WorldWideScience

Sample records for acid sulfate soils

  1. Reversibility of soil solution acidity and of sulfate retention in acid forest soils

    Alewell, C.; Matzner, E. (Universitaet Bayreuth, Bayreuth (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Bodenoekologie)

    1993-11-01

    To quantify the effects of reduced sulfate input on the chemistry of soil solution and soil S storage in acid forest soils, an experiment with undisturbed soil columns from two different sites was implemented. The acid cambisol of the Solling is subjected to a high sulfate input and especially the B-horizon has a high sulfate content. On the contrary, the podzol of the Fuhrberg site is subjected to low input and has low sulfate content. Undisturbed soil columns were taken from both sites and were irrigated at 6[degree]C with a precipitation rate of 3 mmd[sup -1] over 10 mo. In treatment No. 1, an artificial throughfall with pH 5.2 and reduced sulfate load (45[mu]mol L[sup -1]) was applied. In treatment No. 2, an artificial throughfall representing a high sulfate deposition (427 [mu]mol L[sup -1], pH 3.2) was used. In the case of the Solling soil, the pH of soil solution was unaffected by treatments during the entire experiment. Alkalinity of the soil solution was slightly increased in treatment No. 1 at a depth of 20 cm. While treatment No. 1 resulted in a reduction of the sulfate concentrations of the soil solution in the top soil, sulfate concentrations were unaffected at a depth of 40 cm. The B-horizon of the Solling soil prevented deacidification of the soil solution by desorption of previously stored sulfate. In the case of the Fuhrberg soil, treatment No. 1 resulted in reduced sulfate concentrations of the soil solution even in deeper soil layers with concentrations approaching input levels. The pH of the solution was slightly elevated and the alkalinity of the solution increased. Organic S compounds in the soil seemed to have no influence on sulfate release in either soils. 37 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Characteristics of Phosphorus in Some Eastern Australian Acid Sulfate Soils

    2002-01-01

    Forty-five acid sulfate topsoil samples (depth < 0.5 m) from 15 soil cores were collected from 11 locations along the New South Wales coast, Australia. There was an overall trend for the concentration of the HC1extractable P to increase along with increasing amounts of organic C and the HCl-extractable trivalent metals in the topsoils of some less-disturbed acid sulfate soils (pH <4.5). This suggests that inorganic P in these soils probably accumulated via biological cycling and was retained by complexation with trivalent metals or their oxides and hydroxides. While there was no clear correlation between pH and the water-extractable P, the concentration of the water-extractable P tended to increase with increasing amounts of the HCl-extractable P. This disagrees with some established models which suggest that the concentration of solution P in acid soils is independent of total P and decreases with increasing acidity. The high concentration of sulfate present in acid sulfate soils appeared to affect the chemical behavior of P in these soil systems. Comparison was made between a less disturbed wetland acid sulfate soil and a more intensively disturbed sugarcane acid sulfate soil.The results show that reclamation of wetland acid sulfate soils for sugarcane production caused a significant decrease in the HCl-extractable P in the topsoil layer as a result of the reduced bio-cycling of phosphorus following sugarcane farming. Simulation experiment shows that addition of hydrated lime had no effects on the immobilization of retained P in an acid sulfate soil sample within a pH range 3.5~4.6. When the pH was raised to above 4.6, soluble P in the soil extracts had a tendency to increase with increasing pH until the 15th extraction (pH 5.13). This, in combination with the poor pH-soluble P relationship observed from the less-disturbed acid sulfate soils, suggests that soluble P was not clearly pH-dependent in acid sulfate soils with pH < 4.5.

  3. Controls of Soluble Al in Experimental Acid Sulfate Conditions and Acid Sulfate Soils

    LINCHUXIA; M.D.MELVILLE

    1997-01-01

    The controls of soluble Al concentration were examined in three situations of acid sulfate conditions:1) experimental acid sulfate conditions by addition of varying amounts of Al(OH)3(gibbsite) into a sequence of H2SO4 solutions;2)experimental acid sulfate conditions by addition of the same sequence of H2SO4 solutions into two non-cid sulfacte soil samples with known amounts of acid oxalate extractable Al; and 3) actual acid sulfate soil conditions.The experiment using gibbsite as an Al-bearing mineral showed that increase in the concentration of H2SO4 solution increased the soluble Al concentration,accompanied by a decrease i the solution pH, Increasing amount of gibbsite added to the H2SO4 solutions also increased soluble Al concentration,but resulted in an increase in solution pH.Within the H2SO4 concentration range of 0.0005-0.5mol L-1 and the Al(OH)3 range of 0.01-0.5g(in 25 mL of H2SO4 solutions),the input of H2SO4 had the major control on soluble Al Concentration and pH .The availability of Al(OH)3,however,was responsible for the spread fo the various sample points,with a tendency that the samples containing more gibbsite had a higher soluble Al concentration than those containing less gibbsite at equivalent pH levels.The experimental results from treatment of soil samples with H2SO4 solutions and the analytical results of acid sulfate soils also showed the similar trend.

  4. Analytical Methods for Environmental Risk Assessment of Acid Sulfate Soils: A Review

    2001-01-01

    Assessment of acid sulfate soil risk is an important step for acid sulfate soil management and its reliability depends very much on the suitability and accuracy of various analytical methods for estimating sulfide-derived potential acidity, actual acidity and acid-neutralizing capacity in acid sulfate soils. This paper critically reviews various analytical methods that are currently used for determination of the above parameters, as well as their implications for environmental risk assessment of acid sulfate soils.

  5. Acid Sulfate Soils in Australia:Characteristics,Problems and Management

    C.LIN

    1999-01-01

    Acid sulfate soils(ASS) are widely distributod in Australia.This has only been recognised recently when intensive research on ASS has been done in this county.This paper reviews aspects concerning a )the distribution and acid potential,b) controls on acidic status,and c) problems and management of ASS problems from ASS exist but insufficient attention was paid to them.

  6. Soil Quality Assessment of Acid Sulfate Paddy Soils with Different Productivities in Guangdong Province, China

    LIU Zhan-jun; ZHOU Wei; SHEN Jian-bo; LI Shu-tian; LIANG Guo-qing; WANG Xiu-bin; SUN Jing-wen; AI Chao

    2014-01-01

    Land conversion is considered an effective measure to ensure national food security in China, but little information is available on the quality of low productivity soils, in particular those in acid sulfate soil regions. In our study, acid sulfate paddy soils were divided into soils with high, medium and low levels based on local rice productivity, and 60 soil samples were collected for analysis. Twenty soil variables including physical, chemical and biochemical properties were determined. Those variables that were signiifcantly different between the high, medium and low productivity soils were selected for principal component analysis, and microbial biomass carbon (MBC), total nitrogen (TN), available silicon (ASi), pH and available zinc (AZn) were retained in the minimum data set (MDS). After scoring the MDS variables, they were integrated to calculate a soil quality index (SQI), and the high, medium and low productivity paddy soils received mean SQI scores of 0.95, 0.83 and 0.60, respectively. Low productivity paddy soils showed worse soil quality, and a large discrepancy was observed between the low and high productivity paddy soils. Lower MBC, TN, ASi, pH and available K (AK) were considered as the primary limiting factors. Additionally, all the soil samples collected were rich in available P and AZn, but deifcient in AK and ASi. The results suggest that soil AK and ASi deifciencies were the main limiting factors for all the studied acid sulfate paddy soil regions. The application of K and Si on a national basis and other sustainable management approaches are suggested to improve rice productivity, especially for low productivity paddy soils. Our results indicated that there is a large potential for increasing productivity and producing more cereals in acid sulfate paddy soil regions.

  7. Acid sulfate soils are an environmental hazard in Finland

    Pihlaja, Jouni

    2016-04-01

    Acid sulfate soils (ASS) create significant threats to the environment on coastal regions of the Baltic Sea in Finland. The sediments were deposited during the ancient Litorina Sea phase of the Baltic Sea about 7500-4500 years ago. Finland has larger spatial extent of the ASS than any other European country. Mostly based on anthropogenic reasons (cultivation, trenching etc.) ASS deposits are currently being exposed to oxygen which leads to chemical reaction creating sulfuric acid. The acidic waters then dissolve metals form the soil. Acidic surface run off including the metals are then leached into the water bodies weakening the water quality and killing fish or vegetation. In constructed areas acidic waters may corrode building materials. Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) is mapping ASS deposits in Finland. The goal is to map a total of 5 million hectares of the potentially ASS affected region. It has been estimated that the problematic Litorina Sea deposits, which are situated 0-100 m above the recent Baltic Sea shoreline, cover 500 000 hectares area. There are several phases in mapping. The work begins at the office with gathering the existing data, interpreting airborne geophysical data and compiling a field working plan. In the field, quality of the soil is studied and in uncertain cases samples are taken to laboratory analyses. Also electrical conductivity and pH of soil and water are measured in the field. Laboratory methods include multielemental determinations with ICP-OES, analyses of grain size and humus content (LOI), and incubation. So far, approximately 60 % of the potential ASS affected regions in Finland are mapped. Over 15 000 sites have been studied in the field and 4000 laboratory analyses are done. The spatial database presented in the scale of 1: 250 000 can be viewed at the GTK's web pages (http://gtkdata.gtk.fi/hasu/index.html).

  8. Characteristics of Soluble and Exchangeable Acidity in an Extremely Acidified Acid Sulfate Soil

    C.Lin; M.D.MELVILLE; 等

    1999-01-01

    An extremely acidified acid sulfate soil(ASS) was investigated to characterise its soluble and exchangeable acidity,The results showed that soluble acidity of a sample dtermined by titration with a KOH soulution was much significantly greater than that indicated by pH measured using a pH meter,paricularly for the extremely acidic soil samples,This is because the total soluble acidity of the extremely acidic soil samples was mainly composed of various soluble Al and Fe species,possibly in forms of Al sulfate complexes(e.g.,AlSO4+) and feerous Fe(Fe2+)_,It is therefore suggested not to use pH alone as an indicator of soluble acidity in ASS,particularly for extremely acidic ASS,It is also likely that AlSO4+ actively participated in cation exchange reactions.It appears that the possible involvement of this Al sulfate cation in the cation adsorption has significant effect on increasing the amount of acidity being adsorbed by the soils.

  9. Effects of Multiple Soil Conditioners on a Mine Site Acid Sulfate Soil for Vetiver Growth

    LIN Chu-Xia; LONG Xin-Xian; XU Song-Jun; CHU Cheng-Xing; MAI Shao-Zhi; JIANG Dian

    2004-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of various soil treatments on the growth of vetiver grass ( Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash) with the objective of formulating appropriate soil media for use in sulfide-bearing mined areas. An acidic mine site acid sulfate soil (pH 2.8) was treated with different soil conditioner formula including hydrated lime, red mud (bauxite residues), zeolitic rock powder, biosolids and a compound fertilizer. Soils treated with red mud and hydrated lime corrected soil acidity and reduced or eliminated metal toxicity enabling the establishment of vetiver grass.Although over-liming affected growth, some seedlings of vetiver survived the initial strong alkaline conditions. Addition of appropriate amounts of zeolitic rock powder also enhanced growth, but over-application caused detrimental effects. In this experiment, soil medium with the best growth performance of vetiver was 50 g of red mud, 10 g of lime, 30 g of zeolitic rock powder and 30 g of biosolids with 2000 g of mine soils (100% survival rate with the greatest biomass and number of new shoots), but adding a chemical fertilizer to this media adversely impacted plant growth. In addition, a high application rate of biosolids resulted in poorer growth of vetiver, compared to a moderate application rate.

  10. Acid Release from an Acid Sulfate Soil Sample Under Successive Extractions with Different Extractants

    2000-01-01

    An acid sulfate soil sample was successively extracted with deionized water, 1 mol L-1 KCI and 0.000 5 mol L-1 Ca(OH)2 solutions. The results showed that only very small amounts of acidity were extracted by deionized water, possibly through slow jarosite hydrolysis. Acid release through jarosite hydrolysis was greatly enhanced by Ca(OH)2 extraction at the expense of the added OH- being neutralized by the acid released. Successive extraction of the sample with KCI removed the largest amounts of acidity from the sample. However, it is likely that the major form of acidity released by KC1 extraction was exchangeable acidity. The results also show the occurrence of low or non charged A1 and Fe species in water and Ca(OH)2 extracts after first a few extractions. It appears that such a phenomenon was related to a decreasing EC value with increasing number of extractions.

  11. Remote sensing of acid sulfate soils using multispectral and gamma-ray data

    Acid sulfate soils are a significant environmental problem in coastal regions of Australia. Drainage and disturbance of coastal lands can result in acid soil degradation and the release of sulfuric acid and toxic metals into coastal waters. Remote sensing can provide a useful tool for detection of these soils and monitoring of their disturbance. As acid sulfate soils become oxidised with exposure to air, iron-minerals are produced and precipitate at the surface. This results from the breakdown of pyrite to form hydrated iron minerals and elemental sulfur, the oxidation of which produces acidity. The concentration of iron minerals at the surface can be an indicator of the level of acid sulfate soil activity in the near subsurface. These iron minerals include goethite, ferrihydrite and jarosite. Space-borne remote sensing scanners such as Landsat TM are capable of detecting iron minerals as a result of ferric ion absorption of solar radiation. Hyperspectral scanners are capable of further discrimination of individual minerals. This paper will discuss spectral characteristics of active acid sulfate soils and demonstrate the use of spectral unmixing algorithms on Landsat TM to detect problem areas at the surface. This method matches multispectral data to material reflectance-spectra known as end-members. These end-members or materials are then resolved mathematically as to their respective contributions to the overall reflectance (Bierwirth, 1990). In this way, abundances for particular materials can be derived.Digital elevation data was used to distinguish between the iron minerals due to weathering of bedrock in upland areas and acid sulfate soils on the plains. Also, the results of a high resolution (200m linespacing) airborne gamma-ray survey are presented. This data senses the concentration of radioelements down to about 40 cm depth and is largely unaffected by vegetation. Concentrations of gamma-emitting elements can indicate the type and depth of alluvium that

  12. Alleviating aluminum toxicity in an acid sulfate soil from Peninsular Malaysia by calcium silicate application

    A. A. Elisa; Ninomiya, S.; J. Shamshuddin; Roslan, I.

    2016-01-01

    In response to human population increase, the utilization of acid sulfate soils for rice cultivation is one option for increasing production. The main problems associated with such soils are their low pH values and their associated high content of exchangeable Al, which could be detrimental to crop growth. The application of soil amendments is one approach for mitigating this problem, and calcium silicate is an alternative soil amendment that could be used. Therefore, the ma...

  13. Impact of mitigation strategies on acid sulfate soil chemistry and microbial community.

    Wu, Xiaofen; Sten, Pekka; Engblom, Sten; Nowak, Pawel; Österholm, Peter; Dopson, Mark

    2015-09-01

    Potential acid sulfate soils contain reduced iron sulfides that if oxidized, can cause significant environmental damage by releasing large amounts of acid and metals. This study examines metal and acid release as well as the microbial community capable of catalyzing metal sulfide oxidation after treating acid sulfate soil with calcium carbonate (CaCO3) or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2). Leaching tests of acid sulfate soil samples were carried out in the laboratory. The pH of the leachate during the initial flushing with water lay between 3.8 and 4.4 suggesting that the jarosite/schwertmannite equilibrium controls the solution chemistry. However, the pH increased to circa 6 after treatment with CaCO3 suspension and circa 12 after introducing Ca(OH)2 solution. 16S rRNA gene sequences amplified from community DNA extracted from the untreated and both CaCO3 and Ca(OH)2 treated acid sulfate soils were most similar to bacteria (69.1% to 85.7%) and archaea (95.4% to 100%) previously identified from acid and metal contaminated environments. These species included a Thiomonas cuprina-like and an Acidocella-like bacteria as well as a Ferroplasma acidiphilum-like archeon. Although the CaCO3 and Ca(OH)2 treatments did not decrease the proportion of microorganisms capable of accelerating acid and metal release, the chemical effects of the treatments suggested their reduced activity. PMID:25933291

  14. Identifying sources of acidity and spatial distribution of acid sulfate soils in the Anglesea River catchment, southern Australia

    Wong, Vanessa; Yau, Chin; Kennedy, David

    2015-04-01

    Globally, coastal and estuarine floodplains are frequently underlain by sulfidic sediments. When exposed to oxygen, sulfidic sediments oxidise to form acid sulfate soils, adversely impacting on floodplain health and adjacent aquatic ecoystems. In eastern Australia, our understanding of the formation of these coastal and estuarine floodplains, and hence, spatial distribution of acid sulfate soils, is relatively well established. These soils have largely formed as a result of sedimentation of coastal river valleys approximately 6000 years BP when sea levels were one to two metres higher. However, our understanding of the evolution of estuarine systems and acid sulfate soil formation, and hence, distribution, in southern Australia remains limited. The Anglesea River, in southern Australia, is subjected to frequent episodes of poor water quality and low pH resulting in closure of the river and, in extreme cases, large fish kill events. This region is heavily reliant on tourism and host to a number of iconic features, including the Great Ocean Road and Twelve Apostles. Poor water quality has been linked to acid leakage from mining activities and Tertiary-aged coal seams, peat swamps and acid sulfate soils in the region. However, our understanding of the sources of acidity and distribution of acid sulfate soils in this region remains poor. In this study, four sites on the Anglesea River floodplain were sampled, representative of the main vegetation communities. Peat swamps and intertidal marshes were both significant sources of acidity on the floodplain in the lower catchment. However, acid neutralising capacity provided by carbonate sands suggests that there are additional sources of acidity higher in the catchment. This pilot study has highlighted the complexity in the links between the floodplain, upper catchment and waterways with further research required to understand these links for targeted acid management strategies.

  15. Alleviating aluminum toxicity in an acid sulfate soil from Peninsular Malaysia by calcium silicate application

    Elisa, A. A.; Ninomiya, S.; Shamshuddin, J.; Roslan, I.

    2016-03-01

    In response to human population increase, the utilization of acid sulfate soils for rice cultivation is one option for increasing production. The main problems associated with such soils are their low pH values and their associated high content of exchangeable Al, which could be detrimental to crop growth. The application of soil amendments is one approach for mitigating this problem, and calcium silicate is an alternative soil amendment that could be used. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to ameliorate soil acidity in rice-cropped soil. The secondary objective was to study the effects of calcium silicate amendment on soil acidity, exchangeable Al, exchangeable Ca, and Si content. The soil was treated with 0, 1, 2, and 3 Mg ha-1 of calcium silicate under submerged conditions and the soil treatments were sampled every 30 days throughout an incubation period of 120 days. Application of calcium silicate induced a positive effect on soil pH and exchangeable Al; soil pH increased from 2.9 (initial) to 3.5, while exchangeable Al was reduced from 4.26 (initial) to 0.82 cmolc kg-1. Furthermore, the exchangeable Ca and Si contents increased from 1.68 (initial) to 4.94 cmolc kg-1 and from 21.21 (initial) to 81.71 mg kg-1, respectively. Therefore, it was noted that calcium silicate was effective at alleviating Al toxicity in acid sulfate, rice-cropped soil, yielding values below the critical level of 2 cmolc kg-1. In addition, application of calcium silicate showed an ameliorative effect as it increased soil pH and supplied substantial amounts of Ca and Si.

  16. Mobility of radium and heavy metals from uranium mine tailings in acid sulfate soils

    This study was aimed at determining whether heavy metals in tailings from Ranger Uranium Mine change in chemical form in such a way that they will become more mobile, or bioavailable, after they are mixed with extremely acidic soils from downstream of the mine. Four soils were studied: two samples were acid sulfate (jarositic or pyritic) materials and two were acidic materials overlying acid sulfate horizons. Copper, iron, manganese, lead, uranium and zinc fractions were determined in soils to which uranium mill tailings had been added. Total and exchangeable 226 Ra were also determined in selected samples. The tailings-soil mixtures were incubated for up to 4 months and included a comparison of reactions under continuously moist conditions and when subjected to a saturation and drying cycle. The tailings had considerably grater concentrations of total Mn, Pb, U and 226 Ra than the soils. The metals in the tailings occurred as relatively immobile forms. In the non-pyritic soils, the distribution of the metals between the fractions did not change much during 4 months of reaction. In the pyritic soil, which underwent oxidation and acidification during incubation, there were 2- to 3-fold increases in the exchangeable fractions of Fe, Mn,Cu and U. The metals in the tailings and soil behaved similarly. There appeared to be more likelihood of increased mobility of metals from oxidation of pyritic materials than from addition of tailings. The fraction of total 226 Ra that was exchangeable decreased from 11% in the original tailings to 2-7% after reaction with three of the soils but increased to 44% in one soil. At estimated long-term erosion rates, the tailings are not likely to be a source of heavy metal pollution, but addition of 226Ra to soils presents a possible radiological hazard. 19 refs., 12 tabs., 8 figs

  17. Impeded Acidification of Acid Sulfate Soils in an Inten- sively Drained Sugarcane Land

    2001-01-01

    Recent research results suggest that acidification of acid sulfate soils may be inhibited in well-drained estuarine floodplains in eastern Australia by the absence of natural creek levees. The lack of natural levees has allowed the inundation of the land by regular tidal flooding prior to the construction of flood mitigation work. Such physiographical conditions prevent the development of pre-drainage pyrite-derived soil acidifica- tion that possibly occurred at many levee-protected sites in eastern Australian estuarine floodplains during extremely dry spells. Pre-drainage acidification is considered as an important condition for accumulation of soluble Fe and consequently, the creation of favourable environments for catalysed pyrite oxidation. Under current intensively drained conditions, the acid materials produced by ongoing pyrite oxidation can be rapidly removed from soil pore water by lateral leaching and acid buffering, resulting in low concentrations of soluble Fe in the pyritic layer, which could reduce the rate of pyrite oxidation.

  18. Biochar Application in Malaysian Sandy and Acid Sulfate Soils: Soil Amelioration Effects and Improved Crop Production over Two Cropping Seasons

    Theeba Manickam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of biochar as an agricultural soil improvement was tested in acid sulfate and sandy soils from Malaysia, cropped with rice and corn. Malaysia has an abundance of waste rice husks that could be used to produce biochar. Rice husk biochar was produced in a gasifier at a local mill in Kelantan as well as in the laboratory using a controlled, specially designed, top lift up draft system (Belonio unit. Rice husk biochar was applied once to both soils at two doses (2% and 5%, in a pot set up that was carried out for two cropping seasons. Positive and significant crop yield effects were observed for both soils, biochars and crops. The yield effects varied with biochar type and dosage, with soil type and over the cropping seasons. The yield increases observed for the sandy soil were tentatively attributed to significant increases in plant-available water contents (from 4%–5% to 7%–8%. The yield effects in the acid sulfate soil were likely a consequence of a combination of (i alleviation of plant root stress by aluminum (Ca/Al molar ratios significantly increased, from around 1 to 3–5 and (ii increases in CEC. The agricultural benefits of rice husk biochar application to Malaysian soils holds promise for its future use.

  19. Biochar Application in Malaysian Sandy and Acid Sulfate Soils: Soil Amelioration Effects and Improved Crop Production over Two Cropping Seasons

    Theeba Manickam; Gerard Cornelissen; Robert T. Bachmann; Illani Z. Ibrahim; Jan Mulder; Hale, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    The use of biochar as an agricultural soil improvement was tested in acid sulfate and sandy soils from Malaysia, cropped with rice and corn. Malaysia has an abundance of waste rice husks that could be used to produce biochar. Rice husk biochar was produced in a gasifier at a local mill in Kelantan as well as in the laboratory using a controlled, specially designed, top lift up draft system (Belonio unit). Rice husk biochar was applied once to both soils at two doses (2% and 5%), in a pot set ...

  20. Sulfur isotope evidence for the contemporary formation of pyrite in a coastal acid sulfate soil

    The sulfur isotopic composition of pyrite (FeS2), greigite (Fe3S4) and pore-water sulfate was determined for a typical coastal acid sulfate soil (ASS). Greigite occurs only in the partially oxidised upper-most pyrite sediments as blackish clusters within vertical fissures and other macro-pores. The concentration of pyrite was an order of magnitude greater than greigite in this layer, continuing through the underlying reduced estuarine sediments. δ34S of pyrite (0.45 per mil) associated with greigite accumulations were distinctly different to the bulk average for pyrite (-3.7 per mil), but similar to greigite (0.9 per mil). Greigite is meta-stable under reducing conditions, readily transforming to pyrite. The transformation of iron monosulfides (including greigite) to pyrite is a sulfur-isotope conservative process and therefore, these observations indicate that pyrite is forming from greigite at the oxic/anoxic boundary

  1. Iron Monosulfide Distribution in Three Coastal Floodplain Acid Sulfate Soils, Eastern Australia

    2000-01-01

    The distribution of iron monosulfide (quantified as acid volatile sulfur: SAV) was compared with geo chemical properties that are known to affect its formation and accumulation in three coastal Holocene acid sulfate soils (ASS) at Tuckean Swamp, McLeods Creek and Bungawalbyn Swamp respectively. These proper ties included pH, reactive iron (FeR), pore-water sulfate (SO42-) and organic carbon (OC). Iron monosulfide was concentrated at the oxic/anoxic boundary. The Tuckean Swamp and McLeods Creek sites are Holocene sediments, whereas the Bungawalbyn Swamp is a Holocene peat. The concentration of SAV averaged 0.2 g kg-1 in a 0.5 m thick soil layer at the Tuckean Swamp, but was an order of magnitude lower in the oxic/anoxic transition layers at McLeods Creek and Bungawalbyn Swamp. The SAV mineral greigite (FesS4) was identified in the Tuckean Swamp by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy with quantitative energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX). Very small concentrations of greigite were also observed in the McLeods Creek, based on crystal morphology and elemental composition. The concentration of SAV was a small fraction of the total reduced sulfur, representing at most 3% of the pyrite sulfur. However, the presence of this highly reactive sulfide mineral, distributed within pores where oxygen diffusion is most rapid, has important implications to the potential rate of acid production from these sediments.

  2. Exchangeable and secondary mineral reactive pools of aluminium in coastal lowland acid sulfate soils.

    Yvanes-Giuliani, Yliane A M; Waite, T David; Collins, Richard N

    2014-07-01

    The use of coastal floodplain sulfidic sediments for agricultural activities has resulted in the environmental degradation of many areas worldwide. The generation of acidity and transport of aluminium (Al) and other metals to adjacent aquatic systems are the main causes of adverse effects. Here, a five-step sequential extraction procedure (SEP) was applied to 30 coastal lowland acid sulfate soils (CLASS) from north-eastern New South Wales, Australia. This enabled quantification of the proportion of aluminium present in 'water-soluble', 'exchangeable', 'organically-complexed', 'reducible iron(III) (oxyhydr)oxide/hydroxysulfate-incorporated' and 'amorphous Al mineral' fractions. The first three extractions represented an average of 5% of 'aqua regia' extractable Al and their cumulative concentrations were extremely high, reaching up to 4000 mg·kg(-1). Comparison of Al concentrations in the final two extractions indicated that 'amorphous Al minerals' are quantitatively a much more important sink for the removal of aqueous Al derived from the acidic weathering of these soils than reducible Fe(III) minerals. Correlations were observed between soil pH, dissolved and total organic carbon (DOC and TOC) and Al concentrations in organic carbon-rich CLASS soil horizons. These results suggest that complexation of Al by dissolved organic matter significantly increases soluble Al concentrations at pH values >5.0. As such, present land management practices would benefit with redefinition of an 'optimal' soil from pH ≥5.5 to ~4.8 for the preservation of aquatic environments adjacent to organic-rich CLASS where Al is the sole or principle inorganic contaminant of concern. Furthermore, it was observed that currently-accepted standard procedures (i.e. 1 M KCl extraction) to measure exchangeable Al concentrations in these types of soils severely underestimate exchangeable Al and a more accurate representation may be obtained through the use of 0.2 M CuCl2. PMID:24727041

  3. Impeded Acidification of Acid Sulfate Soils in an Inter—sively Drained Sugarcane Land

    C.LIN; R.T.BUSH; 等

    2001-01-01

    Recent research results suggest that acidification of acid sulfate soils may be inhibited in well-drained estuarine floodplains in eastern Australia by the absence of natural creek levees,The lack of natural levees has allowed the inuudation of the land by regular tidal flooding prior to the construction of flood mitigation work.Such physiographical conditions prevent the development of pre-draingae pyrite-derived soil acidifica-tion that possibly occurred at many levee-protected sites in eastern Australian estuarine floodplains during extremely dry spells.Pre-drainage acidification is considered as an important condition for accumulation of soluble Fe and consequently,the creation of favourable environments for catalysed pyrite oxidation.Under current intensively drained onditions,the acid materials produced by ongoing pyrite oxidation can be rapidly removed from soil pore water by lateral leaching and acid buffering,resulting in low concentrations of soluble Fe in the pyritic layer,which could reduce the rate of pyrite oxidation.

  4. Improved detection of coastal acid sulfate soil hotspots through biomonitoring of metal(loid) accumulation in water lilies (Nymphaea capensis).

    Stroud, Jacqueline L; Collins, Richard N

    2014-07-15

    Anthropogenically disturbed coastal acid sulfate soils along the east coast of Australia, and worldwide, periodically result in the discharge of acid waters containing high concentrations of metals. Identifying priority sites (hotspots) within a catchment for acid sulfate soil remediation activities typically involves long-term monitoring of drainwater chemistry, including the capture of data on unpredictable rain-induced groundwater discharge events. To improve upon this monitoring approach, this study investigated using the water lily (Nymphaea capensis) as a biomonitor of drainage waters to identify hotspots in three acid sulfate soil impacted catchments (83 km(2)) in north-eastern New South Wales, Australia. In one catchment where the location of hotspots was known, water lily lamina concentrations of a suite of metal(loid)s were significantly (pcatchment-scale water lily sampling program undertaken in catchments with unidentified hotspots revealed within catchment variation of plant metal concentrations up to 70-fold. High resolution maps produced from these results, therefore, provided strong evidence for the location of potential hotspots which were confirmed with measurements of drainwater chemistry during rain-induced groundwater discharge events. Median catchment lily accumulation was ca. 160 mg Al kg(-1) and 1,300 mg Fe kg(-1), with hotspots containing up to 6- and 10-fold higher Al and Fe concentrations. These findings suggest that biomonitoring with N. capensis can be an important tool to rapidly identify priority sites for remediation in acid sulfate soil impacted landscapes. PMID:24805963

  5. Factors Controlling Deoxygenation of "Floodwater" Overlying an Acid Sulfate Soil: Experimental Modeling

    C. LIN; P. G. HASKINS; J. LIN

    2003-01-01

    An incubation experiment was conducted to simulate the effect of flooding on water deoxygenation in acid sulfate soil floodplain systems. The originally oxygenated "floodwater" could be deoxygenated immediately following "flooding" and it is likely that this was caused mainly by decomposition of organic debris from the inundated plants. Deoxygenation eventually led to the depletion of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the "floodwater"and it is highly possible that this resulted in the transformations of ferric Fe to ferrous Fe, sulfate to hydrogen sulfide, and organic nitrogen to ammonia (ammonification). The accumulation of these reduced substances allows the "floodwater" to develop DO-consuming capacity (DOCC). When the "floodwater" is mixed with the introduced oxygenated water, apart from the dilution effects, the reduced substances contained in the "floodwater" oxidize to further consume DO carried by the introduced water. However, it appears that the DO drop in the mixed water can only last for a few hours if no additional DO-depleted "floodwater" is added.Entry of atmospheric oxygen into the water can raise the DO level of the mixed water and lower water pH through the oxidation of the reduced substances.

  6. Gaseous Nitrogen Losses from Coastal Acid Sulfate Soils:A Short-Term Study

    B. C. T. MACDONALD; O. T. DENMEAD; I.WHITE; G. BYRANT

    2011-01-01

    NOx and N2O emissions from coastal acid sulfate soils (CASS) cultivated for sugarcane production were investigated on the coastal lowlands of northern New South Wales, Australia. Two series of short-term measurements were made using chambers and micrometeorological techniques. Series 1 occurred during the wet season, the water-filled pore space (WFPS) was between 60%-80% and the site flooded during the measurements. Measurements were made directly after the harvest of soybean crop, which fixed an estimated 100 kg N ha-1, and the emission amounted to 3.2 kg NOx-N ha-1 (12 d) and 1.8 kg N2O-N ha-1 (5 d). Series 2 was made towards the end of the dry season when the WFPS was less than 60%. In Series 2, after an application of 50 kg N ha-1, emissions were markedly less, amounting to 0.9 kg N ha-1 over 10 d. During both series when the soil was moist, emissions of NOx were larger than those of N2O. The emission of NOx appeared to be haphazard, with little time dependence, but there was a clear diurnal cycle for N2O, emphasising the need for continuous measurement procedures for both gases. Theseresults suggest that agricultural production on CASS could be important sources of greenhouse gases and nitrogen practices will need to be optimised to reduce the offsite effects of atmospheric warming, acidification or nitrification. Many questions still remain unanswered such as the emissions during the soybean bean filling stage and crop residue decomposition, the longer-term losses following the fertiliser application and emissions from CASS under different land uses.

  7. Forest-soil response to acid and salt additions of sulfate. 2. Aluminum and base cations

    Reconstructed spodosol and intact alfisol soil columns were used to examine the effects of 52 weeks of additions of various simulated throughfall solutions on base cation, Al, acid neutralizing capacity, and pH levels in soil leachates. The work illustrates the importance of soil cation exchange (especially in the forest floor), anion concentrations, and pCO2 levels in controlling the leachate chemistry in response to acidic and 'seasalt' deposition events

  8. Sulfate metabolism. I. Sulfate uptake and redistribution of acid rain sulfate by edible plants

    Sulfur is the major component of polluted air in industrialized societies. Atmospheric sulfur is converted to sulfuric acid through a series of chemical reactions which can eventually reenter many ecosystems. When edible plants are grown in soils containing varying amounts of sulfate, the roots take up and transport inorganic sulfate to the stems and leaves. The sulfate taken up by the roots and the amount transported to the stem and leaves was found to be a function of the concentration of sulfate in the soil. Inorganic sulfate taken up by a corn plant seedling can be rapidly converted to organic sulfate by the root system. Nine days after one of a pair of pea plants was inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate (dilute H235SO4) it was found that the sulfate was translocated not only in the inoculated plant, but also to the uninoculated pea plant in the same container. Also, when the leaves of a mature potato plant were inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate it was found that the sulfate was translocated into the edible potatoes. Fractionation of the potatoes showed that most of the sulfate was water soluble of which 30% was inorganic sulfate and 70% was in the form of organic sulfur. One third of the non-water soluble translocated acid rain sulfate was equally divided between lipid and non-lipid organic sulfur of the potato. 9 references, 2 figures, 5 tables

  9. Acid Sulfate Alteration on Mars

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Acid sulfate alteration has been identified at all three landing sites visited by NASA rover missions (Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity). Spirit landed in Gusev crater in 2004 and discovered Fe-sulfates and materials that have been extensively leached by acid sulfate solutions. Opportunity landing on the plains of Meridiani Planum also in 2004 where the rover encountered large abundances of jarosite and hematite in sedimentary rocks. Curiosity landed in Gale crater in 2012 and has characterized fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments. Jarosite and hematite were discovered in some of the lacustrine sediments. The high elemental abundance of sulfur in surface materials is obvious evidence that sulfate has played a major role in aqueous processes at all landing sites on Mars. The sulfate-rich outcrop at Meridiani Planum has an SO3 content of up to 25 wt.%. The interiors of rocks and outcrops on the Columbia Hills within Gusev crater have up to 8 wt.% SO3. Soils at both sites generally have between 5 to 14 wt.% SO3, and several soils in Gusev crater contain around 30 wt.% SO3. After normalization of major element compositions to a SO3-free basis, the bulk compositions of these materials are basaltic, with a few exceptions in Gusev crater and in lacustrine mudstones in Gale crater. These observations suggest that materials encountered by the rovers were derived from basaltic precursors by acid sulfate alteration under nearly isochemical conditions (i.e., minimal leaching). There are several cases, however, where acid sulfate alteration minerals (jarosite and hematite) formed in open hydrologic systems, e.g., in Gale crater lacustrine mudstones. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the

  10. Significance of Ligand Exchange Relating to Sulfate in Retarding Acidification of Variable Charge Soils Caused by Acid Rain

    WANGJINGHUA; YUTIANREN

    1996-01-01

    For the purpose of evaluating the role of ligand exchange of sulfate ions in retarding the rate of acidification of variable charge soils,the changes in pH after the addition of different amounts of HNO3 or H2SO4 to representative soils of China were measured .A difference between pH changes caused by the two kinds of acids was observed only for variable charge soils and kaolinite,but not for constant charge soils and bentonite,The larger the proportion of H2SO4 in the HNO3-H2SO4 mixture,the lower the calculated H+ ion activities remained in the suspension.The difference in H+ ion activities between H2SO4 systems and HNO3 systems was larger for soils with a low base-saturation(BS) percentage than those with a high BS percentage.The removal of free iron oxides from the soil led to a decrease in the difference,while the coating of Fe2O3 on a bentonite resulted in a remarkable appearance of the difference.The effect of ligand exchange on the acidity status of the soil varied with the soil type.Surface soils with a high organic matter content showed a less pronounced effect of ligand exchange than subsoils did.It was estimated that when acid rain chiefly containing H2SO4 was deposited on variable charge soils the acidification rate might be slower by 20%-40% than that when the acid rain chiefly contained HNO3 for soils with a high organic matter content,and that the rate might be half of that caused by HNO3 for soils with a low organic matter content,especially for latosols.

  11. The geochemistry during management of lake acidification caused by the rewetting of sulfuric (pH < 4) acid sulfate soils

    Highlights: • The dynamic geochemistry of a lake acidification event and its management was assessed. • Sulfate complexes dominated the aqueous metal speciation at low pH. • Iron oxydroxysulfate minerals (schwertmannite, jarosite) were identified. • Aerial additions of limestone to the acidic water slowly returned the pH to near neutral. • Coating of the limestone with gypsum and metal precipitates limited its neutralisation efficiency. - Abstract: Understanding the geochemistry and kinetics of acidification events arising from acid sulfate soils is important to enable effective management and risk assessment. Large-scale exposure and oxidation of acid sulfate soils occurred during a drought in the Lower Lakes (Murray–Darling Basin) of South Australia. We examined the geochemical changes that occurred in one region (Boggy Lake) that experienced surface water acidification and was subsequently neutralised via aerial limestone (CaCO3) dosing and dilution via natural lake refill. Very low pH (< 3) and high concentrations (≈10–1000 mg/L Fe, Al, Mn) of dissolved metals were initially found in surface water. The water chemistry exhibited pH-dependent enhancement of constituents typically associated with acid sulfate soils (SO4, Al and Fe). Geochemical speciation calculations indicated that most (60–80%) of the acidity was present as dissolved metal-sulfate complexes at low pH. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses showed that the orange-brown precipitates present after an initial limestone dosing were secondary oxyhydroxysulfate minerals (schwertmannite, jarosite). Further limestone dosing resulted in neutralisation of the pH, reduction in dissolved metal concentrations, dissolution of jarosite and schwertmannite precipitates, and formation of other metal oxyhydroxide phases. The results were consistent with a pE-pH diagram constructed for metal-sulfur geochemistry. Assessment of the measured and simulated (using PHREEQC) pH and Ca/Cl ratio during limestone

  12. Recover of productivity in acids sulfate soils by means of addition organic and lime amendments under greenhouse conditions at Boyaca

    In flooded zones of Boyaca have been identified acid sulfate soil (SSA), restricted for extremes acidity originated for reactions of chemical and biological oxide-reduction by organic material of sulfur iron (pyrite), forming this way big quantities of sulfuric acid and high concentrations of Al toxic, besides it is characterized for being recent soils, with excessive quantities of S; high levels of organic matter and in some parts affected for salts and sodium that together with flooded areas and bad drenated make them inadequate for the establishing of cultivation. For this reason, it is looked for to make productive this SSA of high influence in the area of watering district. Starting with calcareous and organics rocks in winter pasture, the Resources to used were Ca (OH)2 and dolomite in doses of 10,25,50 and 100 t/ha; hen dung 5,10,20 and 30 t/ha mixes with limes hen dung 10+5, 10+10,25+20 and 50+30 using A. sative like indicator plant in a design completely on random with 22 treatments, correspond to ca (OH)2 25,50 ton/ha, dolomite 10,2.50 ton/ha and the mixes with calcareous rocks and hen dung with doses of 25+20 and 50+30 ton/ha respectively, which obtained the best answer in the development of the plant (biomass), reflected in the physical-chemical dynamic of the SSA. Due to this treatments increased in two units of pH, decreased the content of salts and the concentration of aluminum of non-toxic change, with respect to the initial soil, the soil with doses greater to 50 t/ha Ca (OH)2 evidenced over-limed together with the of hen-dung (5,10 t/ha) and the initial soil presented a restricted in develop and recuperation, indicating the conditions adverse in SSA

  13. Could Acid Sulfate Soils Be a Potential Environmental Threat to Estuarine Ecosystems on the South CHina Coast?

    C.LIN

    1999-01-01

    Acid sulfate soils (ASS) contain considerable amounts of reduced sulfur compounds(mainly pyrite) which produce sulfuric acid upon their oxidation.ASS-derived environmental degradation widely occurs in the coastal lowlands around the world,especially in the tropical and subtropical areas.The presence of ASS iun the South China has been recognized but their distribution may be largely underestimated because the soil survey data concerning ASS are based on unreliable methods and techniques.ASS in the South China have been traditionally used for rice cultivation and this practice has been proved sustainable if appropriate improvement measures are adopted.Recently,the rapid economic growth in the region has resulted in intensified coastal development which frequently involves activities that may disturb ASS,Construction of roads,foundations and aquaculture ponds may cause the exposure of ASS to air and bring about severe environmental acidificvation.There is currently insufficient awareness of the problems among the researchers,policy-makers and land managers in the South China.More attention must be paid to the possible ASS-dervived environmental degradation in order to ensure a sustainable development of the coastal lowlands in the South China region.

  14. Applying Limestone or Basalt in Combination with Bio-Fertilizer to Sustain Rice Production on an Acid Sulfate Soil in Malaysia

    Qurban Ali Panhwar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of applying ground magnesium limestone (GML or ground basalt in combination with bio-fertilizer to sustain rice production on an acid sulfate soil in Malaysia. Soils from Kelantan Plains, Malaysia, were treated with GML, ground basalt, bio-fertilizer, GML + bio-fertilizer, and ground basalt + bio-fertilizer (4 t·ha−1 each. Results showed that soil fertility was improved by applying the soil amendments. GML and basalt contain some Zn and Cu; thus, application of these amendments would increase their contents in the soil needed for the healthy growth of rice. Basalt applied in combination with bio-fertilizer appeared to be the best agronomic option to improve the fertility of acid sulfate soils for sustainable rice production in the long run. In addition to increasing Ca, Mg, Zn, and Cu reserves in the soil, water pH increased and precipitated Al3+ and/or Fe2+. Ground basalt is cheaper than GML, but basalt dissolution in the acidic soil was slow. As such, its ameliorative effects could only be seen significantly from the second season onwards. The specially-formulated bio-fertilizer for alleviating the infertility of acid sulfate soil could also enhance rice growth. The use of the bio-fertilizer fortified with N2-fixing bacteria is a green technology that would help reduce NO3− and/or NO2− pollution and reduce the cost of rice production. The phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB present in the bio-fertilizer not only increased the available P, but also helped release organic acids that would inactivate Al3+ and/or Fe2+ via the process of chelation.

  15. Sulfate retention and cation leaching of forest soils in response to acid additions

    Much research within the past decade has focused on the effects of increased sulfur (S) deposition on surface waters. As inputs of S deposition as SO4(2-) build up in the soil over time, the concentration of SO4(2-) leaching from soils may also increase. Leachate SO4(2-) concentrations were greater for the high-S than for the low-S treatment for each soil type, resulting in greater cation leachate concentrations for soils that received the high-S treatment. Calcium was the primary base cation in both the Spodosol and Alfisol leachates. Declining concentrations of base cations and NH4(+) over the length of the study led to an increase in Al(3+) concentrations and decrease in pH for some of the Spodosol leachates. It is difficult to extrapolate their laboratory rates of change to the BBWM catchments because of differences between the experiment and field conditions. Soil temperature, the amount and rate of S application, and the total mass of soil exposed to treatment were hypothesized to be important factors affecting net S retention in Spodosols under field conditions. However, the authors feel that SO4(2-) adsorption under field conditions would still be the primary mechanism of S retention because of similarities between SO4(2-) concentrations in treatment solutions used for the present experiment and those in natural throughfall solutions

  16. Early Performance of Duong Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco on Three Rootstock under Acid Sulfate Soil Fields at Mekong Delta of Vietnam

    Khoe Thi Le

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract About 1.6 billion hectare area of acid sulfate soils is at Mekong Delta of Vietnam, and Duong mandarin fruits are valued for the fresh market due to the easy peeling, attractive flavor, and health and nutritional properties; thereby, the investigation on early performance of Duong mandarin on three rootstock under acid sulfate soil fields (pH below 4 at Mekong Delta of Vietnam was undertaken from 2009 to 2012 for determination of the most promising scion stock combination of Duong mandarin, which introduced to growers for expanding citrus production to increase in income of farmers, and helping to use the sustainable and efficient land resource at acid sulfate soil region of Mekong Delta. Primary results showed that Duong mandarin grafted on Mat orange, Tau lemon and Carrizo citrange were significant differenence in vegetative parameters, fruit yield and quality. It proved that Duong mandarin trees grafted on Tau lemon were better growth and development on acid sulfate soil fields with below 4 pH in soil and water suspension of 1:2.5 ratio as compared to those grafted on Mat orange and Carrizo citrange rootstocks; whereby, that induced trees with 171.48 cm height, 6.65 m3 canopy volume and 51.84 mm trunk diameter, 1.08 scion/ stock ratio in third year after growing. Moreover, Duong mandarin trees grafted on Tau lemon were with spreading growth performance. In regarding to fruit yield and quality, Duong mandarin trees grafted on Tau lemon produced highest fruit yield of 9.21 kg per tree per year in third year after planting, and fruit with 115.30g weight, 8.85 brix juice, thinner and somewhat easy peel rind. 

  17. Acidification and buffering mechanisms in acid sulfate soil wetlands of the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia.

    Glover, Fiona; Whitworth, Kerry L; Kappen, Peter; Baldwin, Darren S; Rees, Gavin N; Webb, John A; Silvester, Ewen

    2011-04-01

    The acid generation mechanisms and neutralizing capacities of sulfidic sediments from two inland wetlands have been studied in order to understand the response of these types of systems to drying events. The two systems show vastly different responses to oxidation, with one (Bottle Bend (BB) lagoon) having virtually no acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and the other (Psyche Bend (PB) lagoon) an ANC that is an order of magnitude greater than the acid generation potential. While BB strongly acidifies during oxidation the free acid generation is less than that expected from the measured proton production and consumption processes, with additional proton consumption attributed to the formation of an acid-anion (chloride) FeIII (oxyhydr)oxide product, similar to akaganéite (Fe(OH)2.7Cl0.3). While such products can partially attenuate the acidification of these systems, resilience to acidification is primarily imparted by sediment ANC. PMID:21375259

  18. Biochemical and molecular characterization of potential phosphate-solubilizing bacteria in acid sulfate soils and their beneficial effects on rice growth.

    Panhwar, Qurban Ali; Naher, Umme Aminun; Shamshuddin, Jusop; Jusop, Shamshuddin; Othman, Radziah; Latif, Md Abdul; Ismail, Mohd Razi

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the total microbial population, the occurrence of growth promoting bacteria and their beneficial traits in acid sulfate soils. The mechanisms by which the bacteria enhance rice seedlings grown under high Al and low pH stress were investigated. Soils and rice root samples were randomly collected from four sites in the study area (Kelantan, Malaysia). The topsoil pH and exchangeable Al ranged from 3.3 to 4.7 and 1.24 to 4.25 cmol(c) kg(-1), respectively, which are considered unsuitable for rice production. Total bacterial and actinomycetes population in the acidic soils were found to be higher than fungal populations. A total of 21 phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) including 19 N2-fixing strains were isolated from the acid sulfate soil. Using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, three potential PSB strains based on their beneficial characteristics were identified (Burkholderia thailandensis, Sphingomonas pituitosa and Burkholderia seminalis). The isolated strains were capable of producing indoleacetic acid (IAA) and organic acids that were able to reduce Al availability via a chelation process. These PSB isolates solubilized P (43.65%) existing in the growth media within 72 hours of incubation. Seedling of rice variety, MR 219, grown at pH 4, and with different concentrations of Al (0, 50 and 100 µM) was inoculated with these PSB strains. Results showed that the bacteria increased the pH with a concomitant reduction in Al concentration, which translated into better rice growth. The improved root volume and seedling dry weight of the inoculated plants indicated the potential of these isolates to be used in a bio-fertilizer formulation for rice cultivation on acid sulfate soils. PMID:25285745

  19. Biochemical and molecular characterization of potential phosphate-solubilizing bacteria in acid sulfate soils and their beneficial effects on rice growth.

    Qurban Ali Panhwar

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the total microbial population, the occurrence of growth promoting bacteria and their beneficial traits in acid sulfate soils. The mechanisms by which the bacteria enhance rice seedlings grown under high Al and low pH stress were investigated. Soils and rice root samples were randomly collected from four sites in the study area (Kelantan, Malaysia. The topsoil pH and exchangeable Al ranged from 3.3 to 4.7 and 1.24 to 4.25 cmol(c kg(-1, respectively, which are considered unsuitable for rice production. Total bacterial and actinomycetes population in the acidic soils were found to be higher than fungal populations. A total of 21 phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB including 19 N2-fixing strains were isolated from the acid sulfate soil. Using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, three potential PSB strains based on their beneficial characteristics were identified (Burkholderia thailandensis, Sphingomonas pituitosa and Burkholderia seminalis. The isolated strains were capable of producing indoleacetic acid (IAA and organic acids that were able to reduce Al availability via a chelation process. These PSB isolates solubilized P (43.65% existing in the growth media within 72 hours of incubation. Seedling of rice variety, MR 219, grown at pH 4, and with different concentrations of Al (0, 50 and 100 µM was inoculated with these PSB strains. Results showed that the bacteria increased the pH with a concomitant reduction in Al concentration, which translated into better rice growth. The improved root volume and seedling dry weight of the inoculated plants indicated the potential of these isolates to be used in a bio-fertilizer formulation for rice cultivation on acid sulfate soils.

  20. Hydrological processes behind annual and decadal-scale variations in the water quality of runoff in Finnish catchments with acid sulfate soils

    Toivonen, Janne; Österholm, Peter; Fröjdö, Sören

    2013-04-01

    SummaryIn this study we assess long- and short term temporal variations in the impact of acid sulfate (a.s.) soils on river water quality. We demonstrate how such variations depend on changes in hydrological conditions driven by land use, meteorological variations and potential changes in climate with important implications on mitigation strategies, water ecology and utilization of water resources. Quality of river water discharging into the Larsmo-Öja Lake in Midwestern Finland was studied by using long term water data collected during 1963-2009. Acid sulfate soils are extremely acidic soils (pH depletion of the acidic pool in the existing a.s. soils. In the short run, water quality varied greatly due to varying hydrological conditions between seasons and years. Generally, the impact from a.s. soils was highest during high runoff in autumn and spring, and therefore, neutralization of acidity in discharge water by liming would at such occasions be very demanding. The relationship between the runoff and water quality was, however, somewhat different during different seasons. As expected, dry summers (low ground water levels) were found to increase the impact from a.s. soils in the subsequent autumn, but only if runoff was high. Towards the end of the study period winters tended to become warmer with higher runoff and spring floods tended to occur earlier. Thus, events with bad water quality during the winter months have become more common and acidic spring surges occur earlier. Seen from the data in this study, it is obvious that potential changes in the future climate will have significant consequences on the impact from a.s. soils on water courses.

  1. Forest soil response to acid and salt additions of sulfate. 3. Solubilization and composition of dissolved organic carbon

    A year-long experiment, using reconstructed spodosol and intact alfisol soil columns, was conducted to examine the effects of various simulated throughfall solutions on soil C dynamics. Soil organic C solubilization, dissolved organic C fractions, and decomposition rates were studied using simulated acidic and salt throughfall solutions. Based on the results of the study the authors propose that throughfall solutions of pH above 3.7 will have little or no influences on dissolved organic C cycling in the types of spodosol and alfisol forest soils used here. However, at pH 3.0 some alterations in organic C solubilization, dissolved organic C fractions, and mobility could be expected

  2. CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION IN ACID SULFATE LANDSCAPES

    Chuxia Lin

    2012-01-01

    Oxidation of sulfide minerals produces sulfuric acid and consequently creates Acid Sulfate Landscapes (ASLs), which represent one of the most degraded types of land-surface environments. Although acid sulfate-producing weathering is a naturally occurring process, it is markedly facilitated by human intervention. Mining is by far the dominant anthropogenic cause for the creation of inland acid sulfate footprints while land reclamation in coastal lowlands is the driver for the formation of coas...

  3. Fixation Status of Acid Soils

    Six acid soil series from different benchmark sites; Rangsit soil (Sulfic Tropaquepts) (two acid sulfate soils), Pakchong soil (Oxic Paleustults) Korat soil (Oxic Paleustults), Warin soil (Oxic Paleustults), Mae Taeng soil (Typic paleustults) and Boundary grey soil and two Thai phosphate rocks (P R) (Lampun P R and Ratchabuie P R) had been characterized in the laboratory by isotope techniques (E, value Part 1). Triple superphosphate (TSP) was used as a standard fertilizer. R P and TSP with 50 mg P Kg-1 soil were incubated for 30 days to examine the fixing capacity of the acid soils. The results showed that Rangsit Soil which is acid sulfate had high fixing capacity. Pakchong soil retained higher P fixation ability than Korat and Warin soil series. The highest fixation capacity among 7 acid soils were Grey Soil and Mae Taeng soil series. The solubility of TSP was decreased when incorporated with soil after incubation for 30 days. P R from Ratchaburi showed higher effectiveness than Lamphun P R

  4. CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION IN ACID SULFATE LANDSCAPES

    Chuxia Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of sulfide minerals produces sulfuric acid and consequently creates Acid Sulfate Landscapes (ASLs, which represent one of the most degraded types of land-surface environments. Although acid sulfate-producing weathering is a naturally occurring process, it is markedly facilitated by human intervention. Mining is by far the dominant anthropogenic cause for the creation of inland acid sulfate footprints while land reclamation in coastal lowlands is the driver for the formation of coastal ASLs. The projected climate change highlights the possibility of an increase in the frequency and severity of extreme weather events such as droughts and heavy rains, which is likely to accelerate the acid generation in some circumstances and increase the frequency and magnitude of acid discharge. Sea level rise as a result of global warming will cause additional problems with the coastal ASLs. This is a review article. The following aspects are covered: (a the overriding biogeochemical processes leading to acid sulfate-producing weathering, (b a brief introduction to the inland acid sulfate landscapes, (c a brief introduction to the coastal acid sulfate landscapes, (d the likely impacts of climate change on ASLs and (e the possible measures to combat climate change-induced environmental degradation in the identified key acid sulfate footprints. The projected climate change is like to significantly affect the acid sulfate landscapes in different ways. Appropriate management strategies and cost-effective technologies need to be developed in order to minimize the climate change-induced ecological degradation.

  5. Acid Sulfate Alteration in Gusev Crater, Mars

    Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Catalano, J. G.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit landed on the Gusev Crater plains west of the Columbia Hills in January, 2004, during the Martian summer (sol 0; sol = 1 Martian day = 24 hr 40 min). Spirit explored the Columbia Hills of Gusev Crater in the vicinity of Home Plate at the onset on its second winter (sol approximately 900) until the onset of its fourth winter (sol approximately 2170). At that time, Spirit became mired in a deposit of fined-grained and sulfate-rich soil with dust-covered solar panels and unfavorable pointing of the solar arrays toward the sun. Spirit has not communicated with the Earth since sol 2210 (January, 2011). Like its twin rover Opportunity, which landed on the opposite side of Mars at Meridiani Planum, Spirit has an Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument for chemical analyses and a Moessbauer spectrometer (MB) for measurement of iron redox state, mineralogical speciation, and quantitative distribution among oxidation (Fe(3+)/sigma Fe) and coordination (octahedral versus tetrahedral) states and mineralogical speciation (e.g., olivine, pyroxene, ilmenite, carbonate, and sulfate). The concentration of SO3 in Gusev rocks and soils varies from approximately 1 to approximately 34 wt%. Because the APXS instrument does not detect low atomic number elements (e.g., H and C), major-element oxide concentrations are normalized to sum to 100 wt%, i.e., contributions of H2O, CO2, NO2, etc. to the bulk composition care not considered. The majority of Gusev samples have approximately 6 plus or minus 5 wt% SO3, but there is a group of samples with high SO3 concentrations (approximately 30 wt%) and high total iron concentrations (approximately 20 wt%). There is also a group with low total Fe and SO3 concentrations that is also characterized by high SiO2 concentrations (greater than 70 wt%). The trend labeled "Basaltic Soil" is interpreted as mixtures in variable proportions between unaltered igneous material and oxidized and SO3-rich basaltic

  6. Fe and S K-edge XAS determination of iron-sulfur species present in a range of acid sulfate soils: Effects of particle size and concentration on quantitative XANES determinations

    Morgan, Kate E.; Burton, Edward D.; Cook, Perran; Raven, Mark D.; Fitzpatrick, Robert W.; Bush, Richard; Sullivan, Leigh A.; Hocking, Rosalie K.

    2009-11-01

    Acid sulfate soils (ASS) are soils and soft sediments in which sulfuric acid may be produced from iron sulfides or have been produced leaving iron oxyhydroxysulfates in amounts that have a long lasting effect on soil characteristics. If soil material is exposed to rotting vegetation or other reducing material, the Fe-oxyhydroxysulfates can be bacterially reduced to sulfides including disulfides (pyrite and marcasite), and Monosulfidic Black Ooze (MBO) a poorly characterised material known to be a mixture of iron sulfides (especially mackinawite) and organic matter. The chemistry of these environments is strongly affected by Fe and S cycling processes and herein we have sought to identify key differences in environments that occur as a function of Fe and S concentration. In addition to our chemical results, we have found that the effects of particle size on self absorption in natural sediments play an important role in the spectroscopic identification of the relative proportions of different species present.

  7. Fe and S K-edge XAS determination of iron-sulfur species present in a range of acid sulfate soils: Effects of particle size and concentration on quantitative XANES determinations

    Acid sulfate soils (ASS) are soils and soft sediments in which sulfuric acid may be produced from iron sulfides or have been produced leaving iron oxyhydroxysulfates in amounts that have a long lasting effect on soil characteristics. If soil material is exposed to rotting vegetation or other reducing material, the Fe-oxyhydroxysulfates can be bacterially reduced to sulfides including disulfides (pyrite and marcasite), and Monosulfidic Black Ooze (MBO) a poorly characterised material known to be a mixture of iron sulfides (especially mackinawite) and organic matter. The chemistry of these environments is strongly affected by Fe and S cycling processes and herein we have sought to identify key differences in environments that occur as a function of Fe and S concentration. In addition to our chemical results, we have found that the effects of particle size on self absorption in natural sediments play an important role in the spectroscopic identification of the relative proportions of different species present.

  8. A review of acid sulfate soil impacts, actions and policies that impact on water quality in Great Barrier Reef catchments, including a case study on remediation at East Trinity.

    Powell, B; Martens, M

    2005-01-01

    An estimated 666,000 ha of acid sulfate soils (ASS) occur within the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) catchments of Queensland, Australia. Extensive areas have been drained causing acidification, metal contamination, deoxygenation and iron precipitation in reef receiving waters. The close proximity of ASS to reef waters makes them a substantial threat to water quality. Another important issue linked with ASS is their release of soluble iron, which is known to stimulate nuisance marine algal blooms, in particular Lyngbya majuscula. Known blooms of the cyanobacteria in reef waters have been confirmed at Shoalwater Bay, Corio Bay, the Whitsunday area and Hinchinbrook Channel. Acid sulfate soils are intimately related to coastal wetland landscapes. Where landscapes containing ASS have been disturbed (such as for agriculture, aquaculture, marinas, etc.) the biodiversity of adjacent wetlands can be adversely affected. However, there is no clear knowledge of the real extent of the so-called "hotspot" ASS areas that occur within the GBR catchments. Management of ASS in reef catchments has benefited from the implementation of the Queensland Acid Sulfate Soils Management Strategy through policy development, mapping, training programs, an advisory service, research and community participation. However, major gaps remain in mapping the extent and nature of ASS. Areas of significant acidification (i.e. hotspots) need to be identified and policies developed for their remediation. Research has a critical role to play in understanding ASS risk and finding solutions, to prevent the adverse impacts that may be caused by ASS disturbance. A case study is presented of the East Trinity site near Cairns, a failed sugar cane development that episodically discharges large amounts of acid into Trinity Inlet, resulting in periodic fish kills. Details are presented of scientific investigations, and a lime-assisted tidal exchange strategy that are being undertaken to remediate a serious ASS problem

  9. Sulfate Dynamics and Base Cation Release in a High Elevation Appalachian Forest Soil

    Lusk, Mary Gilchrist

    1998-01-01

    Two soils from the Fernow Experimental Forest near Parsons, West Virginia were characterized and evaluated in terms of their susceptibility to enhanced soil acidification via acidic atmospheric inputs. After initial physical, chemical, and mineralogical characterization, the soils were analyzed for their ability to adsorb and retain sulfate (SO42-) through a series of batch adsorption and desorption experiments. Reconstructed soil profiles were then subjected to water leaching as the prelim...

  10. Sulfate, chloride and fluoride retention in Andosols exposed to volcanic acid emissions

    Delmelle, Pierre; Delfosse, Thomas; Delvaux, Bruno

    2003-12-01

    The continuous emissions of SO{sub 2}, HCl and HF by Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, represent a substantial source of atmospheric S-, Cl- and F-containing acid inputs for local ecosystems. We report on the effects of such acid depositions on the sulfate, chloride and fluoride contents in soils (0-40 cm) from two distinct transects located downwind from the volcano. The first transect corresponds to relatively undifferentiated Vitric Andosols, and the second transect to more weathered Eutric Andosols. These soils are exposed to various rates of volcanogenic acid addition, with the Vitric sites being generally more affected. Prolonged acid inputs have led to a general pH decrease and reduced exchangeable base cation concentrations in the Andosols. The concentrations of 0.5 M NH{sub 4}F- and 0.016 M KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}-extractable sulfate (NH{sub 4}F-S and KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}-S, respectively) indicate that volcanic S addition has increased the inorganic sulfate content of the Vitric and Eutric soils at all depths. In this process, the rate of sulfate accumulation is also dependent on soil allophane contents. For all soils, NH{sub 4}F extracted systematically more (up to 40 times) sulfate than KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. This difference suggests sulfate incorporation into an aluminum hydroxy sulfate phase, whose contribution to total inorganic sulfate in the Vitric and Eutric Andosols is estimated from {approx}34 to 95% and {approx}65 to 98%, respectively. The distribution of KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}-extractable chloride in the Vitric and Eutric Andosols exposed to volcanic Cl inputs reveals that added chloride readily migrates through the soil profiles. In contrast, reaction of fluoride with Al and Fe oxyhydroxides and allophanes is an important sink mechanism in the Masaya Andosols exposed to airborne volcanic F. Fluoride dominates the anion distribution in all soil horizons, although F is the least concentrated element in the volcanic emissions and depositions. The soil anion

  11. Sulfate, chloride and fluoride retention in Andosols exposed to volcanic acid emissions

    The continuous emissions of SO2, HCl and HF by Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, represent a substantial source of atmospheric S-, Cl- and F-containing acid inputs for local ecosystems. We report on the effects of such acid depositions on the sulfate, chloride and fluoride contents in soils (0-40 cm) from two distinct transects located downwind from the volcano. The first transect corresponds to relatively undifferentiated Vitric Andosols, and the second transect to more weathered Eutric Andosols. These soils are exposed to various rates of volcanogenic acid addition, with the Vitric sites being generally more affected. Prolonged acid inputs have led to a general pH decrease and reduced exchangeable base cation concentrations in the Andosols. The concentrations of 0.5 M NH4F- and 0.016 M KH2PO4-extractable sulfate (NH4F-S and KH2PO4-S, respectively) indicate that volcanic S addition has increased the inorganic sulfate content of the Vitric and Eutric soils at all depths. In this process, the rate of sulfate accumulation is also dependent on soil allophane contents. For all soils, NH4F extracted systematically more (up to 40 times) sulfate than KH2PO4. This difference suggests sulfate incorporation into an aluminum hydroxy sulfate phase, whose contribution to total inorganic sulfate in the Vitric and Eutric Andosols is estimated from ∼34 to 95% and ∼65 to 98%, respectively. The distribution of KH2PO4-extractable chloride in the Vitric and Eutric Andosols exposed to volcanic Cl inputs reveals that added chloride readily migrates through the soil profiles. In contrast, reaction of fluoride with Al and Fe oxyhydroxides and allophanes is an important sink mechanism in the Masaya Andosols exposed to airborne volcanic F. Fluoride dominates the anion distribution in all soil horizons, although F is the least concentrated element in the volcanic emissions and depositions. The soil anion distribution reflects preferential retention of fluoride over sulfate and chloride, and of

  12. Sulfate, chloride and fluoride retention in Andosols exposed to volcanic acid emissions.

    Delmelle, Pierre; Delfosse, Thomas; Delvaux, Bruno

    2003-01-01

    The continuous emissions of SO(2), HCl and HF by Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, represent a substantial source of atmospheric S-, Cl- and F-containing acid inputs for local ecosystems. We report on the effects of such acid depositions on the sulfate, chloride and fluoride contents in soils (0-40 cm) from two distinct transects located downwind from the volcano. The first transect corresponds to relatively undifferentiated Vitric Andosols, and the second transect to more weathered Eutric Andosols. These soils are exposed to various rates of volcanogenic acid addition, with the Vitric sites being generally more affected. Prolonged acid inputs have led to a general pH decrease and reduced exchangeable base cation concentrations in the Andosols. The concentrations of 0.5 M NH(4)F- and 0.016 M KH(2)PO(4)-extractable sulfate (NH(4)F-S and KH(2)PO(4)-S, respectively) indicate that volcanic S addition has increased the inorganic sulfate content of the Vitric and Eutric soils at all depths. In this process, the rate of sulfate accumulation is also dependent on soil allophane contents. For all soils, NH(4)F extracted systematically more (up to 40 times) sulfate than KH(2)PO(4). This difference suggests sulfate incorporation into an aluminum hydroxy sulfate phase, whose contribution to total inorganic sulfate in the Vitric and Eutric Andosols is estimated from approximately 34 to 95% and approximately 65 to 98%, respectively. The distribution of KH(2)PO(4)-extractable chloride in the Vitric and Eutric Andosols exposed to volcanic Cl inputs reveals that added chloride readily migrates through the soil profiles. In contrast, reaction of fluoride with Al and Fe oxyhydroxides and allophanes is an important sink mechanism in the Masaya Andosols exposed to airborne volcanic F. Fluoride dominates the anion distribution in all soil horizons, although F is the least concentrated element in the volcanic emissions and depositions. The soil anion distribution reflects preferential retention

  13. Transformations of organic and inorganic sulfur: importance to sulfate flux in an adirondack forest soil

    Sulfate flux from forest soils as a result of inputs from acidic deposition is thought to be a critical process in regulating acidification of surface waters. The purpose of this study was to evaluate biotic transformations of sulfur in an Adirondack Mountain forest soil by adding 35S-sulfate to the forest floor. In September 1983 to each of two 0.5 m2 plots, 2.22 x 10/sub 10/ dpm of 35S-sulfate was added in 4 liters of solution. Analysis of soil horizons from the plot at the end of the six week incubation indicated that 70 and 99 percent of the added 35S was retained in the soil at plots 1 and 2, respectively. More than 70 percent of the 35S was found in Oa, Bh, and Bs1 horizons. In O horizons greater than 80 percent of the 35S was found as organic sulfur, whereas in mineral horizons most was found as adsorbed sulfate. These findings indicated that a portion of the sulfate moving through the soil is both rapidly immobilized in the forest floor and adsorbed in the mineral horizons. On a net basis, however, the soil is not accumulating sulfur so that mineralization and desorption must equal immobilization and adsorption

  14. Spectral identification of hydrated sulfates on Mars and comparison with acidic environments on Earth

    Bishop, Janice L.; Darby Dyar, M.; Lane, Melissa D.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2004-10-01

    We interpret recent spectral data of Mars collected by the Mars Exploration Rovers to contain substantial evidence of sulfate minerals and aqueous processes. We present visible/near-infrared (VNIR), mid-IR and Mössbauer spectra of several iron sulfate minerals and two acid mine drainage (AMD) samples collected from the Iron Mountain site and compare these combined data with the recent spectra of Mars. We suggest that the sulfates on Mars are produced via aqueous oxidation of sulfides known to be present on Mars from Martian meteorites. The sulfate-rich rock outcrops observed in Meridiani Planum may have formed in an acidic environment similar to AMD environments on Earth. Because microorganisms are typically involved in the oxidation of sulfides to sulfates in terrestrial AMD sites, sulfate-rich rock outcrops on Mars may be a good location to search for evidence of life on that planet. Whether or not life evolved on Mars, following the trail of sulfate minerals is likely to lead to aqueous processes and chemical weathering. Our results imply that sulfate minerals formed in Martian soils via chemical weathering, perhaps over very long time periods, and that sulfate minerals precipitated following aqueous oxidation of sulfides to form the outcrop rocks at Meridiani Planum.

  15. SULFATION OF ARABINOGALACTAN BY SULFAMIC ACID IN DIOXANE MEDIUM

    Наталья Юрьевна Васильева

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sulfation of arabinogalactan (AG by sulfamic acid in the presence of urea at temperatures 70–95 °C in dioxane medium was studied. The growth of sulfation temperature from 70 to 95 °C increases a degree of AG sulfation. According to NMR 13C spectroscopy data sulfate groups are fixed at С2 and C4 positions of galactose unit of basic chain and at C6 position of terminal galactose units of basic and side chains of arabinogalactan. The sulfation of AG by complex sulfamic acid – urea in dioxane medium makes possible to increase the environmental safety and efficiency of the process as compared to the known sulfation methods.

  16. Characteristics of Some Heavy Metals in AcidSulfate{1mmTopsoils, Eastern Australia

    2001-01-01

    Forty-five acid sulfate topsoil samples (depth < 0.5 m) from 15soil cores at 11 locations along the New South Wales coast, Australia,were selected to investigate the chemical behavior of Zn, Mn, Cr, Coand Pb in these soils. The amount of HCl-extractable Mn was muchsmaller than the mean value of the total Mn documented for other soils.This may be attributed to enhanced mobilization of Mn from the soilsunder the extremely acidic and seasonally flooded conditionsencountered in the investigated soils.   The pH-dependency of soluble Zn and Mn was strongly affected by theavailability of acid reactive Zn and Mn compounds. There were fairlygood relationships between soluble Zn and acid reactive Zn compounds,and between soluble Mn and acid reactive Mn compounds. Soluble Zn andsoluble Mn concentrations were important controls on exchangeable Znand Mn concentrations, respectively.   In contrast to the suggestion by other authors that adsorption of Cowas closely associated with Mn oxides present in soils, theexchangeable Co in the investigated acid sulfate soils was not clearlyrelated to the abundance of Mn minerals. In addition to the fact thatthere are few Mn minerals present in the soils, this might also bebecause the availability of cation exchange sites on the crystalsurfaces of Mn oxides was reduced under extremely acidic conditions.

  17. Biological functions of iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate

    Thelin, Martin A.; Bartolini, Barbara; Axelsson, Jakob; Gustafsson, Renata; Tykesson, Emil; Pera, Edgar; Oldberg, Åke; Maccarana, Marco; Malmstrom, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The presence of iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate changes the properties of the polysaccharides because it generates a more flexible chain with increased binding potentials. Iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate influences multiple cellular properties, such as migration, proliferation, differentiation, angiogenesis and the regulation of cytokine/growth factor activities. Under pathological conditions such as wound healing, inflammation and cancer, iduronic acid has diverse...

  18. Characteristics of Some Heavy Metals in Acid Sulfate Topsoile,Eastern Australia

    C.LIN; D.MCCONCHIE; 等

    2001-01-01

    Forty-five acid sulfate topsoil samples(depth<0.5m)from 15 soil cores at 11 locations along the New South Wales coast,Australia,were selected to investigate the chemical behavior of Zn,Mn,Cr,Co and Pb in these soils.The amount of HCl-extractable Mn was much smaller than the mean value of the total Mn documented for other soils of HCl-extractable Mn was much smaller than the mean value of the total Mn documented for other soils.This may be attributed to enhanced mobilization of Mn from the soils under the extrenely acidic and seasonally flooded conditions encountered in the investigated soils.The pH-dependency of soluble Zn and Mn was strongly affected by the availabiltiy of acid reactive Zn and Mn compounds .There were fairly good relationships between soulble Zn and acid reactive Zn compounds, and between soluble Mn and acid reactive Mn compounds .Soluble Zn and soluble Mn concentations were important controls on exchangeable Zn and Mn Concentrations respectively.In contrast to the suggestion by other authors that adsorption of Co was closely associated with Mn oxides present in soils,the exchangeable Co in the investigated acid sulfate soils was not clearly realt to the abundance of Mn minerals.In addition to the fact that there are few Mn minerals present in the soils,this might also be because the availabiliy of cation exchange sites on the crystal surfaces of Mn oxides was reduced under extremely acidic conditions.

  19. Bioremediation of coal contaminated soil under sulfate-reducing condition.

    Kuwano, Y; Shimizu, Y

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the biodegradation of coal-derived hydrocarbons, especially high molecular weight (HMW) components, under anaerobic conditions. For this purpose biodegradation experiments were performed, using specifically designed soil column bioreactors. For the experiment, coal-contaminated soil was prepared, which contains high molecular weight hydrocarbons at high concentration (approx. 55.5 mgC g-drysoil(-1)). The experiment was carried out in two different conditions: sulfate reducing (SR) condition (SO4(2-) = 10 mmol l(-1) in the liquid medium) and control condition (SO4(2-)resin fraction decreased to half (from 6,541 to 3,386 mgC g-soil(-1)) under SR condition, with the concomitant increase of two PAHs (phenanthrene and fluoranthene, 9 and 2.5 times, respectively). From these results, we could conclude that high molecular hydrocarbons were biodegradable and transformed to low molecular weight PAHs under the sulfate-reducing condition. Since these PAHs are known to be biologically degraded under aerobic condition, a serial combination of anaerobic (sulfate reducing) and then aerobic bioremediations could be effective and useful for the soil pollution by petroleum and/or coal derived hydrocarbons. PMID:16457179

  20. Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage with Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    Hauri, James F.; Schaider, Laurel A.

    2009-01-01

    Sulfate reducing bacteria have been shown to be effective at treating acid mine drainage through sulfide production and subsequent precipitation of metal sulfides. In this laboratory experiment for undergraduate environmental chemistry courses, students design and implement a set of bioreactors to remediate acid mine drainage and explain observed…

  1. Mechanism of cement-stabilized soil polluted by magnesium sulfate

    HAN Peng-ju; WANG Shuai; Frank Y. Chen; BAI Xiao-hong

    2015-01-01

    In order to simulate and study the mechanism of cement stabilized soils polluted by different contents of magnesium sulfate (MS), a series of tests were conducted on the cemented soil samples, including unconfined compression strength (UCS) tests of blocks, X-ray diffraction (XRD) phase analysis of powder samples, microstructure by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), element composition by energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), and pore distribution analysis by Image Processed Plus 6.0 (IPP 6.0) software. The UCS test results show that UCS of cemented soils reaches the peak value when the MS content is 4.5 g/kg. While, the UCS for Sample MS4 having the MS content of 18.0 g/kg is the lowest among all tested samples. Based on the EDS analysis results, Sample MS4 has the greater contents for the three elements, oxygen (O), magnesium (Mg) and sulfur (S), than Sample MS1. From the XRD phase analysis, C-A-S-H (3CaO·Al2O3·3CaSO4·32H2O and 3CaO·Al2O3·CaSO4·18H2O), M-A-H (MgO·Al2O3·H2O), M-S-H (MgO·SiO2·H2O), Mg(OH)2 and CaSO4phase diffraction peaks are obviously intense due to the chemical action associated with the MS. The pore distribution analysis shows that the hydrated products change the distribution of cemented soil pores and the pores with average diameter (AD) of 2-50μm play a key role in terms of the whole structure of cemented soil. The microscopic structure of the cemented soil with MS exhibits the intertwined and embedded characteristics between the cement and granular soils from the SEM images of cemented soils. The microstructure analysis shows that the magnesium sulfate acts as the additive, which is beneficial to the soil strength when the MS content is low (i.e., Sample MS2). However, higher MS amount involving a chemical action makes samples crystallize and expand, which is adverse to the UCS of cemented soils (i.e., Sample MS4).

  2. Electrochemical treatment of acidic aqueous ferrous sulfate and copper sulfate as models for acid mine drainage.

    Bunce, N J; Chartrand, M; Keech, P

    2001-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a serious environmental problem in the mining industry. The present work describes electrolytic reduction of solutions of synthetic AMD, comprising FeSO4/H2SO4 and CuSO4/H2SO4, in flow-through cells whose anode and cathode compartments were separated using ion exchange membranes. In the case of FeSO4/H2SO4 at constant flow rate, the pH of the effluent from the catholyte increased progressively with current at a variety of cathodes, due to electrolytic reduction of H+ ions to elemental hydrogen. Near-quantitative removal of iron was achieved by sparging air into the catholyte effluent, thereby precipitating iron outside the electrochemical cell, and avoiding fouling of the electrodes. The anode reaction was the oxidation of water to O2, a proton-releasing process. Using cation exchange membranes and sodium sulfate as the supporting electrolyte in the anode compartment, the efficiency of the process was compromised at high currents by transport of H+ competitively with Na+ from the anode to the cathode compartments. Higher efficiencies were obtained when anion exchange membranes were used, and in this case no additional supporting electrolyte other than dilute H2SO4 was needed, the net reaction being the electrochemically driven transfer of the elements of H2SO4 from the cathode to the anode compartments. Current efficiencies approximately 50% were achieved, the loss of efficiency being accounted for by ohmic heating of the solutions. In the case of CuSO4/H2SO4 and anion exchange membranes at high currents, reduction of Cu2+ and H+ ions and transport of SO4(2-) ions out of the catholyte caused unacceptably high potentials to be generated. PMID:11763043

  3. Effects of Electrolyte Anions and pH on Adsortpion of Sulfate by Variable Charge Soils

    ZHANGGANGYA; G.M.BRUEMMER; 等

    1996-01-01

    The effects of three electrolyte anions,ionic strength and pH on the adsorption of sulfate by two variable charge soils,with different surface charge properties were studied.Under the conditions of the same pH and ionic strength the effect of electrolyte anions on the adsorption of sulfate was in the order of Cl->NO3->ClO4-,indicating the difference of the nature among these three anions.For ferralsol in the same concentration of chloride and perchloride solutions,the two sulfate adsorption-pH curves could intersect at certain pH value.When pH was higher than the intersecting point.more sulfate was adsorbed in the perchloride solution,while when it was lower than the intersecting point,more sulfate was adsorbed in the chloride solution.In different concentratioins of electrolyte solution,the curves of the amount of oxy-acid anion adsorbed,which changed with pH,could intersect at a certain pH,which is termed point of zero salt effect(PZSE) on adsortpion.The nature of electrolyte anions influenced obviously the appearace of PZSE for sulfate adsorption.For ferralsol the curves of adsorption converged to about pH 7 in NaCl solution seemed to intersect in NaNO3 solution and to have a typical PZSE for sulfate adsorption in NaClO4 solution,For Acrisol the three curves of adsorption were nearly parallel in NaCl and NaNO3 solutions and converged to pH 6.5 in NaClO4 solution.

  4. Parameterization and evaluation of sulfate adsorption in a dynamic soil chemistry model

    Including sulfate adsorption improves the dynamic behavior of the SAFE model. - Sulfate adsorption was implemented in the dynamic, multi-layer soil chemistry model SAFE. The process is modeled by an isotherm in which sulfate adsorption is considered to be fully reversible and dependent on sulfate concentration as well as pH in soil solution. The isotherm was parameterized by a site-specific series of simple batch experiments at different pH (3.8-5.0) and sulfate concentration (10-260 μmol l-1) levels. Application of the model to the Lake Gaardsjoen roof covered site shows that including sulfate adsorption improves the dynamic behavior of the model and sulfate adsorption and desorption delay acidification and recovery of the soil. The modeled adsorbed pool of sulfate at the site reached a maximum level of 700 mmol/m2 in the late 1980s, well in line with experimental data

  5. Oxydesulfurization of coal by acidic iron sulfate solutions

    Mixon, D.A.; Vermeulen, T.

    1981-08-01

    To facilitate by-product recovery and eliminate elemental sulfur formation in coal oxydesulfurization, high-sulfur bituminous coal has been treated with aqueous ferric sulfate/sulfuric acid and oxygen at 100 to 150/sup 0/C. The rate of pyrite oxidation increases with oxygen partial pressure, temperature, and fineness of grinding. This reaction rate is relatively insensitive to sulfuric acid and ferric sulfate concentrations, so that pyrite removal may be satisfactorily performed in solutions containing 25% H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and 12% Fe/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 3/ (weight percentages relative to total H/sub 2/O plus H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/); preliminary data suggest that such a leaching solution is only mildly corrosive to T316 stainless steel, at 150/sup 0/C or below, in the presence of oxygen. To provide an accurate assessment of coal oxydesulfurization stoichiometry, an analytical technique based on uv spectrophotometry has been developed for the determination of elemental sulfur in coal. Prepared coal samples are extracted for 24 hours with cyclohexane. Other exploratory oxydesulfurization runs have shown that vanadium oxides are not effective catalysts at 100/sup 0/C, with oxygen. Nor are lauryl sulfate or sulfates of zinc, copper, or manganese effective additives in the ferric sulfate/sulfuric acid/oxygen system at 150/sup 0/C. Elemental chlorine has been shown to be capable of removing significant amounts of organic sulfur from coal, at 74/sup 0/C, but suffers the drawback of chlorinating the coal's orgaic matrix. Hydrogen peroxide in aqueous sulfuric acid is an effective reagent for pyrite removal at 100/sup 0/C, but is unduly expensive.

  6. Two Dermatan Sulfate Epimerases Form Iduronic Acid Domains in Dermatan Sulfate*

    Pacheco, Benny; Malmström, Anders; Maccarana, Marco

    2009-01-01

    A second dermatan sulfate epimerase (DS-epi2) was identified as a homolog of the first epimerase (DS-epi1), which was previously described by our group. DS-epi2 is 1,222 amino acids long and has an ∼700-amino acid N-terminal epimerase domain that is highly conserved between the two enzymes. In addition, the C-terminal portion is predicted to be an O-sulfotransferase domain. In this study we found that DS-epi2 has epimerase activity, which involves conversion of d-glucu...

  7. Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols

    Kravitz, Ben

    2009-07-28

    We used a general circulation model of Earth\\'s climate to conduct geoengineering experiments involving stratospheric injection of sulfur dioxide and analyzed the resulting deposition of sulfate. When sulfur dioxide is injected into the tropical or Arctic stratosphere, the main additional surface deposition of sulfate occurs in midlatitude bands, because of strong cross-tropopause flux in the jet stream regions. We used critical load studies to determine the effects of this increase in sulfate deposition on terrestrial ecosystems by assuming the upper limit of hydration of all sulfate aerosols into sulfuric acid. For annual injection of 5 Tg of SO2 into the tropical stratosphere or 3 Tg of SO2 into the Arctic stratosphere, neither the maximum point value of sulfate deposition of approximately 1.5 mEq m−2 a−1 nor the largest additional deposition that would result from geoengineering of approximately 0.05 mEq m−2 a−1 is enough to negatively impact most ecosystems.

  8. Development of a rapid method for simultaneous separation of hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate and heparin by capillary electrophoresis.

    Zhao, Ting; Song, Xinlei; Tan, Xiaoqing; Xu, Linghua; Yu, Mingxiu; Wang, Siyi; Liu, Xiumei; Wang, Fengshan

    2016-05-01

    This study reports the use of diethylenetriamine as background electrolyte for the simultaneous separation of hyaluronan acid, chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate and heparin. The analytes were baseline separated by using an uncoated fused silica capillary at 37°C with a run time of 23min. The migration order, with hyaluronan acid at first and heparin at last, was related to the sulfation degree. The effect of salt concentration on resolution and migration order was also investigated. The developed method was applied to the simultaneous determination of hyaluronan acid and chondroitin sulfate in mouse plasma. Interferences in plasma were removed by protein precipitation and glycosaminoglycans were further purified by ethanol precipitation. The method was validated over the concentration range from 50 to 600μg/mL for hyaluronan acid and 500 to 6000μg/mL for chondroitin sulfate in mouse plasma. Results from assay validations showed that the method was selective and robust. PMID:26877013

  9. 75 FR 78243 - Propionic Acid and Salts, Urea Sulfate, Methidathion, and Methyl Parathion; Registration Review...

    2010-12-15

    ... AGENCY Propionic Acid and Salts, Urea Sulfate, Methidathion, and Methyl Parathion; Registration Review... pesticides propionic acid and salts, case no. 4078, urea sulfate, case no. 7213, methidathion, case no. 0034... pesticides in the table below--propionic acid and salts, case 4078, urea sulfate, case no. 7213,...

  10. Inactivation of Prions by Acidic Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate

    Peretz, David; Supattapone, Surachai; Giles, Kurt; Vergara, Julie; Freyman, Yevgeniy; Lessard, Pierre; Safar, Jiri G; Glidden, David V.; McCulloch, Charles; Nguyen, Hoang-Oanh B.; Scott, Michael; Stephen J DeArmond; Prusiner, Stanley B.

    2006-01-01

    Prompted by the discovery that prions become protease-sensitive after exposure to branched polyamine dendrimers in acetic acid (AcOH) (S. Supattapone, H. Wille, L. Uyechi, J. Safar, P. Tremblay, F. C. Szoka, F. E. Cohen, S. B. Prusiner, and M. R. Scott, J. Virol. 75:3453-3461, 2001), we investigated the inactivation of prions by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in weak acid. As judged by sensitivity to proteolytic digestion, the disease-causing prion protein (PrPSc) was denatured at room temperat...

  11. Buffer capacities of podzolic and peat gleyic podzolic soils to sulfuric and nitric acids

    Kuznetsov, N. B.; Alekseeva, S. A.; Shashkova, G. V.; Dronova, T. Ya.; Sokolova, T. A.

    2007-04-01

    Soil samples from the main genetic horizons of pale podzolic and peat gleyic podzolic soils from the Central Forest Reserve were subjected to a continuous potentiometric titration by sulfuric and nitric acids. The sulfate sorption capacity was determined in soil mineral horizons. The buffer capacity of mineral horizons of both soils to sulfuric acid was found to be higher than that to the nitric acid. This is explained by the sorption of sulfates via the mechanism of ligand exchange with the release of hydroxyl groups from the surfaces of Fe and Al hydroxide particles and edge faces of clay crystallites. The buffer capacity of organic horizons of the pale podzolic soil to sulfuric acid proved to be higher than that to nitric acid; in organic horizons of the peat gleyic podzolic soil, the buffer capacity to sulfuric acid was lower than that to nitric acid. The reasons for this phenomenon have yet to be investigated.

  12. Estimation of interfacial acidity of sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles

    Arghya Dey; G Naresh Patwari

    2011-11-01

    An enhancement in the excited state proton transfer (ESPT) processes of coumarin-102 (C-102) dye was observed upon addition of salicylic acid and hydrochloric acid in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micellar solution. The phenomenon was observed only in the micellar medium of anionic surfactant SDS and not in case of cationic (CTAB) or neutral (Trition X -100) surfactants. ESPT of C-102 was also observed in aqueous solutions but on addition of very high concentrations of hydrochloric acid. However, on comparing the ratio of the protonated species from the emission spectra in the presence and absence of SDS micelle, a conclusive estimation of the local proton concentration at the Stern layer of SDS micelles could be evaluated.

  13. 75 FR 51055 - Propionic Acid and Salts, and Urea Sulfate; Registration Review Proposed Decisions; Notice of...

    2010-08-18

    ... AGENCY Propionic Acid and Salts, and Urea Sulfate; Registration Review Proposed Decisions; Notice of... urea sulfate and opens a public comment period on the proposed decisions. Registration review is EPA's.... Urea sulfate is used as a desiccant on ] cotton. No food crop uses remain and all tolerances for...

  14. Sorption and degradation of 17ß-estradiol-17-sulfate in sterilized soil-water systems

    To identify abiotic processes that govern the fate of a sulfate conjugated estrogen, 17ß-estradiol-17-sulfate (E2-17S), soil batch experiments were conducted to investigate the dissipation, sorption, and degradation of radiolabeled E2-17S under sterilized conditions. The aqueous dissipation half-liv...

  15. Sulfur-accumulating plants convert sulfate salts from soils into environmentally resilient biominerals

    Robson, Thomas; Reid, Nathan; Stevens, Jason; Dixon, Kingsley

    2016-04-01

    Sulfur-accumulator plants (thiophores), which accumulate atypically high sulfur and calcium concentrations in their aerial biomass, may be suitable for revegetating and phytostabilising reactive sulfur-enriched substrates such as mine tailings, acid-sulfate soils and polluted soils. We present biogeochemical insights on thiophores from the Australian Great Sandy Desert, which accumulate up to 40 times as much sulfur (2-5 %S) versus comparator species. X-ray microanalyses revealed this accumulation relates to peculiar gypsum-like mineralisation throughout their foliage, illustrating a mechanism for sulfate removal from soils and sequestration as sparingly soluble biominerals. However, we did not know whether these species treat the excess Ca/S as a waste to be shed with senescent litter and, if so, how resilient these 'biominerals' are to photo-biodegradation once shed and so to what extent the accumulated elements are recycled back into the reactive/bioavailable sulfate reservoir. To address these questions, we sampled four foliage (phyllode) fractions from ten individuals of the thiophore, Acacia bivenosa: healthy mature phyllodes, senescent phyllodes on the branch, recently shed and older, more degraded ground litter. We selected two thiophores (A. bivenosa and A. robeorum) and a non-thiophore (A. ancistrocarpa) for detailed soil/regolith studies. Samples were collected from trenches bisected by each tree, taken from varying depth (20-500 mm) and distance from the stem (0.1-5 m). Dried foliage was cleaned, sectioned for SEM-EDXS examination and elemental compositions of foliage and soils were determined (microwave-assisted acid digestion + ICP-OES/MS). Each species generated a 'halo' of elevated S/Ca in the soil immediately beneath their crowns, although that of A. ancistrocarpa was of minor magnitude. These anomalies were confined to shallow soil (20-50 mm i.e. influenced by litter), suggesting limited S/Ca re-mobilisation from the litter. Foliar elemental

  16. Dermatan Sulfate Epimerase 1-Deficient Mice Have Reduced Content and Changed Distribution of Iduronic Acids in Dermatan Sulfate and an Altered Collagen Structure in Skin▿

    Maccarana, Marco; Kalamajski, Sebastian; Kongsgaard, Mads; Magnusson, S. Peter; Oldberg, Åke; Malmström, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Dermatan sulfate epimerase 1 (DS-epi1) and DS-epi2 convert glucuronic acid to iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate biosynthesis. Here we report on the generation of DS-epi1-null mice and the resulting alterations in the chondroitin/dermatan polysaccharide chains. The numbers of long blocks of adjacent iduronic acids are greatly decreased in skin decorin and biglycan chondroitin/dermatan sulfate, along with a parallel decrease in iduronic-2-O-sulfated-galactosamine-4-O-sulfated struct...

  17. Dermatan Sulfate Epimerase 1-Deficient Mice Have Reduced Content and Changed Distribution of Iduronic Acids in Dermatan Sulfate and an Altered Collagen Structure in Skin

    Maccarana, M.; Kalamajski, S.; Kongsgaard, M.; Magnusson, S.P.; Oldberg, A.; Malmstrom, A.

    2009-01-01

    Dermatan sulfate epimerase 1 (DS-epi1) and DS-epi2 convert glucuronic acid to iduronic acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate biosynthesis. Here we report on the generation of DS-epi1-null mice and the resulting alterations in the chondroitin/dermatan polysaccharide chains. The numbers of long blocks...... of adjacent iduronic acids are greatly decreased in skin decorin and biglycan chondroitin/dermatan sulfate, along with a parallel decrease in iduronic-2-O-sulfated-galactosamine-4-O-sulfated structures. Both iduronic acid blocks and iduronic acids surrounded by glucuronic acids are also decreased in...... versican-derived chains. DS-epi1-deficient mice are smaller than their wild-type littermates but otherwise have no gross macroscopic alterations. The lack of DS-epi1 affects the chondroitin/dermatan sulfate in many proteoglycans, and the consequences for skin collagen structure were initially analyzed. We...

  18. Uptake of Ambient Organic Gases to Acidic Sulfate Aerosols

    Liggio, J.; Li, S.

    2009-05-01

    The formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere has been an area of significant interest due to its climatic relevance, its effects on air quality and human health. Due largely to the underestimation of SOA by regional and global models, there has been an increasing number of studies focusing on alternate pathways leading to SOA. In this regard, recent work has shown that heterogeneous and liquid phase reactions, often leading to oligomeric material, may be a route to SOA via products of biogenic and anthropogenic origin. Although oligomer formation in chamber studies has been frequently observed, the applicability of these experiments to ambient conditions, and thus the overall importance of oligomerization reactions remain unclear. In the present study, ambient air is drawn into a Teflon smog chamber and exposed to acidic sulfate aerosols which have been formed in situ via the reaction of SO3 with water vapor. The aerosol composition is measured with a High Resolution Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), and particle size distributions are monitored with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). The use of ambient air and relatively low inorganic particle loading potentially provides clearer insight into the importance of heterogeneous reactions. Results of experiments, with a range of sulfate loadings show that there are several competing processes occurring on different timescales. A significant uptake of ambient organic gases to the particles is observed immediately followed by a slow shift towards higher m/z over a period of several hours indicating that higher molecular weight products (possibly oligomers) are being formed through a reactive process. The results suggest that heterogeneous reactions can occur with ambient organic gases, even in the presence of ammonia, which may have significant implications to the ambient atmosphere where particles may be neutralized after their formation.

  19. Decontamination of acid mine water from Ronneburg/Thueringen which is high in sulfates and metals using sulfate-reducing bacteria. Subproject. Final report

    The authors analyzed and developed the fundamentals of a microbiological water treatment process for decontamination of acid water from a uranium mine which is high in sulfates and heavy metals. The process is based on microbiological sulfate reduction. In the pre-phase of the project, sulfate-reducing microorganisms were isolated and cultivation methods for these microorganisms developed

  20. Accelerated swell testing of artificial sulfate bearing lime stabilised cohesive soils

    Buttress, A.J.; Grenfell, J.R.A.; Airey, G.D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the physico-chemical response of two lime stabilised sulfate bearing artificial soils subject to the European Accelerated Volumetric Swell Test (EN13286-49). At various intervals during the test, a specimen was removed and subject to compositional and microstructural analysis. Ettringite was formed by both soils types, but with significant differences in crystal morphology. Ettringite crystals formed from kaolin based soils were very small, colloidal in size and tended t...

  1. Sulfate Mineral Formation from Acid-weathered Phyllosilicates: Implications for the Aqueous History of Mars

    Craig, Patricia; Ming, Douglas; Rampe, Elizabeth

    2014-11-01

    Phyllosilicates on Mars are common in Noachian terrains whereas sulfates are found in the younger Hesperian terrains and suggest alteration under more acidic conditions. Phyllosilicates that formed during the Noachian era would have been exposed to the prevailing acidic conditions during the Hesperian. The purpose of this project is to characterize the effects of acid-weathering on phyllosilicates to better understand the aqueous history of Mars. Nontronite, montmorillonite, and saponite were exposed to H2SO4 solutions at water-rock (WR) ratios of 50 and 25.X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of all three acid-treated minerals showed progressive collapse of the phyllosilicate basal spacing with increasing acid concentration. Bassanite formed as an intermediate phase in weathered nontronite and montmorillonite from extracted interlayer Ca. The octahedral cation determined which sulfate formed at high acid concentration: rhomboclase from nontronite, alunogen from montmorillonite, hexahydrite and kieserite from saponite. Gypsum and anhydrite also formed as intermediate phases in nontronite treated at WR=25, showing a change in sulfate hydration state with changing acid concentration (i.e. water activity). Scanning electron microscopy analyses detected phases not identified by XRD. Al-sulfate was found in nontronite weathered at WR=25 and Ca-sulfate in weathered saponite. Near-infrared reflectance spectra of the weathered samples showed decreasing intensity of the hydration/hydroxylation bands and a change or disappearance of metal-OH bands indicating dehydration and dissociation of the interlayers and octahedral layers, respectively, with increased acid weathering.Sulfate mineral formation from acid-weathered phyllosilicates may explain the presence of phyllosilicates and sulfates in close proximity to each other on Mars, such as in Gale Crater. The CheMin XRD instrument on Curiosity may find evidence for acid-weathered phyllosilicates in Mt. Sharp by comparing the 001

  2. Raman scattering spectra and crystal structure of acid potassium-lithium sulfate

    Paper presents the results of the comprehensive investigation into Raman scattering in potassium-lithium acid sulfate crystal. A model of crystal structure is suggested on the basis of the study data. The suggested consistent model of the crystalline structure of potassium-lithium acid sulfate crystal describes well both spectrum high-frequency and low-frequency sections and may be used to analyze models of phase transformation

  3. Phytotoxicity of heptachlor and endosulfan sulfate contaminants in soils to economic crops.

    Somtrakoon, Khanitta; Pratumma, Sununta

    2012-11-01

    The intensive use of organochlorine in the past decades has resulted in contamination of soil worldwide. The phytotoxicity of two organochlorine pesticide, endosulfan sulfate and heptachlor, on the early growth stage of sweet corn (Zea mays), waxy corn (Zea mays) cowpea (Vigna sinensis), cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and water morning glory (Ipomoea aquatica) were studied. In the range of concentration found in Thai agricultural soil, 0.4-40 mg kg(-1) of each pesticide, did not affect the percentage of seed germination. Heptachlor seemed to affect the shoot and root length of test plants more than endosulfan sulfate. The combined effect of both pesticides to corn seedling growth was tested. There was no significant effect on combined treatment of both pesticides to corn growth. The 0.4-40 mg kg(-1) concentration of endosulfan sulfate and heptachlor did not produced significant effect on early growth of plants. PMID:23741808

  4. Reactive Crystallization of Calcium Sulfate Dihydrate from Acidic Wastewater and Lime

    邓立聪; 张亦飞; 陈芳芳; 曹绍涛; 游韶玮; 刘艳; 张懿

    2013-01-01

    The present work focused on the recycle of the sulfate and the metal ions from acidic wastewater dis-charged by nonferrous metallurgical industry. The effects of the temperature, the reactant concentration, the stirring speed and the metal ions on the reactive crystallization process of calcium sulfate between sulfuric acid and lime were systematically investigated. The morphology of the precipitated crystals evolved from platelet-like and nee-dle-like shape to rod-like shape when the temperature was increased from 25 to 70 °C. An increase in the agglom-eration of calcium sulfate was found with increasing lime concentration. Metal ions markedly retard the rate of crystallization of calcium sulfate dihydrate. The crystallization of gypsum was slowed with the existence of Mg2+in the solution, and the morphology of gypsum was transformed from platelet-like shape to rod-like shape when Mg2+concentration reached 0.08 mol·L-1. The amorphous ferric hydroxide was coated on the calcium sulfate after the co-precipitation process while Zn2+and Al3+ions in the solution enhanced the agglomeration of the calcium sulfate by absorbing on the surface of the crystals. Comprehensive acidic wastewater containing heavy metals was effi-ciently purified by the two stage lime neutralization technology, and highly agglomerated gypsum precipitates with needle-like shape were obtained. The precipitates could be purified by sulfuric acid washing, and the metal ions were effectively separated from the calcium sulfate by-products.

  5. Ferrous iron oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: inhibition with benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and sodium lauryl sulfate

    Onysko, S.J.; Kleinmann, R.L.P.; Erickson, P.M.

    1984-07-01

    Thiobacillus ferrooxidans promote indirect oxidation of pyrite through the catalysis of the oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric iron, which is an effective oxidant of pyrite. These bacteria also may catalyze direct oxidation of pyrite by oxygen. A number of organic compounds, under laboratory conditions, can apparently inhibit both the oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric iron by T. ferrooxidans and the weathering of pyritic material by mixed cultures of acid mine drainage microorganisms. In this study, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and sodium lauryl sulfate at low concentrations (5 to 10 mg/liter) each effectively inhibited bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron in batch cultures of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The rate of chemical oxidation of ferrous iron in low-pH, sterile batch reactors was not substantially affected at the tested concentrations (5 to 50 mg/liter) of any of the compounds.

  6. Some negative chemical properties of acid soils

    SVETLANA ANTIC-MLADENOVIC; SRDJAN BLAGOJEVIC; MIRJANA KRESOVIC; MIODRAG JAKOVLJEVIC

    2005-01-01

    Some important chemical properties of various samples of two types of acid soil fromWestern Serbia (pseudogley and brown forest) are presented in this paper.Mobile Al was found in elevated and toxic quantities (10–30 mg/100 g) in the more acid samples of pseudogley soil. All samples of brown forest soil were very acid and the quantities ofmobile Al were in the range from 12.8 to 90.0mg/100 g. In a selected number of pseudogley soils, the influence of pH and other soil properties on the minera...

  7. Persistent endosulfan sulfate is found with highest abundance among endosulfan I, II, and sulfate in German forest soils.

    Bussian, Bernd M; Pandelova, Marchela; Lehnik-Habrink, Petra; Aichner, Bernhard; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2015-11-01

    Endosulfan - an agricultural insecticide and banned by Stockholm Convention - is produced as a 2:1 to 7:3 mixture of isomers endosulfan I (ESI) and endosulfan II (ESII). Endosulfan is transformed under aerobic conditions into endosulfan sulfate (ESS). The study shows for 76 sampling locations in German forests that endosulfan is abundant in all samples with an opposite ratio between the ESI and ESII than the technical product, where the main metabolite ESS is found with even higher abundance. The ratio between ESI/ESII and ESS show clear dependence on the type of stands (coniferous vs. deciduous) and humus type and increases from deciduous via mixed to coniferous forest stands. The study argues for a systematic monitoring of ESI, ESII, and ESS and underlines the need for further research, specifically on the fate of endosulfan including biomagnifications and bioaccumulation in soil. PMID:26319511

  8. Sulfate adsorption and surface precipitation on a volcanic ash soil (allophanic andisol).

    Ishiguro, Munehide; Makino, Tomoyuki; Hattori, Yasunobu

    2006-08-15

    Sulfate strongly adsorbs on metal oxides and soils with variable charges. However, its surface precipitation has not been clearly evaluated and its adsorption mechanism has been in dispute. In the present study, an allophanic andisol, a typical volcanic ash soil having both negative and positive variable charges, was used to identify the adsorption mechanism of sulfate. Sulfate adsorption isotherms were obtained by a batch method at pH values of 4, 5, 6, and 7 in a wide range of concentrations in an Na-H-SO(4)-OH system. Theoretical isotherms were applied to the measured values for the evaluation. The surface precipitation was detected by the measured adsorption isotherms, and the BET isotherm confirmed the presence of multilayer adsorption. Stronger and weaker adsorption sites were suggested by using the Langmuir isotherm for the monolayer adsorption. The adsorption energies obtained from the Langmuir equation and recent spectroscopic analysis suggested that the stronger adsorption corresponded to an inner-sphere surface complex and that the weaker adsorption corresponded to outer-sphere surface complexation. The BET and Langmuir equations showed three types of adsorption mechanisms for the sulfate adsorption on the soil. PMID:16750540

  9. High aerosol acidity despite declining atmospheric sulfate concentrations over the past 15 years

    Weber, Rodney J.; Guo, Hongyu; Russell, Armistead G.; Nenes, Athanasios

    2016-04-01

    Particle acidity affects aerosol concentrations, chemical composition and toxicity. Sulfate is often the main acid component of aerosols, and largely determines the acidity of fine particles under 2.5 μm in diameter, PM2.5. Over the past 15 years, atmospheric sulfate concentrations in the southeastern United States have decreased by 70%, whereas ammonia concentrations have been steady. Similar trends are occurring in many regions globally. Aerosol ammonium nitrate concentrations were assumed to increase to compensate for decreasing sulfate, which would result from increasing neutrality. Here we use observed gas and aerosol composition, humidity, and temperature data collected at a rural southeastern US site in June and July 2013 (ref. ), and a thermodynamic model that predicts pH and the gas-particle equilibrium concentrations of inorganic species from the observations to show that PM2.5 at the site is acidic. pH buffering by partitioning of ammonia between the gas and particle phases produced a relatively constant particle pH of 0-2 throughout the 15 years of decreasing atmospheric sulfate concentrations, and little change in particle ammonium nitrate concentrations. We conclude that the reductions in aerosol acidity widely anticipated from sulfur reductions, and expected acidity-related health and climate benefits, are unlikely to occur until atmospheric sulfate concentrations reach near pre-anthropogenic levels.

  10. Phosphate fixation capacity of Thai acid soils using 32P isotope techniques

    Five acid soil samples from benchmark sites in Thailand were collected: Rangsit soil, two samples (Sulfic Tropaquepts or acid sulfate soils), Pakchong soil (Oxic Paleustults) Warin soil (Oxic Paleustults), Mae Taeng soil (Typic Paleustults). The soil P status was characterized in the laboratory by the 32P isotope exchange technique using treatments with and without P addition. In another experiment, the P-fixing capacity of the same soils was examined. They were incubated for 30 days with two Thai phosphate rocks Lamphun PR and RP and Ratchaburi PR, and TSP was used as a standard fertilizer. All of them were added at a rate of 50 mg P kg-1 . The soils can be ranked according to their P- fixing capacity as follows: Rangsit series (acid sulfate soil) > Mae Tang series (Typic Paleustult) > Pakchong series (Oxic Paleustult) > Warin series (Oxic Paleustult). The P availability from TSP decreased after 30 days incubation with the soils. PR from Ratchaburi was more effective than Lamphun PR. (author)

  11. Physicochemical behaviour of artificial lime stabilised sulfate bearing cohesive soils

    Buttress, Adam James

    2013-01-01

    Soil stabilisation is a useful civil engineering technique that enables the insitu material to be used as part of an engineered structure. Stabilised layers are used in road foundation; working platforms and for slope stabilisation and sea defences. Chemical stabilisation involves the use of a hydraulic binder (and sometimes additional pozzolans). Commonly, quicklime (CaO) or slaked-lime (Ca(OH)2) is used. On mixing into the ground, this reacts with the aluminosilicates of the clay fraction, ...

  12. Insights Into the Aqueous History of Mars from Acid-Sulfate Weathered Phyllosilicates

    Craig, P. I.; Ming, D. W.; Rampe, E. B.; Morris, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    Phyllosilicates on Mars are thought to have formed during Mars' earliest Noachian geologic era (approx. 4.1-3.7 Ga). Sulfate formation, on the other hand, requires more acidic conditions which are thought to have occurred later during Mars' Hesperian era (approx. 3.7-3.0 Ga). Therefore, regions on Mars where phyllosilicates and sulfates are found in close proximity to each other provide evidence for the aqueous conditions during this global transition. Both phyllosilicates and sulfates form in the presence of water and thus give clues to the aqueous history of Mars and its potential for habitability. Phyllosilicates that formed during the Noachian era would have been weathered by the prevailing acidic conditions that define the Hesperian. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to characterize the alteration products of acid-sulfate weathered phyllosilicates in laboratory experiments, focusing on the Fe/Mg-smectites commonly identified on Mars. We also compare our results to observations of phyllosilicates and sulfates on Mars in regions such as Endeavour Crater and Mawrth Vallis to understand the formation process of sulfates and constrain the aqueous history of these regions.

  13. Competitive surface complexation reactions of sulfate and natural organic carbon on soil

    The ecological implications of subsurface SO42- loading on nutrient cation leaching, acidification, and the destruction of concrete containers used to store low-level radioactive waste, has been thoroughly addressed. Processes favoring SO42- adsorption by the subsurface matrix tend to alleviate these adverse ecological conditions and this has been investigated to a lesser extent. In this study, the adsorption of SO42 onto several soil types with indigenous SO42- and organic carbon removed, was measured as a function of pH in the presence and absence of added natural organic matter (NOM). Sulfate adsorption was strongly pH dependent and the presence of >2 mg L-1 NOM resulted in a consistent decrease in sulfate adsorption over the pH range 4.5 to 8. The tendency of these soils to adsorb SO42- was related to their large quantity of Fe-oxides and the presence of kaolinite in the 42- was related to their large quantity of Fe-oxides and the presence of kaolinite in the 42- onto positive or neutral surface sites (XOH + H+ + SO42- = XSO4- + H2O) as a inner-sphere complex proved successful in describing the adsorption of sulfate under the experimental conditions. The estimated value of the intrinsic equilibrium constant (K) for the above reaction was of the order 1010 suggesting strong sulfate adsorption. Estimated K values were found to be unaffected by the presence of added NOM. 57 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Acidification of musts in warm regions with tartaric acid and calcium sulfate at industrial scale

    Gómez Juan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acidification of musts is necessary in warm areas where high temperatures during ripening accelerate breathing com- bustion of tartaric acid and, in particular, malic acid in the berries. L(+ tartaric acid, L(- or D,L malic acid and lactic acids are the only chemical acidifiers authorized by the OIV and European Community regulations. The use of calcium sulfate (gypsum: CaSO4·2H2O is also authorized in the European Community as a complementary acidifier in generous and generous liquor 42 wines from Spain (a practice known as plastering, provided that the residual sulfate content in the wine does not exceed 2.5 g/L expressed as potassium sulfate. However, this practice is not yet approved by OIV. To predict the effect on pH of different acidi- fiers, several chemical modeling approaches have been described in the literature, in particular a simplified model where the acidity of wine is considered to be due to a monoprotic acid. The aim of this work is to verify this model at pilot and industrial scale in the acidification of musts with tartaric and calcium sulfate, added either individually and in combination, using doses up to 3 g/L and to study the modifications that these practices produce on the compositions of the resulting wines. This work sup- plies useful information to study this practice in OIV in order to consider its approval.

  15. The fate of sulfate in acidified pig slurry during storage and following application to cropped soil

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Sørensen, Peter; Elsgaard, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Received for publication June 18, 2007. Acidification of slurry with sulfuric acid is a recent agricultural practice that may serve a double purpose: reducing ammonia emission and ensuring crop sulfur sufficiency. We investigated S transformations in untreated and acidified pig slurry stored for up...... plant-available sulfate form. Microbial sulfate reduction during storage of acidified pig slurry was limited, presumably due to initial pH effects and a limitation in the availability of easily degradable organic matter. Sulfide accumulation was observed during storage but the sulfide levels in...

  16. Dispersion Process and Effect of Oleic Acid on Properties of Cellulose Sulfate- Oleic Acid Composite Film

    Guo Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The cellulose sulfate (CS is a newly developed cellulose derivative. The work aimed to investigate the effect of oleic acid (OA content on properties of CS-OA film. The process of oleic acid dispersion into film was described to evaluate its effect on the properties of the film. Among the formulations evaluated, the OA addition decreased the solubility and water vapor permeability of the CS-OA film. The surface contact angle changed from 64.2° to 94.0° by increasing CS/OA ratio from 1:0 to 1:0.25 (w/w. The TS increased with OA content below 15% and decreased with OA over 15%, but the ε decreased with higher OA content. The micro-cracking matrices and micro pores in the film indicated the condense structure of the film destroyed by the incorporation of oleic acid. No chemical interaction between the OA and CS was observed in the XRD and FTIR spectrum. Film formulation containing 2% (w/w CS, 0.3% (w/w glycerol and 0.3% (w/w OA, showed good properties of mechanic, barrier to moisture and homogeneity.

  17. Impacts of Sulfate Seed Acidity and Water Content on Isoprene Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation.

    Wong, Jenny P S; Lee, Alex K Y; Abbatt, Jonathan P D

    2015-11-17

    The effects of particle-phase water and the acidity of pre-existing sulfate seed particles on the formation of isoprene secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was investigated. SOA was generated from the photo-oxidation of isoprene in a flow tube reactor at 70% relative humidity (RH) and room temperature in the presence of three different sulfate seeds (effloresced and deliquesced ammonium sulfate and ammonium bisulfate) under low NOx conditions. High OH exposure conditions lead to little isoprene epoxydiol (IEPOX) SOA being generated. The primary result is that particle-phase water had the largest effect on the amount of SOA formed, with 60% more SOA formation occurring with deliquesced ammonium sulfate seeds as compared to that on effloresced ones. The additional organic material was highly oxidized. Although the amount of SOA formed did not exhibit a dependence on the range of seed particle acidity examined, perhaps because of the low amount of IEPOX SOA, the levels of high-molecular-weight material increased with acidity. While the uptake of organics was partially reversible under drying, the results nevertheless indicate that particle-phase water enhanced the amount of organic aerosol material formed and that the RH cycling of sulfate particles may mediate the extent of isoprene SOA formation in the atmosphere. PMID:26460477

  18. Spatial Distribution of Sulfate and the Formation of Ettringite in Lime-Amended Soils of Central Texas

    Kuo, L.; Markley, C. T.; Herbert, B. E.; Little, D. N.

    2004-12-01

    During road construction, the use of calcium-based stabilizers, such as calcium oxide (lime), in sulfate-bearing clay soils has historically lead to distress and heave due to the formation of ettringite and possibly thaumasite. Ettringite (Ca6(Al(OH)6)2(SO4)3*26H2O) is a hydrous calcium alumino-sulfate mineral that precipitates in environments with high pH and high sulfate activity. Field surveys of soil conductivity quantified using electromagnetics (EM31), geochemical characterization of soils, geochemical modeling of ettringite precipitation in lime-amended soils, and landscape characterization using existing geospatial databases were coupled to prediction the potential for ettringite formation along the SH 130 corridor, a new toll road being constructed in central Texas. Electromagnetic surveys of soil conductivities were conducted at two sites near HWY 290 and HWY 79, in the SH 130 corridor. Soil conductivities at the two sites were correlated extractable SO42- and other soil properties (extractable Al, Ca, and Mg) quantified by water extracts at two pHs (pH 8-9 and 12). At the HWY 290 site, the soil conductivity ranged from 111 to 184 ms/m, while the conductivity ranged from 34-48 ms/m at the HWY 79 site. The concentration of extractable SO42- in HWY 290 and HWY 79 sites are up to 7269 mg/kg and 406 mg/kg, respectively. Soils at these sites are dominated by smectitic clay with relatively high amounts of carbonate. Information from STATSGO, the USDA soil database, and the comparisons between the results of the field surveys and laboratory soil analyses show that variations in sulfate levels at the two sites are strongly influenced by topography. The HWY 79 site is fairly level and there are only very weak trends in the sulfate composition of the soils. The HWY 290 site, on the other hand, is fairly hilly, with a dry stream channel, whose soil and sediments exhibited very high sulfate concentrations. The strong topographic slope influences hydrologic flow

  19. Effect of sulfate and carbonate minerals on particle-size distributions in arid soils

    Goossens, Dirk; Buck, Brenda J.; Teng, Yuazxin; Robins, Colin; Goldstein, Harland L.

    2014-01-01

    Arid soils pose unique problems during measurement and interpretation of particle-size distributions (PSDs) because they often contain high concentrations of water-soluble salts. This study investigates the effects of sulfate and carbonate minerals on grain-size analysis by comparing analyses in water, in which the minerals dissolve, and isopropanol (IPA), in which they do not. The presence of gypsum, in particular, substantially affects particle-size analysis once the concentration of gypsum in the sample exceeds the mineral’s solubility threshold. For smaller concentrations particle-size results are unaffected. This is because at concentrations above the solubility threshold fine particles cement together or bind to coarser particles or aggregates already present in the sample, or soluble mineral coatings enlarge grains. Formation of discrete crystallites exacerbates the problem. When soluble minerals are dissolved the original, insoluble grains will become partly or entirely liberated. Thus, removing soluble minerals will result in an increase in measured fine particles. Distortion of particle-size analysis is larger for sulfate minerals than for carbonate minerals because of the much higher solubility in water of the former. When possible, arid soils should be analyzed using a liquid in which the mineral grains do not dissolve, such as IPA, because the results will more accurately reflect the PSD under most arid soil field conditions. This is especially important when interpreting soil and environmental processes affected by particle size.

  20. Transformation of diphenylarsinic acid in agricultural soils.

    Maejima, Yuji; Arao, Tomohito; Baba, Koji

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the transformation and fate of diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) during incubation in two types of soils (Entisol and Andisol) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Under anaerobic conditions only, DPAA was transformed into methyldiphenylarsine oxide by methylation. Under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, DPAA was degraded to phenylarsonic acid by dephenylation, and phenylarsonic acid was subsequently methylated to form methylphenylarsinic acid and dimethylphenylarsine oxide. The degradation of DPAA in the Andisol was less extensive than in the Entisol. In autoclaved soil under anaerobic conditions, DPAA underwent little degradation during the 24-wk incubation. In unautoclaved soils, the concentration of DPAA in soil clearly decreased after 24 wk of incubation, indicating that DPAA degradation was driven by microbial activity. PMID:21488495

  1. Algae as an electron donor promoting sulfate reduction for the bioremediation of acid rock drainage.

    Ayala-Parra, Pedro; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, Jim A

    2016-11-01

    This study assessed bioremediation of acid rock drainage in simulated permeable reactive barriers (PRB) using algae, Chlorella sorokiniana, as the sole electron donor for sulfate-reducing bacteria. Lipid extracted algae (LEA), the residues of biodiesel production, were compared with whole cell algae (WCA) as an electron donor to promote sulfate-reducing activity. Inoculated columns containing anaerobic granular sludge were fed a synthetic medium containing H2SO4 and Cu(2+). Sulfate, sulfide, Cu(2+) and pH were monitored throughout the experiment of 123d. Cu recovered in the column packing at the end of the experiment was evaluated using sequential extraction. Both WCA and LEA promoted 80% of sulfate removal (12.7mg SO4(2-) d(-1)) enabling near complete Cu removal (>99.5%) and alkalinity generation raising the effluent pH to 6.5. No noteworthy sulfate reduction, alkalinity formation and Cu(2+) removal were observed in the endogenous control. In algae amended-columns, Cu(2+) was precipitated with biogenic H2S produced by sulfate reduction. Formation of CuS was evidenced by sequential extraction and X-ray diffraction. LEA and WCA provided similar levels of electron donor based on the COD balance. The results demonstrate an innovative passive remediation system using residual algae biomass from the biodiesel industry. PMID:27318730

  2. The effect of copper sulfate, potassium permanganate, and peracetic acid on Ichthyobodo necator in channel catfish

    Ichthyobodo necator is a single celled biflagellate that can cause significant mortalities in fish, particularly young, tank-reared fish. Copper sulfate (CuSO4), potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and peracetic acid (PAA) were evaluated for effectiveness against Ichthybodosis in juvenile channel catfis...

  3. Exchangeable aluminum evaluation in acid soils

    Abreu Jr. Cassio Hamilton; Muraoka Takashi; Lavorante André Fernando

    2003-01-01

    One of the main factors limiting agricultural production in tropical climate regions is mainly related to the presence of exchangeable aluminum (Al3+) in highly weathered acid soils. Four methods of Al3+ determination extracted with neutral 1 mol L¹ KCl solution were evaluated: three colorimetric methods (aluminon plus ascorbic acid, and eriochrome cyanine R by FIA) and the usual titrimetric method with back-titration. Surface samples from 20 soils of different Brazilian regions, with active ...

  4. Kinetics of Reductive Acid Leaching of Cadmium-Bearing Zinc Ferrite Mixture Using Hydrazine Sulfate

    Zhang, Chun; Zhang, Jianqiang; Min, Xiaobo; Wang, Mi; Zhou, Bosheng; Shen, Chen

    2015-09-01

    The reductive acid leaching kinetics of synthetic cadmium-bearing zinc ferrite was investigated, and the influence of reaction temperature, sulfuric acid and hydrazine sulfate were studied. The results illustrated that an increase in the reaction temperature, initial sulfuric acid and hydrazine sulfate significantly enhanced the extraction efficiencies of cadmium, zinc and iron. The leaching kinetics were controlled by a surface chemical reaction based on a shrinking core model. The empirical equation applied was found to fit well with the kinetics analysis; the leaching processes of cadmium, zinc and iron were similar and the activation energies were 79.9 kJ/mol, 77.9 kJ/mol and 79.7 kJ/mol, respectively. The apparent orders of cadmium-bearing zinc ferrite dissolution with respect to sulfuric acid concentration were 0.83, 0.83 and 0.84 for Cd, Zn and Fe, respectively.

  5. Microbial links between sulfate reduction and metal retention in uranium- and heavy metal-contaminated soil

    Sitte, Jana; Akob, Denise M.; Kaufmann, Christian;

    2010-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) can affect metal mobility either directly by reductive transformation of metal ions, e.g., uranium, into their insoluble forms or indirectly by formation of metal sulfides. This study evaluated in situ and biostimulated activity of SRB in groundwater-influenced soils...... from a creek bank contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides within the former uranium mining district of Ronneburg, Germany. In situ activity of SRB, measured by the 35SO42– radiotracer method, was restricted to reduced soil horizons with rates of 142 ± 20 nmol cm–3 day–1. Concentrations of...... heavy metals were enriched in the solid phase of the reduced horizons, whereas pore water concentrations were low. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) measurements demonstrated that 80% of uranium was present as reduced uranium but appeared to occur as a sorbed complex. Soil-based dsrAB clone...

  6. Formation,characteristics and ecological effects of acid sulfate soil%酸性硫酸盐土的形成、特性及其生态环境效应

    黄巧义; 唐拴虎; 卢瑛; 张发宝; 杨少海

    2014-01-01

    过程进行综述,进一步梳理了ASS中硫的演变和铁的地球化学过程,并着重阐述了ASS的酸性特点,最后对ASS的生态环境效应进行了讨论。结合我国研究现状,展望了进一步研究ASS的主要问题,旨在为科学开发和利用酸性硫酸盐土提供参考。%Acid su1fate soi1( ASS)is one of the nastiest soi1s in the word because of its strong acidity. Fe and S biogeochemica1 cyc1ing in ASS P1ays an imPortant ro1e in g1oba1 materia1 recyc1ing. The Parent materia1s of ASS are often form troPica1 and subtroPica1 estuary,bay and other coasta1 environment,where is submerged and rich in organic matter. Dissimi1ation bacteria reduce seawater su1fate to form mackinawite( FeS),greigite( Fe3 S4 ),Pyrite ( FeS2 )and other reduced Fe-S sediments. Sedimentation of reduced Fe-S minera1s coPreciPitates free meta1s,rare earth e1ements and trace e1ements in the environment,Purifies seawater and enrichs meta1s. ASS is formed through oxidation of reduced Fe-S minera1s in soi1s by natura1 Process or anthroPogenic interventions. The oxidation of Fe-S minera1s u1timate1y resu1ts in Products such as Fe-hydroxides,acidity and su1fate,invo1ves a series of comP1ex reactions,with severa1 Fe and S intermediate and strong acidic soi1. In strong acid soi1s,the mobi1ities of A1,Cd, Mn,As,Cr and other Potentia11y toxic meta1s are significant1y high,whi1e the bioavai1abi1ities of P,K,Zn,B and other essentia1 nutrients are significant1y 1ow,which adverse1y affects anima1 and P1ant growth. On the other hand, the mobi1ised acid and toxic e1ements can enter nearby waterways and groundwater through rain,runoff,seePage and other ways,threatening the surrounding eco1ogica1 security. The formation mechanism of ASS has been disc1osed,and its eco1ogica1 effect has been understood. In the ear1y studies,Chinese researchers have focused on concentrations of iron,a1uminum and su1fur in ASS and the remediation and aPP1ications of ASS farm1and,few studies on

  7. Suppression of rice methane emission by sulfate deposition in simulated acid rain

    Gauci, Vincent; Dise, Nancy B; Howell, Graham; Jenkins, Meaghan E.

    2008-01-01

    Sulfate in acid rain is known to suppress methane (CH4) emissions from natural freshwater wetlands. Here we examine the possibility that CH4 emissions from rice agriculture may be similarly affected by acid rain, a major and increasing pollution problem in Asia. Our findings suggest that acid rain rates of SO2-4 deposition may help to reduce CH4 emissions from rice agriculture. Emissions from rice plants treated with simulated acid rain at levels of SO2-4 consistent with the range of depositi...

  8. Zinc-Nickel Codeposition in Sulfate Solution Combined Effect of Cadmium and Boric Acid

    Y. Addi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of cadmium and boric acid on the electrodeposition of zinc-nickel from a sulfate has been investigated. The presence of cadmium ion decreases zinc in the deposit. In solution, cadmium inhibits the zinc ion deposition and suppresses it when deposition potential value is more negative than −1.2 V. Low concentration of CdSO4 reduces the anomalous nature of Zn-Ni deposit. Boric acid decreases current density and shifts potential discharge of nickel and hydrogen to more negative potential. The combination of boric acid and cadmium increases the percentage of nickel in the deposit. Boric acid and cadmium.

  9. An ultracapacitor circuit for reducing sulfation in lead acid batteries for Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    The nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries used in most hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) provide satisfactory performance, but are quite expensive. In spite of their lower energy density, lead acid batteries would be much more economical except they are prone to sulfation in HEV applications. However, sulfation can be greatly reduced by a circuit that uses an ultracapacitor in conjunction with the battery. The resulting system will provide much cheaper energy storage if ultracapacitor prices can be reduced to levels predicted by some manufacturers. (author)

  10. Microbial sulfate reduction and metal attenuation in pH 4 acid mine water

    Alpers Charles N; Wilkin Richard T; Church Clinton D; Rye Robert O; McCleskey R Blaine

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Sediments recovered from the flooded mine workings of the Penn Mine, a Cu-Zn mine abandoned since the early 1960s, were cultured for anaerobic bacteria over a range of pH (4.0 to 7.5). The molecular biology of sediments and cultures was studied to determine whether sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were active in moderately acidic conditions present in the underground mine workings. Here we document multiple, independent analyses and show evidence that sulfate reduction and associated ...

  11. The relation between soil sulfate concentration and proanthocyanidin content of Selliguea feei Bory from around Ratu crater, Mount Tangkuban Perahu

    Novianti, Vivi; Choesin, Devi N.

    2014-03-01

    Proanthocyanidin is a chemical compound with a basic flavan-3-ol structure formed from flavonoid secondary metabolism in plants, with potential for human use because of its anti-hypertension, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Considering the fact that S. feei contains proanthocynidin and grows abundantly around Ratu Crater, Mount Tangkuban Perahu, which actively emits S02 gas, this study aimed to see the relation between soil sulfate concentration and proanthocyanidin content in leaves and rhizomes of S. feei. Field sampling was conducted in 1 m2 plots at elevations of 1400, 1600 m above sea level (100 m distance from sulfur source), 1700, 1800 and 1900 m a.s.l. (75 m from sulfur source). Measurements included soil sulfate concentration, proanthocyanidin content of rhizomes and leaves, and environmental factors. An experiment was conducted by planting S. feei from the field into polybags which were then given treatments of sterile plant media with varying sulfate concentrations (0 ppm, 100 ppm, 250 ppm, 400 ppm, 600 ppm, and 800 ppm). Proanthocyanidin content of S. feei leaves and rhizomes were measured on the third, sixth and ninth week. Soil sulfate concentrations were found to be very high (428.22 - 992.91 ppm) with values increasing according to altitude. Proanthocyanidin content in rhizomes were higher than in leaves, in both field and experimental data. Soil sulfate concentrations correlated positively and significantly with proanthocyanidin content in rhizomes of S. feei. As in the field, experimental results indicated no correlation or relation between soil sulfate concentration and proanthocyanidin content in leaves. Besides soil sulfate concentration, environmental factors have a role in incresing peoanthocyanidin content of S.feei. Proanthocyanidin content of S.feei rhizomes could be classified as being very high, thus having potential to be developed as raw material in medicine and food industries.

  12. Promoting Effect of Foliage Sprayed Zinc Sulfate on Accumulation of Sugar and Phenolics in Berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot Growing on Zinc Deficient Soil

    Chang-Zheng Song

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on berry development of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on arid zone Zn-deficient soils was investigated over two consecutive seasons, 2013 and 2014. Initial zinc concentration in soil and vines, photosynthesis at three berry developmental stages, berry weight, content of total soluble solids, titratable acidity, phenolics and expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout the stages were measured. Foliage sprayed zinc sulfate showed promoting effects on photosynthesis and berry development of vines and the promotion mainly occurred from veraison to maturation. Zn treatments enhanced the accumulation of total soluble solids, total phenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and anthocyanins in berry skin, decreasing the concentration of titratable acidity. Furthermore, foliage sprayed zinc sulfate could significantly influence the expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout berry development, and the results of expression analysis supported the promotion of Zn treatments on phenolics accumulation. This research is the first comprehensive and detailed study about the effect of foliage sprayed Zn fertilizer on grape berry development, phenolics accumulation and gene expression in berry skin, providing a basis for improving the quality of grape and wine in Zn-deficient areas.

  13. Sulfur utilization by rice and Crotalaria juncea from sulfate - 34S applied to the soil

    Trivelin Paulo Cesar Ocheuze

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In tropical soils with intensive agriculture an increasing sulfur deficiency has been verified in several crops. The low available S in these soils is caused by the continuous use of concentrated NPK fertilizers. The objective of this work was to evaluate the utilization by rice (Oriza sativa L. and crotalaria juncea (Crotalaria juncea L. of sulfur applied to the soil, under greenhouse conditions. Pots with 3 kg of an Argisol (Paleudalf were used to test the isotopic technique with the stable isotope 34S, adding a solution of sodium sulfate labeled with 34S (14.30 ± 0.05 atom % of 34S to the soil (70 mg SO4-S per kg-1 of soil 18 days after sowing both species. The shoots of the crotalaria and rice were harvested, respectively on the 72nd and 122nd days after S fertilization. The concentration and the amount of sulfur in the crotalaria were higher than in rice, due to the higher legume requirement for this nutrient. The sulfur requirement and the short time interval between fertilization and harvest of the crotalaria resulted in a small amount of native SO4-S mineralized in the soil and a small quantity of 34SO4 immobilized by soil microorganisms. Thus, the percentage of sulfur in the crotalaria derived from the fertilizer (Sdff was higher than in the rice (%Sdff crotalaria = 91.3 ± 3.5%; %Sdff rice = 66.3 ± 0.8%. The expressive values of %Sdff indicate a low rate of mineralization of SO4-S probably as a consequence of the low available sulfur content in the soil.

  14. Sulfation of metal-organic framework: Opportunities for acid catalysis and proton conductivity

    Goesten, M.G.; Stavitski, E.; Juan-Alcaniz, J.; Ramos-Fernandez, E.V.; Sai Sankar Gupta, K.B.; van Bekkum, H.; Gascon, J. and Kapteijn, F.

    2011-05-24

    A new post-functionalization method for metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been developed to introduce acidity for catalysis. Upon treatment with a mixture of triflic anhydride and sulfuric acid, chemically stable MOF structures MIL-101(Cr) and MIL-53(Al) can be sulfated, resulting in a Broensted sulfoxy acid group attached to up to 50% of the aromatic terephthalate linkers of the structure. The sulfated samples have been extensively characterized by solid-state NMR, XANES, and FTIR spectroscopy. The functionalized acidic frameworks show catalytic activity similar to that of acidic polymers like Nafion{reg_sign} display in the esterification of n-butanol with acetic acid (TOF {approx} 1 min{sup -1} {at} 343 K). Water adsorbs strongly up to 4 molecules per sulfoxy acid group, and an additional 2 molecules are taken up at lower temperatures in the 1-D pore channels of S-MIL-53(Al). The high water content and Broensted acidity provide the structure S-MIL-53(Al) a high proton conductivity up to moderate temperatures.

  15. Boric acid and sodium sulfate production from ulexite concentrate. Vacuum crystallization process

    South America reserves of boron minerals are concentrated in the Central Andes. Ulexite is one of the most important borates in these deposits. The mineral is associated with impurities such as sand, clays, chlorides and sulfates. At present, boric acid is produced in Argentina by leaching the ulexite with sulfuric acid and it is recovered through a process of liquid-solid separation and then, by a cooling crystallization process. The residual slurry rejected and the periodical bleedings of the crystallization residual solution produce adverse environmental effects. This paper reports and improved process to produce boric acid using concentrated ulexite as raw material instead or ore. Anhydrous sodium sulfate is obtained as a by-product using a fractional crystallization process: vacuum crystallization for boric acid and evaporating crystallization for sodium sulfate. It has been developed to minimize the pollution problems through the decreasing of residual solids production and avoiding the bleeding of residual solutions. The fractional crystallization process has been studied with the equilibrium diagrams of the H3 B O3 - Na2 S O4 - H2 O at different temperatures. (author)

  16. On the determination of exchangeable cations in acid forest soils. Zur Bestimmung austauschbarer Kationen in sauren Waldboeden

    Matzner, E. (Goettingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Forschungszentrum Waldoekosysteme); Buerstinghaus, C. (Goettingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Bodenkunde und Waldernaehrung)

    1990-12-01

    Different samples from acid forest soils were percolated with large amounts of H{sub 2}O. Significant amounts of anions, especially sulfate, were found in the percolates mainly accompanied by Na, K, Ca and Mg (M{sub b}-cations). The dissolution of Al-sulfates and subsequent exchange of M{sub b}-cations by Al as dominant mechanism is proposed. Thus the common method for determination of the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of acid forest soils, the percolation with NH{sub 4}Cl may overestimate the CEC. The overestimation may be related to the sulfate content of the soil and also influences the calculation of relative CEC proportions of individual cations. (orig.).

  17. Annual sulfate budgets for Dutch lowland peat polders: The soil is a major sulfate source through peat and pyrite oxidation

    Vermaat, Jan E.; Harmsen, Joop; Hellmann, Fritz A.; van der Geest, Harm G.; de Klein, Jeroen J. M.; Kosten, Sarian; Smolders, Alfons J. P.; Verhoeven, Jos T. A.; Mes, Ron G.; Ouboter, Maarten

    2016-02-01

    Annual sulfate mass balances have been constructed for four low-lying peat polders in the Netherlands, to resolve the origin of high sulfate concentrations in surface water, which is considered a water quality problem, as indicated amongst others by the absence of sensitive water plant species. Potential limitation of these plants to areas with low sulfate was analyzed with a spatial match-up of two large databases. The peat polders are generally used for dairy farming or nature conservation, and have considerable areas of shallow surface water (mean 16%, range 6-43%). As a consequence of continuous drainage, the peat in these polders mineralizes causing subsidence rates generally ranging between 2 and 10 mm y-1. Together with pyrite oxidation, this peat mineralization the most important internal source of sulfate, providing an estimated 96 kg SO4 ha-1 mm-1 subsidence y-1. External sources are precipitation and water supplied during summer to compensate for water shortage, but these were found to be minor compared to internal release. The most important output flux is discharge of excess surface water during autumn and winter. If only external fluxes in and out of a polder are evaluated, inputs average 37 ± 9 and exports 169 ± 17 kg S ha-1 y-1. During summer, when evapotranspiration exceeds rainfall, sulfate accumulates in the unsaturated zone, to be flushed away and drained off during the wet autumn and winter. In some polders, upward seepage from early Holocene, brackish sediments can be a source of sulfate. Peat polders export sulfate to the regional water system and the sea during winter drainage. The available sulfate probably only plays a minor role in the oxidation of peat: we estimate that this is less than 10% whereas aerobic mineralization is the most important. Most surface waters in these polders have high sulfate concentrations, which generally decline during the growing season when aquatic sediments are a sink. In the sediment, this sulfur is

  18. The role of sulfate and ionic strength on the shift from acid to alkaline mine drainage in southwest Pennsylvania

    Four Mile Run, Latrobe, PA, receives discharges from abandoned deep mines. In 1971, the effluent was characterized as having low pH, high acidity, and high concentrations of iron, manganese, and sulfate. After 22 yr of neglect, the water flow rate, pH, and alkalinity all increased, while the acidity, iron, manganese, and sulfate concentrations decreased. The overall loading of iron and sulfate to the stream has not changed significantly. This change from acid to alkaline drainage is fairly typical for mine effluent in the surrounding area. However, the mechanism for change is not well understood. Laboratory studies have shown that the neutralization rate of marble chips (CaCO3) is depressed by high ionic strength or elevated levels of sulfate. The decrease in sulfate levels may be an important factor contributing to the change in water quality discharged into Four Mile Run. A similar kinetic phenomenon may occur with mine spoils and anoxic drains

  19. Total Nucleic Acid Extraction from Soil

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Roey Angel ### Abstract The following protocol is intended for the simultaneous extraction of DNA and RNA from various soil samples along with suggestions on how to tweak the protocol for soil with higher humic content. The protocol has been used by many and results in very high yields of nucleic acids, typically much more than commercial kits. For buffers and solutions used in this protocol, please see accompanying document Buffers and Solutions for TNA Extractions.pdf. ...

  20. Fluctuations of sulfate, S-bearing amino acids and magnesium in a giant clam shell

    T. Yoshimura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We used micro-X-ray fluorescence combined with X-ray photoabsorption spectroscopy to investigate speciation-specific sulfur profiles in the inner shell layer of a giant clam (Hippopus hippopus. The sulfate, S-bearing amino acids, and total sulfur profiles indicated that inorganic sulfate was the dominant component in the shell of this bivalve. Sulfur profiles in the inner shell layer showed clear annual fluctuations that varied by more than one order of magnitude, from K-edge XANES and comparison of Mg and S-bearing amino acids profiles indicated that a pronounced effect of the organic fraction or disordered phases were observed in aragonitic shell of H. hippopus rather than regulated substitution into the aragonite crystal lattice.

  1. Synergistic extraction of uranium from acidic sulfate leach liquor using D2EHPA mixed with TOPO

    Uranium extraction from sulfate leach liquor acid by D2EHPA and TOPO mixture in kerosene was investigated. The effect of different factors affecting the extraction mechanism such as sulfate leach liquor acid, D2EHPA and TOPO concentrations and temperature have been studied. The mathematical treatment for the obtained date suggested that the composition of synergistic extraction species is (UO2(D)2T). The logarithm of the apparent equilibrium constant, log Kex, of synergistic extraction reaction has been evaluated, to be 3.35 ± 0.1. The effect of temperature on extraction process was investigated and the apparent values of the thermodynamics parameters (∆H, ∆G and ∆S) were 38.2 kJ/mol, -19.1 kJ/mol and 192.5 J/mol respectively. (author)

  2. Production of furans from pulp sheet over sulfated solid acid catalysts

    Hongdan Zhang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Furans are high value-added biomass-derived chemicals that can be used to replace petrochemicals. In this study, sulfated solid acid catalysts were prepared by precipitation and impregnation and were used for the conversion of a cellulosic pulp sheet into furans. The physicochemical properties of the prepared sulfated solid acid with different calcination temperatures and different mol ratios of Ti-Al were characterized using XRD, elemental analysis, TG, and NH3-TPD. Furthermore, the effects of various processing parameters such as temperature, time, and catalyst dosage on the reaction performance were studied. The combined yield of 5-hydroxymethyl-furfural and furfural reached 8.9% and 4.5% of pulp sheet mass with a 5% dosage of SO42-/TiO2-Al2O3 catalyst at 220 oC for 30 min. The activity for recovered catalyst was also investigated in this study.

  3. Fractionation of microimpurities during precipitation of basic zirconium sulfate out of nitric acid solutions

    A study was made on fractionation of microimpurities during precipitation of basic zirconium sulfate out of concentrated with respect to ZrO2 nitric acid solutions. Investigation into fractionation of Sc(3), Cr(3), Mn(2), Fe(3), Co(2), CU(2), Zn(2) and Y(3) microirpurities during hydrolytic precipitation of basic zirconium sulfate out of nitric acid solutions showed that a majority of microimpurities are characterized by high distribution factors and concentrate in mother liquor. Adsorption isotherms were constructed for Cu(2) and Fe(3) microimpurities. The assumption about the effect of microimpurity nature (ionic charge and radius, the electron structure) on precipitation mechanism was made on the base of obtained data

  4. Brown coal derived products ameliorating soil acidity

    Issa, J.; Patti, A.F.; Jackson, W.R. [Monash University, Clayton, Vic. (Australia). Centre for Green Chemistry

    2000-07-01

    Humic acid derived from brown coal, with added calcium, when applied to the soil surface, can increase pH deeper into the soil profile. The humates can move down with water percolating the soil. As they move down the added calcium bound to the humate's cation exchange sites (the acidic oxygen functional groups) can exchange with toxic aluminium ions and ions on exchange sites in the soil. Thus the soil pH is buffered, nutrient transport to plants assisted, and phytotoxic aluminium bound and rendered harmless to plants. K Humate is a commercially available source of humate (ex HRL Agriculture Pty Ltd Australia) derived from brown coal. It can be obtained by the treatment of brown coal with potassium hydroxide. Calsulmag is a commercial treated coal fly ash (also ex HRL Agriculture Pty Ltd) which can be used instead of lime due to its high inorganic calcium and magnesium content. When K humate and Calsulmag are combined in an aqueous mixture, and applied to the surface of an acidic soil, pH is increased (from 3.8 to 4.5) as is exchangeable calcium (30-50%), while exchangeable aluminium is decreased (30-50%), down to a 5 cm depth.

  5. Variation in the Activity Coefficient of Zinc Sulfate in the Presence of Sulfuric Acid

    Begar, A.; Djeghlal, M. A.; Saada, A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study concerns the dissolution process of sphalerite in synthetic aqueous solution of sulfuric acid in the absence of oxygen, which allows zinc sulfate to be obtained from a sphalerite. The reaction product of the reaction solution in the absence of oxygen is determined using the Pitzer model used to calculate the various activity coefficients. As the leaching experiments of the present study covered the temperature range from 25° C to 200° C, it is necessa...

  6. Sulfated Steroid–Amino Acid Conjugates from the Irish Marine Sponge Polymastia boletiformis

    Vangelis Smyrniotopoulos; Margaret Rae; Sylvia Soldatou; Yuanqing Ding; Wolff, Carsten W.; Grace McCormack; Coleman, Christina M.; Daneel Ferreira; Deniz Tasdemir

    2015-01-01

    Antifungal bioactivity-guided fractionation of the organic extract of the sponge Polymastia boletiformis, collected from the west coast of Ireland, led to the isolation of two new sulfated steroid-amino acid conjugates (1 and 2). Extensive 1D and 2D NMR analyses in combination with quantum mechanical calculations of the electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra, optical rotation, and 13C chemical shifts were used to establish the chemical structures of 1 and 2. Both compounds exhibited mode...

  7. Sulfate reduction at low pH to remediate acid mine drainage

    Sánchez-Andrea, Irene, E-mail: irene.sanchezandrea@wur.nl [Departamento de Biología Molecular, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University, Dreijenplein 10, 6703 HB Wageningen (Netherlands); Sanz, Jose Luis [Departamento de Biología Molecular, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Bijmans, Martijn F.M. [Wetsus, Centre of Sustainable Water Technology, P.O. Box 1113, 8900 CC Leeuwarden (Netherlands); Stams, Alfons J.M. [Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University, Dreijenplein 10, 6703 HB Wageningen (Netherlands); IBB – Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Acid mine drainage (AMD) is an important environmental concern. • Remediation through biological sulfate reduction and metal recovery can be applied for AMD. • Microbial community composition has a major impact on the performance of bioreactors to treat AMD. • Acidophilic SRB are strongly influenced by proton, sulfide and organic acids concentration. - Abstract: Industrial activities and the natural oxidation of metallic sulfide-ores produce sulfate-rich waters with low pH and high heavy metals content, generally termed acid mine drainage (AMD). This is of great environmental concern as some heavy metals are highly toxic. Within a number of possibilities, biological treatment applying sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is an attractive option to treat AMD and to recover metals. The process produces alkalinity, neutralizing the AMD simultaneously. The sulfide that is produced reacts with the metal in solution and precipitates them as metal sulfides. Here, important factors for biotechnological application of SRB such as the inocula, the pH of the process, the substrates and the reactor design are discussed. Microbial communities of sulfidogenic reactors treating AMD which comprise fermentative-, acetogenic- and SRB as well as methanogenic archaea are reviewed.

  8. Sulfate reduction at low pH to remediate acid mine drainage

    Highlights: • Acid mine drainage (AMD) is an important environmental concern. • Remediation through biological sulfate reduction and metal recovery can be applied for AMD. • Microbial community composition has a major impact on the performance of bioreactors to treat AMD. • Acidophilic SRB are strongly influenced by proton, sulfide and organic acids concentration. - Abstract: Industrial activities and the natural oxidation of metallic sulfide-ores produce sulfate-rich waters with low pH and high heavy metals content, generally termed acid mine drainage (AMD). This is of great environmental concern as some heavy metals are highly toxic. Within a number of possibilities, biological treatment applying sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is an attractive option to treat AMD and to recover metals. The process produces alkalinity, neutralizing the AMD simultaneously. The sulfide that is produced reacts with the metal in solution and precipitates them as metal sulfides. Here, important factors for biotechnological application of SRB such as the inocula, the pH of the process, the substrates and the reactor design are discussed. Microbial communities of sulfidogenic reactors treating AMD which comprise fermentative-, acetogenic- and SRB as well as methanogenic archaea are reviewed

  9. Solubility of strontium sulfate in phosphoric acid and in solutions of the CaO-SrO-P2O5-H2O system

    Solubility of strontium sulfate in phosphoric acid aqueous solutions containing 5-40 wt. % P2O5 as well as in phosphoric acid solutions saturated by calcium dihydrophosphate is studied by isothermal method in the temperature range of 25-100 Deg C. It is ascertained that strontium sulfate solubility depends on phosphoric acid concentration being approximately an order lower than calcium sulfate stable phase solubility in similar conditions. In phosphoric acid solutions saturated by calcium dihydrophosphate calcium sulfate solubility is higher than that of strontium sulfate in diluted phosphoric acid solutions (up to 20 wt. % P2O5) and lower in more concentrated solutions

  10. The effects of acid deposition on sulfate reduction and methane production in peatlands

    Murray, Georgia L.; Hines, Mark E.; Bayley, Suzanne E.

    1992-01-01

    Peatlands, as fens and bods, make up a large percentage of northern latitude terrestrial environments. They are organic rich and support an active community of anaerobic bacteria, such as methanogenic and sulfate-reducing bacteria. The end products of these microbial activities, methane and hydrogen sulfide, are important components in the global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and sulfur. Since these two bacterial groups compete for nutritional substrates, increases in sulfate deposition due to acid rain potentially can disrupt the balance between these processes leading to a decrease in methane production and emission. This is significant because methane is a potent greenhouse gas that effects the global heat balance. A section of Mire 239 in the Experimental Lakes Area, in Northwestern Ontario, was artificially acidified and rates of sulfate reduction and methane production were measured with depth. Preliminary results suggested that methane production was not affected immediately after acidification. However, concentrations of dissolved methane decreased and dissolved sulfide increased greatly after acidification and both took several days to recover. The exact mechanism for the decrease in methane was not determined. Analyses are under way which will be used to determine rates of sulfate reduction. These results will be available by Spring and will be discussed.

  11. Designer, acidic biochar influences calcareous soil characteristics.

    Ippolito, J A; Ducey, T F; Cantrell, K B; Novak, J M; Lentz, R D

    2016-01-01

    In a proof-of-concept study, an acidic (pH 5.8) biochar was created using a low pyrolysis temperature (350 °C) and steam activation (800 °C) to potentially improve the soil physicochemical status of an eroded calcareous soil. Biochar was added at 0%, 1%, 2%, and 10% (by wt.) and soils were destructively sampled at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 month intervals. Soil was analyzed for gravimetric water content, pH, NO3-N, plant-available Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, and P, organic C, CO2 respiration, and microbial enumeration via extractable DNA and 16S rRNA gene copies. Gravimetric soil water content increased with biochar application regardless of rate, as compared to the control. Soil pH decreased between 0.2 and 0.4 units, while plant-available Zn, Mn, and P increased with increasing biochar application rate. Micronutrient availability decreased over time likely due to insoluble mineral species precipitation. Increasing biochar application raised the soil organic C content and remained elevated over time. Increasing biochar application rate also increased respired CO2, yet the CO2 released decreased over time. Soil NO3-N concentrations significantly decreased with increasing biochar application rate likely due to microbial immobilization or denitrification. Depending on application rate, biochar produced a 1.4 to 2.1-fold increase in soil DNA extracted and 1.4- to 2.4-fold increase in 16S rRNA gene abundance over control soils, suggesting microbial stimulation and a subsequent burst of activity upon biochar addition. Our results showed that there is promise in designing a biochar to improve the quality and water relations of eroded calcareous soils. PMID:26077798

  12. Iduronic Acid in Chondroitin/Dermatan Sulfate: Biosynthesis and Biological Function

    Malmström, Anders; Bartolini, Barbara; Thelin, Martin A.; Pacheco, Benny; Maccarana, Marco

    2012-01-01

    The ability of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) to convey biological information is enriched by the presence of iduronic acid. DS-epimerases 1 and 2 (DS-epi1 and 2), in conjunction with DS-4-O-sulfotransferase 1, are the enzymes responsible for iduronic acid biosynthesis and will be the major focus of this review. CS/DS proteoglycans (CS/DS-PGs) are ubiquitously found in connective tissues, basement membranes, and cell surfaces or are stored intracellularly. Such wide distr...

  13. Sulfated steroid-amino acid conjugates from the Irish marine sponge Polymastia boletiformis.

    Smyrniotopoulos, Vangelis; Rae, Margaret; Soldatou, Sylvia; Ding, Yuanqing; Wolff, Carsten W; McCormack, Grace; Coleman, Christina M; Ferreira, Daneel; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2015-04-01

    Antifungal bioactivity-guided fractionation of the organic extract of the sponge Polymastia boletiformis, collected from the west coast of Ireland, led to the isolation of two new sulfated steroid-amino acid conjugates (1 and 2). Extensive 1D and 2D NMR analyses in combination with quantum mechanical calculations of the electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra, optical rotation, and 13C chemical shifts were used to establish the chemical structures of 1 and 2. Both compounds exhibited moderate antifungal activity against Cladosporium cucumerinum, while compound 2 was also active against Candida albicans. Marine natural products containing steroidal and amino acid constituents are extremely rare in nature. PMID:25812034

  14. Sulfated Steroid–Amino Acid Conjugates from the Irish Marine Sponge Polymastia boletiformis

    Vangelis Smyrniotopoulos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Antifungal bioactivity-guided fractionation of the organic extract of the sponge Polymastia boletiformis, collected from the west coast of Ireland, led to the isolation of two new sulfated steroid-amino acid conjugates (1 and 2. Extensive 1D and 2D NMR analyses in combination with quantum mechanical calculations of the electronic circular dichroism (ECD spectra, optical rotation, and 13C chemical shifts were used to establish the chemical structures of 1 and 2. Both compounds exhibited moderate antifungal activity against Cladosporium cucumerinum, while compound 2 was also active against Candida albicans. Marine natural products containing steroidal and amino acid constituents are extremely rare in nature.

  15. Sulfated Steroid–Amino Acid Conjugates from the Irish Marine Sponge Polymastia boletiformis

    Smyrniotopoulos, Vangelis; Rae, Margaret; Soldatou, Sylvia; Ding, Yuanqing; Wolff, Carsten W.; McCormack, Grace; Coleman, Christina M.; Ferreira, Daneel; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Antifungal bioactivity-guided fractionation of the organic extract of the sponge Polymastia boletiformis, collected from the west coast of Ireland, led to the isolation of two new sulfated steroid-amino acid conjugates (1 and 2). Extensive 1D and 2D NMR analyses in combination with quantum mechanical calculations of the electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra, optical rotation, and 13C chemical shifts were used to establish the chemical structures of 1 and 2. Both compounds exhibited moderate antifungal activity against Cladosporium cucumerinum, while compound 2 was also active against Candida albicans. Marine natural products containing steroidal and amino acid constituents are extremely rare in nature. PMID:25812034

  16. Preparation of metal-resistant immobilized sulfate reducing bacteria beads for acid mine drainage treatment.

    Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Haixia; Han, Xuemei

    2016-07-01

    Novel immobilized sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) beads were prepared for the treatment of synthetic acid mine drainage (AMD) containing high concentrations of Fe, Cu, Cd and Zn using up-flow anaerobic packed-bed bioreactor. The tolerance of immobilized SRB beads to heavy metals was significantly enhanced compared with that of suspended SRB. High removal efficiencies of sulfate (61-88%) and heavy metals (>99.9%) as well as slightly alkaline effluent pH (7.3-7.8) were achieved when the bioreactor was fed with acidic influent (pH 2.7) containing high concentrations of multiple metals (Fe 469 mg/L, Cu 88 mg/L, Cd 92 mg/L and Zn 128 mg/L), which showed that the bioreactor filled with immobilized SRB beads had tolerance to AMD containing high concentrations of heavy metals. Partially decomposed maize straw was a carbon source and stabilizing agent in the initial phase of bioreactor operation but later had to be supplemented by a soluble carbon source such as sodium lactate. The microbial community in the bioreactor was characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of partial 16S rDNA genes. Synergistic interaction between SRB (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans) and co-existing fermentative bacteria could be the key factor for the utilization of complex organic substrate (maize straw) as carbon and nutrients source for sulfate reduction. PMID:27058913

  17. Mechanistic modeling of biocorrosion caused by biofilms of sulfate reducing bacteria and acid producing bacteria.

    Xu, Dake; Li, Yingchao; Gu, Tingyue

    2016-08-01

    Biocorrosion is also known as microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). Most anaerobic MIC cases can be classified into two major types. Type I MIC involves non-oxygen oxidants such as sulfate and nitrate that require biocatalysis for their reduction in the cytoplasm of microbes such as sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and nitrate reducing bacteria (NRB). This means that the extracellular electrons from the oxidation of metal such as iron must be transported across cell walls into the cytoplasm. Type II MIC involves oxidants such as protons that are secreted by microbes such as acid producing bacteria (APB). The biofilms in this case supply the locally high concentrations of oxidants that are corrosive without biocatalysis. This work describes a mechanistic model that is based on the biocatalytic cathodic sulfate reduction (BCSR) theory. The model utilizes charge transfer and mass transfer concepts to describe the SRB biocorrosion process. The model also includes a mechanism to describe APB attack based on the local acidic pH at a pit bottom. A pitting prediction software package has been created based on the mechanisms. It predicts long-term pitting rates and worst-case scenarios after calibration using SRB short-term pit depth data. Various parameters can be investigated through computer simulation. PMID:27071053

  18. Microbial sulfate reduction and metal attenuation in pH 4 acid mine water.

    Church, Clinton D; Wilkin, Richard T; Alpers, Charles N; Rye, Robert O; McCleskey, R Blaine

    2007-01-01

    Sediments recovered from the flooded mine workings of the Penn Mine, a Cu-Zn mine abandoned since the early 1960s, were cultured for anaerobic bacteria over a range of pH (4.0 to 7.5). The molecular biology of sediments and cultures was studied to determine whether sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were active in moderately acidic conditions present in the underground mine workings. Here we document multiple, independent analyses and show evidence that sulfate reduction and associated metal attenuation are occurring in the pH-4 mine environment. Water-chemistry analyses of the mine water reveal: (1) preferential complexation and precipitation by H2S of Cu and Cd, relative to Zn; (2) stable isotope ratios of 34S/32S and 18O/16O in dissolved SO4 that are 2-3 per thousand heavier in the mine water, relative to those in surface waters; (3) reduction/oxidation conditions and dissolved gas concentrations consistent with conditions to support anaerobic processes such as sulfate reduction. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses of sediment show 1.5-micrometer, spherical ZnS precipitates. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses of Penn Mine sediment show a high biomass level with a moderately diverse community structure composed primarily of iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria. Cultures of sediment from the mine produced dissolved sulfide at pH values near 7 and near 4, forming precipitates of either iron sulfide or elemental sulfur. DGGE coupled with sequence and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA gene segments showed populations of Desulfosporosinus and Desulfitobacterium in Penn Mine sediment and laboratory cultures. PMID:17956615

  19. Microbial sulfate reduction and metal attenuation in pH 4 acid mine water

    Alpers Charles N

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sediments recovered from the flooded mine workings of the Penn Mine, a Cu-Zn mine abandoned since the early 1960s, were cultured for anaerobic bacteria over a range of pH (4.0 to 7.5. The molecular biology of sediments and cultures was studied to determine whether sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB were active in moderately acidic conditions present in the underground mine workings. Here we document multiple, independent analyses and show evidence that sulfate reduction and associated metal attenuation are occurring in the pH-4 mine environment. Water-chemistry analyses of the mine water reveal: (1 preferential complexation and precipitation by H2S of Cu and Cd, relative to Zn; (2 stable isotope ratios of 34S/32S and 18O/16O in dissolved SO4 that are 2–3 ‰ heavier in the mine water, relative to those in surface waters; (3 reduction/oxidation conditions and dissolved gas concentrations consistent with conditions to support anaerobic processes such as sulfate reduction. Scanning electron microscope (SEM analyses of sediment show 1.5-micrometer, spherical ZnS precipitates. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE analyses of Penn Mine sediment show a high biomass level with a moderately diverse community structure composed primarily of iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria. Cultures of sediment from the mine produced dissolved sulfide at pH values near 7 and near 4, forming precipitates of either iron sulfide or elemental sulfur. DGGE coupled with sequence and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA gene segments showed populations of Desulfosporosinus and Desulfitobacterium in Penn Mine sediment and laboratory cultures.

  20. Impact of Seasalt Deposition on Acid Soils in Maritime Regions

    ZHANG Zhen-Hua

    2003-01-01

    The characteristics of seasalt deposition and its impact on acid soils in maritime regions are reviewed. It is pointed out that studies involving the impact of seasalt deposition on acid soils have been concentrated on short-term effects on soil and water acidification. A deep consideration of long-term effects on soil acidification in maritime regions is still needed.

  1. Consequences of Aluminum or Ferrous Sulfate Amended Poultry Litter on Concentrations of Aluminum in Plants and Soil

    Amending poultry litter with aluminum sulfate (alum) reduces phosphorous (P) runoff and ammonia volatilization but its effects on soil pH are not completely researched. Greenhouse pot experiments with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and soybean (Glycine max. L. Merr) as test crops were conducted with...

  2. Screening of phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms in rhizosphere and rhizoplane of adverse soil-adapting plants in Southern Thailand

    Pengnoo, Ashara; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki; Onthong, Jumpen; Gimsanguan, Sayjai; Sae-ong, Manoon; Shinano, Takuro; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Osaki, Mitsuru

    2007-01-01

    Various adverse soils; peat, podzolic sandy, acid sulfate and salted-affected acid sulfate soils were widely distributed throughout Southern Thailand. These soils were infertile and strongly acidic. Phosphorus fertility of these soils was low due to the low content of available phosphorus (0.31-3.70 mg kg-1) especially in podzolic sandy soil. Acid sulfate soil and salt-affected acid sulfate soil contain relatively high level of exchangeable Al (13.3 and 9.87 cmolc kg-1, respectively). However...

  3. Copper binding to soil fulvic and humic acids

    Xu, Jinling; Tan, Wenfeng; Xiong, Juan; Wang, Mingxia; Fang, Linchuan; Koopal, Luuk K.

    2016-01-01

    Binding of Cu(II) to soil fulvic acid (JGFA), soil humic acids (JGHA, JLHA), and lignite-based humic acid (PAHA) was investigated through NICA-Donnan modeling and conditional affinity spectrum (CAS). It is to extend the knowledge of copper binding by soil humic substances (HS) both in respect of

  4. Supported zirconium sulfate on carbon nanotubes as water-tolerant solid acid catalyst

    A new solid acid of zirconium sulfate (CZ) was successfully supported on carbon nanotube (CNT) for esterification reaction. Preparation conditions of the supported CZ have been investigated, to obtain highest catalytic activity for esterification reaction. XRD, TEM, BET, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and in situ FTIR analysis has also been carried out to understand the characteristics of the catalyst. In the esterification of acrylic acid with n-octanol, the supported CZ exhibited high catalytic activity and stability. The catalytic activity was nearly unchanged during four times of reuse. XRD and TEM analysis indicated that CZ was finely dispersed on CNT. XPS analysis shows that the CZ species was preserved and the chemical environment of the CZ has changed after loaded on CNT. This finding show that CNT as CZ support is an efficient water-tolerant solid acid

  5. Refractory status epilepticus after inadvertent intrathecal injection of tranexamic acid treated by magnesium sulfate.

    Hatch, D M; Atito-Narh, E; Herschmiller, E J; Olufolabi, A J; Owen, M D

    2016-05-01

    We present a case of accidental injection of tranexamic acid during spinal anesthesia for an elective cesarean delivery. Immediately following intrathecal injection of 2mL of solution, the patient complained of severe back pain, followed by muscle spasm and tetany. As there was no evidence of spinal block, the medications given were checked and a 'used' ampoule of tranexamic acid was found on the spinal tray. General anesthesia was induced but muscle spasm and tetany persisted despite administration of a non-depolarizing muscle relaxant. Hemodynamic instability, ventricular tachycardia, and status epilepticus developed, which were refractory to phenytoin, diazepam, and infusions of thiopental, midazolam and amiodarone. Magnesium sulfate was administered postoperatively in the intensive care unit, following which the frequency of seizures decreased, eventually stopping. Unfortunately, on postoperative day three the patient died from cardiopulmonary arrest after an oxygen supply failure that was not associated with the initial event. This report underlines the importance of double-checking medications before injection in order to avoid a drug error. As well, it suggests that magnesium sulfate may be useful in stopping seizures caused by the intrathecal injection of tranexamic acid. PMID:26775897

  6. Alleviating soil acidity through plant organic compounds

    Anderson R. Meda

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of water soluble plant extracts on soil acidity. The plant materials were: black oat, oil seed radish, white and blue lupin, gray and dwarf mucuna, Crotalaria spectabilis and C. breviflora, millet, pigeon pea, star grass, mato grosso grass, coffee leaves, sugar cane leaves, rice straw, and wheat straw. Plant extracts were added on soil surface in a PVC soil column at a rate of 1.0 ml min-1. Both soil and drainage water were analyzed for pH, Ca, Al, and K. Plant extracts applied on the soil surface increased soil pH, exchangeable Ca ex and Kex and decreased Al ex. Oil seed radish, black oat, and blue lupin were the best and millet the worst materials to alleviate soil acidity. Oil seed radish markedly increased Al in the drainage water. Chemical changes were associated with the concentrations of basic cations in the plant extract: the higher the concentration the greater the effects in alleviating soil acidity.Foram conduzidos experimentos de laboratórios para avaliar os efeitos de extratos de plantas solúveis em água na acidez do solo. Os materiais de plantas foram: aveia preta, nabo, tremoço branco e azul, mucuna cinza e anã, Crotalaria spectabilis e C. breviflora, milheto, guandu, grama estrela, grama mato grosso, folhas de café, folhas de cana-de-açúcar, palhada de arroz e palhada de trigo. Foi utilizado o seguinte procedimento para o extrato da planta solúvel em água: pesar 3g de material de planta, adicionar 150 ml de água, agitar por 8h e filtrar. Os extratos de plantas foram adicionados na superfície do solo em uma coluna de PVC (1 ml min-1. Após, adicionou-se água deionizada em quantidade equivalente a três volumes de poros. Os extratos de plantas aumentaram o pH, Ca e K trocável e diminuíram Al. Nabo, aveia preta e tremoço azul foram os melhores e milheto o pior material para amenizar a acidez do solo. Nabo aumentou Al na água de drenagem. As altera

  7. Iduronic Acid in chondroitin/dermatan sulfate affects directional migration of aortic smooth muscle cells

    B. Bartolini; Thelin, M.A.; Svensson, L; Ghiselli, G.; Kuppevelt, T.H. van; Malmstrom, A.; Maccarana, M.

    2013-01-01

    Aortic smooth muscle cells produce chondroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) proteoglycans that regulate extracellular matrix organization and cell behavior in normal and pathological conditions. A unique feature of CS/DS proteoglycans is the presence of iduronic acid (IdoA), catalyzed by two DS epimerases. Functional ablation of DS-epi1, the main epimerase in these cells, resulted in a major reduction of IdoA both on cell surface and in secreted CS/DS proteoglycans. Downregulation of IdoA led to ...

  8. Temperature effect on adiolysis of deaerated acid aqueous solutions of ferrous sulfate

    In the course of γ-radiolysis (60Co, dose rate=3.75 Gr/c, doses=1.575-3.375 kGr) of deaerated acid aqueous solution 3.6x10-3 mol/l of ferrous sulfate in the 20-250 deg C range the hydrogen molecules radiochemical yield per 100 eV of absorbed energy G(H2) decreases from 3.82±0.12 to 2.72±0.26, whereas G(Fe3+) independently of temperature is equal 8.34±0.36

  9. Nitrous Oxide and Methane Fluxes Following Ammonium Sulfate and Vinasse Application on Sugar Cane Soil.

    Paredes, Debora da S; Alves, Bruno J R; dos Santos, Marco A; Bolonhezi, Denizart; Sant'Anna, Selenobaldo A C; Urquiaga, Segundo; Lima, Magda A; Boddey, Robert M

    2015-09-15

    This study aimed to quantify nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emission/sink response from sugar cane soil treated with fertilizer nitrogen (N) and vinasse applied separately or in sequence, the latter being investigated with regard to the time interval between applications for a possible effect on emissions. The study was carried out in a traditional area of unburned sugar cane in São Paulo state, Brazil. Two levels of N fertilization (0 and 100 kg N ha(-1)) with no added vinasse and combined with vinasse additions at different times (100 m(-3) ha(-1) at 3 and 15 days after N fertilization) were evaluated. Methane and N2O fluxes were monitored for 211 days. On average, the soil was a sink for CH4, which was not affected by the treatments. Emissions of N2O were induced by N fertilizer and vinasse applications. For ammonium sulfate, 0.6% of the added N was emitted as N2O, while for vinasse, this ranged from 1.0 to 2.2%. Changes in N2O fluxes were detected the day after application of vinasse on the N fertilized areas, but although the emission factor (EF) was 34% greater, the EF was not significantly different from fertilizer N alone. Nevertheless, we recommend to not apply vinasse after N fertilization to avoid boosting N2O emissions. PMID:26295867

  10. Similarities Across Mars: Acidic Fluids at Both Meridiani Planum and Gale Crater in the Formation of Magnesium-Nickel Sulfates

    Yen, Albert S.; Ming, Douglas W.; Gellert, Ralf; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Vaniman, David T.; Thompson, Lucy M.; Morris, Richard V.; Clark, Benton C.; Arvidson, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    In-situ identification of sulfates at the martian surface by the Mars Exploration Rovers and the Mars Science Laboratory have included calcium sulfates with various states of hydration (gypsum, bassanite, anhydrite), iron sulfates of likely fumarolic origin, massive deposits of iron hydroxysulfates indicative of an acidic history, and minor occurrences of magnesium sulfates. Recent measurements by the Opportunity and Curiosity Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometers (APXS) have indicated the presence of Ni-substituted Mg-sulfates at the Meridiani Planum and Gale Crater landing sites. The Opportunity rover has traversed nearly 43 km and is currently exploring the impact breccias of the rim of Endeavour crater, near a location where signatures of aqueous alteration have been established from orbit. APXS analyses of subsurface materials excavated by a rover wheel show clear evidence for a Mg(Ni)-sulfate with Mg:Ni (is) approximately 100:1 (molar). On the other side of the planet, Curiosity is continuing its climb up Mount Sharp after driving (is) approximately 13 km since landing. Over the last 4 km of the traverse, there have been multiple chemical analyses of erosionally-resistant nodules and dendritic features in a finely laminated mudstone unit which also indicate Mg(Ni)-sulfate (Mg:Ni (is) approximately 30:1, molar). The geologic settings for the Endeavour rim and the Mount Sharp mudstones are clearly different, but similar formation conditions for these sulfates may be possible. Ni(2+) readily substitutes for Mg(2+) in a variety of geochemical processes due to their comparable ionic radii. The availability of soluble Ni at the time of Mg-sulfate precipitation suggests acidic solutions. The fluids responsible for alteration in the Endeavour rim and for the formation of nodules in Gale mudstones may have had similar chemical characteristics at the time the Mg-sulfates were formed.

  11. Isolation and Characterization of Soil Fulvic Acid

    Mir Munsif Ali Talpur

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fulvic acid was isolated from the agriculture soil of District Naushahro Feroz, Sindh, Pakistan by International Humic Substances Society (IHSS method. The nutrient contents of the soil like N. P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Zn were determined by using the Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer (AAS. The Spectroscopic analysis was carried out by studying the UV-Vis, FT-IR and NIR spectra of isolated compounds. The data has been compared with the literature and correlated. Moisture as well as texture shows good water holding capacity and silt- loam type of soil. pH and EC are indicators of the fertility of soil to be beneficial for plantation. The spectral data (UV-Visible, FTIR and NIR supports the characteristic functional groups (-COOH, C=O, -OH, -NH2, C=C, CH2 and Polysaccharides present in Fulvic acid. E4/E6 values depict its hydrophilic nature, having less aromatic and more aliphatic groups. The presence of metal ions indicates its chelating ability.

  12. Sulfates on Mars: Indicators of Aqueous Processes

    Bishop, Janice L.; Lane, Melissa D.; Dyar, M. Darby; Brown, Adrian J.

    2006-01-01

    Recent analyses by MER instruments at Meridiani Planum and Gusev crater and the OMEGA instrument on Mars Express have provided detailed information about the presence of sulfates on Mars [1,2,3]. We are evaluating these recent data in an integrated multi-disciplinary study of visible-near-infrared, mid-IR and Mossbauer spectra of several sulfate minerals and sulfate-rich analog sites. Our analyses suggest that hydrated iron sulfates may account for features observed in Mossbauer and mid-IR spectra of Martian soils [4]. The sulfate minerals kieserite, gypsum and other hydrated sulfates have been identified in OMEGA spectra in the layered terrains in Valles Marineris and Terra Meridiani [2]. These recent discoveries emphasize the importance of studying sulfate minerals as tracers of aqueous processes. The sulfate-rich rock outcrops observed in Meridiani Planum may have formed in an acidic environment similar to acid rock drainage environments on Earth [5]. Because microorganisms typically are involved in the oxidation of sulfides to sulfates in terrestrial sites, sulfate-rich rock outcrops on Mars may be a good location to search for evidence of past life on that planet. Whether or not life evolved on Mars, following the trail of sulfate minerals will lead to a better understanding of aqueous processes and chemical weathering.

  13. The Hydrothermal System at Home Plate in Gusev Crater, Mars: Formation of High Silica Material by Acid-Sulfate Alteration of Basalt

    Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Gellert, R.; Yen, A.; Clark, B. C.; Gnaff, T. G.; Arvidson, R. E.; Squyres, S. W.

    2008-01-01

    The Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit measured three targets on or adjacent to Home Plate in Gusev Crater that have unusually high SiO2 concentrations (68% to 91%), unusually low FeO concentrations (1% to 7%, with total Fe as FeO), and unusually high TiO2/FeO ratios (0.2 to 1.2 by weight) [1]. Two targets (Kenosha Comets and Lefty Ganote) are located on high albedo soil (Gertrude Weise) that was exposed by the rover wheels, and one target is a float rock called Fuzzy Smith. Kenosha Comets has the highest SiO2 concentration, lowest FeO concentration, and highest TiO2/FeO ratio. Mineralogical evidence from the MER Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) suggests that the SiO2 is present as amorphous (noncrystalline) SiO2 at Gertrude Weise and nearby targets [2,3]. Mini-TES data were not acquired for Fuzzy Smith. Home Plate is considered to have an explosive volcanic origin, resulting when basaltic magma came into contact with ground water or ice [4]. Within 50 m to 1 km of Home Plate are sulfate rich soil deposits (Paso Robles class soils with 22-35% SO3) which are considered to be probable fumarolic and/or hydrothermal deposits associated with the volcanism [5]. We develop the model here, suggested by [5], that the high-silica materials are another manifestation of acid-sulfate processes associated with fumarolic and hydrothermal activity at Home Plate. This is done by analogy with basaltic materials altered by acid sulfate processes on the Island of Hawaii.

  14. Effect of sulfate on methanogenic communities that degrade unsaturated and saturated long-chain fatty acids (LCFA)

    Sousa, D.Z.; Alves, J.I.; Alves, M. M.; Smidt, Hauke; Stams, A.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria involved in the degradation of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA), in the presence of sulfate as electron acceptor, were studied by combined cultivation-dependent and molecular techniques. The bacterial diversity in four mesophilic sulfate-reducing enrichment cultures, growing on oleate (C18:1, unsaturated LCFA) or palmitate (C16:0, saturated LCFA), was studied by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiling of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified 16S rRNA gene ...

  15. Application of acidic calcium sulfate and e-polylysine to pre-rigor beef rounds for reduction of pathogens

    Foodborne illness continues to be a serious public health problem and is a major concern for the United States food industry. This study evaluated the effectiveness of warm solutions of acidic calcium sulfate (ACS), lactic acid (LA), episolon-polylysine (EPL), ACS plus EPL, and sterile distilled wa...

  16. Iron Absorption from Two Milk Formulas Fortified with Iron Sulfate Stabilized with Maltodextrin and Citric Acid

    Fernando Pizarro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fortification of milk formulas with iron is a strategy widely used, but the absorption of non-heme iron is low. The purpose of this study was to measure the bioavailability of two iron fortified milk formulas designed to cover toddlers´ nutritional needs. These milks were fortified with iron sulfate stabilized with maltodextrin and citric acid. Methods: 15 women (33–47 years old participated in study. They received on different days, after an overnight fast, 200 mL of Formula A; 200 mL of Formula B; 30 mL of a solution of iron and ascorbic acid as reference dose and 200 mL of full fat cow’s milk fortified with iron as ferrous sulfate. Milk formulas and reference dose were labeled with radioisotopes 59Fe or 55Fe, and the absorption of iron measured by erythrocyte incorporation of radioactive Fe. Results: The geometric mean iron absorption corrected to 40% of the reference dose was 20.6% for Formula A and 20.7% for Formula B, versus 7.5% of iron fortified cow’s milk (p < 0.001. The post hoc Sheffé indeed differences between the milk formulas and the cow’s milk (p < 0.001. Conclusion: Formulas A and B contain highly bioavailable iron, which contributes to covering toddlers´ requirements of this micronutrient.

  17. Calcium Sulfate with Stearic Acid as an Encouraging Carrier for Reindeer Bone Protein Extract

    Pekka Jalovaara

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Various bone proteins and growth factors in specific concentrations are required for bone formation. If the body cannot produce sufficient quantities of these factors, bone trauma can be healed with an implant that includes the required factors in a carrier. This study was designed to evaluate various calcium salt candidates that can be used as carrier with reindeer bone protein extract to induce ectopic bone formation in the muscle pouch model of mouse. The bone protein extract was either impregnated into the disc form of carrier or mixed with carrier powder before implantation. The radiographic analysis indicated increased bone formation in all of the active groups containing the bone protein extract compared to the controls within 21 days follow-up. The highest bone formation was seen in the group with calcium sulfate with stearic acid where new bone and calcified cartilage were clearly visible. The greatest bone formation occurred in the groups that had bone protein extract readily available. This indicates that the bone forming factors in sufficient concentrations are required at the early stage of bone formation. The calcium sulfate with stearic acid was the most suitable and effective carrier for reindeer bone protein extract.

  18. Kinetics and Mechanistic Chemistry of Oxidation of Butacaine Sulfate by Chloramine-B in Acid Medium

    Shubha, Jayachamarajapura Pranesh; Kotabagi, Vinutha [Bosco Institute of Technology, Bangalore (India); Puttaswamy [Bangalore Univ., Bangalore (India)

    2012-11-15

    Butacaine sulfate is an ester of p-aminobenzoic acid which has been widely used as a local anaesthetic and it is a long standing agent particularly for spinal anaesthesia. For this reason, a kinetic study of oxidation of butacaine sulfate by sodium N-chlorobenzenesulfonamide (chloramine-B or CAB) has been carried out in HClO{sub 4} medium at 303 K in order to explore this redox system mechanistic chemistry. The rate shows a first-order dependence on both [CAB]{sub o}, and [substrate]{sub o}, and a fractional-order dependence on acid concentration. Decrease of dielectric constant of the medium, by adding methanol, increases the rate of the reaction. Variation of ionic strength and addition of benzenesulfonamide or NaCl have no significant effect on the rate. The reaction was studied at different temperatures and the activation parameters have been evaluated. The stoichiometry of the reaction has been found to be 1:2 and the oxidation products have been identified by spectral analysis. The observed results have been explained by plausible mechanism and the related rate law has been deduced.

  19. Characterization of the sulfate-reducing bacterial population in sediments of acid mining lakes

    With respect to remediation of acid mine drainage (AMD), concomitant alteration of redox conditions, formation of metal sulfides and alkalinity generation are of special interest. The majority of lakes formed in the Lusatian lignite mining district bear waters of low pH and high ionic strength. For several of these acid mining lakes, sulfate-reducing activities have been demonstrated. The aim of our study was to find out which bacteria are responsible for these activities, whether these SRB exhibit special traits to thrive under extreme conditions, and whether the population differed from those inhabiting freshwater and marine environments. For this purpose we estimated the most probable number (MPN) of culturable SRB in surface sediments of three mining lakes (ML) and obtained isolates from the same sites. The strains were characterised physiologically and phylogenetically. (orig.)

  20. Morphologies, mechanical properties and thermal stability of poly(lactic acid) toughened by precipitated barium sulfate

    Yang, Jinian; Wang, Chuang; Shao, Kaiyun; Ding, Guoxin; Tao, Yulun; Zhu, Jinbo

    2015-11-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA)-based composites were prepared by blending PLA with precipitated barium sulfate (BaSO4) modified with stearic acid. The morphologies, mechanical properties and thermal stability of samples with increased mass fraction of BaSO4 were investigated. Results showed that PLA was toughened and reinforced simultaneously by incorporation of precipitated BaSO4 particles. The highest impact toughness and elongation at break were both achieved at 15% BaSO4, while the elastic modulus increased monotonically with increasing BaSO4 loading. Little effect of BaSO4 on the thermal behavior of PLA was observed in the present case. However, the thermal stability of PLA/BaSO4 composites at high temperature was enhanced.

  1. Titanium Mass-balance Analysis of Paso Robles Soils: Elemental Gains and Losses as Affected by Acid Alteration Fluids

    Sutter, Brad; Ming, Douglas W.

    2010-01-01

    The Columbia Hills soils have been exposed to aqueous alteration in alkaline [1] as well as acid conditions [2,3]. The Paso Robles class soils are bright soils that possess the highest S concentration of any soil measured on Mars [2]. Ferric-sulfate detection by Moessbauer analysis indicated that acid solutions were involved in forming these soils [4]. These soils are proposed to have formed by alteration of nearby rock by volcanic hydrothermal or fumarolic activity. The Paso Robles soils consist of the original Paso Robles-disturbed-Pasadena (PR-dist), Paso Robles- PasoLight (PR-PL), Arad-Samra, Arad-Hula, Tyrone- Berker Island1 and Tyrone-MountDarwin [2 ,3. ]Chemical characteristics indicate that the PR-dist and PR-PL soils could be derived from acid weathering of local Wishstone rocks while the Samra and Hula soils are likely derived from local Algonquin-Iroquet rock [3]. The Paso Robles soils were exposed to acidic sulfur bearing fluids; however, little else is known about the chemistry of the alteration fluid and its effects on the alteration of the proposed parent materials. The objectives of this work are to conduct titanium normalized mass-balance analysis to1) assess elemental gains and losses from the parent materials in the formation of the Paso Robles soils and 2) utilize this information to indicate the chemical nature of the alteration fluids.

  2. Recovery and separation of sulfuric acid and iron from dilute acidic sulfate effluent and waste sulfuric acid by solvent extraction and stripping.

    Qifeng, Wei; Xiulian, Ren; Jingjing, Guo; Yongxing, Chen

    2016-03-01

    The recovery and simultaneous separation of sulfuric acid and iron from dilute acidic sulfate effluent (DASE) and waste sulfuric acid (WSA) have been an earnest wish for researchers and the entire sulfate process-based titanium pigment industry. To reduce the pollution of the waste acid and make a comprehensive use of the iron and sulfuric acid in it, a new environmentally friendly recovery and separation process for the DASE and the WSA is proposed. This process is based on the reactive extraction of sulfuric acid and Fe(III) from the DASE. Simultaneously, stripping of Fe(III) is carried out in the loaded organic phase with the WSA. Compared to the conventional ways, this innovative method allows the effective extraction of sulfuric acid and iron from the DASE, and the stripping of Fe(III) from the loaded organic phase with the WSA. Trioctylamine (TOA) and tributyl phosphate (TBP) in kerosene (10-50%) were used as organic phases for solvent extraction. Under the optimal conditions, about 98% of Fe(III) and sulfuric acid were removed from the DASE, and about 99.9% of Fe(III) in the organic phase was stripped with the WSA. PMID:26546698

  3. Preparation of manganese sulfate from low-grade manganese carbonate ores by sulfuric acid leaching

    Lin, Qing-quan; Gu, Guo-hua; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Ren-feng; Liu, You-cai; Fu, Jian-gang

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a method for preparing pure manganese sulfate from low-grade ores with a granule mean size of 0.47 mm by direct acid leaching was developed. The effects of the types of leaching agents, sulfuric acid concentration, reaction temperature, and agitation rate on the leaching efficiency of manganese were investigated. We observed that sulfuric acid used as a leaching agent provides a similar leaching efficiency of manganese and superior selectivity against calcium compared to hydrochloric acid. The optimal leaching conditions in sulfuric acid media were determined; under the optimal conditions, the leaching efficiencies of Mn and Ca were 92.42% and 9.61%, respectively. Moreover, the kinetics of manganese leaching indicated that the leaching follows the diffusion-controlled model with an apparent activation energy of 12.28 kJ·mol-1. The purification conditions of the leaching solution were also discussed. The results show that manganese dioxide is a suitable oxidant of ferrous ions and sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate is an effective precipitant of heavy metals. Finally, through chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis, the obtained product was determined to contain 98% of MnSO4·H2O.

  4. Bromine accumulation in acidic black colluvial soils

    Cortizas, Antonio Martínez; Vázquez, Cruz Ferro; Kaal, Joeri; Biester, Harald; Casais, Manuela Costa; Rodríguez, Teresa Taboada; Lado, Luis Rodríguez

    2016-02-01

    Recent investigations showed that bromine is incorporated to soil organic matter (SOM), its content increasing with humification. But few research was done on its long-term accumulation and the role played by pedogenetic processes, as those involved in organic matter stabilization. We investigated bromine content and distribution in four deep, acidic, organic-rich, Holocene soils from an oceanic area of Western Europe. Bromine concentrations (93-778 μg g-1) in the silt + clay (area, and total estimated retention was low (6-16%). The degree of SOM bromination, expressed as the Br/C molar ratio, varied between 0.03 and 1.20 mmol Br/mol C. The ratio was highly correlated (n = 23, r2 0.88, p pool of metal-clay-stabilized organic matter.

  5. Origin of dimethylsulfide, non-sea-salt sulfate, and methanesulfonic acid in eastern Antarctica

    Cosme, E.; Hourdin, F.; Genthon, C.; Martinerie, P.

    2005-02-01

    Ignoring the origin of atmospheric chemicals is often a strong limitation to the full interpretation of their measurement. In this article, this question is addressed in the case of the sulfur species in Antarctica, with an original method of retrotransport of tracers. The retrotransport model is derived from the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique Zoom-Tracers (LMD-ZT) atmospheric general circulation model, optimized for polar climate and expanded to simulate atmospheric sulfur chemistry. For two East Antarctic scientific stations (Dumont d'Urville and Vostok) the effects of transport and chemistry and the influence of oceanic, volcanic, and anthropogenic sources on dimethylsulfide (DMS), non-sea-salt (nss) sulfate, and methanesulfonic acid (MSA) concentrations are evaluated in summer and winter. The oceanic source largely dominates, but other sources can episodically be significant. The meridional origin and the age of DMS, MSA, and biogenic nss sulfate are also estimated. The latitudes of origin of MSA and nss sulfate are similar in summer, but they differ markedly in winter. This is a signature of their different chemical production scheme. Also, the interannual variability of the origin of the sulfur species at Vostok is weak compared to that at Dumont d'Urville. Acknowledging that the DMS concentrations in the ocean have no interannual variability in the model, this result suggests unsurprisingly that inland Antarctic stations may be better observation sites to monitor large-scale DMS bioproductivity variability than coastal sites are. The combination of slower chemistry and more intense atmospheric circulation in winter leads to unexpected results, such as a younger DMS in winter than in summer at Vostok.

  6. Cholesterol versus cholesterol sulfate: effects on properties of phospholipid bilayers containing docosahexaenoic acid.

    Schofield, M; Jenski, L J; Dumaual, A C; Stillwell, W

    1998-09-01

    The important omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is present at high concentration in some membranes that also contain the unusual sterol cholesterol sulfate (CS). The association between these lipids and their effect on membrane structure is presented here. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), MC540 fluorescence, erythritol permeability, pressure/area isotherms on lipid monolayers and molecular modeling are used to compare the effect of CS and cholesterol on model phospholipid membranes. By DSC, CS decreases the main phase transition temperature and broadens the transitions of dipalmitolyphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), 1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (18:0,18:1 PC) and 1-stearoyl-2-docosahexaenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (18:0,22:6 PC) to a much larger extent than does cholesterol. In addition CS produces a three-component transition in 18:0,18:1 PC bilayers that is not seen with cholesterol. In a mixed phospholipid bilayer composed of 18:0,18:1 PC/18:0,22:6 PC (1:1, mol/mol), CS at 2.5 membrane mol% or more induces lateral phase separation while cholesterol does not. CS decreases lipid packing density and increases permeability of 18:0,18:1 PC and 18:0,22:6 PC bilayers to a much larger extent than cholesterol. CS disrupts oleic acid-containing bilayers more than those containing DHA. Molecular modeling confirms that the anionic sulfate moiety on CS renders this sterol more polar than cholesterol with the consequence that CS likely resides higher (extends further into the aqueous environment) in the bilayer. CS can therefore be preferentially accommodated into DHA-enriched bilayers where its tetracyclic ring system may fit into the delta 4 pocket of DHA, a location excluded to cholesterol. It is proposed that CS may in part replace the membrane function of cholesterol in DHA-rich membranes. PMID:9807808

  7. Microwave-assisted digestion using nitric acid for heavy metals and sulfated ash testing in active pharmaceutical ingredients.

    Pluhácek, T; Hanzal, J; Hendrych, J; Milde, D

    2016-04-01

    The monitoring of inorganic impurities in active pharmaceutical ingredients plays a crucial role in the quality control of the pharmaceutical production. The heavy metals and residue on ignition/sulfated ash methods employing microwave-assisted digestion with concentrated nitric acid have been demonstrated as alternatives to inappropriate compendial methods recommended in United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) and European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.). The recoveries using the heavy metals method ranged between 89% and 122% for nearly all USP and Ph. Eur. restricted elements as well as the recoveries of sodium sulfate spikes were around 100% in all tested matrices. The proposed microwave-assisted digestion method allowed simultaneous decomposition of 15 different active pharmaceutical ingredients with sample weigh up to 1 g. The heavy metals and sulfated ash procedures were successfully applied to the determination of heavy metals and residue on ignition/sulfated ash content in mycophenolate mofetil, nicergoline and silymarin. PMID:27209695

  8. Ferrous iron oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: inhibition with benzoic acid, sorbic acid and sodium lauryl sulfate

    Onysko, S.J.

    1984-07-01

    Acid mine drainage is formed by the weathering or oxidation of pyritic material exposed during coal mining. The rate of pyritic material oxidation can be greatly accelerated by certain acidophilic bacteria such as Thiobacillus ferrooxidans which catalyse the oxidation of ferrous to ferric iron. A number of organic compounds, under laboratory conditions, can apparently inhibit both the oxidation of ferrous to ferric iron by T. ferrooxidans and the weathering of pyritic material by mixed cultures of acid mine drainage micro-organisms. Sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), an anionic surfactant has proved effective in this respect. Benzoic acid, sorbic acid and SLS at low concentrations, each effectively inhibited bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron in batch cultures of T. ferrooxidans. The rate of chemical oxidation of ferrous iron in low pH, sterile, batch reactors was not substantially affected at the tested concentrations of any of the compounds.

  9. Factors Affecting Sensitivity of Variable Charge Soils to Acid Rain

    WANGJING-HUA

    1995-01-01

    The sensitivity of a large number of variable charge soils to acid rain was evaluated through examining pH-H2SO4 input curves.Two derivative parameters,the consumption of hydrogen ions by the soil and the acidtolerant limit as defined as the quantity of sulfuric acid required to bring the soil to pH 3.5 in a 0.001mol L-1 Ca(NO3)2 solution,were used.The sensitivity of variable charge soils was higher than that of constant charge soils,due to the predominance of kaolinite in clay mineralogical composition.Among these soils the sensitivity was generally of the order lateritic red soil>red soil> latosol.For a given type of soil within the same region the sensitivity was affected by parent material,due to differences in clay minerals and texture.The sensitivity of surface soil may be lower or higher than that of subsiol,depending on whether organic matter or texture plays the dominant role in determining the buffering capacity.Paddy soils consumed more acid within lower range of acid input when compared with upland soils,due to the presence of more exchangeable bases,but consumed less acid within higher acid input range,caused by the decrease in clay content.

  10. Amendment of Acid Soils with Crop Residues and Biochars

    YUAN Jin-Hua; XU Ren-Kou; WANG Ning; LI Jiu-Yu

    2011-01-01

    The liming potential of some crop residues and their biochars on an acid Ultisol was investigated using incubation experiments. Rice hulls showed greater liming potential than rice hull biochar, while soybean and pea straws had less liming potential than their biochars. Due to their higher alkalinity, biochars from legume materials increased soil pH much compared to biochars from non-legume materials. The alkalinity of biochars was a key factor affecting their liming potential,and the greater alkalinity of biochars led to greater reductions in soil acidity. The incorporation of biochars decreased soil exchangeable acidity and increased soil exchangeable base cations and base saturation, thus improving soil fertility.

  11. Gas Chromatographic Determination of Sulfuric Acid and Application to Urinary Sulfate

    Masuoka,Noriyoshi

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available A new gas chromatographic method for the determination of sulfate was developed. In this method, sulfate was quantitatively converted to a volatile derivative, dimethyl sulfate, by a two-step procedure. First, sulfate was converted to silver sulfate by reaction with silver oxide, and then to dimethyl sulfate by reaction with methyl iodide. The derivative was analyzed by gas chromatography. Methyl methanesulfonate was used as an internal standard. The method was applied to the determination of total urinary sulfate. Phosphate and chloride ions, which interfered with the present method, were eliminated with the use of basic magnesium carbonate and an excess of silver oxide, respectively. Recovery was over 96% when 5 to 40 mumol/ml of sulfate was added to human urine samples.

  12. Phenolic Acids in Plant-Soil-Microbe System: A Review

    2002-01-01

    Phenolic acids are very common compounds in pedosphere. The objective of this review was to summarize the current knowledge of the behaviors of phenolic acids in plant-soil-microbe system. When phenolic acids originated from leaching, decomposition and exudation of living and dead plant tissues enter soils, they can react physicochemically with soil particle surfaces and/or incorporate into humic matter. Phenolic acids desorbed from soil particle surfaces and remained in solution phase can be utilized by microbe as carbon sources and absorbed by plants. The degradation products of phenolic acids by microbe include some organic and/or inorganic compounds such as new phenolic acids. In addition, phenolic acids in soils can stimulate population and activity of microbe. Phenolic acids can inhibit plants growth by affecting ion leakage, phytohormone activity, membrane permeability, hydraulic conductivity, net nutrient uptake, and enzyme activity. Behaviors of phenolic acids in soils are influenced by other organic compounds (phenolic acids, methionine, glucose, etc.) and/or inorganic ions. The role of phenolic acids as allelopathic agents should not be neglected only based on their low specific concentrations in natural soils, because numbers and interactions of phenolic acids will increase their allelopathic activities.

  13. Evidence for shift from acidobacteria to proteobacteria dominance in soil profile of boreal acid sulphate soils

    Chroňáková, Alica; Bryndová, Michala; Otáhalová, Šárka; Yli-Halla, M.; Šimek, Miloslav

    Dijon : INRA, 2014. s. 276. [Global Soil Biodiversity Conference. Assessing soil biodiversity and its role for ecosystem services /1./. 02.12.2014-05.12.2014, Dijon] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : boreal acid sulphate soils * soil profile * bacteria community structure * subsoil horizons Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  14. Distribution of nitrogen ammonium sulfate (15N) soil-plant system in a no-tillage crop succession

    the n use by maize (Zea mays, l.) is affected by n-fertilizer levels. this study was conducted using a sandy-clay texture soil (Hapludox) to evaluate the efficiency of n use by maize in a crop succession, based on 15N labeled ammonium sulfate (5.5 atom %) at different rates, and to assess the residual fertilizer effect in two no-tillage succession crops (signal grass and corn). Two maize crops were evaluated, the first in the growing season 2006, the second in 2007, and brachiaria in the second growing season. The treatments consisted of n rates of 60, 120 and 180 kg ha-1in the form of labeled 15N ammonium sulfate. This fertilizer was applied in previously defined subplots, only to the first maize crop (growing season 2006). The variables total accumulated n; fertilizer-derived n in corn plants and pasture; fertilizer-derived n in the soil; and recovery of fertilizer-n by plants and soil were evaluated.The highest uptake of fertilizer n by corn was observed after application of 120 kg ha-1N and the residual effect of n fertilizer on subsequent corn and brachiaria was highest after application of 180 kg ha-1N. After the crop succession, soil n recovery was 32, 23 and 27 % for the respective applications of 60, 120 and 180 kg ha-1N. (author)

  15. Soil Acidification due to Acid Deposition in Southern China

    Liao, Bohan

    1998-12-31

    Anthropogenic emission of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} to the atmosphere has made acid deposition one of the most serious environmental problems. In China, acid deposition research started in the late 1970s. The present thesis is part of a joint Chinese-Norwegian research project. The main goal of the thesis was to investigate the mechanism of soil acidification, to estimate soil responses to acid deposition, and to compare relative soil sensitivity to acidification in southern China. Laboratory experiments and modelling simulations were included. Specifically, the thesis (1) studies the characteristics of anion adsorption and cation release of the soils from southern China, (2) examines the effects of increased ionic strength in the precipitation and the effects of anion adsorption on cation release from the soils, (3) compares the relative sensitivity of these soils to acidification and the potentially harmful effects of acid deposition, (4) estimates likely soil responses to different deposition scenarios, including changes in soil waters and soil properties, and (5) investigates long-term changes in soils and soil waters in the Guiyang catchment due to acid deposition. 218 refs., 31 figs., 23 tabs.

  16. Preparation and application of zirconium sulfate supported on SAPO-34 molecular sieve as solid acid catalyst for esterification

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • SAPO-34 supported zirconium sulfate solid acid catalyst was prepared. • Esterification of acetic acid with ethanol can be catalyzed by ZS/SAPO-34. • The hydration of ZS is vital to the acidic property and catalytic performance. • The ZS/SAPO-34 catalyst treated at 200 °C shows good reusability. - Abstract: Zirconium sulfate (ZS) was supported on SAPO-34 molecular sieve by using an incipient wetness impregnation method with zirconium sulfate as the precursor. The as-prepared catalysts were used as solid acid catalyst for esterification reaction of acetic acid with ethanol. The influence of calcination temperature on the acidic property, catalytic activity, and reusability of ZS/SAPO-34 catalysts were mainly investigated. FT-IR, SEM, EDS and TG analysis have been carried out to demonstrate the characteristics of ZS/SAPO-34 catalysts. It was found that the 30 wt%ZS/SAPO-34 catalysts display the property of superacid irrespective of calcination temperature. The ZS/SAPO-34 catalyst treated at 200 °C can enhance the interaction between the supported ZS and SAPO-34 and keep the catalyst remaining substantially active after several reaction cycles. However, further increasing calcination temperature will cause the transfer of ZS from hydrate to anhydrous phase, and thus the decrease of activity

  17. Role of dissimilatory sulfate reduction in wetlands constructed for acid coal mine drainage (AMD) treatment. Master's thesis

    Five constructed wetlands with different organic substrates were exposed to the same quantity/quality of acid mine drainage (AMD). During the 16-month exposure to AMD, all wetlands accumulated S in the forms of organic and reduced inorganic S and Fe in the form of iron sulfides. Iron sulfide and probably most of the organic S(C-bonded S) accumulation were end products of bacterial dissimilatory sulfate reduction. Results of study support the notion that sulfate reduction and accumulation of Fe sulfides contribute to Fe retention in wetlands exposed to AMD. Detailed information is provided

  18. Fixation of radiocaesium in an acid brown forest soil

    The influence of clay minerals and organic matter on the sorption and desorption of radiocaesium in an acid brown forest soil is investigated. A highly selective adsorption of radiocaesium is often reported in the surface horizons of acid forest soils. For this reason, soil humus is often considered as a key parameter in modelling the behaviour of Cs in these soils. The Ca2+-clay fractions, extracted from the surface hemi-organic horizon and the deeper mineral horizons of an acid brown soil, exhibit similarly high Cs+ sorption properties. Desorption yields are much lower in the surface layers, resulting in higher net retention of radiocaesium. Organic matter dynamics in the soil containing Hydroxy Interlayered Vermiculite minerals has an indirect effect on radiocaesium retention properties through Al complexation by organic acids. Acidocomplexolysis of Hydroxy Interlayered Vermiculitic clays results in the formation of degraded vermiculite in the topsoil layers, inducing a larger amount of high charged interlayer sites for Cs+ specific adsorption

  19. Contemporaneous deposition of phyllosilicates and sulfates: Using Australian acidic saline lake deposits to describe geochemical variability on Mars

    Baldridge, A.M.; Hook, S.J.; Crowley, J.K.; Marion, G.M.; Kargel, J.S.; Michalski, J.L.; Thomson, B.J.; de Souza, Filho C.R.; Bridges, N.T.; Brown, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of the origin of the Martian sulfate and phyllosilicate deposits have led to the hypothesis that there was a marked, global-scale change in the Mars environment from circum-neutral pH aqueous alteration in the Noachian to an acidic evaporitic system in the late Noachian to Hesperian. However, terrestrial studies suggest that two different geochemical systems need not be invoked to explain such geochemical variation.Western Australian acidic playa lakes have large pH differences separated vertically and laterally by only a few tens of meters, demonstrating how highly variable chemistries can coexist over short distances in natural environments. We suggest diverse and variable Martian aqueous environments where the coetaneous formation of phyllosilicates and sulfates at the Australian sites are analogs for regions where phyllosilicates and sulfates coexist on Mars. In these systems, Fe and alkali earth phyllosilicates represent deep facies associated with upwelling neutral to alkaline groundwater, whereas aluminous phyllosilicates and sulfates represent near-surface evaporitic facies formed from more acidic brines. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Perlecan Heparan Sulfate Is Required for the Inhibition of Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation by All-trans-Retinoic Acid.

    Tran-Lundmark, Karin; Tannenberg, Philip; Rauch, Bernhard H; Ekstrand, Johan; Tran, Phan-Kiet; Hedin, Ulf; Kinsella, Michael G

    2015-02-01

    Smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation is a key process in stabilization of atherosclerotic plaques, and during restenosis after interventions. A clearer understanding of SMC growth regulation is therefore needed to design specific anti-proliferative therapies. Retinoic acid has been shown to inhibit proliferation of SMCs both in vitro and in vivo and to affect the expression of extracellular matrix molecules. To explore the mechanisms behind the growth inhibitory activity of retinoic acid, we hypothesized that retinoids may induce the expression of perlecan, a large heparan sulfate proteoglycan with anti-proliferative properties. Perlecan expression and accumulation was induced in murine SMC cultures by all-trans-retinoic acid (AtRA). Moreover, the growth inhibitory effect of AtRA on wild-type cells was greatly diminished in SMCs from transgenic mice expressing heparan sulfate-deficient perlecan, indicating that the inhibition is perlecan heparan sulfate-dependent. In addition, AtRA influenced activation and phosphorylation of PTEN and Akt differently in wild-type and mutant SMCs, consistent with previous studies of perlecan-dependent SMC growth inhibition. We demonstrate that AtRA regulates perlecan expression in SMCs and that the inhibition of SMC proliferation by AtRA is, at least in part, secondary to an increased expression of perlecan and dependent upon its heparan sulfate-chains. PMID:25078760

  1. Titratable Acidity and Alkalinity of Red Soil Surfaces

    SHAOZONG-CHEN; HEQUN; 等

    1993-01-01

    The surfaces of red soils have an apparent amphoteric character,carrying titratable acidity and titratable alkalinity simultaneously.The titratable acidity arises from deprotonation of hydroxyl groups of hydrous oxide-type surfaces and dissociation of weak-acid functional groups of soil organic matter,while the titratable alkalinity is derived from release of hydroxyl groups of hydrous oxide-type surfaces.The titratable acidity and titratable alkalinity mainly depended on the composition and content of iron and aluminum oxides in the soils.The results showed that the titratable acidity and titratable alkalinity were in significantly positive correlation not only with the content of amorphous aluminum oxide(Alo) and iron oxide(Feo) extracted with acid ammonium oxalate solution,free iron oxide(Fed) extracted with sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate(DCB) and clays,but also with the zero point of charge (ZPC) of the samples.Organic matter made an important contribution to the titratable acidity.the titratable alkalinity was closely correlated with the amount of fluoride ions adsorbed.The titratable acidity and titratable alkalinity of red soils were influenced by parent materials,being in the order of red soil derived from basalt> that from tuff> that from granite.The titratable acidity and titratable alkalinity ware closely related with origination of the variable charges of red soils,and to a certain extent were responsible for variable negative and positive charges of the soils.

  2. Methylsulfonylmethane and boswellic acids versus glucosamine sulfate in the treatment of knee arthritis: Randomized trial.

    Notarnicola, Angela; Maccagnano, Giuseppe; Moretti, Lorenzo; Pesce, Vito; Tafuri, Silvio; Fiore, Alessandra; Moretti, Biagio

    2016-03-01

    Until now glucosamine sulfate (GS) has been the most widely used supplement and has been shown to be efficacious in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) and boswellic acids (BA) are new effective supplements for the management of inflammation and joint degeneration, according to previous experimental studies. The aim of our study is to test the effectiveness of association of MSM and BA in comparison with GS in knee arthritis.In this prospective randomized clinical trial, MEBAGA (Methylsulfonylmethane and Boswellic Acids versus Glucosamine sulfate in the treatment of knee Arthritis), 120 participants affected by arthritis of the knee were randomly assigned to an experimental group (MB group) or a control group (GS group) treated for 60 days with 5 g of MSM and 7.2 mg of BA or with 1500 mg of GS daily, respectively. At the 2-month (T1) and 6-months (T2) follow-up , the efficacy of these two nutraceuticals was assessed using the visual analog pain scale (VAS) and the Lequesne Index (LI) for joint function, along with the use of anti-inflammatory drugs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and anti-cyclooxygenase-2).The repeated measures ANOVA analysis shows that for VAS, LI, and the use of anti-inflammatory drugs scores there are improvements due to the time in the two groups (respectively, F=26.0; P<0.0001; F=4.15; P=0.02; F=3.38; P=0.04), with a tendency to better values for the MB group at T2.On the basis of these preliminary data, we could support the efficacy of the MSM in association with BA in the treatment of OA. These results are consistent with the anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective effects previously occurred in experimental studies. This new combination of integration (MSM and BS) has presented good results and satisfactory in comparison with GS, until now the cornerstone of the treatment of arthritis in according to guidelines. PMID:26684635

  3. Assignment of hexuronic acid stereochemistry in synthetic heparan sulfate tetrasaccharides with 2-O-sulfo uronic acids using electron detachment dissociation

    Agyekum, Isaac; Patel, Anish B.; Zong, Chengli; Boons, Geert Jan; Amster, I. Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The present work focuses on the assignment of uronic acid stereochemistry in heparan sulfate (HS) oligomers. The structural elucidation of HS glycosaminoglycans is the subject of considerable importance due to the biological and biomedical significance of this class of carbohydrates. They are highly

  4. Succession of Soil Acidity Quality and its Influence on Soil Phosphorus Types

    DUANWenbiao; CHENLixin

    2004-01-01

    Succession rules of soil acidity quality of larch plantations in first rotation at different development stages, succession rules of soil acidity quality of young stand of larch plantations in second rotation and the relationship between soil acidity and various forms of organic phosphorus and inorganic phosphorus were studied in mountainous area of eastern part of Northeastern China. The results showed that active acidity (pH value) inrhizosphere soil decreased continually with stand age increasing from young stand, half-mature stand, near mature stand to mature stand, but active acidity (pH value) in non-rhizosphere soil, exchange acidity, exchangeable aluminium, total hydrolytic acidity, and the ratio of exchange acidity and total hydrolytic acidity in rhizosphere soil and in non-rhizosphere soil increased apparently; total organic P, moderately resistant organic P, and highly resistant organic P in soil decreased at all age stages in larch plantations when soil acidity added. For rhizosphere soil of all stands of larch plantations at different development stages,there was positive correlation between Ca-P (except in young stand), Al-P(except in half-mature stand), Fe-P (except in near mature stand and mature stand), O-P (except in young stand), and soil active acidity,respectively; For rhizosphere soil, there was negative correlation between Ca-P (except in half-mature stand), Al-P(except in young stand), O-P, and exchange acidity, exchangeable aluminium, there was also negative correlation between Ca-P, Al-P(except in young stand and half-mature stand), Fe-P, O-P, and total hydrolytic acidity respectively. For rhizosphere soil, the correlation coefficient between Ca-P, O-P and total hydrolytic aciditydecreased, respectively, as stand ages up and that between Fe-P and exchange acidity,exchangeable aluminium increased, respectively, as stand ages grew. For non-rhizosphere soil, there was not significant correlation between soil acidity and various forms of

  5. Chemical evaluation of soil-solution in acid forest soils

    Lawrence, G.B.; David, M.B.

    1996-01-01

    Soil-solution chemistry is commonly studied in forests through the use of soil lysimeters.This approach is impractical for regional survey studies, however, because lysimeter installation and operation is expensive and time consuming. To address these problems, a new technique was developed to compare soil-solution chemistry among red spruce stands in New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, Maine. Soil solutions were expelled by positive air pressure from soil that had been placed in a sealed cylinder. Before the air pressure was applied, a solution chemically similar to throughfall was added to the soil to bring it to approximate field capacity. After the solution sample was expelled, the soil was removed from the cylinder and chemically analyzed. The method was tested with homogenized Oa and Bs horizon soils collected from a red spruce stand in the Adirondack Mountains of New York, a red spruce stand in east-central Vermont, and a mixed hardwood stand in the Catskill Mountains of New York. Reproducibility, effects of varying the reaction time between adding throughfall and expelling soil solution (5-65 minutes) and effects of varying the chemical composition of added throughfall, were evaluated. In general, results showed that (i) the method was reproducible (coefficients of variation were generally soil exchange chemistry. Concentrations of expelled solutions varied with the concentrations of added throughfall; the lower the CEC, the more sensitive expelled solution concentrations were to the chemical concentrations of added throughfall. Addition of a tracer (NaBr) showed that the expelled solution was a mixture of added solution and solution that preexisted in the soil. Comparisons of expelled solution concentrations with concentrations of soil solutions collected by zero-tension and tension lysimetry indicated that expelled solution concentrations were higher than those obtained with either type of lysimeter, although there was less difference with tension

  6. Characterization of specific membrane fatty acids as chemotaxonomic markers for sulfate-reducing bacteria involved in anaerobic oxidation of methane

    Elvert, M.; Boetius, A.; Knittel, K.; Jørgensen, BB

    2003-01-01

    Membrane fatty acids were extracted from a sediment core above marine gas hydrates at Hydrate Ridge, NE Pacific. Anaerobic sediments from this environment are characterized by high sulfate reduction rates driven by the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). The assimilation of methane carbon into...... bacterial biomass is indicated by carbon isotope values of specific fatty acids as low as -103parts per thousand. Specific fatty acids released from bacterial membranes include C(16:1omega5c) , C(17:1omega6c) , and cyC(17:0omega5,6) , all of which have been fully characterized by mass spectrometry. These...

  7. Experimental and theoretical enthalpies of formation of glycine-based sulfate/bisulfate amino acid ionic liquids.

    Zhu, Jing-Fang; He, Ling; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Ming; Tao, Guo-Hong

    2012-01-12

    The experimental and theoretical enthalpies of formation of several structural-similar glycine-based sulfate/bisulfate amino acid ionic liquids including glycine sulfate (Gly(2)SO(4), 1), glycine bisulfate (GlyHSO(4), 2), N,N-dimethylglycine sulfate ([DMGly](2)SO(4), 3), N,N-dimethylglycine bisulfate ([DMGly]HSO(4), 4), N,N-dimethylglycine methyl ester sulfate ([DMGlyC(1)](2)SO(4), 5), N,N-dimethylglycine methyl ester bisulfate ([DMGlyC(1)]HSO(4), 6), N,N,N-trimethylglycine methyl ester sulfate ([TMGlyC(1)](2)SO(4), 7), and N,N,N-trimethylglycine methyl ester bisulfate ([TMGlyC(1)]HSO(4), 8) were studied. Their experimental enthalpies of formation were obtained from the corresponding energies of combustion determined by the bomb calorimetry method. The enthalpies of formation of these amino acid ionic liquids are in the range from -1406 kJ mol(-1) to -1128 kJ mol(-1). Systematic theoretical study on these amino acid ionic liquids were performed by quantum chemistry calculation using the Gaussian03 suite of programs. The geometric optimization and the frequency analyses are carried out using the B3LYP method with the 6-31+G** basis set. Their calculated enthalpies of formation were derived from the single point energies carried out with the HF/6-31+G**, B3LYP/6-31+G**, B3LYP/6-311++G**, and MP2/6-311++G** level of theory, respectively. The relevance of experimental and calculated enthalpies of formation was studied. The calculated enthalpies of formation are in good agreement with their experimental data in less than 3% error. PMID:22148242

  8. Comparison of chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic Acid doped conductive polypyrrole films for adipose stem cells.

    Björninen, Miina; Siljander, Aliisa; Pelto, Jani; Hyttinen, Jari; Kellomäki, Minna; Miettinen, Susanna; Seppänen, Riitta; Haimi, Suvi

    2014-09-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy) is a conductive polymer that has aroused interest due to its biocompatibility with several cell types and high tailorability as an electroconductive scaffold coating. This study compares the effect of hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) doped PPy films on human adipose stem cells (hASCs) under electrical stimulation. The PPy films were synthetized electrochemically. The surface morphology of PPy-HA and PPy-CS was characterized by an atomic force microscope. A pulsed biphasic electric current (BEC) was applied via PPy films non-stimulated samples acting as controls. Viability, attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hASCs were evaluated by live/dead staining, DNA content, Alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization assays. Human ASCs grew as a homogenous cell sheet on PPy-CS surfaces, whereas on PPy-HA cells clustered into small spherical structures. PPy-CS supported hASC proliferation significantly better than PPy-HA at the 7 day time point. Both substrates equally triggered early osteogenic differentiation of hASCs, although mineralization was significantly induced on PPy-CS compared to PPy-HA under BEC. These differences may be due to different surface morphologies originating from the CS and HA dopants. Our results suggest that PPy-CS in particular is a potential osteogenic scaffold coating for bone tissue engineering. PMID:24823653

  9. A sulfated polysaccharide, fucoidan, enhances the immunomodulatory effects of lactic acid bacteria.

    Kawashima, Tadaomi; Murakami, Katsura; Nishimura, Ikuko; Nakano, Takahisa; Obata, Akio

    2012-03-01

    Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide contained in brown algae, has a variety of immunomodulatory effects, including antitumor and antiviral effects. On the other hand, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) also have immunomodulatory effects such as anti-allergic effects. In this study, we demonstrated that fucoidan enhances the probiotic effects of LAB on immune functions. By using Peyer's patch cells and spleen cells in vitro, fucoidan amplified interferon (IFN)-γ production in response to a strain of LAB, Tetragenococcus halophilus KK221, and this activity was abolished by desulfation of fucoidan. Moreover, this IFN-γ response was abolished by interleukin (IL)-12 neutralization. These results indicate that fucoidan enhanced IL-12 production in response to KK221, resulting in promoting IFN-γ production. In an in vivo study, Th1/Th2 immunobalance was most improved by oral administration of both fucoidan and KK221 to ovalbumin-immunized mice. These findings suggest that fucoidan can enhance a variety of beneficial effects of LAB on immune functions. PMID:22160132

  10. Tough and elastic hydrogel of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate as potential cell scaffold materials.

    Ni, Yilu; Tang, Zhurong; Cao, Wanxu; Lin, Hai; Fan, Yujiang; Guo, Likun; Zhang, Xingdong

    2015-03-01

    Natural polysaccharides are extensively investigated as cell scaffold materials for cellular adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation due to their excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability, and biofunctions. However, their application is often severely limited by their mechanical behavior. In this study, a tough and elastic hydrogel scaffold was prepared with hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS). HA and CS were conjugated with tyramine (TA) and the degree of substitution (DS) was 10.7% and 11.3%, respectively, as calculated by (1)H NMR spectra. The hydrogel was prepared by mixing HA-TA and CS-TA in presence of H2O2 and HRP. The sectional morphology of hydrogels was observed by SEM, static and dynamic mechanical properties were analyzed by Shimadzu electromechanical testing machine and dynamic mechanical thermal analyzer Q800. All samples showed good ability to recover their appearances after deformation, the storage modulus (E') of hydrogels became higher as the testing frequency went up. Hydrogels also showed fatigue resistance to cyclic compression. Mesenchymal stem cells encapsulated in hydrogels showed good cell viability as detected by CLSM. This study suggests that the hydrogels have both good mechanical properties and biocompatibility, and may serve as model systems to explore mechanisms of deformation and energy dissipation or find some applications in tissue engineering. PMID:25445680

  11. Oxidation of phenolic acids by soil iron and manganese oxides

    Lehmann, R.G.; Cheng, H.H.; Harsh, J.B.

    Phenolic acids are intermediary metabolites of many aromatic chemicals and may be involved in humus formation, allelopathy, and nutrient availability. Depending on their structures, six phenolic acids were shown to react at different rates with oxidized forms of Fe and Mn in a Palouse soil (fine-silty, mixed, mesic Pachic Ultic Haploxeroll). Increasing methoxy substitution on the aromatic ring of phenolic acids increased the reaction rate. Reaction rate was also increased for longer carboxyl-containing side chains. After 4 h reaction, little of the applied (10 mg kg/sup -1/ soil) p-hydroxybenzoic or p-coumaric acids had reacted, while 0 to 5, 70, 90, and 100% of the vanillic, ferulic, syringic, and sinapic acids, respectively, had reacted. After 72 h under conditions limiting microbial growth, none of the p-hydroxybenzoic, 30% of the p-coumaric, and 50% of the vanillic acids had reacted. The reaction was shown to be predominantly chemical, and not biological, since phenolic acid extractabilities were similar for Palouse soil and for Palouse soil pretreated with LiOBr to remove organic matter. When the Palouse soil was pretreated with a sodium dithionite-citrate solution to remove Fe and Mn oxides, none of the phenolic acids reacted after 1 h. The reaction of sinapic acid with Palouse soil was shown to produce Fe(II) and soluble Mn as reaction products. The reaction of phenolic acids with soil was thus shown to be an oxidation of the phenolic acids, coupled with a reduction of soil Fe and Mn oxides.

  12. Effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate on folding and thermal stability of acid-denatured cytochrome c: A spectroscopic approach

    Xu, Qi; Keiderling, Timothy A

    2004-01-01

    The molten globule (MG) state can be an intermediate in the protein folding pathway; thus, its detailed description can help understanding protein folding. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), an anionic surfactant that is commonly used to mimic hydrophobic binding environments such as cell membranes, is known to denature some native state proteins, including horse cytochrome c (cyt c). In this article, refolding of acid denatured cyt c is studied under the influence of SDS to form MG-like states at...

  13. Biocompatibility Assessment of Novel Collagen-Sericin Scaffolds Improved with Hyaluronic Acid and Chondroitin Sulfate for Cartilage Regeneration

    Sorina Dinescu; Bianca Gălăţeanu; Mădălina Albu; Adriana Lungu; Eugen Radu; Anca Hermenean; Marieta Costache

    2013-01-01

    Cartilage tissue engineering (CTE) applications are focused towards the use of implantable biohybrids consisting of biodegradable scaffolds combined with in vitro cultured cells. Hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) were identified as the most potent prochondrogenic factors used to design new biomaterials for CTE, while human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) were proved to display high chondrogenic potential. In this context, our aim was not only to build novel 3D porous scaffol...

  14. Acidic sandy soil improvement with biochar - A microcosm study.

    Molnár, Mónika; Vaszita, Emese; Farkas, Éva; Ujaczki, Éva; Fekete-Kertész, Ildikó; Tolner, Mária; Klebercz, Orsolya; Kirchkeszner, Csaba; Gruiz, Katalin; Uzinger, Nikolett; Feigl, Viktória

    2016-09-01

    Biochar produced from a wide range of organic materials by pyrolysis has been reported as a means to improve soil physical properties, fertility and crop productivity. However, there is a lack of studies on the complex effects of biochar both on the degraded sandy soil physico-chemical properties and the soil biota as well as on toxicity, particularly in combined application with fertilizer and compost. A 7-week microcosm experiment was conducted to improve the quality of an acidic sandy soil combining variations in biochar types and amounts, compost and fertilizer application rates. The applied biochars were produced from different feedstocks such as grain husks, paper fibre sludge and wood screenings. The main purpose of the microcosm experiment was to assess the efficiency and applicability of different biochars as soil amendment prior to field trials and to choose the most efficient biochar to improve the fertility, biological activity and physical properties of acidic sandy soils. We complemented the methodology with ecotoxicity assessment to evaluate the possible risks to the soil as habitat for microbes, plants and animals. There was clear evidence of biochar-soil interactions positively affecting both the physico-chemical properties of the tested acidic sandy soil and the soil biota. Our results suggest that the grain husk and the paper fibre sludge biochars applied to the tested soil at 1% and 0.5 w/w% rate mixed with compost, respectively can supply a more liveable habitat for plants and soil living animals than the acidic sandy soil without treatment. PMID:26850860

  15. Acid soils of western Serbia and their further acidification

    Mrvic, Vesna

    2010-05-01

    Acid soils cause many unfavorable soil characteristics from the plant nutrition point of view. Because of increased soil acidity the violation of buffering soil properties due to leaching of Ca and Mg ions is taking place that also can cause soil physical degradation via peptization of colloids. Together with increasing of soil acidity the content of mobile Al increases that can be toxic for plants. Easily available nutritive elements transforms into hardly avaialble froms. The process of deactivation is especially expressed for phosphorous that under such conditions forms non-soluble compounds with sesqui-oxides. From the other hand the higher solubility of some microelements (Zn and B) can cause their accelerated leaching from root zone and therefore, result in their deficiency for plant nutrition. Dangerous and toxic matters transforms into easly-available forms for plants, especially, Cd and Ni under the lower soil pH. The studied soil occupies 36675 hectare in the municipality of Krupan in Serbia, and are characterized with very unfavorable chemical properties: 26% of the territory belongs to the cathegory of very acidic, and 44 % belongs to the cathegory of acidic. The results showed that the soil of the territory of Krupan is limited for agricultural land use due to their high acidity. Beside the statement of negative soil properties determined by acidity, there is a necessity for determination of soil sensitivity for acidification processes toward soil protection from ecological aspect and its prevention from further acidification. Based on such data and categorization of soils it is possible to undertake proper measures for soil protection and melioration of the most endangered soil cover, where the economic aspect of these measures is very important. One of the methods of soil classification based on sensitivity for acidification classification the determination of soil categories is based on the values of soil CEC and pH in water. By combination of these

  16. Arsenic removal from contaminated soil using phosphoric acid and phosphate

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory batch experiments were conducted to study Arsenic (As) removal from a naturally contaminated soil using phosphoric acid (H3PO4) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4). Both H3PO4 and KH2PO4 proved to clearly reduce toxicity of the soil in terms of soil As content, attaining more than 20% As removal at a concentration of 200 mmol/L, although soil As tolerance limit of 30 mg/kg, according to Chinese Environmental quality standard for soil (EQSS), was not satisfied by using these two extractants. At the same time, acidification of soil and dissolution of soil components (Ca, Mg, and Si) resulted from using these two extractants, especially H3PO4. The effectiveness of these two extractants could be attributed to the replacement of As by phosphate ions (PO43-). The function of H3PO4 as an acid to dissolve soil components had little effects on As removal. KH2PO4 almost removed as much As as H3PO4, but it did not result in serious damage to soils, indicating that it was a more promising extractant. The results of a kinetic study showed that As removal reached equilibrium after incubation for 360 min, but dissolution of soil components, especially Mg and Ca, was very rapid. Therefore dissolution of soil components would be inevitable if As was further removed. Elovich's model best described the kinetic data of As removal among the four models used in the kinetic study.

  17. Determination of amino acids in industrial effluents contaminated soil

    38 samples of soil for 19 locations partially irrigated on the effluents of sugar mill and oil andghee mill, bottom sediments of evaporation ponds of sugar and fertilizer industries were collected and analyzed for amino acids after acid digestion by gas chromatography using pre column derivatization with trifluroacetyleacetone and ethyl chloroformate. The results obtained were compared with the soil samples irrigated with fresh water. The soil samples were also analyzed for pH, total nitrogen contents and organic carbon. Nine essential (leucine (Leu), threonine (Thr), lysine (Lys), L-phenylalanine (Phe), tryptophan (Trp), histadine (His), L-valine (Val), methionine (Met) and isoleucine Ile) and ten non-essential ( alanine (Ala), cysteine (Cys), asparagine (Asn), glutamic acid (Glu), serine (Ser), glycine (Gly), proline (Pro), Glutamine (Gln), aspartic acid (Asp), tyrosine (Tyr)) amino acids were analyzed 13-15 amino acids were identified and determined quantitatively from soil samples. Amino acids Met, Asn, Gln and Trp were observed absent from all the samples. The variation in the amino acids contents in soil with the industrial effluents added and total nitrogen and organic carbon is discussed. (author)

  18. ACID RAIN AND SOIL MICROBIAL ACTIVITY: EFFECTS AND THEIR MECHANISMS

    In the investigation, our aim was to determine if acid rain affects soil microbial activity and to identify possible mechanisms of observed effects. A Sierran forest soil (pH 6.4) planted with Ponderosa pine seedlings was exposed to simulated rain (pH 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.6) with ...

  19. Acidity controls on dissolved organic carbon mobility in organic soils

    Evans, Ch. D.; Jones, T.; Burden, A.; Ostle, N.; Zielinski, P.; Cooper, M.; Peacock, M.; Clark, J.; Oulehle, Filip; Cooper, D.; Freeman, Ch.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 11 (2012), s. 3317-3331. ISSN 1354-1013 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : acidity * dissolved organic carbon * organic soil * peat * podzol * soil carbon * sulphur Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 6.910, year: 2012

  20. FROM GENE TO STRUCTURE: Formation of Iduronic Acid in Dermatan Sulfate by Two DS-epimerases

    Pacheco, Benny

    2008-01-01

    During embryonic development and adult life a wide range of cell behaviors such as differentiation, proliferation and migration are in effect to maintain tissue integrity and function. An integral part of these dynamic processes is the interplay between the cells and their environment, i.e. the extracellular space. Complex polysaccharides, such as dermatan sulfate play a key role in these processes. Dermatan sulfate is a long linear polysaccharide of a repeating disaccharide unit consisti...

  1. Microbiological transformations of phosphorus and sulphur compounds in acid soils

    Stamenov Dragana; Jarak Mirjana; Đurić Simonida; Jafari Hajnal Timea; Bjelić Dragana

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of phosphorus and sulphur in soil is closely related to the dynamics of the biological cycle in which microorganisms play a central role. There is not much microbiological activity in acid soils because aerobes are scarce, rhizosphere is restricted to the shallow surface layer, and the biomass of microorganisms decreases with higher acidity. The aim of the research was to investigate the number of microorganisms, which decompose organic and inorganic phosphorus compounds an...

  2. Influence of vegetation on phenolic acid contents in soil

    Malá, J.; Cvikrová, M.; Hrubcová, M. (Marie); Máchová, P.

    2013-01-01

    The study described in this paper was undertaken in order to assess the impact of different woody plants on the dynamics of phenolic acids in soil. The influence of plant litter on the amount of phenolic compounds occurring in soils beneath several deciduous and coniferous tree species was examined in pot experiments. The contents of endogenous methanol soluble free and conjugated phenolic acids in Norway spruce, larch, rowan and two species of willow were determined. We focused on the dynami...

  3. Metal and acidity fluxes controlled by precipitation/dissolution cycles of sulfate salts in an anthropogenic mine aquifer

    Cánovas, C. R.; Macías, F.; Pérez-López, R.

    2016-05-01

    Underground mine drainages are extremely difficult to study due to the lack of information about the flow path and source proximity in relation to the outflow adit. Geochemical processes controlling metals and acidity fluxes in a complex anthropogenic mine aquifer in SW Spain during the dry and rainy season were investigated by geochemical and statistical tools. High concentrations of acidity, sulfate, metals and metalloids (e.g. Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Ni, Co) were observed due to intense sulfide oxidation processes. The high residence time inside the anthropogenic aquifer, around 40 days, caused the release of significant quantities of metals linked to host rocks (e.g. Al, Ca, Ge, Li, Mg, REE). The most outstanding characteristic of the acid mine drainage (AMD) outflows is the existence of higher Fe/SO4 molar ratios than those theoretical of pyrite (0.50) during most of the monitored period, due to a fire which occurred in 1949 and remained active for decades. Permanent and temporal retention mechanisms of acidity and metals were observed in the galleries. Once released from sulfide oxidation, Pb and As are sorbed on Fe oxyhydroxysulfate or precipitated as low solubility minerals (i.e. anglesite) inside the galleries. The precipitation of evaporitic sulfate salts during the dry season and the subsequent re-dissolution after rainfall control the fluxes of acidity and main metals (i.e. Fe, Mg, Al) from this anthropogenic aquifer. Some elements, such as Cd, Cu, Ni, REE and Zn, are retained in highly soluble sulfate salts while other elements, such as Ge, Pb and Sc, have a lower response to washout processes due to its incorporation in less soluble sulfate salts. In this way, metal concentration during the washout processes would be controlled by the proportion and solubility of each type of evaporitic sulfate salt stored during the dry season. The recovery of metals of economic interest contained in the AMD could help to self-finance the remediation of these waters in

  4. Bile salts of the West Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris: novel bile alcohol sulfates and absence of bile acids.

    Kuroki, S; Schteingart, C D; Hagey, L R; Cohen, B I; Mosbach, E H; Rossi, S S; Hofmann, A F; Matoba, N; Une, M; Hoshita, T

    1988-04-01

    The bile salts present in gallbladder bile of the West Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris, an herbivorous marine mammal of the tropical and subtropical margins of the Atlantic Ocean, were found to consist of a mixture of bile alcohol sulfates. Bile acids, previously believed to be present in all mammals, were not detected. Using chromatography, mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, the major bile alcohol was identified as 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,6 beta,7 alpha-25,26-pentol; that is, it had the nuclear structure of alpha-muricholic acid and the side chain structure of bufol. This compound has not been described previously and the trivial name "alpha-trichechol" is proposed. The second most abundant compound was 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,7 alpha,25,26-tetrol. Other bile alcohols were tentatively identified as 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,6 beta,7 beta,25,26-pentol (named beta-trichechol), 3 alpha,6 alpha,7 beta, 25-26-pentol (named omega-trichechol) and 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,6 beta,7 alpha,26-tetrol. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra of the four 6,7 epimers of 3,6,7 trihydroxy bile acids are described and discussed. All bile alcohols were present as ester sulfates, the sulfate group being tentatively assigned to the 26-hydroxy group. 12-Hydroxy compounds were not detected. The manatee is the first mammal found to lack bile acids, presumably because it lacks the enzymes required for oxidation of the 26-hydroxy group to a carboxylic acid. Trichechols, like other bile salts, are water-soluble end products of cholesterol metabolism; whether they also function as biological surfactants in promoting biliary cholesterol secretion or lipid digestion is unknown. PMID:3392467

  5. Adsorption and desorption dynamics of citric acid anions in soil

    Oburger, E.

    2011-07-26

    The functional role of organic acid anions in soil has been intensively investigated, with special focus on (i) microbial respiration and soil carbon dynamics, (ii) nutrient solubilization or (iii) metal detoxification and reduction of plant metal uptake. Little is known about the interaction dynamics of organic acid anions with the soil matrix and the potential impact of adsorption and desorption processes on the functional significance of these effects. The aim of this study was to characterize experimentally the adsorption and desorption dynamics of organic acid anions in five agricultural soils differing in iron and aluminium oxide contents and using citrate as a model carboxylate. Results showed that both adsorption and desorption processes were fast in all soils, reaching a steady state within approximately 1 hour. However, for a given total soil citrate concentration (ct) the steady state was critically dependent on the starting conditions of the experiment, whether most of the citrate was initially present in solution (cl) or held on the solid phase (cs). Specifically, desorption-led processes resulted in significantly smaller steady-state solution concentrations than adsorption-led processes, indicating that hysteresis occurred. As it is not possible to distinguish between different adsorption and desorption pools in soil experimentally, a new dynamic hysteresis model that relies only on measured soil solution concentrations was developed. The model satisfactorily explained experimental data and was able to predict dynamic adsorption and desorption behaviour. To demonstrate its use, we applied the model to two relevant situations involving exudation and microbial degradation. The study highlighted the complex nature of citrate adsorption and desorption dynamics in soil. We conclude that existing models need to incorporate both temporal and hysteresis components to describe realistically the role and fate of organic acids in soil processes. © 2011 The

  6. Thermal stability and surface acidity of mesoporous silica doubly doped by incorporation of sulfate and zirconium ions

    A sulfated Si-Zr-MCM-41 solid with highly ordered mesostructure was synthesized through a templated synthesis route where the CTAB surfactant was used as template. During the synthesis procedure, various amounts of (NH4)2SO4 were added into the mixed solution of Zr and Si precursors to in situ sulfate the MCM-41 solids, aiming to enhance the acidity and thermal stability. The resultant materials showed a long-range ordered hexagonal arrangement with high surface area larger than 797 m2/g and an average pore size distributed at approximate 2.5-2.8 nm. The high-resolution TEM observations confirmed that the order of the mesostructure gained when the molar ratio of SO42-/(ZrO2 + SiO2) increased from 0.1 to 0.3 but decreased as it reached 0.5, which is consistent with the results of 29Si MAS-NMR and XRD analysis. Compared to Si-MCM-41, the (Q2 + Q3)/Q4 ratio derived from the NMR spectra of the Zr-doped sample was higher, indicating that zirconium atoms were incorporated into the silica framework. Unexpectedly, in situ sulfation does not enhance the surface Broensted acidity, most likely due to the sulfur retained within the bulk of the materials; however, it indeed improved the thermal stability of the solid and long-range order of the structure

  7. Partition of Chiral pharmaceutical intermediate R(-)-Mandelic Acid in Aqueous Two-Phase System of Poly(ethylene glycol)-Ammonium Sulfate

    Xu Xiaoping; Li Zhongqin; Chen Jiebo; Huang Xinghua

    2004-01-01

    An aqueous two-phase system of poly (ethylene glycol)-ammonium sulfate was employed to separate R (-)-mandelic acid.The result showed that R (-)-mandelic acid has priority to partition in PEG-rich top phase. This indicated that aqueous two-phase is a very suitable system for separation of R(-)-mandelic acid.

  8. Ruthenium sulfate complexes forming during electrochemical dissolution of Ni-Fe-Ru alloys in sulfuric acid solutions

    Ruthenium sulfate complexes, prepared by anodic dissolution of Ni-Fe-Ru alloys in sulfuric acid solutions, have been studied. Ruthenium oxidation states in the complexes, their charge, dimensions, are determined, and Fe effect on the formation of different forms of complexes is clarified. Using the method of gel-chromatography, it is established, that at the anode potential >= 1w0 V ruthenium transfers into solution in the form of several neutral and anion complex forms of Ru(4): grey-violet polymeric ones (dimensions 1.6-2.3 nm), presumably containing the groupings (Rusub(n)(OH)sub(2(n-1))) or [Rusub(n)Osub(2(n-1))], where n>=3, red dimeric ones, containing (RuO)2, mixture of monomeric browngrey sulfate complexes with the grouping RuO. Fe hinders the formation of Ru complex polymeric forms

  9. BIOREMEDIATION FOR ACID MINE DRAINAGE: ORGANIC SOLID WASTE AS CARBON SOURCES FOR SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA: A REVIEW

    I. N. Jamil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological sulfate reduction has been slowly replacing chemical unit processes to treat acid mine drainage (AMD. Bioremediations for AMD treatment are favored due to their low capital and maintenance cost. This paper describes the available AMD treatment, current SRB commercialization such as THIOPAQ® and BioSulphide® technologies, and also the factors and limitations faced. THIOPAQ® and BioSulphide® technologies use expensive carbon sources such as hydrogen as the electron donor. This paper discusses the possibility of organic solid waste as an alternative substrate as it is cheaper and abundant. A possible AMD treatment system setup was also proposed to test the efficiency of sulfate-reducing bacteria utilizing organic solid substrate.

  10. Modeling the neutralizing processes of acid precipitation in soils and glacial sediments of northern Ohio

    Eckstein, Yoram; Hau, Joseph A.

    1992-02-01

    Most studies of the acidic deposition phenomena have been focused on processes occurring in the northeastern USA and Scandinavia. In these regions the soil cover is thin, the bedrock is acidic, and the terrain has very poor acid buffering capacity. Most of the US Midwest, including northern Ohio, has been ignored because the terrain is covered by glacial sediments with an abundance of carbonate minerals. Yet, for the last three decades the area has been experiencing acidic precipitation with a pH range of 3.5-4.5. the lowest in the USA. Samples of precipitation, soil water, and shallow ground water from Leroy Township in Lake County, Ohio, and from Wooster Township in Wayne County, Ohio, were analyzed and processed using WATEQ3 and PHREEQE computer models to quantify the effects of the acidic deposition. The two regions are characterized by very similar topographic, geological and hydrogeological conditions. Although the cation content of the precipitation in both regions is similar, the anion concentrations are much higher (sulfate by 70%, nitrate by 14% and chloride by 167%) in Leroy, located 50 km east-northeast and downwind of the Cleveland-Akron industrial complex, than in Wooster, located 80 km south-southwest and off-wind from the industrial complex. Computer modeling results indicate that buffering of acidic deposition in the surficial sediments and glacial tills of the two regions is dominated apparently by calcite dissolution, and dissolution and exchange of hydrogen for magnesium ions are the dominant neutralizing processes. However, reaction simulations also suggest that the buffering capacity of the Leroy soils and tills has been depleted to a much greater degree than in Wooster Township. In Leroy more acidic input is reacting with less buffering material to produce lower soil and groundwater pH. The depletion of carbonate and alumino-silicate minerals in the soils of Leroy Township is occurring at a rate that is 3-5 times faster than in the same type

  11. Effect of acid rain on soil microbial processes

    Acid rain is real; the pH of precipitation in many areas of the world is below its normal equilibrium value, and concentrations of inorganic N and S are elevated above background. The impact of acid rain on soil microbial processes is less clear. This is largely because of the chemical buffering of the soil ecosystem and the inherent resiliency and redundancy of soil microorganisms. Microorganisms have an amazing capacity to adapt to new situations, which is enhanced by their ability to evolve under selection pressure. Their resilience is a function of both the large number of microorganisms present in a given volume of soil and their high growth rate relative to macroorganisms. This suggests that microorganisms are likely to be able to adapt more quickly to acidification than plants or animals, which may be one reason why symbiotic associations, such as ectomycorrhizae, are more susceptible to acid inputs than their saprophytic counterparts

  12. Visible-near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy of volcanic acid-sulfate alteration in Nicaragua: Analogs for early Mars

    Marcucci, Emma C.; Hynek, Brian M.; Kierein-Young, Kathryn S.; Rogers, K. L.

    2013-10-01

    Acid-sulfate weathering at Nicaraguan hydrothermal sites Cerro Negro, Momotombo, and Telica volcanoes and Hervidores de San Jacinto mudpots was characterized as an analog for similar processes that likely operated on early Mars. In situ mineralogical analyses were conducted with a field portable visible near-infrared spectrometer for comparison to similar Martian data sets. Three classes of alteration minerals were identified: sulfates (gypsum and natroalunite), oxides/hydroxides (hematite and goethite), and phyllosilicates (kaolinite/halloysite, montmorillonite, and saponite), as well as elemental sulfur and hydrated silica phases. Our sites had similar suites of minerals, but frequencies varied with location. The results of this field campaign allow inferences regarding the paleo-environmental conditions that were likely present at similar relic hydrothermal sites identified on Mars. In particular, sulfates and phyllosilicates could have coevolved under hydrothermal conditions at Noctis Labyrinthus as is seen in Nicaragua. Fe/Mg smectites were detected in areas with pH of 3-4. Alunite spectra at Terra Sirenum demonstrated mineral mixing effects on spectroscopy. Mineral mixing can cause uncertainties in spectral identification due to a dominant spectrum, such as iron minerals, masking another or the suppression of weaker bands. When viewed from orbit, our field sites would likely be dominated by hydrated silica and Mars sites, such as one in Syrtis Major, could have a more diverse mineralogy than the data reveal. Concentrated amorphous silica, such as at Gusev crater, can result from acidic fumarolic activity, while Mg sulfates may indicate a lack of reworking by water. This field spectroscopy study helps confirm and provide insight into hydrothermal processes on ancient Mars.

  13. Chemical Species of Aluminum Lons in Acid Soils

    XURENKOU; JIGUOLIANG

    1998-01-01

    Soil samples collected from several acid soils in Guangdong,Fujian,Zhejiang and Anhui provinces of the southern China were employded to characterize the chemical species of aluminum ions in the soils.The proportion or monoeric inorganic Al to total Al in soil solution was in the range of 19% to 70%,that of monomeric organlic Al (Al-OM) to total Al ranged from 7.7% to 69%,and that of the acid-soluble Al to total Al was generally smaller and was lower than 20% in most of the acid soils studied ,The Al-OM concentration in soil solution was postively correlated with the content of dissolved organic carbon(DOC) and aslo affected by the concentration of Al3+,The complexes of aluminum with fluoride(Al-F) were the predominant forms of inorganic Al,and the proportion of Al-F compexes to total inorganic Al increased with pH.Under strongly acid ondition,Al3+ was also a mjaor form of inorganic Al,and the proportio of Al3+ to total inorganic Al decreased with increasing pH.The,proportions of Al-OH and Al-SO4 complexes to total inorganic Al were small and were not larger than 10% in the most acid soils.The concentration of inorganic Al in solution depended largely on pH and the concentration of total F in soil solution,The concentrations of Al-OM,Al3+,Al-F and Al-OH complexes in topsoil were higher than those in subsoil and decreased with the increase in soil depth,The chemical species of aluminum ions were influenced by pH,The concentrations of Al-OM, Al3+,Al-F complexes and Al-OH complexes decreased with the increase in pH.

  14. Acidic gases and nitrate and sulfate particles in the atmosphere in the city of Guadalajara, México.

    Saldarriaga-Noreña, Hugo; Waliszewski, Stefan; Murillo-Tovar, Mario; Hernández-Mena, Leonel; de la Garza-Rodríguez, Iliana; Colunga-Urbina, Edith; Cuevas-Ordaz, Rosalva

    2012-05-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of nitrous acid, nitric acid, nitrate and sulfate particles were obtained in this study from April to June 2008 in the center of the city of Guadalajara, while concentrations of ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and meteorological parameters (temperature and relative humidity), were acquired by the Secretaría del Medio Ambiente para el Desarrollo Sustentable del Estado de Jalisco (SEMADES). The results showed that nitric acid (2.7 μg m(-3)) was 2.7 times higher than nitrous acid (1.0 μg m(-3)). The sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) concentration indicated an opposite trend to sulfate (SO(4) (2-)), with the average concentration of SO(2) (6.9 μg m(-3)) higher in almost the entire period of study. The sulfur conversion ratio (Fs, 24.9%) and nitrogen conversion ratio (Fn, 6.2%), were revealed to be similar to that reported in other urban areas during warm seasons. It is also noted that ozone is not the main oxidizer of nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide. This determination was made by taking into account the slightly positively correlation determined for Fn (r(2) = 0.084) and Fs (r(2) = 0.092) with ozone that perhaps suggests there are other oxidizing species such as the radical OH, which are playing an important role in the processes of atmospheric oxidation in this area. PMID:22358115

  15. The synthesis of taurine-conjugated bile acids and bile acid sulfates labeled with 14C or 3H in the taurine moiety

    Studies of bile acid transport systems require radio-labeled taurine-conjugated bile acids with high specific activity. An established procedure was optimized to provide mild, fast, and effective conjugation of radio-labeled taurine with different types of bile acids, including those with labile 7α-hydroxy-3-oxo-Δ4 or 3β, 7α-dihydroxy-Δ5 structures. Taurine labeled with 14C or 3H was reacted with excess bile acid anhydride formed from the tributylamine salt and ethylchloroformate (2/1 M/M) in aqueous dioxane for 15 min at room temperature. The yields were higher than 95% and less than 2% side products were formed. Bile acid sulfates were conjugated with 14C- or 3H-labeled taurine by using N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline as the coupling reagent. The products were effectively purified by chromatography of the sodium salts on Sephadex LH-20. The yields of taurine-conjugated bile acid sulfates were 65-70%. (author)

  16. A new allele of acid soil tolerance gene from a malting barley variety

    Bian, Miao; Jin, Xiaoli; Broughton, Sue; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Zhou, Gaofeng; Zhou, Meixue; Zhang, Guoping; Sun, Dongfa; Li, Chengdao

    2015-01-01

    Background Acid soil is a serious limitation to crop production all over the world. Toxic aluminium (Al) cations in acid soil inhibit root growth and reduce yield. Although a gene tolerant to acid soil has been identified, it has not been used in malting barley breeding, which is partly due to the acid soil tolerance gene being linked to unfavorable malting quality traits. Results A Brazilian malting barley variety Br2 was identified as tolerant to acid soil. A doubled haploid (DH) population...

  17. Differentiating chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans using collision-induced dissociation; uronic acid cross-ring diagnostic fragments in a single stage of tandem mass spectrometry.

    Kailemia, Muchena J; Patel, Anish B; Johnson, Dane T; Li, Lingyun; Linhardt, Robert J; Amster, I Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The stereochemistry of the hexuronic acid residues of the structure of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) is a key feature that affects their interactions with proteins and other biological functions. Electron based tandem mass spectrometry methods, in particular electron detachment dissociation (EDD), have been able to distinguish glucuronic acid (GlcA) from iduronic acid (IdoA) residues in some heparan sulfate tetrasaccharides by producing epimer-specific fragments. Similarly, the relative abundance of glycosidic fragment ions produced by collision-induced dissociation (CID) or EDD has been shown to correlate with the type of hexuronic acid present in chondroitin sulfate GAGs. The present work examines the effect of charge state and degree of sodium cationization on the CID fragmentation products that can be used to distinguish GlcA and IdoA containing chondroitin sulfate A and dermatan sulfate chains. The cross-ring fragments (2,4)A(n) and (0,2)X(n) formed within the hexuronic acid residues are highly preferential for chains containing GlcA, distinguishing it from IdoA. The diagnostic capability of the fragments requires the selection of a molecular ion and fragment ions with specific ionization characteristics, namely charge state and number of ionizable protons. The ions with the appropriate characteristics display diagnostic properties for all the chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate chains (degree of polymerization of 4-10) studied. PMID:26307707

  18. Ion-exchange equilibria of tungsten in the ionite-sodium sulfate sulfuric acid solution system

    Ion-exchange equilibrium in the system macroporous ionite-Na2WO4-Na2SO4-H2O(H2SO4) are studied by the methods of IR- and absorption spectroscopy, electron microscopy and mercury porometry to develop methods for tungsten selective extraction from solutions mentioned. It is ascertained that amine-containing macroporous anionites features a high exchange capacity towards tungsten ions in sulfate solutions at pH 2.5-5.5. The anionites permit a complete separation of tungsten ions from sulfate ions and preparation of pure tungsten salts

  19. Response of the sulfate-reducing community to the re-establishment of estuarine conditions in two contrasting soils: a mesocosm approach

    Miletto, M.; Loeb, R.; Antheunisse, A.M.; Bodelier, P.L.E.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    We studied the response of the sulfate-reducing prokaryote (SRP) communities to the experimental variation of salinity and tide in an outdoor mesocosm setup. Intact soil monoliths were collected at two areas of the Haringvliet lagoon (The Netherlands): one sampling location consisted of agricultural

  20. Sorption and leaching potential of acidic herbicides in Brazilian soils.

    Spadotto, Claudio A; Hornsby, Arthur G; Gomes, Marco A F

    2005-01-01

    Leaching of acidic herbicides (2,4-D, flumetsulam, and sulfentrazone) in soils was estimated by comparing the original and modified AF (Attenuation Factor) models for multi-layered soils (AFi). The original AFi model was modified to include the concept of pH-dependence for Kd (sorption coefficient) based on pesticide dissociation and changes in the accessibility of soil organic functional groups able to interact with the pesticide. The original and modified models, considering soil and herbicide properties, were applied to assess the leaching potential of selected herbicides in three Brazilian soils. The pH-dependent Kd values estimated for all three herbicides were observed to be always higher than pH-independent Kd values calculated using average Koc data, and therefore the original AFi model overestimated the overall leaching potential for the soils studied. PMID:15656159

  1. Soil bacterial and fungal communities along a soil chronosequence assessed by fatty acid profiling

    Welc, M.; Bünemann, E. K.; Flieβbach, A.; Frossard, E.; Jansa, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 49, JUN 2012 (2012), s. 184-192. ISSN 0038-0717 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Fatty acid methyl esters * Glacier forefield * Soil chronosequence Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.654, year: 2012

  2. Bacterial Growth at the High Concentrations of Magnesium Sulfate Found in Martian Soils

    Crisler, J.D.; Newville, T.M.; Chen, F.; Clark, B. C.; Schneegurt, M A

    2012-01-01

    The martian surface environment exhibits extremes of salinity, temperature, desiccation, and radiation that would make it difficult for terrestrial microbes to survive. Recent evidence suggests that martian soils contain high concentrations of MgSO4 minerals. Through warming of the soils, meltwater derived from subterranean ice-rich regolith may exist for an extended period of time and thus allow the propagation of terrestrial microbes and create significant bioburden at the near surface of M...

  3. The production and degradation of trichloroacetic acid in soil: Results from in situ soil column experiments

    Heal, M. R.; Dickey, C. A.; Heal, K.V.; Stidson, R.T.; Matucha, Miroslav; Cape, J. N.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 4 (2010), s. 401-407. ISSN 0045-6535 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Trichloroacetic acid * TCA * Soil lysimeter Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides Impact factor: 3.155, year: 2010

  4. Tolerance of VA Mycorrhizal Fungi to Soil Acidity

    2001-01-01

    A 45-day greenhouse experiment was carried out to determine effect of vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizai fungi on colonization rate,plant height, plant growth,hyphae length,total Al in the plants,exchangeable A1 in the soil and soil pH by comparison at soil pH 3.5,4.5 and 6.0.Plant mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus L.) and crotalaria (Crotalaria mucronata Desv.) were grown with and without VA mycorrhizal fungi in pots with red soil.Ten VA mycorrhizal fungi strains were tested,including Glomus epigaeum (No.90001),Glomus caledonium (No.90036),Glomus mosseae (No.90107), Acaulospora spp.(No.34),Scutellospora heterogama (No.36),Scutellospora calospora (No. 37),Glomus manihotis (No.38),Gigaspora spp.(No.47),Glomus manihotis (No.49),and Acaulospora spp.(No.53).Being the most tolerant to acidity,strain 34 and strain 38 showed quicker and higher-rated colonization without lagging,three to four times more in number of nodules,two to four times more in plant dry weight,30% to 60% more in hyphae length,lower soil exchangeable Al,and higher soil pH than without VA mycorrhizal fungi (CK).Other strains also could improve plant growth and enhance plant tolerance to acidity,but their effects were not marked.This indicated that VA mycorrhizal fungi differed in the tolerance to soil acidity and so did their inoculation effects.In the experiment,acidic soil could be remedied by inoculation of promising VA mycorrhizal fungi tolerant of acidity.

  5. Preparation and Catalytic Application of Novel Water Tolerant Solid Acid Catalysts of Zirconium Sulfate/HZSM-5

    JIANG Ya-jie; JUAN Joon Ching; MENG Xiu-juan; CAO Wei-liang; YARMO Mohd Ambar; ZHANG Jing-chang

    2007-01-01

    Esterification of acrylic acid(AA) to produce AA esters has widespread application in the chemical industry. A series of water tolerant solid acid catalysts was prepared, and characterized by XRD, nitrogen adsorption, TGA-DTA, XPS, and ammonia adsorption FTIR. The effects of Si/Al ratio, zirconium sulfate(ZS) loading on HZSM-5 and calcination temperature on the esterification were investigated. When 20%(mass fraction) ZS is loaded on HZSM-5, the conversion of AA reaches 100%. XRD analysis indicates that ZS is highly dispersed on HZSM-5 because no crystalline structure assigned to ZS is found. Catalytic activity and hydrophobicity of ZS supported on HZSM-5 are higher compared with those of parent ZS or HZSM-5. Results show that this kind of novel catalysts is an efficient water tolerant solid acid catalyst for esterification reactions.

  6. Long term response of acid-sensitive Vermont Lakes to sulfate deposition

    Atmospheric deposition of sulfur can negatively affect the health of lakes and streams, particularly in poorly buffered catchments. In response to the Clean Air Act Amendments, wet deposition of sulfate decreased more than 35% in Vermont between 1990 and 2008. However, most of ...

  7. MICROBIAL SULFATE REDUCTION AND METAL ATTENUATION IN PH 4 ACID MINE WATER

    Sediments recovered from the flooded mine workings of the Penn Mine, a Cu-Zn mine abandoned since the early 1960s, were cultured for anaerobic bacteria over a range of pH (4 to 7.5). The molecular biology of sediments and cultures was studied to determine whether sulfate-reducing...

  8. Subcritical Water Extraction of Amino Acids from Atacama Desert Soils

    Amashukeli, Xenia; Pelletier, Christine C.; Kirby, James P.; Grunthaner, Frank J.

    2007-01-01

    Amino acids are considered organic molecular indicators in the search for extant and extinct life in the Solar System. Extraction of these molecules from a particulate solid matrix, such as Martian regolith, will be critical to their in situ detection and analysis. The goals of this study were to optimize a laboratory amino acid extraction protocol by quantitatively measuring the yields of extracted amino acids as a function of liquid water temperature and sample extraction time and to compare the results to the standard HCl vapor- phase hydrolysis yields for the same soil samples. Soil samples from the Yungay region of the Atacama Desert ( Martian regolith analog) were collected during a field study in the summer of 2005. The amino acids ( alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, serine, and valine) chosen for analysis were present in the samples at concentrations of 1 - 70 parts- per- billion. Subcritical water extraction efficiency was examined over the temperature range of 30 - 325 degrees C, at pressures of 17.2 or 20.0 MPa, and for water- sample contact equilibration times of 0 - 30 min. None of the amino acids were extracted in detectable amounts at 30 degrees C ( at 17.2 MPa), suggesting that amino acids are too strongly bound by the soil matrix to be extracted at such a low temperature. Between 150 degrees C and 250 degrees C ( at 17.2 MPa), the extraction efficiencies of glycine, alanine, and valine were observed to increase with increasing water temperature, consistent with higher solubility at higher temperatures, perhaps due to the decreasing dielectric constant of water. Amino acids were not detected in extracts collected at 325 degrees C ( at 20.0 MPa), probably due to amino acid decomposition at this temperature. The optimal subcritical water extraction conditions for these amino acids from Atacama Desert soils were achieved at 200 degrees C, 17.2 MPa, and a water- sample contact equilibration time of 10 min.

  9. Specific transformations of mineral forms of nitrogen in acid soils

    MIRJANA KRESOVIC

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were performed on soils of different acidity, ranging in the pH interval 4.65–5.80 (in water. Changes of the mineral nitrogen forms in the examined soils were studied by applying short-term incubation experiments performed under aerobic conditions, with a humidity of 30 % and a temperature of 20 °C, both with and without the addition of 100 and 300 ppm NH4–N. The results of the incubation experiments showed that retarded nitrification was present in all the examined soils. Increased and toxic quantities of nitrites (35.7 ppm were formed during the incubation, which remained in the soil solution for several days, and even weeks, in spite of favorable conditions of moisture, aeration and temperature for the development of the process of chemo-autotrophic nitrification. Decelerated chemoautotrophic nitrification was the source of the occurrence of nitrite in the examined less acid soil (soil 1, while in soils of higher acidity (soils 2 and 3 after addition of 100 and 300 ppm NH4–N, nitrite occurred due to chemical denitrification (chemodenitrification. Nitrites formed in the process of chemodenitrification underwent spontaneous chemical oxidation resulting in nitrate formation (chemical nitrification. The content of mineral nitrogen (NH4 + NO3 + NO2–N decreased during the incubation period, proving gaseous losses from the examined soils. Application of lower doses of nitrogen fertilizers could decrease nitrogen losses by denitrification as well as the occurrence of nitrite in toxic quantities in the investigated pseudogley soil.

  10. Molecular Basis of the Receptor Interactions of Polysialic Acid (polySia), polySia Mimetics, and Sulfated Polysaccharides.

    Zhang, Ruiyan; Loers, Gabriele; Schachner, Melitta; Boelens, Rolf; Wienk, Hans; Siebert, Simone; Eckert, Thomas; Kraan, Stefan; Rojas-Macias, Miguel A; Lütteke, Thomas; Galuska, Sebastian P; Scheidig, Axel; Petridis, Athanasios K; Liang, Songping; Billeter, Martin; Schauer, Roland; Steinmeyer, Jürgen; Schröder, Jens-Michael; Siebert, Hans-Christian

    2016-05-01

    Polysialic acid (polySia) and polySia glycomimetic molecules support nerve cell regeneration, differentiation, and neuronal plasticity. With a combination of biophysical and biochemical methods, as well as data mining and molecular modeling techniques, it is possible to correlate specific ligand-receptor interactions with biochemical processes and in vivo studies that focus on the potential therapeutic impact of polySia, polySia glycomimetics, and sulfated polysaccharides in neuronal diseases. With this strategy, the receptor interactions of polySia and polySia mimetics can be understood on a submolecular level. As the HNK-1 glycan also enhances neuronal functions, we tested whether similar sulfated oligo- and polysaccharides from seaweed could be suitable, in addition to polySia, for finding potential new routes into patient care focusing on an improved cure for various neuronal diseases. The knowledge obtained here on the structural interplay between polySia or sulfated polysaccharides and their receptors can be exploited to develop new drugs and application routes for the treatment of neurological diseases and dysfunctions. PMID:27136597

  11. Liquid-liquid phase separation and morphology of internally mixed dicarboxylic acids/ammonium sulfate/water particles

    Song, M.; Marcolli, C.; U. K. Krieger; A. Zuend; Peter, T

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the physical state and morphology of internally mixed organic/inorganic aerosol particles is still largely uncertain. To obtain more detailed information on liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) and morphology of the particles, we investigated complex mixtures of atmospherically relevant dicarboxylic acids containing 5–7 carbon atoms (C5, C6 and C7) having oxygen-to-carbon atomic ratios (O:C) of 0.80, 0.67, and 0.57, respectively, mixed with ammonium sulfate (AS). With mi...

  12. Effect of abietic acid addition on anodic dissolution of zinc- cadmium- and thallium amalgams in sodium sulfate solution

    The method of inversion voltametry with a stationary mercury drop electrode has been applied to investigate the effect of abietic acid (AA) on anodic oxidation of cadmium, zinc, thallium from their amalgams as well as from mixed cadmium-thallium and zinc-thallium amalgams against the background of 0.5 M sodium sulfate at 298 K. Constants of peak of analgam anodic oxidation in the background solution and with additions of different AA concentrations are calculated. It is established that AA has the inhibiting effect on the processes of oxidation of cadmium- and zinc amalgams and does not produce the inhibiting effect on the oxidation of thallium amalgam

  13. Quantifying heavy metals sequestration by sulfate-reducing bacteria in an acid mine drainage-contaminated wetland

    JohnWMoreau

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation strategies that depend on bacterial sulfate reduction for heavy metals remediation harness the reactivity of these metals with biogenic aqueous sulfide. Quantitative knowledge of the degree to which specific toxic metals are partitioned into various sulfide, oxide, or other phases is important for predicting the long-term mobility of these metals under environmental conditions. Here we report the quantitative partitioning into sedimentary biogenic sulfides of a suite of metals and metalloids associated with acid mine drainage contamination of a natural estuarine wetland for over a century.

  14. Biochar impacts soil microbial community composition and nitrogen cycling in an acidic soil planted with rape.

    Xu, Hui-Juan; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Li, Hu; Yao, Huai-Ying; Su, Jian-Qiang; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2014-08-19

    Biochar has been suggested to improve acidic soils and to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. However, little has been done on the role of biochar in ameliorating acidified soils induced by overuse of nitrogen fertilizers. In this study, we designed a pot trial with an acidic soil (pH 4.48) in a greenhouse to study the interconnections between microbial community, soil chemical property changes, and N2O emissions after biochar application. The results showed that biochar increased plant growth, soil pH, total carbon, total nitrogen, C/N ratio, and soil cation exchange capacity. The results of high-throughput sequencing showed that biochar application increased α-diversity significantly and changed the relative abundances of some microbes that are related with carbon and nitrogen cycling at the family level. Biochar amendment stimulated both nitrification and denitrification processes, while reducing N2O emissions overall. Results of redundancy analysis indicated biochar could shift the soil microbial community by changing soil chemical properties, which modulate N-cycling processes and soil N2O emissions. The significantly increased nosZ transcription suggests that biochar decreased soil N2O emissions by enhancing its further reduction to N2. PMID:25054835

  15. Soil remediation: humic acids as natural surfactants in the washings of highly contaminated soils

    The remediation of the highly contaminated site around the former chemical plant of ACNA (near Savona) in Northern Italy is a top priority in Italy. The aim of the present work was to contribute in finding innovative and environmental-friendly technology to remediate soils from the ACNA contaminated site. Two soils sampled from the ACNA site (A and B), differing in texture and amount and type of organic contaminants, were subjected to soil washings by comparing the removal efficiency of water, two synthetic surfactants, sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) and Triton X-100 (TX100), and a solution of a natural surfactant, a humic acid (HA) at its critical micelle concentration (CMC). The extraction of pollutants by sonication and soxhlet was conducted before and after the soil washings. Soil A was richer in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, whereas soil B had a larger content of thiophenes. Sonication resulted more analytically efficient in the fine-textured soil B. The coarse-textured soil A was extracted with a general equal efficiency also by soxhlet. Clean-up by water was unable to exhaustively remove contaminants from the two soils, whereas all the organic surfactants revealed very similar efficiencies (up to 90%) in the removal of the contaminants from the soils. Hence, the use of solutions of natural HAs appears as a better choice for soil washings of highly polluted soils due to their additional capacity to promote microbial activity, in contrast to synthetic surfactants, for a further natural attenuation in washed soils. - Solutions of natural humic acids appear to be a better choice for washing highly polluted soils

  16. Transcriptional profile of maize roots under acid soil growth

    Mattiello Lucia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aluminum (Al toxicity is one of the most important yield-limiting factors of many crops worldwide. The primary symptom of Al toxicity syndrome is the inhibition of root growth leading to poor water and nutrient absorption. Al tolerance has been extensively studied using hydroponic experiments. However, unlike soil conditions, this method does not address all of the components that are necessary for proper root growth and development. In the present study, we grew two maize genotypes with contrasting tolerance to Al in soil containing toxic levels of Al and then compared their transcriptomic responses. Results When grown in acid soil containing toxic levels of Al, the Al-sensitive genotype (S1587-17 showed greater root growth inhibition, more Al accumulation and more callose deposition in root tips than did the tolerant genotype (Cat100-6. Transcriptome profiling showed a higher number of genes differentially expressed in S1587-17 grown in acid soil, probably due to secondary effects of Al toxicity. Genes involved in the biosynthesis of organic acids, which are frequently associated with an Al tolerance response, were not differentially regulated in both genotypes after acid soil exposure. However, genes related to the biosynthesis of auxin, ethylene and lignin were up-regulated in the Al-sensitive genotype, indicating that these pathways might be associated with root growth inhibition. By comparing the two maize lines, we were able to discover genes up-regulated only in the Al-tolerant line that also presented higher absolute levels than those observed in the Al-sensitive line. These genes encoded a lipase hydrolase, a retinol dehydrogenase, a glycine-rich protein, a member of the WRKY transcriptional family and two unknown proteins. Conclusions This work provides the first characterization of the physiological and transcriptional responses of maize roots when grown in acid soil containing toxic levels of Al. The

  17. Combined Use of Alkaline Slag and Rapeseed Cake to Ameliorate Soil Acidity in an Acid Tea Garden Soil

    WANG Lei; YANG Xing-Lun; K.RACHEL; WANG Yu; TONG De-Li; YE Mao; JIANG Xin

    2013-01-01

    Rapeseed cake (RC),the residue of rapeseed oil extraction,is effective for improving tea (Camellia sinensis) quality,especially taste and aroma,but it has limited ability to ameliorate strongly acidic soil.In order to improve the liming potential of RC,alkaline slag (AS),the by-product of recovery of sodium carbonate,was incorporated.Combined effects of different levels of RC and AS on ameliorating acidic soil from a tea garden were investigated.Laboratory incubations showed that combined use of AS and RC was an effective method to reduce soil exchangeable acidity and A1 saturation and increase base saturation,but not necessarily for soil pH adjustment.The release of alkalinity from the combined amendments and the mineralization of organic nitrogen increased soil pH initially,but then soil pH decreased due to nitrifications.Various degrees of nitrification were correlated with the interaction of different Ca levels,pH and N contents.When RC was applied at low levels,high Ca levels from AS repressed soil nitrification,resulting in smaller pH fluctuations.In contrast,high AS stimulated soil nitrification,when RC was applied at high levels,and resulted in a large pH decrease.Based on the optimum pH for tea production and quality,high ratios of AS to RC were indicated for soil acidity amelioration,and 8.0 g kg-1 and less than 2.5 g kg-1 were indicated for AS and RC,respectively.Further,field studies are needed to investigate the variables of combined amendments.

  18. Simulated acid rain effects on soil chemistry and microbiology

    A research study was carried out regarding the effects of artificial rains at different pH's (3.1, 4.0, 5.6) on soil samples from Appiano Gentile pinewood. Chemical parameters, biological activities and microbiological groups, particularly sensitive to possible variations in the presence of pH changes, were monitored after 2, 4 and 6 months of treatment of the soil on eluate obtained from treatment with artificial acid rains. The paper reports the results research

  19. Interaction of Cd and citric acid, EDTA in red soil

    2001-01-01

    Adsorption and desorption process of cadmium in redsoil(Ferrisols) as well as the influence by media's pH were investigated in detail with and without citric acid and EDTA. Experimental results clearly showed that Cd adsorption in red soil was affected significantly by the coexisted organic chemicals. In the presence of citric acid and EDTA, Cd adsorption in red soil increased with pH in acid media but decreased in high pH one. Further studies placed stress on the adsorbed Cd in red soil which was found to be existed mainly as exchangeable one at pH<5.5, and desorption rate by 0.10 mol/L NaNO3 gave a peak-shaped curve due to the difference of specifically and nonspecifically adsorbed Cd with pH's change.

  20. TOLERANCE OF PEANUT GENOTYPES TO ACIDIC SOIL CONDITION

    Astanto Kasno

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The acidic soil is generally less productive due to soil pH ranging from 3.1 to 5.0. However, it could be solved through soil amelioration, planting tolerant varieties to acidic soil condition, and a combination of both. Twenty peanut genotypes including two check varieties (Jerapah and Talam 1 were evaluated on dolomite-ameliorated and non ameliorated soil. In the greenhouse, the treatments were laid out in factorial design with four replications, while in the field using strip plot design with three replications. Assessment of tolerance was using Stressed Tolerance Index (STI according to Fernandez (1992. Results showed that dolomite application at dose equivalent to 0.5 x exchangeable Al was optimal in improving peanut growth, and peanut yield on acidic soil. Lines of GH3 (G/92088/92088-02-B-2-8-1 and GH 4 (G/92088/ 92088-02-B-2-8-2 genotypes had high STI with average yield of 2.47 tha-1 and 2.62 t ha-1 of dry pods and potential yield of 4.05 t ha-1 and 3.73 t ha-1 of dry pods, respectively as well as check varieties (Jerapah and Talam-1. It is concluded that peanut genotype of G/92088//92088-02-B-2-8-1 and G/92088//920 88- 02-B-2-8-2 were adaptable and tolerance to acidic, and tolerance of peanuts on acidic soil condition were probably controlled by the buffering mechanisms.

  1. Mechanisms for the retention of inorganic N in acidic forest soils of southern China

    Zhang, Jin-Bo; Cai, Zu-cong; Zhu, Tong-bin; Yang, Wen-Yan; Müller, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the retention of inorganic N in acidic forest soils in southern China are not well understood. Here, we simultaneously quantified the gross N transformation rates of various subtropical acidic forest soils located in southern China (southern soil) and those of temperate forest soils located in northern China (northern soil). We found that acidic southern soils had significantly higher gross rates of N mineralization and significantly higher turnover rates but a much ...

  2. A reexamination of amino acids in lunar soil

    Brinton, K. L. F.; Bada, J. L.; Arnold, J. R.

    1993-03-01

    Amino acids in lunar soils provide an important indicator of the level of prebiotic organic compounds on the moon. The results provide insight into the chemistry of amino acid precursors, and furthermore, given the flux of carbonaceous material to the moon, we can evaluate the survival of organics upon impact. The amino acid contents of both hydrolyzed and unhydrolyzed hot-water extracts of Apollo 17 lunar soil were determined using ophthaldialdehyde/N-acetyl cysteine (OPA/NAC) derivatization followed by HPLC analysis. Previous studies of lunar amino acids were inconclusive, as the technique used (derivatization with ninhydrin followed by HPLC analysis) was unable to discriminate between cosmogenic amino acids and terrestrial contaminants. Cosmogenic amino acids are racemic, and many of the amino acids found in carbonaceous meteorites such as Murchison, i.e., alpha-amino-i-butyric acid (aib), are extremely rare on Earth. The ninhydrin method does not distinguish amino acid enantiomers, nor does it detect alpha-alkyl amino acids such as aib, whereas the OPA/NAC technique does both.

  3. The solubility of aluminum in acidic forest soils: Long-term changes due to acid deposition

    Mulder, Jan; Stein, Alfred

    1994-01-01

    Despite the ecological and pedogenic importance of Al, its solubility control in acidic forest soils is poorly understood. Here we discuss the solubility of Al and its development with time in three acid brown forest soils in The Netherlands, which are under extreme acidification from atmospheric deposition. All soil solutions (to a 60 cm depth) were undersaturated with respect to synthetic gibbsite (Al(OH) 3; log K = 9.12 at 8°C), with the highest degree of undersaturation occurring in the surface soil. In about one third of the individual soil layers a significant positive correlation existed between the activity of Al 3+ and H +, but this relationship was far less than cubic. Kinetically constrained dissolution of Al is unlikely to explain the disequilibrium with respect to gibbsite, because undersaturation was highest through summer when water residence times were longest and temperatures greatest. Time series analysis of six year data sets for several soil layers revealed a significant annual decline in soil solution pH and Al solubility (defined as log Al + 3 pH) despite a constant concentration of strong acid anions. The annual decline of both pH and Al solubility was greatest in the surface soil and was positively correlated with the relative depletion of reactive organically bound soil Al. The results support our earlier hypothesis that in strongly acidified forest soils complexation by solid phase organics controls the solubility of Al even in mineral soil layers, relatively low in organic C. The data lend no support to the current widespread and often uncritical use of gibbsite as a model for the Al solubility in highly acidic forest soils (pH temperate zone.

  4. Microbiological aspects of determination of trichloroacetic acid in soil

    Soils have been shown to possess a strong microbial trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-degrading activity. High TCA-degradation rate was also observed during soil extraction with water. For correct measurements of TCA levels in soil all TCA-degrading activities have to be inhibited immediately after sampling before analysis. We used rapid freezing of soil samples (optimally in liquid nitrogen) with subsequent storage and slow thawing before analysis as an efficient technique for suppressing the degradation. Frozen soil samples stored overnight at −20 °C and then thawed slowly exhibited very low residual TCA-degrading activity for several hours. Omitting the above procedure could lead to the confusing differences between the TCA levels previously reported in the literature

  5. CHARGE DEVELOPMENT AND ACID-BASE CHARACTERISTICS OF SOIL AND COMPOST HUMIC ACIDS

    P. A. CAMPITELLI

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In previous works, the acid-base properties, charging behavior and chemical heterogeneity of humic substances have been studied using different mathematical equations to fit the experimental data. The objective of this research is to study the charge behavior, acid-base properties and analyze the chemical heterogeneity of humic acids (HA extracted from soil and composted municipal solid waste by potentiometric titrations. The humic acids extracted from compost have some characteristics and behavior similar to those obtained from soil. The negative charge development of HA extracted from composted material are lower than those extracted from soil and increase as ionic strength increase. The amount of carboxylic groups is lower in compost HA than in soil HA The heterogeneity of HA extracted from compost is higher than those extracted from soil. As the time of composting period increase the humification processes that take place trends to produce compost HA that has similar characteristics to soil HA. We suggest that HA extracted from composted material are macromolecules "like soil humic acids", i.e. "humiclike fraction"

  6. Potential sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids for saprophagous soil invertebrates

    Elhottová, Dana; Frouz, Jan; Krištůfek, Václav; Lukešová, Alena; Nováková, Alena; Tříska, Jan

    České Budějovice: Institute of Soil Biology AS CR, 2002, s. 31-37. ISBN 80-86525-00-7. [Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /6./. České Budějovice (CZ), 23.04.2001-25.04.2001] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/99/P033; GA AV ČR IAB6066903; GA AV ČR IAA6066001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : polyunsaturated fatty acids * soil microorganisms * animal diet Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  7. Solid and liquid media for isolating and cultivating acidophilic and acid-tolerant sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    Ňancucheo, Ivan; Rowe, Owen F; Hedrich, Sabrina; Johnson, D Barrie

    2016-05-01

    Growth media have been developed to facilitate the enrichment and isolation of acidophilic and acid-tolerant sulfate-reducing bacteria (aSRB) from environmental and industrial samples, and to allow their cultivation in vitro The main features of the 'standard' solid and liquid devised media are as follows: (i) use of glycerol rather than an aliphatic acid as electron donor; (ii) inclusion of stoichiometric concentrations of zinc ions to both buffer pH and to convert potentially harmful hydrogen sulphide produced by the aSRB to insoluble zinc sulphide; (iii) inclusion of Acidocella aromatica (an heterotrophic acidophile that does not metabolize glycerol or yeast extract) in the gel underlayer of double layered (overlay) solid media, to remove acetic acid produced by aSRB that incompletely oxidize glycerol and also aliphatic acids (mostly pyruvic) released by acid hydrolysis of the gelling agent used (agarose). Colonies of aSRB are readily distinguished from those of other anaerobes due to their deposition and accumulation of metal sulphide precipitates. Data presented illustrate the effectiveness of the overlay solid media described for isolating aSRB from acidic anaerobic sediments and low pH sulfidogenic bioreactors. PMID:27036143

  8. Effects of particle size and acid addition on the remediation of chromite ore processing residue using ferrous sulfate.

    Jagupilla, Santhi Chandra; Moon, Deok Hyun; Wazne, Mahmoud; Christodoulatos, Christos; Kim, Min Gyu

    2009-08-30

    A bench-scale treatability study was conducted to assess the effects of particle size and acid addition on the remediation of chromite ore processing residue (COPR) using ferrous sulfate. The remediation scheme entailed the chemical reduction of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] and the mitigation of swell potential. Leaching tests and the EQ3/6 geochemical model were used to estimate the acid dosage required to destabilize Cr(VI)-bearing and swell-causing minerals. The model predicted greater acid dosage than that estimated from the batch leaching tests. This indicated that mass transfer limitation may be playing a significant role in impeding the dissolution of COPR minerals following acid addition and hence hindering the remediation of COPR. Cr(VI) concentrations determined by alkaline digestion for the treated samples were less than the current NJDEP standard. However, Cr(VI) concentrations measured by X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) were greater than those measured by alkaline digestion. Greater Cr(VI) percentages were reduced for acid pretreated and also for smaller particle size COPR samples. Upon treatment, brownmillerite content was greatly reduced for the acid pretreated samples. Conversely, ettringite, a swell-causing mineral, was not observed in the treated COPR. PMID:19272700

  9. Anode oxidation of cadmium in acid and that of zinc in neutral sulfate solutions

    By the method of anode polarization curves on rotary disc electrode there have been studied kinetics and mechanism of zinc and cadmium dissolution in 0.1-2.0 N sulfate solutions. There have been determined exchange currents of the first and second stages of ionization and transfer coefficients. Cadmium anode dissolution takes place in sequent single-electron stages with diffusion stage of reaction being superimposed

  10. Barren Acidic Soil Assessment using Seismic Refraction Survey

    Tajudin, S. A. A.; Abidin, M. H. Z.; Madun, A.; Zawawi, M. H.

    2016-07-01

    Seismic refraction method is one of the geophysics subsurface exploration techniques used to determine subsurface profile characteristics. From past experience, seismic refraction method is commonly used to detect soil layers, overburden, bedrock, etc. However, the application of this method on barren geomaterials remains limited due to several reasons. Hence, this study was performed to evaluate the subsurface profile characteristics of barren acidic soil located in Ayer Hitam, Batu Pahat, Johor using seismic refraction survey. The seismic refraction survey was conducted using ABEM Terraloc MK 8 (seismograph), a sledge hammer weighing 7 kg (source) and 24 units of 10 Hz geophones (receiver). Seismic data processing was performed using OPTIM software which consists of SeisOpt@picker (picking the first arrival and seismic configureuration data input) and SeisOpt@2D (generating 2D image of barren acidic soil based on seismic velocity (primary velocity, Vp) distribution). It was found that the barren acidic soil profile consists of three layers representing residual soil (Vp= 200-400 m/s) at 0-2 m, highly to completely weathered soil (Vp= 500-1800 m/s) at 3-8 m and shale (Vp= 2100-6200 m/s) at 9-20 m depth. Furthermore, result verification was successfully done through the correlation of seismic refraction data based on physical mapping and the geological map of the study area. Finally, it was found that the seismic refraction survey was applicable for subsurface profiling of barren acidic soil as it was very efficient in terms of time, cost, large data coverage and sustainable.

  11. Chemistry of atmospheric precipitation in the north-central united states: Influence of sulfate, nitrate, ammonia and calcareous soil particulates

    Munger, James William

    The supply of alkaline soil dust and gaseous NH 3 available to neutralize anthropogenic acids in the atmosphere controls the acidity of precipitation in the north-central United States. Major ions and trace metals were determined in precipitation-event and snow-core samples from sites along a 600 km transect from the North Dakota prairie to the forests of northeastern Minnesota, collected during the period April 1978-June 1979. Acidity increased 4-fold from west to east as the effect of alkaline dust and NH 3 decreased with increasing distance from the cultivated prairie; calcium and Mg 2+ decreased 2 to 3-fold across the transect. However, minimum concentrations of NH 4+ and SO 42- were observed at Itasca, the central site. Natural emissions of these elements were important in the west, while anthropogenic emissions were responsible for the higher concentrations in the east. Wet deposition of H + decreased 8-fold and deposition of NO 3- and SO 42- decreased 1.5 to 2-fold from Hovland in the east to Tewaukon in the west. Wet deposition of the metal cations increased from Hovland to Tewaukon. Dry deposition followed a similar trend. Winter snow cover and freezing temperatures, which decreased airborne soil dust and the evolution of NH 3 from the prairie soils, led to an increase in precipitation acidity at all sites. The acid increase was accompanied by a decrease in alkaline metal cations, especially Ca 2+, and in NH 4+. At Hovland SO 42- and NO 3- also increased during the winter. The occurrence of snow events at Tewaukon that were appreciably more acid than the snowpack accumulated there indicates that snow was neutralized after it fell by alkaline dust entrained in resuspended snow, or deposited separately. Winter inputs of acid are especially important because they are released during a short period in the spring. Over half of the acid input at Hovland occurred during the winter. Precipitation inputs of P and N probably benefit nutrient-poor ecosystems in the

  12. Chloroacetic acids - Degradation intermediates of organic matter in forest soil

    Matucha, Miroslav; Gryndler, Milan; Schröder, P.; Forczek, Sándor; Uhlířová, H.; Fuksová, Květoslava; Rohlenová, Jana

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 1 (2007), s. 382-385. ISSN 0038-0717 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/02/0874; GA ČR GA526/05/0636 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : trichloroacetic acid * dichloroacetic acid * chlorination * soil organic matter Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.580, year: 2007

  13. Reduction of radiostrontium mobility in acid soils by carbonate treatment

    Development of chemical treatments to immobilize 90Sr in soil to prevent its leaching from radioactive waste disposed in shallow land burial sites is highly desirable. Six in situ carbonate-precipitating treatments, varying the amounts of carbonate, alkaline earth cation (Ca or Ba as chlorides), and order of addition were examined for their ability to immobilize radiostrontium in laboratory soil columns. The Na2CO3-followed by CaCl2-treatment was most consistently successful at reducing the leachability of radiostrontium by 0.05M CaCl2 from three low organic matter-acid soils, immobilizing as much as 53% of added radiostrontium. For the high organic matter-slightly acid soil, Na2CO3 alone, without supplemental Ca or Ba, resulted in the best immobilization (39%); dissolution of soil organic matter and the alkalinity-induced aggregate dispersion probably interfered with CaCO3 and/or BaCO3 precipitation. Success of the treatments is based primarily on their ability to generate, in situ, Ca(Sr,Mg)CO3 or Ba(Ca,Mg,Sr)CO3 precipitates that exchange radiostrontium very slowly with eluting Ca ions. Allied tests with 137Cs, which is commonly codisposed with 90Sr, indicated that the treatments describe did not interfere with the natural tendency of the selected soils to fix 137Cs strongly

  14. Soil Studies: Applying Acid-Base Chemistry to Environmental Analysis.

    West, Donna M.; Sterling, Donna R.

    2001-01-01

    Laboratory activities for chemistry students focus attention on the use of acid-base chemistry to examine environmental conditions. After using standard laboratory procedures to analyze soil and rainwater samples, students use web-based resources to interpret their findings. Uses CBL probes and graphing calculators to gather and analyze data and…

  15. 40 CFR 721.9595 - Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl sulfates, amine salts (generic).

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9595 Alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl benzene sulfonic acids and alkyl...

  16. Enzyme Activities in Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA)-Polluted Soils

    ZHANG Wei; LIN Kuang-Fei; YANG Sha-Sha; ZHANG Meng

    2013-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a popular additive of the chemical industry; its effect on activities of important soil enzymes is not well understood.A laboratory incubation experiment was carried out to analyze the PFOA-induced changes in soil urease,catalase,and phosphatase activities.During the entire incubation period,the activities of the three soil enzymes generally declined with increasing PFOA concentration,following certain dose-response relationships.The values of EC10,the contaminant concentration at which the biological activity is inhibited by 10%,of PFOA for the soil enzyme activity calculated from the modeling equation of the respective dose-response curve suggested a sensitivity order of phosphatase > catalase > urease.The effect of PFOA on soil enzyme activities provided a basic understanding of the eco-toxicological effect of PFOA in the environment.Results of this study supported using soil phosphatase as a convenient biomarker for ecological risk assessment of PFOA-polluted soils.

  17. Effect of Low-Molecular-Weight Organic Acids on Cl- Adsorption by Variable Charge Soils

    XU Ren-Kou; ANG Ma-Li; WANG Qiang-Sheng; JI Guo-Liang1

    2004-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight (LMW) organic acids exist widely in soils and have been implicated in many soil processes.The objective of the present paper was to evaluate effect of two LMW organic acids, citric acid and oxalic acid, on Cl- adsorption by three variable charge soils, a latosol, a lateritic red soil and a red soil, using a batch method. The results showed that the presence of citric acid and oxalic acid led to a decrease in Cl- adsorption with larger decreases for citric acid. Among the different soils Gl- adsorption in the lateritic red soil and the red soil was more affected by both the LMW organic acids than that in the latosol.

  18. Carboxylic acids, sulfates, and organosulfates in processed continental organic aerosol over the southeast Pacific Ocean during VOCALS-REx 2008

    Hawkins, L. N.; Russell, L. M.; Covert, D. S.; Quinn, P. K.; Bates, T. S.

    2010-07-01

    Submicron particles were collected on board the NOAA R/V Ronald H. Brown during the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) in the southeast Pacific marine boundary layer in October and November 2008. The aerosol in this region was characterized by low numbers of particles (150-700 cm-3) that were dominated by sulfate ions at concentrations of 0.9 ± 0.7 μg m-3 and organic mass at 0.6 ± 0.4 μg m-3, with no measurable nitrate and low ammonium ion concentrations. Measurements of submicron organic aerosol functional groups and trace elements show that continental outflow of anthropogenic emissions is the dominant source of organic mass (OM) to the southeast Pacific with an additional, smaller contribution of organic mass from primary marine sources. This continental source is supported by a correlation between OM and radon. Saturated aliphatic C-CH (alkane) composed 41 ± 27% of OM. Carboxylic acid COOH (32 ± 23% of OM) was observed in single particles internally mixed with ketonic carbonyl, carbonate, and potassium. Organosulfate COSO3 (4 ± 8% of OM) was observed only during the periods of highest organic and sulfate concentrations and lowest ammonium concentrations, consistent with a sulfuric acid epoxide hydrolysis for proposed surrogate compounds (e.g., isoprene oxidation products) or reactive glyoxal uptake mechanisms from laboratory studies. This correlation suggests that in high-sulfate, low-ammonium conditions, the formation of organosulfate compounds in the atmosphere contributes a significant fraction of aerosol OM (up to 13% in continental air masses). Organic hydroxyl C-OH composed 20 ± 12% of OM and up to 50% of remote marine OM and was inversely correlated with radon indicating a marine source. A two-factor solution of positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis resulted in one factor dominated by organic hydroxyl (>70% by mass) and one factor dominated by saturated aliphatic C-CH (alkane) and carboxylic acid

  19. Synergistic effect of sulfate-reducing bacteria and elastic stress on corrosion of X80 steel in soil solution

    Highlights: • The elastic stress and activities of SRB enhance corrosion independently. • The elastic stress and activities of SRB have synergistic effects on corrosion. • Activities of SRB stimulate the initiation of pitting corrosion. • The elastic stress promotes the growth of pits in the inoculated soil solution. • The elastic stress and activities of SRB induce tiny secondary corrosion pitting. - Abstract: In this paper, the individual and simultaneous effects of stress and sulfate-reducing bacteria on corrosion of X80 steel were conducted by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Both elastic stress and activity of SRB enhance corrosion of the steel and, furthermore, they have synergistic effects on corrosion behavior of the steel. The activities of SRB give rise to the initiation of pits, and the applied elastic stress keeps and promotes the growth of pits. The activities of SRB and the applied elastic stress induce tiny secondary corrosion pitting at the bottom of the primary pitting

  20. Metagenomic Analysis of the Rhizosphere Soil Microbiome with Respect to Phytic Acid Utilization

    Unno, Yusuke; Shinano, Takuro

    2012-01-01

    While phytic acid is a major form of organic phosphate in many soils, plant utilization of phytic acid is normally limited; however, culture trials of Lotus japonicus using experimental field soil that had been managed without phosphate fertilizer for over 90 years showed significant usage of phytic acid applied to soil for growth and flowering and differences in the degree of growth, even in the same culture pot. To understand the key metabolic processes involved in soil phytic acid utilizat...

  1. Chondroitin sulfate

    ... in combination with glucosamine sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor. Some people also inject chondroitin sulfate into the ... in combination with glucosamine sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor seems to reduce arthritis symptoms. However, any symptom ...

  2. Citramalic acid and salicylic acid in sugar beet root exudates solubilize soil phosphorus

    Karlovsky Petr

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In soils with a low phosphorus (P supply, sugar beet is known to intake more P than other species such as maize, wheat, or groundnut. We hypothesized that organic compounds exuded by sugar beet roots solubilize soil P and that this exudation is stimulated by P starvation. Results Root exudates were collected from plants grown in hydroponics under low- and high-P availability. Exudate components were separated by HPLC, ionized by electrospray, and detected by mass spectrometry in the range of mass-to-charge ratio (m/z from 100 to 1000. Eight mass spectrometric signals were enhanced at least 5-fold by low P availability at all harvest times. Among these signals, negative ions with an m/z of 137 and 147 were shown to originate from salicylic acid and citramalic acid. The ability of both compounds to mobilize soil P was demonstrated by incubation of pure substances with Oxisol soil fertilized with calcium phosphate. Conclusions Root exudates of sugar beet contain salicylic acid and citramalic acid, the latter of which has rarely been detected in plants so far. Both metabolites solubilize soil P and their exudation by roots is stimulated by P deficiency. These results provide the first assignment of a biological function to citramalic acid of plant origin.

  3. Sulfate radical-induced degradation of Acid Orange 7 by a new magnetic composite catalyzed peroxymonosulfate oxidation process

    Chen, Dan; Ma, Xiaolong; Zhou, Jizhi [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, No. 99 Shangda Road, Shanghai 200444 (China); Chen, Xi [Department of Earth and Environmental Engineering, Columbia University, West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Qian, Guangren, E-mail: grqian@shu.edu.cn [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, No. 99 Shangda Road, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: Organic dyes could be absorbed on the surface of the composite or dispersed in the solution. Sulfate radicals (SO{sub 4}·{sup −}) generated by the synergistic reaction between peroxymonosulfate (PMS) and the composite, attacked the organic functional groups of the dyes molecules both adsorbed on the composite surface and dispersed in the solution, which resulted in the degradation of AO7 dye. - Highlights: • A new composite was synthesized successfully via microwave hydrothermal method. • The complete degradation in the system of FLCN and PMS can be achieved. • The catalytic behavior of FLCN can be reused at least for five times. • The AO7 degradation mechanism in the system of FLCN and PMS was demonstrated. - Abstract: We synthesized a novel magnetic composite, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Cu(Ni)Cr-LDH, as a heterogeneous catalyst for the degradation of organic dyes in the solution using sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation processes. The physicochemical properties of the composite synthesized via two-step microwave hydrothermal method were characterized by several techniques, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma (ICP), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The degradation tests were performed at 25 °C with Acid Orange 7 (AO7) initial concentration of 25 mg/L and AO7/peroxymonosulfate (PMS) molar ratio of 1:10, which showed that the complete degradation by Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Cu{sub 1.5}Ni{sub 0.5}Cr-LDH could be achieved and the mineralization rate could reach 46%. PMS was activated by Cu (II) and Fe (II/III) of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Cu(Ni)Cr-LDH to generate sulfate radicals (SO{sub 4}·{sup −}). Subsequently, the organic functional groups of AO7 molecules were destroyed by sulfate radicals (SO{sub 4}·{sup −}), inducing the degradation of AO7. Moreover, the catalytic behavior of the catalysts could be reused five times. Therefore, our work suggested that the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4

  4. Sulfate radical-induced degradation of Acid Orange 7 by a new magnetic composite catalyzed peroxymonosulfate oxidation process

    Graphical abstract: Organic dyes could be absorbed on the surface of the composite or dispersed in the solution. Sulfate radicals (SO4·−) generated by the synergistic reaction between peroxymonosulfate (PMS) and the composite, attacked the organic functional groups of the dyes molecules both adsorbed on the composite surface and dispersed in the solution, which resulted in the degradation of AO7 dye. - Highlights: • A new composite was synthesized successfully via microwave hydrothermal method. • The complete degradation in the system of FLCN and PMS can be achieved. • The catalytic behavior of FLCN can be reused at least for five times. • The AO7 degradation mechanism in the system of FLCN and PMS was demonstrated. - Abstract: We synthesized a novel magnetic composite, Fe3O4/Cu(Ni)Cr-LDH, as a heterogeneous catalyst for the degradation of organic dyes in the solution using sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation processes. The physicochemical properties of the composite synthesized via two-step microwave hydrothermal method were characterized by several techniques, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma (ICP), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The degradation tests were performed at 25 °C with Acid Orange 7 (AO7) initial concentration of 25 mg/L and AO7/peroxymonosulfate (PMS) molar ratio of 1:10, which showed that the complete degradation by Fe3O4/Cu1.5Ni0.5Cr-LDH could be achieved and the mineralization rate could reach 46%. PMS was activated by Cu (II) and Fe (II/III) of Fe3O4/Cu(Ni)Cr-LDH to generate sulfate radicals (SO4·−). Subsequently, the organic functional groups of AO7 molecules were destroyed by sulfate radicals (SO4·−), inducing the degradation of AO7. Moreover, the catalytic behavior of the catalysts could be reused five times. Therefore, our work suggested that the Fe3O4/Cu(Ni)Cr-LDH composite could be applied widely for the treatment of organic dyes in wastewater

  5. Soil sorption of acidic pesticides: modeling pH effects.

    Spadotto, Claudio A; Hornsby, Arthur G

    2003-01-01

    A model of acidic pesticide sorption in soils was developed from theoretical modeling and experimental data, which initially considered a combination of a strongly acidic pesticide and a variable-charge soil with high clay content. Contribution of 2,4-D [(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid] anionic-form sorption was small when compared with molecular sorption. Dissociation of 2,4-D was not sufficient to explain the variation in Kd as a function of pH. Accessibility of soil organic functional groups able to interact with the pesticide (conformational changes) as a function of organic matter dissociation was proposed to explain the observed differences in sorption. Experimental 2,4-D sorption data and K(oc) values from literature for flumetsulam [N-(2,6-difluorophenyl)-5-methyl [1,2,4] triazolo [1,5-a] pyrimidine-2-sulfonamide] and sulfentrazone [N-[2,4-dichloro-5-[4-(difluromethyl)-4,5-dihydro-3-methyl-5-oxo-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl] phenyl] methanesulfonamide] in several soils fit the model. PMID:12809295

  6. Standardization of a sulfur quantitative analysis method by X ray fluorescence in a leaching solution for bio-available sulfates in soil

    A method for bio-available sulfate analysis in soils is described. A Ca(H2PO4) leaching solution was used for soil samples treatment. A standard NaSO4 solution was used for preparing a calibration curve and also the fundamental parameters method approach was employed. An Am-241 (100 mCi) source and a Si-Li detector were employed. Analysis could be done in 5 minutes; good reproducibility, 5 and accuracy, 5 were obtained. The method is very competitive with conventional nephelometry where good and reproducible suspensions are difficult to obtain. (author)

  7. Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization of Acid-Sulfate Alteration of Basaltic Material on Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii: Jarosite and Hydrated Halloysite

    Graff, Trevor G.; Morris, R. V.; Archilles C. N.; Agresti, D. G.; Ming, D. W.; Hamilton, J. C.; Mertzman, S. A.; Smith, J.

    2012-01-01

    Sulfates have been identified on the martian surface during robotic surface exploration and by orbital remote sensing. Measurements at Meridiani Planum (MP) by the Alpha-Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) and Mossbauer (MB) instruments on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity document the presence of a ubiquitous sulfate-rich outcrop (20-40% SO3) that has jarosite as an anhydrous Fe3+-sulfate [1- 3]. The presence of jarosite implies a highly acidic (pH chemical manifestations of acid-sulfate alteration of basaltic compositions in terrestrial environments. We have previously shown that acidsulfate alteration of tephra under hydrothermal conditions on the Puu Poliahu cone (summit region of Mauna Kea volcano, Hawaii) resulted in jarosite and alunite as sulfate-bearing alteration products [11-14]. Other, more soluble, sulfates may have formed, but were leached away by rain and melting snow. Acidsulfate processes on Puu Poliahu also formed hematite spherules similar (except in size) to the hematite spherules observed at MP as an alteration product [14]. Phyllosilicates, usually smectite }minor kaolinite are also present as alteration products [13]. We discuss here an occurrence of acid-sulfate alteration on Mauna Kea Volcano (Hawaii). We report VNIR spectra (0.35-2.5 microns ASD spectrometer), Mossbauer spectra (MER-like ESPI backscatter spectrometer), powder XRD (PANalytical), and major element chemical compositions (XRF with LOI and Fe redox) for comparison to similar data acquired or to be acquired by MRO-CRISM and MEx OMEGA, MERMB, MSL-CheMin, and MER and MSL APXS, respectively.

  8. Fast and sensitive quantification of human liver cytosolic lithocholic acid sulfation using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Bansal, Sumit; Lau, Aik Jiang

    2016-02-01

    Detoxification of lithocholic acid (LCA) to lithocholic acid sulfate (LCA-S) is catalyzed by sulfotransferases, mainly SULT2A1. We developed and validated an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC-MS/MS) method to quantify human liver cytosolic-dependent LCA sulfation. Chromatographic separation was achieved on an UPLC C18 column (2.1×50mm, 1.7μm) and a gradient elution of 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile. Negative electrospray ionization with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was used to quantify LCA-S (455.3→97.0) and cholic acid (407.2→343.3; internal standard). The retention time was 3.51min for LCA-S and 3.08min for cholic acid. The lower limit of quantification of LCA-S was 0.5nM (or 0.23ng/ml in 400μl total volume) and the assay was linear from 0.2 to 200pmol. Intra-day and inter-day accuracy and precision were dithiothreitol) did not affect LCA-S formation. Human liver cytosolic LCA sulfation was linear with 20-100μg of cytosolic protein and 5-30min incubation time. This UPLC-MS/MS approach offers a specific, sensitive, fast, and direct approach for quantifying human liver cytosolic LCA sulfation. PMID:26773894

  9. Adsorption of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in soils

    Rampazzo, N.; Rampazzo Todorovic, G.; Mentler, A.; Blum, W. E. H.

    2013-03-01

    The results showed that glyphosate is initially adsorbed mostly in the upper 2 cm. It is than transported and adsorbed after few days in deeper soil horizons with concomitant increasing content of its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid. Moreover, Fe-oxides seem to be a key parameter for glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic adsorption in soils. This study confirmed previous studies: the analysis showed lower contents of dithionite-soluble and Fe-oxides for the Chernozem, with consequently lower adsorption of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic as compared with the Cambisol and the Stagnosol.

  10. The ceric sulfate dosimeter

    Bjergbakke, Erling

    The process employed for the determination of absorbed dose is the reduction of ceric ions to cerous ions in a solution of ceric sulfate and cerous sulfate in 0.8N sulfuric acid: Ce4+→Ce 3+ The absorbed dose is derived from the difference in ceric ion concentration before and after irradiation. The...

  11. Nitrification in acid coniferous forests: Some soils do, some soils don't

    Nugroho, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Nitrification is a key process in the global nitrogen cycle. Ammonia-oxidising bacteria (AOB) were long thought to be the sole microorganisms capable of autotrophic ammonia oxidation, the rate-limited step in nitrification. This thesis elucidates the relation between the presence of AOB, environmental factors and nitrification rates in the soil layer of acid coniferous forests. Especially, the question why some acid forests show nitrification while others do not, is addressed in this thesis.

  12. Visualization of Two Phase Natural Convection Flow in a Vertical Pipe using the Sulfuric Acid - Copper Sulfate Electroplating System

    The passive containment cooling system (PCCS) driven by natural forces convection gain draws research interests after Fukushima NPP accident. The PCCS was classified into three categories: Containment pressure suppression, Containment passive heat removal/pressure suppression systems and Passive containment spray. Among the types of containment passive heat removal/pressure suppression systems, the system composed of an internal heat exchanger and an external coolant tank is considered. In a severe accident condition, the heat from the containment atmosphere is transferred to the outer surface of the heat exchanger by the convection and condensation of the mixture of steam and gases. On the other hand, the heat is transferred to external pool by single phase or two phase natural convection inside of heat exchanger pipes. The study aimed at investigating the influence of the diameter (D) and height (H) of the heat exchanger pipes on the single phase and two phase natural convection heat transfer. As the initial stage of the study, the two phase natural convection flow inside a vertical pipe is visualized. In order to achieve the aim with ample test rig, a sulfuric acid - cooper sulfate electroplating system was employed based on the analogy between heat and mass transfer. The reduction of hydrogen ion at the cathode surface at high potential was used to simulate the boiling phenomena. This study tried to visualize the boiling heat transfer inside a vertical pipe using a cupric acid-copper sulfate (H2SO4-CuSO4) electroplating system. This seems to be successful so far. However further study has to be done to compare the result with real two phase flow situation. The surface tension and surface characteristics are to be tuned to simulate the real situation

  13. Visualization of Two Phase Natural Convection Flow in a Vertical Pipe using the Sulfuric Acid - Copper Sulfate Electroplating System

    Ohk, Seung-Min; Chae, Myeong-Seon; Chung, Bum-Jin [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The passive containment cooling system (PCCS) driven by natural forces convection gain draws research interests after Fukushima NPP accident. The PCCS was classified into three categories: Containment pressure suppression, Containment passive heat removal/pressure suppression systems and Passive containment spray. Among the types of containment passive heat removal/pressure suppression systems, the system composed of an internal heat exchanger and an external coolant tank is considered. In a severe accident condition, the heat from the containment atmosphere is transferred to the outer surface of the heat exchanger by the convection and condensation of the mixture of steam and gases. On the other hand, the heat is transferred to external pool by single phase or two phase natural convection inside of heat exchanger pipes. The study aimed at investigating the influence of the diameter (D) and height (H) of the heat exchanger pipes on the single phase and two phase natural convection heat transfer. As the initial stage of the study, the two phase natural convection flow inside a vertical pipe is visualized. In order to achieve the aim with ample test rig, a sulfuric acid - cooper sulfate electroplating system was employed based on the analogy between heat and mass transfer. The reduction of hydrogen ion at the cathode surface at high potential was used to simulate the boiling phenomena. This study tried to visualize the boiling heat transfer inside a vertical pipe using a cupric acid-copper sulfate (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-CuSO{sub 4}) electroplating system. This seems to be successful so far. However further study has to be done to compare the result with real two phase flow situation. The surface tension and surface characteristics are to be tuned to simulate the real situation.

  14. Organic amendments increase soil solution phosphate concentrations in an acid soil: A controlled environment study

    Schefe, C.R.; Patti, A.F.; Clune, T.S.; Jackson, R. [Rutgers Centre, Rutherglen, Vic. (Australia)

    2008-04-15

    Soil acidification affects at least 4 million hectares of agricultural land in Victoria, Australia. Low soil pH can inhibit plant growth through increased soluble aluminum (Al) concentrations and decreased available phosphorus (P). The addition of organic amendments may increase P availability through competition for P binding sites, solubilization of poorly soluble P pools, and increased solution pH. The effect of two organic amendments (lignite and compost) on P solubility in an acid soil was determined through controlled environment (incubation) studies. Three days after the addition of lignite and compost, both treatments increased orthophosphate and total P measured in soil solution, with the compost treatments having the greatest positive effect. Increased incubation time (26 days) increased soil solution P concentrations in both untreated and amended soils, with the greatest effect seen in total P concentrations. The measured differences in solution P concentrations between the lignite- and compost-amended treatments were likely caused by differences in solution chemistry, predominantly solution pH and cation dynamics. Soil amendment with lignite or compost also increased microbial activity in the incubation systems, as measured by carbon dioxide respiration. Based on the results presented, it is proposed that the measured increase in soil solution P with amendment addition was likely caused by both chemical and biological processes, including biotic and abiotic P solubilization reactions, and the formation of soluble organic-metal complexes.

  15. Soil acidity and mobile aluminum status in pseudogley soils in Čačak-Kraljevo basin

    Đalović Ivica G.; Jocković Đorđe S.; Dugalić Goran J.; Bekavac Goran F.; Purar Božana; Šeremešić Srđan I.; Jocković Milan Đ.

    2012-01-01

    Soil acidity and aluminum toxicity are considered most damaging soil conditions affecting the growth of most crops. This paper reviews the results of tests of pH, exchangeable acidity and mobile aluminum (Al) concentration in profiles of pseudogley soils from Čačak-Kraljevo basin. For that purpose, 102 soil pits were dug in 2009 in several sites around Čačak- Kraljevo basin. The tests encompassed 54 field, 28 meadow, and 20 forest soil samples. Samples of soil in the disturbed state wer...

  16. Soil Components Affecting Phosphate Sorption Parameters of Acid Paddy Soils in Guangdong Province

    2000-01-01

    Soil components affecting phosphate sorption parameters were studied using acid paddy soils derived from basalt, granite, sand-shale and the Pearl River Delta sediments, respectively, in Guangdong Province.For each soil, seven 2.50 g subsamples were equilibrated with 50 mL 0.02 mol L-1 (pH=7.0) of KCl containing 0, 5, 10, 15, 25, 50 and 100 ng P kg-1, respectively, in order to derive P sorption parameters (P sorption maximum, P sorption intensity factor and maximum buffer capacity) by Langmuir isotherm equation. It was shown that the main soil components influencing phosphate sorption maximum (Xm) included soil clay, pH,amorphous iron oxide (Feo) and amorphous aluminum oxide (Alo), with their effects in the order of Alo >Feo > pH > clay. Among these components, pH had a negative effect, and the others had a positive effect.Organic matter (OM) was the only soil component influencing P sorption intensity factor (K). The main components influencing maximum phosphate buffer capacity (MBC) consisted of soil clay, OM, pH, Feo and Alo, with their effects in the order of Alo > OM > pH > Feo > clay. Path analysis indicated that among the components with positive effects on maximum phosphate buffer capacity (MBC), the effect was in the order of Alo > Feo > Clay, while among the components with negative effects, OM > pH. OM played an important role in mobilizing phosphate in acid paddy soils mainly through decreasing the sorption intensity of phosphate by soil particles.

  17. Soil heavy metal contamination and acid deposition: experimental approach on two forest soils in Hunan, Southern China

    Bo-han, Liao; Zhaohui, Guo; Probst, Anne; Probst, Jean-Luc

    2005-01-01

    In 1985, a tailing dam collapsed in Hunan province (southern China) leading to soil contamination by heavy metals from the tailings waste. Moreover, acid deposition becomes more and more serious in this area. In this context, two forest soils (a red soil and a yellow red soil, typically and commonly found in southern China) were collected from Hunan. The objectives are (i) to determine releases and changes in speciation fractions of heavy metals (especially Cd, Cu, and Zn) when the soils are ...

  18. Solvent extraction of uranium from lean grade acidic sulfate leach liquor with alamine 336 reagent

    This paper describes the solvent extraction studies carried out on an acidic low assay uranium bearing leach liquor generated during sulfuric acid leaching of a refractory uranium ore using alamine 336-isodecenol-kerosene reagent combine. The leach liquor has a U3O8 content of about 270 mg/L, free acidity 2.4 N H2SO4 and total dissolved solids concentration of 260 g/L. Process parameteric variation studies indicated strong influence of free acidity of the leach liquor, alamine 336 concentration and aqueous to organic phase ratio on the extraction efficiency of uranium. An extraction efficiency of about 95% was achieved when the free acidity of leach liquor was 1 N H2SO4 or lower, using 2% (v/v) alamine 336 at ambient temperature with an aqueous to organic phase ratio of 1:1. The loading capacity under these conditions was 1.2 g/L of U3O8. About 98% of the uranium values could be stripped from the loaded organic using 1 N NaCl in 0.2 N H2SO4. The solvent extraction studies aided in developing a suitable process flowsheet for treating refractory uranium ores which need high acidity during leaching and relatively lower acidity for purification by solvent extraction. (author)

  19. STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HUMIC ACID SOILS OF THE KRASNODAR REGION

    Lobanov V. G.; Alexandrova A. V.; Shuray K. N.; Avdeev A. S.; Rashid I. D.

    2015-01-01

    The structural and functional properties of humic acids of different types of poorly studied soils of the Krasnodar Region: ordinary black soil or chernozem (carbonated), meadowish chernozem and gray forest soils are investigated. We define the type of humus of the soil samples studied as fulvate-humate. Using traditional indicators of humus soil conditions the regularities of soil and ecological processes involving organic matter in soils under natural and anthropogenically factorial changes...

  20. Changes in soil chemistry following wood and grass biochar amendments to an acidic agricultural production soil

    The utility of biochars produced by biomass gasification for remediation of acidic production soils and plant growth in general is not as well known compared to effects from biochars resulting from pyrolysis. Recent characterization of biochar produced from gasification of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pr...

  1. Simple method of isolating humic acids from organic soils

    Ahmed, O. H.; Susilawati, K.; Nik Muhamad, A. B.; Khanif, M. Y.

    2009-04-01

    Humic substances particularly humic acids (HA) play a major role in soil conditioning e.g. erosion control, soil cation exchange capacity, complexation of heavy metal ions and pesticides, carbon and nitrogen cycles, plant growth and reduction of ammonia volatilization from urea. Humified substances such as coal, composts, and peat soils have substantial amounts of HA but the isolation of these acids is expensive, laborious, and time consuming. Factors that affect the quality and yield of HA isolated from these materials include extraction, fractionation, and purification periods. This work developed a simple, rapid, and cost effective method of isolating HA from peat soils. There was a quadratic relationship between extraction period and HA yield. Optimum extraction period was estimated at 4 h instead of the usual range of 12 to 48 h. There was no relationship between fractionation period and HA yield. As such 2 h instead of the usual range of 12 to 24 h fractionation period could be considered optimum. Low ash content (5%), remarkable reduction in K, coupled with the fact that organic C, E4/E6, carboxylic COOH, phenolic OH, and total acidity values of the HA were consistent with those reported by other authors suggest that the HA dealt with were free from mineral matter. This was possible because the distilled water used to purify the HA served as Bronsted-Lowry acid during the purification process of the HA. Optimum purification period using distilled waster was 1 h instead of the usual range of 1 and 7 days (uses HF and HCl and dialysis). Humic acids could be isolated from tropical peat soils within 7 h (i.e. 4 h extraction, 2 h fractionation, and 1 h purification) instead of the existing period of 2 and 7 days. This could facilitate the idea of producing organic fertilizers such as ammonium-humate and potassium-humate from humified substances since techniques devised in this study did not alter the true nature of the HA. Besides, the technique is rapid, simple

  2. 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium Hydrogen Sulfate [bmim]HSO4: An Efficient Reusable Acidic Ionic Liquid for the Formylation of Alcohols

    NIKNAM Khodabakhsh; ZOLFIGOL Mohammad Ali; SABERI Dariush; KHONBAZI Mahdi

    2009-01-01

    1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate [bmim]HSO4 as an acidic ionic liquid was prepared and used as a catalyst for the formylation of alcohols with ethyl formate at room temperature with good to excellent yields.A good selectivity was observed for the formylation of primary alcohols in the presence of tertiary alcohols.

  3. Genome-Wide Expression Analysis of Human In Vivo Irritated Epidermis: Differential Profiles Induced by Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Nonanoic Acid

    Clemmensen, Anders; Andersen, Klaus E; Clemmensen, Ole;

    2010-01-01

    differential molecular events induced in the epidermis by different irritants, we collected sequential biopsies ((1/2), 4, and 24 hours after a single exposure and at day 11 after repeated exposure) from human volunteers exposed to either sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) or nonanoic acid (NON). Gene expression...

  4. Effectiveness of copper sulfate, potassium permanganate, and peracetic acid to reduce mortality and infestation of Ichthyobodo nector in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque 1818)

    Ichthyobodo necator is a single celled bi-flagellate parasite, and in high density can causes significant mortality in young fish. Copper sulfate (CuSO4), potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and peracetic acid (PAA) were evaluated for effectiveness against ichthyobodosis. Treatments were: untreated con...

  5. Correction of Excessive Soil Acidity with Different Liming Materials

    Milan Mesić

    2001-06-01

    According to the changes of soil pH, hydrolytic acidity, base saturation level and mobile aluminium content in soil for all investigation years, the differences in rapidity and duration of activity of particular liming material were recorded. Hydrated lime, sugar factory waste lime, ground soft lithothamnium limestone, hard limestone and dolomite influenced the soil chemical properties on the similar way, but not equally. When higher doses of these materials were applied the excessive soil acidity was almost completely neutralised. Compared to the other liming materials the efficacy of not ground lithothamnium limestone was somewhat lower, and that of phosphogypsum and special natural substrata was considerably lower. Winter wheat and corn were used as test crops and they were grown in the crop sequence winter wheat – corn – corn – winter wheat. According to the winter wheat and corn grain yield recorded at different trial treatments, the trial was statistically significant in all 4 years of investigation. At the first investigation year the highest yield of winter wheat was recorded at the treatment with higher dose of sugar factory waste lime. At the second, third and fourth year highest yields of test crops were obtained at trial treatment with higher dose of ground soft lithothamnium limestone.

  6. Impact of tree species on soil carbon stocks and soil acidity in southern Sweden

    The impact of tree species on soil carbon stocks and acidity in southern Sweden was studied in a non-replicated plantation with monocultures of 67-year-old ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.), beech (Fagus silvatica L.), elm (Ulmus glabra Huds.), hornbeam (Carpinusbetulus L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) and oak (Quercus robur L.). The site was characterized by a cambisol on glacial till. Volume-determined soil samples were taken from the O-horizon and mineral soil layers to 20 cm. Soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), pH (H2O), cation-exchange capacity and base saturation at pH 7 and exchangeable calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium ions were analysed in the soil fraction hornbeam > oak > beech > ash > elm. The pH in the O-horizon ranged in the order elm > ash > hornbeam > beech > oak > spruce. In the mineral soil, SOC and TN ranged in the order elm > oak > ash = hornbeam > spruce > beech, i.e. partly reversed, and pH ranged in the same order as for the O-horizon. It is suggested that spruce is the best option for fertile sites in southern Sweden if the aim is a high carbon sequestration rate, whereas elm, ash and hornbeam are the best solutions if the aim is a low soil acidification rate

  7. Oxidative stress markers, secondary bile acids and sulfated bile acids classify the clinical liver injury type: Promising diagnostic biomarkers for cholestasis.

    Masubuchi, Noriko; Sugihara, Masahiro; Sugita, Tomonori; Amano, Katsushi; Nakano, Masanori; Matsuura, Tomokazu

    2016-08-01

    Clinicians sometimes encounter difficulty in choosing a therapeutic strategy due to the uncertainty regarding the type of liver injury. In particular, cholestasis is difficult to diagnose by conventional markers at an early stage of disease. The aim of this study was to identify promising biomarkers for distinguishing the symptom-based types of liver injury (e.g. hepatocellular injury, cholestasis), which was derived from a rigorously statistical perspective. The associations between diagnostic biomarkers (e.g. bile acid components, oxidative stress markers and liver fibrosis markers) and the liver injury types were assessed by a multiple logistic regression analysis using 304 blood samples from patients with liver disease. As a result, reductions in the lithocholic acid (LCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA) levels, and elevation of the serum sulfated bile acid (SSBA), liver fibrosis marker IV collagen (type IV collagen), hyaluronic acid (HA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were all significantly associated with cholestasis. On the other hand, elevations in the LCA and type IV collagen levels, and a reduction in the ursodeoxy cholic acid (UDCA) level, were significantly associated with hepatocellular injury. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses showed that the largest area under the ROC curve (AUC) was found for ROS, followed by DCA, HA, LCA, SSBA and type IV collagen in the cholestatic-type cases. These results indicated that ROS, the secondary bile acid levels such as DCA and LCA, and SSBA are promising biomarkers for cholestasis and for classifying the type of liver injuries. This comprehensive approach will allow for an accurate diagnosis, which will facilitate the selection of an appropriate therapy at the onset of disease. PMID:26325587

  8. Synergistic Effects of Lactic Acid and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate to Decontaminate Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Cattle Hide Sections

    Elramady, Mohamed G.; Aly, Sharif S.; Rossitto, Paul V.; Crook, Jennifer A.; Cullor, James S.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antibacterial properties of chitosan acetate (CA), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), lactic acid (LA) and their synergism when combined against a nontoxigenic strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Treatments that significantly reduced the concentration of E. coli O157:H7 in vitro by more than two logs were further investigated using a cattle hide decontamination model. In vitro treatments included CA (1% chitosan in 1% acetic acid vol/vol), SDS (1%...

  9. Diagnosis of Metachromatic Leukodystrophy, Krabbe Disease, and Farber Disease after Uptake of Fatty Acid-labeled Cerebroside Sulfate into Cultured Skin Fibroblasts

    Kudoh, Tooru; Wenger, David A

    1982-01-01

    [14C]Stearic acid-labeled cerebroside sulfate (CS) was presented to cultured skin fibroblasts in the media. After endocytosis into control cells 86% was readily metabolized to galactosylceramide, ceramide, and stearic acid, which was reutilized in the synthesis of the major lipids found in cultured fibroblasts. Uptake and metabolism of the [14C]CS into cells from typical and atypical patients and carriers of metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD), Krabbe disease, and Farber disease were observed....

  10. Soil knowledge for farmers, farmer knowledge for soil scientists. The case of acid sulphate soils in the Mekong delta, Viet Nam.

    Mensvoort, van, KM Koert

    1996-01-01

    Half the Mekong delta in Vietnam, i.e. around 2 million hectares, suffers soil related problems due to acid sulphate soils. These soils generate sulphuric acid due to the oxidation of pyrite after aeration. Pyrite is most easily formed in tidal swamps. Human interference through land drainage is the most important way in which the acidification takes place. The processes of pyrite formation, of acidification and of the solution chemistry of these soils have been well explained (e.g. van Breem...

  11. Alleviating aluminium toxicity on an acid sulphate soils in Peninsular Malaysia with application of calcium silicate

    A. A. Elisa; Ninomiya, S.; J. Shamshuddin; Roslan, I.

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to alleviate Al toxicity of an acid sulphate soils collected from paddy cultivation area in Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia. For this purpose, the collected acid sulphate soils were treated with calcium silicate. The treated soils were incubated for 120 days in submerged condition in a glasshouse. Subsamples were collected every 30 days throughout the incubation period. Soil pH and exchangeable Al showed positive effect; soil pH increased from ...

  12. Controls on suppression of methane flux from a peat bog subjected to simulated acid rain sulfate deposition

    Gauci, Vincent; Dise, Nancy; Fowler, David

    2002-01-01

    The effect of acid rain SO42- deposition on peatland CH4 emissions was examined by manipulating SO42- inputs to a pristine raised peat bog in northern Scotland. Weekly pulses of dissolved Na2SO4 were applied to the bog over two years in doses of 25, 50, and 100 kg S ha-1 yr-1, reflecting the range of pollutant S deposition loads experienced in acid rain-impacted regions of the world. CH4 fluxes were measured at regular intervals using a static chamber/gas chromatographic flame ionization detector method. Total emissions of CH4 were reduced by between 21 and 42% relative to controls, although no significant differences were observed between treatments. Estimated total annual fluxes during the second year of the experiment were 16.6 g m-2 from the controls and (in order of increasing SO42- dose size) 10.7, 13.2, and 9.8 g m-2 from the three SO42- treatments, respectively. The relative extent of CH4 flux suppression varied with changes in both peat temperature and peat water table with the largest suppression during cool periods and episodes of falling water table. Our findings suggest that low doses of SO42- at deposition rates commonly experienced in areas impacted by acid rain, may significantly affect CH4 emissions from wetlands in affected areas. We propose that SO42- from acid rain can stimulate sulfate-reducing bacteria into a population capable of outcompeting methanogens for substrates. We further propose that this microbially mediated interaction may have a significant current and future effect on the contribution of northern peatlands to the global methane budget.

  13. Orbital Evidence for Clay and Acidic Sulfate Assemblages on Mars and Mineralogical Analogs from Rio Tinto, Spain

    Kaplan, H. H.; Milliken, R.; Fernandez-Remolar, D. C.; Amils, R.; Robertson, K.; Knoll, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    A suite of enigmatic near-infrared reflectance spectra with a 'doublet' absorption between 2.2 and 2.3 µm is observed in CRISM (Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars) hyperspectral images over Ius and Melas Chasma on Mars. The doublet-bearing deposits are found alongside other hydrated minerals including clays, sulfates, and silica, but the mineral(s) responsible for the spectral signature has yet to be identified. Reflectance spectra of rocks and sediments at Rio Tinto, Spain exhibit similar absorptions at airborne, field, and lab spatial scales. Coupled X-ray diffraction and reflectance spectra of these terrestrial examples indicate the absorption arises from a mixture of jarosite, a ferric sulfate, and Al-phyllosilicates (illite/muscovite). Detailed analysis of CRISM data over Ius and Melas Chasma suggests that these deposits also contain mixtures of jarosite and Al-phyllosilicate, where the latter may include halloysite, kaolinite and/or montmorillonite in addition to illite/muscovite. This interpretation is supported because (1) the two absorptions in the doublet feature vary independently, implying the presence of two or more phases, (2) the position of the absorptions is consistent with Al-OH and Fe-OH vibrations in both the Rio Tinto and CRISM spectra and (3) Al-phyllosilicates and jarosite are identified separately in nearby regions. Multiple formation mechanisms are proposed based on stratigraphy in Ius Chasma, where the strength of absorptions varies within a single stratigraphic unit as well as between different units. Mechanisms include authigenic formation of jarosite, which would indicate locally acidic and oxidizing conditions, mixed with detrial Al-phyllosilicates, or authigenic formation of Al-phyllosilicates and jarosite. Each implies different conditions in terms of aqueous geochemistry, redox, and sediment transport. Results from the field, lab, and CRISM analysis will be presented to discuss how placing these spectral

  14. Hyaluronic acid and glucosamine sulfate for adult Kashin-Beck disease: a cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Xia, Chuan-Tao; Yu, Fang-Fang; Ren, Feng-Ling; Fang, Hua; Guo, Xiong

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of hyaluronic acid (HA) and glucosamine sulfate (GS) in alleviating symptoms and improving function of Kashin-Beck disease (KBD). A cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 150 patients with KBD. Participants were randomly allocated to receive intra-articular injection hyaluronic acid (IAHA) for 4 weeks, oral GS for 12 weeks, or oral placebo for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measures were 20 % and 50 % reductions in pain from baseline measured by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) index. Secondary outcome measures included WOMAC index parameters of pain, stiffness, and physical function. The third outcome measure was mean change in Lequence score. HA and GS were effective in reducing WOMAC pain by 20 % (differences of 43.5 % and 25.4 %) and 50 % (differences of 43.4 % and 26.9 %). Both HA and GS significantly reduced WOMAC pain, WOMAC stiffness, and WOMAC normalized score compared with placebo group (all P < 0.05). IAHA was significantly more effective than oral GS in improving WOMAC normalized score (P = 0.034), pain (P = 0.002), stiffness (P = 0.018), and function (P = 0.044). The results indicate that HA and GS were more effective than placebo in treating KBD and HA was more effective than GS. PMID:25388643

  15. Stannous sulfate as an electrolyte additive for lead acid battery made from a novel ultrafine leady oxide

    Wang, Qin; Liu, Jianwen; Yang, Danni; Yuan, Xiqing; Li, Lei; Zhu, Xinfeng; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Yucheng; Sun, Xiaojuan; Liang, Sha; Hu, Jingping; Kumar, R. Vasant; Yang, Jiakuan

    2015-07-01

    The effects of SnSO4 as an electrolyte additive on the microstructure of positive plate and electrochemical performance of lead acid battery made from a novel leady oxide are investigated. The novel leady oxide is synthesized through leaching of spent lead paste in citric acid solution. The novel leady oxides are used to prepare working electrode (WE) subjected to electrochemical cyclic voltammetry (CV) tests. Moreover, the novel leady oxides are used as active materials of positive plate assembled as a testing battery of 1.85 A h capacity. In CV tests, SEM/EDX results show that the major crystalline phase of the paste in WE after CV cycles is PbSO4. The larger column-shaped PbSO4 crystals easily generate in the paste of WE without an electrolyte additive of SnSO4. However, PbSO4 crystals significantly become smaller with the addition of SnSO4 in the electrolyte. In batteries testing, SEM results show that an electrolyte additive of SnSO4 could effectively decrease PbO2 particle size in the positive active materials of the teardown battery at the end of charging procedure. It is indicated that an electrolyte additive of SnSO4 could have a positive influence on restraining larger particles of irreversible sulfation in charge/discharge cycles of battery testing.

  16. Three-year survey of sulfate-reducing bacteria community structure in Carnoules acid mine drainage (France), highly contaminated by arsenic

    Giloteaux, L.; Duran, R.; Casiot, C.; Bruneel, Odile; Elbaz-Poulichet, F.; Goni-Urriza, M.

    2013-01-01

    A 3-year survey on sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) was conducted in the waters of the arsenic-rich acid mine drainage (AMD) located at Carnoules (France) to determine the influence of environmental parameters on their community structure. The source (S5 station) exhibited most extreme conditions with pH lowering to similar to 1.2; iron, sulfate, and arsenic concentrations reaching 6843, 29593, and 638mgL1, respectively. The conditions were less extreme at the downstream stations S1 (pH simila...

  17. An HPLC Method for Microanalysis and Pharmacokinetics of Marine Sulfated Polysaccharide PSS-Loaded Poly Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid (PLGA) Nanoparticles in Rat Plasma

    Hua-Shi Guan; Guang-Li Yu; Xiao-Xi He; Hong-Bing Liu; Hai-Hua Li; Yi-Ting Xue; Chun-Xia Li; Peng-Li Li

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed at developing a sensitive and selective HPLC method with postcolumn fluorescence derivatization for the detection of propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS) in rat plasma. Plasma samples were prepared by a simple and fast ultrafiltration method. PSS was extracted from rat plasma with d-glucuronic acid as internal standard. Isocratic chromatographic separation was performed on a TSKgel G2500 PWxL column with the mobile phase of 0.1 M sodium sulfate at a flow rate of...

  18. Effect of Oxalic Acid on Potassium Release from Typical Chinese Soils and Minerals

    TU Shu-Xin; GUO Zhi-Fen; SUN Jin-He

    2007-01-01

    Oxalic acid plays an important role in improving the bioavailability of soil nutrients. Batch experiments were employed to examine the influences of oxalic acid on extraction and release kinetics of potassium (K) from soils and minerals along with the adsorption and desorption of soil K+. The soils and minerals used were three typical Chinese soils, black soil (Mollisol), red soil (Ultisol), and calcareous alluvial soil (Entisol), and four K-bearing minerals, biotite, phlogopite, muscovite, and microcline. The results showed that soil K extracted using 0.2 mol L-1 oxalic acid was similar to that using 1 mol L-1 boiling HNO3. The relation between K release (y) and concentrations of oxalic acid (c) could be best described logarithmically as y=a+blogc, while the best-fit kinetic equation of K release was y=a +b√t, where a and b are the constants and t is the elapsed time. The K release for minerals was ranked as biotite> phlogopite>> muscovite> microcline and for soils it was in the order: black soil> calcareous alluvial soil> red soil. An oxalic acid solution with low pH was able to release more K from weathered minerals and alkaline soils. Oxalic acid decreased the soil K+ adsorption and increased the soil K+ desorption, the effect of which tended to be greater at lower solution pH, especially in the red soil.

  19. Persistence of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in loess soil under different combinations of temperature, soil moisture and light/darkness

    Martins Bento, Celia; Yang, Xiaomei; Gort, Gerrit; Xue, Sha; Dam, van Ruud; Zomer, Paul; Mol, Hans G.J.; Ritsema, Coen J.; Geissen, Violette

    2016-01-01

    The dissipation kinetics of glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) were studied in loess soil, under biotic and abiotic conditions, as affected by temperature, soil moisture (SM) and light/darkness. Nonsterile and sterile soil samples were spiked with 16 mg kg− 1

  20. Effects of Composted and Thermally Dried Sewage Sludges on Soil and Soil Humic Acid Properties

    J.M.FERN(A)NDEZ; N.SENESI; C.PLAZA; G.BRUNETTI; A.POLO

    2009-01-01

    The effect of annual additions of composted sewage sludge (CS) and thermally dried sewage sludge (TS) at 80 t ha-1 on soil chemical properties was investigated for three years in a field experiment under semiarid conditions.Humie acids (HAs) isolated by conventional procedures from CS,TS,and unamended (SO) and sludge amended soils were analysed for elemental (C,H,N,S and O) and acidic functional groups (carboxylic and phenolic) and by ultraviolet-visible,Fourier transform infrared and fluorescence spectroscopies.With respect to CS,TS had similar pH and total P and K contents,larger dry matter,total organic C,total N.and C/N ratio and smaller ash content and electrical conductivity.Amendment with both CS and TS induced a number of modifications in soil properties,including an increase of pH,electrical conductivity,total organic C,total N,and available P.The CS-HA had greater O,total acidity,carboxyl,and phenolic OH group contents and smaller C and H contents than TS-HA.The CS-HA and TS-HA had larger N and S contents,smaller C,O and acidic functional group contents,and lower aromatic polycondensation and humification degrees than SO-HA.Amended soil-HAs showed C,H,N and S contents larger than SO-HA,suggesting that sludge HAs were partially incorporated into soil HAs.These effects were more evident with increasing number of sludge applications.

  1. Introduction manner of sulfate acid for improving the performance of SO42-/CeO2 on selective catalytic reduction of NO by NH3

    宋忠贤; 张秋林; 宁平; 刘昕; 樊洁; 黄真真

    2016-01-01

    A series of sulfated CeO2 catalysts were synthesized by impregnation and sol-gel methods and used for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx by NH3. The results showed that the sulfated CeO2 catalysts prepared by sol-gel method showed excellent catalytic activity at 150–450 °C, and more than 90% NOx conversion was obtained at 232–450 °C with a gas hourly space velocity of 60000 h–1. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption, Raman, thermogravimetry (TG), H2-tem-perature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR) and Py-infrared spectroscopy (Py-IR). The excellent SCR performance was associated with the surface acidity and the micro-structure. The introduction of sulfate acid into CeO2 could increase the amount of Brönsted and Lewis acid sites over the catalysts, resulting in the improvement of the low temperature activity. The sulfated CeO2 catalysts prepared by sol-gel method possessed lower crystallization degree, excellent redox property and larger specific surface areas, which were re-sponsible for the superior SCR performance.

  2. Effect of Selected Organic Acids on Cadmium Sorption by Variable-and Permanent-Charge Soils

    HU Hong-Qing; LIU Hua-Liang; HE Ji-Zheng; HUANG Qiao-Yun

    2007-01-01

    Batch equilibrium experiments were conducted to investigate cadmium (Cd) sorption by two permanent-charge soils, a yellow-cinnamon soil and a yellow-brown soil, and two variable-charge soils, a red soil and a latosol, with addition of selected organic acids (acetate, tartrate, and citrate). Results showed that with an increase in acetate concentrations from 0 to 3.0 mmol L-1, Cd sorption percentage by the yellow-cinnamon soil, the yellow-brown soil, and the latosol decreased. The sorption percentage of Cd by the yellow-cinnamon soil and generally the yellow-brown soil (permanent-charge soils)decreased with an increase in tartrate concentration, but increased at low tartrate concentrations for the red soil and the latosol. Curves of percentage of Cd sorption for citrate were similar to those for tartrate. For the variable-charge soils with tartrate and citrate, there were obvious peaks in Cd sorption percentage. These peaks, where organic acids had maximum influence, changed with soil type, and were at a higher organic acid concentration for the variable-charge soils than for the permanent charge soils. Addition of cadmium after tartrate adsorption resulted in higher sorption increase for the variable-charge soils than permanent-charge soils. When tartrate and Cd solution were added together, sorption of Cd decreased with tartrate concentration for the yellow-brown soil, but increased at low tartrate concentrations and then decreased with tartrate concentration for the red soil and the latosol.

  3. Soil water status under perennial and annual pastures on an acid duplex soil

    A comprehensive field study of soil water balance, nitrogen (N) cycling, pasture management and animal production was carried out on an acid duplex soil at Book Book near Wagga Wagga in southern New South Wales. The experiment, carried out over a 3-year period, tested the hypothesis that sown perennial grass pastures improve the sustainability of a grazing system through better use of water and N. The treatments were: annual pastures without lime (AP-), annual pastures with lime (AP+), perennial pastures without lime (PP-) and perennial pastures with lime (PP+). Soil water measurement was made using a neutron probe on one set of the treatments comprising four adjacent paddocks. Over three winter and spring periods, the results showed that perennial grass pastures, especially PP+, consistently extracted about 40 mm more soil water each year than did the annual grass pastures. As a result, surface runoff, sub-surface flow and deep drainage (percolation below 180 cm depth) were about 40 mm less from the perennial pastures. The soil water status of the four pasture treatments was simulated reasonably well using a simple soil water model. Together with the long-term simulation of deep drainage, using past meteorological records, it is shown that proper management of perennial pastures can reduce recharge to groundwater and make pastoral systems more sustainable in the high rainfall zone. However, to completely reduce recharge, more-deeply rooted plants or trees are needed. (author)

  4. Sulfuric Acid and Ammonium Sulfate Leaching of Alumina from Lampang Clay

    Numluk, Paweena; Chaisena, Aphiruk

    2012-01-01

    The rapid development of the global alumina industry has led to a considerable increase in the production alumina and processing of alumina from non-bauxitic sources. Lampang clays comprise various minerals that contain about 22.70 wt% of extractable alumina. Local clay was ground, activated by calcination and treated with sulfuric acid to extract alumina. In the activation step, the effects of temperature and time on the extraction of alumina and iron were investigated. The leaching experime...

  5. Addressing analytical uncertainties in the determination of trichloroacetic acid in soil

    Dickey, Catherine A; Heal, Kate V.; Cape, Neil; Stidson, Ruth; Reeves, Nicholas; Heal, Mathew R.

    2005-01-01

    Soil is an important compartment in the environmental cycling of trichloroacetic acid (TCA), but soil TCA concentration is a methodologically defined quantity; analytical methods either quantify TCA in an aqueous extract of the soil, or thermally decarboxylate TCA to chloroform in the whole soil sample. The former may underestimate the total soil TCA, whereas the latter may overestimate TCA if other soil components (e.g. humic material) liberate chloroform under the decarboxylation conditions...

  6. Elevational Variation in Soil Amino Acid and Inorganic Nitrogen Concentrations in Taibai Mountain, China.

    Xiaochuang Cao

    Full Text Available Amino acids are important sources of soil organic nitrogen (N, which is essential for plant nutrition, but detailed information about which amino acids predominant and whether amino acid composition varies with elevation is lacking. In this study, we hypothesized that the concentrations of amino acids in soil would increase and their composition would vary along the elevational gradient of Taibai Mountain, as plant-derived organic matter accumulated and N mineralization and microbial immobilization of amino acids slowed with reduced soil temperature. Results showed that the concentrations of soil extractable total N, extractable organic N and amino acids significantly increased with elevation due to the accumulation of soil organic matter and the greater N content. Soil extractable organic N concentration was significantly greater than that of the extractable inorganic N (NO3--N + NH4+-N. On average, soil adsorbed amino acid concentration was approximately 5-fold greater than that of the free amino acids, which indicates that adsorbed amino acids extracted with the strong salt solution likely represent a potential source for the replenishment of free amino acids. We found no appreciable evidence to suggest that amino acids with simple molecular structure were dominant at low elevations, whereas amino acids with high molecular weight and complex aromatic structure dominated the high elevations. Across the elevational gradient, the amino acid pool was dominated by alanine, aspartic acid, glycine, glutamic acid, histidine, serine and threonine. These seven amino acids accounted for approximately 68.9% of the total hydrolyzable amino acid pool. The proportions of isoleucine, tyrosine and methionine varied with elevation, while soil major amino acid composition (including alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, glycine, histidine, leucine, phenylalanine, serine, threonine and valine did not vary appreciably with elevation (p>0.10. The compositional

  7. Effect of the donor addition nature on noncation-exchange extraction of uranyl sulfate by the mixtures of di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid with organic oxides

    Solvent extraction of uranyl sulfate in a wide range of its concentration by the mixtures of di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (HX) with organic oxides (B)-triisoamyl (TAPO)-, triphenyl(TPPO)-phosphine oxides, 2-nonylpyridine-N-oxide (2-NPO) and diphenyl sulfoxide (DPSO) is studied. Cation exchange and noncation exchange (after HX saturation) synergistic effects are stated. By synergistic effect in uranyl sulfate noncation exchange extraction (UO2X2+B mixture is in fact an extracting agent) organic oxides are arranged in TAPO>2-NPO>TPPO>DPSO series coinsiding with the sequence of decreasing donor ability of B in hydrogen bond. A quantitative description of UO2SO4xB addition to UO2X2 is presented. It is stated that regularities of coordination extraction of metals by different class oxides and of uranyl sulfate extraction by UO2X2+B mixtures are similar

  8. Different pathways of canalicular secretion of sulfated and non-sulfated fluorescent bile acids : a study in isolated hepatocyte couplets and TR- rats

    Mills, CO; Milkiewicz, P; Muller, M; Roma, MG; Havinga, R; Coleman, R; Kuipers, F; Jansen, PLM; Elias, E

    1999-01-01

    Background/Aims: Fluorescent bile acids have proved useful for characterizing bile salt transport mechanisms, The aim of this study was to further validate the use of lysyl-fluorescein conjugated bile acid analogues as surrogate bile acids, Methods: We analyzed biliary excretion kinetics of cholyl l

  9. Rice husk ash as corrective of soil acidity

    Gláucia Oliveira Islabão

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice husk ash (RHA is a by-product from the burning of rice husk that can have favorable effects on the soil in terms of acidity correction. The objectives of this study were to determine the effective calcium carbonate equivalent (ECC of RHA under field conditions, and establish technical criteria as a basis for estimating the overall ECC of RHA. The 12 treatments of the experiment consisted of 10 RHA dosages (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, and 140 Mg ha-1 and two references, one of which was an absolute control (AC and the other a plot limed and fertilized according to official recommendations (recommended fertilization - RF. The soil was sampled twice (15 and 210 days after incorporating RHA, in the layers 0.00-0.10 and 0.10-0.20 m, to determine the pH(H2O and base saturation (V%. The ECC and neutralizing value (NV of RHA were also determined. The results showed that RHA neutralizes soil acidity, in a faster reaction than conventional limestone, despite a low ECC (around 3 %.

  10. Relationships between soil properties and community structure of soil macroinvertebrates in oak-history forests along an acidic deposition gradient

    Kuperman, R.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

    1996-02-01

    Soil macroinvertebrate communities were studied in ecologically analogous oak-hickory forests across a three-state atmospheric pollution gradient in Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. The goal was to investigate changes in the community structure of soil fauna in study sites receiving different amounts of acidic deposition for several decades and the possible relationships between these changes and physico-chemical properties of soil. The study revealed significant differences in the numbers of soil animals among the three study sites. The sharply differentiated pattern of soil macroinvertebrate fauna seems closely linked to soil chemistry. Significant correlations of the abundance of soil macroinvertebrates with soil parameters suggest that their populations could have been affected by acidic deposition in the region. Abundance of total soil macroinvertebrates decreased with the increased cumulative loading of acidic deposition. Among the groups most sensitive to deposition were: earthworms gastropods, dipteran larvae, termites, and predatory beetles. The results of the study support the hypothesis that chronic long-term acidic deposition could aversely affect the soil decomposer community which could cause lower organic matter turnover rates leading to an increase in soil organic matter content in high deposition sites.

  11. Sorption extraction of green ruthenium (4) sulfate from sulfuric acid solutions by complexing type ionite

    The possibility is studied of ruthenium sorption eXtraction on ionites of polyamino- and aminocarboxyle types from equilibrium solutions in the sulfuric acid concentration ranga from 0.05 to 2 g. eq./l at 20 and 85 deg C A temperature increase affects only the sorption kinetics. The AN-31, AV-16G- and ANKB-1 ionites reduce Ru(4) to Ru(3) which is absorbed by ionites, while the ampholyte ANKB-2 possesses no reducing properties. The ruthenium extraction by ionites proceeds following the mechanism of intraspheric substitution

  12. Performance of Maize Single-Cross Hybrids Evaluated on Acidic Soils

    P.K. Dewi Hayati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil acidity is one of a number of limiting factor of maize production. Planting maize hybrid varieties tolerant to acid soils along with the use of sustainable agronomic practices offers an effective solution for improving maize productivity on acidic soils.  Thirty-six single-cross hybrids derived from a 9x9 diallel cross, nine parental inbred lines and two check varieties i.e. a commercial hybrid and a composite variety Sukmaraga were evaluated in 2013 on acid aluminum-toxic soil at Limau Manis Padang in a randomized compelete block design in order to evaluate and select maize hybrids for high yield potential in acid soils and tolerant to acid soils. Data were subjected to the analysis of variance using the Proc GLM of the SAS software, while analysis of diallel was conducted using DIALLEL-SAS05 software. Results showed that several hybrids which were progenies of crossess between acid soil-tolerant or moderately acid soil-tolerant inbred lines revealed high grain yield on acidic soils. The hybrids also revealed high heterosis magnitudes and high and positive specific combining abilities, low yield reduction and stress sensitivity indices, while they revealed high relative yield and stress tolerance indices. Hence, it is suggested that these promising hybrids can be further evaluated in large scale locational trials on acidic soils.

  13. Coordination compounds of nitrates and sulfates of some metals with isonicotinic acid hydrazide

    The complexes M(No3)2x2HINA, MSO4x2HINA, Cu(NO3)2xHINA, and CuSO4xHINAx1, 5C2H5OH (where M=Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd; HINA is hydrazide of isonicotinic acid) are obtained, their infrared (400-4000 cm-1) and Raman (50-4000 cm-1) spectra are studied. It is shown that HINA molecules in all compounds are bound with the metal by the nitrogen atoms of the amino group. In nickel, zink, and cadmium complexes the nitrogen atoms of the heterocycle are also bound with the central atom, thus forming tubazid bridges

  14. Biocompatibility Assessment of Novel Collagen-Sericin Scaffolds Improved with Hyaluronic Acid and Chondroitin Sulfate for Cartilage Regeneration

    Gălăţeanu, Bianca; Albu, Mădălina

    2013-01-01

    Cartilage tissue engineering (CTE) applications are focused towards the use of implantable biohybrids consisting of biodegradable scaffolds combined with in vitro cultured cells. Hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) were identified as the most potent prochondrogenic factors used to design new biomaterials for CTE, while human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) were proved to display high chondrogenic potential. In this context, our aim was not only to build novel 3D porous scaffolds based on natural compounds but also to evaluate their in vitro biological performances. Therefore, for prospective CTE, collagen-sericin (Coll-SS) scaffolds improved with HA (5% or 10%) and CS (5% or 10%) were used as temporary physical supports for ASCs and were analyzed in terms of structural, thermal, morphological, and swelling properties and cytotoxic potential. To complete biocompatibility data, ASCs viability and proliferation potential were also assessed. Our studies revealed that Coll-SS hydrogels improved with 10% HA and 5% CS displayed the best biological performances in terms of cell viability, proliferation, morphology, and distribution. Thus, further work will address a novel 3D system including both HA 10% and CS 5% glycoproteins, which will probably be exposed to prochondrogenic conditions in order to assess its potential use in CTE applications. PMID:24308001

  15. Biocompatibility Assessment of Novel Collagen-Sericin Scaffolds Improved with Hyaluronic Acid and Chondroitin Sulfate for Cartilage Regeneration

    Sorina Dinescu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cartilage tissue engineering (CTE applications are focused towards the use of implantable biohybrids consisting of biodegradable scaffolds combined with in vitro cultured cells. Hyaluronic acid (HA and chondroitin sulfate (CS were identified as the most potent prochondrogenic factors used to design new biomaterials for CTE, while human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs were proved to display high chondrogenic potential. In this context, our aim was not only to build novel 3D porous scaffolds based on natural compounds but also to evaluate their in vitro biological performances. Therefore, for prospective CTE, collagen-sericin (Coll-SS scaffolds improved with HA (5% or 10% and CS (5% or 10% were used as temporary physical supports for ASCs and were analyzed in terms of structural, thermal, morphological, and swelling properties and cytotoxic potential. To complete biocompatibility data, ASCs viability and proliferation potential were also assessed. Our studies revealed that Coll-SS hydrogels improved with 10% HA and 5% CS displayed the best biological performances in terms of cell viability, proliferation, morphology, and distribution. Thus, further work will address a novel 3D system including both HA 10% and CS 5% glycoproteins, which will probably be exposed to prochondrogenic conditions in order to assess its potential use in CTE applications.

  16. Barium Sulfate

    Barium sulfate is used to help doctors examine the esophagus (tube that connects the mouth and stomach), ... dimensional pictures of the inside of the body). Barium sulfate is in a class of medications called ...

  17. Glucosamine sulfate

    ... to control arthritis pain. These creams usually contain camphor and other ingredients in addition to glucosamine. Glucosamine ... in combination with chondroitin sulfate, shark cartilage, and camphor for up to 8 weeks. Glucosamine sulfate can ...

  18. THE STABILIZATION SYSTEM OF SOIL ACIDITY WHEN GROWING TOMATOES IN A GREENHOUSE

    Tsokur D. S.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents: the stabilization system of soil acidity, which allows subsoil irrigation tomato plants catholyte to compensate the negative effects of acidic fertilizer, and additionally to prevent plant diseases anolyte solution; transfer function of the stabilization system of soil acidity and the results of its tests

  19. Proton binding to soil humic and fulvic acids: Experiments and NICA-Donnan modelling

    Tan, W.; Xiong, J.; Li, Y.; Wang, M.; Weng, L.; Koopal, L.K.

    2013-01-01

    Proton binding to one soil fulvic acid (JGFA), two soil humic acids (JGHA, JLHA) and a lignite-based humic acid (PAHA) was investigated. The results were fitted to NICA-Donnan model and compared directly with the predictions using the generic parameters. NICA-Donnan model can describe proton binding

  20. A Simulation of the Interaction of Acid Rain with Soil Minerals

    Schilling, Amber L.; Hess, Kenneth R.; Leber, Phyllis A.; Yoder, Claude H.

    2004-01-01

    The atmospheric issue of acid rains is subjected to a five-part laboratory experiment by concentrating on the chemistry of the infiltration process of acid rainwater through soils. This procedure of quantitative scrutiny helps students realize the efficacy of soil minerals in the consumption of surplus acidity in rainwater.

  1. THE STABILIZATION SYSTEM OF SOIL ACIDITY WHEN GROWING TOMATOES IN A GREENHOUSE

    Tsokur D. S.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents: the stabilization system of soil acidity, which allows subsoil irrigation tomato plants catholyte to compensate the negative effects of acidic fertilizer, and additionally to prevent plant diseases anolyte solution; transfer function of the stabilization system of soil acidity and the results of its tests

  2. The effect of acid rain and altitude on concentration, δ34S, and δ18O of sulfate in the water from Sudety Mountains, Poland

    Szynkiewicz, Anna; Modelska, Magdalena; Jedrysek, Mariusz Orion; Mastalerz, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The analyses of sulfate content, δ34S and δ18O of dissolved sulfate, and δ18O of water were carried out in a 14 km2 crystalline massif located in the Sudety Mountains (SW Poland) to 1) assess the amount of the sulfate delivered to the surface and groundwater systems by modern atmospheric precipitation, 2) determine the effect of altitude on these parameters, and 3) investigate their seasonal variations. In April and November of 2002, August 2003, and March and September of 2005, samples of water were collected from springs and streams of the massif. During these seasons, sulfate contents and δ18O(SO42−) values varied from 5.80 to 18.00 mg/l and from 3.96 to 8.23‰, respectively, showing distinctively higher values ofδ18O(SO42−) in wet seasons. The δ34S(SO42−) values had a relatively narrow range from 4.09 to 5.28‰ and were similar to those reported for organic matter in soil and the canopy throughfall in the Sudety Mountains.

  3. Acidification of Forest Soils: A Model for Analyzing Impacts of Acidic Deposition in Europe - Version II

    Kauppi, P.; Kaemaeri, J.; Posch, M; Kauppi, L.; Matzner, E.

    1985-01-01

    Acidification is an unfavorable process in forest soils. Timber logging, natural accumulation of biomass in the ecosystem, and acidic deposition are sources of acidification. Acidification causes a risk of damage to plant roots and a subsequent risk of a decline in ecosystem productivity. A dynamic model is introduced for describing the acidification of forest soils. In one-year time steps the model calculates the soil pH as function of acid stress and the buffer mechanisms of the soil. ...

  4. The role of organic acids exuded from roots in phosphorus nutrition and aluminium tolerance in acidic soils

    Soil acidity is a major problem of large areas of arable land on a global scale. Many acid soils are low in plant-available phosphorus (P) or are highly P-fixing, resulting in poor plant growth. In addition, aluminium (Al) is soluble in acid soils in the toxic Al3+ form, which also reduces plant growth. There is considerable evidence that both P deficiency and exposure to Al3+ stimulate the efflux of organic acids from roots of a range of species. Organic acids such as citrate, malate and oxalate are able to desorb or solubilise fixed soil P, making it available for plant uptake. Organic acids also chelate Al3+ to render it non-toxic, and are, therefore, involved in Al tolerance mechanisms. In this review, we discuss the literature on the role of organic acids exuded from roots in improving plant P uptake and Al-tolerance in acid soils. Research is now attempting to understand how P deficiency or exposure to Al3+ activates or induces organic acid efflux at the molecular level, with the aim of improving P acquisition and Al tolerance by conventional plant breeding and by genetic engineering. At the agronomic level, it is desirable that existing crop and pasture plants with enhanced soil-P uptake and tolerance to Al due to organic acid exudation are integrated into farming systems. (author)

  5. An Experimental Method to Quantify Extractable Amino Acids in Soils from Southeast China

    CHEN Xian-you; WU Liang-huan; CAO Xiao-chuang; Sarkar Animesh; ZHU Yuan-hong

    2013-01-01

    The extraction and comparison of soil amino acids using different extractants (deionized water, K2SO4, Na2SO4, NaCl, KCl) were reported. Results showed that 0.5 mol L-1 K2SO4 with a 5 times extraction was a better method to assess the concentration of extractable amino acids in soils. The total amino acids extracted from soil planted for tea were similar to the total inorganic nitrogen. While they extracted from vegetable soil and paddy soil were much lower than the total inorganic nitrogen.

  6. Optimization of peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH) for the detection of bacteria: The effect of pH, dextran sulfate and probe concentration.

    Rocha, Rui; Santos, Rita S; Madureira, Pedro; Almeida, Carina; Azevedo, Nuno F

    2016-05-20

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a molecular technique widely used for the detection and characterization of microbial populations. FISH is affected by a wide variety of abiotic and biotic variables and the way they interact with each other. This is translated into a wide variability of FISH procedures found in the literature. The aim of this work is to systematically study the effects of pH, dextran sulfate and probe concentration in the FISH protocol, using a general peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe for the Eubacteria domain. For this, response surface methodology was used to optimize these 3 PNA-FISH parameters for Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas fluorescens) and Gram-positive species (Listeria innocua, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Bacillus cereus). The obtained results show that a probe concentration higher than 300nM is favorable for both groups. Interestingly, a clear distinction between the two groups regarding the optimal pH and dextran sulfate concentration was found: a high pH (approx. 10), combined with lower dextran sulfate concentration (approx. 2% [w/v]) for Gram-negative species and near-neutral pH (approx. 8), together with higher dextran sulfate concentrations (approx. 10% [w/v]) for Gram-positive species. This behavior seems to result from an interplay between pH and dextran sulfate and their ability to influence probe concentration and diffusion towards the rRNA target. This study shows that, for an optimum hybridization protocol, dextran sulfate and pH should be adjusted according to the target bacteria. PMID:27021959

  7. Holothurian Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfate

    Vitor H. Pomin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FucCS is a structurally distinct glycosaminoglycan found in sea cucumber species. It has the same backbone composition of alternating 4-linked glucuronic acid and 3-linked N-acetyl galactosamine residues within disaccharide repeating units as regularly found in mammalian chondroitin sulfates. However, FucCS has also sulfated fucosyl branching units 3-O-linked to the acid residues. The sulfation patterns of these branches vary accordingly with holothurian species and account for different biological actions and responses. FucCSs may exhibit anticoagulant, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, and pro-angiogenic activities, besides its beneficial effects in hemodialysis, cellular growth modulation, fibrosis and hyperglycemia. Through an historical overview, this document covers most of the science regarding the holothurian FucCS. Both structural and medical properties of this unique GAG, investigated during the last 25 years, are systematically discussed herein.

  8. Application of Ground Phosphate Rock to Diminish the Effects of Simulated Acid Rain of Soil Properties

    DONGYUAN-YAN; LIXUE-YUAN

    1992-01-01

    The effects of simulated acid rain retained in soil on the properties of acid soil and its diminishing by application of ground phosphate rock were investigated by using the sorption method.Results show as follows:(1)For yellow brown soil,the effect of simulated acid rain on the properties of soil with a pH value of 5.9 was relatively small,except a great quantity of acid rain deposited on it.(2) for red soil,the effect of simulated acid rain on the properties of soil was significant.With the increase of the amount of acid deposition,the pH value of soil was declined,but the contents of exchangeable H+,Al3+ and Mn2+ and the amount of SO41- retention were increased.(3) Many properties of acid soils could be improved by applying ground phosphate rock.For example,pH value of soils and the amounts of available P and exchangeable Ca2+ and Mg2+ were increased,and the amounts of exchangeable H+ and Al3+ and SO42- retained was reduced.The application of ground posphate rock could effctively diminish the pollution of acid rain to soil.

  9. The treatments of soil Rirang by floatation and Acid leaching

    The treatments of soil Rirang by floatation and acid leaching has been carried out to increase high uranium concentrates of materials, separating associated economical minerals and to reduce the gangue minerals which bothering at chemical processing. The physical treatment has been done by ore preparation and floatation using oleic acid and pine oil, 20 % of pulp at pH 9, condition time at 5 minutes and collections of float fraction was 10 minutes. The chemical processing has been done by dynamic leaching using H2SO4 100 kg/ton, MnO2 20 kg/ton, 50 % of solid with ore size - 65 mesh, temperature at 80 oC and time of leaching was 8 hours. The result of experiments is as follows : Physical treatment by floatation shown that the concentrates of U increased at sink fraction by (1.5 - 2) times against feed sample for all the samples, and in the float fraction the recovery of molybdenite separation is 58 - 81 % and rare earths is 57 - 80 %. The result of dynamic leaching is 76 - 91 %, and recovery uranium increasing from 81.02 % (mixture samples soil before floatation) to 91.16 % ( mixture samples of float fraction)

  10. Heparan sulfate biosynthesis

    Multhaupt, Hinke A B; Couchman, John R

    2012-01-01

    Heparan sulfate is perhaps the most complex polysaccharide known from animals. The basic repeating disaccharide is extensively modified by sulfation and uronic acid epimerization. Despite this, the fine structure of heparan sulfate is remarkably consistent with a particular cell type. This suggests...... apparatus has not been carried out in a detailed way using high-resolution microscopy. We have begun this process, using well-known markers for the various Golgi compartments, coupled with the use of characterized antibodies and cDNA expression. Laser scanning confocal microscopy coupled with line scanning...

  11. Soil quality under forest compared to other landuses in acid soil of North Western Himalaya, India

    Sharmistha Pal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to examine the impact of land?use on soil fertility in an Alfisol, at Dharamshala district of north western Himalayan region, India. Soil samples were collected from 0-15, 15-30, 30-45 and 45-60 cm soil depths of five land-uses viz. natural forest of Pinus roxburghii, grassland, horticulture, agriculture and wasteland. Soil was examined for pH, organic carbon (OC, electrical conductivity (EC, cation exchange capacity (CEC, available nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, exchangeable calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, potassium (K, aluminium (Al, microbial biomass carbon (MBC, microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN, microbial biomass phosphorus (MBP, acid phosphatase activity (APHA and dehydrogenase activity (DHA. Soil pH varied from 5.22 in forest and 5.72 in grassland. OC content was higher in forest (3.01%, followed by grassland (2.16% and was least (0.36% in deeper layers of agriculture. Highest N content was found under forest (699, 654, 623 and 597 kg/ha, at 0-15, 15-30, 30-45 and 45-60 cm depth, respectively, followed by grassland, horticulture and agriculture and least in wasteland. Exchangeable Ca and Mg were higher in grassland (0.801 c mol kg-1 and 0.402 c mol kg-1, respectively. Exchangeable K and Al were higher under forest (0.231 c mol kg-1 and 1.89 c mol kg-1, respectively least in wasteland. Soil biological properties were highest under surface soil of forest (576 mg kg-1, 31.24 mg kg-1, 6.55 mg kg-1, 29.6 mg PNP g-1h-1 and 35.65 ľg TPF 24 h-1 g-1 dry soil, respectively for MBC, MBN, MBP, APHA and DHA and least in 45-60 cm layer, under wasteland. The forest had a higher fertility index and soil evaluation factor followed by grassland, horticulture, agriculture as compared to wasteland. 

  12. Effects of low-molecular-weight organic acids on phosphorus sorption characteristics in some calcareous soils

    MORADI, Neda; SADAGHIANI, Mir Hassan RASOULI; SEPEHR, Ebrahim

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the role of organic acids in phosphorus sorption in soils is very important for economic and environmentally friendly management of soil P. Thus, calcareous surface soils (0-30 cm) from West Azerbaijan Province, Iran, were sampled to study the effect of different organic acids on P sorption. Soil samples (2.5 g) were equilibrated with 25 mL of 0.01 M CaCl2 solution containing 0-20 mg P L-1 and 5 mmol L-1 of different organic acids (citric, oxalic, and malic acid). The sorption d...

  13. Hydrogeochemical interactions and evolution of acidic solutions in soil

    Leachate generated from surface disposal of acidic uranium mill tailings in New Mexico and Colorado significantly alters hydrogeochemical characteristics of subjacent sediments including pH, Eh, mineralogical transformation, and acid neutralizing capacity. Experimental investigations and thermodynamic equilibrium modeling with the geochemical code PHREEQE show that the relatively oxidizing tailings pore water is in near equilibrium with jurbanite (AlOHSO4), gypsum (CaSO4sm-bullet2H2O), strengite (FePO4sm-bullet2H2O), and lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH), and is oversaturated with alunite (KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6), goethite (α-FeOOH), and jarosite (KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6). Ions concentrated in tailings pore water include Mg, Na, Mn, V, Ni, Al, Fe, Ca, K, SO4, NO3, PO4, Mo, Se, As, and U. Leach experiments on tailings material demonstrated that As, Cr, Mo, U, and V are associated with clay minerals, jarosite, and ferric oxyhydroxide coatings. The enrichment factors (clay/sand abundance) for these solutes are greater than unity, which may be the result of anion adsorption below pHzpc literature values for ferric oxyhydroxide, silica gel, and montmorillonite. The concentrations and mobilities of several species and elements follow the order SO4 > NH4 > Al > Mn > NO3 > U > Fe > Se > PO4 > Ni > As > Cd at pH 4.0. Sulfate-dominated leachate reacts with tailings subsoil calcite producing gypsum, which results in a continued decrease in SO4 concentrations. Dissolved concentrations of U, NO3, SO4, and other major ions remain elevated above background concentrations downgradient from the tailings impoundment

  14. Effect of reduction in acid rain on phosphate loss-phosphate leached from agriculture soil and Al leaked from upstream acid forest soil

    2012-01-01

    This master thesis was an integrated part of EUTROPIA. The specific aim of this present study is to enhance our understanding of the effects of reduction in acid rain on P-loss from agriculture soil due to reduced co-precipitation between P leached from agriculture soil and Al leaked from upstream acid forest soils. The study was carried out at two watersheds: Dalen, which is an aluminium rich, acidic forest stream water catchment upstream, and Støa1, which is a P-loaded agricultural water ca...

  15. Evaluation of the factors governing metal biosorption and metal toxicity in acidic soil isolates

    This research project was designed to determine the feasibility of microbial biosorption processes for removing metal ions from aqueous systems. A culture of acidic soil actinomycetes, grown in an aerobic environment in a completely mixed, semibatch culture reactor, was used for the study. The experiments were based on removal of copper and lead from test solutions. The anionic systems tested were nitrate, sulfate, and chloride. To determine the factors influencing biosorption and to characterize metal uptake by cellular and extracellular components of the microbial system, a dialysis testing procedure was developed. The effectiveness of biosorption was influenced by pH, initial concentration of metals, type of anionic system, and organic content of the system. respirometric runs were carried out to identify potential inhibitory effects of metal accumulation on microbial activities. In general, metal accumulation resulted in a decrease in the microbial oxygen uptake rate. Also, a lag phase was observed before the onset of the respiratory activity particularly at concentrations of copper and lead greater than 100 ppM

  16. Esterification of fatty acids using sulfated zirconia and composites activated carbon/sulfated zirconia catalysts; Esterificacao de acidos graxos utilizando zirconia sulfatada e compositos carvao ativado/zirconia sulfatada como catalisadores

    Brum, Sarah S.; Santos, Valeria C. dos; Destro, Priscila; Guerreiro, Mario Cesar [Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2011-07-01

    In this work sulfated zirconia (SZr) and activated carbon/SZr composites produced by impregnation method with or without heating treatment step (CABC/SZr-I and CABC/SZr-I SC) and by the method of synthesis of SZr on the carbon (CABC/SZr-S) was used as catalysts in the esterification reactions of fatty acids. The SZr presented very active, conversions higher than 90% were obtained after 2 h of reaction. The activity of the composite CABC/SZr-I20%SC was up to 92%, however, this was directly related to time and temperature reactions. CABC/SZr-I and CABC/SZr-S were less active in esterification reactions, what could be attributed to its low acidity. (author)

  17. Effect of some soil amendments on soil properties and plant growth in Southern Thailand acid upland soil

    Onthong, C.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major factors limiting plant growth is acid soil. In general lime is used for soil amendment in acid soil. However, It has been reported that gypsum or phosphogypsum can be used for ameliorating soilacidity. Pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of lime, phosphogypsum and kieserite on soil properties and plant growth in Kho Hong soil series (coarse loamy, kaolinitic,isohyperthermic, TypicKandiudults which was considered as acid upland soil (pH 5.07. Sweet corn variety INSEE 2 was used as the test crop. The experiment was a completely randomized design with 4 replications and 19 treatments asfollow : unamended, application of hydrated lime and dolomite to raise soil pH at 5.5, application of hydrated lime and dolomite combined with phosphogypsum at the rate that can supply calcium 0.25, 0.50,0.75 and 1 time of both limes, application of hydrated lime and dolomite combined with kieserite at the rate 0.25, 0.50,0.75 and 1 times of sulfur requirement for corn (40 kg S ha-1. The result showed that shoot and root dry weights of corn were increased when lime materials, phosphogypsum and kieserite were applied and the drymatter weights were increased according to the increasing of phosphogypsum and kieserite. The maximum shoot dry weight (18.98 g pot-1 was obtained when 1 times of kieserite was supplied with dolomite and wassignificantly (P<0.01 higher than those of the unamended treatment, only hydrated lime and dolomite treatments, which had dry weights of 12.64, 15.18 and 15.67 g pot-1 respectively. Phosphorus and K uptakewere not significantly different in all treatments and the lowest uptake of N, Ca, Mg and S was obtained in the unamended treatment. The maximum uptake of N (512.10 mg pot-1 was found when 0.5 times ofphosphogypsum was applied together with dolomite. Calcium and Mg uptake was likely to increase according to the increasing rate of soil amendment application. Highest uptake of Ca (42.51 mg pot-1 was obtainedwhen

  18. Influence of acid rain and organic matter on the adsorption of trace elements on soil

    Acid rain has become one of the most serious environmental problems. Soil loses its buffering capacity by long exposure to acid rain, and the soil pH value decreases significantly. The acidification of the soil disturbs the adsorption equilibrium of many elements in the soil-water system. Soil is a very complex heterogeneous system, primarily consisting of clay minerals, hydrous oxides and polymeric organic substances, which possess their own characteristic element-adsorbing properties. On the other hand, the intrinsic properties of elements are reflected in their adsorption process as a matter of course. Therefore, both the effects of the pH of acid rain and that of the components of the soil on the adsorption of different elements should be studied when the adsorption process in acid soils is to be clarified. Although leaching of major cations in soil, such as Ca2+, Mg2+ and Al3+, by acid rain, has been extensively studied, relatively little attention has been focused on trace elements which can also seriously affect the ecological system. We studied the acid rain effects on element adsorption by kaolin, forest soil, black soil, and also these soils with Fe- and Mn-oxides or organic matter selectively removed by using the radioactive multitracer technique. (author)

  19. Evaluation of Sikora instead of SMP buffer to estimate the potential acidity of brazilian soils

    Maria Alice Santanna

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the efficiency of the Shoemaker, McLean, Pratt (SMP buffer method in estimating soil acidity, the presence of p-nitrophenol and potassium chromate in the solution, both hazardous substances, has caused increasing environmental concerns. The purpose of this study was to test Sikora method (Sikora, 2006 as an alternative to the adapted SMP buffer method, generally used to estimate potential acidity of Southern Brazilian soils. For the test, 21 soils in the South and Cerrado regions of Brazil were sampled. (1 The potential acidity values of these soils range from 35.95 to 4.02 cmol c kg-1 of soil, reflecting a wide acidity variation. The Sikora buffer does not mimic the adapted SMP buffer used in Southern Brazil, since the former has a low ability to distinguish soils with different acidity from each other, probably due to the higher buffer capacity than of the adapted SMP solution.

  20. Effects of soil acidity on the uptake of trace elements in soybean and tomato plants

    The effects of soil acidity on the uptake of trace elements (Co, Zn, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Tc, Ru, Rh and Re) in soybean and tomato were studied by a multitracer technique. The soybean and tomato plants were cultivated on soils at pH 6.4 (normal soil) and 4.2 (acid soil) and administered with a multitracer for 15-60 days. In general, the uptake of cationic elements in the leaves and stems of soybean plants cultivated on acid soil became higher than those of plants cultivated on normal soil during the late period of growth. However, the effect of soil acidification on the uptake of the anionic element, Se, was quite different from that on the cationic elements. The uptake of Se by the plants cultivated on normal soil was higher than that of the plants cultivated on acid soil at all four harvest points. The uptake behavior of these elements in soybean was discussed in relation to their adsorption behavior on the same soil as was used for soybean cultivation. The growth of tomato plants was seriously affected by the soil acidity and lowering of uptake of elements was observed for the plants cultivated on acidified soil

  1. Improving the management of infertile acid soils in Southeast Asia: The approach of the IBSRAM Acid-Soils network

    The IBSRAM ASIALAND Management of Acid Soils network aims to improve the understanding of the broad range of biophysical and socio-economic production limitations on infertile acid soils of Southeast Asia, and to lead to development and implementation of sustainable land-management strategies for these important marginal areas. The main activities of the network are in Indonesia, Myanmar, Philippines, and Vietnam, with associated activity in Thailand, and minor involvement in Brunei, Cambodia, Laos, and Malaysia. The main experimental focus is through researcher-managed on-farm trials, to improve the management of phosphorus nutrition with inorganic and organic amendments. A generic design is used across the eight well characterised sites that form the core of the network. The results will be analysed across time and across sites. Improved methods for laboratory analyses, experimental management, socio-economic data collection, and data analysis and interpretation are critical components. Three important initiatives are associated with the core activities. These aim to establish a broader network on maintenance of quality laboratory analyses, to assess the potential for implementation of improved strategies through farmer-managed on-farm trials, and to improve our understanding of, and ways of estimating, nutrient budgets for diverse farming systems. (author)

  2. Acid-sulfate mixtures from Río Tinto, Spain: Spectral masking relationships and implications for Mars

    Cull-Hearth, Selby; van Venrooy, Alexis; Caroline Clark, M.; Cvitkovic, Adriana

    2016-06-01

    Most sulfate minerals form only in specific pH conditions, making them useful markers of past environmental conditions on Mars. However, interpreting past environments requires a full understanding of the suite of minerals present, a task which is complicated by the fact that some minerals can spectrally mask others in the visible- to near-infrared (VNIR, 0.4-2.5 μm). Here, we report VNIR spectra of two-phase mineral combinations obtained from the Río Tinto acid mine drainage system of southern Spain. Our results show that in VNIR reflectance spectroscopy: (1) copiapite masks rhomboclase and partially masks melanterite; (2) coquimbite masks copiapite, jarosite, and rhomboclase; (3) at wavelengths 1.2 μm, gypsum masks these minerals; (4) unlike copiapite, jarosite, or melanterite, halotrichite masks gypsum completely; (5) in two-phase mixtures of copiapite and jarosite, both phases are evident. No consistent VNIR relationship is observed in two-phase mixtures of melanterite and halotrichite, suggesting that microtextures are likely more important than optical properties in determining VNIR reflectance. We also show that the shorter wavelengths are more sensitive to the presence of both phases: even in mixtures where one phase is masking another, both phases usually impact absorptions in the 0.75-0.95 μm region. This region may therefore be useful in remotely identifying mineral mixtures on Mars. These results have implications for several regions on Mars: most notably, they imply that the jarosite exposures reported at Mawrth Vallis may be jarosite-copiapite mixtures.

  3. Hydroxyapatite-calcium sulfate-hyaluronic acid composite encapsulated with collagenase as bone substitute for alveolar bone regeneration.

    Subramaniam, Sadhasivam; Fang, Yen-Hsin; Sivasubramanian, Savitha; Lin, Feng-Huei; Lin, Chun-pin

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is a very severe inflammatory condition of the periodontium that progressively damages the soft tissue and destroys the alveolar bone that supports the teeth. The bone loss is naturally irreversible because of limited reparability of the teeth. Advancement in tissue engineering provides an effective regeneration of osseous defects with suitable dental implants or tissue-engineered constructs. This study reports a hydroxyapatite, calcium sulfate hemihydrate and hyaluronic acid laden collagenase (HAP/CS/HA-Col) as a bone substitute for the alveolar bone regeneration. The composite material was mechanically tested and the biocompatibility was evaluated by WST-1 assay. The in vivo bone formation was assessed in rat with alveolar bone defects and the bone augmentation by the HAP/CS/HA-Col composite was confirmed by micro-CT images and histological examination. The mechanical strength of 6.69 MPa with excellent biocompatibility was obtained for the HAP/CS/HA-Col composite. The collagenase release profile had facilitated the acceleration of bone remodeling process and it was confirmed by the findings of micro-CT and H&E staining. The bone defects implanted with HAP/CS/HA composite containing 2 mg/mL type I collagenase have shown improved new bone formation with matured bone morphology in comparison with the HAP/CS/HA composite that lacks the collagenase and the porous hydroxyapatite (p-HAP) granules. The said findings demonstrated that the collagenase inclusion in HAP/CS/HA composite is a feasible approach for the alveolar bone regeneration and the same design can also be applied to other defective tissues. PMID:26454048

  4. Citric Acid-Modified Fenton's Reaction for the Oxidation of Chlorinated Ethylenes in Soil Solution Systems

    Seol, Yongkoo; Javandel, Iraj

    2008-03-15

    Fenton's reagent, a solution of hydrogen peroxide and ferrous iron catalyst, is used for an in-situ chemical oxidation of organic contaminants. Sulfuric acid is commonly used to create an acidic condition needed for catalytic oxidation. Fenton's reaction often involves pressure buildup and precipitation of reaction products, which can cause safety hazards and diminish efficiency. We selected citric acid, a food-grade substance, as an acidifying agent to evaluate its efficiencies for organic contaminant removal in Fenton's reaction, and examined the impacts of using citric acid on the unwanted reaction products. A series of batch and column experiments were performed with varying H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations to decompose selected chlorinated ethylenes. Either dissolved iron from soil or iron sulfate salt was added to provide the iron catalyst in the batch tests. Batch experiments revealed that both citric and sulfuric acid systems achieved over 90% contaminant removal rates, and the presence of iron catalyst was essential for effective decontamination. Batch tests with citric acid showed no signs of pressure accumulation and solid precipitations, however the results suggested that an excessive usage of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} relative to iron catalysts (Fe{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} < 1/330) would result in lowering the efficiency of contaminant removal by iron chelations in the citric acid system. Column tests confirmed that citric acid could provide suitable acidic conditions to achieve higher than 55% contaminant removal rates.

  5. Four-component one-pot synthesis of unsymmetrical polyhydroquinoline derivatives using 3-methyl-1-sulfonic acid imidazolium hydrogen sulfate as a catalyst

    Nader Ghaffari Khaligh

    2014-01-01

    3-Methyl-1-sulfonic acid imidazolium hydrogen sulfate has been used as an efficient, halogen-free, and reusable Brönsted acidic ionic liquid catalyst for the synthesis of ethyl-4-aryl/heteryl- hexahy-dro-trimehtyl-5-oxoquinoline-3-carboxylates via the one-pot condensation of dimedone with ar-yl/heteryl aldehydes, ethyl acetoacetate, and ammonium acetate under solvent-free conditions. This method has the advantage of being clean and simple, as well as providing the desired product in high yield over a short reaction time. Furthermore, the catalyst could be recycled and reused four times without any discernible reduction in activity.

  6. Effect of sulfate reducing bacteria on corrosion of stainless steel 1Cr18Ni9Ti in soils containing chloride ions

    Research highlights: → The effect of SRB on corrosion of the stainless steel was investigated. → The effect of chloride ion on corrosion of the stainless steel was investigated. → Pitting susceptibility of the steel was enhanced by SRB and chloride ion. → Many pitting holes were clearly observed on the surface of the steel. - Abstract: The effect of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) on corrosion of stainless steel 1Cr18Ni9Ti in soils containing chloride ions was studied by bacterial analysis, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA). The results showed that the corrosion rate of the steel in soils containing chloride with SRB was larger than that without SRB under the lower chloride ion concentration of 1 wt%. The observations on pitting corrosion of the steel in soils containing the same amount of SRB, however with different chloride concentration revealed that the pitting depth increased with increasing chloride concentration. There existed in the measured EIS only one capacitive loop for the steel in the soil without SRB, and two capacitive loops for that with SRB.

  7. Correlations between different acidity forms in amorphous loamy soils of the tundra and taiga zones

    Shamrikova, E. V.; Sokolova, T. A.

    2013-05-01

    Pair correlation coefficients ( r) between the acidity parameters for the main genetic horizons of soddy-podzolic soils (SPSs), typical podzolic soils (TPSs), gley-podzolic soils (GPSs), and tundra surfacegley soils (TSGSs) have been calculated on the basis of a previously developed database. A significant direct linear correlation has been revealed between the pHwater and pHKCl values in the organic and eluvial horizons of each soil, but the degree of correlation decreased when going from the less acidic SPSs to the more acidic soils of other taxons. This could be related to the fact that, under strongly acid conditions, extra Al3+ was dissolved in the KCl solutions from complex compounds in the organic horizons and from Al hydroxide interlayers in the soil chlorites. No significant linear correlation has been found between the exchangeable acidity ( H exch) and the activity of the [H]+ ions in the KCl extract ( a(H+)KCl) calculated per unit of mass in the organic horizons of the SPSs, but it has been revealed in the organic horizons of the other soils because of the presence of the strongest organic acids in their KCl extracts. The high r values between the H exch and a(H+)KCl in all the soils of the taiga zones have been related to the common source and composition of the acidic components. The correlation between the exchangeable and total ( H tot) acidities in the organic horizons of the podzolic soils has been characterized by high r values because of the common source of the acidity: H+ and probably Al3+ ions located on the functional groups of organic acids. High r values between the H exch and a(H+)KCl have been observed in the mineral horizons of all the soils, because the Al3+ hydroxo complexes occurring on the surface and in the interlayer spaces of the clay minerals were sources of both acidity forms.

  8. Metagenomic analysis of the rhizosphere soil microbiome with respect to phytic acid utilization.

    Unno, Yusuke; Shinano, Takuro

    2013-01-01

    While phytic acid is a major form of organic phosphate in many soils, plant utilization of phytic acid is normally limited; however, culture trials of Lotus japonicus using experimental field soil that had been managed without phosphate fertilizer for over 90 years showed significant usage of phytic acid applied to soil for growth and flowering and differences in the degree of growth, even in the same culture pot. To understand the key metabolic processes involved in soil phytic acid utilization, we analyzed rhizosphere soil microbial communities using molecular ecological approaches. Although molecular fingerprint analysis revealed changes in the rhizosphere soil microbial communities from bulk soil microbial community, no clear relationship between the microbiome composition and flowering status that might be related to phytic acid utilization of L. japonicus could be determined. However, metagenomic analysis revealed changes in the relative abundance of the classes Bacteroidetes, Betaproteobacteria, Chlorobi, Dehalococcoidetes and Methanobacteria, which include strains that potentially promote plant growth and phytic acid utilization, and some gene clusters relating to phytic acid utilization, such as alkaline phosphatase and citrate synthase, with the phytic acid utilization status of the plant. This study highlights phylogenetic and metabolic features of the microbial community of the L. japonicus rhizosphere and provides a basic understanding of how rhizosphere microbial communities affect the phytic acid status in soil. PMID:23257911

  9. Evidence for shift from Acidobacteria to Proteobacteria dominance in soil profile of boreal acid sulphate soils in Finland

    Chroňáková, Alica; Yli-Halla, M.; Bryndová, Michala; Otáhalová, Šárka; Šimek, Miloslav

    Milan: University of Milan, 2015. s. 117-118. [BAGECO 13 - Symposium on Bacterial Genetics and Ecology, The Microbial Continuity Across Changing Ecosystems /13./. 14.06.2015-18.06.2015, Milan] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Acidobacteria * Proteobacteria * soil profile * boreal acid sulphate soils Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  10. Gamma ray-induced synthesis of hyaluronic acid/chondroitin sulfate-based hydrogels for biomedical applications

    Hyaluronic acid (HA)/chondroitin sulfate (CS)/poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) hydrogel systems were synthesized by gamma-ray irradiation without the use of additional initiators or crosslinking agents to achieve a biocompatible hydrogel system for skin tissue engineering. HA and CS derivatives with polymerizable residues were synthesized. Then, the hydrogels composed of glycosaminoglycans, HA, CS, and a synthetic ionic polymer, PAAc, were prepared using gamma-ray irradiation through simultaneous free radical copolymerization and crosslinking. The physicochemical properties of the HA/CS/PAAc hydrogels having various compositions were investigated to evaluate their feasibility as artificial skin substitutes. The gel fractions of the HA/CS/PAAc hydrogels increased in absorbed doses up to 15 kGy, and they exhibited 91–93% gel fractions under 15 kGy radiation. All of the HA/CS/PAAc hydrogels exhibited relatively high water contents of over 90% and reached an equilibrium swelling state within 24 h. The enzymatic degradation kinetics of the HA/CS/PAAc hydrogels depended on both the concentration of the hyaluronidase solution and the ratio of HA/CS/PAAc. The in vitro drug release profiles of the HA/CS/PAAc hydrogels were significantly influenced by the interaction between the ionic groups in the hydrogels and the ionic drug molecules as well as the swelling of the hydrogels. From the cytotoxicity results of human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells cultured with extracts of the HA/CS/PAAc hydrogels, all of the HA/CS/PAAc hydrogel samples tested showed relatively high cell viabilities of more than 82%, and did not induce any significant adverse effects on cell viability. - Highlights: • HA/CS/PAAc hydrogels were synthesized by gamma-ray irradiation. • HA/CS/PAAc hydrogels exhibited 91–93% gel fractions under 15 kGy radiation. • All of the HA/CS/PAAc hydrogels exhibited high water contents of over 90%. • The hydrogel samples showed relatively high cell viabilities of more than

  11. Acid-base equilibria and dynamics in sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles: geminate recombination and effect of charge stabilization.

    Freitas, Adilson A; Paulo, Luisa; Maçanita, Antonio L; Quina, Frank H

    2006-09-12

    The synthetic flavylium salt 4-carboxy-7-hydroxy-4'-methoxyflavylium chloride (CHMF) exhibits two acid-base equilibria in the range of pH 1-8 in both aqueous and micellar sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solutions. The values of pK(a1) and pK(a2) for the cation-zwitterion (AH(2)(+) Z + H(+)) and the zwitterion-base (Z A(-) + H(+)) equilibria increase from 0.73 and 4.84 in water to 2.77 and 5.64 in SDS micelles, respectively. The kinetic study of the Z A(-) + H(+) ground-state reactions in SDS points to the diffusion-controlled protonation of A(-) in the aqueous phase (k(p2w) = 4.2 x 10(10) M(-)(1) s(-)(1)) and in the micelle (k(p2m) = 2.3 x 10(11) M(-)(1) s(-)(1)). The deprotonation rate of Z did not significantly change upon going from water (k(d2) = 6.3 x 10(5) s(-)(1)) to SDS (k(d2) = 5.2 x 10(5) s(-)(1)), in contrast with the behavior of ordinary cationic flavylium salts, for which k(d2) strongly decreases in SDS micelles. These results suggest that deprotonation of the zwitterionic acid is not substantially perturbed by the micellar charge. Electronic excitation of the Z form of CHMF induces fast adiabatic deprotonation of the hydroxyl group of Z() (2.9 x 10(10) s(-)(1) in water and 8.4 x 10(9) s(-)(1) in 0.1 M SDS), followed by geminate recombination on the picosecond time scale. Interestingly, while recombination in water (k(rec) = 1.7 x 10(9) s(-)(1)) occurs preferentially at the carboxylate group, at the SDS micelle surface, recombination (k(rec) = 9.2 x 10(9) s(-)(1)) occurs at the hydroxyl group. The important conclusion is that proton mobility at the SDS micelle surface is substantially reduced with respect to the mobility in water, which implies that geminate recombination should be a general phenomenon in SDS micelles. PMID:16952232

  12. Biogenic arsenic volatilisation from an acidic wetland soil

    Ilgen, Gunter; Huang, Jen-How; Lu, Shipeng; Tian, Liyan; Alewell, Christine

    2014-05-01

    Biogenic arsenic (As) volatilisation was budgeted at 26000 t yr-1as the largest input of the global As release into the atmosphere, thereby playing an important role in the biogeochemical cycle of As in the surface environment. In order to quantify As volatilisation from wetland soils and to elucidate the geochemical and microbiological factors governing As volatilisation, a series of incubations with an acidic wetland soil collected in NE-Bavaria in Germany were performed at 15oC for 4 months with addition of NaN3, arsenite (As(III)), FeCl3, NaSO4 and NaOAc with N2 and air in the headspace. Speciation of gaseous As in the headspace using GC-ICP-MS/ ESI-MS coupling showed the predominance of either arsine (AsH3) or trimethylarsine ((CH3)3As) in all treatments during the time course of incubation. Monomethylarsine ((CH3)AsH2) and dimethylarsine ((CH3)2AsH) could be only detected in trace amounts. Arsenic speciation in porewater with HPLC-ICP-MS revealed the predominance of As(III) and methylated As was never detectable. Arsenic volatilisation summed to 2.3 ng As (88% as AsH3) in the control incubations, which accounted for ~0.25 % of the total As storage in the wetland soil. Treatments with 10 mM NaN3 resulted in emission of only 0.03 ng As. In contrast, addition of 10 mM NaOAc stimulated microbial activities in wetland soils and subsequently rose As volatilisation to 8.5 ng As. It could be therefore concluded that As volatilisation from the wetland soils was mainly biological. Spiking 67 μM As(III) increased 10 times of As volatilisation and the proportion of methylated arsines increased to 66%, which is supposed to be caused by the largely enhanced As availability in porewater for microbes (480 ppb, ~65 times higher than those in the controls). Adding 10 mM FeCl3 stimulated microbial Fe(III) reducing activities but suppressed other microbial activities by lowering soil pH from 5 to 3.6, decreasing consequently As volatilisation to 0.3 ng As. The much lower redox

  13. Soil degradation by sulfuric acid disposition on uranium producing sites in south Bulgaria

    This study assesses the damage of soils caused by spills of sulfuric acid solutions used for in situ leaching of uranium at eight uranium producing (by open-cast method) sites (total area of approximately 220 ha) in the region of Momino-Rakovski (South Bulgaria). The upper soil layer is cinnamonic pseudopodzolic ( or Eutric Planosols by FAO Legend, 1974). The results of the investigation show that the sulfuric acid spills caused strong acidification of upper (0-20 cm) and subsurface (20-60 cm) soil horizons which is expressed as decreasing of pH (H2O) to 2.9-3.5 and increasing of exchangeable H+ and Al3+ to 18 and 32% from CEC. Acid degradation of soils is combined with reducing of organic matter content. The average concentration of the total heavy metal content in the upper soil horizon (in ppm) is: Cd=1.5; Cu=30; Pb=25; Zn=40 and U=8. No significant differences were detected between the upper and subsurface soil layers . The heavy metal concentration did not exceed the Bulgarian standards for heavy metals and uranium content of soils. But the coarse texture of the top soil layers, the lack of carbonates, The low CEC and strong acidity determine a low buffering capacity of the investigated soils and this can be considered as hazardous for plants. This indicates that a future soil monitoring should be carried out in the region together with measures for neutralizing of soil acidity

  14. Soil humic acids may favour the persistence of hexavalent chromium in soil

    The interaction between hexavalent chromium Cr(VI), as K2CrO4, and standard humic acids (HAs) in bulk solution was studied using three complementary analytical methods: UV-Visible spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and differential pulse stripping voltammetry. The observed UV-Vis and X-ray absorption spectra showed that, under our experimental conditions, HAs did not induce reduction of Cr(VI) to its trivalent chemical form. The interaction between Cr(VI) and HAs has rather led to the formation of Cr(VI)-HAs micelles via supramolecular chemical processes. The reported results could contribute towards explaining the relative persistence of ecotoxic hexavalent chromium in soils. - Humic acids (HAs) did not induce reduction of Cr(VI) to its trivalent chemical form, as the interaction between Cr(VI) and HAs rather led to the formation of Cr(VI)-HAs micelles via supramolecular chemical processes.

  15. What are humic substances? : a molecular approach to the study of organic matter in acid soils

    Naafs, Derck Ferdinand Werner

    2004-01-01

    Molecular studies on the composition of organic matter in soils are scarce. In this thesis, a molecular approach to the study of organic matter in acid soils is presented, with a focus on andic, i.e. volcanic, soils. Analyses include both chemical extractions as well as pyrolysis-GC/MS and CPMAS 13C

  16. USE OF ORGANIC MATERIALS WETLAND TO IMPROVING THE CAPACITY SULFATE REDUCTION BACTERIA (SRB) OF REDUCE SULFATE IN ACID MINE WATER (AMW)

    Fahruddin

    2013-01-01

    Increasing mining activities in several regions in Indonesia, began to face problems, namely of environmental pollution. One of the mining waste that is liquid sulfur, or acid mine water, which can lower the pH of the water and dissolves heavy metals. Countermeasures for the chemical method is to use lime, but this is less effective. The method is good and is environmentally friendly way by using biological bacteria sulphate reduction bacteria (SRB) that naturally there are many in the sedime...

  17. Liming of acid soils in Osijek-Baranja county

    Dolijanović Željko; Andrijačić Martina; Đurđević Boris; Vukadinović Vladimir; Vukadinović Vesna; Jurišić Mladen; Bertić Blaženka; Jug Irena

    2011-01-01

    The negative trend of soil degradation process increases with intensive agricultural production. Therefore, there is a need for soil conditioning like liming, humification, fertilization, etc. to improve soil quality. One of the major problems that occur on agricultural soils of Croatia is acidification. A downward trend of soil pH is mainly present in soils of poor structure with intensive agricultural production. In agricultural practice liming often need...

  18. Proton interactions with soil organic matter: the importance of aggregation and the weak acids of humin

    Cooke, J. D.; Tipping, E.; Hamilton-Taylor, J.

    2008-01-01

    Samples of three organic-rich soils (ombrotrophic peat, podzol H-horizon, humic ranker) were extensively washed with dilute nitric acid, dialysed against deionised water, and then subjected to acid-base titrations over the pH range 3 – 10, in 0.3 – 300 mM NaNO3, and with soil concentrations in the range 2 to 150 g l-1. The results for the three soils were quantitatively similar. Comparison of the titration data with previously published results for humic acids isolated from the same soils s...

  19. Soil-calcium depletion linked to acid rain and forest growth in the eastern United States

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Huntington, T.G.

    1999-01-01

    Since the discovery of acid rain in the 1970's, scientists have been concerned that deposition of acids could cause depletion of calcium in forest soils. Research in the 1980's showed that the amount of calcium in forest soils is controlled by several factors that are difficult to measure. Further research in the 1990's, including several studies by the U.S. Geological Survey, has shown that (1) calcium in forest soils has decreased at locations in the northeastern and southeastern U.S., and (2) acid rain and forest growth (uptake of calcium from the soil by roots) are both factors contributing to calcium depletion.

  20. A Freundlich-based model for prediction of pH-dependent sulfate adsorption in forest soil.

    Akram, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The period of industrialization after the second World War in Europe released SO2 and NOx by combustion of fossil fuels and contributed the formation of S and N compounds in the forest ecosystem. The Swedish forest soil systems were influenced by emissions of SO2 followed by H2SO4 deposition, consequently the pool of SO42- had increased in the forest ecosystem. This thesis studied SO42- adsorption in a podzolic Bs horizon soils taken from a Swedish forest soil system. The soil samples from fi...

  1. EFFECT OF SIMULATED ACID RAIN ON NITRIFICATION AND NITROGEN MINERALIZATION IN FOREST SOILS

    To determine the possible microbiological changes in soil resulting from acid rain, columns containing samples of forest soils were leached with either a continuous application of 100cm of simulated acid rain (pH3.2-4.1) at 5 cm/hour or an intermittent 1.5-hour application of 1.2...

  2. Effect of root derived organic acids on the activation of nutrients in the rhizosphere soil

    2002-01-01

    Four types of soils, including brown coniferous forest soil, dark brown soil, black soil, and black calic soil, sampled from three different places in northeast China were used in this test. The functions of two root-derived organic acids and water were simulated and compared in the activation of mineral nutrients from the rhizosphere soil. The results showed that the organic acids could activate the nutrients and the activated degree of the nutrient elements highly depended on the amount and types of the organic acid excreted and on the physiochemical and biochemical properties of the soil tested. The activation effect of the citric acid was obviously higher than that of malic acid in extracting Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn for all the tested soil types. However, the activation efficiencies of P, K, Ca, and Mg extracting by the citric acid were not much higher, sometimes even lower, than those by malic acid. The solution concentration of all elements increased with increase of amount of the citric acid added.

  3. Revegetation of extremely acid mine soils based on aided phytostabilization: A case study from southern China.

    Yang, Sheng-Xiang; Liao, Bin; Yang, Zhi-Hui; Chai, Li-Yuan; Li, Jin-Tian

    2016-08-15

    Acidification is a major constraint for revegetation of sulphidic metal-contaminated soils, as exemplified by the limited literature reporting the successful phytostabilization of mine soils associated with pHacidification potential. In this study, a combination of ameliorants (lime and chicken manure) and five acid-tolerant plant species has been employed in order to establish a self-sustaining vegetation cover on an extremely acid (pHacidification potential. The results from the first two-year data showed that the addition of the amendments and the establishment of a plant cover were effective in preventing soil acidification. Net acid-generating potential of the mine soil decreased steadily, whilst pH and acid neutralization capacity increased over time. All the five acid-tolerant plants colonized successfully in the acidic metal-contaminated soil and developed a good vegetation cover within six months, and subsequent vegetation development enhanced organic matter accumulation and nutrient element status in the mine soil. The two-year remediation program performed on this extremely acid metalliferous soil indicated that aided phytostabilization can be a practical and effective restoration strategy for such extremely acid mine soils. PMID:27100018

  4. Dissolution kinetics of soil clays in sulfuric acid solutions: Ionic strength and temperature effects

    Highlights: • Acid sulfate dissolution of clay-rich sediments from inland acid sulfate site in flow-through reactor experiments at pH 1–4. • Enhanced Al and K release at the higher ionic strength of solutions compared to the lower ionic strength. • Acid neutralization capacity (ANC) of 1.11 kg H2SO4/tonne clay-rich sediment/day was provided at pH 1, 25 °C. • ANC provided at 45 °C by the same amount of clay-rich sediment was more than three times higher than the ANC at 25 °C. - Abstract: Significant amounts of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) rich saline water can be produced by the oxidation of sulfide minerals contained in inland acid sulfate soils (IASS). In the absence of carbonate minerals, the dissolution of phyllosilicate minerals is one of very few processes that can provide long-term acid neutralisation. It is therefore important to understand the acid dissolution behavior of naturally occurring clay minerals from IASS under saline–acidic solutions. The objective of this study was to investigate the dissolution of a natural clay-rich sample under saline–acidic conditions (pH 1–4; ionic strengths = 0.01 and 0.25 M; 25 °C) and over a range of temperatures (25–45 °C; pH 1 and pH 4). The clay-rich sample referred to as Bottle Bend clay (BB clay) used was from an IASS (Bottle Bend lagoon) in south-western New South Wales (Australia) and contained smectite (40%), illite (27%), kaolinite (26%) and quartz (6%). Acid dissolution of the BB clay was initially rapid, as indicated by the fast release of cations (Si, Al, K, Fe, Mg). Relatively higher Al (pH 4) and K (pH 2–4) release was obtained from BB clay dissolution in higher ionic strength solutions compared to the lower ionic strength solutions. The steady state dissolution rate (as determined from Si, Al and Fe release rates; RSi, RAl, RFe) increased with decreasing solution pH and increasing temperature. For example, the highest log RSi value was obtained at pH 1 and 45 °C (−9.07 mol g−1 s−1

  5. Improving Phosphorus Availability in an Acid Soil Using Organic Amendments Produced from Agroindustrial Wastes

    2014-01-01

    In acid soils, soluble inorganic phosphorus is fixed by aluminium and iron. To overcome this problem, acid soils are limed to fix aluminium and iron but this practice is not economical. The practice is also not environmentally friendly. This study was conducted to improve phosphorus availability using organic amendments (biochar and compost produced from chicken litter and pineapple leaves, resp.) to fix aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus. Amending soil with biochar or compost or a mixt...

  6. Soil chemical properties related to acidity under successive pig slurry application

    Cledimar Rogério Lourenzi; Carlos Alberto Ceretta; Leandro Souza da Silva; Gustavo Trentin; Eduardo Girotto; Felipe Lorensini; Tadeu Luis Tiecher; Gustavo Brunetto

    2011-01-01

    Pig slurry application as soil manure can alter the chemical properties of the soil and affect its acidity, modifying the environment for crop growth and development. The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical properties related to soil acidity subjected to successive applications of pig slurry. The experiment was conducted in May 2000, in an experimental area of the Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM) under no-tillage and lasted until January 2008. Nineteen surface applica...

  7. Acidification of Forest Soils: Model Development and Application for Analyzing Impacts of Acidic Deposition in Europe

    P. E. Kauppi; KÀmÀri, J.; Posch, M; Kauppi, L.; Matzner, E.

    1984-01-01

    Acidification is considered as an unfavorable process in forest soils. Timber logging, natural accumulation of biomass in the ecosystem, and acidic deposition are known as sources of acidification. Acidification causes the risk of damage to plant roots and subsequent risk of a decline in ecosystem productivity. A dynamic model is introduced for describing the acidification of forest soils. In one-year time steps the model calculates the soil pH as function of the acid stress and the buff...

  8. Effects of precipitation on soil acid phosphatase activity in three successional forests in southern China

    W. Huang; Liu, J; Zhou, G.; Zhang, D; Deng, Q

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is often a limiting nutrient for plant growth in tropical and subtropical forests. Global climate change has led to alterations in precipitation in the recent years, which inevitably influences P cycling. Soil acid phosphatase plays a vital role in controlling P mineralization, and its activity reflects the capacity of organic P mineralization potential in soils. In order to study the effects of precipitation on soil acid phosphatase activity, an experiment with precipitation t...

  9. Sulfation of chondroitin. Specificity, degree of sulfation, and detergent effects with 4-sulfating and 6-sulfating microsomal systems

    Microsomal preparations from chondroitin 6-sulfate-producing chick embryo epiphyseal cartilage, and from chondroitin 4-sulfate-producing mouse mastocytoma cells, were incubated with UDP-[14C]glucuronic acid and UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine to form non-sulfated proteo[14C]chondroitin. Aliquots of the incubations were then incubated with 3'-phosphoadenylylphosphosulfate (PAPS) in the presence or absence of various detergents. In the absence of detergents, there was good sulfation of this endogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin by the original microsomes from both sources. Detergents, with the exception of Triton X-100, markedly inhibited sulfation in the mast cell system but not in the chick cartilage system. These results indicate that sulfation and polymerization are closely linked on cell membranes and that in some cases this organization can be disrupted by detergents. When aliquots of the original incubation were heat inactivated, and then reincubated with new microsomes from chick cartilage and/or mouse mastocytoma cells plus PAPS, there was no significant sulfation of this exogenous proteo[14C] chondroitin with either system unless Triton X-100 was added. Sulfation of exogenous chondroitin and chondroitin hexasaccharide was compared with sulfation of endogenous and exogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin. Sulfate incorporation into hexasaccharide and chondroitin decreased as their concentrations (based on uronic acid) approached that of the proteo[14C]chondroitin. At the same time, the degree of sulfation in percent of substituted hexosamine increased. However, the degree of sulfation did not reach that of the endogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin. Hexasaccharide and chondroitin sulfation were stimulated by the presence of Triton X-100. However, in contrast to the exogenous proteo[14C]chondroitin, there was some sulfation of hexasaccharide and chondroitin in the absence of this detergent

  10. The microbial communities and potential greenhouse gas production in boreal acid sulphate, non-acid sulphate, and reedy sulphidic soils

    Acid sulphate (AS) soils along the Baltic coasts contain significant amounts of organic carbon and nitrogen in their subsoils. The abundance, composition, and activity of microbial communities throughout the AS soil profile were analysed. The data from a drained AS soil were compared with those from a drained non-AS soil and a pristine wetland soil from the same region. Moreover, the potential production of methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide from the soils was determined under laboratory conditions. Direct microscopic counting, glucose-induced respiration (GIR), whole cell hybridisation, and extended phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis confirmed the presence of abundant microbial communities in the topsoil and also in the deepest Cg2 horizon of the AS soil. The patterns of microbial counts, biomass and activity in the profile of the AS soil and partly also in the non-AS soil therefore differed from the general tendency of gradual decreases in soil profiles. High respiration in the deepest Cg2 horizon of the AS soil (5.66 μg C g− 1 h− 1, as compared to 2.71 μg C g− 1 h− 1 in a top Ap horizon) is unusual but reasonable given the large amount of organic carbon in this horizon. Nitrous oxide production peaked in the BCgc horizon of the AS and in the BC horizon of the non-AS soil, but the peak value was ten-fold higher in the AS soil than in the non-AS soil (82.3 vs. 8.6 ng N g− 1d− 1). The data suggest that boreal AS soils on the Baltic coast contain high microbial abundance and activity. This, together with the abundant carbon and total and mineral nitrogen in the deep layers of AS soils, may result in substantial gas production. Consequently, high GHG emissions could occur, for example, when the generally high water table is lowered because of arable farming. - Highlights: •Boreal acid sulphate soils contain large amounts of organic C and N in subsoils. •Microbial communities throughout the acid sulphate soil profile were analysed.

  11. Effect of dextran and dextran sulfate on the structural and rheological properties of model acid milk gels.

    Pachekrepapol, U; Horne, D S; Lucey, J A

    2015-05-01

    Various types of polysaccharides are widely used in cultured dairy products. However, the interaction mechanisms, between milk proteins and these polysaccharides, are not entirely clear. To explore the interactions between uncharged and charged polysaccharides and the caseins, we used a model acid-milk-gel system, which allowed acidification to occur separately from gelation. The effect of adding uncharged dextran (DX; molecular weight ~2.0×10(6) Da) and negatively charged dextran sulfate (DS; molecular weight ~1.4×10(6) Da) to model acid milk gels was studied. Two concentrations (0.075 and 0.5%, wt/wt) of DX or DS were added to cold milk (~0°C) that had been acidified to pH values 4.4, 4.6, 4.8, or 4.9. Acidified milks containing DX or DS were then quiescently heated at the rate of 0.5°C/min to 30°C, which induced gelation, and gels were then held at 30°C for 17 h to facilitate gel development. Dynamic small-amplitude-oscillation rheology and large-deformation (shear) tests were performed. Microstructure of gels was examined by fluorescence microscopy. Gels made with a high concentration of DX gelled at a lower temperature, but after 17 h at 30°C, these gels exhibited lower storage moduli and lower yield-stress values. At pH 4.8 or 4.9 (pH values greater than the isoelectric point of caseins), addition of 0.5% DS to acidified milk resulted in lower gelation temperature. At pH 4.4 (pH values less than the isoelectric point of caseins), addition of 0.5% DS to acidified milk resulted in gels with very high stiffness values. Gels made at pH 4.8 or 4.9 with both concentrations of DS had much lower stiffness and yield-stress values than control gels. Microstructural analysis indicated that gels made at pH 4.4 with the addition of 0.5% DX exhibited large protein strands and pores, whereas gels made with 0.075% DX or the control gels had a finer protein matrix. At higher pH values (>4.4), gels made with 0.5% DX had a finer structure. At all pH values, gels made

  12. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil: a review.

    Vranova, Valerie; Rejsek, Klement; Formanek, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates represent important organic compounds in soil. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids play important roles in rhizosphere ecology, pedogenesis, food-web interactions, and decontamination of sites polluted by heavy metals and organic pollutants. Carbohydrates in soils can be used to estimate changes of soil organic matter due to management practices, whereas vitamins may play an important role in soil biological and biochemical processes. The aim of this work is to review current knowledge on aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil and to identify directions for future research. Assessments of organic acids (aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic) and carbohydrates, including their behaviour, have been reported in many works. However, knowledge on the occurrence and behaviour of D-enantiomers of organic acids, which may be abundant in soil, is currently lacking. Also, identification of the impact and mechanisms of environmental factors, such as soil water content, on carbohydrate status within soil organic matter remains to be determined. Finally, the occurrence of vitamins in soil and their role in biological and biochemical soil processes represent an important direction for future research. PMID:24319374

  13. Fitting maize into sustainable cropping systems on acid soils of the tropics

    One of the key elements of sustainable cropping systems is the integration of crops and/or crop cultivars with high tolerance of soil acidity and which make most efficient use of the nutrients supplied by soil and fertilizer. This paper is based mainly on on-going work within an EU-funded project combining basic research on plant adaptation mechanisms by plant physiologists, and field experimentation on acid soils in Brazil, Cameroon, Colombia and Guadeloupe by breeders, soil scientists and a agronomists. The results suggest that large genetic variability exists in adaptation of plants to acid soils. A range of morphological and physiological plant characteristics contribute to tolerance of acid soils, elucidation of which has contributed to the development of rapid techniques for screening for tolerance. Incorporation of acid-soil-tolerant species and cultivars into cropping systems contributes to improved nutrient efficiency overall, and thus reduces fertilizer needs. This may help to minimize maintenance applications of fertiliser through various pathways: (i) deeper root growth resulting in more-efficient uptake of nutrients from the sub-soil and less leaching, (ii) more biomass production resulting in less seepage and less leaching, with more intensive nutrient cycling, maintenance of higher soil organic-matter content, and, consequently, less erosion owing to better soil protection by vegetation and mulch. (author)

  14. STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HUMIC ACID SOILS OF THE KRASNODAR REGION

    Lobanov V. G.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The structural and functional properties of humic acids of different types of poorly studied soils of the Krasnodar Region: ordinary black soil or chernozem (carbonated, meadowish chernozem and gray forest soils are investigated. We define the type of humus of the soil samples studied as fulvate-humate. Using traditional indicators of humus soil conditions the regularities of soil and ecological processes involving organic matter in soils under natural and anthropogenically factorial changes in the monitoring sites are revealed. The relationship of the optical properties of humic acids with the intensity of the processes of transformation of humic substances by increasing the depth of the soil sample is shown. By NMR spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, and spectrophotometry in the visible spectrum differences and similarities in the structure of macromolecules of humic acids in soil samples. In terms of soil contamination with oil in a field experiment, on the monitoring site we have set a trend towards to redistribution in the ratio of functional groups of humic acid macromolecules: the proportion of aliphatic fragments increases. We have revealed an increase in the share of the mobile fraction of humic substances in terms of oil pollution. The article has the most suitable justification for these processes. The results can be used for prediction the environmental state of the soil under anthropogenic pollution

  15. Soil acidity as affecting micronutrients concentration, nitrato reductase enzyme activity and yield in upland rice plants

    Edemar Moro; Carlos Alexandre Costa Crusciol; Heitor Cantarella; Adriano Stephan Nascente; Adriana Lima Moro; Fernando Broetto

    2013-01-01

    The lowest grain yield of rice under no-tillage system (NTS) in relation to the conventional system may be due to the predominance nitrate in the soil and the low nitrate reductase activity. Another reason may be caused by micronutrient deficiency because of superficially soil acidity corrections. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the changes caused by soil pH in the N forms in the soil, micronutrients concentration in rice plants, nitrate reductase activity, yield of ric...

  16. Copper Recovery from Polluted Soils Using Acidic Washing and Bioelectrochemical Systems

    Karin Karlfeldt Fedje; Oskar Modin; Ann-Margret Strömvall

    2015-01-01

    Excavation followed by landfilling is the most common method for treating soils contaminated by metals. However, as this solution is not sustainable, alternative techniques are required. Chemical soil washing is one such alternative. The aim of this experimental lab-scale study is to develop a remediation and metal recovery method for Cu contaminated sites. The method is based on the washing of soil or ash (combusted soil/bark) with acidic waste liquids followed by electrolytic Cu recovery by...

  17. Relationship of soil qualities to maize growth under increasing phosphorus supply in acid soils of southern Cameroon

    TCHIENKOUA; M.JEMO; R.NJOMGANG; C.NOLTE; N.SANGINGA; J.TAKOW

    2008-01-01

    A large array of soil properties influences plant growth response to phosphorus (P) fertilizer input in acid soils.We carried out a pot experiment using three contrasted acid soils from southern Cameroon with the following main objectives:i) to assess the main soil causal factors of different maize (Zea mays L.) growth response to applied P and ii) to statistically model soil quality variation across soil types as well as their relationships to dry matter production.The soils used are classified as Typic Kandiudox (TKO),Rhodic Kandiudult (RKU),and Typic Kandiudult (TKU).Analysis of variance,regression,and principal component analyses were used for data analysis and interpretation.Shoot dry matter yield (DMY) was significantly affected by soil type and P rate with no significant interaction.Predicted maximum attainable DMY was lowest in the TKO (26.2 g pot-1) as compared to 35.6 and 36.7 g pot-1 for the RKU and TKU,respectively.Properties that positively influenced DMY were the levels of inorganic NaHCO3-extractable P,individual basic cations (Ca,Mg,and K),and pH.Their effects contrasted with those of exchangeable A1 and C/N ratio,which significantly depressed DMY.Principal component analysis yielded similar results,identifying 4 orthogonal components,which accounted for 84.7% of the total system variance (TSV).Principal component 1 was identified as soil nutrient deficiency explaining 35.9% of TSV.This soil quality varied significantly among the studied soils,emerging as the only soil quality which significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with maize growth.The 2nd,3rd,and 4th components were identified as soil organic matter contents,texture,and HCl-extractable P,respectively.

  18. Dissolution of Aluminum in Variably Charged Soils as Affected by Low-Molecular-Weight Organic Acids

    LI Jiu-Yu; XU Ren-Kou; JI Guo-Liang

    2005-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight (LMW) organic acids exist widely in soils and play an important role in soil processes such as mineral weathering, nutrient mobilization and Al detoxification. In this research, a batch experiment was conducted to examine the effects of LMW organic acids on dissolution of aluminum in two variably charged soils, an Ultisol and an Oxisol. The results showed that the LMW organic acids enhanced the dissolution of Al in the two investigated soils in the following order: citric > oxalic > malonic > malic > tartaric > salicylic > lactic > maleic. This was generally in agreement with the magnitude of the stability constants for the Al-organic complexes. The effects of LMW organic acids on Al dissolution were greater in the Ultisol than in the Oxisol as compared to their controls. Also, the accelerating effects of citric and oxalic acids on dissolution of Al increased with an increase in pH, while the effects of lactic and salicylic acids decreased. Additionally, when the organic acid concentration was less than 0.2 mmol L-1, the dissolution of Al changed little with increase in acid concentration. However, when the organic acid concentration was greater than 0.2 mmol L-1,the dissolution of Al increased with increase in acid concentration. In addition to the acid first dissociation constant and stability constant of Al-organic complexes, the promoting effects of LMW organic acids on dissolution of Al were also related to their sorption-desorption equilibrium in the soils.

  19. Liquid-liquid phase separation and morphology of internally mixed dicarboxylic acids/ammonium sulfate/water particles

    M. Song

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the physical state and morphology of internally mixed organic/inorganic aerosol particles is still largely uncertain. To obtain more detailed information on liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS and morphology of the particles, we investigated complex mixtures of atmospherically relevant dicarboxylic acids containing 5, 6, and 7 carbon atoms (C5, C6 and C7 having oxygen-to-carbon atomic ratios (O:C of 0.80, 0.67, and 0.57, respectively, mixed with ammonium sulfate (AS. With micrometer-sized particles of C5/AS/H2O, C6/AS/H2O and C7/AS/H2O as model systems deposited on a hydrophobically coated substrate, laboratory experiments were conducted for various organic-to-inorganic dry mass ratios (OIR using optical microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. When exposed to cycles of relative humidity (RH, each system showed significantly different phase transitions. While the C5/AS/H2O particles showed no LLPS with OIR = 2:1, 1:1 and 1:4 down to 20% RH, the C6/AS/H2O and C7/AS/H2O particles exhibit LLPS upon drying at RH 50 to 85% and ~90%, respectively, via spinodal decomposition, growth of a second phase from the particle surface or nucleation-and-growth mechanisms depending on the OIR. This suggests that LLPS commonly occurs within the range of O:C < 0.7 in tropospheric organic/inorganic aerosols. To support the comparison and interpretation of the experimentally observed phase transitions, thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were performed with the AIOMFAC model. For the C7/AS/H2O and C6/AS/H2O systems, the calculated phase diagrams agree well with the observations while for the C5/AS/H2O system LLPS is predicted by the model at RH below 60% and higher AS concentration, but was not observed in the experiments. Both core-shell structures and partially engulfed structures were observed for the investigated particles, suggesting that such

  20. Liquid-liquid phase separation and morphology of internally mixed dicarboxylic acids/ammonium sulfate/water particles

    M. Song

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the physical state and morphology of internally mixed organic/inorganic aerosol particles is still largely uncertain. To obtain more detailed information on liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS and morphology of the particles, we investigated complex mixtures of atmospherically relevant dicarboxylic acids containing 5–7 carbon atoms (C5, C6 and C7 having oxygen-to-carbon atomic ratios (O:C of 0.80, 0.67, and 0.57, respectively, mixed with ammonium sulfate (AS. With micrometer-sized particles of C5/AS/H2O, C6/AS/H2O and C7/AS/H2O as model systems deposited on a hydrophobically coated substrate, laboratory experiments were conducted for various organic-to-inorganic dry mass ratios (OIR using optical microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. When exposed to cycles of relative humidity (RH, each system showed significantly different phase transitions. While the C5/AS/H2O particles showed no LLPS with OIR = 2:1, 1:1 and 1:4 down to 20% RH, the C6/AS/H2O and C7/AS/H2O particles exhibit LLPS upon drying at RH 50% to 85% and ~90%, respectively, via spinodal decomposition, growth of a second phase from the particle surface or nucleation-and-growth mechanisms depending on the OIR. This suggests that LLPS commonly occurs within the range of O:C<0.7 in tropospheric organic-inorganic aerosols. To support the comparison and interpretation of the experimentally observed phase transitions, thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were performed with the AIOMFAC model. For the C7/AS/H2O and C6/AS/H2O systems, the calculated phase diagrams agree well with the observations while for the C5/AS/H2O system LLPS is predicted by the model at RH below 60% and higher AS concentration, but was not observed in the experiments. Both core-shell structures and partially engulfed structures were observed for the investigated particles, suggesting that such morphologies

  1. Wheat-Exuded Organic Acids Influence Zinc Release from Calcareous Soils

    M. A. MAQSOOD; S. HUSSAIN; T. AZIZ; M. ASHRAF

    2011-01-01

    Rhizosphere drives plant uptake of sparingly soluble soil zinc (Zn).An investigation with three experiments was conducted to study organic acid exudation by two contrasting wheat genotypes (Sehar-06 and Vatan),Zn fractious in 10 different calcareous soils from Punjab,Pakistan,and release of different soil Zn fractions by organic acids.The two genotypes differed significantly in biomass production and Zn accumulation under deficient and optimum Zn levels in nutrient solution.At a deficient Zn level,Sehar-06 released more maleic acid in the rhizosphere than Vatan.Ten soils used in the present study had very different physicochemical properties; their total Zn and Zn distribution among different fractions varied significantly.Zinc release behaviour was determined by extracting the soils with 0.005 mol L-1 citric acid or maleic acid.The parabolic diffusion model best described Zn release as a function of time.Parabolic diffusion model fitting indicated more maleic acid-driven than citric acid-driven soil Zn mobility from different fractions.Cumulative Zn release in six consecutive extractions during 24 h ranged from 1.85 to 13.58 mg kg-1 using maleic acid and from 0.37 to 11.84 mg kg-1 using citric acid.In the selected calcareous soils,the results of stepwise linear regression indicated significant release of Fe-Mn oxide-bounded soil Zn by maleic acid and its availability to the Zn-efficient genotype.Hence,release of maleic acid by plants roots played an important role in phytoavailability of Zn from calcareous soils.

  2. Fitting maize into sustainable cropping systems on acid soils of the tropics

    Full text: Agricultural systems may be called sustainable if the management of the resources for agriculture successfully meets the human needs while maintaining or enhancing the quality of the environment and conserving natural resources. Among the major threats to sustainable soil productivity related to soil acidity are: (i) H+, Al and Mn toxicities (ii) low availability (P, Mo) and supply of nutrients (N, Ca, Mg), (iii) high nutrient (base) losses. One of the key elements of sustainable cropping systems is the integration of crops and/or crop cultivars with high tolerance of soil acidity and which make most efficient use of the nutrients supplied by soil and fertilizer. Improved acid soil-tolerant germplasm may contribute to minimise the maintenance fertilizer-applications through different pathways: (i) deeper root growth - more efficient uptake of nutrients from subsoil: less leaching, (ii) more biomass production - less seepage, less leaching, more intensive nutrient cycling, maintenance of a higher soil organic-matter content, less erosion owing to better soil protection by vegetation and mulch. The main objectives of the EU-INCO Programme ERBIC 18CT 960063 on which this presentation is mainly based, are: - To advance breeding strategies and breed maize cultivars with improved adaptation to acid soils high in Al and low in P. - To develop screening procedures for aluminium (Al) resistance and phosphorus (P) efficiency in maize based on an improved in-depth knowledge of the underlying physiological and molecular mechanisms. - To improve the quantitative understanding of the comparative contributions of genetic and agronomic approaches to sustainable maize production on acid soils. The results suggest that large genetic variability in adaptation of plants to acid soils exist. There is a range of different morphological and physiological plant characteristics that contribute to acid soil tolerance. Their understanding has contributed to develop quick screening

  3. Crossing the pedogenetic threshold: Apparent phosphorus limitation by soil microorganisms in unglaciated acidic eastern hardwood forests

    Deforest, J. L.; Smemo, K. A.; Burke, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    The availability of soil phosphorus (P) can significantly influence microbial community composition and the ecosystem-level processes they mediate. However, the threshold at which soil microorganisms become functionally P-limited is unclear because of soil acidity effect on P availability. We reason that acidic temperate hardwood forest ecosystems are, in fact, functionally P-limited, but compensation occur via soil microbial production of phosphatase enzymes. We tested this hypothesis in glaciated and unglaciated mature mixed-mesophytic forests in eastern Ohio where both soil pH and P availability had been experientially manipulated. We measured the activity of two P acquiring soil enzymes, phosphomonoesterase (PMono) and phosphodiesterase (PDi), to understand how soil acidity and available P influence microbial function. Our experimental treatments elevated ambient soil pH from below 4.5 to around 5.5 and increased readily available phosphate from 3 to ~25 mg P/kg on glaciated soils and from 0.5 to ~5 mg P/kg on unglaciated soils. The P treatment decreased the activity of PDi by 82% relative to the control on unglaciated soils, but we observed no P treatment effect on glaciated soils. A similar result was observed for PMono. Soil pH, alone, did not significantly influence enzyme activities. Results suggest that soil microorganisms are more likely to be P-limited in older unglaciated soils. However, dramatically higher phosphatase activity in response to very low P availability suggests that an underlying ecosystem P limitation can be ameliorated by soil microbial community dynamics. This mechanism may be more important for older, unglaciated soils that have already crossed a pedogenic threshold where P availability influences ecosystem and microbial function.

  4. Impact of acid atmospheric deposition on soils: Field monitoring and aluminium chemistry.

    Mulder, J.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of acid atmospheric deposition on concentrations and transfer of major solutes in acid, sandy soils was studied. Emphasis was given to mobilization and transport of potentially toxic aluminum. Data on solute concentrations and fluxes in meteoric water as well as soil solutions were obtained from intensive monitoring programmes conducted at a number of sites in northwestern Europe and North-America. Specific hypotheses were tested in laboratory experiments.Atmospheric acid inputs do...

  5. Effects of organic acids on Cd adsorption and desorption by two anthropic soils

    Jingui WANG; Jialong LV; Yaolong FU

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of malic, tartaric, oxalic, and citric acid on the adsorption and desorption characteristics of Cd by two typical anthropic soils (lou soil and irrigation-silted soil) in North-west China. Cadmium adsorption and desorption were studied under a range of temperatures (25℃, 30℃, 35℃, 40℃), organic acid concentrations (0.5-5.0 mmol·L-1), and pH values (2-8). The results showed that the Cd adsorption capacity of the lou soil was significantly greater than that of the irrigation-silted soil. Generally, Cd adsorption increased as the temperature increased. In the presence of NaNO3, the adsorption of Cd was endothermic with △H values of 31.365 kJ·mo1-1 for lou soil and 28.278 kJ·mol-1 for irrigation-silted soil. The endothermic reaction indicated that H bonds were the main driving force for Cd adsorption in both soils. However, different concentrations of organic acids showed various influences on the two soils. In the presence of citric acid, chemical adsorption and van der Waals interactions were the main driving forces for Cd adsorption rather than H bonds. Although the types of organic acids and soil properties were different, the effects of the organic acids on the adsorption and desorption of Cd were similar in the two soils. The adsorption percentage of Cd generally decreased as organic acid concentrations increased. In contrast, the adsorption percentage increased as the pH of the initial solution increased. The exception was that adsorption percentage of Cd increased slightly as oxalic acid concentrations increased. In contrast, the desorption percentage of Cd increased with increasing concentrations of organic acids but decreased as the initial solution pH increased.

  6. On the state of jumus accumulation observed in soil profile and the contents of sugar, uronic acid and amino acid in fulvic acid fraction

    In a previous report, the author wrote on the form of volcanic soil in Onohara, Tarumi City, which consists of about fourty soil layers, and seventeen of which contain more than 0.69% total carbon. The present report is concerned with the result of determination of 1) carbon and nitrogen contents of the soil and its fulvic acid, humic acid and humine, 2) sugar, uronic acid and amino acid contents and amino acid composition of fulvic acid fraction, and 3) 14C age of some soil layers. Methods of sample preparation and content determination are briefly given, and the results are shown. 14C age ranged from some 5500 to 9300 yr. B. P. In general tendency, as the carbon content of a soil layer is higher, its C/N ratio is higher, and C/N ratio of fulvic acid Fraction is almost constant (10-13) in all samples. The total content of sugar, uronic acid and hydrolytic amino acid is 30-40% of that of fulvic acid and almost invariable for all layers, 19-25% of which being occupied by the first two. (Shibata, I.)

  7. Nature of Soil Acidity in Relation to Properties and Lime Requirement of Some Inceptisols

    A. K. DOLUI; S. BHATTACHARJEE

    2003-01-01

    Some Inceptisols representing the Singla catchment area in Karimgaunge district of Assam, India, were studied for lime requirement as influenced by the nature of soil acidity. The electrostatically bonded (EB)-H+ and EB-Al3+ acidities constituted 33 and 67 percent of exchangeable acidity while EB-H+, EB-Al3+,exchangeable and pH-dependent acidities comprised 6, 14, 20 and 80 percent of total potential acidity. The pH-dependent acidity made a major contribution towards the total potential acidity (67%~84%). Grand mean of lime requirement determined by the laboratory incubation method and estimated by the methods of New Woodruff, Woodruff and Peech as expressed in MgCaCO3 ha-1 was in the order: Woodruff (15.6) > New Woodruff (14.9) > Peech (5.1) > incubation (5.0). Correlations analysis among different forms of acidity and lime requirement methods with selected soil properties showed that pH in three media, namely water, 1 mol L-1 KCl and 0.01 mol L-1 CaCl2, had a significant negative correlation with different forms of acidity and lime requirement methods. Exchangeable Fe and Al showed significant positive correlations with EB-Al3+ acidity, exchangeable acidity, pH-dependent acidity and total potential acidity, and also lime requirement methods. Extractable Al showed positive correlations with different forms of acidity except EB-H+ and EB-Al3+ acidities. The lime requirement by different methods depended upon the extractable aluminium.Significant positive correlations existed between lime requirements and different forms of acidity of the soils except EB-H+ acidity and incubation method. The nature of soil acidity was mostly pH-dependent. Statistically, the Woodruff method did slightly better than the New Woodruff, incubation and Peech methods at estimating lime requirement and hence the Woodruff procedure may be recommended for routine soil testing because of its speed and simplicity.

  8. Sustainable Soil Washing: Shredded Card Filtration of Potentially Toxic Elements after Leaching from Soil Using Organic Acid Solutions.

    Christopher Ash

    Full Text Available Shredded card (SC was assessed for use as a sorbent of potentially toxic elements (PTE carried from contaminated soil in various leachates (oxalic acid, formic acid, CaCl2, water. We further assessed SC for retention of PTE, using acidified water (pH 3.4. Vertical columns and a peristaltic pump were used to leach PTE from soils (O and A/B horizons before passing through SC. Sorption onto SC was studied by comparing leachates, and by monitoring total PTE contents on SC before and after leaching. SC buffers against acidic soil conditions that promote metals solubility; considerable increases in solution pH (+4.49 were observed. Greatest differences in solution PTE content after leaching with/without SC occurred for Pb. In oxalic acid, As, Cd, Pb showed a high level of sorption (25, 15, and 58x more of the respective PTE in leachates without SC. In formic acid, Pb sorption was highly efficient (219x more Pb in leachate without SC. In water, only Pb showed high sorption (191x more Pb in leachate without SC. In desorption experiments, release of PTE from SC varied according to the source of PTE (organic/mineral soil, and type of solvent used. Arsenic was the PTE most readily leached in desorption experiments. Low As sorption from water was followed by fast release (70% As released from SC. A high rate of Cd sorption from organic acid solutions was followed by strong retention (~12% Cd desorption. SC also retained Pb after sorption from water, with subsequent losses of ≤8.5% of total bound Pb. The proposed use of this material is for the filtration of PTE from extract solution following soil washing. Low-molecular-mass organic acids offer a less destructive, biodegradable alternative to strong inorganic acids for soil washing.

  9. Sustainable Soil Washing: Shredded Card Filtration of Potentially Toxic Elements after Leaching from Soil Using Organic Acid Solutions.

    Ash, Christopher; Drábek, Ondřej; Tejnecký, Václav; Jehlička, Jan; Michon, Ninon; Borůvka, Luboš

    2016-01-01

    Shredded card (SC) was assessed for use as a sorbent of potentially toxic elements (PTE) carried from contaminated soil in various leachates (oxalic acid, formic acid, CaCl2, water). We further assessed SC for retention of PTE, using acidified water (pH 3.4). Vertical columns and a peristaltic pump were used to leach PTE from soils (O and A/B horizons) before passing through SC. Sorption onto SC was studied by comparing leachates, and by monitoring total PTE contents on SC before and after leaching. SC buffers against acidic soil conditions that promote metals solubility; considerable increases in solution pH (+4.49) were observed. Greatest differences in solution PTE content after leaching with/without SC occurred for Pb. In oxalic acid, As, Cd, Pb showed a high level of sorption (25, 15, and 58x more of the respective PTE in leachates without SC). In formic acid, Pb sorption was highly efficient (219x more Pb in leachate without SC). In water, only Pb showed high sorption (191x more Pb in leachate without SC). In desorption experiments, release of PTE from SC varied according to the source of PTE (organic/mineral soil), and type of solvent used. Arsenic was the PTE most readily leached in desorption experiments. Low As sorption from water was followed by fast release (70% As released from SC). A high rate of Cd sorption from organic acid solutions was followed by strong retention (~12% Cd desorption). SC also retained Pb after sorption from water, with subsequent losses of ≤8.5% of total bound Pb. The proposed use of this material is for the filtration of PTE from extract solution following soil washing. Low-molecular-mass organic acids offer a less destructive, biodegradable alternative to strong inorganic acids for soil washing. PMID:26900684

  10. Model study of acid rain effect on adsorption of trace elements on soils using a multitracer

    Using a radioactive multitracer and model acid rain (HCl or H2SO4 solution), batch experiments were performed to examine the pH effect on the adsorption-desorption equilibrium of 16 elements on soils as a model study of an acid rain effect. Kaolin, black soil (original and with organic matter almost removed) and Kureha soil (original and with organic matter almost removed) were used as adsorbents. Characteristic dependence on the pH value of the suspension was observed for the adsorption of the elements on kaolin and the soils. The results of this model study indicate that acid rain decreases the retention of cations, while it increases or does not change the adsorption of anions on soils. Organic matter in soils has a positive effect on the extent of adsorption of most elements investigated. (author)

  11. pH effects of the addition of three biochars to acidic Indonesian mineral soils

    Martinsen, V; Alling, V; Nurida, N L;

    2015-01-01

    Soil acidity may severely reduce crop production. Biochar (BC) may increase soil pH and cation exchange capacity (CEC) but reported effects differ substantially. In a systematic approach, using a standardized protocol on a uniquely large number set of 31 acidic soils, we quantified the effect of...... increasing amounts (0–30%; weight:weight) of three types of field-produced BCs (from cacao (Theobroma cacao. L.) shell, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis. Jacq.) shell and rice (Oryza sativa. L.) husk) on soil pH and CEC. Soils were sampled from croplands at Java, Sumatra and Kalimantan, Indonesia. All BCs caused...... a significant increase in mean soil pH with a stronger response and a greater maximum increase for the cacao shell BC addition, due to a greater acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and larger amounts of extractable base cations. At 1% BC addition, corresponding to about 30 tons ha−1, the estimated...

  12. Quantification of Tinto River sediment microbial communities: importance of sulfate-reducing bacteria and their role in attenuating acid mine drainage.

    Sánchez-Andrea, Irene; Knittel, Katrin; Amann, Rudolf; Amils, Ricardo; Sanz, José Luis

    2012-07-01

    Tinto River (Huelva, Spain) is a natural acidic rock drainage (ARD) environment produced by the bio-oxidation of metallic sulfides from the Iberian Pyritic Belt. This study quantified the abundance of diverse microbial populations inhabiting ARD-related sediments from two physicochemically contrasting sampling sites (SN and JL dams). Depth profiles of total cell numbers differed greatly between the two sites yet were consistent in decreasing sharply at greater depths. Although catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization with domain-specific probes showed that Bacteria (>98%) dominated over Archaea (water column (pH 2.5 and +400 mV), the most abundant organisms were identified as iron-reducing bacteria: Acidithiobacillus spp. and Acidiphilium spp., probably related to the higher iron solubility at low pH. At the JL dam, characterized by a banded sediment with higher pH (4.2 to 6.2), more reducing redox potential (-210 mV to 50 mV), and a lower solubility of iron, members of sulfate-reducing genera Syntrophobacter, Desulfosporosinus, and Desulfurella were dominant. The latter was quantified with a newly designed CARD-FISH probe. In layers where sulfate-reducing bacteria were abundant, pH was higher and redox potential and levels of dissolved metals and iron were lower. These results suggest that the attenuation of ARD characteristics is biologically driven by sulfate reducers and the consequent precipitation of metals and iron as sulfides. PMID:22544246

  13. Effects of simulated acid rain on microbial characteristics in a lateritic red soil.

    Xu, Hua-qin; Zhang, Jia-en; Ouyang, Ying; Lin, Ling; Quan, Guo-ming; Zhao, Ben-liang; Yu, Jia-yu

    2015-11-01

    A laboratory experiment was performed to examine the impact of simulated acid rain (SAR) on nutrient leaching, microbial biomass, and microbial activities in a lateritic red soil in South China. The soil column leaching experiment was conducted over a 60-day period with the following six SAR pH treatments (levels): 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0 and one control treatment (pH = 7). Compared with the control treatment, the concentrations of soil organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC), soil microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN), and average well color density (AWCD) in the Ecoplates were all significantly decreased by leaching with SAR at different pH levels. The decrease in MBC and MBN indicated that acid rain reduced the soil microbial population, while the decrease in AWCD revealed that acid rain had a negative effect on soil bacterial metabolic function. Soil basal respiration increased gradually from pH 4.0 to 7.0 but decreased dramatically from pH 2.5 to 3.0. The decrease in soil nutrient was the major reason for the change of soil microbial functions. A principal component analysis showed that the major carbon sources used by the bacteria were carbohydrates and carboxylic acids. PMID:26201661

  14. Effects of acid rain on competitive releases of Cd, Cu, and Zn from two natural soils and two contaminated soils in hunan, China

    Liao, Bo-han; Guo, Zhao-hui; Zeng, Qingru; Probst, Anne; Probst, Jean-Luc

    2007-01-01

    Leaching experiments of rebuilt soil columns with two simulated acid rain solutions (pH 4.6– 3.8) were conducted for two natural soils and two artificial contaminated soils from Hunan, southcentralChina, to study effects of acid rain on competitive releases of soil Cd, Cu, and Zn. Distilled water was used in comparison. The results showed that the total releases were Zn>Cu>Cd for the natural soils and Cd>Zn≫Cu for the contaminated soils, which reflected sensitivity of these metals to acid rai...

  15. Effect of COD:SO4 2− Ratio, HRT and Linoleic Acid Concentration on Mesophilic Sulfate Reduction: Reactor Performance and Microbial Population Dynamics

    Chungman Moon; Rajesh Singh; Sathyanarayan S. Veeravalli; Saravanan R. Shanmugam; Subba Rao Chaganti; Jerald A. Lalman; Heath, Daniel D.

    2015-01-01

    Biological sulfate (SO42−) reduction was examined in anaerobic sequential batch reactors (ASBRs) operated under different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) ranging from 12 to 36 h and COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand)/SO42−) ratios of 2.4, 1.6 and 0.8. Competition between SO42− reducing bacteria (SRBs), methane producing archaea (MPAs) and homoacetogens (HACs) was examined in controls and cultures treated with linoleic acid (LA). The ASBR performance was influenced by the COD/SO42− ratio in control...

  16. Enhanced sulfate reduction with acidogenic sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Sulfate reduction in a continuous flow, acidogenic reactor using molasses wastewater as the carbon source was studied at varying chemical oxygen demand/sulfate (COD/SO42-) ratios. At a critical COD/SO42- ratio of 2.7, neither COD nor sulfate were in excess for extra production of ethanol or acetate in the reactor. An acetic-type microbial metabolism was established with sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) significantly consuming hydrogen and volatile fatty acids produced by acidogenic bacteria and hydrogen producing acetogens in degrading COD, thereby yielding sulfate removal rate >94.6%. A low critical COD/SO42- ratio of 1.6 was also observed with the enriched ASRB population in reactor which overcomes the barrier to the treatment capability of sulfate-laden wastewater treatment with limited COD supply

  17. Organic acid enhanced electrodialytic extraction of lead from contaminated soil fines in suspension

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2007-01-01

    The implementation of soil washing technology for the treatment of heavy metal contaminated soils is limited by the toxicity and unwieldiness of the remaining heavy metal contaminated sludge. In this work, the feasibility of combining electrodialytic remediation with heterotrophic leaching for...... decontamination of the sludge was investigated. The ability of 11 organic acids to extract Pb from the fine fraction of contaminated soil (grains <63 mu m) was investigated, and application of the acids as enhancing reagents during electrodialytic remediation (EDR) of Pb-contaminated soil fines in suspension was...

  18. The effect of acidity on the distribution and symbiotic efficiency of rhizobia in Lithuanian soils

    Lapinskas, E. B.

    2007-04-01

    The distribution and symbiotic efficiency of nodule bacteria Rhizobium leguminosarum_bv. trifolii F., Sinorhizobium meliloti D., Rhizobium galegae L., and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae F. in Lithuanian soils as dependent on the soil acidity were studied in the long-term field, pot, and laboratory experiments. The critical and optimal pH values controlling the distribution of rhizobia and the symbiotic nitrogen fixation were determined for every bacterial species. The relationship was found between the soil pH and the nitrogen-fixing capacity of rhizobia. A positive effect of liming of acid soils in combination with inoculation of legumes on the efficiency of symbiotic nitrogen fixation was demonstrated.

  19. Persistent episodic acidification of streams linked to acid rain effects on soil

    Lawrence, G.B.

    2002-01-01

    Episodic acidification of streams, identified in the late 1980s as one of the most significant environmental problems caused by acidic deposition, had not been evaluated since the early 1990s despite decreasing levels of acidic deposition over the past decade. This analysis indicates that episodic acidification of streams in upland regions in the northeastern United States persists, and is likely to be much more widespread than chronic acidification. Depletion of exchangeable Ca in the mineral soil has decreased the neutralization capacity of soils and increased the role of the surface organic horizon in the neutralization of acidic soil water during episodes. Increased accumulation of N and S in the forest floor from decades of acidic deposition will delay the recovery of soil base status, and therefore, the elimination of acidic episodes, which is anticipated from decreasing emissions.

  20. Does soil acidity explain altitudinal sequences in collembolan communities?

    Loranger, Gladys; Bandyopadhyaya, Ipsa; Razaka, Barbara; Ponge, Jean-François

    2001-01-01

    Altitudinal changes in collembolan communities were studied by sampling soil microarthropods along a gradient from 950 to 2150 m a.s.l., under a wide range of forest vegetation types. A multivariate method showed that most changes in species composition followed changes in soil chemistry, humus forms and vegetation. A transition from mull to mor humus, with concomitant soil acidification, was observed with increasing elevation. It was observed that at a given elevation, changes in soil acidit...

  1. N2O production pathways in the subtropical acid forest soils in China

    To date, N2O production pathways are poorly understood in the humid subtropical and tropical forest soils. A 15N-tracing experiment was carried out under controlled laboratory conditions to investigate the processes responsible for N2O production in four subtropical acid forest soils (pH2O emission in the subtropical acid forest soils, being responsible for 56.1%, 53.5%, 54.4%, and 55.2% of N2O production, in the GC, GS, GB, and TC soils, respectively, under aerobic conditions (40%-52%WFPS). The heterotrophic nitrification (recalcitrant organic N oxidation) accounted for 27.3%-41.8% of N2O production, while the contribution of autotrophic nitrification was little in the studied subtropical acid forest soils. The ratios of N2O-N emission from total nitrification (heterotrophic+autotrophic nitrification) were higher than those in most previous references. The soil with the lowest pH and highest organic-C content (GB) had the highest ratio (1.63%), suggesting that soil pH-organic matter interactions may exist and affect N2O product ratios from nitrification. The ratio of N2O-N emission from heterotrophic nitrification varied from 0.02% to 25.4% due to soil pH and organic matter. Results are valuable in the accurate modeling of N2O production in the subtropical acid forest soils and global budget. - Highlights: → We studied N2O production pathways in subtropical acid forest soil under aerobic conditions. → Denitrification was the main source of N2O production in subtropical acid forest soils. → Heterotrophic nitrification accounted for 27.3%-41.8% of N2O production. → While, contribution of autotrophic nitrification to N2O production was little. → Ratios of N2O-N emission from nitrification were higher than those in most previous references.

  2. Effects of dicyandiamide and dolomite application on N2O emission from an acidic soil.

    Shaaban, Muhammad; Wu, Yupeng; Peng, Qi-An; Lin, Shan; Mo, Yongliang; Wu, Lei; Hu, Ronggui; Zhou, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Soil acidification is a major problem for sustainable agriculture since it limits productivity of several crops. Liming is usually adopted to ameliorate soil acidity that can trigger soil processes such as nitrification, denitrification, and loss of nitrogen (N) as nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. The loss of N following liming of acidic soils can be controlled by nitrification inhibitors (such as dicyandiamide). However, effects of nitrification inhibitors following liming of acidic soils are not well understood so far. Here, we conducted a laboratory study using an acidic soil to examine the effects of dolomite and dicyandiamide (DCD) application on N2O emissions. Three levels of DCD (0, 10, and 20 mg kg(-1); DCD0, DCD10, and DCD20, respectively) were applied to the acidic soil under two levels of dolomite (0 and 1 g kg(-1)) which were further treated with two levels of N fertilizer (0 and 200 mg N kg(-1)). Results showed that N2O emissions were highest at low soil pH levels in fertilizer-treated soil without application of DCD and dolomite. Application of DCD and dolomite significantly (P ≤ 0.001) reduced N2O emissions through decreasing rates of NH4 (+)-N oxidation and increasing soil pH, respectively. Total N2O emissions were reduced by 44 and 13 % in DCD20 and dolomite alone treatments, respectively, while DCD20 + dolomite reduced N2O emissions by 54 % when compared with DCD0 treatment. The present study suggests that application of DCD and dolomite to acidic soils can mitigate N2O emissions. PMID:26620858

  3. Ammonia-oxidizing activity and microbial community structure in acid tea (Camellia sinensis) orchard soil

    Okamura, K.; Takanashi, A.; Yamada, T.; Hiraishi, A.

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the ammonia-oxidizing activity and the phylogentic composition of microorganisms involved in acid tea (Camellia sinensis) orchard soil. All soil samples were collected from three sites located in Tahara and Toyohashi, Aichi Prefecture, Japan. The potential nitrification rate (PNR) was measured by the chlorate inhibition method. The soil pH of tea orchards studied ranged from 2.78 to 4.84, differing significantly from sample to sample, whereas that of meadow and unplanted fields ranged from 5.78 to 6.35. The PNR ranged from 0.050 to 0.193 μg NO2--Ng-1 h-1 and were positively correlated with the soil pH (r2 = 0.382, pamoA genes. The detected archaeal clones separated from the cluster of the 'Soil clones' and tightly clustered with the clones originating from other acidic soil environments including the Chinese tea orchard soil. These results suggest that the specific archaeal populations dominate as the ammonia oxidizers in acid tea-orchard soils and possibly other acid soils, independent of geographic locations, which results from the adaptation to specific ecological niches.

  4. Soil acidity as affecting micronutrients concentration, nitrato reductase enzyme activity and yield in upland rice plants

    Edemar Moro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The lowest grain yield of rice under no-tillage system (NTS in relation to the conventional system may be due to the predominance nitrate in the soil and the low nitrate reductase activity. Another reason may be caused by micronutrient deficiency because of superficially soil acidity corrections. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the changes caused by soil pH in the N forms in the soil, micronutrients concentration in rice plants, nitrate reductase activity, yield of rice and its components. The experiment was performed in a greenhouse conditions. The experimental design was a completely randomized in a factorial three (levels of soil acidity x five (micronutrients sources with four replications. The addition of micronutrients does not affect levels of nitrate and ammonium in the soil; soil acidity significantly affects levels of nitrate and ammonium in the soil, concentration of micronutrients in rice plants and crop yield and its components; medium soil acidity (pH 5.5 result in medium to high levels of Cu and Fe, medium level of Zn and Mn, high nitrate reductase activity, resulting in higher dry matter, tillers, panicles, spikelets, weight of 100 grains and hence grain yield.

  5. Effect of Simulated Acid Rain on Potential Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization in Forest Soils

    OUYANG Xue-Jun; ZHOU Guo-Yi; HUANG Zhong-Liang; LIU Ju-Xiu; ZHANG De-Qiang; LI Jiong

    2008-01-01

    Acid rain is a serious environmental problem worldwide. In this study, a pot experiment using forest soils planted with the seedlings of four woody species was performed with weekly treatments of pH 4.40, 4.00, 3.52, and 3.05 simulated acid rain (SAR) for 42 months compared to a control of pH 5.00 lake water. The cumulative amounts of C and N mineralization in the five treated soils were determined after incubation at 25 ℃ for 65 d to examine the effects of SAR treatments.For all five treatments, cumulative CO2-C production ranged from 20.24 to 27.81 mg kg-1 dry soil, net production of available N from 17.37 to 48.95 mg kg-1 dry soil, and net production of NO-3-N from 9.09 to 46.23 mg kg-1 dry soil. SAR treatments generally enhanced the emission of CO2-C from the soils; however, SAR with pH 3.05 inhibited the emission.SAR treatments decreased the net production of available N and NO3-N. The cumulative CH4 and N2O productions from the soils increased with increasing amount of simulated acid rain. The cumulative CO2-C production and the net production of available N of the soil under Acmena acuminatissima were significantly higher (P≤0.05) than those under Schima superba and Cryptocarya concinna. The mineralization of soil organic C was related to the contents of soil organic C and N, but was not related to soil pH. However, the overall effect of acid rain on the storage of soil organic matter and the cycling of important nutrients depended on the amount of acid deposition and the types of forests.

  6. The Effect of Chloride and Sulfate Ions on the Adsorption of Cd2+ on Clay and Sandy Loam Egyptian Soils

    EL-Hefnawy, Mohamed E.; Selim, Elmetwaly M.; Assaad, Faiz F.; Ismail, Ali I.

    2014-01-01

    Adsorption of Cd2+ on two types of Egyptian soils: clay (alluvial) and sandy loam (calcareous), was studied. Effect of changing the matrix electrolyte type and concentration was used to mimic the natural soil salts. Kinetics and thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption were calculated at two different electrolyte concentrations: 0.05 N and 0.15 N. The adsorption was described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Results showed that lower concentration of the NaCl or Na2SO4 electrolytes (0....

  7. Adding sodium dodecyl sulfate and Pseudomonas aeruginosa UG2 biosurfactants inhibits polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation in a weathered creosote-contaminated soil

    Deschenes, L. [Univ. of Quebec, PQ (Canada). INRS-Eau]|[National Research Council of Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Biotechnology Research Inst.; Lafrance, P. [Univ. of Quebec, PQ (Canada). INRS-Eau; Villeneuve, J.P. [Univ. of Quebec, PQ (Canada). INRS-Eau; Samson, R. [National Research Council of Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Biotechnology Research Inst.

    1996-12-31

    The effect of two anionic surfactants was assessed during biodegradation of 13 of the 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in a wood-preserving soil contaminated with creosote and pentacholorophenol for a period of at least 20 years. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and biosurfactants from Pseudomonas aeruginosa UG2 were utilized at concentrations of 10, 100 and 500 {mu}g/g soil. Because both surfactants are readily biodegradable, the microcosms received a fresh spike of surfactant every 2 weeks. Biodegradation of aged PAH residues was monitored by GC/MS for a period of 45 weeks. Results indicated that the biodegradation of the three-ring PAH was rapid and almost complete but was slowed by the addition of 100 {mu}g/g and 500 {mu}g/g chemical surfactant. Similarly, at the same concentrations, the two surfactants significantly decreased the biodegradation rate of the four-ring PAH. In this case, the inhibition was more pronounced with SDS. High-molecular-mass PAH (more than four rings) were not biodegraded under the test conditions. It was suggested that the preferential utilization of surfactants by PAH degraders was responsible for the inhibition observed in the biodegradation of the hydrocarbons. The high biodegradability and the inhibitory effect of these two surfactants would have a significant impact on the development of both above-ground and in situ site reclamation processes. (orig.)

  8. Utilization of maize cob biochar and rice husk charcoal as soil amendments for improving acid soil fertility and productivity

    Nurhidayati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The decline in soil fertility in agricultural land is a major problem that causes a decrease in the production of food crops. One of the causes of the decline in soil fertility is declining soil pH that caused the decline in the availability of nutrients in the soil. This study aimed to assess the influence of alternative liming materials derived from maize cob biochar and rice husk charcoal compared to conventional lime to improve soil pH, soil nutrient availability and maize production. The experiment used a factorial complete randomized design which consisting of two factors. The first factor is the type of soil amendment which consists of three levels (calcite lime, rice husk charcoal and cob maize biochar. The second factor is the application rates of the soil amendment consisted of three levels (3, 6 and 9 t/ha and one control treatment (without soil amendment. The results of this study showed that the application of various soil amendment increased soil pH, which the pH increase of the lime application was relatively more stable over time compared to biochar and husk charcoal. The average of the soil pH increased for each soil amendment by 23% (lime, 20% (rice husk charcoal and 23% (biochar as compared with control. The increase in soil pH can increase the availability of soil N, P and K. The greatest influence of soil pH on nutrient availability was shown by the relationship between soil pH and K nutrient availability with R2 = 0.712, while for the N by R2 = 0.462 and for the P by R2 = 0.245. The relationship between the availability of N and maize yield showed a linear equation. While the relationship between the availability of P and K with the maize yield showed a quadratic equation. The highest maize yield was found in the application of biochar and rice husk charcoal with a dose of 6-9 t/ha. The results of this study suggested that biochar and husk charcoal could be used as an alternative liming material in improving acid soil

  9. Potential origin and formation for molecular components of humic acids in soils

    DiDonato, Nicole; Chen, Hongmei; Waggoner, Derek; Hatcher, Patrick G.

    2016-04-01

    Soil humic acids are the base soluble/acid insoluble organic components of soil organic matter. Most of what we know about humic acids comes from studies of their bulk molecular properties or analysis of individual fractions after extraction from soils. This work attempts to better define humic acids and explain similarities and differences for several soils varying in degrees of humification using advanced molecular level techniques. Our investigation using electrospray ionization coupled to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FTICR-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) has given new insight into the distinctive molecular characteristics of humic acids which suggest a possible pathway for their formation. Humic acids from various ecosystems, climate regions and soil textural classes are distinguished by the presence of three predominant molecular components: lignin-like molecules, carboxyl-containing aliphatic molecules and condensed aromatic molecules that bear similarity to black carbon. Results show that humification may be linked to the relative abundance of these three types of molecules as well as the relative abundance of carboxyl groups in each molecular type. This work also demonstrates evidence for lignin as the primary source of soil organic matter, particularly condensed aromatic molecules often categorized as black carbon and is the first report of the non-pyrogenic source for these compounds in soils. We also suggest that much of the carboxyl-containing aliphatic molecules are sourced from lignin.

  10. Effects of organic acids on cadmium and copper sorption and desorption by two calcareous soils.

    Najafi, Sarvenaz; Jalali, Mohsen

    2015-09-01

    Low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) present in soil alter equilibrium pH of soil, and consequently, affect heavy metal sorption and desorption on soil constitutes. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different concentrations (0.1, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 30, 40, 50, 70, and 100 mM) of citric, malic, and oxalic acids on sorption and desorption of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) in two calcareous soils. Increasing the concentrations of three LMWOAs decreased the equilibrium pH of soil solutions. The results indicated that increase in organic acids concentrations generally reduced Cd and Cu sorption in soils. Increase concentrations of LMWOAs generally promoted Cd and Cu desorption from soils. A valley-like curve was observed for desorption of Cu after the citric acid concentration increment in soil 2. Increasing the concentrations of three LMWOAs caused a marked decrease in Kd(sorp) values of Cd and Cu in soils. In general, citric acid was the most effective organic acid in reducing sorption and increasing desorption of both metals, and oxalic acid had the minimal impact. The results indicated that LMWOAs had a greater impact on Cu sorption and desorption than Cd, which can be attributed to higher stability constants of organic acids complexes with Cu compared to Cd. It can be concluded that by selecting suitable type and concentration of LMWOAs, mobility, and hence, bioavailability of heavy metals can be changed. So, environmental implications concerning heavy metals mobility might be derived from these findings. PMID:26298186

  11. Soil organic matter and soil acidity in Mangrove areas in the river Paraiba Estuary, Cabedelo, Paraiba, Brazil

    Renata Wilma Vasconcelos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove ecosystems are of great environmental significance, because of their fragility and role in feeding and breeding various animal species. In northeastern Brazil, the disorderly occupation of estuarine areas and the urban sprawl have led to a considerable loss of the original area occupied by mangroves. In the municipality of Cabedelo, State of Paraíba, there are about 4,900 ha of remnant mangrove areas in the estuarine complex of the Paraíba River. However, information about the attributes of mangrove soils at this location is quite scarce. The aim of this study was to quantify the soil organic matter and soil acidity in mangroves located in the estuary of the Paraíba River, State of Paraíba, Brazil, in order to increase the database of soil attributes in this region. The study area is in local influence of the Restinga de Cabedelo National Forest (Flona, an environmental conservation unit of the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation. For the choice of sampling points, we considered an area that receives direct influence of the eviction of domestic and industrial effluents. The soil of the study area is an “Organossolo Háplico” in Brazilian Soil Classification (Histosol, and was sampled at four point sites: one upstream of the effluent discharge (P1, one in the watercourse receiving effluent water (P2, one downstream of the effluent discharge (P3 and another near Flona (P4, at 0-20 and 20-40 cm, in four replications in time (28/08/2012 in the morning and afternoon, and 21/01/2013 in the morning and afternoon. Potential acidity, pH and soil organic matter (SOM were determined. No significant differences were detected in the potential acidity of the four collection sites, which ranged from 0.38 to 0.45 cmolc dm-3. Soil pH was greatest at point P4 (7.0 and lowest at point P1 (5.8. The SOM was highest at point P1 (86.4 % and lowest at P2 (77.9 %. The attributes related to soil acidity were not sensitive to indicate

  12. CADMIUM SULFATE APPLICATION TO SLUDGE-AMENDED SOILS. 1. EFFECT ON YIELD AND CADMIUM AVAILABILITY TO PLANTS

    Twelve paired soils (only one of each pair having a history of sludge application) with pH values ranging from 3.9 to 7.4 were amended with CdSO4 in a growth chamber experiment. Three crops of Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla) and one crop of corn (Zea mays L) were sequentia...

  13. Effects of heating on composition, degree of darkness, and stacking nanostructure of soil humic acids.

    Katsumi, Naoya; Yonebayashi, Koyo; Okazaki, Masanori

    2016-01-15

    Wildfires and prescribed burning can affect both the quality and the quantity of organic matter in soils. In this study, we investigated qualitative and quantitative changes of soil humic substances in two different soils (an Entisol from a paddy field and an Inceptisol from a cedar forest) under several controlled heating conditions. Soil samples were heated in a muffle furnace at 200, 250, or 300 °C for 1, 3, 5, or 12h. The humic acid and fulvic acid contents of the soil samples prior to and after heating were determined. The degree of darkness, elemental composition, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios, (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and X-ray diffraction patterns of humic acids extracted from the soils before and after heating were measured. The proportion of humic acids in total carbon decreased with increasing heating time at high temperature (300 °C), but increased with increasing heating time at ≤ 250 °C. The degree of darkness of the humic acids increased with increasing heating time and temperature. During darkening, the H/C atomic ratios, the proportion of aromatic C, and the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios increased, whereas the proportions of alkyl C and O-alkyl C decreased. X-ray diffraction analysis verified that a stacking nanostructure developed by heating. Changes in the chemical structure of the humic acids from the heated soils depended on the type of soil. The major structural components of the humic acids from the heated Entisol were aromatic C and carboxylic C, whereas aliphatic C, aromatic C, and carboxylic C structural components were found in the humic acids from the heated Inceptisol. These results suggest that the heat-induced changes in the chemical structure of the humic acids depended on the source plant. PMID:26398447

  14. Phytoremediation of Cu and Zn by vetiver grass in mine soils amended with humic acids.

    Vargas, Carmen; Pérez-Esteban, Javier; Escolástico, Consuelo; Masaguer, Alberto; Moliner, Ana

    2016-07-01

    Phytoremediation of contaminated mine soils requires the use of fast-growing, deep-rooted, high-biomass, and metal-tolerant plants with the application of soil amendments that promote metal uptake by plants. A pot experiment was performed to evaluate the combined use of vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) and humic acid for phytoremediation of Cu and Zn in mine soils. Vetiver plants were grown in soil samples collected from two mine sites of Spain mixed with a commercial humic acid derived from leonardite at doses of 0, 2, 10, and 20 g kg(-1). Plant metal concentrations and biomass were measured and metal bioavailability in soils was determined by a low molecular weight organic acid extraction. Results showed that humic acid addition decreased organic acid-extractable metals in soil. Although this extraction method is used to estimate bioavailability of metals, it was not a good estimator under these conditions due to competition with the strong chelators in the added humic acid. High doses of humic acid also promoted root growth and increased Cu concentrations in plants due to formation of soluble metal-organic complexes, which enhanced removal of this metal from soil and its accumulation in roots. Although humic acid was not able to improve Zn uptake, it managed to reduce translocation of Zn and Cu to aerial parts of plants. Vetiver resulted unsuitable for phytoextraction, but our study showed that the combined use of this species with humic acid at 10-20 g kg(-1) could be an effective strategy for phytostabilization of mine soils. PMID:27030238

  15. Studies on distribution and residue of sulfur in simulated acid rain in vegetable and soil by using 35S

    Distribution and residue of sulfur in simulated acid rain in two kinds of vegetables (lettuce and Chinese cabbage) and three types of soils (acid yellow earth, acid and neutral purple soils) were studied by using 35S tracer method. The results showed that the higher concentration of acid rain was sprayed, the more residue of sulfur in vegetable there would be. The residue of sulfur in vegetable varied with the different physical and chemical properties of soils, the order of sulfur residue in vegetable was: acid purple soil>acid yellow earth>neutral purple soil. In the same soil, the residue of sulfur in lettuce was higher than that in Chinese cabbage, for the same vegetable, the residue of sulfur in leaves were higher than that in stems. The order of sulfur residue in different soils was acid purple soil>acid yellow earth>neutral purple soil. The higher concentration of acid rain was sprayed, the more residue of sulfur in soil surface there would be. The sulfur residue varied with the depth of soil and the pH value of acid rain. With the increase of soil depth, a slight increase of sulfur residue with rain of ph 6 and a slight decrease with rain of pH 4.0 and 2.5 were found

  16. An HPLC method for microanalysis and pharmacokinetics of marine sulfated polysaccharide PSS-loaded poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles in rat plasma.

    Li, Peng-Li; Li, Chun-Xia; Xue, Yi-Ting; Li, Hai-Hua; Liu, Hong-Bing; He, Xiao-Xi; Yu, Guang-Li; Guan, Hua-Shi

    2013-04-01

    This study was aimed at developing a sensitive and selective HPLC method with postcolumn fluorescence derivatization for the detection of propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS) in rat plasma. Plasma samples were prepared by a simple and fast ultrafiltration method. PSS was extracted from rat plasma with D-glucuronic acid as internal standard. Isocratic chromatographic separation was performed on a TSKgel G2500 PWxL column with the mobile phase of 0.1 M sodium sulfate at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Analyte detection was achieved by fluorescence detection (FLD) at 250 nm (excitation) and 435 nm (emission) using guanidine hydrochloride as postcolumn derivatizing reagent in an alkaline medium at 120 °C. The calibration curve was linear over a concentration range of 1-500 μg/mL, and the lower limit of detection (LLOD) was found to be 250 ng/mL. This validated method was applied successfully to the pharmacokinetic study of PSS and PSS-loaded poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (PSS-NP) in rat plasma after a single intravenous (PSS only) and oral administration (PSS and PSS-NP). Significant differences in the main pharmacokinetic parameters of PSS and PSS-NP were observed. The relative bioavailability of PSS-NP was 190.10% compared with PSS which shows that PSS-NP can improve oral bioavailability. PMID:23549283

  17. An HPLC Method for Microanalysis and Pharmacokinetics of Marine Sulfated Polysaccharide PSS-Loaded Poly Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid (PLGA Nanoparticles in Rat Plasma

    Hua-Shi Guan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at developing a sensitive and selective HPLC method with postcolumn fluorescence derivatization for the detection of propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS in rat plasma. Plasma samples were prepared by a simple and fast ultrafiltration method. PSS was extracted from rat plasma with d-glucuronic acid as internal standard. Isocratic chromatographic separation was performed on a TSKgel G2500 PWxL column with the mobile phase of 0.1 M sodium sulfate at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Analyte detection was achieved by fluorescence detection (FLD at 250 nm (excitation and 435 nm (emission using guanidine hydrochloride as postcolumn derivatizing reagent in an alkaline medium at 120 °C. The calibration curve was linear over a concentration range of 1–500 μg/mL, and the lower limit of detection (LLOD was found to be 250 ng/mL. This validated method was applied successfully to the pharmacokinetic study of PSS and PSS-loaded poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticles (PSS-NP in rat plasma after a single intravenous (PSS only and oral administration (PSS and PSS-NP. Significant differences in the main pharmacokinetic parameters of PSS and PSS-NP were observed. The relative bioavailability of PSS-NP was 190.10% compared with PSS which shows that PSS-NP can improve oral bioavailability.

  18. Transformation of acetate carbon into carbohydrate and amino acid metabilites during decomposition in soil

    Sørensen, Lasse Holst; Paul, E. A.

    1971-01-01

    Carbon-14-labelled acetate was added to a heavy clay soil of pH 7.6 to study the transformation of acetate carbon into carbohydrate and amino acid metabolites during decomposition. The acetate was totally metabolized after 6 days of incubation at 25°C when 70% of the labelled carbon had been...... evolved as CO2. Maximum incorporation of trace-C into the various organic fractions was observed after 4 days when 19% of residual, labelled carbon in the soil was located in carbohydrates, 29 % in amino acids and 21 % in the insoluble residue of the soil. The curves showing the amounts of labelled carbon...... days of incubation, 2.2% of the labelled carbon originally added to the soil was located in carbohydrate metabolites, 7% in amino acid metabolites and 5% in the insoluble residue. The carbon in these fractions accounted for 77% of the total, residual, labelled carbon in the soil; 12% in carbohydrates...

  19. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1461 - Manganese sulfate.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Manganese sulfate. 184.1461 Section 184.1461 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Manganese sulfate (MnSO4·H2O, CAS... manganese compounds with sulfuric acid. It is also obtained as a byproduct in the manufacture...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to...

  2. One-pot Green Synthesis of Pyrrole Derivatives Catalyzed by Nano Sulfated Zirconia as a Solid Acid Catalyst%One-pot Green Synthesis of Pyrrole Derivatives Catalyzed by Nano Sulfated Zirconia as a Solid Acid Catalyst

    Teimouri, Abbas; Chermahini, Alireza Najafi

    2012-01-01

    A new and efficient method for the preparation of N-substituted pyrroles from one-pot Paal-Knorr condensation has been accomplished using nano-crystalline sulfated zirconia (SZ) as the catalyst in ethanol at moderate temperature. This new protocol has the advantages of easy availability, stability, reusability and eco-friendliness of the catalyst, high to excellent yields, simple experimental and work-up procedure. The synthesized compounds were confirmed through spectral characterization using IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectra.

  3. Effects of Long-Term Acid-Mine Drainage Contamination on Diversity and Activity of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in a Natural Salt Marsh.

    Moreau, J. W.; Banfield, J. F.

    2003-12-01

    Constructed wetlands have been studied as sites or analogs for in situ bioremediation of metal contaminants from acid mine drainage (AMD) or industrial sources (e.g. Webb et al. 1998). Wetlands bioremediation necessarily invokes the ubiquity and robustness of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) to sequester dissolved metals into various poorly soluble metal-sulfides (e.g. PbS, CdS). However, few studies of natural wetlands under long-term ecological forcing by AMD or other contaminant sources are available for context. We are investigating the microbial diversity, mineralogy and geochemistry of a highly contaminated salt marsh along the East Central San Francisco Bay. For nearly a half-century, areas within this marsh have received acidic and/or metal-rich groundwaters from near-surface pyrite tailings (transported there from Iron Mountain Mine, near Redding, CA) and local industrial sources (e.g. paint and explosives manufacturers). Sediment cores (30-40 cm long) were taken from six contaminated sites in the marsh with pH range of ˜2 to ˜8. Previous analyses (URS Corp. 2001) reported As, Cd, Cu, Se, Zn, and Pb present in sediments at extremely high concentrations (100s of ppm), yet our ICP-AES analyses of pore waters showed only As present at concentrations of 10-50 ppb. We infer, from high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) studies of biogenic (SRB biofilm) ZnS (Moreau et al. 2003, in review) and marsh sediments, that contaminant metals have been sequestered into aggregates of nanocrystalline metal-sulfides. Continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer (CF-IRMS) analyses of pore-water sulfate and sedimentary sulfides allow resolution of contributions to dissolved sulfate and sulfide from tailings oxidation and dissimilatory sulfate reduction. Sulfate analyses from subsections of three cores (pH 2-3, 6-7, 7-8, respectively) all yield δ 34S values consistent with bacterial sulfate reduction. We note that all three cores also contain very fine

  4. Optimizing Available Phosphorus in Calcareous Soils Fertilized with Diammonium Phosphate and Phosphoric Acid Using Freundlich Adsorption Isotherm

    Asif Naeem; Muhammad Akhtar; Waqar Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    In calcareous soils, phosphorus (P) retention and immobilization take place due to precipitation and adsorption. Since soil pH is considered a major soil variable affecting the P sorption, an acidic P fertilizer could result in low P adsorption compared to alkaline one. Therefore, P adsorption from DAP and phosphoric acid (PA) required to produce desired soil solution P concentration was estimated using Freundlich sorption isotherms. Two soils from Faisalabad and T. T. Singh districts were sp...

  5. Responses of soil buffering capacity to acid treatment in three typical subtropical forests.

    Jiang, Jun; Wang, Ying-Ping; Yu, Mengxiao; Li, Kun; Shao, Yijing; Yan, Junhua

    2016-09-01

    Elevated anthropogenic acid deposition can significantly affect forest ecosystem functioning by changing soil pH, nutrient balance, and chemical leaching and so on. These effects generally differ among different forests, and the dominant mechanisms for those observed responses often vary, depending on climate, soil conditions and vegetation types. Using soil monoliths (0-40cm) from pine forest (pioneer), coniferous and broadleaved mixed forest (transitional) and broadleaved forest (mature) in southern China, we conducted a leaching experiment with acid treatments at different pH levels (control: pH≈4.5; pH=3.5; pH=2.5). We found that pH3.5 treatment significantly reduced dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in leachate from the pioneer forest soil. pH2.5 treatment significantly increased concentrations of NO3(-), SO4(2-), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Al(3+), Fe(3+) and DOC in leachate from the pioneer forest soil, and also concentrations of NO3(-), SO4(2-), Mg(2+), Al(3+), Fe(3+) and DOC in leachate from the transitional forest soil. All acid treatments had no significant effects on concentrations of these chemicals in leachate from the mature forest soil. The responses can be explained by the changes in soil pH, acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and concentrations of Al and Fe. Our results showed that acid buffering capacity of the pioneer or transitional forest soil was lower than that of the mature forest soil. Therefore preserving mature forests in southern China is important for reducing the adverse impacts of high acid deposition on stream water quality at present and into the future. PMID:27185346

  6. Organic Matter, Carbon and Humic Acids in Rehabilitated and Secondary Forest Soils

    Lee Y. Leng; Ahmed, Osumanu H.; Nik M.A. Majid; Mohamadu B. Jalloh

    2009-01-01

    Problem Statement: Tropical rainforests cover about 19.37 million ha (60%) of Malaysias total area and about 8.71 million ha can be found in Sarawak, Malaysia. Excessive logging, mining and shifting cultivation contribute to deforestation in Sarawak. The objectives of this study were to: (i) Quantify soil Organic Matter (SOM), Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) and Humic Acids (HA) in rehabilitated and secondary forest soils and (ii) Compare SOM, SOC and HA sequestrations of both forests. Approach: So...

  7. Composition of exchangeable bases and acidity in soils of the Crimean Mountains

    Kostenko, I. V.

    2015-08-01

    Acid forest and mountainous meadow soils of the Crimean Mountains were studied. The amount of hydrogen and aluminum ions extracted from these soils depended on the pH of extracting agents. The maximum values of the soil acidity were obtained upon the extraction with a strongly alkaline solution of sodium acetate in 0.05 N NaOH. The application of this extractant made it possible to determine the total exchange acidity, the total amount of extractable aluminum, and the total cation exchange capacity of the soils after the extraction of all the acidic components from them. The values of these characteristics were significantly higher than the values of the potential acidity and cation exchange capacity obtained by the routine analytical methods. Hydrogen predominated among the acidic components of the exchange acidity in the humus horizons, whereas aluminum predominated among them in the underlying mineral horizons. Hydrothermic conditions and the character of vegetation and parent materials were the major factors affecting the relationships between bases and acidic components in the soil adsorption complex.

  8. P Limitation and Microbial Biogeochemistry in Acidic Forest Soils of the Northeastern United States

    Smemo, K. A.; Deforest, J. L.; Burke, D. J.; Elliot, H. L.; Kluber, L. A.; Carrino-Kyker, S. R.

    2010-12-01

    In forest ecosystems with acidic soils, such as many hardwood forests of the Northeastern United States, net primary productivity should be limited by phosphorus (P) because P is biologically less available at pH temperate forests that have naturally acidic soil or are exposed to chronic acid deposition; such findings are contrary to biogeochemical expectations. We hypothesize that many eastern forests possess an underlying P limitation not realized at the ecosystem level. Instead, shifts in the composition, structure and function of soil microbial communities compensate by acquiring more P from organic sources and P limitation is therefore not manifested at the aboveground (plant) level. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated soil pH and P availability in 72 20 x 40 m mature hardwood forest plots across northeastern (glaciated) and southeastern (unglaciated) Ohio beginning in late summer 2009. Ten months after treatment initiation, soil pH has increased from 4.5 to 5.5 and soil P has increased from 3 to ~25 mg P/kg soil on glaciated soils and from 0.5 to ~5 mg P/kg soil on unglaciated soils. To quantify treatment responses, we measured the activity of soil extracellular enzymes associated with liberation of P, N, and C from organic matter, as well as pools of N and N cycling processes. We saw no significant effects of our treatments on pools of available ammonium or nitrate, nor did we see effects on net N mineralization and net nitrification rates. However, glaciated soils had significantly greater nitrate pools and higher N cycling rates than older unglaciated soils. Nitrogen and C cycling enzymes in treatment plots were not significantly different than control plots, but N-acetylglucosaminidase activity (N acquisition) was significantly greater in the unglaciated soils and β-glucosidase and cellobiosidase activities (C cycling) were greatest in the glaciated soils. In only the unglaciated soils was the activity of P acquisition enzymes (phosphomonoesterase

  9. Hydraulic conductivity study of compacted clay soils used as landfill liners for an acidic waste

    Highlights: ► Examined the hydraulic conductivity evolution as function of dry density of Tunisian clay soil. ► Follow the hydraulic conductivity evolution at long-term of three clay materials using the waste solution (pH=2.7). ► Determined how compaction affects the hydraulic conductivity of clay soils. ► Analyzed the concentration of F and P and examined the retention of each soil. - Abstract: Three natural clayey soils from Tunisia were studied to assess their suitability for use as a liner for an acid waste disposal site. An investigation of the effect of the mineral composition and mechanical compaction on the hydraulic conductivity and fluoride and phosphate removal of three different soils is presented. The hydraulic conductivity of these three natural soils are 8.5 × 10−10, 2.08 × 10−9 and 6.8 × 10−10 m/s for soil-1, soil-2 and soil-3, respectively. Soil specimens were compacted under various compaction strains in order to obtain three wet densities (1850, 1950 and 2050 kg/m3). In this condition, the hydraulic conductivity (k) was reduced with increasing density of sample for all soils. The test results of hydraulic conductivity at long-term (>200 days) using acidic waste solution (pH = 2.7, charged with fluoride and phosphate ions) shows a decrease in k with time only for natural soil-1 and soil-2. However, the specimens of soil-2 compressed to the two highest densities (1950 and 2050 kg/m3) are cracked after 60 and 20 days, respectively, of hydraulic conductivity testing. This damage is the result of a continued increase in the internal stress due to the swelling and to the effect of aggressive wastewater. The analysis of anions shows that the retention of fluoride is higher compared to phosphate and soil-1 has the highest sorption capacity.

  10. Effect of crushed mussel shell addition on bacterial growth in acid polluted soils

    Fernandez Calviño, David; Garrido-Rodríguez, B.; Arias-Estévez, M.;

    2015-01-01

    We applied three different doses of crushed mussel shell (CMS) on two Cu-polluted acid soils to study the effect of these amendments on the growth of the bacterial community during 730 days. Soil pH increased in the short and medium term due to CMS addition. In a first stage, bacterial growth was...

  11. PH BUFFERING IN FOREST SOIL ORGANIC HORIZONS: RELEVANCE TO ACID PRECIPITATION

    Samples of organic surface horizons (Oi, Oe, Oa) from New York State forest soils were equilibrated with 0 to 20 cmol HNO3 Kg(-1) soil in the laboratory by a batch technique designed to simulate reactions of acid precipitation with forest floors. Each organic horizon retained a c...

  12. Response of Soil Respiration to Acid Rain in Forests of Different Maturity in Southern China

    Guohua Liang; Xingzhao Liu; Xiaomei Chen; Qingyan Qiu; Deqiang Zhang; Guowei Chu; Juxiu Liu; Shizhong Liu; Guoyi Zhou

    2013-01-01

    The response of soil respiration to acid rain in forests, especially in forests of different maturity, is poorly understood in southern China despite the fact that acid rain has become a serious environmental threat in this region in recent years. Here, we investigated this issue in three subtropical forests of different maturity [i.e. a young pine forest (PF), a transitional mixed conifer and broadleaf forest (MF) and an old-growth broadleaved forest (BF)] in southern China. Soil respiration...

  13. Simultaneous Removal of Lindane, Lead and Cadmium from Soils by Rhamnolipids Combined with Citric Acid

    Jinzhong Wan; Die Meng; Tao Long; Rongrong Ying; Mao Ye; Shengtian Zhang; Qun Li; Yan Zhou; Yusuo Lin

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of rhamnolipids-citric acid mixed agents in simultaneous desorption of lindane and heavy metals from soils. The capacity of the mixed agents to solubilize lindane, lead and cadmium in aqueous solution was also explored. The results showed that the presence of citric acid greatly enhanced the solubilization of lindane and cadmium by rhamnolipids. A combined effect of the mixed agents on lindane and heavy metals removal from soils was observed. The maximu...

  14. Evaluating Genetic Variability of Sorghum Mutant Lines Tolerant to Acid Soil

    W. Puspitasari; S. Human; D. Wirnas

    2012-01-01

    High rainfall in some parts in Indonesia causes soil become acidic. The main constraint of acid soil is phosphor (P) deficiency and aluminum (Al) toxicity which decrease plant productivity. To overcome this problem, it is important to develop a crop variety tolerant to such conditions. Sorghum is probably one of the potential crops to meet that objective. Sorghum has been reported to have wide adaptability to various agro-ecology and can be used as food and animal feed. Unfortunately, sorghum...

  15. Effect of excess dietary iron as ferrous sulfate and excess dietary ascorbic acid on liver zinc, copper and sulfhydryl groups and the ovary

    Female guinea pigs of the NIH 13/N strain, weighing between 475 and 512 g, were fed diets supplemented with 50 to 2500 mg of iron per kg of diet as ferrous sulfate and 0.2 to 8.0 g of ascorbic acid per kg of diet. A significant effect was observed on tissue copper and zinc, ovary weight and liver protein sulfhydryl groups. The mean ovary weight for guinea pigs fed 2500 mg of iron was significantly less than that of animals fed 50 mg of iron, 0.045 +/- 0.012 g and 0.061 +/- 0.009 g, respectively. Liver zinc content of animals fed 2500 mg of iron and 200 mg of ascorbic acid per kg of diet was significantly less than that of animals fed 50 mg of iron and 200 mg of ascorbic acid, 16.3 +/- 3.3 μg and 19.6 +/- 1.6 μg, respectively. There was no difference in liver copper due to dietary iron, but when dietary ascorbic acid was increased to 8 g per kg of diet, there was a significant decrease (from 22.8 +/- 8.1 μg to 10.5 +/- 4.8 μg) in liver copper. Excess dietary ascorbic acid decreased ovarian zinc significantly when increased to 8 g per kg of diet, 2929 +/- 919 μg vs 1661 +/- 471 μg, respectively, when compared to the control group

  16. Acetylsalicylic Acid Reduces the Severity of Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis and Increases the Formation of Anti-Inflammatory Lipid Mediators

    Thomas Köhnke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in inflammatory bowel disease is controversial, as they have been implicated in disease aggravation. Different from other cyclooxygenase inhibitors, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA enhances the formation of anti-inflammatory and proresolution lipoxins derived from arachidonic acid as well as resolvins from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. In this study, we examined the effect of ASA on murine dextran sodium sulfate colitis. A mouse magnetic resonance imaging (MRI protocol and post mortem assessment were used to assess disease severity, and lipid metabolites were measured using liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry. Decreased colitis activity was demonstrated by phenotype and MRI assessment in mice treated with ASA, and confirmed in postmortem analysis. Analysis of lipid mediators showed sustained formation of lipoxin A4 and an increase of DHA-derived 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (17-HDHA after treatment with ASA. Furthermore, in vitro experiments in RAW264.7 murine macrophages demonstrated significantly increased phagocytosis activity after incubation with 17-HDHA, supporting its proresolution effect. These results show a protective effect of ASA in a murine colitis model and could give a rationale for a careful reassessment of ASA therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and particularly ulcerative colitis, possibly combined with DHA supplementation.

  17. Column leaching of chromium and nickel from a contaminated soil using EDTA and citric acid

    This study investigates the column leaching of a soil contaminated mainly with Cr and Ni by using two chelants: citric acid (biodegradable) and EDTA (non-biodegradable) followed with water rinse. The chelants lead to Cr and Ni leaching, in addition to major elements (Ca, Fe, Mg, Al, Mn and Zn) showing the dissolution of soil mineral constituents. EDTA leaches more major elements and Ni than citric acid related to the respective stability of metal–chelant complexes; citric acid leaches more Cr than EDTA, certainly because of a substitution reaction with Cr(VI). In the case of alternating chelant/water applications, leaching occurs during the chelant applications, but also during water applications. In the case of chelant/water applications followed by continuous water application, both Cr and Ni leach over time. This increased mobility could be due to the residual chelant present in soil as well as to the dissolution/mobilization of mineral or organic soil fractions. - Highlights: ► Column leaching of an industrial soil contaminated with chromium and nickel. ► Citric acid or EDTA were used alternatively or followed with water rinse. ► Chelants lead to Cr and Ni leaching and the dissolution of soil mineral constituents. ► Leaching of these two metals proceeds continuously during water rinse. ► Chelants deeply impacted Cr and Ni mobility. - Citric acid or EDTA application deeply impact Cr and Ni mobility during column leaching of a contaminated soil.

  18. Mobility and speciation of Cd,Cu,and Zn in two acidic soils affected by simulated acid rain

    GUO Zhao-hui; LIAO Bo-han; HUANG Chang-yong

    2005-01-01

    Through a batch experiment, the mobility and speciation of heavy metals(Cd, Cu, Zn) in two acidic forest soils from Hunan Province were studied. The results showed that the release and potential active speciation of Cd, Cu, and Zn in the tested contaminated red soil(CRS) and yellow red soil(CYRS) increased significantly with pH decreasing and ion concentrations increasing of simulated acid rain, and these effects were mainly decided by the pH value of simulated acid rain. Cd had the highest potential risk on the environment compared with Cu and Zn. Cd existed mainly in exchangeable form in residual CRS and CYRS, Cu in organically bound and Mn-oxide occluded forms, and Zn in mineral forms due to the high background values.

  19. Influence of humified organic matter on copper behavior in acid polluted soils

    Fernandez-Calvino, D., E-mail: davidfc@uvigo.e [Plant Biology and Soil Science Department, University of Vigo, Ourense Campus, 32004 Ourense (Spain); Soler-Rovira, P.; Polo, A. [Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 115 dpdo., 28006 Madrid (Spain); Arias-Estevez, M. [Plant Biology and Soil Science Department, University of Vigo, Ourense Campus, 32004 Ourense (Spain); Plaza, C. [Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 115 dpdo., 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    The main purpose of this work was to identify the role of soil humic acids (HAs) in controlling the behavior of Cu(II) in vineyard soils by exploring the relationship between the chemical and binding properties of HA fractions and those of soil as a whole. The study was conducted on soils with a sandy loam texture, pH 4.3-5.0, a carbon content of 12.4-41.0 g kg{sup -1} and Cu concentrations from 11 to 666 mg kg{sup -1}. The metal complexing capacity of HA extracts obtained from the soils ranged from 0.69 to 1.02 mol kg{sup -1}, and the stability constants for the metal ion-HA complexes formed, log K, from 5.07 to 5.36. Organic matter-quality related characteristics had little influence on Cu adsorption in acid soils, especially if compared with pH, the degree of Cu saturation and the amount of soil organic matter. - The effect of organic matter quality on Cu adsorption in acid soils was low compared with other soil characteristics such as pH or degree of Cu saturation.

  20. Soil acidity and mobile aluminum status in pseudogley soils in Čačak-Kraljevo basin

    Đalović Ivica G.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil acidity and aluminum toxicity are considered most damaging soil conditions affecting the growth of most crops. This paper reviews the results of tests of pH, exchangeable acidity and mobile aluminum (Al concentration in profiles of pseudogley soils from Čačak-Kraljevo basin. For that purpose, 102 soil pits were dug in 2009 in several sites around Čačak- Kraljevo basin. The tests encompassed 54 field, 28 meadow, and 20 forest soil samples. Samples of soil in the disturbed state were taken from the Ah and Eg horizons (102 samples, from the B1tg horizon in 39 field, 24 meadow and 15 forest pits (a total of 78 samples and from the B2tg horizon in 14 field, 11 meadow, and 4 forest pits (a total of 29 samples. Mean pH values (1M KCl of the tested soil profiles were 4.28, 3.90 and 3.80 for the Ah, Eg and B1tg horizons, respectively. Soil pH of forest samples was lower than those in meadow and arable land samples (mean values of 4.06, 3.97 and 3.85 for arable land, meadow and forest samples, respectively. Soil acidification was especially intensive in deep horizons, as 27% (Ah, 77% (Eg and 87% (B1tg soil samples had the pH value below 4.0. Mean values of total exchangeable acidity (TEA were 1.55, 2.33 and 3.40 meq 100 g-1 for the Ah, Eg and B1tg horizons, respectively. The TEA values in forest soils were considerably higher (3.39 meq 100 g-1 than those in arable soils and meadow soils (1.96 and 1.93, respectively. Mean mobile Al contents of tested soil samples were 11.02, 19.58 and 28.33 mg Al 100 g-1 for the Ah, Eg and B1tg horizons, respectively. According to the pH and TEA values, mobile Al was considerably higher in the forest soils (the mean value of 26.08 mg Al 100 g-1 than in the arable soils and meadow soils (the mean values of 16.85 and 16.00 mg Al 100 g-1, respectively. The Eg and B1tg horizons of the forest soil had especially high mobile Al contents (the mean values of 28.50 and 32.95 mg Al 100 g-1, respectively. High levels of

  1. Heparin cofactor II is degraded by heparan sulfate and dextran sulfate.

    Saito, Akio

    2015-02-20

    Heparan sulfate normally binds to heparin cofactor II and modulates the coagulation pathway by inhibiting thrombin. However, when human heparin cofactor II was incubated with heparan sulfate, heparin cofactor II became degraded. Other glycosaminoglycans were tested, including hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfates, dermatan sulfate, and heparin, but only dextran sulfate also degraded heparin cofactor II. Pretreatment of heparan sulfate with heparinase reduced its heparin cofactor II-degrading activity. Heparan sulfate and dextran sulfate diminished the thrombin inhibitory activity of heparin cofactor II. Other serpins, including antithrombin III and pigment epithelium-derived factor, were also degraded by heparan sulfate. This is the first evidence of acidic polysaccharides exhibiting protein-degrading activity without the aid of other proteins. PMID:25600805

  2. Dolomite application to acidic soils: a promising option for mitigating N2O emissions.

    Shaaban, Muhammad; Peng, Qi-An; Hu, Ronggui; Wu, Yupeng; Lin, Shan; Zhao, Jinsong

    2015-12-01

    Soil acidification is one of the main problems to crop productivity as well as a potent source of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O). Liming practice is usually performed for the amelioration of acidic soils, but the effects of dolomite application on N2O emissions from acidic soils are still not well understood. Therefore, a laboratory study was conducted to examine N2O emissions from an acidic soil following application of dolomite. Dolomite was applied to acidic soil in a factorial design under different levels of moisture and nitrogen (N) fertilizer. Treatments were as follows: dolomite was applied as 0, 1, and 2 g kg(-1) soil (named as CK, L, and H, respectively) under two levels of moisture [i.e., 55 and 90 % water-filled pore space (WFPS)]. All treatments of dolomite and moisture were further amended with 0 and 200 mg N kg(-1) soil as (NH4)2SO4. Soil properties such as soil pH, mineral N (NH4 (+)-N and NO3 (-)-N), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and soil N2O emissions were analyzed throughout the study period. Application of N fertilizer rapidly increased soil N2O emissions and peaked at 0.59 μg N2O-N kg(-1) h(-1) under 90 % WFPS without dolomite application. The highest cumulative N2O flux was 246.32 μg N2O-N kg(-1) under 90 % WFPS without dolomite addition in fertilized soil. Addition of dolomite significantly (p ≤ 0.01) mitigated N2O emissions as soil pH increased, and H treatment was more effective for mitigating N2O emissions as compared to L treatment. The H treatment decreased the cumulative N2O emissions by up to 73 and 67 % under 55 and 90 % WFPS, respectively, in fertilized soil, and 60 and 68 % under 55 and 90 % WFPS, respectively, in unfertilized soil when compared to those without dolomite addition. Results demonstrated that application of dolomite to acidic soils is a promising option for mitigating N2O emissions. PMID:26289338

  3. Sorption of a triazol derivative by soils: importance of surface acidity

    2003-01-01

    The sorption of a triazol derivative, 1-(4-chlorophenyl)- 4,4-dimethyl-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)penten-3-ol with a common name of S3307D, on fifteen soils and three H2O2-treated soils was investigated. The sorption isotherm for each untreated and treated soil was non-linear, and was best fitted to Freundlich sorption equation. Soils containing high amount of clay content or organic matter or both sorbed much higher amounts of the chemical than soils that had low contents of these soil constituents. H2O2-treated soils showed considerable sorptive affinity for S3307D. It was concluded that both organic matter and mineral fraction in natural soils contributed to the sorption of the basic compound. Sorption by the H2O2 treated soils increased as suspension pH decreased, but all suspension pHs exceeded the pKa of the compound by more than two units. This implies that organic base protonation can occur on surfaces of soil components, and surface acidity (exchangeable acidity ) is important in sorption process of the organic base rather than suspension pH.

  4. Cu and Zn Speciation in an Acid Soil Amended with Alkaline Biosolids

    2002-01-01

    Fractionation of metals in a granite-derived acid sandy loam soil amended with alkaline-stabilised sewage sludge biosolids was conducted in order to assess metal bioavailability and environmental mobility. Soil solution was extracted by a centrifugation and filtration technique. Metal speciation in the soil solution was determined by a cation exchange resin method. Acetic acid and EDTA extracting solutions were used for extraction of metals in soil solid surfaces. Metal distribution in different fractions of soil solid phase was determined using a three-step sequential extraction scheme. The results show that the metals in the soil solution existed in different fractions with variable lability and metals in the soil solid phase were also present in various chemical forms with potentially different bioavailability and environmental mobility. Alkalinestabilised biosolids could elevate solubility of Cu and proportion of Cu in organically complexed fractions both in soil liquid and solid phases, and may therefore increase Cu mobility. In contrast, the biosolids lowered the concentrations of water-soluble Zn (labile fraction) and exchangeable Zn and may hence decrease bioavailability and mobility of Zn. However, Fe and Mn oxides bound and organic matter bound fractions are likely to be Zn pools in the sludge-amended soil. These consequences possibly result from the liming effect and metal speciation of the sludge product and the difference in the chemistry between the metals in soil.

  5. Influence of organic acids on the transport of heavy metals in soil.

    Schwab, A P; Zhu, D S; Banks, M K

    2008-06-01

    Vegetation historically has been an important part of reclamation of sites contaminated with metals, whether the objective was to stabilize the metals or remove them through phytoremediation. Understanding the impact of organic acids typically found in the rhizosphere would contribute to our knowledge of the impact of plants in contaminated environments. Heavy metal transport in soils in the presence of simple organic acids was assessed in two laboratory studies. In the first study, thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to investigate Zn, Cd, and Pb movement in a sandy loam soil as affected by soluble organic acids in the rhizosphere. Many of these organic acids enhanced heavy metal movement. For organic acid concentrations of 10mM, citric acid had the highest R(f) values (frontal distance moved by metal divided by frontal distance moved by the solution) for Zn, followed by malic, tartaric, fumaric, and glutaric acids. Citric acid also has the highest R(f) value for Cd movement followed by fumaric acid. Citric acid and tartaric acid enhanced Pb transport to the greatest degree. For most organic acids studied, R(f) values followed the trend Zn>Cd>Pb. Citric acid (10mM) increased R(f) values of Zn and Cd by approximately three times relative to water. In the second study, small soil columns were used to test the impact of simple organic acids on Zn, Cd, and Pb leaching in soils. Citric acid greatly enhanced Zn and Cd movement in soils but had little influence on Pb movement. The Zn and Cd in the effluents from columns treated with 10mM citric acid attained influent metal concentrations by the end of the experiment, but effluent metal concentrations were much less than influent concentrations for citrate <10mM. Exchangeable Zn in the soil columns was about 40% of total Zn, and approximately 80% total Cd was in exchangeable form. Nearly all of the Pb retained by the soil columns was exchangeable. PMID:18482743

  6. Models of Metabolic Community Structure in Martian Habitable Environments: Constraints from a Terrestrial Analog Acid-Sulfate Fumarole Environment, Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua

    Rogers, K. L.; McCollom, T. M.; Hynek, B. M.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial habitability in extreme environments on Earth is described by microscale geochemical conditions that constrain metabolic niches in concert with long-term habitat stability that is governed by dynamic geologic processes. Using terrestrial analogs to identify habitable martian environments requires correlating microscale geochemical constraints with reconstructions of past martian environments that are based on global-scale observations. While past martian environments can be characterized by primary parameters (e.g. pH, redox, mineralogy, thermal history), microbial habitability on Earth is a complex function of both primary and derived parameters (e.g. metabolic reaction energetics, chemical & thermal gradients, flow dynamics). In recent years we have been investigating acid-sulfate fumaroles at the Mars analog site, Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua, where habitability is constrained by steep thermal gradients, spatially- and temporally-variable vent dynamics, and limited water and nutrient availability. The most common niche identified thus far is found in fumaroles that host mixed photosynthetic and chemosynthetic endolithic microbial communities. One such endolith is dominated by acidic red algae (Cyanidiales), aerobic bacterial heterotrophs (Ktedonobacteria), and archaeal thermoacidophiles (Hyperthermus, Caldisphaera, and Thermofilum). An analysis of the metabolic structure suggests that primary production by the red algae supports the growth of heterotrophic thermoacidophiles. Diversification among the chemoheterotrophs with respect to temperature and oxygen tolerance suggests community adaptation to environmental gradients or variable venting dynamics. Furthermore, individual cells within the endolith are silica-encrusted, providing the possibility for biosignature formation and preservation. Putative hydrothermal environments on early Mars with similar conditions could have supported endolithic communities with comparable metabolic strategies. Even

  7. Soil Organic Nitrogen - Investigation of Soil Amino Acids and Proteinaceous Compounds

    Ma, Li

    2015-01-01

    Soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) are predominantly in organic form. Proteins/ peptides, as an important organic form of N, constitute a substantial part of soil organic matter. On one hand, proteins/peptides are an important N source for plants and microorganisms, particularly in soils where inorganic N is limited. On the other hand, their stabilization in soils by forming organo-mineral associates or macromolecule complex reduces the C loss as CO2 into the atmosphere. Therefore, studies on t...

  8. Productivity of Calliandra calothyrsus, Indigofera zollingeriana and Gliricidia sepium on acid soil in the greenhouse

    Iwan Herdiawan; Endang Sutedi

    2015-01-01

    Acid soil which contains Al3+ and Mn2 is generally unfavorable for crop including the tree legumes. The minerals are toxic to the plants resulted minimalization of growth and crop production. Caliandra calothyrsus, Indigofera zollingeriana, and Gliricidia sepium were tree legumes those are generally used for forage.  The aim of this study was to compare their tolerancy to Al3+ and growth production on acid soil. The plants were grown in ultisol soil with 4.57 of pH collected from Palm Oil pla...

  9. Extractive and oxidative removal of copper bound to humic acid in soil.

    Hwang, Bo-Ram; Kim, Eun-Jung; Yang, Jung-Seok; Baek, Kitae

    2015-04-01

    Copper (Cu) is often found strongly bound to natural organic matter (NOM) in soil through the formation of strong Cu-NOM complexes. Therefore, in order to successfully remediate Cu-contaminated soils, effective removal of Cu bound to soil organic matter should be considered. In this study, we investigated soil washing methods for Cu removal from a synthetic Cu-contaminated model silica soil coated with humic acid (HA) and from field contaminated soil. Various reagents were studied to extract Cu bound to NOM, which included oxidant (H2O2), base (NaOH), and chelating agents (citric acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)). Among the wash reagents, EDTA extracted Cu most effectively since EDTA formed very strong complexes with Cu, and Cu-HA complexes were transformed into Cu-EDTA complexes. NaOH extracted slightly less Cu compared to EDTA. HA was effectively extracted from the model soil under strongly alkaline conditions with NaOH, which seemed to concurrently release Cu bound to HA. However, chemical oxidation with H2O2 was not effective at destroying Cu-HA complexes. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis revealed that chelating agents such as citrate and EDTA were adsorbed onto the model soil via possible complexation between HA and extraction agents. The extraction of Cu from a field contaminated soil sample was effective with chelating agents, while oxidative removal with H2O2 and extractive removal with NaOH separated negligible amounts of Cu from the soil. Based on these results, Cu bound to organic matter in soil could be effectively removed by chelating agents, although remnant agents may remain in the soil. PMID:25388560

  10. Chicken manure biochar as liming and nutrient source for acid Appalachian soil.

    Hass, Amir; Gonzalez, Javier M; Lima, Isabel M; Godwin, Harry W; Halvorson, Jonathan J; Boyer, Douglas G

    2012-01-01

    Acid weathered soils often require lime and fertilizer application to overcome nutrient deficiencies and metal toxicity to increase soil productivity. Slow-pyrolysis chicken manure biochars, produced at 350 and 700°C with and without subsequent steam activation, were evaluated in an incubation study as soil amendments for a representative acid and highly weathered soil from Appalachia. Biochars were mixed at 5, 10, 20, and 40 g kg into a Gilpin soil (fine-loamy, mixed, active, mesic Typic Hapludult) and incubated in a climate-controlled chamber for 8 wk, along with a nonamended control and soil amended with agronomic dolomitic lime (AgLime). At the end of the incubation, soil pH, nutrient availability (by Mehlich-3 and ammonium bicarbonate diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid [AB-DTPA] extractions), and soil leachate composition were evaluated. Biochar effect on soil pH was process- and rate-dependent. Biochar increased soil pH from 4.8 to 6.6 at the high application rate (40 g kg), but was less effective than AgLime. Biochar produced at 350°C without activation had the least effect on soil pH. Biochar increased soil Mehlich-3 extractable micro- and macronutrients. On the basis of unit element applied, increase in pyrolysis temperature and biochar activation decreased availability of K, P, and S compared to nonactivated biochar produced at 350°C. Activated biochars reduced AB-DTPA extractable Al and Cd more than AgLime. Biochar did not increase NO in leachate, but increased dissolved organic carbon, total N and P, PO, SO, and K at high application rate (40 g kg). Risks of elevated levels of dissolved P may limit chicken manure biochar application rate. Applied at low rates, these biochars provide added nutritional value with low adverse impact on leachate composition. PMID:22751051

  11. Management and conservation of tropical acid soils for sustainable crop production. Proceedings of a consultants meeting

    Forests of the tropics are invaluable ecosystems of global, regional and local importance, particularly in terms of protection and conservation of biodiversity and water resources. The indiscriminate conversion of tropical forests into agricultural land as a result of intense human activities - logging and modem shifting cultivation - continues to cause soil erosion and degradation. However, the acid savannahs of the world, such as the cerrado of Brazil, the Llanos in Venezuela and Colombia, the savannahs of Africa, and the largely anthropic savannahs of tropical Asia, encompass vast areas of potentially arable land. The acid soils of the savannahs are mostly considered marginal because of low inherent fertility and susceptibility to rapid degradation. These constraints for agricultural development are exacerbated by the poverty of new settlers who try to cultivate such areas after deforestation. Low- or minimum-input systems are not sustainable on these tropical acid soils but, with sufficient investment and adequate technologies, they can be highly productive. Thus, there is a need to develop management practices for sustainable agricultural production systems on such savannah acid soils. The Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Sub-programme of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture strongly supports an integrated approach to soil, water and nutrient management within cropping systems. In this context, nuclear and related techniques can be used to better understand the processes and factors influencing the productivity of agricultural production systems, and improve them through the use of better soil, water and nutrient management practices. A panel of experts actively engaged in field projects on acid soils of savannah agro-ecosystems in the humid and sub-humid tropics convened in March 1999 in Vienna to review and discuss recent research progress, along the following main lines of investigation: (i) utilization of

  12. Removal of heavy metals from a contaminated soil using tartaric acid

    KE Xin; LI Pei-jun; ZHOU Qi-xing; ZHANG Yun; SUN Tie-heng

    2006-01-01

    This study reports the feasibility of remediation of a heavy metal (HM) contaminated soil using tartaric acid, an environmentally-friendly extractant. Batch experiments were performed to test the factors influencing remediation of the HM contaminated soil. An empirical model was employed to describe the kinetics of HM dissolution/desorption and to predict equilibrium concentrations of HMs in soil leachate. The changes of HMs in different fractions before and after tartaric acid treatment were also investigated. Tartaric acid solution containing HMs was regenerated by chestnut shells. Results show that utilization of tartaric acid was effective for removal of HMs from the contaminated soil, attaining 50%-60% of Cd, 40%-50% of Pb, 40%-50% of Cu and 20%-30% of Zn in the pH range of 3.5-4.0 within 24 h. Mass transfer coefficients for cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were much higher than those for copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn). Sequential fractionations of treated and untreated soil samples showed that tartaric acid was effective in removing the exchangeable, carbonate fractions of Cd, Zn and Cu from the contaminated soil. The contents of Pb and Cu in Fe-Mn oxide fraciton were also significantly decreased by tartaric acid treatment. One hundred milliliters of tartaric acid solution containing HMs could be regenerated by 10 g chestnut shells in a batch reactor. Such a remediation procedure indicated that tartaric acid is a promising agent for remediation of HM contaminated soils. However, further research is needed before the method can be practically used for in situ remediation of contaminated sites.

  13. Nitrogen saturation, soil acidification, and ecological effects in a subtropical pine forest on acid soil in southwest China

    Huang, Yongmei; Kang, Ronghua; Mulder, Jan; Zhang, Ting; Duan, Lei

    2015-11-01

    Elevated anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition has caused nitrate (NO3-) leaching, an indication of N saturation, in several temperate and boreal forests across the Northern Hemisphere. So far, the occurrence of N saturation in subtropical forests and its effects on the chemistry of the typically highly weathered soils, forest growth, and biodiversity have received little attention. Here we investigated N saturation and the effects of chronically high N inputs on soil and vegetation in a typical, subtropical Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) forest at Tieshanping, southwest China. Seven years of N flux data obtained in ambient conditions and in response to field manipulation, including a doubling of N input either as ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) or as sodium nitrate (NaNO3) solution, resulted in a unique set of N balance data. Our data showed extreme N saturation with near-quantitative leaching of NO3-, by far the dominant form of dissolved inorganic N in soil water. Even after 7 years, NH4+, added as NH4NO3, was nearly fully converted to NO3-, thus giving rise to a major acid input into the soil. Despite the large acid input, the decrease in soil pH was insignificant, due to pH buffering caused by Al3+ mobilization and enhanced SO42- adsorption. In response to the NH4NO3-induced increase in soil acidification and N availability, ground vegetation showed significant reduction of abundance and diversity, while Masson pine growth further declined. By contrast, addition of NaNO3 did not cause soil acidification. The comparison of NH4NO3 treatment and NaNO3 treatment indicated that pine growth decline was mainly attributed to acidification-induced nutrient imbalance, while the loss in abundance of major ground species was the combining effect of N saturation and acidification. Therefore, N emission control is of primary importance to curb further acidification and eutrophication of forest soils in much of subtropical south China.

  14. Growth response of Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. seedlings to phosphorus fertilization in acid soils from Kenya

    Karanja N.K.; Mwendwa K.A.; Zapata F.

    1999-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to assess the response of Grevillea robusta to phosphorus fertilization using acid soils showing low P levels from Eastern (Gituamba-Andosols) and Western (Kakamega-Acrisols) Kenya. In the first experiment P was applied as Minjingu phosphate rock (MPR- 13/P) at 0, 52 and 77 kg P per ha into 5 kg of soil. In the second experiment 2 g vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) soil + root inoculum per 5 kg soil was included in addition to the same MPR rates using Ka...

  15. Retention of available P in acid soils of tropical and subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests

    CHEN Jianhui; ZOU Xiaoming; YANG Xiaodong

    2007-01-01

    Precipitation of mineral phosphate is often recognized as a factor of limiting the availability of P in acidic soils of tropical and subtropical forests.For this paper,we studied the extractable P pools and their transformation rates in soils of a tropical evergreen forest at Xishuangbanna and a subtropical montane wet forest at the Ailao Mountains in order to understand the biogeochemical processes regulating P availability in acidic soils.The two forests differ in forest humus layer;it is deep in the Ailao forest while little is present in the Xishuangbanna forest.The extractable P pools by resin and sodium-bicarbonate decreased when soil organic carbon content was reduced.The lowest levels of extractable P pools occurred in the surface (0-10 era) mineral soils of the Xishuangbanna forest.However,microbial P in the mineral soil of the Xishuangbauna forest was twice that in the Ailao forest.Potential rates of microbial P immobilization were greater than those of organic P mineralization in mineral soils for both forests.We suggest that microbial P immobilization plays an essential role in avoiding mineral P precipitation and retaining available P of plant in tropical acidic soils,whereas both floor mass accumulation and microbial P immobilization function benefit retaining plant available P in subtropical montane wet forests.

  16. Removal of radium-226 from radium-contaminated soil using humic acid by column leaching method

    In this study, evaluation of radium-226 removal from radium-contaminated soil using humic acid extracted from peat soil by column leaching method was carried out. Humic acid of concentration 100 ppm and pH 7 was leached through a column packed with radium-contaminated soil and leachates collected were analysed with gamma spectrometer to determine the leached radium-226. Results obtained indicated low removal of radium-226 between 1 - 4 %. Meanwhile, leaching profile revealed that radium-226 was bound to soil components with three different strength, thus resulting in three phases of radium-226 removal. It was estimated that the total removal of radium-226 from 10 g radium-contaminated soil sample studied could be achieved using approximately 31500 - 31850 ml HA solutions with leaching rate of 1 ml/ min. (author)

  17. H-binding groups in lignite vs. soil humic acids: NICA-Donnan and spectroscopic parameters.

    Drosos, Marios; Jerzykiewicz, Maria; Deligiannakis, Yiannis

    2009-04-01

    A comparative study has been carried out for two sets of humic acids isolated from lignites and soils. H-binding data were analyzed using the NICA-Donnan model, for three Greek lignite humic acids (HA) plus IHSS Leonardite reference HA, and five Greek soil HAs plus a commercial peat HA. (13)C-CP-MAS NMR and H-binding data provide quantitative estimates for functional groups, showing that lignite HAs of diverse origin have strikingly homogeneous properties, while the H-binding structural units of soil HAs are characterized by a large degree of variability. Consistent differences between soil HA vs. lignite HA are revealed at the level of functional groups' concentrations. In the pH range 4 to 10, soil HA showed a charge variation 3.5 [equiv kg(-1)]. PMID:19144349

  18. Prolonged acid rain facilitates soil organic carbon accumulation in a mature forest in Southern China.

    Wu, Jianping; Liang, Guohua; Hui, Dafeng; Deng, Qi; Xiong, Xin; Qiu, Qingyan; Liu, Juxiu; Chu, Guowei; Zhou, Guoyi; Zhang, Deqiang

    2016-02-15

    With the continuing increase in anthropogenic activities, acid rain remains a serious environmental threat, especially in the fast developing areas such as southern China. To detect how prolonged deposition of acid rain would influence soil organic carbon accumulation in mature subtropical forests, we conducted a field experiment with simulated acid rain (SAR) treatments in a monsoon evergreen broadleaf forest at Dinghushan National Nature Reserve in southern China. Four levels of SAR treatments were set by irrigating plants with water of different pH values: CK (the control, local lake water, pH ≈ 4.5), T1 (water pH=4.0), T2 (water pH=3.5), and T3 (water pH=3.0). Results showed reduced pH measurements in the topsoil exposed to simulated acid rains due to soil acidification. Soil respiration, soil microbial biomass and litter decomposition rates were significantly decreased by the SAR treatments. As a result, T3 treatment significantly increased the total organic carbon by 24.5% in the topsoil compared to the control. Furthermore, surface soil became more stable as more recalcitrant organic matter was generated under the SAR treatments. Our results suggest that prolonged acid rain exposure may have the potential to facilitate soil organic carbon accumulation in the subtropical forest in southern China. PMID:26657252

  19. Barium Sulfate

    ... using x-rays or computed tomography (CAT scan, CT scan; a type of body scan that uses ... be clearly seen by x-ray examination or CT scan. ... more times before an x-ray examination or CT scan.If you are using a barium sulfate ...

  20. Organic Matter, Carbon and Humic Acids in Rehabilitated and Secondary Forest Soils

    Lee Y. Leng

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Tropical rainforests cover about 19.37 million ha (60% of Malaysia’s total area and about 8.71 million ha can be found in Sarawak, Malaysia. Excessive logging, mining and shifting cultivation contribute to deforestation in Sarawak. The objectives of this study were to: (i Quantify soil Organic Matter (SOM, Soil Organic Carbon (SOC and Humic Acids (HA in rehabilitated and secondary forest soils and (ii Compare SOM, SOC and HA sequestrations of both forests. Approach: Soil samples were collected from a 16 year old rehabilitated forest and a secondary forest at Universiti Putra Malaysia, Bintulu Campus. Fifteen samples were taken at random with a soil auger at 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm depths. The bulk densities at these depths were determined by the coring method. The bulk density method was used to quantify the total C (TC, Total Organic Carbon (TOC, Organic Matter (OM, Humic Acids (HA and total N at the stated sampling depths. Results: Regardless of forest soil type and depth, the amount of SOM of the two forests was similar. Except for 20-40 cm of the secondary forest soil whereby the quantity of total C sequestered was significantly lower than that of the rehabilitated forest soil, C sequestration was similar irrespective of forest type and depth. Nevertheless, stable C (organic carbon sequestered in HA was generally higher in the rehabilitated forest soil compared with the secondary forest soil. This was attributed to higher yield of HA in the rehabilitated forest soil partly due to better humification at 20-40 cm in the rehabilitated forest soil. Conclusion: Hence, the findings suggest that organic C in HA realistically reflects C sequestration in the soils of the two forests investigated.

  1. Response of soil respiration to acid rain in forests of different maturity in southern China.

    Guohua Liang

    Full Text Available The response of soil respiration to acid rain in forests, especially in forests of different maturity, is poorly understood in southern China despite the fact that acid rain has become a serious environmental threat in this region in recent years. Here, we investigated this issue in three subtropical forests of different maturity [i.e. a young pine forest (PF, a transitional mixed conifer and broadleaf forest (MF and an old-growth broadleaved forest (BF] in southern China. Soil respiration was measured over two years under four simulated acid rain (SAR treatments (CK, the local lake water, pH 4.5; T1, water pH 4.0; T2, water pH 3.5; and T3, water pH 3.0. Results indicated that SAR did not significantly affect soil respiration in the PF, whereas it significantly reduced soil respiration in the MF and the BF. The depressed effects on both forests occurred mostly in the warm-wet seasons and were correlated with a decrease in soil microbial activity and in fine root biomass caused by soil acidification under SAR. The sensitivity of the response of soil respiration to SAR showed an increasing trend with the progressive maturity of the three forests, which may result from their differences in acid buffering ability in soil and in litter layer. These results indicated that the depressed effect of acid rain on soil respiration in southern China may be more pronounced in the future in light of the projected change in forest maturity. However, due to the nature of this field study with chronosequence design and the related pseudoreplication for forest types, this inference should be read with caution. Further studies are needed to draw rigorous conclusions regarding the response differences among forests of different maturity using replicated forest types.

  2. Effects of precipitation on soil acid phosphatase activity in three successional forests in southern China

    W. Huang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is often a limiting nutrient for plant growth in tropical and subtropical forests. Global climate change has led to alterations in precipitation in the recent years, which inevitably influences P cycling. Soil acid phosphatase plays a vital role in controlling P mineralization, and its activity reflects the capacity of organic P mineralization potential in soils. In order to study the effects of precipitation on soil acid phosphatase activity, an experiment with precipitation treatments (no precipitation, natural precipitation and doubled precipitation in three successional forests in southern China was carried out. The three forests include Masson pine forest (MPF, coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest (MF and monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (MEBF. Results showed that driven by seasonality of precipitation, changes in soil acid phosphatase activities coincided with the seasonal climate pattern, with significantly higher values in the wet season than in the dry season. Soil acid phosphatase activities were closely linked to forest successional stages, with enhanced values in the later stages of forest succession. In the dry season, soil acid phosphatase activities in the three forests showed a rising trend with increasing precipitation treatments. In the wet season, soil acid phosphatase activity was depressed by no precipitation treatment in the three forests. However, doubled precipitation treatment exerted a significantly negative effect on it only in MEBF. These results indicate that the potential transformation rate of organic P might be more dependent on water in the dry season than in the wet season. A decrease in organic P turnover would occur in the three forests if there was a drought in a whole year in the future. More rainfall in the wet season would also be adverse to organic P turnover in MEBF due to its high soil moisture.

  3. Study on Humic Acids of the Soil Applied with Corn Stalk by Spectroscopy Measurements

    WU Jing-gui; WANG Ming-hui; JIANG Yi-mei; XU Yan

    2005-01-01

    Spectroscopy measurements (Fourier transform infrared differential spectroscopy, Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry) were performed to study the humic acids of the soil applied with corn stalk. The results showed that after incorporation of corn stalks into the soil, the soil humic acid (HA) changed significantly in different stages. During first 60 days, new HAs were formed by polymerization and seems to be similar to that of initial HAs from composting corn stalk, some little molecular organic matters also reacted with soil HAs and turned into parts of soil HAs. After 60 days of the corn stalk residue incorporation, new HAs were formed by polymerization of decomposed lignin molecules, some methylenes transformed into methyls and methoxyls since the 90th day. Application of corn stalk led to the increase of aliphatic components in soil HAs, the decrease in aromatic components of soil HAs and the suppression in oxidation degree of soil HAs. The average molecular weight of soil HAs also declined because of application of corn stalk.

  4. Simulation of soil response to acidic deposition scenarios in Europe

    The chemical response of European forest soils to three emission-deposition scenarios for the year 1960-2050, i.e. official energy pathways (OEP), current reduction plans (CRP) and maximum feasible reductions (MFR), was evaluated with the SMART model (Simulation Model for Acidification's Regional Trends). Calculations were made for coniferous and deciduous forests on 80 soil types occurring on the FAO soil map of Europe, using a gradient of 1.0 degree C longitude x 0.5 degree latitude. Results indicated that the area with nitrogen saturated soils, i.e. soils with elevated NO3 concentrations (>0.02 molcm-3) will increase in the future for all scenarios, even for the MFR scenario. The area with acidified soils, with a high Al concentration (> 0.2 molcm-3) and Al/BC ratio (>1 mol-1) and a low pH (3 and Al concentrations mainly occurred in western, central and eastern Europe. Uncertainties in the initial values of C/N ratios and base saturation, and in the description of N dynamics in the SMART model had the largest impact on the temporal development of forested areas exceeding critical parameter values. Despite uncertainties involved, predicted general trends are plausible and reliable. 61 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs

  5. H3OLa(SO4)2 . 3 H2O: a new acidic sulfate of the rare earth elements

    Colorless single crystals of H3OLa(SO4)2 . 3 H2O have been obtained by the reaction of La2O3 and sulfuric acid (80% H2SO4) at 150 C. In the crystal structure (monoclinic, P21/c, Z = 4, a = 1119.5(5), b = 693.3(2), c = 1357.4(4) pm, β = 110.94(4) ) La3+ is ninefold coordinated by oxygen atoms which belong to five SO4- ions and three H2O molecules. One of sulfate groups acts as a bidentate ligand. Hydrogen bonding is observed with H2O molecules as donors and acceptors. Furthermore, strong hydrogen bonds are formed between the H3O+ ions and oxygen atoms of the SO42- groups. (orig.)

  6. Effectiveness of acidic calcium sulfate with propionic and lactic acid and lactates as postprocessing dipping solutions to control Listeria monocytogenes on frankfurters with or without potassium lactate and stored vacuum packaged at 4.5 degrees C.

    Nuñez de Gonzalez, Maryuri T; Keeton, Jimmy T; Acuff, Gary R; Ringer, Larry J; Lucia, Lisa M

    2004-05-01

    The safety of ready-to-eat meat products such as frankfurters can be enhanced by treating with approved antimicrobial substances to control the growth of Listeria monocytogenes. We evaluated the effectiveness of acidic calcium sulfate with propionic and lactic acid, potassium lactate, or lactic acid postprocessing dipping solutions to control L. monocytogenes inoculated (ca. 10(8) CFU/ml) onto the surface of frankfurters with or without potassium lactate and stored in vacuum packages at 4.5 degrees C for up to 12 weeks. Two frankfurter formulations were manufactured without (control) or with potassium lactate (KL, 3.3% of a 60% [wt/wt] commercially available syrup). After cooking, chilling, and peeling, each batch was divided into inoculated (four strains of L. monocytogenes mixture) and noninoculated groups. Each group was treated with four different dips: (i) control (saline solution), (ii) acidic calcium sulfate with propionic and lactic acid (ACS, 1:2 water), (iii) KL, or (iv) lactic acid (LA, 3.4% of a 88% [wt/wt] commercially available syrup) for 30 s. Noninoculated frankfurters were periodically analyzed for pH, water activity, residual nitrite, and aerobic plate counts (APCs), and L. monocytogenes counts (modified Oxford medium) were determined on inoculated samples. Surface APC counts remained at or near the lower limit of detection (dip, which indicated a residual bactericidal effect when L. monocytogenes populations were monitored over 12 weeks. L. monocytogenes numbers were also reduced, but not to the same degree in franks made without or with KL and treated with LA. These results revealed the effectiveness of ACS (bactericidal effect) or LA (bacteriostatic effect) as postprocessing dipping solutions to inhibit or control the growth of L. monocytogenes on vacuum-packaged frankfurters stored at 4.5 degrees C for up to 12 weeks. PMID:15151227

  7. More evidence that anaerobic oxidation of methane is prevalent in soils: Is it time to upgrade our biogeochemical models?

    Gauthier, M.; Bradley, R.L.; Šimek, Miloslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 80, January (2015), s. 167-174. ISSN 0038-0717 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/09/1570 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : anaerobic oxidation of methane * isotope dilution * peatland soil * shoreline soil * acid sulfate soil * alternative electron acceptors Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.932, year: 2014

  8. Early indications of soil recovery from acidic deposition in U.S. red spruce forests

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Shortle, Walter C.; David, Mark B.; Smith, Kevin T.; Warby, Richard A.F.; Lapenis, Andrei G.

    2012-01-01

    Forty to fifty percent decreases in acidic deposition through the 1980s and 1990s led to partial recovery of acidified surface waters in the northeastern United States; however, the limited number of studies that have assessed soil change found increased soil acidification during this period. From existing data, it's not clear whether soils continued to worsen in the 1990s or if recovery had begun. To evaluate possible changes in soils through the 1990s, soils in six red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) stands in New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine, first sampled in 1992 to 1993, were resampled in 2003 to 2004. The Oa-horizon pH increased (P 42−, which decreased the mobility of Al throughout the upper soil profile. Results indicate a nascent recovery driven largely by vegetation processes.

  9. Emission control for precursors causing acid rain (V): Improvement of acid soil with the bio-briquette combustion ash.

    Dong, Xu-Hui; Sakamoto, Kazuhiko; Wang, Wei; Gao, Shi-Dong; Isobe, Yugo

    2004-01-01

    The bio-briquette technique which mixes coal, biomass and sulfur fixation agent and bio-briquettes under 3-5 t/cm2 line pressure has aroused people's attention in view of controlling the air pollution and the acid rain. In this paper, the physicochemical properties of bio-briquette and its ash were investigated. And the acid soil was improved by the bio-briquette combustion ash, which contained nutritive substances such as P, N, K and had the acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC). The pH, EC, effective nutrient elements (Ca, Mg, K, P and N), heavy metal elements (Al, Cu, Cd, Cr, Zn and Mn) and acid-neutralizing capacity change of ash-added soils within the range of 0-10%, were also studied. Specially, when 5% bio-briquette combustion ash was added to the tested soil, the content of the effective elements such as Ca, Mg and K rose by 100 times, 7 times and twice, respectively. The total nitrogen also increased by about twice. The results showed the oxyanions such as that of Al, Cu, Cd, Cr, Zn and Mn were not potentially dangerous, because they were about the same as the averages of them in Chinese soil. It is shown that the ANC became stronger, though the ANC hardly increases in the ash-added soil. On the basis of the evaluation indices, it is concluded that the best mixture ratio is to add 2.5%-8% of the bio-briquette combustion ash to the tested soil. PMID:15559796

  10. Emission control for precursors causing acid rain(V):Improvement of acid soil with the bio-briquette combustion ash

    DONG Xu-hui; SAKAMOTO Kazuhiko; WANG Wei; GAO Shi-dong; ISOBE Yugo

    2004-01-01

    The bio-briquette technique which mixes coal, biomass and sulfur fixation agent and bio-briquettes under 3-5 t/cm2 line pressure has aroused people's attention in view of controlling the air pollution and the acid rain. In this paper, the physicochemical properties of bio-briquette and its ash were investigated. And the acid soil was improved by the bio-briquette combustion ash, which contained nutritive substances such as P, N, K and had the acid-neutralizing capacity(ANC). The pH, EC, effective nutrient elements(Ca, Mg, K, P and N), heavy metal elements(Al, Cu, Cd, Cr, Zn and Mn) and acid-neutralizing capacity change of ash-added soils within the range of 0%-10%, were also studied. Specially, when 5% bio-briquette combustion ash was added to the tested soil, the content of the effective elements such as Ca, Mg and K rose by 100 times, 7 times and twice, respectively. The total nitrogen also increased by about twice. The results showed the oxyanions such as that of Al, Cu, Cd, Cr, Zn and Mn were not potentially dangerous, because they were about the same as the averages of them in Chinese soil. It is shown that the ANC became stronger, though the ANC hardly increases in the ash-added soil. On the basis of the evaluation indices, it is concluded that the best mixture ratio is to add 2.5%-8% of the bio-briquette combustion ash to the tested soil.

  11. Metabolomics analysis reveals elevation of 3-indoxyl sulfate in plasma and brain during chemically-induced acute kidney injury in mice: Investigation of nicotinic acid receptor agonists

    An investigative renal toxicity study using metabolomics was conducted with a potent nicotinic acid receptor (NAR) agonist, SCH 900424. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques were used to identify small molecule biomarkers of acute kidney injury (AKI) that could aid in a better mechanistic understanding of SCH 900424-induced AKI in mice. The metabolomics study revealed 3-indoxyl sulfate (3IS) as a more sensitive marker of SCH 900424-induced renal toxicity than creatinine or urea. An LC-MS assay for quantitative determination of 3IS in mouse matrices was also developed. Following treatment with SCH 900424, 3IS levels were markedly increased in murine plasma and brain, thereby potentially contributing to renal- and central nervous system (CNS)-related rapid onset of toxicities. Furthermore, significant decrease in urinary excretion of 3IS in those animals due to compromised renal function may be associated with the elevation of 3IS in plasma and brain. These data suggest that 3IS has a potential to be a marker of renal and CNS toxicities during chemically-induced AKI in mice. In addition, based on the metabolomic analysis other statistically significant plasma markers including p-cresol-sulfate and tryptophan catabolites (kynurenate, kynurenine, 3-indole-lactate) might be of toxicological importance but have not been studied in detail. This comprehensive approach that includes untargeted metabolomic and targeted bioanalytical sample analyses could be used to investigate toxicity of other compounds that pose preclinical or clinical development challenges in a pharmaceutical discovery and development. - Research highlights: → Nicotinic acid receptor agonist, SCH 900424, caused acute kidney injury in mice. → MS-based metabolomics was conducted to identify potential small molecule markers of renal toxicity. → 3-indoxyl-sulfate was found to be as a more sensitive marker of renal toxicity than

  12. Understanding the mechanism behind the nitrous acid (HONO) emissions from the northern soils

    Bhattarai, Hem Raj; Siljanen, Henri MP; Biasi, Christina; Maljanen, Marja

    2016-04-01

    The interest of the flux of nitrous acid (HONO) from soils has recently increased. HONO is an important source of the oxidant OH- radical in the troposphere and thus results a reduction of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in the atmosphere. Soils have been recently found to be potential sources of HONO as these emissions are linked to other nitrogen cycle processes, especially presence of nitrite in soils. Ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) have been suggested as possible yet substantial sources of HONO. Along with soil pH, other physical properties such as C:N, nitrogen availability, soil moisture and temperature may effect HONO emissions. Our preliminary results demonstrate that drained acidic peatlands with a low C:N produces higher NO, N2O and HONO emissions compared to those in pristine peatlands and upland forest soils. This study will identify the hotspots and the process involved in HONO emissions in northern ecosystems. Along with HONO, we will examine the emissions of NO and N2O to quantify the related N-gases emitted. These results will add a new piece of information in our knowledge of the nitrogen cycle. Soil samples will be collected from several boreal and arctic sites in Finland, Sweden and Russia. In the laboratory, soil samples will be manipulated based on previously described soil physical properties. This will be followed by labelling experiment coupled with selective nitrification inhibitor experiment in the soils. Our first hypothesis is that northern ecosystems are sources of HONO. Second, is that the soil properties (C:N ratio, moisture, N-availability, pH) regulate the magnitude of HONO emissions from northern soils. Third is that the first step of nitrification (ammonium oxidation) is the main pathway to produce HONO. This study will show that the northern ecosystems could be sources of HONO and therefore increasing the oxidizing capacity of the lower atmosphere.

  13. Ecosystem-specific selection of microbial ammonia oxidizers in an acid soil

    Saiful Alam, M.; Ren, G.; Lu, L.; Zheng, Y.; Peng, X.; Jia, Z.

    2013-01-01

    The function of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) depends on the availability of ammonia substrate and the supply of oxygen. The interactions and evolutions of AOA and AOB communities along ecological gradients of substrate availability in complex environment have been much debated, but rarely tested. In this study, two ecosystems of maize and rice crops under different fertilization regimes were selected to investigate the community diversification of soil AOA and AOB in response to long-term field fertilization and flooding management in an acid soil. Real-time quantitative PCR of amoA genes demonstrated that the abundance of AOA was significantly stimulated after conversion of upland to paddy soils, while slight decline of AOB populations was observed. DGGE fingerprints of amoA genes further revealed remarkable changes in community compositions of AOA in paddy soil when compared to upland soil. Sequencing analysis revealed that upland soil was dominated by AOA within the soil group 1.1b lineage, while the marine group 1.1a lineage predominated AOA communities in paddy soils. Irrespective of upland and paddy soils, long-term field fertilizations led to higher abundance of amoA genes of AOA and AOB than control treatment that received no fertilization, whereas archaeal amoA gene abundances outnumbered their bacterial counterpart in all samples. Phylogenetic analyses of amoA genes showed that Nitrosospira cluster 3-like AOB dominated bacterial ammonia oxidizers in both paddy and upland soils, regardless of fertilization treatments. The results of this study suggest that the marine group 1.1a AOA could be better adapted to low-oxygen environment than AOA ecotypes of the soil group 1.1b lineage, and implicate that long-term flooding as the dominant selective force driving the community diversification of AOA populations in the acid soil tested.

  14. Ecosystem-specific selection of microbial ammonia oxidizers in an acid soil

    M. Saiful Alam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The function of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA and bacteria (AOB depends on the availability of ammonia substrate and the supply of oxygen. The interactions and evolutions of AOA and AOB communities along ecological gradients of substrate availability in complex environment have been much debated, but rarely tested. In this study, two ecosystems of maize and rice crops under different fertilization regimes were selected to investigate the community diversification of soil AOA and AOB in response to long-term field fertilization and flooding management in an acid soil. Real-time quantitative PCR of amoA genes demonstrated that the abundance of AOA was significantly stimulated after conversion of upland to paddy soils, while slight decline of AOB populations was observed. DGGE fingerprints of amoA genes further revealed remarkable changes in community compositions of AOA in paddy soil when compared to upland soil. Sequencing analysis revealed that upland soil was dominated by AOA within the soil group 1.1b lineage, while the marine group 1.1a lineage predominated AOA communities in paddy soils. Irrespective of upland and paddy soils, long-term field fertilizations led to higher abundance of amoA genes of AOA and AOB than control treatment that received no fertilization, whereas archaeal amoA gene abundances outnumbered their bacterial counterpart in all samples. Phylogenetic analyses of amoA genes showed that Nitrosospira cluster 3-like AOB dominated bacterial ammonia oxidizers in both paddy and upland soils, regardless of fertilization treatments. The results of this study suggest that the marine group 1.1a AOA could be better adapted to low-oxygen environment than AOA ecotypes of the soil group 1.1b lineage, and implicate that long-term flooding as the dominant selective force driving the community diversification of AOA populations in the acid soil tested.

  15. Report of the consultants' meeting on the use of nuclear techniques to develop management practices for increasing crop production and soil fertility in acid soils

    A Consultants' Meeting on 'The use of nuclear techniques to develop management practices for increasing crop production and soil fertility in acid soils' was held in Vienna at the IAEA headquarters from March 1-3, 1999. The meeting was attended by six consultants with expertise in tropical acid soils drawn from International Agricultural Research Organisations and universities together with staff members of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division. The consultants' presentations reviewed advances in approaches for the sustainable intensification of agricultural productivity in tropical acid soils in Latin America, Africa and South East Asia. The consultants also provided recommendations on the formulation and implementation of the future CRP

  16. Chemical oxidation of phenolic acids by soil iron and manganese oxides

    The oxidation of six phenolic acids by soil Fe and Mn oxides was demonstrated by changes in phenolic acid extractability from soil with time, by production of Fe(II) and soluble Mn from the oxidation reaction, by quantitative recoveries of added phenolic acids from soil pretreated with dithionite-citrate to remove Fe and Mn oxides, and by the reactivity of phenolic acids in the presence of pure Mn and Fe oxides. The reactivities of phenolic acids were associated with the structures of the chemicals. Increasing methoxy substitution on the aromatic ring increased reactivity, and cinnamic acid derivatives were more reactive than benzoic acid derivatives. Oxidation products of 14C labeled ferulic acid were sorbed to MnO2 within minutes and were unextractable by organic solvents unless the mineral was pretreated with 6 M HCl or 0.5 M NaOH. The oxidation rate of ferulic acid by MnO2 approached zero after four days even with a surplus of reactants

  17. Influence of Biomass Burning on Temporal and Diurnal Variations of Acidic Gases, Particulate Nitrate, and Sulfate in a Tropical Urban Atmosphere

    Sailesh N. Behera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the temporal and diurnal distributions of atmospheric acidic gases (sulphur dioxide (SO2, nitrous acid (HONO, and nitric acid (HNO3 and those of particulate nitrate (NO3- and sulfate (SO42- through a comprehensive field campaign during the largest smoke haze episode in Singapore, a representative country in Southeast Asia (SEA. To identify the atmospheric behavior of these pollutants during the smoke haze period, the data generated from the measurement campaign were divided into three distinct periods: prehaze, during haze, and posthaze periods. The 24 hr average data indicated that ambient SO2, HONO, and HNO3 during the smoke haze episodes increased by a factor ranging from 1.2 to 2.6 compared to those during the prehaze and posthaze periods. Similarly, in the case of particulates SO42- and NO3-, the factor ranged from 2.3 to 4.2. Backward air trajectories were constructed and used to find the sources of biomass burning to the recurring smoke haze in this region. The air trajectory analysis showed that the smoke haze episodes experienced in Singapore were influenced by transboundary air pollution, caused by severe biomass burning events in the islands of Indonesia.

  18. Distribution and elevated soil pools of mercury in an acidic subtropical forest of southwestern China

    Tieshanping catchment in southwest China was supposed to a large pool of atmospheric mercury. This work was aimed to examine THg (total mercury) concentrations, pools and influence factors in the acidic forest. THg concentrations were highly elevated in the study area, which was significantly depended on TOM (total organic matter) concentrations and altitudinal elevation, whereas negatively correlated with soil pH. The pools of mercury accumulated in soils were correlated strongly with the stocks of TOM and altitude, ranged from 5.9 to 32 mg m−2 and averaged 14.5 mg m−2, indicating that the acidic forest was a great sink of atmospheric mercury in southwest China. THg concentrations in stream waters decreased with altitude increasing and regression analyses showed that soil/air exchange flux would be increased with the decrease of altitude. Present results suggest that elevation increasing decreases THg losses as low THg concentrations in runoffs and volatilization from soils. - Highlights: • Soil THg pools and influence factors were studied at an acidic catchment in southwestern China. • THg concentrations was increased significantly with TOM concentrations and altitude increasing, decreased with pH. • THg pools in soils were highly elevated and deepened on TOM pools and altitude. • Difference in THg output by volatilization and runoff was a major reason for THg distribution at different altitudes. - Mercury pools increased with altitude increasing as mercury lost more at low elevation area in acidic subtropical forest

  19. Studies of the compositions of humic acids from Amazonian Dark Earth soils.

    Novotny, Etelvino H; deAzevedo, Eduardo R; Bonagamba, Tito J; Cunha, Tony J F; Madari, Beáta E; de M Benites, Vinícius; Hayes, Michael H B

    2007-01-15

    The compositions of humic acids (HAs) isolated from cultivated and forested "Terra Preta de Indio" or Amazonian Dark Earth soils (anthropogenic soils) were compared with those from adjacent non-anthropogenic soils (control soils) using elemental and thermogravimetric analyses, and a variety of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. The thermogravimetric index, which indicates the molecular thermal resistance, was greater for the anthropogenic soils than for the control soils suggesting polycyclic aromatic components in the former. The cultivated anthropogenic soils were more enriched in C and depleted in H than the anthropogenic soils under forest, as the result of the selective degradation of aliphatic structures and the possible enrichment of H-deficient condensed aromatic structures. The combination of variable amplitude cross-polarization (VACP) and chemical shift anisotropy with total suppression of spinning sidebands experiments with composite pi pulses could be used to quantify the aromaticity of the HAs from the anthropogenic soils. From principal component analysis, using the VACP spectra, it was possible to separate the different constituents of the HAs, such as the carboxylated aromatic structures, from the anthropogenic soils and plant derived compounds. The data show that the HAs from anthropogenic soils have high contents of aryl and ionisable oxygenated functional groups, and the major functionalities from adjacent control soils are oxygenated functional groups from labile structures (carbohydrates, peptides, and with evidence for lignin structures). The anthropogenic soils HAs can be considered to be more recalcitrant, and with more stable reactive functional groups which may, in part, explain their more sustainable fertility due to the organic matter contribution to the soil cation exchange capacity. PMID:17310698

  20. Effect of a Long Chain Carboxylate Acid on Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelle Structure: A Small-angle Neutron Scattering Study

    The effect of different hydrocarbon chain length of carboxylate acid, i.e. dodecanoic acid, CH3(CH2)10COOH and hexadecanoic acid, CH3(CH2)14COOH as a co-surfactant in the 0.3M SDS micellar solution has been studied using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). Here, the present of dodecanoic acid has induced the SDS structural micelles. The ellipsoid micelles structures changed significantly in length (major axis) from 21.7 Armstrong to 35.5 Armstrong at a fixed minor axis of 16.7 Armstrong in the present of 0.005M to 0.1M dodecanoic acid. Nevertheless, this effect was not shown in the present of hexadecanoic acid with the same concentration range. The present of hexadecanoic acid molecules gave a small effect on growth of SDS micelles where the major axis of the micelle was simply elongated from 21.5 Armstrong to 23.5 Armstrong. It showed that the appropriate hydrocarbon chain length between surfactant and co-surfactant molecules is one of the determining factors in forming a mixed micelles structure. (author)

  1. Rhizosheaths on wheat grown in acid soils: phosphorus acquisition efficiency and genetic control.

    James, Richard A; Weligama, Chandrakumara; Verbyla, Klara; Ryan, Peter R; Rebetzke, Gregory J; Rattey, Allan; Richardson, Alan E; Delhaize, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    Rhizosheaths comprise soil bound to roots, and in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rhizosheath size correlates with root hair length. The aims of this study were to determine the effect that a large rhizosheath has on the phosphorus (P) acquisition by wheat and to investigate the genetic control of rhizosheath size in wheat grown on acid soil.Near-isogenic wheat lines differing in rhizosheath size were evaluated on two acid soils. The soils were fertilized with mineral nutrients and included treatments with either low or high P. The same soils were treated with CaCO3 to raise the pH and detoxify Al(3+) Genotypic differences in rhizosheath size were apparent only when soil pH was low and Al(3+) was present. On acid soils, a large rhizosheath increased shoot biomass compared with a small rhizosheath regardless of P supply. At low P supply, increased shoot biomass could be attributed to a greater uptake of soil P, but at high P supply the increased biomass was due to some other factor. Generation means analysis indicated that rhizosheath size on acid soil was controlled by multiple, additive loci. Subsequently, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of an F6 population of recombinant inbred lines identified five major loci contributing to the phenotype together accounting for over 60% of the total genetic variance. One locus on chromosome 1D accounted for 34% of the genotypic variation. Genetic control of rhizosheath size appears to be relatively simple and markers based on the QTL provide valuable tools for marker assisted breeding. PMID:26873980

  2. Suppression of Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli on Bean by Aluminum in Acid Soils.

    Furuya, H; Takahashi, T; Matsumoto, T

    1999-01-01

    ABSTRACT The severity of bean root rot caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli in vitro was studied with regard to exchangeable soil aluminum for 25 soil samples collected from northeastern Honshyu island, Japan. Of these, 24 were Andosols, typically acidic and of volcanic ash origin. Disease severity was assessed based on the number of lesions produced by the pathogen on a 6-cm section of bean stem buried and incubated for 8 days at 25 degrees C in artificially infested soil samples. The number of lesions differed considerably among soil samples. In all soils in which disease incidence was very low, macroconidial germination was strongly inhibited. The inhibition was observed in all soil samples with exchangeable aluminum contents of at least 0.4 meq/100 g of soil, although it is unclear if this concentration is the lowest limit for inhibition. When soil pH was 5.6 or lower, higher amounts of exchangeable aluminum were detected from soils in which the major clay mineralogy was chloritized 2:1 minerals, while no or limited amounts of aluminum were detected from soils in which the major clay mineralogy was allophane/imogolite. Macroconidial germination and disease incidence are thus closely related to clay mineralogy, which regulates the behavior of exchangeable aluminum. PMID:18944802

  3. Lanthanides in humic acids of soils, paleosols and cultural horizons (Southern Urals, Russia)

    Dergacheva, Maria; Nekrasova, Olga

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, commercial interest in this element group increases. As consequence, their content may increase in environment, including soil and soil components. This requires quantitative estimations of rare metal accumulation by soils and their humic acids. The latter began to be actively used as fertilizers and it is alarming, because information about rare element participation (including lanthanides) in metabolism of live organisms is inconsistent. There was investigated lanthanide content in humic acids extracted from humus horizons of different objects of archaeological site Steppe 7 (Southern Urals, Russia). Humic acids were extracted from modern background soils and paleosols and cultural horizons of the Bronze Age as well. According to archaeological data burial of paleosols under a barrow and formation of the cultural layer (CL) took place 3600 and 3300-3200 years BP, respectively. The area of the site is located in the forest-steppe landscape, far from industrial plants. Lanthanides in soils are immobile elements, and such number of objects will allow to receive information about their content changing over time and to have more detailed basis for the future monitoring of this territory as well. Humic acids were precipitated from 0,1 n NaOH extraction after preliminary decalcification. Cleaning of humic acid preparations by 6N HCl or HF+HCl was not carried out. Determination of La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu was performed by multi-element neutron-activation analysis. According to carried out diagnostics and reconstruction of natural conditions of all object formation, all objects correspond to steppe type landscape with a different level of humidity. Analysis of received data has shown that cerium is presented in humic acid preparations in the largest quantities among lanthanides (on average 4,0-6,6 mg/kg of preparation mass). The average content of samarium, europium, ytterbium and lutetium in the humic acids in the order of magnitude ranges from 0

  4. Chemical stabilization of cadmium in acidic soil using alkaline agronomic and industrial by-products.

    Chang, Yao-Tsung; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Jheng, Shao-Liang

    2013-01-01

    In situ immobilization of heavy metals using reactive or stabilizing materials is a promising solution for soil remediation. Therefore, four agronomic and industrial by-products [wood biochar (WB), crushed oyster shell (OS), blast furnace slag (BFS), and fluidized-bed crystallized calcium (FBCC)] and CaCO3 were added to acidic soil (Cd = 8.71 mg kg(-1)) at the rates of 1%, 2%, and 4% and incubated for 90 d. Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.) was then planted in the soil to test the Cd uptake. The elevation in soil pH caused by adding the by-products produced a negative charge on the soil surface, which enhanced Cd adsorption. Consequently, the diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd content decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in the incubated soil. These results from the sequential extraction procedure indicated that Cd converted from the exchangeable fraction to the carbonate or Fe-Mn oxide fraction. The long-term effectiveness of Cd immobilization caused by applying the 4 by-products was much greater than that caused by applying CaCO3. Plant shoot biomass clearly increased because of the by-product soil amendment. Cd concentration in the shoots was < 10.0 mg kg(-1) following by-product application, as compared to 24 mg kg(-1) for plants growing in unamended soil. PMID:23947715

  5. N{sub 2}O production pathways in the subtropical acid forest soils in China

    Zhang Jinbo [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Cai Zucong, E-mail: zccai@mail.issas.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Zhu Tongbin [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2011-07-15

    To date, N{sub 2}O production pathways are poorly understood in the humid subtropical and tropical forest soils. A {sup 15}N-tracing experiment was carried out under controlled laboratory conditions to investigate the processes responsible for N{sub 2}O production in four subtropical acid forest soils (pH<4.5) in China. The results showed that denitrification was the main source of N{sub 2}O emission in the subtropical acid forest soils, being responsible for 56.1%, 53.5%, 54.4%, and 55.2% of N{sub 2}O production, in the GC, GS, GB, and TC soils, respectively, under aerobic conditions (40%-52%WFPS). The heterotrophic nitrification (recalcitrant organic N oxidation) accounted for 27.3%-41.8% of N{sub 2}O production, while the contribution of autotrophic nitrification was little in the studied subtropical acid forest soils. The ratios of N{sub 2}O-N emission from total nitrification (heterotrophic+autotrophic nitrification) were higher than those in most previous references. The soil with the lowest pH and highest organic-C content (GB) had the highest ratio (1.63%), suggesting that soil pH-organic matter interactions may exist and affect N{sub 2}O product ratios from nitrification. The ratio of N{sub 2}O-N emission from heterotrophic nitrification varied from 0.02% to 25.4% due to soil pH and organic matter. Results are valuable in the accurate modeling of N2O production in the subtropical acid forest soils and global budget. - Highlights: {yields} We studied N{sub 2}O production pathways in subtropical acid forest soil under aerobic conditions. {yields} Denitrification was the main source of N{sub 2}O production in subtropical acid forest soils. {yields} Heterotrophic nitrification accounted for 27.3%-41.8% of N{sub 2}O production. {yields} While, contribution of autotrophic nitrification to N{sub 2}O production was little. {yields} Ratios of N{sub 2}O-N emission from nitrification were higher than those in most previous references.

  6. A conceptual framework: Redefining forest soil's critical acid loads under a changing climate

    McNulty, Steven G., E-mail: steve_mcnulty@ncsu.ed [USDA Forest Service, Eastern Forests Environmental Assessment Threats Center, Southern Global Change Program, 920 Main Campus Dr. Suite 300, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States); Boggs, Johnny L. [USDA Forest Service, Eastern Forests Environmental Assessment Threats Center, Southern Global Change Program, 920 Main Campus Dr. Suite 300, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Federal agencies of several nations have or are currently developing guidelines for critical forest soil acid loads. These guidelines are used to establish regulations designed to maintain atmospheric acid inputs below levels shown to damage forests and streams. Traditionally, when the critical soil acid load exceeds the amount of acid that the ecosystem can absorb, it is believed to potentially impair forest health. The excess over the critical soil acid load is termed the exceedance, and the larger the exceedance, the greater the risk of ecosystem damage. This definition of critical soil acid load applies to exposure of the soil to a single, long-term pollutant (i.e., acidic deposition). However, ecosystems can be simultaneously under multiple ecosystem stresses and a single critical soil acid load level may not accurately reflect ecosystem health risk when subjected to multiple, episodic environmental stress. For example, the Appalachian Mountains of western North Carolina receive some of the highest rates of acidic deposition in the eastern United States, but these levels are considered to be below the critical acid load (CAL) that would cause forest damage. However, the area experienced a moderate three-year drought from 1999 to 2002, and in 2001 red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) trees in the area began to die in large numbers. The initial survey indicated that the affected trees were killed by the southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm.). This insect is not normally successful at colonizing these tree species because the trees produce large amounts of oleoresin that exclude the boring beetles. Subsequent investigations revealed that long-term acid deposition may have altered red spruce forest structure and function. There is some evidence that elevated acid deposition (particularly nitrogen) reduced tree water uptake potential, oleoresin production, and caused the trees to become more susceptible to insect colonization during the drought period

  7. A conceptual framework: Redefining forest soil's critical acid loads under a changing climate

    Federal agencies of several nations have or are currently developing guidelines for critical forest soil acid loads. These guidelines are used to establish regulations designed to maintain atmospheric acid inputs below levels shown to damage forests and streams. Traditionally, when the critical soil acid load exceeds the amount of acid that the ecosystem can absorb, it is believed to potentially impair forest health. The excess over the critical soil acid load is termed the exceedance, and the larger the exceedance, the greater the risk of ecosystem damage. This definition of critical soil acid load applies to exposure of the soil to a single, long-term pollutant (i.e., acidic deposition). However, ecosystems can be simultaneously under multiple ecosystem stresses and a single critical soil acid load level may not accurately reflect ecosystem health risk when subjected to multiple, episodic environmental stress. For example, the Appalachian Mountains of western North Carolina receive some of the highest rates of acidic deposition in the eastern United States, but these levels are considered to be below the critical acid load (CAL) that would cause forest damage. However, the area experienced a moderate three-year drought from 1999 to 2002, and in 2001 red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) trees in the area began to die in large numbers. The initial survey indicated that the affected trees were killed by the southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm.). This insect is not normally successful at colonizing these tree species because the trees produce large amounts of oleoresin that exclude the boring beetles. Subsequent investigations revealed that long-term acid deposition may have altered red spruce forest structure and function. There is some evidence that elevated acid deposition (particularly nitrogen) reduced tree water uptake potential, oleoresin production, and caused the trees to become more susceptible to insect colonization during the drought period

  8. A slight recovery of soils from Acid Rain over the last three decades is not reflected in the macro nutrition of beech (Fagus sylvatica) at 97 forest stands of the Vienna Woods.

    Berger, Torsten W; Türtscher, Selina; Berger, Pétra; Lindebner, Leopold

    2016-09-01

    Rigorous studies of recovery from soil acidification are rare. Hence, we resampled 97 old-growth beech stands in the Vienna Woods. This study exploits an extensive data set of soil (infiltration zone of stemflow and between trees area at different soil depths) and foliar chemistry from three decades ago. It was hypothesized that declining acidic deposition is reflected in soil and foliar chemistry. Top soil pH within the stemflow area increased significantly by 0.6 units in both H2O and KCl extracts from 1984 to 2012. Exchangeable Ca and Mg increased markedly in the stemflow area and to a lower extent in the top soil of the between trees area. Trends of declining base cations in the lower top soil were probably caused by mobilization of organic S and associated leaching with high amounts of sulfate. Contents of C, N and S decreased markedly in the stemflow area from 1984 to 2012, suggesting that mineralization rates of organic matter increased due to more favorable soil conditions. It is concluded that the top soil will continue to recover from acidic deposition. However, in the between trees areas and especially in deeper soil horizons recovery may be highly delayed. The beech trees of the Vienna Woods showed no sign of recovery from acidification although S deposition levels decreased. Release of historic S even increased foliar S contents. Base cation levels in the foliage declined but are still adequate for beech trees. Increasing N/nutrient ratios over time were considered not the result of marginally higher N foliar contents in 2012 but of diminishing nutrient uptake due to the decrease in ion concentration in soil solution. The mean foliar N/P ratio already increased to the alarming value of 31. Further nutritional imbalances will predispose trees to vitality loss. PMID:27344089

  9. Influence of soil tillage and erosion on the dispersion of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in agricultural soils

    Todorovic, Gorana Rampazzo; Rampazzo, Nicola; Mentler, Axel; Blum, Winfried E. H.; Eder, Alexander; Strauss, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Erosion processes can strongly influence the dissipation of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid applied with Roundup Max® in agricultural soils; in addition, the soil structure state shortly before erosive precipitations fall can be a key parameter for the distribution of glyphosate and its metabolite. Field rain simulation experiments showed that severe erosion processes immediately after application of Roundup Max® can lead to serious unexpected glyphosate loss even in soils with a high presumed adsorption like the Cambisols, if their structure is unfavourable. In one of the no-tillage-plot of the Cambisol, up to 47% of the applied glyphosate amount was dissipated with surface run-off. Moreover, at the Chernozem site with high erosion risk and lower adsorption potential, glyphosate could be found in collected percolation water transported far outside the 2x2 m experimental plots. Traces of glyphosate were found also outside the treated agricultural fields.

  10. Modelling the role of humic acid in radiocaesium distribution in a British upland peat soil

    The significance of exchange sites on organic matter in the retention of radiocaesium in highly organic soils remains unclear. To quantify this retention, we measured the binding of 134Cs to a humic acid isolated from a British upland peat soil, under a range of chemical conditions. We interpreted our results using Humic Ion Binding Model V, a model of humic substance chemistry which simulates ion exchange by non-specific accumulation of cations adjacent to the humic molecules. Model V could simulate the humic acid-solution partitioning of Cs under all the solution conditions used. The model was used to estimate the contribution of organic matter to Cs sorption by the whole soil composite. An estimate of Cs sorption by illite frayed edge sites was also made. These simulations show that organic matter may play only a minor role in binding Cs, even in highly organic soils

  11. Soil acidity and its relationship to root growth in declining forest stands in Germany

    Matzner, E.; Murach, D.; Fortmann, H.

    1986-11-01

    Ingrowth core studies were used to investigate the influence of 3 different soils on root growth of Norway spruce in two stands in Northwest Germany. Root growth was significantly inhibited by the acid soil treatment. The amount of roots which had grown into the limed ingrowth cores was much higher and the percentage of dead roots was less when compared to the unlimed treatment. This is attributed to improved Ca/Al-ratios after liming. The fertilized peat-sand soil delivered optimal conditions for root growth indicated by maximum root biomass and 0% root mortality. The importance of soil acidification induced by acid deposition as the cause of the root disturbance in declining stands is addressed. 33 references.

  12. Lignite-Derived Humic Acid Effect on Growth of Wheat Plants in Different Soils

    M.M.TAHIR; M.KHURSHID; M.Z.KHAN; M.K.ABBASI; M.H.KAZMI

    2011-01-01

    Humic acid (HA), a fairly stable product of decomposed organic matter that consequently accumulates in ecological systems,enhances plant growth by chelating unavailable nutrients and buffering pH.We examined the effect of HA derived from lignite on growth and macronutrient uptake of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in earthen pots under greenhouse conditions.The soils used in the pot experiment were a calcareous Haplustalf and a non-calcareous Haplustalf collected from Raisalpur and Guliana, respectively,in Punjab Province, Pakistan.The experiment consisted of four treatments with HA levels of 0 (control without HA), 30, 60, and 90 mg kg-1 soil designated as HA0, HA1, HA2, and HA3, respectively.In the treatment without HA (HA0), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) were applied at 200, 100, and 125 mg kg-1 soil, respectively.Significant differences among HA levels were recorded for wheat growth (plant height and shoot weight) and N uptake.On an average of both soils, the largest increases in plant height and shoot fresh and dry weights were found with HA2 (60 mg kg-1 soil), being 10%, 25%, and 18%, respectively, as compared to the control without HA (HA0).Both soils responded positively towards HA application.The wheat growth and N uptake in the non-calcareous soil were higher than those of the calcareous soil The HA application significantly improved K concentration of the non-calcareous soil and P and NO3-N of the calcareous soil.The highest rate of HA (90 mg kg- 1 soil) had a negative effect on growth and nutrient uptake of wheat as well as nutrient accumulation in soil, whereas the medium dose of HA (60 mg kg-1 soil) was more efficient in promoting wheat growth.

  13. Soil solution response to experimentally reduced acid deposition in a forest ecosystem

    Alewell, C.; Matzner, E. [Univ. of Bayreuth (Germany); Bredemeier, M.; Blanch, K. [Univ. of Goettingen (Germany)

    1997-05-01

    In order to measure and predict reversibility of soil solution acidification under experimentally reduced acid input, a manipulation study with artificial {open_quote}preindustrial{close_quote} throughfall was established. A roof was installed underneath the canopy in a Norway Spruce stand of the German Soiling area. Water failing onto the roof was adjusted to clean rain concentrations before redistribution. Soil solutions were collected with suction cup lysimeters at various depths and were analyzed for major ions. The response of soil solution chemistry in the upper soil (10 cm depth) to a reduction of N, SO{sub 4}, and H input was rapid. While NO{sub 3} concentration in deeper soil layers reached input levels after 2 yr of treatment, SO{sub 4} concentration in the seepage water at 1 m depth remained high relative to the reduced input due to a release of formerly stored S from the soil. Aluminum concentration followed a similar pattern as the SO{sub 4} concentrations. The ion concentrations in soil leachate were predicted reasonably well using the MAGIC model with the measured SO{sub 4} sorption isotherms and the throughfall fluxes as model input Although the parameters of the Langmuir isotherm had no significant influence to the prediction of SO{sub 4} concentration in the upper soil layer, they were crucial for the prediction of SO{sub 4} dynamics in deeper soil layers. The model predicted that the reversibility of soil acidification at the Soiling area is delayed for decades due to the release of soil SO{sub 4}. 38 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Using spin labels to study molecular processes in soils: Covalent binding of aromatic amines to humic acids of soils

    Aleksandrova, O. N.; Kholodov, V. A.; Perminova, I. V.

    2015-08-01

    Interactions of aliphatic and aromatic amines with soil and humic acids isolated from it are studied by means of spin labels and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Nitroxyl radicals containing amino groups are used as spin labels. It is found experimentally that aromatic amines are instantaneously converted to the bound state. It is shown that the microareas of their incorporation are characterized by a significant delay in the reduction of the nitroxyl fragment of spin-label molecules, indicating the formation of condensed structures typical of an oxidative binding mechanism. It is concluded that aliphatic amines do not bind to humic acids. It is noted that the studied process allows elucidating the formation of bound xenobiotic residues in soils.

  15. Contribution of ants in modifying of soil acidity and particle size distribution

    Morgun, Alexandra; Golichenkov, Maxim

    2015-04-01

    Being a natural body, formed by the influence of biota on the upper layers of the Earth's crust, the soil is the most striking example of biogenic-abiogenic interactions in the biosphere. Invertebrates (especially ants that build soil nests) are important agents that change soil properties in well developed terrestrial ecosystems. Impact of soil microorganisms on soil properties is particularly described in numerous literature and concerns mainly chemical properties and general indicators of soil biological activity. Influence of ants (as representatives of the soil mesofauna) mostly appears as mechanical movement of soil particles and aggregates, and chemical effects caused by concentration of organic matter within the ant's nest. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of ants on physical and chemical soil attributes such as particle size distribution and soil acidity. The samples were taken from aerial parts of Lasius niger nests, selected on different elements of the relief (summit position, slope, terrace and floodplain) in the Arkhangelsk region (north of the European part of Russia) and compared with the specimens of the upper horizons of the reference soils. Particle size distribution was determined by laser diffraction method using laser diffraction particle size analyzer «Analysette 22 comfort» (FRITSCH, Germany). The acidity (pH) was determined by potentiometry in water suspension. Particle size distribution of the samples from the nests is more variable as compared to the control samples. For example, the content of 5-10 μm fraction ranges from 9% to 12% in reference soils, while in the anthill samples the variation is from 8% to 15%. Similarly, for 50-250 μm fraction - it ranges from 15% to 18% in reference soils, whereas in anthills - from 6% to 29%. The results of particle size analysis showed that the reference sample on the terrace has silty loam texture and nests soil L. niger are medium loam. The reference soil on the slope is

  16. Microbiological aspects of determination of trichloroacetic acid in soil

    Matucha, Miroslav; Gryndler, Milan; Uhlířová, H.; Fuksová, K.; Rohlenová, Jana; Forczek, Sándor; Schröder, P.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2004), s. 117-122. ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/02/0874 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : NORWAY SPRUCE/SOIL- SYSTEM * HEADSPACE GAS-CHROMATOGRAPHY * BIODEGRADATION Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 1.034, year: 2004

  17. Application of alkaline waste from pulp industry to acid soil with pine

    Patricia Pértile; Jackson Adriano Albuquerque; Luciano Colpo Gatiboni; André da Costa; Maria Izabel Warmling

    2012-01-01

    In Brazil extensive areas are covered with pine forests, planted for pulp and paper production. This industry generates solid alkaline waste, such as dregs. The application of this dregs to forest soils is an alternative for soil acidity correction and plant nutrient supply, as well as a solution for its proper disposal. The purpose of this study was to compare the residual effect of surface application of dregs and dolomitic lime on (a) changes in the physical and chemical properties of an a...

  18. Characterization of diverse 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-degradative plasmids isolated from soil by complementation.

    Top, E. M.; Holben, W E; Forney, L J

    1995-01-01

    The diversity of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)-degradative plasmids in the microbial community of an agricultural soil was examined by complementation. This technique involved mixing a suitable Alcaligenes eutrophus (Rifr) recipient strain with the indigenous microbial populations extracted from soil. After incubation of this mixture, Rifr recipient strains which grow with 2,4-D as the only C source were selected. Two A. eutrophus strains were used as recipients: JMP228 (2,4-D-), whi...

  19. Phosphate fertilisers and management for sustainable crop production in tropical acid soils

    Extensive research has been conducted over the past 25 years on the management of plant nutrients, especially N and P, for crop production on acidic infertile tropical soils. Under certain conditions, the use of indigenous phosphate rock (PR) and modified PR products, such as partially acidulated PR or compacted mixtures of PR with superphosphates, are attractive alternatives, both agronomically and economically, to the use of conventional water-soluble P fertilisers for increasing crop productivity on Oxisols and Ultisols. A combination of the effects of proper P and N management including biological N2 fixation, judicious use of lime, and the use of acid-soil tolerant and/or P-efficient cultivars in cropping systems that enhance nutrient cycling and use efficiency, can provide an effective technology to sustainably increase crop productivity and production in tropical agro-ecosystems dominated by these acid soils. (author)

  20. Effect of humic acid on the underpotential deposition-stripping voltammetry of copper in acetic acid soil extract solutions at mercaptoacetic acid-modified gold electrodes

    Electrochemical measurements were undertaken for the investigation of the underpotential deposition-stripping process of copper at bare and modified gold electrodes in 0.11 M acetic acid, the first fraction of the European Union's Bureau Communautaire de References (BCR) sequential extraction procedure for fractionating metals within soils and sediments. Gold electrodes modified with mercaptoacetic acid showed higher sensitivity for the detection of copper than bare gold electrodes, both in the absence and in the presence of humic acid in acetic acid solutions, using the underpotential deposition-stripping voltammetry (UPD-SV) method. In the presence of 50 mg l-1 of humic acid, the mercaptoacetic acid modified electrode proved to be 1.5 times more sensitive than the bare gold electrode. The mercaptoacetic acid monolayer formed on the gold surface provided efficient protection against the adsorption of humic acid onto the gold electrode surface. Variation of the humic acid concentration in the solution showed little effect on the copper stripping signal at the modified electrode. UPD-SV at the modified electrode was applied to the analysis of soil extract samples. Linear correlation of the electrochemical results with atomic spectroscopic results yielded the straight-line equation y (μg l-1) = 1.10x - 44 (ppb) (R=0.992, n=6), indicating good agreement between the two methods