at the anode potential >= 1w0 V ruthenium transfers into solution in the form of several neutral and anion complex forms of Ru(4): grey-violet polymeric ones (dimensions 1.6-2.3 nm), presumably containing the groupings (Rusub(n)(OH)sub(2(n-1))) or [Rusub(n)Osub(2(n-1))], where n>=3, red dimeric ones, containing (RuO)2, mixture of monomeric browngrey sulfate complexes with the grouping RuO. Fe hinders the formation of Ru complex polymeric forms

  8. BIOREMEDIATION FOR ACID MINE DRAINAGE: ORGANIC SOLID WASTE AS CARBON SOURCES FOR SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA: A REVIEW

    I. N. Jamil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological sulfate reduction has been slowly replacing chemical unit processes to treat acid mine drainage (AMD. Bioremediations for AMD treatment are favored due to their low capital and maintenance cost. This paper describes the available AMD treatment, current SRB commercialization such as THIOPAQ® and BioSulphide® technologies, and also the factors and limitations faced. THIOPAQ® and BioSulphide® technologies use expensive carbon sources such as hydrogen as the electron donor. This paper discusses the possibility of organic solid waste as an alternative substrate as it is cheaper and abundant. A possible AMD treatment system setup was also proposed to test the efficiency of sulfate-reducing bacteria utilizing organic solid substrate.

  9. Visible-near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy of volcanic acid-sulfate alteration in Nicaragua: Analogs for early Mars

    Marcucci, Emma C.; Hynek, Brian M.; Kierein-Young, Kathryn S.; Rogers, K. L.

    2013-10-01

    Acid-sulfate weathering at Nicaraguan hydrothermal sites Cerro Negro, Momotombo, and Telica volcanoes and Hervidores de San Jacinto mudpots was characterized as an analog for similar processes that likely operated on early Mars. In situ mineralogical analyses were conducted with a field portable visible near-infrared spectrometer for comparison to similar Martian data sets. Three classes of alteration minerals were identified: sulfates (gypsum and natroalunite), oxides/hydroxides (hematite and goethite), and phyllosilicates (kaolinite/halloysite, montmorillonite, and saponite), as well as elemental sulfur and hydrated silica phases. Our sites had similar suites of minerals, but frequencies varied with location. The results of this field campaign allow inferences regarding the paleo-environmental conditions that were likely present at similar relic hydrothermal sites identified on Mars. In particular, sulfates and phyllosilicates could have coevolved under hydrothermal conditions at Noctis Labyrinthus as is seen in Nicaragua. Fe/Mg smectites were detected in areas with pH of 3-4. Alunite spectra at Terra Sirenum demonstrated mineral mixing effects on spectroscopy. Mineral mixing can cause uncertainties in spectral identification due to a dominant spectrum, such as iron minerals, masking another or the suppression of weaker bands. When viewed from orbit, our field sites would likely be dominated by hydrated silica and Mars sites, such as one in Syrtis Major, could have a more diverse mineralogy than the data reveal. Concentrated amorphous silica, such as at Gusev crater, can result from acidic fumarolic activity, while Mg sulfates may indicate a lack of reworking by water. This field spectroscopy study helps confirm and provide insight into hydrothermal processes on ancient Mars.

  10. Acidic gases and nitrate and sulfate particles in the atmosphere in the city of Guadalajara, México.

    Saldarriaga-Noreña, Hugo; Waliszewski, Stefan; Murillo-Tovar, Mario; Hernández-Mena, Leonel; de la Garza-Rodríguez, Iliana; Colunga-Urbina, Edith; Cuevas-Ordaz, Rosalva

    2012-05-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of nitrous acid, nitric acid, nitrate and sulfate particles were obtained in this study from April to June 2008 in the center of the city of Guadalajara, while concentrations of ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and meteorological parameters (temperature and relative humidity), were acquired by the Secretaría del Medio Ambiente para el Desarrollo Sustentable del Estado de Jalisco (SEMADES). The results showed that nitric acid (2.7 μg m(-3)) was 2.7 times higher than nitrous acid (1.0 μg m(-3)). The sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) concentration indicated an opposite trend to sulfate (SO(4) (2-)), with the average concentration of SO(2) (6.9 μg m(-3)) higher in almost the entire period of study. The sulfur conversion ratio (Fs, 24.9%) and nitrogen conversion ratio (Fn, 6.2%), were revealed to be similar to that reported in other urban areas during warm seasons. It is also noted that ozone is not the main oxidizer of nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide. This determination was made by taking into account the slightly positively correlation determined for Fn (r(2) = 0.084) and Fs (r(2) = 0.092) with ozone that perhaps suggests there are other oxidizing species such as the radical OH, which are playing an important role in the processes of atmospheric oxidation in this area. PMID:22358115

  11. The synthesis of taurine-conjugated bile acids and bile acid sulfates labeled with 14C or 3H in the taurine moiety

    Studies of bile acid transport systems require radio-labeled taurine-conjugated bile acids with high specific activity. An established procedure was optimized to provide mild, fast, and effective conjugation of radio-labeled taurine with different types of bile acids, including those with labile 7α-hydroxy-3-oxo-Δ4 or 3β, 7α-dihydroxy-Δ5 structures. Taurine labeled with 14C or 3H was reacted with excess bile acid anhydride formed from the tributylamine salt and ethylchloroformate (2/1 M/M) in aqueous dioxane for 15 min at room temperature. The yields were higher than 95% and less than 2% side products were formed. Bile acid sulfates were conjugated with 14C- or 3H-labeled taurine by using N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline as the coupling reagent. The products were effectively purified by chromatography of the sodium salts on Sephadex LH-20. The yields of taurine-conjugated bile acid sulfates were 65-70%. (author)

  12. Differentiating chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans using collision-induced dissociation; uronic acid cross-ring diagnostic fragments in a single stage of tandem mass spectrometry.

    Kailemia, Muchena J; Patel, Anish B; Johnson, Dane T; Li, Lingyun; Linhardt, Robert J; Amster, I Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The stereochemistry of the hexuronic acid residues of the structure of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) is a key feature that affects their interactions with proteins and other biological functions. Electron based tandem mass spectrometry methods, in particular electron detachment dissociation (EDD), have been able to distinguish glucuronic acid (GlcA) from iduronic acid (IdoA) residues in some heparan sulfate tetrasaccharides by producing epimer-specific fragments. Similarly, the relative abundance of glycosidic fragment ions produced by collision-induced dissociation (CID) or EDD has been shown to correlate with the type of hexuronic acid present in chondroitin sulfate GAGs. The present work examines the effect of charge state and degree of sodium cationization on the CID fragmentation products that can be used to distinguish GlcA and IdoA containing chondroitin sulfate A and dermatan sulfate chains. The cross-ring fragments (2,4)A(n) and (0,2)X(n) formed within the hexuronic acid residues are highly preferential for chains containing GlcA, distinguishing it from IdoA. The diagnostic capability of the fragments requires the selection of a molecular ion and fragment ions with specific ionization characteristics, namely charge state and number of ionizable protons. The ions with the appropriate characteristics display diagnostic properties for all the chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate chains (degree of polymerization of 4-10) studied. PMID:26307707

  13. Ion-exchange equilibria of tungsten in the ionite-sodium sulfate sulfuric acid solution system

    Ion-exchange equilibrium in the system macroporous ionite-Na2WO4-Na2SO4-H2O(H2SO4) are studied by the methods of IR- and absorption spectroscopy, electron microscopy and mercury porometry to develop methods for tungsten selective extraction from solutions mentioned. It is ascertained that amine-containing macroporous anionites features a high exchange capacity towards tungsten ions in sulfate solutions at pH 2.5-5.5. The anionites permit a complete separation of tungsten ions from sulfate ions and preparation of pure tungsten salts

  14. Preparation and Catalytic Application of Novel Water Tolerant Solid Acid Catalysts of Zirconium Sulfate/HZSM-5

    JIANG Ya-jie; JUAN Joon Ching; MENG Xiu-juan; CAO Wei-liang; YARMO Mohd Ambar; ZHANG Jing-chang

    2007-01-01

    Esterification of acrylic acid(AA) to produce AA esters has widespread application in the chemical industry. A series of water tolerant solid acid catalysts was prepared, and characterized by XRD, nitrogen adsorption, TGA-DTA, XPS, and ammonia adsorption FTIR. The effects of Si/Al ratio, zirconium sulfate(ZS) loading on HZSM-5 and calcination temperature on the esterification were investigated. When 20%(mass fraction) ZS is loaded on HZSM-5, the conversion of AA reaches 100%. XRD analysis indicates that ZS is highly dispersed on HZSM-5 because no crystalline structure assigned to ZS is found. Catalytic activity and hydrophobicity of ZS supported on HZSM-5 are higher compared with those of parent ZS or HZSM-5. Results show that this kind of novel catalysts is an efficient water tolerant solid acid catalyst for esterification reactions.

  15. Long term response of acid-sensitive Vermont Lakes to sulfate deposition

    Atmospheric deposition of sulfur can negatively affect the health of lakes and streams, particularly in poorly buffered catchments. In response to the Clean Air Act Amendments, wet deposition of sulfate decreased more than 35% in Vermont between 1990 and 2008. However, most of ...

  16. MICROBIAL SULFATE REDUCTION AND METAL ATTENUATION IN PH 4 ACID MINE WATER

    Sediments recovered from the flooded mine workings of the Penn Mine, a Cu-Zn mine abandoned since the early 1960s, were cultured for anaerobic bacteria over a range of pH (4 to 7.5). The molecular biology of sediments and cultures was studied to determine whether sulfate-reducing...

  17. Molecular Basis of the Receptor Interactions of Polysialic Acid (polySia), polySia Mimetics, and Sulfated Polysaccharides.

    Zhang, Ruiyan; Loers, Gabriele; Schachner, Melitta; Boelens, Rolf; Wienk, Hans; Siebert, Simone; Eckert, Thomas; Kraan, Stefan; Rojas-Macias, Miguel A; Lütteke, Thomas; Galuska, Sebastian P; Scheidig, Axel; Petridis, Athanasios K; Liang, Songping; Billeter, Martin; Schauer, Roland; Steinmeyer, Jürgen; Schröder, Jens-Michael; Siebert, Hans-Christian

    2016-05-01

    Polysialic acid (polySia) and polySia glycomimetic molecules support nerve cell regeneration, differentiation, and neuronal plasticity. With a combination of biophysical and biochemical methods, as well as data mining and molecular modeling techniques, it is possible to correlate specific ligand-receptor interactions with biochemical processes and in vivo studies that focus on the potential therapeutic impact of polySia, polySia glycomimetics, and sulfated polysaccharides in neuronal diseases. With this strategy, the receptor interactions of polySia and polySia mimetics can be understood on a submolecular level. As the HNK-1 glycan also enhances neuronal functions, we tested whether similar sulfated oligo- and polysaccharides from seaweed could be suitable, in addition to polySia, for finding potential new routes into patient care focusing on an improved cure for various neuronal diseases. The knowledge obtained here on the structural interplay between polySia or sulfated polysaccharides and their receptors can be exploited to develop new drugs and application routes for the treatment of neurological diseases and dysfunctions. PMID:27136597

  18. Liquid-liquid phase separation and morphology of internally mixed dicarboxylic acids/ammonium sulfate/water particles

    Song, M.; Marcolli, C.; U. K. Krieger; A. Zuend; Peter, T

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the physical state and morphology of internally mixed organic/inorganic aerosol particles is still largely uncertain. To obtain more detailed information on liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) and morphology of the particles, we investigated complex mixtures of atmospherically relevant dicarboxylic acids containing 5–7 carbon atoms (C5, C6 and C7) having oxygen-to-carbon atomic ratios (O:C) of 0.80, 0.67, and 0.57, respectively, mixed with ammonium sulfate (AS). With mi...

  19. Effect of abietic acid addition on anodic dissolution of zinc- cadmium- and thallium amalgams in sodium sulfate solution

    The method of inversion voltametry with a stationary mercury drop electrode has been applied to investigate the effect of abietic acid (AA) on anodic oxidation of cadmium, zinc, thallium from their amalgams as well as from mixed cadmium-thallium and zinc-thallium amalgams against the background of 0.5 M sodium sulfate at 298 K. Constants of peak of analgam anodic oxidation in the background solution and with additions of different AA concentrations are calculated. It is established that AA has the inhibiting effect on the processes of oxidation of cadmium- and zinc amalgams and does not produce the inhibiting effect on the oxidation of thallium amalgam

  20. Quantifying heavy metals sequestration by sulfate-reducing bacteria in an acid mine drainage-contaminated wetland

    JohnWMoreau

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation strategies that depend on bacterial sulfate reduction for heavy metals remediation harness the reactivity of these metals with biogenic aqueous sulfide. Quantitative knowledge of the degree to which specific toxic metals are partitioned into various sulfide, oxide, or other phases is important for predicting the long-term mobility of these metals under environmental conditions. Here we report the quantitative partitioning into sedimentary biogenic sulfides of a suite of metals and metalloids associated with acid mine drainage contamination of a natural estuarine wetland for over a century.

  1. Biochar Application in Malaysian Sandy and Acid Sulfate Soils: Soil Amelioration Effects and Improved Crop Production over Two Cropping Seasons

    Theeba Manickam; Gerard Cornelissen; Robert T. Bachmann; Illani Z. Ibrahim; Jan Mulder; Hale, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    The use of biochar as an agricultural soil improvement was tested in acid sulfate and sandy soils from Malaysia, cropped with rice and corn. Malaysia has an abundance of waste rice husks that could be used to produce biochar. Rice husk biochar was produced in a gasifier at a local mill in Kelantan as well as in the laboratory using a controlled, specially designed, top lift up draft system (Belonio unit). Rice husk biochar was applied once to both soils at two doses (2% and 5%), in a pot set ...

  2. Solid and liquid media for isolating and cultivating acidophilic and acid-tolerant sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    Ňancucheo, Ivan; Rowe, Owen F; Hedrich, Sabrina; Johnson, D Barrie

    2016-05-01

    Growth media have been developed to facilitate the enrichment and isolation of acidophilic and acid-tolerant sulfate-reducing bacteria (aSRB) from environmental and industrial samples, and to allow their cultivation in vitro The main features of the 'standard' solid and liquid devised media are as follows: (i) use of glycerol rather than an aliphatic acid as electron donor; (ii) inclusion of stoichiometric concentrations of zinc ions to both buffer pH and to convert potentially harmful hydrogen sulphide produced by the aSRB to insoluble zinc sulphide; (iii) inclusion of Acidocella aromatica (an heterotrophic acidophile that does not metabolize glycerol or yeast extract) in the gel underlayer of double layered (overlay) solid media, to remove acetic acid produced by aSRB that incompletely oxidize glycerol and also aliphatic acids (mostly pyruvic) released by acid hydrolysis of the gelling agent used (agarose). Colonies of aSRB are readily distinguished from those of other anaerobes due to their deposition and accumulation of metal sulphide precipitates. Data presented illustrate the effectiveness of the overlay solid media described for isolating aSRB from acidic anaerobic sediments and low pH sulfidogenic bioreactors. PMID:27036143

  3. Effects of particle size and acid addition on the remediation of chromite ore processing residue using ferrous sulfate.

    Jagupilla, Santhi Chandra; Moon, Deok Hyun; Wazne, Mahmoud; Christodoulatos, Christos; Kim, Min Gyu

    2009-08-30

    A bench-scale treatability study was conducted to assess the effects of particle size and acid addition on the remediation of chromite ore processing residue (COPR) using ferrous sulfate. The remediation scheme entailed the chemical reduction of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] and the mitigation of swell potential. Leaching tests and the EQ3/6 geochemical model were used to estimate the acid dosage required to destabilize Cr(VI)-bearing and swell-causing minerals. The model predicted greater acid dosage than that estimated from the batch leaching tests. This indicated that mass transfer limitation may be playing a significant role in impeding the dissolution of COPR minerals following acid addition and hence hindering the remediation of COPR. Cr(VI) concentrations determined by alkaline digestion for the treated samples were less than the current NJDEP standard. However, Cr(VI) concentrations measured by X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) were greater than those measured by alkaline digestion. Greater Cr(VI) percentages were reduced for acid pretreated and also for smaller particle size COPR samples. Upon treatment, brownmillerite content was greatly reduced for the acid pretreated samples. Conversely, ettringite, a swell-causing mineral, was not observed in the treated COPR. PMID:19272700

  4. Anode oxidation of cadmium in acid and that of zinc in neutral sulfate solutions

    By the method of anode polarization curves on rotary disc electrode there have been studied kinetics and mechanism of zinc and cadmium dissolution in 0.1-2.0 N sulfate solutions. There have been determined exchange currents of the first and second stages of ionization and transfer coefficients. Cadmium anode dissolution takes place in sequent single-electron stages with diffusion stage of reaction being superimposed

  5. Biochar Application in Malaysian Sandy and Acid Sulfate Soils: Soil Amelioration Effects and Improved Crop Production over Two Cropping Seasons

    Theeba Manickam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of biochar as an agricultural soil improvement was tested in acid sulfate and sandy soils from Malaysia, cropped with rice and corn. Malaysia has an abundance of waste rice husks that could be used to produce biochar. Rice husk biochar was produced in a gasifier at a local mill in Kelantan as well as in the laboratory using a controlled, specially designed, top lift up draft system (Belonio unit. Rice husk biochar was applied once to both soils at two doses (2% and 5%, in a pot set up that was carried out for two cropping seasons. Positive and significant crop yield effects were observed for both soils, biochars and crops. The yield effects varied with biochar type and dosage, with soil type and over the cropping seasons. The yield increases observed for the sandy soil were tentatively attributed to significant increases in plant-available water contents (from 4%–5% to 7%–8%. The yield effects in the acid sulfate soil were likely a consequence of a combination of (i alleviation of plant root stress by aluminum (Ca/Al molar ratios significantly increased, from around 1 to 3–5 and (ii increases in CEC. The agricultural benefits of rice husk biochar application to Malaysian soils holds promise for its future use.

  6. 40 CFR 721.9595 - Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl sulfates, amine salts (generic).

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9595 Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...

  7. Carboxylic acids, sulfates, and organosulfates in processed continental organic aerosol over the southeast Pacific Ocean during VOCALS-REx 2008

    Hawkins, L. N.; Russell, L. M.; Covert, D. S.; Quinn, P. K.; Bates, T. S.

    2010-07-01

    Submicron particles were collected on board the NOAA R/V Ronald H. Brown during the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) in the southeast Pacific marine boundary layer in October and November 2008. The aerosol in this region was characterized by low numbers of particles (150-700 cm-3) that were dominated by sulfate ions at concentrations of 0.9 ± 0.7 μg m-3 and organic mass at 0.6 ± 0.4 μg m-3, with no measurable nitrate and low ammonium ion concentrations. Measurements of submicron organic aerosol functional groups and trace elements show that continental outflow of anthropogenic emissions is the dominant source of organic mass (OM) to the southeast Pacific with an additional, smaller contribution of organic mass from primary marine sources. This continental source is supported by a correlation between OM and radon. Saturated aliphatic C-CH (alkane) composed 41 ± 27% of OM. Carboxylic acid COOH (32 ± 23% of OM) was observed in single particles internally mixed with ketonic carbonyl, carbonate, and potassium. Organosulfate COSO3 (4 ± 8% of OM) was observed only during the periods of highest organic and sulfate concentrations and lowest ammonium concentrations, consistent with a sulfuric acid epoxide hydrolysis for proposed surrogate compounds (e.g., isoprene oxidation products) or reactive glyoxal uptake mechanisms from laboratory studies. This correlation suggests that in high-sulfate, low-ammonium conditions, the formation of organosulfate compounds in the atmosphere contributes a significant fraction of aerosol OM (up to 13% in continental air masses). Organic hydroxyl C-OH composed 20 ± 12% of OM and up to 50% of remote marine OM and was inversely correlated with radon indicating a marine source. A two-factor solution of positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis resulted in one factor dominated by organic hydroxyl (>70% by mass) and one factor dominated by saturated aliphatic C-CH (alkane) and carboxylic acid

  8. Chondroitin sulfate

    ... in combination with glucosamine sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor. Some people also inject chondroitin sulfate into the ... in combination with glucosamine sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor seems to reduce arthritis symptoms. However, any symptom ...

  9. Sulfate radical-induced degradation of Acid Orange 7 by a new magnetic composite catalyzed peroxymonosulfate oxidation process

    Chen, Dan; Ma, Xiaolong; Zhou, Jizhi [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, No. 99 Shangda Road, Shanghai 200444 (China); Chen, Xi [Department of Earth and Environmental Engineering, Columbia University, West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Qian, Guangren, E-mail: grqian@shu.edu.cn [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, No. 99 Shangda Road, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: Organic dyes could be absorbed on the surface of the composite or dispersed in the solution. Sulfate radicals (SO{sub 4}·{sup −}) generated by the synergistic reaction between peroxymonosulfate (PMS) and the composite, attacked the organic functional groups of the dyes molecules both adsorbed on the composite surface and dispersed in the solution, which resulted in the degradation of AO7 dye. - Highlights: • A new composite was synthesized successfully via microwave hydrothermal method. • The complete degradation in the system of FLCN and PMS can be achieved. • The catalytic behavior of FLCN can be reused at least for five times. • The AO7 degradation mechanism in the system of FLCN and PMS was demonstrated. - Abstract: We synthesized a novel magnetic composite, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Cu(Ni)Cr-LDH, as a heterogeneous catalyst for the degradation of organic dyes in the solution using sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation processes. The physicochemical properties of the composite synthesized via two-step microwave hydrothermal method were characterized by several techniques, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma (ICP), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The degradation tests were performed at 25 °C with Acid Orange 7 (AO7) initial concentration of 25 mg/L and AO7/peroxymonosulfate (PMS) molar ratio of 1:10, which showed that the complete degradation by Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Cu{sub 1.5}Ni{sub 0.5}Cr-LDH could be achieved and the mineralization rate could reach 46%. PMS was activated by Cu (II) and Fe (II/III) of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Cu(Ni)Cr-LDH to generate sulfate radicals (SO{sub 4}·{sup −}). Subsequently, the organic functional groups of AO7 molecules were destroyed by sulfate radicals (SO{sub 4}·{sup −}), inducing the degradation of AO7. Moreover, the catalytic behavior of the catalysts could be reused five times. Therefore, our work suggested that the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4

  10. Sulfate radical-induced degradation of Acid Orange 7 by a new magnetic composite catalyzed peroxymonosulfate oxidation process

    Graphical abstract: Organic dyes could be absorbed on the surface of the composite or dispersed in the solution. Sulfate radicals (SO4·−) generated by the synergistic reaction between peroxymonosulfate (PMS) and the composite, attacked the organic functional groups of the dyes molecules both adsorbed on the composite surface and dispersed in the solution, which resulted in the degradation of AO7 dye. - Highlights: • A new composite was synthesized successfully via microwave hydrothermal method. • The complete degradation in the system of FLCN and PMS can be achieved. • The catalytic behavior of FLCN can be reused at least for five times. • The AO7 degradation mechanism in the system of FLCN and PMS was demonstrated. - Abstract: We synthesized a novel magnetic composite, Fe3O4/Cu(Ni)Cr-LDH, as a heterogeneous catalyst for the degradation of organic dyes in the solution using sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation processes. The physicochemical properties of the composite synthesized via two-step microwave hydrothermal method were characterized by several techniques, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma (ICP), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The degradation tests were performed at 25 °C with Acid Orange 7 (AO7) initial concentration of 25 mg/L and AO7/peroxymonosulfate (PMS) molar ratio of 1:10, which showed that the complete degradation by Fe3O4/Cu1.5Ni0.5Cr-LDH could be achieved and the mineralization rate could reach 46%. PMS was activated by Cu (II) and Fe (II/III) of Fe3O4/Cu(Ni)Cr-LDH to generate sulfate radicals (SO4·−). Subsequently, the organic functional groups of AO7 molecules were destroyed by sulfate radicals (SO4·−), inducing the degradation of AO7. Moreover, the catalytic behavior of the catalysts could be reused five times. Therefore, our work suggested that the Fe3O4/Cu(Ni)Cr-LDH composite could be applied widely for the treatment of organic dyes in wastewater

  11. Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization of Acid-Sulfate Alteration of Basaltic Material on Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii: Jarosite and Hydrated Halloysite

    Graff, Trevor G.; Morris, R. V.; Archilles C. N.; Agresti, D. G.; Ming, D. W.; Hamilton, J. C.; Mertzman, S. A.; Smith, J.

    2012-01-01

    Sulfates have been identified on the martian surface during robotic surface exploration and by orbital remote sensing. Measurements at Meridiani Planum (MP) by the Alpha-Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) and Mossbauer (MB) instruments on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity document the presence of a ubiquitous sulfate-rich outcrop (20-40% SO3) that has jarosite as an anhydrous Fe3+-sulfate [1- 3]. The presence of jarosite implies a highly acidic (pH chemical manifestations of acid-sulfate alteration of basaltic compositions in terrestrial environments. We have previously shown that acidsulfate alteration of tephra under hydrothermal conditions on the Puu Poliahu cone (summit region of Mauna Kea volcano, Hawaii) resulted in jarosite and alunite as sulfate-bearing alteration products [11-14]. Other, more soluble, sulfates may have formed, but were leached away by rain and melting snow. Acidsulfate processes on Puu Poliahu also formed hematite spherules similar (except in size) to the hematite spherules observed at MP as an alteration product [14]. Phyllosilicates, usually smectite }minor kaolinite are also present as alteration products [13]. We discuss here an occurrence of acid-sulfate alteration on Mauna Kea Volcano (Hawaii). We report VNIR spectra (0.35-2.5 microns ASD spectrometer), Mossbauer spectra (MER-like ESPI backscatter spectrometer), powder XRD (PANalytical), and major element chemical compositions (XRF with LOI and Fe redox) for comparison to similar data acquired or to be acquired by MRO-CRISM and MEx OMEGA, MERMB, MSL-CheMin, and MER and MSL APXS, respectively.

  12. Fast and sensitive quantification of human liver cytosolic lithocholic acid sulfation using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Bansal, Sumit; Lau, Aik Jiang

    2016-02-01

    Detoxification of lithocholic acid (LCA) to lithocholic acid sulfate (LCA-S) is catalyzed by sulfotransferases, mainly SULT2A1. We developed and validated an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC-MS/MS) method to quantify human liver cytosolic-dependent LCA sulfation. Chromatographic separation was achieved on an UPLC C18 column (2.1×50mm, 1.7μm) and a gradient elution of 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile. Negative electrospray ionization with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was used to quantify LCA-S (455.3→97.0) and cholic acid (407.2→343.3; internal standard). The retention time was 3.51min for LCA-S and 3.08min for cholic acid. The lower limit of quantification of LCA-S was 0.5nM (or 0.23ng/ml in 400μl total volume) and the assay was linear from 0.2 to 200pmol. Intra-day and inter-day accuracy and precision were dithiothreitol) did not affect LCA-S formation. Human liver cytosolic LCA sulfation was linear with 20-100μg of cytosolic protein and 5-30min incubation time. This UPLC-MS/MS approach offers a specific, sensitive, fast, and direct approach for quantifying human liver cytosolic LCA sulfation. PMID:26773894

  13. The ceric sulfate dosimeter

    Bjergbakke, Erling

    The process employed for the determination of absorbed dose is the reduction of ceric ions to cerous ions in a solution of ceric sulfate and cerous sulfate in 0.8N sulfuric acid: Ce4+→Ce 3+ The absorbed dose is derived from the difference in ceric ion concentration before and after irradiation. The...

  14. Acidification and buffering mechanisms in acid sulfate soil wetlands of the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia.

    Glover, Fiona; Whitworth, Kerry L; Kappen, Peter; Baldwin, Darren S; Rees, Gavin N; Webb, John A; Silvester, Ewen

    2011-04-01

    The acid generation mechanisms and neutralizing capacities of sulfidic sediments from two inland wetlands have been studied in order to understand the response of these types of systems to drying events. The two systems show vastly different responses to oxidation, with one (Bottle Bend (BB) lagoon) having virtually no acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and the other (Psyche Bend (PB) lagoon) an ANC that is an order of magnitude greater than the acid generation potential. While BB strongly acidifies during oxidation the free acid generation is less than that expected from the measured proton production and consumption processes, with additional proton consumption attributed to the formation of an acid-anion (chloride) FeIII (oxyhydr)oxide product, similar to akaganéite (Fe(OH)2.7Cl0.3). While such products can partially attenuate the acidification of these systems, resilience to acidification is primarily imparted by sediment ANC. PMID:21375259

  15. Visualization of Two Phase Natural Convection Flow in a Vertical Pipe using the Sulfuric Acid - Copper Sulfate Electroplating System

    The passive containment cooling system (PCCS) driven by natural forces convection gain draws research interests after Fukushima NPP accident. The PCCS was classified into three categories: Containment pressure suppression, Containment passive heat removal/pressure suppression systems and Passive containment spray. Among the types of containment passive heat removal/pressure suppression systems, the system composed of an internal heat exchanger and an external coolant tank is considered. In a severe accident condition, the heat from the containment atmosphere is transferred to the outer surface of the heat exchanger by the convection and condensation of the mixture of steam and gases. On the other hand, the heat is transferred to external pool by single phase or two phase natural convection inside of heat exchanger pipes. The study aimed at investigating the influence of the diameter (D) and height (H) of the heat exchanger pipes on the single phase and two phase natural convection heat transfer. As the initial stage of the study, the two phase natural convection flow inside a vertical pipe is visualized. In order to achieve the aim with ample test rig, a sulfuric acid - cooper sulfate electroplating system was employed based on the analogy between heat and mass transfer. The reduction of hydrogen ion at the cathode surface at high potential was used to simulate the boiling phenomena. This study tried to visualize the boiling heat transfer inside a vertical pipe using a cupric acid-copper sulfate (H2SO4-CuSO4) electroplating system. This seems to be successful so far. However further study has to be done to compare the result with real two phase flow situation. The surface tension and surface characteristics are to be tuned to simulate the real situation

  16. Visualization of Two Phase Natural Convection Flow in a Vertical Pipe using the Sulfuric Acid - Copper Sulfate Electroplating System

    Ohk, Seung-Min; Chae, Myeong-Seon; Chung, Bum-Jin [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The passive containment cooling system (PCCS) driven by natural forces convection gain draws research interests after Fukushima NPP accident. The PCCS was classified into three categories: Containment pressure suppression, Containment passive heat removal/pressure suppression systems and Passive containment spray. Among the types of containment passive heat removal/pressure suppression systems, the system composed of an internal heat exchanger and an external coolant tank is considered. In a severe accident condition, the heat from the containment atmosphere is transferred to the outer surface of the heat exchanger by the convection and condensation of the mixture of steam and gases. On the other hand, the heat is transferred to external pool by single phase or two phase natural convection inside of heat exchanger pipes. The study aimed at investigating the influence of the diameter (D) and height (H) of the heat exchanger pipes on the single phase and two phase natural convection heat transfer. As the initial stage of the study, the two phase natural convection flow inside a vertical pipe is visualized. In order to achieve the aim with ample test rig, a sulfuric acid - cooper sulfate electroplating system was employed based on the analogy between heat and mass transfer. The reduction of hydrogen ion at the cathode surface at high potential was used to simulate the boiling phenomena. This study tried to visualize the boiling heat transfer inside a vertical pipe using a cupric acid-copper sulfate (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-CuSO{sub 4}) electroplating system. This seems to be successful so far. However further study has to be done to compare the result with real two phase flow situation. The surface tension and surface characteristics are to be tuned to simulate the real situation.

  17. Solvent extraction of uranium from lean grade acidic sulfate leach liquor with alamine 336 reagent

    This paper describes the solvent extraction studies carried out on an acidic low assay uranium bearing leach liquor generated during sulfuric acid leaching of a refractory uranium ore using alamine 336-isodecenol-kerosene reagent combine. The leach liquor has a U3O8 content of about 270 mg/L, free acidity 2.4 N H2SO4 and total dissolved solids concentration of 260 g/L. Process parameteric variation studies indicated strong influence of free acidity of the leach liquor, alamine 336 concentration and aqueous to organic phase ratio on the extraction efficiency of uranium. An extraction efficiency of about 95% was achieved when the free acidity of leach liquor was 1 N H2SO4 or lower, using 2% (v/v) alamine 336 at ambient temperature with an aqueous to organic phase ratio of 1:1. The loading capacity under these conditions was 1.2 g/L of U3O8. About 98% of the uranium values could be stripped from the loaded organic using 1 N NaCl in 0.2 N H2SO4. The solvent extraction studies aided in developing a suitable process flowsheet for treating refractory uranium ores which need high acidity during leaching and relatively lower acidity for purification by solvent extraction. (author)

  18. Forest-soil response to acid and salt additions of sulfate. 2. Aluminum and base cations

    Reconstructed spodosol and intact alfisol soil columns were used to examine the effects of 52 weeks of additions of various simulated throughfall solutions on base cation, Al, acid neutralizing capacity, and pH levels in soil leachates. The work illustrates the importance of soil cation exchange (especially in the forest floor), anion concentrations, and pCO2 levels in controlling the leachate chemistry in response to acidic and 'seasalt' deposition events

  19. 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium Hydrogen Sulfate [bmim]HSO4: An Efficient Reusable Acidic Ionic Liquid for the Formylation of Alcohols

    NIKNAM Khodabakhsh; ZOLFIGOL Mohammad Ali; SABERI Dariush; KHONBAZI Mahdi

    2009-01-01

    1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate [bmim]HSO4 as an acidic ionic liquid was prepared and used as a catalyst for the formylation of alcohols with ethyl formate at room temperature with good to excellent yields.A good selectivity was observed for the formylation of primary alcohols in the presence of tertiary alcohols.

  20. Genome-Wide Expression Analysis of Human In Vivo Irritated Epidermis: Differential Profiles Induced by Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Nonanoic Acid

    Clemmensen, Anders; Andersen, Klaus E; Clemmensen, Ole;

    2010-01-01

    differential molecular events induced in the epidermis by different irritants, we collected sequential biopsies ((1/2), 4, and 24 hours after a single exposure and at day 11 after repeated exposure) from human volunteers exposed to either sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) or nonanoic acid (NON). Gene expression...

  1. Effectiveness of copper sulfate, potassium permanganate, and peracetic acid to reduce mortality and infestation of Ichthyobodo nector in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque 1818)

    Ichthyobodo necator is a single celled bi-flagellate parasite, and in high density can causes significant mortality in young fish. Copper sulfate (CuSO4), potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and peracetic acid (PAA) were evaluated for effectiveness against ichthyobodosis. Treatments were: untreated con...

  2. Oxidative stress markers, secondary bile acids and sulfated bile acids classify the clinical liver injury type: Promising diagnostic biomarkers for cholestasis.

    Masubuchi, Noriko; Sugihara, Masahiro; Sugita, Tomonori; Amano, Katsushi; Nakano, Masanori; Matsuura, Tomokazu

    2016-08-01

    Clinicians sometimes encounter difficulty in choosing a therapeutic strategy due to the uncertainty regarding the type of liver injury. In particular, cholestasis is difficult to diagnose by conventional markers at an early stage of disease. The aim of this study was to identify promising biomarkers for distinguishing the symptom-based types of liver injury (e.g. hepatocellular injury, cholestasis), which was derived from a rigorously statistical perspective. The associations between diagnostic biomarkers (e.g. bile acid components, oxidative stress markers and liver fibrosis markers) and the liver injury types were assessed by a multiple logistic regression analysis using 304 blood samples from patients with liver disease. As a result, reductions in the lithocholic acid (LCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA) levels, and elevation of the serum sulfated bile acid (SSBA), liver fibrosis marker IV collagen (type IV collagen), hyaluronic acid (HA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were all significantly associated with cholestasis. On the other hand, elevations in the LCA and type IV collagen levels, and a reduction in the ursodeoxy cholic acid (UDCA) level, were significantly associated with hepatocellular injury. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses showed that the largest area under the ROC curve (AUC) was found for ROS, followed by DCA, HA, LCA, SSBA and type IV collagen in the cholestatic-type cases. These results indicated that ROS, the secondary bile acid levels such as DCA and LCA, and SSBA are promising biomarkers for cholestasis and for classifying the type of liver injuries. This comprehensive approach will allow for an accurate diagnosis, which will facilitate the selection of an appropriate therapy at the onset of disease. PMID:26325587

  3. Synergistic Effects of Lactic Acid and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate to Decontaminate Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Cattle Hide Sections

    Elramady, Mohamed G.; Aly, Sharif S.; Rossitto, Paul V.; Crook, Jennifer A.; Cullor, James S.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antibacterial properties of chitosan acetate (CA), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), lactic acid (LA) and their synergism when combined against a nontoxigenic strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Treatments that significantly reduced the concentration of E. coli O157:H7 in vitro by more than two logs were further investigated using a cattle hide decontamination model. In vitro treatments included CA (1% chitosan in 1% acetic acid vol/vol), SDS (1%...

  4. Diagnosis of Metachromatic Leukodystrophy, Krabbe Disease, and Farber Disease after Uptake of Fatty Acid-labeled Cerebroside Sulfate into Cultured Skin Fibroblasts

    Kudoh, Tooru; Wenger, David A

    1982-01-01

    [14C]Stearic acid-labeled cerebroside sulfate (CS) was presented to cultured skin fibroblasts in the media. After endocytosis into control cells 86% was readily metabolized to galactosylceramide, ceramide, and stearic acid, which was reutilized in the synthesis of the major lipids found in cultured fibroblasts. Uptake and metabolism of the [14C]CS into cells from typical and atypical patients and carriers of metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD), Krabbe disease, and Farber disease were observed....

  5. Controls on suppression of methane flux from a peat bog subjected to simulated acid rain sulfate deposition

    Gauci, Vincent; Dise, Nancy; Fowler, David

    2002-01-01

    The effect of acid rain SO42- deposition on peatland CH4 emissions was examined by manipulating SO42- inputs to a pristine raised peat bog in northern Scotland. Weekly pulses of dissolved Na2SO4 were applied to the bog over two years in doses of 25, 50, and 100 kg S ha-1 yr-1, reflecting the range of pollutant S deposition loads experienced in acid rain-impacted regions of the world. CH4 fluxes were measured at regular intervals using a static chamber/gas chromatographic flame ionization detector method. Total emissions of CH4 were reduced by between 21 and 42% relative to controls, although no significant differences were observed between treatments. Estimated total annual fluxes during the second year of the experiment were 16.6 g m-2 from the controls and (in order of increasing SO42- dose size) 10.7, 13.2, and 9.8 g m-2 from the three SO42- treatments, respectively. The relative extent of CH4 flux suppression varied with changes in both peat temperature and peat water table with the largest suppression during cool periods and episodes of falling water table. Our findings suggest that low doses of SO42- at deposition rates commonly experienced in areas impacted by acid rain, may significantly affect CH4 emissions from wetlands in affected areas. We propose that SO42- from acid rain can stimulate sulfate-reducing bacteria into a population capable of outcompeting methanogens for substrates. We further propose that this microbially mediated interaction may have a significant current and future effect on the contribution of northern peatlands to the global methane budget.

  6. Significance of Ligand Exchange Relating to Sulfate in Retarding Acidification of Variable Charge Soils Caused by Acid Rain

    WANGJINGHUA; YUTIANREN

    1996-01-01

    For the purpose of evaluating the role of ligand exchange of sulfate ions in retarding the rate of acidification of variable charge soils,the changes in pH after the addition of different amounts of HNO3 or H2SO4 to representative soils of China were measured .A difference between pH changes caused by the two kinds of acids was observed only for variable charge soils and kaolinite,but not for constant charge soils and bentonite,The larger the proportion of H2SO4 in the HNO3-H2SO4 mixture,the lower the calculated H+ ion activities remained in the suspension.The difference in H+ ion activities between H2SO4 systems and HNO3 systems was larger for soils with a low base-saturation(BS) percentage than those with a high BS percentage.The removal of free iron oxides from the soil led to a decrease in the difference,while the coating of Fe2O3 on a bentonite resulted in a remarkable appearance of the difference.The effect of ligand exchange on the acidity status of the soil varied with the soil type.Surface soils with a high organic matter content showed a less pronounced effect of ligand exchange than subsoils did.It was estimated that when acid rain chiefly containing H2SO4 was deposited on variable charge soils the acidification rate might be slower by 20%-40% than that when the acid rain chiefly contained HNO3 for soils with a high organic matter content,and that the rate might be half of that caused by HNO3 for soils with a low organic matter content,especially for latosols.

  7. Orbital Evidence for Clay and Acidic Sulfate Assemblages on Mars and Mineralogical Analogs from Rio Tinto, Spain

    Kaplan, H. H.; Milliken, R.; Fernandez-Remolar, D. C.; Amils, R.; Robertson, K.; Knoll, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    A suite of enigmatic near-infrared reflectance spectra with a 'doublet' absorption between 2.2 and 2.3 µm is observed in CRISM (Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars) hyperspectral images over Ius and Melas Chasma on Mars. The doublet-bearing deposits are found alongside other hydrated minerals including clays, sulfates, and silica, but the mineral(s) responsible for the spectral signature has yet to be identified. Reflectance spectra of rocks and sediments at Rio Tinto, Spain exhibit similar absorptions at airborne, field, and lab spatial scales. Coupled X-ray diffraction and reflectance spectra of these terrestrial examples indicate the absorption arises from a mixture of jarosite, a ferric sulfate, and Al-phyllosilicates (illite/muscovite). Detailed analysis of CRISM data over Ius and Melas Chasma suggests that these deposits also contain mixtures of jarosite and Al-phyllosilicate, where the latter may include halloysite, kaolinite and/or montmorillonite in addition to illite/muscovite. This interpretation is supported because (1) the two absorptions in the doublet feature vary independently, implying the presence of two or more phases, (2) the position of the absorptions is consistent with Al-OH and Fe-OH vibrations in both the Rio Tinto and CRISM spectra and (3) Al-phyllosilicates and jarosite are identified separately in nearby regions. Multiple formation mechanisms are proposed based on stratigraphy in Ius Chasma, where the strength of absorptions varies within a single stratigraphic unit as well as between different units. Mechanisms include authigenic formation of jarosite, which would indicate locally acidic and oxidizing conditions, mixed with detrial Al-phyllosilicates, or authigenic formation of Al-phyllosilicates and jarosite. Each implies different conditions in terms of aqueous geochemistry, redox, and sediment transport. Results from the field, lab, and CRISM analysis will be presented to discuss how placing these spectral

  8. Hyaluronic acid and glucosamine sulfate for adult Kashin-Beck disease: a cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Xia, Chuan-Tao; Yu, Fang-Fang; Ren, Feng-Ling; Fang, Hua; Guo, Xiong

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of hyaluronic acid (HA) and glucosamine sulfate (GS) in alleviating symptoms and improving function of Kashin-Beck disease (KBD). A cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 150 patients with KBD. Participants were randomly allocated to receive intra-articular injection hyaluronic acid (IAHA) for 4 weeks, oral GS for 12 weeks, or oral placebo for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measures were 20 % and 50 % reductions in pain from baseline measured by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) index. Secondary outcome measures included WOMAC index parameters of pain, stiffness, and physical function. The third outcome measure was mean change in Lequence score. HA and GS were effective in reducing WOMAC pain by 20 % (differences of 43.5 % and 25.4 %) and 50 % (differences of 43.4 % and 26.9 %). Both HA and GS significantly reduced WOMAC pain, WOMAC stiffness, and WOMAC normalized score compared with placebo group (all P < 0.05). IAHA was significantly more effective than oral GS in improving WOMAC normalized score (P = 0.034), pain (P = 0.002), stiffness (P = 0.018), and function (P = 0.044). The results indicate that HA and GS were more effective than placebo in treating KBD and HA was more effective than GS. PMID:25388643

  9. Could Acid Sulfate Soils Be a Potential Environmental Threat to Estuarine Ecosystems on the South CHina Coast?

    C.LIN

    1999-01-01

    Acid sulfate soils (ASS) contain considerable amounts of reduced sulfur compounds(mainly pyrite) which produce sulfuric acid upon their oxidation.ASS-derived environmental degradation widely occurs in the coastal lowlands around the world,especially in the tropical and subtropical areas.The presence of ASS iun the South China has been recognized but their distribution may be largely underestimated because the soil survey data concerning ASS are based on unreliable methods and techniques.ASS in the South China have been traditionally used for rice cultivation and this practice has been proved sustainable if appropriate improvement measures are adopted.Recently,the rapid economic growth in the region has resulted in intensified coastal development which frequently involves activities that may disturb ASS,Construction of roads,foundations and aquaculture ponds may cause the exposure of ASS to air and bring about severe environmental acidificvation.There is currently insufficient awareness of the problems among the researchers,policy-makers and land managers in the South China.More attention must be paid to the possible ASS-dervived environmental degradation in order to ensure a sustainable development of the coastal lowlands in the South China region.

  10. Stannous sulfate as an electrolyte additive for lead acid battery made from a novel ultrafine leady oxide

    Wang, Qin; Liu, Jianwen; Yang, Danni; Yuan, Xiqing; Li, Lei; Zhu, Xinfeng; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Yucheng; Sun, Xiaojuan; Liang, Sha; Hu, Jingping; Kumar, R. Vasant; Yang, Jiakuan

    2015-07-01

    The effects of SnSO4 as an electrolyte additive on the microstructure of positive plate and electrochemical performance of lead acid battery made from a novel leady oxide are investigated. The novel leady oxide is synthesized through leaching of spent lead paste in citric acid solution. The novel leady oxides are used to prepare working electrode (WE) subjected to electrochemical cyclic voltammetry (CV) tests. Moreover, the novel leady oxides are used as active materials of positive plate assembled as a testing battery of 1.85 A h capacity. In CV tests, SEM/EDX results show that the major crystalline phase of the paste in WE after CV cycles is PbSO4. The larger column-shaped PbSO4 crystals easily generate in the paste of WE without an electrolyte additive of SnSO4. However, PbSO4 crystals significantly become smaller with the addition of SnSO4 in the electrolyte. In batteries testing, SEM results show that an electrolyte additive of SnSO4 could effectively decrease PbO2 particle size in the positive active materials of the teardown battery at the end of charging procedure. It is indicated that an electrolyte additive of SnSO4 could have a positive influence on restraining larger particles of irreversible sulfation in charge/discharge cycles of battery testing.

  11. Three-year survey of sulfate-reducing bacteria community structure in Carnoules acid mine drainage (France), highly contaminated by arsenic

    Giloteaux, L.; Duran, R.; Casiot, C.; Bruneel, Odile; Elbaz-Poulichet, F.; Goni-Urriza, M.

    2013-01-01

    A 3-year survey on sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) was conducted in the waters of the arsenic-rich acid mine drainage (AMD) located at Carnoules (France) to determine the influence of environmental parameters on their community structure. The source (S5 station) exhibited most extreme conditions with pH lowering to similar to 1.2; iron, sulfate, and arsenic concentrations reaching 6843, 29593, and 638mgL1, respectively. The conditions were less extreme at the downstream stations S1 (pH simila...

  12. An HPLC Method for Microanalysis and Pharmacokinetics of Marine Sulfated Polysaccharide PSS-Loaded Poly Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid (PLGA) Nanoparticles in Rat Plasma

    Hua-Shi Guan; Guang-Li Yu; Xiao-Xi He; Hong-Bing Liu; Hai-Hua Li; Yi-Ting Xue; Chun-Xia Li; Peng-Li Li

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed at developing a sensitive and selective HPLC method with postcolumn fluorescence derivatization for the detection of propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS) in rat plasma. Plasma samples were prepared by a simple and fast ultrafiltration method. PSS was extracted from rat plasma with d-glucuronic acid as internal standard. Isocratic chromatographic separation was performed on a TSKgel G2500 PWxL column with the mobile phase of 0.1 M sodium sulfate at a flow rate of...

  13. Introduction manner of sulfate acid for improving the performance of SO42-/CeO2 on selective catalytic reduction of NO by NH3

    宋忠贤; 张秋林; 宁平; 刘昕; 樊洁; 黄真真

    2016-01-01

    A series of sulfated CeO2 catalysts were synthesized by impregnation and sol-gel methods and used for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx by NH3. The results showed that the sulfated CeO2 catalysts prepared by sol-gel method showed excellent catalytic activity at 150–450 °C, and more than 90% NOx conversion was obtained at 232–450 °C with a gas hourly space velocity of 60000 h–1. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption, Raman, thermogravimetry (TG), H2-tem-perature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR) and Py-infrared spectroscopy (Py-IR). The excellent SCR performance was associated with the surface acidity and the micro-structure. The introduction of sulfate acid into CeO2 could increase the amount of Brönsted and Lewis acid sites over the catalysts, resulting in the improvement of the low temperature activity. The sulfated CeO2 catalysts prepared by sol-gel method possessed lower crystallization degree, excellent redox property and larger specific surface areas, which were re-sponsible for the superior SCR performance.

  14. Sulfuric Acid and Ammonium Sulfate Leaching of Alumina from Lampang Clay

    Numluk, Paweena; Chaisena, Aphiruk

    2012-01-01

    The rapid development of the global alumina industry has led to a considerable increase in the production alumina and processing of alumina from non-bauxitic sources. Lampang clays comprise various minerals that contain about 22.70 wt% of extractable alumina. Local clay was ground, activated by calcination and treated with sulfuric acid to extract alumina. In the activation step, the effects of temperature and time on the extraction of alumina and iron were investigated. The leaching experime...

  15. Effect of the donor addition nature on noncation-exchange extraction of uranyl sulfate by the mixtures of di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid with organic oxides

    Solvent extraction of uranyl sulfate in a wide range of its concentration by the mixtures of di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (HX) with organic oxides (B)-triisoamyl (TAPO)-, triphenyl(TPPO)-phosphine oxides, 2-nonylpyridine-N-oxide (2-NPO) and diphenyl sulfoxide (DPSO) is studied. Cation exchange and noncation exchange (after HX saturation) synergistic effects are stated. By synergistic effect in uranyl sulfate noncation exchange extraction (UO2X2+B mixture is in fact an extracting agent) organic oxides are arranged in TAPO>2-NPO>TPPO>DPSO series coinsiding with the sequence of decreasing donor ability of B in hydrogen bond. A quantitative description of UO2SO4xB addition to UO2X2 is presented. It is stated that regularities of coordination extraction of metals by different class oxides and of uranyl sulfate extraction by UO2X2+B mixtures are similar

  16. Recover of productivity in acids sulfate soils by means of addition organic and lime amendments under greenhouse conditions at Boyaca

    In flooded zones of Boyaca have been identified acid sulfate soil (SSA), restricted for extremes acidity originated for reactions of chemical and biological oxide-reduction by organic material of sulfur iron (pyrite), forming this way big quantities of sulfuric acid and high concentrations of Al toxic, besides it is characterized for being recent soils, with excessive quantities of S; high levels of organic matter and in some parts affected for salts and sodium that together with flooded areas and bad drenated make them inadequate for the establishing of cultivation. For this reason, it is looked for to make productive this SSA of high influence in the area of watering district. Starting with calcareous and organics rocks in winter pasture, the Resources to used were Ca (OH)2 and dolomite in doses of 10,25,50 and 100 t/ha; hen dung 5,10,20 and 30 t/ha mixes with limes hen dung 10+5, 10+10,25+20 and 50+30 using A. sative like indicator plant in a design completely on random with 22 treatments, correspond to ca (OH)2 25,50 ton/ha, dolomite 10,2.50 ton/ha and the mixes with calcareous rocks and hen dung with doses of 25+20 and 50+30 ton/ha respectively, which obtained the best answer in the development of the plant (biomass), reflected in the physical-chemical dynamic of the SSA. Due to this treatments increased in two units of pH, decreased the content of salts and the concentration of aluminum of non-toxic change, with respect to the initial soil, the soil with doses greater to 50 t/ha Ca (OH)2 evidenced over-limed together with the of hen-dung (5,10 t/ha) and the initial soil presented a restricted in develop and recuperation, indicating the conditions adverse in SSA

  17. Different pathways of canalicular secretion of sulfated and non-sulfated fluorescent bile acids : a study in isolated hepatocyte couplets and TR- rats

    Mills, CO; Milkiewicz, P; Muller, M; Roma, MG; Havinga, R; Coleman, R; Kuipers, F; Jansen, PLM; Elias, E

    1999-01-01

    Background/Aims: Fluorescent bile acids have proved useful for characterizing bile salt transport mechanisms, The aim of this study was to further validate the use of lysyl-fluorescein conjugated bile acid analogues as surrogate bile acids, Methods: We analyzed biliary excretion kinetics of cholyl l

  18. Sorption extraction of green ruthenium (4) sulfate from sulfuric acid solutions by complexing type ionite

    The possibility is studied of ruthenium sorption eXtraction on ionites of polyamino- and aminocarboxyle types from equilibrium solutions in the sulfuric acid concentration ranga from 0.05 to 2 g. eq./l at 20 and 85 deg C A temperature increase affects only the sorption kinetics. The AN-31, AV-16G- and ANKB-1 ionites reduce Ru(4) to Ru(3) which is absorbed by ionites, while the ampholyte ANKB-2 possesses no reducing properties. The ruthenium extraction by ionites proceeds following the mechanism of intraspheric substitution

  19. Coordination compounds of nitrates and sulfates of some metals with isonicotinic acid hydrazide

    The complexes M(No3)2x2HINA, MSO4x2HINA, Cu(NO3)2xHINA, and CuSO4xHINAx1, 5C2H5OH (where M=Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd; HINA is hydrazide of isonicotinic acid) are obtained, their infrared (400-4000 cm-1) and Raman (50-4000 cm-1) spectra are studied. It is shown that HINA molecules in all compounds are bound with the metal by the nitrogen atoms of the amino group. In nickel, zink, and cadmium complexes the nitrogen atoms of the heterocycle are also bound with the central atom, thus forming tubazid bridges

  20. Biocompatibility Assessment of Novel Collagen-Sericin Scaffolds Improved with Hyaluronic Acid and Chondroitin Sulfate for Cartilage Regeneration

    Gălăţeanu, Bianca; Albu, Mădălina

    2013-01-01

    Cartilage tissue engineering (CTE) applications are focused towards the use of implantable biohybrids consisting of biodegradable scaffolds combined with in vitro cultured cells. Hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) were identified as the most potent prochondrogenic factors used to design new biomaterials for CTE, while human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) were proved to display high chondrogenic potential. In this context, our aim was not only to build novel 3D porous scaffolds based on natural compounds but also to evaluate their in vitro biological performances. Therefore, for prospective CTE, collagen-sericin (Coll-SS) scaffolds improved with HA (5% or 10%) and CS (5% or 10%) were used as temporary physical supports for ASCs and were analyzed in terms of structural, thermal, morphological, and swelling properties and cytotoxic potential. To complete biocompatibility data, ASCs viability and proliferation potential were also assessed. Our studies revealed that Coll-SS hydrogels improved with 10% HA and 5% CS displayed the best biological performances in terms of cell viability, proliferation, morphology, and distribution. Thus, further work will address a novel 3D system including both HA 10% and CS 5% glycoproteins, which will probably be exposed to prochondrogenic conditions in order to assess its potential use in CTE applications. PMID:24308001

  1. Biocompatibility Assessment of Novel Collagen-Sericin Scaffolds Improved with Hyaluronic Acid and Chondroitin Sulfate for Cartilage Regeneration

    Sorina Dinescu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cartilage tissue engineering (CTE applications are focused towards the use of implantable biohybrids consisting of biodegradable scaffolds combined with in vitro cultured cells. Hyaluronic acid (HA and chondroitin sulfate (CS were identified as the most potent prochondrogenic factors used to design new biomaterials for CTE, while human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs were proved to display high chondrogenic potential. In this context, our aim was not only to build novel 3D porous scaffolds based on natural compounds but also to evaluate their in vitro biological performances. Therefore, for prospective CTE, collagen-sericin (Coll-SS scaffolds improved with HA (5% or 10% and CS (5% or 10% were used as temporary physical supports for ASCs and were analyzed in terms of structural, thermal, morphological, and swelling properties and cytotoxic potential. To complete biocompatibility data, ASCs viability and proliferation potential were also assessed. Our studies revealed that Coll-SS hydrogels improved with 10% HA and 5% CS displayed the best biological performances in terms of cell viability, proliferation, morphology, and distribution. Thus, further work will address a novel 3D system including both HA 10% and CS 5% glycoproteins, which will probably be exposed to prochondrogenic conditions in order to assess its potential use in CTE applications.

  2. Barium Sulfate

    Barium sulfate is used to help doctors examine the esophagus (tube that connects the mouth and stomach), ... dimensional pictures of the inside of the body). Barium sulfate is in a class of medications called ...

  3. Glucosamine sulfate

    ... to control arthritis pain. These creams usually contain camphor and other ingredients in addition to glucosamine. Glucosamine ... in combination with chondroitin sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor for up to 8 weeks. Glucosamine sulfate can ...

  4. Optimization of peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH) for the detection of bacteria: The effect of pH, dextran sulfate and probe concentration.

    Rocha, Rui; Santos, Rita S; Madureira, Pedro; Almeida, Carina; Azevedo, Nuno F

    2016-05-20

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a molecular technique widely used for the detection and characterization of microbial populations. FISH is affected by a wide variety of abiotic and biotic variables and the way they interact with each other. This is translated into a wide variability of FISH procedures found in the literature. The aim of this work is to systematically study the effects of pH, dextran sulfate and probe concentration in the FISH protocol, using a general peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe for the Eubacteria domain. For this, response surface methodology was used to optimize these 3 PNA-FISH parameters for Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas fluorescens) and Gram-positive species (Listeria innocua, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Bacillus cereus). The obtained results show that a probe concentration higher than 300nM is favorable for both groups. Interestingly, a clear distinction between the two groups regarding the optimal pH and dextran sulfate concentration was found: a high pH (approx. 10), combined with lower dextran sulfate concentration (approx. 2% [w/v]) for Gram-negative species and near-neutral pH (approx. 8), together with higher dextran sulfate concentrations (approx. 10% [w/v]) for Gram-positive species. This behavior seems to result from an interplay between pH and dextran sulfate and their ability to influence probe concentration and diffusion towards the rRNA target. This study shows that, for an optimum hybridization protocol, dextran sulfate and pH should be adjusted according to the target bacteria. PMID:27021959

  5. Holothurian Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfate

    Vitor H. Pomin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS is a structurally distinct glycosaminoglycan found in sea cucumber species. It has the same backbone composition of alternating 4-linked glucuronic acid and 3-linked N-acetyl galactosamine residues within disaccharide repeating units as regularly found in mammalian chondroitin sulfates. However, FucCS has also sulfated fucosyl branching units 3-O-linked to the acid residues. The sulfation patterns of these branches vary accordingly with holothurian species and account for different biological actions and responses. FucCSs may exhibit anticoagulant, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, and pro-angiogenic activities, besides its beneficial effects in hemodialysis, cellular growth modulation, fibrosis and hyperglycemia. Through an historical overview, this document covers most of the science regarding the holothurian FucCS. Both structural and medical properties of this unique GAG, investigated during the last 25 years, are systematically discussed herein.

  6. Early Performance of Duong Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco on Three Rootstock under Acid Sulfate Soil Fields at Mekong Delta of Vietnam

    Khoe Thi Le

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract About 1.6 billion hectare area of acid sulfate soils is at Mekong Delta of Vietnam, and Duong mandarin fruits are valued for the fresh market due to the easy peeling, attractive flavor, and health and nutritional properties; thereby, the investigation on early performance of Duong mandarin on three rootstock under acid sulfate soil fields (pH below 4 at Mekong Delta of Vietnam was undertaken from 2009 to 2012 for determination of the most promising scion stock combination of Duong mandarin, which introduced to growers for expanding citrus production to increase in income of farmers, and helping to use the sustainable and efficient land resource at acid sulfate soil region of Mekong Delta. Primary results showed that Duong mandarin grafted on Mat orange, Tau lemon and Carrizo citrange were significant differenence in vegetative parameters, fruit yield and quality. It proved that Duong mandarin trees grafted on Tau lemon were better growth and development on acid sulfate soil fields with below 4 pH in soil and water suspension of 1:2.5 ratio as compared to those grafted on Mat orange and Carrizo citrange rootstocks; whereby, that induced trees with 171.48 cm height, 6.65 m3 canopy volume and 51.84 mm trunk diameter, 1.08 scion/ stock ratio in third year after growing. Moreover, Duong mandarin trees grafted on Tau lemon were with spreading growth performance. In regarding to fruit yield and quality, Duong mandarin trees grafted on Tau lemon produced highest fruit yield of 9.21 kg per tree per year in third year after planting, and fruit with 115.30g weight, 8.85 brix juice, thinner and somewhat easy peel rind. 

  7. Heparan sulfate biosynthesis

    Multhaupt, Hinke A B; Couchman, John R

    2012-01-01

    Heparan sulfate is perhaps the most complex polysaccharide known from animals. The basic repeating disaccharide is extensively modified by sulfation and uronic acid epimerization. Despite this, the fine structure of heparan sulfate is remarkably consistent with a particular cell type. This suggests...... apparatus has not been carried out in a detailed way using high-resolution microscopy. We have begun this process, using well-known markers for the various Golgi compartments, coupled with the use of characterized antibodies and cDNA expression. Laser scanning confocal microscopy coupled with line scanning...

  8. Esterification of fatty acids using sulfated zirconia and composites activated carbon/sulfated zirconia catalysts; Esterificacao de acidos graxos utilizando zirconia sulfatada e compositos carvao ativado/zirconia sulfatada como catalisadores

    Brum, Sarah S.; Santos, Valeria C. dos; Destro, Priscila; Guerreiro, Mario Cesar [Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2011-07-01

    In this work sulfated zirconia (SZr) and activated carbon/SZr composites produced by impregnation method with or without heating treatment step (CABC/SZr-I and CABC/SZr-I SC) and by the method of synthesis of SZr on the carbon (CABC/SZr-S) was used as catalysts in the esterification reactions of fatty acids. The SZr presented very active, conversions higher than 90% were obtained after 2 h of reaction. The activity of the composite CABC/SZr-I20%SC was up to 92%, however, this was directly related to time and temperature reactions. CABC/SZr-I and CABC/SZr-S were less active in esterification reactions, what could be attributed to its low acidity. (author)

  9. Biochemical and molecular characterization of potential phosphate-solubilizing bacteria in acid sulfate soils and their beneficial effects on rice growth.

    Panhwar, Qurban Ali; Naher, Umme Aminun; Shamshuddin, Jusop; Jusop, Shamshuddin; Othman, Radziah; Latif, Md Abdul; Ismail, Mohd Razi

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the total microbial population, the occurrence of growth promoting bacteria and their beneficial traits in acid sulfate soils. The mechanisms by which the bacteria enhance rice seedlings grown under high Al and low pH stress were investigated. Soils and rice root samples were randomly collected from four sites in the study area (Kelantan, Malaysia). The topsoil pH and exchangeable Al ranged from 3.3 to 4.7 and 1.24 to 4.25 cmol(c) kg(-1), respectively, which are considered unsuitable for rice production. Total bacterial and actinomycetes population in the acidic soils were found to be higher than fungal populations. A total of 21 phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) including 19 N2-fixing strains were isolated from the acid sulfate soil. Using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, three potential PSB strains based on their beneficial characteristics were identified (Burkholderia thailandensis, Sphingomonas pituitosa and Burkholderia seminalis). The isolated strains were capable of producing indoleacetic acid (IAA) and organic acids that were able to reduce Al availability via a chelation process. These PSB isolates solubilized P (43.65%) existing in the growth media within 72 hours of incubation. Seedling of rice variety, MR 219, grown at pH 4, and with different concentrations of Al (0, 50 and 100 µM) was inoculated with these PSB strains. Results showed that the bacteria increased the pH with a concomitant reduction in Al concentration, which translated into better rice growth. The improved root volume and seedling dry weight of the inoculated plants indicated the potential of these isolates to be used in a bio-fertilizer formulation for rice cultivation on acid sulfate soils. PMID:25285745

  10. Biochemical and molecular characterization of potential phosphate-solubilizing bacteria in acid sulfate soils and their beneficial effects on rice growth.

    Qurban Ali Panhwar

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the total microbial population, the occurrence of growth promoting bacteria and their beneficial traits in acid sulfate soils. The mechanisms by which the bacteria enhance rice seedlings grown under high Al and low pH stress were investigated. Soils and rice root samples were randomly collected from four sites in the study area (Kelantan, Malaysia. The topsoil pH and exchangeable Al ranged from 3.3 to 4.7 and 1.24 to 4.25 cmol(c kg(-1, respectively, which are considered unsuitable for rice production. Total bacterial and actinomycetes population in the acidic soils were found to be higher than fungal populations. A total of 21 phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB including 19 N2-fixing strains were isolated from the acid sulfate soil. Using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, three potential PSB strains based on their beneficial characteristics were identified (Burkholderia thailandensis, Sphingomonas pituitosa and Burkholderia seminalis. The isolated strains were capable of producing indoleacetic acid (IAA and organic acids that were able to reduce Al availability via a chelation process. These PSB isolates solubilized P (43.65% existing in the growth media within 72 hours of incubation. Seedling of rice variety, MR 219, grown at pH 4, and with different concentrations of Al (0, 50 and 100 µM was inoculated with these PSB strains. Results showed that the bacteria increased the pH with a concomitant reduction in Al concentration, which translated into better rice growth. The improved root volume and seedling dry weight of the inoculated plants indicated the potential of these isolates to be used in a bio-fertilizer formulation for rice cultivation on acid sulfate soils.

  11. Acid-sulfate mixtures from Río Tinto, Spain: Spectral masking relationships and implications for Mars

    Cull-Hearth, Selby; van Venrooy, Alexis; Caroline Clark, M.; Cvitkovic, Adriana

    2016-06-01

    Most sulfate minerals form only in specific pH conditions, making them useful markers of past environmental conditions on Mars. However, interpreting past environments requires a full understanding of the suite of minerals present, a task which is complicated by the fact that some minerals can spectrally mask others in the visible- to near-infrared (VNIR, 0.4-2.5 μm). Here, we report VNIR spectra of two-phase mineral combinations obtained from the Río Tinto acid mine drainage system of southern Spain. Our results show that in VNIR reflectance spectroscopy: (1) copiapite masks rhomboclase and partially masks melanterite; (2) coquimbite masks copiapite, jarosite, and rhomboclase; (3) at wavelengths 1.2 μm, gypsum masks these minerals; (4) unlike copiapite, jarosite, or melanterite, halotrichite masks gypsum completely; (5) in two-phase mixtures of copiapite and jarosite, both phases are evident. No consistent VNIR relationship is observed in two-phase mixtures of melanterite and halotrichite, suggesting that microtextures are likely more important than optical properties in determining VNIR reflectance. We also show that the shorter wavelengths are more sensitive to the presence of both phases: even in mixtures where one phase is masking another, both phases usually impact absorptions in the 0.75-0.95 μm region. This region may therefore be useful in remotely identifying mineral mixtures on Mars. These results have implications for several regions on Mars: most notably, they imply that the jarosite exposures reported at Mawrth Vallis may be jarosite-copiapite mixtures.

  12. Hydroxyapatite-calcium sulfate-hyaluronic acid composite encapsulated with collagenase as bone substitute for alveolar bone regeneration.

    Subramaniam, Sadhasivam; Fang, Yen-Hsin; Sivasubramanian, Savitha; Lin, Feng-Huei; Lin, Chun-pin

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is a very severe inflammatory condition of the periodontium that progressively damages the soft tissue and destroys the alveolar bone that supports the teeth. The bone loss is naturally irreversible because of limited reparability of the teeth. Advancement in tissue engineering provides an effective regeneration of osseous defects with suitable dental implants or tissue-engineered constructs. This study reports a hydroxyapatite, calcium sulfate hemihydrate and hyaluronic acid laden collagenase (HAP/CS/HA-Col) as a bone substitute for the alveolar bone regeneration. The composite material was mechanically tested and the biocompatibility was evaluated by WST-1 assay. The in vivo bone formation was assessed in rat with alveolar bone defects and the bone augmentation by the HAP/CS/HA-Col composite was confirmed by micro-CT images and histological examination. The mechanical strength of 6.69 MPa with excellent biocompatibility was obtained for the HAP/CS/HA-Col composite. The collagenase release profile had facilitated the acceleration of bone remodeling process and it was confirmed by the findings of micro-CT and H&E staining. The bone defects implanted with HAP/CS/HA composite containing 2 mg/mL type I collagenase have shown improved new bone formation with matured bone morphology in comparison with the HAP/CS/HA composite that lacks the collagenase and the porous hydroxyapatite (p-HAP) granules. The said findings demonstrated that the collagenase inclusion in HAP/CS/HA composite is a feasible approach for the alveolar bone regeneration and the same design can also be applied to other defective tissues. PMID:26454048

  13. Four-component one-pot synthesis of unsymmetrical polyhydroquinoline derivatives using 3-methyl-1-sulfonic acid imidazolium hydrogen sulfate as a catalyst

    Nader Ghaffari Khaligh

    2014-01-01

    3-Methyl-1-sulfonic acid imidazolium hydrogen sulfate has been used as an efficient, halogen-free, and reusable Brönsted acidic ionic liquid catalyst for the synthesis of ethyl-4-aryl/heteryl- hexahy-dro-trimehtyl-5-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylates via the one-pot condensation of dimedone with ar-yl/heteryl aldehydes, ethyl acetoacetate, and ammonium acetate under solvent-free conditions. This method has the advantage of being clean and simple, as well as providing the desired product in high yield over a short reaction time. Furthermore, the catalyst could be recycled and reused four times without any discernible reduction in activity.

  14. Gamma ray-induced synthesis of hyaluronic acid/chondroitin sulfate-based hydrogels for biomedical applications

    Hyaluronic acid (HA)/chondroitin sulfate (CS)/poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) hydrogel systems were synthesized by gamma-ray irradiation without the use of additional initiators or crosslinking agents to achieve a biocompatible hydrogel system for skin tissue engineering. HA and CS derivatives with polymerizable residues were synthesized. Then, the hydrogels composed of glycosaminoglycans, HA, CS, and a synthetic ionic polymer, PAAc, were prepared using gamma-ray irradiation through simultaneous free radical copolymerization and crosslinking. The physicochemical properties of the HA/CS/PAAc hydrogels having various compositions were investigated to evaluate their feasibility as artificial skin substitutes. The gel fractions of the HA/CS/PAAc hydrogels increased in absorbed doses up to 15 kGy, and they exhibited 91–93% gel fractions under 15 kGy radiation. All of the HA/CS/PAAc hydrogels exhibited relatively high water contents of over 90% and reached an equilibrium swelling state within 24 h. The enzymatic degradation kinetics of the HA/CS/PAAc hydrogels depended on both the concentration of the hyaluronidase solution and the ratio of HA/CS/PAAc. The in vitro drug release profiles of the HA/CS/PAAc hydrogels were significantly influenced by the interaction between the ionic groups in the hydrogels and the ionic drug molecules as well as the swelling of the hydrogels. From the cytotoxicity results of human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells cultured with extracts of the HA/CS/PAAc hydrogels, all of the HA/CS/PAAc hydrogel samples tested showed relatively high cell viabilities of more than 82%, and did not induce any significant adverse effects on cell viability. - Highlights: • HA/CS/PAAc hydrogels were synthesized by gamma-ray irradiation. • HA/CS/PAAc hydrogels exhibited 91–93% gel fractions under 15 kGy radiation. • All of the HA/CS/PAAc hydrogels exhibited high water contents of over 90%. • The hydrogel samples showed relatively high cell viabilities of more than

  15. Acid-base equilibria and dynamics in sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles: geminate recombination and effect of charge stabilization.

    Freitas, Adilson A; Paulo, Luisa; Maçanita, Antonio L; Quina, Frank H

    2006-09-12

    The synthetic flavylium salt 4-carboxy-7-hydroxy-4'-methoxyflavylium chloride (CHMF) exhibits two acid-base equilibria in the range of pH 1-8 in both aqueous and micellar sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solutions. The values of pK(a1) and pK(a2) for the cation-zwitterion (AH(2)(+) Z + H(+)) and the zwitterion-base (Z A(-) + H(+)) equilibria increase from 0.73 and 4.84 in water to 2.77 and 5.64 in SDS micelles, respectively. The kinetic study of the Z A(-) + H(+) ground-state reactions in SDS points to the diffusion-controlled protonation of A(-) in the aqueous phase (k(p2w) = 4.2 x 10(10) M(-)(1) s(-)(1)) and in the micelle (k(p2m) = 2.3 x 10(11) M(-)(1) s(-)(1)). The deprotonation rate of Z did not significantly change upon going from water (k(d2) = 6.3 x 10(5) s(-)(1)) to SDS (k(d2) = 5.2 x 10(5) s(-)(1)), in contrast with the behavior of ordinary cationic flavylium salts, for which k(d2) strongly decreases in SDS micelles. These results suggest that deprotonation of the zwitterionic acid is not substantially perturbed by the micellar charge. Electronic excitation of the Z form of CHMF induces fast adiabatic deprotonation of the hydroxyl group of Z() (2.9 x 10(10) s(-)(1) in water and 8.4 x 10(9) s(-)(1) in 0.1 M SDS), followed by geminate recombination on the picosecond time scale. Interestingly, while recombination in water (k(rec) = 1.7 x 10(9) s(-)(1)) occurs preferentially at the carboxylate group, at the SDS micelle surface, recombination (k(rec) = 9.2 x 10(9) s(-)(1)) occurs at the hydroxyl group. The important conclusion is that proton mobility at the SDS micelle surface is substantially reduced with respect to the mobility in water, which implies that geminate recombination should be a general phenomenon in SDS micelles. PMID:16952232

  16. Applying Limestone or Basalt in Combination with Bio-Fertilizer to Sustain Rice Production on an Acid Sulfate Soil in Malaysia

    Qurban Ali Panhwar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of applying ground magnesium limestone (GML or ground basalt in combination with bio-fertilizer to sustain rice production on an acid sulfate soil in Malaysia. Soils from Kelantan Plains, Malaysia, were treated with GML, ground basalt, bio-fertilizer, GML + bio-fertilizer, and ground basalt + bio-fertilizer (4 t·ha−1 each. Results showed that soil fertility was improved by applying the soil amendments. GML and basalt contain some Zn and Cu; thus, application of these amendments would increase their contents in the soil needed for the healthy growth of rice. Basalt applied in combination with bio-fertilizer appeared to be the best agronomic option to improve the fertility of acid sulfate soils for sustainable rice production in the long run. In addition to increasing Ca, Mg, Zn, and Cu reserves in the soil, water pH increased and precipitated Al3+ and/or Fe2+. Ground basalt is cheaper than GML, but basalt dissolution in the acidic soil was slow. As such, its ameliorative effects could only be seen significantly from the second season onwards. The specially-formulated bio-fertilizer for alleviating the infertility of acid sulfate soil could also enhance rice growth. The use of the bio-fertilizer fortified with N2-fixing bacteria is a green technology that would help reduce NO3− and/or NO2− pollution and reduce the cost of rice production. The phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB present in the bio-fertilizer not only increased the available P, but also helped release organic acids that would inactivate Al3+ and/or Fe2+ via the process of chelation.

  17. USE OF ORGANIC MATERIALS WETLAND TO IMPROVING THE CAPACITY SULFATE REDUCTION BACTERIA (SRB) OF REDUCE SULFATE IN ACID MINE WATER (AMW)

    Fahruddin

    2013-01-01

    Increasing mining activities in several regions in Indonesia, began to face problems, namely of environmental pollution. One of the mining waste that is liquid sulfur, or acid mine water, which can lower the pH of the water and dissolves heavy metals. Countermeasures for the chemical method is to use lime, but this is less effective. The method is good and is environmentally friendly way by using biological bacteria sulphate reduction bacteria (SRB) that naturally there are many in the sedime...

  18. Sulfation of chondroitin. Specificity, degree of sulfation, and detergent effects with 4-sulfating and 6-sulfating microsomal systems

    Microsomal preparations from chondroitin 6-sulfate-producing chick embryo epiphyseal cartilage, and from chondroitin 4-sulfate-producing mouse mastocytoma cells, were incubated with UDP-[14C]glucuronic acid and UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine to form non-sulfated proteo[14C]chondroitin. Aliquots of the incubations were then incubated with 3'-phosphoadenylylphosphosulfate (PAPS) in the presence or absence of various detergents. In the absence of detergents, there was good sulfation of this endogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin by the original microsomes from both sources. Detergents, with the exception of Triton X-100, markedly inhibited sulfation in the mast cell system but not in the chick cartilage system. These results indicate that sulfation and polymerization are closely linked on cell membranes and that in some cases this organization can be disrupted by detergents. When aliquots of the original incubation were heat inactivated, and then reincubated with new microsomes from chick cartilage and/or mouse mastocytoma cells plus PAPS, there was no significant sulfation of this exogenous proteo[14C] chondroitin with either system unless Triton X-100 was added. Sulfation of exogenous chondroitin and chondroitin hexasaccharide was compared with sulfation of endogenous and exogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin. Sulfate incorporation into hexasaccharide and chondroitin decreased as their concentrations (based on uronic acid) approached that of the proteo[14C]chondroitin. At the same time, the degree of sulfation in percent of substituted hexosamine increased. However, the degree of sulfation did not reach that of the endogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin. Hexasaccharide and chondroitin sulfation were stimulated by the presence of Triton X-100. However, in contrast to the exogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin, there was some sulfation of hexasaccharide and chondroitin in the absence of this detergent

  19. Effect of dextran and dextran sulfate on the structural and rheological properties of model acid milk gels.

    Pachekrepapol, U; Horne, D S; Lucey, J A

    2015-05-01

    Various types of polysaccharides are widely used in cultured dairy products. However, the interaction mechanisms, between milk proteins and these polysaccharides, are not entirely clear. To explore the interactions between uncharged and charged polysaccharides and the caseins, we used a model acid-milk-gel system, which allowed acidification to occur separately from gelation. The effect of adding uncharged dextran (DX; molecular weight ~2.0×10(6) Da) and negatively charged dextran sulfate (DS; molecular weight ~1.4×10(6) Da) to model acid milk gels was studied. Two concentrations (0.075 and 0.5%, wt/wt) of DX or DS were added to cold milk (~0°C) that had been acidified to pH values 4.4, 4.6, 4.8, or 4.9. Acidified milks containing DX or DS were then quiescently heated at the rate of 0.5°C/min to 30°C, which induced gelation, and gels were then held at 30°C for 17 h to facilitate gel development. Dynamic small-amplitude-oscillation rheology and large-deformation (shear) tests were performed. Microstructure of gels was examined by fluorescence microscopy. Gels made with a high concentration of DX gelled at a lower temperature, but after 17 h at 30°C, these gels exhibited lower storage moduli and lower yield-stress values. At pH 4.8 or 4.9 (pH values greater than the isoelectric point of caseins), addition of 0.5% DS to acidified milk resulted in lower gelation temperature. At pH 4.4 (pH values less than the isoelectric point of caseins), addition of 0.5% DS to acidified milk resulted in gels with very high stiffness values. Gels made at pH 4.8 or 4.9 with both concentrations of DS had much lower stiffness and yield-stress values than control gels. Microstructural analysis indicated that gels made at pH 4.4 with the addition of 0.5% DX exhibited large protein strands and pores, whereas gels made with 0.075% DX or the control gels had a finer protein matrix. At higher pH values (>4.4), gels made with 0.5% DX had a finer structure. At all pH values, gels made

  20. Liquid-liquid phase separation and morphology of internally mixed dicarboxylic acids/ammonium sulfate/water particles

    M. Song

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the physical state and morphology of internally mixed organic/inorganic aerosol particles is still largely uncertain. To obtain more detailed information on liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS and morphology of the particles, we investigated complex mixtures of atmospherically relevant dicarboxylic acids containing 5, 6, and 7 carbon atoms (C5, C6 and C7 having oxygen-to-carbon atomic ratios (O:C of 0.80, 0.67, and 0.57, respectively, mixed with ammonium sulfate (AS. With micrometer-sized particles of C5/AS/H2O, C6/AS/H2O and C7/AS/H2O as model systems deposited on a hydrophobically coated substrate, laboratory experiments were conducted for various organic-to-inorganic dry mass ratios (OIR using optical microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. When exposed to cycles of relative humidity (RH, each system showed significantly different phase transitions. While the C5/AS/H2O particles showed no LLPS with OIR = 2:1, 1:1 and 1:4 down to 20% RH, the C6/AS/H2O and C7/AS/H2O particles exhibit LLPS upon drying at RH 50 to 85% and ~90%, respectively, via spinodal decomposition, growth of a second phase from the particle surface or nucleation-and-growth mechanisms depending on the OIR. This suggests that LLPS commonly occurs within the range of O:C < 0.7 in tropospheric organic/inorganic aerosols. To support the comparison and interpretation of the experimentally observed phase transitions, thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were performed with the AIOMFAC model. For the C7/AS/H2O and C6/AS/H2O systems, the calculated phase diagrams agree well with the observations while for the C5/AS/H2O system LLPS is predicted by the model at RH below 60% and higher AS concentration, but was not observed in the experiments. Both core-shell structures and partially engulfed structures were observed for the investigated particles, suggesting that such

  1. Liquid-liquid phase separation and morphology of internally mixed dicarboxylic acids/ammonium sulfate/water particles

    M. Song

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the physical state and morphology of internally mixed organic/inorganic aerosol particles is still largely uncertain. To obtain more detailed information on liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS and morphology of the particles, we investigated complex mixtures of atmospherically relevant dicarboxylic acids containing 5–7 carbon atoms (C5, C6 and C7 having oxygen-to-carbon atomic ratios (O:C of 0.80, 0.67, and 0.57, respectively, mixed with ammonium sulfate (AS. With micrometer-sized particles of C5/AS/H2O, C6/AS/H2O and C7/AS/H2O as model systems deposited on a hydrophobically coated substrate, laboratory experiments were conducted for various organic-to-inorganic dry mass ratios (OIR using optical microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. When exposed to cycles of relative humidity (RH, each system showed significantly different phase transitions. While the C5/AS/H2O particles showed no LLPS with OIR = 2:1, 1:1 and 1:4 down to 20% RH, the C6/AS/H2O and C7/AS/H2O particles exhibit LLPS upon drying at RH 50% to 85% and ~90%, respectively, via spinodal decomposition, growth of a second phase from the particle surface or nucleation-and-growth mechanisms depending on the OIR. This suggests that LLPS commonly occurs within the range of O:C<0.7 in tropospheric organic-inorganic aerosols. To support the comparison and interpretation of the experimentally observed phase transitions, thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were performed with the AIOMFAC model. For the C7/AS/H2O and C6/AS/H2O systems, the calculated phase diagrams agree well with the observations while for the C5/AS/H2O system LLPS is predicted by the model at RH below 60% and higher AS concentration, but was not observed in the experiments. Both core-shell structures and partially engulfed structures were observed for the investigated particles, suggesting that such morphologies

  2. Quantification of Tinto River sediment microbial communities: importance of sulfate-reducing bacteria and their role in attenuating acid mine drainage.

    Sánchez-Andrea, Irene; Knittel, Katrin; Amann, Rudolf; Amils, Ricardo; Sanz, José Luis

    2012-07-01

    Tinto River (Huelva, Spain) is a natural acidic rock drainage (ARD) environment produced by the bio-oxidation of metallic sulfides from the Iberian Pyritic Belt. This study quantified the abundance of diverse microbial populations inhabiting ARD-related sediments from two physicochemically contrasting sampling sites (SN and JL dams). Depth profiles of total cell numbers differed greatly between the two sites yet were consistent in decreasing sharply at greater depths. Although catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization with domain-specific probes showed that Bacteria (>98%) dominated over Archaea (water column (pH 2.5 and +400 mV), the most abundant organisms were identified as iron-reducing bacteria: Acidithiobacillus spp. and Acidiphilium spp., probably related to the higher iron solubility at low pH. At the JL dam, characterized by a banded sediment with higher pH (4.2 to 6.2), more reducing redox potential (-210 mV to 50 mV), and a lower solubility of iron, members of sulfate-reducing genera Syntrophobacter, Desulfosporosinus, and Desulfurella were dominant. The latter was quantified with a newly designed CARD-FISH probe. In layers where sulfate-reducing bacteria were abundant, pH was higher and redox potential and levels of dissolved metals and iron were lower. These results suggest that the attenuation of ARD characteristics is biologically driven by sulfate reducers and the consequent precipitation of metals and iron as sulfides. PMID:22544246

  3. Hydrological processes behind annual and decadal-scale variations in the water quality of runoff in Finnish catchments with acid sulfate soils

    Toivonen, Janne; Österholm, Peter; Fröjdö, Sören

    2013-04-01

    SummaryIn this study we assess long- and short term temporal variations in the impact of acid sulfate (a.s.) soils on river water quality. We demonstrate how such variations depend on changes in hydrological conditions driven by land use, meteorological variations and potential changes in climate with important implications on mitigation strategies, water ecology and utilization of water resources. Quality of river water discharging into the Larsmo-Öja Lake in Midwestern Finland was studied by using long term water data collected during 1963-2009. Acid sulfate soils are extremely acidic soils (pH depletion of the acidic pool in the existing a.s. soils. In the short run, water quality varied greatly due to varying hydrological conditions between seasons and years. Generally, the impact from a.s. soils was highest during high runoff in autumn and spring, and therefore, neutralization of acidity in discharge water by liming would at such occasions be very demanding. The relationship between the runoff and water quality was, however, somewhat different during different seasons. As expected, dry summers (low ground water levels) were found to increase the impact from a.s. soils in the subsequent autumn, but only if runoff was high. Towards the end of the study period winters tended to become warmer with higher runoff and spring floods tended to occur earlier. Thus, events with bad water quality during the winter months have become more common and acidic spring surges occur earlier. Seen from the data in this study, it is obvious that potential changes in the future climate will have significant consequences on the impact from a.s. soils on water courses.

  4. Effect of COD:SO4 2− Ratio, HRT and Linoleic Acid Concentration on Mesophilic Sulfate Reduction: Reactor Performance and Microbial Population Dynamics

    Chungman Moon; Rajesh Singh; Sathyanarayan S. Veeravalli; Saravanan R. Shanmugam; Subba Rao Chaganti; Jerald A. Lalman; Heath, Daniel D.

    2015-01-01

    Biological sulfate (SO42−) reduction was examined in anaerobic sequential batch reactors (ASBRs) operated under different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) ranging from 12 to 36 h and COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand)/SO42−) ratios of 2.4, 1.6 and 0.8. Competition between SO42− reducing bacteria (SRBs), methane producing archaea (MPAs) and homoacetogens (HACs) was examined in controls and cultures treated with linoleic acid (LA). The ASBR performance was influenced by the COD/SO42− ratio in control...

  5. Enhanced sulfate reduction with acidogenic sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Sulfate reduction in a continuous flow, acidogenic reactor using molasses wastewater as the carbon source was studied at varying chemical oxygen demand/sulfate (COD/SO42-) ratios. At a critical COD/SO42- ratio of 2.7, neither COD nor sulfate were in excess for extra production of ethanol or acetate in the reactor. An acetic-type microbial metabolism was established with sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) significantly consuming hydrogen and volatile fatty acids produced by acidogenic bacteria and hydrogen producing acetogens in degrading COD, thereby yielding sulfate removal rate >94.6%. A low critical COD/SO42- ratio of 1.6 was also observed with the enriched ASRB population in reactor which overcomes the barrier to the treatment capability of sulfate-laden wastewater treatment with limited COD supply

  6. The Hydrothermal System at Home Plate in Gusev Crater, Mars: Formation of High Silica Material by Acid-Sulfate Alteration of Basalt

    Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Gellert, R.; Yen, A.; Clark, B. C.; Gnaff, T. G.; Arvidson, R. E.; Squyres, S. W.

    2008-01-01

    The Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit measured three targets on or adjacent to Home Plate in Gusev Crater that have unusually high SiO2 concentrations (68% to 91%), unusually low FeO concentrations (1% to 7%, with total Fe as FeO), and unusually high TiO2/FeO ratios (0.2 to 1.2 by weight) [1]. Two targets (Kenosha Comets and Lefty Ganote) are located on high albedo soil (Gertrude Weise) that was exposed by the rover wheels, and one target is a float rock called Fuzzy Smith. Kenosha Comets has the highest SiO2 concentration, lowest FeO concentration, and highest TiO2/FeO ratio. Mineralogical evidence from the MER Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) suggests that the SiO2 is present as amorphous (noncrystalline) SiO2 at Gertrude Weise and nearby targets [2,3]. Mini-TES data were not acquired for Fuzzy Smith. Home Plate is considered to have an explosive volcanic origin, resulting when basaltic magma came into contact with ground water or ice [4]. Within 50 m to 1 km of Home Plate are sulfate rich soil deposits (Paso Robles class soils with 22-35% SO3) which are considered to be probable fumarolic and/or hydrothermal deposits associated with the volcanism [5]. We develop the model here, suggested by [5], that the high-silica materials are another manifestation of acid-sulfate processes associated with fumarolic and hydrothermal activity at Home Plate. This is done by analogy with basaltic materials altered by acid sulfate processes on the Island of Hawaii.

  7. An HPLC method for microanalysis and pharmacokinetics of marine sulfated polysaccharide PSS-loaded poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles in rat plasma.

    Li, Peng-Li; Li, Chun-Xia; Xue, Yi-Ting; Li, Hai-Hua; Liu, Hong-Bing; He, Xiao-Xi; Yu, Guang-Li; Guan, Hua-Shi

    2013-04-01

    This study was aimed at developing a sensitive and selective HPLC method with postcolumn fluorescence derivatization for the detection of propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS) in rat plasma. Plasma samples were prepared by a simple and fast ultrafiltration method. PSS was extracted from rat plasma with D-glucuronic acid as internal standard. Isocratic chromatographic separation was performed on a TSKgel G2500 PWxL column with the mobile phase of 0.1 M sodium sulfate at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Analyte detection was achieved by fluorescence detection (FLD) at 250 nm (excitation) and 435 nm (emission) using guanidine hydrochloride as postcolumn derivatizing reagent in an alkaline medium at 120 °C. The calibration curve was linear over a concentration range of 1-500 μg/mL, and the lower limit of detection (LLOD) was found to be 250 ng/mL. This validated method was applied successfully to the pharmacokinetic study of PSS and PSS-loaded poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (PSS-NP) in rat plasma after a single intravenous (PSS only) and oral administration (PSS and PSS-NP). Significant differences in the main pharmacokinetic parameters of PSS and PSS-NP were observed. The relative bioavailability of PSS-NP was 190.10% compared with PSS which shows that PSS-NP can improve oral bioavailability. PMID:23549283

  8. An HPLC Method for Microanalysis and Pharmacokinetics of Marine Sulfated Polysaccharide PSS-Loaded Poly Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid (PLGA Nanoparticles in Rat Plasma

    Hua-Shi Guan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at developing a sensitive and selective HPLC method with postcolumn fluorescence derivatization for the detection of propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS in rat plasma. Plasma samples were prepared by a simple and fast ultrafiltration method. PSS was extracted from rat plasma with d-glucuronic acid as internal standard. Isocratic chromatographic separation was performed on a TSKgel G2500 PWxL column with the mobile phase of 0.1 M sodium sulfate at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Analyte detection was achieved by fluorescence detection (FLD at 250 nm (excitation and 435 nm (emission using guanidine hydrochloride as postcolumn derivatizing reagent in an alkaline medium at 120 °C. The calibration curve was linear over a concentration range of 1–500 μg/mL, and the lower limit of detection (LLOD was found to be 250 ng/mL. This validated method was applied successfully to the pharmacokinetic study of PSS and PSS-loaded poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticles (PSS-NP in rat plasma after a single intravenous (PSS only and oral administration (PSS and PSS-NP. Significant differences in the main pharmacokinetic parameters of PSS and PSS-NP were observed. The relative bioavailability of PSS-NP was 190.10% compared with PSS which shows that PSS-NP can improve oral bioavailability.

  9. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1461 - Manganese sulfate.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Manganese sulfate. 184.1461 Section 184.1461 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Manganese sulfate (MnSO4·H2O, CAS... manganese compounds with sulfuric acid. It is also obtained as a byproduct in the manufacture...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to...

  12. One-pot Green Synthesis of Pyrrole Derivatives Catalyzed by Nano Sulfated Zirconia as a Solid Acid Catalyst%One-pot Green Synthesis of Pyrrole Derivatives Catalyzed by Nano Sulfated Zirconia as a Solid Acid Catalyst

    Teimouri, Abbas; Chermahini, Alireza Najafi

    2012-01-01

    A new and efficient method for the preparation of N-substituted pyrroles from one-pot Paal-Knorr condensation has been accomplished using nano-crystalline sulfated zirconia (SZ) as the catalyst in ethanol at moderate temperature. This new protocol has the advantages of easy availability, stability, reusability and eco-friendliness of the catalyst, high to excellent yields, simple experimental and work-up procedure. The synthesized compounds were confirmed through spectral characterization using IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectra.

  13. Effects of Long-Term Acid-Mine Drainage Contamination on Diversity and Activity of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in a Natural Salt Marsh.

    Moreau, J. W.; Banfield, J. F.

    2003-12-01

    Constructed wetlands have been studied as sites or analogs for in situ bioremediation of metal contaminants from acid mine drainage (AMD) or industrial sources (e.g. Webb et al. 1998). Wetlands bioremediation necessarily invokes the ubiquity and robustness of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) to sequester dissolved metals into various poorly soluble metal-sulfides (e.g. PbS, CdS). However, few studies of natural wetlands under long-term ecological forcing by AMD or other contaminant sources are available for context. We are investigating the microbial diversity, mineralogy and geochemistry of a highly contaminated salt marsh along the East Central San Francisco Bay. For nearly a half-century, areas within this marsh have received acidic and/or metal-rich groundwaters from near-surface pyrite tailings (transported there from Iron Mountain Mine, near Redding, CA) and local industrial sources (e.g. paint and explosives manufacturers). Sediment cores (30-40 cm long) were taken from six contaminated sites in the marsh with pH range of ˜2 to ˜8. Previous analyses (URS Corp. 2001) reported As, Cd, Cu, Se, Zn, and Pb present in sediments at extremely high concentrations (100s of ppm), yet our ICP-AES analyses of pore waters showed only As present at concentrations of 10-50 ppb. We infer, from high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) studies of biogenic (SRB biofilm) ZnS (Moreau et al. 2003, in review) and marsh sediments, that contaminant metals have been sequestered into aggregates of nanocrystalline metal-sulfides. Continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer (CF-IRMS) analyses of pore-water sulfate and sedimentary sulfides allow resolution of contributions to dissolved sulfate and sulfide from tailings oxidation and dissimilatory sulfate reduction. Sulfate analyses from subsections of three cores (pH 2-3, 6-7, 7-8, respectively) all yield δ 34S values consistent with bacterial sulfate reduction. We note that all three cores also contain very fine

  14. Effect of excess dietary iron as ferrous sulfate and excess dietary ascorbic acid on liver zinc, copper and sulfhydryl groups and the ovary

    Female guinea pigs of the NIH 13/N strain, weighing between 475 and 512 g, were fed diets supplemented with 50 to 2500 mg of iron per kg of diet as ferrous sulfate and 0.2 to 8.0 g of ascorbic acid per kg of diet. A significant effect was observed on tissue copper and zinc, ovary weight and liver protein sulfhydryl groups. The mean ovary weight for guinea pigs fed 2500 mg of iron was significantly less than that of animals fed 50 mg of iron, 0.045 +/- 0.012 g and 0.061 +/- 0.009 g, respectively. Liver zinc content of animals fed 2500 mg of iron and 200 mg of ascorbic acid per kg of diet was significantly less than that of animals fed 50 mg of iron and 200 mg of ascorbic acid, 16.3 +/- 3.3 μg and 19.6 +/- 1.6 μg, respectively. There was no difference in liver copper due to dietary iron, but when dietary ascorbic acid was increased to 8 g per kg of diet, there was a significant decrease (from 22.8 +/- 8.1 μg to 10.5 +/- 4.8 μg) in liver copper. Excess dietary ascorbic acid decreased ovarian zinc significantly when increased to 8 g per kg of diet, 2929 +/- 919 μg vs 1661 +/- 471 μg, respectively, when compared to the control group

  15. Acetylsalicylic Acid Reduces the Severity of Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis and Increases the Formation of Anti-Inflammatory Lipid Mediators

    Thomas Köhnke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in inflammatory bowel disease is controversial, as they have been implicated in disease aggravation. Different from other cyclooxygenase inhibitors, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA enhances the formation of anti-inflammatory and proresolution lipoxins derived from arachidonic acid as well as resolvins from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. In this study, we examined the effect of ASA on murine dextran sodium sulfate colitis. A mouse magnetic resonance imaging (MRI protocol and post mortem assessment were used to assess disease severity, and lipid metabolites were measured using liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry. Decreased colitis activity was demonstrated by phenotype and MRI assessment in mice treated with ASA, and confirmed in postmortem analysis. Analysis of lipid mediators showed sustained formation of lipoxin A4 and an increase of DHA-derived 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (17-HDHA after treatment with ASA. Furthermore, in vitro experiments in RAW264.7 murine macrophages demonstrated significantly increased phagocytosis activity after incubation with 17-HDHA, supporting its proresolution effect. These results show a protective effect of ASA in a murine colitis model and could give a rationale for a careful reassessment of ASA therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and particularly ulcerative colitis, possibly combined with DHA supplementation.

  16. Heparin cofactor II is degraded by heparan sulfate and dextran sulfate.

    Saito, Akio

    2015-02-20

    Heparan sulfate normally binds to heparin cofactor II and modulates the coagulation pathway by inhibiting thrombin. However, when human heparin cofactor II was incubated with heparan sulfate, heparin cofactor II became degraded. Other glycosaminoglycans were tested, including hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfates, dermatan sulfate, and heparin, but only dextran sulfate also degraded heparin cofactor II. Pretreatment of heparan sulfate with heparinase reduced its heparin cofactor II-degrading activity. Heparan sulfate and dextran sulfate diminished the thrombin inhibitory activity of heparin cofactor II. Other serpins, including antithrombin III and pigment epithelium-derived factor, were also degraded by heparan sulfate. This is the first evidence of acidic polysaccharides exhibiting protein-degrading activity without the aid of other proteins. PMID:25600805

  17. Models of Metabolic Community Structure in Martian Habitable Environments: Constraints from a Terrestrial Analog Acid-Sulfate Fumarole Environment, Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua

    Rogers, K. L.; McCollom, T. M.; Hynek, B. M.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial habitability in extreme environments on Earth is described by microscale geochemical conditions that constrain metabolic niches in concert with long-term habitat stability that is governed by dynamic geologic processes. Using terrestrial analogs to identify habitable martian environments requires correlating microscale geochemical constraints with reconstructions of past martian environments that are based on global-scale observations. While past martian environments can be characterized by primary parameters (e.g. pH, redox, mineralogy, thermal history), microbial habitability on Earth is a complex function of both primary and derived parameters (e.g. metabolic reaction energetics, chemical & thermal gradients, flow dynamics). In recent years we have been investigating acid-sulfate fumaroles at the Mars analog site, Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua, where habitability is constrained by steep thermal gradients, spatially- and temporally-variable vent dynamics, and limited water and nutrient availability. The most common niche identified thus far is found in fumaroles that host mixed photosynthetic and chemosynthetic endolithic microbial communities. One such endolith is dominated by acidic red algae (Cyanidiales), aerobic bacterial heterotrophs (Ktedonobacteria), and archaeal thermoacidophiles (Hyperthermus, Caldisphaera, and Thermofilum). An analysis of the metabolic structure suggests that primary production by the red algae supports the growth of heterotrophic thermoacidophiles. Diversification among the chemoheterotrophs with respect to temperature and oxygen tolerance suggests community adaptation to environmental gradients or variable venting dynamics. Furthermore, individual cells within the endolith are silica-encrusted, providing the possibility for biosignature formation and preservation. Putative hydrothermal environments on early Mars with similar conditions could have supported endolithic communities with comparable metabolic strategies. Even

  18. Barium Sulfate

    ... using x-rays or computed tomography (CAT scan, CT scan; a type of body scan that uses ... be clearly seen by x-ray examination or CT scan. ... more times before an x-ray examination or CT scan.If you are using a barium sulfate ...

  19. H3OLa(SO4)2 . 3 H2O: a new acidic sulfate of the rare earth elements

    Colorless single crystals of H3OLa(SO4)2 . 3 H2O have been obtained by the reaction of La2O3 and sulfuric acid (80% H2SO4) at 150 C. In the crystal structure (monoclinic, P21/c, Z = 4, a = 1119.5(5), b = 693.3(2), c = 1357.4(4) pm, β = 110.94(4) ) La3+ is ninefold coordinated by oxygen atoms which belong to five SO4- ions and three H2O molecules. One of sulfate groups acts as a bidentate ligand. Hydrogen bonding is observed with H2O molecules as donors and acceptors. Furthermore, strong hydrogen bonds are formed between the H3O+ ions and oxygen atoms of the SO42- groups. (orig.)

  20. Effectiveness of acidic calcium sulfate with propionic and lactic acid and lactates as postprocessing dipping solutions to control Listeria monocytogenes on frankfurters with or without potassium lactate and stored vacuum packaged at 4.5 degrees C.

    Nuñez de Gonzalez, Maryuri T; Keeton, Jimmy T; Acuff, Gary R; Ringer, Larry J; Lucia, Lisa M

    2004-05-01

    The safety of ready-to-eat meat products such as frankfurters can be enhanced by treating with approved antimicrobial substances to control the growth of Listeria monocytogenes. We evaluated the effectiveness of acidic calcium sulfate with propionic and lactic acid, potassium lactate, or lactic acid postprocessing dipping solutions to control L. monocytogenes inoculated (ca. 10(8) CFU/ml) onto the surface of frankfurters with or without potassium lactate and stored in vacuum packages at 4.5 degrees C for up to 12 weeks. Two frankfurter formulations were manufactured without (control) or with potassium lactate (KL, 3.3% of a 60% [wt/wt] commercially available syrup). After cooking, chilling, and peeling, each batch was divided into inoculated (four strains of L. monocytogenes mixture) and noninoculated groups. Each group was treated with four different dips: (i) control (saline solution), (ii) acidic calcium sulfate with propionic and lactic acid (ACS, 1:2 water), (iii) KL, or (iv) lactic acid (LA, 3.4% of a 88% [wt/wt] commercially available syrup) for 30 s. Noninoculated frankfurters were periodically analyzed for pH, water activity, residual nitrite, and aerobic plate counts (APCs), and L. monocytogenes counts (modified Oxford medium) were determined on inoculated samples. Surface APC counts remained at or near the lower limit of detection (dip, which indicated a residual bactericidal effect when L. monocytogenes populations were monitored over 12 weeks. L. monocytogenes numbers were also reduced, but not to the same degree in franks made without or with KL and treated with LA. These results revealed the effectiveness of ACS (bactericidal effect) or LA (bacteriostatic effect) as postprocessing dipping solutions to inhibit or control the growth of L. monocytogenes on vacuum-packaged frankfurters stored at 4.5 degrees C for up to 12 weeks. PMID:15151227

  1. Metabolomics analysis reveals elevation of 3-indoxyl sulfate in plasma and brain during chemically-induced acute kidney injury in mice: Investigation of nicotinic acid receptor agonists

    An investigative renal toxicity study using metabolomics was conducted with a potent nicotinic acid receptor (NAR) agonist, SCH 900424. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques were used to identify small molecule biomarkers of acute kidney injury (AKI) that could aid in a better mechanistic understanding of SCH 900424-induced AKI in mice. The metabolomics study revealed 3-indoxyl sulfate (3IS) as a more sensitive marker of SCH 900424-induced renal toxicity than creatinine or urea. An LC-MS assay for quantitative determination of 3IS in mouse matrices was also developed. Following treatment with SCH 900424, 3IS levels were markedly increased in murine plasma and brain, thereby potentially contributing to renal- and central nervous system (CNS)-related rapid onset of toxicities. Furthermore, significant decrease in urinary excretion of 3IS in those animals due to compromised renal function may be associated with the elevation of 3IS in plasma and brain. These data suggest that 3IS has a potential to be a marker of renal and CNS toxicities during chemically-induced AKI in mice. In addition, based on the metabolomic analysis other statistically significant plasma markers including p-cresol-sulfate and tryptophan catabolites (kynurenate, kynurenine, 3-indole-lactate) might be of toxicological importance but have not been studied in detail. This comprehensive approach that includes untargeted metabolomic and targeted bioanalytical sample analyses could be used to investigate toxicity of other compounds that pose preclinical or clinical development challenges in a pharmaceutical discovery and development. - Research highlights: → Nicotinic acid receptor agonist, SCH 900424, caused acute kidney injury in mice. → MS-based metabolomics was conducted to identify potential small molecule markers of renal toxicity. → 3-indoxyl-sulfate was found to be as a more sensitive marker of renal toxicity than

  2. Influence of Biomass Burning on Temporal and Diurnal Variations of Acidic Gases, Particulate Nitrate, and Sulfate in a Tropical Urban Atmosphere

    Sailesh N. Behera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the temporal and diurnal distributions of atmospheric acidic gases (sulphur dioxide (SO2, nitrous acid (HONO, and nitric acid (HNO3 and those of particulate nitrate (NO3- and sulfate (SO42- through a comprehensive field campaign during the largest smoke haze episode in Singapore, a representative country in Southeast Asia (SEA. To identify the atmospheric behavior of these pollutants during the smoke haze period, the data generated from the measurement campaign were divided into three distinct periods: prehaze, during haze, and posthaze periods. The 24 hr average data indicated that ambient SO2, HONO, and HNO3 during the smoke haze episodes increased by a factor ranging from 1.2 to 2.6 compared to those during the prehaze and posthaze periods. Similarly, in the case of particulates SO42- and NO3-, the factor ranged from 2.3 to 4.2. Backward air trajectories were constructed and used to find the sources of biomass burning to the recurring smoke haze in this region. The air trajectory analysis showed that the smoke haze episodes experienced in Singapore were influenced by transboundary air pollution, caused by severe biomass burning events in the islands of Indonesia.

  3. Effect of a Long Chain Carboxylate Acid on Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelle Structure: A Small-angle Neutron Scattering Study

    The effect of different hydrocarbon chain length of carboxylate acid, i.e. dodecanoic acid, CH3(CH2)10COOH and hexadecanoic acid, CH3(CH2)14COOH as a co-surfactant in the 0.3M SDS micellar solution has been studied using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). Here, the present of dodecanoic acid has induced the SDS structural micelles. The ellipsoid micelles structures changed significantly in length (major axis) from 21.7 Armstrong to 35.5 Armstrong at a fixed minor axis of 16.7 Armstrong in the present of 0.005M to 0.1M dodecanoic acid. Nevertheless, this effect was not shown in the present of hexadecanoic acid with the same concentration range. The present of hexadecanoic acid molecules gave a small effect on growth of SDS micelles where the major axis of the micelle was simply elongated from 21.5 Armstrong to 23.5 Armstrong. It showed that the appropriate hydrocarbon chain length between surfactant and co-surfactant molecules is one of the determining factors in forming a mixed micelles structure. (author)

  4. Expanding the 3-O-Sulfate Proteome-Enhanced Binding of Neuropilin-1 to 3-O-Sulfated Heparan Sulfate Modulates Its Activity.

    Thacker, Bryan E; Seamen, Emylie; Lawrence, Roger; Parker, Matthew W; Xu, Yongmei; Liu, Jian; Vander Kooi, Craig W; Esko, Jeffrey D

    2016-04-15

    Binding of proteins to heparan sulfate is driven predominantly by electrostatic interactions between positively charged amino acid residues in the protein and negatively charged sulfate groups located at various positions along the polysaccharide chain. Although many heparin/heparan-sulfate-binding proteins have been described, few exhibit preferential binding for heparan sulfates containing relatively rare 3-O-sulfated glucosamine residues. To expand the "3-O-sulfate proteome," affinity matrices were created from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell heparan sulfate engineered in vitro with and without 3-O-sulfate groups. Fractionation of different animal sera yielded several proteins that bound specifically to columns containing 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate modified by two members of the heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferase superfamily, Hs3st1 and Hs3st2. Neuropilin-1 was analyzed in detail because it has been implicated in angiogenesis and axon guidance. We show that 3-O-sulfation enhanced the binding of neuropilin-1 to heparan sulfate immobilized on plastic plates and to heparan sulfate present on cultured cells. Chemoenzymatically synthesized 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate dodecamers protected neuropilin-1 from thermal denaturation and inhibited neuropilin-1-dependent, semaphorin-3a-induced growth cone collapse of neurons derived from murine dorsal root ganglia. The effect of 3-O-sulfation was cell autonomous and specific to Hs3st2 based on collapse assays of neurons derived from Hs3st1- and Hs3st2-deficient mice. Finally, 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate enhanced the inhibition of endothelial cell sprouting by exogenous heparan sulfate. These findings demonstrate a reliable method to identify members of the 3-O-sulfate proteome and that 3-O-sulfation of heparan sulfate can modulate axonal growth cone collapse and endothelial cell sprouting. PMID:26731579

  5. Use of ferric sulfate: acid media for the desulfurization of model compounds of coal. [Dibenzothiophene, diphenyl sulfide, di-n-butyl sulfide

    Clary, L.R.; Vermeulen, T.; Lynn, S.

    1980-12-01

    The objective of this work has been to investigate the ability of ferric sulfate-acid leach systems to oxidize the sulfur in model compounds of coal. Ferric iron-acid leach systems have been shown to be quite effective at removal of inorganic sulfur in coal. In this study, the oxidative effect of ferric iron in acid-leach systems was studied using dibenzothiophene, diphenyl sulfide, and di-n-butyl sulfide as models of organic sulfur groups in coal. Nitrogen and oxygen, as well as various transition metal catalysts and oxidants, were utilized in this investigation. Dibenzothiophene was found to be quite refractory to oxidation, except in the case where metavanadate was added, where it appears that 40% oxidation to sulfone could have occurred per hour at 150/sup 0/C and mild oxygen pressure. Diphenyl sulfide was selectively oxidized to sulfoxide and sulfone in an iron and oxygen system. Approximately 15% conversion to sulfone occurred per hour under these conditions. Some of the di-n-butyl sulfide was cracked to 1-butene and 1-butanethiol under similar conditions. Zinc chloride and ferric iron were used at 200/sup 0/C in an attempt to desulfonate dibenzothiophene sulfone, diphenyl sulfone, and di-n-butyl sulfone. Di-n-butyl sulfone was completely desulfurized on one hour and fragmented to oxidized parafins, while dibenzothiophene sulfone and diphenyl sulfone were unaffected. These results suggest that an iron-acid leach process could only selectively oxidize aryl sulfides under mild conditions, representing only 20% of the organic sulfur in coal (8% of the total sulfur). Removal through desulfonation once selective sulfur oxidation had occurred was only demonstrated for alkyl sulfones, with severe oxidation of the fragmented paraffins also occurring in one hour.

  6. Iron-hydroxide, iron-sulfate and hydrous-silica coatings in acid-mine tailings facilities: A comparative study of their trace-element composition

    Highlights: → Distribution and concentration of trace elements in rock coatings in Acid-Mine-Drainage systems. → Coatings occur along ponds and lakes of different pH and composition and are composed of Fe-hydroxides, Fe-sulfates and hydrous silica. → Silica-rich coatings have higher or similar trace-elements concentrations to Fe-rich coatings. → High trace-metal concentrations in Si-rich coatings are the result of the formation of jarosite-type phases in a silica-rich matrix. → Jarosite-type phases nucleate in silica-rich coatings via mixing of Fe-sulfate-rich solutions with trace-elements of underlying rock. - Abstract: Surface alteration-layers often coat minerals in acid-mine drainage systems and the characterization of their chemical composition is required to understand the uptake or release of potentially toxic elements. Samples with micrometer-thick rock coatings were collected from bedrock in contact with three acidic tailings ponds and a small lake, all located within the Copper Cliff mine tailings disposal area in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. Distribution and concentration of trace-metals in the rock coatings were characterized with Laser-Ablation Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy and Micro X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy. The rock coatings are composed of goethite, ferrihydrite, schwertmannite, jarosite and amorphous silica. The latter phase is a product of the non-stoichiometric weathering of the underlying siliceous rock. Layers within the coatings are distinguished on the basis of their atomic Fe:Si ratios: FeOx coatings have Fe:Si > 4:1, Si-FeOx coatings have Fe:Si = 4:1 to 1:1 and SiOx coatings have Si > Fe. Iron-rich coatings (FeOx) in contact with acidic tailings ponds (pH x in contact with lake water at near neutral pH have similar trace-metal concentrations than Si-FeOx and SiOx, most likely the result of higher adsorption rates of metals at near neutral pH conditions. High trace-metal concentrations in Si-FeOx and SiOx are

  7. Iron-hydroxide, iron-sulfate and hydrous-silica coatings in acid-mine tailings facilities: A comparative study of their trace-element composition

    Durocher, J.L. [Department of Earth Sciences, Laurentian University, Sudbury, ON, P3E 2C6 (Canada); Schindler, M., E-mail: mschindler@laurentian.ca [Department of Earth Sciences, Laurentian University, Sudbury, ON, P3E 2C6 (Canada)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Distribution and concentration of trace elements in rock coatings in Acid-Mine-Drainage systems. > Coatings occur along ponds and lakes of different pH and composition and are composed of Fe-hydroxides, Fe-sulfates and hydrous silica. > Silica-rich coatings have higher or similar trace-elements concentrations to Fe-rich coatings. > High trace-metal concentrations in Si-rich coatings are the result of the formation of jarosite-type phases in a silica-rich matrix. > Jarosite-type phases nucleate in silica-rich coatings via mixing of Fe-sulfate-rich solutions with trace-elements of underlying rock. - Abstract: Surface alteration-layers often coat minerals in acid-mine drainage systems and the characterization of their chemical composition is required to understand the uptake or release of potentially toxic elements. Samples with micrometer-thick rock coatings were collected from bedrock in contact with three acidic tailings ponds and a small lake, all located within the Copper Cliff mine tailings disposal area in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. Distribution and concentration of trace-metals in the rock coatings were characterized with Laser-Ablation Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy and Micro X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy. The rock coatings are composed of goethite, ferrihydrite, schwertmannite, jarosite and amorphous silica. The latter phase is a product of the non-stoichiometric weathering of the underlying siliceous rock. Layers within the coatings are distinguished on the basis of their atomic Fe:Si ratios: FeO{sub x} coatings have Fe:Si > 4:1, Si-FeO{sub x} coatings have Fe:Si = 4:1 to 1:1 and SiO{sub x} coatings have Si > Fe. Iron-rich coatings (FeO{sub x}) in contact with acidic tailings ponds (pH < 3.5) have lower trace-metal concentrations than their Si-rich counterparts, whereas FeO{sub x} in contact with lake water at near neutral pH have similar trace-metal concentrations than Si-FeO{sub x} and SiO{sub x}, most likely the result of

  8. Sulfates on Mars: Indicators of Aqueous Processes

    Bishop, Janice L.; Lane, Melissa D.; Dyar, M. Darby; Brown, Adrian J.

    2006-01-01

    Recent analyses by MER instruments at Meridiani Planum and Gusev crater and the OMEGA instrument on Mars Express have provided detailed information about the presence of sulfates on Mars [1,2,3]. We are evaluating these recent data in an integrated multi-disciplinary study of visible-near-infrared, mid-IR and Mossbauer spectra of several sulfate minerals and sulfate-rich analog sites. Our analyses suggest that hydrated iron sulfates may account for features observed in Mossbauer and mid-IR spectra of Martian soils [4]. The sulfate minerals kieserite, gypsum and other hydrated sulfates have been identified in OMEGA spectra in the layered terrains in Valles Marineris and Terra Meridiani [2]. These recent discoveries emphasize the importance of studying sulfate minerals as tracers of aqueous processes. The sulfate-rich rock outcrops observed in Meridiani Planum may have formed in an acidic environment similar to acid rock drainage environments on Earth [5]. Because microorganisms typically are involved in the oxidation of sulfides to sulfates in terrestrial sites, sulfate-rich rock outcrops on Mars may be a good location to search for evidence of past life on that planet. Whether or not life evolved on Mars, following the trail of sulfate minerals will lead to a better understanding of aqueous processes and chemical weathering.

  9. Orbital evidence for clay and acidic sulfate assemblages on Mars based on mineralogical analogs from Rio Tinto, Spain

    Kaplan, Hannah H.; Milliken, Ralph E.; Fernández-Remolar, David; Amils, Ricardo; Robertson, Kevin; Knoll, Andrew H.

    2016-09-01

    Outcrops of hydrated minerals are widespread across the surface of Mars, with clay minerals and sulfates being commonly identified phases. Orbitally-based reflectance spectra are often used to classify these hydrated components in terms of a single mineralogy, although most surfaces likely contain multiple minerals that have the potential to record local geochemical conditions and processes. Reflectance spectra for previously identified deposits in Ius and Melas Chasma within the Valles Marineris, Mars, exhibit an enigmatic feature with two distinct absorptions between 2.2 and 2.3 μm. This spectral 'doublet' feature is proposed to result from a mixture of hydrated minerals, although the identity of the minerals has remained ambiguous. Here we demonstrate that similar spectral doublet features are observed in airborne, field, and laboratory reflectance spectra of rock and sediment samples from Rio Tinto, Spain. Combined visible-near infrared reflectance spectra and X-ray diffraction measurements of these samples reveal that the doublet feature arises from a mixture of Al-phyllosilicate (illite or muscovite) and jarosite. Analyses of orbital data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) shows that the martian spectral equivalents are also consistent with mixtures of Al-phyllosilicates and jarosite, where the Al-phyllosilicate may also include kaolinite and/or halloysite. A case study for a region within Ius Chasma demonstrates that the relative proportions of the Al-phyllosilicate(s) and jarosite vary within one stratigraphic unit as well as between stratigraphic units. The former observation suggests that the jarosite may be a diagenetic (authigenic) product and thus indicative of local pH and redox conditions, whereas the latter observation may be consistent with variations in sediment flux and/or fluid chemistry during sediment deposition.

  10. Resistance of different materials used in sewers systems:Polyvinyl chloride (PVC, polypropylene (PP and High density polyethylene (HDPE, to sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate attack.

    LASFAR Sara

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of PVC, PP and HDPE used in sewer systems exposed to acid and sulfate solutions was investigated at 25°C and 40°C. Gravimetric characterization proves that PVC has a fickian behavior. It shows also, that PP has a non-fickian behavior, characterized by a rapid acceleration of water absorption, and the HDPE has a fickian behavior at 25°C, while it has a non-fickian behavior at 40°C, characterized by a weight loss after a certain aging period. The prolongation of the time of exposure to sulfuric acid solution leads to a progressive increase in tensile strength followed by a slight decrease at 40°C. The unaged samples of all materials have a much lower tensile strength than those of the aged samples, and a drop in elongation at break could be observed. These results can be explained by the increase of crystallinity, followed by the increase of crosslinking density due to the diffusion of the solvent and the effect of the temperature as the exposure time increases. These results prove that there is a correlation between the diffusion of the solvent as well as the increased exposure time and temperature on the mechanical properties of polymer.

  11. Glucosamine sulfate

    ... bark extract, ginger root concentrate, Indian frankincense extract, turmeric root extract, cayenne, and hyaluronic acid (Instaflex Joint ... bark extract, ginger root concentrate, Indian frankincense extract, turmeric root extract, cayenne, and hyaluronic acid (Instaflex Joint ...

  12. Cysteic acid and taurine synthesis from sulphate in the chick embryo; Synthese de l'acide cysteique et de la taurine a partir du sulfate dans l'oeuf embryonne de poule

    Chapeville, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The formation of taurine from sulphate was studied in the chick embryo using the radioisotopes of: sulphur, carbon and hydrogen. The following reactions occur: 1) reduction of sulphate to sulphite; 2) fixation of the sulphite on a carbon chain with an amino group, resulting from desulphydration of L-cysteine, which leads to the formation of L-cysteic acid; 3) decarboxylation of L-cysteic acid. Reaction (1) takes place only in the endo-dermal cells of the yolk sac; reaction (2) in these same cells and in the yolk; reaction (3) is general, localized in the yolk sac, in the yolk as well as in the tissues of the embryo itself. The enzyme which catalyses reaction (2) has been purified; the coenzyme is pyridoxal phosphate. The desulphydration of cysteine by this enzyme is a reversible reaction. In non-physiological conditions of concentration and temperature, pyridoxal phosphate catalyses in the presence of metallic ions, the desulphydration of cysteine and the formation of cysteic acid from sulphite. (author) [French] On a montre que la formation de taurine a partir de sulfate dans I'oeuf embryonne de poule, etudiee a l'aide des radioisotopes, du soufre, du carbone et de l'hydrogene, correspond aux reactions suivantes: 1) reduction du sulfate en sulfite; 2) fixation du sulfite sur une chaine tricarbonee et aminee provenant de la desulfhydration de la L-cysteine, fixation conduisant a la formation d'acide L-cysteique; 3) decarboxylation de l'acide L-cysteique. La reaction (1) a lieu uniquement dans les cellules de l'endoderme du sac vitellin; la reaction (2) dans les memes cellules et dans le vitellus; la reaction (3) est plus generale, elle est localisee dans le sac vitellin, dans le vitellus et dans les tissus de l'embryon. L'enzyme qui catalyse la reaction (2) a ete purifie; il possede le phosphate de pyridoxal comme coenzyme. La desulfhydration de la cysteine par cet enzyme est une reaction reversible. Dans les conditions non

  13. Forest soil response to acid and salt additions of sulfate. 3. Solubilization and composition of dissolved organic carbon

    A year-long experiment, using reconstructed spodosol and intact alfisol soil columns, was conducted to examine the effects of various simulated throughfall solutions on soil C dynamics. Soil organic C solubilization, dissolved organic C fractions, and decomposition rates were studied using simulated acidic and salt throughfall solutions. Based on the results of the study the authors propose that throughfall solutions of pH above 3.7 will have little or no influences on dissolved organic C cycling in the types of spodosol and alfisol forest soils used here. However, at pH 3.0 some alterations in organic C solubilization, dissolved organic C fractions, and mobility could be expected

  14. Biocompatibility evaluation of dicalcium phosphate/calcium sulfate/poly (amino acid) composite for orthopedic tissue engineering in vitro and in vivo.

    Wang, Peng; Liu, Pengzheng; Peng, Haitao; Luo, Xiaoman; Yuan, Huipin; Zhang, Juncai; Yan, Yonggang

    2016-08-01

    In vitro cytocompatibility of ternary biocomposite of dicalcium phosphate (DCP) and calcium sulfate (CS) containing 40 wt% poly (amino acid) (PAA) was evaluated using L929 fibroblasts and MG-63 osteoblast-like cells. Thereafter, the biocompatibility of biocomposite in vivo was investigated using an implantation in muscle and bone model. In vitro L929 and MG-63 cell culture experiments showed that the composite and PAA polymer were noncytotoxic and allowed cells to adhere and proliferate. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) confirmed that two kinds of cells maintained their phenotype on all of samples surfaces. Moreover, the DCP/CS/PAA composite showed higher cellular viability than that of PAA; meanwhile, the cell proliferation and ALP activity were much higher when DCP/CS had added into PAA. After implanted in muscle of rabbits for 12 weeks, the histological evaluation indicated that the composite exhibited excellent biocompatibility and no inflammatory responses were found. When implanted into bone defects of femoral condyle of rabbits, the composite was combined directly with the host bone tissue without fibrous capsule tissue, which shown good biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. Thus, this novel composite may have potential application in the clinical setting. PMID:27126299

  15. Acid-Base Catalyzed Activation of n-Alkanes: n-Butane Conversion on Well-Defined Sulfated Zirconia Samples (SPP 1091)

    Papp, H.; Breitkopf, C; Jentoft, F.; Lloyd, R.; Wrabetz, S.; Meinel, K.; Förster, S; Schindler, K.; Kulla, R.; Neddermeyer, H.; Widdra, W.; HOFMANN, A; Sauer, J; Lercher, J.; Li, X.

    2006-01-01

    Different ZrO2 model systems with increasing complexity have been successfully developed to bridge the materials gap. These model systems were used as basic materials and were subsequently sulfated to study the adsorption of n-butane on sulfated zirconias (SZ) and the reaction mechanism for the n-butane isomerization reaction.

  16. Effect of ammonium sulfate, ammonium chloride and root-zone acidity on inorganic ion content of tobacco

    Vessey, J. K.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Henry, L. T.; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    Tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv NC82) were supplied with (NH4)2SO4 or NH4Cl at root-zone pH of 6.0 and 4.5 in hydroponic culture for 28 days. Dry matter accumulation, total N and C content, and leaf area and number were not affected by the NH4+ source or root-zone pH. Plants supplied with NH4Cl accumulated up to 1.2 mM Cl g DW-1, but accumulated 37% less inorganic H2PO4- and 47% less SO4(2-) than plants supplied with (NH4)2SO4. The large Cl- accumulation resulted in NH4Cl- supplied plants having a 31% higher inorganic anion (NO3-, H2, PO4-, SO4(2-), and Cl-) charge. This higher inorganic anion charge in the NH4Cl-supplied plants was balanced by a similar increase in K+ charge. Plants supplied with NH4Cl accumulated greater concentrations of Cl- in leaves (up to 5.1% of DW) than plants supplied with (NH4)2SO4 (less than -% DW). Despite the high Cl- concentration of leaves in NH4Cl supplied plants, these plants showed no symptoms of Cl- toxicity. This demonstrates that toxicity symptoms are not due solely to an interaction between high Cl- concentration in tissue and NH4+ nutrition. The increase in root-zone acidity to pH 4.5 from 6.0 did not induce toxicity symptoms.

  17. Effects of sulfate deprivation on the production of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate by cultures of skin fibroblasts from normal and diabetic individuals

    Human skin fibroblast monolayer cultures from two normal men, three Type I diabetic men, and one Type I diabetic woman were incubated with [3H]glucosamine in the presence of diminished concentrations of sulfate. Although total synthesis of [3H]chondroitin/dermatan glycosaminoglycans varied somewhat between cell lines, glycosaminoglycan production was not affected within any line when sulfate levels were decreased from 0.3 mM to 0.06 mM to 0.01 mM to 0 added sulfate. Lowering of sulfate concentrations resulted in diminished sulfation of chondroitin/dermatan in a progressive manner, so that overall sulfation dropped to as low as 19% for one of the lines. Sulfation of chondroitin to form chondroitin 4-sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate was progressively and equally affected by decreasing the sulfate concentration in the culture medium. However, sulfation to form dermatan sulfate was preserved to a greater degree, so that the relative proportion of dermatan sulfate to chondroitin sulfate increased. Essentially all the nonsulfated residues were susceptible to chondroitin AC lyase, indicating that little epimerization of glucuronic acid residues to iduronic acid had occurred in the absence of sulfation. These results confirm the previously described dependency of glucuronic/iduronic epimerization on sulfation, and indicate that sulfation of the iduronic acid-containing disaccharide residues of dermatan can take place with sulfate concentrations lower than those needed for 6-sulfation and 4-sulfation of the glucuronic acid-containing disaccharide residues of chondroitin. There were considerable differences among the six fibroblast lines in susceptibility to low sulfate medium and in the proportion of chondroitin 6-sulfate, chondroitin 4-sulfate, and dermatan sulfate. However, there was no pattern of differences between normals and diabetics

  18. Effects of sulfate deprivation on the production of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate by cultures of skin fibroblasts from normal and diabetic individuals

    Silbert, C.K.; Humphries, D.E.; Palmer, M.E.; Silbert, J.E. (Veterans Administration Outpatient Clinic, Boston, MA (USA))

    1991-02-15

    Human skin fibroblast monolayer cultures from two normal men, three Type I diabetic men, and one Type I diabetic woman were incubated with (3H)glucosamine in the presence of diminished concentrations of sulfate. Although total synthesis of (3H)chondroitin/dermatan glycosaminoglycans varied somewhat between cell lines, glycosaminoglycan production was not affected within any line when sulfate levels were decreased from 0.3 mM to 0.06 mM to 0.01 mM to 0 added sulfate. Lowering of sulfate concentrations resulted in diminished sulfation of chondroitin/dermatan in a progressive manner, so that overall sulfation dropped to as low as 19% for one of the lines. Sulfation of chondroitin to form chondroitin 4-sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate was progressively and equally affected by decreasing the sulfate concentration in the culture medium. However, sulfation to form dermatan sulfate was preserved to a greater degree, so that the relative proportion of dermatan sulfate to chondroitin sulfate increased. Essentially all the nonsulfated residues were susceptible to chondroitin AC lyase, indicating that little epimerization of glucuronic acid residues to iduronic acid had occurred in the absence of sulfation. These results confirm the previously described dependency of glucuronic/iduronic epimerization on sulfation, and indicate that sulfation of the iduronic acid-containing disaccharide residues of dermatan can take place with sulfate concentrations lower than those needed for 6-sulfation and 4-sulfation of the glucuronic acid-containing disaccharide residues of chondroitin. There were considerable differences among the six fibroblast lines in susceptibility to low sulfate medium and in the proportion of chondroitin 6-sulfate, chondroitin 4-sulfate, and dermatan sulfate. However, there was no pattern of differences between normals and diabetics.

  19. Jarosite versus Soluble Iron-Sulfate Formation and Their Role in Acid Mine Drainage Formation at the Pan de Azúcar Mine Tailings (Zn-Pb-Ag, NW Argentina

    Jesica Murray

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Secondary jarosite and water-soluble iron-sulfate minerals control the composition of acid mine waters formed by the oxidation of sulfide in tailings impoundments at the (Zn-Pb-Ag Pan de Azúcar mine located in the Pozuelos Lagoon Basin (semi-arid climate in Northwest (NW Argentina. In the primary zone of the tailings (9.5 wt % pyrite-marcasite precipitation of anglesite (PbSO4, wupatkite ((Co,Mg,NiAl2(SO44 and gypsum retain Pb, Co and Ca, while mainly Fe2+, Zn2+, Al3+, Mg2+, As3+/5+ and Cd2+ migrate downwards, forming a sulfate and metal-rich plume. In the oxidation zone, jarosite (MFe3(TO42(OH6 is the main secondary Fe3+ phase; its most suitable composition is M = K+, Na+, and Pb2+and TO4 = SO42−; AsO42−. During the dry season, iron-sulfate salts precipitate by capillary transport on the tailings and at the foot of DC2 (tailings impoundment DC2 tailings dam where an acid, Fe2+ rich plume outcrops. The most abundant compounds in the acid mine drainage (AMD are SO42−, Fe2+, Fe3+, Zn2+, Al3+, Mg2+, Cu2+, As3+/5+, Cd2+. These show peak concentrations at the beginning of the wet season, when the soluble salts and jarosite dissolve. The formation of soluble sulfate salts during the dry season and dilution during the wet season conform an annual cycle of rapid metals and acidity transference from the tailings to the downstream environment.

  20. Evolution of the magmatic-hydrothermal acid-sulfate system at Summitville, Colorado: Integration of geological, stable-isotope, and fluid-inclusion evidence

    Bethke, P.M.; Rye, R.O.; Stoffregen, R.E.; Vikre, P.G.

    2005-01-01

    The Summitville Au-Ag-Cu deposit is a classic volcanic dome-hosted high-sulfidation deposit. It occurs in the Quartz Latite of South Mountain, a composite volcanic dome that was emplaced along the coincident margins of the Platoro and Summitville calderas at 22.5??0.5 Ma, penecontemporaneous with alteration and mineralization. A penecontemporaneous quartz monzonite porphyry intrusion underlies the district and is cut and overlain by pyrite-quartz stockwork veins with traces of chalcopyrite and molybdenite. Alteration and mineralization proceeded through three hypogene stages and a supergene stage, punctuated by at least three periods of hydrothermal brecciation. Intense acid leaching along fractures in the quartz latite produced irregular pipes and lenticular pods of vuggy silica enclosed sequentially by alteration zones of quartz-alunite, quartz-kaolinite, and clay. The acid-sulfate-altered rocks host subsequent covellite+enargite/luzonite+chalcopyrite mineralization accompanied by kaolinite, and later barite-base-metal veins, some containing high Au values and kaolinite. The presence of both liquid- and vapor-rich fluid inclusions indicates the episodic presence of a low-density fluid at all levels of the system. In the mineralized zone, liquid-rich fluid inclusions in healed fractures in quartz phenocrysts and in quartz associated with mineralization homogenize to temperatures between 160 and 390 ??C (90% between 190 and 310 ??C), consistent with the range (200-250 ??C) estimated from the fractionation of sulfur isotopes between coexisting alunite and pyrite. A deep alunite-pyrite pair yielded a sulfur-isotope temperature of 390 ??C, marking a transition from hydrostatic to lithostatic pressure at a depth of about 1.5 km. Two salinity populations dominate the liquid-rich fluid inclusions. One has salinities between 0 and 5 wt.% NaCl equivalent; the other has salinities of up to 43 wt.% NaCl equivalent. The occurrence of high-salinity fluid inclusions in vein

  1. Intravesical administration of combined hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) for the treatment of female recurrent urinary tract infections: a European multicentre nested case–control study

    Ciani, Oriana; Arendsen, Erik; Romancik, Martin; Lunik, Richard; Costantini, Elisabetta; Di Biase, Manuel; Morgia, Giuseppe; Fragalà, Eugenia; Roman, Tomaskin; Bernat, Marian; Guazzoni, Giorgio; Tarricone, Rosanna; Lazzeri, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare the clinical effectiveness of the intravesical administration of combined hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate (HA+CS) versus current standard management in adult women with recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTIs). Setting A European Union-based multicentre, retrospective nested case–control study. Participants 276 adult women treated for RUTIs starting from 2009 to 2013. Interventions Patients treated with either intravesical administration of HA+CS or standard of care (antimicrobial/immunoactive prophylaxis/probiotics/cranberry). Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome was occurrence of bacteriologically confirmed recurrence within 12 months. Secondary outcomes were time to recurrence, total number of recurrences, health-related quality of life and healthcare resource consumption. Crude and adjusted results for unbalanced characteristics are presented. Results 181 patients treated with HA+CS and 95 patients treated with standard of care from 7 centres were included. The crude and adjusted ORs (95% CI) for the primary end point were 0.77 (0.46 to 1.28) and 0.51 (0.27 to 0.96), respectively. However, no evidence of improvement in terms of total number of recurrences (incidence rate ratio (95% CI), 0.99 (0.69 to 1.43)) or time to first recurrence was seen (HR (95% CI), 0.99 (0.61 to 1.61)). The benefit of intravesical HA+CS therapy improves when the number of instillations is ≥5. Conclusions Our results show that bladder instillations of combined HA+CS reduce the risk of bacteriologically confirmed recurrences compared with the current standard management of RUTIs. Total incidence rates and hazard rates were instead non-significantly different between the 2 groups after adjusting for unbalanced factors. In contrast to what happens with antibiotic prophylaxis, the effectiveness of the HA+CS reinstatement therapy improves over time. Trial registration number NCT02016118. PMID:27033958

  2. Effect of sandblasting and shot-peening on the corrosion behavior of Pb-Ag alloy anodes in acid zinc sulfate electrolyte at 38oC

    The surface treatment of Pb-Ag alloy anodes is a measure used in zinc electrowinning industry to stabilize the anode surface and decrease the lead contamination of the zinc cathode. In this work, the effect of sandblasting and shot-peening treatments on the corrosion behavior of the Pb-Ag alloy anodes in zinc electrolyte was studied using electrochemical methods. The results showed that the sandblasting treatment slightly decreased the corrosion rate of the anode in acid zinc sulfate solution without manganese addition, while the shot-peening treatment remarkably decreased the corrosion rate of the anode when it was immersed in the same electrolyte. In zinc electrolyte containing Mn2+ and MnO4-, the corrosion potentials of the untreated and sandblasted anodes were ca. 750 mV higher than that those observed in the zinc electrolyte without manganese. As a result the corrosion rates were greatly decreased. The presence of Mn2+ and MnO4- in the zinc electrolyte shifted the corrosion potential of the shot-peened anode in the positive direction by 400 mV, but did not influence its corrosion rate. The sandblasting and shot-peening treatments made the MnO2-PbO2 layer formed on the anodes during the electrolysis more compact and slightly increased the overpotential of the anodic reaction during five hours of electrolysis. One hour after the electrolysis, the corrosion rates for the three anodes were: shot-peened anode > sandblasted anode > untreated anode. Five hours after the electrolysis, the order of the corrosion rates changed to: sandblasted anode > untreated anode > shot-peened anode. (author)

  3. Targeting the expression of glutathione- and sulfate-dependent detoxification enzymes in HepG2 cells by oxygen in minimal and amino acid enriched medium.

    Usarek, Ewa; Graboń, Wojciech; Kaźmierczak, Beata; Barańczyk-Kuźma, Anna

    2016-02-01

    Cancer cells exhibit specific metabolism allowing them to survive and proliferate in various oxygen conditions and nutrients' availability. Hepatocytes are highly active metabolically and thus very sensitive to hypoxia. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of oxygen on the expression of phase II detoxification enzymes in hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) cultured in minimal and rich media (with nonessential amino acids and GSH). The cells were cultured at 1% hypoxia, 10% tissue normoxia, and 21% atmospheric normoxia. The total cell count was determined by trypan blue exclusion dye and the expression on mRNA level by RT-PCR. The result indicated that the expression of glutathione-dependent enzymes (GSTA, M, P, and GPX2) was sensitive to oxygen and medium type. At 1% hypoxia the enzyme expression (with the exception of GSTA) was higher in minimal compared to rich medium, whereas at 10% normoxia it was higher in the rich medium. The expression was oxygen-dependent in both types of medium. Among phenol sulfotransferase SULT1A1 was not sensitive to studied factors, whereas the expression of SULT1A3 was depended on oxygen only in minimal medium. It can be concluded that in HepG2 cells, the detoxification by conjugation with glutathione and, to a lower extent with sulfate, may be affected by hypoxia and/or limited nutrients' availability. Besides, because the data obtained at 10% oxygen significantly differ from those at 21%, the comparative studies on hypoxia should be performed in relation to 10% but not 21% oxygen. PMID:26599691

  4. Effect of COD:SO4 2− Ratio, HRT and Linoleic Acid Concentration on Mesophilic Sulfate Reduction: Reactor Performance and Microbial Population Dynamics

    Chungman Moon

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Biological sulfate (SO42− reduction was examined in anaerobic sequential batch reactors (ASBRs operated under different hydraulic retention times (HRTs ranging from 12 to 36 h and COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand/SO42− ratios of 2.4, 1.6 and 0.8. Competition between SO42− reducing bacteria (SRBs, methane producing archaea (MPAs and homoacetogens (HACs was examined in controls and cultures treated with linoleic acid (LA. The ASBR performance was influenced by the COD/SO42− ratio in control cultures with a SO42− reduction of 87% at a COD/SO42− ratio of 0.8. At a 12 h HRT, in both control and LA treated cultures, greater than 75% SO42− removal was observed under all the conditions examined. In control reactors operating at a 36 h HRT, high levels of MPAs belonging to Methanobacteriales and Methanosarcinales were detected; however, in comparison, under low COD/SO42− ratio and with decreasing HRT conditions, a relative increase in SRBs belonging to Desulfovibrio and Desulfatibacillum was observed. Adding 0.5 g·L−1 LA suppressed Methanobacteriales, while increasing the LA concentration to 1 g·L−1 completely suppressed MPAs with a relative increase in SRBs. HACs belonging to Bacteroidetes were observed in the control and in cultures operated at 12 h HRT with a COD/SO42− ratio of 1.6 and fed 0.5 g·L−1 LA; however, with all other LA levels (0.5 and 1.0 g·L−1 and HRTs (12, 24 and 36 h, HACs were not detected.

  5. Influence of chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid presence in nanofibers and its alignment on the bone marrow stromal cells: cartilage regeneration.

    Lee, Paul; Tran, Katelyn; Chang, Wei; Shelke, Namdev B; Kumbar, Sangamesh G; Yu, Xiaojun

    2014-08-01

    Cartilage degeneration is the major cause of disability and poses several challenges to repair and regenerate. Conventional surgical treatments often induce fibrous tissues and compromise its function. Alternative tissue engineering strategies utilized scaffolds, factors and cells alone or in combination with some degree of success. This study reports the use of nanostructured biomimetic scaffold system in regulating the rat bone marrow stem cells (rBMSCs) differentiation into chondrogenic lineage in vitro. The biometric scaffold is essentially a micro-porous polycaprolactone (PCL) spiral structure decorated with sparsely spaced bioactive PCL nanofibers. The bioactivity stems from the use of two major components of hyaline cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) namely chondroitin sulfate (CS) and hyaluronic acid (HYA). The PCL spiral structure was surface functionalized with PCL nanofibers encapsulated with CS (20% (w/w)) and HYA (0.2% (w/w)). In order to retain and sustain the release of CS and HYA nanofibers were cross-linked using carbodiimide chemistry. This study also evaluated the effect of nanofiber alignment on rBMSCs differentiation and evaluated the production of characteristic hyaline cartilage proteins namely collagen type II and aggrecan in vitro up to 28 days. Rat bone marrow derived stem cells cultured on the aligned nanofibers expressed significantly elevated levels of collagen type II and aggrecan secretions (western blots) as compared to scaffolds decorated with random fibers and tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS). This fiber alignment dependent expression of collagen type II and aggrecan secretion were further confirmed through immunofluorescence staining. This biomimetic and bioactive scaffold may serve as a serve as an efficient scaffold system for cartilage regeneration. PMID:25016647

  6. Abiotic oxidation of pyrite by Fe(III) in acidic media and its implications for sulfur isotope measurements of lattice-bound sulfate in sediments

    Mazumdar, A.; Goldberg, T.; Strauss, H.

    of sample powder were subjected to overnight leaching in 0.5 M NaCl solution under constant stirring. This process dissolves any easily soluble sulfate, including any secondary sulfates resulting from pyrite oxidation via weathering. BaCl 2 solution... but was found sufficient for complete dissolution of francolite and the coexisting minor calcite/ dolomite matrix. Another set of dissolution experiments was performed using the same set of sample powder but reaction proceeded under closed vessel condition...

  7. Water absorbance and thermal properties of sulfated wheat gluten films

    Wheat gluten films of varying thicknesses formed at 30C to 70C were treated with cold sulfuric acid to produce sulfated gluten films. Chemical, thermal, thermal stability, and water uptake properties were characterized for neat and sulfated films. The sulfated gluten films were able ...

  8. METHANOGENESIS AND SULFATE REDUCTION IN CHEMOSTATS: I. KINETIC STUDIES AND EXPERIMENTS

    Six anaerobic chemostats containing mixed microbial cultures were used to investigate the interactions between sulfate reduction and methanogenesis for three substrates: acetic acid, methanol and formic acid. Sulfate reducers outcompeted methanogens in acetate-fed chemostats whil...

  9. Sulfated polyanions block Chlamydia trachomatis infection of cervix-derived human epithelia.

    Zaretzky, F R; Pearce-Pratt, R; Phillips, D M

    1995-01-01

    Using a cell line derived from the human cervix and a rapid fluorescence cytotoxicity assay, we have shown that Chlamydia trachomatis infection can be blocked by certain sulfated polysaccharides (carrageenan, pentosan polysulfate, fucoidan, and dextran sulfate) and glycosaminoglycans (heparin, heparan sulfate, and dermatan sulfate) but not by other glycosaminoglycans (chondroitin sulfate A or C, keratan sulfate, and hyaluronic acid). The most negatively charged molecules are the most effectiv...

  10. A review of acid sulfate soil impacts, actions and policies that impact on water quality in Great Barrier Reef catchments, including a case study on remediation at East Trinity.

    Powell, B; Martens, M

    2005-01-01

    An estimated 666,000 ha of acid sulfate soils (ASS) occur within the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) catchments of Queensland, Australia. Extensive areas have been drained causing acidification, metal contamination, deoxygenation and iron precipitation in reef receiving waters. The close proximity of ASS to reef waters makes them a substantial threat to water quality. Another important issue linked with ASS is their release of soluble iron, which is known to stimulate nuisance marine algal blooms, in particular Lyngbya majuscula. Known blooms of the cyanobacteria in reef waters have been confirmed at Shoalwater Bay, Corio Bay, the Whitsunday area and Hinchinbrook Channel. Acid sulfate soils are intimately related to coastal wetland landscapes. Where landscapes containing ASS have been disturbed (such as for agriculture, aquaculture, marinas, etc.) the biodiversity of adjacent wetlands can be adversely affected. However, there is no clear knowledge of the real extent of the so-called "hotspot" ASS areas that occur within the GBR catchments. Management of ASS in reef catchments has benefited from the implementation of the Queensland Acid Sulfate Soils Management Strategy through policy development, mapping, training programs, an advisory service, research and community participation. However, major gaps remain in mapping the extent and nature of ASS. Areas of significant acidification (i.e. hotspots) need to be identified and policies developed for their remediation. Research has a critical role to play in understanding ASS risk and finding solutions, to prevent the adverse impacts that may be caused by ASS disturbance. A case study is presented of the East Trinity site near Cairns, a failed sugar cane development that episodically discharges large amounts of acid into Trinity Inlet, resulting in periodic fish kills. Details are presented of scientific investigations, and a lime-assisted tidal exchange strategy that are being undertaken to remediate a serious ASS problem

  11. Structure and anticoagulant properties of sulfated glycosaminoglycans from primitive Chordates

    PAVÃO MAURO S. G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatan sulfates and heparin, similar to the mammalian glycosaminoglycans, but with differences in the degree and position of sulfation were previously isolated from the body of the ascidian Styela plicata and Ascidia nigra. These differences produce profound effects on their anticoagulant properties. S. plicata dermatan sulfate composed by 2-O-sulfatedalpha-L-iduronic acid and 4-O-sulfated N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosamine residues is a potent anticoagulant due to a high heparin cofactor II activity. Surprisingly, it has a lower potency to prevent thrombus formation on an experimental model and a lower bleeding effect in rats than the mammalian dermatan sulfate. In contrast, A. nigra dermatan sulfate, also enriched in 2-O-sulfated alpha-L-iduronic acid, but in this case sulfated at O-6 of the N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosamine units, has no in vitro or in vivo anticoagulant activity, does not prevent thrombus formation but shows a bleeding effect similar to the mammalian glycosaminoglycan. Ascidian heparin, composed by 2-O-sulfated alpha-L-iduronic acid, N- and 6-O-sulfated glucosamine (75% and alpha-L-iduronic acid, N- and 6-O-sulfated glucosamine (25% disaccharide units has an anticoagulant activity 10 times lower than the mammalian heparin, is about 20 times less potent in the inhibition of thrombin by antithrombin, but has the same heparin cofactor II activity as mammalian heparin.

  12. Luminescence and bio-imaging response of thio-glycolic acid (TGA) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated fluorescent cadmium selenide quantum dots

    We demonstrate the usefulness of surfactant coated CdSe quantum dots in bio-imaging applications after evaluating their steady state and time resolved emission responses. The surfactant coated QDs, with the respective sizes of ~14 nm and 10 nm are synthesized considering two different types of coating agents, namely, thio-glycolic acid (TGA) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The steady state luminescence response is characterized by both near band edge (NBE) and defect-related emissions, but with a strong dependency on the nature of surfactant coating. Time resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) studies have revealed bi-exponential characteristics with CdSe–TGA QDs exhibiting longer life time decay parameters than those of CdSe–SDS QDs. To be specific, the fast (τ1) and the slow (τ2) components are characterized by ~10 and 30 times larger values in the former than the latter case. In the FT-IR spectra, several stretching and bending vibrations are observed to be adequately influenced by the nature of surfactant coating. The availability of plentiful Na+ counter ions around SDS coated QDs, as evident from the FT-IR spectroscopy studies, can also be responsible for obtaining reduced size of the QDs. In contrast, Raman active modes are apparently distinguishable in TGA coated QDs, with LO and TO mode positions significantly blue-shifted from the bulk values. While attributing to the intense defect mediated emission of TGA coated QDs, the effect of TGA coating presented a stronger fluorescence imaging capability over the SDS coated ones. A detailed assessment of fluorescent counts, as a basis of bio-imaging response, is being discussed on a comparative basis. - Highlights: • Fluorescent CdSe quantum dots are synthesized with two different kinds of surfactant coatings. • Time resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) studies have revealed bi-exponential decay characteristics. • Both slow and fast decay parameters are found to be longer in CdSe QDs with TGA coating.

  13. Luminescence and bio-imaging response of thio-glycolic acid (TGA) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated fluorescent cadmium selenide quantum dots

    Sarma, Runjun; Mohanta, Dambarudhar, E-mail: best@tezu.ernet.in

    2015-05-15

    We demonstrate the usefulness of surfactant coated CdSe quantum dots in bio-imaging applications after evaluating their steady state and time resolved emission responses. The surfactant coated QDs, with the respective sizes of ~14 nm and 10 nm are synthesized considering two different types of coating agents, namely, thio-glycolic acid (TGA) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The steady state luminescence response is characterized by both near band edge (NBE) and defect-related emissions, but with a strong dependency on the nature of surfactant coating. Time resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) studies have revealed bi-exponential characteristics with CdSe–TGA QDs exhibiting longer life time decay parameters than those of CdSe–SDS QDs. To be specific, the fast (τ{sub 1}) and the slow (τ{sub 2}) components are characterized by ~10 and 30 times larger values in the former than the latter case. In the FT-IR spectra, several stretching and bending vibrations are observed to be adequately influenced by the nature of surfactant coating. The availability of plentiful Na{sup +} counter ions around SDS coated QDs, as evident from the FT-IR spectroscopy studies, can also be responsible for obtaining reduced size of the QDs. In contrast, Raman active modes are apparently distinguishable in TGA coated QDs, with LO and TO mode positions significantly blue-shifted from the bulk values. While attributing to the intense defect mediated emission of TGA coated QDs, the effect of TGA coating presented a stronger fluorescence imaging capability over the SDS coated ones. A detailed assessment of fluorescent counts, as a basis of bio-imaging response, is being discussed on a comparative basis. - Highlights: • Fluorescent CdSe quantum dots are synthesized with two different kinds of surfactant coatings. • Time resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) studies have revealed bi-exponential decay characteristics. • Both slow and fast decay parameters are found to be longer in CdSe QDs

  14. Dextran sulfate sodium and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid induce lipid peroxidation by the proliferation of intestinal gram-negative bacteria in mice

    Hyun Yang-Jin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstrect Background To understand whether TLR-4-linked NF-kB activation negatively correlates with lipid peroxidation in colitic animal models, we caused colitis by the treatment with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS or 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS to C3H/HeJ (TLR-4-defective and C3H/HeN (wild type mice, investigated inflammatory markers, lipid peroxidation, proinflammatory cytokines and TLR-4-linked NF-κB activation, in colon and intestinal bacterial composition in vivo. Methods Orally administered DSS and intrarectally injected TNBS all caused severe inflammation, manifested by shortened colons in both mice. These agents increased intestinal myeloperoxidase activity and the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6, in the colon. Results DSS and TNBS induced the protein expression of TLR-4 and activated transcription factor NF-κB. However, these colitic agents did not express TLR-4 in C3H/HeJ mice. Of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1β was most potently expressed in C3H/HeN mice. IL-1β potently induced NF-κB activation in CaCo-2 cells, but did not induce TLR-4 expression. DSS and TNBS increased lipid peroxide (malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal content in the colon, but reduced glutathione content and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. These colitic inducers increased the number of Enterobacteriaceae grown in DHL agar plates in both mice, although the number of anaerobes and bifidobacteria grown in GAM and BL agar plates was reduced. E. coli, K. pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis isolated in DHL agar plates increased lipid peroxidation in liposomes prepared by L-α-phosphatidylcholine, but B. animalis and B. cholerium isolated from BL agar plates inhibited it. Discussion These findings suggest that DSS and TNBS may cause colitis by inducing lipid peroxidation and enterobacterial proliferation, which may deteriorate the colitis by regulating proinflammatory cytokines via TLR-4-linked NF

  15. The effect of acid rain and altitude on concentration, δ34S, and δ18O of sulfate in the water from Sudety Mountains, Poland

    Szynkiewicz, Anna; Modelska, Magdalena; Jedrysek, Mariusz Orion; Mastalerz, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The analyses of sulfate content, δ34S and δ18O of dissolved sulfate, and δ18O of water were carried out in a 14 km2 crystalline massif located in the Sudety Mountains (SW Poland) to 1) assess the amount of the sulfate delivered to the surface and groundwater systems by modern atmospheric precipitation, 2) determine the effect of altitude on these parameters, and 3) investigate their seasonal variations. In April and November of 2002, August 2003, and March and September of 2005, samples of water were collected from springs and streams of the massif. During these seasons, sulfate contents and δ18O(SO42−) values varied from 5.80 to 18.00 mg/l and from 3.96 to 8.23‰, respectively, showing distinctively higher values ofδ18O(SO42−) in wet seasons. The δ34S(SO42−) values had a relatively narrow range from 4.09 to 5.28‰ and were similar to those reported for organic matter in soil and the canopy throughfall in the Sudety Mountains.

  16. Jarosite versus Soluble Iron-Sulfate Formation and Their Role in Acid Mine Drainage Formation at the Pan de Azúcar Mine Tailings (Zn-Pb-Ag), NW Argentina

    Jesica Murray; Alicia Kirschbaum; Bernhard Dold; Edi Mendes Guimaraes; Elisa Pannunzio Miner

    2014-01-01

    Secondary jarosite and water-soluble iron-sulfate minerals control the composition of acid mine waters formed by the oxidation of sulfide in tailings impoundments at the (Zn-Pb-Ag) Pan de Azúcar mine located in the Pozuelos Lagoon Basin (semi-arid climate) in Northwest (NW) Argentina. In the primary zone of the tailings (9.5 wt % pyrite-marcasite) precipitation of anglesite (PbSO4), wupatkite ((Co,Mg,Ni)Al2(SO4)4) and gypsum retain Pb, Co and Ca, while mainly Fe2+, Zn2+, Al3+, Mg2+, As3+/5+ ...

  17. Transformation of Tri-Titanium(IV)-Substituted α-Keggin Polyoxometalate (POM) into Tetra-Titanium(IV)-Substituted POMs : Reaction Products of Titanium(IV) Sulfate with the Dimeric Keggin POM Precursor under Acidic Conditions

    Kenji Nomiya; Shoko Yoshida; Yoshitaka Kobayashi; Yoshitaka Sakai; Yuki Mouri

    2010-01-01

    Reaction products of titanium(IV) sulfate in HCl-acidic aqueous solution with the dimeric species linked through three intermolecular Ti-O-Ti bonds of the two tri-titanium(IV)-substituted α-Keggin polyoxometalate (POM) subunits are described. Two novel titanium(IV)-containing α-Keggin POMs were obtained under different conditions. One product was a dimeric species through two intermolecular Ti-O-Ti bonds of the two tetra-titanium(IV)-substituted α-Keggin POM subunits, i.e., [[{Ti(H2O)3}2(μ-O)...

  18. Recrystallization of 223Ra with barium sulfate

    In this work, the kinetics of barium sulfate recrystallization has been studied in acidic 0.01 mol dm-3 sodium sulfate solution using 223Ra and 133Ba tracers at very low total radium concentration, i.e. less than 10-13 mol dm-3. It was found that the system follows the homogeneous recrystallization model and that recrystallization rates, inferred by the decrease of 223Ra and 133Ba in the aqueous solution, are fast. Therefore, even at very low concentrations, below the solubility limit, radium will be retained by barium sulfate-a mineral present in the deep underground repository. (author)

  19. Sulfated glycans in inflammation.

    Pomin, Vitor H

    2015-03-01

    Sulfated glycans such as glycosaminoglycans on proteoglycans are key players in both molecular and cellular events of inflammation. They participate in leukocyte rolling along the endothelial surface of inflamed sites; chemokine regulation and its consequential functions in leukocyte guidance, migration and activation; leukocyte transendothelial migration; and structural assembly of the subendothelial basement membrane responsible to control tissue entry of cells. Due to these and other functions, exogenous sulfated glycans of various structures and origins can be used to interventionally down-regulate inflammation processes. In this review article, discussion is given primarily on the anti-inflammatory functions of mammalian heparins, heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate and related compounds as well as the holothurian fucosylated chondroitin sulfate and the brown algal fucoidans. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of action of these sulfated glycans in inflammation, helps research programs involved in developing new carbohydrate-based drugs aimed to combat acute and chronic inflammatory disorders. PMID:25576741

  20. Determination of plutonium in nitric acid solutions - Method by oxidation by cerium(IV), reduction by iron(II) ammonium sulfate and amperometric back-titration with potassium dichromate

    This International Standard specifies a precise and accurate analytical method for determining plutonium in nitric acid solutions. Plutonium is oxidized to plutonium(VI) in a 1 mol/l nitric acid solution with cerium(IV). Addition of sulfamic acid prevents nitrite-induced side reactions. The excess of cerium(IV) is reduced by adding a sodium arsenite solution, catalysed by osmium tetroxide. A slight excess of arsenite is oxidized by adding a 0.2 mol/l potassium permanganate solution. The excess of permanganate is reduced by adding a 0.1 mol/l oxalic acid solution. Iron(III) is used to catalyse the reduction. A small excess of oxalic acid does not interfere in the subsequent plutonium determination. These reduction and oxidation stages can be followed amperometrically and the plutonium is left in the hexavalent state. The sulfuric acid followed by a measured amount of standardized iron(II) ammonium sulfate solution in excess of that required to reduce the plutonium(VI) to plutonium(IV) is added. The excess iron(II) and any plutonium(III) formed to produce iron(III) and plutonium(IV) is amperometrically back-titrated using a standard potassium dichromate solution. The method is almost specifically for plutonium. It is suitable for the direct determination of plutonium in materials ranging from pure product solutions, to fast reactor fuel solutions with a uranium/plutonium ratio of up to 10:1, either before or after irradiation

  1. Heparan sulfate in skeletal muscle development

    Noonan, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    In this study, chick breast skeletal muscle cells developing in vitro from myoblasts to myotubes were found to synthesize heparan sulfate (HS), chrondroitin-6-sulfate, chrondroitin-4-sulfate, dermatan sulfate, unsulfated chrondroitin and hyaluronic acid in both the substratum attached material (SAM) and the cellular fraction. SAM was found to contain predominantly chrondroitin-6-sulfate and relatively little HS whereas the cellular fraction contained relatively higher levels of HS and lower levels of chrondroitin-6-sulfate. Hyaluronic acid was also a major component in both fractions with the other glycosaminoglycan isomers present as minor components. Muscle derived fibroblast cultures had higher levels of dermatan sulfate in the cell layer and higher levels of HS in the SAM fraction than did muscle cultures. The structure of the proteoglycans were partially characterized in /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ radio-labeled cultures which indicated an apparent increase in the hydrodynamic size of the cell fraction heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HS PG). Myotubes incorporated /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ into HS PG at a rate 3 times higher than myoblasts. The turnover rate of HS in the cellular fraction was the same for myoblasts and myotubes, with a t/sub 1/2/ of approximately 5 hours. Fibroblasts in culture synthesized the smallest HS PG, and incorporated /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ into HS PG at a rate lower than that of myotubes. Studies in which fusion was reversibly inhibited with decreased medium (Ca/sup + +/) closely linked the increased synthesis of cell fraction, but not SAM fraction, HS with myotube formation. However, decreasing medium calcium appeared to cause significant alterations in the metabolism of inorganic sulfate.

  2. Heparan sulfate in skeletal muscle development

    In this study, chick breast skeletal muscle cells developing in vitro from myoblasts to myotubes were found to synthesize heparan sulfate (HS), chrondroitin-6-sulfate, chrondroitin-4-sulfate, dermatan sulfate, unsulfated chrondroitin and hyaluronic acid in both the substratum attached material (SAM) and the cellular fraction. SAM was found to contain predominantly chrondroitin-6-sulfate and relatively little HS whereas the cellular fraction contained relatively higher levels of HS and lower levels of chrondroitin-6-sulfate. Hyaluronic acid was also a major component in both fractions with the other glycosaminoglycan isomers present as minor components. Muscle derived fibroblast cultures had higher levels of dermatan sulfate in the cell layer and higher levels of HS in the SAM fraction than did muscle cultures. The structure of the proteoglycans were partially characterized in 35SO42- radio-labeled cultures which indicated an apparent increase in the hydrodynamic size of the cell fraction heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HS PG). Myotubes incorporated 35SO42- into HS PG at a rate 3 times higher than myoblasts. The turnover rate of HS in the cellular fraction was the same for myoblasts and myotubes, with a t/sub 1/2/ of approximately 5 hours. Fibroblasts in culture synthesized the smallest HS PG, and incorporated 35SO42- into HS PG at a rate lower than that of myotubes. Studies in which fusion was reversibly inhibited with decreased medium [Ca++] closely linked the increased synthesis of cell fraction, but not SAM fraction, HS with myotube formation. However, decreasing medium calcium appeared to cause significant alterations in the metabolism of inorganic sulfate

  3. Fe and S K-edge XAS determination of iron-sulfur species present in a range of acid sulfate soils: Effects of particle size and concentration on quantitative XANES determinations

    Morgan, Kate E.; Burton, Edward D.; Cook, Perran; Raven, Mark D.; Fitzpatrick, Robert W.; Bush, Richard; Sullivan, Leigh A.; Hocking, Rosalie K.

    2009-11-01

    Acid sulfate soils (ASS) are soils and soft sediments in which sulfuric acid may be produced from iron sulfides or have been produced leaving iron oxyhydroxysulfates in amounts that have a long lasting effect on soil characteristics. If soil material is exposed to rotting vegetation or other reducing material, the Fe-oxyhydroxysulfates can be bacterially reduced to sulfides including disulfides (pyrite and marcasite), and Monosulfidic Black Ooze (MBO) a poorly characterised material known to be a mixture of iron sulfides (especially mackinawite) and organic matter. The chemistry of these environments is strongly affected by Fe and S cycling processes and herein we have sought to identify key differences in environments that occur as a function of Fe and S concentration. In addition to our chemical results, we have found that the effects of particle size on self absorption in natural sediments play an important role in the spectroscopic identification of the relative proportions of different species present.

  4. Fe and S K-edge XAS determination of iron-sulfur species present in a range of acid sulfate soils: Effects of particle size and concentration on quantitative XANES determinations

    Acid sulfate soils (ASS) are soils and soft sediments in which sulfuric acid may be produced from iron sulfides or have been produced leaving iron oxyhydroxysulfates in amounts that have a long lasting effect on soil characteristics. If soil material is exposed to rotting vegetation or other reducing material, the Fe-oxyhydroxysulfates can be bacterially reduced to sulfides including disulfides (pyrite and marcasite), and Monosulfidic Black Ooze (MBO) a poorly characterised material known to be a mixture of iron sulfides (especially mackinawite) and organic matter. The chemistry of these environments is strongly affected by Fe and S cycling processes and herein we have sought to identify key differences in environments that occur as a function of Fe and S concentration. In addition to our chemical results, we have found that the effects of particle size on self absorption in natural sediments play an important role in the spectroscopic identification of the relative proportions of different species present.

  5. Metabolic Flexibility of Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    Caroline M. Plugge

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Dissimilatory sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRB are a very diverse group of anaerobic bacteria that are omnipresent in nature and play an imperative role in the global cycling of carbon and sulfur. In anoxic marine sediments sulfate reduction accounts for up to 50% of the entire organic mineralization in coastal and shelf ecosystems where sulfate diffuses several meters deep into the sediment. As a consequence, SRB would be expected in the sulfate-containing upper sediment layers, whereas methanogenic Archaea would be expected to succeed in the deeper sulfate-depleted layers of the sediment. Where sediments are high in organic matter, sulfate is depleted at shallow sediment depths, and biogenic methane production will occur. In the absence of sulfate, many SRB ferment organic acids and alcohols, producing hydrogen, acetate, and carbon dioxide, and may even rely on hydrogen- and acetate-scavenging methanogens to convert organic compounds to methane. SRB can establish two different life styles, and these can be termed as sulfidogenic and acetogenic, hydrogenogenic metabolism. The advantage of having different metabolic capabilities is that it raises the chance of survival in environments when electron acceptors become depleted. In marine sediments, SRB and methanogens do not compete but rather complement each other in the degradation of organic matter.Also in freshwater ecosystems with sulfate concentrations of only 10-200 μM, sulfate is consumed efficiently within the top several cm of the sediments. Here, many of the δ-Proteobacteria present have the genetic machinery to perform dissimilatory sulfate reduction, yet they have an acetogenic, hydrogenogenic way of life.In this review we evaluate the physiology and metabolic mode of SRB in relation with their environment.

  6. Hypogene Sulfuric Acid Speleogenesis and rare sulfate minerals in Baume Galinière Cave (Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, France). Record of uplift, correlative cover retreat and valley dissection

    Audra, Philippe; Gázquez, Fernando; Rull, Fernando; Bigot, Jean-Yves; Camus, Hubert

    2015-10-01

    The oxidation of hydrocarbons and sulfide sources (H2S, pyrite) produces sulfuric acid that strongly reacts with bedrock, causing limestone dissolution and complex interactions with other minerals from the bedrock or from cave fillings, mainly clays. This type of cave development, known as Sulfuric Acid Speleogenesis (SAS), is a subcategory of hypogene speleogenesis, where aggressive water rises from depth. It also produces uncommon minerals, mainly sulfates, the typical byproducts of SAS. Baume Galinière is located in Southern France, in the Vaucluse spring watershed. This small maze cave displays characteristic SAS features such as corrosion notches, calcite geodes, iron crusts, and various sulfate minerals. Sulfur isotopes of SAS byproducts (jarosite and gypsum) clearly show they derive from pyrite oxidation. Using XRD and micro-Raman spectroscopy, thirteen minerals were identified, including elemental sulfur, calcite, quartz, pyrite, goethite, gypsum, and fibroferrite, plus all of the six members of the jarosite subgroup (jarosite, argentojarosite, ammoniojarosite, hydroniumjarosite, natrojarosite, plumbojarosite). The Baume Galinière deposits are the first documented cave occurrence of argentojarosite and the second known occurrence of plumbojarosite, hydronium jarosite, ammoniojarosite, and fibroferrite. In the Vaucluse watershed, there were numerous upwellings of deep water along major faults, located at the contact of the karstic aquifer and the overlying impervious covers. The mixing of deep and meteoric waters at shallow depths caused pyrite depositions in numerous caves, including Baume Galinière. Sulfuric Acid Speleogenesis occurred later after base-level drop, when the cave was under shallow phreatic conditions then in the vadose zone, with oxidation of pyrites generating sulfuric acid. Attenuated oxidation is still occurring through condensation of moisture from incoming air. Baume Galinière Cave records the position of the semi-impervious paleo

  7. Separation of 35S-sulfate on neutral aluminium oxide

    The results of 35S-sulfate chromatography on neutral aluminium oxide (γ-Al2O3) are presented. Possibility of quantitative adsorption of 35S-sulfate on Al2O3 from acidic or neutral potassium chloride solutions of high concentration is shown. Dynamic adsorption capacity of neutral aluminium oxide with respect to sulfate from weakly acidic potassium chloride solution equals near 10 μmol/ml of adsorbent. Optimal parameters for chromatographic isolation of 35S-sulfate without carrier from irradiated KCl target are determined. (author)

  8. 难处理铅锌矿酸浸渣回收硫酸铅的工艺研究%Study on recovery lead sulfate from complex acid leaching residue of lead-zinc mine

    张传宝; 颜文斌; 徐辉; 高峰; 华骏

    2012-01-01

    The extraction process using sodium chloride and suliuric acid mixed solution, leaching lead from complex acid leaching residue of lead-zinc mine and preparing the lead sulfate by dilute leaching so lution. The influences of sodium chloride concentration,the liquid-solid ratio,time,temperature,acid concentration on lead leaching rate and diluted times,time on the lead sulfate precipitation was discussed. The results showed that the lead leaching rate of 82. 1% . when sodium chloride concentration of 330 g/L, sulfuric acid concentration of 1 mol/L,the liquid-solid ratio of 7: 1 at 95℃ for 1. 5 h, the purity of 99.1% products. The leaching solution in diluted times of 2.5 for standing time 7 h,lead sulfate precipitation rate was 93%. The lead recovery rate was 76% , it was improved by more than 30% compared with the traditional method.%采用氯化钠-硫酸混合溶液对铅锌矿难处理酸浸渣进行浸出,对浸出液稀释,制备硫酸铅,考察了氯化钠浓度、液固比、时间、温度和硫酸浓度等因素对酸浸渣的浸出影响和考察稀释倍数、时间等因素对沉淀硫酸铅的影响.结果表明,在氯化钠浓度为330 g/L,液固比为7:1,时间为1.5h,温度95℃,硫酸浓度为1mol/L的条件下,铅的浸出率为82.1%;在浸出液稀释倍数为2.5,静置时间7h的条件下,硫酸铅的沉淀率为93%,产品纯度为99.1%.铅的回收率为76%,比传统方法提高30%以上.

  9. Stability of nicotinate and dodecyl sulfate in a Lewis acidic ionic liquid for aluminum electroplating and characterization of their degradation products.

    Kosmus, Patrick; Steiner, Oliver; Goessler, Walter; Gollas, Bernhard; Fauler, Gisela

    2016-04-01

    Plating bath additives are essential for optimization of the morphology of electroplated layers. The ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium (EMIM) chloride plus 1.5 mol equivalents of AlCl3 has great potential for electroplating of aluminum. In this study, the chemical and electrochemical stability of the additives EMIM-nicotinate and sodium dodecyl sulfate and their effect on the stability of EMIM was investigated and analyzed. Nicotinate and its electrochemical decomposition product β-picoline could be detected and we show with a single HPLC-UV-MS method that EMIM is not affected by the decomposition of this additive. An adapted standard HPLC-UV-MS method together with GC-MS and ion chromatography was used to analyze the decomposition products of SDS and possible realkylation products of EMIM. Several volatile medium and short chain-length alkanes as well as sulfate ions have been found as decomposition products of SDS. Alkenium ions formed as intermediates during the decomposition of SDS realkylate EMIM to produce mono- up to pentasubstituted alkyl-imidazoles. A reaction pathway involving Wagner-Meerwein rearrangements and Friedel-Crafts alkylations has been suggested to account for the formation of the detected products. PMID:26864607

  10. Sulfate metabolism in mycobacteria.

    Schelle, Michael W; Bertozzi, Carolyn R

    2006-10-01

    Pathogenic bacteria have developed numerous mechanisms to survive inside a hostile host environment. The human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) is thought to control the human immune response with diverse biomolecules, including a variety of exotic lipids. One prevalent M. tb-specific sulfated metabolite, termed sulfolipid-1 (SL-1), has been correlated with virulence though its specific biological function is not known. Recent advances in our understanding of SL-1 biosynthesis will help elucidate the role of this curious metabolite in M. tb infection. Furthermore, the study of SL-1 has led to questions regarding the significance of sulfation in mycobacteria. Examples of sulfated metabolites as mediators of interactions between bacteria and plants suggest that sulfation is a key modulator of extracellular signaling between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The discovery of novel sulfated metabolites in M. tb and related mycobacteria strengthens this hypothesis. Finally, mechanistic and structural data from sulfate-assimilation enzymes have revealed how M. tb controls the flux of sulfate in the cell. Mutants with defects in sulfate assimilation indicate that the fate of sulfur in M. tb is a critical survival determinant for the bacteria during infection and suggest novel targets for tuberculosis drug therapy. PMID:16933356

  11. Extraction of beryllium sulfate by a long chain amine

    The extraction of sulfuric acid in aqueous solution by a primary amine in benzene solution, 3-9 (diethyl) - 6-amino tri-decane (D.E.T. ) - i.e., with American nomenclature 1-3 (ethyl-pentyl) - 4-ethyl-octyl amine (E.P.O.) - has made it possible to calculate the formation constants of alkyl-ammonium sulfate and acid sulfate. The formula of the beryllium and alkyl-ammonium sulfate complex formed in benzene has next been determined, for various initial acidity of the aqueous solution. Lastly, evidence has been given of negatively charged complexes of beryllium and sulfate in aqueous solution, through the dependence of the aqueous sulfate ions concentration upon beryllium extraction. The formation constant of these anionic complexes has been evaluated. (author)

  12. The 5-amino acid N-terminal extension of non-sulfated drosulfakinin II is a unique target to generate novel agonists.

    Leander, M; Heimonen, J; Brocke, T; Rasmussen, M; Bass, C; Palmer, G; Egle, J; Mispelon, M; Berry, K; Nichols, R

    2016-09-01

    The ability to design agonists that target peptide signaling is a strategy to delineate underlying mechanisms and influence biology. A sequence that uniquely characterizes a peptide provides a distinct site to generate novel agonists. Drosophila melanogaster sulfakinin encodes non-sulfated drosulfakinin I (nsDSK I; FDDYGHMRF-NH2) and nsDSK II (GGDDQFDDYGHMRF-NH2). Drosulfakinin is typical of sulfakinin precursors, which are conserved throughout invertebrates. Non-sulfated DSK II is structurally related to DSK I, however, it contains a unique 5-residue N-terminal extension; drosulfakinins signal through G-protein coupled receptors, DSK-R1 and DSK-R2. Drosulfakinin II distinctly influences adult and larval gut motility and larval locomotion; yet, its structure-activity relationship was unreported. We hypothesized substitution of an N-terminal extension residue may alter nsDSK II activity. By targeting the extension we identified, not unexpectedly, analogs mimicking nsDSK II, yet, surprisingly, we also discovered novel agonists with increased (super) and opposite (protean) effects. We determined [A3] nsDSK II increased larval gut contractility rather than, like nsDSK II, decrease it. [N4] nsDSK II impacted larval locomotion, although nsDSK II was inactive. In adult gut, [A1] nsDSK II, [A2] nsDSKII, and [A3] nsDSK II mimicked nsDSK II, and [A4] nsDSK II and [A5] nsDSK II were more potent; [N3] nsDSK II and [N4] nsDSK II mimicked nsDSK II. This study reports nsDSK II signals through DSK-R2 to influence gut motility and locomotion, identifying a novel role for the N-terminal extension in sulfakinin biology and receptor activation; it also led to the discovery of nsDSK II structural analogs that act as super and protean agonists. PMID:27397853

  13. IMPACT OF A PRIMARY SULFATE EMISSION SOURCE ON AIR QUALITY

    A one-month study was carried out at an isolated oil-fired power plant in New York State to assess the impact of primary sulfate emissions on air quality. Emissions of total sulfate from the source varied from 22 kg/hr to 82 kg/hr per boiler with the sulfuric acid concentration a...

  14. Hormonal control of sulfate uptake and assimilation.

    Koprivova, Anna; Kopriva, Stanislav

    2016-08-01

    Plant hormones have a plethora of functions in control of plant development, stress response, and primary metabolism, including nutrient homeostasis. In the plant nutrition, the interplay of hormones with responses to nitrate and phosphate deficiency is well described, but relatively little is known about the interaction between phytohormones and regulation of sulfur metabolism. As for other nutrients, sulfate deficiency results in modulation of root architecture, where hormones are expected to play an important role. Accordingly, sulfate deficiency induces genes involved in metabolism of tryptophane and auxin. Also jasmonate biosynthesis is induced, pointing to the need of increase the defense capabilities of the plants when sulfur is limiting. However, hormones affect also sulfate uptake and assimilation. The pathway is coordinately induced by jasmonate and the key enzyme, adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase, is additionally regulated by ethylene, abscisic acid, nitric oxid, and other phytohormones. Perhaps the most intriguing link between hormones and sulfate assimilation is the fact that the main regulator of the response to sulfate starvation, SULFATE LIMITATION1 (SLIM1) belongs to the family of ethylene related transcription factors. We will review the current knowledge of interplay between phytohormones and control of sulfur metabolism and discuss the main open questions. PMID:26810064

  15. The preparation and antioxidant activity of glucosamine sulfate

    Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Wang, Lin; Cai, Shengbao; Yu, Huahua; Feng, Jinhua; Li, Pengcheng

    2009-05-01

    Glucosamine sulfate was prepared from glucosamine hydrochloride that was produced by acidic hydrolysis of chitin by ion-exchange method. Optical rotation and elemental analysis characterized the degree of its purity. In addition, the antioxidant potency of chitosan derivative-glucosamine sulfate was investigated in various established in vitro systems, such as superoxide (O{2/-})/hydroxyl (·OH) radicals scavenging, reducing power, iron ion chelating. The following results are obtained: first, glucosamine sulfate had pronounced scavenging effect on superoxide radical. For example the O{2/-} scavenging activity of glucosamine sulfate was 92.11% at 0.8 mg/mL. Second, the ·OH scavenging activity of glucosamine sulfate was also strong, and was about 50% at 3.2 mg/mL. Third, the reducing power of glucosamine sulfate was more pronounced. The reducing power of glucosamine sulfate was 0.643 at 0.75 mg/mL. However, its potency for ferrous ion chelating was weak. Furthermore, except for ferrous ion chelating potency, the scavenging rate of radical and reducing power of glucosamine sulfate were concentration-dependent and increased with their increasing concentrations, but its ferrous ion chelating potency decreased with the increasing concentration. The multiple antioxidant activities of glucosamine sulfate were evidents of reducing power and superoxide/hydroxyl radicals scavenging ability. These in vitro results suggest the possibility that glucosamine sulfate could be used effectively as an ingredient in health or functional food, to alleviate oxidative stress.

  16. Direct Sulfation of Limestone

    Hu, Guilin; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Wedel, Stig

    2007-01-01

    %) becomes negligible. In the temperature interval from 723 K to 973 K, an apparent activation energy of about 104 kJ/mol is observed for the direct sulfation of limestone. At low temperatures and low conversions, the sulfation process is most likely under mixed control by chemical reaction and solid......The direct sulfation of limestone was studied in a laboratory fixed-bed reactor. It is found that the direct sulfation of limestone involves nucleation and crystal grain growth of the solid product (anhydrite). At 823 K and at low-conversions (less than about 0.5 %), the influences of SO2, O-2 and...... CO2 on the direct sulfation of limestone corresponds to apparent reaction orders of about 0.2, 0.2 and -0.5, respectively. Water is observed to promote the sulfation reaction and increase the apparent reaction orders of SO2 and O-2. The influence of O-2 at high O-2 concentrations (> about 15...

  17. METHANOGENESIS AND SULFATE REDUCTION IN CHEMOSTATS: A FUNDAMENTAL EXPERIMENTAL KINETIC STUDY AND MODELING

    Six chemostats containing mixed anaerobic cultures were used to investigate interactions between sulfate reduction and methanogenesis for three substrates: acetic acid, methanol, and formic acid. ulfate reducers outcompeted methanogens for acetic acid while methanol was not utili...

  18. Characterization of a dermatan sulfate proteoglycan synthesized by murine parietal yolk sac (PYS-2) cells

    Couchman, J R; Woods, A; Höök, M;

    1985-01-01

    carry sulfate residues predominantly attached to C-4 of the galactosamine unit; less than 10% of the sulfate groups occur as 6-sulfated galactosamine units. About 60% of the uronic acid residues are of the glucuronic configuration, the rest being iduronic acid. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate......A dermatan sulfate proteoglycan has been isolated from a murine parietal yolk sac cell line, which in culture synthesizes basement membrane components. The proteoglycan has a molecular weight of 200,000-300,000 with 10-15 dermatan sulfate chains of Mr = 14,000-16,000. The glycosaminoglycan chains...... protein (Mr = 8,000). This proteoglycan is distinctly different from the large cartilage proteoglycan in the smaller size of its core protein, and its relationship to other small chondroitin and dermatan sulfate proteoglycans and to the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan recently located in rat tissue...

  19. Preparation and characterization of mesoporous tetragonal sulfated zirconia

    Chun Xia He; Bin Yue; Ji Fang Cheng; Wei Ming Hua; Ying Hong Yue; He Yong He

    2009-01-01

    Mesoporous tetragonal sulfated zirconia with high surface area and narrow pore-size distribution was prepared using Zr(O-nPr)4 as zirconium precursor, sulfuric acid as sulfur source and triblock copolymer poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(propylene glycol)poly(ethylene glycol) (P123) as the template. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, N2 sorption, TEM, and NH3TPD. A phase transformation from monoclinic sulfated zirconia to tetragonal sulfated zirconia is observed. The product shows strong acidity.

  20. Quantification of Tinto River Sediment Microbial Communities: Importance of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria and Their Role in Attenuating Acid Mine Drainage

    Sanchez-Andrea, I.; Knittel, K; Amann, R; Amils, R.; Sanz, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Tinto River (Huelva, Spain) is a natural acidic rock drainage (ARD) environment produced by the bio-oxidation of metallic sulfides from the Iberian Pyritic Belt. This study quantified the abundance of diverse microbial populations inhabiting ARD-related sediments from two physicochemically contrasting sampling sites (SN and JL dams). Depth profiles of total cell numbers differed greatly between the two sites yet were consistent in decreasing sharply at greater depths. Although catalyzed repor...

  1. Roles of chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate in the formation of a lesion scar and axonal regeneration after traumatic injury of the mouse brain

    Li, H.P.; Komuta, Y.; Kimura-Kuroda, J.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van; Kawano, H.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Dermatan sulfate (DS) is synthesized from chondroitin sulfate (CS) by epimerization of glucuronic acid of CS to yield iduronic acid. In the present study, the role of CS and DS was examined in mice that received transection of nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway followed by injection of glyc

  2. Sulfate attack expansion mechanisms

    Müllauer, Wolfram, E-mail: wolf_m@gmx.at; Beddoe, Robin E.; Heinz, Detlef

    2013-10-15

    A specially constructed stress cell was used to measure the stress generated in thin-walled Portland cement mortar cylinders caused by external sulfate attack. The effects of sulfate concentration of the storage solution and C{sub 3}A content of the cement were studied. Changes in mineralogical composition and pore size distribution were investigated by X-ray diffraction and mercury intrusion porosimetry, respectively. Damage is due to the formation of ettringite in small pores (10–50 nm) which generates stresses up to 8 MPa exceeding the tensile strength of the binder matrix. Higher sulfate concentrations and C{sub 3}A contents result in higher stresses. The results can be understood in terms of the effect of crystal surface energy and size on supersaturation and crystal growth pressure.

  3. The passivation of calcite by acid mine water. Column experiments with ferric sulfate and ferric chloride solutions at pH 2

    Column experiments, simulating the behavior of passive treatment systems for acid mine drainage, have been performed. Acid solutions (HCl or H2SO4, pH 2), with initial concentrations of Fe(III) ranging from 250 to 1500 mg L-1, were injected into column reactors packed with calcite grains at a constant flow rate. The composition of the solutions was monitored during the experiments. At the end of the experiments (passivation of the columns), the composition and structure of the solids were measured. The dissolution of calcite in the columns caused an increase in pH and the release of Ca into the solution, leading to the precipitation of gypsum and Fe-oxyhydroxysulfates (Fe(III)-SO4-H+ solutions) or Fe-oxyhydroxychlorides (Fe(III)-Cl-H+ solutions). The columns worked as an efficient barrier for some time, increasing the pH of the circulating solutions from 2 to ∼6-7 and removing its metal content. However, after some time (several weeks, depending on the conditions), the columns became chemically inert. The results showed that passivation time increased with decreasing anion and metal content of the solutions. Gypsum was the phase responsible for the passivation of calcite in the experiments with Fe(III)-SO4-H+ solutions. Schwertmannite and goethite appeared as the Fe(III) secondary phases in those experiments. Akaganeite was the phase responsible for the passivation of the system in the experiments with Fe(III)-Cl-H+ solutions

  4. Determination of boron spectrophotometry in thorium sulfate

    A procedure for the determination of microquantities of boron in nuclear grade thorium sulfate is described. The method is based on the extraction of BF-4 ion associated to monomethylthionine (MMT) in 1,2 - dichloroethane. The extraction of the colored BF-4-MMT complex does not allow the presence of sulfuric and phosphoric acids; other anions interfere seriously. This fact makes the dissolution of the thorium sulfate impracticable, since it is insoluble in both acids. On the other hand, the quantitative separation of thorium is mandatory, to avoid the precipitation of ThF4. To overcome this difficulty, the thorium sulfate is dissolved using a strong cationic ion exchanger, Th4+ being totally retained into the resin. Boron is then analysed in the effluent. The procedure allows the determination of 0.2 to 10.0 microgramas of B, with a maximum error of 10%. Thorium sulfate samples with contents of 0.2 to 2.0μg B/gTh have being analysed

  5. Investigation of the Solubilities of Sulfated and Ground Phosphate Rock after Sulfation in H2SO4 Solution

    Melike Sınırkaya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of temperature and acid concentration on the dissolution of the sulfated and ground after sulfation phosphate samples in sulfuric acid solution obtained after flue gas desulfurization were investigated and the results were compared for both samples. It was observed that the dissolution rate increased as the temperature and acid concentration increased during the dissolution of sulfated and ground after sulfation phosphate samples. It was shown that the dissolution reaction can be divided into two regions, with different rate controlling steps for both samples. The controlling step was determined as pseudo-first order reaction at low conversions and diffusion through the product (ash layer at high conversions.

  6. The influence of 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone on catalytic currents in the system molybdenum(VI) - potassium chlorate in acid sulfate solutions

    The polarographic catalytic current in acid solutions of Mo(VI), 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (TSC 2,3-DHBA) and chlorate ions has been investigated. The scheme of reactions, taking place in the solutions and on the electrode, has been proposed. The increase of the catalytic current is explained by the formation of an active intermediate complex [Mo(V) TSC 2,3-DHBA (ClO-3)]. The rate constant of this complex formation K = 2.56x106 mol-1 dm3 s-1, the activation energy Ea = 15.9 kcal x mol-1 and the reaction activation entropy ΔSa≠ = -23.5 e.u. have been calculated. (authors)

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF THIOSEMICARBAZONE 2,3-DIHYDROXYBENZALDEHYDE ON CATALYTIC CURRENTS IN THE SYSTEM MOLYBDENUM (VI – POTASSIUM CHLORATE IN ACID SULFATE SOLUTIONS

    Ludmila Chiriac

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The polarographic catalytic current in acid solutions of Mo(VI, thiosemicarbazone 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (TSC 2,3-DHBA and chlorate ions has been investigated. The scheme of reactions, taking place in the solutions and on the electrode, has been proposed. The increase of the catalytic current is explained by the formation of an active intermediate complex [Mo(V×TSC 2,3-DHBA (ClO-3]. The rate constant of this complex formation K = 2.56 × 106 mol-1×dm3×s-1, the activation energy Ea = 15.9 kcal×mol-1 and the reaction activation entropy ∆Sa¹ = -23.5 e.u. have been calculated.

  8. Crystal structure of tris­(piperidinium) hydrogen sulfate sulfate

    Lukianova, Tamara J.; Kinzhybalo, Vasyl; Pietraszko, Adam

    2015-01-01

    A novel mixed hydrogen sulfate–sulfate piperidinium salt comprises three protonated piperidinium cations, one hydrogen sulfate anion and one sulfate anion in the asymmetric unit. Strong hydrogen bonds exist between the cations and the anions giving rise to a three-dimensional structure.

  9. Hydrazine Sulfate (PDQ)

    ... use of hydrazine sulfate as a complementary or alternative treatment for cancer? It has been known since the early 1900s ... of CAM therapies originally considered to be purely alternative approaches are finding a place in cancer treatment—not as cures, but as complementary therapies that ...

  10. Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical, aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate, is presented. The profile lists physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

  11. Preparation and characterization of a chemically sulfated cashew gum polysaccharide

    Moura Neto, Erico de; Maciel, Jeanny da S.; Cunha, Pablyana L. R.; Paula, Regina Celia M. de; Feitosa, Judith P.A., E-mail: judith@dqoi.ufc.br [Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Cashew gum (CG) was sulfated in pyridine:formamide using chlorosulfonic acid as the reagent. Confirmation of sulfation was obtained by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy through the presence of an asymmetrical S=O stretching vibration at 1259 cm{sup -1}. The degrees of substitution were 0.02, 0.24 and 0.88 determined from the sulfur percentage. 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data showed that the sulfation occurred at primary carbons. An increase of at least 4% of the solution viscosity was observed due to sulfation. The thermal gravimetric curves (TGA) indicate that the derivatives are stable up to ca. 200 deg C. The sulfated CG is compared to carboxymethylated CG in order to verify the possibility of the use of the former in the preparation of polyelectrolyte complexes; the latter is already being used for this application. (author)

  12. Theoretical study on the reactivity of sulfate species with hydrocarbons

    Ma, Q.; Ellis, G.S.; Amrani, A.; Zhang, T.; Tang, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The abiotic, thermochemically controlled reduction of sulfate to hydrogen sulfide coupled with the oxidation of hydrocarbons, is termed thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR), and is an important alteration process that affects petroleum accumulations in nature. Although TSR is commonly observed in high-temperature carbonate reservoirs, it has proven difficult to simulate in the laboratory under conditions resembling nature. The present study was designed to evaluate the relative reactivities of various sulfate species in order to provide greater insight into the mechanism of TSR and potentially to fill the gap between laboratory experimental data and geological observations. Accordingly, quantum mechanics density functional theory (DFT) was used to determine the activation energy required to reach a potential transition state for various aqueous systems involving simple hydrocarbons and different sulfate species. The entire reaction process that results in the reduction of sulfate to sulfide is far too complex to be modeled entirely; therefore, we examined what is believed to be the rate limiting step, namely, the reduction of sulfate S(VI) to sulfite S(IV). The results of the study show that water-solvated sulfate anions SO42 - are very stable due to their symmetrical molecular structure and spherical electronic distributions. Consequently, in the absence of catalysis, the reactivity of SO42 - is expected to be extremely low. However, both the protonation of sulfate to form bisulfate anions (HSO4-) and the formation of metal-sulfate contact ion-pairs could effectively destabilize the sulfate molecular structure, thereby making it more reactive. Previous reports of experimental simulations of TSR generally have involved the use of acidic solutions that contain elevated concentrations of HSO4- relative to SO42 -. However, in formation waters typically encountered in petroleum reservoirs, the concentration of HSO4- is likely to be significantly lower than the levels

  13. Formation of the natural sulfate aerosol

    Kerminen, V.M.; Hillamo, R.; Maekinen, M.; Virkkula, A.; Maekelae, T.; Pakkanen, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Anthropogenic sulfate aerosol, together with particles from biomass burning, may significantly reduce the climatic warming due to man-made greenhouse gases. The radiative forcing of aerosol particles is based on their ability to scatter and absorb solar radiation (direct effect), and on their influences on cloud albedos and lifetimes (indirect effect). The direct aerosol effect depends strongly on the size, number and chemical composition of particles, being greatest for particles of 0.1-1 {mu}m in diameter. The indirect aerosol effect is dictated by the number of particles being able to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). For sulfate particles, the minimum CCN size in tropospheric clouds is of the order of 0.05-0.2 {mu}m. To improve aerosol parameterizations in future climate models, it is required that (1) both primary and secondary sources of various particle types will be characterized at a greater accuracy, and (2) the influences of various atmospheric processes on the spatial and temporal distribution of these particles and their physico-chemical properties are known much better than at the present. In estimating the climatic forcing due to the sulfate particles, one of the major problems is to distinguish between sulfur from anthropogenic sources and that of natural origin. Global emissions of biogenic and anthropogenic sulfate pre-cursors are comparable in magnitude, but over regional scales either of these two source types may dominate. The current presentation is devoted to discussing the natural sulfate aerosol, including the formation of sulfur-derived particles in the marine environment, and the use of particulate methanesulfonic acid (MSA) as a tracer for the natural sulfate

  14. Intra-articular use of a medical device composed of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate (Structovial CS: effects on clinical, ultrasonographic and biological parameters

    Henrotin Yves

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This pilot open noncontrolled study was designed to assess the efficacy of intra-articular injections of a solution combining hyaluronic acid (HA and chondroitin sulphate (CS in the treatment of outpatients affected by knee osteoarthrosis. Findings Thirty patients with knee OA have been included. The primary objective was to assess clinical efficacy as measured by pain and Lequesne’s index. Secondary objectives were to assess potential effect of the treatment on ultrasound parameters, safety and biomarkers of cartilage metabolism and joint inflammation. After a selection visit (V1, the study treatment was administered 3 times on a weekly basis (V2, V3, V4. Follow-up was planned 6 (V5 and 12 weeks (V6 after the first intra-articular injection. Efficacy results showed a reduction in mean pain at V3 and V6 and in functional impairment, the most marked changes being measured at the two follow-up visits (V5 and V6. Although statistical significance was not achieved due to small sample size, a clear tendency towards improvement was detectable for ultrasound assessments as well as biomarkers. Except for a mild injection site hematoma for which the drug causal relationship could not be excluded, no adverse effect of clinical relevance was recorded during the study. Conclusion Although this pilot study was performed according to an open design only, the ultrasound as well as biomarkers changes strongly suggest a non-placebo effect. These preliminary results call now for a randomized controlled study to confirm the clinical relevance of the observed results. Trial registration #ISRCTN91883031

  15. 氨基酸聚合物/硫酸钙生物工程骨的生物相容性研究%Study on biocompatibility of poly (amino acid)/calcium sulfate composite as bioengineering bone

    苏保; 蒋电明; 严永刚; 赵增辉; 李军

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the biocompatibility of poly ( amino acid)/calcium sulfate ( PAA/CaSO4 ) composite as bioengineering bone. Methods The PAA in the composite consists of 6-aminohexanoic acid, glycine, alanine, phenylalanine, proline, lysine, and hydroxyproline. Physiological saline lixivium of the composite was used in acute toxicity test, hemolysis test, micronucleus test, intradermal irritation test, pyrogen test, and cytotoxicity test to evaluate the biocompatibility of the material. Results The activity of mice was normal in the acute toxicity test. No animal died and no toxicity symptom or adverse effect was shown within 7 d. The average daily weight increases showed no statistically significant difference ( P > 0.05 ) between the experimental and control groups after 7 d. The hemolysis rate of the lixivium was 2.01%, which was lower than the national standard ( < 5% ). The micronucleus rates showed no statistically significant difference (P >0. 05 ) between three experimental groups and the negative control group ( each group' s micronucleus rate was between 0.4 and 0.6), and potential mutagenicity was not observed in the micronucleus test. The maximum increase of body temperature in the experimental group was 0.4 ℃, and the total body temperature increase of the three experimental animals was 1.1 ℃, which met the national standard ( < 1.4 C ). Intradermal irritation test results showed no obvious erythema, edema, or skin necrosis in the experimental and negative control groups, with a primary irritation index of 0.01 -0.02, indicating very slight irritation. In the cytotoxicity test,the relative growth rates of two experimental groups and the negative control group were all above 90%, and the toxicity of PAA/CaS04 composite lixivium was graded 0 or 1, indicating no cytotoxicity. Conclusion PAA/CaSO4 composite has good biocompatibility.%目的 评价氨基酸聚合物[poly(amino acid),PAA]/硫酸钙(calcium sulfate,CaSO4)生物工

  16. Coupled ferric oxides and sulfates on the Martian surface.

    Bibring, J-P; Arvidson, R E; Gendrin, A; Gondet, B; Langevin, Y; Le Mouelic, S; Mangold, N; Morris, R V; Mustard, J F; Poulet, F; Quantin, C; Sotin, C

    2007-08-31

    The Mars Exploration Rover (MER), Opportunity, showed that layered sulfate deposits in Meridiani Planum formed during a period of rising acidic ground water. Crystalline hematite spherules formed in the deposits as a consequence of aqueous alteration and were concentrated on the surface as a lag deposit as wind eroded the softer sulfate rocks. On the basis of Mars Express Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activité (OMEGA) orbital data, we demonstrate that crystalline hematite deposits are associated with layered sulfates in other areas on Mars, implying that Meridiani-like ground water systems were indeed widespread and representative of an extensive acid sulfate aqueous system. PMID:17673623

  17. Sulfate Reduction Remediation of a Metals Plume Through Organic Injection

    Laboratory testing and a field-scale demonstration for the sulfate reduction remediation of an acidic/metals/sulfate groundwater plume at the Savannah River Site has been conducted. The laboratory testing consisted of the use of anaerobic microcosms to test the viability of three organic substrates to promote microbially mediated sulfate reduction. Based upon the laboratory testing, soybean oil and sodium lactate were selected for injection during the subsequent field-scale demonstration. The field-scale demonstration is currently ongoing. Approximately 825 gallons (3,123 L) of soybean oil and 225 gallons (852 L) of 60 percent sodium lactate have been injected into an existing well system within the plume. Since the injections, sulfate concentrations in the injection zone have significantly decreased, sulfate-reducing bacteria concentrations have significantly increased, the pH has increased, the Eh has decreased, and the concentrations of many metals have decreased. Microbially mediated sulfate reduction has been successfully promoted for the remediation of the acidic/metals/sulfate plume by the injection of soybean oil and sodium lactate within the plume

  18. Radioimmunoassay of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate

    The development of a radioimmunological method for the measurement of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in serum is described. For the immunization of rabbits, a DHA-3-hemissuccinate-bovine serum albumin conjugate was synthetized and a highly specific anti-serum was produced. The method developed requires only simple dilution prior to assay and the normal values for the different age groups were determined in 146 normal individuals. (Author)

  19. Ionic Liquid Matrix for Direct UV-MALDI-TOF-MS Analysis of Dermatan Sulfate and Chondroitin Sulfate Oligosaccharides

    Laremore, Tatiana N.; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Polyanionic oligosaccharides such as dermatan sulfate (DS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) exhibit poor ionization efficiencies and tend to undergo thermal fragmentation through the loss of SO3 under conventional ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (UV-MALDI) conditions. A new ionic liquid matrix (ILM), a guanidinium salt of α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, facilitates direct UV-MALDI mass spectrometric (MS) analysis of underivatized DS and CS oligosaccharides up to a decasacc...

  20. Incorporation of 35S-sulfate and 3H-glucosamine into heparan and chondroitin sulfates during the cell cycle of B16-F10 cells

    Changes in glycosaminoglycan composition occurring during the cell cycle were determined in B16-F10 cells sorted flow cytometrically with respect to DNA content. Incorporation of 35S-sulfate into heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate of unsorted and G1,S, and G2 +M sorted cells was determined following chondroitinase ABC or nitrous acid treatment; the incorporation into surface material was measured as the difference between the radioactivity of control and trypsin-treated cells. Incorporation of 35S-sulfate and 3H-glucosamine into cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC)-precipitable material was characterized before and after chondroitinase or nitrous acid treatment by Sephadex G50 chromatography. Long-term (48 h) and short-term (1 h) labeling studies demonstrate that (a) the amount of total cellular chondroitin sulfate is greater than that of heparan sulfate, with larger amounts of unsulfated heparan than chondroitin being present; (b) the rate of turnover of heparan sulfate is greater than that of chondroitin sulfate; (c) greatest short-term incorporation of 3H-glucosamine into CPC-precipitable material occurs during S phase; and (d) the rate of turnover of both heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate is decreased in S phase relative to G1 and G2 + M

  1. Dermatan Sulfate-Free Mice Display Embryological Defects and Are Neonatal Lethal Despite Normal Lymphoid and Non-Lymphoid Organogenesis

    Stachtea, X.N.; Tykesson, E.; Kuppevelt, T.H. van; Feinstein, R.; Malmstrom, A.; Reijmers, R.M.; Maccarana, M.

    2015-01-01

    The epimerization of glucuronic acid into iduronic acid adds structural variability to chondroitin/dermatan sulfate polysaccharides. Iduronic acid-containing domains play essential roles in processes such as coagulation, chemokine and morphogen modulation, collagen maturation, and neurite sprouting. Therefore, we generated and characterized, for the first time, mice deficient in dermatan sulfate epimerase 1 and 2, two enzymes uniquely involved in dermatan sulfate biosynthesis. The resulting m...

  2. Synthesis of stearic acid triethanolamine ester over solid acid catalysts

    Tao Geng; Qiu Xiao Li; Ya Jie Jiang; Wei Wang

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis of stearic acid triethanolamine ester over solid acid catalysts was investigated.The results showed that the catalytic activity and selectivity of zirconium sulfate supported on SBA-15(6)(pore diameter 6 nm)is better than that of commonly used hypophosphorous acid,zirconium sulfate supported on MCM-41 and zirconium sulfate supported on SBA-15(9)(pore diameter 9 nm).

  3. Crystal structure of tris­(piperidinium) hydrogen sulfate sulfate

    Tamara J. Lukianova; Vasyl Kinzhybalo; Adam Pietraszko

    2015-01-01

    In the title molecular salt, 3C5H12N+·HSO4−·SO42−, each cation adopts a chair conformation. In the crystal, the hydrogen sulfate ion is connected to the sulfate ion by a strong O—H...O hydrogen bond. The packing also features a number of N—H...O hydrogen bonds, which lead to a three-dimensional network structure. The hydrogen sulfate anion accepts four hydrogen bonds from two cations, whereas the sulfate ion, as an acceptor, binds to five separate piperidinium cations, forming seven hydrogen ...

  4. Binding of heparan sulfate to Staphylococcus aureus.

    Liang, O D; Ascencio, F; Fransson, L A; Wadström, T

    1992-01-01

    Heparan sulfate binds to proteins present on the surface of Staphylococcus aureus cells. Binding of 125I-heparan sulfate to S. aureus was time dependent, saturable, and influenced by pH and ionic strength, and cell-bound 125I-heparan sulfate was displaced by unlabelled heparan sulfate or heparin. Other glycosaminoglycans of comparable size (chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate), highly glycosylated glycoprotein (hog gastric mucin), and some anionic polysaccharides (dextran sulfate and RNA...

  5. Mise en évidence d'une séquence de précipitation des sels dans les sols sulfatés acides d'une vallée aménagée de Basse-Casamance (Sénégal)

    Montoroi, Jean-Pierre

    1995-01-01

    Au cours de la sécheresse actuelle en Afrique de l'Ouest, de nombreuses efflorescences salines se sont formées à la surface des sols sulfatés acides de Basse-Casamance, notamment dans les vallées aménagées par un barrage anti-sel. Leur caractérisation minéralogique montre qu'elles sont constituées par une grande variété de sulfates d'aluminium et de fer. Les différentes paragenèses minérales s'ordonnent dans le paysage selon une séquence de précipitation. (Résumé d'auteur)

  6. In Vitro Antioxidant Activities of Sulfated Derivatives of Polysaccharides Extracted from Auricularia auricular

    Zhang, Hua; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Yang, Lin; Yang, Xin; Wang, Xue; Zhang, Zhi

    2011-01-01

    In this research, two types of sulfated polysaccharide derivatives were successfully synthesized. Their antioxidant activities were investigated by employing various established in vitro systems. In addition, the degree of sulfation was evaluated using ion-chromatography and IR spectra. The results verify that, when employing scavenging superoxide radical tests, both the sulfation of acid Auricularia auricular polysaccharides (SAAAP) and the sulfation of neutral Auricularia auricular polysaccharides (SNAAP) derivatives possessed considerable antioxidant activity and had a more powerful antioxidant competence than that of the native non-sulfated polysaccharides (AAAP and NAAP). On the other hand, AAAP and NAAP exhibited stronger activity on scavenging both the hydroxyl radical and lipid peroxidation. Available data obtained with in vitro measurements indicates that the sulfated groups of AAAP and NAAP played an important role on antioxidant activity. In sum, the research demonstrates that the antioxidant activity of sulfated polysaccharide derivatives in vitro has a potential significance for seeking new natural antioxidant protective agents. PMID:21686185

  7. Sulfation pattern of fucose branches affects the anti-hyperlipidemic activities of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate.

    Wu, Nian; Zhang, Yu; Ye, Xingqian; Hu, Yaqin; Ding, Tian; Chen, Shiguo

    2016-08-20

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (fCSs) are glycosaminoglycans extracted from sea cucumbers, consisting of chondroitin sulfate E (CSE) backbones and sulfated fucose branches. The biological properties of fCSs could be affected by the sulfation pattern of their fucose branches. In the present study, two fCSs were isolated from sea cucumbers Isostichopus badionotus (fCS-Ib) and Pearsonothuria graeffei (fCS-Pg). Their monosaccharide compositions of glucuronic acid (GlcA), N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), fucose (Fuc) and sulfate were at similar molar ratio with 1.0/0.7/0.9/3.1 for fCS-Ib and 1.0/0.8/1.5/2.6 for fCS-Pg. The two fCSs have different sulfation patterns on their fucose branches, fCS-Pg with 3,4-O-disulfation while fCS-Ib with 2,4-O-disulfation. Their antihyperlipidemic effects were compared using a high-fat high-fructose diet (HFFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice model. Both fCS-Ib and fCS-Pg had significant effects on lipid profile improvement, liver protection, blood glucose diminution and hepatic glycogen synthesis. Specifically, fCS-Pg with 3,4-O-disulfation fucose branches was more effective in reduction of blood cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and atherogenic index (AI). Our results indicate that both fCSs, especially fCS-Pg, could be used as a potential anti-hyperlipidemic drug. PMID:27178902

  8. The Microbial Metabolic Characteristics in the Course of Sulfate-Reduction

    2004-01-01

    Acid-producing phase reactor of two-phase anaerobic treatment process has remarkable advantages treating sulfate-laden wastewater. In order to investigate SRB population's capability of utilizing substrate and the microbial acidification type formed during the course of sulfate reduction, continuous-flow and batch tests were conducted in a continuous stirred tank bio-film reactor supplied with sodium sulfate as electron acceptor. The experimental results demonstrated that the acidification type formed b...

  9. Anaerobic treatment of sulfate-containing wastewater from distilleries

    Bioprocess evaluation of a staged arrangement of a Pulse Driven Loop Reaktor (PDLR) and a Pulsed Anaerobic Filter (PAF) using highly polluted cherry slops as industrial wastewater shows a COD removal efficiency of 80-90% at loading rates of 8-4 kg COD/(M3.d). Contamination of cherry slops by sulfate (2 g/l) and copper (150-200 mg/l) reduces COD degradation to 40-50 percent. A pulsed anaerobic baffled reactor was envisaged as a corrective tool to improve mineralisation in the presence of sulfate-rich substrates by confining sulfate reducing bacteria to the first 4 chambers of the reactor. Phasing slightly improves COD degradation yield, but is not sufficient for stable process performance. Consequently, the use of lactic acid in stead of sulfuric acid in cherry-fermentation was suggested as a preventive method to avoid sulphide-induced digester failure. (orig.)

  10. Sulfated oligosaccharides for use in treatment of neurodegenerative diseases

    Campion, Colin; Pini, Adrian Peter John; Gilthorpe, Jonathan David

    2012-01-01

    Compounds which interact with HlsTONES Compounds of Formula I : • 4"'-Sulfo-Fucose [alpha]1-3 (4"-sulfo)-Fucose [alpha]1-3 (4'-Sulfo-Fu- cose [alpha]1-4-Glucuronic acid [beta]1-0-Methyl or • 4" "-Sulfo-Fucose [alpha]1-3 (4"-sulfo)-Fucose [alpha]1-3 (4"-sulfo)- Fucose [alpha]1-3 (4'-Sulfo-Fucose [alpha]1-4-Glucuronic acid [be ta]1-0-Methyl. wherein X is sulfate (-SO3H) or phosphate (-PO3H); Su is sulfate and sulfation is most likely at the arrowed positions. The compounds above are useful in t...

  11. Effects of Ca(OH)2 assisted aluminum sulfate coagulation on the removal of humic acid and the formation potentials of tri-halomethanes and haloacetic acids in chlorination

    Jinming Duan; Xiaoting Cao; Cheng Chen; Dongrui Shi; Genmao Li; Dennis Mulcahy

    2012-01-01

    The effects of addition of calcium hydroxide on aluminum sulphate (or alum) coagulation for removal of natural organic matter (NOM) and its subsequent effect on the formation potentials of two major types of regulated disinfection byproducts (DBPs),haloacetic acids (HAAs) and trihalomethanes (THMs),have been examined.The results revealed several noteworthy phenomena.At the optimal coagulation pH (i.e.6),the coagulation behavior of NOM water solutions versus alum dose,showed large variation and a consequent great change in the formation potentials of the DBPs at certain coagulant doses.However,with addition of a relatively small amount of Ca(OH)2,although the zeta potential of coagulated flocs remained almost the same,NOM removal became more consistent with alum dose.Importantly,also the detrimental effect of charge reversal on NOM removal at the low coagulant dose disappeared.This resulted in a steady decrease in the formation potentials of DBPs as a function of the coagulant dose.Moreover,the addition of Ca(OH)2 broadened the pH range of alum coagulation and promoted further reduction of the formation potentials of the DBPs.The enhancement effects of Ca(OH)2 assisted alum coagulation are especially pronounced at pH 7 and 8.Finally,synchronous fluorescence spectra showed that the reduction in DBPs formation potential by Ca(OH)2-assisted alum coagulation was connected to an enhanced removal of small hydrophobic and hydrophilic HA molecules.Ca(OH)2-assistance of alum coagulation appeared to increase substantially the removal of the hydrophilic HA fraction responsible for HAAs formation,prompting further reduction of HAA formation potentials.

  12. Methylmercury production in a chronically sulfate-impacted sub-boreal wetland.

    Johnson, Nathan W; Mitchell, Carl P J; Engstrom, Daniel R; Bailey, Logan T; Coleman Wasik, Jill K; Berndt, Michael E

    2016-06-15

    Increased deposition of atmospheric sulfate exacerbates methylmercury (MeHg) production in freshwater wetlands by stimulating methylating bacteria, but it is unclear how methylation in sub-boreal wetlands is impacted by chronically elevated sulfate inputs, such as through mine discharges. The purpose of our study is to determine how sulfate discharges to wetlands from iron mining activities impact MeHg production. In this study, we compare spatial and temporal patterns in MeHg and associated geochemistry in two wetlands receiving contrasting loads of sulfate. Two orders of magnitude less sulfate in the un-impacted wetland create significant differences in acid-volatile sulfide and porewater sulfide; however, dissolved and solid-phase MeHg concentrations and methylation rate potentials (Kmeth) are statistically similar in both wetlands. Permitted mine pumping events flood the sulfate-impacted wetland with very high sulfate waters during the fall. In contrast to observations in sulfate-limited systems, this large input of sulfate to a chronically sulfate-impacted system led to significantly lower potential relative methylation rates, suggesting a predominance of demethylation processes over methylation processes during the sulfate loading. Overall, short-term measurements of methylation and demethylation potential are unrelated to gross measures of long-term MeHg accumulation, indicating a decoupling of short- and long-term process measurements and an overall disequilibrium in the systems. High sulfide accumulation, above ∼600-800 μg l(-1) sulfide, in the sulfate-impacted system lowers long-term MeHg accumulation, perhaps as a result of less bioavailable Hg-S complexes. Although continued research is required to determine how sulfate-limited freshwater wetlands might respond to new, large inputs of high-sulfate runoff from mining operations, chronically impacted wetlands do not appear to continually accumulate or produce MeHg at rates different from wetlands

  13. Multistage Tandem Mass Spectrometry of Chondroitin Sulfate and Dermatan Sulfate

    Bielik, Alicia M.; Zaia, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Chondroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) is a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) found in abundance in extracellular matrices. In connective tissue, CS/DS proteoglycans play structural roles in maintaining viscoelasticity through the large number of immobilized sulfate groups on CS/DS chains. CS/DS chains also bind protein families including growth factors and growth factor receptors. Through such interactions, CS/DS chains play important roles in neurobiochemical processes, connective tissue homeostasis, c...

  14. Final report on the safety assessment of octoxynol-1, octoxynol-3, octoxynol-5, octoxynol-6, octoxynol-7, octoxynol-8, octoxynol-9, octoxynol-10, octoxynol-11, octoxynol-12, octoxynol-13, octoxynol-16, octoxynol-20, octoxynol-25, octoxynol-30, octoxynol-33, octoxynol-40, octoxynol-70, octoxynol-9 carboxylic acid, octoxynol-20 carboxylic acid, potassium octoxynol-12 phosphate, sodium octoxynol-2 ethane sulfonate, sodium octoxynol-2 sulfate, sodium octoxynol-6 sulfate, and sodium octoxynol-9 sulfate.

    Johnson, Wilbur

    2004-01-01

    Octoxynols are ethoxylated alkylphenols in which the size of the molecule is related to the number of moles of ethylene oxide used in synthesis. Reactions are performed at elevated temperature, under pressure, and in the presence of NaOH. It is possible that the synthesis may leave trace amounts of ethylene oxide, 1,4-dioxane, and unreacted C9 phenols. Octoxynols of various chain lengths as well as octoxynol salts and organic acids function in cosmetics either as surfactants--emulsifying agents, surfactants--cleansing agents, surfactant--solubilizing agents, or surfactants--hydrotropes in a wide variety of cosmetic products at concentrations ranging from 0.0008% to 25%, with most less than 5.0%. The octoxynols are chemically similar to nonoxynols, the safety of which were previously considered. Long-chain nonoxynols (9 and above) were considered safe as used, whereas short-chain nonoxynols (8 and below) were considered safe as used in rinse-off products and safe at concentrations less than 5% in leave-on formulations. Acute exposure of hamsters to Octoxynol-9 by bronchopulmonary lavage produced pneumonia, pulmonary edema, and intra-alveolar hemorrhage. Octoxynol-9 at doses over 1 g/kg was toxic in rats and in mice in acute oral toxicity studies. No significant effects were noted in short-term oral studies of Octoxynol-9 in rats, in subchronic oral studies of Octoxynol-40 in rats and dogs, or in chronic oral studies of Octoxynol-40 in rats. The intraperitoneal LD50 of Octoxynol-9 in rats and mice was around 100 mg/kg. In skin irritation studies, octoxynols ranged from nonirritating to moderately irritating. Octoxynols were not ocular irritants in one rabbit study, but in others there was ocular irritation. No immune system toxicity in CF-1 female mice was noted following the intraperitoneal injection of Octoxynol-9 followed by subcutaneous immunization with sheep red blood cells (SRBCs). Octoxynol-9 produced no humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, or

  15. A wide diversity of sulfated polysaccharides are synthesized by different species of marine sponges.

    Zierer, M S; Mourão, P A

    2000-09-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides were extracted from four species of marine sponges by exhaustive papain digestion. These compounds were purified by anion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. Analysis of the purified polysaccharides revealed a species-specific variation in their chemical composition and also in their molecular masses. In the species Aplysina fulva we found a sulfated glucan with a glycogen-like structure. The other three species contained sulfated polysaccharides with variable proportions of galactose, fucose, arabinose and hexuronic acid and also with different degrees of sulfation. Although the complex nature of these polysaccharides did not allow complete structure determination, we detected the occurrence of 4-sulfated residues of fucose and arabinose in the species Dysidea fragilis. The biological role of these sulfated polysaccharides requires further investigation. They may be involved in the species-specific aggregation of sponge cells and/or in the structural integrity of sponge, resembling the proteoglycans of mammalian connective tissues. PMID:11028788

  16. 6-O-Sulfated Modification of Natural Glycoalkaloids Chaconine and Solanine

    2006-01-01

    Glycoalkaloids(GAS) have important biological and pharmaceutical activities. In order to study the relationship between the structures and the activities of carbohydrate chains, two natural glycoalkaloids, chaconine( compound 1 )and solanine( compound 2) , were isolated from potato stems and leaves( Solanum tuberosum L. ). The selective sulfation to the 6-hydroxy groups of chaconine and solanine was carried out in a strategy by the use of protective groups.The 6-hydroxyl groups of the sugar chains in chaconine and solanine were protected with 4,4'-dimethoxytrityl(DMT)while the other hydroxyl groups were acetylated. The protective group DMT was removed by using 0. 5% TFA in dichloromethane. The free 6-hydroxyl groups were sulfated by chlorosulfonic acid pyridine to give 6-O-sulfated products. After the acetyl groups were removed, the final products obtained were sulfated chaconine and sulfated solanine. 13C NMR spectra confirmed that chaconine and solanine were sulfated at O6 of the carbohydrate moiety.

  17. Sulfated compounds from marine organisms.

    Kornprobst, J M; Sallenave, C; Barnathan, G

    1998-01-01

    More than 500 sulfated compounds have been isolated from marine organisms so far but most of them originate from two phyla only, Spongia and Echinodermata. The sulfated compounds are presented according to the phyla they have been identified from and to their chemical structures. Biological activities, when available, are also given. Macromolecules have also been included in this review but without structural details. PMID:9530808

  18. Sulfated Macromolecules as Templates for Calcite Nucleation and Growth

    David, M.; Passalacqua, K.; Neira, A. C.; Fernandez, M. S.

    2003-12-01

    Mineralization of egg and seashells is controlled by an intimate association of inorganic materials with organic macromolecules. Among them, particular polyanionic sulfated macromolecules referred to as proteoglycans have been described to be involved in the calcification of these biominerals. The sulfated moieties of the proteoglycans are part of polymer chains constituted of building-blocks of disaccharide units, referred to as sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which are covalently attached to a protein core. By using a sitting drop crystallization assay under controlled conditions of time, pH and reactants concentration, we have tested several sulfated and non-sulfated GAGs (i.e.: dermatan and keratan sulfate, hyaluronic acid and heparin), differing in their sulfonate and carboxylate degree and pattern, in their ability to modify calcium carbonate crystal morphology as observed under scanning electron microscopy. Without the addition of GAGs, regular \\{104\\} rhombohedral calcite crystals were obtained. When hyaluronic acid (HA), a non-sulfated but carboxylated GAG, was added, 20 mm long piles of unmodified calcite crystals were observed. When desulfated dermatan, which is an epimeric form of HA but shorter polymer, having their carboxylate groups in an inverted configuration, was added, isolated rhombohedral \\{104\\} calcite crystals showing rounded corners with planes oriented parallel to the c axis were observed. When dermatan sulfated was added, isolated calcite crystals exhibit a columnar morphology as a \\{hk0\\} cylinder with three \\{104\\} faces forming a cap at both ends. Heparin activity depends on the fraction added. Fast-moving heparin fraction (FM), is an undersulfated, low-molecular-weight heterogeneous polymer, while slow-moving heparin fraction (SM) is an high-molecular-weight homogeneous polymer rich in trisulfated-disaccharide units. When FM was added, isolated calcite crystals displayed rhombohedrical \\{104\\} faces but flat corners of

  19. Direct effects of atmospheric sulfate deposition on vegetation

    Chevone, B.I.; Herzfeld, D.E.; Krupa, S.V.; Chappelka, A.H.

    1986-07-01

    Acid sulfate aerosol (500 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/) had no effect on soybean or pinto bean after a single 4-h exposure. However, visible injury and chlorophyl loss occurred when plants were sequentially exposed to acid aerosol and ozone (380 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/) for 4 h. In yellow poplar seedlings exposed to ozone (200 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/), sulfur dioxide (210 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/) and simulated rain solutions (pH 5.6, 4.3 and 3.0) for 6 weeks, root dry weight, leaf area increase, mean relative growth rate and unit leaf rate decreased linearly with pH in ozone-treated plants. However, unit leaf rate and mean relative growth rate increased linearly in response to sulfur dioxide as solution acidity increased. Ambient wet and dry sulfate concentrations appear insufficient to directly impact vegetation. (23 refs.)

  20. Bioengineered heparins and heparan sulfates.

    Fu, Li; Suflita, Matthew; Linhardt, Robert J

    2016-02-01

    Heparin and heparan sulfates are closely related linear anionic polysaccharides, called glycosaminoglycans, which exhibit a number of important biological and pharmacological activities. These polysaccharides, having complex structures and polydispersity, are biosynthesized in the Golgi of animal cells. While heparan sulfate is a widely distributed membrane and extracellular glycosaminoglycan, heparin is found primarily intracellularly in the granules of mast cells. While heparin has historically received most of the scientific attention for its anticoagulant activity, interest has steadily grown in the multi-faceted role heparan sulfate plays in normal and pathophysiology. The chemical synthesis of these glycosaminoglycans is largely precluded by their structural complexity. Today, we depend on livestock animal tissues for the isolation and the annual commercial production of hundred ton quantities of heparin used in the manufacture of anticoagulant drugs and medical device coatings. The variability of animal-sourced heparin and heparan sulfates, their inherent impurities, the limited availability of source tissues, the poor control of these source materials and their manufacturing processes, suggest a need for new approaches for their production. Over the past decade there have been major efforts in the biotechnological production of these glycosaminoglycans, driven by both therapeutic applications and as probes to study their natural functions. This review focuses on the complex biology of these glycosaminoglycans in human health and disease, and the use of recombinant technology in the chemoenzymatic synthesis and metabolic engineering of heparin and heparan sulfates. PMID:26555370

  1. Tris(diisopropylammonium hydrogensulfate sulfate

    Gholamhossein Sh. Mohammadnezhad

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The cations and anions of the title salt, 3C6H16N+·HSO4−·SO42−, are linked by N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional network. The hydrogensulfate ion, with a single S—O(H bond of 1.563 (2 Å, forms a short O—H...O hydrogen bond [O...O = 2.609 (2 Å] to the sulfate ion. The hydrogensulfate ion accepts two hydrogen bonds from two cations, whereas the sulfate ion, as an acceptor, binds to four cations. The sulfate ion is disordered approximately equally over two sites related by rotation around one of the O—S bonds.

  2. Linkage of High Rates of Sulfate Reduction in Yellowstone Hot Springs to Unique Sequence Types in the Dissimilatory Sulfate Respiration Pathway

    Fishbain, Susan; Dillon, Jesse G.; Heidi L Gough; Stahl, David A

    2003-01-01

    Diversity, habitat range, and activities of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes within hot springs in Yellowstone National Park were characterized using endogenous activity measurements, molecular characterization, and enrichment. Five major phylogenetic groups were identified using PCR amplification of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase genes (dsrAB) from springs demonstrating significant sulfate reduction rates, including a warm, acidic (pH 2.5) stream and several nearly neutral hot springs with ...

  3. Sulfate reduction in freshwater peatlands

    This text consist of two parts: Part A is a literature review on microbial sulfate reduction with emphasis on freshwater peatlands, and part B presents the results from a study of the relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane formation for the anaerobic decomposition in a boreal peatland. The relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane production for the anaerobic decomposition was studied in a small raised bog situated in the boreal zone of southern Sweden. Depth distribution of sulfate reduction- and methane production rates were measured in peat sampled from three sites (A, B, and C) forming an minerotrophic-ombrotrophic gradient. SO42- concentrations in the three profiles were of equal magnitude and ranged from 50 to 150 μM. In contrast, rates of sulfate reduction were vastly different: Maximum rates in the three profiles were obtained at a depth of ca. 20 cm below the water table. In A it was 8 μM h-1 while in B and C they were 1 and 0.05 μM h-1, respectively. Methane production rates, however, were more uniform across the three nutrient regimes. Maximum rates in A (ca. 1.5 μg d-1 g-1) were found 10 cm below the water table, in B (ca. 1.0 μg d-1 g-1) in the vicinity of the water table, and in C (0.75 μg d-1 g-1) 20 cm below the water table. In all profiles both sulfate reduction and methane production rates were negligible above the water table. The areal estimates of methane production for the profiles were 22.4, 9.0 and 6.4 mmol m-2 d-1, while the estimates for sulfate reduction were 26.4, 2.5, and 0.1 mmol m-2 d-1, respectively. The calculated turnover times at the sites were 1.2, 14.2, and 198.7 days, respectively. The study shows that sulfate reducing bacteria are important for the anaerobic degradation in the studied peatland, especially in the minerotrophic sites, while methanogenic bacteria dominate in ombrotrophic sites Examination paper. 67 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  4. Chondroitin sulfate synthase-2 is necessary for chain extension of chondroitin sulfate but not critical for skeletal development.

    Hiroyasu Ogawa

    Full Text Available Chondroitin sulfate (CS is a linear polysaccharide consisting of repeating disaccharide units of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and D-glucuronic acid residues, modified with sulfated residues at various positions. Based on its structural diversity in chain length and sulfation patterns, CS provides specific biological functions in cell adhesion, morphogenesis, neural network formation, and cell division. To date, six glycosyltransferases are known to be involved in the biosynthesis of chondroitin saccharide chains, and a hetero-oligomer complex of chondroitin sulfate synthase-1 (CSS1/chondroitin synthase-1 and chondroitin sulfate synthase-2 (CSS2/chondroitin polymerizing factor is known to have the strongest polymerizing activity. Here, we generated and analyzed CSS2(-/- mice. Although they were viable and fertile, exhibiting no overt morphological abnormalities or osteoarthritis, their cartilage contained CS chains with a shorter length and at a similar number to wild type. Further analysis using CSS2(-/- chondrocyte culture systems, together with siRNA of CSS1, revealed the presence of two CS chain species in length, suggesting two steps of CS chain polymerization; i.e., elongation from the linkage region up to Mr ∼10,000, and further extension. There, CSS2 mainly participated in the extension, whereas CSS1 participated in both the extension and the initiation. Our study demonstrates the distinct function of CSS1 and CSS2, providing a clue in the elucidation of the mechanism of CS biosynthesis.

  5. Application of Chondroitin Sulfate on Organogenesis of Two Cymbidium spp. under Different Sources of Lights

    Syeda Jabun NAHAR

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to present chondroitin sulfate as a plant growth regulator and to give an overview about light effects on PLBs (protocorm like bodies culture of Cymbidium dayanum and Cymbidium finlaysonianum cultured in vitro. Chondroitin sulfate is a sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG composed of a chain of alternating sugars N-acetylgalactosamine and glucuronic acid. It is widely used as a material for food ingredients, cosmetics and medicine. PLBs were cultured on modified MS medium containing different concentration of chondroitin sulfate (0, 0.1, 1 and 10 mg/l, under four sources of lights: conventional white fluorescent tube, red LED, green LED and blue LED. In C. dayanum, 100% PLBs formation rate was observed at 0.1 mg/l chondroitin sulfate with modified MS medium under green LED and 1 mg/l chondroitin sulfate under blue LED; the maximum shoots and roots formation were observed under green LEDs (93% and 80% respectively when media contained 0.1 mg/l chondroitin sulfate. In C. finlaysonianum, every concentrations of chondroitin sulfate enhanced the growth rate of PLBs when compared to control treatment, under all four sources of lights. The highest values were recorded with 0.1 mg/l chondroitin sulfate which induced 100% PLBs formation under blue LED, while 10 mg/l chondroitin sulfate had induced 100% PLBs formation under green LED. The highest percentage of shoots (73% was initiated in the medium containing 10 mg/l chondroitin sulfate under green LED. Plant development was strongly influenced by the light quality and plant growth regulator functions as chemical messengers for intercellular communication of plant. The results demonstrated that low concentrations of chondroitin sulfate could promote PLBs, shoots and roots formation of Cymbidium spp. under green and blue LED.

  6. Chemical reduction and sulfur-isotope effects of sulfate by organic matter under hydrothermal conditions

    Under hydrothermal conditions sulfuric acid, sodium bisulfate and sodium sulfate solutions were reduced by dextrose to hydrogen sulfide in order to clarify the origin of sulfide species in hot-springs, geothermal water and ore-forming fluids. At temperatures above 2500C, reduction of sulfuric acid and at above 3000C of sodium bisulfate and sodium sulfate was observed. The reduction rate depends fairly well on the temperatures, pH and sulfate species. The reduction of sulfate seems to be a first-order reaction. Sulfur-isotope compositions of sulfate and hydrogen sulfide were measured in order to disclose isotope effects in the reduction of sulfate. The reduction of sulfuric acid and sodium bisulfate solution results in enrichment of 32S in the hydrogen sulfide and of the heavy isotope into residual sulfate. The fractionation factor in the reduction is independent of the temperature and is seen to be 1.007 to 1.009, in agreement with previously published values. (Auth.)

  7. Pengaruh Pemberian Sedimen Bakau dan Sedimen Rawa Terhadap Perubahan Populasi Bakteri dan Kandungan Sulfat Dalam Air Asam Tambang

    Qalbi, Nur

    2014-01-01

    ???Influence of Mangrove Sediments and Marsh Sediments to change in Bacterial Population and Content of Sulfate in Acid mine Drainage??? By Nur Qalbi (H41110260) . This research aims to overcome the problem of acid mine drainage by using sulfate reducing bacteria on mangrove sediments and marsh sediments. Spesifically, this research aims to know the change of total number bacteria and raise the pH on water acid mine drainage after given a treatment of mangrove sediments and marsh sediments. P...

  8. Brittlestars contain highly sulfated chondroitin sulfates/dermatan sulfates that promote fibroblast growth factor 2-induced cell signaling

    Ramachandra, Rashmi; Namburi, Ramesh B; Ortega-Martinez, Olga; Shi, Xiaofeng; Zaia, Joseph; Dupont, Sam T.; Thorndyke, Michael C; Lindahl, Ulf; Spillmann, Dorothe

    2013-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) isolated from brittlestars, Echinodermata class Ophiuroidea, were characterized, as part of attempts to understand the evolutionary development of these polysaccharides. A population of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) chains with a high overall degree of sulfation and hexuronate epimerization was the major GAG found, whereas heparan sulfate (HS) was below detection level. Enzymatic digestion with different chondroitin lyases revealed exceptionally high p...

  9. Reduced Sulfation of Chondroitin Sulfate but Not Heparan Sulfate in Kidneys of Diabetic db/db Mice

    Reine, Trine M.; Grøndahl, Frøy; Jenssen, Trond G.; Hadler-Olsen, Elin; Prydz, Kristian; Kolset, Svein O.

    2013-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are hypothesized to contribute to the filtration barrier in kidney glomeruli and the glycocalyx of endothelial cells. To investigate potential changes in proteoglycans in diabetic kidney, we isolated glycosaminoglycans from kidney cortex from healthy db/+ and diabetic db/db mice. Disaccharide analysis of chondroitin sulfate revealed a significant decrease in the 4-O-sulfated disaccharides (D0a4) from 65% to 40%, whereas 6-O-sulfated disaccharides (D0a6) were redu...

  10. Status of copper sulfate - 2008

    This is brief overview of the Technical Sections completed and being worked on for the New Animal Drug Application (NADA) for copper sulfate. Initial Label Claim (Ich on catfish): 1) Human Food Safety - Complete for all fin fish – February 2004. This includes human intestinal microflora issues,...

  11. Sulfate transport in toad skin

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Simonsen, K

    1988-01-01

    1. In short-circuited toad skin preparations exposed bilaterally to NaCl-Ringer's containing 1 mM SO2(-4), influx of sulfate was larger than efflux showing that the skin is capable of transporting sulfate actively in an inward direction. 2. This active transport was not abolished by substituting...... apical Na+ for K+. 3. Following voltage activation of the passive Cl- permeability of the mitochondria-rich (m.r.) cells sulfate flux-ratio increased to a value predicted from the Ussing flux-ratio equation for a monovalent anion. 4. In such skins, which were shown to exhibit vanishingly small leakage...... conductances, the variation of the rate coefficient for sulfate influx (y) was positively correlated with the rate coefficient for Cl- influx (x), y = 0.035 x - 0.0077 cm/sec (r = 0.9935, n = 15). 5. Addition of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine to the serosal bath of short...

  12. Metabolic Flexibility of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    Plugge, Caroline M.; Zhang, Weiwen; Scholten, Johannes C. M.; Stams, Alfons J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Dissimilatory sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRB) are a very diverse group of anaerobic bacteria that are omnipresent in nature and play an imperative role in the global cycling of carbon and sulfur. In anoxic marine sediments sulfate reduction accounts for up to 50% of the entire organic mineralization in coastal and shelf ecosystems where sulfate diffuses several meters deep into the sediment. As a consequence, SRB would be expected in the sulfate-containing upper sediment layers, whereas me...

  13. Sulfate reduction and methanogenesis in marine sediments

    Oremland, R. S.; Taylor, B. F.

    1978-01-01

    Methanogenesis and sulfate-reduction were followed in laboratory incubations of sediments taken from tropical seagrass beds. Methanogenesis and sulfate-reduction occurred simultaneously in sediments incubated under N2, thereby indicating that the two processes are not mutually exclusive. Sediments incubated under an atmosphere of H2 developed negative pressures due to the oxidation of H2 by sulfate-respiring bacteria. H2 also stimulated methanogenesis, but methanogenic bacteria could not compete for H2 with the sulfate-respiring bacteria.

  14. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  16. Sulfate-reducing prokaryotes in river floodplains

    Miletto, M.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis constitutes a pioneer attempt at elucidating the ecology of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes in river floodplains. These are non-typical sulfate-reducing environmental settings, given the generally low sulfate concentration that characterize freshwater habitats, and river flow regulation tha

  17. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese sulfate. 582.5461 Section 582.5461 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  18. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 582.5443 Section 582.5443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  19. Partial Hydrolysis of the Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfate from Sea Cucumber Isostichopus badionotus and Its Mechanism

    CHEN Shi-Guo; LI Guo-Yun; YE Xing-Qian; XUE Chang-Hu

    2012-01-01

    The method for preparing low molecular weight fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from sea cucumber lsostichopus badionotus using partial acid hydrolysis was reported, and its hydrolysis mechanism was also investigated. The sea cucumber chondroitin sulfate FCS was hydrolyzed under different conditions (80℃3 h and 6 h), then isolated and purified on a Bio-P-4 geltration to prepare low molecular weight fractions (LMWF-FCS). The chemical compositions of LMWF-FCS showed the branched fucose (Fuc) was cleaved during acid hydrolysis process, whereas the mole ratio of acetyl-galactosamine (GalNAc) and glucuronic acid (GlcA) in the backbone remained the same, which indicated the backbone was a typical chondroitin sulfate structure. The disaccharide composition analysis of LMWF-FCS suggested that the sulfation patterns of GalNAc in the backbone chain changed and the substitution value was reduced. Furthermore, the 1D NMR analysis illustrated the branched-Fuc was cleaved during acid hydrolysis, but their substitution patterns were not influenced, which was distinct from the previous reports that the substitutions of branched-Fuc in FCS were easy to change. Simultaneously, the sulfation pattern of GalNAc in backbone chain changed obviously in the acid hydrolysis process. The anticoagulant activity in vitro illuminated the anticoagulant activity of the degradation products over time in the acid hydrolysis are gradually declined, but still kept good. Therefore, the LMWF-FCS prepared could be developed as a new anticoagulant and antithrombotic drug like low molecular weight heparin.

  20. Regulation of sulfated glycosaminoglycan production by prostaglandin E2 in cultured lung fibroblasts

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been shown to increase the synthesis of hyaluronic acid in cultured fibroblasts by increasing the activity of hyaluronate synthetase, a group of plasma membrane-bound synthetic enzymes. We examined whether PGE2 also increased the activity of those enzyme systems involved in the synthesis of sulfated glycosaminoglycan in the human embryonic lung fibroblast. Exposure of cells to PGE2 resulted in dose-dependent increases in glucosamine incorporation into all sulfated glycosaminoglycan subtypes. PGE2 at 10(-7) mol/L increased total glycosaminoglycan per dish to 21.6 +/- 3.1 micrograms versus 12.0 +/- 2.5 micrograms in control untreated cultures. Stimulation of endogenous PGE2 production by bradykinin had a similar effect on glycosaminoglycan synthesis. To examine whether PGE2 affected sulfated glycosaminoglycan protein core production, cells were labeled with tritiated glucosamine in the presence of cycloheximide. Under these conditions, incorporation of radiolabel into all glycosaminoglycan subtypes was reduced. However, when exogenous sulfated glycosaminoglycan chain initiator (p-nitrophenyl beta-D-xyloside) was added, incorporation of tritiated glucosamine into sulfated glycosaminoglycan increased but not to levels found in control cultures. Application of PGE2 to cultures treated with cycloheximide alone, or to cultures treated with cycloheximide plus xyloside, increased tritiated glucosamine incorporation into chondroitin, dermatan sulfate, and to a lesser extent into heparan sulfate. We conclude that PGE2 stimulates synthesis of all sulfated glycosaminoglycan even in the absence of new protein core production, probably by increasing activities of sulfated glycosaminoglycan synthetase enzymes. PGE2 stimulation of heparan sulfate synthesis is partially dependent on the availability of heparan sulfate-specific protein core

  1. Regulation of sulfated glycosaminoglycan production by prostaglandin E2 in cultured lung fibroblasts

    Karlinsky, J.B.; Goldstein, R.H. (Boston Univ. School of Medicine, MA (USA))

    1989-08-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been shown to increase the synthesis of hyaluronic acid in cultured fibroblasts by increasing the activity of hyaluronate synthetase, a group of plasma membrane-bound synthetic enzymes. We examined whether PGE2 also increased the activity of those enzyme systems involved in the synthesis of sulfated glycosaminoglycan in the human embryonic lung fibroblast. Exposure of cells to PGE2 resulted in dose-dependent increases in glucosamine incorporation into all sulfated glycosaminoglycan subtypes. PGE2 at 10(-7) mol/L increased total glycosaminoglycan per dish to 21.6 +/- 3.1 micrograms versus 12.0 +/- 2.5 micrograms in control untreated cultures. Stimulation of endogenous PGE2 production by bradykinin had a similar effect on glycosaminoglycan synthesis. To examine whether PGE2 affected sulfated glycosaminoglycan protein core production, cells were labeled with tritiated glucosamine in the presence of cycloheximide. Under these conditions, incorporation of radiolabel into all glycosaminoglycan subtypes was reduced. However, when exogenous sulfated glycosaminoglycan chain initiator (p-nitrophenyl beta-D-xyloside) was added, incorporation of tritiated glucosamine into sulfated glycosaminoglycan increased but not to levels found in control cultures. Application of PGE2 to cultures treated with cycloheximide alone, or to cultures treated with cycloheximide plus xyloside, increased tritiated glucosamine incorporation into chondroitin, dermatan sulfate, and to a lesser extent into heparan sulfate. We conclude that PGE2 stimulates synthesis of all sulfated glycosaminoglycan even in the absence of new protein core production, probably by increasing activities of sulfated glycosaminoglycan synthetase enzymes. PGE2 stimulation of heparan sulfate synthesis is partially dependent on the availability of heparan sulfate-specific protein core.

  2. Synthesis and catalytic activity of polysaccharide templated nanocrystalline sulfated zirconia

    Sherly, K. B.; Rakesh, K. [Mahatma Gandhi University Regional Research Center in Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Mar Athanasius College, Kothamangalam-686666, Kerala (India)

    2014-01-28

    Nanoscaled materials are of great interest due to their unique enhanced optical, electrical and magnetic properties. Sulfate-promoted zirconia has been shown to exhibit super acidic behavior and high activity for acid catalyzed reactions. Nanocrystalline zirconia was prepared in the presence of polysaccharide template by interaction between ZrOCl{sub 2}⋅8H{sub 2}O and chitosan template. The interaction was carried out in aqueous phase, followed by the removal of templates by calcination at optimum temperature and sulfation. The structural and textural features were characterized by powder XRD, TG, SEM and TEM. XRD patterns showed the peaks of the diffractogram were in agreement with the theoretical data of zirconia with the catalytically active tetragonal phase and average crystalline size of the particles was found to be 9 nm, which was confirmed by TEM. TPD using ammonia as probe, FTIR and BET surface area analysis were used for analyzing surface features like acidity and porosity. The BET surface area analysis showed the sample had moderately high surface area. FTIR was used to find the type species attached to the surface of zirconia. UV-DRS found the band gap of the zirconia was found to be 2.8 eV. The benzylation of o-xylene was carried out batchwise in atmospheric pressure and 433K temperature using sulfated zirconia as catalyst.

  3. Sulfate removal and sulfur transformation in constructed wetlands: The roles of filling material and plant biomass.

    Chen, Yi; Wen, Yue; Zhou, Qi; Huang, Jingang; Vymazal, Jan; Kuschk, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Sulfate in effluent is a challenging issue for wastewater reuse around the world. In this study, sulfur (S) removal and transformation in five batch constructed wetlands (CWs) treating secondary effluent were investigated. The results showed that the presence of the plant cattail (Typha latifolia) had little effect on sulfate removal, while the carbon-rich litter it generated greatly improved sulfate removal, but with limited sulfide accumulation in the pore-water. After sulfate removal, most of the S was deposited with the valence states S (-II) and S (0) on the iron-rich gravel surface, and acid volatile sulfide was the main S sink in the litter-added CWs. High-throughput pyrosequencing revealed that sulfate-reducing bacteria (i.e. Desulfobacter) and sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (i.e. Thiobacillus) were dominant in the litter-added CWs, which led to a sustainable S cycle between sulfate and sulfide. Overall, this study suggests that recycling plant litter and iron-rich filling material in CWs gives an opportunity to utilize the S in the wastewater as both an electron acceptor for sulfate reduction and as an electron donor for nitrate reduction coupled with sulfide oxidation. This leads to the simultaneous removal of sulfate, nitrate, and organics without discharging toxic sulfide into the receiving water body. PMID:27423407

  4. Comparison of normal and asthmatic subjects' responses to sulfate pollutant aerosols

    Utell, M.J.; Morrow, P.E.; Hyde, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    Epidemiological studies support an association between elevated levels of sulfates and acute respiratory disease. To determine if these pollutants produce airway hyperreactivity, 16 normal and 17 asthmatic subjects inhaled a control NaCl aerosol and the following sulfates: ammonium sulfate, sodium bisulfate, ammonium bisulfate, and sulfuric acid. A Lovelace generator produced particles with an average MMAD of approx. 1.0 ..mu..m (sigma/sub g/ approx. = 2.0) and concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0 mg/m/sup 3/. By double-blind randomization, all subjects breathed these aerosols for a 16-minute period. To determine if sulfate inhalation caused increased reactivity to a known bronchoconstrictor, all subjects inhaled carbachol following each 16-minute exposure. Before, during, and after exposure, pulmonary function studies were performed. When compared to NaCl, sulfate (1 mg/m/sup 3/) produced significant reductions in airway conductance and flow rates in asthmatics. The two most sensitive asthmatics demonstrated changes even at 0.1 mg/m/sup 3/ sulfate. To a far more significant degree, the bronchoconstrictor action of carbachol was potentiated by sulfates more or less in relation to their acidity in normals and asthmatics.

  5. Sulfation and Enhanced Antioxidant Capacity of an Exopolysaccharide Produced by the Medicinal Fungus Cordyceps sinensis

    Jing-Kun Yan; Wen-Qiang Wang; Hai-Le Ma; Jian-Yong Wu

    2012-01-01

    EPS-1 was an exopolysaccharide produced by the medicinal fungus Cordyceps sinensis (Cs-HK1). In the present study, EPS-1 was sulfated with chlorosulfonic acid (CSA)-pyridine (Pyr) at different volume ratios, yielding four sulfated derivatives, SEPS-1A, B, C and D, with different degrees of substitution (DS: 0.25–1.38) and molecular weights (17.1–4.1 kDa). The sulfation of EPS-1 occurred most frequently at the C-6 hydroxyl groups due to their higher reactivity. In aqueous s...

  6. A stereochemical approach to pyranose ring flexibility: its implications for the conformation of dermatan sulfate.

    Venkataraman, G; Sasisekharan, V; Cooney, C L; Langer, R; Sasisekharan, R.

    1994-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans, such as heparin, heparan sulfate, and dermatan sulfate, are characterized by a disaccharide repeating unit of a uronate and a hexosamine and are increasingly understood to be important physiologically as soluble components of the extracellular matrix. The secondary structure of this class of acidic polysaccharides is believed to play a key role in determining the wide range of biological specificities. Central to the structural diversity of the glycosaminoglycans is the ex...

  7. D-Area Sulfate Reduction Studty Comprehensive Final Report

    Phifer, M

    2005-02-11

    An acidic/metals/sulfate, groundwater contaminant plume emanates from the D-Area Coal Pile Runoff Basin (DCPRB) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), due to the contaminated runoff the basin receives from the D-Area coal pile. A Treatability Study Work Plan (TSWP) (WSRC 2001) was implemented to evaluate the potential for the sulfate reduction remediation of the DCPRB acidic/metals/sulfate, groundwater contaminant plume. The following studies, implemented as part of the TSWP, are documented herein: Bacteria Population and Organic Selection Laboratory Testing; DTT-1 Trench Evaluation; DIW-1 Organic Application Field Study-Part 1; and DIW-1 Organic Application Field Study-Part 2. Evaluation of sulfate reduction applicability actually began with a literature search and feasibility report in mid 2001, which fed into the TSWP. Physical completion of TSWP work occurred in late 2004 with the completion of the DIW-1 Organic Application Field Study-Part 2. The following are the primary conclusions drawn based upon this 3-year effort: (1) Pure soybean oil provides a long-term, indirect, SRB carbon source that floats on top of the water table (by indirect it means that the soybean oil must be degraded by other microbes prior to utilization by SRB) for the promotion of sulfate reduction remediation. Soybean oil produces no known SRB inhibitory response and therefore large quantities can be injected. (2) Sodium lactate provides a short-term, immediately available, direct, SRB carbon source that is miscible with the groundwater and therefore flows with the groundwater until it has been completely utilized for the promotion of sulfate reduction remediation. Lactate at elevated concentrations (greater than 6 g/L) does produce a SRB inhibitory response and therefore small quantities must be injected frequently. (3) The use of limestone to buffer the contaminated groundwater facilitates sulfate reduction remediation through the injection of organic substrate. Additionally conclusions and

  8. Distribution of Heparan Sulfate Oligosaccharides in Murine Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IIIA

    Mason, Kerryn; Meikle, Peter; Hopwood, John; Fuller, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) catabolism begins with endo-degradation of the polysaccharide to smaller HS oligosaccharides, followed by the sequential action of exo-enzymes to reduce these oligosaccharides to monosaccharides and inorganic sulfate. In mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA (MPS IIIA) the exo-enzyme, N-sulfoglucosamine sulfohydrolase, is deficient resulting in an inability to hydrolyze non-reducing end glucosamine N-sulfate esters. Consequently, partially degraded HS oligosaccharides with non-reducing end glucosamine sulfate esters accumulate. We investigated the distribution of these HS oligosaccharides in tissues of a mouse model of MPS IIIA using high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Oligosaccharide levels were compared to total uronic acid (UA), which was used as a measure of total glycosaminoglycan. Ten oligosaccharides, ranging in size from di- to hexasaccharides, were present in all the tissues examined including brain, spleen, lung, heart, liver, kidney and urine. However, the relative levels varied up to 10-fold, suggesting different levels of HS turnover and storage. The relationship between the di- and tetrasaccharides and total UA was tissue specific with spleen and kidney showing a different disaccharide:total UA ratio than the other tissues. The hexasaccharides showed a stronger correlation with total UA in all tissue types suggesting that hexasaccharides may more accurately reflect the storage burden in these tissues. PMID:25513953

  9. Distribution of Heparan Sulfate Oligosaccharides in Murine Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IIIA

    Kerryn Mason

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Heparan sulfate (HS catabolism begins with endo-degradation of the polysaccharide to smaller HS oligosaccharides, followed by the sequential action of exo-enzymes to reduce these oligosaccharides to monosaccharides and inorganic sulfate. In mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA (MPS IIIA the exo-enzyme, N-sulfoglucosamine sulfohydrolase, is deficient resulting in an inability to hydrolyze non-reducing end glucosamine N-sulfate esters. Consequently, partially degraded HS oligosaccharides with non-reducing end glucosamine sulfate esters accumulate. We investigated the distribution of these HS oligosaccharides in tissues of a mouse model of MPS IIIA using high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Oligosaccharide levels were compared to total uronic acid (UA, which was used as a measure of total glycosaminoglycan. Ten oligosaccharides, ranging in size from di- to hexasaccharides, were present in all the tissues examined including brain, spleen, lung, heart, liver, kidney and urine. However, the relative levels varied up to 10-fold, suggesting different levels of HS turnover and storage. The relationship between the di- and tetrasaccharides and total UA was tissue specific with spleen and kidney showing a different disaccharide:total UA ratio than the other tissues. The hexasaccharides showed a stronger correlation with total UA in all tissue types suggesting that hexasaccharides may more accurately reflect the storage burden in these tissues.

  10. Relative importance of nitrate and sulfate aerosol production mechanisms in urban atmospheres

    The relative importance of the various sulfate and nitrate aerosol production mechanisms is calculated for different atmospheric conditions. The calculation scheme used to determine the rates of nitrate and sulfate production, based on the concept that vapor transfer to the aerosols and nitrate and sulfate formation within the aerosols are coupled kinetic processes, considers sulfate formation by ozone and hydrogen peroxide oxidation and catalytic oxidation in the presence of soot, iron and manganese of sulfite solutions and sulfuric acid condensation and nitrate formation by the liquid-phase oxidation of dissolved nitrogen oxides for different initial gas concentrations and particle compositions and sizes. It is found that sulfate production is higher under daytime conditions, primarily proceeding by mechanisms involving sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide, while at night oxidation processes on the surface of the aerosol film are more important. Nitrate tends to decrease nighttime sulfate production due to an increase in aerosol acidity and nitrate production is found to be higher under nighttime conditions and in the winter

  11. Modeling of ferric sulfate decomposition and sulfation of potassium chloride during grate‐firing of biomass

    Wu, Hao; Jespersen, Jacob Boll; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming;

    2013-01-01

    Ferric sulfate is used as an additive in biomass combustion to convert the released potassium chloride to the less harmful potassium sulfate. The decomposition of ferric sulfate is studied in a fast heating rate thermogravimetric analyzer and a volumetric reaction model is proposed to describe the...... process. The yields of sulfur oxides from ferric sulfate decomposition under boiler conditions are investigated experimentally, revealing a distribution of approximately 40% SO3 and 60% SO2. The ferric sulfate decomposition model is combined with a detailed kinetic model of gas‐phase KCl sulfation and a...... model of K2SO4 condensation to simulate the sulfation of KCl by ferric sulfate addition. The simulation results show good agreements with experiments conducted in a biomass grate‐firing reactor. The results indicate that the SO3 released from ferric sulfate decomposition is the main contributor to KCl...

  12. Key factors influencing rates of heterotrophic sulfate reduction in active seafloor hydrothermal massive sulfide deposits

    Kiana Laieikawai Frank

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal vents are thermally and geochemically dynamic habitats, and the organisms therein are subject to steep gradients in temperature and chemistry. To date, the influence of these environmental dynamics on microbial sulfate reduction has not been well constrained. Here, via multivariate experiments, we evaluate the effects of key environmental variables (temperature, pH, H2S, SO42-, DOC on sulfate reduction rates and metabolic energy yields in material recovered from a hydrothermal flange from the Grotto edifice in the Main Endeavor Field, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Sulfate reduction was measured in batch reactions across a range of physico-chemical conditions. Temperature and pH were the strongest stimuli, and maximum sulfate reduction rates were observed at 50 °C and pH 6, suggesting that the in situ community of sulfate-reducing organisms in Grotto flanges may be most active in a slightly acidic and moderate thermal/chemical regime. At pH 4, sulfate reduction rates increased with sulfide concentrations most likely due to the mitigation of metal toxicity. While substrate concentrations also influenced sulfate reduction rates, energy-rich conditions muted the effect of metabolic energetics on sulfate reduction rates. We posit that variability in sulfate reduction rates reflect the response of the active microbial consortia to environmental constraints on in situ microbial physiology, toxicity, and the type and extent of energy limitation. These experiments help to constrain models of the spatial contribution of heterotrophic sulfate reduction within the complex gradients inherent to seafloor hydrothermal deposits.

  13. Serine O-sulfation probed by IRMPD spectroscopy.

    Paciotti, Roberto; Coletti, Cecilia; Re, Nazzareno; Scuderi, Debora; Chiavarino, Barbara; Fornarini, Simonetta; Crestoni, Maria Elisa

    2015-10-21

    The sulfation of amino acids is a frequent post-translational modification. It is highly labile, though, and characterizing it by mass spectrometry, an otherwise powerful and widely exploited tool in analytical proteomics, is a challenge. The presently reported study is aimed at revealing the O-sulfation of l-serine and elucidating the effects of protonation and deprotonation on the structure and stability of the ensuing ionic species, [sSer + H](+) and [sSer - H](-). These ions are obtained as gaseous, isolated species by electrospray ionization, trapped in a Paul ion-trap, and sampled by IR multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy in either the 750-1900 cm(-1) fingerprint range, or the 2900 and 3700 cm(-1) range encompassing the N-H and O-H stretching modes. The recorded IRMPD spectra present diagnostic signatures of the sulfate modification which are missing in the spectra of the native serine ions, [Ser + H](+) and [Ser - H](-). The experimental IRMPD features have been interpreted by comparison with the linear IR spectra of the lowest energy structures that are likely candidates for the sampled ions, calculated at the M06-2X/6-311+G(d,p) level of theory. Evidence is gathered that the most stable conformations of [sSer + H](+) are stabilized by hydrogen bonding interactions between the protonated amino group and both the carbonyl and sulfate oxygens. [sSer - H](-) ions possess a negatively charged sulfate group involved in either a S=O···HN or a S=O···HO hydrogen bond. The experimental IRMPD spectra are consistent with the presence of multiple low-lying structures in a thermally equilibrated population of several species particularly in the case of [sSer - H](-) ions, where the high structural flexibility combined with the presence of a negative charge favors the co-existence of several different H-bonding motifs. PMID:26027702

  14. Hygroscopicity of organic compounds from biomass burning and their influence on the water uptake of mixed organic ammonium sulfate aerosols

    Lei, T.; Zuend, A.; Wang, W. G.; Zhang, Y. H.; Ge, M. F.

    2014-10-01

    Hygroscopic behavior of organic compounds, including levoglucosan, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and humic acid, as well as their effects on the hygroscopic properties of ammonium sulfate (AS) in internally mixed particles are studied by a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA). The organic compounds used represent pyrolysis products of wood that are emitted from biomass burning sources. It is found that humic acid aerosol particles only slightly take up water, starting at RH (relative humidity) above ~70%. This is contrasted by the continuous water absorption of levoglucosan aerosol particles in the range 5-90% RH. However, no hygroscopic growth is observed for 4-hydroxybenzoic acid aerosol particles. Predicted water uptake using the ideal solution theory, the AIOMFAC model and the E-AIM (with UNIFAC) model are consistent with measured hygroscopic growth factors of levoglucosan. However, the use of these models without consideration of crystalline organic phases is not appropriate to describe the hygroscopicity of organics that do not exhibit continuous water uptake, such as 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and humic acid. Mixed aerosol particles consisting of ammonium sulfate and levoglucosan, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, or humic acid with different organic mass fractions, take up a reduced amount of water above 80% RH (above AS deliquescence) relative to pure ammonium sulfate aerosol particles of the same mass. Hygroscopic growth of mixtures of ammonium sulfate and levoglucosan with different organic mass fractions agree well with the predictions of the thermodynamic models. Use of the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) relation and AIOMFAC model lead to good agreement with measured growth factors of mixtures of ammonium sulfate with 4-hydroxybenzoic acid assuming an insoluble organic phase. Deviations of model predictions from the HTDMA measurement are mainly due to the occurrence of a microscopical solid phase restructuring at increased humidity (morphology

  15. Evaluating Deterioration of Concrete by Sulfate Attack

    2007-01-01

    Effects of factors such as water to cement ratio, fly ash and silica fume on the resistance of concrete to sulfate attack were investigated by dry-wet cycles and immersion method. The index of the resistance to sulfate attack was used to evaluate the deterioration degree of concrete damaged by sulfate. The relationship between the resistance of concrete to sulfate attack and its permeability/porosity were analyzed as well as its responding mechanism. Results show that the depth of sulfate crystal attack from surface to inner of concrete can be reduced by decreasing w/c and addition of combining fly ash with silica fume. The variation of relative elastic modulus ratio and relative flexural strength ratio of various specimens before and after being subjected to sulfate attack was compared.

  16. Chondroitin Sulfate Perlecan Enhances Collagen Fibril Formation

    Kvist, A. J.; Johnson, A. E.; Mörgelin, M.;

    2006-01-01

    disaccharides typical for chondroitin sulfate E. Indeed, purified glycosaminoglycans from perlecan-enriched fractions of cartilage extracts contain elevated levels of 4,6-disulfated chondroitin sulfate disaccharides and enhance collagen fibril formation. The effect on collagen assembly is proportional to the...... content of the 4,6-disulfated disaccharide in the different cartilage extracts, with growth plate cartilage glycosaminoglycan being the most efficient enhancer. These findings demonstrate a role for perlecan chondroitin sulfate side chains in cartilage extracellular matrix assembly and provide an...... collagen type II fibril assembly by perlecan-null chondrocytes. Cartilage perlecan is a heparin sulfate or a mixed heparan sulfate/chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. The latter form binds collagen and accelerates fibril formation in vitro, with more defined fibril morphology and increased fibril diameters...

  17. Isolation and structural studies of a sulfated sialosphingolipid from the sea urchin Echinocardium cordatum.

    Kochetkov, N K; Smirnova, G P; Chekareva, N V

    1976-02-23

    Three sialosphingolipids have been isolated from a lipid extract of gonads of the sea urchin Echinocardium cordatum by partition dialysis and DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. The structure of the sialosphingolipid containing sulfate group has been established. On the basis of the results of total and partial acid hydrolysis, methanolysis, methylation, periodate oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis with neuraminidase the sulfated sialosphingolipid was identified as 8-sulfate-sialyl-alpha-(2 leads to 6)glucopyranosyl-(1 leads to 1)ceramide. The long-chain bases were mainly phytosphingosine and its C16 homologue. The fatty acids of the sialosphingolipid were the mixture of normal and alpha-hydroxy fatty acids, their compositions were analysed by gas-liquid chromatography. PMID:1252492

  18. Laboratory studies of thin films representative of atmospheric sulfate aerosol

    Fortin, Tara Jean

    Sulfate aerosols are present globally in both the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. These aerosols are of great interest because they have a profound influence on Earth's radiation balance, heterogeneous chemistry, and cloud formation mechanisms throughout the atmosphere. The magnitude of these effects is ultimately determined by the size, phase, and chemical composition of the aerosols themselves. This thesis explores some of the questions that remain concerning the phase of these aerosols under atmospheric conditions and the effects of their chemical composition on heterogeneous chemistry and cloud formation mechanisms. In the upper troposphere, cirrus clouds are thought to form via the homogeneous nucleation of ice out of dilute sulfate aerosols such as ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4). To investigate this, the low-temperature phase behavior of ammonium sulfate films has been studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Experiments performed as a function of increasing relative humidity demonstrate that a phase transition from crystalline (NH 4)2SO4 to a metastable aqueous solution can occur at temperatures below the eutectic at 254 K. However, on occasion, direct deposition of ice from the vapor phase was observed, possibly indicating selective heterogeneous nucleation. In addition to serving as nuclei for cirrus clouds, sulfate aerosols can participate in heterogeneous reactions. The interaction of HNO3 with ammonium sulfate has been investigated as a possible loss mechanism for gas-phase HNO3 using a Knudsen cell reactor coupled with transmission FTIR spectroscopy. The results show that HNO3 reacts with solid ammonium sulfate to produce ammonium nitrate and letovicite at 203 K. Furthermore, this reaction is enhanced as a function of relative humidity from 0 to 41%. In the lower stratosphere, polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are important for springtime ozone depletion. The vapor deposition of ice on sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT) has

  19. Economically dissolving barium sulfate scale with a chelating agent

    Richardson, E.A.; Scheuerman, R.E.

    1977-06-21

    A composition is described for dissolving a barium sulfate scale from a subterranean or other relatively remote location into which fluid can be flowed. Fluid is flow-flowed into the remote location so that a stream of fluid contacts and flows along the surface of the scale. The composition and flow rate of the fluid are adjusted so that (1) the scale is contacted by a stream of aqueous solution in which each portion contains enough dissolved aminopolyacetic acid salt chelating agent to dissolve barium sulfate, and (2) substantially all upstream portions of the scale are contacted by a succession of portions of the aqueous liquid which are substantially unsaturated with respect to dissolved barium-chelant complex. (5 claims)

  20. Integrated approach for investigating the durability of self-consolidating concrete to sulfate attack

    Bassuoni, Mohamed Tamer F.

    The growing use of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) in various infrastructure applications exposed to sulfate-rich environments necessitates conducting comprehensive research to evaluate its durability to external sulfate attack. Since the reliability and adequacy of standard sulfate immersion tests have been questioned, the current thesis introduced an integrated testing approach for assessing the durability of a wide scope of SCC mixtures to external sulfate attack. This testing approach involved progressive levels of complexity from single to multiple damage processes. A new series of sulfate attack tests involving multiple field-like parameters and combined damage mechanisms (various cations, controlled pH, wetting-drying, partial immersion, freezing-thawing, and cyclic cold-hot conditions with or without sustained flexural loading) were designed to evaluate the performance (suitability) of the SCC mixtures under various sulfate attack exposure scenarios. The main mixture design variables of SCC included the type of binder (single, binary, ternary and quaternary), air-entrainment, sand-to-aggregate mass ratio and hybrid fibre reinforcement. The comprehensive database and knowledge obtained from this research were used to develop smart models (fuzzy and neuro-fuzzy inference systems) based on artificial-intelligence to evaluate and predict the performance of the SCC mixtures under various sulfate attack exposure regimes implemented in this study. In full immersion tests involving high concentration sodium and magnesium sulfate solutions with controlled pH, the low penetrability of SCC was responsible for the high durability of specimens. Ternary and quaternary cementitious systems with or without limestone materials provided a passivating layer, with or without acid neutralization capacity, which protected SCC from severe damage in the aggressive sulfuric acid and ammonium sulfate solutions. In contrast to conclusions drawn from the sodium sulfate immersion

  1. Sulfate-reducing bacteria in anaerobic bioreactors.

    Oude Elferink, S.J.W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The treatment of industrial wastewaters containing high amounts of easily degradable organic compounds in anaerobic bioreactors is a well-established process. Similarly, wastewaters which in addition to organic compounds also contain sulfate can be treated in this way. For a long time, the occurrence of sulfate reduction was considered to be undesired. However, there are some recent developments in which sulfate reduction is optimized for the removal of sulfur compounds from waste streams. In...

  2. Methods for sulfate air quality management

    Cass, Glen R.; McMurry, Pamela S.; Houseworth, James E

    1980-01-01

    Executive Summary Abstract: A study of methods for sulfate air quality control strategy design has been conducted. Analytical tools developed were tested within a case study of the nature and causes of the high sulfate concentrations observed in the Los Angeles area. A principal objective was to investigate the least costly means for sulfate air quality improvement in that locale. A long-run average emissions to air quality model was derived which computes pollutant concentrations fr...

  3. Extraction and quantification of sulfated glycosaminoglycan content in five different aquatic species of Malaysia

    Ravi Lokwani; Ramandeep Singh; Gauree Kukreti

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To extract, characterize and quantify glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) from the body of cuttlefish, tennis-ball sea cucumber, shrimp, seabass and fresh water fish Nile tilapia. Methods: The extracted crude powder was evaluated for the content of GAGs. The qualitative analysis of sulfated pattern and other important functional groups related with GAGs were explained in the form of Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy data. Proteins and nucleic acid in the crude extract were determined by the ultraviolet spectrophotometer, while the quantification of total sulfated GAGs and estimation of N-sulfated and O-sulfated GAGs in the crude mixture were performed by using Blyscan kit. Results: The sulfated pattern and other important functional groups related with GAGs were intercepted in Fourier transform infrared analysis. Blyscan quantification method reported that a rare variety of sea cucumber (tennis-ball sea cucumber) emerged as a rich source of GAGs with high values of both N-sulfated and O-sulfated GAGs in comparison to its other counterparts. Conclusions: Findings in this study point out the potential of tennis-ball sea cucumber, a rare variety of sea cucumber to act as an alternative source for GAG extraction for commercial purpose.

  4. Extraction and quantification of sulfated glycosaminoglycan content in five different aquatic species of Malaysia

    Ravi Lokwani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To extract, characterize and quantify glycosaminoglycans (GAGs from the body of cuttlefish, tennis-ball sea cucumber, shrimp, seabass and fresh water fish Nile tilapia. Methods: The extracted crude powder was evaluated for the content of GAGs. The qualitative analysis of sulfated pattern and other important functional groups related with GAGs were explained in the form of Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy data. Proteins and nucleic acid in the crude extract were determined by the ultraviolet spectrophotometer, while the quantification of total sulfated GAGs and estimation of N-sulfated and O-sulfated GAGs in the crude mixture were performed by using Blyscan kit. Results: The sulfated pattern and other important functional groups related with GAGs were intercepted in Fourier transform infrared analysis. Blyscan quantification method reported that a rare variety of sea cucumber (tennis-ball sea cucumber emerged as a rich source of GAGs with high values of both N-sulfated and O-sulfated GAGs in comparison to its other counterparts. Conclusions: Findings in this study point out the potential of tennis-ball sea cucumber, a rare variety of sea cucumber to act as an alternative source for GAG extraction for commercial purpose.

  5. Swelling Studies of Chitosan-Gelatin Films Cross-Linked by Sulfate

    Xiao Ling; Yu Zu-yu; Yang Chao; Zhu Hua-yue; Du Yu-min

    2004-01-01

    Swelling properties of chitosan-gelatin films cross-linked by sulfate were investigated. Sulfate cross-linked chitosan-gelatin films (SCG) were prepared simply by dipping chitosan-gelatin films into sodium sulfate solution. The swelling behavior of SCG was investigated as a function of pH and ionic strength. Under acidic conditions pH less than 4, SCG swelled less than 120%, while under the conditions pH larger than 7.4, SCG swelled very significantly, the swelling ratio was over 350%. Sodium chloride weakened the electrostatic interaction between sulfate and amine ions of chitosan and gelatin, therefore facilitated the film swelling. The swelling ratio increased with increasing sodium chloride concentration, the SCG dissociated in the sodium chloride concentration of 0.20 mol·L-1. The parameters of film preparation such as sulfate concentration, dipping time, sulfate solution pH, influenced the film swelling behavior. The lower concentration and the higher pH of sulfate solution resulted in a larger swelling ratio.

  6. Sulfation and Enhanced Antioxidant Capacity of an Exopolysaccharide Produced by the Medicinal Fungus Cordyceps sinensis

    Jing-Kun Yan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available EPS-1 was an exopolysaccharide produced by the medicinal fungus Cordyceps sinensis (Cs-HK1. In the present study, EPS-1 was sulfated with chlorosulfonic acid (CSA-pyridine (Pyr at different volume ratios, yielding four sulfated derivatives, SEPS-1A, B, C and D, with different degrees of substitution (DS: 0.25–1.38 and molecular weights (17.1–4.1 kDa. The sulfation of EPS-1 occurred most frequently at the C-6 hydroxyl groups due to their higher reactivity. In aqueous solution, the native EPS-1 formed random coils or aggregated networks, but the sulfated derivatives formed single helices. The antioxidant activities of the sulfated EPS-1 derivatives for scavenging hydroxyl radicals (•OH and 2,2-azinobis-3-ehtylbenzothiazolin-6-sulfonic acid radicals (ABTS•+ were significantly increased with increasing DS and decreasing molecular weight (MW. Sulfation has thus been shown to be an effective and favorable strategy for improving the physico-chemical properties and bioactivities of fungal polysaccharides.

  7. Kinetic studies of bacterial sulfate reduction in freshwater sediments by high-pressure liquid chromatography and microdistillation.

    Hordijk, K A; Hagenaars, C P; Cappenberg, T E

    1985-02-01

    Indirect photometric chromatography and microdistillation enabled a simultaneous measurement of sulfate depletion and sulfide production in the top 3 cm of freshwater sediments to be made. The simultaneous measurement of sulfate depletion and sulfide production rates provided added insight into microbial sulfur metabolism. The lower sulfate reduction rates, as derived from the production of acid-volatile S only, were explained by a conversion of this pool to an undistillable fraction under acidic conditions during incubation. A mathematical model was applied to calculate sulfate reduction from sulfate gradients at the sediment-water interface. To avoid disturbance of these gradients, the sample volume was reduced to 0.2 g (wet weight) of sediment. Sulfate diffusion coefficients in the model were determined (D(s) = 0.3 x 10 cm s at 6 degrees C). The results of the model were compared with those of radioactive sulfate turnover experiments by assessing the actual turnover rate constants (2 to 5 day) and pool sizes of sulfate at different sediment depths. PMID:16346732

  8. Phyllosilicate and sulfate-hematite deposits within Miyamoto crater in Southern Sinus Meridiani, Mars

    Wiseman, S.M.; Arvidson, R. E.; Andrews-Hanna, J. C.; Clark, R.N.; Lanza, N.L.; des Marais, D.; Marzo, G.A.; Morris, R.V.; Murchie, S.L.; Newsom, Horton E.; Noe Dobrea, E.Z.; Ollila, A.M.; Poulet, F.; Roush, T.L.; Seelos, F.P.; Swayze, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    Orbital topographic, image, and spectral data show that sulfate- and hematite-bearing plains deposits similar to those explored by the MER rover Opportunity unconformably overlie the northeastern portion of the 160 km in diameter Miyamoto crater. Crater floor materials exhumed to the west of the contact exhibit CRISM and OMEGA NIR spectral signatures consistent with the presence of Fe/Mg-rich smectite phyllosilicates. Based on superposition relationships, the phyllosilicate-bearing deposits formed either in-situ or were deposited on the floor of Miyamoto crater prior to the formation of the sulfate-rich plains unit. These findings support the hypothesis that neutral pH aqueous conditions transitioned to a ground-water driven acid sulfate system in the Sinus Meridiani region. The presence of both phyllosilicate and sulfate- and hematite-bearing deposits within Miyamoto crater make it an attractive site for exploration by future rover missions. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. In vitro fermentation of sulfated polysaccharides from E. prolifera and L. japonica by human fecal microbiota.

    Kong, Qing; Dong, Shiyuan; Gao, Jian; Jiang, Chaoyu

    2016-10-01

    In vitro fermentation of the sulfated polysaccharides from seaweeds Enteromorpha prolifera and Laminaria japonica and their prebiotic effects on human fecal microbiota were investigated in this study. The sulfated polysaccharides were fermented in vitro for 48h by human fecal cultures. When 0.8g MWCOL (polysaccharides MWCOmicroflora balance, because the beneficial strains (Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium) were both significantly higher than those in control group (p<0.05). As far as we know, this is the first report that consumption of sulfated polysaccharides from E. prolifera and L. japonica is beneficial to the ecosystem of the intestinal tract by increasing the populations of probiotics and short chain fatty acids. Furthermore, our reports indicated that molecular weight of sulfated polysaccharide from marine algae is related to its prebiotic effects. PMID:27316763

  10. Evidence that a reducible xylosyl-lysine is the protein linkage of dermatan sulfate.

    Longas, M O; Meyer, K.

    1982-01-01

    Dermatan sulfate, purified by standard methods, displayed one spot at the position of the standard after two-dimensional cellulose acetate electrophoresis and was 99% in GalN, 21.5% in sulfate, and 0.6% in protein; Gal and Xyl (2:1) were the only neutral sugars detected. Its glucuronic acid/iduronic acid ratio was 0.15 and its Mr was approximately equal to 16,000. On reaction with 0.4 M NaOH, its reducing group(s) determined as Glc increased by 71% with concomitant separation of protein and p...

  11. Identification and characterization of sulfated carbohydrate-binding protein from Lactobacillus reuteri.

    Keita Nishiyama

    Full Text Available We previously purified a putative sulfated-galactosylceramide (sulfatide-binding protein with a molecular weight of 47 kDa from the cell surface of Lactobacillus reuteri JCM1081. The aim of this study was to identify the 47-kDa protein, examine its binding to sulfated glycolipids and mucins, and evaluate its role in bacterial adhesion to mucosal surfaces. By cloning and sequencing analysis, the 47-kDa protein was identified as elongation factor-Tu (EF-Tu. Adhesion properties were examined using 6 × Histidine-fused EF-Tu (His6-EF-Tu. Surface plasmon resonance analysis demonstrated pH-dependent binding of His6-EF-Tu to sulfated glycolipids, but not to neutral or sialylated glycolipids, suggesting that a sulfated galactose residue was responsible for EF-Tu binding. Furthermore, His6-EF-Tu was found to bind to porcine gastric mucin (PGM by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Binding was markedly reduced by sulfatase treatment of PGM and in the presence of acidic and desialylated oligosaccharide fractions containing sulfated carbohydrate residues prepared from PGM, demonstrating that sulfated carbohydrate moieties mediated binding. Histochemical staining revealed similar localization of His6-EF-Tu and high iron diamine staining in porcine mucosa. These results indicated that EF-Tu bound PGM via sulfated carbohydrate moieties. To characterize the contribution of EF-Tu to the interaction between bacterial cells and PGM, we tested whether anti-EF-Tu antibodies could inhibit the interaction. Binding of L. reuteri JCM1081 to PGM was significantly blocked in a concentration-dependent matter, demonstrating the involvement of EF-Tu in bacterial adhesion. In conclusion, the present results demonstrated, for the first time, that EF-Tu bound sulfated carbohydrate moieties of sulfated glycolipids and sulfomucin, thereby promoting adhesion of L. reuteri to mucosal surfaces.

  12. Rat pro-opiomelanocortin contains sulfate

    Hoshina, H.; Hortin, G.; Boime, I.

    1982-07-02

    Intermediate lobes isolated from rat pituitary glands incorporated (/sup 35/S)sulfate into pro-opiomelanocortin and other adrenocorticotropic hormone-containing peptides. Incubation of intermediate lobes in medium containing the arginine analog canavanine inhibited the cleavage of pro-opiomelanocortin into smaller products. Pro-opiomelanocortin that accumulated in the presence of canavanine was also sulfated.

  13. Application of density-functional theory to studying methylation with dimethyl carbonate and dimethyl sulfate

    ZHANG Ding-lin; WEI Xi-wen; WANG Xiang-zhi

    2007-01-01

    The activities of dimethyl carbonate and dimethyl sulfate as a methylation reagent were studied by density- functional theory (DFT). B3LYP/6-31G(d, p) methods were used to optimize the structures of dimethyl carbonate and dimethyl sulfate and calculate theirs charge densities. Dimethyl sulfate is easier than dimethyl carbonate to react with a nucleophilic reagent. In dimethyl sulfate, the alkoxy carbons are the only reactive atomic nucleus because of steric hindrance. A nucleophilic reagent is more likely to react with carbonyl carbons than alkoxy carbons of dimethyl carbonate; in the presence of a Lewis acid, the phenyl nucleophilic reagent reacts with the Lewis acid first. Lewis acid increases the negative charge density of a nucleophilic reagent in polar solvent, and also incurs an accretion of steric hindrance. Polar solvent avails to ionize dimethyl carbonate and thus enables the reaction of methylation. The frequencies of transition state calculated by Gaussion 03 confirm the inferred reaction mechanism. The harvest rates of 4-methoxyphenol in the experiments of methylation reactions of hydroquinone with respectively dimethyl carbonate and dimethyl sulfate support the foregoing theortical conclusions.

  14. Scintillation properties of lead sulfate

    We report on the scintillation properties of lead sulfate (PbSO4), a scintillator that show promise as a high energy photon detector. It physical properties are well suited for gamma detection, as its has a density of 6.4 gm/cm3, a 1/e attenuation length for 511 keV photons of 1.2 cm, is not affected by air or moisture, and is cut and polished easily. In 99.998% pure PbSO4 crystals at room temperature excited by 511 keV annihilation photons, the fluorescence decay lifetime contains significant fast components having 1.8 ns (5%) and 19 ns (36%) decay times, but with longer components having 95 ns (36%) and 425 ns (23%) decays times. The peak emission wavelength is 335 nm, which is transmitted by borosilicate glass windowed photomultiplier tubes. The total scintillation light output increases with decreasing temperature fro 3,200 photons/MeV at +45 degrees C to 4, 900 photons/MeV at room temperature (+25 degrees C) and 68,500 photons/MeV at -145 degrees C. In an imperfect, 3 mm cube of a naturally occurring mineral form of PbSO4 (anglesite) at room temperature, a 511 keV photopeak is seen with a total light output of 60% that BGO. There are significant sample to sample variations of the light output among anglesite samples, so the light output of lead sulfate may improve when large synthetic crystals become available. 10 refs

  15. Analysis of tyrosine-O-sulfation

    Bundgaard, J.R.; Sen, J.W.; Johnsen, A.H.; Rehfeld, Jens Frederik

    2008-01-01

    Tyrosine O-sulfation was first described about 50 years ago as a post-translational modification of fibrinogen. In the following 30 years it was considered to be a rare modification affecting only a few proteins and peptides. However, in the beginning of the 1980s tyrosine (Tyr) sulfation was shown...... to be a common modification and since then an increasing number of proteins have been identified as sulfated. The target proteins belong to the classes of secretory, plasma membrane, and lysosomal proteins, which reflects the intracellular localization of the enzymes catalyzing Tyr sulfation, the...... to demonstrate the presence of radioactively labeled tyrosine. These techniques have been described in detail previously. The aim of this chapter is to present alternative analytical methods of Tyr sulfation than radioisotope incorporation before analysis Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  16. Gaseous Sulfate Solubility in Glass: Experimental Method

    Bliss, Mary

    2013-11-30

    Sulfate solubility in glass is a key parameter in many commercial glasses and nuclear waste glasses. This report summarizes key publications specific to sulfate solubility experimental methods and the underlying physical chemistry calculations. The published methods and experimental data are used to verify the calculations in this report and are expanded to a range of current technical interest. The calculations and experimental methods described in this report will guide several experiments on sulfate solubility and saturation for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Enhanced Waste Glass Models effort. There are several tables of sulfate gas equilibrium values at high temperature to guide experimental gas mixing and to achieve desired SO3 levels. This report also describes the necessary equipment and best practices to perform sulfate saturation experiments for molten glasses. Results and findings will be published when experimental work is finished and this report is validated from the data obtained.

  17. Raman spectroscopy of efflorescent sulfate salts from Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site, California

    Sobron, Pablo; Alpers, Charles N.

    2013-01-01

    The Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site near Redding, California, is a massive sulfide ore deposit that was mined for iron, silver, gold, copper, zinc, and pyrite intermittently for nearly 100 years. As a result, both water and air reached the sulfide deposits deep within the mountain, producing acid mine drainage consisting of sulfuric acid and heavy metals from the ore. Particularly, the drainage water from the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain is among the most acidic waters naturally found on Earth. The mineralogy at Iron Mountain can serve as a proxy for understanding sulfate formation on Mars. Selected sulfate efflorescent salts from Iron Mountain, formed from extremely acidic waters via drainage from sulfide mining, have been characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy. Gypsum, ferricopiapite, copiapite, melanterite, coquimbite, and voltaite are found within the samples. This work has implications for Mars mineralogical and geochemical investigations as well as for terrestrial environmental investigations related to acid mine drainage contamination.

  18. Modeling of sulfation of potassium chloride by ferric sulfate addition during grate-firing of biomass

    Wu, Hao; Jespersen, Jacob Boll; Aho, Martti;

    2013-01-01

    Potassium chloride, KCl, formed from critical ash-forming elements released during combustion may lead to severe ash deposition and corrosion problems in biomass-fired boilers. Ferric sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 is an effective additive, which produces sulfur oxides (SO2 and SO3) to convert KCl to the less...... order to simulate the sulfation of KCl by ferric sulfate addition during grate-firing of biomass. The simulation results show good agreements with the experimental data obtained in a pilot-scale biomass grate-firing reactor, where different amounts of ferric sulfate was injected on the grate or into the...... freeboard. In addition, the simulations of elemental sulfur addition on the grate fit well with the experimental data. The results suggest that the SO3 released from ferric sulfate decomposition is the main contributor to KCl sulfation, and that the effectiveness of the ferric sulfate addition is sensitive...

  19. Activation and transfer of sulfate in biological systems (1960)

    It examines in this review the successive stages of active sulfate formation and its role in biological synthesis of sulfuric esters. The possible role of active sulfate as intermediary in sulfate reduction is also discussed. (author)

  20. A ground electromagnetic survey used to map sulfides and acid sulfate ground waters at the abandoned Cabin Branch Mine, Prince William Forest Park, northern Virginia gold-pyrite belt

    Wynn, Jeffrey C.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND: Prince William Forest Park is situated at the northeastern end of the Virginia Gold-Pyrite belt northwest of the town of Dumfries, VA. The U. S. Marine Corps Reservation at Quantico borders the park on the west and south, and occupies part of the same watershed. Two abandoned mines are found within the park: the Cabin Branch pyrite mine, a historic source of acid mine drainage, and the Greenwood gold mine, a source of mercury contamination. Both are within the watershed of Quantico Creek (Fig.1). The Cabin Branch mine (also known as the Dumfries mine) lies about 2.4 km northwest of the town of Dumfries. It exploited a 300 meter-long, lens-shaped body of massive sulfide ore hosted by metamorphosed volcanic rocks; during its history over 200,000 tons of ore were extracted and processed locally. The site became part of the National Capitol Region of the National Park Service in 1940 and is currently managed by the National Park Service. In 1995 the National Park Service, in cooperation with the Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals, and Energy reclaimed the Cabin Branch site. The Virginia Gold-Pyrite belt, also known as the central Virginia volcanic-plutonic belt, is host to numerous abandoned metal mines (Pavlides and others, 1982), including the Cabin Branch deposit. The belt itself extends from its northern terminus near Cabin Branch, about 50 km south of Washington, D.C., approximately 175 km to the southwest into central Virginia. It is underlain by metamorphosed volcanic and clastic (non-carbonate) sedimentary rocks, originally deposited approximately 460 million years ago during the Ordovician Period (Horton and others, 1998). Three kinds of deposits are found in the belt: volcanic-associated massive sulfide deposits, low-sulfide quartz-gold vein deposits, and gold placer deposits. The massive sulfide deposits such as Cabin Branch were historically mined for their sulfur, copper, zinc, and lead contents, but also yielded byproduct

  1. Designed optimization of a single-step extraction of fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides from Sargassum sp

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard; Meyer, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    Fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides can be extracted from the brown seaweed, Sargassum sp. It has been reported that fucose-rich sulfated polysaccharides from brown seaweeds exert different beneficial biological activities including anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, and anti-viral effects...... on the yield of fucosecontaining sulfated polysaccharides (FCSPs) in statistically designed two-step and single-step multifactorial extraction experiments. All extraction factors had significant effects on the fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides yield, with the temperature and time exerting...... positive effects, and the acid concentration having a negative effect. The model defined an optimized single-step FCSPs extraction procedure for Sargassum sp. (a brown seaweed). A maximal fucosecontaining sulfated polysaccharides yield of ∼7% of the Sargassum sp. dry matter was achieved by the optimal...

  2. Surfen, a small molecule antagonist of heparan sulfate

    Schuksz, Manuela; Fuster, Mark M.; Brown, Jillian R.; Crawford, Brett E.; Ditto, David P.; Lawrence, Roger; Glass, Charles A; Wang, Lianchun; Tor, Yitzhak; Esko, Jeffrey D

    2008-01-01

    In a search for small molecule antagonists of heparan sulfate, we examined the activity of bis-2-methyl-4-amino-quinolyl-6-carbamide, also known as surfen. Fluorescence-based titrations indicated that surfen bound to glycosaminoglycans, and the extent of binding increased according to charge density in the order heparin > dermatan sulfate > heparan sulfate > chondroitin sulfate. All charged groups in heparin (N-sulfates, O-sulfates, and carboxyl groups) contributed to binding, consistent with...

  3. Synthesis, characterization, thermal and antimicrobial studies of diabetic drug models: Complexes of vanadyl(II) sulfate with ascorbic acid (vitamin C), riboflavin (vitamin B2) and nicotinamide (vitamin B3)

    Refat, Moamen S.

    2010-04-01

    The oxovanadium(II) complexes of the different vitamins like ascorbic acid (vitamin C; Vit. C), riboflavin (vitamin B2; Vit. B2) and nicotinamide (vitamin B3; Vit. B3) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, IR, electronic, magnetic measurements, thermal studies, XRD and SEM. Conductance measurements indicated that the vanadyl(II) complexes of Vit. B2 and Vit. B3 are 1:2 electrolytes except for [VO(Vit. C) 2(H 2O) 2] complex is non-electrolyte. IR data show that Vit. B2 is bidentate ligand against azomethine nitrogen of pyrazine ring and C dbnd O of pyrimidine-2,4-dione but Vit. B3 and Vit. C acts as a monodentate ligand through pyridine nitrogen and hydroxo oxygen of furan ring, respectively. Electronic spectral measurements indicated that all VO(II) complexes have a square-pyramidal geometry. Magnetic measurements for the new vanadyl(II) complexes are in a good agreement with the proposed formula. Thermal analyses (TG/DSC) of the studied complexes show that the decomposition process takes place in more than two steps. XRD refer that VO(II) complexes have an amorphous behavior. The surface morphology of the complexes was studied by SEM. The antimicrobial activities of the ligands and its complexes indicate that the vanadyl(II) complexes possess high antibacterial and antifungal activities towards the bacterial species and the fungal species than start ligands.

  4. Formation,characteristics and ecological effects of acid sulfate soil%酸性硫酸盐土的形成、特性及其生态环境效应

    黄巧义; 唐拴虎; 卢瑛; 张发宝; 杨少海

    2014-01-01

    过程进行综述,进一步梳理了ASS中硫的演变和铁的地球化学过程,并着重阐述了ASS的酸性特点,最后对ASS的生态环境效应进行了讨论。结合我国研究现状,展望了进一步研究ASS的主要问题,旨在为科学开发和利用酸性硫酸盐土提供参考。%Acid su1fate soi1( ASS)is one of the nastiest soi1s in the word because of its strong acidity. Fe and S biogeochemica1 cyc1ing in ASS P1ays an imPortant ro1e in g1oba1 materia1 recyc1ing. The Parent materia1s of ASS are often form troPica1 and subtroPica1 estuary,bay and other coasta1 environment,where is submerged and rich in organic matter. Dissimi1ation bacteria reduce seawater su1fate to form mackinawite( FeS),greigite( Fe3 S4 ),Pyrite ( FeS2 )and other reduced Fe-S sediments. Sedimentation of reduced Fe-S minera1s coPreciPitates free meta1s,rare earth e1ements and trace e1ements in the environment,Purifies seawater and enrichs meta1s. ASS is formed through oxidation of reduced Fe-S minera1s in soi1s by natura1 Process or anthroPogenic interventions. The oxidation of Fe-S minera1s u1timate1y resu1ts in Products such as Fe-hydroxides,acidity and su1fate,invo1ves a series of comP1ex reactions,with severa1 Fe and S intermediate and strong acidic soi1. In strong acid soi1s,the mobi1ities of A1,Cd, Mn,As,Cr and other Potentia11y toxic meta1s are significant1y high,whi1e the bioavai1abi1ities of P,K,Zn,B and other essentia1 nutrients are significant1y 1ow,which adverse1y affects anima1 and P1ant growth. On the other hand, the mobi1ised acid and toxic e1ements can enter nearby waterways and groundwater through rain,runoff,seePage and other ways,threatening the surrounding eco1ogica1 security. The formation mechanism of ASS has been disc1osed,and its eco1ogica1 effect has been understood. In the ear1y studies,Chinese researchers have focused on concentrations of iron,a1uminum and su1fur in ASS and the remediation and aPP1ications of ASS farm1and,few studies on

  5. Synthesis of nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite and ammonium sulfate from phosphogypsum waste

    Graphical abstract: TEM micrograph of dried HAP at 800 °C. -- Abstract: Phosphogypsum (PG) waste which is derived from phosphoric acid manufacture by using wet method was converted into hydroxyapatite (HAP) and ammonium sulfate. Very simple method was applied by reacting PG with phosphoric acid in alkaline medium with adjusting pH using ammonia solution. The obtained nano-HAP was dried at 80 °C and calcined at 600 °C and 900 °C for 2 h. Both of HAP and ammonium sulfate were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) to study the structural evolution. The thermal behavior of nano-HAP was studied; the particle size and morphology were estimated by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the results showed that HAP nano-crystalline and ammonium sulfate can successfully be produced from phosphogypsum waste.

  6. Synthesis of nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite and ammonium sulfate from phosphogypsum waste

    Mousa, Sahar, E-mail: dollyriri@yahoo.com [Inorganic Chemistry Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, P.O.Box:12622, Postal code: 11787 Cairo (Egypt); King Abdulaziz University, Science and Art College, Chemistry Department, Rabigh Campus, P.O. Box:344, Postal code: 21911 Rabigh (Saudi Arabia); Hanna, Adly [Inorganic Chemistry Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, P.O.Box:12622, Postal code: 11787 Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: TEM micrograph of dried HAP at 800 °C. -- Abstract: Phosphogypsum (PG) waste which is derived from phosphoric acid manufacture by using wet method was converted into hydroxyapatite (HAP) and ammonium sulfate. Very simple method was applied by reacting PG with phosphoric acid in alkaline medium with adjusting pH using ammonia solution. The obtained nano-HAP was dried at 80 °C and calcined at 600 °C and 900 °C for 2 h. Both of HAP and ammonium sulfate were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) to study the structural evolution. The thermal behavior of nano-HAP was studied; the particle size and morphology were estimated by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the results showed that HAP nano-crystalline and ammonium sulfate can successfully be produced from phosphogypsum waste.

  7. Thermochemical sulfate reduction in deep petroleum reservoirs: a molecular approach; Thermoreduction des sulfates dans les reservoirs petroliers: approche moleculaire

    Hanin, S.

    2002-11-01

    The thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) is a set of chemical reactions leading to hydrocarbon oxidation and production of carbon dioxide and sour gas (H{sub 2}S) which is observed in deep petroleum reservoirs enriched in anhydrites (calcium sulfate). Molecular and isotopic studies have been conducted on several crude oil samples to determine which types of compounds could have been produced during TSR. Actually, we have shown that the main molecules formed by TSR were organo-sulfur compounds. Indeed, sulfur isotopic measurements. of alkyl-di-benzothiophenes, di-aryl-disulfides and thia-diamondoids (identified by NMR or synthesis of standards) shows that they are formed during TSR as their value approach that of the sulfur of the anhydrite. Moreover, thia-diamondoids are apparently exclusively formed during this phenomenon and can thus be considered as true molecular markers of TSR. In a second part, we have investigated with laboratory experiments the formation mechanism of the molecules produced during TSR. A first model has shown that sulfur incorporation into the organic matter occurred with mineral sulfur species of low oxidation degree. The use of {sup 34}S allowed to show that the sulfates reduction occurred during these simulations. At least, some experiments on polycyclic hydrocarbons, sulfurized or not, allowed to establish that thia-diamondoids could be formed by acid-catalysed rearrangements at high temperatures in a similar way as the diamondoids. (author)

  8. Berberine Sulfate Attenuates Osteoclast Differentiation through RANKL Induced NF-κB and NFAT Pathways

    Lin Zhou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis, a metabolic bone disease, is characterized by an excessive formation and activation of osteoclasts. Anti-catabolic treatment using natural compounds has been proposed as a potential therapeutic strategy against the osteoclast related osteolytic diseases. In this study, the activity of berberine sulfate (an orally available form of berberine on osteoclast differentiation and its underlying molecular mechanisms of action were investigated. Using bone marrow macrophages (BMMs derived osteoclast culture system, we showed that berberine sulfate at the dose of 0.25, 0.5 and 1 μM significantly inhibited the formation of osteoclasts. Notably, berberine sulfate at these doses did not affect the BMM viability. In addition, we observed that berberine sulfate inhibited the expression of osteoclast marker genes, including cathepsin K (Ctsk, nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1, tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAcP, Acp5 and Vacuolar-type H+-ATPase V0 subunit D2 (V-ATPase d2. Luciferase reporter gene assay and Western blot analysis further revealed that berberine sulfate inhibits receptor for activation of nuclear factor ligand (RANKL-induced NF-κB and NFAT activity. Taken together, our results suggest that berberine sulfate is a natural compound potentially useful for the treatment of osteoporosis.

  9. Properties of Chitosan Nanoparticles Formed Using Sulfate Anions as Crosslinking Bridges

    Mayyas M.A. Al-Remawi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The preparation of new simple Chitosan nanoparticle delivery system is very important and could have many applications particularly in pharmaceutical field to be used as a drug delivery system. In this study, the production of robust Chitosan nanoparticles has been developed and characterized by chemical crosslinking using sulfate anions. Approach: Chitosan polymer is considered one of the best polymers used in the field of Nanomedicine due to its safety, biocompatibility, biodegradability and environment friendly. Therefore, the development of a new method for the production of Chitosan nanoparticles should be of great importance for the pharmaceutical industry applications. The method was found to produce Chitosan sulfate capable carrying drug molecules which could explain the importance of such technique. Results: The size of Chitosan sulfate nanoparticles was determined using different LMW Chitosan HCl and sodium sulfate were confirmed by Laser diffraction, DSC and FTIR spectroscopy and it was tested for its dissolution rate. Conclusion/Recommendations: LMW Chitosan sulfate nanoparticles were relatively stable in aqueous medium and exert a slow rate of dissolution when placed in acidic medium. The properties of the Chitosan sulfate nanoparticles are considered suitable carriers in Nanomedicine and drug delivery technology.

  10. Sulfation of β-chitosan and evaluation of biological activity from gladius of Sepioteuthis lessoniana.

    Subhapradha, Namasivayam; Ramasamy, Pasiyappazham; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Madeswaran, Perumal; Shanmugam, Vairamani; Shanmugam, Annaian

    2013-11-01

    β-Chitosan extracted from the gladius of Sepioteuthis lessoniana was sulfated with chlorosufonic acid. The structural features of sulfated chitosan were analyzed by NMR spectroscopy. The elemental composition was analyzed using elemental analyzer. The molecular weight of sulfated chitosan estimated through viscometry was calculated as 12.47 × 10(4) Da. The water solubility of sulfated chitosan was found to be 81%. The sulfated chitosan was able to scavenge the DPPH, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals and the inhibitory concentration (IC50) of those free radicals was found to be 4, 0.428 and 0.473 mg/ml respectively. Sulfated chitosan also showed reducing and chelating property. The IC50 value of reducing and chelating ability was found to be 0.316 and 5.64 mg/ml respectively. The anticoagulant activity was determined for human plasma with respect to activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time and it was 7.13 IU and 1.26 IU, respectively. PMID:24064206

  11. Preparation of polyferric sulfate coagulant with titanium dioxide by-product and waste sulfuric acid%钛白粉生产副产物和废硫酸制备混凝剂的试验

    黄勇强; 吴涛; 吴春笃; 徐明力; 厉晶晶

    2011-01-01

    The by-product of ferrous sulphate from titanium dioxide production and waste sulfuric acid were used to prepare polyferric sullale (PFS) by direct oxidation. The structure of PFS was characterized by X -ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and infrared spectrum. The turbidity removal ability of prepared PFS was compared with purchased PFS and FeSO4 in aqueous solution by growing coagulation behaviors in jar-test. The results show that the prepared PFS, which is inhomogenous flake with different size and shape, is hydroxy-bridged polymer of iron. For simulated wastewater treatment, the prepared PFS has good turbidity removal efficiency of 95% with color removal efficiency of 80% , which is comparable with purchased PFS. Floc grows quickly and can reach balance state in short time with large average size of floc.%以钛白粉生产中的副产物硫酸亚铁和废硫酸为原料,采用氧化法制备混凝剂聚合硫酸铁(PFS).运用X射线衍射法、扫描电镜法及红外光谱法对制得的聚合硫酸铁进行了表征.通过混凝试验,利用絮体颗粒的生长比较样品PFS、市售PFS和FeSO4去除水中悬浮物的效果.结果表明:制备的PFS为颗粒大小及形状不均匀的片状物,而且是羟基桥连的铁的聚合物;制备的PFS处理性能良好,在处理模拟废水时,絮体生长速率较快,絮体颗粒达到平衡耗时较短,最终絮体平均粒径较大;制备的PFS对废水浊度去除率可达到95%以上,对废水色度去除率可达80%,与市售PFS的混凝效果相当.

  12. Hypochlorite-mediated fragmentation of hyaluronan, chondroitin sulfates, and related N-acetyl glycosamines

    Rees, Martin D; Hawkins, Clare L; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase released from activated phagocytes reacts with H(2)O(2) in the presence of chloride ions to give hypochlorous acid. This oxidant has been implicated in the fragmentation of glycosaminoglycans, such as hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfates. In this study it is shown that reaction of ...

  13. Nitrate and sulfate: effective alternative hydrogen sinks for mitigation of ruminal methane production in sheep

    Zijderveld, van S.M.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Apajalahti, J.A.; Newbold, J.R.; Dijkstra, J.; Leng, R.A.; Perdok, H.B.

    2010-01-01

    Twenty male crossbred Texel lambs were used in a 2 x 2 factorial design experiment to assess the effect of dietary addition of nitrate (2.6% of dry matter) and sulfate (2.6% of dry matter) on enteric methane emissions, rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations, rumen microbial composition, and the oc

  14. Improved method for silver staining of glycoproteins in thin sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels

    Møller, H J; Poulsen, J H

    1995-01-01

    A method for detection of glycoproteins in thin sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels was developed by a combination of (i) initial periodic acid oxidation/Alcian blue staining and (ii) subsequent staining with silver nitrate. The procedure allowed detection of as little as 1.6 ng of alpha 1...

  15. Effect of pH and sulfate concentration on hydrogen production using anaerobic mixed microflora

    Hwang, Jae-Hoon; Choi, Jeong-A.; Bhatnagar, Amit; Kumar, Eva; Jeon, Byong-Hun [Department of Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwon-do, 220-710 (Korea); Abou-Shanab, R.A.I. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwon-do, 220-710 (Korea); Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Mubarak City for Scientific Research, Alexandria (Egypt); Min, Booki [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-701 (Korea); Song, Hocheol; Kim, Yong Je [Geologic Environment Division, KIGAM, Daejeon, 305-350 (Korea); Choi, Jaeyoung [Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Gangneung Institute, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea); Lee, Eung Seok [Geological Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701-2979 (United States); Um, Sukkee [School of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-Dong, Seongdong-Gu, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea); Lee, Dae Sung [Petroleum and Marine Research Department, KIGAM, Daejeon (Korea)

    2009-12-15

    The effects of varying sulfate concentrations with pH on continuous fermentative hydrogen production were studied using anaerobic mixed cultures growing on a glucose substrate in a chemostat reactor. The maximum hydrogen production rate was 2.8 L/day at pH 5.5 and sulfate concentration of 3000 mg/L. Hydrogen production and residual sulfate level decreased with increasing the pH from 5.5 to 6.2. The volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and ethanol fractions in the effluent were in the order of butyric acid (HBu) > acetic acid (HAc) > ethanol > propionic acid (HPr). Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed the presence of hydrogen producing bacteria (HPB) under all pH ranges while sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) were present at pH 5.8 and 6.2. The inhibition in hydrogen production by SRB at pH 6.2 diminished entirely by lowering to pH 5.5, at which activity of SRB is substantially suppressed. (author)

  16. Natural or anthropogenic? On the origin of atmospheric sulfate deposition in the Andes of southeastern Ecuador

    S. Makowski Giannoni

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric sulfur deposition above certain limits can represent a threat to tropical forests, causing nutrient imbalances and mobilizing toxic elements that impact biodiversity and forest productivity. Atmospheric sources of sulfur deposited by precipitation have being roughly identified in only a few lowland tropical forests. Even scarcer are these type of studies in tropical mountain forests, many of them megadiversity hotspots and especially vulnerable to acidic deposition. Here, the topographic complexity and related streamflow condition the origin, type, and intensity of deposition. Furthermore, in regions with a variety of natural and anthropogenic sulfur sources, like active volcanoes and biomass-burning, no source-emission data has been used for determining the contribution of each of them to the deposition. The main goal of the current study is to evaluate sulfate (SO4− deposition by rain and occult precipitation at two topographic locations in a tropical mountain forest of southern Ecuador, and to trace back the deposition to possible emission sources applying back trajectory modeling. To link upwind natural (volcanic and anthropogenic (urban/industrial and biomass-burning sulfur emissions and observed sulfate deposition, we employed state of the art inventory and satellite data, including volcanic passive degassing as well. We conclude that biomass-burning sources generally dominate sulfate deposition at the evaluated sites. Minor sulfate transport occurs during the shifting of the predominant winds to the north and west. Occult precipitation sulfate deposition and likely rain sulfate deposition are mainly linked to biomass-burning emissions from the Amazon lowlands. Volcanic and anthropogenic emissions from the north and west contribute to occult precipitation sulfate deposition at the mountain crest Cerro del Consuelo meteorological station and to rain-deposited sulfate at the upriver mountain-pass El Tiro meteorological station.

  17. Novel alkylsulfatases required for biodegradation of the branched primary alkyl sulfate surfactant 2-butyloctyl sulfate.

    Ellis, Andrew J; Hales, Stephen G; Ur-Rehman, Naheed G A; White, Graham F

    2002-01-01

    Recent reports show that contrary to common perception, branched alkyl sulfate surfactants are readily biodegradable in standard biodegradability tests. We report here the isolation of bacteria capable of biodegrading 2-butyloctyl sulfate and the identification of novel enzymes that initiate the process. Enrichment culturing from activated sewage sludge yielded several strains capable of growth on 2-butyloctyl sulfate. Of these, two were selected for further study and identified as members of the genus Pseudomonas. Strain AE-A was able to utilize either sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or 2-butyloctyl sulfate as a carbon and energy source for growth, but strain AE-D utilized only the latter. Depending on growth conditions, strain AE-A produced up to three alkylsulfatases, as shown by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis zymography. Growth on either SDS or 2-butyloctyl sulfate or in nutrient broth produced an apparently constitutive, nonspecific primary alkylsulfatase, AP1, weakly active on SDS and on 2-butyloctyl sulfate. Growth on 2-butyloctyl sulfate produced a second enzyme, AP2, active on 2-butyloctyl sulfate but not on SDS, and growth on SDS produced a third enzyme, AP3, active on SDS but not on 2-butyloctyl sulfate. In contrast, strain AE-D, when grown on 2-butyloctyl sulfate (no growth on SDS), produced a single enzyme, DP1, active on 2-butyloctyl sulfate but not on SDS. DP1 was not produced in broth cultures. DP1 was induced when residual 2-butyloctyl sulfate was present in the growth medium, but the enzyme disappeared when the substrate was exhausted. Gas chromatographic analysis of products of incubating 2-butyloctyl sulfate with DP1 in gels revealed the formation of 2-butyloctanol, showing the enzyme to be a true sulfatase. In contrast, Pseudomonas sp. strain C12B, well known for its ability to degrade linear SDS, was unable to grow on 2-butyloctyl sulfate, and its alkylsulfatases responsible for initiating the degradation of SDS by releasing the parent

  18. Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy Levels of Sulfated Progesterone Metabolites Inhibit Farnesoid X Receptor Resulting in a Cholestatic Phenotype

    Abu-Hayyeh, Shadi; Papacleovoulou, Georgia; Lövgren-Sandblom, Anita; Tahir, Mehreen; Oduwole, Olayiwola; Jamaludin, Nurul Akmal; Ravat, Sabiha; Nikolova, Vanya; Chambers, Jenny; Selden, Clare; Rees, Myrddin; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Parker, Malcolm G.; Williamson, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is the most prevalent pregnancy-specific liver disease and is associated with an increased risk of adverse fetal outcomes, including preterm labor and intrauterine death. The endocrine signals that cause cholestasis are not known but 3α-sulfated progesterone metabolites have been shown to be elevated in ICP, leading us to study the impact of sulfated progesterone metabolites on farnesoid X receptor (FXR)-mediated bile acid homeostasis pathways. Here...

  19. ROE Wet Sulfate Deposition 2009-2011

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The raster data represent the amount of wet sulfate deposition in kilograms per hectare from 2009 to 2011. Summary data in this indicator were provided by EPA’s...

  20. Sulfated cellulose thin films with antithrombin affinity

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose thin films were chemically modified by in situ sulfation to produce surfaces with anticoagulant characteristics. Two celluloses differing in their degree of polymerization (DP: CEL I (DP 215–240 and CEL II (DP 1300–1400 were tethered to maleic anhydride copolymer (MA layers and subsequently exposed to SO3•NMe3 solutions at elevated temperature. The impact of the resulting sulfation on the physicochemical properties of the cellulose films was investigated with respect to film thickness, atomic composition, wettability and roughness. The sulfation was optimized to gain a maximal surface concentration of sulfate groups. The scavenging of antithrombin (AT by the surfaces was determined to conclude on their potential anticoagulant properties.

  1. Potassium aquaterbium(III oxalate sulfate

    Ya-Guang Sun

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of KTb(C2O4(SO4(H2O, potassium aquaterbium(III oxalate sulfate, were obtained under hydrothermal conditions. In the crystal structure, the Tb(III atom is coordinated by four O atoms from two oxalate anions, three O atoms from three sulfate anions and one O atom from a water molecule within a TbO8 distorted square antiprismatic coordination. The potassium and terbium(III atoms are bridged by the oxalate and sulfate groups, forming a three-dimensional structure. The coordination mode of the oxalate has not yet been reported. O—H...O hydrogen bonding between the water molecules and the oxygen atoms of oxalate and sulfate anions is also observed.

  2. Synthesis of biodiesel from Neem oil using sulfated zirconia via tranesterification

    H. Muthu; V. SathyaSelvabala; T. K. Varathachary; D. Kirupha Selvaraj; J. Nandagopal; Subramanian, S.

    2010-01-01

    Sulfated zirconia (SZ) is a widely used catalyst, which is synthesized by a solvent free method and the synthesized catalyst has been characterized. Neem Methyl Ester (Biodiesel) was prepared by a two-step process of esterification and transesterification from Neem oil with methanol in the presence of catalyst. Acid catalyst was used for the esterification and alkali catalyst (KOH) for the transesterification reaction. Optimal Free Fatty Acid (FFA) conversion was achieved using 1 wt% SZ as an...

  3. Chlorophenol Degradation Coupled to Sulfate Reduction

    Häggblom, M M; Young, L. Y.

    1991-01-01

    We studied chlorophenol degradation under sulfate-reducing conditions with an estuarine sediment inoculum. These cultures degraded 0.1 mM 2-, 3-, and 4-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol within 120 to 220 days, but after refeeding with chlorophenols degradation took place in 40 days or less. Further refeeding greatly enhanced the rate of degradation. Sulfate consumption by the cultures corresponded to the stoichiometric values expected for complete oxidation of the chlorophenol to CO2. Forma...

  4. Heparan Sulfate Dependent Mechanisms of Amyloidosis

    Noborn, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    A common theme in amyloid disorders is the deposition of disease-specific protein aggregates in tissues. Amyloid proteins bind to heparan sulfate (HS), a sulfated glycosaminoglycan, and HS has been found to promote the aggregation process. The present work relates to HS mediated mechanisms of amyloidosis, particularly transthyretin (TTR) amyloidosis, AA-amyloidosis and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). TTR is a transport protein present in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid, which under unclear circum...

  5. Divergent Synthesis of Heparan Sulfate Oligosaccharides.

    Dulaney, Steven B; Xu, Yongmei; Wang, Peng; Tiruchinapally, Gopinath; Wang, Zhen; Kathawa, Jolian; El-Dakdouki, Mohammad H; Yang, Bo; Liu, Jian; Huang, Xuefei

    2015-12-18

    Heparan sulfates are implicated in a wide range of biological processes. A major challenge in deciphering their structure and activity relationship is the synthetic difficulties to access diverse heparan sulfate oligosaccharides with well-defined sulfation patterns. In order to expedite the synthesis, a divergent synthetic strategy was developed. By integrating chemical synthesis and two types of O-sulfo transferases, seven different hexasaccharides were obtained from a single hexasaccharide precursor. This approach combined the flexibility of chemical synthesis with the selectivity of enzyme-catalyzed sulfations, thus simplifying the overall synthetic operations. In an attempt to establish structure activity relationships of heparan sulfate binding with its receptor, the synthesized oligosaccharides were incorporated onto a glycan microarray, and their bindings with a growth factor FGF-2 were examined. The unique combination of chemical and enzymatic approaches expanded the capability of oligosaccharide synthesis. In addition, the well-defined heparan sulfate structures helped shine light on the fine substrate specificities of biosynthetic enzymes and confirm the potential sequence of enzymatic reactions in biosynthesis. PMID:26574650

  6. Catalytic Decomposition of Methylene Chloride by Sulfated Titania Catalysts

    2002-01-01

    Catalytic decomposition of methylene chloride in air below 300℃ was studied.Sulfated titania was very effective in converting 959ppm methylene chloride selectively to CO,CO2 and HCl.Complete decomposition of methylene chloride was achieved at low temperature(275℃).It was found that the acidic property of catalyst was a determinant factor for the catalytic activity.The presence of water vapor in the feed stream remarkably reduced the catalytic activity,which could be due to the blockage of acidic sites on the surface of catalyst by water molecules.A bifunctional catalyst comprising copper oxide was developed to improve the selectivity of catalytic oxidation,which indicated that copper oxide can promote the deep oxidation of methylene chloride.The crystal form of TiO2 imposes an important influence upon the catalytic oxidation.

  7. Synthesis of highly anti-HIV active sulfated poly- and oligo-saccharides and analysis of their action mechanisms by NMR [nuclear magnetic resonance] spectroscopy

    . NMR studies on action mechanism of curdlan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, and heparin. In order to elucidate in vivo interactions of curdlan sulfate with virus proteins, 1H and 13C NMR spectra were measured on mixtures of electronegatively charged curdlan sulfate (CS) and electropositively charged polylysine (PL) hydrobromide. When CS and PL were mixed in appropriate molar ratios, ion complexes between CS and PL were formed and detected by NMR. Large changes in NMR absorptions appeared around 20 - 50 ppm region due to the side chain of polylysine. Similarly, in the mixture of heparin and PL, absorptions around 55 - 101 ppm region due to heparin moiety changed to a large extent. Consequently, it is assumed that the occurrence of the antiHIV activity is started from the interaction between curdlan sulfate and virus proteins containing sequences rich in basic amino acids of lysine and arginine. Full text

  8. Preparation Of Glucosamine Hydrochloride And Glucosamine Sulfate From Irradiated Chitin

    Glucosamine hydrochloride is an amino sugar which is incorporated into the structure of body tissues. It comprises about 80% glucosamine, a compound helpful in maintaining joint health in individuals suffering from degenerative conditions such as arthritis. When orally ingested, it is selectively taken up by joint tissues to exert beneficial effects. Glucosamine may also have other therapeutic effects such as antiviral, anti-cancer, anti-aging, immune boosting or cholesterol lowering activity. Glucosamine may be obtained by hydrolysis and deacetylation of chitin, a polymer of N-acetyl glucosamine with hydrochloric acid. In this work we prepare glucosamine hydrochloride and glucosamine sulfate from irradiated chitin in order to produce high-purity product with good yield. The method consists of the following steps: 1/ Grinding the chitin; 2/ Irradiation the chitin using gamma Co-60 source at 30 kGy; 3/ Digesting the chitin with prewarmed, concentrated HCl, by mixing the chitin with the HCl, and heating to 95oC for 2 hours to produce a slurry; 4/ Cooling the slurry to room temperature and filtering the precipitate; 5/ Dissolving the precipitate in hot water with activated charcoal at room temperature; 6/ Filtering the solution and discarding the solids; 7/ Evaporating the solution to recover glucosamine solids; 8/ Washing the glucosamine solids with ethanol; 9/ Drying the glucosamine solids. Glucosamine sulfate is very hygroscopic and degrades rapidly when exposed to moisture. To avoid this problem, glucosamine sulfate is made from glucosamine hydrochloride by adding potassium sulfate and co-crystallizing the resulting mixture. The method comprising the following steps:1/ Dissolving 25.9 g of glucosamine hydrochloride in 84 g of distilled water with stirring; 2/ Adding 10.6 g of potassium sulfate and stirring was continued for about one hour at temperature of from 35oC to 45oC to complete the reaction; 3/ Precipitating the stable crystalline form by addition of a

  9. Dermatan sulfate epimerase 1 deficient mice as a model for human abdominal wall defects

    Gustafsson, Renata; Stachtea, Xanthi; Maccarana, Marco; Grottling, Emma; Eklund, Erik; Malmström, Anders; Oldberg, Åke

    2014-01-01

    Background Dermatan sulfate (DS) is a highly sulfated polysaccharide with a variety of biological functions in extracellular matrix organization and processes such as tumorigenesis and wound healing. A distinct feature of DS is the presence of iduronic acid, produced by the two enzymes, DS-epimerase 1 and 2, which are encoded by Dse and Dsel, respectively. Methods We have previously shown that Dse knockout (KO) mice in a mixed C57BL/6–129/SvJ background have an altered collagen matrix structu...

  10. Isolation and Characterization of a Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium That Anaerobically Degrades Alkanes

    So, Chi Ming; Young, L. Y.

    1999-01-01

    An alkane-degrading, sulfate-reducing bacterial strain, AK-01, was isolated from an estuarine sediment with a history of chronic petroleum contamination. The bacterium is a short, nonmotile, non-spore-forming, gram-negative rod. It is mesophilic and grows optimally at pH 6.9 to 7.0 and at an NaCl concentration of 1%. Formate, fatty acids (C4 to C16) and hydrogen were readily utilized as electron donors. Sulfate, sulfite, and thiosulfate were used as electron acceptors, but sulfur, nitrite, an...

  11. The fate of sulfate in acidified pig slurry during storage and following application to cropped soil

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Sørensen, Peter; Elsgaard, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Received for publication June 18, 2007. Acidification of slurry with sulfuric acid is a recent agricultural practice that may serve a double purpose: reducing ammonia emission and ensuring crop sulfur sufficiency. We investigated S transformations in untreated and acidified pig slurry stored for up...... plant-available sulfate form. Microbial sulfate reduction during storage of acidified pig slurry was limited, presumably due to initial pH effects and a limitation in the availability of easily degradable organic matter. Sulfide accumulation was observed during storage but the sulfide levels in...

  12. Methanotrophy and sulfate reduction at the interface between Mediterranean seawater and the MgCl2-dominated Kryos brine basin

    Steinle, Lea; Felber, Nicole; Casalino, Claudia; de Lange, Gert J.; Lehmann, Moritz F.; Stadnitskaia, Alina; Sinninghe Damste, Jaap S.; Tessarolo, Chiara; Treude, Tina; Zopfi, Jakob; Niemann, Helge

    2014-05-01

    The Kryos brine basin is located at ˜3000m water depth in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. The anoxic brine originates from subsurface Messinian evaporites and is dominated by very high concentrations of MgCl2-equivalents (˜5M), making this environment challenging for live. The strong density difference between the brine and the overlying Mediterranean seawater impedes mixing, and the seawater-brine interface is thus characterized by a strong redox gradient. In the redoxcline, we observed sharp sulfate, sulfide and methane concentration gradients, from seawater background concentrations to high concentrations in the brine (˜150 mM sulfate, ˜250 μM sulfide, ˜50 μM methane). Right at the interface, under micro-oxic conditions, we determined methane oxidation rates of up to 60 nM/day, and sulfate reduction rates of up to 15 μM/day. Our findings of 13C-depleted biomarkers typical for aerobic methanotrophs (diplopterol, fatty acid C16:1ω8) indicate an aerobic mode of methane oxidation independent of sulfate reduction. Below the interface (within the anoxic brine), the presence of both methane and sulfate would make the anaerobic oxidation of methane with sulfate (AOM) thermodynamically feasible. However, while sulfate reduction rates were very high (500 μM/day), methane oxidation rates were not detectable suggesting inhibition of AOM. In the brine, we detected high concentrations of an unusual fatty acid (10Me-C16:0) indicative for sulfate reducing bacteria, which might be responsible for the high sulfate reduction rates. In addition, we also found archaeal lipids (archaeol, PMI) moderately depleted in 13C. Considering the absence of AOM activity, these lipids suggest a methanogenic, rather than methanotrophic origin of the archaea within the brine. All these results provide new and exciting insight into life in an extreme environment.

  13. Temperature dependence of crystals conductivity both potassium sulfates and ammonium sulfates

    In the work the results of temperature dependence of conductivity of crystals both potassium sulfate and ammonium sulfate are given. The superficial specific conductivity and its dependence on width of a backlash between the central and ring electrodes are determined. (author)

  14. Solubility in aqueous system of potassium sulfate, cadmium sulfate at 50 deg C

    Solubility in system potassium sulfate-cadmium sulfate-water at 50 deg C is studied using isothermal method. Crystallization limits of K2SO4, CdSO4x8/3H2O double salt 2K2SO4x2CdSO4x3H2O at 50 deg C are determined

  15. 21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.

    2010-04-01

    ... ophthalmic solution. 524.1484e Section 524.1484e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution....

  16. Electrodeposition Behavior of Mn with Ni in Acidic Sulfate Solutions

    Ji, Dan; Le, Xiawen; Zhong, Qingdong; Zhou, Qiongyu

    2014-09-01

    The influence of Mn2+/Ni2+ mole ratio in electrolytes on the Ni-Mn alloy deposits was studied. The electrodeposition mechanism of Mn with Ni is analyzed by the cyclic voltammogram (CV) and an "induced co-deposition" mechanism is proposed for Ni-Mn alloy electrodeposition. The results show that the Mn content in Ni-Mn alloy deposit and the hardness increased with the increase of Mn2+/Ni2+ mole ratio in electrolytes. When the Mn2+/Ni2+ mole ratio in bath was 2/1, the corrosion current density of the deposit coating was the lowest and the corresponding corrosion potential was higher, and under these conditions the coating with a Mn content of 1.20 wt.% showed good corrosion resistance. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the alloy coatings exhibited that the morphology of Ni-Mn alloy coatings were different from Pure Ni coating, and when Mn2+/Ni2+ was 2/1, the surface was compact and homogeneous.

  17. ELECTRODEPOSITION BEHAVIOR OF Mn WITH Ni IN ACIDIC SULFATE SOLUTIONS

    DAN JI; XIAWEN LE; QINGDONG ZHONG; QIONGYU ZHOU

    2014-01-01

    The influence of Mn2+/Ni2+ mole ratio in electrolytes on the Ni–Mn alloy deposits was studied. The electrodeposition mechanism of Mn with Ni is analyzed by the cyclic voltammogram (CV) and an "induced co-deposition" mechanism is proposed for Ni–Mn alloy electrodeposition. The results show that the Mn content in Ni–Mn alloy deposit and the hardness increased with the increase of Mn2+/Ni2+ mole ratio in electrolytes. When the Mn2+/Ni2+ mole ratio in bath was 2/1, the corrosion current density o...

  18. Sanfilippo disease type D: deficiency of N-acetylglucosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase required for heparan sulfate degradation.

    Kresse, H.; Paschke, E; von Figura, K; Gilberg, W; Fuchs, W

    1980-01-01

    Skin fibroblasts from two patients who had symptoms of the Sanfilippo syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis III) accumulated excessive amounts of heparan sulfate and were unable to release sulfate from N-acetylglucosamine-6-sulfate linkages in heparan sulfate-derived oligosaccharides. Keratan sulfate-derived oligosaccharides bearing the same residue at the nonreducing end and p-nitrophenyl-6-sulfo-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranoside were degraded normally. Kinetic differences between th sulf...

  19. Anaerobic biodegradation of soybean biodiesel and diesel blends under sulfate-reducing conditions.

    Wu, Shuyun; Yassine, Mohamad H; Suidan, Makram T; Venosa, Albert D

    2016-10-01

    Biotransformation of soybean biodiesel and its biodiesel/petrodiesel blends were investigated under sulfate-reducing conditions. Three blends of biodiesel, B100, B50, and B0, were treated using microbial cultures pre-acclimated to B100 (biodiesel only) and B80 (80% biodiesel and 20% petrodiesel). Results indicate that the biodiesel could be effectively biodegraded in the presence or absence of petrodiesel, whereas petrodiesel could not be biodegraded at all under sulfate-reducing conditions. The kinetics of biodegradation of individual Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) compounds and their accompanying sulfate-reduction rates were studied using a serum bottle test. As for the biodegradation of individual FAME compounds, the biodegradation rates for the saturated FAMEs decreased with increasing carbon chain length. For unsaturated FAMEs, biodegradation rates increased with increasing number of double bonds. The presence of petrodiesel had a greater effect on the rate of biodegradation of biodiesel than on the extent of removal. PMID:27448319

  20. Transformation of thorium sulfate in thorium nitrate by ion exchange resin

    A procedure for transforming thorium sulfate into thorium nitrate by means of a strong cationic ion exchanger is presented. The thorium sulfate solution (approximately 15 g/L Th (SO4) 2) is percolate through the resin and the column is washed first with water, with a 0,2 M N H4 OH solution and then with a 0.2 M N H4 NO3 solution in order to eliminate sulfate ion. Thorium is eluted with a 2 M solution of (N H4) 2 CO3. This eluate is treated with a solution of nitric acid in order to obtain the complete transformation into Th (NO3) 4. The proposed procedure leads to good quality thorium nitrate with high uranium decontamination. (author)

  1. Hydrometallurgical-UV process to produce ferrous sulfate from the pyrite present in coal tailings

    The oxidation of pyrite can promote acid mine drainage (AMD). This study developed a hydrometallurgical-UV route for the production of ferrous sulfate. The laboratory study was conducted using a pyrite concentrate obtained from a processed coal tailing. Leaching of the tailing was performed in packed bed columns in an oxidizing environment with an aqueous medium. Recirculation of the liquor produced an Fe3+ iron rich extract. Ultraviolet irradiation was then used to convert the Fe3+ to Fe2+. Heat provided by the UV lamps caused the ferrous sulfate to crystallize. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies of the crystals demonstrated that it is possible to produce commercial-grade ferrous sulfate heptahydrate crystals from the pyrite present in coal tailings. The crystals are used to treat anemia in humans and animals, and are also used as reagents for waste and waste water treatment. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  2. Fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides from brown seaweed: Extraction technolgy and bioactivity assessment

    Ale, Marcel Tutor

    effects of the different extraction parameters on the natural chemical composition of the isolated sulfated polysaccharides were also investigated. The data showed that classical multi-step extraction using ≥0.2 M HCl at elevated temperature and extended time had a detrimental effect on the FCSPs yield...... seaweeds, and investigate their bioactivity. To this effect, designed optimized extraction of fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides (FCSPs) and/or crude fucoidan from brown seaweed were performed, and the bioactivity of the isolated FCSPs was investigated. Moreover, to assess the potential of seaweed...... of fucose; varying amounts of galactose, xylose, and glucuronic acid; and differing glycosidic linkages, and are variously substituted with sulfate and acetyl groups and side branches containing fucose or other glycosyl units. These FCSPs principally consist of a backbone of (1→3)- and/or (1...

  3. Dermatan Sulfate-Free Mice Display Embryological Defects and Are Neonatal Lethal Despite Normal Lymphoid and Non-Lymphoid Organogenesis

    Stachtea, Xanthi N.; Tykesson, Emil; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; Feinstein, Ricardo; Malmström, Anders; Reijmers, Rogier M.; Maccarana, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The epimerization of glucuronic acid into iduronic acid adds structural variability to chondroitin/dermatan sulfate polysaccharides. Iduronic acid-containing domains play essential roles in processes such as coagulation, chemokine and morphogen modulation, collagen maturation, and neurite sprouting. Therefore, we generated and characterized, for the first time, mice deficient in dermatan sulfate epimerase 1 and 2, two enzymes uniquely involved in dermatan sulfate biosynthesis. The resulting mice, termed DKO mice, were completely devoid of iduronic acid, and the resulting chondroitin sulfate chains were structurally different from the wild type chains, from which a different protein binding specificity can be expected. As a consequence, a vast majority of the DKO mice died perinatally, with greatly variable phenotypes at birth or late embryological stages such as umbilical hernia, exencephaly and a kinked tail. However, a minority of embryos were histologically unaffected, with apparently normal lung and bone/cartilage features. Interestingly, the binding of the chemokine CXCL13, an important modulator of lymphoid organogenesis, to mouse DKO embryonic fibroblasts was impaired. Nevertheless, the development of the secondary lymphoid organs, including the lymph nodes and spleen, was normal. Altogether, our results indicate an important role of dermatan sulfate in embryological development and perinatal survival. PMID:26488883

  4. Highly efficient sulfated Zr-doped titanoniobate nanoplates for the alcoholysis of styrene epoxide at room temperature

    Zhang, Lihong; Hu, Chenhui; Mei, Weigang; Zhang, Junfeng; Cheng, Liyuan; Xue, Nianhua; Ding, Weiping; Chen, Jing; Hou, Wenhua

    2015-12-01

    Sulfated Zr-doped titanoniobate nanoplates were prepared and evaluated as a solid acid catalyst in the alcoholysis of styrene epoxide at room temperature. Compared with undoped and Zr-doped nanosheets, the resulting sulfated catalyst exhibited an excellent catalytic performance to afford corresponding β-alkoxyalcohols (99% yield with methanol as nucleophile in only 10 min) due to the high dispersion of zirconia species on nanosheets, appropriate Lewis acid strength and amount from the strong interaction between zirconia and sulfate species, and greatly increased surface area arisen from the exfoliation and house-of-cards restacking of nanosheets. The corresponding catalytic mechanism was proposed and discussed. The obtained material may act as a promising catalyst in many acid catalyzed reactions.

  5. Effects of Electrolyte Anions and pH on Adsortpion of Sulfate by Variable Charge Soils

    ZHANGGANGYA; G.M.BRUEMMER; 等

    1996-01-01

    The effects of three electrolyte anions,ionic strength and pH on the adsorption of sulfate by two variable charge soils,with different surface charge properties were studied.Under the conditions of the same pH and ionic strength the effect of electrolyte anions on the adsorption of sulfate was in the order of Cl->NO3->ClO4-,indicating the difference of the nature among these three anions.For ferralsol in the same concentration of chloride and perchloride solutions,the two sulfate adsorption-pH curves could intersect at certain pH value.When pH was higher than the intersecting point.more sulfate was adsorbed in the perchloride solution,while when it was lower than the intersecting point,more sulfate was adsorbed in the chloride solution.In different concentratioins of electrolyte solution,the curves of the amount of oxy-acid anion adsorbed,which changed with pH,could intersect at a certain pH,which is termed point of zero salt effect(PZSE) on adsortpion.The nature of electrolyte anions influenced obviously the appearace of PZSE for sulfate adsorption.For ferralsol the curves of adsorption converged to about pH 7 in NaCl solution seemed to intersect in NaNO3 solution and to have a typical PZSE for sulfate adsorption in NaClO4 solution,For Acrisol the three curves of adsorption were nearly parallel in NaCl and NaNO3 solutions and converged to pH 6.5 in NaClO4 solution.

  6. High rates of sulfate reduction in a low-sulfate hot spring microbial mat are driven by a low level of diversity of sulfate-respiring microorganisms

    Dillon, Jesse G; Fishbain, Susan; Miller, Scott R;

    2007-01-01

    The importance of sulfate respiration in the microbial mat found in the low-sulfate thermal outflow of Mushroom Spring in Yellowstone National Park was evaluated using a combination of molecular, microelectrode, and radiotracer studies. Despite very low sulfate concentrations, this mat community...

  7. Inhibitory concentrations of 2,4D and its possible intermediates in sulfate reducing biofilms

    Garcia-Cruz, Ulises [Department of Biotechnology, Environmental Science and Technology, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Ave. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Vicentina, 09340 D.F. (Mexico); Celis, Lourdes B. [Division de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Lomas 4a. Seccion, 78216 San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. (Mexico); Poggi, Hector [Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, CINVESTAV, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 D.F. (Mexico); Meraz, Monica, E-mail: meraz@xanum.uam.mx [Department of Biotechnology, Environmental Science and Technology, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Ave. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Vicentina, 09340 D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-07-15

    Different concentrations of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4D) and its possible intermediates such as 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4DCP), 4-chlorophenol (4CP), 2-chlorophenol (2CP) and phenol, were assayed to evaluate the inhibitory effect on sulfate and ethanol utilization in a sulfate reducing biofilm. Increasing concentrations of the chlorophenolic compounds showed an adverse effect on sulfate reduction rate and ethanol conversion to acetate, being the intermediate 2,4DCP most toxic than the herbicide. The monochlorophenol 4CP (600 ppm) caused the complete cessation of sulfate reduction and ethanol conversion. The ratio of the electron acceptor to the electron donor utilized as well as the sulfate utilization volumetric rates, diminished when chlorophenols and phenol concentrations were increased, pointing out to the inhibition of the respiratory process and electrons transfer. The difference found in the IC{sub 50} values obtained was due to the chemical structure complexity of the phenolic compounds, the number of chlorine atoms as much as the chlorine atom position in the phenol ring. The IC{sub 50} values (ppm) indicated that the acute inhibition on the biofilm was caused by 2,4DCP (17.4) followed by 2,4D (29.0), 2CP (99.8), 4CP (108.0) and phenol (143.8).

  8. Anaerobic metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds by sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria

    Boopathy, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kulpa, C.F. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1994-06-01

    Ecological observations suggest that sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria might metabolize nitroaromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions if appropriate electron donors and electron acceptors are present in the environment, but this ability had not been demonstrated until recently. Most studies on the microbial metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds used aerobic microorganisms. In most cases no mineralization of nitroaromatics occurs, and only superficial modifications of the structures are reported. However, under anaerobic sulfate-reducing conditions, the nitroaromatic compounds reportedly undergo a series of reductions with the formation of amino compounds. For example, trinitrotoluene under sulfate-reducing conditions is reduced to triaminotoluene by the enzyme nitrite reductase, which is commonly found in many Desulfovibrio spp. The removal of ammonia from triaminotoluene is achieved by reductive deamination catalyzed by the enzyme reductive deaminase, with the production of ammonia and toluene. Some sulfate reducers can metabolize toluene to CO{sub 2}. Similar metabolic processes could be applied to other nitroaromatic compounds like nitrobenzene, nitrobenzoic acids, nitrophenols, and aniline. Many methanogenic bacteria can reduce nitroaromatic compounds to amino compounds. In this paper we review the anaerobic metabolic processes of nitroaromatic compounds under sulfate-reducing And methanogenic conditions.

  9. Anaerobic metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds by sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria

    Ecological observations suggest that sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria might metabolize nitroaromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions if appropriate electron donors and electron acceptors are present in the environment, but this ability had not been demonstrated until recently. Most studies on the microbial metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds used aerobic microorganisms. In most cases no mineralization of nitroaromatics occurs, and only superficial modifications of the structures are reported. However, under anaerobic sulfate-reducing conditions, the nitroaromatic compounds reportedly undergo a series of reductions with the formation of amino compounds. For example, trinitrotoluene under sulfate-reducing conditions is reduced to triaminotoluene by the enzyme nitrite reductase, which is commonly found in many Desulfovibrio spp. The removal of ammonia from triaminotoluene is achieved by reductive deamination catalyzed by the enzyme reductive deaminase, with the production of ammonia and toluene. Some sulfate reducers can metabolize toluene to CO2. Similar metabolic processes could be applied to other nitroaromatic compounds like nitrobenzene, nitrobenzoic acids, nitrophenols, and aniline. Many methanogenic bacteria can reduce nitroaromatic compounds to amino compounds. In this paper we review the anaerobic metabolic processes of nitroaromatic compounds under sulfate-reducing And methanogenic conditions

  10. Transformations of organic and inorganic sulfur: importance to sulfate flux in an adirondack forest soil

    Sulfate flux from forest soils as a result of inputs from acidic deposition is thought to be a critical process in regulating acidification of surface waters. The purpose of this study was to evaluate biotic transformations of sulfur in an Adirondack Mountain forest soil by adding 35S-sulfate to the forest floor. In September 1983 to each of two 0.5 m2 plots, 2.22 x 10/sub 10/ dpm of 35S-sulfate was added in 4 liters of solution. Analysis of soil horizons from the plot at the end of the six week incubation indicated that 70 and 99 percent of the added 35S was retained in the soil at plots 1 and 2, respectively. More than 70 percent of the 35S was found in Oa, Bh, and Bs1 horizons. In O horizons greater than 80 percent of the 35S was found as organic sulfur, whereas in mineral horizons most was found as adsorbed sulfate. These findings indicated that a portion of the sulfate moving through the soil is both rapidly immobilized in the forest floor and adsorbed in the mineral horizons. On a net basis, however, the soil is not accumulating sulfur so that mineralization and desorption must equal immobilization and adsorption

  11. Inhibitory concentrations of 2,4D and its possible intermediates in sulfate reducing biofilms

    Different concentrations of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4D) and its possible intermediates such as 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4DCP), 4-chlorophenol (4CP), 2-chlorophenol (2CP) and phenol, were assayed to evaluate the inhibitory effect on sulfate and ethanol utilization in a sulfate reducing biofilm. Increasing concentrations of the chlorophenolic compounds showed an adverse effect on sulfate reduction rate and ethanol conversion to acetate, being the intermediate 2,4DCP most toxic than the herbicide. The monochlorophenol 4CP (600 ppm) caused the complete cessation of sulfate reduction and ethanol conversion. The ratio of the electron acceptor to the electron donor utilized as well as the sulfate utilization volumetric rates, diminished when chlorophenols and phenol concentrations were increased, pointing out to the inhibition of the respiratory process and electrons transfer. The difference found in the IC50 values obtained was due to the chemical structure complexity of the phenolic compounds, the number of chlorine atoms as much as the chlorine atom position in the phenol ring. The IC50 values (ppm) indicated that the acute inhibition on the biofilm was caused by 2,4DCP (17.4) followed by 2,4D (29.0), 2CP (99.8), 4CP (108.0) and phenol (143.8).

  12. Asparagine-linked oligosaccharides on lutropin, follitropin, and thyrotropin: distributions of sulfated and sialylated oligosaccharides on bovine, ovine, and human pituitary glycoprotein hormones

    The asparagine-linked oligosaccharides on the pituitary glycoprotein hormones lutropin (LH), follitropin (FSH), and thyrotropin (TSH) consist of a heterogeneous array of neutral, sulfated, sialylated, and sulfated/sialylated structures. In this study, the authors determined the relative quantities of the various asparagine-linked oligosaccharides on LH, FSH, and TSH from these three animal species. The proportions of sulfated versus sialylated oligosaccharides varied markedly among the different hormones. Both hormone- and animal species-specific differences in the types and distributions of sulfated, sialylated, and sulfated/sialylated structures were evident. In particular, LH and FSH, which are synthesized in the same pituitary cell and bear α-subunits with the identical amino acid sequence, contained significantly different distributions of sulfated and sialylated oligosaccharides. For all three animal species, the ratio of sialylated to sulfated oligosaccharides differed by >10-fold for LH and FSH, with sulfated structures dominating on LH and sialylated structures on FSH. Sialylated oligosaccharides were also heterogeneous with respect to sialic acid linkage (α2,3 versus α2,6). The differences in oligosaccharide structures among the various pituitary glycoprotein hormones as well as among the various glycosylation sites within a single hormone support the hypothesis that glycosylation may serve important functional roles in the expression and/or regulation of hormone bioactivity

  13. 2-Amino­pyrimidinium hydrogen sulfate

    Elboulali, Adel; Akriche, Samah Toumi; Salem S. Al-Deyab; Rzaigui, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, C4H6N3 +·HSO4 −, hydrogen sulfate anions self-assemble through O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains along the b axis, while the cations form centrosymmetric pairs via N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds. The 2-amino­pyrimidinium pairs are linked to the sulfate anions via N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (10 ). In addition, weak inter­molecular C—H⋯O contacts generate a three-dimensional network.

  14. On the evaporation of ammonium sulfate solution

    Drisdell, Walter S.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.

    2009-07-16

    Aqueous evaporation and condensation kinetics are poorly understood, and uncertainties in their rates affect predictions of cloud behavior and therefore climate. We measured the cooling rate of 3 M ammonium sulfate droplets undergoing free evaporation via Raman thermometry. Analysis of the measurements yields a value of 0.58 {+-} 0.05 for the evaporation coefficient, identical to that previously determined for pure water. These results imply that subsaturated aqueous ammonium sulfate, which is the most abundant inorganic component of atmospheric aerosol, does not affect the vapor-liquid exchange mechanism for cloud droplets, despite reducing the saturation vapor pressure of water significantly.

  15. Pathway of Fermentative Hydrogen Production by Sulfate-reducing Bacteria

    Wall, Judy D. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    2015-02-16

    Biofuels are a promising source of sustainable energy. Such biofuels are intermediate products of microbial metabolism of renewable substrates, in particular, plant biomass. Not only are alcohols and solvents produced in this degradative process but energy-rich hydrogen as well. Non photosynthetic microbial hydrogen generation from compounds other than sugars has not been fully explored. We propose to examine the capacity of the abundant soil anaerobes, sulfate-reducing bacteria, for hydrogen generation from organic acids. These apparently simple pathways have yet to be clearly established. Information obtained may facilitate the exploitation of other microbes not yet readily examined by molecular tools. Identification of the flexibility of the metabolic processes to channel reductant to hydrogen will be useful in consideration of practical applications. Because the tools for genetic and molecular manipulation of sulfate-reducing bacteria of the genus Desulfovibrio are developed, our efforts will focus on two strains, D. vulgaris Hildenborough and Desulfovibrio G20.Therefore total metabolism, flux through the pathways, and regulation are likely to be limiting factors which we can elucidate in the following experiments.

  16. Pengaruh Sedimen Rawa dalam Menurunkan Kandungan Sulfat dan Pertumbuhan Populasi Mikroba dalam Air Asam Tambang

    Takasihaeng, Clara Arista; Fahruddin; dwyana, Zaraswati

    2015-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) was the waste from the mine of industry, could be overcome used by microbial biology. This research has aimed to determine the effect of marsh sediments in reduced the content of sulfate and increased pH in acid mine drainage, known the growth of microbial populations in the treatment of acid mine water marsh sediments, and for known the kind of microbes based on morphological characteristics. AMD treatment was made with three kinds of treatment were treatment I was A...

  17. Increasing sulfate concentrations result in higher sulfide production and phosphorous mobilization in a shallow eutrophic freshwater lake.

    Chen, Mo; Li, Xiao-Hong; He, Yu-Hong; Song, Na; Cai, Hai-Yuan; Wang, Changhui; Li, Yun-Tao; Chu, Hai-Yan; Krumholz, Lee R; Jiang, He-Long

    2016-06-01

    Increasing sulfate input has been seen as an issue in management of aquatic ecosystems, but its influences on eutrophic freshwater lakes is not clear. In this study, it was observed that increasing sulfate concentration without additional cyanobacterial bloom biomass (CBB) addition did not have an obvious effect on element cycling during 1-year continuous flow mesocosm experiments in which water and sediments were taken from a shallow eutrophic lake with sulfate levels near 1 mM. However, following addition of CBB to mesocosms, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were observed in the water column, and increasing numbers of SRB in the water column were associated with higher sulfate input. Sulfate amendment (0-70 mg L(-1)) also resulted in a larger amount of total dissolved sulfide (peak values of 5.90 ± 0.36 to 7.60 ± 0.12 mg L(-1)) in the water column and acid volatile sulfide (1081.71 ± 69.91 to 1557.98 ± 41.72 mg kg(-1)) in 0-1 cm surface sediments due to sulfate reduction. During the period of CBB decomposition, increasing sulfate levels in the water column were positively correlated with increasing diffusive phosphate fluxes of 1.23 ± 0.32 to 2.17 ± 0.01 mg m(-2) d(-1) at the water-sediment interface. As increases in sulfide and phosphate release rates deteriorated the water quality/ecosystem and even spurred the occurrence of a black water problem in lakes, the control of sulfate input level should be considered for shallow eutrophic lake management, especially during cyanobacterial bloom periods. PMID:27023925

  18. Spectrophotometric determination of nitrite using salbutamol sulfate as a reagent

    Agrawal, Y.K.; Bhatt, P.N.

    1988-01-01

    A simple spectrophotometric method for the trace determination of nitrite (NO/sub 2//sup /minus//) is described. Nitrite is reacted with Salbutamol sulfate in acidic medium which gives a yellow color in alkaline medium (less than or equal to pH 7) and can be determined in the presence of several cations and anions. Beer's law is obeyed in the range of 1.8 to 27.6 ppm of nitrite with the molar absorptivity 1.8 /times/ 10/sup 3/ 1 /times/ mole /sup /minus/1/ /times/ cm/sup /minus/1/ at 410 nm. The proposed method can also be utilized for the determination of nitrate (NO/sub 3//sup /minus//) after its reduction to nitrite. The method has been applied for the determination of various samples containing traces of nitrite.

  19. Intravenous magnesium sulfate therapy in severe asthma

    Mohd. Al-Ajmi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A 22-year-old female, known asthmatic since seven years, developed severe bronchospasm in the preop-erative period. Bronchospasm remained unresponsive to the inhaled beta-agonist plus anticholinergic, IV ami-nophylline and hydrocortisone but responded quickly with magnesium sulfate® ( PSI, KSA infusion 1.25gm in 100ml normal saline over 20 minutes and another 1.25 gm over next 30 minutes as the initial infusion showed improvement in her clinical symptoms. Within half an hour of administering the 1st infusion of magnesium sulfate (1.25 gm the respiratory rate started reducing, rhonchi became less, SpO 2 came upto 92% and re-mained always above 90%. Encouraged by this result IV magnesium sulfate 2.5 gm in 500 ml normal saline was infused over next 24 hours along with alternate salbutamol and ipratropium nebulization every 6 hourly. With this treatment regimen the patient became asymptomatic within next 24 hours with normal clinical parameters and FEV 1 value. Hence it may be concluded that IV magnesium sulfate can be considered for patients with acute severe asthma who do not respond to standard therapeutic medications.

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Nanostructured Sulfated Zirconias

    Lutecki, M.; Šolcová, Olga; Werner, S.; Breitkopf, C.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2010), s. 13-20. ISSN 0928-0707 Grant ostatní: DFG(DE) BR2068/2-1; DFG(DE) BR2068/2-2 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : sulfated zirconia * template assisted synthesis * porous materials Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.525, year: 2010

  1. Sulfate-reducing bacteria in anaerobic bioreactors.

    Oude Elferink, S.J.W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The treatment of industrial wastewaters containing high amounts of easily degradable organic compounds in anaerobic bioreactors is a well-established process. Similarly, wastewaters which in addition to organic compounds also contain sulfate can be treated in this way. For a long time, the occurrenc

  2. Radioprotective properties of the polysaccharide dextran sulfate

    Experiments have been conducted on mice-hydrides (SFUxS57BI)F1. Dextran sulfate (mol. w. 500000) has been injected once intraperitoneally at the dose of 60 mg/ml before exposure. The following conclusions are made: 1) highly molecular dextran sulfate injected during 1-3 days before exposure of mice at lethal doses of 9.57, 9 and 15.86 Gr at the corresponding dose rates of 8x10-3, 3x10-3 and 8x10-4 Gr/s increases radioresistance of animals increasing their 30 day survival up to 45-70%; 2) when injecting dextran sulfate a day before exposure increase of the organism radioresistance is followed by acceleration of postradiation restoration of the number of blood leukocytes, nucleus hearing cells of bone marrow and mass of spleen; 3) dextrain sulfate injected 3 days before irradiation does not produce any effect on expressiveness of postradiation leukopenia and bone marrow cytopenia

  3. Sulfate reduction and methanogenesis at a freshwater

    Iversen, Vibeke Margrethe Nyvang; Andersen, Martin Søgaard; Jakobsen, Rasmus

    enriched in dissolved sulfide, methane and bicarbonate. Under normal conditions the seawater-freshwater interface is found at a depth of 4 m at the coastline and reaches the bottom of the aquifer 40 m inland. However, occasional flooding of the area occurs, introducing sulfate to the aquifer. Groundwater...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    2010-04-01

    ... the specifications of the “Food Chemicals Codex,” 3d Ed. (1981), pp. 22-23, which is incorporated by... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium sulfate. 184.1143 Section 184.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    2010-04-01

    ... hydroxide or potassium carbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the “Food Chemicals Codex... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  6. Change of Ecological Characteristics Due to Decrease of COD/SO42- Ratio During Sulfate-reduction

    王爱杰; 任南琪; 刘广民; 杜大仲

    2004-01-01

    In order to investigate the change of ecological characteristics due to the decrease of COD/SO42- ratio during sulfate reduction, continuous-flew tests were conducted in an acidogenic sulfate-reducing reactor with molasses wastewater as sole organic carbon source and sodium sulfate as electron acceptor, and the change of pH value, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), volatile fat acids (VFAs), alkalinity (ALK) and the predominant populations with COD/SO42- ratio decreasing from 4. 2 to 2. 0 were investigated. The experimental results demonstrated that, with decreasing COD/SO42- ratio, ORP and ALK increased, pH value decreased, and the proportion of acetic acid in terminal products decreased significantly, and a stable - type microbial community with high COD/SO42- ratio was converted into a sub -stable -type one with low COD/SO42- ratio.

  7. A hybrid water-splitting cycle using copper sulfate and mixed copper oxides

    Schreiber, J. D.; Remick, R. J.; Foh, S. E.; Mazumder, M. M.

    1980-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology has derived and developed a hybrid thermochemical water-splitting cycle based on mixed copper oxides and copper sulfate. Similar to other metal oxide-metal sulfate cycles that use a metal oxide to 'concentrate' electrolytically produced sulfuric acid, this cycle offers the advantage of producing oxygen (to be vented) and sulfur dioxide (to be recycled) in separate steps, thereby eliminating the need of another step to separate these gases. The conceptual process flow-sheet efficiency of the cycle promises to exceed 50%. It has been completely demonstrated in the laboratory with recycled materials. Research in the electrochemical oxidation of sulfur dioxide to produce sulfuric acid and hydrogen performed at IGT indicates that the cell performance goals of 200 mA/sq cm at 0.5 V will be attainable using relatively inexpensive electrode materials.

  8. 21 CFR 582.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sodium sulfate. 582.1131 Section 582.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  9. 21 CFR 182.1131 - Aluminum sodium sulfate.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sodium sulfate. 182.1131 Section 182.1131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Substances § 182.1131 Aluminum sodium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sodium sulfate. (b) Conditions of...

  10. Effect of vitamin D supplementation and magnesium sulfate therapy in pre-eclampsia

    Neeru Bhaskar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin D insufficiency has been associated with several adverse health outcomes, including pregnancy outcomes, and is increasingly recognised as a public health concern. It is responsible for approximately 50,000 maternal deaths yearly worldwide, 25% of all cases of fetal growth restriction, and 15% of preterm births in developed countries. Objective: Vitamin D and magnesium sulfate act by altering the calcium levels so this study was conducted to see if vitamin D supplementation has any additive role to magnesium sulfate treatment in preeclampsia and in preventing its progression to eclampsia. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, in collaboration with Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, at MMIMSR, Mullana (Ambala, Haryana, India. One hundred and fifty pregnant females attending the Obstetrics clinic were selected for the study and were divided into three groups of fifty each. Group I (Control: Normotensive healthy pregnant females, Group II: Preeclamptic patients receiving magnesium sulfate therapy and Group III: Preeclamptic patients receiving magnesium sulfate therapy along with vitamin D supplementation (33000 IU once every two weeks, orally after 28 weeks up to 36 weeks. The samples were analysed for serum total calcium, ionized calcium, serum phosphorous, serum magnesium, serum albumin, serum alkaline phosphatase, serum creatinine and serum uric acid. Results: Mean levels of total calcium, ionised calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and uric acid before and after delivery were calculated in all the three groups. Serum calcium (total and ionised, albumin and magnesium were decreased in preeclamptic women whereas serum phosphorous and uric acid were increased in preeclamptic. Vitamin D supplementation improved calcium status, uric acid level and albumin level were also improved. Conclusion: Vitamin D supplementation in early

  11. Preparation and Characterization of O-Acylated Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfate from Sea Cucumber

    Na Gao; Mingyi Wu; Shao Liu; Wu Lian; Zi Li; Jinhua Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FuCS), a kind of complex glycosaminoglycan from sea cucumber, has potent anticoagulant activity. In order to understand the relationship between structures and activity, the depolymerized FuCS (dFuCS) was chosen to prepare its derivates by selective substitution at OH groups. Its O-acylation was carried out in a homogeneous way using carboxylic acid anhydrides. The structures of O-acylated derivatives were characterize...

  12. Extraction and quantification of sulfated glycosaminoglycan content in five different aquatic species of Malaysia

    Ravi Lokwani; Ramandeep Singh; Gauree Kukreti

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To extract, characterize and quantify glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) from the body of cuttlefish, tennis-ball sea cucumber, shrimp, seabass and fresh water fish Nile tilapia. Methods: The extracted crude powder was evaluated for the content of GAGs. The qualitative analysis of sulfated pattern and other important functional groups related with GAGs were explained in the form of Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy data. Proteins and nucleic acid in the crude extr...

  13. Sulfate Dynamics and Base Cation Release in a High Elevation Appalachian Forest Soil

    Lusk, Mary Gilchrist

    1998-01-01

    Two soils from the Fernow Experimental Forest near Parsons, West Virginia were characterized and evaluated in terms of their susceptibility to enhanced soil acidification via acidic atmospheric inputs. After initial physical, chemical, and mineralogical characterization, the soils were analyzed for their ability to adsorb and retain sulfate (SO42-) through a series of batch adsorption and desorption experiments. Reconstructed soil profiles were then subjected to water leaching as the prelim...

  14. Microsphere-Based Scaffolds Carrying Opposing Gradients of Chondroitin Sulfate and Tricalcium Phosphate

    Gupta, Vineet; Mohan, Neethu; Berkland, Cory J.; Detamore, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) components, such as chondroitin sulfate (CS) and tricalcium phosphate, serve as raw materials, and thus spatial patterning of these raw materials may be leveraged to mimic the smooth transition of physical, chemical, and mechanical properties at the bone-cartilage interface. We hypothesized that encapsulation of opposing gradients of these raw materials in high molecular weight poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microsphere-based scaffolds would enhance differ...

  15. Effects of Sodium Sulfate as Electrolyte Additive on Electrochemical Performance of Lead Electrode

    YU Jin-yu; QIAN Zhao-hong; ZHAO Meng; WANG Yu-jie; NIU Lin

    2013-01-01

    Sodium sulfate as an electrolyte additive was studied via electrochemical methods including linear sweep voltammetry(LSV),cyclic voltammetry(CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS) to deeply understand its effect on the hydrogen evolution current and overpotential as well as the formation and structure of anodic passivation films on lead surface during the redox processes.The results achieved will be valuable to improve the cycle life and maintenance-free properties of lead-acid batteries.

  16. Sulfated Zirconia as Alkali-Resistant Support for Catalytic NOx Removal

    The use of bio-fuels as alternatives to traditional fossil fuels has attracted much attention recent years since bio-fuels belong to a family of renewable types of energy sources and do not contribute to the green-house effect. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with ammonia as reductant ...... interact with potassium stronger than active metal species. Among potential carriers, sulfated zirconia is of high interest because its acidic and textural properties can be modified by varying preparation conditions....

  17. Identification of a lipid-anchored heparan sulfate proteoglycan in Schwann cells

    1990-01-01

    Schwann cells synthesize both hydrophobic and peripheral cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). Previous analysis of the kinetics of radiolabeling suggested the peripheral HSPGs are derived from the membrane-anchored forms (Carey, D., and D. Evans. 1989. J. Cell Biol. 108:1891-1897). Peripheral cell surface HSPGs were purified from phytic acid extracts of cultured neonatal rat sciatic nerve Schwann cells by anion exchange, gel filtration, and laminin-affinity chromatography. Appr...

  18. Ferric Sulfate Leaching of Pyrrhotite Tailings between 30 to 55 °C

    Nazanin Samadifard; Cheryl E. Devine; Elizabeth Edwards; Krishna Mahadevan; Vladimiros G. Papangelakis

    2015-01-01

    Mine tailings present major environmental issues in the mining industry. However due to the depletion of high-grade sulfide ores for metal recovery, tailings could also be a potential resource for certain valuable metals. The present study investigates the potential to recover nickel from pyrrhotite tailings. Leaching tests were performed in acidic ferric sulfate media with 0.14 wt % solids to keep the ferric concentration essentially constant. The temperature was varied between 30 and 55 °C,...

  19. Mineralogy of Juventae Chasma: Sulfates in the light-toned mounds, mafic minerals in the bedrock, and hydrated silica and hydroxylated ferric sulfate on the plateau

    Bishop, Janice L.; Parente, Mario; Weitz, Catherine M.; Noe Dobrea, Eldar Z.; Roach, Leah H.; Murchie, Scott L.; McGuire, Patrick C.; McKeown, Nancy K.; Rossi, Christopher M.; Brown, Adrian J.; Calvin, Wendy M.; Milliken, Ralph; Mustard, John F.

    2009-11-01

    opaline silica phase is observed at the contact between the older plateau unit and the younger hydroxylated ferric sulfate-bearing light-toned layered deposits. Hydrothermal processes may have produced an acidic environment that fostered formation of the hydrated silica and hydroxylated ferric sulfate units.

  20. Influence of self-compacting concrete composition on sulfuric acid attack

    Feys, Dimitri; Liu, Zanqun; Heirman, Gert; De Schutter, Geert; Boel, Veerle; Desmet, Bram; Vantomme, John; Cizer, Özlem; Vandewalle, Lucie; Gemert, Dionys van

    2009-01-01

    Sulfuric acid attack on concrete has been reported for over a century. Many scientific papers deal with the issue of concrete damage due to sulfate and sulfuric attack. The introduction of self-compacting concrete introduces new questions related to the behaviour of powder-rich mixtures in a sulfate environment. This paper describes a simple testing method to investigate the influence of the concrete composition on the sulfuric acid attack. Concrete samples have been submerged in a sulfate...

  1. Development and testing of a high-resolution model for tropospheric sulfate driven by observation-derived meteorology

    Benkovitz, C.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Environmental Chemistry Div.

    1994-05-01

    A high-resolution three-dimensional Eulerian transport and transformation model has been developed to simulate concentrations of tropospheric sulfate for specific times and locations; it was applied over the North Atlantic and adjacent continental regions during October and November, 1986. The model represents emissions of anthropogenic SO{sub 2} and sulfate and of biogenic sulfur species, horizontal and vertical transport, gas-phase oxidation of SO{sub 2} and dimethylsulfide, aqueous-phase oxidation of SO{sub 2}, and wet and dry deposition of SO{sub 2}, sulfate, and methanesulfonic acid (MSA). The meteorological driver is the 6-hour output from the forecast model of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. Calculated sulfate concentrations and column burdens, examined in detail for October 15 and October 22 at 6Z, are related to existing weather patterns. These results exhibit rich temporal and spatial structure; the characteristic (1/e) temporal autocorrelation time for the sulfate column burdens over the central North Atlantic averages 20 hours; 95% of the values were 25 hours or less. The characteristic distance of spatial autocorrelation over this region depends on direction and averages 1,600 km; with 10{sup th} percentile value of 400 km and 90{sup th} percentile value of 1,700 km. Daily average model sulfate concentrations at the lowest vertical accurately represent the spatial variability, temporal episodicity, and absolute magnitudes of surface concentrations measured by monitoring stations in Europe, Canada and Barbados.

  2. 21 CFR 524.155 - Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate...

    2010-04-01

    ... sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate ophthalmic ointment. 524.155 Section 524.155 Food and... zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate ophthalmic ointment... 10 milligrams of hydrocortisone acetate. (b) Conditions of use. Dogs and cats—(1) Amount. Apply...

  3. Utilization of sulfate additives in biomass combustion: fundamental and modeling aspects

    Wu, Hao; Jespersen, Jacob Boll; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Aho, Martti; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Glarborg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Sulfates, such as ammonium sulfate, aluminum sulfate and ferric sulfate, are effective additives for converting the alkali chlorides released from biomass combustion to the less harmful alkali sulfates. Optimization of the use of these additives requires knowledge on their decomposition rate and product distribution under high temperature conditions. In the present work, the decomposition of ammonium sulfate, aluminum sulfate and ferric sulfate wasstudied respectively in a fast-heating rate t...

  4. Sulfated polysaccharide from the marine algae Hypnea musciformis inhibits TNBS-induced intestinal damage in rats.

    V Brito, Tarcisio; Barros, Francisco C N; Silva, Renan O; Dias Júnior, Genilson J; C Júnior, José Simião; Franco, Álvaro X; Soares, Pedro M G; Chaves, Luciano S; Abreu, Clara M W S; de Paula, Regina C M; Souza, Marcellus H L P; Freitas, Ana Lúcia P; R Barbosa, André Luiz

    2016-10-20

    Sulfated polysaccharides extracted from seaweed have important pharmacological properties. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize the sulfated polysaccharide (PLS) from the algae Hypnea musciformis and evaluate its protective effect in colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid in rats. The sulfated polysaccharide possess a high molecular mass (1.24×10(5)gmol(-1)) and is composed of a κ-carrageenan, as depicted by FT-IR and NMR spectroscopic data. PLS was administered orally (10, 30, and 60mg/kg, p.o.) for three days, starting before TNBS (trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid) instillation (day 1). The rats were killed on day three, the portion of distal colon (5cm) was excised and evaluated macroscopic scores and wet weight. Then, samples of the intestinal were used for histological evaluation and quantification of glutathione, malonyldialdehyde acid, myeloperoxidase, nitrate/nitrite and cytokines. Our results demonstrate that PLS reduced the colitis and all analyzed biochemical parameters. Thus, we concluded that the PLS extracted from the marine algae H. musciformis reduced the colitis in animal model and may have an important promising application in the inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:27474644

  5. 注射型可吸收聚氨基酸/硫酸钙复合材料动物体内降解吸收及促成骨作用%In vivo degradation, absorption and osteogenesis of injectable and absorbable polyamine acid/calcium sulfate composites

    姜勇; 张帅; 周勇; 闵理; 易敏; 段宏; 屠重棋; 严永刚

    2012-01-01

    背景:注射型人工骨可经皮穿刺注射植入体内,对机体创伤较小,同时该型材料可以任意塑形,能较好地充填骨缺损,但目前临床上尚无在体内能完全降解吸收且具有较好促成骨作用的注射型人工骨产品.目的:评估注射型可吸收聚氨基酸/硫酸钙复合材料(硫酸钙含量70%)动物体内的降解吸收及促成骨作用,观察其修复骨缺损的能力.方法:取48只新西兰大白兔,在股骨外髁处制备直径为5 mm、深10 mm的骨缺损模型,以随机数字表法分为实验组和对照组,实验组将注射型可吸收聚氨基酸/硫酸钙复合材料植入骨缺损处,对照组未予干预.结果与结论:X射线平片示:实验组骨缺损逐渐被骨痂填充,术后16周,骨缺损处恢复正常松质骨密度,塑形完成;对照组骨缺损处修复不明显.组织学检查(苏木精-伊红、MASSON染色)示:术后4周,材料开始降解,新生原始骨小梁长入材料内;术后12周,编织骨开始转化为板层骨;术后16周,材料完全被降解吸收,新生骨组织完全修复骨缺损.结果显示注射型聚氨基酸/硫酸钙复合材料在动物内能够完全降解、吸收,具备一定的成骨活性,可望用作骨修复材料.%BACKGROUND: With fewer traumas to the body, injectable artificial bone can be implanted into the body through the percutaneous injection. Meanwhile, the material can be any shape to fill bone defects. But now in clinic, there is no injectable artificial bone substitute product with the better ability of bone formation, which can be completely degraded and absorbed in vivo. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the degradation, absorption and osteogenesis in vivo ability of injectable and absorbable polyamine acid/calcium sulfate (PAA/CS) composites (containing 70% calcium sulfate), and to observe the ability to repair bone defects. METHODS: A 5 mm×10 mm size bone defect model was made on the femoral condyle of 48 New Zealand white rabbits, which were

  6. Sulfate resistance of high calcium fly ash concrete

    Dhole, Rajaram

    Sulfate attack is one of the mechanisms which can cause deterioration of concrete. In general, Class C fly ash mixtures are reported to provide poor sulfate resistance. Fly ashes, mainly those belonging to the Class C, were tested as per the ASTM C 1012 procedure to evaluate chemical sulfate resistance. Overall the Class C fly ashes showed poor resistance in the sulfate environment. Different strategies were used in this research work to improve the sulfate resistance of Class C fly ash mixes. The study revealed that some of the strategies such as use of low W/CM (water to cementing materials by mass ratio), silica fume or ultra fine fly ash, high volumes of fly ash and, ternary or quaternary mixes with suitable supplementary cementing materials, can successfully improve the sulfate resistance of the Class C fly ash mixes. Combined sulfate attack, involving physical and chemical action, was studied using sodium sulfate and calcium sulfate solutions. The specimens were subjected to wetting-drying cycles and temperature changes. These conditions were found to accelerate the rate of degradation of concrete placed in a sodium sulfate environment. W/CM was found to be the main governing factor in providing sulfate resistance to mixes. Calcium sulfate did not reveal damage as a result of mainly physical action. Characterization of the selected fly ashes was undertaken by using SEM, XRD and the Rietveld analysis techniques, to determine the relation between the composition of fly ashes and resistance to sulfate attack. The chemical composition of glass represented on the ternary diagram was the main factor which had a significant influence on the sulfate resistance of fly ash mixtures. Mixes prepared with fly ashes containing significant amounts of vulnerable crystalline phases offered poor sulfate resistance. Comparatively, fly ash mixes containing inert crystalline phases such as quartz, mullite and hematite offered good sulfate resistance. The analysis of hydrated lime

  7. The specificity of interactions between proteins and sulfated polysaccharides

    Barbara Mulloy

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Sulfated polysaccharides are capable of binding with proteins at several levels of specificity. As highly acidic macromolecules, they can bind non-specifically to any basic patch on a protein surface at low ionic strength, and such interactions are not likely to be physiologically significant. On the other hand, several systems have been identified in which very specific substructures of sulfated polysaccharides confer high affinity for particular proteins; the best-known example of this is the pentasaccharide in heparin with high affinity for antithrombin, but other examples may be taken from the study of marine invertebrates: the importance of the fine structure of dermatan sulfate (DS to its interaction with heparin cofactor II (HCII, and the involvement of sea urchin egg-jelly fucans in species specific fertilization. A third, intermediate, kind of specific interaction is described for the cell-surface glycosaminoglycan heparan sulfate (HS, in which patterns of sulfate substitution can show differential affinities for cytokines, growth factors, and morphogens at cell surfaces and in the intracellular matrix. This complex interplay of proteins and glycans is capable of influencing the diffusion of such proteins through tissue, as well as modulating cellular responses to them.Os polissacarídeos sulfatados são capazes de se ligar às proteínas com diferentes níveis de especificidade. São macromoléculas altamente ácidas que podem se ligar de forma inespecífica a qualquer domínio básico da superfície de uma proteína em soluções com baixa força iônica, contudo tais interações não parecem ser fisiologicamente significativas. Por outro lado, foram identificados vários sistemas nos quais componentes estruturais muito específicos dos polissacarídeos sulfatados conferem alta afinidade para algumas proteínas. O exemplo mais conhecido é o pentassacarídeo da heparina com alta afinidade pela antitrombina. Outros exemplos podem ser

  8. Empirical evidence for the low- and high-NO x photochemical regimes of sulfate and nitrate formation

    Stein, Ariel F.; Lamb, Dennis

    The formation of sulfate and nitrate in eastern North America is chemically linked to the abundance of oxidants and therefore to the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x). Depending on conditions, NO x reacts under either of two distinct photochemical regimes, defined by the types and levels of radical production. In the low-NO x regime (typical of summer), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) is readily consumed during nitric acid formation, leaving an excess of radicals that recombine to form peroxides and a highly oxidizing state favorable to sulfate formation. On the other hand, under high-NO x conditions (as in winter), the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere is reduced because the NO 2 rapidly combines with and thereby depletes hydroxyl radicals, producing nitric acid, but few peroxides. The distinction between these two chemical regimes is crucial for interpreting atmospheric deposition data because it determines whether sulfate or nitrate is the dominant acidifying component. Evidence for these regimes is gained from seasonal observations of sulfate and nitrate in rain samples collected at several sites of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP). A simple modeling exercise elucidates the processes by which sulfate and nitrate are formed under the high- and low-NO x states.

  9. Structural analysis of a sulfated polysaccharidic fraction obtained from the coenocytic green seaweed Caulerpa cupressoides var. lycopodium

    José Ariévilo Gurgel Rodrigues

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Researches on structural chemistry of sulfated polysaccharides (SPs have been mainly focused on red and brown algae. Caulerpa cupressoides var. lycopodium (Chlorophyta contains three SPs fractions (Cc-SP1, Cc-SP2 and Cc-SP3. Cc-SP1 and Cc-SP2 had anticoagulant (in vitro and anti- and prothrombotic, antinociceptive and/or anti-inflammatory (in vivo effects. However, their structural features have not yet been investigated. This study analyzed the chemical composition, elemental microanalysis and structural features by infrared (IR and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR spectroscopy of Cc-SPs. Fractionation of SPs by DEAE-cellulose yielded Cc-SP1, Cc-SP2 and CcSP3 containing differences among the relative proportions of sulfate (14.67-26.72%, total sugars (34.92-49.73% and uronic acid (7.15-7.22%. Carbon (21.76-29.62%, sulfate (2.16-4.55%, nitrogen (0.85-1.57% and hydrogen (4.57-5.86% contents were obtained using a CHN equipment. Data from IR indicated occurrence of sulfate ester, galactose-6-sulfate, uronic acid and glycoside linkages. For 1H NMR spectrum of the soluble Cc-SP1 fraction, it was mainly found β-galactopyranose residues and CH3 group. The results showed that Cc-SPs fractions have some structural features similar to others studied Caulerpaceae SPs.

  10. ELECTRON DETACHMENT DISSOCIATION OF DERMATAN SULFATE OLIGOSACCHARIDES

    Wolff, Jeremy J.; Laremore, Tatiana N.; BUSCH, ALEXANDER M.; Linhardt, Robert J.; Amster, I. Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    The structural characterization of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) oligosaccharides has been a longstanding challenge in the field of mass spectrometry. In this work, we present the application of electron detachment dissociation (EDD) Fourier transform mass spectrometry to the analysis of dermatan sulfate (DS) oligosaccharides up to 10 residues in length. The EDD mass spectra of DS oligosaccharides were compared to their infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) mass spectra. EDD produces more abun...

  11. Structum (chondroitin sulfate) in treatment of osteoarthritis

    O J Varga; V K Ignatjev; N N Vesikova; I M Marusenko

    2003-01-01

    Objective. To assess Structum (chondroitin sulfate) efficacy in treatment of osteoarthritis in Republic of Karelia. Methods. 34 pts with osteoarthritis (mean disease duration 6,44±0,67 years) were included. Functional Leken score (FLS), pain at rest and at walk on visual analog scale (VAS), pts nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) requirement (diclofenac daily requirement in mg), percent of pts refused NSAID treatment, achievement of clinically significant improvement (40% decrease of...

  12. Effects of sulfate chitosan derivatives on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Yu, Mingming; Wang, Yuanhong; Jiang, Tingfu; Lv, Zhihua

    2014-06-01

    Sulfate chitosan derivatives have good solubility and therapeutic effect on the cell model of NAFLD. The aim of this study was to examine the therapeutic effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD. The male Wistar rats were orally fed high fat emulsion and received sulfate chitosan derivatives for 5 weeks to determine the pre-treatment effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD. To evaluate the therapeutic effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD, the rats were orally fed with high concentration emulsion for 5 weeks, followed by sulfate chitosan derivatives for 3 weeks. Histological analysis and biomedical assays showed that sulfate chitosan derivatives can dramatically prevent the development of hepatic steatosis in hepatocyte cells. In animal studies, pre-treatment and treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives significantly protected against hepatic steatohepatitis induced by high fat diet according to histological analysis. Furthermore, increased TC, ALT, MDA, and LEP in NAFLD were significantly ameliorated by pre-treatment and treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives. Furthermore, increased TG, AST, and TNF-α in NAFLD were significantly ameliorated by treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives. Sulfate chitosan derivatives have good pre-treatment and therapeutic effect on NAFLD.

  13. Thermophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Cold Marine Sediment

    ISAKSEN, MF; BAK, F.; JØRGENSEN, BB

    1994-01-01

    P60, were isolated and characterized as Desulfotomaculum kuznetsovii. The temperature response of growth and respiration of strain P60 agreed well with the measured sulfate reduction at 50 degrees-70 degrees C. Bacteria similar to strain P60 could thus be responsible for the measured thermophilic...... C to search for presence of psychrophilic, mesophilic and thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria. Detectable activity was initially only in the mesophilic range, but after a lag phase sulfate reduction by thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria were observed. No distinct activity of psychrophilic...... sulfate-reducing bacteria was detected. Time course experiments showed constant sulfate reduction rates at 4 degrees C and 30 degrees C, whereas the activity at 60 degrees C increased exponentially after a lag period of one day. Thermophilic, endospore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria, designated strain...

  14. Concrete Deterioration under Alternate Action of Carbonation and Sulfate Attack

    Fenglan Li

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available By micro- and macro-observations, the study reveals the deterioration mechanisms of concrete under alternate action of carbonation and sodium sulfate solution attack (C-SA comparied with the single sodium sulfate solution attack (SA. The studies indicate that in both cases, the main attack product is ettringite, some gypsum is checked only in the first layer of case SA, the thaumasite form of sulfate attack is not initiated in case C-SA. Compared with the single sodium sulfate solution attack, although the carbonation layer mitigates the extent of sulfate attack in limited exposure period, the alternate action of carbonation and sulfate attack still leads to strength degradation to some extent. The effect of carbonation on sulfate attack for longer exposure period deserves further research.

  15. Adsorption of sulfate in PWR steam generators: Laboratory tests

    Following observation of an apparent difference in the hideout mechanism for sulfate compared to that of other highly soluble species during chemical injection tests at several PWRS, a laboratory test program, discussed in this report was implemented to quantify sulfate adsorption on metal surfaces. Approximately 350 ug/m2 of sulfate could be adsorbed on Alloy 600 from neutral solutions at 300 degree C. Less adsorption was observed at lower temperature as well as at increased pH. The adsorbed sulfate could be desorbed into pure water over a period of several days subsequent to termination of sulfate ingress. Thus, a prompt shutdown to hot standby with maximization of blowdown should minimize the long term impact of sulfate steam generator corrosion subsequent to a period of significant sulfate or cation resin ingress. The only other species which exhibited significant adsorption was phosphate which also has a tetrahedral ionic structure in solution

  16. Sulfate reduction and anaerobic methane oxidation in Black Sea sediments

    Jørgensen, BB; Weber, A.; Zopfi, J.

    2001-01-01

    Beyond the shelf break at ca. 150 m water depth, sulfate reduction is the only important process of organic matter oxidation in Black Sea sediments from the surface down to the sulfate-methane transition at 2-4 m depth. Sulfate reduction rates were measured experimentally with (SO42-)-S-35, and the...... the process was very sluggish with turnover times of methane within the sulfate-methane transition zone of 20 yr or more. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.Beyond the shelf break at ca. 150 m water depth, sulfate reduction is the only important process of organic matter oxidation in...... Black Sea sediments from the surface down to the sulfate-methane transition at 2-4 m depth. Sulfate reduction rates were measured experimentally with (SO42-)-S-35, and the rates were compared with results of two diffusion-reaction models. The results showed that, even in these non-bioirrigated sediments...

  17. Regional transport model of atmospheric sulfates

    As part of the Sulfate Regional Experiment (SURE) Design Project, a regional transport model of atmospheric sulfates has been developed. This quasi-Lagrangian three-dimensional grid numerical model uses a detailed SO2 emission inventory of major anthropogenic sources in the Eastern U.S. region, and observed meteorological data during an episode as inputs. The model accounts for advective transport and turbulent diffusion of the pollutants. The chemical transformation of SO2 and SO4/sup =/ and the deposition of the species at the earth's surface are assumed to be linear processes at specified constant rates. The numerical model can predict the daily average concentrations of SO2 and SO4/sup =/ at all receptor locations in the grid region during the episode. Because of the spatial resolution of the grid, this model is particularly suited to investigate the effect of tall stacks in reducing the ambient concentration levels of sulfur pollutants. This paper presents the formulations and assumptions of the regional sulfate transport model. The model inputs and results are discussed. Isopleths of predicted SO2 and SO4/sup =/ concentrations are compared with the observed ground level values. The bulk of the information in this paper is directed to air pollution meteorologists and environmental engineers interested in the atmospheric transport modeling studies of sulfur oxide pollutants

  18. Synthesis of surface sulfated BiWO with enhanced photocatalytic performance

    Yongming Ju; Jianming Hong; Xiuyu Zhang; Zhencheng Xu; Dongyang Wei; Yanhong Sang; Xiaohang Fang; Jiande Fang; Zhenxing Wang

    2012-01-01

    Sulfated BiWO (SBiWO) was synthesized by an impregnation method to enhance the visible-light-driven photoactivities of BiWO (BiWO).The characterization results verified that sulfate anion mainly anchored on the catalyst surface greatly extended the visible-light-responsive range without destroying the crystal lattice.Moreover,the SBiWO-based photoactivities were evaluated with the removal of Malachite Green (MG) under UV-Vis irradiation emitted from two microwave-powered electrodeless discharge lamps (MPEDL-2) and under visible light (λ > 420 nm).The results demonstrated that the kinetic constant was increased 2.25 times,varying from 0.1478 (BiWO) to 0.3328 min-1 (SBiWO-1).Similar results were also obtained for the visible light-driven reaction.Furthermore,radical scavengers such as t-butanol restricted the visible-light induced degradation of MG over BiWO and SBiWO-1.This indicated that the sulfating process increased the generation of reactive oxygen species,which was further verified by molecular probe with salicylic acid.Thus,more blue-shifting at λ =618 nm was observed over SBiWO.On the basis of the above results,the photocatalytic mechanism over the sulfated catalyst was also discussed.

  19. Synthesis of cellulose nanocrystals carrying tyrosine sulfate mimetic ligands and inhibition of alphavirus infection.

    Zoppe, Justin O; Ruottinen, Ville; Ruotsalainen, Janne; Rönkkö, Seppo; Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Hinkkanen, Ari; Järvinen, Kristiina; Seppälä, Jukka

    2014-04-14

    We present two facile approaches for introducing multivalent displays of tyrosine sulfate mimetic ligands on the surface of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) for application as viral inhibitors. We tested the efficacy of cellulose nanocrystals, prepared either from cotton fibers or Whatman filter paper, to inhibit alphavirus infectivity in Vero (B) cells. Cellulose nanocrystals were produced by sulfuric acid hydrolysis leading to nanocrystal surfaces decorated with anionic sulfate groups. When the fluorescent marker expressing Semliki Forest virus vector, VA7-EGFP, was incubated with CNCs, strong inhibition of virus infectivity was achieved, up to 100 and 88% for cotton and Whatman CNCs, respectively. When surface sulfate groups of CNCs were exchanged for tyrosine sulfate mimetic groups (i.e. phenyl sulfonates), improved viral inhibition was attained. Our observations suggest that the conjugation of target-specific functionalities to CNC surfaces provides a means to control their antiviral activity. Multivalent CNCs did not cause observable in vitro cytotoxicity to Vero (B) cells or human corneal epithelial (HCE-T) cells, even within the 100% virus-inhibitory concentrations. Based on the similar chemistry of known polyanionic inhibitors, our results suggest the potential application of CNCs as inhibitors of other viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes simplex viruses. PMID:24628489

  20. Influence of aquation and hydrolysis on substitution reactions in sulfate complexes of iridium and ruthenium

    To extract ruthenium from sulfuric acid solutions of hydrometallurgy they are preliminarily trealed by NaCl to substitute chloride ions for sulfate ions. The chloride complex formation from sulfate complexes, prepared under mild conditions, proceeds much easier. The more aquated and hydrolyzed basic compounds appear to be, the faster and more complete substitution reaction in sulfate complexes proceeds. The interaction of Ru sulfate complexes with NaCl was studied, depending on the NaCl concentration, temperature (80, 98 and 110 deg) and period of heating. If the NaCl concentration is 0.4 to 1.0 mol/l, then the Ru (4) complexes, containing the [Ru2O2]4+ group, are formed on heating; at a higher NaCl concentration the [Ru2OCl10]4- group is formed. During further heating the substitution reaction is complicated by a redox process. In solutions where more hydrolyzed dioxochloride dimeric ruthenium (4) complexes form, Ru (4) reduction proceeds at the highest rate

  1. Preparation and Characterization of O-Acylated Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfate from Sea Cucumber

    Na Gao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FuCS, a kind of complex glycosaminoglycan from sea cucumber, has potent anticoagulant activity. In order to understand the relationship between structures and activity, the depolymerized FuCS (dFuCS was chosen to prepare its derivates by selective substitution at OH groups. Its O-acylation was carried out in a homogeneous way using carboxylic acid anhydrides. The structures of O-acylated derivatives were characterized by NMR. The results indicated that the 4-O-sulfated fucose residues may be easier to be acylated than the other ones in the sulfated fucose branches. But the O-acylation was always accompanied by the β-elimination, and the degree of elimination was higher as that of acylation was higher. The results of clotting assay indicated that the effect of partial O-acylation of the dFuCS on their anticoagulant potency was not significant and the O-acylation of 2-OH groups of 4-O-sulfated fucose units did not affect the anticoagulant activity.

  2. Antioxidant and anticoagulant activity of sulfated polysaccharide from Gracilaria debilis (Forsskal).

    Sudharsan, Sadhasivam; Subhapradha, Namasivayam; Seedevi, Palaniappan; Shanmugam, Vairamani; Madeswaran, Perumal; Shanmugam, Annaian; Srinivasan, Alagiri

    2015-11-01

    Sulfated polysaccharide was isolated from Gracilaria debilis and purified through gel chromatography and their molecular weight was determined through AGE and PAGE. The total sugars in the crude, fractionated and purified polysaccharide were estimated as 52.65%, 59.70% and 67.60%, respectively. The ash and moisture content of crude and purified polysaccharide was found to be 14.2% and 23.5% and the polysaccharide was free from protein contamination. The sulfate and uronic acid contents in the crude, fractionated and purified were estimated as 14.08%, 15.33% and 16.01% and 10.12%, 13.56%, 16.70%. The elemental composition including carbon (crude - 23.12%, purified - 21.05%), hydrogen (crude - 3.4%, purified - 4.13%) and nitrogen (crude - 1.22%, purified - 0.56%) were also analyzed. The anticoagulant activity of the sulfated polysaccharide through APTT and PT was estimated at 14.11 and 8.23IU/mg. The purified polysaccharide with the molecular mass of 20kDa showed highest antioxidant activity (38.57%, 43.48% and 38.88%) in all the assays tested such as DPPH hydroxyl radical, superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical scavenging activities and the structural property was analyzed through FT-IR and (1)H NMR spectrum. The results together suggest that the isolated low molecular weight sulfated polysaccharide will demonstrate as a enormously available alternative natural source of antioxidant for industrial uses. PMID:26424206

  3. Preliminary investigation of a highly sulfated galactofucan fraction isolated from the brown alga Sargassum polycystum.

    Bilan, Maria I; Grachev, Alexey A; Shashkov, Alexander S; Thuy, Thanh Thi Thu; Van, Tran Thi Thanh; Ly, Bui Minh; Nifantiev, Nikolay E; Usov, Anatolii I

    2013-08-01

    A fucoidan preparation was isolated from the brown alga Sargassum polycystum (Fucales, Sargassaceae). The preparation was fractionated by anion-exchange chromatography, and two highly sulfated fractions F3 and F4 were obtained. The fractions were quite similar in composition, but different in chemical structure. F4 was analyzed by chemical methods, including desulfation, methylation, Smith degradation, and partial acid hydrolysis with mass-spectrometric monitoring, as well as by NMR spectroscopy. Several 2D NMR procedures, including HMQC-TOCSY and HMQC-NOESY, were used to obtain reliable structural information from the complex spectra. Molecules of F4 were shown to contain a backbone built up mainly of 3-linked α-L-fucopyranose 4-sulfate residues, as in many other fucoidans, but rather short sequences of these residues are interspersed by single 2-linked α-D-galactopyranose residues also sulfated at position 4. This rather unusual structural feature should have a great influence on the conformation of the polymeric molecule and may be important for biological activity of the polysaccharide. Hence, F4 is an example of a new sulfated galactofucan isolated from the brown alga. According to the data obtained, the distribution of galactose residues along the polysaccharide backbone seems to be not strictly regular, but the definitive sequence of monomers in the polymeric molecules awaits additional investigation. PMID:23810980

  4. Sulfated modification of the polysaccharide from Sphallerocarpus gracilis and its antioxidant activities.

    Xu, Yunfei; Song, Shen; Wei, Yanxia; Wang, Fengxia; Zhao, Min; Guo, Jie; Zhang, Ji

    2016-06-01

    Sphallerocarpus gracilis (S. gracilis) is a little-investigated edible plant and used as traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, polysaccharide extracted from S. gracilis,deproteined and purified. The polysaccharide (SGP) was chemically modified to obtain its sulfated derivatives (S-SGP) using the method of chlorosulfonic acid/pyridine (CSA/Pyr). In order to acquire the derivative with the highest degree of substitution (DS), the optimum conditions of the sulfation were obtained based on response surface design (RSD), and the structural characterizations and antioxidant properties of the S-SGP were comparatively investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), GC-MS analysis, size exclusion chromatography (SEC), and DPPH radical assay, hydroxyl radical assay, superoxide radical assay, and reducing power assay, respectively. Results showed that the modification was successful, and obtained the optimum combination of conditions. Compared with SGP, the sulfated polysaccharide with relatively the decreased degree of molecular weight (Mw) but the same composition of monosaccharides exhibited better antioxidant activities in DPPH, hydroxyl, superoxide radical and reducing power assay. These results indicated that the antioxidant activities in vitro of the S-SGP from S. gracilis may be related to combined effects of Mw, monosaccharide composition, and sulfate content. PMID:26893048

  5. Physico-chemical transformations of sulfated compounds during the leaching of highly sulfated cemented wastes

    Cementation of sulfated evaporator concentrates leads to highly sulfated low level wastes, (ca. 25% w/w sodium sulfate solution as mix water), which exhibit the presence of U-phase, a sodium-bearing calcium monosulfphoaluminate-like phase. During the leaching of simulated highly sulfated OPC/BFS cements, cured at room temperature and containing U-phase, sodium sulfate, and ettringite, physico-chemical transformations have been pointed out (transformation of U-phase into ettringite). Samples having the same chemical composition, but cured at high temperature (maximal temperature during curing: 120 C), do not contain ettringite initially, but secondary ettringite is formed during leaching. XRD spectra point out the existence of precipitation fronts (or of phase formation fronts) varying linearly versus the square root of time. The analysis of leaching solutions has provided complementary data used in a code, the aim of which is to assess cement degradation, based on coupling between transport by diffusion and chemical reactions (DIFFUZON code). The U-phase-ettringite transformation is confirmed

  6. Biosynthesis of dermatan sulfate: Chondroitin glucuronate C5-epimerase is identical to SART2.

    Maccarana, Marco; Olander, Benny; Malmstrom, Johan; Tiedemann, Kerstin; Aebersold, Ruedi; Lindahl, Ulf; Li, Jin-Ping; Malmström, Anders

    2006-01-01

    We identified the gene encoding chondroitin-glucuronate C5-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.19 [EC] ) that converts D-glucuronic acid to L-iduronic acid residues in dermatan sulfate biosynthesis. The enzyme was solubilized from bovine spleen, and an ~43,000-fold purified preparation containing a major 89-kDa candidate component was subjected to mass spectrometry analysis of tryptic peptides. SART2 (squamous cell carcinoma antigen recognized by T cell 2), a protein with unknown function highly expressed in...

  7. Chemical models for martian weathering profiles: Insights into formation of layered phyllosilicate and sulfate deposits

    Zolotov, Mikhail Yu.; Mironenko, Mikhail V.

    2016-09-01

    Numerical chemical models for water-basalt interaction have been used to constrain the formation of stratified mineralogical sequences of Noachian clay-bearing rocks exposed in the Mawrth Vallis region and in other places on cratered martian highlands. The numerical approaches are based on calculations of water-rock type chemical equilibria and models which include rates of mineral dissolution. Results show that the observed clay-bearing sequences could have formed through downward percolation and neutralization of acidic H2SO4-HCl solutions. A formation of weathering profiles by slightly acidic fluids equilibrated with current atmospheric CO2 requires large volumes of water and is inconsistent with observations. Weathering by solutions equilibrated with putative dense CO2 atmospheres leads to consumption of CO2 to abundant carbonates which are not observed in clay stratigraphies. Weathering by H2SO4-HCl solutions leads to formation of amorphous silica, Al-rich clays, ferric oxides/oxyhydroxides, and minor titanium oxide and alunite at the top of weathering profiles. Mg-Fe phyllosilicates, Ca sulfates, zeolites, and minor carbonates precipitate from neutral and alkaline solutions at depth. Acidic weathering causes leaching of Na, Mg, and Ca from upper layers and accumulation of Mg-Na-Ca sulfate-chloride solutions at depth. Neutral MgSO4 type solutions dominate in middle parts of weathering profiles and could occur in deeper layers owing to incomplete alteration of Ca minerals and a limited trapping of Ca to sulfates. Although salts are not abundant in the Noachian geological formations, the results suggest the formation of Noachian salty solutions and their accumulation at depth. A partial freezing and migration of alteration solutions could have separated sulfate-rich compositions from low-temperature chloride brines and contributed to the observed diversity of salt deposits. A Hesperian remobilization and release of subsurface MgSO4 type solutions into newly

  8. Heritability and clinical determinants of serum indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate, candidate biomarkers of the human microbiome enterotype.

    Liesbeth Viaene

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate are unique microbial co-metabolites. Both co-metabolites have been involved in the pathogenesis of accelerated cardiovascular disease and renal disease progression. Available evidence suggests that indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate may be considered candidate biomarkers of the human enterotype and may help to explain the link between diet and cardiovascular disease burden. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Information on clinical determinants and heritability of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate serum is non-existing. To clarify this issue, the authors determined serum levels of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate in 773 individuals, recruited in the frame of the Flemish Study on Environment, Genes and Health Outcomes (FLEMENGHO study. RESULTS: Serum levels of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate amounted to 3.1 (2.4-4.3 and 13.0 (7.4-21.5 μM, respectively. Regression analysis identified renal function, age and sex as independent determinants of both co-metabolites. Both serum indoxyl sulfate (h2 = 0.17 and p-cresyl sulfate (h2 = 0.18 concentrations showed moderate but significant heritability after adjustment for covariables, with significant genetic and environmental correlations for both co-metabolites. LIMITATIONS: Family studies cannot provide conclusive evidence for a genetic contribution, as confounding by shared environmental effects can never be excluded. CONCLUSIONS: The heritability of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate is moderate. Besides genetic host factors and environmental factors, also renal function, sex and age influence the serum levels of these co-metabolites.

  9. On the roles and regulation of chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate in zebrafish pharyngeal cartilage morphogenesis

    Holmborn, Katarina; Habicher, Judith; Kasza, Zsolt;

    2012-01-01

    The present study addresses the roles of heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans and chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans in the development of zebrafish pharyngeal cartilage structures. uxs1 and b3gat3 mutants, predicted to have impaired biosynthesis of both HS and CS because of defective formation...... higher levels of CS than control larvae, whereas morpholino-mediated suppression of csgalnact1/csgalnact2 resulted in increased HS biosynthesis. Thus, the balance of the Extl3 and Csgalnact1/Csgalnact2 proteins influences the HS/CS ratio. A characterization of the pharyngeal cartilage element...

  10. Discovery of a heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfation specific peeling reaction

    Huang, Yu; Mao, Yang; Zong, Chengli; Lin, Cheng; Boons, Geert-Jan; Zaia, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    mentioned above. By contrast, multiple distinct isoforms of 3-O-sulfotranserases exist in mammals (up to seven isoenzymes). Here we describe a novel peeling reaction that specifically degrades HS chains with 3-O-sulfated glucosamine at the reducing-end. When HS/heparin is enzymatically depolymerized for...... compositional analysis, 3-O-sulfated glucosamine at the reducing ends appears to be susceptible to degradation under mildly basic conditions. We propose a 3-O-desulfation initiated peeling reaction mechanism based on the intermediate and side-reaction products observed. Our discovery calls for the re...

  11. ALUMINUM RECLAMATION BY ACIDIC EXTRACTION OF ALUMINUM-ANODIZING SLUDGES

    Extraction of aluminum-anodizing sludges with sulfuric acid was examined to determine the potential for production of commercial-strength solutions of aluminum sulfate, that is liquid alum. The research established kinetic and stoichiometric relationships and evaluates product qu...

  12. Variations of pH as an additional tool in the analysis of crowded NMR spectra of fucosylated chondroitin sulfates.

    Ustyuzhanina, Nadezhda E; Dmitrenok, Andrey S; Bilan, Maria I; Shashkov, Alexander S; Gerbst, Alexey G; Usov, Anatolii I; Nifantiev, Nikolay E

    2016-03-24

    The influence of pH variation on chemical shift values in NMR spectra of fucosylated chondroitin sulfates was studied using polysaccharides isolated from three sea cucumber species Apostichopus japonicus, Actinopyga mauritiana and Cucumaria japonica. The signals of glucuronic acid residues were found to be the most sensitive to pH changes in comparison to the chemical shifts of the sulfated galactosamine and fucosyl units, most of which were altered insignificantly. It was shown that in the presence of imidazole-HCl buffer (pH 7.2) NMR spectra of the polysaccharides from A. japonicus and A. mauritiana were sufficiently resolved, whereas under acidic conditions their (1)H NMR spectra were complicated by overlapping of H-1 signals of GlcA and GalNAc. In the case of polysaccharide from C. japonica bearing 3-O-fucosylated and 3-O-sulfated glucuronic acid residues in the backbone, acidification of the medium led to separation of H-1 signals of GlcA3S and GalNAc. Therefore, the combination of data obtained at different pH values may be useful for interpretation of overcrowded spectra of fucosylated chondroitin sulfates. PMID:26895544

  13. Isolation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific for chondroitin sulfate E.

    Watanabe, Ippei; Hikita, Tomoya; Mizuno, Haruka; Sekita, Risa; Minami, Akira; Ishii, Ami; Minamisawa, Yuka; Suzuki, Kiyoshi; Maeda, Hiroshi; Hidari, Kazuya I P J; Suzuki, Takashi

    2015-09-01

    Chondroitin sulfate E (CSE) is a polysaccharide containing mainly disaccharide units of D-glucuronic acid (GlcA) and 4,6-O-disulfated N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc) residues (E-unit) in the amount of ∼ 60%. CSE is involved in many biological and pathological processes. In this study, we established new monoclonal antibodies, termed E-12C and E-18H, by using CSE that contained more than 70% of E-units as an immunogen. These antibodies recognized CSE but not other CSs isomers or dermatan sulfate (DS). We evaluated the reactivities of the antibodies to 6-O-sulfated CSA (6S-CSA) and DS (6S-DS) that possessed ∼ 60% of GalNAc (4S, 6S) moieties in their structures. Neither of the antibodies reacted with 6S-DS. The antibodies strictly distinguished the structural difference of GlcA and L-iduronic acid in the polysaccharide. Binding affinities of the antibodies were determined by a surface plasmon resonance assay using CSE and 6S-CSA. The binding affinities were strongly associated with the molecular weight of CSE and the E-unit content of 6S-CSA. Moreover, we demonstrated that the antibodies are applicable to histochemical analysis. In conclusion, the new anti-CSE monoclonal antibodies specifically recognize the E-unit of CSE. The antibodies will become useful tools for the investigation of the biological and pathological significance of CSE. PMID:26036195

  14. Sulfates removal by the GYP-CIX process following lime treatment

    The treatment of acid mine drainage by limiting results in the discharge of water saturated in gypsum and containing residual metal concentrations. These waters may exceed drinking and irrigation water standards for TDS, sulfates and some metals. The scaling nature of the saturated gypsum solution makes it unsuitable for industrial use and makes further processing difficult and costly. This paper discusses a novel ion exchange process that is suitable to desalinate large volumes of mine and industrial waters with a TDS of up to 6,500 mg/l which is also high in calcium and sulfates, to meet effluent discharge specifications. The GYP-CIX process is a continuous fluidized bed ion-exchange process that effectively removes calcium sulfate from gypsum saturated waters. It uses low cost chemicals such as lime and sulfuric acid for resin regeneration. The only waste product is gypsum and the treated water produced meets standards for reuse or discharge. This process consists of a two stage operation. The first is the removal of cations in a multistage continuous loading train, using cation exchange resin. The second operation is the removal of anions, again in a multistage continuous loading train using anion exchange resin

  15. Levels of ammonium, sulfate, chloride, calcium, and sodium in snow and ice from southern Greenland

    Chemical analysis of surface snows and dated ice core samples from Dye 3, Greenland, suggests that the ammonium cation is a major constituent in all samples and that the annual ammonium levels present in the south Greenland samples have varied from 3.3 to 26.3 μg/kg between the seventeenth century and the present time. The annual range of 1974--1975 surface samples was between 3.8 and 8.8 μg/kg, while the mean was 5.7 +- 1.8 μ/kg. The recent large-scale uses of fixed nitrogen fertilizers and industrial pollution have apparently not affected the levels of ammonia reaching southern Greenland. The sodium and chloride present are predominantly derived from ocean spray, while more than 90% of the calcium is of continental origin. The levels of these three elements have not apparently been affected by human activity since the industrial revolution. Sulfate levels have increased dramatically since the industrial revolution, suggesting that sulfate of anthropogenic origin is the most important source of sulfate in modern snows from southern Greenland. The amount of the sulfuric acid neutralized by the ammonium cations was approximately 100% in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, dropping to approximately 20% in the 1974--1975 samples. These figures imply that there has been in increase in the acidity of precipitation in southern Greenland since the end of the eighteenth ce

  16. Uranium Immobilization by Sulfate-reducing Biofilms

    Hexavalent uranium [U(VI)] was immobilized using biofilms of the sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20. The biofilms were grown in flat-plate continuous-flow reactors using lactate as the electron donor and sulfate as the electron acceptor. U(VI) was continuously fed into the reactor for 32 weeks at a concentration of 126 ?M. During this time, the soluble U(VI) was removed (between 88 and 96% of feed) from solution and immobilized in the biofilms. The dynamics of U immobilization in the sulfate-reducing biofilms were quantified by estimating: (1) microbial activity in the SRB biofilm, defined as the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production rate and estimated from the H2S concentration profiles measured using microelectrodes across the biofilms; (2) concentration of dissolved U in the solution; and (3) the mass of U precipitated in the biofilm. Results suggest that U was immobilized in the biofilms as a result of two processes: (1) enzymatically and (2) chemically, by reacting with microbially generated H2S. Visual inspection showed that the dissolved sulfide species reacted with U(VI) to produce a black precipitate. Synchrotron-based U L3-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy analysis of U precipitated abiotically by sodium sulfide indicated that U(VI) had been reduced to U(IV). Selected-area electron diffraction pattern and crystallographic analysis of transmission electron microscope lattice-fringe images confirmed the structure of precipitated U as being that of uraninite

  17. The Chemistry Study Of Uranium And Transition Elements In Mixture Of Nitric Acid And Sulfuric Acid Were Done

    The uranium and transition elements were contained in the waste of technetium-99 generator productions to be formed by irradiated uranium. This waste medium is low concentration of nitric acid and sulfuric acid. The tendency of uranium in this medium to form uranyl sulfate complex, the compound of uranyl sulfate belong to heteropoly compounds and is an acid. The transition elements in mixture of nitric acid and sulfuric acid solutions have tendency to form cation complex compound According to difference of the chemical properties of uranium and transition elements, the base reagent can be used for recovery of uranium from this solution

  18. Synthesis of biodiesel from Neem oil using sulfated zirconia via tranesterification

    H. Muthu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sulfated zirconia (SZ is a widely used catalyst, which is synthesized by a solvent free method and the synthesized catalyst has been characterized. Neem Methyl Ester (Biodiesel was prepared by a two-step process of esterification and transesterification from Neem oil with methanol in the presence of catalyst. Acid catalyst was used for the esterification and alkali catalyst (KOH for the transesterification reaction. Optimal Free Fatty Acid (FFA conversion was achieved using 1 wt% SZ as an acid catalyst with a methanol-to-oil molar ratio of 9:1, temperature of 65ºC and reaction time of 2 h. The acid value was reduced to 94% of the raw oil (24.76 mg KOH/g, which confirmed the conversion. Consequently, this pretreatment reduces the overall complexity of the process and a conversion efficiency of 95% is achieved when pretreated oil reacts with methanol in the presence of KOH.

  19. The hydrogen sulfate recognition properties of azo-salicylaldehyde schiff base receptors

    2008-01-01

    Azo-salicylaldehyde Schiff base-typed receptors containing an acidic H-bond donor moiety were syn-thesized and characterized. The UV-Vis data indicate that these receptors could act as selective col-orimetric sensors for basic anions and acidic species hydrogen sulfate by different color changes in a water-containing medium. The experiment of Brφnsted acid-base reaction by adding the sodium hy-droxide or perchloric acid revealed that the mechanism of recognition of anions might be deprotona-tion/protonation of the OH fragments by interacting with different anions and that the deprotona-tion/protonation process is fully reversible. The deprotonation/protonation of the receptors is respon-sible for the dramatic color change.

  20. New Bioactive Alkyl Sulfates from Mediterranean Tunicates

    Marialuisa Menna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of two species of marine ascidians, Aplidium elegans and Ciona edwardsii, collected in Mediterranean area, led to isolation of a series of alkyl sulfates (compounds 1–5 including three new molecules 1–3. Structures of the new metabolites have been elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Based on previously reported cytotoxic activity of these type of molecules, compounds 1–3 have been tested for their effects on the growth of two cell lines, J774A.1 (BALB/c murine macrophages and C6 (rat glioma in vitro. Compounds 1 and 2 induced selective concentration-dependent mortality on J774A.1 cells.