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Sample records for acid storage tank

  1. Construction of a stainless steel storage tank for phosphoric acid

    Buh, Igor

    2006-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis was to get acquainted with all necessary procedures for steel storage tank manufacturing and assembly control. The representative storage tank was built from stainless steel and it was designed to hold 750 m3 of phosphoric acid. In the first section all legally mandatory control procedures are described and they are applied to our storage tank in the second section. Welding control is presented, which consists of destructive and non-destructive inspections of t...

  2. Oil Storage Facilities - Storage Tank Locations

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A Storage Tank Location is a DEP primary facility type, and its sole sub-facility is the storage tank itself. Storage tanks are aboveground or underground, and are...

  3. HAWAII UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS

    This is a point coverage of underground storage tanks(UST) for the state of Hawaii. The original database was developed and is maintained by the State of Hawaii, Dept. of Health. The point locations represent facilities where one or more underground storage tanks occur. Each fa...

  4. Liquid metal storage tank

    The present invention concerns a liquid metal storage tank used for an FBR type reactor plant. It comprises a tank main body disposed in a pit chamber, a sealing tub disposed at an upper outer circumferential surface of the tank main body, a roof portion which closes the opening a the upper end of the pit chamber, a sealing partitioning cylinder suspended from the lower surface of the roof and having its lower end extended to the inside of the tub and a sealing liquid metal filled in the tub. The tank main body is kept at a high temperature by the liquid metal while the roof in the upper portion of the pit chamber is kept at a low temperature. Further, since the tank main body and the inside of the pit chamber are sealed by the sealing partitioning cylinder, no large thermal stresses are caused to the wall of the tank main body. Even if hydrogen gases are generated in the tank main body, since they can be released to the inside of the pit chamber, the integrity of the tank can be maintained, even if abrupt pressure elevation is caused in the tank main body. (I.S.)

  5. Quality Assurance Project Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System - 1997 Notice of Violation Consent Order; TOPICAL

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA- 731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System is one of two documents that comprise the Sampling and Analysis Plan for the HWMA/RCRA closure certification of the TRA-731 caustic and acid storage tank system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. This plan, which provides information about the project description, project organization, and quality assurance and quality control procedures, is to be used in conjunction with the Field Sampling Plan for the HWMA/RCRA Closure Certification of the TRA-731 Caustic and Acid Storage Tank System. This Quality Assurance Project Plan specifies the procedures for obtaining the data of known quality required by the closure activities for the TRA-731 caustic and acid storage tank system

  6. Regulated underground storage tanks

    This guidance package is designed to assist DOE Field operations by providing thorough guidance on the underground storage tank (UST) regulations. [40 CFR 280]. The guidance uses tables, flowcharts, and checklists to provide a ''roadmap'' for DOE staff who are responsible for supervising UST operations. This package is tailored to address the issues facing DOE facilities. DOE staff should use this guidance as: An overview of the regulations for UST installation and operation; a comprehensive step-by-step guidance for the process of owning and operating an UST, from installation to closure; and a quick, ready-reference guide for any specific topic concerning UST ownership or operation

  7. Underground Storage Tanks in Iowa

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Underground storage tank (UST) sites which store petroleum in Iowa. Includes sites which have been reported to DNR, and have active or removed underground storage...

  8. HAWAII LEAKING UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS

    Point coverage of leaking underground storage tanks(LUST) for the state of Hawaii. The original database was developed and is maintained by the State of Hawaii, Dept. of Health. The point locations represent facilities where one or more leaking underground storage tank exists. ...

  9. Double wall underground storage tank

    Canaan, E.B. Jr.; Wiegand, J.R.; Bartlow, D.H.

    1993-07-06

    A double wall underground storage tank is described comprising: (a) a cylindrical inner wall, (b) a cylindrical outer wall comprising plastic resin and reinforcement fibers, and (c) a layer of spacer filaments wound around the inner wall, the spacer filaments separating the inner and outer walls, and the spacer filaments being at least partially surrounded by voids to enable liquids to flow along the filaments.

  10. Operating characteristics of LNG storage tanks

    Bukacek, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    Although liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage tanks might seem to be the most passive components in the LNG plant or ship, this appearance of quiescence arises only because we too easily imagine LNG storage to be like the storage of water. The contents of an LNG storage tank are in continuous dynamic reaction because of heat leak into the tanks, changes in barometric pressure, and the circumstances surrounding the addition and withdrawal of LNG.

  11. Storage Tanks - Selection Of Type, Design Code And Tank Sizing

    The present work gives an insight into the proper selection of type, design code and sizing of storage tanks used in the Petroleum and Process industries. In this work, storage tanks are classified based on their design conditions. Suitable design codes and their limitations are discussed for each tank type. The option of storage under high pressure and ambient temperature, in spherical and cigar tanks, is compared to the option of storage under low temperature and slight pressure (close to ambient) in low temperature and cryogenic tanks. The discussion is extended to the types of low temperature and cryogenic tanks and recommendations are given to select their types. A study of pressurized tanks designed according to ASME code, conducted in the present work, reveals that tanks designed according to ASME Section VIII DIV 2 provides cost savings over tanks designed according to ASME Section VIII DlV 1. The present work is extended to discuss the parameters that affect sizing of flat bottom cylindrical tanks. The analysis shows the effect of height-to-diameter ratio on tank instability and foundation loads

  12. Pad B Liquid Hydrogen Storage Tank

    Hall, Felicia

    2007-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center is home to two liquid hydrogen storage tanks, one at each launch pad of Launch Complex 39. The liquid hydrogen storage tank at Launch Pad B has a significantly higher boil off rate that the liquid hydrogen storage tank at Launch Pad A. This research looks at various calculations concerning the at Launch Pad B in an attempt to develop a solution to the excess boil off rate. We will look at Perlite levels inside the tank, Boil off rates, conductive heat transfer, and radiant heat transfer through the tank. As a conclusion to the research, we will model the effects of placing an external insulation to the tank in order to reduce the boil off rate and increase the economic efficiency of the liquid hydrogen storage tanks.

  13. Comparative safety analysis of LNG storage tanks

    Fecht, B.A.; Gates, T.E.; Nelson, K.O.; Marr, G.D.

    1982-07-01

    LNG storage tank design and response to selected release scenarios were reviewed. The selection of the scenarios was based on an investigation of potential hazards as cited in the literature. A review of the structure of specific LNG storage facilities is given. Scenarios initially addressed included those that most likely emerge from the tank facility itself: conditions of overfill and overflow as related to liquid LNG content levels; over/underpressurization at respective tank vapor pressure boundaries; subsidence of bearing soil below tank foundations; and crack propagation in tank walls due to possible exposure of structural material to cryogenic temperatures. Additional scenarios addressed include those that result from external events: tornado induced winds and pressure drops; exterior tank missile impact with tornado winds and rotating machinery being the investigated mode of generation; thermal response due to adjacent fire conditions; and tank response due to intense seismic activity. Applicability of each scenario depended heavily on the specific tank configurations and material types selected. (PSB)

  14. Treatment of radioactive wastes from DOE underground storage tanks

    Bench-scale batch tests have been conducted with sludge and supernate tank waste from the Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate separation technology process for use in a comprehensive sludge processing flow sheet as a means of concentrating the radionuclides and reducing the volumes of storage tank waste at national sites for final disposal. This paper discusses the separation of the sludge solids and supernate, the basic washing of the sludge solids, the acidic dissolution of the sludge solids, and the removal of the radionuclides from the supernate

  15. Underground storage tank management plan

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Management Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems in operation at the facility, to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks, and to establish a program for the removal of unnecessary UST systems and upgrade of UST systems that continue to be needed. The program implements an integrated approach to the management of UST systems, with each system evaluated against the same requirements and regulations. A common approach is employed, in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance, when corrective action is mandated. This Management Plan outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed by the UST Management Program, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Management Plan provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. (There are no underground radioactive waste UST systems located at Y-12.) The plan is divided into four major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) implementation requirements, (3) Y-12 Plant UST Program inventory sites, and (4) UST waste management practices. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Management Program, and the procedures and guidance used for compliance with applicable regulations

  16. Underground storage tank management plan

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Management Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems in operation at the facility, to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks, and to establish a program for the removal of unnecessary UST systems and upgrade of UST systems that continue to be needed. The program implements an integrated approach to the management of UST systems, with each system evaluated against the same requirements and regulations. A common approach is employed, in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance, when corrective action is mandated. This Management Plan outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed by the UST Management Program, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Management Plan provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. (There are no underground radioactive waste UST systems located at Y-12.) The plan is divided into four major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) implementation requirements, (3) Y-12 Plant UST Program inventory sites, and (4) UST waste management practices. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Management Program, and the procedures and guidance used for compliance with applicable regulations.

  17. Indian Country Leaking Underground Storage Tanks

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In 1986, Congress amended Subtitle I of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, directing EPA to regulate Underground Storage Tanks (USTs). EPA directly implements the UST...

  18. Leaking Underground Storage Tank Sites in Iowa

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) sites where petroleum contamination has been found. There may be more than one LUST site per UST site.

  19. Hanford Site Waste Storage Tank Information Notebook

    Husa, E.I.; Raymond, R.E.; Welty, R.K.; Griffith, S.M.; Hanlon, B.M.; Rios, R.R.; Vermeulen, N.J.

    1993-07-01

    This report provides summary data on the radioactive waste stored in underground tanks in the 200 East and West Areas at the Hanford Site. The summary data covers each of the existing 161 Series 100 underground waste storage tanks (500,000 gallons and larger). It also contains information on the design and construction of these tanks. The information in this report is derived from existing reports that document the status of the tanks and their materials. This report also contains interior, surface photographs of each of the 54 Watch List tanks, which are those tanks identified as Priority I Hanford Site Tank Farm Safety Issues in accordance with Public Law 101-510, Section 3137*.

  20. 40 CFR 280.220 - Ownership of an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system or facility or...

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ownership of an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system or facility or property on which an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system is located. 280.220 Section 280.220 Protection of Environment...

  1. Compliance review for the UNH Storage Tank

    Low, J.M.

    1992-05-19

    The purpose of Project S-4257, USF-UNH 150,000 Gallon Storage Tank, is to provide interim storage for the liquid uranyl nitrate (UNH) product from H-Canyon until the UNH can be processed in the new Uranium Solidification Facility (Project S-2052). NPSR was requested by Project Management and DOE-SR to perform a design compliance review for the UNH Storage Tank to support the Operational Readiness Review (ORR) and the Operational Readiness Evaluation (ORE), respectively. The project was reviewed against the design criteria contained in the DOE Order 6430.1A, General Design Criteria. This report documents the results of the compliance review.

  2. Steel corrosion in radioactive waste storage tanks

    A collaborative study is being conducted by CNEA and USDOE (Department of Energy of the United States of America) to investigate the effects of tank waste chemistry on radioactive waste storage tank corrosion. Radioactive waste is stored in underground storage tanks that contain a combination of salts, consisting primarily of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite and sodium hydroxide. The USDOE, Office of River Protection at the Hanford Site, has identified a need to conduct a laboratory study to better understand the effects of radioactive waste chemistry on the corrosion of waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The USDOE science need (RL-WT079-S Double-Shell Tanks Corrosion Chemistry) called for a multi year effort to identify waste chemistries and temperatures within the double-shell tank (DST) operating limits for corrosion control and operating temperature range that may not provide the expected corrosion protection and to evaluate future operations for the conditions outside the existing corrosion database. Assessment of corrosion damage using simulated (non-radioactive) waste is being made of the double-shell tank wall carbon steel alloy. Evaluation of the influence of exposure time, and electrolyte composition and/or concentration is being also conducted. (author)

  3. Liquid storage tanks under seismic excitations

    The safety and reliable performance of nuclear power plants is of great concern to both the nuclear community and the general public. A nuclear power plant has to be designed to withstand any earthquakes that may occur at its location. Since a nuclear power plant has many liquid storage tanks, the dynamic response of these tanks under seismic excitations must properly analyzed in order to design these tanks to survive the earthquakes to which they may be subjected. The dynamic response of liquid-storage tanks subjected to ground excitations has been the subject of numerous studies in the past thirty years. However, most of the studies were focused on the responses of the tanks such that the contained liquid can be considered to be incompressible and inviscid. Thus, the effect of liquid viscosity on the dynamic response of the liquid-tank system is often ignored. This is justified for water-storage tanks because water has a very small viscosity. However, there are cases where the liquid viscosity is not small in comparison with that of water. For such cases the designs of these tanks based on the inviscid assumption become questionable, and the effect of viscosity on the dynamic response needs to be assessed. To the best of our knowledge, due to the complexity of the problem, the effect of viscosity has not been studied satisfactorily to date. Since the governing equations are very complicated if viscosity is included in the analysis, the closed form solutions in most cases are unattainable. Therefore, it is necessary to use a computer code to solve the equations-numerically. The computer code used in this study is the finite element code, FLUSTR-ANL(FLUid-STRucture interaction code developed at Argonne National Laboratory) (Chang et al.1988). In this study, the tanks are assumed to be rigid and rigidly supported on their bases, and the responses are considered to be linear

  4. Liquid storage tanks under seismic excitations

    A nuclear power plant has to be designed to withstand any earthquakes that may occur at its location. Since a nuclear power plant has many liquid storage tanks, the dynamic response of these tanks under seismic excitations must be properly analyzed in order to design these tanks to survive the earthquakes to which they may be subjected. The dynamic response of liquid-storage tanks subjected to ground excitations has been the subject of numerous studies in the past thirty years. However, most of the studies were focused on the responses of the tanks such that the contained liquid can be considered to be incompressible and inviscid. Thus, the effect of liquid viscosity on the dynamic response of the liquid-tank system is often ignored. This is justified for water-storage tanks because water has a very small viscosity. However, there are cases where the liquid viscosity is not small in comparison with that of water. For such cases the designs of these tanks based on the inviscid assumption become questionable, and the effect of viscosity on the dynamic response needs to be assessed. To the best of our knowledge, due to the complexity of the problem, the effect of viscosity has not been studied satisfactorily to date. Since the governing equations are very complicated if viscosity is included in the analysis, the closed form solutions in most cases are unattainable. Therefore, it is necessary to use a computer code to solve the equations numerically. The computer code used in this study is the finite element code, FLUSTR-ANL (FLUid-STRucture interaction code developed at Argonne National Laboratory). In this study, the tanks are assumed to be rigid and rigidly supported on their bases, and the responses are considered to be linear

  5. Acoustic imaging of underground storage tank wastes

    Acoustics is a potential tool to determine the properties of high level wastes stored in Underground Storage Tanks. Some acoustic properties were successfully measured by a limited demonstration conducted in 114-TX. This accomplishment provides the basis for expanded efforts to qualify techniques which depend on the acoustic properties of tank wastes. This work is being sponsored by the Department of Energy under the Office of Science and Technology. In FY-1994, limited Tank Waste Remediation Systems EM-30 support was available at Hanford and Los Alamos National Laboratory. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Earth Resources Laboratory (ERL) were engaged for analysis support, and Elohi Geophysics, Inc. for seismic testing services. Westinghouse-Hanford Company provided the testing and training, supplied the special engineering and safety analysis equipment and procedures, and provided the trained operators for the actual tank operations. On 11/9/94, limited in-tank tests were successfully conducted in tank 114-TX. This stabilized Single Shell Tank was reported as containing 16.8 feet of waste, the lower 6.28 feet of which contained interstitial liquid. Testing was conducted over the lower 12 feet, between two Liquid Observation Wells thirty feet apart. The ''quick-look'' data was reviewed on-site by MIT and Elohi

  6. 30 CFR 57.4401 - Storage tank foundations.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Storage tank foundations. 57.4401 Section 57... and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4401 Storage tank foundations. Fixed, unburied, flammable or combustible liquid storage tanks shall be securely mounted on firm...

  7. 30 CFR 56.4401 - Storage tank foundations.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Storage tank foundations. 56.4401 Section 56... Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 56.4401 Storage tank foundations. Fixed, unburied, flammable or combustible liquid storage tanks shall be securely mounted on firm foundations. Piping shall...

  8. Underground Storage Tanks - UST_IDEM_IN: Underground Storage Tanks in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Point Shapefile)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — UST_IDEM_IN is a point shapefile that contains regulated underground storage tank locations (including leaking underground storage tanks) in Indiana, provided by...

  9. Development of an energy storage tank model

    Buckley, Robert Christopher

    A linearized, one-dimensional finite difference model employing an implicit finite difference method for energy storage tanks is developed, programmed with MATLAB, and demonstrated for different applications. A set of nodal energy equations is developed by considering the energy interactions on a small control volume. The general method of solving these equations is described as are other features of the simulation program. Two modeling applications are presented: the first using a hot water storage tank with a solar collector and an absorption chiller to cool a building in the summer, the second using a molten salt storage system with a solar collector and steam power plant to generate electricity. Recommendations for further study as well as all of the source code generated in the project are also provided.

  10. Position paper -- Waste storage tank heat removal

    The purpose of this paper is to develop and document a position on the heat removal system to be used on the waste storage tanks currently being designed for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF), project W-236A. The current preliminary design for the waste storage primary tank heat removal system consists of the following subsystems: (1) a once-through dome space ventilation system; (2) a recirculation dome space ventilation system; and (3) an annulus ventilation system. Recently completed and ongoing studies have evaluated alternative heat removal systems in an attempt to reduce system costs and to optimize heat removal capabilities. In addition, a thermal/heat transfer analysis is being performed that will provide assurance that the heat removal systems selected will be capable of removing the total primary tank design heat load of 1.25 MBtu/hr at an allowable operating temperature of 190 F. Although 200 F is the design temperature limit, 190 F has been selected as the maximum allowable operating temperature limit based on instrumentation sensitivity, instrumentation location sensitivity, and other factors. Seven options are discussed and recommendations are made

  11. Computer modeling of ORNL storage tank sludge mobilization and mixing

    This report presents and analyzes the results of the computer modeling of mixing and mobilization of sludge in horizontal, cylindrical storage tanks using submerged liquid jets. The computer modeling uses the TEMPEST computational fluid dynamics computer program. The horizontal, cylindrical storage tank configuration is similar to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) at Oak Ridge National (ORNL). The MVST tank contents exhibit non-homogeneous, non-Newtonian rheology characteristics. The eventual goals of the simulations are to determine under what conditions sludge mobilization using submerged liquid jets is feasible in tanks of this configuration, and to estimate mixing times required to approach homogeneity of the contents of the tanks

  12. Risk based inspection for atmospheric storage tank

    Nugroho, Agus; Haryadi, Gunawan Dwi; Ismail, Rifky; Kim, Seon Jin

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion is an attack that occurs on a metallic material as a result of environment's reaction.Thus, it causes atmospheric storage tank's leakage, material loss, environmental pollution, equipment failure and affects the age of process equipment then finally financial damage. Corrosion risk measurement becomesa vital part of Asset Management at the plant for operating any aging asset.This paper provides six case studies dealing with high speed diesel atmospheric storage tank parts at a power plant. A summary of the basic principles and procedures of corrosion risk analysis and RBI applicable to the Process Industries were discussed prior to the study. Semi quantitative method based onAPI 58I Base-Resource Document was employed. The risk associated with corrosion on the equipment in terms of its likelihood and its consequences were discussed. The corrosion risk analysis outcome used to formulate Risk Based Inspection (RBI) method that should be a part of the atmospheric storage tank operation at the plant. RBI gives more concern to inspection resources which are mostly on `High Risk' and `Medium Risk' criteria and less on `Low Risk' shell. Risk categories of the evaluated equipment were illustrated through case study analysis outcome.

  13. Seismic response of flexible cylindrical liquid storage tanks

    Liquid slosh and tank wall vibrations are studied experimentally in a flexible model storage tank subject to simulated earthquake environments. The program objective is to determine the validity of simple analytical models for representing this earthquake dynamics problem. (Auth.)

  14. Enforcement of federal underground storage tank regulations

    During the 1980s, underground storage tanks (USTs) were leaking petroleum products into the soil and groundwater at an alarming rate. The federal government has recently developed an UST regulatory program that includes operating and financial responsibility requirements. Federal regulation requires UST system owners to notify state environmental agencies of the existence of these systems, and directs the EPA to formulate regulations concerning UST release detection, prevention, and corrective action, as well as for financial responsibility for leaks of regulated substances from USTs. State environmental agencies are required to compile tank inventories and to provide this information to the EPA. The EPA is mandated to establish a federal program for the regulation of USTs that allows state programs to operate in lieu of the federal program is they are no less strict than the federal requirements and can be adequately enforced. To recover shallow spills, the contaminated soil may be excavated and placed in a landfill. For deeper pollution, the only methods of treatment are flushing and recovery or an in-situ treatment, such as biological degradation using bacteria. Ethical issues include the relationship between the public demand for petroleum products, environmental damage, and the conflicts encountered by environmental consulting firms. Legal issues concern the notification of the public and the sale of property on which storage tanks are located, as well as the increasing involvement of the legal system in enforcement of environmental legislation

  15. FFTF vertical sodium storage tank preliminary thermal analysis

    In the FFTF Shutdown Program, sodium from the primary and secondary heat transport loops, Interim Decay Storage (IDS), and Fuel Storage Facility (FSF) will be transferred to four large storage tanks for temporary storage. Three of the storage tanks will be cylindrical vertical tanks having a diameter of 28 feet, height of 22 feet and fabricated from carbon steel. The fourth tank is a horizontal cylindrical tank but is not the subject of this report. The storage tanks will be located near the FFTF in the 400 Area and rest on a steel-lined concrete slab in an enclosed building. The purpose of this work is to document the thermal analyses that were performed to ensure that the vertical FFTF sodium storage tank design is feasible from a thermal standpoint. The key criterion for this analysis is the time to heat up the storage tank containing frozen sodium at ambient temperature to 400 F. Normal operating conditions include an ambient temperature range of 32 F to 120 F. A key parameter in the evaluation of the sodium storage tank is the type of insulation. The baseline case assumed six inches of calcium silicate insulation. An alternate case assumed refractory fiber (Cerablanket) insulation also with a thickness of six inches. Both cases assumed a total electrical trace heat load of 60 kW, with 24 kW evenly distributed on the bottom head and 36 kW evenly distributed on the tank side wall

  16. Sludge washing and dissolution of Melton Valley Storage Tank waste

    Focus is on experimental and modeling R ampersand D for comprehensive sludge/supernatant processing flowsheet being done for the Underground Storage Tank Integration Demonstration; emphasis is on Hanford tank waste disposal involving dissolution of the sluge before pretreatment. Combination of tests on actual Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) sludge, tests on sludge simulants, and modeling of sludge chemistry provides a broad evaluation of sludge and supernate processing. The information is useful for both MVST and Hanford tank wastes

  17. 100-N Area underground storage tank closures

    This report describes the removal/characterization actions concerning underground storage tanks (UST) at the 100-N Area. Included are 105-N-LFT, 182-N-1-DT, 182-N-2-DT, 182-N-3-DT, 100-N-SS-27, and 100-N-SS-28. The text of this report gives a summary of remedial activities. In addition, correspondence relating to UST closures can be found in Appendix B. Appendix C contains copies of Unusual Occurrence Reports, and validated sampling data results comprise Appendix D

  18. 100-N Area underground storage tank closures

    Rowley, C.A.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the removal/characterization actions concerning underground storage tanks (UST) at the 100-N Area. Included are 105-N-LFT, 182-N-1-DT, 182-N-2-DT, 182-N-3-DT, 100-N-SS-27, and 100-N-SS-28. The text of this report gives a summary of remedial activities. In addition, correspondence relating to UST closures can be found in Appendix B. Appendix C contains copies of Unusual Occurrence Reports, and validated sampling data results comprise Appendix D.

  19. Underground storage tanks: The environmental health role

    Petroleum contamination of shallow aquifers resulting from antiquated underground petroleum storage systems has had a significant economical, as well as environmental impact on the nation's urban and rural communities. The cost for assessment and clean-up of a service station petroleum leak in Caliente, Nevada (population: 1,111) may go as high as $3 million. Whereas in a more urban area such as Las Vegas, Nevada, 317 petroleum clean-up operations of leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) have been initiated in a three-year period between October 1990 and October 1993. The leaking UST problem, brought to national attention during the late 1970s and early 1980s, has had such an impact that the EPA has enlisted state and local environmental and health agencies to take an important lead role to find, mitigate, and prevent petroleum leaks into the unseen subsurface environment. The 1990s will witness a national amelioration of shallow aquifers

  20. An Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration report

    The Waste Characterization Data and Technology Development Needs Assessment provides direct support to the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID). Key users of the study's products may also include individuals and programs within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Office of Waste Operations (EM-30), and the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40). The goal of this work is to provide the UST-ID with a procedure for allocating funds across competing characterization technologies in a timely and defensible manner. It resulted in three primary products: 1. It organizes and summarizes information on underground storage tank characterization data needs. 2. It describes current technology development activity related to each need and flags areas where technology development may be beneficial. 3. It presents a decision process, with supporting software, for evaluating, prioritizing, and integrating possible technology development funding packages. The data presented in this document can be readily updated as the needs of the Waste Operations and Environmental Restoration programs mature and as new and promising technology development options emerge

  1. 40 CFR 52.1931 - Petroleum storage tank controls.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Petroleum storage tank controls. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Oklahoma § 52.1931 Petroleum... plan, the petroleum storage tanks listed in paragraphs (b) through (e) of this section shall be...

  2. Vapor sampling of the headspace of radioactive waste storage tanks

    Reynolds, D.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-22

    This paper recants the history of vapor sampling in the headspaces of radioactive waste storage tanks at Hanford. The first two tanks to receive extensive vapor pressure sampling were Tanks 241-SY-101 and 241-C-103. At various times, a gas chromatography, on-line mass spectrometer, solid state hydrogen monitor, FTIR, and radio acoustic ammonia monitor have been installed. The head space gas sampling activities will continue for the next few years. The current goal is to sample the headspace for all the tanks. Some tank headspaces will be sampled several times to see the data vary with time. Other tanks will have continuous monitors installed to provide additional data.

  3. Free vibration analysis of partially filled liquid storage tanks

    A study on the free vibration analysis of partially filled liquid storage tanks is presented. The tanks considered are the upright circular cylindrical tanks that are rigidly supported at the base. the top of the tanks are either free or constrained. Two types of constraints are considered, namely, hinged and roller support. The governing differential equations for the tank-liquid system are obtained by application of the Rayleigh-Ritz procedure in combination with Lagrange's equation. The response functions examined include the frequency of the fundamental mode of vibration of the tank-liquid system and the associated modal pressure

  4. A robotic end effector for inspection of storage tanks

    Hughes, G.; Gittleman, M. [Oceaneering Space Systems, Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The structural integrity of waste storage tanks is of primary importance to the DOE, and is one aspect of the High-Level Waste Tank Remediation focus area. Cracks and/or corrosion damage in the inner tank walls can lead to the release of dangerous substances into the environment. The detection and sizing of corrosion and cracking in steel tank walls through remote non destructive evaluation (NDE) is the primary focus of this work.

  5. Underground storage tank 431-D1U1, Closure Plan

    Mancieri, S.

    1993-09-01

    This document contains information about the decommissioning of Tank 431-D1U1. This tank was installed in 1965 for diesel fuel storage. This tank will remain in active usage until closure procedures begin. Soils and ground water around the tank will be sampled to check for leakage. Appendices include; proof of proper training for workers, health and safety briefing record, task hazard analysis summary, and emergency plans.

  6. A robotic end effector for inspection of storage tanks

    The structural integrity of waste storage tanks is of primary importance to the DOE, and is one aspect of the High-Level Waste Tank Remediation focus area. Cracks and/or corrosion damage in the inner tank walls can lead to the release of dangerous substances into the environment. The detection and sizing of corrosion and cracking in steel tank walls through remote non destructive evaluation (NDE) is the primary focus of this work

  7. Dynamic analysis of multiple liquid-storage tanks

    Mykoniou, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    The seismic analysis of liquid-storage tanks proceeds ordinarily on the basis of neglecting the dynamic interaction with adjacent tanks, although they are frequently arranged next to each other, for instance in tank farms. In this work, a study on the dynamic behavior of tanks is therefore carried out, which takes into account group interaction effects.To this aim, a refined substructure technique in the frequency domain is developed, which permits consideration of the interaction effects amo...

  8. Underground storage tank insurance - a review

    New markets and challenges for the insurance industry have been created as a result of the Federal financial responsibility requirements for owners and operators of under-ground storage tanks. EPA established a phase-in schedule, with larger owners/operators required to comply first, and smaller ones later. The amount of coverage required is also variable, depending on the number of tanks and petroleum usage. EIL insurance and state funds have emerged as the primary mechanisms available to fulfill those requirements. For insurance, underwriting criteria, limits, deductibles, and conditions of coverage vary from company to company. State funds also vary widely in type of coverage available, deductibles and limits of coverage. Several funds are now reexamining their ability to pay claims, and are making changes between insurance and state funds include (1) insurance provides pay-on-behalf coverage versus reimbursement coverage from most state funds; (2) greater degree of claim handling involvement by insurance companies versus funds; (3) claims made coverage from insurance companies versus retroactive coverage available from most state funds; (4) defense coverage and subrogation is available from insurance companies but not from state funds

  9. Hydrogen Peroxide Storage in Small Sealed Tanks

    Whitehead, J.

    1999-10-20

    Unstabilized hydrogen peroxide of 85% concentration has been prepared in laboratory quantities for testing material compatibility and long term storage on a small scale. Vessels made of candidate tank and liner materials ranged in volume from 1 cc to 2540 cc. Numerous metals and plastics were tried at the smallest scales, while promising ones were used to fabricate larger vessels and liners. An aluminum alloy (6061-T6) performed poorly, including increasing homogeneous decay due to alloying elements entering solution. The decay rate in this high strength aluminum was greatly reduced by anodizing. Better results were obtained with polymers, particularly polyvinylidene fluoride. Data reported herein include ullage pressures as a function of time with changing decay rates, and contamination analysis results.

  10. Development of computer code PNST for analyzing transient phenomena in plutonium nitrate storage tank

    After being separated and purified by the Purex process, Plutonium is temporarily stored in storage tanks in form of plutonium nitrate solution. In the solution, radiolysis gases are generated with α-decay of plutonium and plutonium concentration proceeds with evaporation of water and nitric acid. Nitric acid solution is added to the solution for the prevention of concentration of plutonium in the tank. On the other hand, it is known that plutonium forms polymer in case of low acid concentration. If solution of low acid concentration (in extreme case, water or basic solution) is added to the storage tank by miss operation or failure of equipments, the formation of the polymer will happen. The formation of the polymer and the subsequent precipitation might jeopardize the criticality safety. A simulation code PNST (Simulation code for Transient Phenomena in a Plutonium Nitrate Storage Tank) has been developed for the safety evaluation of plutonium nitrate storage tank under normal and abnormal conditions. PNST consists of PNST-N and PNST-A. The variation of valences of chemical species, generation of radiolysis gases and volume of the storage solution in the normal condition are analyzed by PNST-N. On the other hand, the polymerization behavior of plutonium by adding solution of low acid concentration is calculated by PNST-A. This report is prepared as an explanation of the code as well as an user's manual. (author)

  11. Vehicular hydrogen storage using lightweight tanks

    Mitlitsky, F; Weisberg, A H; Myers, B

    2000-07-22

    Lightweight hydrogen storage for vehicles is enabled by adopting and adapting aerospace tankage technology. The weight, volume, and cost are already acceptable and improving. Prototype tankage was demonstrated with 11.3% hydrogen by weight, 1.74 million inch (44.3 km) burst performance factor (P{sub b}V/W), and 3.77 kWh/kg specific energy for the tank and hydrogen (LHV). DOE cannot afford full scale aerospace development costs. For example, it costs many tens of $M to develop a rocket motor casing with a safety factor (SF) of 1.25. Large teams of experts are required to design, develop, and test new processes. Car companies are buying existing technology with only modest investments in research and development (R&D). The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) team is maximizing the leverage from DOE funding by joining with industry to solve technical risks at the component level. LLNL is developing fabrication processes with IMPCO Technologies, Thiokol Propulsion, and Aero Tec Laboratories (ATL). LLNL is creating commercial products that are close to adoption under DOE solicitation. LLNL is breaking ground to achieve greater than 10% hydrogen by weight tankage with safety that exceeds the requirements of NGV2 standards modified for hydrogen. Risk reduction is proceeding along three axes: (1) Commercializable products will be available next year with {approx}90% confidence; (2) R&D progress is pushing the envelope in lightweight tankage for vehicles; and (3) Integration challenges are being met with partners in industry and DOE demo programs. This project is a key part of LLNL's effort to develop high cycle life energy storage systems with >600 Wh/kg specific energy for various applications, including: high altitude long endurance solar rechargeable aircraft, zero emission vehicles, hybrid energy storage/propulsion systems for spacecraft, energy storage for premium power, remote power sources, and peak shaving.

  12. Polymers for subterranean containment barriers for underground storage tanks (USTs)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) set up the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration Program (USTID) to demonstrate technologies for the retrieval and treatment of tank waste, and closure of underground storage tanks (USTs). There are more than 250 underground storage tanks throughout the DOE complex. These tanks contain a wide variety of wastes including high level, low level, transuranic, mixed and hazardous wastes. Many of the tanks have performed beyond the designed lifetime resulting in leakage and contamination of the local geologic media and groundwater. To mitigate this problem it has been proposed that an interim subterranean containment barrier be placed around the tanks. This would minimize or prevent future contamination of soil and groundwater in the event that further tank leakages occur before or during remediation. Use of interim subterranean barriers can also provide sufficient time to evaluate and select appropriate remediation alternatives. The DOE Hanford site was chosen as the demonstration site for containment barrier technologies. A panel of experts for the USTID was convened in February, 1992, to identify technologies for placement of subterranean barriers. The selection was based on the ability of candidate grouts to withstand high radiation doses, high temperatures and aggressive tank waste leachates. The group identified and ranked nine grouting technologies that have potential to place vertical barriers and five for horizontal barriers around the tank. The panel also endorsed placement technologies that require minimal excavation of soil surrounding the tanks

  13. Earthquake response considerations of broad liquid storage tanks

    Cambra, F. J.

    1982-11-01

    The influences of tank geometry and foundation stiffness variation on the simulated seismic structural response of a model broad tank are discussed. An empirical method for describing tank bottom plate uplift geometry is proposed which recognizes radial catenary force and foundation stiffness. Axial symmetric lift, static tilt and dynamic shaking table tests were performed in the University of California, Berkeley, earthquake simulator laboratory. A structural geometric survey of a 63 ft - 10 inches tall by 289 ft - 6 inches diameter crude oil storage tank was conducted to establish a comparative base by which to evaluate the model tank eccentricities.

  14. Effect of viscosity on seismic response of waste storage tanks

    A study of the effect of viscosity on the dynamic response of a liquid storage tank subjected to base excitations is presented. The tank is a typical high level waste storage tank which has a diameter of 50 ft. and liquid height of 20.4 ft. The liquid density is taken to be 93.6 lb/ft3. The tank is assumed to be rigid. Both harmonic and earthquake excitations are used in the study. The finite element method is employed to attack the problem. The response functions examined include the sloshing wave height and the impulsive and convective components of the hydrodynamic pressure. A small tank, about 1/15 the size of the typical waste storage tank, is also used in the study to understand the effect of viscosity on the response of liquid storage tanks and to investigate the dependency of the viscosity effect on the size of the tank. The results of this study show that the effect of viscosity depends strongly on the size of the liquid-tank system. For the typical waste storage tank considered, the effect of viscosity on the sloshing wave height and the impulsive and convective pressures is very small and can be neglected. For the viscosity effect to become noticeable in the response of the typical waste storage tank, the liquid viscosity must be greater than 10,000 cP. This value is far greater than the estimated viscosity value of the high level wastes, which may range from 60 to 200 cP

  15. Optimal Use of Duplex Stainless Steel in Storage Tanks

    Talus, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to get a better understanding of how optimal weight savings of the cylindrical shell plates in storage tanks can be reached using higher strength duplex material. The design criteria will be based on the requirements given by the American Petroleum Institute standards API 650 for welded storage tanks and API 12B for bolted storage tanks. The expected result is that use of duplex stainless steel instead of austenitic stainless steel can reduce the weight of the material...

  16. Glass Bubbles Insulation for Liquid Hydrogen Storage Tanks

    Sass, J. P.; SaintCyr, W. W.; Barrett, T. M.; Baumgartner, R. G.; Lott, J. W.; Fesmire, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    A full-scale field application of glass bubbles insulation has been demonstrated in a 218,000 L liquid hydrogen storage tank. This work is the evolution of extensive materials testing, laboratory scale testing, and system studies leading to the use of glass bubbles insulation as a cost efficient and high performance alternative in cryogenic storage tanks of any size. The tank utilized is part of a rocket propulsion test complex at the NASA Stennis Space Center and is a 1960's vintage spherical double wall tank with an evacuated annulus. The original perlite that was removed from the annulus was in pristine condition and showed no signs of deterioration or compaction. Test results show a significant reduction in liquid hydrogen boiloff when compared to recent baseline data prior to removal of the perlite insulation. The data also validates the previous laboratory scale testing (1000 L) and full-scale numerical modeling (3,200,000 L) of boiloff in spherical cryogenic storage tanks. The performance of the tank will continue to be monitored during operation of the tank over the coming years. KEYWORDS: Glass bubble, perlite, insulation, liquid hydrogen, storage tank.

  17. Maintaining of the demineralized water quality in storage tanks

    Two processes for maintaining the quality of the mineralized water in storage tanks are considered. A slight overpressure of nitrogen can be created above the water, or the air flowing in the tank can be cleaned by passing it through a soda-containing lime filter

  18. Underground storage tank 511-D1U1 closure plan

    Mancieri, S.; Giuntoli, N.

    1993-09-01

    This document contains the closure plan for diesel fuel underground storage tank 511-D1U1 and appendices containing supplemental information such as staff training certification and task summaries. Precision tank test data, a site health and safety plan, and material safety data sheets are also included.

  19. Leakage detection system for radioactive waste storage tanks

    The patent describes a combination of elements for detecting leakage of electrically conductive fluids from tanks, including a reference electrode, an AC generator connected between the tank and the reference electrode, and one or more sensing electrodes positioned between the tank and the reference electrode. The storage tank and reference electrode are in contact with the ground. When the AC generator is energized, current flows in the circuit, and creates an electric field in the ground between the tank and the reference electrode. The sensing electrodes are positioned so that they are within the electric field when the AC generator is energized. An electric potential measuring device, such as a voltmeter, is used to measure the electric potential at the sensing electrodes relative to the tank. A significant change in the electric potential at any one or more of the sensing electrodes is an indication that a leak has occurred in the tank

  20. Study of LNG evaporation phenomenon in aboveground storage tank

    Hariti, R.; Benbrik, A. [Boumerdes Univ., Boumerdes (Algeria). Physical Engineering of Hydrocarbons Laboratory; Lemonnier, D. [Poitiers Futuroscope Univ., Chasseneuil (France). National Engineering School for Mechanics and Aerotechnics, Laboratory of Thermal Studies

    2007-07-01

    Controlling the evaporation phenomenon of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in storage tanks is strongly related to heat transfer under ambient conditions. In the natural gas liquefaction complex of Skikda located in Algeria, control and follow-up in the exploitation of the LNG storage tanks is done only by observing a temperature profile of the internal wall of the tank, using thermocouples laid out according to the height. This practice is important to detect the defects of heat insulation in the tank wall and makes it possible to avoid all the risks of incidents due to excessive evaporation. This paper discussed the development of a simple numerical model that simulated the rate of evaporation of LNG in a storage tank under real storage conditions at a liquefaction complex in Skikda (Algeria). The paper presented the equations for the modelling of heat transfer in the storage tank taking into account all the modes of heat exchange between the ambient conditions and the stored LNG. The paper also discussed the method of resolution. It was concluded that the evaporation rates predicted by the model were in agreement with the configurations corresponding to the real operating conditions. In addition, the results demonstrated the sensitivity of the rate of evaporation to various parameters like the LNG liquid level in the tank, the atmospheric temperature, the emissivity coefficient or incidental solar flow. 6 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs.

  1. Storage tank with internal neutron absorbers for fissile materials

    The advantages of the new storage tank design with internal neutron absorbers for fissile materials compared to the traditional slab tank design are as follows: The available volume of this vessel design has a value of more than 80%. The tank does not require neutron absorbers to be spaced between adjacent tanks as with the case with slab tanks. This results in a saving in cost and space. The tank is smaller in height and breadth and thus requires less room space for the same amount of storage capacity. Costs are reduced in manufacturing material and room space. The outer surface area of the tank is roughly 7 times smaller than the outer surface area of the slab tank and in less area for heat transfer in case of fire - improved safety. The tank manufacturing will require less welding points to be done and the type of welding required can be automated by machinery. The welding method required, is similar to the welding method that is used to weld the fuel rods for conventional HWR nuclear reactors and thus the technology is known, automated and proven. The tube bundle can be easily removed and more space is available inside the tank for inspection and maintenance of the vessel due to the circular geometry. The vessel design is similar to pressure vessel design which is a proven and well documented method.

  2. Study of Heat Transfer in Ice-storage Tank

    Anding He; Huanqun Qian; Zhihua Hu; Fangde Zhou

    2001-01-01

    The heat transfer process of ice formation on the outside of coil pipe in the ice storage tank with glycol solution as the second refrigerant was studied in this paper analytically and experimentally. A model was developed for the charging process and the conduction shape factor was applied. Also, the result obtained from the model was compared with the experimental data, both data were in agreement. The simple model is useful for the operation, design and optimization of the ice storage tank.

  3. Seismic analysis of base-isolated liquid storage tanks

    Shrimali, M. K.; Jangid, R. S.

    2004-08-01

    Three analytical studies for the seismic response of base-isolated ground supported cylindrical liquid storage tanks under recorded earthquake ground motion are presented. The continuous liquid mass of the tank is modelled as lumped masses referred as sloshing mass, impulsive mass and rigid mass. Firstly, the seismic response of isolated tanks is obtained using the modal superposition technique and compared with the exact response to study the effects of non-classical damping. The comparison of results with different tank aspect ratios and stiffness and damping of the bearing indicate that the effects of non-classical damping are insignificant implying that the response of isolated liquid storage tanks can be accurately obtained by the modal analysis with classical damping approximation. The second investigation involves the analysis of base-isolated liquid storage tanks using the response spectrum method in which the peak response of tank in different modes is obtained for the specified response spectrum of earthquake motion and combined with different combination rules. The results indicate that the peak response obtained by the response spectrum method matches well with the corresponding exact response. However, specific combination rule should be used for better estimation of various response quantities of the isolated tanks. Finally, the closed-form expressions for the modal parameters of the base-isolated liquid storage tanks are derived and compared with the exact values. A simplified approximate method is also proposed to evaluate the seismic response of isolated tanks. The response obtained from the above approximate method was found to be in good agreement with the exact response.

  4. 200 Area plateau inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks locations

    Fluor Daniel Northwest (FDNW) has been tasked by Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) to incorporate current location data for 64 of the 200-Area plateau inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (IMUST) into the centralized mapping computer database for the Hanford facilities. The IMUST coordinate locations and tank names for the tanks currently assigned to the Hanford Site contractors are listed in Appendix A. The IMUST are inactive tanks installed in underground vaults or buried directly in the ground within the 200-East and 200-West Areas of the Hanford Site. The tanks are categorized as tanks with a capacity of less than 190,000 liters (50,000 gal). Some of the IMUST have been stabilized, pumped dry, filled with grout, or may contain an inventory or radioactive and/or hazardous materials. The IMUST have been out of service for at least 12 years

  5. Robotic system for remote inspection of underground storage tanks

    Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO), operates the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). WINCO's mission is to process government owned spent nuclear fuel. The process involves dissolving the fuel and extracting off uranium. The waste from this process is temporarily stored at the ICPP in underground storage tanks. The tanks were put in service between 1953 and 1966 and are operating 10 to 15 years beyond their design life. Five of the tanks will be replaced by 1998. The integrity of the remaining six tanks must be verified to continue their use until they can be replaced at a later data. In order to verify the tank integrity, a complete corrosion analysis must be performed. This analysis will require a remote visual inspection of the tank surfaces

  6. Underground or aboveground storage tanks - A critical decision

    With the 1988 promulgation of the comprehensive Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations for underground storage of petroleum and hazardous substances, many existing underground storage tank (UST) owners have been considering making the move to aboveground storage. While on the surface, this may appear to be the cure-all to avoiding the underground leakage dilemma, there are many other new and different issues to consider with aboveground storage. The greatest misconception is that by storing materials above ground, there is no risk of subsurface environmental problems. It should be noted that with the aboveground storage tank (AGST) systems, there is still considerable risk of environmental contamination, either by the failure of onground tank bottoms or the spillage of product onto the ground surface where it subsequently finds its way to the ground water. In addition, there are added safety concerns that must be addressed. The greatest interest in AGSTs comes from managers with small volumes of used oil, fresh oil, solvents, chemicals, or heating oil. Dealing with small capacity tanks is not so different than large bulk storage - and, in fact, it lends itself to more options, such as portable storage, tank within tank configurations and inside installations. So what are the other specific areas of concern besides environmental to be addressed when making the decision between underground and aboveground tanks? The primary issues that will be addressed in this presentation are: (1) safety; (2) product losses; (3) cost comparison of USTs vs AGSTs; (4) space availability/accessibility; (5) precipitation handling; (6) aesthetics and security; (7) pending and existing regulations

  7. Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of storage tank bottom plates

    Syafaat, Taufik A.; Ismail, Mokhtar Che

    2015-07-01

    Aboveground atmospheric storage tanks (AST) receive crude oil from offshore for storage and further processing. Integrity issue of AST storing crude oil is not only affected by external corrosion but also internal corrosion from crude oil that supports the growth of the microorganisms originating from the reservoir. The objective of this research is to study the effect of sulfate reduction bacteria (SRB) on the corrosion of AST. The results indicates that SRB has significant effect on the corrosion rate of storage tank bottom plate.

  8. Sloshing analysis of viscous liquid storage tanks

    The effect of viscosity on the sloshing response of tanks containing viscous liquids is studied using the in-house finite element computer code, FLUSTR-ANL. Two different tank sizes each filled at two levels, are modeled, and their dynamic responses under harmonic and seismic ground motions are simulated. The results are presented in terms of the wave height, and pressures at selected nodes and elements in the finite element mesh. The viscosity manifests itself as a damping effect, reducing the amplitudes. Under harmonic excitation, the dynamic response reaches the steady-state faster as the viscosity value becomes larger. The fundamental sloshing frequency for each study case stays virtually unaffected by an increase in viscosity. For the small tank case, a 5% difference is observed in the fundamental frequency of the smallest (1 cP) and the highest (1000 cP) viscosity cases considered in this study. The fundamental frequencies of the large tank are even less sensitive

  9. Failure analysis for JNK Boracic acid Tank Room of NPP

    2011-01-01

    The JNK Boracic acid Tank Room is important safety equipment for Nuclear Power Plant. Corrosion,crack and leaked Boracic acid were found on the some welding area of the liners of the JNK Tank Room during operation.

  10. Solar Storage Tank Insulation Influence on the Solar Systems Efficiency

    Negoitescu Arina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For the storage tank of a solar system for domestic hot water production was analyzed the insulation thickness and material influence. To this end, it was considered a private house, occupied by 3 persons, located in zone I of thermal radiation, for which has been simulated the domestic hot water production process. The tank outlet hot water temperature was considered of 45°C. For simulation purposes, as insulation materials for the storage tank were taking into account glass wool and polyurethane with various thicknesses. Finally, was carried out the comparative analysis of two types of tanks, in terms of the insulation thickness influence on the solar fraction, annual solar contribution and solar annual productivity. It resulted that polyurethane is the most advantageous from all points of view.

  11. Stress evaluation of the primary tank of a double-shell underground storage tank facility

    A facility called the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) is being designed at the Department of Energy's Hanford site. The MWTF is expected to be completed in 1998 and will consist of six underground double-shell waste storage tanks and associated systems. These tanks will provide safe and environmentally acceptable storage capacity to handle waste generated during single-shell and double-shell tank safety mitigation and remediation activities. This paper summarizes the analysis and qualification of the primary tank structure of the MWTF, as performed by ICF Kaiser Hanford during the latter phase of Title 1 (Preliminary) design. Both computer finite element analysis (FEA) and hand calculations methods based on the so-called Tank Seismic Experts Panel (TSEP) Guidelines were used to perform the analysis and evaluation. Based on the evaluations summarized in this paper, it is concluded that the primary tank structure of the MWTF satisfies the project design requirements. In addition, the hand calculations performed using the methodologies provided in the TSEP Guidelines demonstrate that, except for slosh height, the capacities exceed the demand. The design accounts for the adverse effect of the excessive slosh height demand, i.e., inadequate freeboard, by increasing the hydrodynamic wall and roof pressures appropriately, and designing the tank for such increased pressures

  12. Seismic Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Shaft Support Water Storage Tank

    Bharti Tekwani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the results of Seismic Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Shaft Support Water Storage Tank carried out in accordance with IS: 1893- 1984 and IS: 1893-2002 (Part-2 draft code. The analysis is carried out for shaft supported water tank of 500,750 and 1000 Cu.m capacity, located in four seismic zones (Zone-II, Zone -III, Zone-IV, Zone-V and on three different soil types (Hard rock, Medium soil, Soft soil. Further, 1000 kl tank for conditions - tank full, tank empty are also considered in this study. The analysis was performed using MAT LAB. The parameters of comparison include base shears, base moments and time history analysis. The above models are analyzed for different time history data such as El Centro, Kobe, Ji-Ji, Erzincan. The comparison is made between the structural responses of one mass and two mass models of above capacity.

  13. Reduction of mixing in jet-fed water storage tanks

    Martinson, Brett; Lucey, A.

    2004-01-01

    Contrary to usual mains-water practice, mixing in water storage tanks used in rainwater harvesting systems is undesirable because pathogen die-off can occur in the unmixed water prior to its extraction for use. The principal cause of mixing in these tanks is the momentum of the inflow during a rainfall event. We investigate the effect of inflow-jet configuration on the proportion of stored water in a tank which mixes with the slightly cooler inflow of rooftop water. Scale experiments are cond...

  14. Design of crude oil storage tank for acoustic emission testing

    The integrity of crude oil storage tank needs to be well managed because they can contain a large inventory of hazardous material and because of the high cost such as cleaning and waste disposal prior to disposal and maintenance. Costs involved in cleaning and inspection can be up to several hundreds thousand Malaysian Ranting. If the floor then proves to be in good condition, these costs have been wasted. Acoustic Emission (AE) is proposed to be use for monitoring the floor of the storage tank on line without doing cleaning and waste disposal. A storage tank will be fabricated for storing the crude oil and then the corrosion process will be monitor using AE method. This paper will discuss the background, material and is technical specification, design and also the difficulties faced during design and fabrication process. (Author)

  15. Dynamic modeling of stratification for chilled water storage tank

    Air conditioning of buildings can be costly and energy consuming. Application of thermal energy storage (TES) reduces cost and energy consumption. The efficiency of the overall operation is affected by storage tank sizing design, which affects thermal stratification of water during charging and discharging processes in TES system. In this study, numerical simulation is used to determine the relationship between tank size and good thermal stratification. Three dimensional simulations with different tank height-to-diameter ratio (HD) and inlet Reynolds number (Re) are investigated. The effect of the number of diffuser holes is also studied. For shallow tanks (low HD) simulations, no acceptable thermocline thickness can be seen for all Re experimented. Partial mixing is observed throughout the process. Medium HD tanks simulations show good thermocline behavior and clear distinction between warm and cold water can be seen. Finally, deep tanks (high HD) show less acceptable thermocline thickness as compared to that of medium HD tanks. From this study, doubling and halving the number of diffuser holes show no significant effect on the thermocline behavior

  16. RCRA closure plan for underground storage tank 105-C

    Miles, W.C. Jr.

    1990-10-01

    A Reactor Department program for repairing heat exchangers created a low level radioactive waste, which was held in underground storage tank (UST) 105-C, hereafter referred to as the tank. According to Procedures used at the facility, the waste`s pH was adjusted to the 8.0--12.0 range before shipping it to the SRS Waste Management Department. For this reason, area personnel did not anticipate that the waste which is currently contained in the tank would have corrosive hazardous characteristic. However, recent analysis indicates that waste contained in the tank has a pH of greater than 12.5, thereby constituting a hazardous waste. Because the Department of Energy-Savannah River Office (DOE-SR) could not prove that the hazardous waste had been stored in the tank for less than 90 days, the State of South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) alleged that DOE-SR was in violation of the 1976 Code of Laws of South Carolina. As agreed in Settlement Agreement 90-74-SW between the DOE and SCDHEC, this is the required closure plan for Tank 105-C. The purpose of this document is to present SCDHEC with an official plan for closing the underground storage tank. Upon approval by SCDHEC, the schedule for closure will be an enforceable portion of this agreement.

  17. RCRA closure plan for underground storage tank 105-C

    A Reactor Department program for repairing heat exchangers created a low level radioactive waste, which was held in underground storage tank (UST) 105-C, hereafter referred to as the tank. According to Procedures used at the facility, the waste's pH was adjusted to the 8.0--12.0 range before shipping it to the SRS Waste Management Department. For this reason, area personnel did not anticipate that the waste which is currently contained in the tank would have corrosive hazardous characteristic. However, recent analysis indicates that waste contained in the tank has a pH of greater than 12.5, thereby constituting a hazardous waste. Because the Department of Energy-Savannah River Office (DOE-SR) could not prove that the hazardous waste had been stored in the tank for less than 90 days, the State of South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) alleged that DOE-SR was in violation of the 1976 Code of Laws of South Carolina. As agreed in Settlement Agreement 90-74-SW between the DOE and SCDHEC, this is the required closure plan for Tank 105-C. The purpose of this document is to present SCDHEC with an official plan for closing the underground storage tank. Upon approval by SCDHEC, the schedule for closure will be an enforceable portion of this agreement

  18. Effect of viscosity on seismic response of waste storage tanks

    The dynamic response of liquid-storage tanks subjected to harmonic excitations and earthquake ground motions has been studied. A rigid tank of negligible mass, rigidly supported at the base having a diameter of 50 ft. and fluid height of 20.4 ft. was used in the computer analysis. The liquid is assumed to have a density of 1.5 g/ml. Viscosity values, μ = 60, 200, 100, and 10,000 cP, were used in the numerical analyses to study the effects of viscosity on sloshing wave height, impulsive and convective pressure on the tank wall, base shear and base moments. Harmonic excitations as well as earthquake ground motions were used as input motions. The harmonic excitations used in the analyses covers a wide range of frequencies, including both the resonant and non-resonant frequencies. Two earthquake motions were used. One matches the Newmark-Hall median response spectrum and is anchored at 0.24 g for a rock site with a damping of 2% and a time duration of 10 s. The other is the 1978 Tabas earthquake which had a peak ZPA of 0.81 g and a time duration of 29 s. A small tank, about 1/15 the size of the typical waste storage tank, was used in the harmonic excitation study to investigate the effect of viscosity on the response of liquid-storage tanks and how the viscosity effect is affected by the size of the storage tank. The results of this study show that for the typical waste storage tank subjected to earthquake motions, the effect of viscosity on sloshing wave height and impulsive and convective pressures is very small and can be neglected. For viscosity effect to become noticeable in the response of the typical waste storage tank, the waste viscosity must be greater than 10,000 cP. This value is far greater than the estimated viscosity value of the high level wastes, which may range from 60 to 200 cP for some tanks

  19. Effect of viscosity on seismic response of waste storage tanks

    Tang, Yu; Uras, R.A.; Chang, Yao-Wen.

    1992-06-01

    The dynamic response of liquid-storage tanks subjected to harmonic excitations and earthquake ground motions has been studied. A rigid tank of negligible mass, rigidly supported at the base having a diameter of 50 ft. and fluid height of 20.4 ft. was used in the computer analysis. The liquid is assumed to have a density of 1.5 g/ml. Viscosity values, {mu} = 60, 200, 100, and 10,000 cP, were used in the numerical analyses to study the effects of viscosity on sloshing wave height, impulsive and convective pressure on the tank wall, base shear and base moments. Harmonic excitations as well as earthquake ground motions were used as input motions. The harmonic excitations used in the analyses covers a wide range of frequencies, including both the resonant and non-resonant frequencies. Two earthquake motions were used. One matches the Newmark-Hall median response spectrum and is anchored at 0.24 g for a rock site with a damping of 2% and a time duration of 10 s. The other is the 1978 Tabas earthquake which had a peak ZPA of 0.81 g and a time duration of 29 s. A small tank, about 1/15 the size of the typical waste storage tank, was used in the harmonic excitation study to investigate the effect of viscosity on the response of liquid-storage tanks and how the viscosity effect is affected by the size of the storage tank. The results of this study show that for the typical waste storage tank subjected to earthquake motions, the effect of viscosity on sloshing wave height and impulsive and convective pressures is very small and can be neglected. For viscosity effect to become noticeable in the response of the typical waste storage tank, the waste viscosity must be greater than 10,000 cP. This value is far greater than the estimated viscosity value of the high level wastes, which may range from 60 to 200 cP for some tanks.

  20. Seismic response analysis of cylindrical liquid storage tank

    One of the important structures as the object of aseismatic design is the tanks containing liquid. These tanks are often seen in crude oil storage areas, petroleum complexes, chemical plants, thermal and nuclear power stations. As for the safety when such tanks storing liquids encounter earthquakes, the method of aseismatic design is traditionally employed, in which the impact pressure of the liquids induced by horizontal earthquakes and the oscillating pressure due to the movement of liquid surfaces are calculated by the theory of Housner, and both pressures are summed up. However, recently the tanks storing liquids have become large, and the stiffness of tank structures tends to lower relatively as compared with the quantity of the stored liquids. In such case, the natural frequency of the tank structures at the time of containing liquids lowers considerably, therefore it is necessary to carry out the aseismatic analysis taking the deflection of the side walls of tanks into account. There are various methods of solving this problem, but problems remain in them. In the method of solution proposed by the author, tanks are treated by the finite element method, and the liquids contained are treated analytically using velocity potential theory. Also the method of earthquake response analysis determining the exciting energy of the earthquake in horizontal direction is described. (Kako, I.)

  1. Closure report for underground storage tank 141-R3U1 and its associated underground piping

    Underground storage tank UST 141-R3U1 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), was registered with the State Water Resources Control Board on June 27, 1984. This tank system consisted of a concrete tank, lined with polyvinyl chloride, and approximately 100 feet of PVC underground piping. UST 141-R3U1 had a capacity of 450 gallons. The underground piping connected three floor drains and one sink inside Building 141 to UST 141-R3U1. The wastewater collected in UST 141-R3U1 contained organic solvents, metals, and inorganic acids. On November 30, 1987, the 141-R3U1 tank system failed a precision tank test. The 141-R3U1 tank system was subsequently emptied and removed from service pending further precision tests to determine the location of the leak within the tank system. A precision tank test on February 5, 1988, was performed to confirm the November 30, 1987 test. Four additional precision tests were performed on this tank system between February 25, 1988, and March 6, 1988. The leak was located where the inlet piping from Building 141 penetrates the concrete side of UST 141-R3U1. The volume of wastewater that entered the backfill and soil around and/or beneath UST 141-R3U1 is unknown. On December 13, 1989, the LLNL Environmental Restoration Division submitted a plan to close UST 141-R3U1 and its associated piping to the Alameda County Department of Environmental Health. UST 141-R3U1 was closed as an UST, and shall be used instead as additional secondary containment for two aboveground storage tanks

  2. Tank Waste Remediation System Inactive Miscellaneous Underground Storage Tanks Program Plan

    The Program Management Plan (PMP) describes the approach that will be used to manage the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Inactive Miscellaneous Underground Storage Tank (IMUST) Program. The plan describes management, technical, and administrative control systems that will be used to plan and control the IMUSTs Program performance. The technical data to determine the IMUSTs status for inclusion in the Single Shell Tank Farm Controlled Clean and Stable (CCS) Program. The second is to identify and implement surveillance, characterization, stabilization, and modifications to support CCS prior to final closure

  3. Soil load above Hanford waste storage tanks (2 volumes)

    Pianka, E.W. [Advent Engineering Services, Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States)

    1995-01-25

    This document is a compilation of work performed as part of the Dome Load Control Project in 1994. Section 2 contains the calculations of the weight of the soil over the tank dome for each of the 75-feet-diameter waste-storage tanks located at the Hanford Site. The chosen soil specific weight and soil depth measured at the apex of the dome crown are the same as those used in the primary analysis that qualified the design. Section 3 provides reference dimensions for each of the tank farm sites. The reference dimensions spatially orient the tanks and provide an outer diameter for each tank. Section 4 summarizes the available soil surface elevation data. It also provides examples of the calculations performed to establish the present soil elevation estimates. The survey data and other data sources from which the elevation data has been obtained are printed separately in Volume 2 of this Supporting Document. Section 5 contains tables that provide an overall summary of the present status of dome loads. Tables summarizing the load state corresponding to the soil depth and soil specific weight for the original qualification analysis, the gravity load requalification for soil depth and soil specific weight greater than the expected actual values, and a best estimate condition of soil depth and specific weight are presented for the Double-Shell Tanks. For the Single-Shell Tanks, only the original qualification analysis is available; thus, the tabulated results are for this case only. Section 6 provides a brief overview of past analysis and testing results that given an indication of the load capacity of the waste storage tanks that corresponds to a condition approaching ultimate failure of the tank. 31 refs.

  4. Soil load above Hanford waste storage tanks (2 volumes)

    This document is a compilation of work performed as part of the Dome Load Control Project in 1994. Section 2 contains the calculations of the weight of the soil over the tank dome for each of the 75-feet-diameter waste-storage tanks located at the Hanford Site. The chosen soil specific weight and soil depth measured at the apex of the dome crown are the same as those used in the primary analysis that qualified the design. Section 3 provides reference dimensions for each of the tank farm sites. The reference dimensions spatially orient the tanks and provide an outer diameter for each tank. Section 4 summarizes the available soil surface elevation data. It also provides examples of the calculations performed to establish the present soil elevation estimates. The survey data and other data sources from which the elevation data has been obtained are printed separately in Volume 2 of this Supporting Document. Section 5 contains tables that provide an overall summary of the present status of dome loads. Tables summarizing the load state corresponding to the soil depth and soil specific weight for the original qualification analysis, the gravity load requalification for soil depth and soil specific weight greater than the expected actual values, and a best estimate condition of soil depth and specific weight are presented for the Double-Shell Tanks. For the Single-Shell Tanks, only the original qualification analysis is available; thus, the tabulated results are for this case only. Section 6 provides a brief overview of past analysis and testing results that given an indication of the load capacity of the waste storage tanks that corresponds to a condition approaching ultimate failure of the tank. 31 refs

  5. Hanford Tank Farm interim storage phase probabilistic risk assessment outline

    This report is the second in a series examining the risks for the high level waste (HLW) storage facilities at the Hanford Site. The first phase of the HTF PSA effort addressed risks from Tank 101-SY, only. Tank 101-SY was selected as the initial focus of the PSA because of its propensity to periodically release (burp) a mixture of flammable and toxic gases. This report expands the evaluation of Tank 101-SY to all 177 storage tanks. The 177 tanks are arranged into 18 farms and contain the HLW accumulated over 50 years of weapons material production work. A centerpiece of the remediation activity is the effort toward developing a permanent method for disposing of the HLW tank's highly radioactive contents. One approach to risk based prioritization is to perform a PSA for the whole HLW tank farm complex to identify the highest risk tanks so that remediation planners and managers will have a more rational basis for allocating limited funds to the more critical areas. Section 3 presents the qualitative identification of generic initiators that could threaten to produce releases from one or more tanks. In section 4 a detailed accident sequence model is developed for each initiating event group. Section 5 defines the release categories to which the scenarios are assigned in the accident sequence model and presents analyses of the airborne and liquid source terms resulting from different release scenarios. The conditional consequences measured by worker or public exposure to radionuclides or hazardous chemicals and economic costs of cleanup and repair are analyzed in section 6. The results from all the previous sections are integrated to produce unconditional risk curves in frequency of exceedance format

  6. Case Study in Corporate Memory Recovery: Hanford Tank Farms Miscellaneous Underground Waste Storage Tanks - 15344

    Washenfelder, D. J.; Johnson, J. M.; Turknett, J. C.; Barnes, T. J.; Duncan, K. G.

    2015-01-07

    In addition to managing the 177 underground waste storage tanks containing 212,000 m3 (56 million gal) of radioactive waste at the U. S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site 200 Area Tank Farms, Washington River Protection Solutions LLC is responsible for managing numerous small catch tanks and special surveillance facilities. These are collectively known as “MUSTs” - Miscellaneous Underground Storage Tanks. The MUSTs typically collected drainage and flushes during waste transfer system piping changes; special surveillance facilities supported Tank Farm processes including post-World War II uranium recovery and later fission product recovery from tank wastes. Most were removed from service following deactivation of the single-shell tank system in 1980 and stabilized by pumping the remaining liquids from them. The MUSTs were isolated by blanking connecting transfer lines and adding weatherproofing to prevent rainwater entry. Over the next 30 years MUST operating records were dispersed into large electronic databases or transferred to the National Archives Regional Center in Seattle, Washington. During 2014 an effort to reacquire the historical bases for the MUSTs’ published waste volumes was undertaken. Corporate Memory Recovery from a variety of record sources allowed waste volumes to be initially determined for 21 MUSTs, and waste volumes to be adjusted for 37 others. Precursors and symptoms of Corporate Memory Loss were identified in the context of MUST records recovery.

  7. Corrosion Evaluation of INTEC Waste Storage Tank WM-182

    ). For purposes of waste storage, this is a negligible amount of metal loss. Localized corrosion such as cracking, pitting, preferential weld attack, or weld heat affected zone attack is not expected to be a materials problem in the tank

  8. Innovative tank emptying system for the retrieval of salt, sludge and IX resins from storage tanks of NPPs

    RWE NUKEM recently developed a new Tank Emptying System (TESY) for the extraction of stored radioactive boric acid/borate salt blocks, sludge and IX resin from NPP stainless steel tanks of several hundred cubic meters content in Russia. RWE NUKEM has chosen the emptying concept consisting of a tracked submersible vehicle ('Crawler'), with jet nozzles for solution, agitation and fluidization, and a suction head to pick up the generated solution or suspension respectively. With the employment of RWE NUKEM's TESY system, spent radioactive salt deposits, ion-exchange resins and sludge, can be emptied and transferred out of the tank. The sediment, crystallized and settled during storage, will be agitated with increased temperature and suitable pH value and then picked up in form of a suspension or solution directly at the point of mobilization. This new Tank Emptying System concept enables efficiently to retrieve stored salt and other sediment waste, reduces operating time, safes cost for spare parts, increases the safety of operation and minimizes radiation exposure to personnel. All emptying tasks are performed remotely from a panel board and TV monitor located in a central control room. The TESY system consists of the following main components: glove box, crawler, submersible pump, heater, TV camera and spot light, control panel and monitor, water separation and feed unit, sodium hydroxide dosing unit. The system is specially requested for the removal of more than 2,500 cubic meter salt solution generated from the dissolution of some 300 cubic meter crystallized salt deposit per tank and per year. The TESY system is able to dissolve efficiently the salts and retrieve solutions and other liquefied suspensions. TESY is adaptable to all liquid waste storage facilities and especially deployable for tanks with limited access openings (<550 mm)

  9. Petroleum storage tank cleaning using commercial microbial culture products

    Schneider, D.R.; Entzeroth, L.C.; Timmis, A.; Whiteside, A.; Hoskins, B.C.

    1995-12-31

    The removal of paraffinic bottom accumulations from refinery storage tanks represents an increasingly costly area of petroleum storage management. Microorganisms can be used to reduce paraffinic bottoms by increasing the solubility of bottom material and by increasing the wax-carrying capacity of carrier oil used in the cleaning process. The economic savings of such treatments are considerable. The process is also intrinsically safer than alternative methods, as it reduces and even eliminates the need for personnel to enter the tank during the cleaning process. Both laboratory and field sample analyses can be used to document changes in tank material during the treatment process. These changes include increases in volatile content and changes in wax distribution. Several case histories illustrating these physical and chemical changes are presented along with the economics of treatment.

  10. Computer modeling of forced mixing in waste storage tanks

    Numerical simulation results of fluid dynamic and physical processes in radioactive waste storage tanks are presented. Investigations include simulation of jet mixing pump induced flows intended to mix and maintain particulate material uniformly distributed throughout the liquid volume. Physical effects of solids are included in the code. These are particle size through a settling velocity and mixture properties through density and viscosity. Calculations have been accomplished for a centrally located, rotationally-oscillating, horizontally-directed jet mixing pump for two cases. One case is with low jet velocity and high settling velocity. It results in nonuniform distribution. The other case is with high jet velocity and low settling velocity. It results in uniform conditions. Results are being used to aid in experiment design and to understand mixing in the waste tanks. These results are to be used in conjunction with scaled experiments to define limits of pump operation to maintain uniformity of the mixture in the storage tanks during waste retrieval operations

  11. K Basins sludge removal temporary sludge storage tank system

    Shipment of sludge from the K Basins to a disposal site is now targeted for August 2000. The current path forward for sludge disposal is shipment to Tank AW-105 in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). Significant issues of the feasibility of this path exist primarily due to criticality concerns and the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) in the sludge at levels that trigger regulation under the Toxic Substance Control Act. Introduction of PCBs into the TWRS processes could potentially involve significant design and operational impacts to both the Spent Nuclear Fuel and TWRS projects if technical and regulatory issues related to PCB treatment cannot be satisfactorily resolved. Concerns of meeting the TWRS acceptance criteria have evolved such that new storage tanks for the K Basins sludge may be the best option for storage prior to vitrification of the sludge. A recommendation for the final disposition of the sludge is scheduled for June 30, 1997. To support this decision process, this project was developed. This project provides a preconceptual design package including preconceptual designs and cost estimates for the temporary sludge storage tanks. Development of cost estimates for the design and construction of sludge storage systems is required to help evaluate a recommendation for the final disposition of the K Basin sludge

  12. K Basins sludge removal temporary sludge storage tank system

    Mclean, M.A.

    1997-06-12

    Shipment of sludge from the K Basins to a disposal site is now targeted for August 2000. The current path forward for sludge disposal is shipment to Tank AW-105 in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). Significant issues of the feasibility of this path exist primarily due to criticality concerns and the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) in the sludge at levels that trigger regulation under the Toxic Substance Control Act. Introduction of PCBs into the TWRS processes could potentially involve significant design and operational impacts to both the Spent Nuclear Fuel and TWRS projects if technical and regulatory issues related to PCB treatment cannot be satisfactorily resolved. Concerns of meeting the TWRS acceptance criteria have evolved such that new storage tanks for the K Basins sludge may be the best option for storage prior to vitrification of the sludge. A reconunendation for the final disposition of the sludge is scheduled for June 30, 1997. To support this decision process, this project was developed. This project provides a preconceptual design package including preconceptual designs and cost estimates for the temporary sludge storage tanks. Development of cost estimates for the design and construction of sludge storage systems is required to help evaluate a recommendation for the final disposition of the K Basin sludge.

  13. Structural analysis of ORNL underground gunite waste storage tanks

    The North Tank Farm (NTF) and the South Tank Farm (STF) located at ORNL contains 8 underground waste storage tanks which were built around 1943. The tanks were used to collect and store the liquid portion of the radioactive and/or hazardous chemical wastes produced as part of normal facility operations at ORNL, but are no longer part of the active Low Level Liquid Waste system of the Laboratory. The tanks were constructed of gunite. The six STF tanks are 50 ft in diameter, and have a 12 ft sidewall, and an arched dome rising another 6.25 ft. The sidewall are 6 in. thick and have an additional 1.5 in. gunite liner on the inside. There is a thickened ring at the wall-dome juncture. The dome consists of two 5 in. layers of gunite. The two tanks in the NTF are similar, but smaller, having a 25 ft diameter, no inner liner, and a dome thickness of 3.5 in. Both sets of tanks have welded wire mesh and vertical rebars in the walls, welded wire mesh in the domes, and horizontal reinforcing hoop bars pre-tensioned to 35 to 40 ksi stress in the walls and thickened ring. The eight tanks are entirely buried under a 6 ft layer of soil cover. The present condition of the tanks is not accurately known, since access to them is extremely limited. In order to evaluate the structural capability of the tanks, a finite element analysis of each size tank was performed. Both static and seismic loads were considered. Three sludge levels, empty, half-full, and full were evaluated. In the STF analysis, the effects of wall deterioration and group spacing were evaluated. These analyses found that the weakest element in the tanks is the steel resisting the circumferential (or hoop) forces in the dome ring, a fact verified separately by an independent reviewer. However, the hoop steel has an adequate demand/capacity ratio. Buckling of the dome and the tank walls is not a concern

  14. Technical bases for leak detection surveillance of waste storage tanks. Revision 1

    This document provides the technical bases for specification limits, monitoring frequencies and baselines used for leak detection and intrusion (for single shell tanks only) in all single and double shell radioactive waste storage tanks, waste transfer lines, and most catch tanks and receiver tanks in the waste tank farms and associated areas at Hanford

  15. Modeling and integration of a heat storage tank in a compressed air electricity storage process

    Highlights: • Large-scale heat storage tank behavior is explored with a two dimensional model. • Thermal storage tank efficiencies are estimated thanks to dimensionless numbers. • Abacuses of the tank efficiency are provided. • The link between tank efficiency and A-CAES global efficiency is generated. - Abstract: In an adiabatic compressed air energy storage process (A-CAES), heat storage tank operation is a key factor that determines the overall energy performance of the process. To highlight energy issues linked to a correct tank design in the specific case of an A-CAES system, a two-dimensional thermal numerical model was developed. Thermal efficiencies of the tank are presented with abacus defined from the four dimensionless numbers defining the thermal behavior of the reservoir. Cycling effects are explored with a realistic case study corresponding to an A-CAES system design to deliver an electrical power of 250 MWel for 4 h, the daily peak demand. Extended beyond the thermal reservoir, A-CAES thermodynamic analysis combined with the dynamic simulation makes it possible to generate a direct quantitative link between reservoir sizing and A-CAES global efficiency

  16. Nondestructive examination technologies for inspection of radioactive waste storage tanks

    The evaluation of underground radioactive waste storage tank structural integrity poses a unique set of challenges. Radiation fields, limited access, personnel safety and internal structures are just some of the problems faced. To examine the internal surfaces a sensor suite must be deployed as an end effector on a robotic arm. The purpose of this report is to examine the potential failure modes of the tanks, rank the viability of various NDE technologies for internal surface evaluation, select a technology for initial EE implementation, and project future needs for NDE EE sensor suites

  17. Seismic response of flexible cylindrical liquid storage tanks

    Liquid slosh and tank wall flexural vibrations are studied in a flexible model storage tank subject to simulated earthquake environments. Emphasis is placed on determining the influence of wall flexural vibrations on induced stresses. The approach is basically experimental, whereby similitude considerations are first presented. Then, a series of scale model experiments are conducted, and preliminary observations are evaluated. These evaluations allow formulation of an approximate analytical model for prediction of seismically induced stress. Validity range for this model is established by comparison of various predicted responses with observed results. (Auth.)

  18. DI-2-ETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE AND DI-N-BUTYL PHTHALATE IN TISSUES OF COMMON CARP (Cyprinus Carpio L.) AFTER HARVEST AND AFTER STORAGE IN FISH STORAGE TANKS

    Vlasta Stancová; Lenka Puškárová; Alžbeta Jarošová

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the influence of fish pond and fish storage tank conditions change the content of phthalic acid esters (di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP)) in the carcass of the Common carp. Samples obtained from the autumn harvest of two fish ponds (R1 and R2) in 2007 and 2010 from the South Moravia and after a seven-week-long storage in fish storage tanks were analyzed. It was found that in the samples (2007) from both fish ...

  19. Integrated heat exchanger design for a cryogenic storage tank

    Fesmire, J. E.; Bonner, T.; Oliveira, J. M.; Johnson, W. L.; Notardonato, W. U. [NASA Kennedy Space Center, Cryogenics Test Laboratory, NE-F6, KSC, FL 32899 (United States); Tomsik, T. M. [NASA Glenn Research Center, 21000 Brookpark Road, Cleveland, OH 44135 (United States); Conyers, H. J. [NASA Stennis Space Center, Building 3225, SSC, MS 39529 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    Field demonstrations of liquid hydrogen technology will be undertaken for the proliferation of advanced methods and applications in the use of cryofuels. Advancements in the use of cryofuels for transportation on Earth, from Earth, or in space are envisioned for automobiles, aircraft, rockets, and spacecraft. These advancements rely on practical ways of storage, transfer, and handling of liquid hydrogen. Focusing on storage, an integrated heat exchanger system has been designed for incorporation with an existing storage tank and a reverse Brayton cycle helium refrigerator of capacity 850 watts at 20 K. The storage tank is a 125,000-liter capacity horizontal cylindrical tank, with vacuum jacket and multilayer insulation, and a small 0.6-meter diameter manway opening. Addressed are the specific design challenges associated with the small opening, complete modularity, pressure systems re-certification for lower temperature and pressure service associated with hydrogen densification, and a large 8:1 length-to-diameter ratio for distribution of the cryogenic refrigeration. The approach, problem solving, and system design and analysis for integrated heat exchanger are detailed and discussed. Implications for future space launch facilities are also identified. The objective of the field demonstration will be to test various zero-loss and densified cryofuel handling concepts for future transportation applications.

  20. Integrated heat exchanger design for a cryogenic storage tank

    Field demonstrations of liquid hydrogen technology will be undertaken for the proliferation of advanced methods and applications in the use of cryofuels. Advancements in the use of cryofuels for transportation on Earth, from Earth, or in space are envisioned for automobiles, aircraft, rockets, and spacecraft. These advancements rely on practical ways of storage, transfer, and handling of liquid hydrogen. Focusing on storage, an integrated heat exchanger system has been designed for incorporation with an existing storage tank and a reverse Brayton cycle helium refrigerator of capacity 850 watts at 20 K. The storage tank is a 125,000-liter capacity horizontal cylindrical tank, with vacuum jacket and multilayer insulation, and a small 0.6-meter diameter manway opening. Addressed are the specific design challenges associated with the small opening, complete modularity, pressure systems re-certification for lower temperature and pressure service associated with hydrogen densification, and a large 8:1 length-to-diameter ratio for distribution of the cryogenic refrigeration. The approach, problem solving, and system design and analysis for integrated heat exchanger are detailed and discussed. Implications for future space launch facilities are also identified. The objective of the field demonstration will be to test various zero-loss and densified cryofuel handling concepts for future transportation applications

  1. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 134: Aboveground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 134 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as 'Aboveground Storage Tanks' and consists of the following four Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 3, 15, and 29 of the Nevada Test Site: (1) CAS 03-01-03, Aboveground Storage Tank; (2) CAS 03-01-04, Tank; (3) CAS 15-01-05, Aboveground Storage Tank; and (4) CAS 29-01-01, Hydrocarbon Stain

  2. Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID)

    The DOE complex currently has 332 underground storage tanks (USTs) that have been used to process and store radioactive and chemical mixed waste generated from weapon materials production. Very little of the over 100 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste has been treated and disposed of in final form. Two waste storage tank design types are prevalent across the DOE complex: single-shell wall and double-shell wall designs. They are made of stainless steel, concrete, and concrete with carbon steel liners, and their capacities vary from 5000 gallons (19 m3) to 106 gallons (3785 m3). The tanks have an overburden layer of soil ranging from a few feet to tens of feet. Responding to the need for remediation of tank waste, driven by Federal Facility Compliance Agreements (FFCAs) at all participating sites, the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) Program was created by the US DOE Office of Technology Development in February 1991. Its mission is to focus the development, testing, and evaluation of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat to concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in USTs at DOE facilities. The ultimate goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to the public and the regulators. The UST-ID has focused on five DOE locations: the Hanford Site, which is the host site, in Richland, Washington; the Fernald Site in Fernald, Ohio; the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the Savannah River Site in Savannah River, South Carolina

  3. External pressure limitations for 0--15 psi storage tanks

    Large cylindrical storage tanks are designed in accordance with design rules of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section 3, Subsection NC, Article NC-3900 or American Petroleum Institute (API) Standard 620. Both of these Codes have identical requirements. These Codes provide a limit on the partial vacuum in the gas or vapor space not to exceed 1 oz/in2 to ensure stability of cylindrical walls against collapse. This criterion seems to be too conservative for the underground double shell storage tanks to be built at Hanford for the Department of Energy. The analysis presented herein shows that the bottom plate of the Hanford tank is the most critical component when an empty tank is subjected to partial vacuum. However, the allowable external pressures for both cylindrical walls and the bottom plate are significantly higher than 1 oz/in2. The allowable external pressure for the bottom plate is largely dependent upon the plate uplift considerations which in turns depends on the plate thickness. The large displacement non-linear elastic analyses and the eigenvalue buckling solutions indicate that considerable wrinkling can occur before a snap-through buckling failure occurs

  4. Estimating Residual Solids Volume In Underground Storage Tanks

    The Savannah River Site liquid waste system consists of multiple facilities to safely receive and store legacy radioactive waste, treat, and permanently dispose waste. The large underground storage tanks and associated equipment, known as the 'tank farms', include a complex interconnected transfer system which includes underground transfer pipelines and ancillary equipment to direct the flow of waste. The waste in the tanks is present in three forms: supernatant, sludge, and salt. The supernatant is a multi-component aqueous mixture, while sludge is a gel-like substance which consists of insoluble solids and entrapped supernatant. The waste from these tanks is retrieved and treated as sludge or salt. The high level (radioactive) fraction of the waste is vitrified into a glass waste form, while the low-level waste is immobilized in a cementitious grout waste form called saltstone. Once the waste is retrieved and processed, the tanks are closed via removing the bulk of the waste, chemical cleaning, heel removal, stabilizing remaining residuals with tailored grout formulations and severing/sealing external penetrations. The comprehensive liquid waste disposition system, currently managed by Savannah River Remediation, consists of 1) safe storage and retrieval of the waste as it is prepared for permanent disposition; (2) definition of the waste processing techniques utilized to separate the high-level waste fraction/low-level waste fraction; (3) disposition of LLW in saltstone; (4) disposition of the HLW in glass; and (5) closure state of the facilities, including tanks. This paper focuses on determining the effectiveness of waste removal campaigns through monitoring the volume of residual solids in the waste tanks. Volume estimates of the residual solids are performed by creating a map of the residual solids on the waste tank bottom using video and still digital images. The map is then used to calculate the volume of solids remaining in the waste tank. The ability to

  5. Estimating Residual Solids Volume In Underground Storage Tanks

    Clark, Jason L.; Worthy, S. Jason; Martin, Bruce A.; Tihey, John R.

    2014-01-08

    The Savannah River Site liquid waste system consists of multiple facilities to safely receive and store legacy radioactive waste, treat, and permanently dispose waste. The large underground storage tanks and associated equipment, known as the 'tank farms', include a complex interconnected transfer system which includes underground transfer pipelines and ancillary equipment to direct the flow of waste. The waste in the tanks is present in three forms: supernatant, sludge, and salt. The supernatant is a multi-component aqueous mixture, while sludge is a gel-like substance which consists of insoluble solids and entrapped supernatant. The waste from these tanks is retrieved and treated as sludge or salt. The high level (radioactive) fraction of the waste is vitrified into a glass waste form, while the low-level waste is immobilized in a cementitious grout waste form called saltstone. Once the waste is retrieved and processed, the tanks are closed via removing the bulk of the waste, chemical cleaning, heel removal, stabilizing remaining residuals with tailored grout formulations and severing/sealing external penetrations. The comprehensive liquid waste disposition system, currently managed by Savannah River Remediation, consists of 1) safe storage and retrieval of the waste as it is prepared for permanent disposition; (2) definition of the waste processing techniques utilized to separate the high-level waste fraction/low-level waste fraction; (3) disposition of LLW in saltstone; (4) disposition of the HLW in glass; and (5) closure state of the facilities, including tanks. This paper focuses on determining the effectiveness of waste removal campaigns through monitoring the volume of residual solids in the waste tanks. Volume estimates of the residual solids are performed by creating a map of the residual solids on the waste tank bottom using video and still digital images. The map is then used to calculate the volume of solids remaining in the waste tank. The

  6. Cathodic protection for the bottoms of above ground storage tanks

    Mohr, John P. [Tyco Adhesives, Norwood, MA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Impressed Current Cathodic Protection has been used for many years to protect the external bottoms of above ground storage tanks. The use of a vertical deep ground bed often treated several bare steel tank bottoms by broadcasting current over a wide area. Environmental concerns and, in some countries, government regulations, have introduced the use of dielectric secondary containment liners. The dielectric liner does not allow the protective cathodic protection current to pass and causes corrosion to continue on the newly placed tank bottom. In existing tank bottoms where inadequate protection has been provided, leaks can develop. In one method of remediation, an old bottom is covered with sand and a double bottom is welded above the leaking bottom. The new bottom is welded very close to the old bottom, thus shielding the traditional cathodic protection from protecting the new bottom. These double bottoms often employ the use of dielectric liner as well. Both the liner and the double bottom often minimize the distance from the external tank bottom. The minimized space between the liner, or double bottom, and the bottom to be protected places a challenge in providing current distribution in cathodic protection systems. This study examines the practical concerns for application of impressed current cathodic protection and the types of anode materials used in these specific applications. One unique approach for an economical treatment using a conductive polymer cathodic protection method is presented. (author)

  7. Structural analysis of underground gunite storage tanks. Environmental Restoration Program

    This report documents the structural analysis of the 50-ft diameter underground gunite storage tanks constructed in 1943 and located in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) South Tank Farm, known as Facility 3507 in the 3500-3999 area. The six gunite tanks (W-5 through W-10) are spaced in a 2 x 3 matrix at 60 ft on centers with 6 ft of soil cover. Each tank (Figures 1, 2, and 3) has an inside diameter of 50 ft, a 12-ft vertical sidewall having a thickness of 6 in. (there is an additional 1.5-in. inner liner for much of the height), and a spherical domed roof (nominal thickness is 10 in.) rising another 6 ft, 3 in. at the center of the tank. The thickness of both the sidewall and the domed roof increases to 30 in. near their juncture. The tank floor is nominally 3-in. thick, except at the juncture with the wall where the thickness increases to 9 in. The tanks are constructed of gunite (a mixture of Portland cement, sand, and water in the form of a mortar) sprayed from the nozzle of a cement gun against a form or a solid surface. The floor and the dome are reinforced with one layer of welded wire mesh and reinforcing rods placed in the radial direction. The sidewall is reinforced with three layers of welded wire mesh, vertical 1/2-in. rods, and 21 horizontal rebar hoops (attached to the vertical rods) post-tensioned to 35,000 psi stress. The haunch at the sidewall/roof junction is reinforced with 17 horizontal rebar hoops post-tensioned with 35,000 to 40,000 psi stress. The yield strength of the post-tensioning steel rods is specified to be 60,000 psi, and all other steel is 40,000 psi steel. The specified 28-day design strength of the gunite is 5,000 psi

  8. 19 CFR 151.28 - Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into... Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.28 Gauging of sirup or molasses discharged into storage tanks. (a) Plans of storage tank to be filed. When sirup or molasses is imported in bulk in tank vessels and is...

  9. [Study on the quantitative estimation method for VOCs emission from petrochemical storage tanks based on tanks 4.0.9d model].

    Li, Jing; Wang, Min-Yan; Zhang, Jian; He, Wan-Qing; Nie, Lei; Shao, Xia

    2013-12-01

    VOCs emission from petrochemical storage tanks is one of the important emission sources in the petrochemical industry. In order to find out the VOCs emission amount of petrochemical storage tanks, Tanks 4.0.9d model is utilized to calculate the VOCs emission from different kinds of storage tanks. VOCs emissions from a horizontal tank, a vertical fixed roof tank, an internal floating roof tank and an external floating roof tank were calculated as an example. The consideration of the site meteorological information, the sealing information, the tank content information and unit conversion by using Tanks 4.0.9d model in China was also discussed. Tanks 4.0.9d model can be used to estimate VOCs emissions from petrochemical storage tanks in China as a simple and highly accurate method. PMID:24640914

  10. Behavior of ruthenium in the case of shutdown of the cooling system of HLLW storage tanks

    The consequences of the failure of the cooling system of fission product storage tanks over a variable period were investigated as part of the safety analysis of the La Hague spent fuel reprocessing plant. Due to the considerable heat release, induced by the fission products, a prolonged shutdown of the tank cooling system could cause the progressive evaporation of the solutions to dryness, and culminate in the formation of volatile species of ruthenium and their release in the tank venting circuit. To determine the fraction of ruthenium likely to be transferred from the storage tanks in volatile or aerosol form during the failure, evaporation tests were conducted by evaporating samples of actual nitric acid solutions of fission products, obtained on the laboratory scale after the reprocessing of several kilograms of MOX fuels irradiated to 30,000 MW day·t-1. A distillation apparatus was designed to operate with small-volume solution samples, reproducing the heating conditions existing in the reprocessing plant within a storage tank for fission products. The main conclusions drawn from these experiments are as follows: ruthenium is only volatilized in the final phase of evaporation, just before desiccation; for a final temperature limited to 160 degree C, the total fraction of volatilized ruthenium reaches 12%; in the presence of H2O, HNO3, NOx and O2, the volatilized ruthenium recombines mainly in the form of ruthenium nitrosyl nitrates, or decomposes into ruthenium oxide (probably RuO2) on the walls of the apparatus. Assuming a heating power density of 10 W/liter of concentrate, and a perfectly adiabatic storage system, the minimum time required to reach dryness can be estimated at 90 h, allowing substantial time to take action to restore a cooling source

  11. Technical aspects of underground storage tank closure. Final report

    The overall objective of the study was to develop a deeper understanding of UST residuals at closure: their quantities, origins, physical/chemical properties, ease of removal by various cleaning methods, and their environmental mobility and persistence. The investigation covered underground storage tanks containing: gasoline, diesel oil, and fuel oil. It obtained information in two phases. Phase I elicited data via telephone contacts with knowledgeable individuals including tank cleaning companies, from literature cited by these experts, on-site visits and from questionnaires completed by state representatives. Phase II monitored selected tank cleaning cases and made quantitative measurements of the amounts of residuals left in USTs before and after cleaning, characterizing the nature of the residuals and any rinses generated during the cleaning process. To support the objectives of the study, the following information was collected for each UST site included in the study: estimates of volumes of tank residuals and secondary wastes, hazardous characteristics and chemical composition of the residuals and secondary wastes, detailed descriptions of the cleaning methods used, and background information on the UST/site that relates to the nature of the residuals. The report documents the study findings in order to aid regulators and to assist those implementing/overseeing closure activities

  12. Erection of a Stainless-Steel Tank for Storing a Phosphoric Acid

    Vojvodič Tuma, J.; Celin, R.

    2007-01-01

    A storage tank for 93 % phosphoric acid was built in Luka Koper from 7 mm thick ground hot-rolled plates of 316L stainless steel. The capacity of the storage tank is of the 750 m3, diameter of 11 m and the height of 8,2 m. The shell plates were welded manually using the shielded metal-arc and gas-metal-arc processes. Before the erection, welding procedure tests according to EN 288-3 were carried out. During the construction several non-destructive examination methods were used, such as radiog...

  13. Criticality Safety Evaluation of Hanford Site High Level Waste Storage Tanks

    ROGERS, C.A.

    2000-02-17

    This criticality safety evaluation covers operations for waste in underground storage tanks at the high-level waste tank farms on the Hanford site. This evaluation provides the bases for criticality safety limits and controls to govern receipt, transfer, and long-term storage of tank waste. Justification is provided that a nuclear criticality accident cannot occur for tank farms operations, based on current fissile material and operating conditions.

  14. Criticality Safety Evaluation of Hanford Site High-Level Waste Storage Tanks

    This criticality safety evaluation covers operations for waste in underground storage tanks at the high-level waste tank farms on the Hanford site. This evaluation provides the bases for criticality safety limits and controls to govern receipt, transfer, and long-term storage of tank waste. Justification is provided that a nuclear criticality accident cannot occur for tank farms operations, based on current fissile material and operating conditions

  15. Behaviour of ruthenium in the case of shutdown of the cooling system of HLLW storage tanks

    The consequences of the failure of the cooling system of fission product storage tanks over a variable period were investigated as part of the safety analysis of the La Hague spent fuel reprocessing plant. Due to the considerable heat release, induced by the fission products, a prolonged shutdown of the tank cooling system could cause the progressive evaporation of the solutions to dryness, and culminate in the formation of volatile species of ruthenium and their release in the tank venting circuit. To determine the fraction of ruthenium likely to be transferred from the storage tanks in volatile or aerosol form during the failure, evaporation tests were conducted by evaporating samples of actual nitric acid solutions of fission products, obtained on the laboratory scale after the reprocessing of several kilograms of MOX fuels irradiated to 30.000 MW day ·t-1. A distillation apparatus was designed to operate with small-volume solution samples, reproducing the heating conditions existing in the reprocessing plant within a storage tank for fission products. The main conclusions drawn from these experiments are as follows: - ruthenium is only volatilized in the final phase of evaporation, just before desiccation, - for a final temperature limited to 160 deg. C, the total fraction of volatilized ruthenium reaches 12%, - in the presence of H2O, HNO3, NOx and O2, the volatilized ruthenium recombines mainly in the form of ruthenium nitrosyl nitrates, or decomposes into ruthenium oxide (probably RuO2) on the walls of the apparatus. Assuming a heating power density of 10 W/liter of concentrate, and a perfectly adiabatic storage system, the minimum time required to reach dryness can be estimated at 90 h, allowing substantial time to take action to restore a cooling source. It is probable that, in an industrial storage tank, the heat losses from the tank and the offgas discharge ducts will cause recondensation and internal reflux, which will commensurately delay dryness and

  16. Specialized video systems for use in underground storage tanks

    The Robotics Development Groups at the Savannah River Site and the Hanford site have developed remote video and photography systems for deployment in underground radioactive waste storage tanks at Department of Energy (DOE) sites as a part of the Office of Technology Development (OTD) program within DOE. Figure 1 shows the remote video/photography systems in a typical underground storage tank environment. Viewing and documenting the tank interiors and their associated annular spaces is an extremely valuable tool in characterizing their condition and contents and in controlling their remediation. Several specialized video/photography systems and robotic End Effectors have been fabricated that provide remote viewing and lighting. All are remotely deployable into and from the tank, and all viewing functions are remotely operated. Positioning all control components away from the facility prevents the potential for personnel exposure to radiation and contamination. Overview video systems, both monaural and stereo versions, include a camera, zoom lens, camera positioner, vertical deployment system, and positional feedback. Each independent video package can be inserted through a 100 mm (4 in.) diameter opening. A special attribute of these packages is their design to never get larger than the entry hole during operation and to be fully retrievable. The End Effector systems will be deployed on the large robotic Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) being developed by other portions of the OTD-DOE programs. The systems implement a multi-functional ''over the coax'' design that uses a single coaxial cable for all data and control signals over the more than 900 foot cable (or fiber optic) link

  17. Economic Evaluation of Tank Storage and Pot Calcination of Power-Reactor Fuel-Reprocessing Wastes

    As part of a comprehensive study undertaken to evaluate the economics and hazards associated with methods for ultimate disposal of highly radioactive liquid and solid wastes, costs have been estimated for interim storage of the wastes in tanks and conversion to solids by pot calcination. A 6-t(metric)/d capacity fuel-processing plant was assumed, processing 1500 t/yr of uranium fuel of 10 000-MWd/t bum-up and 270 t/yr of thorium fuel of 20 000-MWd/t burn-up, which would process all the fuel from a 15 000-MWe nuclear economy. Costs for storage of acidic and neutralized Purex and Thorex wastes were estimated for storage in stainless- steel tanks for acidic wastes and mild steel for neutralized waste. With interim storage time defined as filling time plus full time, tank costs were minimum when the full time was roughly 40 to 75% of the interim storage time. For 0.5 - 30 yr storage, costs ranged from 2.0 x 10-3 to 9.3 x 10-3 mill/kWhe for acid wastes and from 1.5 x 10-3 to 4.7 x 10-3 mill/kWhe for alkaline wastes. Costs were estimated for converting acidic and reacidified Purex and Thorex wastes to solids by pot calcination and for producing glass from acidic Thorex wastes. The vessels studied were made of 6-, 12-, and 24-in-diam. stainless-steel pipe, 10 ft high, with estimated costs of $500, $855 and $2515. Aging had negligible effect on costs for processing in a vessel of a given size, because capital costs were only about 10% of vessel and operating costs, but permitted larger vessels to be used; costs for processing in 6-in-diam. vessels were two to three times those in 24-in-diam.vessels. The lowest cost was 0.87 x 10-2 mill/kWhe for processing-acidic Purex and .Thorex wastes in 24-in-diam. vessels and the highest was 5.0 x 10-2 mill/kWhe for processing reacidified Purex and Thorex wastes in 6-in-diam. vessels. (author)

  18. Earthquake-induced sloshing effects on seismic qualification of liquid storage tanks

    The paper presents a methodology to evaluate earthquake-induced sloshing effects for seismic qualification of liquid storage tanks. The modal sloshing properties are derived based on an 'Equivalent Rectangular Tank' method. Response spectrum analysis is used to be calculated the sloshing response. The total tank base shear and overturning moment are obtained which can be used for seismic qualification analysis of tanks and tank supports/foundations. This general approach is applicable to general tanks such as vertical-cylindrical, horizontal-cylindrical, spherical, elliptical, and other irregular practical tanks

  19. Large underground radioactive waste storage tanks successfully cleaned at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Waste retrieval operations were successfully completed in two large underground radioactive waste storage tanks in 1997. The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Gunite Tanks Team worked cooperatively during two 10-week waste removal campaigns and removed approximately 58,300 gallons of waste from the tanks. About 100 gallons of a sludge and liquid heel remain in each of the 42,500 gallon tanks. These tanks are 25 ft. in diameter and 11 ft. deep, and are located in the North Tank Farm in the center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Less than 2% of the radioactive contaminants remain in the tanks, proving the effectiveness of the Radioactive Tank Cleaning System, and accomplishing the first field-scale cleaning of contaminated underground storage tanks with a robotic system in the DOE complex

  20. Using virtual objects to aid underground storage tank teleoperation

    In this paper we describe an algorithm by which obstructions and surface features in an underground storage tank can be modeled and used to generate virtual barrier function for a real-time telerobotic system, which provides an aid to the operator for both real-time obstacle avoidance and for surface tracking. The algorithm requires that the slave's tool and every object in the waste storage tank be decomposed into convex polyhedral primitives, with the waste surface modeled by triangular prisms. Intrusion distance and extraction vectors are then derived at every time step by applying Gilbert's polyhedra distance algorithm, which has been adapted for the task. This information is then used to determine the compression and location of nonlinear virtual spring-dampers whose total force is summed and applied to the manipulator/teleoperator system. Experimental results using a PUMA 560 and a simulated waste surface validate the approach, showing that it is possible to compute the algorithm and generate smooth, realistic pseudo forces for the teleoperator system using standard VME bus hardware

  1. Control system design for robotic underground storage tank inspection systems

    Control and data acquisition systems for robotic inspection and surveillance systems used in nuclear waste applications must be capable, versatile, and adaptable to changing conditions. The nuclear waste remediation application is dynamic -- requirements change as public policy is constantly re-examined and refocused, and as technology in this area advances. Control and data acquisition systems must adapt to these changing conditions and be able to accommodate future missions, both predictable and unexpected. This paper describes the control and data acquisition system for the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System that is being developed for remote surveillance and inspection of underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site and other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. It is a high-performance system which has been designed for future growth. The priority mission at the Hanford site is to retrieve the waste generated by 50 years of production from its present storage and process it for final disposal. The LDUA will help to gather information about the waste and the tanks it is stored in to better plan and execute the cleanup mission

  2. Control system design for robotic underground storage tank inspection systems

    Kiebel, G.R.

    1994-09-01

    Control and data acquisition systems for robotic inspection and surveillance systems used in nuclear waste applications must be capable, versatile, and adaptable to changing conditions. The nuclear waste remediation application is dynamic -- requirements change as public policy is constantly re-examined and refocused, and as technology in this area advances. Control and data acquisition systems must adapt to these changing conditions and be able to accommodate future missions, both predictable and unexpected. This paper describes the control and data acquisition system for the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System that is being developed for remote surveillance and inspection of underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site and other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. It is a high-performance system which has been designed for future growth. The priority mission at the Hanford site is to retrieve the waste generated by 50 years of production from its present storage and process it for final disposal. The LDUA will help to gather information about the waste and the tanks it is stored in to better plan and execute the cleanup mission.

  3. Seismic response of flexible cylindrical liquid storage tanks

    Liquid slosh and tank wall vibrations are studied experimentally in a flexible model storage tank subject to simulated earthquake environments. A similitude study is first performed to develop the important nondimensional parameters. An aluminum model tank of 62.87 cm diameter, 76.2 cm height, and 0.51 mm wall thickness, having flat rigid bottom and top cover is instrumented to measure liquid slosh amplitudes and pressures, and tank wall vibrations and strains. Simulation of a scaled earthquake environment is provided by a biaxial shake table having the capability of simultaneous independent horizontal and vertical excitation. Ground motion time histories are developed from random signals, and are modified to produce specified different earthquake response spectra along each axis. It is found that liquid slosh amplitudes are principally related to horizontal seismic displacements, while pressures and shell wall flexural vibrations are principally related to both horizontal and vertical seismic accelerations. Wall vibrations and strains are found to be as sensitive to vertical accelerations as they are to horizontal accelerations. The wall response is comprised principally of the first several flexural or breathing modes which have multiple waves around the shell circumference. Influence of vertical excitation on this type response is surmised to occur through either geometric eccentricities or through parametric excitation mechanisms. Shell wall responses damp out rapidly after the seismic event has subsided. However, low frequency liquid slosh persists for a long time duration after the seismic event. By comparison with predictions from a simple analytical model, liquid pressures are separated into impulsive, or acceleration loads, and convective, or slosh loads. The simple analytical model is shown to be inadequate for certain parameter ranges and earthquake conditions. Explanations for the discrepancies are offered

  4. Experimental investigation on simultaneous charging and discharging of an oil storage tank

    Highlights: ► Simultaneous charging and discharging of an oil storage tank is investigated. ► Three different cases are studied and water is boiled in all cases. ► Thermal stratification is evident for all the three cases. ► Sufficient amount of energy is stored in the storage tank to cook low heat foods. - Abstract: An experimental setup for simultaneous charging and discharging experiments to be performed on an oil storage tank is presented. The experimental setup enables thermal energy to be stored in the storage tank as well as water to be heated up for a cooking application in a simultaneous charging and discharge cycle. Results of three different simultaneous charging and discharging cases are presented. The three different cases of simultaneous charging and discharging are; (i) an initially unstratified storage tank, (ii) an initially stratified storage tank, and (iii) an initially unstratified storage tank at the top and stratified at the bottom. The three different cases of simultaneous charging and discharging indicate that water can be boiled within 2 h of the charging/discharging cycle and a sufficient amount of energy can be stored in the storage tank. It is suggested that foods which take longer cooking times can be cooked with the boiling water. The energy stored can be used to heat up or cook foods that require lower cooking temperatures. Thermal stratification in the storage is evident for all of the three cases.

  5. Polymeric hydrogen diffusion barrier, high-pressure storage tank so equipped, method of fabricating a storage tank and method of preventing hydrogen diffusion

    Lessing, Paul A.

    2004-09-07

    An electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier which comprises an anode layer, a cathode layer, and an intermediate electrolyte layer, which is conductive to protons and substantially impermeable to hydrogen. A catalytic metal present in or adjacent to the anode layer catalyzes an electrochemical reaction that converts any hydrogen that diffuses through the electrolyte layer to protons and electrons. The protons and electrons are transported to the cathode layer and reacted to form hydrogen. The hydrogen diffusion barrier is applied to a polymeric substrate used in a storage tank to store hydrogen under high pressure. A storage tank equipped with the electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier, a method of fabricating the storage tank, and a method of preventing hydrogen from diffusing out of a storage tank are also disclosed.

  6. Polymeric hydrogen diffusion barrier, high-pressure storage tank so equipped, method of fabricating a storage tank and method of preventing hydrogen diffusion

    Lessing, Paul A.

    2008-07-22

    An electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier which comprises an anode layer, a cathode layer, and an intermediate electrolyte layer, which is conductive to protons and substantially impermeable to hydrogen. A catalytic metal present in or adjacent to the anode layer catalyzes an electrochemical reaction that converts any hydrogen that diffuses through the electrolyte layer to protons and electrons. The protons and electrons are transported to the cathode layer and reacted to form hydrogen. The hydrogen diffusion barrier is applied to a polymeric substrate used in a storage tank to store hydrogen under high pressure. A storage tank equipped with the electrochemically active hydrogen diffusion barrier, a method of fabricating the storage tank, and a method of preventing hydrogen from diffusing out of a storage tank are also disclosed.

  7. Heat removal characteristics of waste storage tanks. Revision 1

    A topical report that examines the relationship between tank heat load and maximum waste temperatures. The passive cooling response of the tanks is examined, and loss of active cooling in ventilated tanks is investigated

  8. Decontamination of naturally contaminated liquid nitrogen storage tanks

    Gilson Antonio Pessoa; Mara Iolanda Batistella Rubin; Carlos Antonio Mondino Silva; Denize Costa da Rosa

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of cleaning and decontamination procedures in liquid nitrogen tanks. We evaluated 151 canisters and 133 bottoms from 133 nitrogen tanks of companies or farms for the presence of bacteria and fungi. Samples were collected from the canisters and the bottom of tanks containing liquid nitrogen. Tanks were divided into Group 1 (G1): tanks decontaminated with 2% glutaraldehyde - Glutaron® II (n = 16 canisters in 8 tanks); Group 2 (G2): decont...

  9. Melton Valley Storage Tanks Capacity Increase Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and maintain additional storage capacity at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW). New capacity would be provided by a facility partitioned into six individual tank vaults containing one 100,000 gallon LLLW storage tank each. The storage tanks would be located within the existing Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) facility. This action would require the extension of a potable water line approximately one mile from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) area to the proposed site to provide the necessary potable water for the facility including fire protection. Alternatives considered include no-action, cease generation, storage at other ORR storage facilities, source treatment, pretreatment, and storage at other DOE facilities.

  10. Melton Valley Storage Tanks Capacity Increase Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and maintain additional storage capacity at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW). New capacity would be provided by a facility partitioned into six individual tank vaults containing one 100,000 gallon LLLW storage tank each. The storage tanks would be located within the existing Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) facility. This action would require the extension of a potable water line approximately one mile from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) area to the proposed site to provide the necessary potable water for the facility including fire protection. Alternatives considered include no-action, cease generation, storage at other ORR storage facilities, source treatment, pretreatment, and storage at other DOE facilities

  11. Feasibility report on criticality issues associated with storage of K Basin sludge in tanks farms

    Vail, T.S.

    1997-05-29

    This feasibility study provides the technical justification for conclusions about K Basin sludge storage options. The conclusions, solely based on criticality safety considerations, depend on the treatment of the sludge. The two primary conclusions are, (1) untreated sludge must be stored in a critically safe storage tank, and (2) treated sludge (dissolution, precipitation and added neutron absorbers) can be stored in a standard Double Contained Receiver Tank (DCRT) or 241-AW-105 without future restrictions on tank operations from a criticality safety perspective.

  12. Feasibility report on criticality issues associated with storage of K Basin sludge in tanks farms

    This feasibility study provides the technical justification for conclusions about K Basin sludge storage options. The conclusions, solely based on criticality safety considerations, depend on the treatment of the sludge. The two primary conclusions are, (1) untreated sludge must be stored in a critically safe storage tank, and (2) treated sludge (dissolution, precipitation and added neutron absorbers) can be stored in a standard Double Contained Receiver Tank (DCRT) or 241-AW-105 without future restrictions on tank operations from a criticality safety perspective

  13. Effect of entry of subcooled cryogen on thermal stratification in a cryogenic storage tank

    Wang, Pao-lien

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to predict if subcooled cryogenic liquid entering the bottom of a storage tank will destroy the thermal stratification of the tank. After an extensive literature search, a formula for maximum critical Reynolds Number which used to predict the destratification of a cryogenic tank was found. Example of calculations and graphics to determine the mixing of fluid in the tank were presented.

  14. Closure report for underground storage tank 161-R1U1 and its associated underground piping

    Underground storage tank (UST) 161-31 R at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was registered with the State Water Resources Control Board on June 27, 1984. UST 161-31R was subsequently renamed UST 161-R1U1 (Fig. A-1, Appendix A). UST 161-R1U1 was installed in 1976, and had a capacity of 383 gallons. This tank system consisted of a fiberglass reinforced plastic tank, approximately 320 feet of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) underground piping from Building 161, and approximately 40 feet of PVC underground piping from Building 160. The underground piping connected laboratory drains and sinks inside Buildings 160 and 161 to UST 161-R1U1. The wastewater collected in UST 161-R1U1, contained organic solvents, metals, inorganic acids, and radionuclides, most of which was produced within Building 161. On June 28, 1989, the UST 161-R1U1 piping system.around the perimeter of Building 161 failed a precision test performed by Gary Peters Enterprises (Appendix B). The 161-R1U1 tank system was removed from service after the precision test. In July 1989, additional hydrostatic tests and helium leak detection tests were performed (Appendix B) to determine the locations of the piping failures in the Building 161 piping system. The locations of the piping system failures are shown in Figure A-2 (Appendix A). On July 11, 1989, LLNL submitted an Unauthorized Release Report to Alameda County Department of Environmental Health (ACDEH), Appendix C

  15. Performance of liquid storage tanks during the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake

    Utilities and industrial facilities in the strong shaking area of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake include a large inventory of tanks of all types. The earthquake induced a few incidents of damage to tanks of old and modern design, and even to a retrofitted tank. This paper documents the performance of tank structures during this seismic event through a detailed description of the damage sustained by ground-based petroleum and water storage tanks and by elevated water tanks. It appears that site amplification of the long period ground motion components was a cause of large amplitude sloshing and the associated damage to tanks built on Bay Mud. It is also apparent that design procedures for ground-based unanchored tanks require a substantial updating to reflect the recent technical advances and the lessons learned for such a type of tanks

  16. HLLW storage tank materials: technical options and operating experience

    Storage tanks for concentrated fission product solutions are made of Z 2 CND 17-12 (AISI 316 L) stainless steel. The solution temperature is cooled below 60 deg. C and permanent stirring of the medium keeps the insolubles in suspension preventing the formation of wall deposits. This stainless steel was selected after a number of corrosion tests conducted ''in situ'' in the tanks of nuclear facilities and in radioactive fission product solutions prepared in the laboratory. All these tests demonstrated a superior localized corrosion resistance under radioactive deposits for AISI 316 L steel, when compared to AISI 304 L steel. Laboratory tests were also performed up to 100 deg. C in fission product solutions containing ferric ions (up to 20 g.1-1). Under these conditions, more severe than nominal operating conditions, 316 L steel exhibits some risks of intergranular attack. The operating conditions adopted, and the experience gained in France over the past 30 years, clearly vindicate the choice of 316 L steel. (author)

  17. Model based, sensor directed remediation of underground storage tanks

    Sensor rich, intelligent robots which function with respect to models of their environment have significant potential to reduce the time and cost for the cleanup of hazardous waste while increasing operator safety. Sandia National Laboratories is performing experimental investigations into the application of intelligent robot control technology to the problem of removing waste stored tanks. This paper describes the experimental environment employed at Saudi with particular attention to the computing and software control environment. Intelligent system control is achieved though the integration of extensive geometric and kinematic world models with real-time sensor based control. All operator interactions with the system are validate all operator commands before execution to provide a safe operation. Sensing is used to add information to the robot system's world model and to allow sensor based sensor control during selected operations. The results of a first Critical Feature Test are reported and the potential for applying advanced intelligent control concepts to the removal of waste in storage tanks is discussed

  18. Explosion and fire analysis of the Dora gas storage tanks

    Full text.The location of the Dora natural gas storage tanks within a close proximity to densely populated areas necessitates a thorough study of the risk associated with accidental gas releases and potential subsequent explosions. This paper describes the type and mechanism of release, the explosion form, the ensuing severity and the areas that are correspondingly affected. A variety of leakage scenarios are explored using mathematical models that simulate gas discharge, liquid leaks and two-phase gaseous and liquid streams. Relevant explosion models are discussed covering confined explosions, unconfined vapor cloud explosions, boiling liquid expanding vapor explosions and pool fires including the identification of the elements necessary for fire initiation. Fire explosion damages and influencing factors are then presented with the purpose of effecting a thorough reflection on damage extent. Finally, hazard control programs are defined on the basis of hazard priorities among the likely scenarios

  19. Mixed waste removal from a hazardous waste storage tank

    The spent fuel transfer canal at the Oak Ridge Graphite Reactor was found to be leaking 400 gallons of water per day into the surrounding soil. Sampling of the sediment layer on the floor of the canal to determine the environmental impact of the leak identified significant radiological contamination and elevated levels of cadmium and lead which are hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Under RCRA regulations and Rules of Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, the canal was considered a hazardous waste storage tank. This paper describes elements of the radiological control program established in support of a fast-track RCRA closure plan that involved underwater mapping of the radiation fields, vacuuming, and ultra-filtration techniques that were successfully used to remove the mixed waste sediments and close the canal in a method compliant with state and federal regulations

  20. Light duty utility remote manipulator for underground storage tank inspection and characterization

    The Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) is a remote manipulator system which is being designed and fabricated to perform surveillance and characterization activities in support of the remediation of underground storage tanks at the Hanford site as well as other DOE sites. The LDUA is a mechanical manipulator which utilizes an advanced control system to safely and reliably deploy a series of sensors to characterize underground storage tanks. The electrical components of the in tank system are radiation hardened and the mechanical components are designed to operate in the corrosive environment which exists in the tanks. The use of this system will allow the US Department of Energy to sample and characterize the waste material in the tanks prior to the initiation of waste retrieval operations. In addition to its use for inspecting and characterizing underground storage tanks, the system has the potential to be used in other environments where accessibility is limited and where high radiation levels exist

  1. Improvement of floating roof tanks for liquids, more particularly for storage tanks used in nuclear power plants

    The invention deals with floating roof tanks for liquids, comprising a cylindrical wall, a floating roof and a flexible membrane sealing the roof circumference to the wall. The present tank has a protection against a filling excess when the roof is at its upper position, an overflow pipe on the outer face of the wall with a U-shaped portion at its upper end at the maximal desired reservoir filling level. The invention can be applied to the storage tanks ensuring the reserve of degased water for a primary coolant circuit of a nuclear reactor

  2. Investigation and remediation of petroleum product releases from residential storage tanks

    Releases of petroleum products from leaking residential storage tanks are a growing problem in the state of New Jersey. Approximately two releases per day have been reported to the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Product releases may cause aquifers to become contaminated, may effect surface water, or cause vapor problems inside households. As of 1992, there are no federal or state regulations pertaining to the maintenance and monitoring of residential petroleum storage tanks. Regulations are essential for protecting drinking water supplies. The regulations must address installation procedures, tank materials, monitoring, and tank location

  3. Closure Report for Underground Storage Tank 2310-U at the Pine Ridge West Repeater Station

    This document represents the Closure Report for Underground Storage Tank (UST) 2310-U at the Pine Ridge West Repeater Station, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Tank 2310-U was a 200-gal gasoline UST which serviced the emergency generator at the Repeater Station. The tank was situated in a shallow tank bay adjacent to the Repeater Station along the crest of Pine Ridge. The tank failed a tightness test in October 1989 and was removed in November 1989. The purpose of this report is to document completion of soil corrective action, present supporting analytical data, and request closure for this site

  4. Closure Report for Underground Storage Tank 2310-U at the Pine Ridge West Repeater Station

    1994-07-01

    This document represents the Closure Report for Underground Storage Tank (UST) 2310-U at the Pine Ridge West Repeater Station, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Tank 2310-U was a 200-gal gasoline UST which serviced the emergency generator at the Repeater Station. The tank was situated in a shallow tank bay adjacent to the Repeater Station along the crest of Pine Ridge. The tank failed a tightness test in October 1989 and was removed in November 1989. The purpose of this report is to document completion of soil corrective action, present supporting analytical data, and request closure for this site.

  5. Fluid dynamic studies for a simulated Melton Valley Storage Tank slurry

    The Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs), are used for the collection and storage of remote-handled radioactive liquid wastes. These wastes, which were typically acidic when generated, were neutralized with the addition of sodium hydroxide to protect the storage tanks from corrosion, but this caused the transuranic and heavy metals to precipitate. These wastes will eventually need to be removed from the tanks for ultimate disposal. The objective of the research activities discussed in this report is to support the design of a pipeline transport system between the MVSTs and a treatment facility. Since the wastes in the MVSTs are highly radioactive, a surrogate slurry was developed for this study. Rheological properties of the simulated slurry were determined in a test loop in which the slurry was circulated through three pipeline viscometers of different diameters. Pressure drop data at varying flow rates were used to obtain shear stress and shear rate data. The data were analyzed, and the slurry rheological properties were analyzed by the Power Law model and the Bingham plastic model. The plastic viscosity and yield stress data obtained from the rheological tests were used as inputs for a piping design software package, and the pressure drops predicted by the software compared well with the pressure drop data obtained from the test loop. The minimum transport velocity was determine for the slurry by adding known nominal sizes of glass spheres to the slurry. However, it was shown that the surrogate slurry exhibited hindered settling, which may substantially decrease the minimum transport velocity. Therefore, it may be desired to perform additional tests with a surrogate with a lower concentration of suspended solids to determine the minimum transport velocity

  6. Thermal performance behavior of a domestic hot water solar storage tank during consumption operation

    Transient thermal performance behavior of a vertical storage tank of a domestic solar water heating system with a mantle heat exchanger has been investigated numerically in the discharge/consumption mode. It is assumed that the tank is initially stratified during its previous heat storing/charging operation. During the discharging period, the city cold water is fed at the bottom of the tank and hot water is extracted from its top outlet port for consumption. Meanwhile, the collector loop is assumed to be active. The conservation equations in the axis-symmetric cylindrical co-ordinate have been used and discretised by employing the finite volume method. The low Reynolds number (LRN) k - ω model is utilized for treating turbulence in the fluid. The influence of the tank Grashof number, the incoming cold fluid Reynolds number and the size of the inlet port of the heat storage tank on the transient thermal characteristics of the tank is investigated and discussed. It is found that for higher values of Grashof number, the pre-established thermal stratification is well preserved during the discharging operation mode. It is also noticed that in order to have a tank with a proper thermal performance and or have least mixing inside the tank during the consumption period, the tank inflow Reynolds number and or its inflow port diameter should be kept below certain values. In these cases, the storage tank is enabling to provide proper amount of hot water with a proper temperature for consumption purposes.

  7. Technical Assessment of Compressed Hydrogen Storage Tank Systems for Automotive Applications

    Hua, Thanh [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ahluwalia, Rajesh [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Peng, J. -K [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kromer, Matt [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Lasher, Stephen [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); McKenney, Kurtis [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Law, Karen [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Sinha, Jayanti [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This technical report describes DOE's assessment of the performance and cost of compressed hydrogen storage tank systems for automotive applications. The on-board performance (by Argonne National Lab) and high-volume manufacturing cost (by TIAX LLC) were estimated for compressed hydrogen storage tanks. The results were compared to DOE's 2010, 2015, and ultimate full fleet hydrogen storage targets. The Well-to-Tank (WTT) efficiency as well as the off-board performance and cost of delivering compressed hydrogen were also documented in the report.

  8. Hydrodynamic behavior analysis of vertical-cylindrical liquid-storage tanks by mathematically analytic method

    Hydrodynamic behavior and response of vertical-cylindrical liquid-storage tank is considered. The equation of the liquid motion is shown by Laplace's differential equation with the fluid velocity potential. The solution of the Laplace's differential equation of the liquid motion is expressed with the modified Bessel functions. Only rigid tank is studied. The equivalent masses and heights for the tank contents are presented for engineering design model

  9. SORPTION OF URANIUM, PLUTONIUM AND NEPTUNIUM ONTO SOLIDS PRESENT IN HIGH CAUSTIC NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    Oji, L; Bill Wilmarth, B; David Hobbs, D

    2008-05-30

    Solids such as granular activated carbon, hematite and sodium phosphates, if present as sludge components in nuclear waste storage tanks, have been found to be capable of precipitating/sorbing actinides like plutonium, neptunium and uranium from nuclear waste storage tank supernatant liqueur. Thus, the potential may exists for the accumulation of fissile materials in such nuclear waste storage tanks during lengthy nuclear waste storage and processing. To evaluate the nuclear criticality safety in a typical nuclear waste storage tank, a study was initiated to measure the affinity of granular activated carbon, hematite and anhydrous sodium phosphate to sorb plutonium, neptunium and uranium from alkaline salt solutions. Tests with simulated and actual nuclear waste solutions established the affinity of the solids for plutonium, neptunium and uranium upon contact of the solutions with each of the solids. The removal of plutonium and neptunium from the synthetic salt solution by nuclear waste storage tank solids may be due largely to the presence of the granular activated carbon and transition metal oxides in these storage tank solids or sludge. Granular activated carbon and hematite also showed measurable affinity for both plutonium and neptunium. Sodium phosphate, used here as a reference sorbent for uranium, as expected, exhibited high affinity for uranium and neptunium, but did not show any measurable affinity for plutonium.

  10. Underground storage tank - Integrated Demonstration Technical Task Plan master schedule

    This document provides an integrated programmatic schedule (i.e., Master Schedule) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) Program. It includes top-level schedule and related information for the DOE Office of Technology Development (EM-50) UST-ID activities. The information is based upon the fiscal year (FY) 1994 technical task plans (TTPS) and has been prepared as a baseline information resource for program participants. The Master Schedule contains Level 0 and Level 1 program schedules for the UST-ID Program. This document is one of a number of programmatic documents developed to support and manage the UST-ID activities. It is composed of the following sections: Program Overview - provides a summary background of the UST-ID Program. This summary addresses the mission, scope, and organizational structure of the program; Activity Description - provides a programmatic description of UST-ID technology development activities and lists the key milestones for the UST-ID systems. Master Schedules - contains the Level 0 and Level 1 programmatic schedules for the UST-ID systems. References - lists the UST-ID programmatic documents used as a basis for preparing the Master Schedule. The appendixes contain additional details related to site-specific technology applications

  11. New computation method for stratification pipes of solar storage tanks

    Goeppert, Stefan; Lohse, Rolf; Urbaneck, Thorsten; Schirmer, Ulrich; Platzer, Bernd; Steinert, Philipp [Department of Technical Thermodynamics, Chemnitz University of Technology, Reichenhainer Str. 70, 09126 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    The efficiency of low-flow solar systems is strongly influenced by the quality of the thermal stratification in the storage tank. The better a thermal stratification can be generated and maintained, the higher can be the yield of the solar system. Fluid mechanical charge systems are often used for this purpose, which cause, however, undesirable sucking effects. Therefore, the knowledge of the appearing fluid flows as well as the knowledge of the consequences of constructive changes are very important for the design of such charge systems. However, simulations with CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) are very costly and time-consuming. In this article a new and much simpler computation method is introduced making the determination of the individual fluid flows and the estimation of the effects of constructive changes possible. The computations can be carried out within short time. The comparison with CFD gives a qualitatively good agreement for a simple charge system. The results of a constructive modification of the charge system reducing the sucking effect are discussed. The remaining quantitative differences result from the discrepancies between the non-ideal behaviour of the real fluid and the model assumptions and point out improvement potentials. (author)

  12. An analytical formula for elastic–plastic instability of large oil storage tanks

    Assuming axisymmetric buckling and according to the adjacent equilibrium criterion, a buckling critical stress formula of a perfect tank wall is first obtained through analysis of elastic–plastic buckling carried out by J2 plastic flow theory. Furthermore, combining the current tank seismic design standards and the results obtained in this paper, a new critical buckling stress formula of the tank wall is derived after correction for material plasticity by introducing a plasticity influence coefficient. Comparisons between the results obtained and those from the relevant formulas in the design standards of America, Japan, China and Europe are also performed. Our research shows that under interaction of high hydraulic and axial compression, the material properties of the tank wall change rapidly, and the buckling strength of the tank wall also decreases rapidly. The relation between the tank wall buckling critical stress and the hydraulic pressure is similar to Rotter's semi-empirical formula. The results presented in this paper can provide technical support in further protection of large oil storage tanks. Graphical abstract: These are buckling critical stresses of 5 × 104 m3 oil tank calculated by four standards and formulas obtained in this paper. With the increase of circumferential stress of the tank wall, buckling critical stresses from America, Japan and China standards keep constant, while values calculated by Europe standard and formulas in this paper decrease. This phenomenon is attributed to material plasticity. Highlights: ► We propose a simplified analytic model for large oil storage tank suffered elastic–plastic buckling. ► Elastic-plastic buckling analysis of a large oil storage tank was carried out by incremental theory of plasticity. ► A critical stress calculation formula of tank wall instability considering the correction of material plasticity was derived. ► Buckling strength of the tank wall would decrease rapidly under the

  13. LEAKING UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS: REMEDIATION WITH EMPHASIS ON IN SITU BIORESTORATION

    The current literature indicates that in situ biorestoration has great potential for remediation of aquifers contaminated by leaking underground storage tanks. In situ aquifer restoration involves the enhancement of the indigenous microflora to degrade subsurface pollutants. The ...

  14. Numerical Investigation of Effective Heat Conductivity of Fluid in Charging Process of Thermal Storage Tank

    Taheri, H.; Schmidt, F.P.; Gabi, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical case study of heat transfer mechanisms during the charging process of a stratified thermal storage tank applied in a specific adsorption heat pump cycle. The effective thermal conductivity of the heat transfer fluid during the charging process is analyzed through CFD simulations using Unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (URANS). The aim of the study is to provide an equivalent thermal conductivity for a one-dimensional storage tank model to be us...

  15. Filamentous fungi occurrence in free water and biofilms from drinking water storage tanks

    Silva, P. B. R.; Oliveira, H. M. B.; Santos, Cledir; Gusmão, N. B.; Lima, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    In some regions of Brazil, especially where the water is scarce, drinking water is stored in water storage tanks. This practice gives the consumer the guarantee of available water. The water storage conditions such as the exposure to hot weather when the tanks are on rooftops allow the development of microorganisms and microbial biofilms which can deteriorate the water quality and increase the risk to human health [1,2]. This study describes the filamentous fungi (FF) detected in free water a...

  16. ADMINISTRATIVE AND ENGINEERING CONTROLS FOR THE OPERATION OF VENTILATION SYSTEMS FOR UNDERGROUND RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    Wiersma, B.; Hansen, A.

    2013-11-13

    Liquid radioactive wastes from the Savannah River Site are stored in large underground carbon steel tanks. The majority of the waste is confined in double shell tanks, which have a primary shell, where the waste is stored, and a secondary shell, which creates an annular region between the two shells, that provides secondary containment and leak detection capabilities should leakage from the primary shell occur. Each of the DST is equipped with a purge ventilation system for the interior of the primary shell and annulus ventilation system for the secondary containment. Administrative flammability controls require continuous ventilation to remove hydrogen gas and other vapors from the waste tanks while preventing the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere. Should a leak from the primary to the annulus occur, the annulus ventilation would also serve this purpose. The functionality of the annulus ventilation is necessary to preserve the structural integrity of the primary shell and the secondary. An administrative corrosion control program is in place to ensure integrity of the tank. Given the critical functions of the purge and annulus ventilation systems, engineering controls are also necessary to ensure that the systems remain robust. The system consists of components that are constructed of metal (e.g., steel, stainless steel, aluminum, copper, etc.) and/or polymeric (polypropylene, polyethylene, silicone, polyurethane, etc.) materials. The performance of these materials in anticipated service environments (e.g., normal waste storage, waste removal, etc.) was evaluated. The most aggressive vapor space environment occurs during chemical cleaning of the residual heels by utilizing oxalic acid. The presence of NO{sub x} and mercury in the vapors generated from the process could potentially accelerate the degradation of aluminum, carbon steel, and copper. Once identified, the most susceptible materials were either replaced and/or plans for discontinuing operations

  17. Analysis of heat storage with a thermocline tank for concentrated solar plants

    Graells Vilella, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The storage system in a concentrated solar plant is considered an important concern to increase the capacity factor of the plant by producing power during the night or in cloudy days. This paper presents different storage materials, and introduces several storage systems available. Moreover, the paper is focused on the analysis of a thermocline system, which consists on a single tank that typically works with molten salt and quartzite rock as storage media. A simulation model of h...

  18. Analysis of embedded waste storage tanks subjected to seismic loading

    At the Savannah River Site, High Activity Wastes are stored in carbon steel tanks that are within reinforced concrete vaults. These soil-embedded tank/vault structures are approximately 80 ft. in diameter and 40 ft. deep. The tanks were studied to determine the essentials of governing variables, to reduce the problem to the least number of governing cases to optimize analysis effort without introducing excessive conservatism. The problem reduced to a limited number of cases of soil-structure interaction and fluid (tank contents)-structure interaction problems. It was theorized that substantially reduced input would be realized from soil structure interaction (SSI) but that it was also possible that tank-to-tank proximity would result in (re)amplification of the input. To determine the governing seismic input motion, the three dimensional SSI code, SASSI, was used. Significant among the issues relative to waste tanks is the determination of fluid response and tank behavior as a function of tank contents viscosity. Tank seismic analyses and studies have been based on low viscosity fluids (water) and the behavior is quite well understood. Typical wastes (salts, sludge), which are highly viscous, have not been the subject of studies to understand the effect of viscosity on seismic response. The computer code DYNA3D was used to study how viscosity alters tank wall pressure distribution and tank base shear and overturning moments. A parallel hand calculation was performed using standard procedures. Conclusions based on this study provide insight into the quantification of the reduction of seismic inputs for soil structure interaction for a open-quotes softclose quotes soil site

  19. Refurbishment and retrofitting of SF6 gas storage tanks of the pelletron accelerator

    The BARC-TIFR Pelletron Accelerator Facility has completed more than twenty six years of successful round-the-clock operation, serving diverse users from institutions within and outside DAE. The main accelerating structure and associated subsystems are housed in the accelerator tank under SF6 gas medium. During maintenance of the accelerator, the SF6 gas present in the accelerator tank is transferred in the four storage tanks located on the terrace of the building open to outside environment. These four storage tanks (with ∼ 1/4th of the main tank volume each) are ∼ 4.27 m in diameter and ∼ 10 m in height each and are supported on RCC ring beams which are monolithically connected with the RCC structure below. Over the years, the anchor bolts and the base plates of support structure of storage tanks were found corroded and the foundation RCC ring beam indicated a few corrosion cracks. Health assessment of relevant structures and components were carried out. Considering the limitations of existing anchorage and also giving due considerations for reparability and replaceability, a new anchorage system was designed. The entire refurbishment and retrofitting works pertaining to the four SF6 gas storage tanks was executed in a time bound manner to comply with the then PASC (Particle Accelerator Safety Committee) recommendations successfully, without disrupting the operations of the round-the-clock running Pelletron Accelerator facility. In addition, the thickness measurements for the storage tanks were performed. The relief valves and rupture disc assemblies across the storage tanks were replaced and reinstalled after introducing appropriate manual valves as suggested by the PASC. A new test set up was fabricated to perform pneumatic testing at the recommended pressure off-line for these relief valves and rupture disc assemblies prior to reinstallation. This paper describes the comprehensive rehabilitation and retrofitting procedures that were carried out at the

  20. Modelling and Experimental Verification of Pressure Wave Following Gaseous Helium Storage Tank Rupture

    Chorowski, M.; Grabowski, M.; Jędrusyna, A.; Wach, J.

    Helium inventory in high energy accelerators, tokamaks and free electron lasers may exceed tens of tons. The gaseous helium is stored in steel tanks under a pressure of about 20 bar and at environment temperature. Accidental rupture of any of the tanks filled with the gaseous helium will create a rapid energy release in form of physical blast. An estimation of pressure wave distribution following the tank rupture and potential consequences to the adjacent research infrastructure and buildings is a very important task, critical in the safety aspect of the whole cryogenic system. According to the present regulations the TNT equivalent approach is to be applied to evaluate the pressure wave following a potential gas storage tank rupture. A special test stand was designed and built in order to verify experimentally the blast effects in controlled conditions. In order to obtain such a shock wave a pressurized plastic tank was used. The tank was ruptured and the resulting pressure wave was recorded using a spatially-distributed array of pressure sensors connected to a high-speed data acquisition device. The results of the experiments and the comparison with theoretical values obtained from thermodynamic model of the blast are presented. A good agreement between the simulated and measured data was obtained. Recommendations regarding the applicability of thermodynamic model of physical blast versus TNT approach, to estimate consequences of gas storage tank rupture are formulated. The laboratory scale experimental results have been scaled to ITER pressurized helium storage tanks.

  1. Operation Performance of Central Solar Heating System with Seasonal Storage Water Tank in Harbin

    YE Ling; JIANG Yi-qiang; YAO Yang; ZHANG Shi-cong

    2009-01-01

    This paper presented a preliminary research on the central solar heating system with seasonal stor-age(CSHSSS)used in cold climate in China.A mathematical model of the solar energy seasonal storage water tank used in the central solar heating system was firstly developed based on energy conservation.This was fol-lowed by the simulation of the CSHSSS used in a two-floor villa in Harbin,and analysis of the impacts on storage water temperature of tank volume,solar collector area,tank burial depth,insulation thickness around the tank,etc.The results show there is a relatively economical tank volume to optimize the system efficiency,which de-creases with increasing tank volume at the constant collector area,and increases with increasing collector area at the constant tank volume.Furthermore,the insulation thickness has obvious effect on avoiding heat loss,while the tank burial depth doesn't.In addition-the relationship between the solar collector efficiency and storage wa-ter temperature is also obtained,it decreases quickly with increasing storing water temperature,and then in-creases slowly after starting space heating system.These may be helpful for relevant design and optimization in cold climates in China and all over the world.

  2. Underground storage tank 291-D1U1: Closure plan

    Mancieri, S.; Giuntoli, N.

    1993-09-01

    The 291-D1U1 tank system was installed in 1983 on the north side of Building 291. It supplies diesel fuel to the Building 291 emergency generator and air compressor. The emergency generator and air compressor are located southwest and southeast, respectively, of the tank (see Appendix B, Figure 2). The tank system consists of a single-walled, 2,000- gallon, fiberglass tank and a fuel pump system, fill pipe, vent pipe, electrical conduit, and fuel supply and return piping. The area to be excavated is paved with asphalt and concrete. It is not known whether a concrete anchor pad is associated with this tank. Additionally, this closure plan assumes that the diesel tank is below the fill pad. The emergency generator and air compressor for Building 291 and its associated UST, 291-D1U1, are currently in use. The generator and air compressor will be supplied by a temporary above-ground fuel tank prior to the removal of 291-D1U1. An above-ground fuel tank will be installed as a permanent replacement for 291-D1U1. The system was registered with the State Water Resources Control Board on June 27, 1984, as 291-41D and has subsequently been renamed 291-D1U1. Figure 1 (see Appendix B) shows the location of the 291-D1U1 tank system in relation to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Figure 2 (see Appendix B) shows the 291-D1U1 tank system in relation to Building 291. Figure 3 (see Appendix B) shows a plan view of the 291-D1U1 tank system.

  3. The electrostatic properties of Fiber-Reinforced-Plastics double wall underground storage gasoline tanks

    At present Fiber Reinforced Plastics (FRP) double wall underground storage gasoline tanks are wildly used. An FRP product with a resistance of more than 1011 Ω is a static non-conductor, so it is difficult for the static electricity in the FRP product to decay into the earth. In this paper an experimental system was built to simulate an automobile gasoline filling station. Some electrostatic parameters of the gasoline, including volume charge density, were tested when gasoline was unloaded into a FRP double wall underground storage tank. Measurements were taken to make sure the volume charge density in the oil-outlet was similar to the volume charge density in the tank. In most cases the volume charge density of the gasoline was more than 22.7 μC m−3, which is likely to cause electrostatic discharge in FRP double wall underground storage gasoline tanks. On the other hand, it would be hard to ignite the vapor by electrostatic discharge since the vapor pressure in the tanks is over the explosion limit. But when the tank is repaired or re-used, the operators must pay attention to the static electricity and some measurements should be taken to avoid electrostatic accident. Besides the relaxation time of charge in the FRP double wall gasoline storage tanks should be longer.

  4. Light duty utility remote manipulator for underground storage tank inspection and characterization

    The Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) is a remote manipulator which is being designed and fabricated to perform surveillance and characterization activities in support of the remediation of underground storage tanks at the Hanford site as well as other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The LDUA is a highly dexterous manipulator which utilizes an advanced control system to safely and reliably deploy a series of sensors to characterize underground storage tanks. The electrical components of the in tank system are radiation hardened and the mechanical components are designed to operate in the corrosive environment which exists in the tanks. The use of this system will allow the DOE to sample and characterize the waste material in the tanks prior to the initiation of waste retrieval operations. (author) 2 figs

  5. South Tank Farm underground storage tank inspection using the topographical mapping system for radiological and hazardous environments

    During the winter of 1997 the Topographical Mapping System (TMS) for hazardous and radiological environments and the Interactive Computer-Enhanced Remote-Viewing System (ICERVS) were used to perform wall inspections on underground storage tanks (USTs) W5 and W6 of the South Tank Farm (STF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The TMS was designed for deployment in the USTs at the Hanford Site. Because of its modular design, the TMS was also deployable in the USTs at ORNL. The USTs at ORNL were built in the 1940s and have been used to store radioactive waste during the past 50 years. The tanks are constructed with an inner layer of Gunite trademark that has been spalling, leaving sections of the inner wall exposed. Attempts to quantify the depths of the spalling with video inspection have proven unsuccessful. The TMS surface-mapping campaign in the STF was initiated to determine the depths of cracks, crevices, and/or holes in the tank walls and to identify possible structural instabilities in the tanks. The development of the TMS and the ICERVS was initiated by DOE for the purpose of characterization and remediation of USTs at DOE sites across the country. DOE required a three-dimensional, topographical mapping system suitable for use in hazardous and radiological environments. The intended application is mapping the interiors of USTs as part of DOE's waste characterization and remediation efforts, to obtain both baseline data on the content of the storage tank interiors and changes in the tank contents and levels brought about by waste remediation steps. Initially targeted for deployment at the Hanford Site, the TMS has been designed to be a self-contained, compact, and reconfigurable system that is capable of providing rapid variable-resolution mapping information in poorly characterized workspaces with a minimum of operator intervention

  6. Analysis of waste storage tanks subjected to seismic loading

    At the Savannah River Site, High Activity Wastes are stored in carbon steel tanks that are within reinforced concrete vaults. These soil-embedded tank/vault structures are approximately 24m in diameter and 12m deep. Twenty-seven of these tanks required seismic analysis. The problem was reduced to a limited number of cases of soil-structure interaction and fluid-structure interaction problems. It was theorized that substantially reduced seismic input could be realized from soil structure interaction (SSI) but that it was also possible that tank-to-tank proximity could result in (re)amplification of the input. To determine the governing seismic input motion, the three dimensional SSI code, SASSI, was used. Also of concern was fluid response and tank behavior as a function of tank contents viscosity. Tank seismic analyses and studies have been based on low viscosity fluids (water) and the behavior is quite well understood. Typical wastes (salts, sludge), which are highly viscous, have not been the subject of studies to understand the effect of viscosity on seismic response. Conclusions based on this study provide insight into the quantification of the of seismic inputs for soil structure interaction for a 'soft' soil site and provides some conclusions for dealing with the viscosity variable. (author)

  7. Seismic response analysis of a high integrity liquid storage tank

    The paper reports a linear transient finite element stress analysis of a high integrity water filled tank. The flexibility of the tank wall was modelled, together with the hydrostatic and hydrodynamic effects of the seismic excitation. Design changes were indicated to avoid potential failure due to buckling and plastic collapse. (author)

  8. Robotic system for remote inspection of underground storage tanks

    Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO), operates the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for the U.S. Department of Energy. The purpose of the ICPP is to process government-owned spent nuclear fuel. WINCO temporarily stores the waste from this process in eleven 11,358,620-ell (300,000-gal), 15.2-m (50-ft)-diam, high-level liquid waste tanks. Each of these stainless steel tanks is contained within an underground concrete vault. The only access to the interior tanks is through risers that extended from the ground level to the dome of the tanks. The performance of these tasks requires a robotic manipulator capable of accessing the interior of the tanks and positioning the various inspection devices. The remote tank inspection (RTI) robotic system will be used to inspect the tank walls using a high-resolution camera inspection system. In addition to the minimum specifications, the RTI system will be computer controlled, incorporate collision avoidance, and provide a graphic display of the robotic arm in the tank to aid the operator

  9. Design and calculation of a new storage tank for concentrating solar power plant

    Highlights: • A new storage tank for concentrating solar power has been designed. • Mathematical model of unsteady state heat conduction has been established. • The charge time and the temperature of the tank have been investigated. - Abstract: Concentrating solar power plant coupling with thermal energy storage is a popular technology during the solar application process. A multitude of researches focus on improving heat transfer performance of the whole system for getting the higher efficiency and lower cost. In this paper, a new storage tank for concentrating solar power has been designed, and the mathematical model of one-dimensional unsteady state heat conduction in cylindrical coordinates has been established and validated. Also, the charge time and the temperature of the tank have been investigated in the designing conditions based on this model. The results show that the new storage tank has a superior performance for the system in the charge period. The charge time from unsteady state to steady state heat conduction for the tank is about 9923 s. It can be found that there is a relatively good agreement of about 18.9% for the charge time between the mathematical model and the reference. The curve of the temperature versus the charge time for different thermal properties of the materials based on the model of this paper has been investigated. The results can provide a good reference for designing, operating, and energy-saving of thermal energy storage for concentrating solar power plants

  10. Smart solar tanks - Heat storage of the future?

    Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    1997-01-01

    Preliminary investigations of a smart solar tank concept for small SDHW-systems have been carried out. In the tank the operation of the auxiliary energy supply system is controlled by the hot water demand and by the consumption pattern. Water at the top of the tank is only heated by the auxiliary...... energy supply system to a required temperature in periods with hot water demand. The tank is heated by the auxiliary energy supply system from the top so that the volume of water heated to the required temperature can be controlled in a flexible way. In periods with a large hot water demand the volume...... can be large and in periods with a small hot water demand the volume can be small. For instance, the energy supply system can be controlled on measurements of the energy content of the tank during all hours of the week and based on a required hot water consumption and consumption pattern which can be...

  11. Nondestructive examination of DOE high-level waste storage tanks

    A number of DOE sites have buried tanks containing high-level waste. Tanks of particular interest am double-shell inside concrete cylinders. A program has been developed for the inservice inspection of the primary tank containing high-level waste (HLW), for testing of transfer lines and for the inspection of the concrete containment where possible. Emphasis is placed on the ultrasonic examination of selected areas of the primary tank, coupled with a leak-detection system capable of detecting small leaks through the wall of the primary tank. The NDE program is modelled after ASME Section XI in many respects, particularly with respects to the sampling protocol. Selected testing of concrete is planned to determine if there has been any significant degradation. The most probable failure mechanisms are corrosion-related so that the examination program gives major emphasis to possible locations for corrosion attack

  12. AP 600 - In containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST) hydrodynamic analysis

    The AP600 is a 600 MWe Advanced Light Water Reactor that is being designed with passive safety features including an automatic depressurization system (ADS). During emergency conditions some of the ADS valves discharge into the in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST) under water through a sparger, producing hydrodynamic loads on the tank walls and equipment. The purpose of this paper is to present the IRWST hydrodynamic analyses, jointly performed by Ansaldo and Westinghouse, as part of the AP600 program, under Westinghouse's overall leadership, in conjunction with sparger tests conducted on a test tank model. An analytical procedure to predict hydrodynamic loads imposed on the AP600 IRWST tank from ADS discharges has been validated by a comparison with test tank measurements; the appropriate inclusion of fluid structure interaction effects allows significant pressure attenuations from the discharge region and indicates that relatively low structural effects are produced on tank main structures from induced wall pressures

  13. Status report for inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks at Hanford Site 200 Areas

    The purpose of this status report is to summarize updated data and information from the FY 1994 strategy plan that is associated with inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (IMUSTs). Assumptions and processes to assess potential risks and operational concerns are documented in this report. Safety issue priorities are ranked based on a number of considerations. Sixty-three IMUSTs have been Identified and placed on the official IMUST list. All the tanks are associated with past Hanford Site operations. Of the 63 tanks., 19 are catch tanks, 20 are vault tanks, 3 are neutralization tanks, 8 are settling tanks, 2 are solvent makeup tanks used to store hexone, 2 are flush tanks, 3 are decontamination tanks, 1 is a diverter station, 1 is a receiver tank, 1 is an experimental tank, and 3 are waste handling tanks. It is important to proactively deal with the risks Imposed by these 63 tanks, and at the same time not jeopardize the existing commitments and schedules for mitigating and resolving identified safety issues related to the 177 SSTs and DSTS. Access controls and signs have been placed on all but the three official IMUSTs added most recently. An accelerated effort to identify authorization documents and perform unreviewed safety question (USQ) screening has been completed. According to a set of criteria consistent with the safety screening data quality objective (DQO) process, 6 IMUSTs are ranked high related to the hydrogen generation potential safety Issue, 1 is ranked high related to the ferrocyanide potential safety issue, 6 are ranked high related to the flammability potential safety issue, and 25 are ranked high related to the vapor emissions potential safety issue

  14. Thermocline storage for concentrated solar power : Techno-economic performance evaluation of a multi-layered single tank storage for Solar Tower Power Plant

    Ferruzza, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Solar Tower Power Plants with thermal energy storage are a promising technology for dispatchable renewable energy in the near future. Storage integration makes possible to shift the electricity production to more profitable peak hours. Usually two tanks are used to store cold and hot fluids, but this means both higher related investment costs and difficulties during the operation of the variable volume tanks. Another solution can be a single tank thermocline storage in a multi-layered configu...

  15. Preliminary Thermal Stress Analysis of a High-Pressure Cryogenic Storage Tank

    Baker, J. Mark

    2003-01-01

    The thermal stresses on a cryogenic storage tank strongly affect the condition of the tank and its ability to withstand operational stresses. These thermal stresses also affect the growth of any surface damage that might occur in the tank walls. These stresses are particularly of concern during the initial cooldown period for a new tank placed into service, and during any subsequent thermal cycles. A preliminary thermal stress analysis of a high-pressure cryogenic storage tank was performed. Stresses during normal operation were determined, as well as the transient temperature distribution. An elastic analysis was used to determine the thermal stresses in the inner wall based on the temperature data. The results of this elastic analysis indicate that the inner wall of the storage tank will experience thermal stresses of approximately 145,000 psi (1000 MPa). This stress level is well above the room-temperature yield strength of 304L stainless steel, which is about 25,000 psi (170 MPa). For this preliminary analysis, several important factors have not yet been considered. These factors include increased strength of 304L stainless steel at cryogenic temperatures, plastic material behavior, and increased strength due to strain hardening. In order to more accurately determine the thermal stresses and their affect on the tank material, further investigation is required, particularly in the area of material properties and their relationship to stress.

  16. Underground storage tank 253-D1U1 Closure Plan

    Mancieri, S.; Giuntoli, N.

    1993-09-01

    This report is a closure plan for a diesel fuel tank at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Included are maps of the site, work plans, and personnel information regarding training and qualification.

  17. Safe interim storage of Hanford tank wastes, draft environmental impact statement, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    1994-07-01

    This Draft EIS is prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the Washington State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA). DOE and Ecology have identified the need to resolve near-term tank safety issues associated with Watchlist tanks as identified pursuant to Public Law (P.L.) 101-510, Section 3137, ``Safety Measures for Waste Tanks at Hanford Nuclear Reservation,`` of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1991, while continuing to provide safe storage for other Hanford wastes. This would be an interim action pending other actions that could be taken to convert waste to a more stable form based on decisions resulting from the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) EIS. The purpose for this action is to resolve safety issues concerning the generation of unacceptable levels of hydrogen in two Watchlist tanks, 101-SY and 103-SY. Retrieving waste in dilute form from Tanks 101-SY and 103-SY, hydrogen-generating Watchlist double shell tanks (DSTs) in the 200 West Area, and storage in new tanks is the preferred alternative for resolution of the hydrogen safety issues.

  18. Modeling and analysis of ORNL horizontal storage tank mobilization and mixing

    The retrieval and treatment of radioactive sludges that are stored in tanks constitute a prevalent problem at several US Department of Energy sites. The tanks typically contain a settled sludge layer with non-Newtonian rheological characteristics covered by a layer of supernatant. The first step in retrieval is the mobilization and mixing of the supernatant and sludge in the storage tanks. Submerged jets have been proposed to achieve sludge mobilization in tanks, including the 189 m3 (50,000 gallon) Melton Valley Storage tanks (MVST) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the planned 378 m3 (100,000 gallon) tanks being designed as part of the MVST Capacity Increase Project (MVST-CIP). This report focuses on the modeling of mixing and mobilization in horizontal cylindrical tanks like those of the MVST design using submerged, recirculating liquid jets. The computer modeling of the mobilization and mixing processes uses the TEMPEST computational fluid dynamics program (Trend and Eyler 1992). The goals of the simulations are to determine under what conditions sludge mobilization using submerged liquid jets is feasible in tanks of this configuration, and to estimate mixing times required to approach homogeneity of the contents

  19. Safe interim storage of Hanford tank wastes, draft environmental impact statement, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    This Draft EIS is prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the Washington State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA). DOE and Ecology have identified the need to resolve near-term tank safety issues associated with Watchlist tanks as identified pursuant to Public Law (P.L.) 101-510, Section 3137, ''Safety Measures for Waste Tanks at Hanford Nuclear Reservation,'' of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1991, while continuing to provide safe storage for other Hanford wastes. This would be an interim action pending other actions that could be taken to convert waste to a more stable form based on decisions resulting from the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) EIS. The purpose for this action is to resolve safety issues concerning the generation of unacceptable levels of hydrogen in two Watchlist tanks, 101-SY and 103-SY. Retrieving waste in dilute form from Tanks 101-SY and 103-SY, hydrogen-generating Watchlist double shell tanks (DSTs) in the 200 West Area, and storage in new tanks is the preferred alternative for resolution of the hydrogen safety issues

  20. Revision of design spectra for liquid sloshing of oil storage tank in Japan

    Zama, S. [National Research Inst. of Fire and Disaster, Chofu City, Tokyo (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    On the 26th of September, 2003, an earthquake occurred in Tokachi-oki, near Hokkaido just north of Japan, causing a tsunami and over one hundred collapsed houses. Oil storage tanks in and around Tomakomai, a coastal city in southern Hokkaido, were seriously damaged by liquid sloshing. In the Idemitsu refinery, two tank fires broke out and seven floating roofs sank, and 30 tanks incurred damage such as overflow and splash of oil, deformation of rolling ladder, weather shield, guide pole, gauge pole and air foam dam. This paper presented the results of an investigation by the Fire and Disaster Management Agency (FDMA) into the damage of oil storage tanks and cause of tank fires, as well as the characteristics of seismic ground motions near the tank sites. In this study, it was proposed that the empirical prediction equations be based on recent studies associated with the relations between earthquake magnitude and fault parameters. A database of more than 10,000 components of digitalized records was therefore developed. The paper discussed the structure of tank and liquid sloshing; the characteristics of seismic ground motions in the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake; heavy damage of the oil tank and its cause; the relation between the maximum sloshing wave height and damage in Tomakomai; and, the specified seismic design spectra for countermeasure against liquid sloshing, zoning and revised velocity response spectra. 26 refs., 14 figs.

  1. Environmental and geometric optimisation of cylindrical drinking water storage tanks

    Sanjuan Delmás, David; Gabarrell Durany, Xavier; Rieradevall, Joan; Hernando-Canovas, Elena; Pujadas, Pablo; De la Fuente, Albert; Josa Garcia-Tornel, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11367-015-0963-y Purpose: Urban water cycle construction processes are an important element to consider when assessing the sustainability of urban areas. The present study focuses on a structural and environmental analysis of cylindrical water tanks. The goal is to optimise cylindrical water tanks from both an environmental (environmental impacts due of life cycle assessment (LCA)) and a geometric perspective (bu...

  2. Variable friction pendulum system for seismic isolation of liquid storage tanks

    Earthquake response of liquid storage steel tanks isolated with variable friction pendulum system (VFPS) is investigated under normal component of six recorded near-fault ground motions. The continuous liquid mass of the tank is modeled as lumped masses known as sloshing mass, impulsive mass and rigid mass. The corresponding stiffness constants associated with these lumped masses are worked out depending upon the properties of the tank wall and liquid mass. The governing equations of motion of the tanks isolated with variable friction pendulum system are derived and solved by Newmark's step-by-step method assuming linear variation of acceleration over small time interval. In order to verify the effectiveness of the VFPS in tanks, the seismic response of tanks isolated with VFPS is compared with that of the same tanks isolated using the conventional friction pendulum system (FPS). Furthermore, a parametric study is also carried out to critically examine the behaviour of tanks isolated with VFPS. The various important parameters considered are the tank aspect ratio, the isolation period and initial time period of the VFPS. In addition, the seismic response of tanks isolated with VFPS under trigonometric cycloidal pulses is also investigated. From these investigations, it is concluded that with the installation of VFPS in tanks, the seismic response of tanks during near-fault ground motions can be controlled within a desirable range. Finally, it is also observed that the response of tanks isolated with VFPS under the near-fault ground motions and trigonometric cycloidal pulses matches well only when the isolation period reaches high values

  3. Polymer/Silicate Nanocomposites Used to Manufacture Gas Storage Tanks With Reduced Permeability

    Campbell, Sandi G.; Johnston, Chris

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been considerable research in the area of polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites. This research has shown that the dispersion of small amounts of an organically modified layered silicate improves the polymer strength, modulus, thermal stability, and barrier properties. There have been several reports on the dispersion of layered silicates in an epoxy matrix. Potential enhancements to the barrier properties of epoxy/silicate nanocomposites make this material attractive for low permeability tankage. Polymer matrix composites (PMCs) have several advantages for cryogenic storage tanks. They are lightweight, strong, and stiff; therefore, a smaller fraction of a vehicle's potential payload capacity is used for propellant storage. Unfortunately, the resins typically used to make PMC tanks have higher gas permeability than metals. This can lead to hydrogen loss through the body of the tank instead of just at welds and fittings. One approach to eliminate this problem is to build composite tanks with thin metal liners. However, although these tanks provide good permeability performance, they suffer from a substantial mismatch in the coefficient of thermal expansion, which can lead to failure of the bond between the liner and the body of the tank. Both problems could be addressed with polymersilicate nanocomposites, which exhibit reduced hydrogen permeability, making them potential candidates for linerless PMC tanks. Through collaboration with Northrop Grumman and Michigan State University, nanocomposite test tanks were manufactured for the NASA Glenn Research Center, and the helium permeability was measured. An organically modified silicate was prepared at Michigan State University and dispersed in an epoxy matrix (EPON 826/JeffamineD230). The epoxy/silicate nanocomposites contained either 0 or 5 wt% of the organically modified silicate. The tanks were made by filament winding carbon fibers with the nanocomposite resin. Helium permeability

  4. Initial laboratory studies into the chemical and radiological aging of organic materials in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Complex

    The underground storage tanks at the Hanford Complex contain wastes generated over many years from plutonium production and recovery processes, and mixed wastes from radiological degradation processes. The chemical changes of the organic materials used in the extraction processes have a direct bearing on several specific safety issues, including potential energy releases from these tanks. The major portion of organic materials that have been added to the tanks consists of tributyl phosphate, dibutyl phosphate, butyl alcohol, hexone (methyl isobutyl ketone), normal paraffin hydrocarbons (NPH), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), hydroxyethylethylenediaminetriadetic acid (HEDTA), other complexants, and lesser quantities of ion exchange polymers and minor organic compounds. A study of how thermal and radiological processes that may have changed the composition of organic tanks constituents has been initiated after a review of the open literature revealed little information was available about the rates and products of these processes under basic pH conditions. This paper will detail the initial findings as they relate to gas generation, e.g. H2, CO, NH3, CH4, and to changes in the composition of the organic and inorganic components brought about by ''Aging'' processes

  5. Case study to remove radioactive hazardous sludge from long horizontal storage tanks

    The removal of radioactive hazardous sludge from waste tanks is a significant problem at several US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The use of submerged jets produced by mixing pumps lowered into the supernatant/sludge interface to produce a homogeneous slurry is being studied at several DOE facilities. The homogeneous slurry can be pumped from the tanks to a treatment facility or alternative storage location. Most of the previous and current studies with this method are for flat-bottom tanks with vertical walls. Because of the difference in geometry, the results of these studies are not directly applicable to long horizontal tanks such as those used at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Mobilization and mixing studies were conducted with a surrogate sludge (e.g., kaolin clay) using submerged jets in two sizes of horizontal tanks. The nominal capacities of these tanks were 0.87 m3 (230 gal) and 95 m3 (25,000 gal). Mobilization efficiencies and mixing times were determined for single and bidirectional jets in both tanks with the discharge nozzles positioned at two locations in the tanks. Approximately 80% of the surrogate sludge was mobilized in the 95-m3 tank using a fixed bidirectional jet (inside diameter = 0.035 m) and a jet velocity of 6.4 m/s (21 ft/s)

  6. On the Behavior of Different PCMs in a Hot Water Storage Tank against Thermal Demands

    Jacobo Porteiro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Advantages, such as thermal storage improvement, are found when using PCMs (Phase Change Materials in storage tanks. The inclusion of three different types of materials in a 60 l test tank is studied. Two test methodologies were developed, and four tests were performed following each methodology. A thermal analysis is performed to check the thermal properties of each PCM. The distributions of the water temperatures inside the test tanks are evaluated by installing four Pt-100 sensors at different heights. A temperature recovery is observed after exposing the test tank to an energy demand. An energetic analysis that takes into account the energy due to the water temperature, the energy due to the PCM and the thermal loss to the ambient environment is also presented. The percentage of each PCM that remains in the liquid state after the energy demand is obtained.

  7. Remote installation of risers on underground nuclear waste storage tanks

    The West Valley Demonstration Project was established to solidify 2120 m3 (560,000) gallons of high-level nuclear waste generated during six years of commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing. This liquid will be processed to remove radioactive elements which, with the remaining sludge, will be combined with glass formers and be converted into borosilicate glass. Risers were installed on the high-level tank for installation of pumps which will be used to remove the liquid and sludge. The extensive use of remote technology was required to install the risers and to minimize operator exposure to high levels of radiation and contamination. The riser installation required remotely: drilling through two feet of concrete shielding; installing pump access pipes which are welded to the tank top; and cutting holes in tanks located 3658 mm (12) feet below ground. These operations were successfully completed 13 times without exposing personnel to high-level radiation or contamination. Specially designed remote equipment was developed for each step of this operation. Extensive operator training in the use of this equipment was performed on a tank with low radiation prior to work on the high-level tank. This paper discusses the application of remote technology that assured a quality job was safely accomplished. 3 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs

  8. ESTIMATING INTERNAL CORROSION RATE AND INTERNAL INSPECTION INTERVAL OF ABOVEGROUND HYDROCARBON STORAGE TANKS

    MARTINEZ, Sanja

    2013-01-01

    Corrosion of aboveground storage tanks (AST) in hydrocarbon service shortens the tank’s life cycle and can lead to leaks and release of hazardous materials into the environment. Internal inspection is one of the main means to keep the tank’s integrity. Determination of internal inspection interval is imminent for balancing the safe operation requirement and inspection costs. In most instances, the area most vulnerable to corrosion in upright atmospheric AST is the tank bottom. In this paper w...

  9. Review of sensors for the in situ chemical characterization of the Hanford underground storage tanks

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in the Technical Task Plan (TTP) SF-2112-03 subtask 2, is responsible for the conceptual design of a Raman probe for inclusion in the in-tank cone penetrometer. As part of this task, LLNL is assigned the further responsibility of generating a report describing a review of sensor technologies other than Raman that can be incorporated in the in-tank cone penetrometer for the chemical analysis of the tank environment. These sensors would complement the capabilities of the Raman probe, and would give information on gaseous, liquid, and solid state species that are insensitive to Raman interrogation. This work is part of a joint effort involving several DOE laboratories for the design and development of in-tank cone penetrometer deployable systems for direct UST waste characterization at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID)

  10. Review of sensors for the in situ chemical characterization of the Hanford underground storage tanks

    Kyle, K.R.; Mayes, E.L.

    1994-07-29

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in the Technical Task Plan (TTP) SF-2112-03 subtask 2, is responsible for the conceptual design of a Raman probe for inclusion in the in-tank cone penetrometer. As part of this task, LLNL is assigned the further responsibility of generating a report describing a review of sensor technologies other than Raman that can be incorporated in the in-tank cone penetrometer for the chemical analysis of the tank environment. These sensors would complement the capabilities of the Raman probe, and would give information on gaseous, liquid, and solid state species that are insensitive to Raman interrogation. This work is part of a joint effort involving several DOE laboratories for the design and development of in-tank cone penetrometer deployable systems for direct UST waste characterization at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID).

  11. A strategy for resolving high-priority Hanford Site radioactive waste storage tank safety issues

    High-activity radioactive waste has been stored in large underground storage tanks at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in Eastern Washington State since 1944. Since then, more than 227,000 m3 (60 Mgal) of waste have been accumulated in 177 tanks. These caustic wastes consist of many different chemicals. The waste forms include liquids, slurries, salt cakes, and sludges. A number of safety issues have been raised about these wastes, and resolution of these issues is a top priority of DOE. A Waste Tank Safety Program has been established to resolve these high-priority safety issues. This paper will deal with three of these issues. The issues described are the release of flammable vapors from single- and double-shell tanks, the existence of organic chemicals, and/or ferrocyanide ion-containing fuel-rich mixtures of nitrate and nitrite salts in single-shell tanks

  12. A strategy for resolving high-priority Hanford Site radioactive waste storage tank safety issues

    Babad, H.; DeFigh-Price, C.; Fulton, J.C.

    1993-02-01

    High-activity radioactive waste has been stored in large underground storage tanks at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in Eastern Washington State since 1944. Since then, more than 227,000 m{sup 3} (60 Mgal) of waste have been accumulated in 177 tanks. These caustic wastes consist of many different chemicals. The waste forms include liquids, slurries, salt cakes, and sludges. A number of safety issues have been raised about these wastes, and resolution of these issues is a top priority of DOE. A Waste Tank Safety Program has been established to resolve these high-priority safety issues. This paper will deal with three of these issues. The issues described are the release of flammable vapors from single- and double-shell tanks, the existence of organic chemicals, and/or ferrocyanide ion-containing fuel-rich mixtures of nitrate and nitrite salts in single-shell tanks.

  13. Decision and systems analysis for underground storage tank waste retrieval systems and tank waste remediation system

    Hanford's underground tanks (USTs) pose one of the most challenging hazardous and radioactive waste problems for the Department of Energy (DOE). Numerous schemes have been proposed for removing the waste from the USTs, but the technology options for doing this are largely unproven. To help assess the options, an Independent Review Group (IRG) was established to conduct a broad review of retrieval systems and the tank waste remediation system. The IRG consisted of the authors of this report

  14. Assuring safe interim storage of Hanford high-level tank wastes

    The federal government established the Hanford Site in South-Eastern Washington near the City of Richland in 1943 to produce plutonium for national defense purposes. The Hanford Site occupies approximately 1,450 square kilometers (560 square miles) of land North of the City of Richland. The production mission ended in 1988, transforming the Hanford Site mission to waste management, environmental restoration, and waste disposal. Thus the primary site mission has shifted from production to the management and disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste that exist at the Hanford Site. This paper describes the focus and challenges facing the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program related to the dual and parallel missions of interim safe storage and disposal of the tank associated waste. These wastes are presently stored in 2.08E+05 liters (55,000) to 4.16E+06 liters (1,100,000) gallon low-carbon steel tanks. There are 149 single- and 28 double-shell radioactive underground storage tanks, as well as approximately 40 inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks. In addition, the TWRS mission includes the storage and disposal of the inventory of 1,929 cesium and strontium capsules created as part of waste management efforts. Tank waste was a by-product of producing plutonium and other defense related materials. From 1944 through 1990, four (4) different major chemical processing facilities at the Hanford Site processed irradiated (spent) fuel from defense reactors to separate and recover plutonium for weapons production. As new and improved processes were developed over the last 50 years, the processing efficiency improved and the waste compositions sent to the tanks for storage changed both chemically and radiologically. The earliest separation processes (e.g., bismuth phosphate coprecipitation) carried out in T Plant (1944-1956) and B Plant (1945-1952) recovered only plutonium

  15. The effect of storage temperature and duration on the microbial quality of bulk tank milk.

    O'Connell, A; Ruegg, P L; Jordan, K; O'Brien, B; Gleeson, D

    2016-05-01

    The dairy industry in Ireland is currently undergoing a period of expansion and, as a result, it is anticipated that milk may be stored in bulk tanks on-farm for periods greater than 48 h. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of storage temperature and duration on microbial quality of bulk tank milk when fresh milk is added to the bulk tank twice daily. Bulk tank milk stored at 3 temperatures was sampled at 24-h intervals during storage periods of 0 to 96 h. Bulk tank milk samples were analyzed for total bacterial count (TBC), psychrotrophic bacterial count (PBC), laboratory pasteurization count (LPC), psychrotrophic-thermoduric bacterial count (PBC-LPC), proteolytic bacterial count, lipolytic bacterial count, presumptive Bacillus cereus, sulfite-reducing Clostridia (SRC), and SCC. The bulk tank milk temperature was set at each of 3 temperatures (2°C, 4°C, and 6°C) in each of 3 tanks on 2 occasions during two 6-wk periods. Period 1 was undertaken in August and September, when all cows were in mid lactation, and period 2 was undertaken in October and November, when all cows were in late lactation. None of the bulk tank bacterial counts except the proteolytic count were affected by lactation period. The proteolytic bacterial count was greater in period 2 than in period 1. The TBC and PBC of milk stored at 6°C increased as storage duration increased. The TBC did not increase with increasing storage duration when milk was stored at 2°C or 4°C but the PBC of milk stored at 4°C increased significantly between 0 and 96 h. The numbers of proteolytic and lipolytic bacteria, LPC, or PBC-LPC in bulk tank milk were not affected by temperature or duration of storage. Presumptive B. cereus were detected in 10% of all bulk tank milk samples taken over the two 6-wk periods, with similar proportions observed in both. In bulk tank milk samples, a greater incidence of SRC was observed in period 2 (20%) compared with period 1 (3%). Milk produced on

  16. A Multi - Level Storage Tank Gauging And Monitoring System Using A Nanosecond Pulse

    Salah I. Yahya

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a one-port time-domain/frequency-domain based technique using a short-circuited coaxial geometry inserted vertically in a liquid tank is designed and presented as a multi-level storage tank gauge and monitor. For storage tanks of small physical liquid levels, the attenuation inside the coaxial cable sensor may be neglected and both the physical liquid levels and liquid permittivity can be measured simultaneously, whereas,for large physical liquid levels, as in the crude oil mass storage tanks, the attenuation coefficient of the liquid filled coaxial cable sensor should be considered and predetermined for all level materials in the tanks, and then both liquid levels and permittivity can be measured simultaneously. In this work a multi-level liquid tank contains four different materials; air,combustion engine oil, water, and mud, with physical level thickness of 30-cm, 60-cm, 10-cm and 5-cm, respectively, was examined to measure both physical levels, assuming them unknown, and permittivity of each level content. From the measured data, the error of the calculated levels was less than 0.01, which may be improved to be almost neglected by considering the attenuation in the coaxial sensor and using a signal processing unit to display the levels accurately

  17. Dynamic analysis of liquid storage tank including hydrodynamic interaction by boundary element method

    Dynamic response of liquid storage tanks considering the hydrodynamic interactions due to earthquake ground motion has been extensively studied. Several finite element procedures, such as Balendra et. al. (1982) and Haroun (1983), have been devoted to investigate the dynamic interaction between the deformable wall of the tank and the liquid. Further, if the geometry of the storage tank can not be described by axi-symmetric case, the tank wall and the fluid domain must be discretized by three dimensional finite elements to investigate the fluid-structure-interactions. Thus, the need of large computer memory and expense of vast computer time usually make this analysis impractical. To demonstrate the accuracy and reliability of the solution technique developed herein, the dynamic behavior of ground-supported, deformed, cylindrical tank with incompressible fluid conducted by Haroun (1983) are analyzed. Good correlations of hydrodynamic pressure distribution between the computed results with the referenced solutions are noted. The fluid compressibility significantly affects the hydrodynamic pressures of the liquid-tank-interactions and the work which is done on this discussion is still little attention. Thus, the influences of the compressibility of the liquid on the reponse of the liquid storage due to ground motion are then drawn. By the way, the complex-valued frequency response functions for hydrodynamic forces of Haroun's problem are also displayed. (orig./GL)

  18. Static tilt tests of a full-sized cylindrical liquid storage tank model

    This paper is explaining a static tilt test with a full-scaled tank model, the objects of which are the above-ground type LNG,LPG and oil storage tanks. Main points of view to investigate are as follows: Stress and deformation at each part of the tank wall, the bottom plate and the anchor straps in case that the anchor straps are very effective; Behavior in case that the anchor straps are not very effective; Behavior in case of no anchors; Influence of the roof above the shell; and Influence of the foundation rigidity under the bottom plate

  19. Temperature distribution of a hot water storage tank in a simulated solar heating and cooling system

    Namkoong, D.

    1976-01-01

    A 2,300-liter hot water storage tank was studied under conditions simulating a solar heating and cooling system. The initial condition of the tank, ranging from 37 C at the bottom to 94 C at the top, represented a condition midway through the start-up period of the system. During the five-day test period, the water in the tank gradually rose in temperature but in a manner that diminished its temperature stratification. Stratification was found not to be an important factor in the operation of the particular solar system studied.

  20. Pursing other deep pockets: California's underground storage tank cleanup fund and insurance policies

    When faced with a potentially very expensive environmental cleanup, most companies and individuals try to do the only sensible thing, which is to find out if anyone else will pay the bill. This presentation will outline two avenues that may provide a substantial financial contribution to environmental cleanups: (a) California's Underground Storage Tank Cleanup Fund and (b) insurance policies. The Underground Storage Tank Cleanup Fund was established in 1989 to help eligible owners and operators of petroleum underground storage tanks (USTs) to: (a) get reimbursed for costs of unauthorized releases of petroleum from USTs; (b) get reimbursed for damages awarded to third parties as a result of unauthorized releases of petroleum from USTs; and (c) meet federal and state requirements that the UST owner and/or operator be able to pay for cleanup costs and damages to third parties caused by unauthorized releases of petroleum

  1. Seismic Analysis of a Liquid Storage Tank with a Baffle

    Gedikli, A.; Ergüven, M. E.

    1999-05-01

    The effects of a rigid baffle on the seismic response of liquid in a rigid cylindrical tank are presented. A baffle is an additional structural element which supplies a kind of passive control on the effects of earthquake motion. Fluid motion is assumed to be irrotational, incompressible and inviscid. The method of superposition of modes has been implemented to compute the seismic response. The boundary element method is used to evaluate the natural modes of liquid in a cylindrical tank. Linearized free surface conditions have been taken into consideration.

  2. Erection of a Stainless-Steel Tank for Storing a Phosphoric Acid

    Vojvodič Tuma, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A storage tank for 93 % phosphoric acid was built in Luka Koper from 7 mm thick ground hot-rolled plates of 316L stainless steel. The capacity of the storage tank is of the 750 m3, diameter of 11 m and the height of 8,2 m. The shell plates were welded manually using the shielded metal-arc and gas-metal-arc processes. Before the erection, welding procedure tests according to EN 288-3 were carried out. During the construction several non-destructive examination methods were used, such as radiographic testing and visual and liquid penetrant examination. After the entire tank and roof structure were completed, a hydrostatic leak test was carried out. The surfaces of all the welds on the internal surface of the vessel were ground and the roughness was checked on site. The surfaces of the base material and the ground welds were passivated and tested for resistance to corrosion with electrochemical measurements.

  3. Knowledge-based emergency planning for storage tank farms

    Nevrlý, Václav; Bitala, P.; Nevrlá, P.; Střižík, Michal

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2008), s. 10-15. ISSN 1335-4205 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : emergency * preparedness * modeling tank fire boilover Subject RIV: AQ - Safety, Health Protection, Human - Machine http://www.utc.sk/komunikacie

  4. Tank designs for combined high pressure gas and solid state hydrogen storage

    Mazzucco, Andrea

    each storage solution investigated in this work. Attention is given to solutions that involve high-pressure solid-state and gas hydrogen storage with an integrated passive cooling system. A set of libraries is implemented in the modeling platform to select among different material compositions, kinetic...... compressed-hydrogen vessel respectively. For the former, these models are used to quantify the main design parameter, being the critical metal hydride thickness, for the tank/heat-exchanger system. For the metal hydride tank, the tubular layout in a shell and tube configuration with 2 mm inner diameter tubes...

  5. A study of the anti-corrosive coating for radioactive waste water storage tanks

    This paper describes briefly the testing results and method of a kind of anti-corrosive coating, which consisted of bitumen and other chemicals. The coating was tested in several kinds of simulated waste water under γ-irradiation. Some coupons of the coating were γ-irradiated in the air also. The tested coating has been applied to the Low-level radioactive waste water storage tanks, which are made of carbon steel, for more than 15 years. Those storage tanks are being used well now

  6. Modelling of a solid oxide fuel cell CHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank for a single household

    Liso, Vincenzo; Zhao, Yingru; Yang, Wenyuan;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system for cogeneration of heat and power integrated with a stratified heat storage tank is studied. The use of a storage tank with thermal stratification allows one to increase the annual operating hours of CHP: heat can be produced when the request is...

  7. Optical Data Storage in Acid Red Dyes

    Sankar, Deepa; Palanisamy, P. K.

    High-density optical data storage is a current field gaining importance where research work is done in abundance to bring about holographic CDs to light. Dye-doped gelatin films are promising candidates as recording materials for holographic data storage because of the ease of preparation and low cost. In this report we suggest some acid red dyes as useful recording materials for optical data storage. Acid red dyes namely Acid Red 73 and Acid Red 114 that are completely water-soluble are used to sensitize gelatin thin films for data storage. These dyes have their absorption peak around 514 nm. Two coherent beams of Argon ion laser (514.5 nm) are used to form the grating in the dye-sensitized gelatin films. The grating formed is found to be permanent. The diffraction efficiency of each material as a function of different parameters like dye concentration, writing beam intensities and their ratios and spatial frequency has been studied and presented. An attempt to store data in the sample has been made.

  8. Spacing effects on seismic responses of underground waste storage tanks

    In this paper, an investigation is performed for determination of the effects of spacing on seismic response of grouped underground tank structures. The study is carried out using a 2-D Finite Element Method, and the key mechanisms for transmitting structure-soil-structure interaction (SSSI) effects are identified. A parametric analysis is performed to quantify the SSSI effects. Results of the study are presented

  9. Increasing Safety of Aging High-Level Radioactive Waste Storage Tanks

    Degradation of aging high-level radioactive waste (HLW) storage tanks due to cracking is a serious problem. Present fracture mechanics analyses assume small ductility and have limited applicability to these tanks. This research program addresses this limitation by combining slip line fracture mechanics (SLFM, a ductile fracture analysis approach) with fully plastic, 3-D finite element analyses to predict growth of part-through surface cracks to, and past, the point of penetration. An extensive experimental program supports the development. The sudden transition of stable ductile crack growth to unstable cleavage fracture, including event probability, is also examined. Developed capabilities will provide the basis for a reliable predictive model of fracture in HLW storage tanks across the DOE complex, but will also be applicable to spent nuclear fuel canisters, natural gas pipelines, and other safety critical engineered structures. Experimental, numerical and analytical results are presented along with a roadmap of programmatic direction

  10. Detection of simulated pitting corrosion and noises in crude oil storage tank by acoustic emission

    The damage mechanisms associated with crude oil storage tanks can be complex and varied and include pitting corrosion due to presence of species such as sulphate reducing bacteria. Acoustic Emission (AE) could be used to characterise the pitting corrosion signal in crude oil storage tanks but it is extremely difficult to simulate the pitting corrosion in the laboratory using crude oil as electrolyte because crude oil is considered as non corrosive medium. In this study, induced current have been introduced onto a surface ASTM 516 steel as an electrical source to simulate the electrical noise produced during pitting corrosion process and AE sensor have been used to detect this current. It is found that AE system could detect AE signal release during current induction this current and is expected that if the exact simulation of the current magnitude produced during pitting corrosion process is made available, AE characterisation of pitting corrosion in such tank could be made possible. (Author)

  11. Acoustic imaging of underground storage tank wastes: A feasibility study. Final report

    The objectives for this underground storage tank (UST) imaging investigation are: (1) to assess the feasibility of using acoustic methods in UST wastes, if shown to be feasible, develop and assess imaging strategies; (2) to assess the validity of using chemical simulants for the development of acoustic methods and equipment. This investigation examined the velocity of surrogates, both salt cake and sludge surrogates. In addition collected seismic cross well data in a real tank (114-TX) on the Hanford Reservation. Lastly, drawing on the knowledge of the simulants and the estimates of the velocities of the waste in tank 114-TX the authors generated a hypothetical model of waste in a tank and showed that non-linear travel time tomographic imaging would faithfully image that stratigraphy

  12. Ormosil Beads for Insulation of Ground Cryogenic Storage Tanks Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced materials are required to insulate cryogenic storage and distribution systems for liquid propellants such as hydrogen and oxygen, used in orbital transfer...

  13. Large eddy simulations of turbulent mixed convection in the charging of a rectangular thermal storage tank

    Highlights: • Turbulent mixed convection during water storage tank charging studied numerically. • Two different LES codes were used to obtain transient simulation results. • Comparison against available RANS results and experimental data. • Characterization of the tank thermal stratification, mixing, entropy production. -- Abstract: The Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach is used to investigate numerically the mixed convection problem arising during the charging process of a rectangular water tank used for thermal energy storage. Two different charging conditions are considered depending on the temperature of the water entering the tank. The first charging scheme corresponds to a constant inlet temperature and the second one to a variable inlet temperature, simulating heating provided by solar collectors. Two conceptually different LES codes were employed and the results are compared against available unsteady RANS simulations, a semi-analytical one-dimensional model and experimental data. The mixing mechanisms in the store and the efficiency of storage have been quantified using appropriate dimensionless factors. LES simulations provided a significant insight into the charging process and the associated energy losses, especially during the early stages of the process. A detailed analysis of these flow fields reveals the association of mixing mechanisms with specific flow structures, and could potentially lead to improved designs for the components and the processes of thermal storage

  14. Performance improvement by discharge from different levels in solar storage tanks

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa; Thür, Alexander;

    2005-01-01

    The thermal advantages by utilizing discharge from different levels in solar storage tanks are investigated, both for a small SDHW system and for a solar combisystem. The investigations showed that it is possible to increase the thermal performance of both types of systems by using two draw-off l...

  15. FURY: ROBOTIC IN-SITU INSPECTION/CONDITION ASSESSMENT SYSTEM FOR UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS

    The Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR 280-281) required all underground storage tanks (USTs) containing petroleum products to be brought into compliance to prevent environmental contamination through leakage. Replacing all older USTs can, in some cases, be prohibitively expensi...

  16. RCRA corrective action for underground storage tanks -- Subtitle C for Subtitle I

    The purpose of this report is to provide guidance to DOE and DOE contractor personnel responsible for planning and implementation of corrective measures addressing cleanup of releases of hazardous materials or regulated substances from underground storage tanks regulated under RCRA Subtitle C or Subtitle I

  17. Control of a long reach manipulator with suspension cables for waste storage tank remediation. Final report

    A long reach manipulator will be used for waste remediation in large underground storage tanks. The manipulator's slenderness makes it flexible and difficult to control. A low-cost and effective method to enhance the manipulator's stiffness is proposed in this research by using suspension cables. These cables can also be used to accurately measure the position of the manipulator's wrist

  18. 78 FR 70076 - Aging Management of Internal Surfaces, Fire Water Systems, Atmospheric Storage Tanks, and...

    2013-11-22

    ... COMMISSION Aging Management of Internal Surfaces, Fire Water Systems, Atmospheric Storage Tanks, and... Guidance (LR-ISG), LR-ISG-2012-02, ``Aging Management of Internal Surfaces, Fire Water Systems, Atmospheric... availability was published in the Federal Register on June 22, 2010 (75 FR 35510). The NRC staff has...

  19. Inspection and repair of storage tank bottoms and foundations using airbag lifting

    This paper reports that within the past five years the environmental impact on the operation of petro-chemical product storage tanks, constructed to standards such as API 650, has taken on critical implications for refineries and distribution centers. Pollution of the supporting foundation and possible widespread effects on ground water has resulted in moves to require the installation of double integrity bottoms. That is not to say, necessarily, a tank with two steel bottoms, but alternative means of reducing the failure probability to an acceptable public or statutory level. Clearly increased inspection of the tank bottom has merit and visual examination of the bottom from inside the tank can be supplemented by ultrasonic methods, acoustic leak detection and magnetic flux scanning. Tank lifting now offers a very cost effective method for underfloor inspection, combined with the opportunity to undertake repairs to the bottom and underside painting, together with improvements and repairs to the Bitsand surface of the tank pad. if necessary, an impervious membrane can also be installed with a leak detection trough formed around the tank edge

  20. Seismic response of unanchored and partially anchored liquid-storage tanks. Final report

    Ground-mounted vertical storage tanks are important components of nuclear plant safety systems. A systematic study is made of the principal effects of base uplifting on the seismic response of laterally excited, unanchored and partially anchored cylindrical liquid-storage tanks. The study consists of two parts: the first deals with the static uplifting resistance of the flexible base plate, and the second deals with the dynamic response of the uplifting system. An insight into the behavior of the uplifting base plate is first gained with the help of a prismatic beam solution. In Section 2, the solution is implemented exactly, whereas in Section 3 it is implemented approximately by use of the Ritz energy procedure. Solutions are next presented for axisymmetrically and asymmetrically uplifted base plate of tanks, in Section 4. For the axisymmetric case the solution is implemented exactly, as well as approximately by modeling the plate by a series of semiinfinite prismatic beams. The accuracy of the latter approach is confirmed by comparing its predictions with those of the former. In Section 5, a highly efficient and rational method is presented for the dynamic response analysis of uplifting tanks. Both unanchored tanks and partially anchored tanks, for which the number of anchor bolts at the base is insufficient to ensure full fixity, are considered. It is shown that base uplifting may reduce significantly the hydrodynamic pressures, but these reductions may be associated with increased axial compressive stresses in the tank wall and large plastic rotations at the plate-shell junction. For partially anchored tanks, energy loss due to bolt yielding is found to be small

  1. Double variable frequency pendulum isolator for seismic isolation of liquid storage tanks

    Research highlights: → The seismic response of liquid storage tanks isolated by the DVFPI is investigated. → Four DVFPI design cases are considered by varying properties of the both surfaces. → Criterion to optimize its performance is proposed based on minimum responses. → Different stiffness of top and bottom surfaces optimizes the DVFPI for a slender tank. → Equal stiffness of top and bottom surfaces optimizes the DVFPI for a broad tank. - Abstract: The paper describes the behaviour of liquid storage slender and broad tanks isolated by the double variable frequency pendulum isolator (DVFPI). The DVFPI is a double sliding isolation system having elliptical sliding surfaces. The geometry and coefficient of friction of top and bottom sliding surfaces can be unequal. The governing equations of motion and energy balance equation of the tank-isolation system subjected to bilateral ground excitation are derived and solved in the incremental form. In order to investigate the behaviour of the DVFPI, the response is obtained under different parametric variations for a set of 20 far-field earthquake ground motions. Four different combinations of the DVFPI design cases having different isolator geometry and coefficient friction at top and bottom sliding surfaces are studied and the criterion to optimize its performance is proposed based on minimum responses and energy quantities. Further, influences of the initial time period, coefficient of friction and frequency variation factors at the two sliding surfaces and the tank aspect ratio are investigated. It is found that the performance of the DVFPI can be optimized by designing the top sliding surface with high initial stiffness relative to the bottom one and the coefficient of friction of both sliding surfaces to be equal for a slender tank whereas both surfaces should be designed with equal initial stiffness and coefficient of friction for a broad tank.

  2. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 130: Storage Tanks Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Alfred Wickline

    2009-03-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 130: Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. The corrective action sites (CASs) within CAU 130 are located within Areas 1, 7, 10, 20, 22, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site. Corrective Action Unit 130 is comprised of the following CASs: • 01-02-01, Underground Storage Tank • 07-02-01, Underground Storage Tanks • 10-02-01, Underground Storage Tank • 20-02-03, Underground Storage Tank • 20-99-05, Tar Residue • 22-02-02, Buried UST Piping • 23-02-07, Underground Storage Tank This CR provides documentation supporting the completed corrective action investigations and provides data confirming that the closure objectives for CASs within CAU 130 were met. To achieve this, the following actions were performed: • Reviewed the current site conditions, including the concentration and extent of contamination. • Implemented any corrective actions necessary to protect human health and the environment. • Properly disposed of corrective action and investigation-derived wastes. From August 4 through September 30, 2008, closure activities were performed as set forth in the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 130, Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The purposes of the activities as defined during the data quality objectives process were: • Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. • If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent, implement appropriate corrective actions, confirm that no residual contamination is present, and properly dispose of wastes. Constituents detected during the closure activities were evaluated against final action levels to identify

  3. Energy system investment model incorporating heat pumps with thermal storage in buildings and buffer tanks

    Individual compression heat pumps constitute a potentially valuable resource in supporting wind power integration due to their economic competitiveness and possibilities for flexible operation. When analysing the system benefits of flexible heat pump operation, effects on investments should be taken into account. In this study, we present a model that facilitates analysing individual heat pumps and complementing heat storages in integration with the energy system, while optimising both investments and operation. The model incorporates thermal building dynamics and covers various heat storage options: passive heat storage in the building structure via radiator heating, active heat storage in concrete floors via floor heating, and use of thermal storage tanks for space heating and hot water. It is shown that the model is well qualified for analysing possibilities and system benefits of operating heat pumps flexibly. This includes prioritising heat pump operation for hours with low marginal electricity production costs, and peak load shaving resulting in a reduced need for peak and reserve capacity investments. - Highlights: • Model optimising heat pumps and heat storages in integration with the energy system. • Optimisation of both energy system investments and operation. • Heat storage in building structure and thermal storage tanks included. • Model well qualified for analysing system benefits of flexible heat pump operation. • Covers peak load shaving and operation prioritised for low electricity prices

  4. Implications of the modelling of stratified hot water storage tanks in the simulation of CHP plants

    Campos Celador, A., E-mail: alvaro.campos@ehu.es [ENEDI Research Group-University of the Basque Country, Departamento de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, E.T.S.I. de Bilbao Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain); Odriozola, M.; Sala, J.M. [ENEDI Research Group-University of the Basque Country, Departamento de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, E.T.S.I. de Bilbao Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Three different modelling approaches for simulation of hot water tanks are presented. {yields} The three models are simulated within a residential cogeneration plant. {yields} Small differences in the results are found by an energy and exergy analysis. {yields} Big differences between the results are found by an advanced exergy analysis. {yields} Results on the feasibility study are explained by the advanced exergy analysis. - Abstract: This paper considers the effect that different hot water storage tank modelling approaches have on the global simulation of residential CHP plants as well as their impact on their economic feasibility. While a simplified assessment of the heat storage is usually considered in the feasibility studies of CHP plants in buildings, this paper deals with three different levels of modelling of the hot water tank: actual stratified model, ideal stratified model and fully mixed model. These three approaches are presented and comparatively evaluated under the same case of study, a cogeneration plant with thermal storage meeting the loads of an urbanisation located in the Bilbao metropolitan area (Spain). The case of study is simulated by TRNSYS for each one of the three modelling cases and the so obtained annual results are analysed from both a First and Second-Law-based viewpoint. While the global energy and exergy efficiencies of the plant for the three modelling cases agree quite well, important differences are found between the economic results of the feasibility study. These results can be predicted by means of an advanced exergy analysis of the storage tank considering the endogenous and exogenous exergy destruction terms caused by the hot water storage tank.

  5. WVNS Tank Farm Process Support: Experimental evaluation of an inert gas (nitrogen) to mitigate external corrosion of high-level waste storage tanks

    Corrosion of the carbon steel waste storage tanks at West Valley Nuclear Services continues to be of concern, especially as the planned duration of waste storage time increases and sludge washing operations are conducted. The external surfaces of Tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2 have been exposed for more than 10 years to water that has intruded into the tank vaults. Visual inspection of the external tank surfaces using a remote video camera has shown indications of heavy corrosion in localized areas on the tank walls. Tests on mild steel specimens under simulated tank vault conditions showed that corrosion is related to the availability of oxygen for the corrosion reactions; consequently, removing oxygen as one of the reactants should effectively eliminate corrosion. In terms of the waste tanks, excluding oxygen from the annular vault space, such as by continuous flushing with an inert gas, should substantially decrease corrosion of the external surfaces of the mild steel tanks (100% exclusion of oxygen is probably not practicable). Laboratory corrosion testing was conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to give a preliminary assessment of the ability of nitrogen-inerting to reduce steel corrosion. This report summarizes test results obtained after 18-month corrosion tests comparing open-quotes nitrogen-inertedclose quotes corrosion with open-quotes air-equilibratedclose quotes corrosion under simulated tank vault conditions

  6. Experimental Analysis of Thermal Stratification in a Heat Storage Tank Using Stratification Pipe

    Boloņina, A.; Rochas, C.; Blumberga, D.

    2009-01-01

    The heat storage tank is an important element in any heating system where the heat source is not able to provide heat accordingly to consumer demand (for example solar collector systems, solid fuel boilers etc). Better heat storage efficiency can be achieved by providing good thermal stratification in the heat storage tanks. One of the best methods of increasing the degree of thermal stratification is the stratification pipes. In the Environmental monitoring laboratory of the Institute of Energy Systems and Environment (Riga Technical University, an experimental heat storage system has been developed and used for testing and studying stratification devices under different thermodynamic and hydraulic conditions. The experimental study carried out on the efficiency of the stratification pipe produced by German company SOLVIS Solar Systeme GmbH under different flow parameters, has been analyzed. The main aim of the experimental study was to define optimal heating system operation parameters to achieve good performance of the stratification pipe and a high degree of thermal stratification in the heat storage tank.

  7. Simulation of heat and mass transfer in activated carbon tank for hydrogen storage

    Xiao, Jinsheng [School of Automotive Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Hubei 430070 (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Progressing, Wuhan University of Technology, Hubei 430070 (China); Hydrogen Research Institute, Universite du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres, Trois-Rivieres, QC G9A 5H7 (Canada); Tong, Liang [School of Automotive Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Hubei 430070 (China); Department of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Huaxia College, Wuhan University of Technology, Hubei 430070 (China); Deng, Caihua [School of Automotive Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Hubei 430070 (China); Benard, Pierre; Chahine, Richard [Hydrogen Research Institute, Universite du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres, Trois-Rivieres, QC G9A 5H7 (Canada)

    2010-08-15

    The charging process of hydrogen storage tank based on bed of activated carbon in a steel container at room temperature (295 K) and medium storage pressure (10 MPa) is simulated with an axisymmetric geometry model using the finite volume commercial solver Fluent. The mass flux profile at the entrance is established using user-defined functions (UDFs). The heat and mass transfer processes in the cylindrical steel tank packed with activated carbon are discussed considering the influence of viscous resistance and inertial resistance of the porous media. The velocity distribution and its effect on the temperature distribution are analyzed. The effects of the flow rate at the inlet and of the adsorption factor on the charging process are studied. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach based on finite volume simulations is used. Results show that the temperature near the bottom of the tank is higher than that at the entrance, temperature in the center of the tank is higher than that near the wall and rises somewhat faster along the axial compared to the radial direction. The highest hydrogen absolute adsorption occurs at the entrance of the tank. A good agreement is found between the simulation results and the available experimental data. The maximum magnitude of the axial velocity is much higher than that of the radial component, resulting in more heat energy transfer along the axial direction than radial direction. In addition, the pressure reaches equilibrium earlier when the mass flow is higher, and the temperature reaches a maximum value faster. (author)

  8. FTA of loss of cooling to a HALW storage tank

    A fault tree analysis consisting of assumption of accident scenarios, construction of fault trees, and performing of analyses is given for a loss of cooling accident in a HALW (High Activity Liquid Waste) tank of a typical reprocessing facility. A systematic method is developed to avoid 'missing scenarios', and 'confused scenarios' which are major problems in these analyses. Model plant data, basic failure frequency data and a fault tree analysis code named FTL have been introduced from NUKEM GmbH, Germany. The analyzed occurrence frequencies for the assumed scenarios of the loss of cooling accident are discussed to show a design improvement measure to attain a more reliable system. These results are compared with general requirements to be selected as DBE (design basis event) used in the safety assessment of the facility design. DBE is an event which is considered to have relatively high occurrence probabilities and considerable effects on environment. (author)

  9. Use of storage tank holdup measurements to reduce inventory differences in an ion exchange process

    Inventory differences (ID) in an ion exchange process area have plagued the Los Alamos National Laboratory for years. The problem has always been attributed to plutonium precipitation in banks of horizontally oriented storage tanks; however, efforts to maintain the precipitates at low enough or even stable levels failed. Factoring tank holdup measurements into the end-of-month inventory balance would probably solve the ID problem; however, the authors were advised that gamma-based holdup measurements would yield very poor quality holdup estimates because of difficulties in determining transmission corrections and tank ''cross talk.'' When the ID problem became particularly troublesome in the spring of 1985, the authors evaluated two different gamma-based measurement techniques for estimating tank holdup. Not only did holdup estimates made by the two techniques agree, but plutonium recovered during intensive tank cleanout confirmed that the holdup measurements were of sufficient accuracy to be used for material balance adjustments. The measurement method chosen for routine use is somewhat unique since it is calibrated using tank cleanout data and requires no transmission corrections. The holdup measurements are made on a monthly basis and have dramatically reduced end-of-month inventory differences. This paper will present both a description of the measurement methodology and the inventory difference improvements

  10. A new seismic damage analysis method for cylindrical liquid storage tanks in nuclear power plants

    This paper proposes a new seismic damage analysis method to analyze seismic response and dynamic buckling using the finite element method, and demonstrates that the proposed method can adequately evaluate the seismic damage of large-scale cylindrical liquid storage tanks installed in nuclear power plants. In the proposed method, the tank structure is modeled three-dimensionally by shell elements allowing geometric nonlinearity to be considered, while the liquid contained in the tank is modeled by solid elements which comply with Euler's equation. In addition, coupling analysis between fluid and structure, elastic-plastic analysis and large deformation analysis using an explicit method are adopted. Therefore, the proposed method can simulate fluid-structure coupled vibrations between the tank wall and the contained liquid, that is, sloshing and bulging, and dynamic elastic-plastic buckling behavior. The analytical results are in good agreement with the results of the buckling experiment, especially with respect to the coupled vibrations, buckling mode and buckling load. This shows that the proposed method can accurately simulate the seismic response and buckling behavior of the tanks during a powerful earthquake. It is concluded that the proposed seismic damage analysis method can evaluate the seismic performance of the tanks such as seismic safety margin. (author)

  11. Seismic analysis of a LNG storage tank isolated by a multiple friction pendulum system

    Zhang, Ruifu; Weng, Dagen; Ren, Xiaosong

    2011-06-01

    The seismic response of an isolated vertical, cylindrical, extra-large liquefied natural gas (LNG) tank by a multiple friction pendulum system (MFPS) is analyzed. Most of the extra-large LNG tanks have a fundamental frequency which involves a range of resonance of most earthquake ground motions. It is an effective way to decrease the response of an isolation system used for extra-large LNG storage tanks under a strong earthquake. However, it is difficult to implement in practice with common isolation bearings due to issues such as low temperature, soft site and other severe environment factors. The extra-large LNG tank isolated by a MFPS is presented in this study to address these problems. A MFPS is appropriate for large displacements induced by earthquakes with long predominant periods. A simplified finite element model by Malhotra and Dunkerley is used to determine the usefulness of the isolation system. Data reported and statistically sorted include pile shear, wave height, impulsive acceleration, convective acceleration and outer tank acceleration. The results show that the isolation system has excellent adaptability for different liquid levels and is very effective in controlling the seismic response of extra-large LNG tanks.

  12. CSER 94-004: Criticality safety of double-shell waste storage tanks

    This criticality safety evaluation covers double-shell waste storage tanks (DSTs), double-contained receiver tanks (DCRTs), vault tanks, and the 242-A Evaporator located in the High Level Waste (HLW) Tank Farms on the Hanford Site. Limits and controls are specified and the basis for ensuring criticality safety is discussed. A minimum limit of 1,000 is placed upon the solids/plutonium mass ratio in incoming waste. The average solids/Pu mass ratio over all waste in tank farms is estimated to be about 74,500, about 150 times larger than required to assure subcriticality in homogeneous waste. PFP waste in Tank-102-SY has an estimated solids/Pu mass ratio of 10,000. Subcriticality is assured whenever the plutonium concentration is less than 2.6 g. The median reported plutonium concentration for 200 samples of waste solids is about 0.01 g (0.038 g/gal). A surveillance program is proposed to increase the knowledge of the waste and provide added assurance of the high degree of subcriticality

  13. Optimal design and management of thermal storage tanks for multi-energy district boilers

    Labidi, Mouchira; Eynard, Julien; Faugeroux, Olivier; Grieu, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    As part of the second phase of the OptiEnR research project, the present work deals with improving multi-energy district boilers operation, by adding optimally sized and controlled thermal storage tanks to the plants. Previous studies focused on both a sizing approach based on a parametric analysis and an operation strategy. The aim of the present work is to improve the design of the tanks, in particular by evaluating the thermal losses and finding the adequate insulating materials. We focuse...

  14. Vehicular hydrogen storage using lightweight tanks (regenerative fuel cell systems)

    Mitlitsky, F; Myers, B; Weisberg, A H

    1999-06-01

    Energy storage systems with extremely high specific energy (>400 Wh/kg) have been designed that use lightweight tankage to contain the gases generated by reversible (unitized) regenerative fuel cells (URFCs). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will leverage work for aerospace applications supported by other sponsors (including BMDO, NASA, and USAF) to develop URFC systems for transportation and utility applications. Lightweight tankage is important for primary fuel cell powered vehicles that use on-board storage of hydrogen. Lightweight pressure vessels with state-of-the-art performance factors were designed, and prototypes are being fabricated to meet the DOE 2000 goals (4000 Wh/kg, 12% hydrogen by weight, 700 Wh/liter, and $20/kWh in high volume production). These pressure vessels use technologies that are easily adopted by industrial partners. Advanced liners provide permeation barriers for gas storage and are mandrels for composite overwrap. URFCs are important to the efficient use of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and enabler of renewable energy. H{sub 2}/halogen URFCs may be advantageous for stationary applications whereas H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} or H{sub 2}/air URFCs are advantageous for vehicular applications. URFC research and development is required to improve performance (efficiency), reduce catalyst loading, understand engineering operation, and integrate systems. LLNL has the experimental equipment and advanced URFC membrane electrode assemblies (some with reduced catalyst loading) for evaluating commercial hardware (not funded by DOE in FY1999).

  15. Influence of anchor behaviour on the earthquake response of liquid storage tanks

    The dynamic response of thin liquid storage tanks to earthquakes is a very complicated phenomenon, because it can be highly non linear. Among others, one can meet material and geometric non linearities of the tank shell leading eventually to static or dynamic buckling non linear behavior of anchor bolts, contact non-linearities due to the uplift of the tank base and to the unilateral character of the fluid pressure on the shell and high amplitude fluid oscillations. Moreover, linear or non linear soil structure interaction affects considerably the response of the fluid structure system under consideration. In this paper we focus attention on problems related only to the base uplift and anchors plastification. We study a tank similar to the Hualien project tank, but we neglect the soil structure interaction. The studied tank is representative of medium height to radius ratio ratio tanks with relatively thick bottom plate. The contact is simulated via a simple discrete penalty method in order to facilitate the calculation of the impact forces. Modal coordinates calculated for various Fourier harmonics are used for the dynamic analysis and the coupled modal equations of motion are solved with an explicit time integration algorithm. Obviously, this approach is less precise than a direct finite element analysis on the nodal basis but is less expensive. The scope of this paper is to discuss the efficiency of the proposed method to deal with problems like those aforementioned and to give some qualitative results concerning the influence of anchor bolts behaviour on the earthquake response of tanks. (author). 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  16. Guidelines for development of structural integrity programs for DOE high-level waste storage tanks

    Guidelines are provided for developing programs to promote the structural integrity of high-level waste storage tanks and transfer lines at the facilities of the Department of Energy. Elements of the program plan include a leak-detection system, definition of appropriate loads, collection of data for possible material and geometric changes, assessment of the tank structure, and non-destructive examination. Possible aging degradation mechanisms are explored for both steel and concrete components of the tanks, and evaluated to screen out nonsignificant aging mechanisms and to indicate methods of controlling the significant aging mechanisms. Specific guidelines for assessing structural adequacy will be provided in companion documents. Site-specific structural integrity programs can be developed drawing on the relevant portions of the material in this document

  17. Assessment of concentration mechanisms for organic wastes in underground storage tanks at Hanford

    Gerber, M.A.; Burger, L.L.; Nelson, D.A.; Ryan, J.L. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Zollars, R.L. (Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States))

    1992-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has conducted an initial conservative evaluation of physical and chemical processes that could lead to significant localized concentrations of organic waste constituents in the Hanford underground storage tanks (USTs). This evaluation was part of ongoing studies at Hanford to assess potential safety risks associated with USTs containing organics. Organics in the tanks could pose a potential problem if localized concentrations are high enough to propagate combustion and are in sufficient quantity to produce a large heat and/or gas release if in contact with a suitable oxidant. The major sources of oxidants are oxygen in the overhead gas space of the tanks and sodium nitrate and nitrite either as salt cake solids or dissolved in the supernatant and interstitial liquids.

  18. Assessment of concentration mechanisms for organic wastes in underground storage tanks at Hanford

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has conducted an initial conservative evaluation of physical and chemical processes that could lead to significant localized concentrations of organic waste constituents in the Hanford underground storage tanks (USTs). This evaluation was part of ongoing studies at Hanford to assess potential safety risks associated with USTs containing organics. Organics in the tanks could pose a potential problem if localized concentrations are high enough to propagate combustion and are in sufficient quantity to produce a large heat and/or gas release if in contact with a suitable oxidant. The major sources of oxidants are oxygen in the overhead gas space of the tanks and sodium nitrate and nitrite either as salt cake solids or dissolved in the supernatant and interstitial liquids

  19. Transient Thermal Behavior of a Vertical Solar Storage Tank with a Mantle Heat Exchanger During No-Flow Operation

    A. Barzegar; A. A. Dehghan

    2009-01-01

    Transient thermal behavior of a vertical storage tank of a domestic solar heating system with a mantle heat exchanger has been investigated numerically in the charging mode. It is assumed that the tank is initially filled with uniform cold water. At an instant of time, the hot fluid from collector outlet is uniformly injected in the upper section of the mantle heat exchanger and after heat transfer with the fluid inside the tank, withdrawn from the bottom part of the heat excha...

  20. Sampling and analysis plan for site assessment during the closure or replacement of nonradioactive underground storage tanks

    Gitt, M.J.

    1990-08-01

    The Tank Management Program is responsible for closure or replacement of nonradioactive underground storage tanks throughout the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). A Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been developed that complies with EPA regulations and with INEL Tank Removal Procedures for sampling activities associated with site assessment during these closure or replacement activities. The SAP will ensure that all data are valid, and it also will function as a Quality Assurance Project Plan. 18 refs., 8 figs., 11 tabs.

  1. Experimental module for removal of radioactive slurry from Lrw storage tanks

    This report gives information on elaboration and creation of an experimental module for removal radioactive slurry from LRW storage tanks. The main functional features of this experimental module are to suspend radioactive slurry packed in the bottom of a storage tank subjected to cleaning up, to suck the suspended radioactive slurry, to concentrate and separate radioactive slurry in a settling apparatus. The resulting flows from the module are concentrated and preconditioned radioactive slurry and LRW freed from solids. The concentrated and preconditioned radioactive slurry can be further directed for solidification by appropriate methods and LRW freed from solids can be cleaned by commonly used purification methods. The experimental module is supplied with a video-controlling system, which allows supervising the process of slurry removal. The experimental module is currently under testing with non-radioactive slurry therefore, there are no results of its application for real radioactive waste. (authors)

  2. Radiological assessment of worker doses during sludge mobilization and removal at the Melton Valley storage tanks

    This report presents an assessment of potential radiation doses to workers during mobilization and removal of contaminated sludges from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The assessment is based on (1) measurements of radionuclide concentrations in sludge and supernatant liquid samples from the waste storage tanks, (2) measurements of gamma radiation levels in various areas that will be accessed by workers during normal activities, (3) calculations of gamma radiation levels for particular exposure situations, especially when the available measurements are not applicable, and (4) assumed scenarios for worker activities in radiation areas. Only doses from external exposure are estimated in this assessment. Doses from internal exposure are assumed to be controlled by containment of radioactive materials or respiratory protection of workers and are not estimated

  3. Chaotic behavior of LNG after stratification in main stream region of storage tank

    Jingjing WANG; Xiaoqian MA

    2008-01-01

    A study of the chaotic behavior of liquefied natural gas (LNG) after stratification in the main stream region of a storage tank was conducted. Based on non-linear dynamics, a 2-dimensional Rayleigh-Benard con-vection model was developed to simulate the convection, Lorenz equations of LNG convection were deduced from conservation equations, and the Runge-Kutta method was used to solve the equations. The results showed that when Pr = 1.33, 106 < r < 1470, chaos was obtained, which meant that the velocity field and the temperature field were highly unsteady. In addition, the influence of temperature and scale factor on the solutions and the corresponding range of parameters were studied. The results revealed that the chaos in LNG convection resulted from the interaction of buoyancy and viscid forces. A small quantity of heat impacting the storage tank would lead to a strong and unstable convection of LNG in the main stream region.

  4. Dynamic modeling of а heating system using geothermal energy and storage tank

    Milanović Predrag D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes a greenhouse heating system using geothermal energy and storage tank and the possibility of utilization of insufficient amount of heat from geothermal sources during the periods with low outside air temperatures. Crucial for these analyses is modelling of the necessary yearly energy requirements for greenhouse heating. The results of these analyses enable calculation of an appropriate storage tank capacity so that the energy efficiency of greenhouse heating system with geothermal energy could be significantly improved. [Acknowledgement. This work was supported by Ministry of Science and Technology Development of the Republic of Serbia through the National Energy Efficiency Program (Grant 18234 A. The authors are thankful to the stuff and management of the Company “Farmakom MB PIK 7. juli - Debrc” for their assistance during the realization of this project.

  5. Control of stress corrosion cracking in storage tanks containing radioactive waste

    Stress corrosion of carbon steel storage tanks containing alkaline nitrate radioactive waste, at the Savannah River Plant is controlled by specification of limits on waste composition and temperature. Cases of cracking have been observed in the primary steel shell of tanks designed and built before 1960 that were attributed to a combination of high residual stresses from fabrication welding and aggressiveness of fresh wastes from the reactor fuel reprocessing plants. The fresh wastes have the highest concentration of nitrate, which has been shown to be the cracking agent. Also as the waste solutions age and are reduced in volume by evaporation of water, nitrite and hydroxide ions become more concentrated and inhibit stress corrosion. Thus, by providing a heel of aged evaporated waste in tanks that receive fresh waste, concentrations of the inhibitor ions are maintained within specified ranges to protect against nitrate cracking. Tanks designed and built since 1960 have been made of steels with greater resistance to stress corrosion; these tanks have also been heat treated after fabrication to relieve residual stresses from construction operations. Temperature limits are also specified to protect against stress corrosion at elevated temperatures

  6. Some suggestions for sloshing response analysis in liquid storage tanks subjected to earthquake ground motions

    The sloshing behavior of a tank is very sensitive to the characteristics of input motions, as well as the configuration of the tank-liquid system. Nevertheless, most of the past studies focused only on the configuration of tanks and the dynamic properties of the fluid motion. Therefore, the sloshing response in liquid storage tanks for earthquake excitation has not been properly predicted in many cases until now. As one useful parameter to characterize the significant frequency content of input earthquake motions, the peak ground acceleration to velocity (A/V) ratio is utilized. The ground motions, exhibiting a large amplitude, and very high frequency content in the strong-motion phase, generally result in high A/V ratios and very large spectral acceleration values in short periods, whereas the ground motions, containing intense, long-duration acceleration pulses, would generally lead to low A/V ratios and pronounced spectral acceleration values for a moderate or long period. Normal ground motions with significant energy content over a broad range of frequencies and exhibiting a highly irregular acceleration pattern would generally have medium A/V ratios and acceleration spectra similar to the standard design spectrum. In this study, the sloshing response in rigid rectangular tanks subjected to various earthquake ground motions with different peak A/V ratios is investigated

  7. Aging mechanisms for steel components of high-level waste storage tanks

    High level storage tanks in service at the present time were fabricated from either carbon steel or low-carbon stainless steel, in each case surrounded by a concrete vault. A variety of potential degradation mechanisms may affect these steel tanks, including corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, fatigue, radiation, erosion, and hydrogen embrittlement. Historically, some of the non-stress-relieved carbon steel tanks have leaked; in the only failure analysis performed to date, stress corrosion cracking in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of the weld was identified as the cause. Potentially significant aging mechanisms include general corrosion, pitting and/or crevice corrosion stress-corrosion cracking, microbiologically-induced corrosion, concentration cell attack, and corrosion of external tank surfaces by in-leakage of ground water. Aging mechanisms which are deemed non-significant include thermal and radiation embrittlement, creep and stress relaxation, fatigue, erosion and erosion/corrosion wear, and hydrogen embrittlement. Justification for the potential significance or non-significance for each mechanism is provided, based on the current understanding of these processes and the environments to which the tanks are exposed

  8. High water level installation of monitoring wells for underground storage tanks

    This paper briefly describes a common monitoring well installation design for shallow ground water contamination resulting from leaky underground storage tanks. The paper describes drilling techniques used in unconsolidated Florida aquifers using hollow-stem augers. It describes methods for the prevention of heaving sands and sand-locking problems. It then goes on to describe the proper well casing placement and sealing techniques using neat cements. The proper sell screen level is also discussed to maximize the detection of floating hydrocarbons

  9. Development of a thermoplastic material for liner of cryogenic fluid storage tank

    L'Intermy, Julien

    2013-01-01

    In the field of transport, the development of lighter, cheaper and more efficient structures is a recurrent challenge. Polymer materials are good candidates for these applications due to their characteristics quite suitable for requirements. This Phd work aims at developing a thermoplastic material which will be used as an internal liner of a liquid oxygen (LOX) storage tank. The objective is to demonstrate a 20 % to 30 % weight saving, compared to metallic structures. To be used in this kind...

  10. Calculus of cathodic protection system for a storage tank of 42,500 m3

    This work presents the calculations carried out to install a cathodic protection system for a storage tank of 42,500 m3, including the methodology, the taken data of supplier catalogs and finally the realized adjustments at to install the system in field. Also, the data of electrochemical potential in field at to carry out the installation are included, as well as the interference between a system of galvanic current and other of printed current. (Author)

  11. Retroactive Liability and Future Risk: The Optimal Regulation of Underground Storage Tanks

    Boyd, James; Kunreuther, Howard

    1995-01-01

    The optimal design of environmental liability policy focuses on two primary policy issues: the cleanup of existing sources of pollution and the definition and enforcement of policies to promote prospectively efficient environmental risk reduction. Through the analysis of a policy toward a pervasive environmental risk--leaking underground storage tanks--we analyze the effectiveness of an existing policy governing retroactive and prospective liability issues and suggest ways in which that polic...

  12. C-tank transfers: Transuranic sludge removal from the C-1, C-2, and W-23 waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Two fluidic pulse jet mixing systems were used to successfully mobilize remote-handled transuranic sludge for retrieval from three 50,000-gal horizontal waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The results of this operation indicate that the pulse jet system should be considered for mixing and bulk retrieval of sludges in other vertical and horizontal waste tanks at ORNL and at other U.S. Department of Energy sites

  13. C-tank transfers: Transuranic sludge removal from the C-1, C-2, and W-23 waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Dahl, T.L.; Lay, A.C.; Taylor, S.A.; Moore, J.W.

    1999-05-01

    Two fluidic pulse jet mixing systems were used to successfully mobilize remote-handled transuranic sludge for retrieval from three 50,000-gal horizontal waste storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The results of this operation indicate that the pulse jet system should be considered for mixing and bulk retrieval of sludges in other vertical and horizontal waste tanks at ORNL and at other U.S. Department of Energy sites.

  14. An innovative approach saves groundwater supplies from leaking underground storage tanks

    Silbermann, P.T.; DeNatale, D.R.; Hajo, N. [Whitman & Howard, Inc., Wellesley, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In 1991, officials of the Town of Natick, Massachusetts learned that its groundwater supplies were threatened by leaking underground residential fuel storage tanks buried in the yards of hundreds of homes, many of which were located in close proximity to the Town`s water supply wells. The problem heightened when banks stopped approving mortgages or equity loans on homes with underground tanks. The estimated cost to remove the tanks and remediate contaminated soil was $2 million. In order to protect its water supply and preserve its residential property tax base, Natick launched an innovative municipal program to finance and manage the removal of tanks and contaminated soil. As a result of quick and unprecedented community/consultant action, a response plan was developed and technical solutions implemented which involved: Aquifer/Groundwater Protection; GIS Mapping; and Hazardous Waste Site Remediation. The Town engaged Whitman & Howard, Inc. of Wellesley, Massachusetts as engineers to plan, design and oversee tank removals and soil remediation and to administer a $1 million innovative program HUD grant which was used to subsidize the 5 program and cap each homeowner`s cost at $5,000. 320 tanks were removed; 45 % were leaking and required action to remove and remediate contaminated soils. The prototype program provided a number of technical lessons and work products applicable to communities facing a similar problem: (1) Current technology review of alternatives for remediation of petroleum contaminated soils; (2) Geographic Information System (GIS) matrices & mapping protocols; (3) Immediate Response Action Plan to meet new DEP regulations; (4) Innovative approach to project financing; (5) Development of relationships among tank type and age; soils; presence of groundwater; and extent of leakage and soil contamination; and (6) Indicators identified to characterize contamination including: headspace, TPH, odor, soil type, and soil staining.

  15. Performance of a solid oxide fuel cell CHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank for single household

    Liso, Vincenzo; Zhao, Yingru; Yang, Wenyuan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system for cogeneration of heat and power integrated with a stratified heat storage tank is studied. Thermal stratification in the tank increases the heat recovery performance as it allows existence of a temperature gradient with the benefit of deliver...

  16. Soil structure interaction analysis for the Hanford Site 241-SY-101 double-shell waste storage tanks

    The 241-SY-101 tank is a double-shell waste storage tank buried in the 241-SY tank farm in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This analysis addresses the effects of seismic soil-structure interaction on the tank structure and includes a parametric soil-structure interaction study addressing three configurations: two-dimensional soil structure, a two-dimensional structure-soil-structure, and a three-dimensional soil-structure interaction. This study was designed to determine an optimal method for addressing seismic-soil effects on underground storage tanks. The computer programs calculate seismic-soil pressures on the double-shell tank walls and and seismic acceleration response spectra in the tank. The results of this soil-structure interaction parametric study as produced by the computer programs are given in terms of seismic soil pressures and response spectra. The conclusions of this soil-structure interaction evaluation are that dynamically calculated soil pressures in the 241-SY-101 tank are significantly reduce from those using standard hand calculation methods and that seismic evaluation of underground double-shell waste storage tanks must consider soil-structure interaction effects in order to predict conservative structural response. Appendixes supporting this study are available in Volume 2 of this report

  17. Soil structure interaction analysis for the Hanford Site 241-SY-101 double-shell waste storage tanks

    Giller, R.A.; Weiner, E.O.

    1991-09-01

    The 241-SY-101 tank is a double-shell waste storage tank buried in the 241-SY tank farm in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This analysis addresses the effects of seismic soil-structure interaction on the tank structure and includes a parametric soil-structure interaction study addressing three configurations: two-dimensional soil structure, a two-dimensional structure-soil-structure, and a three-dimensional soil-structure interaction. This study was designed to determine an optimal method for addressing seismic-soil effects on underground storage tanks. The computer programs calculate seismic-soil pressures on the double-steel tank walls and seismic acceleration response spectra in the tank. The results of this soil-structure interaction parametric study as produced by the computer programs are given in terms of seismic soil pressures and response spectra. The conclusions of this soil-structure interaction evaluation are that dynamically calculated soil pressures in the 241-SY-101 tank are significantly reduced from those using standard hand calculation methods and that seismic evaluation of underground double-shell waste storage tanks must consider soil-structure interaction effects in order to predict conservative structural response. Appendixes supporting this study are available in Volume 2 of this report.

  18. Soil structure interaction analysis for the Hanford Site 241-SY-101 double-shell waste storage tanks

    Giller, R.A.; Weiner, E.O.

    1991-09-01

    The 241-SY-101 tank is a double-shell waste storage tank buried in the 241-SY tank farm in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This analysis addresses the effects of seismic soil-structure interaction on the tank structure and includes a parametric soil-structure interaction study addressing three configurations: two-dimensional soil structure, a two-dimensional structure-soil-structure, and a three-dimensional soil-structure interaction. This study was designed to determine an optimal method for addressing seismic-soil effects on underground storage tanks. The computer programs calculate seismic-soil pressures on the double-shell tank walls and and seismic acceleration response spectra in the tank. The results of this soil-structure interaction parametric study as produced by the computer programs are given in terms of seismic soil pressures and response spectra. The conclusions of this soil-structure interaction evaluation are that dynamically calculated soil pressures in the 241-SY-101 tank are significantly reduce from those using standard hand calculation methods and that seismic evaluation of underground double-shell waste storage tanks must consider soil-structure interaction effects in order to predict conservative structural response. Appendixes supporting this study are available in Volume 2 of this report.

  19. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure Plan for the Y-12 9409-5 Tank Storage Facility

    This document presents information on the closure of the Y-12 9409-5 Tank Storage Facility. Topics discussed include: facility description; closure history; closure performance standard; partial closure; maximum waste inventory; closure activities; schedule; and postclosure care

  20. METHODOLOGY & CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    BARKER, S.A.

    2006-07-27

    Waste stored within tank farm double-shell tanks (DST) and single-shell tanks (SST) generates flammable gas (principally hydrogen) to varying degrees depending on the type, amount, geometry, and condition of the waste. The waste generates hydrogen through the radiolysis of water and organic compounds, thermolytic decomposition of organic compounds, and corrosion of a tank's carbon steel walls. Radiolysis and thermolytic decomposition also generates ammonia. Nonflammable gases, which act as dilutents (such as nitrous oxide), are also produced. Additional flammable gases (e.g., methane) are generated by chemical reactions between various degradation products of organic chemicals present in the tanks. Volatile and semi-volatile organic chemicals in tanks also produce organic vapors. The generated gases in tank waste are either released continuously to the tank headspace or are retained in the waste matrix. Retained gas may be released in a spontaneous or induced gas release event (GRE) that can significantly increase the flammable gas concentration in the tank headspace as described in RPP-7771. The document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 5 is the annual update of the methodology and calculations of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs.

  1. Technical assessment of compressed hydrogen storage tank systems for automotive applications.

    Hua, T. Q.; Ahluwalia, R. K.; Peng, J. K.; Kromer, M.; Lasher, S.; McKenney, K.; Law, K.; Sinha, J. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (TIAX, LLC)

    2011-02-09

    The performance and cost of compressed hydrogen storage tank systems has been assessed and compared to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 2010, 2015, and ultimate targets for automotive applications. The on-board performance and high-volume manufacturing cost were determined for compressed hydrogen tanks with design pressures of 350 bar ({approx}5000 psi) and 700 bar ({approx}10,000 psi) capable of storing 5.6 kg of usable hydrogen. The off-board performance and cost of delivering compressed hydrogen was determined for hydrogen produced by central steam methane reforming (SMR). The main conclusions of the assessment are that the 350-bar compressed storage system has the potential to meet the 2010 and 2015 targets for system gravimetric capacity but will not likely meet any of the system targets for volumetric capacity or cost, given our base case assumptions. The 700-bar compressed storage system has the potential to meet only the 2010 target for system gravimetric capacity and is not likely to meet any of the system targets for volumetric capacity or cost, despite the fact that its volumetric capacity is much higher than that of the 350-bar system. Both the 350-bar and 700-bar systems come close to meeting the Well-to-Tank (WTT) efficiency target, but fall short by about 5%. These results are summarized.

  2. Equipment design guidance document for flammable gas waste storage tank new equipment

    This document is intended to be used as guidance for design engineers who are involved in design of new equipment slated for use in Flammable Gas Waste Storage Tanks. The purpose of this document is to provide design guidance for all new equipment intended for application into those Hanford storage tanks in which flammable gas controls are required to be addressed as part of the equipment design. These design criteria are to be used as guidance. The design of each specific piece of new equipment shall be required, as a minimum to be reviewed by qualified Unreviewed Safety Question evaluators as an integral part of the final design approval. Further Safety Assessment may be also needed. This guidance is intended to be used in conjunction with the Operating Specifications Documents (OSDs) established for defining work controls in the waste storage tanks. The criteria set forth should be reviewed for applicability if the equipment will be required to operate in locations containing unacceptable concentrations of flammable gas

  3. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration work plan for Corrective Action Unit 126: Closure of aboveground storage tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Revision 1

    This plan addresses the closure of several aboveground storage tanks in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site. The unit is currently identified as Corrective Action Unit 126 in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order and is listed as having six Corrective Action Sites. This plan addresses the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration closure for five of the six sites. Four of the CASs are located at the Engine Test Stand complex and one is located in the Central Support Area. The sites consist of aboveground tanks, two of which were used to store diesel fuel and one stored Nalcool (an antifreeze mixture). The remaining tanks were used as part of a water demineralization process and stored either sulfuric acid or sodium hydroxide, and one was used as a charcoal adsorption furnace. Closure will be completed by removal of the associated piping, tank supports and tanks using a front end loader, backhoe, and/or crane. When possible, the tanks will be salvaged as scrap metal. The piping that is not removed will be sealed using a cement grout

  4. The Gunite Tanks Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Successful Integration & Deployment of Technologies Results in Remediated Underground Storage Tanks

    Billingsley, K.; Bolling, D.

    2002-02-27

    This paper presents an overview of the underground technologies deployed during the cleanup of nine large underground storage tanks (USTs) that contained residual radioactive sludge, liquid low-level waste (LLLW), and other debris. The Gunite Tanks Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was successfully completed in 2001, ending with the stabilization of the USTs and the cleanup of the South Tank Farm. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project was the first of its kind completed in the United States of America. The Project integrated robotic and remotely operated technologies into an effective tank waste retrieval system that safely retrieved more than 348 m3 (92,000 gal) of radioactive sludge and 3.15E+15 Bq (85,000 Ci) of radioactive contamination from the tanks. The Project successfully transferred over 2,385 m3 (630,000 gal) of waste slurry to ORNL's active tank waste management system. The project team avoided over $120 Million in costs and shortened the original baseline schedule by over 10 years. Completing the Gunite Tanks Remediation Project eliminated the risks posed by the aging USTs and the waste they contained, and avoid the $400,000 annual costs associated with maintaining and monitoring the tanks.

  5. METHODOLOGY AND CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    This document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 7 is the annual update of the calculations of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs. The Hanford Site contains 177 large underground radioactive waste storage tanks (28 double-shell tanks and 149 single-shell tanks). These tanks are categorized into one of three waste groups (A, B, and C) based on their waste and tank characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement gas release event. Assignments of waste groups to the 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks, as reported in this document, are based on a Monte Carlo analysis of three criteria. The first criterion is the headspace flammable gas concentration following release of retained gas. This criterion determines whether the tank contains sufficient retained gas such that the well-mixed headspace flammable gas concentration would reach 100% of the lower flammability limit if the entire tank's retained gas were released. If the volume of retained gas is not sufficient to reach 100% of the lower flammability limit, then flammable conditions cannot be reached and the tank is classified as a waste group C tank independent of the method the gas is released. The second criterion is the energy ratio and considers whether there is sufficient supernatant on top of the saturated solids such that gas-bearing solids have the potential energy required to break up the material and release gas. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and that have an energy ratio < 3.0 do not have sufficient potential energy to break up

  6. METHODOLOGY AND CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    FOWLER KD

    2007-12-27

    This document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 7 is the annual update of the calculations of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs. The Hanford Site contains 177 large underground radioactive waste storage tanks (28 double-shell tanks and 149 single-shell tanks). These tanks are categorized into one of three waste groups (A, B, and C) based on their waste and tank characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement gas release event. Assignments of waste groups to the 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks, as reported in this document, are based on a Monte Carlo analysis of three criteria. The first criterion is the headspace flammable gas concentration following release of retained gas. This criterion determines whether the tank contains sufficient retained gas such that the well-mixed headspace flammable gas concentration would reach 100% of the lower flammability limit if the entire tank's retained gas were released. If the volume of retained gas is not sufficient to reach 100% of the lower flammability limit, then flammable conditions cannot be reached and the tank is classified as a waste group C tank independent of the method the gas is released. The second criterion is the energy ratio and considers whether there is sufficient supernatant on top of the saturated solids such that gas-bearing solids have the potential energy required to break up the material and release gas. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and that have an energy ratio < 3.0 do not have sufficient

  7. METHODOLOGY AND CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    WEBER RA

    2009-01-16

    The Hanford Site contains 177 large underground radioactive waste storage tanks (28 double-shell tanks and 149 single-shell tanks). These tanks are categorized into one of three waste groups (A, B, and C) based on their waste and tank characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement gas release event. Assignments of waste groups to the 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks, as reported in this document, are based on a Monte Carlo analysis of three criteria. The first criterion is the headspace flammable gas concentration following release of retained gas. This criterion determines whether the tank contains sufficient retained gas such that the well-mixed headspace flammable gas concentration would reach 100% of the lower flammability limit if the entire tank's retained gas were released. If the volume of retained gas is not sufficient to reach 100% of the lower flammability limit, then flammable conditions cannot be reached and the tank is classified as a waste group C tank independent of the method the gas is released. The second criterion is the energy ratio and considers whether there is sufficient supernatant on top of the saturated solids such that gas-bearing solids have the potential energy required to break up the material and release gas. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and that have an energy ratio < 3.0 do not have sufficient potential energy to break up material and release gas and are assigned to waste group B. These tanks are considered to represent a potential induced flammable gas release hazard, but no spontaneous buoyant displacement flammable gas release hazard. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and have an energy ratio {ge} 3.0, but that pass the third criterion (buoyancy ratio < 1.0, see below) are also assigned to waste group B. Even though the designation as

  8. METHODOLOGY AND CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    The Hanford Site contains 177 large underground radioactive waste storage tanks (28 double-shell tanks and 149 single-shell tanks). These tanks are categorized into one of three waste groups (A, B, and C) based on their waste and tank characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement gas release event. Assignments of waste groups to the 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks, as reported in this document, are based on a Monte Carlo analysis of three criteria. The first criterion is the headspace flammable gas concentration following release of retained gas. This criterion determines whether the tank contains sufficient retained gas such that the well-mixed headspace flammable gas concentration would reach 100% of the lower flammability limit if the entire tank's retained gas were released. If the volume of retained gas is not sufficient to reach 100% of the lower flammability limit, then flammable conditions cannot be reached and the tank is classified as a waste group C tank independent of the method the gas is released. The second criterion is the energy ratio and considers whether there is sufficient supernatant on top of the saturated solids such that gas-bearing solids have the potential energy required to break up the material and release gas. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and that have an energy ratio < 3.0 do not have sufficient potential energy to break up material and release gas and are assigned to waste group B. These tanks are considered to represent a potential induced flammable gas release hazard, but no spontaneous buoyant displacement flammable gas release hazard. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and have an energy ratio (ge) 3.0, but that pass the third criterion (buoyancy ratio < 1.0, see below) are also assigned to waste group B. Even though the designation as a waste

  9. Fusibacter bizertensis sp. nov., isolated from a corroded kerosene storage tank.

    Smii, Latifa; Ben Hania, Wajdi; Cayol, Jean-Luc; Joseph, Manon; Hamdi, Moktar; Ollivier, Bernard; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2015-01-01

    Strain LTF Kr01(T), a novel mesophilic, anaerobic, halotolerant, rod-shaped bacterium, was isolated from a drain at the bottom of a corroded kerosene storage tank of the Société Tunisienne des Industries de Raffinage (STIR), Bizerte, northern Tunisia. Cells were Gram-positive-staining rods, occurred singly or in pairs, and were motile by one lateral flagellum. Strain LTF Kr01(T) grew at temperatures between 15 and 40 °C (optimum 30 °C), between pH 5.5 and 8.2 (optimum pH 7.2) and at NaCl concentrations between 0 and 50 g l(-1) (optimum 5 g l(-1)). It reduced thiosulfate and elemental sulfur into sulfide, but did not reduce sulfate or sulfite. It utilized a wide range of carbohydrates (cellobiose, d-glucose, d-fructose, d-mannitol, d-ribose, sucrose, d-xylose, maltose, d-galactose, starch and trehalose) and produced acetate, CO2 and H2 as end products from glucose fermentation. The DNA G+C content was 37.4 mol%. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C14:0 and C16:0. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence suggested that Fusibacter tunisiensis was the closest relative of strain LTF Kr01(T) (gene sequence similarity of 94.6%). Based on phenotypic, phylogenetic and genotypic taxonomic characteristics, strain LTF Kr01(T) is proposed to represent a novel species of the genus Fusibacter, order Clostridiales, for which the name Fusibacter bizertensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LTF Kr01(T) ( = DSM 28034(T) = JCM 19376(T)). PMID:25294821

  10. Modelling of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell CHP System Coupled with a Hot Water Storage Tank for a Single Household

    Vincenzo Liso

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC system for cogeneration of heat and power integrated with a stratified heat storage tank is studied. The use of a storage tank with thermal stratification allows one to increase the annual operating hours of CHP: heat can be produced when the request is low (for instance during the night, taking advantage of thermal stratification to increases the heat recovery performance. A model of the SOFC system is presented to estimate the energy required to meet the average electric energy demand of the residence. Two fuels are considered, namely syngas produced by gasification and natural gas. The tank model considers the temperature gradients over the tank height. The results of the numerical simulation are used to size the SOFC system and storage heat tank to provide energy for a small household using two different fuels. In particular it was shown that in the case of syngas, due to larger system heat output, a larger tank volume was required in order to accumulate unused heat over the night. The detailed description of the tank model will be useful to energy system modelers when sizing hot water tanks. Problem formulation is reported also using a Matlab script.

  11. On the prolonged storage of highly concentrated liquid radioactive wastes in special tanks

    Results of investigations for determination and estimation of processes occur in liquid radioactive wastes when long period storage (1 - 5 years) are stated. These investigations were conducted at the Central station for radiation safety. Results are given for determination of physical state of solutions in tanks depending on the depth of sampling and also on chemical composition of wastes and composition of gas - air mixture ower the solution surface. Results of radio chemical analysis of samples are given. On the grounds of the results of investigations, conclusions are made and recomendations are given concerning prolonged storage of highly concentrated radioactive liquid wastes. Prolonged storage of this type of wastes is recognized potentially dangerous and hence unacceptable. (I.T.)

  12. Treatment, storage, and disposal alternatives for the gunite and associated tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    The gunite and associated tanks (GAAT) are inactive, liquid low-level waste tanks located in and around the North and South Tank Farms at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These underground tanks are the subject of an ongoing treatability study that will determine the best remediation alternatives for the tanks. As part of the treatability study, an assessment of viable treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) alternatives has been conducted. The report summarizes relevant waste characterization data and statistics obtained to date. The report describes screening and evaluation criteria for evaluating TSD options. Individual options that pass the screening criteria are described in some detail. Order-or-magnitude cost estimates are presented for each of the TSD system alternatives. All alternatives are compared to the baseline approach of pumping all of the GAAT sludge and supernate to the Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) facility for eventual TSD along with the existing MOST waste. Four TSD systems are identified as alternatives to the baseline approach. The baseline is the most expensive of the five identified alternatives. The least expensive alternative is in-situ grouting of all GAAT sludge followed by in-situ disposal. The other alternatives are: (1) ex-situ grouting with on-site storage and disposal at Nevada Test Site (NTS); (2) ex-situ grouting with on-site storage and disposal at NTS and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); and (3) ex-situ vitrification with on-site storage and disposal at NTS and WIPP

  13. In-service inspection of ET-RR-1 reactor vessels and spent fuel storage tank

    Technical survey included in-service inspection are needed in order to investigate the structural integrity and to insure safe operation of the ET-R R-1 reactor after thirty years aging. An intensive work for the inspection of the inspection of the central tank, shield tank, horizontal channels, primary coolant circuit and spent fuel storage tank have been carried out. The inspection procedures were visual method using video camera and magnification optical as well as thickness measurements using ultrasonic gauge meter and replica for determining defect depth. Water chemical analysis of the primary cooling circuit and spent fuel storage were helpful in results explanation. The results showed that the reactor vessels have good surface conditions. The observed pitting did not affect the structural integrity. The majority of the defects were pits having maximum surface area of about 50 mm. Their depth does not exceed 2 mm. The pits depth rate penetration is of the order of 0.5% per year. Thickness measurements showed insignificant variation. Water status and its chemical properties are very important in controlling corrosion rate. 18 figs., 14 tabs

  14. A large experimental apparatus for measuring thermal conductance of LH2 storage tank insulations

    Kamiya, S.; Onishi, K.; Kawagoe, E.; Nishigaki, K.

    2000-01-01

    In the Japanese hydrogen project, WE-NET (World Energy Net Work), the conceptual design of the large mass liquid hydrogen storage systems for ground tanks and transportation, whose scales would reach to that of commercialized LNG (liquid national gas), has been studied. This study has concluded that the thermal insulation for a mass storage tank, providing the excellent thermal performance with the optimized strength, should be developed. In order to evaluate thermal conductance of various devised insulations, we have manufactured a large-scale experimental apparatus. This apparatus, which adopts a double guarded flat plate boil-off calorimeter method, can provide the thermal data needed for designing a full-scale tank. It would be possible to test various kinds of specimens with allowable dimensions: diameter 120 cm, thickness up to 30 cm. In the case of a rigid specimen contacting bottom surfaces of liquid hydrogen vessels, the good flatness of their bottom plates is desirable to reduce the thermal resistance between vessels and a specimen surface. This paper describes the abstract of the developed apparatus, its structural design and also the experimental results for verifying its structural design.

  15. Vibro Replacement, Dynamic Compaction, and Vibro Compaction case histories for petroleum storage tank facilities

    Beaton, N; Scott, J. [Geopac West Ltd., Richmond, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed approaches to tank farm ground improvement via 3 Canadian ground improvement case histories in order to set forth the advantages of ground improvement for foundation support at petroleum storage tank facilities. Each case study featured a particular set of site conditions, performance criteria, and ground improvement techniques selected to attain the desired foundation performance. The first case study involved a Vibro Replacement stone column to meet strict seismicity requirements, the second employed Dynamic Compaction to mitigate deep variable fill within a former gravel pit, and the last encompassed Vibro Compaction applied to a site with a sand fill soil profile. The site conditions, the design requirements, the ground improvement solution, the execution, and the quality control techniques and results were presented for each case history. Soil reinforcement and ground improvement to treat loose and soft soils below heavy storage tanks can be an economical solution to foundation design challenges. However, it is important to select proper methods and tailor the densification programs to the specific subsoil conditions and design requirements. In each application, the selected ground improvement technique exceeded the specified in-situ testing requirements. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Subsurface barrier technologies as potential interim actions for Department of Energy underground storage tanks

    Westinghouse Hanford Company administers the US Department of Energy (DOE) Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) Program, which is designed to demonstrate technologies for the retrieval, treatment, and closure to DOE USTs and tank waste at five facilities throughout the US. In February 1992, Bovay Northwest conducted an UST workshop for Westinghouse Hanford. The scope of the workshop included a variety of applied subsurface barrier technologies that could be installed around an UST or series of USTs. This paper summarizes the information presented in the workshop. Once selected, screened technologies will be tested in the field in a full-scale demonstration and development project (also funded by the UST-ID program)

  17. Safety issue resolution strategy plan for inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks

    The purpose of this strategy plan is to identify, confirm, and resolve safely issues associated with inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (MUSTs) using a risk-based priority approach. Assumptions and processes to assess potential risks and operational concerns are documented in this report. Safety issue priorities are ranked based on a number of considerations including risk ranking and cost effectiveness. This plan specifies work scope and recommends schedules for activities related to resolving safety issues, such as collecting historical data, searching for authorization documents, performing Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) screening and evaluation, identifying safety issues, imposing operational controls and monitoring, characterizing waste contents, mitigating and resolving safety issues, and fulfilling other remediation requirements consistent with the overall Tank Waste Remediation System strategy. Recommendations for characterization and remediation are also recommended according to the order of importance and practical programmatic consideration

  18. Sampling and Analysis Plan for Flammable Gases in Inactive Miscellaneous Underground Storage Tanks

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies the field measurements for a screening of flammable gases in the vapor space of the inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (IMUSTs) currently assigned to the River Protection Project (RPP). If a measurement exceeds 25% of the lower flammability limit (LFL), vapor grab samples will be collected for laboratory analysis. This SAP also specifies the sample collection, laboratory analysis, quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC), and reporting objectives for grab sampling. Technical bases for the sampling objectives are provided in the Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objectives (Dukelow et al 1995). The screening data will be used to determine if additional data are needed to support closure of a flammable gas unreviewed safety question for these facilities

  19. Risk Based Inspection Methodology and Software Applied to Atmospheric Storage Tanks

    A new risk-based inspection (RBI) methodology and software is presented in this paper. The objective of this work is to allow management of the inspections of atmospheric storage tanks in the most efficient way, while, at the same time, accident risks are minimized. The software has been built on the new risk framework architecture, a generic platform facilitating efficient and integrated development of software applications using risk models. The framework includes a library of risk models and the user interface is automatically produced on the basis of editable schemas. This risk-framework-based RBI tool has been applied in the context of RBI for above-ground atmospheric storage tanks (AST) but it has been designed with the objective of being generic enough to allow extension to the process plants in general. This RBI methodology is an evolution of an approach and mathematical models developed for Det Norske Veritas (DNV) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). The methodology assesses damage mechanism potential, degradation rates, probability of failure (PoF), consequence of failure (CoF) in terms of environmental damage and financial loss, risk and inspection intervals and techniques. The scope includes assessment of the tank floor for soil-side external corrosion and product-side internal corrosion and the tank shell courses for atmospheric corrosion and internal thinning. It also includes preliminary assessment for brittle fracture and cracking. The data are structured according to an asset hierarchy including Plant, Production Unit, Process Unit, Tag, Part and Inspection levels and the data are inherited / defaulted seamlessly from a higher hierarchy level to a lower level. The user interface includes synchronized hierarchy tree browsing, dynamic editor and grid-view editing and active reports with drill-in capability.

  20. The safe removal of frozen air from the annulus of an LH2 storage tank

    Krenn, A.; Starr, S.; Youngquist, R.; Nurge, M.; Sass, J.; Fesmire, J.; Cariker, C.; Bhattacharya, A.

    2015-12-01

    Large Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) storage tanks are vital infrastructure for NASA. Eventually, air may leak into the evacuated and perlite filled annular region of these tanks. Although the vacuum level is monitored in this region, the extremely cold temperature causes all but the helium and neon constituents of air to freeze. A small, often unnoticeable pressure rise is the result. As the leak persists, the quantity of frozen air increases, as does the thermal conductivity of the insulation system. Consequently, a notable increase in commodity boil-off is often the first indicator of an air leak. Severe damage can result from normal draining of the tank. The warming air will sublimate which will cause a pressure rise in the annulus. When the pressure increases above the triple point, the frozen air will begin to melt and migrate downward. Collection of liquid air on the carbon steel outer shell may chill it below its ductility range, resulting in fracture. In order to avoid a structural failure, as described above, a method for the safe removal of frozen air is needed. A thermal model of the storage tank has been created using SINDA/FLUINT modelling software. Experimental work is progressing in an attempt to characterize the thermal conductivity of a perlite/frozen nitrogen mixture. A statistical mechanics model is being developed in parallel for comparison to experimental work. The thermal model will be updated using the experimental/statistical mechanical data, and used to simulate potential removal scenarios. This paper will address methodologies and analysis techniques for evaluation of two proposed air removal methods.

  1. Risk Based Inspection Methodology and Software Applied to Atmospheric Storage Tanks

    Topalis, P.; Korneliussen, G.; Hermanrud, J.; Steo, Y.

    2012-05-01

    A new risk-based inspection (RBI) methodology and software is presented in this paper. The objective of this work is to allow management of the inspections of atmospheric storage tanks in the most efficient way, while, at the same time, accident risks are minimized. The software has been built on the new risk framework architecture, a generic platform facilitating efficient and integrated development of software applications using risk models. The framework includes a library of risk models and the user interface is automatically produced on the basis of editable schemas. This risk-framework-based RBI tool has been applied in the context of RBI for above-ground atmospheric storage tanks (AST) but it has been designed with the objective of being generic enough to allow extension to the process plants in general. This RBI methodology is an evolution of an approach and mathematical models developed for Det Norske Veritas (DNV) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). The methodology assesses damage mechanism potential, degradation rates, probability of failure (PoF), consequence of failure (CoF) in terms of environmental damage and financial loss, risk and inspection intervals and techniques. The scope includes assessment of the tank floor for soil-side external corrosion and product-side internal corrosion and the tank shell courses for atmospheric corrosion and internal thinning. It also includes preliminary assessment for brittle fracture and cracking. The data are structured according to an asset hierarchy including Plant, Production Unit, Process Unit, Tag, Part and Inspection levels and the data are inherited / defaulted seamlessly from a higher hierarchy level to a lower level. The user interface includes synchronized hierarchy tree browsing, dynamic editor and grid-view editing and active reports with drill-in capability.

  2. Application of Quantitative NDE Techniques to High Level Waste Storage Tanks

    As various issues make the continued usage of high-level waste storage tanks attractive, there is an increasing need to sharpen the assessment of their structural integrity. One aspect of a structural integrity program, nondestructive evaluation, is the focus of this paper. In September 2000, a program to support the sites was initiated jointly by Tanks Focus Area and Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technologies Crosscutting Program of the Office of Environmental Management, Department of Energy (DOE). The vehicle was the Center for Nondestructive Evaluation, one of the National Science Foundation's Industry/University Cooperative Research Centers that is operated in close collaboration with the Ames Laboratory, USDOE. The support activities that have been provided by the center will be reviewed. Included are the organization of a series of annual workshops to allow the sites to share experiences and develop coordinated approaches to common problems, the development of an electronic source of relevant information, and assistance of the sites on particular technical problems. Directions and early results on some of these technical assistance projects are emphasized. Included are the discussion of theoretical analysis of ultrasonic wave propagation in curved plates to support the interpretation of tandem synthetic aperture focusing data to detect flaws in the knuckle region of double shell tanks; the evaluation of guided ultrasonic waves, excited by couplant free, electromagnetic acoustic transducers, to rapidly screen for inner wall corrosion in tanks; the use of spread spectrum techniques to gain information about the structural integrity of concrete domes; and the use of magnetic techniques to identify the alloys used in the construction of tanks

  3. Application of Quantitative NDE Techniques to High Level Waste Storage Tanks

    Thompson, R. B.; Rehbein, D. K.; Bastiaans, G.; Terry, M.; Alers, R.

    2002-02-25

    As various issues make the continued usage of high-level waste storage tanks attractive, there is an increasing need to sharpen the assessment of their structural integrity. One aspect of a structural integrity program, nondestructive evaluation, is the focus of this paper. In September 2000, a program to support the sites was initiated jointly by Tanks Focus Area and Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technologies Crosscutting Program of the Office of Environmental Management, Department of Energy (DOE). The vehicle was the Center for Nondestructive Evaluation, one of the National Science Foundation's Industry/University Cooperative Research Centers that is operated in close collaboration with the Ames Laboratory, USDOE. The support activities that have been provided by the center will be reviewed. Included are the organization of a series of annual workshops to allow the sites to share experiences and develop coordinated approaches to common problems, the development of an electronic source of relevant information, and assistance of the sites on particular technical problems. Directions and early results on some of these technical assistance projects are emphasized. Included are the discussion of theoretical analysis of ultrasonic wave propagation in curved plates to support the interpretation of tandem synthetic aperture focusing data to detect flaws in the knuckle region of double shell tanks; the evaluation of guided ultrasonic waves, excited by couplant free, electromagnetic acoustic transducers, to rapidly screen for inner wall corrosion in tanks; the use of spread spectrum techniques to gain information about the structural integrity of concrete domes; and the use of magnetic techniques to identify the alloys used in the construction of tanks.

  4. Corrosion resistance of tank material for flock storage in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    The installation of the storage tank made of SS400 is under planning in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant for the flock which was generated in the coagulation process for radioactive contaminated water. The flock contains the seawater and has a possibility to make a crevice and local corrosion on the surface of the tank. Air agitation will be applied in the storage tank to prevent the accumulation of the flock and hydrogen generated by radiolysis, which will increase the diffusion of oxygen and the corrosion of SS400. In addition, the effect of radiation from the flock on the corrosion should be considered. In this study, we investigated the corrosion behavior of SS400 in the flock under the aeration-agitation condition with γ-ray irradiation. Based on the flock storage condition announced by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), immersion tests were performed with SS400 coupons under several conditions and corrosion rates were estimated by the weight loss of the coupons. After the immersion tests, the surfaces of the coupons were observed by microscopy for evaluating the local corrosion. To evaluate corrosion mechanism in detail, electrochemical tests were also carried out. In all of these tests, the non-radioactive flock as a surrogate and artificial seawater were used. Corrosion rates of SS400 increased significantly with aeration flow rates in the seawater with/without the flock, but this tendency was weaker in the seawater with the flock, especially under the condition where coupons were buried in the flock. The electrochemical tests indicated the suppression of the cathodic reaction, i.e. dissolved oxygen reduction, in the seawater with the flock. The effect of γ-ray irradiation on the corrosion rates was not remarkable under the assumed dose rate. Microscopic analysis of the immersed coupons showed no severe corrosion including local corrosion occurred. The corrosion rate could be decreased effectively by suppressing the dissolved oxygen reduction

  5. Standard practice for examination of liquid-Filled atmospheric and Low-pressure metal storage tanks using acoustic emission

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers guidelines for acoustic emission (AE) examinations of new and in-service aboveground storage tanks of the type used for storage of liquids. 1.2 This practice will detect acoustic emission in areas of sensor coverage that are stressed during the course of the examination. For flat-bottom tanks these areas will generally include the sidewalls (and roof if pressure is applied above the liquid level). The examination may not detect flaws on the bottom of flat-bottom tanks unless sensors are located on the bottom. 1.3 This practice may require that the tank experience a load that is greater than that encountered in normal use. The normal contents of the tank can usually be used for applying this load. 1.4 This practice is not valid for tanks that will be operated at a pressure greater than the examination pressure. 1.5 It is not necessary to drain or clean the tank before performing this examination. 1.6 This practice applies to tanks made of carbon steel, stainless steel, aluminum and oth...

  6. Transient Thermal Behavior of a Vertical Solar Storage Tank with a Mantle Heat Exchanger During No-Flow Operation

    A. Barzegar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient thermal behavior of a vertical storage tank of a domestic solar heating system with a mantle heat exchanger has been investigated numerically in the charging mode. It is assumed that the tank is initially filled with uniform cold water. At an instant of time, the hot fluid from collector outlet is uniformly injected in the upper section of the mantle heat exchanger and after heat transfer with the fluid inside the tank, withdrawn from the bottom part of the heat exchanger. The conservation equations in the cylindrical coordinate and in axis-symmetric condition have been used according to the geometry under investigation. Governing equations have been discretized by employing the finite volume method and the SIMPLER algorithm has been used for coupling between momentum and pressure equations. The Low Reynolds Number (LRN k −ω model is utilized for treating turbulence in the fluid. First, the transient thermal behavior of heat storage tank and the process of formation of thermal stratification in the heat storage tank were investigated. Then, the influence of Rayleigh number in the heat storage tank, Reynolds number in the mantle heat exchanger and vertical positioning of mantle on the flow and thermal fields and the formation of the thermal stratification was investigated. It is found that for higher values of Rayleigh number, a more suitable thermal stratification is established inside the tank. Also it is noticed that increasing the incoming fluid velocity through the mantle heat exchanger causes a faster formation of the thermal stratification. A superior thermal performance was achieved when the mantle heat exchanger is positioned at the middle height of the storage tank.

  7. The design and implementation of state underground storage tank assurance funds

    Congress has required owners and operators of underground storage tanks (USTs) containing petroleum to demonstrate financial ability to pay for corrective action and third-party liability costs. This paper discusses these state funds. The first section contributes background information on the federal financial responsibility requirements several alternative types of state financial responsibility programs are discussed next: traditional programs that rely on private assurance, state reinsurance programs, and loan and other financial assistance programs. The next section describes variants of state assurance funds, the primary option adopted by state. The final section analyses several major issues faced by state in implementing their UST funds

  8. A risk management approach to double-shell tank waste volume versus storage capacity

    A risk-based assessment of the overall waste volume versus double-shell tank storage capacity was conducted to develop fallback positions for projections where the waste volume was at a high risk of exceeding capacity. This study was initiated to provide that assessment. A working simulation model was the primary deliverable of this study. The model validates the approach and demonstrates that simulation analysis can provide a method of tracking uncertainties in available data, assessing probabilities, and serves as a tool to be used by management to determine the consequences of various off-normal occurrences

  9. Results Of Routine Strip Effluent Hold Tank, Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank, Caustic Wash Tank And Caustic Storage Tank Samples From Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit During Macrobatch 6 Operations

    Peters, T. B.

    2013-10-01

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), Caustic Wash Tank (CWT) and Caustic Storage Tank (CST) samples from several of the ''microbatches'' of Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch (''Macrobatch'') 6 have been analyzed for {sup 238}Pu, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICPES). The results from the current microbatch samples are similar to those from comparable samples in Macrobatch 5. From a bulk chemical point of view, the ICPES results do not vary considerably between this and the previous macrobatch. The titanium results in the DSSHT samples continue to indicate the presence of Ti, when the feed material does not have detectable levels. This most likely indicates that leaching of Ti from MST in ARP continues to occur. Both the CST and CWT samples indicate that the target Free OH value of 0.03 has been surpassed. While at this time there is no indication that this has caused an operational problem, the CST should be adjusted into specification. The {sup 137}Cs results from the SRNL as well as F/H lab data indicate a potential decline in cesium decontamination factor. Further samples will be carefully monitored to investigate this.

  10. Tank 12H Acidic Chemical Cleaning Sample Analysis And Material Balance

    Martino, C. J.; Reboul, S. H.; Wiersma, B. J.; Coleman, C. J.

    2013-11-08

    A process of Bulk Oxalic Acid (BOA) chemical cleaning was performed for Tank 12H during June and July of 2013 to remove all or a portion of the approximately 4400 gallon sludge heel. Three strikes of oxalic acid (nominally 4 wt % or 2 wt %) were used at 55 �C and tank volumes of 96- to 140-thousand gallons. This report details the sample analysis of a scrape sample taken prior to BOA cleaning and dip samples taken during BOA cleaning. It also documents a rudimentary material balance for the Tank 12H cleaning results.

  11. Seismic design and evaluation guidelines for the Department of Energy high-level waste storage tanks and appurtenances

    This document provides guidelines for the design and evaluation of underground high-level waste storage tanks due to seismic loads. Attempts were made to reflect the knowledge acquired in the last two decades in the areas of defining the ground motion and calculating hydrodynamic loads and dynamic soil pressures for underground tank structures. The application of the analysis approach is illustrated with an example. The guidelines are developed for specific design of underground storage tanks, namely double-shell structures. However, the methodology discussed is applicable for other types of tank structures as well. The application of these and of suitably adjusted versions of these concepts to other structural types will be addressed in a future version of this document

  12. Seismic design and evaluation guidelines for the Department of Energy high-level waste storage tanks and appurtenances

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Cornell, A.; Costantino, C.; Kennedy, R.; Miller, C.; Veletsos, A.

    1993-01-01

    This document provides guidelines for the design and evaluation of underground high-level waste storage tanks due to seismic loads. Attempts were made to reflect the knowledge acquired in the last two decades in the areas of defining the ground motion and calculating hydrodynamic loads and dynamic soil pressures for underground tank structures. The application of the analysis approach is illustrated with an example. The guidelines are developed for specific design of underground storage tanks, namely double-shell structures. However, the methodology discussed is applicable for other types of tank structures as well. The application of these and of suitably adjusted versions of these concepts to other structural types will be addressed in a future version of this document.

  13. Mitigation of elephant-foot bulge formation in seismically-excited steel storage tanks

    This paper summarizes the findings of the first phase of a comprehensive study aimed at mitigating the effects of earthquakes on steel liquid storage tanks using hybrid fiber reinforced polymer laminates. In assessing the safety of tanks under seismic loading, the capacity of the shell against buckling must be evaluated. There are two types of shell 'buckling': membrane and elastic-plastic. Although the latter is not accounted for in most codes, it may limit the seismic design especially at higher values of total liquid pressure. The elastic-plastic buckling capacity is nearly depleted when the ratio of total-to-hydrostatic pressures is equal to the design factor of safety. In order to relief the shell from excessive hoop stresses, it is suggested to apply hybrid fiber reinforced polymer laminates, with the fibers aligned along the circumference of the shell. The combined system of carbon and glass fibers must circumvent the galvanic reaction with steel, in addition to exhibiting thermal balance and appropriate durability properties. It has been confirmed theoretically that the proposed system is viable for reducing seismic vulnerability of tanks; experimental verification is underway. (author)

  14. Performance testing of a system for remote ultrasonic examination of the Hanford double-shell waste storage tanks

    A mobile robotic inspection system is being developed for remote ultrasonic examination of the double wall waste storage tanks at Hanford. Performance testing of the system includes demonstrating robot mobility within the tank annulus, evaluating the accuracy of the vision based navigation process, and verifying ultrasonic and video system performance. This paper briefly describes the system and presents a summary of the plan for performance testing of the ultrasonic testing system. Performance test results will be presented at the conference

  15. Development of a computer code to predict a ventilation requirement for an underground radioactive waste storage tank

    Computer code, WTVFE (Waste Tank Ventilation Flow Evaluation), has been developed to evaluate the ventilation requirement for an underground storage tank for radioactive waste. Heat generated by the radioactive waste and mixing pumps in the tank is removed mainly through the ventilation system. The heat removal process by the ventilation system includes the evaporation of water from the waste and the heat transfer by natural convection from the waste surface. Also, a portion of the heat will be removed through the soil and the air circulating through the gap between the primary and secondary tanks. The heat loss caused by evaporation is modeled based on recent evaporation test results by the Westinghouse Hanford Company using a simulated small scale waste tank. Other heat transfer phenomena are evaluated based on well established conduction and convection heat transfer relationships. 10 refs., 3 tabs

  16. Development of a computer code to predict a ventilation requirement for an underground radioactive waste storage tank

    Lee, Y.J.; Dalpiaz, E.L. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Computer code, WTVFE (Waste Tank Ventilation Flow Evaluation), has been developed to evaluate the ventilation requirement for an underground storage tank for radioactive waste. Heat generated by the radioactive waste and mixing pumps in the tank is removed mainly through the ventilation system. The heat removal process by the ventilation system includes the evaporation of water from the waste and the heat transfer by natural convection from the waste surface. Also, a portion of the heat will be removed through the soil and the air circulating through the gap between the primary and secondary tanks. The heat loss caused by evaporation is modeled based on recent evaporation test results by the Westinghouse Hanford Company using a simulated small scale waste tank. Other heat transfer phenomena are evaluated based on well established conduction and convection heat transfer relationships. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. METHODOLOGY & CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    TU, T.A.

    2007-01-04

    Waste stored within tank farm double-shell tanks (DST) and single-shell tanks (SST) generates flammable gas (principally hydrogen) to varying degrees depending on the type, amount, geometry, and condition of the waste. The waste generates hydrogen through the radiolysis of water and organic compounds, thermolytic decomposition of organic compounds, and corrosion of a tank's carbon steel walls. Radiolysis and thermolytic decomposition also generates ammonia. Nonflammable gases, which act as dilutents (such as nitrous oxide), are also produced. Additional flammable gases (e.g., methane) are generated by chemical reactions between various degradation products of organic chemicals present in the tanks. Volatile and semi-volatile organic chemicals in tanks also produce organic vapors. The generated gases in tank waste are either released continuously to the tank headspace or are retained in the waste matrix. Retained gas may be released in a spontaneous or induced gas release event (GRE) that can significantly increase the flammable gas concentration in the tank headspace as described in RPP-7771, Flammable Gas Safety Isme Resolution. Appendices A through I provide supporting information. The document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste and characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 6 is the annual update of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs.

  18. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 121: Storage Tanks and Miscellaneous Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-09-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 121 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996, as amended February 2008) as Storage Tanks and Miscellaneous Sites. CAU 121 consists of the following three Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Area 12 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada: (1) CAS 12-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; (2) CAS 12-01-02, Aboveground Storage Tank; and (3) CAS 12-22-26, Drums; 2 AST's. CAU 121 closure activities were conducted according to the FFACO and the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 121 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007). Field work took place from February through September 2008. Samples were collected to determine the path forward to close each site. Closure activities were completed as defined in the plan based on sample analytical results and site conditions. No contaminants of concern (COCs) were present at CAS 12-01-01; therefore, no further action was chosen as the corrective action alternative. As a best management practice (BMP), the empty aboveground storage tank (AST) was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. At CAS 12-01-02, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were present above the preliminary action level (PAL) in the soil beneath the AST that could possibly have originated from the AST contents. Therefore, PCBs were considered COCs, and the site was clean closed by excavating and disposing of soil containing PCBs. Approximately 5 cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) of soil were excavated and disposed as petroleum hydrocarbon PCB remediation waste, and approximately 13 yd3 of soil were excavated and disposed as PCB remediation waste. Cleanup samples were collected to confirm that the remaining soil did not contain PCBs above the PAL. Other compounds detected in the soil above PALs (i.e., total petroleum hydrocarbons [TPH] and semi-volatile organic compounds [SVOCs

  19. Separation projects within the US Department of Energy's Underground Storage Tank: Integrated Demonstration

    The greatest challenge facing the US Department of Energy is the remediation of the 1 x 108 gal of high-level and low-level radioactive waste in the underground storage tanks (USTs) at its Hanford, Savannah River, Oak Ridge, Idaho, and Fernald sites. With current technologies, this remediation will cost at least 100 billion dollars. In an effort to reduce costs, improve safety, and minimize delays, the Underground Storage Tank--Integrated Demonstration was created for demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DT ampersand E) of promising new technologies that can be used for UST remediation. These demonstrations, which are typically at the pilot-plant scale, will determine which processes will be used in the full-scale remediation of the USTs. These DT ampersand E studies are performed by the Characterization and Waste Retrieval Program or by the Waste Processing and Disposal Program (WPDP). This paper presents the technical progress and future plans of the WPDP projects. The 11 WPDP programs in FY 1993 focused on three problem areas, which involve the treatment of supernate, the treatment of sludge, and nitrate destruction and subsequent waste forms. In addition, a planned Request for Expression of Interest on organic destruction techniques from private industries and universities and the WPDP's future direction and programmatic issues are discussed

  20. DOE underground storage tank waste remediation chemical processing hazards. Part I: Technology dictionary

    This document has been prepared to aid in the development of Regulating guidelines for the Privatization of Hanford underground storage tank waste remediation. The document has been prepared it two parts to facilitate their preparation. Part II is the primary focus of this effort in that it describes the technical basis for established and potential chemical processing hazards associated with Underground Storage Tank (UST) nuclear waste remediation across the DOE complex. The established hazards involve those at Sites for which Safety Analysis Reviews (SARs) have already been prepared. Potential hazards are those involving technologies currently being developed for future applications. Part I of this document outlines the scope of Part II by briefly describing the established and potential technologies. In addition to providing the scope, Part I can be used as a technical introduction and bibliography for Regulatory personnel new to the UST waste remediation, and in particular Privatization effort. Part II of this document is not intended to provide examples of a SAR Hazards Analysis, but rather provide an intelligence gathering source for Regulatory personnel who must eventually evaluate the Privatization SAR Hazards Analysis

  1. Large-volume heat storage tank made of GFK; Grosswaermespeichertank aus GFK

    Buehl, J.; Schultheis, P. [Technische Univ. Ilmenau (Germany). Fachgebiet Technische Thermodynamik

    1998-12-31

    The Technical University of Ilmenau, the company Verbundwerkstoff- und Kunststoffanwendungstechnik Schoenbrunn, the Institute for Aerospace and Light-weight construction of Dresden University with its approved testing facilities for plastics and the Institute for Construction Engineering in Berlin and several other institutions co-operated since 1996 in developing a concept for a series of long-term heat storage tanks up to 6,000 cubic metres storage volume made of plastic (GFK components) with a combined thermal insulation. A model tank (sandwich body with proportional thermal insulation layer and selected mixed laminates) with a volume of 1.5 cubic metres was built and installed in November 1996. The tank has been continuously operated at various test levels. The experiment proves the longevity of the materials used. (orig.) [Deutsch] In Zusammenarbeit der TU Ilmenau mit der Fa. Verbundwerkstoff - und Kunststoffanwendungstechnik Schoenbrunn und dem Institut fuer Luftfahrttechnik und Leichtbau Dresden, seiner akkredierten Pruefstelle fuer Kunststoffe, in Abstimmung mit dem Institut fuer Bautechnik Berlin und weiteren Einrichtungen und Partnern wird seit 1996 an einem Konzept fuer eine Typenreihe Langzeitwaermespeicher bis vorerst 6.000 m{sup 3} Speichervolumen aus Kunststoff (GFK-Komponenten) und kombinierter integrierter thermischer Isolation gearbeitet. Im Vorfeld dieser Entwicklung wurde auf der Basis vorausgewaehlter Materialien und Kompositionen ein Musterspeicher (ein Sandwich - Modellkoerper mit proportionaler Waermedaemmschicht sowie ausgewaehlten Mischlaminaten) mit einem Speichervolumen von 1,5 m{sup 3} realisiert. Dieser Musterspeicher wurde im November 1996 installiert und wird seither kontinuierlich in den entsprechenden Erprobungsstufen betrieben. Der Nachweis der Langlebigkeit der eingesetzten Materialien wurde experimentell erbracht. (orig.)

  2. Melton Valley liquid low-level radioactive waste storage tanks evaluation

    The Melton Valley Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste Storage Tanks (MVSTs) store the evaporator concentrates from the Liquid Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLLW) System at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The eight stainless steel tanks contain approximately 375,000 gallons of liquid and sludge waste. These are some of the newer, better-designed tanks in the LLLW System. They have been evaluated and found by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation to comply with all Federal Facility Agreement requirements for double containment. The operations and maintenance aspects of the tanks were also reviewed by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) in September 1994. This document also contains an assessment of the risk to the public and ORNL workers from a leak in one of the MVSTs. Two primary scenarios were investigated: (1) exposure of the public to radiation from drinking Clinch River water contaminated by leaked LLLW, and (2) exposure of on-site workers to radiation by inhaling air contaminated by leaked LLLW. The estimated frequency of a leak from one of the MVSTs is about 8 x 10-4 events per year, or about once in 1200 years (with a 95% confidence level). If a leak were to occur, the dose to a worker from inhalation would be about 2.3 x 10-1 mrem (with a 95% confidence level). The dose to a member of the public through the drinking water pathway is estimated to be about 7 x 10-1 mrem (with a 95% confidence level). By comparison with EPA Safe Drinking Water regulations, the allowable lifetime radiation dose is about 300 mrem. Thus, a postulated LLLW leak from the MVSTs would not add appreciably to an individual's lifetime radiation dose

  3. Electrical resistivity tomography for early vadose leak detection under single shell storage tanks

    This document describes planned testing with Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT). It is prepared in support of TTP RL46WT51 Rev. 1, funded by the Tank Focus Area through the Office of Technology Integration. The primary goal of the testing for fiscal year 1996 (FY96) is to develop and demonstrate the ability to place vertical electrode arrays (VEA) with the cone penetrometer technology (CPT) to depths below existing single shell tanks (SST) at the DOE Hanford Site. It is desirable to have the capability to use CPT for this application for obvious reasons. First, current methods of emplacement, drilled boreholes, are expensive with respect to the rest of the ERT operation. Cone penetrometer VEA emplacements offer the opportunity to significantly reduce installation costs. Second, use of CPT will reduce emplacement time from weeks or months to just several days depending on the number of VEAs and the depth of placement. ERT is preferable to other monitoring methods since operation costs and turn around time are less than the current baselines of either groundwater sampling networks or borehole logging techniques. ERT cost savings can be substantial and will continue into the future. ERT can also provide complete coverage under a tank or other facility which is an important supplement to existing monitoring methods. Groundwater sampling provides one data point per well and borehole logging provides data along a line in the ground. Neither provide information from beneath a facility and thus, are not able to locate release points. These electrode arrays are used to acquire subsurface electrical resistance data in a manner appropriate for tomographic inversion. The resulting tomograms can then be used to detect, monitor and track contaminated moisture plumes leaking from underground storage tanks during waste retrieval operations

  4. Elastic-Plastic Thermal Stress Analysis of a High-Pressure Cryogenic Storage Tank

    Barker, J. Mark; Field, Robert E. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The thermal stresses on a cryogenic storage tank contribute strongly to the state of stress of the tank material and its ability to withstand operational stresses. These thermal stresses also affect the growth of any surface damage that might occur in the tank walls. These stresses are particularly of concern during the initial cooldown period for a new tank placed into service, and during any subsequent thermal cycles. A previous preliminary elastic analysis showed that the thermal stress on the inner wall would reach approximately 1,000MPa (145,000 psi). This stress far exceeds the ASTM specified room temperature values for both yield (170MPa) and ultimate (485 MPa) strength for 304L stainless steel. The present analysis determines the thermal stresses using an elastic-plastic model. The commercial software application ANSYS was used to determine the transient spatial temperature profile and the associated spatial thermal stress profiles in a segment of a thick-walled vessel during a typical cooldown process. A strictly elastic analysis using standard material properties for 304L stainless steel showed that the maximum thermal stress on the inner and outer walls was approximately 960 MPa (tensile) and - 270 MPa (compressive) respectively. These values occurred early in the cooldown process, but at different times, An elastic-plastic analysis showed significantly reducing stress, as expected due to the plastic deformation of the material. The maximum stress for the inner wall was approximately 225 MPa (tensile), while the maximum stress for the outer wall was approximately - 130 MPa (compressive).

  5. Bacterial communities in an ultrapure water containing storage tank of a power plant.

    Bohus, Veronika; Kéki, Zsuzsa; Márialigeti, Károly; Baranyi, Krisztián; Patek, Gábor; Schunk, János; Tóth, Erika M

    2011-12-01

    Ultrapure waters (UPWs) containing low levels of organic and inorganic compounds provide extreme environment. On contrary to that microbes occur in such waters and form biofilms on surfaces, thus may induce corrosion processes in many industrial applications. In our study, refined saltless water (UPW) produced for the boiler of a Hungarian power plant was examined before and after storage (sampling the inlet [TKE] and outlet [TKU] waters of a storage tank) with cultivation and culture independent methods. Our results showed increased CFU and direct cell counts after the storage. Cultivation results showed the dominance of aerobic, chemoorganotrophic α-Proteobacteria in both samples. In case of TKU sample, a more complex bacterial community structure could be detected. The applied molecular method (T-RFLP) indicated the presence of a complex microbial community structure with changes in the taxon composition: while in the inlet water sample (TKE) α-Proteobacteria (Sphingomonas sp., Novosphingobium hassiacum) dominated, in the outlet water sample (TKU) the bacterial community shifted towards the dominance of α-Proteobacteria (Rhodoferax sp., Polynucleobacter sp., Sterolibacter sp.), CFB (Bacteroidetes, formerly Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group) and Firmicutes. This shift to the direction of fermentative communities suggests that storage could help the development of communities with an increased tendency toward corrosion. PMID:22207294

  6. High efficient heat pump system using storage tanks to increase COP by means of the ISEC concept - Part 1: Model validation

    Rothuizen, Erasmus; Elmegaard, Brian; Markussen, Wiebke B.;

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the ISEC concept is to provide a high-efficient heat pump system for hot water production.The ISEC concept uses two storage tanks for the water, one discharged and one charged. Hot water for theindustrial process is tapped from the charged tank, while the other tank is charging...

  7. Heat release performance of heat storage water tank with phase-change material in solar drying system%太阳能干燥相变储热水箱的放热性能

    于海涛; 高建民; 陈瑶

    2015-01-01

    为降低传统干燥能耗,强化太阳能干燥用储热水箱的储放热能力,在普通储热水箱中添加了硬脂酸/膨胀石墨相变储热材料,研究了放热温差、储热单元体积对装置放热性能的影响。研究结果表明:相变储热水箱放热时间、放热量随着放热温差和储热水箱中储热单元体积的增加均有所提升,储热单元的添加对储热水箱的放热效果影响更为显著。放热效率则随着放热温差的增大而降低,随着储热水箱中储热单元体积的增加而显著提升;储热水箱中储热单元体积为35%时,相变储热水箱的放热时间比普通储热水箱最多提升了1.26倍,放热温度最大可提高8.7℃,热效率最多可提高22.56%。%Drying is an essential process for a large number of industrial and agricultural products. In order to reduce energy consumption of traditional drying, improve its utilization efficiency and strengthen the capacity of heat storage water tank for solar drying, the stearic acid/expanded graphite composite phase-change material (PCM) with melting point of 52.74℃ and latent heat of 169.90 J/g was added into the conventional heat storage water tank in this paper. The schematic structure of the solar drying system mainly consisted of solar collector, drying oven, heat storage water tank and phase-change thermal energy storage units. The effect of heat release temperature difference and heat storage unit volume on the heat release performance of the device was studied under the same heat release conditions. The total volume of the PCM containers in the heat storage water tank was 15%, 25% and 35%, respectively. The heat storage water tank was heated to 60, 65 and 75℃ by using solar collector in heat storage process. Then the heat storage water tank was used to provide heat for the drying oven, and the heat release process was finished when the temperature of drying oven was 40℃ . The results showed that the

  8. Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-Gallon Radioactive Liquid Waste Storage Tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    This report provides a record of the Structural Integrity Program for the 300,000-gal liquid waste storage tanks and associated equipment at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as required by U.S. Department of Energy M 435.1-1, ''Radioactive Waste Management Manual.'' This equipment is known collectively as the Tank Farm Facility. The conclusion of this report is that the Tank Farm Facility tanks, vaults, and transfer systems that remain in service for storage are structurally adequate, and are expected to remain structurally adequate over the remainder of their planned service life through 2012. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Tank Farm Facility

  9. Do-It-Yourself device for recovery of cryopreserved samples accidentally dropped into cryogenic storage tanks.

    Mehta, Rohini; Baranova, Ancha; Birerdinc, Aybike

    2012-01-01

    Liquid nitrogen is colorless, odorless, extremely cold (-196 °C) liquid kept under pressure. It is commonly used as a cryogenic fluid for long term storage of biological materials such as blood, cells and tissues (1,2). The cryogenic nature of liquid nitrogen, while ideal for sample preservation, can cause rapid freezing of live tissues on contact - known as 'cryogenic burn' (2), which may lead to severe frostbite in persons closely involved in storage and retrieval of samples from Dewars. Additionally, as liquid nitrogen evaporates it reduces the oxygen concentration in the air and might cause asphyxia, especially in confined spaces (2). In laboratories, biological samples are often stored in cryovials or cryoboxes stacked in stainless steel racks within the Dewar tanks (1). These storage racks are provided with a long shaft to prevent boxes from slipping out from the racks and into the bottom of Dewars during routine handling. All too often, however, boxes or vials with precious samples slip out and sink to the bottom of liquid nitrogen filled tank. In such cases, samples could be tediously retrieved after transferring the liquid nitrogen into a spare container or discarding it. The boxes and vials can then be relatively safely recovered from emptied Dewar. However, the cryogenic nature of liquid nitrogen and its expansion rate makes sunken sample retrieval hazardous. It is commonly recommended by Safety Offices that sample retrieval be never carried out by a single person. Another alternative is to use commercially available cool grabbers or tongs to pull out the vials (3). However, limited visibility within the dark liquid filled Dewars poses a major limitation in their use. In this article, we describe the construction of a Cryotolerant DIY retrieval device, which makes sample retrieval from Dewar containing cryogenic fluids both safe and easy. PMID:22617806

  10. Technical assessment of cryo-compressed hydrogen storage tank systems for automotive applications.

    Ahluwalia, R. K.; Hua, T. Q.; Peng, J.-K.; Lasher, S.; McKenney, K.; Sinha, J.; Nuclear Engineering Division; TIAX LLC

    2010-03-03

    On-board and off-board performance and cost of cryo-compressed hydrogen storage has been assessed and compared to the DOE 2010, 2015 and ultimate targets for automotive applications. The Gen-3 prototype system of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was modeled to project the performance of a scaled-down 5.6-kg usable hydrogen storage system. The on-board performance of the system and high-volume manufacturing cost were determined for liquid hydrogen refueling with a single-flow nozzle and a pump that delivers 1.5 kg/min of liquid H{sub 2} to the insulated cryogenic tank capable of being pressurized to 272 atm (4000 psi). The off-board performance and cost of delivering liquid hydrogen were determined for two scenarios in which hydrogen is produced by central steam methane reforming (SMR) and by central electrolysis using electricity from renewable sources. The main conclusions from the assessment are that the cryo-compressed storage system has the potential of meeting the ultimate target for system gravimetric capacity and the 2015 target for system volumetric capacity (see Table I). The system compares favorably with targets for durability and operability although additional work is needed to understand failure modes for combined pressure and temperature cycling. The system may meet the targets for hydrogen loss during dormancy under certain conditions of minimum daily driving. The high-volume manufacturing cost is projected to be 2-4 times the current 2010 target of $4/kWh. For the reference conditions considered most applicable, the fuel cost for the SMR hydrogen production and liquid H{sub 2} delivery scenario is 60%-140% higher than the current target of $2-$3/gge while the well-to-tank efficiency is well short of the 60% target specified for off-board regenerable materials.

  11. Experimental determination of the heat transfer and cold storage characteristics of a microencapsulated phase change material in a horizontal tank

    Highlights: • Cold storage characteristics in latent and sensible heat storage mediums were studied. • Thermo-physical characterization of the phase change material was carried out. • A non-Newtonian shear thickening behavior of the phase change material was observed. • An energy storage enhancement (53%) was observed in the latent heat storage medium. - Abstract: In the present paper, the performance of a microencapsulated phase change material (in 45% w/w concentration) for low temperature thermal energy storage, suitable for air conditioning applications is studied. The results are compared to a sensible heat storage unit using water. Thermo-physical properties such as the specific heat, enthalpy variation, thermal conductivity and density are also experimentally determined. The non-Newtonian shear-thickening behavior of the phase change material slurry is quantified. Thermal energy performance is experimentally determined for a 100 l horizontal tank. The heat transfer between the heat transfer fluid and the phase change material was provided by a tube-bundle heat exchanger inside the tank. The results show that the amount of energy stored using the phase change material is 53% higher than for water after 10 h of charging, for the same storage tank volume. It was found that the heat transfer coefficient between the phase change material and the tube wall increases during the phase change temperature range, however it remains smaller than the values obtained for water

  12. Nonlinear Modeling and Application of PI Control on Pre-cooling Session of a Carbon Dioxide Storage Tank at Normal Temperature and Pressure

    Storage tanks of Carbon dioxide (CO2) carriers utilized for the purpose of carbon capture and storage (CCS) into subsea strata have to undergo a pre-cooling session before beginning to load cryogenic liquid cargos in order to prevent physical and thermal deterioration of tanks which may result from cryogenic CO2 contacting tank walls directly. In this study we propose dynamic model to calculate the tank inflow of CO2 gas injected for precooling process and its dynamic simulation results under proportional-integral control algorithm. We selected two cases in which each of them had one controlled variable (CV) as either the tank pressure or the tank temperature and discussed the results of that decision-making on the pre-cooling process. As a result we demonstrated that the controlling instability arising from nonlinearity and singularity of the mathematical model could be avoided by choosing tank pressure as CV instead of tank temperature

  13. 40 CFR 63.11087 - What requirements must I meet for gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline...

    2010-07-01

    ...) If your gasoline storage tank is subject to, and complies with, the control requirements of 40 CFR... gasoline storage tanks if my facility is a bulk gasoline terminal, pipeline breakout station, or pipeline... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category:...

  14. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo

    2013-11-13

    Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

  15. Review of seasonal heat storage in large basins: Water tanks and gravel-water pits

    In order to respond to climatic change, many efforts have been made to reduce harmful gas emissions. According to energy policies, an important goal is the implementation of renewable energy sources, as well as electrical and oil combustion savings through energy conservation. This paper focuses on an extensive review of the technologies developed, so far, for central solar heating systems employing seasonal sensible water storage in artificial large scale basins. Among technologies developed since the late 1970s, the use of underground spaces as an energy storage medium - Underground Thermal Energy Storage (UTES) - has been investigated and closely observed in experimental plants in many countries, most of them, as part of government programmes. These projects attempt to optimise technical and economic aspects within an international knowledge exchange; as a result, UTES is becoming a reliable option to save energy through energy conservation. Other alternatives to UTES include large water tanks and gravel-water pits, also called man-made or artificial aquifers. This implies developing this technology by construction and leaving natural aquifers untouched. The present article reviews most studies and results obtained in this particular area to show the technical and economical feasibility for each system and specifics problems occurred during construction and operation. Advantages and disadvantages are pointed out to compare both alternatives. The projects discussed have been carried out mainly in European states with some references to other countries.

  16. Review of seasonal heat storage in large basins: Water tanks and gravel-water pits

    In order to respond to climatic change, many efforts have been made to reduce harmful gas emissions. According to energy policies, an important goal is the implementation of renewable energy sources, as well as electrical and oil combustion savings through energy conservation. This paper focuses on an extensive review of the technologies developed, so far, for central solar heating systems employing seasonal sensible water storage in artificial large scale basins. Among technologies developed since the late 1970s, the use of underground spaces as an energy storage medium - Underground Thermal Energy Storage (UTES) - has been investigated and closely observed in experimental plants in many countries, most of them, as part of government programmes. These projects attempt to optimise technical and economic aspects within an international knowledge exchange; as a result, UTES is becoming a reliable option to save energy through energy conservation. Other alternatives to UTES include large water tanks and gravel-water pits, also called man-made or artificial aquifers. This implies developing this technology by construction and leaving natural aquifers untouched. The present article reviews most studies and results obtained in this particular area to show the technical and economical feasibility for each system and specifics problems occurred during construction and operation. Advantages and disadvantages are pointed out to compare both alternatives. The projects discussed have been carried out mainly in European states with some references to other countries. (author)

  17. Implementation of seismic design and evaluation guidelines for the Department of Energy high-level waste storage tanks and appurtenances

    In the fall of 1992, a draft of the Seismic Design and Evaluation Guidelines for the Department of Energy (DOE) High-level Waste Storage Tanks and Appurtenances was issued. The guidelines were prepared by the Tanks Seismic Experts Panel (TSEP) and this task was sponsored by DOE, Environmental Management. The TSEP is comprised of a number of consultants known for their knowledge of seismic ground motion and expertise in the analysis of structures, systems and components subjected to seismic loads. The development of these guidelines was managed by staff from Brookhaven National Laboratory, Engineering Research and Applications Division, Department of Nuclear Energy. This paper describes the process used to incorporate the Seismic Design and Evaluation Guidelines for the DOE High-Level Waste Storage Tanks and Appurtenances into the design criteria for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Project at the Hanford Site. This project will design and construct six new high-level waste tanks in the 200 Areas at the Hanford Site. This paper also discusses the vehicles used to ensure compliance to these guidelines throughout Title 1 and Title 2 design phases of the project as well as the strategy used to ensure consistent and cost-effective application of the guidelines by the structural analysts. The paper includes lessons learned and provides recommendations for other tank design projects which might employ the TSEP guidelines

  18. Underground Storage Tanks, Leaking Underground Tanks in Rhode Island; s44xlt99; This dataset shows the location of storage tanks and associated piping used for petroleum and certain hazardous substances that have experienced leaks as determined by RIDEM, Published in 1999, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Underground Storage Tanks dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 1999. It is...

  19. Underground storage tank waste retrieval strategies using a high-pressure waterjet scarifier

    The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements Program (RPD ampersand E) is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science and Technology to investigate existing and emerging retrieval processes suitable for the retrieval of high-level radioactive waste inside underground storage tanks. This program, represented by industry, national laboratories, and academia, seeks to provide a technical and cost basis to support site-remediation decisions. Part of this program has involved the development of a high-pressure waterjet dislodging system and pneumatic conveyance integrated as a scarifier, Industry has used high-pressure waterjet technology for many years to mine, cut, clean, and scarify materials with a broad range of properties. The scarifier was developed as an alternate means of retrieving waste inside Hanford single-shell tanks, particularly hard, stubborn waste. Simulant materials representative of tank waste have been used to test the performance of the scarifier over a wide range of waste types. This technology has been shown to mobilize and convey the waste simulants at desired retrieval rates while operating within the space envelope and the dynamic loading constraints of proposed deployment devices. A testing program has been initiated to investigate system deployment techniques to determine appropriate mining strategies, level of control, sensor requirements, and address integration issues associated with deploying the scarifier by a long robotic manipulator arm. A test facility denoted the Hydraulics Testbed (HTB) is being constructed to achieve these objectives and to allow longer-duration, multiple-pass tests on large waste fields using a versatile gantry-style manipulator. Mining strategy tests with materials simulating salt cake and sludge waste forms will be conducted. This paper will describe the testbed facility and testing program and present initial test results to date

  20. Combined long reach and dexterous manipulation for waste storage tank applications

    One of the highest priority environmental restoration tasks within the Department of Energy (DOE) is the remediation of single-shell waste storage tanks (WSTs), especially those suspected of, or documented as, leakers. Most currently proposed approaches for remediation of large underground WSTs require application of remotely operated long-reach (greater than 10 m), high-lift capacity (greater than 200 kg) manipulator systems. Because of the complexity of in-tank hardware, waste forms, remediation tasks, and variety of end-effector tools, these manipulator systems must also be capable of performing a diverse set of dexterous manipulations. This presentation will describe the integration of a Spar RMS 2500 manipulator system, a Schilling Titan-7F manipulator, and control systems developed at ORNL and SNL to provide a combined long reach and dexterous manipulation system. The purpose of integrating these two manipulator systems was to study and demonstrate their combined performance, evaluate design requirements for a deployed system, and provide a testbed for control and end-effector technologies that might be applicable to remediation of WSTs. 5 refs

  1. Steam reforming as a method to treat Hanford underground storage tank (UST) wastes

    This report summarizes a Sandia program that included partnerships with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Synthetica Technologies, Inc. to design and test a steam reforming system for treating Hanford underground storage tank (UST) wastes. The benefits of steam reforming the wastes include the resolution of tank safety issues and improved radionuclide separations. Steam reforming destroys organic materials by first gasifying, then reacting them with high temperature steam. Tests indicate that up to 99% of the organics could be removed from the UST wastes by steam exposure. In addition, it was shown that nitrates in the wastes could be destroyed by steam exposure if they were first distributed as a thin layer on a surface. High purity alumina and nickel alloys were shown to be good candidates for materials to be used in the severe environment associated with steam reforming the highly alkaline, high nitrate content wastes. Work was performed on designing, building, and demonstrating components of a 0.5 gallon per minute (gpm) system suitable for radioactive waste treatment. Scale-up of the unit to 20 gpm was also considered and is feasible. Finally, process demonstrations conducted on non-radioactive waste surrogates were carried out, including a successful demonstration of the technology at the 0.1 gpm scale

  2. Revised cost savings estimate with uncertainty for enhanced sludge washing of underground storage tank waste

    Enhanced Sludge Washing (ESW) has been selected to reduce the amount of sludge-based underground storage tank (UST) high-level waste at the Hanford site. During the past several years, studies have been conducted to determine the cost savings derived from the implementation of ESW. The tank waste inventory and ESW performance continues to be revised as characterization and development efforts advance. This study provides a new cost savings estimate based upon the most recent inventory and ESW performance revisions, and includes an estimate of the associated cost uncertainty. Whereas the author's previous cost savings estimates for ESW were compared against no sludge washing, this study assumes the baseline to be simple water washing which more accurately reflects the retrieval activity along. The revised ESW cost savings estimate for all UST waste at Hanford is $6.1 B ± $1.3 B within 95% confidence. This is based upon capital and operating cost savings, but does not include development costs. The development costs are assumed negligible since they should be at least an order of magnitude less than the savings. The overall cost savings uncertainty was derived from process performance uncertainties and baseline remediation cost uncertainties, as determined by the author's engineering judgment

  3. Developing waste disposal options in the underground storage tank - integrated demonstration program

    The principal objective of the Underground Storage Tank - Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID Program is the demonstration and continued development of technologies suitable for the remediation of USTs. The most promising new technologies from industry, universities, national laboratories, and other government agencies are selected for demonstration, testing, and evaluation. The objective is the eventual transfer of new technologies as part of a system to full-scale remediation at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites and alternately into the private sector. Technologies under development in the UST-ID Program are targeted toward use in remediation actions at the following five DOE participant sites: Hanford, Fernald, Idaho, Oak Ridge, and Savannah River. Combined, these participant sites have more than 300 USTs containing more than 381,800 m3 (100 Mgal) of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste. This paper focuses on the Low-Level Waste Disposal area of the UST-ID, summarizing the two currently funded technology development projects: the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) Process and Polyethylene Encapsulation. Both technologies are considered options to the-current baseline disposal approaches being developed at the participant sites. For the Hanford Site, this baseline is a grout waste form that is nearing implementation for disposal of low-level liquid tank wastes

  4. Aging mechanisms for concrete components of High-Level Waste storage tanks

    The age-related degradation mechanisms which affect the concrete and the reinforcing steel in the high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks art evaluated with respect to their potential significance to the continued performance of the concrete, and am classified into non-significant and potentially significant. The identified potentially significant degradation mechanisms include the effects of elevated temperature, freezing and thawing, leaching of calcium hydroxide, aggressive chemical attack, and corrosion of the reinforcing steel. To the extent that available knowledge permits, these mechanisms are generically evaluated and quantified so that site-specific plans may be developed to verify whether significant degradation has occurred in the concrete, and, if so, to formulate mitigating measures to avoid further deterioration and possibly repair the degradation or pursue other management options

  5. Corrective action baseline report for underground storage tank 2331-U Building 9201-1

    The purpose of this report is to provide baseline geochemical and hydrogeologic data relative to corrective action for underground storage tank (UST) 2331-U at the Building 9201-1 Site. Progress in support of the Building 9201-1 Site has included monitoring well installation and baseline groundwater sampling and analysis. This document represents the baseline report for corrective action at the Building 9201-1 site and is organized into three sections. Section 1 presents introductory information relative to the site, including the regulatory initiative, site description, and progress to date. Section 2 includes the summary of additional monitoring well installation activities and the results of baseline groundwater sampling. Section 3 presents the baseline hydrogeology and planned zone of influence for groundwater remediation

  6. Concentration of Melton Valley Storage Tank surrogates with a wiped film evaporator

    This report describes experiments to determine whether a wiped film evaporator (WFE) might be used to concentrate low-level liquid radioactive waste (LLLW). Solutions used in these studies were surrogates that contain no radionuclides. The compositions of the surrogates were based on one of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs). It was found that a WFE could be used to concentrate LLLW to varying degrees by manipulating various parameters. The parameters studied were rotor speed, process fluid feed temperature and feed rate, and evaporator temperature. Product consistency varied from an unsaturated liquid to a dry powder. Volume reductions up to 68% were achieved. System decontamination factors were consistently in the range of 104

  7. Estimating heel retrieval costs for underground storage tank waste at Hanford. Draft

    Approximately 100 million gallons (∼400,000 m3) of existing U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owned radioactive waste stored in underground tanks can not be disposed of as low-level waste (LLW). The current plan for disposal of UST waste which can not be disposed of as LLW is immobilization as glass and permanent storage in an underground repository. Disposal of LLW generally can be done sub-surface at the point of origin. Consequently, LLW is significantly less expensive to dispose of than that requiring an underground repository. Due to the lower cost for LLW disposal, it is advantageous to separate the 100 million gallons of waste into a small volume of high-level waste (HLW) and a large volume of LLW

  8. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 1

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 1) presents the standards and requirements for the Management Systems and the Configuration Management sections

  9. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 4

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 4) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Radiation Protection and Operations.

  10. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 4

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 4) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Radiation Protection and Operations

  11. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 5

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 5) outlines the standards and requirements for the Fire Protection and Packaging and Transportation sections.

  12. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 2

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 2) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Quality Assurance, Training and Qualification, Emergency Planning and Preparedness, and Construction.

  13. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID)

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 3) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Safeguards and Security, Engineering Design, and Maintenance.

  14. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 5

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 5) outlines the standards and requirements for the Fire Protection and Packaging and Transportation sections

  15. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 2

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 2) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Quality Assurance, Training and Qualification, Emergency Planning and Preparedness, and Construction

  16. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID)

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 3) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Safeguards and Security, Engineering Design, and Maintenance

  17. High level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 6

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 6) outlines the standards and requirements for the sections on: Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Research and Development and Experimental Activities, and Nuclear Safety

  18. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 4

    1994-04-01

    Radiation protection of personnel and the public is accomplished by establishing a well defined Radiation Protection Organization to ensure that appropriate controls on radioactive materials and radiation sources are implemented and documented. This Requirements Identification Document (RID) applies to the activities, personnel, structures, systems, components, and programs involved in executing the mission of the Tank Farms. The physical boundaries within which the requirements of this RID apply are the Single Shell Tank Farms, Double Shell Tank Farms, 242-A Evaporator-Crystallizer, 242-S, T Evaporators, Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF), Purgewater Storage Facility (PWSF), and all interconnecting piping, valves, instrumentation, and controls. Also included is all piping, valves, instrumentation, and controls up to and including the most remote valve under Tank Farms control at any other Hanford Facility having an interconnection with Tank Farms. The boundary of the structures, systems, components, and programs to which this RID applies, is defined by those that are dedicated to and/or under the control of the Tank Farms Operations Department and are specifically implemented at the Tank Farms.

  19. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 4

    Radiation protection of personnel and the public is accomplished by establishing a well defined Radiation Protection Organization to ensure that appropriate controls on radioactive materials and radiation sources are implemented and documented. This Requirements Identification Document (RID) applies to the activities, personnel, structures, systems, components, and programs involved in executing the mission of the Tank Farms. The physical boundaries within which the requirements of this RID apply are the Single Shell Tank Farms, Double Shell Tank Farms, 242-A Evaporator-Crystallizer, 242-S, T Evaporators, Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF), Purgewater Storage Facility (PWSF), and all interconnecting piping, valves, instrumentation, and controls. Also included is all piping, valves, instrumentation, and controls up to and including the most remote valve under Tank Farms control at any other Hanford Facility having an interconnection with Tank Farms. The boundary of the structures, systems, components, and programs to which this RID applies, is defined by those that are dedicated to and/or under the control of the Tank Farms Operations Department and are specifically implemented at the Tank Farms

  20. The socio-ecohydrology of rainwater harvesting in India: understanding water storage and release dynamics at tank and catchment scales

    K. J. Van Meter

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Rainwater harvesting (RWH, the small-scale collection and storage of runoff for irrigated agriculture, is recognized as a sustainable strategy for ensuring food security, especially in monsoonal landscapes in the developing world. In south India, these strategies have been used for millennia to mitigate problems of water scarcity. However, in the past 100 years many traditional RWH systems have fallen into disrepair due to increasing dependence on groundwater. This dependence has contributed to an accelerated decline in groundwater resources, which has in turn led to increased efforts at the state and national levels to revive older RWH systems. Critical to the success of such efforts is an improved understanding of how these ancient systems function in contemporary landscapes with extensive groundwater pumping and shifted climatic regimes. Knowledge is especially lacking regarding the water-exchange dynamics of these RWH "tanks" at tank and catchment scales, and how these exchanges regulate tank performance and catchment water balances. Here, we use fine-scale water-level variation to quantify daily fluxes of groundwater, evapotranspiration (ET, and sluice outflows in four tanks over the 2013 northeast monsoon season in a tank cascade that covers a catchment area of 28 km2. At the tank scale, our results indicate that groundwater recharge and irrigation outflows comprise the largest fractions of the tank water budget, with ET accounting for only 13–22 % of the outflows. At the scale of the cascade, we observe a distinct spatial pattern in groundwater-exchange dynamics, with the frequency and magnitude of groundwater inflows increasing down the cascade of tanks. The significant magnitude of return flows along the tank cascade leads to the most downgradient tank in the cascade having an outflow-to capacity ratio greater than 2. The presence of tanks in the landscape dramatically alters the catchment water balance, with runoff decreasing by

  1. The socio-ecohydrology of rainwater harvesting in India: understanding water storage and release dynamics at tank and catchment scales

    Van Meter, K. J.; Basu, N. B.; McLaughlin, D. L.; Steiff, M.

    2015-11-01

    Rainwater harvesting (RWH), the small-scale collection and storage of runoff for irrigated agriculture, is recognized as a sustainable strategy for ensuring food security, especially in monsoonal landscapes in the developing world. In south India, these strategies have been used for millennia to mitigate problems of water scarcity. However, in the past 100 years many traditional RWH systems have fallen into disrepair due to increasing dependence on groundwater. This dependence has contributed to an accelerated decline in groundwater resources, which has in turn led to increased efforts at the state and national levels to revive older RWH systems. Critical to the success of such efforts is an improved understanding of how these ancient systems function in contemporary landscapes with extensive groundwater pumping and shifted climatic regimes. Knowledge is especially lacking regarding the water-exchange dynamics of these RWH "tanks" at tank and catchment scales, and how these exchanges regulate tank performance and catchment water balances. Here, we use fine-scale water-level variation to quantify daily fluxes of groundwater, evapotranspiration (ET), and sluice outflows in four tanks over the 2013 northeast monsoon season in a tank cascade that covers a catchment area of 28 km2. At the tank scale, our results indicate that groundwater recharge and irrigation outflows comprise the largest fractions of the tank water budget, with ET accounting for only 13-22 % of the outflows. At the scale of the cascade, we observe a distinct spatial pattern in groundwater-exchange dynamics, with the frequency and magnitude of groundwater inflows increasing down the cascade of tanks. The significant magnitude of return flows along the tank cascade leads to the most downgradient tank in the cascade having an outflow-to capacity ratio greater than 2. The presence of tanks in the landscape dramatically alters the catchment water balance, with runoff decreasing by nearly 75 %, and

  2. Selection of refractory materials for acid tanks at the CSN continuous pickling line

    Aiming at the revamping of the CSN continuous pickling line 4 acid tanks, a Post Mortem study of the refractory lining was carried out. The collected samples were characterized through techniques such as chemical analysis, mercury porosimetry, X-ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy. Trying to reproduce the operational conditions closely, laboratorial simulations were carried out. Such simulations lead to the addition of some alterations on the test method proposed by ABNT. Primarily, the sulfuric acid was substituted by hydrochloric acid (30%), containing iron in solution (130g/l). As result, it was concluded that acid resistant refractories containing a smaller alumina and /or corundum and mullite concentrations, presenting a smaller open porosity and average pore diameter, have a better performance face to corrosion due to hydrochloric acid solution. In addition, abrasion wear resistance tests, according to the ASTM-G65-85 standard were carried out in order to select different materials to the acid tanks cells. (author)

  3. FSI effects and seismic performance evaluation of water storage tank of AP1000 subjected to earthquake loading

    Zhao, Chunfeng, E-mail: zhaowindy@126.com [Institute of Earthquake Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); School of Civil Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Anhui Province 230009 (China); Chen, Jianyun; Xu, Qiang [Institute of Earthquake Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Water sloshing and oscillation of water tank under earthquake are simulated by FEM. • The influences of various water levels on seismic response are investigated. • ALE algorithm is applied to study the fluid–structure interaction effects. • The effects of different water levels in reducing seismic response are compared. • The optimal water level of water tank under seismic loading is obtained. - Abstract: The gravity water storage tank of AP1000 is designed to cool down the temperature of containment vessel by spray water when accident releases mass energy. However, the influence of fluid–structure interaction between water and water tank of AP1000 on dynamic behavior of shield building is still a hot research question. The main objective of the current study is to investigate how the fluid–structure interaction affects the dynamic behavior of water tank and whether the water sloshing and oscillation can reduce the seismic response of the shield building subjected to earthquake. For this purpose, a fluid–structure interaction algorithm of finite element technique is employed for the seismic analysis of water storage tank of AP1000. In the finite element model, 8 cases height of water, such as 10.8, 9.8, 8.8, 7.8, 6.8, 5.8, 4.8, and 3.8 m, are established and compared with the empty water tank in order to demonstrate the positive effect in mitigating the seismic response. An Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) algorithm is used to simulate the fluid–structure interaction, fluid sloshing and oscillation of water tank under the El-Centro earthquake. The correlation between seismic response and parameters of water tank in terms of height of air (h{sub 1}), height of water (h{sub 2}), height ratio of water to tank (h{sub 2}/H{sub w}) and mass ratio of water to total structure (m{sub w}/m{sub t}) is also analyzed. The numerical results clearly show that the optimal h{sub 2}, h{sub 2}/H{sub w} and m{sub w}/m{sub t

  4. FSI effects and seismic performance evaluation of water storage tank of AP1000 subjected to earthquake loading

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Water sloshing and oscillation of water tank under earthquake are simulated by FEM. • The influences of various water levels on seismic response are investigated. • ALE algorithm is applied to study the fluid–structure interaction effects. • The effects of different water levels in reducing seismic response are compared. • The optimal water level of water tank under seismic loading is obtained. - Abstract: The gravity water storage tank of AP1000 is designed to cool down the temperature of containment vessel by spray water when accident releases mass energy. However, the influence of fluid–structure interaction between water and water tank of AP1000 on dynamic behavior of shield building is still a hot research question. The main objective of the current study is to investigate how the fluid–structure interaction affects the dynamic behavior of water tank and whether the water sloshing and oscillation can reduce the seismic response of the shield building subjected to earthquake. For this purpose, a fluid–structure interaction algorithm of finite element technique is employed for the seismic analysis of water storage tank of AP1000. In the finite element model, 8 cases height of water, such as 10.8, 9.8, 8.8, 7.8, 6.8, 5.8, 4.8, and 3.8 m, are established and compared with the empty water tank in order to demonstrate the positive effect in mitigating the seismic response. An Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) algorithm is used to simulate the fluid–structure interaction, fluid sloshing and oscillation of water tank under the El-Centro earthquake. The correlation between seismic response and parameters of water tank in terms of height of air (h1), height of water (h2), height ratio of water to tank (h2/Hw) and mass ratio of water to total structure (mw/mt) is also analyzed. The numerical results clearly show that the optimal h2, h2/Hw and mw/mt to structure are 8.8 m, 0.7458 and 5.7235%, which can reduce the

  5. Efficacy of water spray protection against propane and butane jet fires impinging on LPG storage tanks

    Shirvill, L.C. [Shell Global Solutions (UK), Chester (United Kingdom)

    2004-03-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) storage tanks are often provided with water sprays to protect them in the event of a fire. This protection has been shown to be effective in a hydrocarbon pool fire but uncertainties remained regarding the degree of protection afforded in a jet fire resulting from a liquid or two-phase release of LPG. Two projects, sponsored by the Health and Safety Executive, have been undertaken to study, at full scale, the performance of a water spray system on an empty 13 tonne LPG vessel under conditions of jet fire impingement from nearby releases of liquid propane and butane. The results showed that a typical water deluge system found on an LPG storage vessel cannot be relied upon to maintain a water film over the whole vessel surface in an impinging propane or butane jet fire scenario. The deluge affects the fire itself, reducing the luminosity and smoke, resulting in a lower rate of wall temperature rise at the dry patches, when compared with the undeluged case. The results of these studies will be used by the HSE in assessing the risk of accidental fires on LPG installations leading to boiling liquid expanding vapour explosion (BLEVE) incidents. (Author)

  6. Investigation and optimisation of heat storage tanks for low-flow SDHW systems[Solar Domestic Hot Water

    Knudsen, Soeren

    2004-07-01

    This thesis, 'Investigation and optimisation of heat storage tanks for low-flow SDHW systems', describes a study of the heat transfer and flow structure in vertical mantle heat exchangers for low-flow Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) systems. The heat storage is a key component in SDHW systems and the vertical mantle heat exchanger is one of the most promising heat storage designs for low-flow SDHW systems. The study was carried out using a combination of experimental and numerical methods. Thermal experiments of mantle heat exchangers with different mantle inlet designs showed that the mantle inlet port with advantage can be located a distance from the top of the mantle. Consequently, the mantle heat exchangers marketed today can be improved by changing the mantle inlet position. The heat transfer and flow structure in mantle heat exchangers are rather complex and the thermal experiments were followed by investigations by means of advanced experimental and numerical techniques such as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Using a transparent glass mantle tank, experimental flow visualisation was carried out with a PIV system. The flow structures inside the mantle and inside the tank were visualised and then compared with the flow structures predicted by CFD-models. The investigations showed that the CFD-models were able to model the flow in the mantle and in the tank correctly. The CFD-models were also validated by means of thermal experiments with a steel mantle tank. With the verified CFD-models, a parameter analysis was carried out for differently designed mantle heat exchangers for different typical conditions to reveal how the mantle tank parameters influence the flow structure and heat transfer in mantle heat exchangers. The heat transfer in the mantle near the mantle inlet port showed to be in the mixed convection regime, and as the distance from the inlet increased, natural convection started to dominate. The

  7. Stress analysis of a double bottom retrofit of an aboveground storage tank including effects of soil/structure interaction

    Davis, R.C.; Andreani, J.L. [BP Oil Co., Cleveland, OH (United States). Engineering Services

    1995-12-31

    Concern about differential settlement of aboveground atmospheric storage tanks and the effects of the resulting large strains on tank floor integrity has become an important issue in the refining industry, prompting much of the industry to undertake massive programs to retrofit substantial numbers of existing tanks with second floors. This is normally accomplished by cutting a horizontal slot in the tank shell parallel to the existing floor, placing a liner and fill material (such as sand) over the existing floor, installing annular plates through the slot in the shell, and then welding in the remaining floor plate. In this process, the decision whether or not to weld the bottom side of the new floor plate to the shell stub attached to the original floor is a key design consideration which can significantly impact the stress distribution in both the new floor and the existing shell stub. Finite element analysis is used to study operating stresses in a typical double-bottom aboveground atmospheric storage tank on a raised compacted earth pad and gravel ringwall foundation. Results are compared for cases in which the new floor is welded to the existing shell stub and in which the new floor simply rests on the shell stub without further attachment. Effects of soil/structure interaction for a typical granular soil are included in the analysis.

  8. Sampling and analysis of radioactive liquid wastes and sludges in the Melton Valley and evaporator facility storage tanks at ORNL

    Sears, M.B.; Botts, J.L.; Ceo, R.N.; Ferrada, J.J.; Griest, W.H.; Keller, J.M.; Schenley, R.L.

    1990-09-01

    The sampling and analysis of the radioactive liquid wastes and sludges in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs), as well as two of the evaporator service facility storage tanks at ORNL, are described. Aqueous samples of the supernatant liquid and composite samples of the sludges were analyzed for major constituents, radionuclides, total organic carbon, and metals listed as hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Liquid samples from five tanks and sludge samples from three tanks were analyzed for organic compounds on the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Target Compound List. Estimates were made of the inventory of liquid and sludge phases in the tanks. Descriptions of the sampling and analytical activities and tabulations of the results are included. The report provides data in support of the design of the proposed Waste Handling and Packaging Plant, the Liquid Low-Level Waste Solidification Project, and research and development activities (R D) activities in developing waste management alternatives. 7 refs., 8 figs., 16 tabs.

  9. Refinement of Modeling Techniques for the Structural Evaluation of Hanford Single-Shell Nuclear Waste Storage Tanks - 12288

    applicable to other similar tanks or underground concrete storage structures. This article presented the details of the finite element models and analysis approach followed during the ongoing effort to establish structural integrity of single shell tanks at the Hanford site. The details of the material constitutive models applicable to the underground Hanford concrete tanks that capture the thermal and creep induce degradation are also presented. The thermal profiles were developed based on the available tank temperature data for the Type II and Type III single-shell tanks, and they were chosen to yield conservative demands under the thermal and operating loads analysis of these tanks. Sensitivity studies were conducted to address two issues regarding the soils modeled around the single-shell tanks. The results indicate that excluding the boundary separating the backfill soil from the undisturbed soil will result in conservative demands (plots 14b and 14c green lines for circumferential Demand/Capacity ratios). The radial extent study indicated that the soil model extending to 240 ft gave more conservative results than the model with 62 ft of soil (plots 17a and 17c magenta lines for hoop Demand/Capacity ratios). Based on these results, a 240 ft far-field soil boundary with backfill throughout the lateral extent was recommended and used for the finite element models used in the Type-II and Type-III analyses of record. The modeling effort and sensitivity studies discussed in this article helped in developing bounding models for the structural integrity evaluation of single shell tanks at the Hanford site. (authors)

  10. Request for closure, underground storage tank 2130-U: Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Facility ID {number_sign}0-010117

    1993-12-01

    This document presents a summary of the activities and analytical data related to the removal of underground storage tank (UST) 2130-U, previously located at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Removal of this tank was conducted in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulation 1200-1-15 (1992). A completed copy of the State of Tennessee, Division of Underground Storage Tanks, Permanent Closure Report Form is included as Appendix A of this document Based on the information and data presented herein, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant requests permanent closure for the tank 2130-U site.

  11. Hydrogen high pressure tanks storages: overview and new trends due to H2 Energy specifications and constraints

    The topic of this paper is to give an historical and technical overview of hydrogen pressure tanks and to detail the specific issues and constraints of hydrogen energy uses. Hydrogen, as an industrial gas, is stored since the beginning of the last century in seamless steel cylinders. At the end of the 60's. tubes also made of seamless steels were used; specific attention was paid to hydrogen embrittlement in the 70's. Aluminum cylinders were also used for hydrogen storage since the end of the 60's, but their cost was higher compared to steel cylinders and smaller water capacity. To further increase the service pressure of hydrogen tanks or to slightly decrease the weight, metallic cylinders can be hoop-wrapped. Then, with specific developments for space or military applications, fully-wrapped tanks started to be developed in the 80's. Because of their low weight, they started to be used in for portable applications: for vehicles (on-board storages of natural gas), for leisure applications (paint -ball) etc.. These fully-wrapped composite tanks, named types III and IV are now developed for hydrogen energy storage; the requested pressure is very high (from 700 to 850 bar) leads to specific issues which are discussed. Each technology is described in term of materials, manufacturing technologies and approval tests. The specific issues due to very high pressure are depicted. (authors)

  12. Prediction of thermal hydraulic characteristics inside the storage tank of a horizontal condensation heat exchanger using MARS-KS

    Shin, Byung Soo; Seul, Kwang Won; Do, Kyu Sik; Reactor system evaluation Team

    2012-11-01

    The performance of a horizontal condensation heat exchanger is determined by the condensation heat transfer inside the heat exchanger tubes, convective or boiling heat transfer outside the tubes and flow characteristics in the storage tank. The flow characteristics in the tank are important factors to determine the heat transfer rate outside the tubes. The objective of this work is to develop the method to predict the heat transfer rate outside the tubes properly using MARS-KS code. Two different results from MARS-KS were compared with simplified experimental results in other works to estimate the capacity of MARS-KS. One was by a typical 1D nodalization but another was by a 3D nodalization considering natural circulation in the storage tank. Then, to eliminate the effect of condensation heat transfer inside the tubes, the experimental results on temperature profiles were applied to the inside wall of tubes as boundary conditions. As the result, the 3-D nodalization model had good predictions with experimental results in regard of wall temperature, heat flux and heat transfer coefficients. It was also confirmed that the natural circulation flow was developed inside the storage tank.

  13. Non-linear seismic response of base-isolated liquid storage tanks to bi-directional excitation

    Seismic response of the liquid storage tanks isolated by lead-rubber bearings is investigated for bi-directional earthquake excitation (i.e. two horizontal components). The biaxial force-deformation behaviour of the bearings is considered as bi-linear modelled by coupled non-linear differential equations. The continuous liquid mass of the tank is modelled as lumped masses known as convective mass, impulsive mass and rigid mass. The corresponding stiffness associated with these lumped masses has been worked out depending upon the properties of the tank wall and liquid mass. Since the force-deformation behaviour of the bearings is non-linear, as a result, the seismic response is obtained by the Newmark's step-by-step method. The seismic responses of two types of the isolated tanks (i.e. slender and broad) are investigated under several recorded earthquake ground to study the effects of bi-directional interaction. Further, a parametric study is also carried out to study the effects of important system parameters on the effectiveness of seismic isolation for liquid storage tanks. The various important parameters considered are: (i) the period of isolation, (ii) the damping of isolation bearings and (iii) the yield strength level of the bearings. It has been observed that the seismic response of isolated tank is found to be insensitive to interaction effect of the bearing forces. Further, there exists an optimum value of isolation damping for which the base shear in the tank attains the minimum value. Therefore, increasing the bearing damping beyond a certain value may decrease the bearing and sloshing displacements but it may increase the base shear

  14. Effects of Material Choice on Biocide Loss in Orion Water Storage Tanks

    Wallace, William T.; Castro-Wallace, Sarah L.; Kuo, C. K. Mike; Loh, Leslie J.; Hudson, Edgar; Gazda, Daniel B.; Lewis, John F.

    2016-01-01

    additional challenges when used in water storage tanks with ionic silver biocide.

  15. An effect of a horizontal buoyant jet on the temperature distribution inside a hot water storage tank

    Highlights: • A vortex is generated when the buoyant jet impinges the opposite wall linearly. • The vortex height “Zb” is nearly equal to the edge of the temperature gradient layer. • Empirical formulas were proposed between Zb and the buoyant jet’s length scale lM. • A 1D model for simulating temperature distribution was proposed. • The performance of the model was verified by comparing the unsteady test results. -- Abstract: The hot water storage tank (for stratified thermal storage) with a heat pump draws a lot of attention nowadays due to its high performance. In Japan, reheating of the bath is commonly used, and as this mode, the jet injects horizontally at the middle of the tank, so the temperature distribution of the tank changes complexly with time. Hence a model is needed to simulate this phenomenon, precisely. Additionally, in the process of designing a hot water storage system, it is necessary to simulate temperature distribution quickly, since a test run itself is a time consuming process. In this study, visualization experiments were performed using tracer particles and thermo-sensitive liquid crystals. Experiments were also carried out to find the unsteady temperature distribution in a tank when the positively or negatively buoyant jet was injected horizontally in the middle of the tank whose size is limited and has an influence from the opposite wall. If the momentum effect of the buoyant jet is stronger than that of buoyancy, the buoyant jet impinge against the opposite wall of the tank, and a vortex was observed near the opposite wall. Empirical formulas were proposed to predict the height of the vortex “Zb” under various conditions, such as the momentum and the buoyancy of the buoyant jet, and the Prandtl number of the tank water. Furthermore, the 3D-CFD was carried out to supplement the 3D behavior of the inner tank fluid. A one dimensional model, “uniformly distributed injection model”, for simulating temperature

  16. Revised corrective action plan for underground storage tank 2331-U at the Building 9201-1 Site

    This document represents the Corrective Action Plan for underground storage tank (UST) 2331-U, previously located at Building 9201-1, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Tank 2331-U, a 560-gallon UST, was removed on December 14, 1988. This document presents a comprehensive summary of all environmental assessment investigations conducted at the Building 9201-1 Site and the corrective action measures proposed for remediation of subsurface petroleum product contamination identified at the site. This document is written in accordance with the regulatory requirements of the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) Rule 1200-1-15-.06(7)

  17. 储液罐子结构数值仿真分析%Liquid Storage Tanks Substructure Numerical Simulation Analysis

    周利剑; 范远刚; 高斌; 单明康; 王向英

    2013-01-01

    由于有限元仿真需要假设材料性能,难以真实全面的反映储液罐的地震响应;而振动台试验只能完成较小比例的模型试验,与储罐原型差距很大.为此,提出了储液罐子结构振动台试验方法.采用Malhotra力学模型,将储液罐划分为试验子结构(罐底和土体)和数值子结构(储罐和液体)两部分.试验子结构放在地震模拟振动台上进行试验研究,数值子结构部分由计算机进行模拟.仿真计算表明:储液罐子结构仿真结果与全结构的非常吻合,仿真计算的储罐基底剪力与规范算法接近.%Due to the finite element simulation assume that the material properties,difficult to truly comprehensive the seismic response of the liquid storage tanks is reflected.And the shaking table test can only complete a small scale model test,a large gap with the tank prototype.To this end,a method of the liquid storage tanks substructure shaking table test is proposed,used the Malhotra simplified model,the liquid storage tank is divided into the experimental substructure (the bottom of the tank and soil) and the numerical sub-structures (storage tanks and liquid) in two parts.The experimental substructure on earthquake simulation shaking table test,the numerical substructure in part by computer simulation are put out.Simulation results show that:liquid tank sub-structure simulation results are in good agreement with the whole structure and the tank base shear simulation is close with the specification algorithm.

  18. Hydrodynamically induced loads on components submerged in high-level waste-storage tanks

    Weiner, E. O.; Julyk, J. L.; Rezvani, M. A.

    1994-06-01

    This paper addresses the effects of added mass on components submerged in fluids. In particular, as new equipment is designed for installation in the double-shell waste-storage tanks at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, the equipment and the tank must be evaluated for the anticipated loads. Seismically induced loads combined with loadings from other sources must be considered during this evaluation. A literature review shows that, for components in fluids confined to a narrow annulus or without a free surface, drastic reductions in response to seismic excitation are predicted by two-dimensional analysis. This phenomenon has been supported by testing. The reductions are explained in terms of mass coupling and buoyancy effects. For equipment submerged in fluids having a free surface and large annulus, practice suggest that it is appropriate to lump the added-mass terms with the component to address the hydrodynamic effects adequately. As in the case of a narrow annulus, this practice will reduce the natural frequency of the submerged component, but generally will increase the loads. This paper presents the structural evaluations of submerged components using computer models that employ mock fluid elements that determine the appropriateness of considering fluid added-mass and buoyancy effects. The results indicate that if a free surface exists and the submerged component has a wide fluid annulus about it, then the added mass should be lumped with the model, and buoyancy effects are not significant. The component then may be considered to be in an air environment, and the stresses are calculated from the application of standard response spectrum procedures.

  19. Improving farm management by modeling the contamination of farm tank milk with butyric acid bacteria

    Vissers, M.M.M.; Driehuis, F.; Giffel, te M.C.; Jong, de P.; Lankveld, J.M.G.

    2006-01-01

    Control of contamination of farm tank milk (FTM) with the spore-forming butyric acid bacteria (BAB) is important to prevent the late-blowing defect in semi-hard cheeses. The risk of late blowing can be decreased via control of the contamination level of FTM with BAB. A modeling approach was applied

  20. Minimizing the level of butyric acid bacteria spores in farm tank milk

    Vissers, M.M.M.; Driehuis, F.; Giffel, M.C.T.; Jong, de P.; Lankveld, J.M.G.

    2007-01-01

    A year-long survey of 24 dairy farms was conducted to determine the effects of farm management on the concentrations of butyric acid bacteria (BAB) spores in farm tank milk (FTM). The results were used to validate a control strategy derived from model simulations. The BAB spore concentrations were m

  1. A novel method to design water spray cooling system to protect floating roof atmospheric storage tanks against fires

    Iraj Alimohammadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon bulk storage tank fires are not very common, but their protection is essential due to severe consequences of such fires. Water spray cooling system is one of the most effective ways to reduce damages to a tank from a fire. Many codes and standards set requirements and recommendations to maximize the efficiency of water spray cooling systems, but these are widely different and still various interpretations and methods are employed to design such systems. This article provides a brief introduction to some possible design methods of cooling systems for protection of storage tanks against external non-contacting fires and introduces a new method namely “Linear Density Method” and compares the results from this method to the “Average Method” which is currently in common practice. The average Method determines the flow rate for each spray nozzle by dividing the total water demand by the number of spray nozzles while the Linear Density Method determines the nozzle flow rate based on the actual flow over the surface to be protected. The configuration of the system includes a one million barrel crude oil floating roof tank to be protected and which is placed one half tank diameter from a similar adjacent tank with a full surface fire. Thermal radiation and hydraulics are modeled using DNV PHAST Version 6.53 and Sunrise PIPENET Version 1.5.0.2722 software respectively. Spray nozzles used in design are manufactured by Angus Fire and PNR Nozzles companies. Schedule 40 carbon steel pipe is used for piping. The results show that the cooling system using the Linear Density Method consumes 3.55% more water than the design using the average method assuming a uniform application rate of 4.1 liters per minute. Despite higher water consumption the design based on Linear Density Method alleviates the problems associated with the Average Method and provides better protection.

  2. Neutralized current acid waste consolidation management plan

    The scope of this evaluation is to recommend a management plan for the high-heat tank waste, including neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) in AY and AZ Tank Farms, and tank C-106 waste. The movement of solids, liquids and salt cake in the designated tank farms is included. Decision analysis techniques were used to determine a recommended alternative. The recommended course of action was replacement of a 75-hp mixer pump in tank AY-102 and in-tank concentration of tank AZ-102 supernate. The alternative includes transfer fo tank C-106 sludge to tank AY-102, then transfer to tank AY-102 and tank C-106 sludge to tank AZ-101 using the new 75-hp mixer pump installed in tank AY-102. Tank AZ-101 becomes a storage tank for high-level waste (HLW) sludge, with the capacity to mix and transfer sludge as desired

  3. On the performance of CSP oil-cooled plants, with and without heat storage in tanks of molten salts

    The most-used thermodynamic CSP (concentrating solar plants) in the world, provided with linear parabolic collectors cooled by oil, have been analyzed in the two configurations employed: with heat storage in two tanks filled with molten salts and without heat storage. The performances and the costs of the plants have been analyzed in the paper according to solar multiple (ranging between 1 and 3) and to storage capacity (ranging between 0 and 24 h), in terms of annual electrical energy, average annual plant efficiency, charge factor, capital cost and levelized cost of energy (LCOE). Also a method of economic optimization, based on the evaluation of the minimum value of the levelized cost of energy is presented. The minimum LCOE value, in the case of heat storage, is obtained for a solar multiple of 2.2 and a storage capacity of 16 h. In the plants without storage, minimum LCOE is achieved for SM (solar multiple) equal to 1.2. - Highlights: • A model to analyze the performance of oil thermodynamic solar plant is presented. • Plants without heat storage and with storage in molten salts are considered. • Annual electricity production, efficiency, capital cost, CF and LCOE are estimated. • Storage capacity and solar multiple values which minimize LCOE have been found

  4. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    1999-12-23

    This corrective action decision document identifies and rationalizes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 135, Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS), CAU 135 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-02-01, Underground Storage Tanks, referred to as the Engine, Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Waste Holdup Tanks and Vault; 25-02-03, Underground Electrical Vault, referred to as the Deluge Valve Pit at the Test Cell A Facility; and 25-02-10, Underground Storage Tank, referred to as the former location of an aboveground storage tank for demineralized water at the Test Cell A Facility. Two of these CASs (25-02-03 and 25-02-10) were originally considered as underground storage tanks, but were found to be misidentified. Further, radio logical surveys conducted by Bechtel Nevada in January 1999 found no radiological contamination detected above background levels for these two sites; therefore, the closure report for CAU 135 will recommend no further action at these two sites. A corrective action investigation for the one remaining CAS (25-02-01) was conducted in June 1999, and analytes detected during this investigation were evaluated against preliminary action levels. It was determined that contaminants of potential concern included polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics, and radionuclides. Two corrective action objectives were identified for this CAS (i.e., prevention and mitigation of human exposure to sediments and surrounding areas), and subsequently two CAAs developed for consideration based on a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the NTS. These CAAs were: Alternative 1 - No Further Action

  5. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    This corrective action decision document identifies and rationalizes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 135, Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS), CAU 135 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-02-01, Underground Storage Tanks, referred to as the Engine, Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Waste Holdup Tanks and Vault; 25-02-03, Underground Electrical Vault, referred to as the Deluge Valve Pit at the Test Cell A Facility; and 25-02-10, Underground Storage Tank, referred to as the former location of an aboveground storage tank for demineralized water at the Test Cell A Facility. Two of these CASs (25-02-03 and 25-02-10) were originally considered as underground storage tanks, but were found to be misidentified. Further, radio logical surveys conducted by Bechtel Nevada in January 1999 found no radiological contamination detected above background levels for these two sites; therefore, the closure report for CAU 135 will recommend no further action at these two sites. A corrective action investigation for the one remaining CAS (25-02-01) was conducted in June 1999, and analytes detected during this investigation were evaluated against preliminary action levels. It was determined that contaminants of potential concern included polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics, and radionuclides. Two corrective action objectives were identified for this CAS (i.e., prevention and mitigation of human exposure to sediments and surrounding areas), and subsequently two CAAs developed for consideration based on a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the NTS. These CAAs were: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, and

  6. DEPOSITION TANK CORROSION TESTING FOR ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING POST OXALIC ACID DESTRUCTION

    Mickalonis, J.

    2011-08-29

    An Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed to aid in the high level waste tank closure at the Savannah River Site. The ECC process uses an advanced oxidation process (AOP) to destroy the oxalic acid that is used to remove residual sludge from a waste tank prior to closure. The AOP process treats the dissolved sludge with ozone to decompose the oxalic acid through reactions with hydroxyl radicals. The effluent from this oxalic acid decomposition is to be sent to a Type III waste tank and may be corrosive to these tanks. As part of the hazardous simulant testing that was conducted at the ECC vendor location, corrosion testing was conducted to determine the general corrosion rate for the deposition tank and to assess the susceptibility to localized corrosion, especially pitting. Both of these factors impact the calculation of hydrogen gas generation and the structural integrity of the tanks, which are considered safety class functions. The testing consisted of immersion and electrochemical testing of A537 carbon steel, the material of construction of Type III tanks, and 304L stainless steel, the material of construction for transfer piping. Tests were conducted in solutions removed from the destruction loop of the prototype ECC set up. Hazardous simulants, which were manufactured at SRNL, were used as representative sludges for F-area and H-area waste tanks. Oxalic acid concentrations of 1 and 2.5% were used to dissolve the sludge as a feed to the ECC process. Test solutions included the uninhibited effluent, as well as the effluent treated for corrosion control. The corrosion control options included mixing with an inhibited supernate and the addition of hydroxide. Evaporation of the uninhibited effluent was also tested since it may have a positive impact on reducing corrosion. All corrosion testing was conducted at 50 C. The uninhibited effluent was found to increase the corrosion rate by an order of magnitude from less than 1 mil per year (mpy

  7. Seismic design and evaluation guidelines for the Department of Energy High-Level Waste Storage Tanks and Appurtenances

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Cornell, A.; Costantino, C.; Kennedy, R.; Miller, C.; Veletsos, A.

    1995-10-01

    This document provides seismic design and evaluation guidelines for underground high-level waste storage tanks. The guidelines reflect the knowledge acquired in the last two decades in defining seismic ground motion and calculating hydrodynamic loads, dynamic soil pressures and other loads for underground tank structures, piping and equipment. The application of the guidelines is illustrated with examples. The guidelines are developed for a specific design of underground storage tanks, namely double-shell structures. However, the methodology discussed is applicable for other types of tank structures as well. The application of these and of suitably adjusted versions of these concepts to other structural types will be addressed in a future version of this document. The original version of this document was published in January 1993. Since then, additional studies have been performed in several areas and the results are included in this revision. Comments received from the users are also addressed. Fundamental concepts supporting the basic seismic criteria contained in the original version have since then been incorporated and published in DOE-STD-1020-94 and its technical basis documents. This information has been deleted in the current revision.

  8. Seismic design and evaluation guidelines for the Department of Energy High-Level Waste Storage Tanks and Appurtenances

    This document provides seismic design and evaluation guidelines for underground high-level waste storage tanks. The guidelines reflect the knowledge acquired in the last two decades in defining seismic ground motion and calculating hydrodynamic loads, dynamic soil pressures and other loads for underground tank structures, piping and equipment. The application of the guidelines is illustrated with examples. The guidelines are developed for a specific design of underground storage tanks, namely double-shell structures. However, the methodology discussed is applicable for other types of tank structures as well. The application of these and of suitably adjusted versions of these concepts to other structural types will be addressed in a future version of this document. The original version of this document was published in January 1993. Since then, additional studies have been performed in several areas and the results are included in this revision. Comments received from the users are also addressed. Fundamental concepts supporting the basic seismic criteria contained in the original version have since then been incorporated and published in DOE-STD-1020-94 and its technical basis documents. This information has been deleted in the current revision

  9. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 124, Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with Errata Sheet, Revision 0

    Alfred Wickline

    2008-01-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 124, Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. This report complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (FFACO, 1996; as amended January 2007). This CR provides documentation and justification for the closure of CAU 124 without further corrective action. This justification is based on process knowledge and the results of the investigative activities conducted in accordance with the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 124: Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The SAFER Plan provides information relating to site history as well as the scope and planning of the investigation. Therefore, this information will not be repeated in this CR.

  10. Lead-acid battery model for hybrid energy storage

    BUTTERBACH,S; Vulturescu, Bogdan; FORGEZ, C; Coquery, Gérard; Friedrich, G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the design of hybrid energy storage for an electric waste collection vehicle. The hybrid storage is made of lead-acid batteries and supercapacitors. A detailed lead-acid model is proposed in order to take into account the charge of the battery during regenerative braking. The vehicle was simulated on an urban driving cycle for a full working day. The reduction of the consumed energy due to an increased recovery capacity is outlined in this paper as a main benefit of the ...

  11. Site status monitoring report for underground storage tank 2331-U at Building 9201-1

    The purpose of this document is to present potentiometric, groundwater quality and vapor monitoring data required for site status monitoring of underground storage tank (UST) 2331-U at the Building 9201-1 Site. Site status monitoring has been conducted at the site as part of a Monitoring Only program approved by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) based on review and approval of Site Ranking (Site Ranking Form approved May 23, 1994). This document presents the results of the first semiannual site status monitoring that was performed in December 1994. Site status monitoring and preparation of this report have been conducted in accordance with the requirements of TDEC Rule 1200-1-15 and the TDEC UST Reference Handbook, Second Edition (TDEC 1994) Technical Guidance Document (TGD) 007. This document is organized into three sections. Section 1 presents introductory information relative to the site including the regulatory initiative and a site description. Section 2 includes the results of measurement and sampling of monitoring wells GW-193, GW-657, GW-707, GW-708, GW-808, GW-809, and GW-810. Section 3 presents data from vapor monitoring conducted in subsurface utilities present at the site

  12. Cesium removal demonstration utilizing crystalline silicotitanate sorbent for processing Melton Valley Storage Tank supernate: Final report

    Walker, J.F. Jr.; Taylor, P.A.; Cummins, R.L. [and others

    1998-03-01

    This report provides details of the Cesium Removal Demonstration (CsRD), which was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on radioactive waste from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks. The CsRD was the first large-scale use of state-of-the-art sorbents being developed by private industry for the selective removal of cesium and other radionuclides from liquid wastes stored across the DOE complex. The crystalline silicotitanate sorbent used in the demonstration was chosen because of its effectiveness in laboratory tests using bench-scale columns. The demonstration showed that the cesium could be removed from the supernate and concentrated on a small-volume, solid waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Nevada Test Site. During this project, the CsRD system processed > 115,000 L (30,000 gal) of radioactive supernate with minimal operational problems. Sluicing, drying, and remote transportation of the sorbent, which could not be done on a bench scale, were successfully demonstrated. The system was then decontaminated to the extent that it could be contact maintained with the use of localized shielding only. By utilizing a modular, transportable design and placement within existing facilities, the system can be transferred to different sites for reuse. The initial unit has now been removed from the process building and is presently being reinstalled for use in baseline operations at ORNL.

  13. Seismic Analysis of Elevated Water Storage Tanks Subjected to Six Correlated Ground Motion Components

    L. Kalani Sarokolayi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, rotational components of ground motion acceleration were defined according toimproved method from the corresponding available translational components based on transversely isotropicelastic wave propagation in the soil. With such improvement, it becomes possible to consider frequencydependent wave velocities on rotational components of ground motion. For this purpose, three translationalcomponents of El Centro earthquake (24 January 1951 were adopted to generate their relative rotationalcomponents based on SV and SH wave incidence by Fast Fourier transform with 4096 discrete frequencies.The translational and computed rotational motions were then applied to the concrete elevated water storagetanks with different structural characteristics and water elevations. The finite element method is used for thenonlinear analysis of water storage tanks considering the fluid-structure interaction using Lagrangian-Lagrangian approach and the concrete material nonlinearities have been taken into account through William-Warnke model. The nonlinear response of these structures considering the six components of ground motionshowed that the rotational components of ground motion can increase or decrease the maximum displacementand reaction force of the structure. These variations are depending on the frequency of structure andpredominant frequencies of translational and rotational components of ground motion.

  14. Cesium removal demonstration utilizing crystalline silicotitanate sorbent for processing Melton Valley Storage Tank supernate: Final report

    This report provides details of the Cesium Removal Demonstration (CsRD), which was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on radioactive waste from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks. The CsRD was the first large-scale use of state-of-the-art sorbents being developed by private industry for the selective removal of cesium and other radionuclides from liquid wastes stored across the DOE complex. The crystalline silicotitanate sorbent used in the demonstration was chosen because of its effectiveness in laboratory tests using bench-scale columns. The demonstration showed that the cesium could be removed from the supernate and concentrated on a small-volume, solid waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Nevada Test Site. During this project, the CsRD system processed > 115,000 L (30,000 gal) of radioactive supernate with minimal operational problems. Sluicing, drying, and remote transportation of the sorbent, which could not be done on a bench scale, were successfully demonstrated. The system was then decontaminated to the extent that it could be contact maintained with the use of localized shielding only. By utilizing a modular, transportable design and placement within existing facilities, the system can be transferred to different sites for reuse. The initial unit has now been removed from the process building and is presently being reinstalled for use in baseline operations at ORNL

  15. Underground storage tank management plan, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems at the facility and to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks. UST systems have been removed or upgraded in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance. With the closure of a significant portion of the USTs, the continuing mission of the UST Management Program is to manage the remaining active UST systems and continue corrective actions in a safe regulatory compliant manner. This Program outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Program provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. The plan is divided into three major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) active UST sites, and (3) out-of-service UST sites. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Program, and the procedures and guidance for compliance

  16. Suitability of using coir fiber/polymeric composite for the design of liquid storage tanks

    Single fiber pull-out test is employed experimentally to model the interfacial adhesion characteristics of natural fibers with synthetic resin. The current study investigates the possibility of using coir fiber as reinforcements for polyester composites under aging process. The main application would be in designing tanks storage for different types of liquid. A single fiber pull out samples were soaked in seven different solutions (water, salt water, gasoline, diesel, break oil, engine oil, and power staring oil) for 6 months, and the pull-out tests were then carried out. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the damage features on the samples. The results revealed that the highest amount of liquid absorbed was water, followed by salt water, which is due to the low viscosity of those liquids compared to other liquids. In spite of that, the highest interfacial adhesion property was found in samples soaked in salt water, which was about 120 MPa followed by water. SEM images showed that no pulling out process taking place during the test indicating high interfacial adhesion properties of coir fibers to the polyester. However, the differences in the interfacial adhesion properties are due to the deterioration in the fiber strength during the aging process.

  17. Underground storage tank management plan, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems at the facility and to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks. UST systems have been removed or upgraded in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance. With the closure of a significant portion of the USTs, the continuing mission of the UST Management Program is to manage the remaining active UST systems and continue corrective actions in a safe regulatory compliant manner. This Program outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Program provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. The plan is divided into three major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) active UST sites, and (3) out-of-service UST sites. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Program, and the procedures and guidance for compliance.

  18. Thermal-hydraulic analysis on Ex-Vessel fuel Storage Tank of MONJU at severe accident

    In this paper, results of a thermal-hydraulic analysis on the Ex-Vessel fuel Storage Tank (EVST) of the fast breeder reactor MONJU at severe accident is described. Safety evaluations on this facility have ever been performed by using a one-dimensional flow network code. However, validation on a model of this code has been needed, because EVST has plenums and asymmetry equipment. Therefore we performed a CFD analysis under a condition of station blackout (SBO) in order to clarify the circulation flow rate and multidimensionality of the EVST. As a result, the following points were confirmed: 1) Circulation flow rate is maintained half of a flow rate at the rated operation condition at the minimum. 2) Thermal stratification arises in the lower plenum at SBO. 3) Circumferential distribution of flow rate at the lower plenum is made uniform at the inlet of the rotating rack. 4) Thermal-hydraulic behavior in the rotating rack is almost one-dimensional. (author)

  19. Investigation of methods to transfer heat from solar liquid-heating collectors to heat storage tanks. Final report

    Horel, J. D.; de Winter, F.

    1978-04-20

    A study was made of the methods available to transfer heat from the collector to the water storage tank in water heating systems. In counterflow heat exchangers used in double loop water heating systems, it was found to be more important to use a high water flowrate than a high heat transfer fluid flowrate. It was earlier thought to be best to have matched WC/sub p/ (mass flowrate-specific heat) products in the loops. It was shown in this study that the water WC/sub p/ product should be about twice as large as that of the heat transfer fluid. It was found that neither the heat exchanger type nor the size was very critical, so that very simple criteria were adequate in determining optimum heat exchanger size. It was found that there is a definite system size below which one should use a traced tank or a coil in a tank. Equations and optimization criteria were developed for traced tanks or tanks with coils. At present, there is no quantitative understanding of liquid to liquid (direct contact) heat exchangers, though they are clearly quite effective. Draindown systems are discussed, and several appendices are included on heat transfer and other characteristics of fluid and of equipment.

  20. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 127: Areas 25 and 26 Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-02-01

    CAU 127, Areas 25 and 26 Storage Tanks, consists of twelve CASs located in Areas 25 and 26 of the NTS. The closure alternatives included no further action, clean closure, and closure in place with administrative controls. The purpose of this Closure Report is to provide a summary of the completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and analytical data to confirm that the remediation goals were met.

  1. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 127: Areas 25 and 26 Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    CAU 127, Areas 25 and 26 Storage Tanks, consists of twelve CASs located in Areas 25 and 26 of the NTS. The closure alternatives included no further action, clean closure, and closure in place with administrative controls. The purpose of this Closure Report is to provide a summary of the completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and analytical data to confirm that the remediation goals were met

  2. Corrosion Verification Test for the Welds of CEFR Sodium Storage Tank and Sodium Drainage Under the First-Grade Accident

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this test is to observe and analyze the compatibility between the welds and hightemperature sodium at the simulated realistic working conditions of CEFR sodium storage tank andsodium drainage under the first-grade accident. The observation and analysis are focused on theintergranular corrosion at the weld and its heat affection region, in order to provide the test basis for thesafe operation and analysis of CEFR.

  3. Numerical and experimental study of the fluid flow in porous medium in charging process of stratified thermal storage tank

    Berg, Anders

    2013-01-01

    In order to increase the efficiency of an adsorption heat pump system, a stratified thermal heat storage can be used to enable regeneration of heat between the different phases of the process. It’s crucial to avoid mixing and to keep layers intact inside the storage tank. As mixing generally occurs during charging and discharging, the aim of this project is minimizing these effects by introducing porous media into the region of the inlet ports. The impact of porous media on laminar and turbul...

  4. Underground Storage Tanks, haz mat data set attribute, Published in 2006, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Washoe County.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Underground Storage Tanks dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It...

  5. Los Alamos National Laboratory environmental restoration program group audit report for underground storage tank removal: Audit ER-92- 04, July 22--August 11, 1992

    Audit ER-92-04 was conducted on activities being performed by Waste Management (EM-7), Environmental Protection (EM-8), and Environmental Restoration (EM-13) groups for the LANL's underground storage tank removal program. Scope of the audit was limited to an evaluation of the implementation of the State of New Mexico requirements for underground storage-tank removal. Activities were evaluated using requirements specified in the State of New Mexico Environmental Improvement Board Underground Storage Tank Regulations, EIB/USTR. Two recommendations are made: (1) that a single organization be given the responsibility and authority for the implementation of the program, and (2) that the requirements of the NM State environmental improvement board underground storage tank regulations be reviewed and a Los Alamos procedure written to address requirements and interfaces not contained in SOP-EM7-D ampersand D-001

  6. Techno-economic performance evaluation of solar tower plants with integrated multi-layered PCM thermocline thermal energy storage - A comparative study to conventional two-tank storage systems

    Guedéz, Rafael; Ferruzza, Davide; Arnaudo, Monica; Rodríguez, Ivette; Perez-Segarra, Carlos D.; Hassar, Zhor; Laumert, Björn

    2016-05-01

    Solar Tower Power Plants with thermal energy storage are a promising technology for dispatchable renewable energy in the near future. Storage integration makes possible to shift the electricity production to more profitable peak hours. Usually two tanks are used to store cold and hot fluids, but this means both higher investment costs and difficulties during the operation of the variable volume tanks. Instead, another solution can be a single tank thermocline storage in a multi-layered configuration. In such tank both latent and sensible fillers are employed to decrease the related cost up to 30% and maintain high efficiencies. This paper analyses a multi-layered solid PCM storage tank concept for solar tower applications, and describes a comprehensive methodology to determine under which market structures such devices can outperform the more conventional two tank storage systems. A detail model of the tank has been developed and introduced in an existing techno-economic tool developed by the authors (DYESOPT). The results show that under current cost estimates and technical limitations the multi-layered solid PCM storage concept is a better solution when peaking operating strategies are desired, as it is the case for the two-tier South African tariff scheme.

  7. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 130: Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Alfred Wickline

    2008-07-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 130, Storage Tanks, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996, as amended February 2008). Corrective Action Unit 130 consists of the seven following corrective action sites (CASs) located in Areas 1, 7, 10, 20, 22, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site: • 01-02-01, Underground Storage Tank • 07-02-01, Underground Storage Tanks • 10-02-01, Underground Storage Tank • 20-02-03, Underground Storage Tank • 20-99-05, Tar Residue • 22-02-02, Buried UST Piping • 23-02-07, Underground Storage Tank This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing each CAS. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 130 using the SAFER process. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a field investigation before selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible recommendation that no further corrective action is necessary. This will be presented in a Closure Report that will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for review and approval. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) finalized on April 3, 2008, by representatives of NDEP; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and National Security Technologies, LLC. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to determine and implement appropriate corrective actions for each CAS in CAU 130. The DQO process developed for this CAU

  8. Buckling analysis of an underground storage tank on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Many tanks are stored underground on the Oak Ridge Reservation in the state of Tennessee. The construction of some of these tanks dates back to the 1940s. A major Department of Energy (DOE) initiative is to assess the integrity of these existing tanks. These tanks must be analyzed and evaluated to ensure the safety of workers, the public, and the environment. This paper presents the results of a buckling analysis for two horizontal tanks in an underground vault. The tanks are 3.7 m (12.0 ft) in diam, 18.7 m (61.4 ft) long, and supported on two saddles. The analysis addresses different loading scenarios to complement the safety evaluation of these tanks. The loading conditions consider empty and half-full tanks in the vault flooded with either waste material or flood water to different heights. The results indicate that the tank will neither yield nor buckle for flood water of 5.5 m (18.0 ft) above the tank top

  9. Approximate seismic response analysis of self-supported thin cylindrical liquid storage tanks

    To make an accurate analysis of the seismic responses of tall thin tanks it is assumed that the motions of the liquid in the tank would be in accordance with the velocity potential theory and derived a method of approximate analysis of their seismic which was applicable to both the liquid-tank coupled vibration system and the sloshing vibration system. That is, as to the behavior between liquid and tank under earthquake, seismic response analysis was devided into the following two cases. In the first seismic load is evaluated in regard to coupled vibration system between liquid and tank, liquid surface oscillation is neglected and pressure fluctuation of liquid is considered as virtual mass to the tank wall, when its deflection is taken into consideration. In the second seismic load is evaluated in regard to sloshing vibration system, only pressure fluctuations by liquid surface oscillation is considered supposing that the tank wall is rigid. It is proposed that the tank total seismic responses of thin wall tank containing liquid are obtained by adding these both seismic response. Furthermore, to investigate the appropriateness of this analytical method, it is made a reduced-scale plastic model of a cylindrical tank and obtained the vibration characteristics and seismic response characteristics of the model by using a shaking table. The experimental values showed a good agreement with their respective theoretical values, proving the appropriateness of the analytical method

  10. Thermal Mode of Tanks for Storage Fuel of Thermal Power Plants and Boiler with the Influence of Engineering Facilities in the Area of their Placement

    Polovnikov, V. Yu.; Makhsutbek, F. T.; Ozhikenova, Zh. F.

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes the numerical modeling of heat transfer in the area placing of the tank for storage fuel of thermal power plant and boiler with the influence of engineering construction. We have established that the presence of engineering structures in the area of placing of the tank for storage fuel of thermal power plant and boiler have little effect on the change of heat loss.

  11. Thermal Mode of Tanks for Storage Fuel of Thermal Power Plants and Boiler with the Influence of Engineering Facilities in the Area of their Placement

    Polovnikov V.Yu.; Makhsutbek F.T.; Ozhikenova Zh.F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the numerical modeling of heat transfer in the area placing of the tank for storage fuel of thermal power plant and boiler with the influence of engineering construction. We have established that the presence of engineering structures in the area of placing of the tank for storage fuel of thermal power plant and boiler have little effect on the change of heat loss.

  12. Thermal Mode of Tanks for Storage Fuel of Thermal Power Plants and Boiler with the Influence of Engineering Facilities in the Area of their Placement

    Polovnikov V.Yu.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the numerical modeling of heat transfer in the area placing of the tank for storage fuel of thermal power plant and boiler with the influence of engineering construction. We have established that the presence of engineering structures in the area of placing of the tank for storage fuel of thermal power plant and boiler have little effect on the change of heat loss.

  13. Analysis of Underground Storage Tanks System Materials to Increased Leak Potential Associated with E15 Fuel

    Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL

    2012-07-01

    include model year 2001 light-duty vehicles, but specifically prohibited use in motorcycles and off-road vehicles and equipment. UST stakeholders generally consider fueling infrastructure materials designed for use with E0 to be adequate for use with E10, and there are no known instances of major leaks or failures directly attributable to ethanol use. It is conceivable that many compatibility issues, including accelerated corrosion, do arise and are corrected onsite and, therefore do not lead to a release. However, there is some concern that higher ethanol concentrations, such as E15 or E20, may be incompatible with current materials used in standard gasoline fueling hardware. In the summer of 2008, DOE recognized the need to assess the impact of intermediate blends of ethanol on the fueling infrastructure, specifically located at the fueling station. This includes the dispenser and hanging hardware, the underground storage tank, and associated piping. The DOE program has been co-led and funded by the Office of the Biomass Program and Vehicle Technologies Program with technical expertise from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The infrastructure material compatibility work has been supported through strong collaborations and testing at Underwriters Laboratories (UL). ORNL performed a compatibility study investigating the compatibility of fuel infrastructure materials to gasoline containing intermediate levels of ethanol. These results can be found in the ORNL report entitled Intermediate Ethanol Blends Infrastructure Materials Compatibility Study: Elastomers, Metals and Sealants (hereafter referred to as the ORNL intermediate blends material compatibility study). These materials included elastomers, plastics, metals and sealants typically found in fuel dispenser infrastructure. The test fuels evaluated in the ORNL study were SAE standard test fuel formulations used to assess material-fuel compatibility within a

  14. Acid Sphingomyelinase Inhibition Prevents Hemolysis During Erythrocyte Storage

    Richard S. Hoehn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: During storage, units of human red blood cells (pRBCs experience membrane destabilization and hemolysis which may cause harm to transfusion recipients. This study investigates whether inhibition of acid sphingomyelinase could stabilize erythrocyte membranes and prevent hemolysis during storage. Methods: Human and murine pRBCs were stored under standard blood banking conditions with and without the addition of amitriptyline, a known acid sphingomyelinase inhibitor. Hemoglobin was measured with an electronic hematology analyzer and flow cytometry was used to measure erythrocyte size, complexity, phosphatidylserine externalization, and band 3 protein expression. Results: Cell-free hemoglobin, a marker of hemolysis, increased during pRBC storage. Amitriptyline treatment decreased hemolysis in a dose-dependent manner. Standard pRBC storage led to loss of erythrocyte size and membrane complexity, increased phosphatidylserine externalization, and decreased band 3 protein integrity as determined by flow cytometry. Each of these changes was reduced by treatment with amitriptyline. Transfusion of amitriptyline-treated pRBCs resulted in decreased circulating free hemoglobin. Conclusion: Erythrocyte storage is associated with changes in cell size, complexity, membrane molecular composition, and increased hemolysis. Acid sphingomyelinase inhibition reduced these changes in a dose-dependent manner. Our data suggest a novel mechanism to attenuate the harmful effects after transfusion of aged blood products.

  15. Position paper, need for additional waste storage capacity and recommended path forward for project W-236a, Multi-function Waste Tank Facility

    Project W-236a, Multi-function waste Tank Facility (MWTF), was initiated to increase the safe waste storage capacity for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) by building two new one million gallon underground storage tanks in the 200 West Area and four tanks in the 200 East Area. Construction of the tanks was scheduled to begin in September 1994 with operations beginning in calendar year (CY) 1998. However, recent reviews have raised several issues regarding the mission, scope, and schedule of the MWTF. The decision to build new tanks must consider several elements, such as: Operational risk and needs -- Operational risk and flexibility must be managed such that any identified risk is reduced as soon as practicable; The amount of waste that will be generated in the future -- Additional needed tank capacity must be made available to support operations and maintain currently planned safety improvement activities; Safety issues -- The retrieval of waste from single-shell tanks (SSTs) and watch list tanks will add to the total amount of waste that must be stored in a double-shell tank (DST); Availability of existing DSTs -- The integrity of the 28 existing DSTs must be continuously managed; and Affect on other projects and programs -- Because MWTF systems have been integrated with other projects, a decision on one project will affect another. In addition the W-236a schedule is logically tied to support retrieval and safety program plans. Based on the above, two new tanks are needed for safe waste storage in the 200 West Area, and they need to be built as soon as practicable. Design should continue for the tanks in the 200 East Area with a decision made by September, on whether to construct them. Construction of the cross-site transfer line should proceed as scheduled. To implement this recommendation several actions need to be implemented

  16. A thermodynamic tank model for studying the effect of higher hydrocarbons on natural gas storage in metal-organic frameworks

    Zhang, HD; Deria, P; Farha, OK; Hupp, JT; Snurr, RQ

    2015-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are promising materials for storing natural gas in vehicular applications. Evaluation of these materials has focused on adsorption of pure methane, although commercial natural gas also contains small amounts of higher hydrocarbons such as ethane and propane, which adsorb more strongly than methane. There is, thus, a possibility that these higher hydrocarbons will accumulate in the MOF after multiple operating (adsorption/desorption) cycles, and reduce the storage capacity. To study the net effect of ethane and propane on the performance of an adsorbed natural gas (ANG) tank, we developed a mathematical model based on thermodynamics and mass balance equations that describes the state of the tank at any instant. The required inputs are the pure-component isotherms, and mixture adsorption data are calculated using the Ideal Adsorbed Solution Theory (IAST). We focused on how the "deliverable energy'' provided by the ANG tank to the engine changed over 200 operating cycles for a sample of 120 MOF structures. We found that, with any MOF, the ANG tank performance monotonically declines during early operating cycles until a "cyclic steady state'' is reached. We determined that the best materials when the fuel is 100% methane are not necessarily the best when the fuel includes ethane and propane. Among the materials tested, some top MOFs are MOF-143 > NU-800 > IRMOF-14 > IRMOF-20 > MIL-100 > NU-125 > IRMOF-1 > NU-111. MOF-143 is predicted to deliver 5.43 MJ L-1 of tank to the engine once the cyclic steady state is reached. The model also provided insights that can assist in future work to discover more promising adsorbent materials for natural gas storage.

  17. Numerical Modeling of Propellant Boil-Off in a Cryogenic Storage Tank

    Majumdar, A. K.; Steadman, T. E.; Maroney, J. L.; Sass, J. P.; Fesmire, J. E.

    2007-01-01

    A numerical model to predict boil-off of stored propellant in large spherical cryogenic tanks has been developed. Accurate prediction of tank boil-off rates for different thermal insulation systems was the goal of this collaboration effort. The Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program, integrating flow analysis and conjugate heat transfer for solving complex fluid system problems, was used to create the model. Calculation of tank boil-off rate requires simultaneous simulation of heat transfer processes among liquid propellant, vapor ullage space, and tank structure. The reference tank for the boil-off model was the 850,000 gallon liquid hydrogen tank at Launch Complex 39B (LC- 39B) at Kennedy Space Center, which is under study for future infrastructure improvements to support the Constellation program. The methodology employed in the numerical model was validated using a sub-scale model and tank. Experimental test data from a 1/15th scale version of the LC-39B tank using both liquid hydrogen and liquid nitrogen were used to anchor the analytical predictions of the sub-scale model. Favorable correlations between sub-scale model and experimental test data have provided confidence in full-scale tank boil-off predictions. These methods are now being used in the preliminary design for other cases including future launch vehicles

  18. Enhancing charge storage of conjugated polymer electrodes with phenolic acids

    Wagner, Michal; Rębiś, Tomasz; Inganäs, Olle

    2016-01-01

    We here present studies of electrochemical doping of poly(1-aminoanthraquinone) (PAAQ) films with three structurally different phenolic acids. The examined phenolic acids (sinapic, ferulic and syringic acid) were selected due to their resemblance to redox active groups, which can be found in lignin. The outstanding electrochemical stability of PAAQ films synthesized for this work enabled extensive cycling of phenolic acid-doped PAAQ films. Potentiodynamic and charge-discharge studies revealed that phenolic acid-doped PAAQ films exhibited enhanced capacitance in comparison to undoped PAAQ films, together with appearance of redox activity characteristics specific for each dopant. Electrochemical kinetic studies performed on microelectrodes affirmed the fast electron transfer for hydroquinone-to-quinone reactions with these phenolic compounds. These results imply the potential application of phenolic acids in cheap and degradable energy storage devices.

  19. Efficiency of in-vessel composting process in removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from bottom sludge of crude oil storage tanks

    K Naddafi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Remaining of crude oil in storage tanks usually results in accumulating oily sludge at the bottom of the tank, which should be treated and disposed of in a suitable manner. The efficiency of in-vessel composting process in removing total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH from bottom sludge of crude oil storage tanks was investigated in the present study. Material and methods: The sludge was mixed with immature compost at the ratios of 1:0 (as control, 1:2, 1:4, 1:6, 1:8, and 1:10 (as dry basis with the initial C:N:P and moisture content of 100:5:1 and 55% respectively for a period of 10 weeks. The moisture adjustment and mixing process were done 3 times a day during the composting period. Sampling and analysis of TPH and pH were done every week and every two days, respectively. Results: TPH removal in the 1:2, 1:4, 1:6, 1:8, and 1:10 composting reactors was 66.59, 73.19, 74.81, 80.20, and 79.91%, respectively. Thus, initial adjustment of sludge to immature compost ratios plays a great role in reduction of TPH. The results of the control reactors indicated that the main mechanism of TPH removal in the composting reactors was biological process. Conclusions: In-vessel composting by addition of immature compost as amendment is a viable choice for bioremediation of the bottom sludge of crude oil storage tanks.

  20. Structural acceptance criteria for the evaulation of existing double-shell waste storage tanks located at the Hanford site, Richland, Washington

    Julyk, L.J.; Day, A.D.; Dyrness, A.D.; Moore, C.J.; Peterson, W.S.; Scott, M.A.; Shrivastava, H.P.; Sholman, J.S.; Watts, T.N.

    1995-09-01

    The structural acceptance criteria contained herein for the evaluation of existing underground double-shell waste storage tanks located at the Hanford Site is part of the Life Management/Aging Management Program of the Tank Waste Remediation System. The purpose of the overall life management program is to ensure that confinement of the waste is maintained over the required service life of the tanks. Characterization of the present condition of the tanks, understanding and characterization of potential degradation mechanisms, and development of tank structural acceptance criteria based on previous service and projected use are prerequisites to assessing tank integrity, to projecting the length of tank service, and to developing and applying prudent fixes or repairs. The criteria provided herein summarize the requirements for the analysis and structural qualification of the existing double-shell tanks for continued operation. Code reconciliation issues and material degradation under aging conditions are addressed. Although the criteria were developed for double-shell tanks, many of the provisions are equally applicable to single-shell tanks. However, the criteria do not apply to the evaluation of tank appurtenances and buried piping.

  1. Structural acceptance criteria for the evaulation of existing double-shell waste storage tanks located at the Hanford site, Richland, Washington

    The structural acceptance criteria contained herein for the evaluation of existing underground double-shell waste storage tanks located at the Hanford Site is part of the Life Management/Aging Management Program of the Tank Waste Remediation System. The purpose of the overall life management program is to ensure that confinement of the waste is maintained over the required service life of the tanks. Characterization of the present condition of the tanks, understanding and characterization of potential degradation mechanisms, and development of tank structural acceptance criteria based on previous service and projected use are prerequisites to assessing tank integrity, to projecting the length of tank service, and to developing and applying prudent fixes or repairs. The criteria provided herein summarize the requirements for the analysis and structural qualification of the existing double-shell tanks for continued operation. Code reconciliation issues and material degradation under aging conditions are addressed. Although the criteria were developed for double-shell tanks, many of the provisions are equally applicable to single-shell tanks. However, the criteria do not apply to the evaluation of tank appurtenances and buried piping

  2. Thermal Stratification in Small Solar Domestic Storage Tanks caused by Draw-offs

    Jordan, Ulrike; Furbo, Simon

    2005-01-01

    As shown in many research studies in the past, the thermal stratification of the tank caused by draw-offs has a high impact on the performance of a Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) system. Nevertheless, in most tank models for system simulations the influence of the draw-off pattern on the mixing ...

  3. ASME AG-1 REQUIREMENT EXEMPTION JUSTIFICATIONS FOR VENTILATION SYSTEMS AT NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Washington State Department of Health regulations require compliance with the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) AG-1, ''Code on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment,'' for all new radioactive air emission units. As a result, these requirements have been applied to systems that ventilate the radioactive waste storage tanks in the tank farm facilities on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. ASME AG-1 is applied as a regulatory constraint to waste tank ventilation systems at the Hanford Site, even though the code was not intended for these systems. An assessment was performed to identify which requirements should be exempted for waste tank ventilation systems. The technical justifications for requirement exemptions were prepared and presented to the regulator. The technical justifications were documented so that select requirement exemptions for specific projects and systems can be sought through the regulator's permitting process. This paper presents the rationale for attempting to receive requirement exemption and presents examples of the technical justifications that form the basis for these exemptions

  4. Cesium Sorption from Concentrated Acidic Tank Wastes Using Ammonium Molybdophosphate-polyacrylonitrile Composite Sorbents

    Todd, Terry Allen; Mann, Nicholas Robert; Tranter, Troy Joseph; Sebesta, F.; John, J.; Motl, A.,

    2002-10-01

    Ammonium molybdophosphate-polyacrylonitrile (AMP-PAN) composite sorbents have been evaluated for the removal of cesium from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) concentrated acidic tank waste. Batch contacts were performed to qualitatively evaluate the effects of increased nitric acid, sodium and potassium. An equilibrium isotherm was generated with simulated concentrated tank waste solutions and fit to the Langmuir equation. Additional batch contact experiments were performed to determine if mercury, plutonium and americium would sorb onto AMP-PAN. Dynamic sorption was evaluated in column tests employing 1.5 cm3 columns operating at 5, 10 and 20 bed volumes of flow per hour. Results indicate, as expected, that dynamic cesium sorption capacity is reduced as the flowrate is increased. Calculated dynamic capacities for cesium were 22.5, 19.8 and 19.6 mg Cs/g sorbent, for 5, 10 and 20 bed volume per hour flows, respectively. The thermal stability of loaded AMP-PAN was evaluated by performing thermogrovimetric analysis (TGA) on samples of AMP, PAN (polymer), and AMP-PAN. Results indicate that AMP-PAN is stable to 400 °C, with less than a 10% loss of weight, which is at least partially due to loss of water of hydration. The evaluation of AMP-PAN indicates that it will effectively remove cesium from concentrated acidic tank waste solutions.

  5. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit No. 456: Underground storage tank release site 23-111-1, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    The underground storage tank (UST) release site 23-111-1 is located in Mercury, Nevada. The site is in Area 23 of the Nevada Test Site, (NTS) located on the north side of Building 111. The tank associated with the release was closed in place using cement grout on September 6, 1990. The tank was not closed by removal due to numerous active underground utilities, a high-voltage transformer pad, and overhead power lines. Soil samples collected below the tank bottom at the time of tank closure activities exceeded the Nevada Administrative Code Action Level of 100 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) for petroleum hydrocarbons. Maximum concentrations detected were 119 mg/kg. Two passive venting wells were subsequently installed at the tank ends to monitor the progress of biodegradation at the site. Quarterly air sampling from the wells was completed for approximately one year, but was discontinued since data indicated that considerable biodegradation was not occurring at the site

  6. Use of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid to inhibit growth of sugarbeet storage rot pathogens

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are endogenous plant hormones that induce native plant defense responses and provide protection against a wide range of diseases. Previously, JA, applied after harvest, was shown to protect sugarbeet roots against the storage pathogens, Botrytis cinerea, P...

  7. Emergency avoidance solidification campaign of liquid low-level waste at the Melton Valley Storage Tank Facility

    Radioactive liquid low-level (supernate) waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is collected and stored in eight 50,000 gallon tanks at the Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) Facility. The waste generation rate at ORNL is such that periodic waste processing is needed to ensure that space is always available for the wastes solution produced from research and development laboratories, radiochemical pilot plants and nuclear reactors located at ORNL. These periodic efforts are called emergency avoidance solidification campaigns. In the past, the stored liquid waste was mixed with grout and injected into deep wells at the New Hydrofracture Facility. The deep well injections are no longer being performed. Stabilization and shallow land burial was chosen as the disposal method for this waste. This paper discusses the waste form certification of the supernate waste. Criterion for the waste form certification included successful completion of 10CFR61 testing. This paper describes the actual solidification of the supernate waste

  8. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 6

    The scope of the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) Functional Area includes the programmatic controls associated with the management and operation of the Hanford Tank Farm Facility. The driving management organization implementing the programmatic controls is the Tank Farms Waste Management (WM)organization whose responsibilities are to ensure that performance objectives are established; and that measurable criteria for attaining objectives are defined and reflected in programs, policies and procedures. Objectives for the WM Program include waste minimization, establishment of effective waste segregation methods, waste treatment technology development, radioactive (low-level, high-level) hazardous and mixed waste transfer, treatment, and storage, applicability of a corrective action program, and management and applicability of a decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) program in future years

  9. Modeling of the charging step of metal hydrides tanks for hydrogen storage

    The objective of the study presented in this paper is to propose a model able to predict the charging step of a metal hydride (MH) tank in terms of charging duration, charged volume and temperature reached in the tank. The approach followed consists in modelling the whole system from a macroscopic point of view in order to have a global understanding of the charging process. For the model, the tank charging step is divided in two parts: a first one where charging is performed at an imposed flow rate and pressure increases up to the charging pressure and a second phase where the pressure in the tank is close to the charging pressure and the entering hydrogen flow rate is imposed by the adsorption reaction rate. An adsorption reaction kinetic model is also proposed. The results of the developed model were compared with experimental data from three different MH tanks and a good agreement was demonstrated. This model only needs little information from the MH tank and a qualification step. It can then be used to evaluate different operating parameters influence and help to define the optimal operating parameters for MH tank use. (authors)

  10. The effect of nitric acid exposure on Galileo spacecraft titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V propellant tanks

    Hsieh, Cheng; O'Donnell, Tim; Yavrouian, Andre

    1990-01-01

    The Ti-6Al-4V-constructed retropropulsion-module tanks of the Galileo spacecraft were purged with nitrogen tetroxide in order to wait out a major launch rescheduling; nitric acid is among the residual products of such an operation. A test program was conducted on representative samples to ascertain the fracture toughness and stress corrosion threshold of the tanks' material, in view of Space Shuttle safety and mission-reliability requirements. It was found that the tanks' structural integrity was not degraded by nitric acid exposure.

  11. Thermoeconomic analysis of storage systems for solar heating and cooling systems: A comparison between variable-volume and fixed-volume tanks

    The paper investigates different control strategies for the thermal storage management in SHC (Solar Heating and Cooling) systems. The SHC system under investigation is based on a field of evacuated solar collectors coupled with a single-stage LiBr–H2O absorption chiller; auxiliary thermal energy is supplied by a gas-fired boiler. The SHC is also equipped with a novel thermal storage system, consisting in a variable volume storage tank. It includes three separate tanks and a number of mixers and diverters managed by novel control strategies, based on combinations of series/parallel charging and discharging approaches. The aim of this component is to vary the thermal storage capacity as a function of the combinations of solar radiation availability and user thermal/cooling energy demands. The system allows one to increase the number of active tanks when the time shift between solar energy and user demand is high. Conversely, when this time shift is low, the number of active tanks is automatically reduced. In addition, when the solar energy in excess cannot be stored in such tanks, a heat exchanger is also used in the solar loop for producing DHW (Domestic Hot Water). The analysis is carried out by means of a zero-dimensional transient simulation model, developed by using the TRNSYS software. In order to assess the operating and capital costs of the systems under analysis, an economic model is also proposed. In addition, in order to determine the set of the synthesis/design variables which maximize the system profitability, a parametric analysis was implemented. The novel variable-volume storage system, in both the proposed configurations, was also compared with a constant-volume storage system from the energy and economic points of view. The results showed that the presented storage system allows one to save up to 20% of the natural gas used by the auxiliary boiler only for very high solar fractions. In all the other cases, marginal savings are achieved by the

  12. Simulation model of stratified thermal energy storage tank using finite difference method

    Waluyo, Joko

    2016-06-01

    Stratified TES tank is normally used in the cogeneration plant. The stratified TES tanks are simple, low cost, and equal or superior in thermal performance. The advantage of TES tank is that it enables shifting of energy usage from off-peak demand for on-peak demand requirement. To increase energy utilization in a stratified TES tank, it is required to build a simulation model which capable to simulate the charging phenomenon in the stratified TES tank precisely. This paper is aimed to develop a novel model in addressing the aforementioned problem. The model incorporated chiller into the charging of stratified TES tank system in a closed system. The model was developed in one-dimensional type involve with heat transfer aspect. The model covers the main factors affect to degradation of temperature distribution namely conduction through the tank wall, conduction between cool and warm water, mixing effect on the initial flow of the charging as well as heat loss to surrounding. The simulation model is developed based on finite difference method utilizing buffer concept theory and solved in explicit method. Validation of the simulation model is carried out using observed data obtained from operating stratified TES tank in cogeneration plant. The temperature distribution of the model capable of representing S-curve pattern as well as simulating decreased charging temperature after reaching full condition. The coefficient of determination values between the observed data and model obtained higher than 0.88. Meaning that the model has capability in simulating the charging phenomenon in the stratified TES tank. The model is not only capable of generating temperature distribution but also can be enhanced for representing transient condition during the charging of stratified TES tank. This successful model can be addressed for solving the limitation temperature occurs in charging of the stratified TES tank with the absorption chiller. Further, the stratified TES tank can be

  13. Corrosion Control Measures For Liquid Radioactive Waste Storage Tanks At The Savannah River Site

    Wiersma, B. J.; Subramanian, K. H.

    2012-11-27

    The Savannah River Site has stored radioactive wastes in large, underground, carbon steel tanks for approximately 60 years. An assessment of potential degradation mechanisms determined that the tanks may be vulnerable to nitrate- induced pitting corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. Controls on the solution chemistry and temperature of the wastes are in place to mitigate these mechanisms. These controls are based upon a series of experiments performed using simulated solutions on materials used for construction of the tanks. The technical bases and evolution of these controls is presented in this paper.

  14. Systems engineering study: tank 241-C-103 organic skimming,storage, treatment and disposal options

    Klem, M.J.

    1996-10-23

    This report evaluates alternatives for pumping, storing, treating and disposing of the separable phase organic layer in Hanford Site Tank 241-C-103. The report provides safety and technology based preferences and recommendations. Two major options and several varations of these options were identified. The major options were: 1) transfer both the organic and pumpable aqueous layers to a double-shell tank as part of interim stabilization using existing salt well pumping equipment or 2) skim the organic to an above ground before interim stabilization of Tank 241-C-103. Other options to remove the organic were considered but rejected following preliminary evaluation.

  15. Thermal control for storage of cryogenic propellants in a common-bulkhead tank: A concept

    Stone, G. R.

    1972-01-01

    Simple, reliable ground-hold refrigeration system for common-bulkhead tank meets design criteria and objectives for ground-hold of oxygen difluoride and diborane. System is failsafe and malfunctions can be rectified without interruption of basic system functions.

  16. Analysis of heat exchanges in an LNG storage tank; Analyse de l'echange de chaleur dans un bac de stockage de GNL

    Djellas, N. [Institut Algerien du Petrole, Dept. Gaz, Boumerdes (Algeria)

    2000-07-01

    Evaporation rates of cryogenic fluids in the storage tank are largely influenced by three factors: the thermodynamic properties of the fluid, the storage pressure and the rate of heat exchanged between the ambient air and the fluid through the tank walls. The study of the influence of each of these factors has required the development of two calculation programs. The first one estimates the LNG thermodynamic properties by using the Benedict Webb and Rubbin (BWR) equation of state [1], whereas in the second program, the rate of heat transfer in LNG tanks is calculated. In this communication, the procedure followed in the second program for modelling the heat transfer process will be presented. The analysis of the influence when modifying key parameters such as the LNG liquid level and the ambient air temperature on the rate of heat transfer to the tank and the temperature profile in the vapor side will be carried out. This analysis was done on LNG storage tanks located at Skikda (Algeria). This study will permit the LNG plant operators to be aware of the importance in keeping track of the measured parameters and this for a good monitoring of LNG storage tanks. (author)

  17. THERMAL STRATIFICATION IN SOLAR DOMESTIC STORAGE TANKS CAUSED BY DRAW-OFFS

    Jordan, Ulrike; Furbo, Simon

    2003-01-01

    As shown in many research studies in the past, the thermal stratification of the tank caused by draw-offs has a high impact on the performance of a Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) system. Nevertheless, in most tank models for system simulations the influence of the draw-off pattern on the mixing...... determined with a component oriented simulation tool for solar thermal systems....

  18. Mobilization plan for the Y-12 9409-5 tank storage facility RCRA closure plan. Final report. Revision 1

    This mobilization plan identifies the activities and equipment necessary to begin the field sampling for the Oak Ridge Y-12 9409-5 Diked Tank Storage Facility (DTSF) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) closure. Elements of the plan outline the necessary components of each mobilization task and identify whether SAIC or the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Y-12 Environmental Restoration Division will be responsible for task coordination. Field work will be conducted in two phases: mobilization phase and soil sampling phase. Training and medical monitoring, access, permits and passes, decontamination/staging area, equipment, and management are covered in this document

  19. Facility site check report transportation safeguards divsision (TSD) underground storage tanks 2334-U and 2335-U at Building 9714

    This document presents an overview of the underground storage tank (UST)-related events that have taken place at the Transportation Safeguards Division (TSD) Facility (Facility ID 0-730168). The TSD facility is managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (LMES) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and is used to maintain and fuel specialty fleet vehicles. The facility is located approximately one mile east of the K-25 site at the intersection of Blair Road and the Oak Ridge Turnpike (Hwy 58). The location of the USTs at the TSD facility are illustrated

  20. Evaluation of the effectiveness of natural attenuation at two leaking underground storage tank sites in New Zealand

    The effectiveness of natural attenuation (NA) as a remedial approach for managing contaminated groundwater caused by two leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) was evaluated. The primary indicators used related to plume characterisation and migration. Statistical analyses of the plumes, using a Mann-Kendall test, indicated decreasing contaminant concentrations. Secondary indicators included an estimation of NA rates and an evaluation of the changes in groundwater geochemistry as a result of intrinsic bioremediation of the fuel hydrocarbons. Analysis of the data indicates that NA of dissolved hydrocarbons has been occurring and preventing the migration of the dissolved benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) plume at both sites

  1. Study on dynamic buckling behavior of a cylindrical liquid storage tanks under seismic excitation. 1st report, effects of liquid pressure on elephant foot bulge

    When a thin walled cylindrical liquid storage tank is exposed to a very large seismic base excitation, buckling phenomena may be caused such as bending buckling where diamond buckling pattern or elephant foot bulge pattern will be found at the bottom portion, and shear buckling at the middle portion of the tank. In this study, dynamic buckling tests were performed using scale models of thin cylindrical liquid storage tanks for the nuclear power plants. The input seismic acceleration was increased until the elephant foot bulge occurred and the vibrational behavior before and after buckling was investigated. And the effects of static and dynamic liquid pressure on the bending buckling patterns and the buckling critical force was investigated by fundamental tests using small tank models. (author)

  2. A review of technology for verification of waste removal from Hanford Underground Storage Tanks (WHC Issue 30)

    Remediation of waste from Underground Storage Tanks (UST) at the Hanford Waste storage sites will require removal of all waste to a nearly clean condition. Current requirements are 99% clean. In order to meet remediation legal requirements, a means to remotely verify that the waste has been removed to sufficient level is needed. This report discusses the requirements for verification and reviews major technologies available for inclusion in a verification system. The report presents two operational scenarios for verification of residual waste volume. Thickness verification technologies reviewed are Ultrasonic Sensors, Capacitance Type Sensors, Inductive Sensors, Ground Penetrating Radar, and Magnetometers. Of these technologies Inductive (Metal Detectors) and Ground Penetrating Radar appear to be the most suitable for use as waste thickness sensors

  3. Modeling and analysis of chill and fill processes for the cryogenic storage and transfer engineering development unit tank

    Hedayat, A.; Cartagena, W.; Majumdar, A. K.; LeClair, A. C.

    2016-03-01

    NASA's future missions may require long-term storage and transfer of cryogenic propellants. The Engineering Development Unit (EDU), a NASA in-house effort supported by both Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Glenn Research Center, is a cryogenic fluid management (CFM) test article that primarily serves as a manufacturing pathfinder and a risk reduction task for a future CFM payload. The EDU test article comprises a flight-like tank, internal components, insulation, and attachment struts. The EDU is designed to perform integrated passive thermal control performance testing with liquid hydrogen (LH2) in a test-like vacuum environment. A series of tests, with LH2 as a testing fluid, was conducted at Test Stand 300 at MSFC during the summer of 2014. The objective of this effort was to develop a thermal/fluid model for evaluating the thermodynamic behavior of the EDU tank during the chill and fill processes. The Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program, an MSFC in-house general-purpose computer program for flow network analysis, was utilized to model and simulate the chill and fill portion of the testing. The model contained the LH2 supply source, feed system, EDU tank, and vent system. The test setup, modeling description, and comparison of model predictions with the test data are presented.

  4. Transient development of flow and temperature fields in an underground thermal storage tank under various charging modes

    Papanicolaou, E.; Belessiotis, V. [' Demokritos' National Center for Scientific Research, Solar and other Energy Systems Laboratory, Patr. Grigoriou and Neapoleos, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi, Attiki (Greece)

    2009-08-15

    The flow and heat transport phenomena developing in a real-scale, underground hot-water storage tank intended for central solar systems and made of concrete walls are studied numerically and experimentally. The cubic tank with a volume of 8 m{sup 3} has been equipped with two linear diffusers extending over its entire width. For the numerical computations, charging of the tank at a constant flow rate and three different inlet-temperature histories was considered. One of these corresponded to a simple constant value, a second one to solar-collector heating and the third one to electric heating. In the last case experimental data were also obtained. The charging process was simulated by dynamic models based on the multinode and plug-flow approaches, as well as two-dimensional (2D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD), for which both low-Rek-{epsilon} and two-layer turbulence models were used.The distinct features of the flow and temperature fields for each charging mode as obtained from the models have been analyzed and compared to each other. For the electric heating case, preliminary comparisons between models and experiments were made, showing good qualitative agreement, while quantitative agreement was achieved only for parts of the entire transient process. The effects of turbulence-model choice and water-surface heat losses were also demonstrated and found to be important factors in the modeling procedure. (author)

  5. A Review of Common Problems in Design and Installation of Water Spray Cooling and Low Expansion Foam System to Protect Storage Tanks Containing Hydrocarbons Against Fires

    I. Alimohammadi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tank fires are rare but carry significant potential risk to life and property. For this reason fire protection of tanks is critical. Fixed Low expansion foam and water spray cooling systems are one of the most effective and economical ways to reduce damages to a tank from fire. Such systems are currently installed in many companies but are not effective enough and require involvement of firefighters which in turn threaten their lives. This paper studies in a systematic way the problems of foam and cooling systems currently installed in a few domestic companies which operate storage tanks with focus on floating and fixed roof atmospheric tanks containing hydrocarbons and offers possible solutions for more efficient installation, design and operation of such systems.

  6. A Review of Common Problems in Design and Installation of Water Spray Cooling and Low Expansion Foam System to Protect Storage Tanks Containing Hydrocarbons Against Fires

    Iraj Alimohammadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tank fires are rare but carry significant potential risk to life and property. For this reason fire protection of tanks is critical. Fixed Low expansion foam and water spray cooling systems are one of the most effective and economical ways to reduce damages to a tank from fire. Such systems are currently installed in many companies but are not effective enough and require involvement of firefighters which in turn threaten their lives. This paper studies in a systematic way the problems of foam and cooling systems currently installed in a few domestic companies which operate storage tanks with focus on floating and fixed roof atmospheric tanks containing hydrocarbons and offers possible solutions for more efficient installation, design and operation of such systems.

  7. Failure analysis of primary argon storage tanks for fast breeder test reactor (FBTR) at Reactor Research Centre, Kalpakkam [Paper IIIA-e

    An attempt is made to bring out the details of the 'Failure Analysis' carried out on the four numbers of primary argon storage tanks made from AISI type 304L stainless steel for FBTR Project, after receipt at site. After inspection at site before erection, it was found that all the four tanks had suffered severe pitting and crevice corrosion on the inside surface. The study revealed that the corrosion from inside was caused by the presence of crevices formed due to weld spatters and excess or non-uniform penetration of weld beads along with the service water with a high chloride content, which had not been drained out fully, after the hydrostatic testing at the manufacture's shop. The water had remained in these tanks for about 12 months which caused the damage. Due to the severity of the corrosion attack, all the four tanks were rejected, new tanks were fabricated with modification suiting the requirement and since erected. (author)

  8. Development of Hydrogen Storage Tank Systems Based on Complex Metal Hydrides

    Morten B. Ley

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review describes recent research in the development of tank systems based on complex metal hydrides for thermolysis and hydrolysis. Commercial applications using complex metal hydrides are limited, especially for thermolysis-based systems where so far only demonstration projects have been performed. Hydrolysis-based systems find their way in space, naval, military and defense applications due to their compatibility with proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cells. Tank design, modeling, and development for thermolysis and hydrolysis systems as well as commercial applications of hydrolysis systems are described in more detail in this review. For thermolysis, mostly sodium aluminum hydride containing tanks were developed, and only a few examples with nitrides, ammonia borane and alane. For hydrolysis, sodium borohydride was the preferred material whereas ammonia borane found less popularity. Recycling of the sodium borohydride spent fuel remains an important part for their commercial viability.

  9. Parametric performance analysis of a concentrated photovoltaic co-generation system equipped with a thermal storage tank

    Highlights: • Both thermal and electrical powers varied by changing surface area of collector. • Thermal stratification and total system power were increased at critical flow rate. • Parametric analysis of the CPVC system offers to determine the desired outcome. • Thermal and electrical outputs varied by changing the focal length of Fresnel lens. - Abstract: This article presents a parametric study of a concentrated photovoltaic co-generation (CPVC) system with an attached thermal storage tank. The CPVC system utilized dual-axis tracker and multiple solar energy collector (SEC) modules and forced cooling system. Each SEC module comprised 16 triple-junction solar cells, copper tube absorbers, and 16 Fresnel lenses were aligned against each solar cell. This study investigated all possible parameters that can affect the CPVC system performance, including the collector area, solar irradiation, inlet temperature, and mass flow rate. The surface area of the collector and the thermal power were increased by increasing the number of SEC modules connected in series; however, the electrical power output decreased from the first to the fourth SEC module consecutively. At the measured optimal flow rate, mixing and thermal diffusion in the storage tank were decreased, and the total power generation from the CPVC system was increased. Variations in the thermal and electrical power outputs were also observed when the focal length of the Fresnel lens was changed. This parametric analysis enables the CPVC system to obtain the desired output by varying the combination of operational and geometrical parameters

  10. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application for tank storage units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    1994-05-01

    In compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), this report discusses information relating to permit applications for three tank storage units at Y-12. The storage units are: Building 9811-1 RCRA Tank Storage Unit (OD-7); Waste Oil/Solvent Storage Unit (OD-9); and Liquid Organic Solvent Storage Unit (OD-10). Numerous sections discuss the following: Facility description; waste characteristics; process information; groundwater monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; contingency plan; personnel training; closure plan, post closure plan, and financial requirements; record keeping; other federal laws; organic air emissions; solid waste management units; and certification. Sixteen appendices contain such items as maps, waste analyses and forms, inspection logs, equipment identification, etc.

  11. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application for tank storage units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    In compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), this report discusses information relating to permit applications for three tank storage units at Y-12. The storage units are: Building 9811-1 RCRA Tank Storage Unit (OD-7); Waste Oil/Solvent Storage Unit (OD-9); and Liquid Organic Solvent Storage Unit (OD-10). Numerous sections discuss the following: Facility description; waste characteristics; process information; groundwater monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; contingency plan; personnel training; closure plan, post closure plan, and financial requirements; record keeping; other federal laws; organic air emissions; solid waste management units; and certification. Sixteen appendices contain such items as maps, waste analyses and forms, inspection logs, equipment identification, etc

  12. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 124: Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Draft), Revision 0

    Alfred Wickline

    2007-04-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 124, Areas 8, 15, and 16 Storage Tanks, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 124 consists of five Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 8, 15, and 16 of the Nevada Test Site as follows: • 08-02-01, Underground Storage Tank • 15-02-01, Irrigation Piping • 16-02-03, Underground Storage Tank • 16-02-04, Fuel Oil Piping • 16-99-04, Fuel Line (Buried) and UST This plan provides the methodology of field activities necessary to gather information to close each CAS. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 124 using the SAFER process.

  13. Effect of viscosity on dynamic response of a liquid storage tank

    An exploratory study on the effect of viscosity on the dynamic response of a liquid stomp tank is presented. The tank is assumed to be rigid. Both harmonic and earthquake excitations are used in the study. The finite clement method is employed to attack the problem. The response functions examined include the sloshing wave height and the impulsive and convective components of the hydrodynamic pressure. The study shows that the viscosity affects the sloshing wave height and the associated convective component of the pressure response, and it has a negligible effect on the impulsive component. A simple practical approach is proposed to take this effect into account

  14. 76 FR 39095 - Compatibility of Underground Storage Tank Systems With Biofuel Blends

    2011-07-05

    ... operators to use the American Petroleum Institute's (API) Recommended Practice 1626, an industry code of practice, to meet the compatibility requirement for ethanol-blended fuels. The original version of API 1626... practice has been for tank owners to demonstrate compatibility by using equipment that is certified...

  15. Performance of electric forklift with low-temperature polymer exchange membrane fuel cell power module and metal hydride hydrogen storage extension tank

    Lototskyy, Mykhaylo V.; Tolj, Ivan; Parsons, Adrian; Smith, Fahmida; Sita, Cordellia; Linkov, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    We present test results of a commercial 3-tonne electric forklift (STILL) equipped with a commercial fuel cell power module (Plug Power) and a MH hydrogen storage tank (HySA Systems and TF Design). The tests included: (i) performance evaluation of "hybrid" hydrogen storage system during refuelling at low (distribution occurs when operating in the fuel cell powering mode with MH, in comparison to the battery powering mode; (c) use of the fully refuelled fuel cell power module with the MH extension tank allows for uninterrupted operation for 3 h 6 min and 7 h 15 min, for heavy- and light-duty operation, respectively.

  16. Energy Performance and Economic Evaluation of a HP/ORC (heat pump/organic Rankine cycle) system with different hot water tank storage configurations

    Carmo, Carolina; Dumont, Olivier; Nielsen, Mads Pagh;

    2016-01-01

    -life conditions knowledge, the paper considers two different sensible energy storage (TES) configurations for the reversible heat pump/organic Rankine cycle (HP/ORC) system: a buffer tank for both space heating and domestic hot water and a hot water storage tank used exclusively for domestic hot water....... The results with the two different configurations are simulated in the Modelica language and compared in terms of energy shift potential in order to optimize RES integration, as well as the economic feasibility of the system in a cold climate....

  17. Check and Test of Evaporation Rate for Large-scale LNG Storage Tank%大型LNG储罐蒸发率校核与测定

    王修康

    2011-01-01

    蒸发率是LNG储罐设计的一项重要性能参数.介绍了大型LNG储罐保冷设计和漏热量计算,提出BOG蒸发率核算方法,为大型LNG储罐保冷设计提供了依据.%The evaporation rate is an important performance parameter of the design for the scale LNG storage tank. The cold insulate design and heat leak calculation and the calculation method of the evaporation rate was introduced, which could be the basis for the cold insulation design of the large scale LNG storage tank.

  18. Actual-Waste Tests of Enhanced Chemical Cleaning for Retrieval of SRS HLW Sludge Tank Heels and Decomposition of Oxalic Acid - 12256

    Savannah River National Laboratory conducted a series of tests on the Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process using actual Savannah River Site waste material from Tanks 5F and 12H. Testing involved sludge dissolution with 2 wt% oxalic acid, the decomposition of the oxalates by ozonolysis (with and without the aid of ultraviolet light), the evaporation of water from the product, and tracking the concentrations of key components throughout the process. During ECC actual waste testing, the process was successful in decomposing oxalate to below the target levels without causing substantial physical or chemical changes in the product sludge. During ECC actual waste testing, the introduction of ozone was successful in decomposing oxalate to below the target levels. This testing did not identify physical or chemical changes in the ECC product sludge that would impact downstream processing. The results from these tests confirm observations made by AREVA NP during larger scale testing with waste simulants. This testing, however, had a decreased utilization of ozone, requiring approximately 5 moles of ozone per mole of oxalate decomposed. Decomposition of oxalates in sludge dissolved in 2 wt% OA to levels near 100 ppm oxalate using ECC process conditions required 8 to 12.5 hours without the aid of UV light and 4.5 to 8 hours with the aid of UV light. The pH and ORP were tracked during decomposition testing. Sludge components were tracked during OA decomposition, showing that most components have the highest soluble levels in the initial dissolved sludge and early decomposition samples and exhibit lower soluble levels as OA decomposition progresses. The Deposition Tank storage conditions that included pH adjustment to approximately 1 M free hydroxide tended to bring the soluble concentrations in the ECC product to nearly the same level for each test regardless of storage time, storage temperature, and contact with other tank sludge material. (authors)

  19. Evaluation of pressure transducers to measure surface level in the waste storage tanks

    This report describes the results of tests conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to determine if pressure transducers can be used to measure the surface level in the waste tanks. A survey was first conducted to evaluate which, if any, commercially available pressure transducers were available that could meet the requirements for use in the waste tanks. More than 35 companies were contacted to determine if they manufactured a pressure transducer that could be used in the 101-SY waste tank. The three basic requirements for a pressure transducer for this application were that they were radiation-hardened, could withstand a caustic environment, and were certified to be intrinsically safe. No manufacturer was able to meet all three of these requirements with a commercially available product. Seven companies were able to meet the requirements for being radiation-hardened and being able to withstand the caustic environment. However, only two of the nine companies were willing to supply a pressure transducer for laboratory testing. The two pressure transducers that were tested in this program were the VEGA D36-38 from HiTech Technologies, Inc., and the KP-1911-A from Kaman Instrumentation Corporation. Pressure transducers operate on the principle that the pressure at the location of a sensor increases directly with the depth of the liquid above it. A liquid is required in order for these devices to operate. For these tests, water was first used to determine the ideal operation of the devices, then the devices were placed in a 101-SY waste tank simulant. The simulant had a specific gravity of 1.96 and had the consistency similar to the convective layer in the 101-SY waste tank. In order to determine the surface level with pressure transducers, the density of the material needs to be known

  20. CFD simulation in emptying tanks for calculating submergence in the case of storage tanks, the CFD simulation is based on the modeling of the suction nozzle which affects the study and final part of the storage tank

    The study consists in simulating the emptying of the tank when the water level is near the level of the suction nozzle. The objective pursued is to detect the harmful phenomena that may occur in aspiration, ranging from the appearance of vortices and bubble formation to excessive fluid accelerations. (Author)

  1. Dismantlement and removal of Old Hydrofracture Facility bulk storage bins and water tank, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF), located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), was constructed in 1963 to allow experimentation and operations with an integrated solid storage, mixing, and grout injection facility. During its operation, OHF blended liquid low-level waste with grout and used a hydrofracture process to pump the waste into a deep low-permeable shale formation. Since the OHF Facility was taken out of service in 1980, the four bulk storage bins located adjacent to Building 7852 had deteriorated to the point that they were a serious safety hazard. The ORNL Surveillance and Maintenance Program requested and received permission from the US Department of Energy to dismantle the bins as a maintenance action and send the free-released metal to an approved scrap metal vendor. A 25,000-gal stainless steel water tank located at the OHF site was included in the scope. A fixed-price subcontract was signed with Allied Technology Group, Inc., to remove the four bulk storage bins and water tank to a staging area where certified Health Physics personnel could survey, segregate, package, and send the radiologically clean scrap metal to an approved scrap metal vendor. All radiologically contaminated metal and metal that could not be surveyed was packaged and staged for later disposal. Permissible personnel exposure limits were not exceeded, no injuries were incurred, and no health and safety violations occurred throughout the duration of the project. Upon completion of the dismantlement, the project had generated 53,660 lb of clean scrap metal (see Appendix D). This resulted in $3,410 of revenue generated and a cost avoidance of an estimated $100,000 in waste disposal fees.

  2. Dismantlement and removal of Old Hydrofracture Facility bulk storage bins and water tank, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    The Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF), located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), was constructed in 1963 to allow experimentation and operations with an integrated solid storage, mixing, and grout injection facility. During its operation, OHF blended liquid low-level waste with grout and used a hydrofracture process to pump the waste into a deep low-permeable shale formation. Since the OHF Facility was taken out of service in 1980, the four bulk storage bins located adjacent to Building 7852 had deteriorated to the point that they were a serious safety hazard. The ORNL Surveillance and Maintenance Program requested and received permission from the US Department of Energy to dismantle the bins as a maintenance action and send the free-released metal to an approved scrap metal vendor. A 25,000-gal stainless steel water tank located at the OHF site was included in the scope. A fixed-price subcontract was signed with Allied Technology Group, Inc., to remove the four bulk storage bins and water tank to a staging area where certified Health Physics personnel could survey, segregate, package, and send the radiologically clean scrap metal to an approved scrap metal vendor. All radiologically contaminated metal and metal that could not be surveyed was packaged and staged for later disposal. Permissible personnel exposure limits were not exceeded, no injuries were incurred, and no health and safety violations occurred throughout the duration of the project. Upon completion of the dismantlement, the project had generated 53,660 lb of clean scrap metal (see Appendix D). This resulted in $3,410 of revenue generated and a cost avoidance of an estimated $100,000 in waste disposal fees

  3. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 121: Storage Tanks and Miscellaneous Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan identifies the activities required for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 121, Storage Tanks and Miscellaneous Sites. CAU 121 is currently listed in Appendix III of the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO, 1996) and consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Area 12 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS): CAS 12-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; CAS 12-01-02, Aboveground Storage Tank; and CAS 12-22-26, Drums; 2 AST's. CASs 12-01-01 and 12-01-02 are located to the west of the Area 12 Camp, and CAS 12-22-26 is located near the U-12g Tunnel, also known as G-tunnel, in Area 12 (Figure 1). The aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) present at CASs 12-01-01 and 12-01-02 will be removed and disposed of at an appropriate facility. Soil below the ASTs will be sampled to identify whether it has been impacted with chemicals or radioactivity above action levels. If impacted soil above action levels is present, the soil will be excavated and disposed of at an appropriate facility. The CAS 12-22-26 site is composed of two overlapping areas, one where drums had formerly been stored, and the other where an AST was used to dispense diesel for locomotives used at G-tunnel. This area is located above an underground radioactive materials area (URMA), and within an area that may have elevated background radioactivity because of containment breaches during nuclear tests and associated tunnel reentry operations. CAS 12-22-26 does not include the URMA or the elevated background radioactivity. An AST that had previously been used to store liquid magnesium chloride (MgCl) was properly disposed of several years ago, and releases from this tank are not an environmental concern. The diesel AST will be removed and disposed of at an appropriate facility. Soil at the former drum area and the diesel AST area will be sampled to identify whether it has been impacted by releases, from the drums or the

  4. Analisa Kadar Asam Lemak Bebas (ALB) Dan Kadar Air Pada Minyak CPO Dari Storage Tank Di PTP. Nusantara III PKS Rambutan Tebing Tinggi

    Ginting, Devi Evania Br

    2010-01-01

    It has been done the determination of Free Fatty Acid (FFA) and moisture in CPO from tank analyzer in PTP. Nusantara III PKS Rambutan Tebing Tinggi. The result of analisys obtained for Free Fatty Acid is about 2,10 %- 3,50 % and Moisture is about 0,10 %- 0,15 %. From the result of observation that, the Free Fatty Acid and moisture in CPO from tank analyzer in PTP. Nusantara III PKS Rambutan Tebing Tinggi still to satify the standart of oil quality for Free Fatty Acid in CPO is according to no...

  5. Foundation design of vertical steel storage tank%立式钢制储罐基础设计

    杨文武

    2014-01-01

    以某罐区立式钢制储罐基础设计为例,探讨预制桩、灌注桩和浅基础应用于储罐基础的设计方法。储罐基础设计可比拟为"板-柱结构"体系,借助pkpm结构软件分析两种桩型承载力、浅基础设计、场地条件影响及桩-土共同作用。储罐桩基设计应对水平承载力、竖向承载力和配筋量三控制设计,对于端承型桩基,一般情况下单桩水平承载力起控制作用。相同桩数时,采用方形布桩的边桩配筋比环形布桩的更易产生突变。应用于软土场地的砼预制桩不仅应进行桩基承载力计算,还应加强桩基配筋验算。%Based on a foundation design of vertical steel storage tank in a tank farm , the application of precast piles , pile and shallow foun-dation design method on the basis of the tank were discussed .Tank foundation design can be compared to "plate -column structure"sys-tem, by using PKPM structure software , analysis of bearing capacity , shallow foundation design , site condition and pile -soil interaction of two kinds of pile type were carried out .The horizontal bearing capacity , vertical bearing capacity and reinforcement amount should be controlled in the tank design .For end bearing type piles , single pile horizontal bearing capacity plays a general controlling role .The edge pile reinforcement ratio of square pile arrangement produces mutation more likely than annular arrangement under same number of pile .It is necessary to calculate not only foundation bearing capacity of pile but also foundation reinforcement when precast concrete piles are ap -plied in the soft soil ground .

  6. Detection of leaks in underground storage tanks using electrical resistance methods: 1996 results

    This document provides a summary of a field experiment performed under a 15m diameter steel tank mockup located at the Hanford Reservation, Washington. The purpose of this test was to image a contaminant plume as it develops in soil under a tank already contaminated by previous leakage and to determine whether contaminant plumes can be detected without the benefit of background data. Measurements of electrical resistance were made before and during a salt water release. These measurements were made in soil which contained the remnants of salt water plumes released during previous tests in 1994 and in 1995. About 11,150 liters of saline solution were released along a portion of the tank's edge in 1996. Changes in electrical resistivity due to release of salt water conducted in 1996 were determined in two ways: (1) changes relative to the 1996 pre-spill data, and (2) changes relative to data collected near the middle of the 1996 spill after the release flow rate was increased. In both cases, the observed resistivity changes show clearly defined anomalies caused by the salt water release. These results indicate that when a plume develops over an existing plume and in a geologic environment similar to the test site environment, the resulting resistivity changes are easily detectable. Three dimensional tomographs of the resistivity of the soil under the tank show that the salt water release caused a region of low soil resistivity which can be observed directly without the benefit of comparing the tomograph to tomographs or data collected before the spill started. This means that it may be possible to infer the presence of pre-existing plumes if there is other data showing that the regions of low resistivity are correlated with the presence of contaminated soil. However, this approach does not appear reliable in defining the total extent of the plume due to the confounding effect that natural heterogeneity has on our ability to define the margins of the anomaly

  7. Dehydration and desalting of heavy crude Maya into the TMDB by means of tanks of storage of 500 TB converted to type gun-barrel

    Cisneros, L.F.L.; Abundes, A.A.; Aguinaga, C.A.L.; Monroy, J.D.A.; Jimenez, R.M.; Sanchez, M.R.; Medina, J.L.H.; Vazquez, J.V.; Montano, A.E.G.; Villanueva, A.G.; Moreno, W.N.C.; Maria, G.B.; Mendez, J.L.J.; Cordero, E.D.; Ponce, F.C.; Estrada, C.D.; Azuara, V.H.C. [Petroleos Mexicanos, PEMEX, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    When crude oil emerges from the production well, it is polluted with congenital waters and in some cases with sea water. These waters can be present as free water or emulsified. When the water reaches the surface, the free water is eliminated by sedimentation. However, the reduction of emulsified water is not directly due to the stability presented by the drops of emulsified water in the crude, therefore chemical injection for the separation of both phases is required. This paper discussed the design of a system for dehydration and desalting of 750 TBD Maya heavy crude, by means of tanks type gun-barrel. The design was performed using the simulation packages HYSYS and computational fluid dynamics of ANSYS, considering the parameters that were studied in bottle tests and profiled in tanks storage of 500 TB. The design was based on the settling speed that affects the dehydration and desalting of crude. The paper discussed the production facilities used in the crude dehydration, with particular reference to the gun barrel tank; washer tank; heat treater tanks; free water separator; and electrostatic separator. The development of the system was described in terms of data compilation using Stokes' Law and interpretation of the field data using bottle tests. It was concluded that the gun barrel train was the best option to dehydrate and desalt Mayan oil in the TMDB, since this processing system takes advantage of the existing facilities, specifically the storage tanks of 500 TB capacity. 16 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs.

  8. Effects of inlet momentum and orientation on the hydraulic performance of water storage tanks

    Xavier, Manoel Lucas Machado; Janzen, Johannes Gérson

    2016-07-01

    The influence of inlet momentum and inlet orientation on hydraulic performance of cylindrical water process tanks were investigated using a factorial design strategy. The hydraulic performance of the tanks was assessed with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, which calculated the flow fields and the residence time distribution (RTD). RTDs were used to quantify the tanks hydraulic performance using hydraulic indexes that represent short-circuiting, mixing, and moment. These indexes were later associated with the effluent fraction of disinfectant (inlet and outlet disinfectant ratio). For small depth-to-diameter ratios, the inlet orientation and the inlet momentum were the most important factors regarding the hydraulic indexes and the effluent fraction of disinfectant, respectively. A poor correlation was obtained between the hydraulic indexes and the effluent fraction of disinfectant, indicating that they are not good predictors for water quality. For large depth-to-diameter ratios, the inlet orientation had the most significant effect on both the hydraulic indexes and effluent fraction of disinfectant. The short-circuiting and mixing indexes presented a good correlation with water quality for this case.

  9. Rheology of Savannah River site tank 42 and tank 51 HLW radioactive sludges

    Knowledge of the rheology of the radioactive sludge slurries at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is necessary in order to ensure that they can be retrieved from waste tanks and processed for final disposal. The high activity radioactive wastes stored as caustic slurries at SRS result from the neutralization of acid waste generated from production of nuclear defense materials. During storage, the wastes separate into a supernate layer and a sludge layer. In the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS, the radionuclides from the sludge and supernate will be immobilized into borosilicate glass for long term storage and eventual disposal. Before transferring the waste from a storage tank to the DWPF, a portion of the aluminum in the waste sludge will be dissolved and the sludge will be extensively washed to remove sodium. Tank 51 and Tank 42 radioactive sludges represent the first batch of HLW sludge to be processed in the DWPF. This paper presents results of rheology measurements of Tank 51 and Tank 42 at various solids concentrations. The rheologies of Tank 51 and Tank 42 radioactive slurries were measured remotely in the Shielded Cells Operations (SCO) at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) using a modified Haake Rotovisco RV-12 with an M150 measuring drive unit and TI sensor system. Rheological properties of the Tank 51 and Tank 42 radioactive sludges were measured as a function of weight percent solids. The weight percent solids of Tank 42 sludge was 27, as received. Tank 51 sludge had already been washed. The weight percent solids were adjusted by dilution with water or by concentration through drying. At 12, 15, and 18 weight percent solids, the yield stresses of Tank 51 sludge were 5, 11, and 14 dynes/cm2, respectively. The apparent viscosities were 6, 10, and 12 centipoises at 300 sec-1 shear rate, respectively

  10. Assessment of ground-water contamination from a leaking underground storage tank at a defense supply center near Richmond, Virginia

    During 1988-89, 24 wells were installed in the vicinity of the post-exchange gasoline station on the Defense General Supply Center, near Richmond, Virginia, to collect and analyze groundwater samples for the presence of gasoline contamination from a leaking underground storage tank. Concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons and benzene were as high as 8.2 mg/L and 9,000 microg/L, respectively, in water from wells in the immediate vicinity of the former leaking tank, and benzene concentrations were as high as 2,300 microg/L in a well 600 ft down gradient from the gasoline station. Groundwater flow rate are estimated to be about 60 to 80 ft/yr; on the basis of these flow rates, the contaminants may have been introduced into the groundwater as long as 7-10 yrs ago. Groundwater might infiltrate a subsurface storm sewer, where the sewer is below the water table, and discharge into a nearby stream. Preliminary risk assessment for the site identified no potential human receptors to the groundwater contamination because there were no groundwater users identified in the area. Remediation might be appropriate if exposure of future potential users is concern. Alternatives discussed for remediation of groundwater contamination in the upper aquifer at the PX Service Station include no-action, soil vapor extraction, and groundwater pumping and treatment alternatives

  11. Fragility analysis methodology for degraded structures and passive components in nuclear power plantsIllustrated using a condensate storage tank

    This report describes the seismic fragility capacity for a condensate storage tank with various degradation scenarios. The conservative deterministic failure margin method has been utilized for the undegraded case and has been modified to accommodate the degraded cases. A total of five seismic fragility analysis cases have been described: (1) undegraded case, (2) degraded stainless tank shell, (3) degraded anchor bolts, (4) anchorage concrete cracking, and (5) a perfect correlation of the three degradation scenarios. Insights from these fragility analyses are also presented. An overview of the methods for seismic fragility analysis and generic approaches to incorporate time-dependent degradation models into a fragility analysis is presented. Fundamental concepts of seismic fragility analysis are summarized to facilitate discussions in later sections. The seismic fragility analysis of the undegraded CST, which is assumed to have all of its components in design condition, is described. The subject CST was located in an operating Korean NPP. The baseline fragility capacity of the CST is calculated and the basic procedure of seismic fragility analysis is established. This report presents the results and insights of the seismic fragility analysis of the CST under various postulated degradation scenarios

  12. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 7

    1994-04-01

    This Requirements Identification Document (RID) describes an Occupational Health and Safety Program as defined through the Relevant DOE Orders, regulations, industry codes/standards, industry guidance documents and, as appropriate, good industry practice. The definition of an Occupational Health and Safety Program as specified by this document is intended to address Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendations 90-2 and 91-1, which call for the strengthening of DOE complex activities through the identification and application of relevant standards which supplement or exceed requirements mandated by DOE Orders. This RID applies to the activities, personnel, structures, systems, components, and programs involved in maintaining the facility and executing the mission of the High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms.

  13. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 7

    This Requirements Identification Document (RID) describes an Occupational Health and Safety Program as defined through the Relevant DOE Orders, regulations, industry codes/standards, industry guidance documents and, as appropriate, good industry practice. The definition of an Occupational Health and Safety Program as specified by this document is intended to address Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendations 90-2 and 91-1, which call for the strengthening of DOE complex activities through the identification and application of relevant standards which supplement or exceed requirements mandated by DOE Orders. This RID applies to the activities, personnel, structures, systems, components, and programs involved in maintaining the facility and executing the mission of the High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms

  14. Passive Capillary Pumped Cryocooling System for Zero-Boil-Off Cryogen Storage Tanks Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Significant cost and weight savings of a space mission can be achieved by improving the cryogenic storage technology. Added cryogen mass due to the cryogen...

  15. Determination of Vitamin C and Organic Acid Changes in Strawberry by HPLC During Cold Storage

    Mehmet Ali KOYUNCU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available High pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC methods were used for measurement of vitamin C and organic acid changes of two strawberry cultivars (‘Dorit’ and ‘Selva’ during cold storage. Harvested strawberries at the last stage of commercial ripeness were placed in perforated (8 perforations, 10 mm diameter plastic boxes and stored at 0°C temperature and 90-95% relative humidity for 10 days. Vitamin C content decreased in both cultivars but no significant differences were found in ‘Dorit’ from the beginning to the end of the storage. The highest share of total acids was contributed by citric acid. It decreased with increase in storage time in both cultivars. Malic acid content of cultivars also decreased with storage time. Tartaric, oxalic and fumaric acid contents fluctuated during storage, but at the end of cold storage these organic acids had decreased in comparison to initial values.

  16. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 7. Revision 1

    Burt, D.L.

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 7) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Occupational Safety and Health, and Environmental Protection.

  17. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 7. Revision 1

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 7) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Occupational Safety and Health, and Environmental Protection

  18. Measuring method and calculation of the evaporation rate for LNG storage tank%LNG储罐日蒸发率测量方法及计算

    李晓明; 许燕; 姚淑婷; 王冰; 李国艳

    2013-01-01

    The evaporation rate is an important index of the insulation performance for LNG storage tank,and it is beneficial to better understand the evaporation rote for safe operation for LNG storage tank.Combined with the definition and standard of the evaporation rate of storage tank,and based on the actual operation situations,several measuring methods and calculation formulas of the evaporation rate for LNG storage tank were given in this paper,and the applicability and technological conditions of different measuring methods were also discussed.%日蒸发率是衡量LNG储罐绝热性能的重要指标,有效了解储罐日蒸发率,将有利于LNG储罐安全运行的维护.结合储罐日蒸发率的定义和标准,根据实际操作情况,给出了几种测量LNG储罐日蒸发率的方法及其计算公式,并论述了各种测量方法的适用性和工艺条件.

  19. Risk-based prioritization for the interim remediation of inactive low-level liquid radioactive waste underground storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    The paper presents a risk-based approach for rapid prioritization of low-level liquid radioactive waste underground storage tanks (LLLW USTs), for possible interim corrective measures and/or ultimate closure. The ranking of LLLW USTs is needed to ensure that tanks with the greatest potential for adverse impact on the environment and human health receive top priority for further evaluation and remediation. Wastes from the LLLW USTs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory were pumped out when the tanks were removed from service. The residual liquids and sludge contain a mixture of radionuclides and chemicals. Contaminants of concern that were identified in the liquid phase of the inactive LLLW USTs include the radionuclides 90Sr, 137Cs, and 233U and the chemicals carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethane, tetrachloroethene, methyl ethyl ketone, mercury, lead, and chromium. The risk-based approach for prioritization of the LLLW USTs is based upon three major criteria: (1) leaking characteristics of the tank, (2) location of the tanks, and (3) toxic potential of the tank contents. Leaking characteristics of LLLW USTs will aid in establishing the potential for the release of contaminants to environmental media. In this study, only the liquid phase was assumed to be released to the environment. Scoring criteria for release potential of LLLW USTs was determined after consideration of the magnitude of any known leaks and the tank type for those that are not known to leak

  20. Rationale for the closure of the soil density unreviewed safety question and recommended structural analyses improvements for the Tank Waste Remidiation System underground storage facilities

    The purpose of this report is twofold. First, this report documents the technical evaluation supporting the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) contractor recommendation to close the Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) as originally evaluated in TF-94-0260, Soil Compaction Test Data Indicates Soil Density in Excess of Density Used in Tank Qualification Analysis for AP Tank Farm. Second, this report describes the status of existing structural analyses for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) waste storage structures and outlines the associated technical upgrades being considered by the contractor. This second feature of the report serves to communicate the distinction between the soil density issue which is the topic of the open USQ and other technical issues which are important to the contractor from a programmatic standpoint. Contractor actions to address the latter technical issues would support improvements in day-to-day operations (e.g., provide possible relaxations in soil load restrictions) but are not necessary to close the soil density USQ. Section 2.0 of this report documents the rationale for the PHMC contractor recommendation to the Department of Energy (DOE) to close the soil density USQ. Section 3.0 documents the recommended structural analyses improvements for the double-shell tanks (DSTs) which are the structures associated with the soil density USQ. Sections 4.0 and 5.0 provide, for completeness, the same information for single-shell tanks (SSTs), double-contained receiver tanks (DCRTs), catch tanks and inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (IMUSTs). Section 6.0 provides the conclusions of this report

  1. Nuclear power equipment boric acid injecting tank's manhole and cylinder welded structure optimization

    The paper introduces the structure and manufacture process for the welding seam of the manhole in boric acid injection tank. The manhole cylindrical and the cylinder bevel's angle is 20 degree and the formation of the weld seam is 20 degree. In general, two possibilities occur in the manufacture process, one case is manhole open 5 degree bevel and the cylinder open 15 degree bevel. Another case is the manhole with straight bevel and the cylinder open at 20 degree bevel. Vertical lathe instead of boring machine is used for processing bevel. By moving the workpiece, eccentricity is formed. The cylinder bevel is gradually manufactured from side to side. Considering the cylinder 15 degree bevel and 20 degree bevel, the method of calculating the eccentricity in the vertical lathe processing is a critical issue. The shape of weld seam should also be noticed in welding. This article provides reference for the processing of such kinds of product. (author)

  2. Pengaruh Lamanya Penyimpanan CPO Terhadap Perubahan Kandungan Asam Lemak Bebas Di Storage Tank

    Sucinta, Widayan

    2010-01-01

    The concentration of free fatty acid is a lot of parameters which is use sa raw material.PTP.Nusantara III PKS Rambutan Tebing Tinggi is either of palm oil mill industry using palm oil as raw material, another one is Crude Palm Oil (CPO).Free fatty acid in palm oil influence quality of palm oil very much, because the high of free fatty acid makes oil has bed smell.in the scientific works definite concentration of free fatty acid with titrimetric methods in alkalimetri, which is use the bromot...

  3. INVESTIGATIONS OF THE FLOW INTO A STORAGE TANK BY MEANS OF ADVANCED EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL METHODS

    Jordan, Ulrike; Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    2003-01-01

    study the influence of the inlet device geometry and of the operating conditions (the flow rate, draw-off volume, and temperatures) on the thermal stratification in the tank. Measurements of the flow and temperature fields were carried out with two visualization techniques: - To visualize the flow field...... a method called Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was applied. Particles with a size of 1 to 10 mm were seeded in the water and then illuminated by a laser within a narrow plane. In order to measure the three velocity components of the flow within the plane, the particle displacements between laser...... pulses was recorded with two cameras. - The second experimental method applied is called Temperature Planar Laser Induced Luminescence (T-PLIF). With this method the temperature field can be visualized using a fluorescence dye (Rhodamine B). The dye is excited with a laser light sheet. Due to the fact...

  4. Development of Lightweight Material Composites to Insulate Cryogenic Tanks for 30-Day Storage in Outer Space

    Krause, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    A conceptual design was developed for an MLI system which will meet the design constraints of an ILRV used for 7- to 30-day missions. The ten tasks are briefly described: (1) material survey and procurement, material property tests, and selection of composites to be considered; (2) definition of environmental parameters and tooling requirements, and thermal and structural design verification test definition; (3) definition of tanks and associated hardware to be used, and definition of MLI concepts to be considered; (4) thermal analyses, including purge, evacuation, and reentry repressurization analyses; (5) structural analyses (6) thermal degradation tests of composite and structural tests of fastener; (7) selection of MLI materials and system; (8) definition of a conceptual MLI system design; (9) evaluation of nondestructive inspection techniques and definition of procedures for repair of damaged areas; and (10) preparation of preliminary specifications.

  5. Thermo-mechanical Analysis of Cold Helium Injection into Gas Storage Tanks made of Carbon Steel Following Resistive Transition of the LHC Magnets

    Chorowski, M

    1998-01-01

    A resistive transition (quench) of the LHC sector magnets will be followed by cold helium venting to a quench buffer volume of 2000 m3 at ambient temperature. The volume will be composed of eight medi um-pressure (2 MPa) gas storage tanks made of carbon steel, which constrains the temperature of the wall to be higher than -50oC (223 K). The aim of the analysis is the assessment of a possible spot c ooling intensity and thermo-mechanical stresses in the tank wall following helium injection.

  6. Energy system investment model incorporating heat pumps with thermal storage in buildings and buffer tanks

    Hedegaard, Karsten; Balyk, Olexandr

    2013-01-01

    Individual compression heat pumps constitute a potentially valuable resource in supporting wind power integration due to their economic competitiveness and possibilities for flexible operation. When analysing the system benefits of flexible heat pump operation, effects on investments should be ta...... of operating heat pumps flexibly. This includes prioritising heat pump operation for hours with low marginal electricity production costs, and peak load shaving resulting in a reduced need for peak and reserve capacity investments.......Individual compression heat pumps constitute a potentially valuable resource in supporting wind power integration due to their economic competitiveness and possibilities for flexible operation. When analysing the system benefits of flexible heat pump operation, effects on investments should...... be taken into account. In this study, we present a model that facilitates analysing individual heat pumps and complementing heat storages in integration with the energy system, while optimising both investments and operation. The model incorporates thermal building dynamics and covers various heat storage...

  7. Technical Assessment of Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage Tank Systems for Automotive Applications

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hua, T. Q. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Peng, J. -K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lasher, S. [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); McKenney, Kurtis [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States); Sinha, J. [TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Technical report describing DOE's second assessment report on a third generation (Gen3) system capable of storing hydrogen at cryogenic temperatures within a pressure vessel on-board a vehicle. The report includes an overview of technical progress to date, including the potential to meet DOE onboard storage targets, as well as independent reviews of system cost and energy analyses of the technology paired with delivery costs.

  8. Retention of ascorbic acid in fortified orange juice powers during storage

    G. S. Siddappa

    1960-10-01

    Full Text Available Both Coorg and Sathgudi orange juice powders are good carriers for added ascorbic acid during prolonged storage at ordinary temperatures. There is not much difference between nitrogen and air packs as regards retention of ascorbic acid during storage. Nitrogen pack, however, helps to keep the power in a better free-flowing condition.

  9. Scaling and parametric studies of condensation oscillation in an in-containment refueling water storage tank

    The purpose of this paper is to study the condensation oscillation phenomena by steam-jetting into subcooled water through a sparger, implementing a scaling methodology and the similarity correlation between the test facility and model prototype. In additon, the results of this study can provide suitable guidelines for sparger design utilized in the IRWST for the Advanced Passive Reactor 1400 (APR 1400). To corroborate the scaling methodology, various experimental tests were conducted. The scaling-related parameters experimentally considered were water temperatures, mass flux, discharge system volumes, tank sizes, source pressure, steam-jetting directions, and numbers of sparger discharge holes. To preserve the scaling similarity, the thickness of the minimum water volume created by the boundary layer that encloses the steam cavity was found to be equal to the maximum length of the steam cavity formed. Four key scaling parameters were identified and empirically correlated with the maximum amplitude of pressure oscillation. They are as follows: Volume of the steam cavity, flow restriction coefficient, discharge hole area, and density ratio of steam to water. Variations of the oscillation amplitude were small when steam-jetting directions were altered. The concept of a reduction factor was introduced for estimating the oscillation amplitude of the multi-hole sparger with test data from a single-hole sparger

  10. Recycling of underground storage tanks: a way-out to the risks; Reciclagem de tanques de combustiveis: solucoes para os riscos envolvidos

    Duarte, Cristiano J.P.; Santos, Joao David [Companhia Brasileira de Petroleo Ipiranga, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    In petrol stations, the removal of an underground storage tank happens when it becomes unnecessary or inappropriate. Among the several reasons which motivate this removal, we can mention the environmental license process. According to the Resolution CONAMA 273/00, all the petrol stations are subjected to the previous, installation and operation licenses (including the ones in operation). This will cause the substitution of a large number of tanks all over Brazil along the following years. However, so that the license process can be successful, it is necessary that the environmental impacts caused by its implementation are properly managed, avoiding safety problems and providing that there won't be any damage to the environment. This work shows alternatives for the recycling of the tank, the destination of residue and the maintenance of safety all over the process. (author)

  11. OPTIMIZATION OF INTERNAL HEAT EXCHANGERS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE TANKS UTILIZING METAL HYDRIDES

    Garrison, S.; Tamburello, D.; Hardy, B.; Anton, D.; Gorbounov, M.; Cognale, C.; van Hassel, B.; Mosher, D.

    2011-07-14

    Two detailed, unit-cell models, a transverse fin design and a longitudinal fin design, of a combined hydride bed and heat exchanger are developed in COMSOL{reg_sign} Multiphysics incorporating and accounting for heat transfer and reaction kinetic limitations. MatLab{reg_sign} scripts for autonomous model generation are developed and incorporated into (1) a grid-based and (2) a systematic optimization routine based on the Nelder-Mead downhill simplex method to determine the geometrical parameters that lead to the optimal structure for each fin design that maximizes the hydrogen stored within the hydride. The optimal designs for both the transverse and longitudinal fin designs point toward closely-spaced, small cooling fluid tubes. Under the hydrogen feed conditions studied (50 bar), a 25 times improvement or better in the hydrogen storage kinetics will be required to simultaneously meet the Department of Energy technical targets for gravimetric capacity and fill time. These models and methodology can be rapidly applied to other hydrogen storage materials, such as other metal hydrides or to cryoadsorbents, in future work.

  12. Free polyunsaturated fatty acids cause taste deterioration of salmon during frozen storage

    Refsgaard, Hanne; Brockhoff, P.M.B.; Jensen, Benny

    2000-01-01

    Increased intensity of train oil taste, bitterness, and metal taste are the most pronounced sensory changes during frozen storage of salmon (Refsgaard, H. H. F.; Brockhoff, P. B.; Jensen, B. Sensory and Chemical Changes in Farmed Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) during Frozen Storage. J. Agric. Food...... the intensity of train oil taste, bitterness, and metal taste. The added level of each fatty acid (similar to 1 mg/g salmon meat) was equivalent to the concentration of the fatty acids determined in salmon stored as fillet at -10 degrees C for 6 months. The effect of addition of the fatty acids on the intensity...... of train oil taste, bitterness and metal taste was in the order: DHA > palmitoleic acid > linoleic acid > EPA. Formation of free fatty acids was inhibited by cooking the salmon meat before storage. Furthermore, no changes in phospholipid level were observed during frozen storage. The results suggest...

  13. Calculation Method for Static Capacity of Crude Oil Storage Tank%原油储罐静态容量计算方法

    马德起; 崔立; 陈焱; 曹雪林; 高睿; 吴琨; 崔胜君

    2016-01-01

    原油储罐静态计量需要查阅罐容表,结合测量结果和化验数据,进行多步内插法计算方可得到储罐存油的体积、质量、毛桶等数据,涉及的数据参数多、计算量大.以往采用人工计算容易出错,商业化的软件往往不能满足用户的更多计算需求.为提高工作效率,节约人工成本,制作出相对应的Excel原油储罐静态自动计量表,并将罐容表值插入计算表中实现自动计算表格,只要输入液位高度、温度、密度(20℃)、水分,便可得到相对应的数据.该计算方法方便计量人员使用,计算数据准确可靠.%The static measurement of crude oil storage tank needs to consult the tank capaci-ty table with the measurement results and the test data. The method can obtain the volume, mass and the weight of the storage tank. In the past, the use of artificial calculation error prone, commercial software can not meet the needs of more users. To improve work effi-ciency, save labor costs, make out a corresponding crude oil storage tank static measure-ment automatic calculation table, and the tank capacity table is inserted into the calculation table to achieve automatic calculation, so as the input level height, temperature, density (20 ℃), moisture, that can get the corresponding data, this calcalation method is easy to use,the calculation data is accurate and reliable.

  14. Short report on an accident during sodium cleanup with ethyl carbitol in a storage tank of a research facility

    A brief description is given of an accident which happened on 8 March 1996 during cleanup of a small amount of sodium (about 3 kg) within a 500 l storage tank of an FZK research facility, using ethyl carbitol (EC) as a reactant. An unexpected rapid decomposition of the compounds into ignitable gases which were then released through a safety valve into the building caused a deflagration event and, as a consequence, some damage to the building walls and to the research facility. The personnel were evacuated from the building before the event happened, and so nobody was injured. Sodium cleanup with ethyl carbitol was a well-established method, and cleaning procedures of the research facility were carried out since 1991 for more than twenty times without any problem. The advantage of heavy alcohol is low vapour pressure, high ignition point and mild reaction with sodium. In the paper, a short description is given of the main features of the research facility, of the usual cleanup procedure, and of the accident including its conditions. An analysis of the event (which is incomplete of course) is presented with regard to pressure, temperature and chemical composition. Finally, the consequences are addressed. The most important one is that sodium decommissioning with EC as reactant should be avoided until possible runaway reactions are sufficiently understood. (author)

  15. Effect of Heat Treatment Process on Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of a 9% Ni Steel for Large LNG Storage Tanks

    Zhang, J. M.; Li, H.; Yang, F.; Chi, Q.; Ji, L. K.; Feng, Y. R.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, two different heat treatment processes of a 9% Ni steel for large liquefied natural gas storage tanks were performed in an industrial heating furnace. The former was a special heat treatment process consisting of quenching and intercritical quenching and tempering (Q-IQ-T). The latter was a heat treatment process only consisting of quenching and tempering. Mechanical properties were measured by tensile testing and charpy impact testing, and the microstructure was analyzed by optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. The results showed that outstanding mechanical properties were obtained from the Q-IQ-T process in comparison with the Q-T process, and a cryogenic toughness with charpy impact energy value of 201 J was achieved at 77 K. Microstructure analysis revealed that samples of the Q-IQ-T process had about 9.8% of austenite in needle-like martensite, while samples of the Q-T process only had about 0.9% of austenite retained in tempered martensite.

  16. Failure analysis of primary argon storage tanks for fast breeder test reactor (FBTR) at Reactor Research Centre, Kalpakkam (Paper IIIA-e)

    Madeswaran, R.

    1986-01-01

    An attempt is made to bring out the details of the Failure Analysis carried out on the four numbers of primary argon storage tanks made from AISI type 304L stainless steel for FBTR Project, after receipt at site. After inspection at site before erection, it was found that all the four tanks had suffered severe pitting and crevice corrosion on the inside surface. The study revealed that the corrosion from inside was caused by the presence of crevices formed due to weld spatters and excess or non-uniform penetration of weld beads along with the service water with a high chloride content, which had not been drained out fully, after the hydrostatic testing at the manufacture's shop. The water had remained in these tanks for about 12 months which caused the damage. Due to the severity of the corrosion attack, all the four tanks were rejected, new tanks were fabricated with modification suiting the requirement and since erected. 4 figures.

  17. J-Integral fracture toughness testing and correlation to the microstructure of A285 steel for fracture analysis of storage tanks

    The fracture toughness properties of A285 steels are being measured at various material and test conditions for application to elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis of high-level waste storage tanks at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site. Testing is being performed to determine the effect of composition, microstructure and orientation on the J-Integral resistance behavior at minimum operating temperatures

  18. J-integral fracture toughness testing and correlation to the microstructure of A285 Steel for fracture analysis of storage tanks

    The fracture toughness properties of A285 steels are being measured at various material and test conditions for application to elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis of high-level waste storage tanks at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site. Testing is being performed to determine the effect of composition, microstructure and orientation on the J-Integral resistance behavior at minimum operating temperatures

  19. Upgrade of 400,000 gallon water storage tank at Argonne National Laboratory - West to UCR-15910 high hazard seismic requirements

    As part of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Project at Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W), it was necessary to strengthen an existing 400,000 gallon flat-bottom water storage tank to meet UCRL-15910 (currently formulated as DOE Standard DOE-STD0-1020-92, Draft) high hazard natural phenomena requirements. The tank was constructed in 1988 and preliminary calculations indicated that the existing base anchorage was insufficient to prevent buckling and potential failure during a high hazard seismic event. General design criteria, including ground motion input, load combinations, etc., were based upon the requirements of UCRL-15910 for high hazard facilities. The analysis and capacity assessment criteria were based on the Generic Implementation Procedure developed by the Seismic Qualification Utilities Group (SQUG). Upgrade modifications, consisting of increasing the size of the foundation and installing additional anchor bolts and chairs, were necessary to increase the capacity of the tank anchorage/support system. The construction of the upgrades took place in 1992 while the tank remained in service to allow continued operation of the EBR-II reactor. The major phases of construction included the installation and testing of 144 1-1/4 inches x 15 inches, and 366 1 inches x 16 inches epoxied concrete anchors, placement of 220 cubic yards of concrete heavily reinforced, and installation of 24 1-1/2 inches x 60 inches tank anchor bolts and chairs. A follow-up inspection of the tank interior by a diver was conducted to determine if the interior tank coating had been damaged by the chair welding. The project was completed on schedule and within budget

  20. Upgrade of 400,000 gallon water storage tank at Argonne National Laboratory-West to UCRL-15910 high hazard seismic requirements

    As part of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Project at Argonne National Laboratory West (ANL-W), it was necessary to strengthen an existing 400,000 gallon flat-bottom water storage tank to meet UCRL-15910 (currently formulated as DOE Standard DOE-STD-1020-92, Draft) high hazard natural phenomena requirements. The tank was constructed in 1988 and preliminary calculations indicated that the existing base anchorage was insufficient to prevent buckling and potential failure during a high hazard seismic event. General design criteria, including ground motion input, load combinations, etc., were based upon the requirements of UCRL-15910 for high hazard facilities. The analysis and capacity assessment criteria were based on the Generic Implementation Procedure developed by the Seismic Qualification Utilities Group (SQUG). Upgrade modifications, consisting of increasing the size of the Generic Implementation Procedure developed by the Seismic Qualification Utilities Group (SQUG). Upgrade modifications, consisting of increasing the size of the foundation and installing additional anchor bolts and chairs, were necessary to increase the capacity of the tank anchorage/support system. The construction of the upgrades took place in 1992 while the tank remained in service to allow continued operation of the EBR-II reactor. The major phases of construction included the installation and testing of 144 1/14in. x 15in., and 366 1in. x 16in. epoxied concrete anchors, placement of 220 cubic yards of concrete heavily reinforced, and installation of 24 1-1/2in. x 60in. tank anchor bolts and chairs. A follow-up inspection of the tank interior by a diver was conducted to determine if the interior tank coating had been damaged by the chair welding. The project was completed on schedule and within budget

  1. A 400,000 lb crude oil storage tank was moved on an 11 in. air blanket

    1979-03-01

    The British patented-system used to move the 55,000 bbl tank at the Cushing, Okla., tank farm of Getty Oil Co. uses the same airlift principle employed by various hovercraft. Representatives from 20 pipeline and oil companies watched the move, which placed the tank 22 ft higher and 600 ft away from its former location, to improve its gravity flow rate, an improvement spurred by greater crude demands placed on Cushing Terminal. Two 425 hp air compressors were attached to the tank's shell and produced 130,000 cu ft/min of air. The airflow was directed beneath the tank through a segmented skirt fixed to the circumference of the tank's base. Less than 0.5 psi air pressure across the tank floor was needed to lift the tank. Four large D-7 tractors pulled and guided the tank up the incline onto its new pad, where the vessel was rotated into alignment for piping connections. Preliminary rig-up, grading, and pad preparation took six days, but actual tank relocation required only two hours. Getty's Cushing terminal feeds to the 20 in. dia Osage pipeline that serves Getty's El Dorado, Kans., refinery as well as other carriers.

  2. Characterization of uranium-contaminated sediments from beneath a nuclear waste storage tank from Hanford, Washington: Implications for contaminant transport and fate

    Um, Wooyong; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. Jeffery; Wang, Zheming; Dodge, Cleveland J.; Francis, Arokiasamy J.

    2010-02-01

    The concentration and distribution of uranium (U) in sediment samples from three boreholes recovered near radioactive waste storage tanks at Hanford, Washington, USA, were determined in detail using bulk and micro-analytical techniques. The source of contamination was a plume that contained an estimated 7000 kg of dissolved U that seeped into the subsurface as a result of an accident that occurred during filling of tank BX-102. The desorption character and kinetics of U were also determined by experiment in order to assess the mobility of U in the vadose zone. Most samples contained too little moisture to obtain quantitative information on pore water compositions. Concentrations of U (and contaminant phosphate—P) in pore waters were therefore estimated by performing 1:1 sediment-to-water extractions and the data indicated concentrations of these elements were above that of uncontaminated "background" sediments. Further extraction of U by 8 N nitric acid indicated that a significant fraction of the total U is relatively immobile and may be sequestered in mobilization-resistant phases. Fine- and coarse-grained samples in sharp contact with one another were sub-sampled for further scrutiny and identification of U reservoirs. Segregation of the samples into their constituent size fractions coupled with microwave-assisted digestion of bulk samples showed that most of the U contamination was sequestered within the fine-grained fraction. Isotope exchange ( 233U) tests revealed that ˜51% to 63% of the U is labile, indicating that the remaining fund of U is locked up in mobilization-resistant phases. Analysis by Micro-X-ray Fluorescence and Micro-X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Spectroscopy (μ-XRF and μ-XANES) showed that U is primarily associated with Ca and is predominately U(VI). The spectra obtained on U-enriched "hot spots" using Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRLIFS) provide strong evidence for uranophane-type [Ca(UO 2) 2(SiO 3OH) 2(H 2O) 5

  3. Substructure Shaking Table Test Simulation Analysis of Liquid Storage Tanks%储液罐子结构振动台试验仿真分析

    周利剑; 范远刚; 高斌; 单明康; 王向英

    2013-01-01

    It is difficult to truly reflect the seismic response of the liquid storage tanks by the finite ele -ment simulation due to simplification of material properties .And the shaking table can only complete small scale model tests,the obtained results may quite different with what of the tank prototype .To this end,a method of the liquid storage tanks substructure shaking table test was proposed ,using the Malhotra simpli-fied model,the liquid storage tank is divided into two parts i .e.the experimental substructure and the nu -merical substructure.MATLAB program is used to simulate and analyze the liquid storage tank substruc -ture shaking table test.The results are in good agreement with what of the whole structure .The obtained tank base shear force is close with what of the specification algorithm .%  由于有限元仿真需要假设材料性能,难以真实全面地反映储液罐的地震响应;而振动台试验只能完成较小比例的模型试验,与储罐原型差距很大。为此,提出了储液罐子结构振动台试验方法,采用 Malhotra 力学模型,将储液罐划分为试验子结构和数值子结构两部分。运用 MATLAB 程序对储液罐子结构振动台试验进行了仿真试验分析。仿真计算表明:储液罐子结构仿真结果与全结构的计算结果有较好的吻合性,仿真计算的储罐基底剪力与规范算法接近。

  4. Effect of brine flow rate on the performance of a spiral-jacketed thermal storage tank used for SDHW systems: A computational fluid dynamics study

    This study numerically investigates the effect of the brine flow rate on the thermal performance of a spiral-jacketed thermal storage tank (TST) installed in a solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system. The spiral-jacketed TST is a TST with a mantle heat exchanger, consisting of a vertical, cylindrical water tank for energy storage and a spiral brine flow path attached to the tank wall for heat transfer. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was constructed based on the actual geometry of a spiral-jacketed TST. In addition, the boundary conditions were defined by considering solar radiation and ambient temperature data that were measured during experimental operation of the SDHW system. The numerical results demonstrated that an increase in the brine flow rate enhances the thermal efficiency of the TST due to higher heat transfer coefficients in the spiral path, and also leads to reduced thermal stratification in the TST. On the other hand, a lower brine flow rate increased the heat transfer rate at the inlet of the spiral path near the top of the TST, which resulted in enhanced thermal stratification. The optimal range for the rate of brine flow rate is discussed with respect to the thermal efficiency of the TST and the required pumping power for brine circulation in the spiral flow path. - Highlights: → A CFD model was developed for a spiral-jacketed thermal storage tank (TST) installed in a solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system. → Effects of brine flow rate on the overall performance of the spiral-jacketed TST were numerically investigated. → Higher brine flow rates slightly increased the solar energy acquired by the TST, but it also increased the pump power required to circulate the brine. → Lower brine flow rates were found to be a better option for the spiral-jacketed TST, by maximizing the exergy of the SDHW system.

  5. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    This report considers the feasibility of exposing, demolishing, and removing underground storage tanks from the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. For the study, it was assumed that the tanks would each contain 360 ft3 of residual waste (corresponding to the one percent residual Inventory target cited in the Tri-Party Agreement) at the time of demolition. The 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a ''strawman'' in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tank farms. The report is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms

  6. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1998-10-14

    This report considers the feasibility of exposing, demolishing, and removing underground storage tanks from the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. For the study, it was assumed that the tanks would each contain 360 ft{sup 3} of residual waste (corresponding to the one percent residual Inventory target cited in the Tri-Party Agreement) at the time of demolition. The 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a ''strawman'' in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tank farms. The report is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms.

  7. Sludge mobilization with submerged nozzles in horizontal cylindrical tanks

    The Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) and the evaporator service tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are used for the collection and storage of liquid low-level waste (LLLW). Wastes collected in these tanks are typically acidic when generated and are neutralized with sodium hydroxide to protect the tanks from corrosion; however, the high pH of the solution causes the formation of insoluble compounds that precipitate. These precipitates formed a sludge layer approximately 0.6 to 1.2 m (2 to 4 ft) deep in the bottom of the tanks. The sludge in the MVSTs and the evaporator service tanks will eventually need to be removed from the tanks and treated for final disposal or transferred to another storage facility. The primary options for removing the sludge include single-point sluicing, use of a floating pump, robotic sluicing, and submerged-nozzle sluicing. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate the feasibility of submerged-nozzle sluicing in horizontal cylindrical tanks and (2) obtain experimental data to validate the TEMPEST (time-dependent, energy, momentun, pressure, equation solution in three dimensions) computer code

  8. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 120: Areas 5 and 6 Aboveground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    This Closure Report provides documentation for the closure of Corrective Action Unit 120. CAU 120 consists of two Corrective Action Sites located in Areas 5 and 6 of the Nevada Test Site. CAS 05-01-01 is located in Area 5 and consists of three 45,800-liter aboveground storage tanks, piping, and debris associated with Well RNM-1. CAS 06-01-01 in Area 6 consists of two aboveground storage tanks and two tanker trailers All the CAU 120 items have been used to convey or contain radiologically contaminated fluid from post-nuclear event activities at the NTS> Closure of this CAU was completed by collecting samples to identify the appropriate method of disposal for tanks, piping, debris, and tankers in each CAS. Placing low-level radioactive waste into the appropriate containers and disposing of waste in the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, the Area 9 10C Landfill, and the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site

  9. Interim report on status of containment integrity studies for continued in-tank storage of Hanford high-level defense waste

    This interim report supplements technical information reported in RHO-LD-52, Status of Containment Integrity Studies for Continued In-Tank Storage of Hanford Defense High-Level Waste, September 1978. Only new data from the continuing laboratory programs and those studies initiated in the past year are included. Analyses of waste tank concrete integrity continued through the year. Laboratory tests to determine the effect of long-term elevated temperatures on the strength and elastic properties of concrete showed that the modulus of elasticity, compressive strength, and splitting tensile strength continued to decrease as a function of temperature; Poisson's ratio was relatively unchanged. The durability tests of reinforced concrete specimens exposed to simulated waste chemicals showed no evidence of deterioration after 6 months exposure. Temperature cycling effects after 17 cycles showed little change in the compressive strength but a large reduction in the modulus of elasticity. A structural failure mode analysis was initiated to estimate the effect of constant dead load, elevated temperature, and aggressive chemicals on tank structural integrity after 100 years of waste storage. No results are presently available. A report is scheduled for completion in early 1980. An electron microscopy analysis was initiated to determine if microstructural changes in concrete can be detected which would provide a key for correlating relatively short-term laboratory data to predicting long-term structural behavior. Documented results are scheduled for late 1980

  10. Work plan and health and safety plan for Building 3019B underground storage tank at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Burman, S.N.; Brown, K.S.; Landguth, D.C.

    1992-08-01

    As part of the Underground Storage Tank Program at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, this Health and Safety Plan has been developed for removal of the 110-gal leaded fuel underground storage tank (UST) located in the Building 3019B area at ORNL This Health and Safety Plan was developed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Health and Safety Research Division at ORNL The major components of the plan follow: (1) A project description that gives the scope and objectives of the 110-gal tank removal project and assigns responsibilities, in addition to providing emergency information for situations occurring during field operations; (2) a health and safety plan in Sect. 15 for the Building 3019B UST activities, which describes general site hazards and particular hazards associated with specific tasks, personnel protection requirements and mandatory safety procedures; and (3) discussion of the proper form completion and reporting requirements during removal of the UST. This document addresses Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements in 29 CFR 1910.120 with respect to all aspects of health and safety involved in a UST removal. In addition, the plan follows the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) QAMS 005/80 (1980) format with the inclusion of the health and safety section (Sect. 15).

  11. Work plan and health and safety plan for Building 3019B underground storage tank at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Burman, S.N.; Brown, K.S.; Landguth, D.C.

    1992-08-01

    As part of the Underground Storage Tank Program at the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, this Health and Safety Plan has been developed for removal of the 110-gal leaded fuel underground storage tank (UST) located in the Building 3019B area at ORNL This Health and Safety Plan was developed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Health and Safety Research Division at ORNL The major components of the plan follow: (1) A project description that gives the scope and objectives of the 110-gal tank removal project and assigns responsibilities, in addition to providing emergency information for situations occurring during field operations; (2) a health and safety plan in Sect. 15 for the Building 3019B UST activities, which describes general site hazards and particular hazards associated with specific tasks, personnel protection requirements and mandatory safety procedures; and (3) discussion of the proper form completion and reporting requirements during removal of the UST. This document addresses Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements in 29 CFR 1910.120 with respect to all aspects of health and safety involved in a UST removal. In addition, the plan follows the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) QAMS 005/80 (1980) format with the inclusion of the health and safety section (Sect. 15).

  12. A Calculation Method for the Sloshing Impact Pressure Imposed on the Roof of a Passive Water Storage Tank of AP1000

    Daogang Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a large water storage tank installed at the top of containment of AP1000, which can supply the passive cooling. In the extreme condition, sloshing of the free surface in the tank may impact on the roof under long-period earthquake. For the safety assessment of structure, it is necessary to calculate the impact pressure caused by water sloshing. Since the behavior of sloshing impacted on the roof is involved into a strong nonlinear phenomenon, it is a little difficult to calculate such pressure by theoretical or numerical method currently. But it is applicable to calculate the height of sloshing in a tank without roof. In the present paper, a simplified method was proposed to calculate the impact pressure using the sloshing wave height, in which we first marked the position of the height of roof, then produced sloshing in the tank without roof and recorded the maximum wave height, and finally regarded approximately the difference between maximum wave height and roof height as the impact pressure head. We also designed an experiment to verify this method. The experimental result showed that this method overpredicted the impact pressure with a certain error of no more than 35%. By the experiment, we conclude that this method is conservative and applicable for the engineering design.

  13. Design and operation of an aluminium alloy tank using doped Na3AlH6 in kg scale for hydrogen storage

    Urbanczyk, R.; Peinecke, K.; Meggouh, M.; Minne, P.; Peil, S.; Bathen, D.; Felderhoff, M.

    2016-08-01

    In this publication the authors present an aluminium alloy tank for hydrogen storage using 1921 g of Na3AlH6 doped with 4 mol% of TiCl3 and 8 mol% of activated carbon. The tank and the heat exchangers are manufactured by extrusion moulding of Al-Mg-Si based alloys. EN AW 6082 T6 alloy is used for the tank and a specifically developed alloy with a composition similar to EN AW 6060 T6 is used for the heat exchangers. The three heat exchangers have a corrugated profile to enhance the surface area for heat transfer. The doped complex hydride Na3AlH6 is densified to a powder density of 0.62 g cm-3. The hydrogenation experiments are carried out at 2.5 MPa. During one of the dehydrogenation experiments approximately 38 g of hydrogen is released, accounting for gravimetric hydrogen density of 2.0 mass-%. With this tank 15 hydrogenation and 16 dehydrogenation tests are carried out.

  14. Shear conditions in clavulanic acid production by Streptomyces clavuligerus in stirred tank and airlift bioreactors.

    Cerri, M O; Badino, A C

    2012-08-01

    In biochemical processes involving filamentous microorganisms, the high shear rate may damage suspended cells leading to viability loss and cell disruption. In this work, the influence of the shear conditions in clavulanic acid (CA) production by Streptomyces clavuligerus was evaluated in a 4-dm(3) conventional stirred tank (STB) and in 6-dm(3) concentric-tube airlift (ALB) bioreactors. Batch cultivations were performed in a STB at 600 and 800 rpm and 0.5 vvm (cultivations B1 and B2) and in ALB at 3.0 and 4.1 vvm (cultivations A1 and A2) to define two initial oxygen transfer conditions in both bioreactors. The average shear rate ([Formula: see text]) of the cultivations was estimated using correlations of recent literature based on experimental data of rheological properties of the broth (consistency index, K, and flow index, n) and operating conditions, impeller speed (N) for STB and superficial gas velocity in the riser (UGR) for ALB. In the same oxygen transfer condition, the [Formula: see text] values for ALB were higher than those obtained in STB. The maximum [Formula: see text] presented a strong correlation with a maximum consistency index (K (max)) of the broth. Close values of maximum CA production were obtained in cultivations A1 and A2 (454 and 442 mg L(-1)) with similar maximum [Formula: see text] values of 4,247 and 4,225 s(-1). In cultivations B1 and B2, the maximum CA production of 269 and 402 mg L(-1) were reached with a maximum [Formula: see text] of 904 and 1,786 s(-1). The results show that high values of average shear rate increase the CA production regardless of the oxygen transfer condition and bioreactor model. PMID:22271253

  15. 分区蓄热水箱应用于太阳能热泵中的蓄放热分析%Heat Storage Analysis of Solar Heat Pump Based on Partitioned Heat Storage Tank

    孙书华; 金苏敏

    2013-01-01

    针对冬季太阳能辐射弱且不稳定的特点,提出一种应用于太阳能热泵的分区蓄热水箱,以水泵驱动蓄热水箱循环区与蓄热区的热量传递,并运用热力学原理对水箱循环区与蓄热区的运行状况进行模拟,分析了水箱两区在不同水泵体积流量下的逐时温度变化并与整体式水箱进行对比.结果表明,分区蓄热水箱克服了整体式水箱的热惰性,启动灵活,能在较短时间内达到热泵运行的理想温度,显著提高了系统的性能.%A type of the partitioned heat storage tank is presented to solve the problem of unstability and weakness of the solar radiation in winter. The heat transfer between the operating part and storage part is driven by water pump. The operation status of the tank is simulated by using the thermodynamic principle. It is analyzed that the changes of temperature of operating tank with times under different volume flow of the water pump, and compared with the operation of whole tank. The results show that the partitioned tank will overcome the problem of thermal inertia and start flexibly; the satisfactory temperature can be attained quickly for heat pump operating. Thus, it improves the property of the system.

  16. Effect of storage of rice seeds on solute leaching and nucleic acid synthesis

    Rice (Oryza sativa Linn.) seeds of early varieties 'Ratna' and 'Jaya' and late varieties 'Suakalma' and 'Pankaj' remained viable for 12 to 16 months in normal storage. Conductivity of pooled leachates, leaching of soluble carbohydrate and nitrogen increased with duration of storage. While 32P uptake in isolated embryos and endosperms of fresh, 1-year and 2-year-old seeds showed a declining trend, its incorporation in nucleic acids did not vary significantly. The content of nucleic acid of seeds, however, decreased with an increase in the storage period. (auth.)

  17. Design and fabrication of a prototype sensor system for waste storage tank characterization. CRADA final report for CRADA Number ORNL92-0094

    On February 15--16 1994, ORNL and MTI presented a technology demonstration showcasing the results of a CRADA between the two organizations. The CRADA project entailed design and development of a structured light mapping system suitable for deployment in underground waste storage tanks. The CRADA expanded upon a system previously designed and deployed at the DOE Fernald site by ORNL. Enhancements in the new system include: a factor of ten increase in mapping speed; radiation and environmental hardening sufficient for use in the Hanford single-shell tanks (up to 5,000 rad/hr, pH = 12, high heat, etc.); capability to map and display data for both vertical surfaces, such as pipes, and horizontal surfaces; rugged, compact design that can be deployed through a ten centimeter riser; and a design that can be decontaminated easily after deployment

  18. Reverse-current circulation in connection-piping for hot-water storage tanks - Film; Waermeverluste durch Gegenstromzirkulation (rohrinterne Zirkulation) in an Speichern angeschlossenen Rohrleitungen

    Vogelsanger, P.; Geisshuesler, S.; Lauber, A.; Daguenet, X.; Marty, H.

    2008-06-15

    This video film of 6.5 minutes duration shows on an impressive way the reverse-current circulation that takes place by natural convection in the connection-piping of a hot-water storage tank when no water is drawn off from the tank or circulated in the piping by means of a pump. The reverse-current circulation causes large heat losses and should be inhibited by means of heat traps or convection breaks. The laboratory experiments were performed using transparent piping. A blue dye was injected into the piping to visualise the water flow in its interior. The film also includes an excerpt of an older film from earlier research, in which the evidence of reverse-current circulation was first demonstrated in Switzerland.

  19. Application of a temperature selective storage tank solar system. Part 4. Fundamental experiment under a solar simulator; Ondo sentaku chikunetsuso no solar system eno tekiyo. 4. Solar simulator ni yoru kiso jikken

    Kanayama, K.; Endo, N.; Baba, H.; Okamoto, A. [Kitami Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan); Kamiya, Y. [Kanto Gakuin University, Yokohama (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The storage tank is classified into a mixed type and stratified type. The stratified type is judged to be more advantageous from a viewpoint of the effective energy utilization. An experiment was made using a solar simulator to put the system, consisting of a vacuum double-glass tube collector and temperature selective storage tank, to practical use. The ejection position of the storage tank at the top is superior to that at the bottom, in the 60{degree}C layer of three layers (60, 40, and 20{degree}C). The ejection position hardly varies with the shape (straight or elbow) of an ejection port. When the temperature stratified layer is formed in two layers (40 {times} 2, 20{degree}C) to three layers (60, 40, and 20{degree}C), heat can be stably stored as the flow rate is higher. The stratified storage tank is inferior to the mixed storage tank in heat collection efficiency, but the specific exergy increases. By increasing the number of heat storage layers, the result of this experiment can also be applied to the linear temperature gradient layer obtained in the practical use. As a result of the above experiment, the basic data for an automated system design during practical application was obtained. 3 refs., 15 figs.

  20. Preliminary Study on the Effect of Wastewater Storage in Septic Tank on E. coli Concentration in Summer

    James K. Bradshaw; David Radcliffe; Dominique Appling; Mussie Y. Habteselassie

    2013-01-01

    On-site wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) work by first storing the wastewater in a septic tank before releasing it to soils for treatment that is generally effective and sustainable. However, it is not clear how the abundance of E. coli changes during its passage through the tank. In this study, which was conducted under the UGA young Scholar Program in summer of 2010, we examined the change in wastewater quality parameters during the passage of the wastewater through the tank and after it...