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Sample records for acid reduce fat

  1. Conjugated Linoleic Acids Reduce Body Fat in Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    Raff, M.; Tholstrup, T.; Toubro, S.;

    2009-01-01

    Isomers of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) reduce fat mass FM) and increase insulin sensitivity in some, but not all, murine studies. In humans, this effect is still debatable. In this study, we compared the effect of 2 CLA supplements on total and regional FM assessed by dual energy X...

  2. Goat Milk Fat Naturally Enriched with Conjugated Linoleic Acid Increased Lipoproteins and Reduced Triacylglycerol in Rats

    Raphaela Rodrigues; Juliana Soares; Hugo Garcia; Claudenice Nascimento; Maria Medeiros; Marco Bomfim; Maria Carmo Medeiros; Rita Queiroga

    2014-01-01

    Goat milk is source of different lipids, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). CLA reduces body fat and protect against cardiovascular diseases. In the present study fat from goat milk naturally enriched with CLA was used. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups that received during a 10 week diet with different lipid sources: soybean oil (CON), coconut oil (CO) and goat milk fat naturally enriched with CLA (GM-CLA). We evaluated the effects of a GM-CLA on biochemistry parameters ...

  3. Effect of the type of fat on the physicochemical, instrumental and sensory characteristics of reduced fat non-acid fermented sausages

    Mora-Gallego, Héctor; Serra, Xavier; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors;

    2013-01-01

    Four batches of reduced fat non-acid fermented sausages were manufactured with pork-ham lean, and the addition of no fat (Lean), 5% pork backfat (BF), 5% sunflower oil (SO) and 5% diacylglycerols (DAGs). The effect of the type of fat as pork-fat substitute on some physicochemical parameters......, instrumental color and texture and sensory attributes of the sausages was studied. Results showed that reduced fat non-acid fermented sausages containing less than 12.5% of fat (BF, SO and DAGs) had a good overall sensory quality. This means a fat reduction of more than 70% compared with the average fat...

  4. Acute Lung Injury Is Reduced in fat-1 Mice Endogenously Synthesizing n-3 Fatty Acids

    Mayer, Konstantin; Kiessling, Almuth; Ott, Juliane; Schaefer, Martina Barbara; Hecker, Matthias; Henneke, Ingrid; Schulz, Richard; Günther, Andreas; Wang, Jingdong; Wu, Lijun; Roth, Joachim; Seeger, Werner; Kang, Jing X.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Acute lung injury (ALI) remains an important cause of mortality in intensive care units. Inflammation is controlled by cytokines and eicosanoids derived from the n-6 fatty acid (FA) arachidonic acid (AA). The n-3 FA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and mediators derived from EPA and DHA possess reduced inflammatory potency. Objectives: To determine whether the ability of fat-1 mice to endogenously convert n-6 to n-3 FA, and thus generate an increased ratio of n-3 to n-6 FA, impacts experimental ALI. Methods: We investigated ALI induced by intratracheal instillation of endotoxin in fat-1 and wild-type (WT) mice, assessing leukocyte numbers, protein concentration, and prostaglandin and cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, as well as free FA in plasma, and lung ventilator compliance. Body temperature and motor activity of mice—markers of sickness behavior—were also recorded. Measurements and Main Results: In ALI, fat-1 mice exhibited significantly reduced leukocyte invasion, protein leakage, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and thromboxane B2 levels in lavage fluid compared with WT mice. Free AA levels were increased in the plasma of WT mice in response to endotoxin, whereas EPA and DHA were increased in the fat-1 group. Ventilator compliance was significantly improved in fat-1 mice. Body temperature and motor activity were decreased in ALI. fat-1 Mice recovered body temperature and motor activity faster. Conclusions: fat-1 Mice exhibited reduced features of ALI and sickness behavior. Increasing the availability of n-3 FA may thus be beneficial in critically ill patients with ALI. PMID:19136374

  5. Glycyrrhetinic acid, the active principle of licorice, can reduce the thickness of subcutaneous thigh fat through topical application.

    Armanini, Decio; Nacamulli, Davide; Francini-Pesenti, Francesco; Battagin, Giuliana; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Fiore, Cristina

    2005-07-01

    Cortisol is involved in the distribution and deposition of fat, and its action is regulated by the activity of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Glycyrrhetinic acid, the active principle of licorice root, blocks 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, thus reducing the availability of cortisol at the level of adipocytes. We evaluated the effect of topical application of a cream containing glycyrrhetinic acid in the thickness of fat at the level of the thigh. Eighteen healthy women (age range 20-33 years) with normal BMI were randomly allocated to treatment, at the level of the dominant thigh, with a cream containing 2.5% glycyrrhetinic acid (n=9) or with a placebo cream containing the excipients alone (n=9). Before and after 1 month of treatment both the circumference and the thickness of the superficial fat layer of the thighs (by ultrasound analysis) were measured. The circumference and the thickness of the superficial fat layer were significantly reduced in comparison to the controlateral untreated thigh and to control subjects treated with the placebo cream. No changes were observed in blood pressure, plasma renin activity, plasma aldosterone or cortisol. The effect of glycyrrhetinic acid on the thickness of subcutaneous fat was likely related to a block of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 at the level of fat cells; therefore, glycyrrhetinic acid could be effectively used in the reduction of unwanted local fat accumulation. PMID:15894038

  6. Capric Acid Reduces Body Weight in C57BL/6J Mice Fed a High Fat Diet

    Ying-hua LIU; Yong ZHANG; Qing XU; Xin-sheng ZHANG; Jin WANG; Xiao-ming YU; Xue-yan YANG; Chang-yong XUE

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the body weight reducing effect of two medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA), capric acid and caprylic acid, and the potential underlying mechanisms in C57BL/6J mice fed a high fat diet.Methods Obese C57BL/6J mice were developed on a high-fat diet containing 2% caprylic acid (C8:0), 2% capric acid (C10:0), or 2% oleic acid (C18:1). Body weight and diet intake were monitored twice a week. After 8 weeks of feeding, body fat composition and the protein or mRNA expression of lipolysis-related genes in the white adipose tissue (WAT) were analyzed.Results In the capric acid group, significant reductions were observed in body weight gain, Lee's index, BMI, and epididymal adipose tissue weight, while increased levels of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and beta 3 adrenergic receptor (β3-AR) were found in the adipose tissue, compared to the oleic acid group. No significant differences in these parameters were found between caprylic acid and oleic acid groups.Conclusion Capric acid, but not caprylic acid, is effective in reducing body weight in obese C57BL/6J mice,possibly due to up-regulation of β3-AR, ATGL, and HSL in WAT.

  7. A conjugated linoleic acid (CLA supplement containing trans-10, cis-12 CLA reduces milk fat synthesis in lactating goats

    D. Bauman

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of a lipid-encapsulated trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid supplement (LE-CLA on milk production and milk fatty acid (FA profile was investigated. Thirty multiparous Alpine lactating goats (50 ± 7.4 kg in late lactation were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Does were fed a diet of bermudagrass hay, dehydrated alfalfa pellets, and concentrate. Does were randomly allocated to three treatments; A unsupplemented (Control, B supplemented with 30 g/d LE-CLA (low-dose; LLE, and C supplemented with 60 g/d LE-CLA (high-dose; HLE. Milk yield, DMI, and milk protein content and yield were unaffected by treatment (P > 0.05. Compared with Control, milk fat yield was reduced 8.1% by the LLE treatment and 21.2% by the HLE treatment (P < 0.001, with milk fat content reduced 4.8 and 17.6% by the LLE and HLE treatments, respectively (P < 0.001. Milk fat content of trans-10, cis-12 CLA was 0.03, 0.09 and 0.19 g/100 g of fatty acids for the Control, LLE and HLE treatments, respectively. The transfer efficiency of trans-10, cis-12 CLA from the two levels of CLA supplement into milk fat was not different between treatments and averaged 1.85%. In conclusion, trans-10, cis- 12 CLA reduced milk fat synthesis in lactating goats in a manner similar to that observed for lactating dairy cows and sheep. However, dose-response comparisons suggest that the degree of reduction in milk fat synthesis is less in goats compared with sheep and dairy cows.

  8. Moderate doses of conjugated linoleic acid reduce fat gain, maintain insulin sensitivity without impairing inflammatory adipose tissue status in mice fed a high-fat diet

    Serra Francisca

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The enrichment of diet with nutrients with potential benefits on body composition is a strategy to combat obesity. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA due its beneficial effects on body composition and inflammatory processes becomes an interesting candidate, since the promotion and impairment of obesity is closely linked to a low-grade inflammation state of adipose tissue. Previously we reported the favourable effects of moderate doses of CLA mixture on body composition and inflammatory status of adipose tissue in mice fed a standard-fat diet. In the present study we assessed the potential beneficial effects of CLA mixture (cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12, 50:50 in mice fed a high-fat diet. Methods Two doses were assayed: 0.15 g (CLA1 and 0.5 g CLA/kg body weight (CLA2 for the first 30 days of the study and then animals received a double amount for another 35 days. Results The lowest dose (CLA1 had minor effects on body composition, plasma parameters and gene expression. However, a clear reduction in fat accumulation was achieved by CLA2, accompanied by a reduction in leptin, adiponectin and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA plasma concentrations. Insulin sensitivity was maintained despite a slight increase in fasting glucose and insulin plasma concentrations. The study of gene expression both in adipocytes and in the stromal vascular fraction (SVF suggested that CLA may reduce either the infiltration of macrophages in adipose tissue or the induction of expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Conclusion In conclusion, the use of moderate doses of an equimolar mix of the two main CLA isomers reduces body fat content, improves plasma lipid profile, maintains insulin sensitivity (despite a moderate degree of hyperinsulinaemia without the promotion of inflammatory markers in adipose tissue of mice fed a high-fat diet.

  9. Fortification of Reduced Fat Cheddar Cheese with n-3 Fatty Acids: Effect on Off-Flavor Generation

    Martini, Silvana; Thurgood, J. E.; Brothersen, C.; Ward, R.; McMahon, D. J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to fortify 50% reduced fat Cheddar cheese with n-3 fatty acids and evaluate whether this fortification generated specific off-flavors in the cheese. Docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) fatty acids were added to the cheese to obtain 3 final fortification levels [18, 35, and 71mg of DHA/EPA per serving size (28g) of cheese] representing 10, 20, and 40% of the suggested daily intake level for DHA/EPA. The presence of oxidized, rancid, and fishy flavor...

  10. Valproic acid reduces insulin-resistance, fat deposition and FOXO1-mediated gluconeogenesis in type-2 diabetic rat.

    Khan, Sabbir; Kumar, Sandeep; Jena, Gopabandhu

    2016-06-01

    Recent evidences highlighted the role of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in insulin-resistance, gluconeogenesis and islet function. HDACs can modulate the expression of various genes, which directly or indirectly affect glucose metabolism. This study was aimed to evaluate the role of valproic acid (VPA) on fat deposition, insulin-resistance and gluconeogenesis in type-2 diabetic rat. Diabetes was developed in Sprague-Dawley rats by the combination of high-fat diet and low dose streptozotocin. VPA at the doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg/day and metformin (positive control) 150 mg/kg twice daily for 10 weeks were administered by oral gavage. Insulin-resistance, dyslipidemia and glycemia were evaluated by biochemical estimations, while fat accumulation and structural alteration were assessed by histopathology. Protein expression and insulin signaling were evaluated by western blot and immunohistochemistry. VPA treatment significantly reduced the plasma glucose, HbA1c, insulin-resistance, fat deposition in brown adipose tissue, white adipose tissue and liver, which are comparable to metformin treatment. Further, VPA inhibited the gluconeogenesis and glucagon expression as well as restored the histopathological alterations in pancreas and liver. Our findings provide new insights on the anti-diabetic role of VPA in type-2 diabetes mellitus by the modulation of insulin signaling and forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1)-mediated gluconeogenesis. Since VPA is a well established clinical drug, the detailed molecular mechanisms of the present findings can be further investigated for possible clinical use. PMID:26944797

  11. An 11-bp insertion in Zea mays FatB reduces the palmitate content of fatty acids in maize grain

    Fatty acids in maize kernels are important for human and livestock health. We combined linkage and association analysis to fine-map the major QTL-Pal9 to a 90-kb region, in which only one candidate gene was identified. The gene was named ZmFatB and is orthologous to FatB in Arabidopsis, with a simil...

  12. Increased fatty acid β-oxidation as a possible mechanism for fat-reducing effect of betaine in broilers.

    Leng, Zhixian; Fu, Qin; Yang, Xue; Ding, Liren; Wen, Chao; Zhou, Yanmin

    2016-08-01

    Two hundred and forty 1-day-old male Arbor Acres broiler chickens were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments with six replicates of eight chickens per replicate cage for a 42-day feeding trial. Broiler chickens were fed a basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 250, 500, 750 or 1000 mg/kg betaine, respectively. Growth performance was not affected by betaine. Incremental levels of betaine decreased the absolute and relative weight of abdominal fat (linear P < 0.05, quadratic P < 0.01), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) (linear P < 0.05), and increased concentration of nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) (linear P = 0.038, quadratic P = 0.003) in serum of broilers. Moreover, incremental levels of betaine increased linearly (P < 0.05) the proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), the carnitine palmitoyl transferase-I (CPT-I) and 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (HADH) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression, but decreased linearly (P < 0.05) the fatty acid synthase (FAS) and 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMGR) mRNA expression in liver of broilers. In conclusion, this study indicated that betaine supplementation did not affect growth performance of broilers, but was effective in reducing abdominal fat deposition in a dose-dependent manner, which was probably caused by combinations of a decrease in fatty acid synthesis and an increase in β-oxidation. PMID:27071487

  13. Microencapsulated conjugated linoleic acid associated with hypocaloric diet reduces body fat in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome

    Carvalho RF

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Roberta F Carvalho,1 Sofia K Uehara,2 Glorimar Rosa1,21Medicine Department, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Nutrition and Dietetic Department, Josué de Castro Institute of Nutrition, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, BrazilBackground: Animal studies have suggested beneficial effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA in reducing body fat mass and improvement in the serum lipid profile and glycemia. However, these effects are controversial in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of microencapsulated CLA supplementation on body composition, body mass index, waist circumference, and blood pressure in sedentary women with metabolic syndrome.Methods: This study was a placebo-controlled and randomized clinical trial. Fourteen women diagnosed with metabolic syndrome received light strawberry jam enriched or not with microencapsulated CLA (3 g/day as a mixture of 38.57% cis-9, trans-11, and 39.76% trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers associated with a hypocaloric diet for 90 days. The subjects were monitored to assess variables associated with the metabolic syndrome, in addition to assessing adherence with the intervention.Results: There were no significant effects of microencapsulated CLA on the lipid profile or blood pressure. Mean plasma insulin concentrations were significantly lower in women supplemented with microencapsulated CLA (Δ T90 – T0 = −12.87 ± 4.26 µU/mL, P = 0.02. Microencapsulated CLA supplementation did not alter the waist circumference, but there was a reduction in body fat mass detected after 30 days (Δ = −2.68% ± 0.82%, P = 0.02, which was maintained until the 90-day intervention period (Δ = −3.32% ± 1.41%, P = 0.02 in the microencapsulated CLA group. The placebo group showed this effect only after 90 days (Δ = −1.97% ± 0.60%, P = 0.02, but had a reduced waist circumference (Δ T90 – T0 = −4.25 ± 1.31 cm, P = 0.03.Conclusion: Supplementation with mixed

  14. Proteolytic Activity in Reduced-Fat Cheddar Cheese Made with Lactic Acid Bacteria and Camel Chymosin

    Børsting, Mette Winther

    need of an extended ripening period to reach a similar cheese structure as in cheeses produced with BC. The aim of this project was to compensate for the lower proteolytic activity in cheese produced with CC compared to BC. Selection of dairy lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for cheese production with high...... ability to influence proteolysis and structure during cheese ripening. In an attempt to improve the screening methods and contribute to the development of a new classification system of Latcococcus lactic strains, the peptide profile formed by selected strains after growth in milk was analyzed and...... culture mediated an increase in the total amount of amino acids as well as a shorter structure. A model system, used to study the retention of chymosin in a curd, showed that the retention of CC was less dependent on pH compared to BC, and the retention of CC was higher than BC in the pH interval 6...

  15. Reduced Dietary Omega-6 to Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio and 12/15-Lipoxygenase Deficiency Are Protective against Chronic High Fat Diet-Induced Steatohepatitis

    Milos Lazic; Maria Eugenia Inzaugarat; Davide Povero; Iris C Zhao; Mark Chen; Madlena Nalbandian; Yury I Miller; Cherñavsky, Alejandra C.; Ariel E Feldstein; Sears, Dorothy D.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is associated with metabolic perturbations including liver and adipose tissue inflammation, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Omega-6 fatty acids (ω6) promote and omega-3 fatty acids (ω3) reduce inflammation as they can be metabolized to pro- and anti-inflammatory eicosanoids, respectively. 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LO) enzymatically produces some of these metabolites and is induced by high fat (HF) diet. We investigated the effects of altering dietary ω6/ω3 ratio and 12/15-LO ...

  16. Abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise training: fat burning or hydrocarbon source redistribution?

    Kuo, Chia-Hua; Harris, M Brennan

    2016-07-01

    Fat burning, defined by fatty acid oxidation into carbon dioxide, is the most described hypothesis to explain the actual abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise training. This hypothesis is strengthened by evidence of increased whole-body lipolysis during exercise. As a result, aerobic training is widely recommended for obesity management. This intuition raises several paradoxes: first, both aerobic and resistance exercise training do not actually elevate 24 h fat oxidation, according to data from chamber-based indirect calorimetry. Second, anaerobic high-intensity intermittent training produces greater abdominal fat reduction than continuous aerobic training at similar amounts of energy expenditure. Third, significant body fat reduction in athletes occurs when oxygen supply decreases to inhibit fat burning during altitude-induced hypoxia exposure at the same training volume. Lack of oxygen increases post-meal blood distribution to human skeletal muscle, suggesting that shifting the postprandial hydrocarbons towards skeletal muscle away from adipose tissue might be more important than fat burning in decreasing abdominal fat. Creating a negative energy balance in fat cells due to competition of skeletal muscle for circulating hydrocarbon sources may be a better model to explain the abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise than the fat-burning model. PMID:27152424

  17. Reduced dietary omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratio and 12/15-lipoxygenase deficiency are protective against chronic high fat diet-induced steatohepatitis.

    Milos Lazic

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with metabolic perturbations including liver and adipose tissue inflammation, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Omega-6 fatty acids (ω6 promote and omega-3 fatty acids (ω3 reduce inflammation as they can be metabolized to pro- and anti-inflammatory eicosanoids, respectively. 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LO enzymatically produces some of these metabolites and is induced by high fat (HF diet. We investigated the effects of altering dietary ω6/ω3 ratio and 12/15-LO deficiency on HF diet-induced tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. We examined how these conditions affect circulating concentrations of oxidized metabolites of ω6 arachidonic and linoleic acids and innate and adaptive immune system activity in the liver. For 15 weeks, wild-type (WT mice were fed either a soybean oil-enriched HF diet with high dietary ω6/ω3 ratio (11∶1, HFH, similar to Western-style diet, or a fat Kcal-matched, fish oil-enriched HF diet with a low dietary ω6/ω3 ratio of 2.7∶1 (HFL. Importantly, the total saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat content was matched in the two HF diets, which is unlike most published fish oil studies in mice. Despite modestly increased food intake, WT mice fed HFL were protected from HFH-diet induced steatohepatitis, evidenced by decreased hepatic mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory genes and genes involved in lymphocyte homing, and reduced deposition of hepatic triglyceride. Furthermore, oxidized metabolites of ω6 arachidonic acid were decreased in the plasma of WT HFL compared to WT HFH-fed mice. 12/15-LO knockout (KO mice were also protected from HFH-induced fatty liver and elevated mRNA markers of inflammation and lymphocyte homing. 12/15-LOKO mice were protected from HFH-induced insulin resistance but reducing dietary ω6/ω3 ratio in WT mice did not ameliorate insulin resistance or adipose tissue inflammation. In conclusion, lowering dietary ω6/ω3 ratio in HF diet

  18. Low Dietary c9t11-Conjugated Linoleic Acid Intake from Dairy Fat or Supplements Reduces Inflammation in Collagen-Induced Arthritis.

    Huebner, Shane M; Olson, Jake M; Campbell, James P; Bishop, Jeffrey W; Crump, Peter M; Cook, Mark E

    2016-07-01

    Dietary cis-9,trans-11 (c9t11) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) fed at 0.5 % w/w was previously shown to attenuate inflammation in the murine collagen-induced (CA) arthritis model, and growing evidence implicates c9t11-CLA as a major anti-inflammatory component of dairy fat. To understand c9t11-CLA's contribution to dairy fat's anti-inflammatory action, the minimum amount of dietary c9t11-CLA needed to reduce inflammation must be determined. This study had two objectives: (1) determine the minimum dietary anti-inflammatory c9t11-CLA intake level in the CA model, and (2) compare this to anti-inflammatory effects of dairy fat (non-enriched, naturally c9t11-CLA-enriched, or c9t11-CLA-supplemented). Mice received the following dietary fat treatments (w/w) post arthritis onset: corn oil (6 % CO), 0.125, 0.25, 0.375, and 0.5 % c9t11-CLA, control butter (6 % CB), c9t11-enriched butter (6 % EB), or c9t11-CLA-supplemented butter (6 % SB, containing 0.2 % c9t11-CLA). Paw arthritic severity and pad swelling were scored and measured, respectively, over an 84-day study period. All c9t11-CLA and butter diets decreased the arthritic score (25-51 %, P CLA- and EB-fed mice. Interleukin-1β and IL-6 were increased in arthritic CO-fed mice compared to NA mice but were reduced in 0.5 % c9t11-CLA- and EB-fed mice through day 42. In conclusion, 0.125 % c9t11-CLA reduced clinical arthritis as effectively as higher doses, and decreased arthritis in CB-fed mice suggested that the minimal anti-inflammatory levels of c9t11-CLA might be below 0.125 %. PMID:27270404

  19. Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 2 knockdown leads to decreased fatty acid oxidation in fat body and reduced reproductive capacity in the insect Rhodnius prolixus.

    Alves-Bezerra, Michele; Klett, Eric L; De Paula, Iron F; Ramos, Isabela B; Coleman, Rosalind A; Gondim, Katia C

    2016-07-01

    Long-chain acyl-CoA esters are important intermediates in lipid metabolism and are synthesized from fatty acids by long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSL). The hematophagous insect Rhodnius prolixus, a vector of Chagas' disease, produces glycerolipids in the midgut after a blood meal, which are stored as triacylglycerol in the fat body and eggs. We identified twenty acyl-CoA synthetase genes in R. prolixus, two encoding ACSL isoforms (RhoprAcsl1 and RhoprAcsl2). RhoprAcsl1 transcripts increased in posterior midgut on the second day after feeding, and RhoprAcsl2 was highly transcribed on the tenth day. Both enzymes were expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant RhoprACSL1 and RhoprACSL2 had broad pH optima (7.5-9.5 and 6.5-9.5, respectively), were inhibited by triacsin C, and were rosiglitazone-insensitive. Both showed similar apparent Km for palmitic and oleic acid (2-6μM), but different Km for arachidonic acid (0.5 and 6μM for RhoprACSL1-Flag and RhoprACSL2-Flag, respectively). The knockdown of RhoprAcsl1 did not result in noticeable phenotypes. However, RhoprACSL2 deficient insects exhibited a 2.5-fold increase in triacylglycerol content in the fat body, and 90% decrease in fatty acid β-oxidation. RhoprAcsl2 knockdown also resulted in 20% increase in lifespan, delayed digestion, 30% reduced oviposition, and 50% reduction in egg hatching. Laid eggs and hatched nymphs showed remarkable alterations in morphology. In summary, R. prolixus ACSL isoforms have distinct roles on lipid metabolism. Although RhoprACSL1 functions remain unclear, we propose that RhoprACSL2 is the main contributor for the formation of the intracellular acyl-CoA pool channeled for β-oxidation in the fat body, and is also required for normal reproduction. PMID:27091636

  20. Effect of cooking method on the fatty acid content of reduced-fat and PUFA-enriched pork patties formulated with a konjac-based oil bulking system.

    Salcedo-Sandoval, Lorena; Cofrades, Susana; Ruiz-Capillas, Claudia; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco

    2014-12-01

    The effect of cooking methods (electric grilling and pan-frying in olive oil) on the composition of reduced-fat and reduced-fat/PUFA enriched pork patties was studied. Fat reduction was performed by replacing pork backfat (38% and 100%) with konjac gel and PUFA-enrichment by replacing pork backfat (49%) with a konjac-based oil bulking system stabilizing a healthier oil combination (olive, linseed and fish oils). Cooking losses (13%-27%) were affected (pKonjac materials were successfully used to produce pork patties with a better lipid composition. PMID:25150632

  1. Food Supplement Reduces Fat, Improves Flavor

    2007-01-01

    Diversified Services Corporation, seeking to develop a new nutritional fat replacement and flavor enhancement product, took advantage of the NASA Glenn Garrett Morgan Commercialization Initiative (GMCI) for technology acquisition and development and introductions to potential customers and strategic partners. Having developed and commercialized the product, named Nurtigras, the company is now marketing it through its subsidiary, H.F. Food Technologies Inc. The Nutrigras fat substitute is available in liquid, gel, or dry form and can be easily customized to the specific needs of the food manufacturer. It is primarily intended for use as a partial replacement for animal fat in beef patties and other normally high-fat meat products, and can also be used in soups, sauces, bakery items, and desserts. In addition to the nutritional benefits, the fat replacement costs less than the food it replaces, and as such can help manufacturers reduce material costs. In precooked products, Nutrigras can increase moisture content and thereby increase product yield. The company has been able to repay the help provided by NASA by contributing to the Space Agency's astronaut diet-the Nutrigras fat substitute can be used as a flavor enhancer and shelf-life extender for food on the ISS.

  2. Extra virgin olive oil reduces liver oxidative stress and tissue depletion of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids produced by a high saturated fat diet in mice

    Valenzuela, R.; Hernandez-Rodas, M. C.; Espinosa, A.; Rincón, M. A.; Romero, N; Barrera, C. (Carlos); Marambio, M.; Vivero, J.; Valenzuela, A.

    2016-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) which are synthesized mainly in the liver have relevant functions in the organism. A diet high in fat (HFD) generates an increase in the levels of fat and induces oxidative stress (lipo-peroxidation) in the liver, along with a reduction in tissue n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is rich in anti-oxidants (polyphenols and tocopherols) which help to prevent the development of oxidative stress. This study evaluated the role of EVOO ...

  3. A high-fat meal enriched with eicosapentaenoic acid reduces postprandial arterial stiffness measured by digital volume pulse analysis in healthy men.

    Hall, Wendy L; Sanders, Katie A; Sanders, Thomas A B; Chowienczyk, Philip J

    2008-02-01

    Diets rich in eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA; 20:5(n-3)] are associated with decreased arterial stiffness, but postprandial effects on vascular function are unknown. We investigated whether an EPA-enriched high-fat meal could improve postprandial vascular function. Seventeen healthy men ingested 2 test meals (51 g fat), 1 wk apart, in random order: 5 g EPA plus high-oleic sunflower oil (HOS) vs. HOS only. A second high-fat meal (44 g fat), the same on both study days, was provided 4 h later. Blood pressure and arterial function were measured using digital volume pulse (DVP) to derive a stiffness index (DVP-SI) and reflection index in fasting subjects at 3 and 6 h following the test meal. Blood samples were taken following the test meal for plasma 8-isoprostane F2alpha, nitric oxide (NO) metabolites (NOx), glucose, insulin, triacylglycerol, and fatty acid analysis. The plasma EPA concentration (mean +/- SD) reached a peak of 2.10 +/- 0.99 mmol/L following the EPA meal (5 h) and did not rise above 0.27 +/- 0.16 mmol/L 1 h following the placebo meal. DeltaDVP-SI did not differ between the 2 test meals at 3 h but was greater at 6 h following EPA (6 h -0.65 +/- 0.65 m/s) compared with placebo (6 h -0.33 +/- 1.26 m/s). Plasma 8-isoprostane F2alpha concentrations increased by 48% at 6 h compared with baseline following the EPA meal and plasma NOx decreased following both meals, with no differences between the meals in the changes. Changes in other variables measured also did not differ after subjects consumed the 2 meals. In conclusion, adding EPA to a high-fat meal results in acute changes in vascular tone, independent of changes in oxidative stress. PMID:18203893

  4. Alpha-lipoic acid reduces LDL-particle number and PCSK9 concentrations in high-fat fed obese Zucker rats.

    Bradley Carrier

    Full Text Available We characterized the hypolipidemic effects of alpha-lipoic acid (LA, R-form and examined the associated molecular mechanisms in a high fat fed Zucker rat model. Rats (n = 8 were assigned to a high fat (HF diet or the HF diet with 0.25% LA (HF-LA for 30 days and pair fed to remove confounding effects associated with the anorectic properties of LA. Compared with the HF controls, the HF-LA group was protected against diet-induced obesity (102.5±3.1 vs. 121.5±3.6,% change BW and hypercholesterolemia with a reduction in total-C (-21%, non-HDL-C (-25%, LDL-C (-16%, and total LDL particle number (-46% and an increase in total HDL particles (∼22%. This cholesterol-lowering response was associated with a reduction in plasma PCSK9 concentration (-70% and an increase in hepatic LDLr receptor protein abundance (2 fold of HF. Compared with the HF-fed animals, livers of LA-supplemented animals were protected against TG accumulation (-46%, likely through multiple mechanisms including: a suppressed lipogenic response (down-regulation of hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase expression; enhanced hepatic fat oxidation (increased carnitine palmitoyltransferase Iα expression; and enhanced VLDL export (increased hepatic diacylglycerol acyltransferase and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein expression and elevated plasma VLDL particle number. Study results also support an enhanced fatty acid uptake (2.8 fold increase in total lipase activity and oxidation (increased CPT1β protein abundance in muscle tissue in LA-supplemented animals compared with the HF group. In summary, in the absence of a change in caloric intake, LA was effective in protecting against hypercholesterolemia and hepatic fat accumulation under conditions of strong genetic and dietary predisposition toward obesity and dyslipidemia.

  5. Endocannabinoids may mediate the ability of (n-3) fatty acids to reduce ectopic fat and inflammatory mediators in obese Zucker rats.

    Batetta, Barbara; Griinari, Mikko; Carta, Gianfranca; Murru, Elisabetta; Ligresti, Alessia; Cordeddu, Lina; Giordano, Elena; Sanna, Francesca; Bisogno, Tiziana; Uda, Sabrina; Collu, Maria; Bruheim, Inge; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Banni, Sebastiano

    2009-08-01

    Dietary (n-3) long-chain PUFA [(n-3) LCPUFA] ameliorate several metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, although the mechanisms of these beneficial effects are not fully understood. In this study, we compared the effects of dietary (n-3) LCPUFA, in the form of either fish oil (FO) or krill oil (KO) balanced for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content, with a control (C) diet containing no EPA and DHA and similar contents of oleic, linoleic, and alpha-linolenic acids, on ectopic fat and inflammation in Zucker rats, a model of obesity and related metabolic dysfunction. Diets were fed for 4 wk. Given the emerging evidence for an association between elevated endocannabinoid concentrations and metabolic syndrome, we also measured tissue endocannabinoid concentrations. In (n-3) LCPUFA-supplemented rats, liver triglycerides and the peritoneal macrophage response to an inflammatory stimulus were significantly lower than in rats fed the control diet, and heart triglycerides were lower, but only in KO-fed rats. These effects were associated with a lower concentration of the endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, in the visceral adipose tissue and of anandamide in the liver and heart, which, in turn, was associated with lower levels of arachidonic acid in membrane phospholipids, but not with higher activity of endocannabinoid-degrading enzymes. Our data suggest that the beneficial effects of a diet enriched with (n-3) LCPUFA are the result of changes in membrane fatty acid composition. The reduction of substrates for inflammatory molecules and endocannabinoids may account for the dampened inflammatory response and the physiological reequilibration of body fat deposition in obese rats. PMID:19549757

  6. Reducing Abdominal Fat Deposition in Broiler Through Feeding Management

    Cecep Hidayat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal fat in broiler carcass is considered as a waste and its existence reduces the carcass quality. Abdominal fat deposition is affected by several factors such as genetic, nutrition, feed, sex, age and environment. Reducing abdominal fat deposition can be carried out by regulating the nutrient intake to ensure that no excessive nutrient was consumed. Nutrition effects to reduce abdominal fat deposition are associated with nutrient concentration of ration and quantity of daily feed intake. Daily nutrient intake can be limited, especially through restricted feeding. It is concluded that an appropriate feeding management can reduce abdominal fat deposition in broiler.

  7. Reduced Fat Food Emulsions: Physicochemical, Sensory, and Biological Aspects.

    Chung, Cheryl; Smith, Gordon; Degner, Brian; McClements, David Julian

    2016-01-01

    Fat plays multiple important roles in imparting desirable sensory attributes to emulsion-based food products, such as sauces, dressings, soups, beverages, and desserts. However, there is concern that over consumption of fats leads to increased incidences of chronic diseases, such as obesity, coronary heart disease, and diabetes. Consequently, there is a need to develop reduced fat products with desirable sensory profiles that match those of their full-fat counterparts. The successful design of high quality reduced-fat products requires an understanding of the many roles that fat plays in determining the sensory attributes of food emulsions, and of appropriate strategies to replace some or all of these attributes. This paper reviews our current understanding of the influence of fat on the physicochemical and physiological attributes of food emulsions, and highlights some of the main approaches that can be used to create high quality emulsion-based food products with reduced fat contents. PMID:25748819

  8. Regular Fat and Reduced Fat Dairy Products Show Similar Associations with Markers of Adolescent Cardiometabolic Health

    O’Sullivan, Therese A.; Bremner, Alexandra P.; Trevor A. Mori; Beilin, Lawrence J; Charlotte Wilson; Katherine Hafekost; Ambrosini, Gina L.; Rae Chi Huang; Oddy, Wendy H

    2016-01-01

    Reduced fat dairy products are generally recommended for adults and children over the age of two years. However, emerging evidence suggests that dairy fat may not have detrimental health effects. We aimed to investigate prospective associations between consumption of regular versus reduced fat dairy products and cardiometabolic risk factors from early to late adolescence. In the West Australian Raine Study, dairy intake was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires in 860...

  9. Extra virgin olive oil reduces liver oxidative stress and tissue depletion of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids produced by a high saturated fat diet in mice

    Valenzuela, R.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA which are synthesized mainly in the liver have relevant functions in the organism. A diet high in fat (HFD generates an increase in the levels of fat and induces oxidative stress (lipo-peroxidation in the liver, along with a reduction in tissue n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO is rich in anti-oxidants (polyphenols and tocopherols which help to prevent the development of oxidative stress. This study evaluated the role of EVOO in preventing the induction of fat deposition and oxidative stress in the liver and in the depletion of LCPUFA in the liver, erythrocytes and brain generated by a HFD in C57BL/6J mice. Four experimental groups (n = 10/group were fed a control diet (CD or a HFD for 12 weeks and were respectively supplemented with EVOO (100 mg/day. The group fed HFD showed a significant increase (p Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga (AGPICL sintetizados principalmente por el hígado, cumplen funciones relevantes en el organismo. Una dieta alta en grasa (DAG genera un incremento en los niveles de grasa y estrés oxidativo (lipoperoxidación en hígado y una reducción en los niveles de AGPICL n-3 y n-6 en diferentes tejidos. El aceite de oliva extra virgen (AOEV es rico en antioxidantes (polifenoles y tocoferoles que ayudan a prevenir el desarrollo del estrés oxidativo. Este trabajo evaluó el rol del AOEV en la prevención del depósito de grasa, estrés oxidativo hepático y reducción de los AGPICL n-3 y n-6 en diferentes tejidos generado por una DAG en ratones C57BL/6J. Cuatro grupos experimentales (n=10/grupo fueron alimentados (12 semanas con dieta control (DC o DAG y suplementados con AOEV (100 mg/día. El grupo alimentado con DAG presentó un incremento (p < 0,05 en la acumulación de grasa y estrés oxidativo hepático, acompañado de una reducción en los niveles de AGPICL n-3 y n-6 en hígado, eritrocitos y cerebro. La suplementación con AOEV logr

  10. Spent turmeric reduces fat mass in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Han, Kyu-Ho; Lee, Chang-Hyun; Kinoshita, Mikio; Oh, Chan-Ho; Shimada, Ken-Ichiro; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2016-04-20

    Indigestible carbohydrates may improve obesity. Spent turmeric contains high levels of dietary fibre and resistant starch (RS), which have fermentation potential in vitro. We hypothesised that indigestible carbohydrates in spent turmeric might prevent obesity development. In the first study, rats were administered 10% turmeric powder (TP) or spent turmeric powder (STP) in a high-fat (HF) diet for 28 d. In the second study, rats were fed 10% STP in a HF diet with or without antibiotics for 15 d. In the third study, rats were treated with a STP-containing suspension. In study 1, the TP and STP diet increased the caecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) content compared to that of a control diet. The lower energy intake in the TP and STP group was strongly related to the decrease in visceral fat weight. In study 2, after caecal fermentation suppression with antibiotics, STP treatment decreased the visceral fat mass. In study 3, the plasma glucose levels and incremental area under the curve (AUC) after ingestion of a STP-containing suspension were lower than those after ingestion of suspension alone. These findings suggest the reduction of carbohydrate absorption during the gastrointestinal passage after TP and STP treatment. Our data indicate that the reduced obesity development in rats fed a HF diet may be attributed to the low metabolisable energy density of carbohydrates in the spent turmeric, independent of SCFA-mediated factors. PMID:26583652

  11. Regular Fat and Reduced Fat Dairy Products Show Similar Associations with Markers of Adolescent Cardiometabolic Health.

    O'Sullivan, Therese A; Bremner, Alexandra P; Mori, Trevor A; Beilin, Lawrence J; Wilson, Charlotte; Hafekost, Katherine; Ambrosini, Gina L; Huang, Rae Chi; Oddy, Wendy H

    2016-01-01

    Reduced fat dairy products are generally recommended for adults and children over the age of two years. However, emerging evidence suggests that dairy fat may not have detrimental health effects. We aimed to investigate prospective associations between consumption of regular versus reduced fat dairy products and cardiometabolic risk factors from early to late adolescence. In the West Australian Raine Study, dairy intake was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires in 860 adolescents at 14 and 17-year follow-ups; 582 of these also had blood biochemistry at both points. Using generalized estimating equations, we examined associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. Models incorporated reduced fat and regular fat dairy together (in serves/day) and were adjusted for a range of factors including overall dietary pattern. In boys, there was a mean reduction in diastolic blood pressure of 0.66 mmHg (95% CI 0.23-1.09) per serve of reduced fat dairy and an independent, additional reduction of 0.47 mmHg (95% CI 0.04-0.90) per serve of regular fat dairy. Each additional serve of reduced fat dairy was associated with a 2% reduction in HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.97-0.995) and a 2% increase in total: HDL-cholesterol ratio (95% CI 1.002-1.03); these associations were not observed with regular fat products. In girls, there were no significant independent associations observed in fully adjusted models. Although regular fat dairy was associated with a slightly better cholesterol profile in boys, overall, intakes of both regular fat and reduced fat dairy products were associated with similar cardiometabolic associations in adolescents. PMID:26729163

  12. Regular Fat and Reduced Fat Dairy Products Show Similar Associations with Markers of Adolescent Cardiometabolic Health

    Therese A. O’Sullivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduced fat dairy products are generally recommended for adults and children over the age of two years. However, emerging evidence suggests that dairy fat may not have detrimental health effects. We aimed to investigate prospective associations between consumption of regular versus reduced fat dairy products and cardiometabolic risk factors from early to late adolescence. In the West Australian Raine Study, dairy intake was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires in 860 adolescents at 14 and 17-year follow-ups; 582 of these also had blood biochemistry at both points. Using generalized estimating equations, we examined associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. Models incorporated reduced fat and regular fat dairy together (in serves/day and were adjusted for a range of factors including overall dietary pattern. In boys, there was a mean reduction in diastolic blood pressure of 0.66 mmHg (95% CI 0.23–1.09 per serve of reduced fat dairy and an independent, additional reduction of 0.47 mmHg (95% CI 0.04–0.90 per serve of regular fat dairy. Each additional serve of reduced fat dairy was associated with a 2% reduction in HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.97–0.995 and a 2% increase in total: HDL-cholesterol ratio (95% CI 1.002–1.03; these associations were not observed with regular fat products. In girls, there were no significant independent associations observed in fully adjusted models. Although regular fat dairy was associated with a slightly better cholesterol profile in boys, overall, intakes of both regular fat and reduced fat dairy products were associated with similar cardiometabolic associations in adolescents.

  13. Impact of low-trans fat compositions on the quality of conventional and fat-reduced puff pastry.

    Silow, Christoph; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K

    2016-04-01

    Four vegetable fat blends (FBs) with low trans-fatty acid (TFA ≤ 0.6 %) content with various ratios of palm stearin (PS) and rapeseed oil (RO) were characterised and examined for their application in puff pastry production. The amount of PS decreased from FB1 to FB4 and simultaneously the RO content increased. A range of analytical methods were used to characterise the FBs, including solid fat content (SFC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), cone penetrometry and rheological measurements. The internal and external structural quality parameters of baked puff pastry were investigated using texture analyser equipped with an Extended Craft Knife (ECK), VolScan and C-Cell image system. Puff pastry containing FB1 and FB2 achieved excellent baking results for full fat and fat-reduced puff pastry; hence these FBs contained adequate shortening properties. A fat reduction by 40 % using FB2 and a reduction of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) by 49 %, compared to the control, did not lead to adverse effects in lift and specific volume. The higher amount of RO and the lower SAFA content compared to FB1 coupled with the satisfying baking results makes FB2 the fat of choice in this study. FB3 and FB4 were found to be unsuitable for puff pastry production because of their melting behaviour. PMID:27413242

  14. Effect of apple pomace fiber and pork fat levels on quality characteristics of uncured, reduced-fat chicken sausages.

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Young-Boong; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-06-01

    The effects of reducing pork fat level from 30 to 25 and 20% by partially substituting pork fat with 1 and 2% apple pomace fiber were investigated based on the evaluation of physicochemical properties and textural properties of uncured, reduced-fat chicken sausages. Increased fat level resulted in decreased moisture content, cooking loss, total expressible fluid separation, fat separation, and yellowness of uncured, reduced-fat chicken sausages, whereas, an increase in fat content, caloric energy, pH, lightness, redness, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness was observed. The results showed that uncured, reduced-fat chicken sausage samples with increased apple pomace fiber level had lower cooking loss, total expressible fluid separation, fat separation, pH, and redness. The results from this study show that inclusion of apple pomace fiber in the formulation will successfully reduce fat content in emulsion sausages, while improving quality characteristics relative to regular-fat (30%) control. PMID:27030694

  15. Botulinum toxin injections to reduce adiposity: possibility, or fat chance?

    Lim, Erle C H; Seet, Raymond C S

    2006-01-01

    Obese individuals often suffer from negative self-image. Many, even those with a normal body mass index, resort to pharmacotherapy (lipase inhibitors or appetite suppressants), mesotherapy and surgery (gastric volume reduction, liposuction or apronectomy) in a bid to remove excess adipose tissue. These treatments are associated with inherent morbidity and even mortality, and hence should not be undertaken lightly. The observation that denervation of adipose tissue results in lipoatrophy leads us to postulate that chemodenervation using botulinum toxin may achieve the same result, i.e. fat loss, and we explore the methods by which selective fat loss may be achieved. We concede that removal of subcutaneous fat does not, however, reduce the risks associated with the metabolic syndrome, as visceral (intra-abdominal) fat is not reduced by the removal of subcutaneous fat. PMID:16716533

  16. Characterization of hepatic fatty acids in mice with reduced liver fat by ultra-short echo time (1)H-MRS at 14.1 T in vivo.

    Soares, Ana Francisca; Lei, Hongxia; Gruetter, Rolf

    2015-08-01

    Alterations in the hepatic lipid content (HLC) and fatty acid composition are associated with disruptions in whole body metabolism, both in humans and in rodent models, and can be non-invasively assessed by (1)H-MRS in vivo. We used (1)H-MRS to characterize the hepatic fatty-acyl chains of healthy mice and to follow changes caused by streptozotocin (STZ) injection. Using STEAM at 14.1 T with an ultra-short TE of 2.8 ms, confounding effects from T2 relaxation and J-coupling were avoided, allowing for accurate estimations of the contribution of unsaturated (UFA), saturated (SFA), mono-unsaturated (MUFA) and poly-unsaturated (PUFA) fatty-acyl chains, number of double bonds, PU bonds and mean chain length. Compared with in vivo (1) H-MRS, high resolution NMR performed in vitro in hepatic lipid extracts reported longer fatty-acyl chains (18 versus 15 carbons) with a lower contribution from UFA (61 ± 1% versus 80 ± 5%) but a higher number of PU bonds per UFA (1.39 ± 0.03 versus 0.58 ± 0.08), driven by the presence of membrane species in the extracts. STZ injection caused a decrease of HLC (from 1.7 ± 0.3% to 0.7 ± 0.1%), an increase in the contribution of SFA (from 21 ± 2% to 45 ± 6%) and a reduction of the mean length (from 15 to 13 carbons) of cytosolic fatty-acyl chains. In addition, SFAs were also likely to have increased in membrane lipids of STZ-induced diabetic mice, along with a decrease of the mean chain length. These studies show the applicability of (1)H-MRS in vivo to monitor changes in the composition of the hepatic fatty-acyl chains in mice even when they exhibit reduced HLC, pointing to the value of this methodology to evaluate lipid-lowering interventions in the scope of metabolic disorders. PMID:26119835

  17. High-fat diet reduces the formation of butyrate, but increases succinate, inflammation, liver fat and cholesterol in rats, while dietary fibre counteracts these effects.

    Greta Jakobsdottir

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Obesity is linked to type 2 diabetes and risk factors associated to the metabolic syndrome. Consumption of dietary fibres has been shown to have positive metabolic health effects, such as by increasing satiety, lowering blood glucose and cholesterol levels. These effects may be associated with short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs, particularly propionic and butyric acids, formed by microbial degradation of dietary fibres in colon, and by their capacity to reduce low-grade inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether dietary fibres, giving rise to different SCFAs, would affect metabolic risk markers in low-fat and high-fat diets using a model with conventional rats for 2, 4 and 6 weeks. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Conventional rats were administered low-fat or high-fat diets, for 2, 4 or 6 weeks, supplemented with fermentable dietary fibres, giving rise to different SCFA patterns (pectin - acetic acid; guar gum - propionic acid; or a mixture - butyric acid. At the end of each experimental period, liver fat, cholesterol and triglycerides, serum and caecal SCFAs, plasma cholesterol, and inflammatory cytokines were analysed. The caecal microbiota was analysed after 6 weeks. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Fermentable dietary fibre decreased weight gain, liver fat, cholesterol and triglyceride content, and changed the formation of SCFAs. The high-fat diet primarily reduced formation of SCFAs but, after a longer experimental period, the formation of propionic and acetic acids recovered. The concentration of succinic acid in the rats increased in high-fat diets with time, indicating harmful effect of high-fat consumption. The dietary fibre partly counteracted these harmful effects and reduced inflammation. Furthermore, the number of Bacteroides was higher with guar gum, while noticeably that of Akkermansia was highest with the fibre-free diet.

  18. Development of technology for production of reduced fat processed cheese

    Adriana Torres Silva e Alves

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An increasing share of foods with reduced fat has been observed in the diet of the Brazilian population, a trend also seen in many other countries. In this context, our-aim was to study the manufacturing parameters and to develop a process to produce a spreadable processed cheese (requeijão cremoso with reduced fat content. In the first stage of this study, modifications were performed in the traditional manufacturing process of requeijão cremoso with regular fat content to produce a reduced fat product. During the second stage of this study, two reduced fat cheeses, with and withoutthe addition of whey protein concentrate (WPC were developed, both using JOHA S9 and JOHA PZ as emulsifying salts, resulting in four different formulations. The amounts of cream and water used in both products were calculated in order to obtain a final product with 10% fat and 33% total solids. The product which presented the best results was produced with curd obtained by direct acidification of skimmed milk heated at 68-70 ºC, using 1,3% emulsifying salt JOHA S9 in the melting process and 2% WPC 34% as a partial fat substitute, both calculated as a percentage of the amountof curd used as raw material. It was also important to add WPC 34% to the product at the first cooking step of the process (70 ºC, in order to obtain a final product withthe typical spreadable texture of the traditional requeijão cremoso.

  19. Production and characterisation of reduced-fat and PUFA-enriched Burrata cheese.

    Trani, Antonio; Gambacorta, Giuseppe; Gomes, Tommaso F; Loizzo, Pasqua; Cassone, Angela; Faccia, Michele

    2016-05-01

    Burrata is an Italian fresh 'pasta filata' cheese made from cow's milk and cream that is rapidly spreading in Europe. It has very high caloric content, and a technological protocol was developed for producing a reduced-fat type and fortifying it with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of vegetable origin. A satisfactory reduced-fat prototype was obtained by using a 14% fat cream, which was specifically developed by diluting double cream with a suspension of carob seed flour. The composition of the new cheese changed with respect to the control, but the sensory characteristics were not impaired. Moisture increased from 62·6 to 68·4%, fat on dry matter decreased from 59·1 to 34·7%, and the caloric content decreased from 1060·8 to 718 J/100 g. Proteolysis and lipolysis were not affected by the technological modifications: after 7 d storage, the electrophoretic pattern of caseins and the free fatty acids profile of experimental and control cheeses were not significantly different. Fortification of reduced-fat Burrata with PUFA was obtained by using two commercial formulates available at a compatible price with the current economic values of the cheese. The two formulates derived from flaxseeds and Carthamus tinctorius oil and allowed enrichment in C18 :3 : n3 (α-linolenic acid, ALA), and 9cis,11trans- and 10trans,12cis- conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), respectively. Fortification was easy to perform under a technical point of view, but the negative sensory impact limited fortification at a maximum of 7·0 mg g-1 fat ALA and 6·8 g-1 fat CLA. PMID:27210495

  20. Baclofen reduces fat intake under binge-type conditions

    Buda-Levin, Ariel; Wojnicki, Francis H. E.; Corwin, Rebecca L.

    2005-01-01

    The GABA-B agonist baclofen reduces drug self-administration in rats and has shown promise clinically in the treatment of substance abuse. Baclofen generally does not reduce food intake in non-binge feeding protocols. In this study, baclofen was tested in a fat-binge protocol. Thirty male rats were divided into three groups (B: binge; FM: fat-matched; C: chow). B received a bowl of vegetable shortening for 2 h on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday (MWF) and continuous access to powdered chow (regu...

  1. Impact of selected coagulants and starters on primary proteolysis and amino acid release related to bitterness and structure of reduced-fat Cheddar cheese

    Børsting, Mette Winther; Qvist, Karsten Bruun; Rasmussen, Morten; Vindeløv, Jannik; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; Ardö, Ylva Margareta

    2012-01-01

    structure. Whereas cheeses with BC had a higher amount of peptides released by chymosin, e. g. the bitter peptide beta-casein (f193-209) or by starter proteases from the chymosin-produced peptide alpha(s1)-CN (f1-23). BC cheeses were also judged to be softer by the sensory panel. Cheeses containing the OLb......-week ripening period for the composition of casein, peptides, free amino acids, rheological properties and for sensory properties at end of ripening. Cheeses with CC, showed less extensive primary proteolysis, lower levels of bitterness and higher stress at fracture, which correlates to a harder...

  2. Hyaluronic acid fat graft myringoplasty vs fat patch fat graft myringoplasty.

    Alzahrani, Musaed; Saliba, Issam

    2015-08-01

    We aim to compare the hyaluronic acid to fat graft myringoplasty (HAFGM) technique to a recently described modified-FGM (M-FGM) in the repair of tympanic membrane perforation (TMP). We also aim to evaluate the hearing level improvement postoperatively. We conducted a prospective study in an adult tertiary care center between 2012 and 2013. Adult patients presenting with simple TMP were operated on randomly using either HAFGM or M-FGM under local anesthesia in outpatients' settings. Success was considered when complete closure is achieved. Audiometric parameters were evaluated pre and postoperatively. Twenty-four patients were included in the study (HAFGM: 10 patients and M-FGM: 14 patients). Complete closure was achieved in 80 % in HAFGM vs 42.8 % in the M-FGM (p = 0.03). The study was abandoned due to the low success rate in first 14 patients of the M-FGM group. The pure tone audiometry was improved postoperatively in the HAFGM only. The study was aborted because of the unsatisfactory obtained results using the MFGM. It also shows the beneficial effect of hyaluronic acid application to FGM for a successful TMP repair. PMID:24633245

  3. Biotechnology for Fats and Oils: New Oxygenated Fatty Acids

    Among the three groups of natural products (starch, protein and fat), fat and oil are the most under-investigated. The US has a large amount of surplus soybean oil annually, and using vegetable oils or their component fatty acids as starting material provides a new opportunity for bioindustry. Veg...

  4. The 'fat tax': economic incentives to reduce obesity

    Leicester, A.; F. Windmeijer

    2004-01-01

    This Briefing Note looks at the potential for the introduction of a "fat tax" into the UK in an effort to reduce the growing prevalence of obesity in Britain. There are different forms such a tax could take. One possibility is to tax the nutrient contents of foods such that those containing more fat or salt, for example, are taxed more heavily. Alternatively, particular types of foods, such as snacks or soft drinks, could be subject to a tax, or VAT could be extended to foods that are current...

  5. Marginal vitamin C status is associated with reduced fat oxidation during submaximal exercise in young adults

    Corte Corinne

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin C is a cofactor in the biosynthesis of carnitine, a molecule required for the oxidation of fatty acids. A reduction in the ability to oxidize fat may contribute to the reported inverse relationship between vitamin C status and adiposity. To examine this possibility, we conducted a preliminary trial to evaluate the impact of vitamin C status on fat oxidation during submaximal exercise. Methods Fat energy expenditure was determined in individuals with marginal (n = 15 or adequate (n = 7 vitamin C status during a submaximal, 60-minute treadmill test. Subsequently, eight of the subjects with marginal vitamin C status completed an 8-week double-blind, placebo-controlled, depletion-repletion trial with submaximal exercise testing. Results Individuals with marginal vitamin C status oxidized 25% less fat per kg body weight during the treadmill test as compared to individuals with adequate vitamin C status. Fat oxidation during exercise was inversely related to fatigue (r = -0.611, p = 0.009. Vitamin C repletion of vitamin C depleted subjects (500 mg vitamin C/d raised fat energy expenditure during exercise 4-fold as compared to depleted control subjects (p = 0.011. Conclusion These preliminary results show that low vitamin C status is associated with reduced fat oxidation during submaximal exercise. Low vitamin C status may partially explain the inverse relationship between vitamin C status and adiposity and why some individuals are unsuccessful in their weight loss attempts.

  6. Utilization of fats and fatty acids by turkey poults.

    Leeson, S; Atteh, J O

    1995-12-01

    Two experiments were carried out with young, Large White male turkey poults maintained in either floor pens or metabolism cages. In Experiment 1, poults were fed isoenergetic diets containing either no supplemental fat, or 5% of either tallow, corn oil, soybean oil, animal-vegetable blend fat, or canola oil. Poults generally ate less of the fat-supplemented diets and showed improved feed utilization, although weight gain was little affected. There was improved fat retention when vegetable oils were used (P .05). Poults fed tallow or animal-vegetable blend fat also excreted most fat. Diet had no effect (P > .05) on apparent retention of calcium or phosphorus, although retention of magnesium was less with more saturated fats. In Experiment 2, poults were fed diets containing palmitic acid, oleic acid, or a 50:50 (wt/wt) mixture of these fatty acids. There was a reduction (P mineral retention was not reflected in any change in levels of bone ash, calcium, or phosphorus. Feeding palmitic acid did result in the most dramatic reduction of bone magnesium content (P minerals through increased soap formation. However, there is no direct evidence that such soap formation causes a major change in bone calcium or phosphorus content or in gross bone development or poult well-being. PMID:8825591

  7. Physical chemistry and engineering of membranes for fat/fatty acid separations.

    Keurentjes, J.T.F.

    1991-01-01

    Fatty acids have to be removed from non-mineral oil for several purposes. In the refining of edible oils and fats they have to be removed as a contaminant. In the enzymatic hydrolysis of oils, a high content in fatty acids results in a reduced conversion rate. In order to maintain a sufficiently hig

  8. Black tea polyphenols and polysaccharides improve body composition, increase fecal fatty acid, and regulate fat metabolism in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.

    Wu, Tao; Guo, Yu; Liu, Rui; Wang, Kuan; Zhang, Min

    2016-05-18

    With the current changes in diet and living habits, obesity has become a global health problem. Thus, the weight-reducing function of tea has attracted considerable attention. This study investigated the anti-obesity effect and the mechanism of black tea (BT) polyphenols and polysaccharides in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The BT polyphenols and polysaccharides reduced the body weight, Lee's index, visceral fat weight, and fat cell size but improved the biochemical profile and increased the fecal fatty acid content, thereby preventing high-fat diet-induced obesity. A gene expression profile array was used to screen eight upregulated and five downregulated differentially expressed genes that affect fat metabolic pathways, such as glycerolipid and glycerophospholipid metabolism, fatty acid degradation, glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, bile and pancreatic secretion, the insulin signaling pathway, and steroid hormone secretion. The BT polyphenols and polysaccharides suppressed the formation and accumulation of fat and promoted its decomposition to prevent obesity. PMID:27161951

  9. Adulteration of Argentinean milk fats with animal fats: Detection by fatty acids analysis and multivariate regression techniques.

    Rebechi, S R; Vélez, M A; Vaira, S; Perotti, M C

    2016-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to test the accuracy of the fatty acid ratios established by the Argentinean Legislation to detect adulterations of milk fat with animal fats and to propose a regression model suitable to evaluate these adulterations. For this purpose, 70 milk fat, 10 tallow and 7 lard fat samples were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography. Data was utilized to simulate arithmetically adulterated milk fat samples at 0%, 2%, 5%, 10% and 15%, for both animal fats. The fatty acids ratios failed to distinguish adulterated milk fats containing less than 15% of tallow or lard. For each adulterant, Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) was applied, and a model was chosen and validated. For that, calibration and validation matrices were constructed employing genuine and adulterated milk fat samples. The models were able to detect adulterations of milk fat at levels greater than 10% for tallow and 5% for lard. PMID:26304443

  10. Baclofen reduces fat intake under binge-type conditions.

    Buda-Levin, Ariel; Wojnicki, Francis H E; Corwin, Rebecca L

    2005-09-15

    The GABA-B agonist baclofen reduces drug self-administration in rats and has shown promise clinically in the treatment of substance abuse. Baclofen generally does not reduce food intake in non-binge feeding protocols. In this study, baclofen was tested in a fat-binge protocol. Thirty male rats were divided into three groups (B: binge; FM: fat-matched; C: chow). B received a bowl of vegetable shortening for 2 h on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday (MWF) and continuous access to powdered chow (regular chow) in all phases. FM had continuous access to a regular chow+shortening mixture (FM chow) that provided the same proportion of shortening and regular chow that the B rats consumed in all phases. In addition, FM had the following: phase 1: no separate bowl of shortening; phase 2: 2-h MWF access to a separate bowl of shortening; phase 3, daily 2-h access to a separate bowl of shortening; C rats had continuous access to the regular chow in all phases. In addition, C had the following: phase 1: no separate bowl of shortening; phase 2: 2-h MWF access to a separate bowl of shortening; in phase 3, daily 2-h access to a separate bowl of shortening. Baclofen (1.0, 1.8 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced shortening intake regardless of access condition. Baclofen had no effect on, or stimulated, FM and regular chow intake. These results demonstrate that baclofen can reduce fat intake in rats under binge-type conditions. Furthermore, these results indicate that bingeing, as modeled in our protocol, is different from other forms of food intake and may share similarities with substance abuse. PMID:16140347

  11. Sensory characterisation and consumer acceptability of potassium chloride and sunflower oil addition in small-caliber non-acid fermented sausages with a reduced content of sodium chloride and fat.

    Mora-Gallego, Héctor; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Serra, Xavier; Gou, Pere; Arnau, Jacint

    2016-02-01

    The effect of the simultaneous reduction of fat proportion (from 20% to 10% and 7%) and added salt (from 2.5% to 1.5%) and the subsequent addition of 0.64% KCl and sunflower oil (1.5% and 3.0%) on the physicochemical, instrumental colour and texture, sensory properties and consumer acceptability of small caliber non-acid fermented sausages (fuet type) was studied. This simultaneous reduction of fat and salt increased weight loss, moisture, water activity (aw), redness, instrumental texture parameters (hardness, chewiness and cohesiveness), sensory attributes (darkness, hardness, elasticity) and the consumer acceptability. The subsequent addition of 0.64% KCl to the leanest batch decreased the aw and barely affected instrumental texture parameters and consumer acceptability. Subsequent sunflower oil addition decreased hardness, chewiness and cohesiveness and increased crumbliness and oil flavour which may decrease the consumer acceptability. The simultaneous reduction of fat and NaCl with the addition of 0.64% KCl was the preferred option by the consumers. PMID:26497101

  12. Effect of gamma irradiation on the properties of various kinds of milk fat. II. Fatty acids composition of milk fat

    Fresh cow's, buffalo's and goat's milk fat were subjected to ascendent doses of 8-rays of 250, 500 and 750 K.rad as compared to raw milk samples (control). The methyl esters of fats separated from these samples were analyzed using gas liquid chromatographic technique. Total saturated fatty acids (T.S.F.A.) were 70.46%, 67.44% and 72.85%, while total unsaturated fatty acid (T.U.F.A.) were 29.51%, 32.54% and 27.15% for cow's buffalo's and goat's raw milk fats, respectively. Water insoluble volatile fatty acids (W.I.V.F.A.) were much higher in goat's raw milk fat (23.24%) than in cows (6.34%) and buffaloes (5.25%) ones. Palmitic acid represents the predominant saturated fatty acid, while oleic acid represents the major unsaturated fatty acids in the three kinds of milk fat. Linoleic acid was present only in buffalo's and goat's raw milk fat. The exposure of buffalo's and goat's milk to 8-rays doses increased TSFA and decreased TUFA of their fats. Meanwhile the same doses induced a minor change in both TSFA and TUFA of cow's milk one. Also, 8-irradiation increased the relative percentage of Palmitic acid in the three types of milk fat, while linoleic acid decreased in buffalo's and goat's milk fat. Besides, W.I.V.F.A. showed a gradual decrease, when the three types of milk were exposed to ascendent doses of 8-rays

  13. Survival of four commercial probiotic mixtures in full fat and reduced fat peanut butter.

    Klu, Yaa Asantewaa Kafui; Phillips, Robert D; Chen, Jinru

    2014-12-01

    A well-documented health benefit of probiotics is their ability to reduce the incidence of diarrhea in young, malnourished children in the developing countries. This study was undertaken to determine whether peanut butter, a nutritious, low-moisture food could be a carrier for probiotics by observing the survivability of selected probiotic mixtures in peanut butter under different storage conditions. Commercial probiotic mixtures (B, U, N and S) comprising of multiple strains of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Streptococcus and Lactococcus were inoculated into full fat or reduced fat peanut butter at 10(7) CFU/g. Resulting products were stored at 4, 25 or 37 °C for 12 months. Populations of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus/Lactococcus were determined periodically. The average viable cell counts of N and S were significantly lower than those of B and U (p peanut butter had no significant impacts on probiotic viability. Results suggest that peanut butter can be a vehicle to deliver probiotics for preventing diarrhea among malnourished children. PMID:25084642

  14. Essential fatty acid deficiency in patients with severe fat malabsorption

    Jeppesen, Palle B; Christensen, Michael Søberg; Høy, Carl-Erik;

    1997-01-01

    by thin-layer chromatography and expressed as a percentage of total fatty acids. The concentration of linoleic acid in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 was 21.7%, 19.4%, 16.4%, and 13.4% respectively (P < 0.001). The concentration of linolenic acid in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 was 0.4%, 0.4%, 0.3% and 0.......3%, respectively (P = 0.017). Evidence of essential fatty acid deficiency, defined as a serum concentration of linoleic acid less than the lower limit if the 95% CI in patients without fat malabsorption (group 1), was 5% (1/21), 38% (9/24), and 67% (10/15) in groups 2, 3, and 4, respectively. A considerable......Essential fatty acid deficiency is commonly described in patients receiving parenteral nutrition, but the occurrence in patients with severe fat malabsorption not receiving parenteral nutrition is uncertain. One hundred twelve patients were grouped according to their degree of fat malabsorption...

  15. Brown fat activation reduces hypercholesterolaemia and protects from atherosclerosis development

    Berbeé, J.F.P.; Boon, M.R.; Khedoe, P.P.S.J.; Bartelt, A.; Schlein, C.; Worthmann, A.; Kooijman, S.; Hoeke, G.; Mol, I.M.; John, C.; Jung, C.; Vazirpanah, N.; Brouwers, L.P.J.; Gordts, P.L.S.M.; Esko, J.D.; Hiemstra, P.S.; Havekes, L.M.; Scheja, L.; Heeren, J.; Rensen, P.C.N.

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) combusts high amounts of fatty acids, thereby lowering plasma triglyceride levels and reducing obesity. However, the precise role of BAT in plasma cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis development remains unclear. Here we show that BAT activation by b3-adrenergic rece

  16. Shaking weight loss away - Can vibration exercise reduce body fat?

    DARRYL COCHRANE

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available An exercise modality that requires little time and physical exertion whilst providing the benefits of increased force, power, balance, flexibility, and weight loss would appeal to most people that may be at risk from an imbalanced lifestyle. One such exercise modality that has received a lot of attention has been vibration exercise (VbX, which evokes muscular work and elevates metabolic rate could be a potential method for weight reduction. Popular press has purported that VbX is quick, convenient, and 10 minutes of VbX is equivalent to one hour of traditional exercise, where it has been marketed as the new weight-loss and body toning workout. However, research studies have shown that muscle activation is elicited but the energy demand in response to VbX is quite low. Exhaustive VbX has been reported to produce a metabolic demand of 23 ml/kg/min compared to 44 ml/kg/min from an exhaustive cycle test. Different vibration frequencies have been tested with varying amplitudes and loads, but only small increases in metabolic rate have been reported. Based on these findings it has been indirectly calculated that a VbX session of 26Hz for 3 continuous minutes would only incur a loss of ~ 10.7g fat/hr. Following a 24-week programme of VbX, no observed differences were found in body composition and following 12 months of VbX the time to reach peak O2 was significantly higher in conventional exercise compared to VbX. However, one study has reported that percentage body fat decreased by 3.2% after eight months after VbX in comparison to resistance and control groups that performed no aerobic conditioning. The evidence to date, suggests that VbX can increase whole and local oxygen uptake; however, with additional load, high vibration frequency and/or amplitude it cannot match the demands of conventional aerobic exercise. Therefore, caution is required when VbX programmes are solely used for the purpose of reducing body fat without considering dietary and

  17. Reducing effect of feeding powdered nacre of Pinctada maxima on the visceral fat of rats.

    Shono, Masayuki; Shimizu, Ichiro; Aoyagi, Eriko; Taniguchi, Tatsuya; Takenaka, Hidetaka; Ishikawa, Momoko; Urata, Mari; Sannomiya, Katsutaka; Tamaki, Katsuyoshi; Harada, Nagakatsu; Nakaya, Yutaka; Takayama, Tetsuji

    2008-10-01

    An abdominal fat accumulation complicated by high blood triglycerides is regarded as a risk factor of metabolic syndrome. Feeding powdered nacre, mother of pearl, from Pinctada maxima, resulted in reduced body weight, visceral fat amount, and blood triglyceride level without influencing the food intake, body length, or amount of muscular tissue, suggesting that nacre powder specifically could decrease visceral fat. PMID:18838791

  18. CONSUMPTION OF REDUCED-FAT PEANUT BUTTER IN ADDITION TO THE CONSUMPTION OF REGULAR PEANUT BUTTER

    He, Senhui; Fletcher, Stanley M.; Rimal, Arbindra

    2004-01-01

    A set of factors has been identified to affect consumption of reduced-fat peanut butter in addition to regular peanut butter. We found that consumption of reduced-fat peanut butter, which is an imperfect substitute for regular peanut butter, may expand total demand for peanut butter. Interestingly, for those who usually buy the same brand of peanut butter, their consumption of reduced-fat peanut butter is more likely in addition to consumption of regular peanut butter, implying promotion of a...

  19. ACE Reduces Metabolic Abnormalities in a High-Fat Diet Mouse Model

    Seong-Jong Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal plants Artemisia iwayomogi (A. iwayomogi and Curcuma longa (C. longa radix have been used to treat metabolic abnormalities in traditional Korean medicine and traditional Chinese medicine (TKM and TCM. In this study we evaluated the effect of the water extract of a mixture of A. iwayomogi and C. longa (ACE on high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in a mouse model. Four groups of C57BL/6N male mice (except for the naive group were fed a high-fat diet freely for 10 weeks. Among these, three groups (except the control group were administered a high-fat diet supplemented with ACE (100 or 200 mg/kg or curcumin (50 mg/kg. Body weight, accumulation of adipose tissues in abdomen and size of adipocytes, serum lipid profiles, hepatic steatosis, and oxidative stress markers were analyzed. ACE significantly reduced the body and peritoneal adipose tissue weights, serum lipid profiles (total cholesterol and triglycerides, glucose levels, hepatic lipid accumulation, and oxidative stress markers. ACE normalized lipid synthesis-associated gene expressions (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, PPARγ; fatty acid synthase, FAS; sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor-1c, SREBP-1c; and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, PPARα. The results from this study suggest that ACE has the pharmaceutical potential reducing the metabolic abnormalities in an animal model.

  20. ACE Reduces Metabolic Abnormalities in a High-Fat Diet Mouse Model

    Lee, Seong-Jong; Han, Jong-Min; Lee, Jin-Seok; Son, Chang-Gue; Im, Hwi-Jin; Jo, Hyun-Kyung; Yoo, Ho-Ryong; Kim, Yoon-Sik; Seol, In-Chan

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal plants Artemisia iwayomogi (A. iwayomogi) and Curcuma longa (C. longa) radix have been used to treat metabolic abnormalities in traditional Korean medicine and traditional Chinese medicine (TKM and TCM). In this study we evaluated the effect of the water extract of a mixture of A. iwayomogi and C. longa (ACE) on high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in a mouse model. Four groups of C57BL/6N male mice (except for the naive group) were fed a high-fat diet freely for 10 weeks. Among these, three groups (except the control group) were administered a high-fat diet supplemented with ACE (100 or 200 mg/kg) or curcumin (50 mg/kg). Body weight, accumulation of adipose tissues in abdomen and size of adipocytes, serum lipid profiles, hepatic steatosis, and oxidative stress markers were analyzed. ACE significantly reduced the body and peritoneal adipose tissue weights, serum lipid profiles (total cholesterol and triglycerides), glucose levels, hepatic lipid accumulation, and oxidative stress markers. ACE normalized lipid synthesis-associated gene expressions (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, PPARγ; fatty acid synthase, FAS; sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor-1c, SREBP-1c; and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, PPARα). The results from this study suggest that ACE has the pharmaceutical potential reducing the metabolic abnormalities in an animal model. PMID:26508977

  1. Physical chemistry and engineering of membranes for fat/fatty acid separations.

    Keurentjes, J.T.F.

    1991-01-01

    Fatty acids have to be removed from non-mineral oil for several purposes. In the refining of edible oils and fats they have to be removed as a contaminant. In the enzymatic hydrolysis of oils, a high content in fatty acids results in a reduced conversion rate. In order to maintain a sufficiently high reaction rate they will have to be removed, preferably in-line. The conventional separation method is the caustic refining process, in which alkali is added to the fatty acid containing oil, resu...

  2. The need for multisectoral food chain approaches to reduce trans fat consumption in India

    Downs, SM; Singh, A.; Gupta, V.; Lock, K.; Ghosh-Jerath, S

    2015-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends virtually eliminating trans fat from the global food supply. Although several high-income countries have successfully reduced trans fat levels in foods, low- and middle-income countries such as India face additional challenges to its removal from the food supply. This study provides a systems analysis of the Indian food chain to assess intervention options for reducing trans fat intake in low-income consumers. Methods Data were collect...

  3. Dietary krill oil supplementation reduces hepatic steatosis, glycemia, and hypercholesterolemia in high-fat-fed mice.

    Tandy, Sally; Chung, Rosanna W S; Wat, Elaine; Kamili, Alvin; Berge, Kjetil; Griinari, Mikko; Cohn, Jeffrey S

    2009-10-14

    Krill oil (KO) is rich in n-3 fatty acids that are present in phospholipids rather than in triglycerides. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dietary KO on cardiometabolic risk factors in male C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet. Mice (n = 6-10 per group) were fed for 8 weeks either: (1) a nonpurified chow diet (N); (2) a high-fat semipurified diet containing 21 wt % buttermilk + 0.15 wt % cholesterol (HF); (3) HF supplemented with 1.25 wt % KO (HFKO1.25); (4) HF with 2.5 wt % KO (HFKO2.5); or (5) HF with 5 wt % KO (HFKO5.0). Dietary KO supplementation caused a significant reduction in liver wt (i.e., hepatomegaly) and total liver fat (i.e., hepatic steatosis), due to a dose-dependent reduction in hepatic triglyceride (mean +/- SEM: 35 +/- 6, 47 +/- 4, and 51 +/- 5% for HFKO1.25, -2.5, and -5.0 vs HF, respectively, P < 0.001) and cholesterol (55 +/- 5, 66 +/- 3, and 71 +/- 3%, P < 0.001). Serum cholesterol levels were reduced by 20 +/- 3, 29 +/- 4, and 29 +/- 5%, and blood glucose was reduced by 36 +/- 5, 34 +/- 6, and 42 +/- 6%, respectively. Serum adiponectin was increased in KO-fed animals (HF vs HFKO5.0: 5.0 +/- 0.2 vs 7.5 +/- 0.6 microg/mL, P < 0.01). These results demonstrate that dietary KO is effective in improving metabolic parameters in mice fed a high-fat diet, suggesting that KO may be of therapeutic value in patients with the metabolic syndrome and/or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:19761211

  4. Effect of Lactic Acid Bacteria on Lipid Metabolism and Fat Synthesis in Mice Fed a High-fat Diet

    YONEJIMA, Yasunori; Ushida, Kazunari; Mori, Yoshiro

    2013-01-01

    Visceral fat accumulation is a major risk factor for the development of obesity-related diseases, including diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and arteriosclerosis. Stimulation of lipolytic activity in adipose tissue or inhibition of fat synthesis is one way to prevent these serious diseases. Lactic acid bacteria have an anti-obesity effect, but the mechanisms are unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of the administration of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus gasseri NT) on lipid...

  5. Time-restricted feeding reduces adiposity in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Sundaram, Sneha; Yan, Lin

    2016-06-01

    Disruption of the circadian rhythm contributes to obesity. This study tested the hypothesis that time-restricted feeding (TRF) reduces high-fat diet-induced increase in adiposity. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed the AIN93G or the high-fat diet ad libitum (ad lib); TRF of the high-fat diet for 12 or 8hours during the dark cycle was initiated when high-fat diet-fed mice exhibited significant increases in body weight. Energy intake of the TRF 12-hour group was not different from that of the high-fat ad lib group, although that of the TRF 8-hour group was slightly but significantly lower. Restricted feeding of the high-fat diet reduced body fat mass and body weight compared with mice fed the high-fat diet ad lib. There were no differences in respiratory exchange ratio (RER) among TRF and high-fat ad lib groups, but the RER of these groups was lower than that of the AIN93G group. Energy expenditure of the TRF groups was slightly but significantly lower than that of the high-fat ad lib group. Plasma concentrations of ghrelin were increased in TRF groups compared with both AIN93G and high-fat ad lib groups. Elevations of plasma concentrations of insulin, leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase-1 by high-fat ad lib feeding were reduced by TRF to the levels of mice fed the AIN93G diet. In conclusion, TRF during the dark cycle reduces high-fat diet-induced increases in adiposity and proinflammatory cytokines. These results indicate that circadian timing of food intake may prevent obesity and abate obesity-related metabolic disturbance. PMID:27188906

  6. Effects of Glasswort (Salicornia herbacea L.) Hydrates on Quality Characteristics of Reduced-salt, Reduced-fat Frankfurters

    Choi, Yun-Sang

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of adding glasswort hydrate containing non-meat ingredient (GM, carboxy methyl cellulose; GC, carrageenan; GI, isolated soy protein; GS, sodium caseinate) on the quality characteristics of reduced-salt, reduced-fat frankfurters. The pH and color evaluation showed significant differences, depending on the type of glasswort hydrate added (p<0.05). In the raw batters and cooked frankfurters, the addition of glasswort hydrate decreased the redness and increased the yellowness in comparison with frankfurters without glasswort hydrate. The reduction in salt and fat content significantly increased cooking loss and decreased hardness, tenderness and juiciness (p<0.05). Glasswort hydrate containing non-meat ingredient improved cooking loss, water holding capacity, emulsion stability, hardness, and viscosity of reduced-salt, reduced-fat frankfurters. The GM treatment had the highest myofibiliar protein solubility among all treatments, which was associated with emulsion stability and viscosity. The GC treatment had higher values for all texture parameters than the control. In the sensory evaluation, the addition of glasswort hydrate with non-meat ingredient improved tenderness and juiciness of reduced-salt, reduced-fat frankfurters. GM, GC, and GI treatments improved not only the physicochemical properties but also the sensory characteristics of reduced-salt, reduced-fat frankfurters. The results indicated that the use of glasswort hydrate containing non-meat ingredient was improved the quality characteristics of reduced-salt, reduced-fat frankfurters. PMID:26877638

  7. Intramuscular fat and fatty acid composition of longissimus muscle from divergent pure breeds of cattle.

    Dinh, T T N; Blanton, J R; Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Phillips, W A; Brooks, J C; Miller, M F; Thompson, L D

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the fatty acid (FA) composition of intramuscular fat from the LM of 3 divergent breeds of cattle: Angus (AN, n = 9), Brahman (BR, n = 7), and Romosinuano (RM, n = 11). Cattle were blocked by breed and finished 129 d before slaughter in one year and 157 d in the next year. Longissimus muscle samples were collected from each carcass between the 10th and 13th ribs, trimmed of external fat, frozen in liquid nitrogen, homogenized, and used for fat extraction, using a modified Folch procedure. Extracted fat was analyzed for FA by using a GLC system with an HP-88 capillary column. Fatty acid composition was expressed using both a normalized percentage (%) and gravimetric calculation (mg/g of fresh muscle tissue) in relation to degree of saturation, which was determined using a saturation index (ratio of total SFA to total unsaturated FA). Crude fat determination revealed that LM from AN purebred cattle had the greatest amount of intramuscular fat (7.08%; P = 0.001). Although intramuscular fat of LM from RM contained a reduced percentage of total SFA (P = 0.002) compared with AN, it had the greatest percentage of total PUFA (P < 0.001 and P = 0.020). The percentages of total MUFA were similar among the 3 breeds (P = 0.675). The gravimetric calculation, a measure of actual FA concentration, showed significantly greater concentrations of SFA (26.67 mg/g), MUFA (26.50 mg/g), and PUFA (2.37 mg/g) in LM from AN cattle, as compared with LM from BR and RM cattle (P < 0.001). Interestingly, BR purebreds had the least PUFA concentration (1.49 mg/g; P fat content was similar to that of RM (P = 0.924). Regardless of breed, the MUFA proportion was always the greatest (47.58%; P acid composition was characterized by palmitic and oleic acids being the most

  8. Ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle and brown fat and decreases diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease.

    Steven D Kunkel

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle Akt activity stimulates muscle growth and imparts resistance to obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease. We recently found that ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle Akt activity and stimulates muscle growth in non-obese mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ursolic acid might increase skeletal muscle Akt activity in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. We studied mice that consumed a high fat diet lacking or containing ursolic acid. In skeletal muscle, ursolic acid increased Akt activity, as well as downstream mRNAs that promote glucose utilization (hexokinase-II, blood vessel recruitment (Vegfa and autocrine/paracrine IGF-I signaling (Igf1. As a result, ursolic acid increased skeletal muscle mass, fast and slow muscle fiber size, grip strength and exercise capacity. Interestingly, ursolic acid also increased brown fat, a tissue that shares developmental origins with skeletal muscle. Consistent with increased skeletal muscle and brown fat, ursolic acid increased energy expenditure, leading to reduced obesity, improved glucose tolerance and decreased hepatic steatosis. These data support a model in which ursolic acid reduces obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease by increasing skeletal muscle and brown fat, and suggest ursolic acid as a potential therapeutic approach for obesity and obesity-related illness.

  9. Dietary conjugated linoleic acids increase intramuscular fat deposition and decrease subcutaneous fat deposition in Yellow Breed × Simmental cattle.

    Zhang, Haibo; Dong, Xianwen; Wang, Zhisheng; Zhou, Aiming; Peng, Quanhui; Zou, Huawei; Xue, Bai; Wang, Lizhi

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on intramuscular and subcutaneous fat deposition in Yellow Breed × Simmental cattle. The experiment was conducted for 60 days. The results showed that the average backfat thickness, (testicles + kidney + pelvic) fat percentage and subcutaneous fat percentage in dietary CLA were significantly lower than in the control group, while intramuscular the fat percentage was significantly higher. Compared to the control group, the Longissimus muscle enzyme activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) in dietary CLA and the subcutaneous fat enzyme activities of LPL, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) were significantly increased. Similarly, compared to the control group, the Longissimus muscle sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), FAS, stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD), ACC, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), heart fatty-acid binding protein (H-FABP) and LPL gene expression in dietary CLA were significant increased, as were the subcutaneous fat of PPARγ, H-FABP, LPL, CPT-1 and HSL in dietary CLA. These results indicated that dietary CLA increases IMF deposition mainly by the up-regulation of lipogenic gene expression, while decreasing subcutaneous fat deposition mainly by the up-regulation of lipolytic gene expression. PMID:26582037

  10. A comparison of the effect of free access to reduced fat products or their full fat equivalents on food intake, body weight, blood lipids and fat-soluble antioxidants levels and haemostasis variables

    Weststrate, J.A.; Hof, K.H. van het; Berg, H. van den; Velthuis-te-Wierik, E.J.M. te; Graaf, C. de; Zimmermanns, N.J.H.; Westerterp, K.R.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.; Verboeket-Venne, W.P.H.G. van de

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the effects of free access to reduced fat products or their full fat equivalents on fat and energy intake, body weight, plasma lipids and fat-soluble antioxidants concentrations and haemostasis variables. Design: A multicentre open randomised controlled trial in which interven

  11. Fatness

    Hansen, Anne Katrine Kleberg

    In 1727, the English physician Thomas Short wrote: “I believe no Age did ever afford more instances of Corpulency than our own.” Even in the 18th century, fatness was addressed as an issue of special contemporary concern. This thesis probes concepts and perceptions of fatness in Western European...... Medicine c. 1700–1900. It has been written with particular attention to whether and how fatness has been regarded as a disease during that period in history. One purpose of the thesis is to investigate the immediate period before fatness allegedly became problematized. Another purpose has been to grasp...

  12. Konjac/gellan gum mixed gels improve the quality of reduced-fat frankfurters.

    Lin, Kuo-Wei; Huang, Hsien-Yi

    2003-10-01

    Mixed gels of konjac (1%, 2%) and gellan gum (0.25%, 0.5%) were incorporated into reduced-fat (18%) frankfurters and compared with reduced-fat and high-fat (28%) controls for physicochemical, textural, sensory properties and storage stability. C28 (control at 28% fat) had the highest (Pkonjac/gellan gum mixed gels were not different from C28 in sensory overall acceptability, among them K1G5 (1% konjac/0.5% gellan gum) was numerically higher. C18 had the highest TPC (∼7.8 log CFU/g) after 12 weeks of storage, followed by gum-containing treatments. In conclusion, it appears feasible to incorporate konjac/gellan gum mixed gel at current levels to reduced-fat frankfurter for acceptable sensory merits with reasonable shelf life. PMID:22063436

  13. Increasing the maximally random jammed density with electric field to reduce the fat level in chocolate

    Tao, R.; Tang, H.

    Chocolate is one of the most popular food types and flavors in the world. Unfortunately, at present, chocolate products contain too much fat, leading to obesity. For example, a typical molding chocolate has various fat up to 40% in total and chocolate for covering ice cream has fat 50 -60%. Especially, as children are the leading chocolate consumers, reducing the fat level in chocolate products to make them healthier is important and urgent. While this issue was called into attention and elaborated in articles and books decades ago and led to some patent applications, no actual solution was found unfortunately. Why is reducing fat in chocolate so difficult? What is the underlying physical mechanism? We have found that this issue is deeply related to the basic science of soft matters, especially to their viscosity and maximally random jammed (MRJ) density φx. All chocolate productions are handling liquid chocolate, a suspension with cocoa solid particles in melted fat, mainly cocoa butter. The fat level cannot be lower than 1-φxin order to have liquid chocolate to flow. Here we show that that with application of an electric field to liquid chocolate, we can aggregate the suspended particles into prolate spheroids. This microstructure change reduces liquid chocolate's viscosity along the flow direction and increases its MRJ density significantly. Hence the fat level in chocolate can be effectively reduced. We are looking forward to a new class of healthier and tasteful chocolate coming to the market soon. Dept. of Physics, Temple Univ, Philadelphia, PA 19122.

  14. Effect of fat intake on cholesterol turnover and bile acid formation

    Three groups of male rats were maintained on diets containing different amounts of fat. After one week on such regimens, they were injected intraperitoneally with cholesterol-3H. During the following 28 days, the radioactivity and quantity of fecal cholesterol and its metabolites were determined. The coprostanol excretion was the about same in all groups and the bile acids excretion increased with increasing fat intake; however, compared to the fat-free group, the excretion of the injected cholesterol-3H was greater in the 3% fat group and less in the 10% fat group. Consequently, the specific radioactivity of bile acids was lower in the 10% group than in the others. The half-life of labelled cholesterol was 12.6, 16.0 and 22.2 days for the 3%, 10% fat and fat-free groups, respectively. Rather than a fat-free diet, a low-fat diet of 3% or so, would be of more advantage in eliminating cholesterol by increasing the formation of bile acids to emulsify the fat. In the 10% fat group, however, the enlarged pool size of bile acid probably delayed cholesterol metabolism to bile acids. (auth.)

  15. Exercise and a High Fat Diet Synergistically Increase the Pantothenic Acid Requirement in Rats.

    Takahashi, Kei; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    It is thought that both exercise and dietary composition increase the utilization of, and thus the requirement for, certain water-soluble vitamins. However, there have been no studies evaluating the combined impacts of exercise and dietary composition on vitamin utilization. In this experiment, rats were fed a pantothenic acid (PaA)-restricted (0.004 g PaA-Ca/kg diet) diet containing 5% (ordinary amount of dietary fat) or 20% fat (high fat), and were forced to swim until exhaustion every other day for 22 d. PaA status was assessed by urinary excretion, which reflects body stores of water-soluble vitamins. The urinary excretion of PaA in rats fed a 5% fat diet was not affected by swimming (5% fat + non-swimming vs. 5% fat + swim; p>0.05). Excretion of PaA was decreased by the high-fat diet (5% fat + non-swim vs. 20% fat + non-swim; pexercise (20% fat + non-swim vs. 20% fat + swim; pexercise and a high-fat diet. Plasma PaA concentrations showed changes similar to those seen for urinary excretion. The experiment was then repeated using rats fed a PaA-sufficient (0.016 g PaA-Ca/kg diet) diet, and PaA excretion was again synergistically decreased by the combination of exercise and a high-fat diet (pexercise and a high-fat diet synergistically increases the requirement for PaA. PMID:26226957

  16. Polyphenolic extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa reduces body fat by inhibiting hepatic lipogenesis and preadipocyte adipogenesis.

    Kao, Erl-Shyh; Yang, Mon-Yuan; Hung, Chia-Hung; Huang, Chien-Ning; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Diets high in fat lead to excess lipid accumulation in adipose tissue, which is a crucial factor in the development of obesity, hepatitis, and hyperlipidemia. In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (HSE) in vivo. Hamsters fed a high-fat diet (HFD) develop symptoms of obesity, which were determined based on body weight changes and changes in plasma and serum triglycerides, free fatty acid concentrations, total cholesterol levels, LDL-C levels, HDL-C levels, and adipocyte tissue weight. HFD-fed hamsters were used to investigate the effects of HSE on symptoms of obesity such as adipogenesis and fatty liver, loss of blood glucose regulation, and serum ion imbalance. Interestingly, HSE treatment effectively reduced the effects of the HFD in hamsters in a dose-dependent manner. Further, after inducing maturation of preadipocytes, Hibiscus sabdariffa polyphenolic extract (HPE) was shown to suppress the adipogenesis of adipocytes. However, HPE does not affect the viability of preadipocytes. Therefore, both HSE and HPE are effective and viable treatment strategies for preventing the development and treating the symptoms of obesity. PMID:26489044

  17. The influence of herbs and spices on overall liking of reduced fat food.

    Peters, John C; Polsky, Sarit; Stark, Rebecca; Zhaoxing, Pan; Hill, James O

    2014-08-01

    Most adults consume more fat than is recommended in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. We examined whether adding herbs and spices to reduced-fat foods would improve their consumer liking. We recruited adults 18-65 years old to taste three lunch conditions: full fat (FF), reduced fat with no added spice (RF), and reduced fat plus spice (RFS). Subjects rated their liking of a meatloaf entrée, vegetable side dish, pasta side dish, and overall meal on a 9-point hedonic Likert scale. Subjects came weekly for 3 weeks to consume meals and were randomized to the condition order. We enrolled 148 subjects who were predominantly female (n = 101, 68%), had a mean age of 35.9 years, and body mass index of 24.4 kg/m2. Subjects reported habitual diets as 36% of total calories from fat (2005 Block Food Frequency Questionnaire). Reducing fat content alone significantly dropped overall liking of the meal compared with FF and RFS conditions (6.29 RF vs. 7.05 FF, P national guidelines. PMID:24769295

  18. Rheological and thermophysical properties of model compounds for ice-cream with reduced fat and sugar

    Drago Šubarić; Jurislav Babić; Đurđica Ačkar; Borislav Miličević; Mirela Kopjar; Vedran Slačanac

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of hydrocolloid carrageenan, native tapioca starch and powdered whey on viscosity and thermophysical properties of model ice-cream mixtures with reduced content of sugar and fat. Measurements were performed immediately after mixture preparation and after two months of storage at -18 °C. Results showed that rheological properties of model ice-cream mixtures with reduced content of sugar and fat can be improved by addition of starch and whe...

  19. Suppression of fat deposition in broiler chickens by (-)-hydroxycitric acid supplementation: A proteomics perspective.

    Peng, Mengling; Han, Jing; Li, Longlong; Ma, Haitian

    2016-01-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) suppresses fatty acid synthesis in animals, but its biochemical mechanism in poultry is unclear. This study identified the key proteins associated with fat metabolism and elucidated the biochemical mechanism of (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. Four groups (n = 30 each) received a diet supplemented with 0, 1000, 2000 or 3000 mg/kg (-)-HCA for 4 weeks. Of the differentially expressed liver proteins, 40 and 26 were identified in the mitochondrial and cytoplasm respectively. Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 components (PDHA1 and PDHB), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD), aconitase (ACO2), a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (DLST), enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHS1) and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) were upregulated, while NADP-dependent malic enzyme (ME1) was downregulated. Biological network analysis showed that the identified proteins were involved in glycometabolism and lipid metabolism, whereas PDHA1, PDHB, ECHS1, and ME1 were identified in the canonical pathway by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The data indicated that (-)-HCA inhibited fatty acid synthesis by reducing the acetyl-CoA supply, via promotion of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (upregulation of PDHA1, PDHB, ACO2, and DLST expression) and inhibition of ME1 expression. Moreover, (-)-HCA promoted fatty acid beta-oxidation by upregulating ECHS1 expression. These results reflect a biochemically relevant mechanism of fat reduction by (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. PMID:27586962

  20. Suppression of fat deposition in broiler chickens by (-)-hydroxycitric acid supplementation: A proteomics perspective

    Peng, Mengling; Han, Jing; Li, Longlong; Ma, Haitian

    2016-01-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) suppresses fatty acid synthesis in animals, but its biochemical mechanism in poultry is unclear. This study identified the key proteins associated with fat metabolism and elucidated the biochemical mechanism of (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. Four groups (n = 30 each) received a diet supplemented with 0, 1000, 2000 or 3000 mg/kg (-)-HCA for 4 weeks. Of the differentially expressed liver proteins, 40 and 26 were identified in the mitochondrial and cytoplasm respectively. Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 components (PDHA1 and PDHB), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD), aconitase (ACO2), a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (DLST), enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHS1) and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) were upregulated, while NADP-dependent malic enzyme (ME1) was downregulated. Biological network analysis showed that the identified proteins were involved in glycometabolism and lipid metabolism, whereas PDHA1, PDHB, ECHS1, and ME1 were identified in the canonical pathway by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The data indicated that (-)-HCA inhibited fatty acid synthesis by reducing the acetyl-CoA supply, via promotion of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (upregulation of PDHA1, PDHB, ACO2, and DLST expression) and inhibition of ME1 expression. Moreover, (-)-HCA promoted fatty acid beta-oxidation by upregulating ECHS1 expression. These results reflect a biochemically relevant mechanism of fat reduction by (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. PMID:27586962

  1. Alpha Linolenic Acid-enriched Diacylglycerol Enhances Postprandial Fat Oxidation in Healthy Subjects: A Randomized Double-blind Controlled Trail.

    Ando, Yasutoshi; Saito, Shinichiro; Oishi, Sachiko; Yamanaka, Nami; Hibi, Masanobu; Osaki, Noriko; Katsuragi, Yoshihisa

    2016-08-01

    Alpha linolenic acid-enriched diacylglycerol (ALA-DAG) reduces visceral fat area and body fat in rodents and humans compared to conventional triacylglycerol (TAG). Although ALA-DAG increases dietary fat utilization as energy in rodents, its effects in humans are not known. The present study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover intervention trial performed to clarify the effect of ALA-DAG on postprandial energy metabolism in humans. Nineteen healthy subjects participated in this study, and postprandial energy metabolism was evaluated using indirect calorimetry followed by 14-d repeated pre-consumption of TAG (rapeseed oil) as a control or ALA-DAG. As a primary outcome, ALA-DAG induced significantly higher postprandial fat oxidation than TAG. As a secondary outcome, carbohydrate oxidation tended to be decreased. In addition, postprandial energy expenditure was significantly increased by ALA-DAG compared to TAG. These findings suggest that daily ALA-DAG consumption stimulates dietary fat utilization as energy after a meal, as well as greater diet induced thermogenesis in healthy humans. In conclusion, repeated consumption of ALA-DAG enhanced postprandial fat metabolism after a meal, which may partially explain its visceral fat area-reducing effect. PMID:27430386

  2. Dietary fat type, meat quality and fatty acid metabolism in swine

    Mitchaothai, J.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the replacement of animal fat by vegetable oil in the diet for growing-finishing pigs. Generally, but not exclusively, fats of animal origin contain higher proportions of saturated fatty acids (SFA) than vegetable oils that are commonly rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUF

  3. Digestibility of Fatty Acids in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Dairy Cows Fed with Tallow or Saturated Fats Rich in Stearic Acid or Palmitic Acid

    Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben; Børsting, Christian Friis

    1992-01-01

    Fatty acid digestibility was studied with five lactating cows fed three different fat sources in a 5 × 5 latin square experiment. The treatments were 500 g of tallow, 500 or 1000 g of saturated fat rich in stearic acid (C18:0) (SARF) or 500 or 1000 g of saturated fat rich in palmitic acid (C16......:0) (PARF) per day. The total daily fatty acid intake was about 1100 g in rations with the highest fat inclusion. The fatty acid digestibilities were 76% for tallow, 74 and 64% for 500 and 1000 g SARF, respectively, and 87 and 81% for 500 and 1000 g of PARF, respectively. When compared to fatty acid...... digestibility for tallow predicted from a model based on literature values, PARF had a higher fatty acid digestibility at both fat intakes, and SARF had a lower fatty acid digestibility, especially at high fat intake....

  4. Effects of reducing fat content on the proteolytic and rheological properties of Cheddar-like caprine milk cheese

    High-moisture Cheddar-like cheeses made from caprine milk containing 3.6, 2.0, 1.0, and 0.1-0.5% fat were manufactured and their proteolytic and rheological properties compared after 1, 3, and 6 mo of aging at 4 deg C. The full-fat (FF), reduced fat (RF), low-fat (LF), and non-fat (NF) cheeses conta...

  5. High Fat Diet Administration during Specific Periods of Pregnancy Alters Maternal Fatty Acid Profiles in the Near-Term Rat.

    Cerf, Marlon E; Herrera, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Excessive fat intake is a global health concern as women of childbearing age increasingly ingest high fat diets (HFDs). We therefore determined the maternal fatty acid (FA) profiles in metabolic organs after HFD administration during specific periods of gestation. Rats were fed a HFD for the first (HF1), second (HF2), or third (HF3) week, or for all three weeks (HFG) of gestation. Total maternal plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations were monitored throughout pregnancy. At day 20 of gestation, maternal plasma, liver, adipose tissue, and placenta FA profiles were determined. In HF3 mothers, plasma myristic and stearic acid concentrations were elevated, whereas docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was reduced in both HF3 and HFG mothers. In HF3 and HFG mothers, hepatic stearic and oleic acid proportions were elevated; conversely, DHA and linoleic acid (LA) proportions were reduced. In adipose tissue, myristic acid was elevated, whereas DHA and LA proportions were reduced in all mothers. Further, adipose tissue stearic acid proportions were elevated in HF2, HF3, and HFG mothers; with oleic acid increased in HF1 and HFG mothers. In HF3 and HFG mothers, placental neutral myristic acid proportions were elevated, whereas DHA was reduced. Further, placental phospholipid DHA proportions were reduced in HF3 and HFG mothers. Maintenance on a diet, high in saturated fat, but low in DHA and LA proportions, during late or throughout gestation, perpetuated reduced DHA across metabolic organs that adapt during pregnancy. Therefore a diet, with normal DHA proportions during gestation, may be important for balancing maternal FA status. PMID:26742067

  6. High Fat Diet Administration during Specific Periods of Pregnancy Alters Maternal Fatty Acid Profiles in the Near-Term Rat

    Marlon E. Cerf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive fat intake is a global health concern as women of childbearing age increasingly ingest high fat diets (HFDs. We therefore determined the maternal fatty acid (FA profiles in metabolic organs after HFD administration during specific periods of gestation. Rats were fed a HFD for the first (HF1, second (HF2, or third (HF3 week, or for all three weeks (HFG of gestation. Total maternal plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA concentrations were monitored throughout pregnancy. At day 20 of gestation, maternal plasma, liver, adipose tissue, and placenta FA profiles were determined. In HF3 mothers, plasma myristic and stearic acid concentrations were elevated, whereas docosahexaenoic acid (DHA was reduced in both HF3 and HFG mothers. In HF3 and HFG mothers, hepatic stearic and oleic acid proportions were elevated; conversely, DHA and linoleic acid (LA proportions were reduced. In adipose tissue, myristic acid was elevated, whereas DHA and LA proportions were reduced in all mothers. Further, adipose tissue stearic acid proportions were elevated in HF2, HF3, and HFG mothers; with oleic acid increased in HF1 and HFG mothers. In HF3 and HFG mothers, placental neutral myristic acid proportions were elevated, whereas DHA was reduced. Further, placental phospholipid DHA proportions were reduced in HF3 and HFG mothers. Maintenance on a diet, high in saturated fat, but low in DHA and LA proportions, during late or throughout gestation, perpetuated reduced DHA across metabolic organs that adapt during pregnancy. Therefore a diet, with normal DHA proportions during gestation, may be important for balancing maternal FA status.

  7. Reduced cortical thickness associated with visceral fat and BMI

    Ralf Veit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural brain imaging studies have shown that obesity is associated with widespread reductions in gray matter (GM volume. Although the body mass index (BMI is an easily accessible anthropometric measure, substantial health problems are more related to specific body fat compartments, like visceral adipose tissue (VAT. We investigated cortical thickness measures in a group of 72 healthy subjects (BMI range 20–35 kg/m2, age range 19–50 years. Multiple regression analyses were performed using VAT and BMI as predictors and age, gender, total surface area and education as confounds. BMI and VAT were independently associated with reductions in cortical thickness in clusters comprising the left lateral occipital area, the left inferior temporal cortex, and the left precentral and inferior parietal area, while the right insula, the left fusiform gyrus and the right inferior temporal area showed a negative correlation with VAT only. In addition, we could show significant reductions in cortical thickness with increasing VAT adjusted for BMI in the left temporal cortex. We were able to detect widespread cortical thinning in a young to middle-aged population related to BMI and VAT; these findings show close resemblance to studies focusing on GM volume differences in diabetic patients. This may point to the influence of VAT related adverse effects, like low-grade inflammation, as a potentially harmful factor on brain integrity already in individuals at risk of developing diabetes, metabolic syndromes and arteriosclerosis.

  8. Tetradecylthioacetic acid prevents high fat diet induced adiposity and insulin resistance

    Madsen, Lise; Guerre-Millo, Michéle; Flindt, Esben N;

    2002-01-01

    Tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) is a non-beta-oxidizable fatty acid analog, which potently regulates lipid homeostasis. Here we evaluate the ability of TTA to prevent diet-induced and genetically determined adiposity and insulin resistance. In Wistar rats fed a high fat diet, TTA administration...... completely prevented diet-induced insulin resistance and adiposity. In genetically obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats TTA treatment reduced the epididymal adipose tissue mass and improved insulin sensitivity. All three rodent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) subtypes were activated by TTA in the...... ranking order PPARalpha > PPARdelta > PPARgamma. Expression of PPARgamma target genes in adipose tissue was unaffected by TTA treatment, whereas the hepatic expression of PPARalpha-responsive genes encoding enzymes involved in fatty acid uptake, transport, and oxidation was induced. This was accompanied...

  9. Beneficial effect of a weight-stable, low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index diet to reduce liver fat in older subjects

    Utzschneider, Kristina M.; Bayer-Carter, Jennifer L.; Arbuckle, Matthew D.; Tidwell, Jaime M.; Todd L. Richards; Craft, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia and can progress to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. We sought to determine whether dietary fat and saturated fat content alter liver fat in the absence of weight change in an older population. Liver fat was quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and after 4 weeks on an isoenergetic low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index (LGI) (LSAT: 23% fat/7% saturated fat/GI < 55) or a high-fat/high...

  10. Nicotinic acid supplementation in diet favored intramuscular fat deposition and lipid metabolism in finishing steers.

    Yang, Zhu-Qing; Bao, Lin-Bin; Zhao, Xiang-Hui; Wang, Can-Yu; Zhou, Shan; Wen, Lu-Hua; Fu, Chuan-Bian; Gong, Jian-Ming; Qu, Ming-Ren

    2016-06-01

    Nicotinic acid (NA) acting as the precursor of NAD(+)/NADH and NADP(+)/NADPH, participates in many biochemical processes, e.g. lipid metabolism. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary NA on carcass traits, meat quality, blood metabolites, and fat deposition in Chinese crossbred finishing steers. Sixteen steers with the similar body weight and at the age of 24 months were randomly allocated into control group (feeding basal diet) and NA group (feeding basal diet + 1000 mg/kg NA). All experimental cattle were fed a 90% concentrate diet and 10% forage straw in a 120-day feeding experiment. The results showed that supplemental NA in diet increased longissimus area, intramuscular fat content (17.14% vs. 9.03%), marbling score (8.08 vs. 4.30), redness (a*), and chroma (C*) values of LD muscle, but reduced carcass fat content (not including imtramuscular fat), pH24 h and moisture content of LD muscle, along with no effect on backfat thickness. Besides, NA supplementation increased serum HDL-C concentration, but decreased the serum levels of LDL-C, triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acid, total cholesterol, and glycated serum protein. In addition, NA supplementation increased G6PDH and ICDH activities of LD muscle. These results suggested that NA supplementation in diet improves the carcass characteristics and beef quality, and regulates the compositions of serum metabolites. Based on the above results, NA should be used as the feed additive in cattle industry. PMID:27048556

  11. Expression of the CD36 homolog (FAT) in fibroblast cells: effects on fatty acid transport.

    Ibrahimi, A.; Sfeir, Z; Magharaie, H; Amri, E Z; Grimaldi, P.; Abumrad, N A

    1996-01-01

    An adipocyte membrane glycoprotein, (FAT), homologous to human CD36, has been previously implicated in the binding/transport of long-chain fatty acids. It bound reactive derivatives of long-chain fatty acids and binding was specific and associated with significant inhibition of fatty acid uptake. Tissue distribution of the protein and regulation of its expression were also consistent with its postulated role. In this report, we have examined the effects of FAT expression on rates and properti...

  12. High fat intake lowers hepatic fatty acid synthesis and raises fatty acid oxidation in aerobic muscle in Shetland ponies.

    Geelen, S N; Blázquez, C; Geelen, M J; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M; Beynen, A C

    2001-07-01

    The metabolic effects of feeding soyabean oil instead of an isoenergetic amount of maize starch plus glucose were studied in ponies. Twelve adult Shetland ponies were given a control diet (15 g fat/kg DM) or a high-fat diet (118 g fat/kg DM) according to a parallel design. The diets were fed for 45 d. Plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations decreased by 55 % following fat supplementation. Fat feeding also reduced glycogen concentrations significantly by up to 65 % in masseter, gluteus and semitendinosus muscles (P equines. PMID:11432762

  13. Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Storage Factors: Effects of Depot, Sex and Fat Cell Size

    Hames, Kazanna C.; Koutsari, Christina; Santosa, Sylvia; Bush, Nikki C.; Jensen, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives Patterns of postabsorptive adipose tissue fatty acid storage correlate with sex-specific body fat distribution. Some proteins and enzymes participating in this pathway include CD36 (facilitated transport), acyl-CoA synthetases (ACS; the first step in fat metabolism), and diacylglycerol acetyl-transferase (DGAT; the final step of triglyceride synthesis). Our goal was to better define CD36, ACS and DGAT in relation to sex, subcutaneous fat depots, and adipocyte size. Subje...

  14. Triticale dried distillers' grain increases alpha-linolenic acid in subcutaneous fat of beef cattle fed oilseeds.

    He, M L; Sultana, H; Oba, M; Kastelic, J P; Dugan, M E R; McKinnon, J J; McAllister, T A

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of triticale dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS), flax (FS) and sunflower (SS) seed on growth and the fatty acid profile of subcutaneous (SQ) fat in individually housed steers (n = 15 per diet) fed ad libitum (DM basis); (1) control (CON) 90% barley grain + 10% barley silage; or substitution of barley grain for: (2) 30% DDGS; (3) 10% FS; (4) 30% DDGS + 8.5% FS; (5) 10% SS and (6) 30% DDGS + 8.5% SS. Oilseeds in the combination diets were reduced to maintain diet lipid levels below 9% DM and to determine if favorable changes in the fatty acid profile could be maintained or enhanced at reduced levels of oilseed. Plasma and SQ fat biopsies were collected at 0, 6, and 12 weeks. Inclusion of DDGS decreased (P benefits to the practical cost of favorably manipulating fatty acid profiles in beef. PMID:23054550

  15. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens;

    2013-01-01

    reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota...

  16. Reduced white fat mass in adult mice bearing a truncated Patched 1

    Zili Li, Heng Zhang, Leslie A. Denhard, Lan-Hsin Liu, Huaxin Zhou, Zi-Jian Lan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hedgehog (Hh signaling emerges as a potential pathway contributing to fat formation during postnatal development. In this report, we found that Patched 1 (Ptc1, a negative regulator of Hh signaling, was expressed in the epididymal fat pad of adult mice. Reduced total white fat mass and epididymal adipocyte cell size were observed in naturally occurring spontaneous mesenchymal dysplasia (mes adult mice (Ptc1mes/mes, which carry a deletion of Ptc1 at the carboxyl-terminal cytoplasmic region. Increased expression of truncated Ptc1, Ptc2 and Gli1, the indicators of ectopic activation of Hh signaling, was observed in epididymal fat pads of adult Ptc1mes/mes mice. In contrast, expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha, adipocyte P2 and adipsin were reduced in epididymal fat pads of adult Ptc1mes/mes mice. Taken together, our results indicate that deletion of carboxyl-terminal tail of Ptc1 can lead to the reduction of white fat mass during postnatal development.

  17. Does running with or without changes in diet reduce fat mass in novice runners?

    Nielsen, Rasmus O.; Videbæk, Solvej; Hansen, Mette;

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To explore how average weekly running distance, combined with changes in diet habits and reason to take up running, influence fat mass. METHODS: Fat mass was assessed by bioelectrical impedance at baseline and after 12 months among 538 novice runners included in a 1--year observational...... prospective follow--up study. During follow--up, running distance for each participant was quantified continuously by GPS while reason to take up running and change in diet was assessed trough web--based questionnaires. Loss of fat mass was compared between runners exceeding an average of 5 kilometers per...... week and those running less. RESULTS: Among those taking up running to lose weight, running >5 kilometers per week in average over 1--year combined with a positive change in diet reduced the fat mass of --5.58 kilogram [--8.69;--2.46], p <0.001. Compared with those also running >5 kilometers per week...

  18. High-fat-induced intestinal permeability dysfunction associated with altered fecal bile acids

    Lotta K Stenman; Reetta Holma; Riitta Korpela

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate whether high-fat-feeding is associated with increased intestinal permeability via alterations in bile acid metabolism.METHODS:Male C57B1/6J mice were fed on a high-fat (n =26) or low-fat diet (n =24) for 15 wk.Intestinal permeability was measured from duodenum,jejunum,ileum and colon in an Ussing chamber system using 4 kDa FITC-labeled dextran as an indicator.Fecal bile acids were analyzed with gas chromatography.Segments of jejunum and colon were analyzed for the expression of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF).RESULTS:Intestinal permeability was significantly increased by high-fat feeding in jejunum (median 0.334 for control vs 0.393 for high-fat,P =0.03) and colon (0.335 for control vs 0.433 for high-fat,P =0.01),but not in duodenum or ileum.The concentration of nearly all identified bile acids was significantly increased by high-fat feeding (P < 0.001).The proportion of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in all bile acids was decreased (1.4% ± 0.1% in high-fat vs 2.8% ± 0.3% in controls,P < 0.01) and correlated inversely with intestinal permeability (r =-0.72,P =0.01).High-fat feeding also increased jejunal FXR expression,as well as TNF expression along the intestine,especially in the colon.CONCLUSION:High-fat-feeding increased intestinal permeability,perhaps by a mechanism related to bile acid metabolism,namely a decreased proportion of fecal UDCA and increased FXR expression.

  19. Hepatic fat is not associated with beta-cell function or postprandial free fatty acid response

    Rijkelijkhuizen, J.M.; Doesburg, T.; Girman, C.J.; Mari, A.; Rhodes, T.; Gastaldelli, A.; Nijpels, M.G.A.A.M.; Dekker, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the association of hepatic fat with beta-cell function estimated from the oral glucose tolerance test. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that postprandial free fatty acid (FFA) suppression after a meal tolerance test (MTT) is linked to hepatic fat. Individuals with normal glucose me

  20. Fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat from pastoral yak and Tibetan sheep

    Fatty acid (FA) composition of intramuscular fat from mature male yak (n=6) and mature Tibetan sheep (n=6) grazed on the same pasture in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was analyzed by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer to characterize fat composition of these species and to evaluate possible differenc...

  1. Emodin ameliorates high-fat-diet induced insulin resistance in rats by reducing lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle.

    Cao, Yanni; Chang, Shufang; Dong, Jie; Zhu, Shenyin; Zheng, Xiaoying; Li, Juan; Long, Rui; Zhou, Yuanda; Cui, Jianyu; Zhang, Ye

    2016-06-01

    Emodin, an anthraquinone derivative isolated from root and rhizome of Rheum palmatum, has been reported to have promising anti-diabetic activity. The present study was to explore the possible mechanism of emodin to ameliorate insulin resistance. Insulin resistance was induced by feeding a high fat diet to Sprague-Dawley rats. The blood glucose and lipid profiles in serum were measured by an enzymatic method, and a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp was used to evaluate insulin resistance. L6 cells were cultured and treated with palmitic acid and emodin. The lipid content was assayed in the soleus muscle and L6 cells by Oil Red O staining. Western blot, qRT-PCR, and immunohistochemical staining were used to detect the following in the rat soleus muscle and L6 cells: protein levels, mRNA levels of FATP1, FATP4, transporter fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36), and plasma membrane-associated fatty acid protein (FABPpm). We found that blood glucose, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly decreased in the emodin group. Oil Red O staining and the level of TG in skeletal muscle and L6 cells confirmed that lipid deposition decreased after treatment with emodin. Furthermore, the protein levels and mRNA levels of FATP1 in skeletal muscle and in L6 cells of rats were significantly decreased, yet the protein levels and mRNA levels of FATP4, FAT/CD36 and FABPpm did not drop off significantly. The study suggest that emodin ameliorates insulin resistance by reducing FATP1-mediated skeletal muscle lipid accumulation in rats fed a high fat diet. PMID:27020550

  2. Time-related fatty acid profiles of plasma and lymph after gastric administration of fats to rats fed high-fat diets

    Porsgaard, Trine; Straarup, E. M.; Brand, C. L.;

    2000-01-01

    We examined in rats the intestinal absorption of 4 different dietary fats (rapeseed oil (RO), rapeseed oil interesterified with decanoic acid (R/C10), olive oil (OO), and butter) after feeding a high-fat (30 wt-%) diet rich in trans-fatty acids (mainly trans-C18:1) for 3 weeks. The trans-fatty ac...

  3. Reduced Capacity for Fatty Acid Oxidation in Rats with Inherited Susceptibility to Diet-Induced Obesity

    Ji, Hong; Friedman, Mark I.

    2007-01-01

    High-fat, energy-dense diets promote weight gain and obesity in humans and other animals, but the mechanisms underlying such diet-induced obesity remain elusive. To determine whether a reduced capacity to oxidize fat is involved in the etiology of diet-induced obesity, we examined different measures of fatty acid oxidation in rats selectively bred for susceptibility (DIO) or resistance (DR) to dietary obesity before and after they were fed a high-fat diet and became obese. DIO rats eating a l...

  4. GC-MS ANALYSIS OF THE FATTY ACID METHYL ESTER IN JAPANESE QUAIL FAT

    Ion Dragalin; Olga Morarescu; Maria Sedcenco; Radu Marin Rosca

    2015-01-01

    The accumulated as production waste fat from Faraon quail breeds has been investigated for the first time by using GC-MS technique, preventively converting it via methanolysis to fatty acid methyl esters. The test results, regarding the content of unsaturated fatty acids having a favorable to human body cis-configuration (77.8%), confirm their nutritional value and the possibility of using this fat in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries.

  5. GC-MS ANALYSIS OF THE FATTY ACID METHYL ESTER IN JAPANESE QUAIL FAT

    Ion Dragalin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The accumulated as production waste fat from Faraon quail breeds has been investigated for the first time by using GC-MS technique, preventively converting it via methanolysis to fatty acid methyl esters. The test results, regarding the content of unsaturated fatty acids having a favorable to human body cis-configuration (77.8%, confirm their nutritional value and the possibility of using this fat in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries.

  6. Technical constraints in the development of reduced-fat bakery products.

    Sharp, T

    2001-11-01

    The present study was funded by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, its aim being to identify the technical barriers to the development of reduced-fat alternatives for bakery products. Using National Food Survey (Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, 1998) statistics on dietary consumption within the home, biscuits, cakes and pastries were identified as contributing significant amounts of fat to the population's dietary intake. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with contacts in the technical community of the baking industry, who were usually working in technical and new-product development functions. A discussion guide was developed to cover the main lines of enquiry. The companies selected were ingredient suppliers (eight), manufacturers (twelve) and retailers (four) and so represented each step of the food supply chain. In brief, results showed that current labelling rules were too stringent, and constrained development of reduced-fat bakery products. Products with lower fat levels are harder to make due to altered handling and processing properties. Their quality is usually poorer than standard products, particularly for flavour, texture and mouthfeel. The perception of freshness is reduced and product shelf-life may consequently be shorter. For the product developer, there are relatively few ingredients that can be used in place of fat, and knowledge of how they work is limited, which inhibits product development. There is no identifiable source of technical knowledge in this field. Consumers perceive reduced-fat bakery products to be of lower quality and are generally unwilling to pay higher prices than for standard products. PMID:12069402

  7. Stearic acid-rich interesterified fat and trans-rich fat raise the LDL/HDL ratio and plasma glucose relative to palm olein in humans

    Karupaiah Tilakavati

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary trans-rich and interesterified fats were compared to an unmodified saturated fat for their relative impact on blood lipids and plasma glucose. Each fat had melting characteristics, plasticity and solids fat content suitable for use as hardstock in margarine and other solid fat formulations. Methods Thirty human volunteers were fed complete, whole food diets during 4 wk periods, where total fat (~31% daily energy, >70% from the test fats and fatty acid composition were tightly controlled. A crossover design was used with 3 randomly-assigned diet rotations and repeated-measures analysis. One test fat rotation was based on palm olein (POL and provided 12.0 percent of energy (%en as palmitic acid (16:0; a second contained trans-rich partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSO and provided 3.2 %en as trans fatty acids plus 6.5 %en as 16:0, while the third used an interesterified fat (IE and provided 12.5 %en as stearic acid (18:0. After 4 wk the plasma lipoproteins, fatty acid profile, as well as fasting glucose and insulin were assessed. In addition, after 2 wk into each period an 8 h postprandial challenge was initiated in a subset of 19 subjects who consumed a meal containing 53 g of test fat. Results After 4 wk, both PHSO and IE fats significantly elevated both the LDL/HDL ratio and fasting blood glucose, the latter almost 20% in the IE group relative to POL. Fasting 4 wk insulin was 10% lower after PHSO (p > 0.05 and 22% lower after IE (p Conclusion Both PHSO and IE fats altered the metabolism of lipoproteins and glucose relative to an unmodified saturated fat when fed to humans under identical circumstances.

  8. Effect of Fat-Mineral Preparation From Fish Oil on Fatty Acid Content on Cow Milk

    Witold Janeczek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available 8-week-lasting investigation aimed at the assessment of the effect of fish oil application in the form of fat-mineral preparation (F-M on fatty acid content in milk fat. The subject of this investigation were highly efficient dairy cows (primiparous and multiparous. The cows were administered F-M containing fish oil (1% in dry mass of ration which resulted in decreased level of shortchain fatty acids in milk fat and increased level of longchain fatty acids. There was recorded significant increase in isomer cis-9,trans-11 CLA content, as well as the one of polyunsaturated fatty acids of n-3 - EPA and DHA group. The number of n-3 group acid did considerably increase. The fatty acids n-6/n-3 ratio showed significant decrease in both experimental groups.

  9. Vascular Dysfunction Induced in Offspring by Maternal Dietary Fat Involves Altered Arterial Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthesis

    Kelsall, Christopher J.; Hoile, Samuel P.; Irvine, Nicola A.; Masoodi, Mojgan; Torrens, Christopher; Lillycrop, Karen A.; Calder, Philip C; Clough, Geraldine F.; Hanson, Mark A; Burdge, Graham C

    2012-01-01

    Nutrition during development affects risk of future cardiovascular disease. Relatively little is known about whether the amount and type of fat in the maternal diet affect vascular function in the offspring. To investigate this, pregnant and lactating rats were fed either 7%(w/w) or 21%(w/w) fat enriched in either18:2n-6, trans fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, or fish oil. Their offspring were fed 4%(w/w) soybean oil from weaning until day 77. Type and amount of maternal dietary fat altere...

  10. Camphor Tree Seed Kernel Oil Reduces Body Fat Deposition and Improves Blood Lipids in Rats.

    Fu, Jing; Wang, Baogui; Gong, Deming; Zeng, Cheng; Jiang, Yihao; Zeng, Zheling

    2015-08-01

    The total and positional fatty acid composition in camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) seed kernel oil (CKO) were analyzed, and for the first time, the effect of CKO on body fat deposition and blood lipids in rats was studied. The major fatty acids in CKO were determined to be decanoic acid (C10:0, 51.49%) and dodecanoic acid (C12:0, 40.08%), and uniformly distributed at Sn-1, 3, and Sn-2 positions in triglyceride (TG). Rats were randomly divided into control, CKO, lard, and soybean oil groups. At the end of the experiment, levels of blood lipids and the fats of abdomen in the rats were measured. The main organ were weighted and used for the histological examination. The results showed that body weight and fat deposition in CKO group were significantly lower than the lard and soybean groups. Moderate consumption of CKO was found to improve the levels of blood TG and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. PMID:26130050

  11. Assessment of the fatty acid patterns in vegetable oils, fats and fat-rich foods commonly consumed in Egypt

    Cantellops, Dennis

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Forty-one individual food samples were analyzed for their fatty acid contents by gas-liquid chromatography using capillary tubes. The samples belonged to 5 different food groups and included vegetable oils, butter & ghee, animal fats, dairy products, fishes, chicken & meats and other popular dishes. The results show that maize oil was lowest in its total saturated fatty acid content (11% and richest in linolenic acid. On the other hand, total saturated fatty acids made up 42-62 % of the total fatty acid patterns of the lamb and camel fat tallow, respectively. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (C20-C22 with two to six double bonds were present only in fishes. Estimate of fat intake amounted to 36 grams per subject per day and the % contribution of the analyzed fats was presented. The ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids amounted to 0.96; which falls within the optimum dietary goals.Cuarenta y una muestras de alimentos individuales fueron analizadas por su contenido en ácidos grasos mediante cromatografía gas-líquido usando columnas capilares. Las muestras pertenecieron a 5 grupos diferentes, incluyendo aceites vegetales, mantequilla y «ghee», grasas animales, productos lácteos, pescados, pollo y carnes, y otros platos populares. Los resultados mostraron que el aceite de maíz fue el que tuvo el más bajo contenido en ácidos grasos saturados totales (11% y el más rico en ácido linolénico. Por otro lado, los ácidos grasos saturados totales alcanzaron el 42-62% de los ácidos grasos totales del sebo de cordero y camello respectivamente. Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga (C20-C22 con dos a seis dobles enlaces estuvieron presentes solo en pescados. La estimación de la ingesta ascendió a 36 g por sujeto y día, y se presenta el porcentaje de contribución de las grasas analizadas. La relación de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados a saturados ascendió a 0.96; estando dentro del óptimo alimenticio.

  12. Changes in protein structures to improve the rheology and texture of reduced-fat sausages using high pressure processing.

    Yang, Huijuan; Khan, Muhammad Ammar; Yu, Xiaobo; Zheng, Haibo; Han, Minyi; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the role of high-pressure processing (HPP) for improving the functional properties of meat batters and the textural properties of reduced-fat sausages. Application of 200MPa pressure at 10°C for 2min to pork batters containing various fat contents (0-30%) affected their rheological properties, cooking losses, color, textual properties and their protein imaging. The results revealed that both application of 200MPa and increasing fat content decreased cooking loss, as well as improved the textural and rheological properties. Cooking losses, texture and sensory evaluation of 200MPa treated sausages having 20% fat were similar to those of the 0.1MPa treated sausages having 30% fat. Principal component analysis revealed that certain quality attributes were affected differently by the levels of fat addition and by HPP. These findings indicated the potential of HPP for improving yield and texture of emulsion-type sausages having reduced fat contents. PMID:27288900

  13. Arctigenin Inhibits Adipogenesis by Inducing AMPK Activation and Reduces Weight Gain in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Han, Yo-Han; Kee, Ji-Ye; Park, Jinbong; Kim, Hye-Lin; Jeong, Mi-Young; Kim, Dae-Seung; Jeon, Yong-Deok; Jung, Yunu; Youn, Dong-Hyun; Kang, JongWook; So, Hong-Seob; Park, Raekil; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Shin, Soyoung; Kim, Su-Jin; Um, Jae-Young; Hong, Seung-Heon

    2016-09-01

    Although arctigenin (ARC) has been reported to have some pharmacological effects such as anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, and antioxidant, there have been no reports on the anti-obesity effect of ARC. The aim of this study is to investigate whether ARC has an anti-obesity effect and mediates the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway. We investigated the anti-adipogenic effect of ARC using 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs). In high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, whether ARC can inhibit weight gain was investigated. We found that ARC reduced weight gain, fat pad weight, and triglycerides in HFD-induced obese mice. ARC also inhibited the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) in in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, ARC induced the AMPK activation resulting in down-modulation of adipogenesis-related factors including PPARγ, C/EBPα, fatty acid synthase, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, and lipoprotein lipase. This study demonstrates that ARC can reduce key adipogenic factors by activating the AMPK in vitro and in vivo and suggests a therapeutic implication of ARC for obesity treatment. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2067-2077, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26852013

  14. Can brown fat uptake of 18F-FDG be reduced by beta-blockers?

    With the increasing application of F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission imaging, there has been an evolving appreciation for the range of normal variants and the realization that false- positives can lead to serious consequences. One of the most common causes of a false-positive study is the uptake of FDG in areas of brown adipose tissue. BAT is generally present in deep cervical regions, including the supraclavicular areas, the interscapular and paravertebral regions, and areas near large vessels. Areas of involvement are often spatially closely related to important lymph node groups in the neck, axilla, and upper mediastinum, making critical differentiation difficult. The uptake of 18F FDG in brown adipose tissue (BAT) limits the ability of a PET scan to detect the sites of viable disease. Many studies have been done after premedication with Diazepam (benzodiazepines) to reduce the uptake of FDG by brown fat. But they are of limited value. Thus, it would be ideal if a drug could completely reverse the brown fat uptake and thus aid in proper management of the patient. The aim of this study is to see if by giving a single dose of a beta-blocker such as 'Ciplar' (Propranolol) 40 mg, 30 minutes prior to the FDG injection will help in reduction of brown fat uptake of 18F-FDG or not. Materials and Methods: Patients who were referred for a PET scan, either for a pretreatment or a post treatment evaluation and who showed FDG uptake in brown adipose tissue (BAT) were taken up for this study. The total number of patients was 14. A repeat PET scan was done after a gap of at least 48 hrs after the first study. The patients were advised to keep themselves warm with adequate warm clothing on the day of the second study. 40 mg of 'Ciplar' (propranolol) was given orally 30 minutes prior to the 18F-FDG injection. A whole body PET scan was performed on a dedicated whole body PET scanner (ADVANCE, GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI.), using attenuation correction with 68

  15. Reduced fat and sugar vanilla ice creams: sensory profiling and external preference mapping.

    Cadena, R S; Cruz, A G; Faria, J A F; Bolini, H M A

    2012-09-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to map sensory attributes of vanilla ice cream with reduced fat and sugar, and (2) to determine drivers of liking by applying external preference mapping and reveal the relationship between descriptive attributes and hedonic judgments using the partial least squares method. Descriptive sensory profiles (n=11) and consumer test (n=117) of 6 samples of vanilla ice cream (3 traditional and 3 with reduced fat and sugar) were determined. The attributes brightness and sweet aftertaste for sample and creaminess (appearance and texture) and sweet aroma contributed positively to the acceptance of ice cream samples. The attributes aeration, powdered milk aroma and flavor, and white chocolate aroma and flavor contributed positively to the acceptance of the ice creams. The attributes hydrogenated fat aroma and flavor were responsible for the lower acceptance of samples. The reduction in fat and sugar did not necessarily cause a decrease in acceptance. The most important factors were selection of the appropriate sweetener system and the use of good quality raw material. PMID:22916888

  16. Brain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA levels of young rats are related to alpha-linolenic acid (ALA levels and fat matrix of the diet: impact of dairy fat*

    Delplanque Bernadette

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Dososahexaenoate (DHA is highly concentrated in mammalian nervous and visual systems and its deficiency during gestation, lactation and early life, could have dramatic impacts on brain functions and mental health. Achieving an appropriate DHA status in the neonatal brain is an important goal of neonatal nutrition. We evaluated how a-linolenic acid (ALA provided by different dietary fat matrices improved DHA content in the brains of both young male and female rats. Young rats born from dams fed during gestation and lactation with a low ALA diet (0.4% of fatty acids were subjected for 6 weeks after weaning to an anhydrous dairy fat blend-based diet that provided 1.5% ALA or to a palm oil blend-based diet that provided the same ALA level: either 1.5% ALA or 1.5% ALA and 0.12% DHA with 0.4% arachidonic acid (ARA. With each diet the n-6/ n-3 ratio was similar (10 to follow the values generally recommended for infant formula. Fatty acids analysis in whole brain showed that 1.5% ALA dairy fat blend was superior to both 1.5% ALA palm-oil blends, supplemented or not with dietary DHA, for increasing brain DHA. Females compared to males had significantly higher brain DHA with the 1.5% ALA palm-blend diet, but the dietary supplementation with DHA smoothed the differences by a specific increase of males DHA brain. In conclusion, dairy fat blend enriched with ALA appear to be an interesting strategy for achieving optimal DHA levels in the brain of post-weaning rats. Inclusion of dairy fat in infant formulas should be reconsidered.

  17. The Content of Fat and Polyenoic Acids in the Major Food Sources of the Arctic Diet

    Shukla, V. K. S.; Clausen, Jytte Lene; Egsgaard, Helge;

    1980-01-01

    in western countries. The triglyceride content of muscle samples was also estimated. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry system was used for localizing the position of double bonds in the unsaturated acids, by means of their pyrrolidides. The fat tissue from the seal was the main source of...... polyenoic acids, tri- and pentaenoic acids in the diet of the Arctic hunter. Those acids were derived metabolically from linolenic acid. In contrast polyenoic acids, linoleic acid and its derivatives in the nonarctic diet, were mainly supplied from muscle of nonruminant animals and from sources of vegetable...

  18. A comparative study of fatty acid profiles of fat in commercial Spanish suckling kids and lambs

    Alberto Horcada

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid profiles are a major contributor to meat quality in small ruminants. Nevertheless, while fatty acid profiles from suckling lambs have been extensively studied they are virtually unknown in suckling kids. Fatty acid profiles of intramuscular and kidney knob fat depots of suckling kids were compared with fatty acid profiles of lambs with a quality label in the Spanish market. Forty suckling kids from Blanca Celtibérica (BC, Moncaína (Mo, Negra Serrana (NS and Murciano Granadina (MG breeds and 20 Churra male suckling lambs labelled with ‘Lechazo de Castilla y León’ Protected Geographic Indication were slaughtered at commercial live weights (12 kg. In both depots differences in the unsaturated fatty acid profile were observed between breeds. The most pronounced differences were observed between meat goat breeds (BC, Mo and NS and lambs, whilst a greater similarity in the fatty acid profile was observed between kids from dairy goat breeds (MG and lambs. The lowest polyunsaturated fatty acid content was observed in meat goat breeds (approximately 21 to 22% of total fatty acids detected in the intramuscular fat. No significant differences in atherogenic index and desirable fatty acid content (range 68 to 70% of total fatty acids detected were observed. However, a more favourable (lower than 8.07 n-6/n-3 ratio was observed in meat goat breeds. The use of fatty acid profiles from intramuscular and kidney knob fat could be proposed as a tool to differentiate goat kids and lambs. The fact that intramuscular fat from suckling kids and lambs shows appropriate lipid nutritional indices and their low carcass fatness indicate that moderate consumption of suckling kid and lamb meat may contribute to an overall balanced diet for humans.

  19. Antioxidant properties of green tea extract protect reduced fat soft cheese against oxidation induced by light exposure

    Huvaere, Kevin; Nielsen, Jacob Holm; Bakman, Mette;

    2011-01-01

    The effect of two different antioxidants, EDTA and green tea extract (GTE), used individually or in combination, on the light-induced oxidation of reduced fat soft cheeses (0.2 and 6% fat) was investigated. In samples with 0.2% fat, lipid hydroperoxides as primary lipid oxidation products were not...... of 50 ppm EDTA to samples with 6% fat was ineffective, but 750 ppm GTE (alone or in combination with EDTA) strongly reduced levels of hexanal and heptanal. Accumulation of primary lipid hydroperoxides was not affected by GTE, hence antioxidative activity was ascribed to scavenging of hexanal and...

  20. Beneficial effect of a weight-stable, low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index diet to reduce liver fat in older subjects.

    Utzschneider, Kristina M; Bayer-Carter, Jennifer L; Arbuckle, Matthew D; Tidwell, Jaime M; Richards, Todd L; Craft, Suzanne

    2013-03-28

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia and can progress to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. We sought to determine whether dietary fat and saturated fat content alter liver fat in the absence of weight change in an older population. Liver fat was quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and after 4 weeks on an isoenergetic low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index (LGI) (LSAT: 23 % fat/7 % saturated fat/GI 70) diet in older subjects. In the present study, twenty subjects (seven males/thirteen females; age 69.3 (SEM 1.6) years, BMI 26.9 (SEM 0.8) kg/m2) were randomised to the LSAT diet and fifteen subjects (six males/nine females; age 68.6 (SEM 1.8) years, BMI 28.1 (SEM 0.9) kg/m2) to the HSAT diet. Weight remained stable. Liver fat decreased significantly on the LSAT diet (median 2.2 (interquartile range (IQR) 3.1) to 1.7 (IQR 1.8) %, P= 0.002) but did not change on the HSAT diet (median 1.2 (IQR 4.1) to 1.6 (IQR 3.9) %). The LSAT diet lowered fasting glucose and total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol and raised TAG (PLSAT diet (PLSAT v. HSAT diet was a predictor of changes in lipid parameters but not liver fat. We conclude that diet composition may be an important factor in the accumulation of liver fat, with a low-fat/low-saturated fat/LGI diet being beneficial. PMID:22849970

  1. Trans fatty acid isomers from hydrogenated fats: The controversy about health implications

    Valenzuela, Alfonso

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Wherever there is a double bond in a fatty acid, there is also a possibility for isomerization. Under partial hydrogenation triacylglycerols composing oils'double bonds may change from cis to trans configuration, therefore products derived from hydrogenated oils such as margarines, shortenings and other industrial fats show high content of trans fatty acid isomers. The health implications of trans fatty acids in our diet is now a concern of controversy, because it has been demonstrated that its metabolic behaviour is as saturated fats. Trans fatty acids increase LDL-cholesterol and simultaneously decrease HDL-cholesterol, being considered both parameters as atherogenics. The oleochemical industry has developed several strategies to reduce the trans fatty acid content of hydrogenated oils, and now margarines and other hydrogenated derived products with low trans fatty acids content can be obtained from the retail market.

    Toda vez que exista un doble enlace en un ácido graso, existe la posibilidad de formación de estructuras isómeras. La hidrogenación parcial de los dobles enlaces de los triglicéridos que forman un aceite puede cambiar la isomería de estos enlaces desde la configuración cisa la configuración trans,por lo cual aquellos productos derivados de la hidrogenación de aceites, tales como las margarinas, las mantecas y otras grasas industriales, presentarán altos contenidos de ácidos grasos con isomería trans.Las implicaciones para la salud derivadas del consumo de ácidos grasos trans en la dieta, son en la actualidad motivo de muchas controversias, ya que se ha demostrado que los ácidos grasostrans se comportan biológicamente como ácidos grasos saturados. Los ácidos grasos transaumentan el colesterol-LDL y disminuyen simultáneamente el colesterol-HDL, siendo consideradas ambas situaciones como aterogénicas. La industria

  2. Does running with or without diet changes reduce fat mass in novice runners?

    Nielsen, Rasmus O; Videbaek, Solvej; Hansen, Mette;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to explore how average weekly running distance, combined with changes in diet habits and reasons to take up running, influence fat mass. METHODS: Fat mass was assessed by bioelectrical impedance at baseline and after 12 months in 538 novice runners included in...... a 1-year observational prospective follow-up study. During follow-up, running distance for each participant was continuously measured by GPS while reasons to take up running and diet changes were assessed trough web-based questionnaires. Loss of fat mass was compared between runners covering an...... average of 5 km or more per week and those running shorter distances. RESULTS: Runners who took up running to lose weight and ran over 5 km per week in average over a one-year period combined with a diet change reduced fat mass by -5.58 kg (95% CI: -8.69; -2.46; P<0.001). Compared with subjects also...

  3. Does running with or without changes in diet reduce fat mass in novice runners?

    Nielsen, Rasmus O.; Videbæk, Solvej; Hansen, Mette;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to explore how average weekly running distance, combined with changes in diet habits and reasons to take up running, influence fat mass. METHODS: Fat mass was assessed by bioelectrical impedance at baseline and after 12 months in 538 novice runners included in...... a 1-year observational prospective follow-up study. During follow-up, running distance for each participant was continuously measured by GPS while reasons to take up running and diet changes were assessed trough web-based questionnaires. Loss of fat mass was compared between runners covering an...... average of 5 km or more per week and those running shorter distances. RESULTS: Runners who took up running to lose weight and ran over 5 km per week in average over a one-year period combined with a diet change reduced fat mass by -5.58 kg (95% CI: -8.69; -2.46; P<0.001). Compared with subjects also...

  4. Sensory and microbiological evaluation of uncured fresh chicken sausage with reduced fat content

    Anna Cecilia Venturini; Ângela Dulce Cavenaghi; Carmen Josefina Contreras Castillo; Eliane Marta Quiñones

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acceptability and the microbiological safety of uncured fresh chicken sausages with reduced fat content, considering the scientific evidence that correlated cancer and cardiovascular diseases to this diet. Two formulations of uncured fresh chicken sausage were processed using different concentrations of cochineal carmine pigment, rosemary extracts and synthetic antioxidants, which are used to give color, appearance and pleasant flavor to the produ...

  5. Effect of dietary cholesterol on plasma cholesterol concentration in subjects following reduced fat, high fibre diet.

    Edington, J.; Geekie, M; Carter, R.; Benfield, L; Fisher, K; Ball, M.; J. Mann

    1987-01-01

    One hundred and sixty eight subjects participated in a randomised crossover study to determine whether halving or doubling the present dietary cholesterol intake from eggs had any influence on blood cholesterol concentration in people following current dietary recommendations. During the first eight weeks all participants were advised to follow a reduced fat diet (26% total energy for hyperlipidaemic patients, 35% total energy for normolipidaemic volunteers) with an increased ratio of polyuns...

  6. Topographical body fat distribution links to amino acid and lipid metabolism in healthy obese women [corrected].

    Francois-Pierre J Martin

    Full Text Available Visceral adiposity is increasingly recognized as a key condition for the development of obesity related disorders, with the ratio between visceral adipose tissue (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT reported as the best correlate of cardiometabolic risk. In this study, using a cohort of 40 obese females (age: 25-45 y, BMI: 28-40 kg/m(2 under healthy clinical conditions and monitored over a 2 weeks period we examined the relationships between different body composition parameters, estimates of visceral adiposity and blood/urine metabolic profiles. Metabonomics and lipidomics analysis of blood plasma and urine were employed in combination with in vivo quantitation of body composition and abdominal fat distribution using iDXA and computerized tomography. Of the various visceral fat estimates, VAT/SAT and VAT/total abdominal fat ratios exhibited significant associations with regio-specific body lean and fat composition. The integration of these visceral fat estimates with metabolic profiles of blood and urine described a distinct amino acid, diacyl and ether phospholipid phenotype in women with higher visceral fat. Metabolites important in predicting visceral fat adiposity as assessed by Random forest analysis highlighted 7 most robust markers, including tyrosine, glutamine, PC-O 44∶6, PC-O 44∶4, PC-O 42∶4, PC-O 40∶4, and PC-O 40∶3 lipid species. Unexpectedly, the visceral fat associated inflammatory profiles were shown to be highly influenced by inter-days and between-subject variations. Nevertheless, the visceral fat associated amino acid and lipid signature is proposed to be further validated for future patient stratification and cardiometabolic health diagnostics.

  7. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, body fat and inflammation

    Lund, Anne-Sofie Quist; Hasselbalch, Ann Louise; Gamborg, Michael;

    2013-01-01

    -related inflammatory markers. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1,212 healthy individuals with information on habitual food intake from food frequency questionnaires, six different measures of body fat, and levels of six circulating inflammatory markers. Multiple linear regression analysis of intakes of PUFAs....... No significant interactions with the dietary macronutrient composition were observed. Pro-inflammatory cytokines were not associated with absolute PUFA intake, but the macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α) was associated with the n-3/n-6 ratio. CONCLUSION: In humans, intake of n-3 PUFAs, in particular ALA...

  8. The inhibition of fat cell proliferation by n-3 fatty acids in dietary obese mice

    Kopecky Jan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA of marine origin exert multiple beneficial effects on health. Our previous study in mice showed that reduction of adiposity by LC n-3 PUFA was associated with both, a shift in adipose tissue metabolism and a decrease in tissue cellularity. The aim of this study was to further characterize the effects of LC n-3 PUFA on fat cell proliferation and differentiation in obese mice. Methods A model of inducible and reversible lipoatrophy (aP2-Cre-ERT2 PPARγL2/L2 mice was used, in which the death of mature adipocytes could be achieved by a selective ablation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ in response to i.p. injection of tamoxifen. Before the injection, obesity was induced in male mice by 8-week-feeding a corn oil-based high-fat diet (cHF and, subsequently, mice were randomly assigned (day 0 to one of the following groups: (i mice injected by corn-oil-vehicle only, i.e."control" mice, and fed cHF; (ii mice injected by tamoxifen in corn oil, i.e. "mutant" mice, fed cHF; (iii control mice fed cHF diet with15% of dietary lipids replaced by LC n-3 PUFA concentrate (cHF+F; and (iv mutant mice fed cHF+F. Blood and tissue samples were collected at days 14 and 42. Results Mutant mice achieved a maximum weight loss within 10 days post-injection, followed by a compensatory body weight gain, which was significantly faster in the cHF as compared with the cHF+F mutant mice. Also in control mice, body weight gain was depressed in response to dietary LC n-3 PUFA. At day 42, body weights in all groups stabilized, with no significant differences in adipocyte size between the groups, although body weight and adiposity was lower in the cHF+F as compared with the cHF mice, with a stronger effect in the mutant than in control mice. Gene expression analysis documented depression of adipocyte maturation during the reconstitution of adipose tissue in the cHF+F mutant mice. Conclusion

  9. Reducing Liver Fat by Low Carbohydrate Caloric Restriction Targets Hepatic Glucose Production in Non-Diabetic Obese Adults with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Haoyong Yu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD impairs liver functions, the organ responsible for the regulation of endogenous glucose production and thus plays a key role in glycemic homeostasis. Therefore, interventions designed to normalize liver fat content are needed to improve glucose metabolism in patients affected by NAFLD such as obesity. Objective: this investigation is designed to determine the effects of caloric restriction on hepatic and peripheral glucose metabolism in obese humans with NAFLD. Methods: eight non-diabetic obese adults were restricted for daily energy intake (800 kcal and low carbohydrate (<10% for 8 weeks. Body compositions, liver fat and hepatic glucose production (HGP and peripheral glucose disposal before and after the intervention were determined. Results: the caloric restriction reduced liver fat content by 2/3 (p = 0.004. Abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat, body weight, BMI, waist circumference and fasting plasma triglyceride and free fatty acid concentrations all significantly decreased (p < 0.05. The suppression of post-load HGP was improved by 22% (p = 0.002 whereas glucose disposal was not affected (p = 0.3. Fasting glucose remained unchanged and the changes in the 2-hour plasma glucose and insulin concentration were modest and statistically insignificant (p > 0.05. Liver fat is the only independent variable highly correlated to HGP after the removal of confounders. Conclusion: NAFLD impairs HGP but not peripheral glucose disposal; low carbohydrate caloric restriction effectively lowers liver fat which appears to directly correct the HGP impairment.

  10. COMPARATIVE EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT ANTIOXIDANTS ON FAT STABILITY IN BROILER RATIONS: THIOBARBITURIC ACID VALUES

    Ghulam Mustafa, Fawad Ahmad, Arfan Yousaf and Asad Ullah Hyder

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Thiobarbituric acid (TBA value was significantly (P< 0.05 affected by storage period, fat levels and antioxidants but the interaction of these factors was non significant. TBA value increased with the increase in storage period, however, the increase was relatively less during first 14 days of storage then a significant increase in TBA was observed as the storage period prolonged. Rations containing 4% fat have greater TBA value than the rations containing 2 or 3% fat. There was also a significant difference on TBA value due to antioxidant and their levels. TBA value was lower in the rations containing ethoxyquin than BHT containing rations and the rations supplemented with oxistat had greater TBA value. At higher level of any antioxidant, TBA value decreased, however, the difference between TBA values at both levels is non significant. With the increase in storage period there was increase in TBA value at both the antioxidant level. Antioxidant had a significant effect on fat stability in TBA test. Antioxidant level at 2 and 3% fat had a non significant effect but at 4% fat level. Antioxidant level had a significant effect. However, TBA values increased significantly at both levels of antioxidant with the increase in fat levels.

  11. Contents of total fat, fatty acids, starch, sugars and dietary fibre in Swedish market basket diets

    Becker, W.; Eriksson, A.; Haglund, M.; Wretling, S.

    2015-01-01

    The typical dietary supply of total fat, fatty acids, starch, sugars, polyols and dietary fibre in Sweden was assessed from analyses of market baskets (MB) purchased in 2005 and 2010. MB were based on food balance sheets, with each basket comprising about 130 foods, which represented more than 90 % of annual dietary supply. Foods were divided into ten to twelve categories. In 2010, total fat contributed 34 % of energy (E%), SFA 14·3 E%, MUFA 12·8 E%, PUFA 4·6 E%, n-6 fatty acids 3·6 E%, n-3 f...

  12. Sechium edule Shoot Extracts and Active Components Improve Obesity and a Fatty Liver That Involved Reducing Hepatic Lipogenesis and Adipogenesis in High-Fat-Diet-Fed Rats.

    Yang, Mon-Yuan; Chan, Kuei-Chuan; Lee, Yi-Ju; Chang, Xiao-Zong; Wu, Cheng-Hsun; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2015-05-13

    Excess fat accumulation in the liver increases the risk of developing progressive liver injuries ranging from a fatty liver to hepatocarcinoma. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the polyphenol components of Sechium edule shoots attenuated hepatic lipid accumulation in vitro. Therefore, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of the extract of S. edule shoots (SWE) to modulate fat accumulation in a high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced animal model. In this study, we found that the SWE can reduce the body weight, adipose tissue fat, and regulate hepatic lipid contents (e.g., triglyceride and cholesterol). Additionally, treatment of caffeic acid (CA) and hesperetin (HPT), the main ingredients of SWE, also inhibited oleic acid (OA)-induced lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells. SWE enhanced the activation of AMP-activating protein kinase (AMPK) and decreased numerous lipogenic-related enzymes, such as sterol regulator element-binding proteins (SREBPs), e.g., SREBP-1 and SREBP-2, and HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCoR) proteins, which are critical regulators of hepatic lipid metabolism. Taken together, the results demonstrated that SWE can prevent a fatty liver and attenuate adipose tissue fat by inhibiting lipogenic enzymes and stimulating lipolysis via upregulating AMPK. It was also demonstrated that the main activation components of SWE are both CA and HPT. PMID:25912298

  13. Cathepsin K null mice show reduced adiposity during the rapid accumulation of fat stores.

    Marcella Funicello

    Full Text Available Growing evidences indicate that proteases are implicated in adipogenesis and in the onset of obesity. We previously reported that the cysteine protease cathepsin K (ctsk is overexpressed in the white adipose tissue (WAT of obese individuals. We herein characterized the WAT and the metabolic phenotype of ctsk deficient animals (ctsk-/-. When the growth rate of ctsk-/- was compared to that of the wild type animals (WT, we could establish a time window (5-8 weeks of age within which ctsk-/-display significantly lower body weight and WAT size as compared to WT. Such a difference was not observable in older mice. Upon treatment with high fat diet (HFD for 12 weeks ctsk-/- gained significantly less weight than WT and showed reduced brown adipose tissue, liver mass and a lower percentage of body fat. Plasma triglycerides, cholesterol and leptin were significantly lower in HFD-fed-ctsk-/- as compared to HFD-fed WT animals. Adipocyte lipolysis rates were increased in both young and HFD-fed-ctsk-/-, as compared to WT. Carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 activity, was higher in mitochondria isolated from the WAT of HFD treated ctsk-/- as compared to WT. Together, these data indicate that ctsk ablation in mice results in reduced body fat content under conditions requiring a rapid accumulation of fat stores. This observation could be partly explained by an increased release and/or utilization of FFA and by an augmented ratio of lipolysis/lipogenesis. These results also demonstrate that under a HFD, ctsk deficiency confers a partial resistance to the development of dyslipidemia.

  14. Factors affecting the fatty acid composition and fat oxidative stability in pigs

    Karel Vehovsky

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of selected factors affecting fatty acids (FA composition in pig fat. In the experiment, the influence of nutrition, gender, carcass weight, lean meat proportion (LMP and intramuscular fat (IMF were monitored. The effect of diet, specifically the influence of added linseed or corn on the fatty acids composition in the backfat was studied in pigs. From the perspective of the required increase of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA only the addition of the linseed proved to have a significant effect. Another evaluated aspect concerning the FA spectrum was the gender. While the backfat in barrows showed higher (P≤0.05 amount of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, the backfat in gilts displayed a significantly higher proportion (P≤0.01 of the PUFA and total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA. A significant effect on the PUFA proportion has also been demonstrated for the lean meat proportion (LMP parameter, which therefore represents not only a qualitative carcass meat parameter but also plays an important role in relation to the FA composition in the fat in pigs. In connection to the FA proportion changes the study also monitored the fat oxidative stability with the use of the TBARS method. Concerning the oxidative stability the effects of nutrition, FA groups, gender, carcass weight and LMP were studied. The relationship between the above mentioned factors and oxidative stability was found to be insignificant.

  15. Genetic and biochemical characterization of a mutation (fatA) that allows trans unsaturated fatty acids to replace the essential cis unsaturated fatty acids of Escherichia coli.

    DeVeaux, L C; Cronan, J E; Smith, T L

    1989-01-01

    Unsaturated fatty acid auxotrophs of Escherichia coli are able to use only unsaturated fatty acids of the cis configuration as the required growth supplement. A mutation in the fatA gene allows such auxotrophs to utilize unsaturated fatty acids with a trans double bond as well as fatty acids having a cis double bond. The fatA gene was mapped to min 69 near argG, and the allele studied (fatA1) was found to be dominant over the wild-type gene. fatA1 mutant strains grew at similar rates when sup...

  16. Enhanced Amelioration of High-Fat Diet-Induced Fatty Liver by Docosahexaenoic Acid and Lysine Supplementations

    Hsin-Yu Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty liver disease is the most common pathological condition in the liver. Here, we generated high-fat diet-(HFD- induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in mice and tested the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and lysine during a four-week regular chow (RCfeeding. Our results showed that 1% lysine and the combination of 1% lysine + 1% DHA reduced body weight. Moreover, serum triglyceride levels were reduced by 1% DHA and 1% lysine, whereas serum alanine transaminase activity was reduced by 1% DHA and 1% DHA + 0.5% lysine. Switching to RC reduced hepatic lipid droplet accumulation, which was further reduced by the addition of DHA or lysine. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of hepatic proinflammatory cytokines were suppressed by DHA and combinations of DHA + lysine, whereas the mRNA for the lipogenic gene, acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1, was suppressed by DHA. In the gonadal adipose tissues, combinations of DHA and lysine inhibited mRNA expression of lipid metabolism-associated genes, including ACC1, fatty acid synthase, lipoprotein lipase, and perilipin. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that, in conjunction with RC-induced benefits, supplementation with DHA or lysine further ameliorated the high-fat diet-induced NAFLD and provided an alternative strategy to treat, and potentially prevent, NAFLD.

  17. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation and feeding level on dairy performance, milk fatty acid composition, and body fat changes in mid-lactation goats.

    Ghazal, S; Berthelot, V; Friggens, N C; Schmidely, P

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this trial was to study the interaction between the supplementation of lipid-encapsulated conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 4.5 g of cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and 4.5 g of trans-10,cis-12 C18:2) and feeding level to test if milk performance or milk fatty acid (FA) profile are affected by the interaction between CLA and feeding level. Twenty-four dairy goats were used in an 8-wk trial with a 3-wk adaptation to the experimental ration that contained corn silage, beet pulp, barley, and a commercial concentrate. During the third week, goats were assigned into blocks of 2 goats according to their dry matter intake (DMI), raw milk yield, and fat yield. Each block was randomly allocated to control (45 g of Ca salt of palm oil/d) or CLA treatment. Within each block, one goat was fed to cover 100% (FL100) of the calculated energy requirements and the other was fed 85% of the DMI of the first goat (FL85). Individual milk production and composition were recorded weekly, and milk FA composition was analyzed in wk 3, 5, and 7. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation reduced milk fat content and fat yield by 17 and 19%, respectively, independent of the feeding level. It reduced both the secretion of milk FA synthesized de novo, and those taken up from the blood. No interaction between CLA and feeding level was observed on milk secretion of any group of FA. The CLA supplementation had no effect on DMI, milk yield, protein, and lactose yields but it improved calculated net energy for lactation balance. Goats fed the FL100 × CLA diet tended to have the highest DMI and protein yield. The interaction between CLA and feeding level was not significant for any other variables. Compared with the goats fed FL100, those fed FL85 had lower DMI, lower net energy for lactation balance, and lower digestible protein in the intestine balance. The body weight; milk yield; milk fat, protein, and lactose yields; and fat, protein, lactose, and urea contents in milk were not affected by

  18. Intravitreally Injected Anti-VEGF Antibody Reduces Brown Fat in Neonatal Mice.

    Dong Hyun Jo

    Full Text Available Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF agents are the mainstay treatment for various angiogenesis-related retinal diseases. Currently, bevacizumab, a recombinant humanized anti-VEGF antibody, is trailed in retinopathy of prematurity, a vasoproliferative retinal disorder in premature infants. However, the risks of systemic complications after intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF antibody in infants are not well understood. In this study, we show that intravitreally injected anti-VEGF antibody is transported into the systemic circulation into the periphery where it reduces brown fat in neonatal C57BL/6 mice. A considerable amount of anti-VEGF antibody was detected in serum after intravitreal injection. Furthermore, in interscapular brown adipose tissue, we found lipid droplet accumulation, decreased VEGF levels, loss of vascular network, and decreased expression of mitochondria-related genes, Ppargc1a and Ucp1, all of which are characteristics of "whitening" of brown fat. With increasing age and body weight, brown fat restored its morphology and vascularity. Our results show that there is a transient, but significant impact of intravitreally administered anti-VEGF antibody on brown adipose tissue in neonatal mice. We suggest that more attention should be focused on the metabolic and developmental significance of brown adipose tissue in bevacizumab treated retinopathy of prematurity infants.

  19. QTL alleles on chromosome 7 from fatty Meishan pigs reduce fat deposition

    2003-01-01

    For detecting QTL in the whole swine genome, 1068 pigs from three F2 populations constructed by crossing European Wild boar and Pietrain (WxP), Meishan and Pietrain (M×P),and Wild Boar and Meishan (W×M) were genotyped for genetic markers evenly spaced at approximately 20 cM intervals. A QTL analysis was performed using a least-squares method. Here the results of the QTL analysis on the porcine chromosome 7 are presented. QTL for carcass composition (e.g. head weight, carcass length, backfat depth, abdominal fat and bacon meat) were mapped in the chromosomal region CYPA/CYPD-TNFB-S0102 in M×P and W×M, but not in W×P.The QTL explained 5.3%-27.2% of the F2 phenotypic variance in the two F2 populations. Most traits affected by the mapped QTL were related to carcass fatness. The mode of gene action of QTL was additive. Surprisingly, in contrast to the parental phenotype, the QTL alleles from fatty Meishan were associated with thinner backfat than Pietrain and Wild Boar alleles, suggesting that the genome of the fatty Meishan pig contains genes which can reduce fat content of carcass substantially.

  20. Total dietary fat and omega-3 fatty acids have modest effects on urinary sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    Total fat and omega-3 fatty acids in the diet may affect breast cancer risk by altering estrogen metabolism. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of differing total fat and omega-3 fatty acid content of diets on a panel of urinary estrogens and metabolites. A controlled, cross-ove...

  1. The effect of carbohydrate and fat variation in euenergetic diets on postabsorptive free fatty acid release

    Bisschop, PH; Ackermans, MT; Endert, E; Ruiter, AFC; Meijer, AJ; Kuipers, F; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA

    2002-01-01

    Diet composition and energy content modulate free fatty acid (FFA) release. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose-response effects of euenergetic variations in dietary carbohydrate and fat content on postabsorptive FFA release. The rate of appearance (R-a) of palmitate was measured by infus

  2. Changes in Trans Fat and Fatty Acids in Fast Food Menu Items

    Recent interest in trans fatty acid intake and subsequent recommendations included in the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans to decrease intake has led to extensive product reformulations of widely consumed foods high in trans fat. As part of these efforts to provide current and accurate nutrien...

  3. Fat-1 transgenic cattle as a model to study the function of ω-3 fatty acids

    Guo Tao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been shown to play an important role in health. Enriched with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate expression of a number of genes with such broad functions as cell proliferation, growth and apoptosis and cell signaling and transduction, these effects, seem to regulate coronary artery disease, hypertension, atherosclerosis, psychiatric disorders and various cancer. In this context, fat-1 transgenic cattle was designed to convert ω-6 to ω-3 fatty acids could form an ideal model to study the effect of ω-3 fatty acids on the above functions. This study focuses on the total genomic difference of gene expression between fat-1 transgenic cattle and wild-type using cDNA microarrays, several genes were found to be overexpressed or suppressed in transgenic cattle relative to wild-type, these discrepancy genes related with lipid metabolism, immunity, inflammation nervous development and fertility.

  4. Trans fatty acid isomers and the trans-9/trans-11 index in fat containing foods

    Kuhnt, Katrin; Baehr, Melanie; Rohrer, Carsten; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    To determine trans fatty acid (TFA) distribution of contemporary foods, especially regarding individual trans octadecenoic acids (trans C18:1), 339 German foods of six categories (semi-solid fats, deep-fried potato products, bakery products, confectioneries, instant products and butter) were analysed using two GC methods. Results showed a high variation of TFA content between and within the categories containing between 0 and 40.5% of FAME except in butter, which is a source of natural TFA. T...

  5. Obesity-prone high-fat-fed rats reduce caloric intake and adiposity and gain more fat-free mass when allowed to self-select protein from carbohydrate:fat intake.

    Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Chalvon-Demersay, Tristan; Pimentel, Grégory; Chaumontet, Catherine; Nadkarni, Nachiket A; Piedcoq, Julien; Fromentin, Gilles; Tomé, Daniel; Gaudichon, Claire; Even, Patrick C

    2016-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that, for rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD), a prioritization of maintaining protein intake may increase energy consumption and hence result in obesity, particularly for individuals prone to obesity ("fat sensitive," FS, vs. "fat resistant," FR). Male Wistar rats (n = 80) first received 3 wk of HFD (protein 15%, fat 42%, carbohydrate 42%), under which they were characterized as being FS (n = 18) or FR (n = 20) based on body weight gain. They then continued on the same HFD but in which protein (100%) was available separately from the carbohydrate:fat (50:50%) mixture. Under this second regimen, all rats maintained their previous protein intake, whereas intake of fat and carbohydrate was reduced by 50%. This increased protein intake to 26% and decreased fat intake to 37%. Adiposity gain was prevented in both FR and FS rats, and gain in fat-free mass was increased only in FS rats. At the end of the study, the rats were killed 2 h after ingestion of a protein meal, and their tissues and organs were collected for analysis of body composition and measurement of mRNA levels in the liver, adipose tissue, arcuate nucleus, and nucleus accumbens. FS rats had a higher expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in lipogenesis in the liver and white adipose tissue. These results show that FS rats strongly reduced food intake and adiposity gain through macronutrient selection, despite maintenance of a relatively high-fat intake and overexpression of genes favoring lipogenesis. PMID:27030668

  6. Aster spathulifolius Maxim extract reduces body weight and fat mass in obese humans.

    Cho, In-Jin; Choung, Se Young; Hwang, You-Cheol; Ahn, Kyu Jeung; Chung, Ho Yeon; Jeong, In-Kyung

    2016-07-01

    Aster spathulifolius Maxim (AS), a perennial herb of the genus Aster within the family Asteraceae, induced weight loss in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that AS could also reduce body weight in obese humans. Therefore, we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in Korea to evaluate the effect of AS extract (ASE) on body weight and fat mass and its safety in obese humans. Forty-four obese participants (body mass index [BMI], 25-30 kg/m(2)) aged ≥20 years were randomly assigned to the placebo or ASE group (700 mg/d of ASE) and were instructed to take a once-daily pill for 12 weeks. Weight, BMI, waist circumference, fat mass (measured using bioimpedance, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and computed tomography), and laboratory tests were assessed at baseline and at 12 weeks. Body weight significantly decreased after 12 weeks of treatment in the ASE group (placebo vs ASE: -0.08 ± 2.11 kg vs -3.30 ± 3.15 kg, P bioimpedance method: -0.51 ± 1.89 kg vs -2.38 ± 2.30 kg, P < .05; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: 0.38 ± 1.59 kg vs -2.26 ± 2.37 kg, P < .05). Changes in lipid profiles, fasting plasma glucose, and hemoglobin A1c did not differ between the 2 groups. No drug-related adverse events were observed during the study. In conclusion, ASE significantly decreases body weight and fat mass in obese humans, suggesting that ASE may be a potential therapeutic candidate for reducing obesity. PMID:27333958

  7. High Fat Diet Exposure during Fetal Life Enhances Plasma and Hepatic Omega-6 Fatty Acid Profiles in Fetal Wistar Rats

    Marlon E. Cerf

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant rats were fed a high fat diet (HFD for the first (HF1, second (HF2, third (HF3 or all three weeks (HFG of gestation. Maintenance on a HFD during specific periods of gestation was hypothesized to alter fetal glycemia, insulinemia, induce insulin resistance; and alter fetal plasma and hepatic fatty acid (FA profiles. At day 20 of gestation, fetal plasma and hepatic FA profiles were determined by gas chromatography; body weight, fasting glycemia, insulinemia and the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-insulin resistance were also determined. HF3 fetuses were heaviest concomitant with elevated glycemia and insulin resistance (p < 0.05. HFG fetuses had elevated plasma linoleic (18:2 n-6 and arachidonic (20:4 n-6 acid proportions (p < 0.05. In the liver, HF3 fetuses displayed elevated linoleic, eicosatrienoic (20:3 n-6 and arachidonic acid proportions (p < 0.05. HFG fetuses had reduced hepatic docosatrienoic acid (22:5 n-3 proportions (p < 0.05. High fat maintenance during the final week of fetal life enhances hepatic omega-6 FA profiles in fetuses concomitant with hyperglycemia and insulin resistance thereby presenting a metabolically compromised phenotype.

  8. Skinny on Fat Metabolism: Lipolysis and Fatty Acid Utilization

    Ahmadian, Maryam; Duncan, Robin E.; Sul, Hei Sook

    2009-01-01

    Lipolysis for the provision of fatty acids (FA) for other organs during times of energy demand occurs uniquely in white adipose tissue (WAT). Recent findings have identified a bona fide TAG hydrolase as well as the major adipose phospholipase A2, AdPLA. By controlling PGE2 levels, AdPLA dominantly regulates lipolysis in an autocrine/paracrine manner. Moreover, recent findings demonstrate that, surprisingly, increasing lipolysis in adipose tissue does not necessarily increase serum FA levels, ...

  9. Enhancement of brown fat thermogenesis using chenodeoxycholic acid in mice

    Teodoro, J.S.; Zouhar, Petr; Flachs, Pavel; Bardová, Kristina; Janovská, Petra; Gomes, A.P.; Duarte, F.V.; Varela, A.T.; Rolo, A.P.; Palmeira, C.M.; Kopecký, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 8 (2014), s. 1027-1034. ISSN 0307-0565 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E12073; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00871S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : white adipose tissue * uncoupling protein 1 * energy expenditure * bile acids Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 5.004, year: 2014

  10. Effect of silage type and energy concentration on conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in milk fat from dairy cows

    Nielsen, T.S.; Sejrsen, K.; Andersen, H.R; Lund, Pia; Straarup, Ellen Marie

    2004-01-01

    40 lactating cows were fed either clovergrass or maize silage and a low or high dietary energy concentration in a 2x2 factorial design. The maize silage diets rich in starch and linoleic acid resulted in a higher content of c9t11 and t10c12 CLA in milk fat than the grass silage diets. A high ener...... concentration plus maize silage led to a pronounced shift in the biohydrogenation pathway of linoleic acid, the highest t10c12 CLA content and lowest milk fat percentage. Energy concentration had no effect on milk fat CLA content or milk fat percentage in grass silage fed cows....

  11. Effect of silage type and energy concentration on conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in milk fat from dairy cows

    Nielsen, T.S.; Sejrsen, K.; Andersen, H.R;

    2004-01-01

    40 lactating cows were fed either clovergrass or maize silage and a low or high dietary energy concentration in a 2x2 factorial design. The maize silage diets rich in starch and linoleic acid resulted in a higher content of c9t11 and t10c12 CLA in milk fat than the grass silage diets. A high energy...... concentration plus maize silage led to a pronounced shift in the biohydrogenation pathway of linoleic acid, the highest t10c12 CLA content and lowest milk fat percentage. Energy concentration had no effect on milk fat CLA content or milk fat percentage in grass silage fed cows....

  12. High Fat Diet Feeding Exaggerates Perfluorooctanoic Acid-Induced Liver Injury in Mice via Modulating Multiple Metabolic Pathways

    Tan, Xiaobing; Xie, Guoxiang; Sun, Xiuhua; Li, Qiong; Wei ZHONG; Qiao, Peter; Sun, Xinguo; Jia, Wei; Zhou, Zhanxiang

    2013-01-01

    High fat diet (HFD) is closely linked to a variety of health issues including fatty liver. Exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a synthetic perfluorinated carboxylic acid, also causes liver injury. The present study investigated the possible interactions between high fat diet and PFOA in induction of liver injury. Mice were pair-fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or low fat control with or without PFOA administration at 5 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Exposure to PFOA alone caused elevated plasma alani...

  13. Rheological and thermophysical properties of model compounds for ice-cream with reduced fat and sugar

    Drago Šubarić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of hydrocolloid carrageenan, native tapioca starch and powdered whey on viscosity and thermophysical properties of model ice-cream mixtures with reduced content of sugar and fat. Measurements were performed immediately after mixture preparation and after two months of storage at -18 °C. Results showed that rheological properties of model ice-cream mixtures with reduced content of sugar and fat can be improved by addition of starch and whey, particularly at low temperatures (0 and -5 °C. Improvement of properties at low temperatures is particularly important for before mentioned group of products, as well as the fact that raw materials used in the recipes are cost effective and have high nutritive value. Two-month storage at -18 °C resulted in increase of rheological parameters of all investigated samples. Freeze and thaw temperatures of model mixtures were not changed significantly after two months of storage. On the other hand, enthalpies of freezing and thawing have after storage in the most cases decreased.

  14. Sensory and microbiological evaluation of uncured fresh chicken sausage with reduced fat content

    Anna Cecilia Venturini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acceptability and the microbiological safety of uncured fresh chicken sausages with reduced fat content, considering the scientific evidence that correlated cancer and cardiovascular diseases to this diet. Two formulations of uncured fresh chicken sausage were processed using different concentrations of cochineal carmine pigment, rosemary extracts and synthetic antioxidants, which are used to give color, appearance and pleasant flavor to the products. Then, instrumental color (L*, a*, b*, C* and h*, microbial contamination and sensory tests (ranking and acceptance were used to evaluate the quality of the uncured chicken sausages. The instrumental color (chroma and hue and the sensory properties of the A and B uncured sausages were similar to the commercial cured sausage (C. However, the sensory color and appearance of samples A and B were statistically higher than those of the commercial uncured sausages D, which are prepared without the addition of nitrite or pigments. The results showed that it is possible to produce safe and high-quality uncured fresh chicken sausage with reduced fat content, using natural pigments and antioxidants.

  15. FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS AND FATTY ACIDS COMPOSITION OF BLACK SEA CYSTOSEIRA BARBATA

    Veselina Panayotova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brown alga Cystoseira barbata is the most widely distributed seaweed in the Black Sea. There is limited information about fat soluble vitamins content and fatty acids composition of this specie from Bulgarian Black Sea coast. The aim of this study was to determine fat soluble vitamins, pigments, total lipid and fatty acid composition of Cystoseira barbata. Fat soluble vitamins (vitamin E and D, pigments (β-carotene and astaxanthin and total cholesterol were analyzed simultaneously using HPLC/UV/FL system equipped with RP analytical column. Sample preparation procedure includes alkaline saponification, followed by liquid-liquid extraction. Brown seaweed Cystoseira barbata contained high amounts of α-tocopherol and β-carotene. Lipids were extracted by following the method of Bligh and Dyer. The residual lipid fraction was methylated using base-catalyzed transmethylation with methanolic potassium hydroxide. Fatty acid composition was analyzed by GC/MS. Cystoseira barbata was rich in linoleic (C18:2n6 and eicosopentaenoic acid (C20:5n3 although total lipid content was generally low. High levels of α-tocopherol correlate with high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids. As an antioxidant α-tocopherol preserves tissue PUFA from oxidation.

  16. The role of dietary fatty acids in predicting myocardial structure in fat-fed rats

    Miller Melissa L

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity increases the risk for development of cardiomyopathy in the absence of hypertension, diabetes or myocardial ischemia. Not all obese individuals, however, progress to heart failure. Indeed, obesity may provide protection from cardiovascular mortality in some populations. The fatty acid milieu, modulated by diet, may modify obesity-induced myocardial structure and function, lending partial explanation for the array of cardiomyopathic phenotypy in obese individuals. Methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed 1 of the following 4 diets for 32 weeks: control (CON; 50% saturated fat (SAT; 40% saturated fat + 10% linoleic acid (SAT+LA; 40% saturated fat + 10% α-linolenic acid (SAT+ALA. Serum leptin, insulin, glucose, free fatty acids and triglycerides were quantitated. In vivo cardiovascular outcomes included blood pressure, heart rate and echocardiographic measurements of structure and function. The rats were sacrificed and myocardium was processed for fatty acid analysis (TLC-GC, and evaluation of potential modifiers of myocardial structure including collagen (Masson's trichrome, hydroxyproline quantitation, lipid (Oil Red O, triglyceride quantitation and myocyte cross sectional area. Results Rats fed SAT+LA and SAT+ALA diets had greater cranial LV wall thickness compared to rats fed CON and SAT diets, in the absence of hypertension or apparent insulin resistance. Treatment was not associated with changes in myocardial function. Myocardial collagen and triglycerides were similar among treatment groups; however, rats fed the high-fat diets, regardless of composition, demonstrated increased myocyte cross sectional area. Conclusions Under conditions of high-fat feeding, replacement of 10% saturated fat with either LA or ALA is associated with thickening of the cranial LV wall, but without concomitant functional changes. Increased myocyte size appears to be a more likely contributor to early LV thickening in response to

  17. Heterologous expression of C. elegans fat-1 decreases the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio and inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells

    An, Lei, E-mail: anleim@yahoo.com.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Pang, Yun-Wei, E-mail: yunweipang@126.com [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Gao, Hong-Mei, E-mail: Gaohongmei_123@yahoo.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Research Unit for Animal Life Sciences, Animal Resource Science Center, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Ibaraki-Iwama 319-0206 (Japan); Tao, Li, E-mail: Eunice8023@yahoo.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); College of Animal Science and Technology, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, Jilin 130118 (China); Miao, Kai, E-mail: miaokai7@163.com [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Wu, Zhong-Hong, E-mail: wuzhh@cau.edu.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); and others

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of C. elegans fat-1 reduces the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in 3T3-L1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer fat-1 inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer fat-1 reduces lipid deposition in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lower n-6/n-3 ratio induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. -- Abstract: In general, a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) inhibits the development of obesity and decreases adipose tissue. The specific impacts of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on adipogenesis, however, have not been definitively determined. Traditional in vivo and in vitro supplementation studies have yielded inconsistent or even contradictory results, which likely reflect insufficiently controlled experimental systems. Caenorhabditiselegans fat-1 gene encodes an n-3 fatty acid desaturase, and its heterologous expression represents an effective method both for altering the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and for evaluating the biological effects of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. We sought to determine whether a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio could influence adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Lentivirus-mediated introduction of the fat-1 gene into 3T3-L1 preadipocytes significantly reduced the n-6/n-3 ratio and inhibited preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. In mature adipocytes, fat-1 expression reduced lipid deposition, as measured by Oil Red O staining, and induced apoptosis. Our results indicate that a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio inhibits adipogenesis through several mechanisms and that n-3 PUFAs more effectively inhibit adipogenesis (but not lipogenesis) than do n-6 PUFAs.

  18. The impact of chosen oils seeds and food oils to supplementation of last fattening pig period on fatty acids structure in pig muscle fat

    Bohuslav Čermák

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acids profile in broilers feed is possible to influence their share in a desired structure, which can balance the n-6: n-3 ratio in food, according to the consumers needs. Flax seed to lactating goats can be used as nutritional supplement to reduce saturated fatty acids  and increase polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk. A significant increase in CLA in milk was achieved  by suplementation to  goats. The experimental groups of pigs was fed in the last month of fattening with a basal diet which incorporated various fats resources (lean seed 100 g/ kg, linseed oil-2%, raps press seed 150g/kg (110g fat, raps oil 2%. The indicators (food intake, body weight gain, and the conversion were established during the experiment, and in the end, the content of essential fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic acids in pigs meat were determined. The data was analyzed and statistically interpreted. There are some variations of the determined fatty acids content in muscles as well as in muscles fat in the for experimental groups compared to the control group. The content of SFA was reduced and the content of PUFA and MUFA fatty acids are increased. 

  19. Mfge8 promotes obesity by mediating the uptake of dietary fats and serum fatty acids

    Khalifeh-Soltani, Amin; McKleroy, William; Sakuma, Stephen; Cheung, Yuk Yin; Tharp, Kevin; Qiu, Yifu; Turner, Scott M; Chawla, Ajay; Stahl, Andreas; Atabai, Kamran

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids are integral mediators of energy storage, membrane formation and cell signaling. The pathways that orchestrate uptake of fatty acids remain incompletely understood. Expression of the integrin ligand Mfge8 is increased in human obesity and in mice on a high-fat diet, but its role in obesity is unknown. We show here that Mfge8 promotes the absorption of dietary triglycerides and the cellular uptake of fatty acid and that Mfge8-deficient (Mfge8−/−) mice are protected from diet-induce...

  20. Effect of silage type and concentrate level on conjugated linoleic acids, trans-C18 : 1 isomers and fat content in milk from dairy cows

    Nielsen, Torben Skov; Straarup, Ellen Marie; Jungersen, Mogens Vestergaard; Sejrsen, K.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine how the fatty acid composition of milk especially concentrations of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and trans-C18:1 isomers and milk fat percentage were affected by silage type and concentrate level. Forty dairy cows were blocked and randomly assigned to...... concentrate (with or without grain). Treatments had no significant effect on milk, protein and lactose yield, but energy corrected milk yield, milk fat percentage and fat yield was lower and protein percentage higher for maize compared with grass silage diets. Overall, maize silage diets resulted in higher......:1 and reduced cis9, trans11-CLA and trans11-C18:1 when maize but not grass silage was provided. The results suggest that high levels of concentrate (grain) do not significantly alter the pattern of PUFA biohydrogenation in the rumen, the concentration of CLA and trans-C18:1 isomers in milk or cause milk...

  1. Effect of weight, sex and hunting period on fatty acid composition of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat from wild boar

    Artūras Šiukščius

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the influence of weight, sex and month of hunting on the fatty acid composition of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat from 49 free ranging wild boars hunted in Lithuania during the winter season. A total number of 27 and 25 fatty acids were identified in the intramuscular fat and subcutaneous tissue of wild boars, respectively. The weight of the wild boar had mainly affected only the levels of separate fatty acids both in the intramuscular and subcutaneous fat. Higher levels of saturated fatty acids (SFA were found in the intramuscular and subcutaneous fat of males compared with females. The effect of both weight and sex on the levels of fatty acids was higher in the subcutaneous fat than in the intramuscular fat. Weight, sex and hunting month had no effect on PUFA/SFA and n-6 PUFA/n-3 PUFA ratios in the intramuscular and subcutaneous fat. The atherogenic (AI and thrombogenic (TI indexes and hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio in subcutaneous fat were more favorable in females compared with males and in the January hunting season than in November and December.

  2. Dietary intakes and food sources of fat and fatty acids in Guatemalan schoolchildren: A cross-sectional study

    Doak Colleen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of healthy diets that contribute with adequate amounts of fat and fatty acids is needed for children. Among Guatemalan children, there is little information about fat intakes. Therefore, the present study sought to assess intakes of dietary fats and examine food sources of those fats in Guatemalan children. Methods The study subjects consisted of a convenience sample of 449 third- and fourth-grade schoolchildren (8-10 y, attending public or private schools in Quetzaltenango City, Guatemala. Dietary data was obtained by means of a single pictorial 24-h record. Results The percentages of total energy (%E from total fat, saturated fat (SFA and monounsaturated fat (MUFA reached 29%E for total fat and 10%E for each SFA and MUFA, without gender differences. %E from fats in high vs. low-socio economic status (SES children were significantly higher for boys, but not for girls, for total fat (p = 0.002 and SFA (p 97% of all groups consuming less than 1%E from this fats. Fried eggs, sweet rolls, whole milk and cheese were main sources of total fat and, SFA. Whole milk and sweet bread were important sources of n-3 FA for high- and low-SES boys and girls, respectively. Fried plantain was the main source of n-3 FA for girls in the high-SES group. Fried fish, seafood soup, and shrimp, consumed only by boys in low amounts, were sources of eicosapentaenoic (EPA and docosahexaenoic (DHA acids, which may explain the low intakes of these nutrients. Conclusions α-linolenic acid, EPA and DHA were the most limiting fatty acids in diets of Guatemalan schoolchildren, which could be partially explained by the low consumption of sources of these nutrients, particularly fish and seafood (for EPA and DHA. This population will benefit from a higher consumption of culturally acceptable foods that are rich in these limiting nutrients.

  3. Improving beef hamburger quality and fatty acid profiles through dietary manipulation and exploitation of fat depot heterogeneity

    Mapiye, Cletos; Aalhus, Jennifer L; Vahmani, Payam; Rolland, David C.; McAllister, Timothy A.; Block, Hushton C; Uttaro, Bethany; Proctor, Spencer D.; Michael E.R. Dugan

    2014-01-01

    Background Hamburger is the most consumed beef product in North America, but lacks in nutritional appeal due to its high fat content and high proportion of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Objectives of the present study were to improve the FA profiles of hamburgers made with perirenal fat (PRF) and subcutaneous fat (SCF) when feeding steers different diets along with examining differences in sensory attributes and oxidative stability. Diets included a control diet containing 70:30 red clover sil...

  4. Lipid transport function is the main target of oral oleoylethanolamide to reduce adiposity in high-fat-fed mice

    Thabuis, Clémentine; Destaillats, Frédéric; Lambert, Didier; Muccioli, Giulio; Maillot, Matthieu; Harach, Touafiq; Tissot-Favre, Delphine; Martin, Jean-Charles

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the biological basis of reduced fat gain by oleoylethanolamide (OEA) in high-fat-fed mice and sought to determine how degradation of OEA affected its efficiency by comparing its effects to those of KDS-5104, a nonhydrolyzable lipid OEA analog. Mice were given OEA or KDS-5104 by the oral route (100 mg/kg body weight). Sixty-eight variables per mouse, describing six biological processes (lipid transport, lipogenesis, energy intake, energy expenditure, endocannabinoid signaling, and...

  5. Variation in fatty acids composition including trans fat in different brands of potato chips by GC-MS

    Twelve different brands of potato chips were analyzed for their fatty acid compositions with eminence on trans fatty acid (TFA) using GC-MS. Results of the present study showed that the dominant fatty acids were saturated fatty acids. Among the saturated fatty acids, palmitic acid (23.91.42.64 %) was found in greater amount in all analyzed chips samples. The amount of TFA's determined was ranged between (4.91.14.13 %). Although there was significant variation in the fatty acid profile of all analyzed chips samples but high amount of palmitic acid and trans fat was commonly observed. The results of present study clearly indicated fat used in the manufacturing of chips was partially hydrogenated and palm oil had major contribution. The high level of trans as well as saturated fat is startling issue for the health of consumers. (author)

  6. Variation in Fatty Acids Composition Including Trans Fat in Different Brands of Potato Chips by GC-MS

    Aftab A. Kandhro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Twelve different brands of potato chips were analyzed for their fatty acid compositions with eminence on trans fatty acid (TFA using GC-MS. Results of the present study showed that the dominant fatty acids were saturated fatty acids. Among the saturated fatty acids, palmitic acid (23.91–42.64 % was found in greater amount in all analyzed chips samples. The amount of TFA’s determined was ranged between (4.91–14.13 %. Although there was significant variation in the fatty acid profile of all analyzed chips samples but high amount of palmitic acid and trans fat was commonly observed. The results of present study clearly indicated fat used in the manufacturing of chips was partially hydrogenated and palm oil had major contribution. The high level of trans as well as saturated fat is startling issue for the health of consumers.

  7. Dietary structured lipids for post-weaning piglets: fat digestibility, nitrogen retention and fatty acid profiles of tissues

    Straarup, Ellen Marie; Danielsen, V.; Høy, Carl-Erik; Jakobsen, K.

    In four groups of post-weaning piglets the effects of triacylglycerol structure and fatty acid profiles of four dietary fats on apparent faecal nutrient digestibility, nitrogen retention and fatty acid profiles of platelet and erythrocyte membranes, liver, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle were...... examined. Dietary fats included as 10% (w/w) of the diets were two structured fats of rapeseed oil interesterified with tridecanoin (R1) or coconut oil (R2), respectively, one mixture of rapeseed oil and coconut oil (R3) and rapeseed oil as control (R4). Faeces and urine from piglets weaned at 28 days of...... third week in the groups R1 and R2. Fatty acid profiles in platelet and erythrocyte membranes and in tissues reflected the fatty acid profile of the dietary fat, except for medium-chain fatty acids, which were only found in low proportions, indicating that 10:0 was mainly used as an energy source....

  8. Effect of dietary fat saturation on lipid metabolism, arachidonic acid turnover and peritoneal macrophage oxidative stress in mice.

    Oliveros, L B; Videla, A M; Giménez, M S

    2004-03-01

    We investigated the effects of a saturated fat diet on lipid metabolism and arachidonic acid (AA) turnover in mouse resident peritoneal macrophages. The pro-oxidative effect of this diet was also studied. Female C57BL/6 mice were weaned at 21 days of age and assigned to either the experimental diet containing coconut oil (COCO diet), or the control diet containing soybean oil as fat source (10 mice per group). The fat content of each diet was 15% (w/w). Mice were fed for 6 weeks and then sacrificed. The concentration of total lipids, triglycerides, (LDL+VLDL)-cholesterol, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione were increased in the plasma of mice fed the COCO diet, without changes in phospholipid or total cholesterol concentrations compared to control. The concentrations of total cholesterol, free and esterified cholesterol, triglycerides, and TBARS were increased in the macrophages of COCO-fed mice, while the content of total phospholipids did not change. The phospholipid composition showed an increase of phosphatidylcholine and a decrease of phosphatidylethanolamine. The [3H]-AA distribution in the phospholipid classes showed an increase in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Incorporation of [3H]-cholesterol into the macrophages of COCO-fed mice and into the cholesterol ester fraction was increased. The COCO diet did not affect [3H]-AA uptake but induced an increase in [3H]-AA release. The COCO diet also enhanced AA mobilization induced by lipopolysaccharide. These results indicate that the COCO diet, high in saturated fatty acids, alters the lipid metabolism and AA turnover of peritoneal macrophages in female mice and also produces a significant degree of oxidative stress. PMID:15060696

  9. Effect of dietary fat saturation on lipid metabolism, arachidonic acid turnover and peritoneal macrophage oxidative stress in mice

    L.B. Oliveros

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of a saturated fat diet on lipid metabolism and arachidonic acid (AA turnover in mouse resident peritoneal macrophages. The pro-oxidative effect of this diet was also studied. Female C57BL/6 mice were weaned at 21 days of age and assigned to either the experimental diet containing coconut oil (COCO diet, or the control diet containing soybean oil as fat source (10 mice per group. The fat content of each diet was 15% (w/w. Mice were fed for 6 weeks and then sacrificed. The concentration of total lipids, triglycerides, (LDL + VLDL-cholesterol, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS and reduced glutathione were increased in the plasma of mice fed the COCO diet, without changes in phospholipid or total cholesterol concentrations compared to control. The concentrations of total cholesterol, free and esterified cholesterol, triglycerides, and TBARS were increased in the macrophages of COCO-fed mice, while the content of total phospholipids did not change. The phospholipid composition showed an increase of phosphatidylcholine and a decrease of phosphatidylethanolamine. The [³H]-AA distribution in the phospholipid classes showed an increase in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Incorporation of [³H]-cholesterol into the macrophages of COCO-fed mice and into the cholesterol ester fraction was increased. The COCO diet did not affect [³H]-AA uptake but induced an increase in [³H]-AA release. The COCO diet also enhanced AA mobilization induced by lipopolysaccharide. These results indicate that the COCO diet, high in saturated fatty acids, alters the lipid metabolism and AA turnover of peritoneal macrophages in female mice and also produces a significant degree of oxidative stress.

  10. Muscle and genotype effects on fatty acid composition of goat kid intramuscular fat

    Valeriano Domenech

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the fatty acid composition of the major muscles in goats from different breeds. Forty entire male suckling kids, 20 Criollo Cordobes and 20 Anglo Nubian, were slaughtered at 75 days of age and the fatty acid composition of their longissimus thoracis (LT and semitendinosus (ST muscles was analysed to clarify the effects of genotype and muscle type on goat kid meat. Genotype had a great influence on the fatty acid composition of goat kid meat. Meat from Criollo Cordobes had greater saturated (P<0.001 and lower monounsaturated (P<0.001 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (P=0.002 concentration than meat from Anglo Nubian, showing higher saturated fatty acids (SFA. On the other hand, intramuscular fat content from both genotypes was higher (P=0.042 in ST muscle, while the lowest cholesterol levels were observed in ST of Criollo Cordobes (P=0.038. That higher fat content resulted in lower relative contents of total polyunsaturated (P<0.001 and n-3 (P=0.002 fatty acids due to the lower contribution of the membrane phospholipids.

  11. Alcohol and high fat induced chronic pancreatitis: TRPV4 antagonist reduces hypersensitivity.

    Zhang, L P; Kline, R H; Deevska, G; Ma, F; Nikolova-Karakashian, M; Westlund, K N

    2015-12-17

    The pathogenesis of pain in chronic pancreatitis is poorly understood, and its treatment can be a major clinical challenge. Surgical and other invasive methods have variable outcomes that can be unsatisfactory. Therefore, there is a great need for further discovery of the pathogenesis of pancreatitis pain and new therapeutic targets. Human and animal studies indicate a critical role for oxidative stress and activation of transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channel subfamily members TRPV1 and TRPA1 on pancreatic nociceptors in sensitization mechanisms that result in pain. However, the in vivo role of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 4 (TRPV4) in chronic pancreatitis needs further evaluation. The present study characterized a rat alcohol/high fat diet (AHF)-induced chronic pancreatitis model with hypersensitivity, fibrotic pathology, and fat vacuolization consistent with the clinical syndrome. The rats with AHF-induced pancreatitis develop referred visceral pain-like behaviors, i.e. decreased hindpaw mechanical thresholds and shortened abdominal and hindpaw withdrawal latency to heat. In this study, oxidative stress was characterized as well as the role of TRPV4 in chronic visceral hypersensitivity. Lipid peroxidase and oxidative stress were indicated by increased plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and diminished pancreatic manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). The secondary sensitization associated with AHF-induced pancreatitis was effectively alleviated by the TRPV4 antagonist, HC 067047. Similarity of the results to those with the peripherally restricted μ-opiate receptor agonist, loperamide, suggested TRPV4 channel activated peripheral sensitization. This study using a reliable model that provides pre-clinical correlates of human chronic pancreatitis provides further evidence that TRPV4 channel is a potential therapeutic target for treatment of pancreatitis pain. PMID:26480812

  12. The obesity and fatty liver are reduced by plant-derived Pediococcus pentosaceus LP28 in high fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Xingrong Zhao

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of an oral administration of a plant-derived lactic acid bacterium, Pediococcus pentosaceus LP28 (LP28, on metabolic syndrome by using high fat diet-induced obese mice. The obese mice were divided into 2 groups and fed either a high fat or regular diet for 8 weeks. Each group was further divided into 3 groups, which took LP28, another plant-derived Lactobacillus plantarum SN13T (SN13T or no lactic acid bacteria (LAB. The lean control mice were fed a regular diet without inducing obesity prior to the experiment. LP28 reduced body weight gain and liver lipid contents (triglyceride and cholesterol, in mice fed a high fat diet for 8 weeks (40%, 54%, and 70% less than those of the control group without LAB, and P = 0.018, P<0.001, and P = 0.021, respectively, whereas SN13T and the heat treated LP28 at 121°C for 15 min were ineffective. Abdominal visceral fat in the high fat diet mice fed with LP28 was also lower than that without LAB by 44%, although it was not significant but borderline (P = 0.076. The sizes of the adipocytes and the lipid droplets in the livers were obviously decreased. A real-time PCR analyses showed that lipid metabolism-related genes, such as CD36 (P = 0.013, SCD1 encoding stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (not significant but borderline, P = 0.066, and PPARγ encoding peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (P = 0.039, were down-regulated by taking LP28 continuously, when compared with those of the control group. In conclusion, LP28 may be a useful LAB strain for the prevention and reduction of the metabolic syndrome.

  13. Relationship between fat globule size and chemical and fatty acid composition of cow's milk in mid lactation

    Mina Martini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The milk in 57 Italian Fresian cows in mid lactation was analysed in order to define the relationship between some qualitative milk parameters and the size of milk fat globules. The study focused on the morphometric evaluation of milk fat globules, chemical parameteres and fatty acid composition of the milk. The results show that a prevalence of milk fat globules with a diameter 6 um was associated (P<0.01 with greater milk yield nad a higher percentage of lactose, non-fat dry matter and ash............

  14. Beef Fat Enriched with Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biohydrogenation Products Improves Insulin Sensitivity Without Altering Dyslipidemia in Insulin Resistant JCR:LA-cp Rats.

    Diane, Abdoulaye; Borthwick, Faye; Mapiye, Cletos; Vahmani, Payam; David, Rolland C; Vine, Donna F; Dugan, Michael E R; Proctor, Spencer D

    2016-07-01

    The main dietary sources of trans fatty acids are partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVO), and products derived from polyunsaturated fatty acid biohydrogenation (PUFA-BHP) in ruminants. Trans fatty acid intake has historically been associated with negative effects on health, generating an anti-trans fat campaign to reduce their consumption. The profiles and effects on health of PHVO and PUFA-BHP can, however, be quite different. Dairy products naturally enriched with vaccenic and rumenic acids have many purported health benefits, but the putative benefits of beef fat naturally enriched with PUFA-BHP have not been investigated. The objective of the present experiment was to determine the effects of beef peri-renal fat (PRF) with differing enrichments of PUFA-BHP on lipid and insulin metabolism in a rodent model of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance (JCR:LA-cp rat). The results showed that 6 weeks of diet supplementation with beef PRF naturally enriched due to flaxseed (FS-PRF) or sunflower-seed (SS-PRF) feeding to cattle significantly improved plasma fasting insulin levels and insulin sensitivity, postprandial insulin levels (only in the FS-PRF) without altering dyslipidemia. Moreover, FS-PRF but not SS-PRF attenuated adipose tissue accumulation. Therefore, enhancing levels of PUFA-BHP in beef PRF with FS feeding may be a useful approach to maximize the health-conferring value of beef-derived fats. PMID:27072368

  15. Amiata donkeys: fat globule characteristics, milk gross composition and fatty acids

    Mina Martini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Amiata donkeys are a native breed reared in central Italy. Safeguarding native donkey breeds represents an opportunity for the development of marginal areas, especially given that donkey milk is now appearing on the market due to its potential benefits for human health. To date, only a few studies have focused on the characteristics of the milk fat globules (MFGs in the donkey species. The aim of this study was to assess the morphometric characteristics of the fat globules, gross composition and fatty acid classes in milk from Amiata donkeys reared according to the typical farming and feeding systems of the area of origin. Individual milk samples, collected from 28 Amiata donkeys between 90 and 150 days of lactation, showed the following average composition (g/100 mL: 9.47 dry matter, 1.63 protein, 0.78 casein, 0.53 fat, 7.12 lactose, and 0.36 ash. The unsaturated:saturated fatty acids ratio in milk was close to 1. The percentage of short chains was 12.29, and the percentage of long chain fatty acids was 47.64. The donkey MFGs showed an average diameter of 1.92 μm, and a number of 2.18*109/mL. Regarding MFG distribution, 70% of the globules donkey of milk are smaller than 2 μm. In conclusion, the gross composition and fatty acids of Amiata donkey milk showed similarities with milk from other Italian donkey breeds, with the exception of the monounsaturated fatty acid values which were slightly higher. Donkey MFGs had a smaller diameter and were fewer than in the ruminant species.

  16. Metabolically inert perfluorinated fatty acids directly activate uncoupling protein 1 in brown-fat mitochondria.

    Shabalina, Irina G; Kalinovich, Anastasia V; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan

    2016-05-01

    The metabolically inert perfluorinated fatty acids perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) can display fatty acid-like activity in biological systems. The uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in brown adipose tissue is physiologically (re)activated by fatty acids, including octanoate. This leads to bioenergetically uncoupled energy dissipation (heat production, thermogenesis). We have examined here the possibility that PFOA/PFOS can directly (re)activate UCP1 in isolated mouse brown-fat mitochondria. In wild-type brown-fat mitochondria, PFOS and PFOA overcame GDP-inhibited thermogenesis, leading to increased oxygen consumption and dissipated membrane potential. The absence of this effect in brown-fat mitochondria from UCP1-ablated mice indicated that it occurred through activation of UCP1. A competitive type of inhibition by increased GDP concentrations indicated interaction with the same mechanistic site as that utilized by fatty acids. No effect was observed in heart mitochondria, i.e., in mitochondria without UCP1. The stimulatory effect of PFOA/PFOS was not secondary to non-specific mitochondrial membrane permeabilization or to ROS production. Thus, metabolic effects of perfluorinated fatty acids could include direct brown adipose tissue (UCP1) activation. The possibility that this may lead to unwarranted extra heat production and thus extra utilization of food resources, leading to decreased fitness in mammalian wildlife, is discussed, as well as possible negative effects in humans. However, a possibility to utilize PFOA-/PFOS-like substances for activating UCP1 therapeutically in obesity-prone humans may also be envisaged. PMID:26041126

  17. Fatty Acid Digestibility in Lactating Cows Fed Increasing Amounts of Protected Vegetable Oil, Fish Oil or Saturated Fat

    Børsting, Christian Friis; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben

    1992-01-01

    the three fat sources were fed. The preperiod diet contained 230 g fatty acids (FA), whereas the three other fats were fed at about 550, 850 and 1150 g FA/day. The feed-ileùm true digestibility of total FA was 95, 47 and 86% for vegetable, saturated and fish fat, respectively. The true digestibility...... of FA was for all fat sources independent of fat level. The FA digestibility of C16:0 was higher than that of C18:0. The experiment supports the theory that unsaturated FA has a synergistic effect on the digestibility of saturated FA. Bile acid secretion was estimated to be 282–550 g/day, with the...

  18. Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein Gene-ablation Exacerbates Weight Gain in High-Fat Fed Female Mice

    McIntosh, Avery L.; Atshaves, Barbara P.; Landrock, Danilo; Landrock, Kerstin K.; Martin, Gregory G.; Storey, Stephen M.; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2013-01-01

    Loss of liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) decreases long chain fatty acid uptake and oxidation in primary hepatocytes and in vivo. On this basis, L-FABP gene ablation would potentiate high-fat diet-induced weight gain and weight gain/energy intake. While this was indeed the case when L-FABP null (−/−) mice on the C57BL/6NCr background were pair-fed high fat diet, whether this would also be observed under high-fat diet fed ad libitum was not known. Therefore, this possibility was exami...

  19. Sesamin Ameliorates High-Fat Diet–Induced Dyslipidemia and Kidney Injury by Reducing Oxidative Stress

    Zhang, Ruijuan; Yu, Yan; Deng, Jianjun; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Jinghua; Cheng, Yue; Luo, Xiaoqin; Han, Bei; Yang, Haixia

    2016-01-01

    The study explored the protective effect of sesamin against lipid-induced renal injury and hyperlipidemia in a rat model. An animal model of hyperlipidemia was established in Sprague-Dawley rats. Fifty-five adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups. The control group was fed a standard diet, while the other four groups were fed a high-fat diet for 5 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia. Three groups received oral sesamin in doses of 40, 80, or 160 mg/(kg·day). Seven weeks later, the blood lipids, renal function, antioxidant enzyme activities, and hyperoxide levels in kidney tissues were measured. The renal pathological changes and expression levels of collagen type IV (Col-IV) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were analyzed. The administration of sesamin improved the serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein-B, oxidized-low-density lipoprotein, and serum creatinine levels in hyperlipidemic rats, while it increased the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein-A levels. Sesamin reduced the excretion of 24-h urinary protein and urinary albumin and downregulated α-SMA and Col-IV expression. Moreover, sesamin ameliorated the superoxide dismutase activity and reduced malondialdehyde levels in kidney tissue. Sesamin could mediate lipid metabolism and ameliorate renal injury caused by lipid metabolism disorders in a rat model of hyperlipidemia. PMID:27171111

  20. Sesamin Ameliorates High-Fat Diet–Induced Dyslipidemia and Kidney Injury by Reducing Oxidative Stress

    Ruijuan Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study explored the protective effect of sesamin against lipid-induced renal injury and hyperlipidemia in a rat model. An animal model of hyperlipidemia was established in Sprague-Dawley rats. Fifty-five adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups. The control group was fed a standard diet, while the other four groups were fed a high-fat diet for 5 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia. Three groups received oral sesamin in doses of 40, 80, or 160 mg/(kg·day. Seven weeks later, the blood lipids, renal function, antioxidant enzyme activities, and hyperoxide levels in kidney tissues were measured. The renal pathological changes and expression levels of collagen type IV (Col-IV and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA were analyzed. The administration of sesamin improved the serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein-B, oxidized-low-density lipoprotein, and serum creatinine levels in hyperlipidemic rats, while it increased the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein-A levels. Sesamin reduced the excretion of 24-h urinary protein and urinary albumin and downregulated α-SMA and Col-IV expression. Moreover, sesamin ameliorated the superoxide dismutase activity and reduced malondialdehyde levels in kidney tissue. Sesamin could mediate lipid metabolism and ameliorate renal injury caused by lipid metabolism disorders in a rat model of hyperlipidemia.

  1. Sesamin Ameliorates High-Fat Diet-Induced Dyslipidemia and Kidney Injury by Reducing Oxidative Stress.

    Zhang, Ruijuan; Yu, Yan; Deng, Jianjun; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Jinghua; Cheng, Yue; Luo, Xiaoqin; Han, Bei; Yang, Haixia

    2016-01-01

    The study explored the protective effect of sesamin against lipid-induced renal injury and hyperlipidemia in a rat model. An animal model of hyperlipidemia was established in Sprague-Dawley rats. Fifty-five adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups. The control group was fed a standard diet, while the other four groups were fed a high-fat diet for 5 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia. Three groups received oral sesamin in doses of 40, 80, or 160 mg/(kg·day). Seven weeks later, the blood lipids, renal function, antioxidant enzyme activities, and hyperoxide levels in kidney tissues were measured. The renal pathological changes and expression levels of collagen type IV (Col-IV) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were analyzed. The administration of sesamin improved the serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein-B, oxidized-low-density lipoprotein, and serum creatinine levels in hyperlipidemic rats, while it increased the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein-A levels. Sesamin reduced the excretion of 24-h urinary protein and urinary albumin and downregulated α-SMA and Col-IV expression. Moreover, sesamin ameliorated the superoxide dismutase activity and reduced malondialdehyde levels in kidney tissue. Sesamin could mediate lipid metabolism and ameliorate renal injury caused by lipid metabolism disorders in a rat model of hyperlipidemia. PMID:27171111

  2. Overexpression of Jazf1 reduces body weight gain and regulates lipid metabolism in high fat diet

    Highlights: • The expression of Jazf1 in the liver suppressed lipid accumulation. • Jazf1 significantly increases transcription of fatty acid synthase. • Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of energy and lipid homeostasis. • Jazf1 associates the development of metabolic disorder. • Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of metabolic disorder. - Abstract: Jazf1 is a 27 kDa nuclear protein containing three putative zinc finger motifs that is associated with diabetes mellitus and prostate cancer; however, little is known about the role that this gene plays in regulation of metabolism. Recent evidence indicates that Jazf1 transcription factors bind to the nuclear orphan receptor TR4. This receptor regulates PEPCK, the key enzyme involved in gluconeogenesis. To elucidate Jazf1’s role in metabolism, we fed a 60% fat diet for up to 15 weeks. In Jazf1 overexpression mice, weight gain was found to be significantly decreased. The expression of Jazf1 in the liver also suppressed lipid accumulation and decreased droplet size. These results suggest that Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of lipid homeostasis. Finally, Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of obesity and diabetes

  3. Overexpression of Jazf1 reduces body weight gain and regulates lipid metabolism in high fat diet

    Jang, Woo Young; Bae, Ki Beom; Kim, Sung Hyun; Yu, Dong Hun; Kim, Hei Jung; Ji, Young Rae; Park, Seo Jin; Park, Si Jun; Kang, Min-Cheol; Jeong, Ja In [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang-Joon [College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Gyu [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Inkyu [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, 680 Gukchaebosang-ro, Jung-gu, Daegu 700-842 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myoung Ok [School of Animal BT Sciences, Sangju Campus, Kyungpook National University, 386 Gajang-dong, Sangju, Gyeongsangbuk-do 742-211 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Duhak, E-mail: dhyoon@knu.ac.kr [School of Animal BT Sciences, Sangju Campus, Kyungpook National University, 386 Gajang-dong, Sangju, Gyeongsangbuk-do 742-211 (Korea, Republic of); Ryoo, Zae Young, E-mail: jaewoong64@hanmail.net [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-14

    Highlights: • The expression of Jazf1 in the liver suppressed lipid accumulation. • Jazf1 significantly increases transcription of fatty acid synthase. • Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of energy and lipid homeostasis. • Jazf1 associates the development of metabolic disorder. • Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of metabolic disorder. - Abstract: Jazf1 is a 27 kDa nuclear protein containing three putative zinc finger motifs that is associated with diabetes mellitus and prostate cancer; however, little is known about the role that this gene plays in regulation of metabolism. Recent evidence indicates that Jazf1 transcription factors bind to the nuclear orphan receptor TR4. This receptor regulates PEPCK, the key enzyme involved in gluconeogenesis. To elucidate Jazf1’s role in metabolism, we fed a 60% fat diet for up to 15 weeks. In Jazf1 overexpression mice, weight gain was found to be significantly decreased. The expression of Jazf1 in the liver also suppressed lipid accumulation and decreased droplet size. These results suggest that Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of lipid homeostasis. Finally, Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of obesity and diabetes.

  4. Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) for the determination of the milk fat fatty acid profile of goats.

    Núñez-Sánchez, N; Martínez-Marín, A L; Polvillo, O; Fernández-Cabanás, V M; Carrizosa, J; Urrutia, B; Serradilla, J M

    2016-01-01

    Milk fatty acid (FA) composition is important for the goat dairy industry because of its influence on cheese properties and human health. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the feasibility of NIRS reflectance (oven-dried milk using the DESIR method) and transflectance (liquid milk) analysis to predict milk FA profile and groups of fats in milk samples from individual goats. NIRS analysis of milk samples allowed to estimate FA contents and their ratios and indexes in fat with high precision and accuracy. In general, transflectance analysis gave better or similar results than reflectance mode. Interestingly, NIRS analysis allowed direct prediction of the Atherogenicity and Thrombogenicity indexes, which are useful for the interpretation of the nutritional value of goat milk. Therefore, the calibrations obtained in the present work confirm the viability of NIRS as a fast, reliable and effective analytical method to provide nutritional information of milk samples. PMID:26212967

  5. Influence of dietary fats on serum phospholipid fatty acid composition and its relation to obesity in animals

    Tepšić Vesna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fat and its relation to obesity has been a controversial issue for many years. Experimental data shows that most, though not all animals, which consume a high fat diet, will become obese. However, the effect of fatty acids on animal obesity has not been studied in detail. In order to evaluate the effects of low versus high fat diet on serum phospholipids fatty acids composition a 4-wk study was conducted on male Wister rats. The rats were fed low-fat (10% energy and high-fat (46% energy foods containing constant proportions of fatty acids. Control group C was fed a standard laboratory diet (polyunsaturated/ saturated (P/S fatty ratio 1.3, group M was fed a standard laboratory diet supplemented with margarine (P/S ratio 0.95, and the diet of the SL group was additionally supplemented with a sunflower oil-lard (1:1 mixture (P/S ratio 1.3. All lipid supplemented hyperenergetic diets caused an increase in the average daily energy intake. Both the final and the daily body weight gain were significantly higher in M and SL groups than in group C. Additionally, serum triglyceride levels, LDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol were also significantly higher in M and SL groups when compared to the control group. Serum phospholipids fatty acids varied in response to total dietary fat. A significant decrease in saturated fatty acids (SFA content (16:0 and 18:0 and an increase in monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA content (18:1, n-9 was found in the M group when compared to both C and SL groups. In the SL group, SFA content (18:0 was higher and MUFA content (18:1, n-9 was lower than in group C. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA content showed an increase in both experimental groups. The PUFA/SFA ratio was higher in the M group than in the C and SL groups. Our study suggests that the amount of dietary fat has a greater influence on obesity than the effects of the type of fat consumed. However, depending on the type of fat present in the diet the

  6. Effect of unsaturated fatty acids and triglycerides from soybeans on milk fat synthesis and biohydrogenation intermediates in dairy cattle.

    Boerman, J P; Lock, A L

    2014-11-01

    Increased rumen unsaturated fatty acid (FA) load is a risk factor for milk fat depression. This study evaluated if increasing the amount of unsaturated FA in the diet as triglycerides or free FA affected feed intake, yield of milk and milk components, and feed efficiency. Eighteen Holstein cows (132 ± 75 d in milk) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design. Treatments were a control (CON) diet, or 1 of 2 unsaturated FA (UFA) treatments supplemented with either soybean oil (FA present as triglycerides; TAG treatment) or soybean FA distillate (FA present as free FA; FFA treatment). The soybean oil contained a higher concentration of cis-9 C18:1 (26.0 vs. 11.8 g/100g of FA) and lower concentrations of C16:0 (9.6 vs. 15.0 g/100g of FA) and cis-9,cis-12 C18:2 (50.5 vs. 59.1g/100g of FA) than the soybean FA distillate. The soybean oil and soybean FA distillate were included in the diet at 2% dry matter (DM) to replace soyhulls in the CON diet. Treatment periods were 21 d, with the final 4 d used for sample and data collection. The corn silage- and alfalfa silage-based diets contained 23% forage neutral detergent fiber and 17% crude protein. Total dietary FA were 2.6, 4.2, and 4.3% of diet DM for CON, FFA, and TAG treatments, respectively. Total FA intake was increased 57% for UFA treatments and was similar between FFA and TAG. The intakes of individual FA were similar, with the exception of a 24 g/d lower intake of C16:0 and a 64 g/d greater intake of cis-9 C18:1 for the TAG compared with the FFA treatment. Compared with CON, the UFA treatments decreased DM intake (1.0 kg/d) but increased milk yield (2.2 kg/d) and milk lactose concentration and yield. The UFA treatments reduced milk fat concentration, averaging 3.30, 3.18, and 3.11% for CON, FFA, and TAG treatments, respectively. Yield of milk fat, milk protein, and 3.5% fat-corrected milk remained unchanged when comparing CON with the UFA treatments. No differences existed in the yield of milk or milk

  7. Genetic parameters and crossbreeding effects of fat deposition and fatty acid profiles in Iberian pig lines.

    Ibáñez-Escriche, N; Magallón, E; Gonzalez, E; Tejeda, J F; Noguera, J L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic and environmental parameters and crossbreeding effects on fatty acid and fat traits in the Iberian pig. Our final goal is to explore target selection traits and define crossbreeding strategies. The phenotypes were obtained under intensive management from 470 animals in a diallelic experiment involving Retinto, Torbiscal, and Entrepelado lines. The data set was composed of backfat thickness at the fourth rib (BFT), intramuscular fat (IMF) in the longissimus thoracis (LT), and the fatty acid profile for IMF and subcutaneous fat (SCF) traits. Data were analyzed through a Bayesian bivariate animal model by using a reparameterization of Dickerson's model. The results obtained showed an important genetic determinism for all traits analyzed with heritability ranging from 0.09 to 0.67. The common environment litter effect also had an important effect on IMF (0.34) and its fatty acid composition (0.06-0.53) at slaughter. The additive genetic correlation between BFT and IMF (additive genetic correlation [] = 0.31) suggested that it would be possible to improve lean growth independent of the IMF with an appropriate selection index. Furthermore, the high additive genetic correlation ( = 0.68) found between MUFA tissues would seem to indicate that either the LT or SCF could be used as the reference tissue for MUFA selection. The relevance of the crossbreeding parameters varied according to the traits analyzed. Backfat thickness at the fourth rib and the fatty acid profile of the IMF showed relevant differences between crosses, mostly due to line additive genetic effects associated with the Retinto line. On the contrary, those for IMF crosses were probably mainly attributable to heterosis effects. Particularly, heterosis effects were relevant for the Retinto and Entrepelado crosses (approximately 16% of the trait), which could be valuable for a crossbreeding system involving these lines. PMID:26812309

  8. Conjugated linoleic acid reduces body weight gain in ovariectomized female C57BL/6J mice

    Kanaya, Noriko; Chen, Shiuan

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen is an important protective factor against obesity in females. Therefore, postmenopausal women have a higher rate of obesity than premenopausal women, which is associated with age-related loss of ovary function. It has been reported that a diet containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduced body weight and body fat mass in the animal model as well as in human trials. We hypothesized that ingestion of CLA would reduce body weight gain in ovariectomized (OVX) female C57BL/6J mice whi...

  9. Validation of a single-extraction procedure for sequential analysis of vitamin E, cholesterol, fatty acids, and total fat in seafood

    Cruz, Rebeca; Casal, Susana; Mendes, Eulália; Costa, Ana; Santos, Catarina; Morais, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Food lipid major components are usually analyzed by individual methodologies using diverse extractive procedures for each class. A simple and fast extractive procedure was devised for the sequential analysis of vitamin E, cholesterol, fatty acids, and total fat estimation in seafood, reducing analyses time and organic solvent consumption. Several liquid/liquid-based extractive methodologies using chlorinated and non-chlorinated organic solvents were tested. The extract...

  10. Identification of animal fats via compound specific δ13C values of individual fatty acids: assessments of results for reference fats and lipid extracts of archaeological pottery vessels

    Richard P. Evershed

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of obtaining molecular information from lipid residues associated with archaeological pottery has dramatically increased the potential for deriving new information on the use of ancient vessels and the commodities processed therein. Motivated by the high proportion of the archaeological potsherds that have been shown to contain animal fats, a new approach invol- ving compound specific stable isotope analysis of remnant fats has been developed to retrieve infor- mation which will allow new insights into animal exploitation, dietary preferences and vessel use amongst prehistoric peoples. The new approach uses the δ13C values of the major saturated fatty acid (C16:0 and C18:0 determined by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC–C–IRMS to characterise the origins of animal fat recovered from archaeological pottery.

  11. Influence of long-term nutrition with different dietary fats on fatty acid composition of heavy pigs backfat

    Carlo Corino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the influence of long-term fat supplementation on the fatty acid profile of heavy pig adipose tissue. Fifty-four Large White barrows, averaging 25 kg LW, were randomized (matched weights to one of three isoenergetic diets supplemented with either tallow (TA, maize oil (MO, or rapeseed oil (RO. The fats were supplement- ed at 3% as fed from 25 to 110 kg LW, and at 2.5 % from 110 kg to slaughtering. Following slaughter at about 160 kg LW, backfat samples were collected from ten animals per treatment and analyzed. Fatty acid composition of backfat close- ly reflected the fatty acid composition of the supplemented fats. The backfat of pigs fed TA had the highest saturated fatty acid content (SFA (P<0.01; those fed MO had the highest content in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA and the lowest in monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA content; those fed RO had the highest content of linolenic acid (C18:3 and cis 11- ecosenoic acid (C20:1. Only MO treatment had an effect on linoleic acid levels and the iodine value (IV of backfat, result- ing in levels higher than those (IV = 70; C18:2 = 15% accepted by the Parma Consortium for dry-cured ham. The IV and unsaturation index in both layers of subcutaneous backfat tissue differed significantly between treatments. These results show that long-term dietary supplementation with different fats changes the fatty acid profile of heavy pig adipose tissue. Supplementation with rapeseed oil increases the proportion of “healthy” fatty acids in pig fat, thereby improving the nutritional quality, however the effects on the technological quality of the fat must be carefully assessed.

  12. The role of reducing intakes of saturated fat in the prevention of cardiovascular disease

    Astrup, Arne; Dyerberg, Jørn; Elwood, Peter;

    2011-01-01

    association between SFA intake relative to refined carbohydrates and the risk of insulin resistance and diabetes has been shown. The effect of diet on a single biomarker is insufficient evidence to assess CHD risk. The combination of multiple biomarkers and the use of clinical endpoints could help......Current dietary recommendations advise reducing the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) to reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, but recent findings question the role of SFAs. This expert panel reviewed the evidence and reached the following conclusions: the evidence from epidemiologic...

  13. Membrane fractionation of herring marinade for separation and recovery of fats, proteins, amino acids, salt, acetic acid and water

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene; Lizarazu, Juncal Martin; Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz;

    2015-01-01

    containing sugars, amino acids and smaller peptides and a NF permeate containing salt and acetic acid ready for reuse. 42% of the spent marinade is recovered to substitute fresh water and chemicals. The Waste water amount is reduced 62.5%. Proteins are concentrated 30 times, while amino acids and smaller...

  14. Rosiglitazone increases fatty acid oxidation and fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) but not carnitine palmitoyltransferase I in rat muscle mitochondria

    Benton, Carley R; Holloway, Graham P; Campbell, S E; Yoshida, Yuko; Tandon, Narendra N; Glatz, Jan F C; Luiken, Joost J J F P; Spriet, Lawrence L; Bonen, Arend

    2008-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) alter the expression of genes involved in regulating lipid metabolism. Rosiglitazone, a PPARγ agonist, induces tissue-specific effects on lipid metabolism; however, its mode of action in skeletal muscle remains unclear. Since fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) was recently identified as a possible regulator of skeletal muscle fatty acid transport and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, we examined in this tissue the effects of rosiglitazone infusion (7 days, 1 mg day−1) on FAT/CD36 mRNA and protein, its plasmalemmal content and fatty acid transport. In addition, in isolated subsarcolemmal (SS) and intermyofibrillar (IMF) mitochondria we examined rates of fatty acid oxidation, FAT/CD36 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPTI) protein, and CPTI and β-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase (β-HAD) activities. Rosiglitazone did not alter FAT/CD36 mRNA or protein expression, FAT/CD36 plasmalemmal content, or the rate of fatty acid transport into muscle (P > 0.05). In contrast, rosiglitazone increased the rates of fatty acid oxidation in both SS (+21%) and IMF mitochondria (+36%). This was accompanied by concomitant increases in FAT/CD36 in subsarcolemmal (SS) (+43%) and intermyofibrillar (IMF) mitochondria (+46%), while SS and IMF CPTI protein content, and CPTI submaximal and maximal activities (P > 0.05) were not altered. Similarly, citrate synthase (CS) and β-HAD activities were also not altered by rosiglitazone in SS and IMF mitochondria (P > 0.05). These studies provide another example whereby changes in mitochondrial fatty oxidation are associated with concomitant changes in mitochondrial FAT/CD36 independent of any changes in CPTI. Moreover, these studies identify for the first time a mechanism by which rosiglitazone stimulates fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle, namely the chronic, subcellular relocation of FAT/CD36 to mitochondria. PMID:18238811

  15. Green tea polyphenols reduced fat deposits in high fat-fed rats via erk1/2-PPARγ-adiponectin pathway.

    Chong Tian

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Hypoadiponectinemia contributes to the development of obesity and related disorders such as diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and cardiovascular diseases. In this study we investigated the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTPs on adiponectin levels and fat deposits in high fat (HF fed rats, the mechanism of signaling pathway was explored as well. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male Wistar rats were fed with high-fat diet. GTPs (0.8, 1.6, 3.2 g/L were administered via drinking water. Serum adiponectin and insulin were measured by ELISA, mRNA levels of adiponectin and PPARγ in visceral adipose tissue (VAT were determined by Real-time PCR, protein levels of PPARγ, phospho (p - PPARγ, extracellular signal regulated kinase (erk 1/2 and p-erk1/2 in VAT were determined by western blot. GTPs treatment attenuated the VAT accumulation, hypoadiponectinemia and the decreased mRNA level of adiponectin in VAT induced by HF. Decreased expression and increased phosphorylation of PPARγ (the master regulator of adiponectin, and increased activation of erk1/2 were observed in HF group, and these effects could be alleviated by GTPs treatment. To explore the underlying mechanism, VAT was cultured in DMEM with high glucose to mimic the hyperglycemia condition in vitro. Similar to the results of in vivo study, decreased adiponectin levels, decreased expression and increased phosphorylation of PPARγ, and elevated erk1/2 phosphorylation in cultured VAT were observed. These effects could be ameliorated by co-treatment with GTPs or PD98059 (a selective inhibitor of erk1/2. CONCLUSION: GTPs reduced fat deposit, ameliorated hypoadiponectinemia in HF-fed rats, and relieved high glucose-induced adiponectin decrease in VAT in vitro. The signaling pathway analysis indicated that PPARγ regulation mediated via erk1/2 pathway was involved.

  16. The influence of inulin addition on the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of reduced-fat cooked sausages

    Šojić Branislav V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of reduced-fat (approximately 35 % lower cooked sausage, made with addition of 5% inulin, (sausage A were examined and compared with those of conventionally cooked sausage (sausage B. Chemical composition was evaluated according to standard ISO methods. Instrumental measurements of colour (L

  17. Candidate gene expression affects intramuscular fat content and fatty acid composition in pigs.

    Wang, Wei; Xue, Wenda; Jin, Bangquan; Zhang, Xixia; Ma, Fei; Xu, Xiaofeng

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to correlate the expression pattern of candidate genes with the intramuscular fat (IMF) content and fatty acid composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle of Duroc × Shanzhu commercial crossbred pigs. Animals of both sexes were slaughtered at a body weight of about 90 kg. The IMF content and fatty acid composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle were measured and correlated with candidate genes mRNA expression (AdPLA, ADRB3, LEPR, MC4R, PPARγ, PPARα, LPL, PEPCK, and SCD). Females presented higher IMF content (p < 0.05) than males. The total saturated fatty acid (SFA) in males was greater (p < 0.01), whereas the total monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) (p < 0.01) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (p < 0.05) were lower than in females. The expressions of AdPLA, MC4R, PEPCK, and SCD correlated with the IMF content (p < 0.05). AdPLA showed a positive association with MUFA and a negative association with SFA (p < 0.05). LEPR and MC4R were both positively and significantly associated with C18:3 and C20:0 (p < 0.05). PPARα and PPARγ were negatively correlated with SFA, and PPARγ was positively associated with MUFA (p < 0.05). LPL was positively associated with MUFA and negatively associated with SFA (p < 0.05). PEPCK was negatively correlated with PUFA (p < 0.05). SCD was positively associated with MUFA (p < 0.05). The revealed correlations may confirm that these candidate genes are important for fat deposition and fatty acid composition in pigs, and the evaluation and use of these genes may be useful for improving porcine meat quality. PMID:23275256

  18. Fatty Acids Profile of Intramuscular Fat in Light Lambs Traditionally and Artificially Reared

    Milan MARGETÍN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality of 40 carcasses of light lambs of the synthetic population of Slovak Dairy sheep from (a artificial rearing (AR and (b traditional rearing (TR was assessed on the basis of fatty acids profile of intramuscular fat (IMF. Lambs from AR in comparison with TR were of lower quality as assessed on the basis of fatty acids (FAs profile. The content of conjugated linolic acid (CLA in the fat of TR lambs was severalfold higher (0.749 vs. 0.193 g.100g-1 FAME, P<0.001 than in AR lambs. Similarly, the content of trans-vaccenic (TVA, á-linolenic (ALA, rumenic (RA, eicosapentaenoic (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA was in TR lambs significantly higher (P<0.001 than in AR lambs (0.955 vs. 0.111; 0.715 vs. 0.251; 0.672 vs. 0.148; 0.352 vs. 0.061; 0.252 vs. 0.079 g.100g-1 FAME. In contrary, the content of linoleic acid (LA, the ratio of LA/ALA and n-6/n-3 in AR lambs was higher than in TR lambs (9.07 vs. 4.81 g.100 g-1 FAME; 39.11 vs. 6.80; 14.56 vs. 3.25, P<0.001. In TR lambs the content of n-3 PUFA and BCFA was significantly higher (P<0.001 than in AR lambs (2.08 vs. 0.84 and 1.95 vs. 0.45. The value of thrombogenic index was higher in AR lambs in comparison with TR lambs (1.44 vs. 1.31; P<0.05. Significant differences between FAs of IMF of ram lambs and ewe lambs were observed only in the case of arachidonic acid (P<0.05.

  19. Fatty acid composition of muscle and internal fat depots of organic and conventional Payoya goat kids

    F. De la Vega

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the preservation of autochthonous breeds such as the Payoya goat (dairy breed, raised using extensive or semi-extensive grazing, has also recently increased among Spanish farmers. A study of the possibilities of transformation to organic production needs to analyze the quality of their products, specially the suckled kids. The objective of this study was to evaluate the fatty acid (FA composition of Payoya goat kids under organic and conventional grazing–based management system. Forty-eight goat kids were selected (12 males and 12 females from each management system. The FA profile was determined in the Longissimus thoracis muscle, kidney and pelvic fat. Few gender differences were observed in the muscle and in the fat depots. The ratios of C14:0, C18:1 trans-11-(VA, and several n-3 FA were higher in organic kid meat than in conventionally reared kid meat. Conventional kid fat depots have presented higher percentage of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, lower CLA desaturase index, lower percentage of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty-acid (PUFA and, consequently, higher n6:n3 PUFA ratio than organic kids. In conclusion, significant differences were found only in some FA percentages of muscle and adipose tissues of suckling kids raised in organic and conventional livestock production systems, probably due because the dams, in both experimental farms, were raised with similar semi-extensive system based on the grazing of natural pastures. Due to this reason, conventional grazing–based management farms could easily be transformed into organic production facilities.

  20. Distribution of trans and cis 18:1 fatty acid isomers in chicks fed different fats.

    al-Athari, A K; Watkins, B A

    1988-05-01

    The effects of dietary trans isomers of 18:1 (t-18:1) were studied in chicks by feeding purified diets containing soybean oil (SBO) as the control lipid source, saturated fat (SF), hydrogenated soybean oil (HSBO), or spent restaurant grease (SRG) for three weeks. Argentation thin-layer chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography were used to separate trans and cis (c) isomers of 18:1 and to determine the fatty acid composition in chick tissues. Chicks fed HSBO (34% t-18:1 of total 18:1) had weight gains similar to those of chicks fed SF but significantly (P less than .05) lower gains than those of chicks fed SBO or SRG. No differences were observed in feed conversion ratios (total feed:total gain) across treatments. Trans-18:1 was incorporated into liver, heart, lung, and abdominal fat pad of chicks fed HSBO. Chicks fed HSBO had higher levels of c-16:1 omega 7 and 18:1 and lower levels of linoleate and arachidonate in tissue lipids. Similar changes were observed in liver microsomal fatty acids of chicks fed SRG that was adequate in linoleate, but which contained low levels of t-18:1 (4% of total 18:1). Positional and geometrical isomers of 18:1 appear to impair essential fatty acid metabolism in the chick. PMID:3405954

  1. Phytanic acid-an overlooked bioactive fatty acid in dairy fat?

    Hellgren, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Phytanic acid is a multibranched fatty acid with reported retinoid X receptor (RXR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha) agonist activity, which have been suggested to have preventive effects on metabolic dysfunctions. Serum level in man is strongly correlated to the...... intake of red meat and dairy products and the concentration in these products is strongly correlated to the chlorophyll content in the feed of the cattle. Available data suggest that phytanic acid is a natural agonist for RXR at physiological concentrations, while it is more likely that it is the...... metabolite pristanic acid, rather than phytanic acid itself, that acts as PPAR-a agonist. Animal studies show increased expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation, after intake of phytol, the metabolic precursor of phytanic acid, but it is at present not possible to deduce whether phytanic acid is...

  2. Efficient production of omega-3 fatty acid desaturase (sFat-1)-transgenic pigs by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    2010-01-01

    Omega-3(ω-3) fatty acid desaturase transgenic pigs may improve carcass fatty acid composition. The use of transgenic pigs is also an excellent large animal model for studying the role of ω-3 fatty acids in the prevention and treatment of coronary heart disease and cancer. Transgenic pigs carrying synthesized fatty acid desaturase-1 gene (sFat-1) from Caenorhabditis briggsae by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) were produced for the first time in China. Porcine fetal fibroblast cells were transfected with a sFat-1 expression cassette by the liposome-mediated method. Transgenic embryos were reconstructed by nuclear transfer of positive cells into enucleated in vitro matured oocytes. A total of 1889 reconstructed embryos were transferred into 10 naturally cycling gilts. Nine early pregnancies were established, 7 of which went to term. Twenty-one piglets were born. The cloning efficiency was 1.1% (born piglets/transferred embryos). The integration of the sFat-1 gene was confirmed in 15 live cloned piglets by PCR and Southern blot except for 2 piglets. Expression of the sFat-1 gene in 12 of 13 piglets was detected with RT-PCR. The data demonstrates that an efficient system for sFat-1 transgenic cloned pigs was developed, which led to the successful production of piglets expressing the sFat-1 gene.

  3. Characteristics and fatty acid composition of milk fat from Saudi Aradi goat

    Sbihi, H. M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Goat milk is the second most prevalent edible milk in Saudi Arabia and is one of the most prominently produced milks in the world. Few studies have focused on the physicochemical properties of goat milk fat (GMF. Samples of Saudi Aradi goat milk were obtained during the spring dairy season to determine the physicochemical characteristics and fatty acid composition of the GMF. The physicochemical properties of Saudi Aradi GMF were as follows: iodine value, 23.2 g of I2·100 g−1 of fat; saponification value, 213.2 mg KOH·g−1 of fat; refractive index (25 °C, 1.4583; unsaponifiable matter, 0.54%; acidity, 0.52%; and peroxide value, 2.07 meq O2·kg−1 of fat. α-Tocopherol was the major tocol (70.9%, followed by β-tocopherol (22.02%. GMF had significant contents of polyunsaturated fatty acid (FA (6.16%, conjugated linolenic acid (0.36%, saturated FA (67.04% and branched FA (1.98%. The thermal profiles of the Saudi Aradi GMF samples were examined using a thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Saudi Aradi GMF showed some absorbance in the UV-C range. This study demonstrated that the milk fat from the Saudi goat has physically and chemically favorable properties, as well as good nutritional properties, as a source of essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamin E.La leche de cabra es la segunda leche comestible predominante en Arabia Saudí y es una de las leches de mayor producción en el mundo. Pocos estudios se han centrado en las propiedades físico-químicas de la grasa de leche de cabra (GLC. Muestras de leche de cabra Arabia Saudí fueron obtenidas durante la temporada de mayor producción lechera, durante la primavera, y se determinaron sus características físico- químicas y la composición de ácidos grasos de la GLC. Las propiedades fisicoquímicas determinadas de la GLC de Arabia Aradi fueron las siguientes: índice de yodo, 23,2 g de I2·100 g−1 de grasa; índice de saponificación: 213

  4. Palmitoleic Acid (N-7 Attenuates the Immunometabolic Disturbances Caused by a High-Fat Diet Independently of PPARα

    Camila O. Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Palmitoleic acid (PMA has anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activities. Here we tested whether these effects of PMA on glucose homeostasis and liver inflammation, in mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD, are PPAR-α dependent. C57BL6 wild-type (WT and PPAR-α-knockout (KO mice fed with a standard diet (SD or HFD for 12 weeks were treated after the 10th week with oleic acid (OLA, 300 mg/kg of b.w. or PMA 300 mg/kg of b.w. Steatosis induced by HFD was associated with liver inflammation only in the KO mice, as shown by the increased hepatic levels of IL1-beta, IL-12, and TNF-α; however, the HFD increased the expression of TLR4 and decreased the expression of IL1-Ra in both genotypes. Treatment with palmitoleate markedly attenuated the insulin resistance induced by the HFD, increased glucose uptake and incorporation into muscle in vitro, reduced the serum levels of AST in WT mice, decreased the hepatic levels of IL1-beta and IL-12 in KO mice, reduced the expression of TLR-4 and increased the expression of IL-1Ra in WT mice, and reduced the phosphorylation of NF B (p65 in the livers of KO mice. We conclude that palmitoleate attenuates diet-induced insulin resistance, liver inflammation, and damage through mechanisms that do not depend on PPAR-α.

  5. Evaluation of Fermented Sausages Manufactured with Reduced-fat and Functional Starter Cultures on Physicochemical, Functional and Flavor Characteristics

    Kim, Young Joo; Park, Sung Yong; Lee, Hong Cheol; Yoo, Seung Seok; Oh, Se Jong; Kim, Hyeong Sang; Chin, Koo Bok

    2014-01-01

    Fermented foods with probiotics having functional properties may provide beneficial effects on health. These effects are varied, depending on the type of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Different probiotic LAB might have different functional properties. Thus, this study was performed to evaluate the quality of fermented sausages manufactured with functional starter cultures (Lactobacillus plantarum 115 and 167, and Pediococcus damnosus L12) and different fat levels, and to determine the optimum c...

  6. A randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of carbohydrate-reduced or fat-reduced diets in patients attending a telemedically guided weight loss program

    Stehle Peter

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated whether macronutrient composition of energy-restricted diets influences the efficacy of a telemedically guided weight loss program. Methods Two hundred overweight subjects were randomly assigned to a conventional low-fat diet and a low-carbohydrate diet group (target carbohydrate content: >55% energy and ® technology by mobile phone. Various fatness and fat distribution parameters, energy and macronutrient intake, and various biochemical risk markers were measured at baseline and after 6, and 12 months. Results In both groups, energy intake decreased by 400 kcal/d compared to baseline values within the first 6 months and slightly increased again within the second 6 months. Macronutrient composition differed significantly between the groups from the beginning to month 12. At study termination, weight loss was 5.8 kg (SD: 6.1 kg in the low-carbohydrate group and 4.3 kg (SD: 5.1 kg in the low-fat group (p = 0.065. In the low-carbohydrate group, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels were lower at month 6 and waist circumference and systolic blood pressure were lower at month 12 compared with the low-fat group (P = 0.005–0.037. Other risk markers improved to a similar extent in both groups. Conclusion Despite favourable effects of both diets on weight loss, the carbohydrate-reduced diet was more beneficial with respect to cardiovascular risk factors compared to the fat-reduced diet. Nevertheless, compliance with a weight loss program appears to be even a more important factor for success in prevention and treatment of obesity than the composition of the diet. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00868387

  7. Fat digestibility is reduced in old cats with subnormal cobalamin concentrations

    Salas, Anna; Manuelian, Carmen-Loreto; Garganté, Marta; Sanchez, Núria; Fernández, Sonia; Compagnucci, Marco; Cerón, Jose Joaquín; Jeusette, Isabelle; Vilaseca, Lluís; Torre, Celina

    2014-01-01

    Fat digestibility is decreased in old cats for unknown reasons. Subclinical gastrointestinal diseases and pancreatic dysfunction, both related to ageing, can affect food digestibility. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the prevalence of subnormal cobalamin concentration and pancreatic disease in old cats and study the relationship between both markers and fat digestibility. A total of sixty-four cats without evident signs of gastrointestinal disease were included and grouped accor...

  8. Ferulic Acid Alleviates Changes in a Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome Induced by High-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Diet

    Ketmanee Senaphan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities characterized by obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Ferulic acid (FA is the major phenolic compound found in rice oil and various fruits and vegetables. In this study, we examined the beneficial effects of FA in minimizing insulin resistance, vascular dysfunction and remodeling in a rat model of high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic changes, which is regarded as an analogue of metabolic syndrome (MS in man. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high carbohydrate, high fat (HCHF diet and 15% fructose in drinking water for 16 weeks, where control rats were fed with standard chow diet and tap water. FA (30 or 60 mg/kg was orally administered to the HCHF and control rats during the last six weeks of the study. We observed that FA significantly improved insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles, and reduced elevated blood pressure, compared to untreated controls (p < 0.05. Moreover, FA also improved vascular function and prevented vascular remodeling of mesenteric arteries. The effects of FA in HCHF-induced MS may be realized through suppression of oxidative stress by down-regulation of p47phox, increased nitric oxide (NO bioavailability with up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and suppression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α. Our results suggest that supplementation of FA may have health benefits by minimizing the cardiovascular complications of MS and alleviating its symptoms.

  9. The effect of sire breed on the melting point and fatty acid composition of subcutaneous fat in steers.

    Perry, D; Nicholls, P J; Thompson, J M

    1998-01-01

    Fatty acid composition and the melting point of subcutaneous fat was determined in 18 Hereford, 25 Brahman x Hereford, 22 Simmental x Hereford, and 15 Friesian x Hereford steers that were grown out on pasture at two sites and slaughtered when the mean weight of the Herefords at each site was ca. 450 kg. Multivariate and univariate analyses tested the relations of fatty acid composition, degree of saturation, and melting point with sire breed, environment, age, and carcass characteristics. Hereford and Brahman steers were fatter than the Simmental and Friesian steers. Fat from Brahman-sired steers had a melting point 2.5 degrees C lower than fat from the Bos taurus-sired steers at the same age and had a higher proportion of unsaturated fatty acids, independent of variation in carcass weight and fatness. Melting point and degree of saturation decreased as age increased. Step-down discriminant analyses identified a set of three acids (14:0, 16:0, and 17:1) that differed among sire breeds, independent of differences in melting point: the acids 14:0 and 16:0 discriminated between Brahman and Bos taurus steers and 17:1 between Hereford and Simmental and Friesian steers. Increase in fatness was associated with an increase in 17:1, but, at the same fatness, no acids discriminated among the Bos taurus-sired steers. The use of Bos indicus cattle or their crossbreeds in situations in which hard-setting fat is likely may mitigate the problem. PMID:9464888

  10. Direct comparison of mice null for liver or intestinal fatty acid-binding proteins reveals highly divergent phenotypic responses to high fat feeding.

    Gajda, Angela M; Zhou, Yin Xiu; Agellon, Luis B; Fried, Susan K; Kodukula, Sarala; Fortson, Walter; Patel, Khamoshi; Storch, Judith

    2013-10-18

    The enterocyte expresses two fatty acid-binding proteins (FABP), intestinal FABP (IFABP; FABP2) and liver FABP (LFABP; FABP1). LFABP is also expressed in liver. Despite ligand transport and binding differences, it has remained uncertain whether these intestinally coexpressed proteins, which both bind long chain fatty acids (FA), are functionally distinct. Here, we directly compared IFABP(-/-) and LFABP(-/-) mice fed high fat diets containing long chain saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, reasoning that providing an abundance of dietary lipid would reveal unique functional properties. The results showed that mucosal lipid metabolism was indeed differentially modified, with significant decreases in FA incorporation into triacylglycerol (TG) relative to phospholipid (PL) in IFABP(-/-) mice, whereas LFABP(-/-) mice had reduced monoacylglycerol incorporation in TG relative to PL, as well as reduced FA oxidation. Interestingly, striking differences were found in whole body energy homeostasis; LFABP(-/-) mice fed high fat diets became obese relative to WT, whereas IFABP(-/-) mice displayed an opposite, lean phenotype. Fuel utilization followed adiposity, with LFABP(-/-) mice preferentially utilizing lipids, and IFABP(-/-) mice preferentially metabolizing carbohydrate for energy production. Changes in body weight and fat may arise, in part, from altered food intake; mucosal levels of the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol and arachidonoylethanolamine were elevated in LFABP(-/-), perhaps contributing to increased energy intake. This direct comparison provides evidence that LFABP and IFABP have distinct roles in intestinal lipid metabolism; differential intracellular functions in intestine and in liver, for LFABP(-/-) mice, result in divergent downstream effects at the systemic level. PMID:23990461

  11. The Effect of Dietary Vegetable Oilseeds Supplement on Fatty Acid Profiles in Milk Fat from Lactating Dairy Cows

    LIU Shi-jun; WANG Jia-qi; BU Deng-pan; WEI Hong-yang; ZHOU Ling-yun; LUO Qiu-jiang

    2007-01-01

    To determine the effect of dietary supplementation with vegetable oilseeds on the composition of bovine milk fatty acids(FAs), 40 Holstein dairy cows were used with a complete randomized design. At the beginning of the experiment, the cows were 150±25 day in milk (DIM). Total duration of the experiment was six weeks. Measurements were made during the last three weeks. Cows in four treatments were fed with a basal diet (CT) or basal diet supplemented with either whole full fat soybean (WFS), full fat expanded soybean (FPS) or whole full fat soybean with whole cottonseed and full fat expanded soybean (MIX). The composition of the milk fat was analyzed by gas chromatography. Relative to control, the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentration in milk fat from cows on FPS was significantly increased by 83.88% (P<0.05). The proportions of C12:0 were decreased by 35.7, 35.51, and 38.65% in milk fat from cows on WFS, MIX, and FPS compared with cows on CT. Similar decreases in C14:0 were 23.83, 24.85, and 31.48% in WFS, MIX, and FPS treatments, respectively.Feeding vegetable oilseeds increased the proportion of healthy FAs (mainly CLA), whereas decreased the concentration of C12:0 and C14:0. Therefore, milk and dairy products would have higher nutritive and therapeutic value.

  12. Effect of dietary fat saturation on lipid metabolism, arachidonic acid turnover and peritoneal macrophage oxidative stress in mice

    Oliveros L.B.; Videla A.M.; Giménez M.S.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the effects of a saturated fat diet on lipid metabolism and arachidonic acid (AA) turnover in mouse resident peritoneal macrophages. The pro-oxidative effect of this diet was also studied. Female C57BL/6 mice were weaned at 21 days of age and assigned to either the experimental diet containing coconut oil (COCO diet), or the control diet containing soybean oil as fat source (10 mice per group). The fat content of each diet was 15% (w/w). Mice were fed for 6 weeks and then sacr...

  13. Meta-analysis of nutritional effects on conjugated linoleic acid (CLA in milk fat of dairy cows

    A. Cappio-Borlino

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A meta-analysis was carried out on 41 selected studies to obtain more reliable results about the influence of some nutritional factors on conjugated linoleic acid (CLA in milk fat. Data were analysed with a linear mixed model, including the study as random variable, that highlighted a significant effect on milk CLA content of fat source and the physical form of the lipid supplement used in the diet. The content of fat in the diet and the forage/concentrate ratio seem do not have significant effects.

  14. Dietary saturated and monounsaturated fats protect against acute acetaminophen hepatotoxicity by altering fatty acid composition of liver microsomal membrane in rats

    Shim Eugene

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary polyunsaturated fats increase liver injury in response to ethanol feeding. We evaluated the effect of dietary corn oil (CO, olive oil (OO, and beef tallow (BT on fatty acid composition of liver microsomal membrane and acute acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed 15% (wt/wt CO, OO or BT for 6 weeks. After treatment with acetaminophen (600 mg/kg, samples of plasma and liver were taken for analyses of the fatty acid composition and toxicity. Results Treatment with acetaminophen significantly elevated levels of plasma GOT and GPT as well as hepatic TBARS but reduced hepatic GSH levels in CO compared to OO and BT groups. Acetaminophen significantly induced protein expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 in the CO group. In comparison with the CO diet, lower levels of linoleic acid, higher levels of oleic acids and therefore much lower ratios of linoleic to oleic acid were detected in rats fed OO and BT diets. Conclusions Dietary OO and BT produces similar liver microsomal fatty acid composition and may account for less severe liver injury after acetaminophen treatment compared to animals fed diets with CO rich in linoleic acid. These findings imply that types of dietary fat may be important in the nutritional management of drug-induced hepatotoxicity.

  15. Prolonged high fat diet reduces dopamine reuptake without altering DAT gene expression.

    Jackson J Cone

    Full Text Available The development of diet-induced obesity (DIO can potently alter multiple aspects of dopamine signaling, including dopamine transporter (DAT expression and dopamine reuptake. However, the time-course of diet-induced changes in DAT expression and function and whether such changes are dependent upon the development of DIO remains unresolved. Here, we fed rats a high (HFD or low (LFD fat diet for 2 or 6 weeks. Following diet exposure, rats were anesthetized with urethane and striatal DAT function was assessed by electrically stimulating the dopamine cell bodies in the ventral tegmental area (VTA and recording resultant changes in dopamine concentration in the ventral striatum using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. We also quantified the effect of HFD on membrane associated DAT in striatal cell fractions from a separate group of rats following exposure to the same diet protocol. Notably, none of our treatment groups differed in body weight. We found a deficit in the rate of dopamine reuptake in HFD rats relative to LFD rats after 6 but not 2 weeks of diet exposure. Additionally, the increase in evoked dopamine following a pharmacological challenge of cocaine was significantly attenuated in HFD relative to LFD rats. Western blot analysis revealed that there was no effect of diet on total DAT protein. However, 6 weeks of HFD exposure significantly reduced the 50 kDa DAT isoform in a synaptosomal membrane-associated fraction, but not in a fraction associated with recycling endosomes. Our data provide further evidence for diet-induced alterations in dopamine reuptake independent of changes in DAT production and demonstrates that such changes can manifest without the development of DIO.

  16. Contrasting Cellularity and Fatty Acid Composition in Fat Depots from Alentejana and Barrosã Bovine Breeds Fed High and Low Forage Diets

    Ana S.H. Costa, Paula A. Lopes, Marta Estevão, Susana V. Martins, Susana P. Alves, Rui M.A. Pinto, Hugo Pissarra, Jorge J. Correia, Mário Pinho, Carlos M.G.A. Fontes, José A.M. Prates

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During the finishing phase of bovines, large amounts of subcutaneous and visceral fats are deposited leading to production inefficiencies with major impact on meat quality. A better understanding of the cellularity features of the main fat depots could provide strategies for adipose tissue manipulation. This study assessed the effect of feeding diets with distinct forage to concentrate ratios on the cellularity of two fat depots of beef cattle and their implications on the fatty acid profile. Thus, two phylogenetically distant Portuguese bovine breeds, Alentejana and Barrosã, were selected. The results did not show differences in subcutaneous fat deposition nor in visceral fat depots partitioning. Plasma adipokines concentration failed to show a consistent relationship with fatness, as leptin remained constant in all experimental groups, whereas interleukin-6 was influenced by breed. Fat depot seems to determine the area and number of adipocytes, with larger adipocytes and a lower number of cells in subcutaneous fat than in mesenteric fat. Neither breed nor diet influenced adipocytes area and number. The contents of total fatty acids, partial sums of fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid isomeric profile were affected by breed and fat depot. The incorporation of saturated fatty acids (SFA, trans fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and branched chain fatty acids (BCFA was higher in mesenteric fat depot, whereas subcutaneous fat depot had greater percentages of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA. In addition, SFA and MUFA proportions seem to be breed-related. In spite of the less relevant role of diet, the percentages of PUFA and BCFA were influenced by this factor. Under these experimental conditions, the effect of fat depot on cellularity and fatty acid composition prevails over breed or diet, as reinforced by the principal component analysis.

  17. Carnosic acid as a major bioactive component in rosemary extract ameliorates high-fat-diet-induced obesity and metabolic syndrome in mice.

    Zhao, Yantao; Sedighi, Rashin; Wang, Pei; Chen, Huadong; Zhu, Yingdong; Sang, Shengmin

    2015-05-20

    In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of carnosic acid (CA) as a major bioactive component in rosemary extract (RE) on high-fat-diet-induced obesity and metabolic syndrome in mice. The mice were given a low-fat diet, a high-fat diet or a high-fat diet supplemented with either 0.14% or 0.28% (w/w) CA-enriched RE (containing 80% CA, RE#1L and RE#1H), or 0.5% (w/w) RE (containing 45% CA, RE#2), for a period of 16 weeks. There was the same CA content in the RE#1H and RE#2 diets and half of this amount in the RE#1L diet. The dietary RE supplementation significantly reduced body weight gain, percent of fat, plasma ALT, AST, glucose, insulin levels, liver weight, liver triglyceride, and free fatty acid levels in comparison with the mice fed with a HF diet without RE treatment. RE administration also decreased the levels of plasma and liver malondialdehyde, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and the liver expression of receptor for AGE (RAGE) in comparison with those for mice of the HF group. Histological analyses of liver samples showed decreased lipid accumulation in hepatocytes in mice administrated with RE in comparison with that of HF-diet-fed mice. Meanwhile, RE administration enhanced fecal lipid excretion to inhibit lipid absorption and increased the liver GSH/GSSG ratio to perform antioxidant activity compared with HF group. Our results demonstrate that rosemary is a promising dietary agent to reduce the risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome. PMID:25929334

  18. Microstructure of industrially produced reduced and low fat Turkish white cheese as influenced by the homogenization of cream

    Karaman, A. D.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure and fat globule distribution of reduced and low fat Turkish white cheese were evaluated. Reduced and low fat cheeses were manufactured from 1.5% and 0.75% fat milk respectively which were standardized unhomogenized and homogenized cream in a dairy plant. Homogenized and non-homogenized creams and cheese whey were analyzed for fat globule distribution and cheese samples were also analyzed for microstructure characteristics. According to the results, the homogenization of cream decreased the size of fat globules; and showed that a large number of fat particles were dispersed in the in matrix and improved the lubrication of cheese microstructure. According to the micrographs for the fat, which was not removed, they exhibited a more extended matrix with a few small fat globules compared to the defatted micrographs. Homogenization of cream produces small fat globules and unclustured fat globules were found in the resulting whey. These results are important for dairy processors for using cream homogenization as a processing tool at the industrial level.

    Se estudia la microestructura y distribución de los glóbulos de grasa de quesos blancos turcos bajos en grasa. Quesos con reducida y baja cantidad en grasa fueron fabricados conteniendo entre el 1,5% y 0,75% de grasa de leche, respectivamente, y con cremas homogeneizadas y no homogeneizadas, en una planta de lácteos. Las cremas homogeneizadas y no homogeneizadas y el suero de los quesos se analizaron para determinar la distribución de los glóbulos de grasa y también se analizaron las características de la microestructura de muestras de queso. De acuerdo con los resultados, la homogeneización de la crema reduce el tamaño de los glóbulos de grasa, mostrando un gran número de partículas de grasa dispersa en la matriz de caseína que mejoró la lubricación de la microestructura del queso. De acuerdo con las micrografías de la grasa que no se elimina, estas exhiben

  19. A study of acid phosphatase locus 1 in women with high fat content and normal body mass index.

    De Lorenzo, Antonino; Di Renzo, Laura; Puja, Alberto; Saccucci, Patrizia; Gloria-Bottini, Fulvia; Bottini, Egidio

    2009-03-01

    De Lorenzo and coworkers have recently described a class of women with normal body mass index (BMI) and high fat content (normal weight obese syndrome [NWO]). This observation prompted us to study the possible role of acid phosphatase locus 1 (ACP(1)) in the differentiation of this special class of obese subjects. Acid phosphatase locus 1 is a polymorphic gene associated with severe obesity and with total cholesterol and triglycerides levels. The enzyme is composed by 2 isoforms--F and S--that have different biochemical properties and probably different functions. The sample study was composed of 130 white women from the population of Rome. Total fat mass and percentage of fat mass were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Thirty-six women had a BMI less than 25 and percentage of fat mass greater than 30 (high fat, normal BMI [HFHB]), and 94 women showed a BMI greater than 25 and a percentage of fat mass greater than 30 (high fat, high BMI [HFHB]). In the whole sample, the proportion of low-activity ACP(1) genotypes (*A/*A and *B/*A) was higher than in controls. However, whereas HFNB showed a very high frequency of ACP(1) *A/*A genotype, high-fat, high-BMI women showed an increase of *B/*A genotype. These 2 genotypes differ in the concentration of F isoform and the F/S ratio, which are lower in ACP(1)*A/*A genotype than in ACP(1)*B/*A genotype. The genetic differentiation of the class of women with normal BMI and high fat content from the class showing a concordant level of the 2 parameters supports the hypothesis that HFNB class represents a special cluster of obese subjects not revealed by BMI evaluation. Because ACP(1) is present in adipocytes, the present observation suggests that F isoform may have a specific role in the regulation of quantity of adipose tissue. PMID:19217450

  20. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-enriched milk fat inhibits growth and modulates CLA-responsive biomarkers in MCF-7 and SW480 human cancer cell lines

    Miller, Aine; Stanton, Catherine; Murphy, John; Devery, Rosaleen

    2003-01-01

    Milk enriched in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was obtained from cows on pasture supplemented with full-fat rapeseeds (FFR; 2·26g cis 9, trans 11 (c9, t11)-CLA/100g fatty acid methyl esters) and full-fat soyabeans (1·83g c9, t11-CLA/100g fatty acid methyl esters). A control milk fat (1·69g c9, t11-CLA/100g fatty acid methyl esters) was obtained from cows fed on pasture only. The present study assessed the potency of the CLA-enriched milk fats to modulate biomarkers that had previously been o...

  1. Hypothalamic Leptin Gene Therapy Reduces Bone Marrow Adiposity in ob/ob Mice Fed Regular and High-Fat Diets.

    Lindenmaier, Laurence B; Philbrick, Kenneth A; Branscum, Adam J; Kalra, Satya P; Turner, Russell T; Iwaniec, Urszula T

    2016-01-01

    Low bone mass is often associated with elevated bone marrow adiposity. Since osteoblasts and adipocytes are derived from the same mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) progenitor, adipocyte formation may increase at the expense of osteoblast formation. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone known to regulate energy and bone metabolism. Leptin deficiency and high-fat diet-induced obesity are associated with increased marrow adipose tissue (MAT) and reduced bone formation. Short-duration studies suggest that leptin treatment reduces MAT and increases bone formation in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice fed a regular diet. Here, we determined the long-duration impact of increased hypothalamic leptin on marrow adipocytes and osteoblasts in ob/ob mice following recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) gene therapy. Eight- to 10-week-old male ob/ob mice were randomized into four groups: (1) untreated, (2) rAAV-Lep, (3) rAAV-green fluorescent protein (rAAV-GFP), or (4) pair-fed to rAAV-Lep. For vector administration, mice were injected intracerebroventricularly with either rAAV-leptin gene therapy (rAAV-Lep) or rAAV-GFP (9 × 10(7) particles) and maintained for 30 weeks. In a second study, the impact of increased hypothalamic leptin levels on MAT was determined in mice fed high-fat diets; ob/ob mice were randomized into two groups and treated with either rAAV-Lep or rAAV-GFP. At 7 weeks post-vector administration, half the mice in each group were switched to a high-fat diet for 8 weeks. Wild-type (WT) controls included age-matched mice fed regular or high-fat diet. High-fat diet resulted in a threefold increase in MAT in WT mice, whereas MAT was increased by leptin deficiency up to 50-fold. Hypothalamic leptin gene therapy increased osteoblast perimeter and osteoclast perimeter with minor change in cancellous bone architecture. The gene therapy decreased MAT levels in ob/ob mice fed regular or high-fat diet to values similar to WT mice fed regular diet. These findings suggest

  2. The Herbal Medicine KBH-1 Inhibits Fat Accumulation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and Reduces High Fat Diet-Induced Obesity through Regulation of the AMPK Pathway.

    Ji-Hye Lee

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether a novel formulation of an herbal extract, KBH-1, has an inhibitory effect on obesity. To determine its anti-obesity effects and its underlying mechanism, we performed anti-obesity-related experiments in vitro and in vivo. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were analyzed for lipid accumulation as well as the protein and gene expression of molecular targets involved in fatty acid synthesis. To determine whether KBH-1 oral administration results in a reduction in high-fat diet (HFD-induced obesity, we examined five groups (n = 9 of C57BL/6 mice as follows: 10% kcal fat diet-fed mice (ND, 60% kcal fat diet-fed mice (HFD, HFD-fed mice treated with orlistat (tetrahydrolipstatin, marketed under the trade name Xenical, HFD-fed mice treated with 150 mg/kg KBH-1 (KBH-1 150 and HFD-fed mice treated with 300 mg/kg KBH-1 (KBH-1 300. During adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells in vitro, KBH-1 significantly reduced lipid accumulation and down-regulated the expression of master adipogenic transcription factors, including CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP β, C/EBP α and peroxisome proliferation-activity receptor (PPAR γ, which led to the suppression of the expression of several adipocyte-specific genes and proteins. KBH-1 also markedly phosphorylated the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC. In addition, KBH-1-induced the inhibition effect on lipid accumulation and AMPK-mediated signal activation were decreased by blocking AMPK phosphorylation using AMPK siRNA. Furthermore, daily oral administration of KBH-1 resulted in dose-dependent decreases in body weight, fat pad mass and fat tissue size without systemic toxicity. These results suggest that KBH-1 inhibits lipid accumulation by down-regulating the major transcription factors of the adipogenesis pathway by regulating the AMPK pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in mice with HFD-induced obesity. These results implicate KBH-1, a

  3. Rheological Modification of Reduced Fat Chocolate Induced by the Addition of Limonene

    Do, T.-A. Line; Vieira, Joselio; Hargreaves, Jeremy; Wolf, Bettina; Mitchell, John

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study is to understand how the addition of limonene, a low molecular weight hydrophobic compound, to chocolate, leads to a decrease in the viscosity of molten chocolate. Chocolate is a fat (cocoa butter) based dispersion of solids (sugar, cocoa and milk solids). We showed that, by mixing with cocoa butter, limonene decreases the viscosity of chocolate by decreasing the viscosity of its continuous phase, liquid cocoa butter. To understand the functionality of limonene in decreasing the viscosity of cocoa butter (triacylglyceride melt), additional mixtures of cocoa butter and limonene were prepared and their viscosity was measured. The dependence of the viscosity on the ratio of cocoa butter to limonene analyzed using Kay's equation seems to indicate that limonene mixes with and within the cocoa butter triacylglycerides, diluting the fat and leading to a decrease in the overall fat viscosity.

  4. Fat content, energy value and fatty acid profile of donkey milk during lactation and implications for human nutrition

    Martemucci Giovanni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aims Milk contains numerous nutrients. The content of n-3 fatty acids, the n-6/n-3 ratio, and short- and medium-chain fatty acids may promote positive health effects. In Western societies, cow’s milk fat is perceived as a risk factor for health because it is a source of a high fraction of saturated fatty acids. Recently, there has been increasing interest in donkey’s milk. In this work, the fat and energetic value and acidic composition of donkey’s milk, with reference to human nutrition, and their variations during lactation, were investigated. We also discuss the implications of the acidic profile of donkey’s milk on human nutrition. Methods Individual milk samples from lactating jennies were collected 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210days after foaling, for the analysis of fat, proteins and lactose, which was achieved using an infrared milk analyser, and fatty acids composition by gas chromatography. Results The donkey’s milk was characterised by low fat and energetic (1719.2kJ·kg-1 values, a high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA content of mainly α-linolenic acid (ALA and linoleic acid (LA, a low n-6 to n-3 FA ratio or LA/ALA ratio, and advantageous values of atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. Among the minor PUFA, docosahesaenoic (DHA, eicosapentanoic (EPA, and arachidonic (AA acids were present in very small amounts ( The fatty acid patterns were affected by the lactation stage and showed a decrease (P Conclusions The high level of unsaturated/saturated fatty acids and PUFA-n3 content and the low n-6/n-3 ratio suggest the use of donkey’s milk as a functional food for human nutrition and its potential utilisation for infant nutrition as well as adult diets, particular for the elderly.

  5. Ursolic Acid Increases Skeletal Muscle and Brown Fat and Decreases Diet-Induced Obesity, Glucose Intolerance and Fatty Liver Disease

    Kunkel, Steven D.; Elmore, Christopher J.; Bongers, Kale S.; Ebert, Scott M.; Fox, Daniel K.; Dyle, Michael C.; Bullard, Steven A.; Adams, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle Akt activity stimulates muscle growth and imparts resistance to obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease. We recently found that ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle Akt activity and stimulates muscle growth in non-obese mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ursolic acid might increase skeletal muscle Akt activity in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. We studied mice that consumed a high fat diet lacking or containing ursolic acid. In skeletal muscle, urs...

  6. Fat transforms ascorbic acid from inhibiting to promoting acid-catalysed N-nitrosation

    Combet, E; Paterson, S; Iijima, K; Winter, J; Mullen, W.; Crozier, A.; Preston, T; McColl, K E L

    2007-01-01

    Background: The major potential site of acid nitrosation is the proximal stomach, an anatomical site prone to a rising incidence of metaplasia and adenocarcinoma. Nitrite, a pre-carcinogen present in saliva, can be converted to nitrosating species and N-nitroso compounds by acidification at low gastric pH in the presence of thiocyanate. Aims: To assess the effect of lipid and ascorbic acid on the nitrosative chemistry under conditions simulating the human proximal stomach. M...

  7. Whey Protein Reduces Early Life Weight Gain in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Sejrsen, Kristen; Jeamet, Aymeric; Rune, Ida; Ellekilde, Merete; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Hansen, Axel Kornerup

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were ...

  8. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Britt Tranberg; Hellgren, Lars I; Jens Lykkesfeldt; Kristen Sejrsen; Aymeric Jeamet; Ida Rune; Merete Ellekilde; Nielsen, Dennis S.; Axel Kornerup Hansen

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were ...

  9. Effects of Dietary Fiber Extracted from Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) on the Physico-Chemical and Sensory Characteristics of Reduced-Fat Frankfurters

    Kim, Cheon-Jei; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Choi, Ji-Hun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of reducing fat levels from 30% to 25, 20, and 15% by substituting pork fat with water and pumpkin fiber (2%) on the quality of frankfurters compared with control. Decreasing the fat concentration from 30% to 15% significantly increased moisture content, redness of meat batter and frankfurter, cooking loss, and water exudation, and decreased fat content, energy value, pH, and lightness of meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity. The addition of 2% pumpkin fiber was significantly increased moisture content, yellowness of meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity, whereas reduced cooking loss and emulsion stability. The treatment of reduced-fat frankfurters formulated with 20 and 25% fat levels and with pumpkin fiber had sensory properties similar to the high-fat control frankfurters. The results demonstrate that when the reduced-fat frankfurter with 2% added pumpkin fiber and water replaces fat levels can be readily made with high quality and acceptable sensory properties. PMID:27433101

  10. Association of NLK polymorphisms with intramuscular fat content and fatty acid composition traits in pigs.

    Supakankul, Pantaporn; Mekchay, Supamit

    2016-08-01

    Nemo-like protein kinase (NLK) is a key enzyme in the noncanonical Wnt signaling pathway and it is involved in adipogenesis. In this study, the associations of the polymorphisms of the NLK gene with intramuscular fat (IMF) content and fatty acid (FA) composition traits were analyzed in crossbred commercial pigs. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the porcine NLK gene were identified in 5'-flanking region and introns, consisting of g.403739_403764insdel, g.574462T>C and g.630426A>G. The NLK g.403739_403764insdel was significantly associated with IMF content and palmitoleic acid levels. No association of the NLK g.574462T>C SNP with IMF content was observed. However, this SNP was significantly associated with arachidic and eicosenoic acid levels. Moreover, the NLK g.630426A>G SNP was significantly associated with IMF content and the fatty composition of arachidic, linoleic, as well as polyunsaturated FA and ω6 FA levels. These results indicate the importance of porcine NLK as a candidate gene for porcine IMF content and fatty acid composition traits. PMID:27050409

  11. High Dietary Fat Exacerbates Weight Gain and Obesity in Female Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein Gene-Ablated Mice

    Atshaves, Barbara P.; McIntosh, Avery L.; Storey, Stephen M.; Landrock, Kerstin K.; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2009-01-01

    Since liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) facilitates uptake/oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in cultured transfected cells and primary hepatocytes, loss of L-FABP was expected to exacerbate weight gain and/or obesity in response to high dietary fat. Male and female wild-type (WT) and L-FABP gene-ablated mice, pair-fed a defined isocaloric control or high fat diet for 12 weeks, consumed equal amounts of food by weight and kcal. Male WT mice gained weight faster than their female WT c...

  12. Maternal High Fat Diet Is Associated with Decreased Plasma n–3 Fatty Acids and Fetal Hepatic Apoptosis in Nonhuman Primates

    Grant, Wilmon F.; Gillingham, Melanie B.; Batra, Ayesha K; Fewkes, Natasha M.; Comstock, Sarah M.; Diana Takahashi; Theodore P Braun; Grove, Kevin L.; FRIEDMAN, Jacob E.; Marks, Daniel L.

    2011-01-01

    To begin to understand the contributions of maternal obesity and over-nutrition to human development and the early origins of obesity, we utilized a non-human primate model to investigate the effects of maternal high-fat feeding and obesity on breast milk, maternal and fetal plasma fatty acid composition and fetal hepatic development. While the high-fat diet (HFD) contained equivalent levels of n-3 fatty acids (FA's) and higher levels of n-6 FA's than the control diet (CTR), we found signific...

  13. Effects of genotype and dietary oil supplementation on performance, carcass traits, pork quality and fatty acid composition of backfat and intramuscular fat.

    Bertol, T M; de Campos, R M L; Ludke, J V; Terra, N N; de Figueiredo, E A P; Coldebella, A; dos Santos Filho, J I; Kawski, V L; Lehr, N M

    2013-03-01

    A 42-day study was conducted to evaluate the effect of genotype: terminal sire line Duroc×F1 (DC×F1); terminal sire line Embrapa MS-115×F1 (MS-115×F1); and MS-115×Moura (MS-115×MO) and three dietary oil sources: soybean; canola; and canola+flax, on performance, carcass traits, pork quality, and fatty acid composition. Genotype affected the technological quality of pork and fatty acid profile. MS-115-sired pigs had better meat color and Duroc-sired pigs had higher intramuscular fat content, more saturated fat and better omega-6/omega-3 ratio. Moura breed influenced positively meat tenderness and intramuscular fat. Diet did not affect the technological quality of the meat. Canola or canola+flax oil diet supplementations increased monounsaturated and C18:3 and decreased C18:2 fatty acids, reducing the omega-6/omega-3 ratio. The best omega-6/omega-3 ratio was obtained through supplementation with canola+flax. PMID:23273458

  14. Effect of a fat spread enriched with medium-chain triacylglycerols and a special fatty acid-micronutrient combination on cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight patients with diabetes

    Bitterlich Norman

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCT, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3-PUFA and micronutrients may be useful for weight and cardiometabolic risk management. However, studies analyzing the effect of a combination of both in individuals at increased cardiometabolic risk are lacking. Therefore, this randomized, controlled, double-blind study investigated the effect of a fat spread enriched with two different doses of MCT and a special long-chain fatty acid-micronutrient combination on cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight diabetic patients. Methods Fifty-four patients received either a fat spread with 6 g/d MCT (MCT30% or 1.2 g/d (MCT6%. Forty-three completed the study. Analysis was performed according to the median of MCT intake (supplemented and food-derived MCT. Clinical, anthropometric, blood, 24 h-urine parameters and dietary intake were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. Results Total MCT intake > 7 g/d (MCT > 7 group significantly reduced waist circumference (WC by 1.81 ± 2.69 cm, whereas ≤ 7 g/d MCT (MCT ≤ 7 group increased WC by 0.32 ± 3.03 cm (p = 0.027, which was supported by a change in waist-to-height ratio (WHtR (p = 0.018. Fasting serum triglycerides (TG increased in both groups over time due to dietary habits. In contrast, diabetic metabolic situation and urinary albumin excretion did not alter. Urinary pH differed significantly between groups after 12 weeks. Conclusion An intake of >7 g/d MCT reduced WC in overweight diabetics, whereas the increase in the intake of fatty acids may have worsened fasting TG. Therefore, the suitability of a fat for nutrient enrichment remains to be challenged, and further studies in low-fat matrices are desirable.

  15. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid protects against high-fat diet-induced fatty liver by activating AMP-activated protein kinase in obese mice

    Research highlights: → NDGA decreases high-fat diet-induced body weight gain and adiposity. → NDGA reduces high-fat diet-induced triglyceride accumulation in liver. → NDGA improves lipid storage in vitro through altering lipid regulatory proteins. → Inhibition of lipid storage in vivo and in vitro is mediated by AMPK activation. -- Abstract: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease, is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) has been reported to inhibit lipoprotein lipase; however, the effect of NDGA on hepatic lipid metabolism remains unclear. We evaluated body weight, adiposity, liver histology, and hepatic triglyceride content in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice treated with NDGA. In addition, we characterized the underlying mechanism of NDGA's effects in HepG2 hepatocytes by Western blot and RT-PCR analysis. NDGA (100 or 200 mg/kg/day) reduced weight gain, fat pad mass, and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, and improved serum lipid parameters in mice fed a HFD for 8 weeks. NDGA significantly increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in the liver and in HepG2 hepatocytes. NDGA downregulated the level of mature SREBP-1 and its target genes (acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase), but, it upregulated expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α, PPARγ coactivator-1, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, and uncoupling protein-2. The specific AMPK inhibitor compound C attenuated the effects of NDGA on expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins in HepG2 hepatocytes. The beneficial effects of NDGA on HFD-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation are mediated through AMPK signaling pathways, suggesting a potential target for preventing NAFLD.

  16. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid protects against high-fat diet-induced fatty liver by activating AMP-activated protein kinase in obese mice

    Lee, Myoung-Su; Kim, Daeyoung; Jo, Keunae [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jae-Kwan, E-mail: jkhwang@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Translational Research Center for Protein Function Control, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} NDGA decreases high-fat diet-induced body weight gain and adiposity. {yields} NDGA reduces high-fat diet-induced triglyceride accumulation in liver. {yields} NDGA improves lipid storage in vitro through altering lipid regulatory proteins. {yields} Inhibition of lipid storage in vivo and in vitro is mediated by AMPK activation. -- Abstract: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease, is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) has been reported to inhibit lipoprotein lipase; however, the effect of NDGA on hepatic lipid metabolism remains unclear. We evaluated body weight, adiposity, liver histology, and hepatic triglyceride content in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice treated with NDGA. In addition, we characterized the underlying mechanism of NDGA's effects in HepG2 hepatocytes by Western blot and RT-PCR analysis. NDGA (100 or 200 mg/kg/day) reduced weight gain, fat pad mass, and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, and improved serum lipid parameters in mice fed a HFD for 8 weeks. NDGA significantly increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in the liver and in HepG2 hepatocytes. NDGA downregulated the level of mature SREBP-1 and its target genes (acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase), but, it upregulated expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR){alpha}, PPAR{gamma} coactivator-1, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, and uncoupling protein-2. The specific AMPK inhibitor compound C attenuated the effects of NDGA on expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins in HepG2 hepatocytes. The beneficial effects of NDGA on HFD-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation are mediated through AMPK signaling pathways, suggesting a potential target for preventing NAFLD.

  17. Effect of the use of entire male fat in the production of reduced salt fermented sausages.

    Corral, Sara; Salvador, Ana; Flores, Mónica

    2016-06-01

    The effect of the use of entire male fat and salt reduction in dry fermented sausages was evaluated. Four different sausage formulations were manufactured with back fat from gilt or entire male and two different salt contents. The physicochemical parameters, sensory characteristics, texture, lipid composition, volatile compounds and boar taint compounds were analysed. The use of entire male fat produced the highest weight losses producing high hardness and chewiness while salt reduction produced a decrease in hardness. Entire male sausages had the lowest oxidation values due to the low content of C18:2n6 while salt reduction did not affect the oxidation process. Boar taint odour was due to the presence of androstenone and skatole but entire male fat sausages had different generations of volatile compounds. The presence of androstenone was perceived by consumers as abnormal odours but also other sausage characteristics such as texture (high hardness) and oxidation were detected due to the different chemical compositions of entire males versus gilts. PMID:26882213

  18. Short term effects of dietary medium-chain fatty acids and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on the fat metabolism of healthy volunteers

    Hauenschild A

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amount and quality of dietary fatty acids can modulate the fat metabolism. Objective This dietary intervention is based on the different metabolic pathways of long-chain saturated fatty acids (LCFA, which are mostly stored in adipocytic triacylglycerols, medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA which are preferentially available for hepatic mitochondrial β-oxidation and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA suggested to modulate fat oxidation and storage by stimulating the peroxisomal β-oxidation. Combined dietary MCFA and n-3 LCPUFA without LCFA may synergistically stimulate fatty acid oxidation resulting in blood lipid clearance and LCFA release from adipocytes. Design In a short term, parallel, randomized, double-blind trial effects on the fatty acid metabolism of 10 healthy volunteers (Body Mass Index 25–30 of a formula containing 72% MCFA and 22% n-3 LCPUFA without LCFA (intake: 1.500 kcal/day; fat: 55.5% of energy were measured in comparison to an isoenergetic formula with equal fat amount and LCFA dominated lipid profile. Results The plasma triacylglycerol (p Conclusion Combined dietary 72% MCFA and 22% n-3 LCPUFA without LCFA stimulate the fatty acid oxidation and release from adipocytes without affecting any safety parameters measured.

  19. Soluble CD163 is not increased in visceral fat and steatotic liver and is even suppressed by free fatty acids in vitro.

    Bauer, Sabrina; Weiss, Thomas S; Wiest, Reiner; Schacherer, Doris; Hellerbrand, Claus; Farkas, Stefan; Scherer, Marcus N; Ritter, Mirko; Schmitz, Gerd; Schäffler, Andreas; Buechler, Christa

    2011-12-01

    Visceral fat differs from subcutaneous fat by higher local inflammation and increased release of IL-6 and free fatty acids (FFA) which contribute to hepatic steatosis. IL-6 has been shown to upregulate the monocyte/macrophage specific receptor CD163 whose soluble form, sCD163, is increased in inflammatory diseases. Here, it was analyzed whether CD163 and sCD163 are differentially expressed in the human fat depots and fatty liver. CD163 mRNA and protein were similarly expressed in paired samples of human visceral and subcutaneous fat, and comparable levels in portal venous and systemic venous blood of liver-healthy controls indicate that release of sCD163 from visceral adipose tissue was not increased. CD163 was also similarly expressed in steatotic liver when compared to non-steatotic tissues and sCD163 was almost equal in the respective sera. Concentrations of sCD163 were not affected when passing the liver excluding substantial hepatic removal/release of this protein. A high concentration of IL-6 upregulated CD163 protein while physiological doses had no effect. However, sCD163 was not increased by any of the IL-6 doses tested. FFA even modestly decreased CD163 and sCD163. The anti-inflammatory mediators fenofibrate, pioglitazone, and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) did not influence sCD163 levels while CD163 was reduced by EPA. These data suggest that in humans neither visceral fat nor fatty liver are major sources of sCD163. PMID:21839737

  20. Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage with Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    Hauri, James F.; Schaider, Laurel A.

    2009-01-01

    Sulfate reducing bacteria have been shown to be effective at treating acid mine drainage through sulfide production and subsequent precipitation of metal sulfides. In this laboratory experiment for undergraduate environmental chemistry courses, students design and implement a set of bioreactors to remediate acid mine drainage and explain observed…

  1. Fatty acid composition and contents of trans monounsaturated fatty acids in frying fats, and in margarines and shortenings marketed in Denmark

    Ovesen, L.; Leth, Torben; Hansen, K.

    1998-01-01

    This study examined trans monounsaturated fatty acid contents in all margarines and shortenings marketed in Denmark, and in frying fats used by the fast-food restaurants Burger King and McDonald's. Trans C-18:1 content was 4.1 +/- 3.8% (g per 100 g fatty acids) in hard margarines, significantly...... trans long-chain fatty acids. Both fast-food frying fats contained large amounts of trans C-18:1, 21.9 +/- 2.9% in Burger King and 16.6 +/- 0.4% in McDonald's. In Denmark the per capita supply of trans C-18:1 from margarines and shortenings and frying fats has decreased steadily during recent years. The...

  2. Quantifying the Socio-Economic Benefits of Reducing Industrial Dietary Trans Fats: Modelling Study.

    Jonathan Pearson-Stuttard

    Full Text Available Coronary Heart Disease (CHD remains a leading cause of UK mortality, generating a large and unequal burden of disease. Dietary trans fatty acids (TFA represent a powerful CHD risk factor, yet to be addressed in the UK (approximately 1% daily energy as successfully as in other nations. Potential outcomes of such measures, including effects upon health inequalities, have not been well quantified. We modelled the potential effects of specific reductions in TFA intake on CHD mortality, CHD related admissions, and effects upon socioeconomic inequalities.We extended the previously validated IMPACTsec model, to estimate the potential effects of reductions (0.5% & 1% reductions in daily energy in TFA intake in England and Wales, stratified by age, sex and socioeconomic circumstances. We estimated reductions in expected CHD deaths in 2030 attributable to these two specific reductions. Output measures were deaths prevented or postponed, life years gained and hospital admissions. A 1% reduction in TFA intake energy intake would generate approximately 3,900 (95% confidence interval (CI 3,300-4,500 fewer deaths, 10,000 (8,800-10,300 (7% total fewer hospital admissions and 37,000 (30,100-44,700 life years gained. This would also reduce health inequalities, preventing five times as many deaths and gaining six times as many life years in the most deprived quintile compared with the most affluent. A more modest reduction (0.5% would still yield substantial health gains.Reducing intake of industrial TFA could substantially decrease CHD mortality and hospital admissions, and gain tens of thousands of life years. Crucially, this policy could also reduce health inequalities. UK strategies should therefore aim to minimise industrial TFA intake.

  3. Production of Volatile Compounds in Reconstituted Milk Reduced-Fat Cheese and the Physicochemical Properties as Affected by Exopolysaccharide-Producing Strain

    Weijun Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of the exopolysaccharide-producing strains for improving the texture and technical properties of reduced-fat cheese looks very promising. Streptococcus thermophilus TM11 was evaluated for production of reduced-fat cheese using reconstituted milk powder (CRMP. The physicochemical analysis of fresh and stored cheeses showed that this strain slightly increased moisture content resulting in cheese with higher yield and lower protein content compared to the direct acidified cheese. The volatiles of cheese were determined by SPME and GC equipped with a mass spectrometer. The results indicated that the major compounds included aldehydes, ketones and acids, whereas, alcohols and branched-chain aldehydes that contribute to exciting and harsh flavors were not found in CRMP. By the textural profile analysis, we found the cheese made with S. thermophilus TM11 had lower cohesiveness, resilience and higher adhesiveness than the direct acidified cheese, and had similar hardness. Further, S. thermophilus TM11 greatly changed the protein matrix with more opened cavities according to observation by scanning electron microscopy. Consequently, use of S. thermophilus TM11 could endow CRMP with the novel and suitable flavor properties and improved texture quality.

  4. Differences in essential fatty acid requirements by enteral and parenteral routes of administration in patients with fat malabsorption

    Jeppesen, Palle B; Høy, Carl-Erik; Mortensen, Per B

    1999-01-01

    : Intestinal absorption, parenteral supplement of EFAs, and plasma phospholipid EFA concentrations were investigated in balance studies in 4 groups (A, B, C, and D) of 10 patients with short-bowel syndrome and a fecal loss of >2000 kJ/d. Groups A (fat malabsorption <50%) and B (fat malabsorption >50%) did not...... receive HPN, whereas group C received HPN containing Lipids (7.5 and 1.2 gld linoleic and linolenic acids, respectively) and group D received fat-free HPN. Results: Intestinal absorption of linoleic and linolenic acids was 8.9 and 1.3 g/d and 2.6 and 0.4 g/d in groups A and B, respectively, whereas EFA...

  5. Phenotypic correlations of fatty acid composition among intramuscular, subcutaneous and intermuscular fat tissues in concentrate-fed beef cattle of differing genotypes

    Aldai Elkoro-Iribe, Noelia; Dugan, M. E. R.; Osoro, K; Z. Wang; Crews, D. H.; C. Li

    2009-01-01

    [EN]In an attempt to predict intramuscular fatty acid composition using easily accessible fat depots, between-tissue correlations were studied in 75 Asturiana de los Valles bulls with different levels of muscular hypertrophy, and 25 Asturiana de la Montan˜ a bulls. Trans-18:1 in intramuscular fat was highly and positively correlated with levels in subcutaneous and intermuscular fats, while levels of total n-3 were not correlated. Predicting intramuscular fatty acid composition using easily ac...

  6. Transcription analysis of genes involved in lipid metabolism reveals the role of chromium in reducing body fat in animal models.

    Sadeghi, Mostafa; Najaf Panah, Mohammad Javad; Bakhtiarizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Emami, Ali

    2015-10-01

    Chromium was proposed to be an essential trace element over 50 years ago and has been accepted as an essential element for over 30 years. The recent studies indicated that the addition of supra nutritional amounts of chromium to the diet can only be considered as having pharmacological effects. However, the precise mechanism through which chromium acts on lipid, carbohydrate, protein and nucleic acid metabolism are relatively poor studied. To uncover, at least partially, the role of chromium in lipid metabolism, in this study, we evaluated the expression status of eight important genes, involved in fat biosynthesis and lipid metabolism, in four different tissue types (liver, subcutaneous fat, visceral fat, and longissimus muscle) in domestic goat kids feeding on three different chromium levels. The quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) was established for expression analyses with HSP90 gene was used as reference gene. The results showed that supplementation of goats with 1.5mg/day chromium significantly decreases the expression of the ACC1, DGAT1, FABP4, FAS, HSL, LEP genes, but does not affect the expression of the LPL and SCD1 genes in all studied tissues. This study highlights, for the first time, the role of supra nutritional levels of chromium in lipid biosynthesis and metabolism. These findings are of especial importance for improving meat quality in domestic animals. PMID:26302911

  7. Do fat supplements increase physical performance?

    Valentina Di Felice; Felicia Farina; Luigi Rizzuto; Patrizia Catanese; Francesco Carini; Rosario Barone; Filippo Macaluso

    2013-01-01

    Fish oil and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) belong to a popular class of food supplements known as “fat supplements”, which are claimed to reduce muscle glycogen breakdown, reduce body mass, as well as reduce muscle damage and inflammatory responses. Sport athletes consume fish oil and CLA mainly to increase lean body mass and reduce body fat. Recent evidence indicates that this kind of supplementation may have other side-effects and a new role has been identified in steroidogenensis. Prelimi...

  8. Plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and fecal excretion of neutral sterols and bile acids in rats fed various high fat diets or a low fat/high sucrose diet.

    Høstmark, A T; Lystad, E; Haug, A; Eilertsen, E

    1989-03-01

    The effect of feeding various diets on plasma lipids and lipoproteins and on fecal excretion of neutral sterols and bile acids was studied in rats fed for 7 wk diets containing 42% of energy as either coconut oil (CO), sunflower seed oil (SO), fish body oil (FBO), cod liver oil (CLO), or a low fat/high sucrose diet (SU). Triacylglycerols (TG) in whole plasma and VLDL + LDL were lower in rats fed high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) than in those fed the CO diet. Plasma HDL2 components in FBO and CLO groups were generally lower than in the other groups. Percentages of liver and heart linoleic and arachidonic acid were higher in the SO group, but lower in groups fed marine oils, than in the CO group. There was a high relative amount of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid in liver and heart of rats fed marine oils. Fecal excretion of bile acids was lower in the PUFA groups than in the CO group, whereas the sum of neutral sterols was similar in all groups. Plasma HDL2 (and VLDL + LDL) correlated positively, but HDL3 negatively, with fecal bile acid excretion. Accordingly, increased bile acid excretion does not seem to account for hypolipemia following intake of PUFA diets. PMID:2921639

  9. Significant Beneficial Association of High Dietary Selenium Intake with Reduced Body Fat in the CODING Study.

    Wang, Yongbo; Gao, Xiang; Pedram, Pardis; Shahidi, Mariam; Du, Jianling; Yi, Yanqing; Gulliver, Wayne; Zhang, Hongwei; Sun, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is a trace element which plays an important role in adipocyte hypertrophy and adipogenesis. Some studies suggest that variations in serum Se may be associated with obesity. However, there are few studies examining the relationship between dietary Se and obesity, and findings are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the association between dietary Se intake and a panel of obesity measurements with systematic control of major confounding factors. A total of 3214 subjects participated in the study. Dietary Se intake was determined from the Willett food frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Obese men and women had the lowest dietary Se intake, being 24% to 31% lower than corresponding normal weight men and women, classified by both BMI and body fat percentage. Moreover, subjects with the highest dietary Se intake had the lowest BMI, waist circumference, and trunk, android, gynoid and total body fat percentages, with a clear dose-dependent inverse relationship observed in both gender groups. Furthermore, significant negative associations discovered between dietary Se intake and obesity measurements were independent of age, total dietary calorie intake, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, medication, and menopausal status. Dietary Se intake alone may account for 9%-27% of the observed variations in body fat percentage. The findings from this study strongly suggest that high dietary Se intake is associated with a beneficial body composition profile. PMID:26742059

  10. Autologous Fat Grafting Reduces Pain in Irradiated Breast: A Review of Our Experience.

    Caviggioli, Fabio; Maione, Luca; Klinger, Francesco; Lisa, Andrea; Klinger, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Pain syndromes affect women after conservative and radical breast oncological procedures. Radiation therapy influences their development. We report autologous fat grafting therapeutical role in treating chronic pain in irradiated patients. Materials and Methods. From February 2006 to November 2014, we collect a total of 209 patients who meet the definition of "Postmastectomy Pain Syndrome" (PMPS) and had undergone mastectomy with axillary dissection (113 patients) or quadrantectomy (96 patients). Both procedures were followed by radiotherapy. We performed fat grafting following Coleman's procedure. Mean amount of adipose tissue injected was 52 cc (±8.9 cc) per breast. Seventy-eight in 209 patients were not treated surgically and were considered as control group. Data were gathered through preoperative and postoperative VAS questionnaires; analgesic drug intake was recorded. Results. The follow-up was at 12 months (range 11.7-13.5 months). In 120 treated patients we detected pain decrease (mean ± SD point reduction, 3.19 ± 2.86). Forty-eight in 59 patients stopped their analgesic drug therapy. Controls reported a mean ± SD decrease of pain of 1.14 ± 2.72. Results showed that pain decreased significantly in patients treated (p < 0.005, Wilcoxon rank-sum test). Conclusion. Our 8-year experience confirms fat grafting effectiveness in decreasing neuropathic pain. PMID:26858758

  11. Autologous Fat Grafting Reduces Pain in Irradiated Breast: A Review of Our Experience

    Fabio Caviggioli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pain syndromes affect women after conservative and radical breast oncological procedures. Radiation therapy influences their development. We report autologous fat grafting therapeutical role in treating chronic pain in irradiated patients. Materials and Methods. From February 2006 to November 2014, we collect a total of 209 patients who meet the definition of “Postmastectomy Pain Syndrome” (PMPS and had undergone mastectomy with axillary dissection (113 patients or quadrantectomy (96 patients. Both procedures were followed by radiotherapy. We performed fat grafting following Coleman’s procedure. Mean amount of adipose tissue injected was 52 cc (±8.9 cc per breast. Seventy-eight in 209 patients were not treated surgically and were considered as control group. Data were gathered through preoperative and postoperative VAS questionnaires; analgesic drug intake was recorded. Results. The follow-up was at 12 months (range 11.7–13.5 months. In 120 treated patients we detected pain decrease (mean ± SD point reduction, 3.19 ± 2.86. Forty-eight in 59 patients stopped their analgesic drug therapy. Controls reported a mean ± SD decrease of pain of 1.14 ± 2.72. Results showed that pain decreased significantly in patients treated (p<0.005, Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Conclusion. Our 8-year experience confirms fat grafting effectiveness in decreasing neuropathic pain.

  12. EGb761, an extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves, reduces insulin resistance in a high-fat-fed mouse model

    Wei-na Cong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available EGb761, a standardized and well-defined product extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves, has beneficial effects on the treatment of multiple diseases, including diabetes and dyslipidemia. However, it is still unclear whether EGb761 can increase insulin sensitivity. The objectives of the present study are to evaluate the effects of EGb761 on insulin sensitivity in an obese and insulin-resistant mouse model, established through chronic feeding of C57BL/6J mice with a high-fat diet (HFD, and to explore potential mechanisms. Mice fed with HFD for 18 weeks (starting from 4 weeks of age developed obesity, dyslipidemia (as indicated by biochemical measurements of blood glucose, triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, and free fatty acids (FFA, and insulin resistance (as determined by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index, compared to control mice fed with a standard laboratory chow. Oral treatment of the HFD-fed mice with EGb761, at low (100 mg/kg, medium (200 mg/kg, or high (400 mg/kg doses, via oral gavage (once daily for 8 weeks (starting from 26 weeks of age dose-dependently enhanced glucose tolerance in OGTT, and decreased both the insulin levels (by 29%, 55%, and 70%, respectively, and the HOMA-IR index values (by 50%, 69%, and 80%, respectively. EGb761 treatment also ameliorated HFD-induced obesity, dyslipidemia, and liver injury, as indicated by decreases in body weight (by 4%, 11%, and 16%, respectively, blood TC levels (by 23%, 32%, and 37%, respectively, blood TG levels (by 17%, 23%, and 33%, respectively, blood FAA levels (by 35%, 38%, and 46%, respectively, and liver index (liver weight/body weight values (by 12.8%, 25%, and 28%, respectively in the low, medium, and high EGb761 dose groups, respectively. In further mechanism studies, EGb761 was found to protect hepatic insulin receptor β and insulin receptor substrate 1 from HFD-induced degradation, and to keep the AMP

  13. Intakes of total fat, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in Irish children, teenagers and adults.

    Joyce, Triona; Wallace, Alison J; McCarthy, Sinead N; Gibney, Michael J

    2009-02-01

    Recommendations limiting the intake of total fat, SFA, MUFA and PUFA have been established in several countries with the aim of reducing the risk of chronic diseases such as CVD. Studies have shown that intakes of total fat and SFA are above desired recommended intake levels across a wide range of age and sex groups. In addition, intakes of PUFA and MUFA are often reported to be less than the desired recommended intake levels. The aims of the present paper are to provide the first data on estimates of current intakes and main food sources of SFA, MUFA and PUFA in Irish children (aged 5-12 years), teenagers (aged 13-17 years) and adults (aged 18-64 years) and to analyse compliance with current dietary recommendations. Data for this analysis were based on the North/South Ireland Food Consumption Survey (n 1379, 18-64 years), the National Children's Food Survey (n 594, 5-12 years) and the National Teen Food Survey (n 441, 13-17 years). Results showed that SFA intakes in Irish children, teenagers and adults are high, with only 6 % of children, 11 % of teenagers and 21 % of adults in compliance with the recommended daily intake. The main food groups that contributed to SFA intakes were whole milk; fresh meat; meat products; biscuits, cakes, buns and pastries; and sugars, confectionery and preserves. PMID:19026091

  14. Fat utilization during exercise: adaptation to a fat-rich diet increases utilization of plasma fatty acids and very low density lipoprotein-triacylglycerol in humans

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Boolsen, Merete Watt; Richter, E A;

    2001-01-01

    % carbohydrate) and six consumed a carbohydrate-rich diet (20 % fat, 65 % carbohydrate). After 7 weeks of training and diet, 60 min of bicycle exercise was performed at 68 +/- 1 % of maximum oxygen uptake. During exercise [1-(13)C]palmitate was infused, arterial and venous femoral blood samples were collected.......E.M.) than in those consuming the carbohydrate-rich diet (0.93 +/- 0.02). The leg fatty acid (FA) uptake (183 +/- 37 vs. 105 +/- 28 micromol min(-1)) and very low density lipoprotein-triacylglycerol (VLDL-TG) uptake (132 +/- 26 vs. 16 +/- 21 micromol min(-1)) were both higher (each P <0.05) in the subjects...... consuming the fat-rich diet. Whole-body plasma FA oxidation (determined by comparison of (13)CO(2) production and blood palmitate labelling) was 55-65 % of total lipid oxidation, and was higher after the fat-rich diet than after the carbohydrate-rich diet (13.5 +/- 1.2 vs. 8.9 +/- 1.1 micromol min(-1) kg(-1...

  15. Eicosapentaenoic acid prevents high fat diet-induced metabolic disorders: Genomic and metabolomic analyses of underlying mechanism

    Previously our lab demonstrated eicosapenaenoic acid (EPA)'s ability to prevent high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity by decreasing insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and inflammation. In the current study, we used genomic and metabolomic approaches to further investigate the molecular basis for t...

  16. Effect of heating/reheating of fats/oils, as used by Asian Indians, on trans fatty acid formation.

    Bhardwaj, Swati; Passi, Santosh Jain; Misra, Anoop; Pant, Kamal K; Anwar, Khalid; Pandey, R M; Kardam, Vikas

    2016-12-01

    Heating/frying and reuse of edible fats/oils induces chemical changes such as formation of trans fatty acids (TFAs). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of heating/frying on formation of TFAs in fats/oils. Using gas chromatography with flame ionisation detector, TFA was estimated in six commonly used fat/oils in India (refined soybean oil, groundnut oil, olive oil, rapeseed oil, clarified butter, partially hydrogenated vegetable oil), before and after subjecting them to heating/frying at 180°C and 220°C. All six fats/oils subjected to heating/frying demonstrated an increase in TFAs (pTFA content of edible oils (after subjecting to heating/reheating) ranged between 2.30±0.89g/100g and 4.5±1.43g/100g; amongst edible fats it ranged between 2.60±0.38g/100g and 5.96±1.94g/100g. There were no significant differences between the two treatment groups (heating and frying; p=0.892). Considering the undesirable health effects of TFA, appropriate guidelines for heating/re-frying of edible fats/oils by Asian Indians should be devised. PMID:27374582

  17. Safety and Health Benefits of Novel Dietary Supplements Consisting Multiple Phytochemicals, Vitamins, Minerals and Essential Fatty Acids in High Fat Diet Fed Rats.

    Ramprasath, Vanu Ramkumar; Jones, Peter J H

    2016-07-01

    The objective was to determine safety and efficacy of health supplements "Beyond Tangy Tangerine," a multivitamin/mineral complex and combination of multivitamin/mineral complex, "Osteofx," a bone healthy supplement and "Ultimate Essential Fatty Acids" in Sprague Dawley rats consuming high-fat diets. Initially a pilot study was conducted which confirmed palatability and acceptability of supplements. In a second study, rats (n = 15/group) were randomized to Control; Multivitamin/mineral complex (2 g/kg BW) or Combination (2 g Multivitamin/mineral complex, 1.5 g Bone healthy supplement and 0.34 g Essential fatty acids/kg BW). No differences were observed in BW change, feed intake, organ weights or bone mineral composition with supplementations compared to control. Multivitamin/mineral complex supplementation decreased abdominal white adipose tissue weights (WAT) (p = .005), total (p = .033) and fat mass (p = .040), plasma IL-6 (p = .016) and ALKP (p = .038) and elevated plasma calcium (p < .001), phosphorus (p = .038), total protein (p = .002), albumin (p = .014) and globulin (p = .018), compared to control. Similarly, combination supplementation reduced WAT (p < .001), total (p = .023) and fat mass (p = .045), plasma triglycerides (p = .018), IL-6 (p = .002) and ALKP (p < .001) with increases in plasma calcium (p = .031), phosphorus (p < .001) compared to control. Results indicate that consuming either supplement can be considered safe and improves overall health by reducing inflammation, abdominal fat mass and plasma triglycerides, as well as promote bone health. PMID:26317447

  18. Anti-obesity and cardioprotective effects of cinnamic acid in high fat diet- induced obese rats.

    Mnafgui, Kais; Derbali, Amal; Sayadi, Sami; Gharsallah, Neji; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Allouche, Noureddine

    2015-07-01

    Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder that is associated with numerous diseases including hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Cinnamic acid is a phytochemical compound having many biological effects and could be considered for the management of obesity. This study is aimed to assess the possible anti-obesity and cardioprotective properties of cinnamic acid (CA) in high fat diet-fed rats (HFD). Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups. They received normal diet, HFD diet, HFD supplemented with fluvastatin (2 mg/kg/day) or cinnamic acid (30 mg/kg/day) for 7 weeks. The results showed an increase in body weight of HFD rats by ~27 % as compared to control group. Moreover, serum lipase activity underwent a significant rise by 103 % which led to an increase in the levels of total cholesterol (T-Ch), triglycerides (TG), LDL-cholesterol in serum of untreated HFD-fed rats. Furthermore, the concentration of leptin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity exhibited remarkable increases in serum of HFD-fed rats as compared to controls. Whereas, the administration of CA to HFD-fed rats improved the body weight gain and serum lipid profile and reverted back near to normal the activities of lipase and ACE. In addition, the echocardiography evidenced that CA is able to protect the aorta and aortic arch and avoided vasoconstriction by increasing their diameters and improved liver steatosis and kidney indices of toxicity. Overall, these results suggest that cinnamic acid exerts anti-obesity and antihypertensive effects through inhibition of lipid digestive enzymes and ACE. PMID:26139902

  19. Rice koji reduced body weight gain, fat accumulation, and blood glucose level in high-fat diet-induced obese mice

    Yumiko Yoshizaki

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Rice koji is considered a readily accessible functional food that may have health-promoting effects. We investigated whether white, yellow, and red koji have the anti-obesity effect in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD, which is a model for obesity. Mice were fed HFD containing 10% (w/w of rice koji powder or steamed rice for 4 weeks. Weight gain, epididymal white adipose tissue, and total adipose tissue weight were significantly lower in all rice koji groups than in the HFD-rice group after 4 weeks. Feed efficiency was significantly reduced in the yellow koji group. Blood glucose levels were significantly lower in the white and red koji groups with HOMA-R and leptin levels being reduced in the white koji group. White and red koji increased glucose uptake and GLUT4 protein expression in L6 myotube cells. These results showed that all rice koji have the anti-obesity or anti-diabetes effects although the mechanisms may differ depending on the type of rice koji consumed.

  20. A mixture of the aqueous extract of Garcinia cambogia, soy peptide and l-carnitine reduces the accumulation of visceral fat mass in rats rendered obese by a high fat diet

    Kim, Yun Jung; Kim, Keun-Young; Kim, Min Sun; Lee, Jin Hee; Lee, Kang Pyo; Park, Taesun

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-obesity effect of a mixture composed of Garcinia cambogia extract, soypeptide, and l-carnitine (1.2:0.3:0.02, w/w/w) in rats rendered obese by a high-fat diet (HFD). Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either the high-fat control diet (CD) or the 0.38% mixture-supplemented HFD (CD + M) for 9 weeks. The mixture significantly reduced body weight gain and the accumulation of visceral fat mass in a rat model of HFD-induced obesity. Moreover, the m...

  1. Sensorial and fatty acid profile of ice cream manufactured with milk of crossbred cows fed palm oil and coconut fat.

    Corradini, S A S; Madrona, G S; Visentainer, J V; Bonafe, E G; Carvalho, C B; Roche, P M; Prado, I N

    2014-11-01

    This work was carried out to study the nutritional quality of milk of cows fed palm oil (PAL) or coconut fat (COC), and the use of that milk as raw material for ice cream production. Three treatments were tested with 23 healthy cows: control (CON), PAL, and COC. The milk was collected at d 21 and 36 of the experimental diet. Proximate composition (moisture, ash, fat, protein, and carbohydrates) and fatty acid composition were evaluated on milk and ice cream, and sensorial analysis, color (lightness, green/red, and blue/yellow), overrun, and texture were evaluated on the ice cream. Fatty acids present in milk and ice cream were determined by gas chromatography. Sensory analysis results showed that the ice cream acceptability index was above 70%. No difference was observed for proximate composition in milk and ice cream. Chromatographic analysis showed an increase in saturated fatty acid concentration in CON and lower levels in PAL; polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration was higher in PAL and lower in CON, in milk and ice cream; monounsaturated fatty acid concentration in milk was higher in PAL and lower in CON but no difference was found in ice cream. Comparing n-3 content in milk and ice cream, we observed that PAL had higher levels than CON and COC. The results indicate that it is feasible to add sources of fat to the animal feed for fatty acid composition modulation of milk and ice cream. PMID:25218746

  2. Fatty Acid Synthase and Hormone-sensitive Lipase Expression in Liver Are Involved in Zinc-α2-glycoprotein-induced Body Fat Loss in Obese Mice

    Feng-ying Gong; Jie-ying Deng; Hui-juan Zhu; Hui Pan; Lin-jie Wang; Hong-bo Yang

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of zinc-a2-glycoprotein (ZAG) on body weight and body fat in high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity in mice and the possible mechanism.Methods Thirty-six male mice were fed with standard food (SF) (n=9) and HFD (n=27), respec-tively. Five weeks later, 9 mice fed with HFD were subjected to ZAG expression plasmid DNA transfection by liposome transfection method, and another 9 mice to negative control plasmid transfection. Two weeks later, serum ZAG level in the mice was assayed by Western blot, and the effects of ZAG over-expression on body weight, body fat, serum biochemical indexes, and adipose tissue of obese mice were evaluated. The mRNA expressions of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in liver tissue were de-termined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.Results Serum ZAG level significantly lowered in simple HFD-fed mice in comparison to SF-fed mice (0.51±0.10 AU vs. 0.75±0.07 AU, P<0.01). Further statistical analysis demonstrated that ZAG level was negatively correlated with body weight (r =-0.56, P<0.001), epididymal fat mass (r=-0. 67, P<0.001), percentage of epididymal fat (r=-0.65, P<0.001 ), and increased weight (r=-0.57, P<0.001) in simple SF-and HFD-fed mice. ZAG over-expression in obese mice reduced body weight and the percentage of epididy-mal fat. Furthermore, FAS mRNA expression decreased (P<0.01) and HSL mRNA expression increased (P<0.001) in the liver in ZAG over-expressing mice.Conclusions ZAG is closely related to obesity. Serum ZAG level is inversely correlated with body weight and percentage of body fat. The action of ZAG is associated with reduced FAS expression and in-creased HSL expression in the liver of obese mice.

  3. The relation of high fat diet, metabolic disturbances and brain oxidative dysfunction: modulation by hydroxy citric acid

    Kamel Hamdy H; Amin Kamal A; Abd Eltawab Mohamed A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aims This study aimed to examine the effect of high fat diet (HFD) to modulate brain dysfunction, and understand the linkages between obesity, metabolic disturbances and the brain oxidative stress (BOS) dysfunction and modulation with hydroxyl citric acid of G. Cambogia. Methods Rats were divided into 3 groups; 1st control, maintained on standard normal rat chow diet, 2nd HFD, maintained on high fat diet along 12 week and 3rd HFD+G, administered G. Cambogia for 4 weeks and each group...

  4. Effect of green Spanish-style processing (Manzanilla and Hojiblanca) on the quality parameters and fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions of olive fat.

    López-López, Antonio; Cortés-Delgado, Amparo; Garrido-Fernández, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    This work studies the effect of processing Manzanilla and Hojiblanca olives as green Spanish-style on the quality parameters and fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions of their oils. Lye treatment reduced the values of most quality parameters while fermentation/packaging increased acidity, K232 and K270. Processing did not cause any systematic effect on fatty acids (FA), triacylglycerols or nutritional fat subclasses but significant differences between cultivars were observed. Principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed that most of the variation among oil characteristics was due to cultivars and only a limited proportion (∼22% and ∼14% variance for FA and triacylglycerols, respectively) to processing. Furthermore, the levels of the quality parameters and fatty acids with restrictions in the legislation were below the limits established in the Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 1348/2013 for extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), except for C18:3n-3 in Hojiblanca. Therefore, the fat of processed olives was compatible with EVOO. PMID:26041161

  5. Fatty acid composition of muscle fat and enzymes of storage lipid synthesis in whole muscle from beef cattle.

    Kazala, E Chris; Lozeman, Fred J; Mir, Priya S; Aalhus, Jennifer L; Schmutz, Sheila M; Weselake, Randall J

    2006-11-01

    Enhanced intramuscular fat content (i.e., marbling) in beef is a desirable trait, which can result in increased product value. This study was undertaken with the aim of revealing biochemical factors associated with the marbling trait in beef cattle. Samples of longissimus lumborum (LL) and pars costalis diaphragmatis (PCD) were taken from a group of intact crossbred males and females at slaughter, lipids extracted, and the resulting FAME examined for relationships with marbling fat deposition. For LL, significant associations were found between degree of marbling and myristic (14:0, r = 0.55, P muscle were assayed for diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT), and phosphatidic acid phosphatase-1 (PAP-1) activity, and the results examined for relationships with degree of intramuscular fat deposition. None of the enzyme activities from PCD displayed an association with marbling fat content, but DGAT specific activity showed significant positive associations with LPAAT (r = 0.54, P muscle tissues provide insight into possible enzyme action associated with the production of specific FA. The increased proportion of oleic acid associated with enhanced lipid content of whole muscle is noteworthy given the known health benefits of this FA. PMID:17263304

  6. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Sejrsen, Kristen; Jeamet, Aymeric; Rune, Ida; Ellekilde, Merete; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Hansen, Axel Kornerup

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would be...... associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel...... weight gain was similar resulting in a 15% lower final body weight in the whey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, P<0.001). Food intake was unaffected by protein source throughout the study period. Fasting insulin was lower in the whey group (P<0.01) and glucose clearance was improved...

  7. Poultry fat decreased fatty acid transporter protein mRNA expression and affected fatty acid composition in chickens

    Yuan Jianmin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A study was undertaken to examine the effects of poultry fat (PF compared with those of soybean oil (SBO on intestinal development, fatty acid transporter protein (FATP mRNA expression, and fatty acid composition in broiler chickens. A total of 144 day-old male commercial broilers were randomly allocated to 2 treatment groups (6 replicates of 12 chicks for each treatment and fed isocaloric diets containing 3.0% PF or 2.7% SBO at 0 to 3 wk and 3.8% PF or 3.5% SBO at 4 to 6 wk, respectively. Results PF had no influence on intestinal morphology, weight, or DNA, RNA, or protein concentrations at 2, 4, and 6 wk of age. However, compared with SBO, PF significantly decreased FATP mRNA abundance at 4 wk (P = 0.009 and 6 wk of age (P P = 0.039; and decreased C18:2 (P = 0.015, C18:3 (P P = 0.018, Σ-polyunsaturated fatty acids (Σ-PUFA (P = 0.020, and the proportion of PUFA (P P = 0.010, C18:3 (P P P = 0.005, and the proportion of PUFA (P  Conclusions PF decreases FATP and L-FABP mRNA expression and decreased the proportion of PUFA in the intestinal mucosa and breast muscle.

  8. Association of polymorphisms in adipocyte fatty acid binding protein gene with fat-related traits in chicken

    Manhong YE; Jie WEN; Honghe CAO; Hongbin LI; Jilan CHEN; Guiping ZHAO; Maiqing ZHENG

    2008-01-01

    PCR-SSCP analysis was used to detect poly-morphic sites in chicken adipocyte fatty acid binding pro-tein (A-FABP) gene. Six Chinese local breeds, Beijing-You chicken, Dwarf chicken, Taihe silky chicken, Chong-renma chicken, Xiayan chicken, Luyuan chicken and an introduced foreign breed, Arbor Acre broiler, were used as test populations. Three PCR-SSCP loci were detected. Statistical results showed that frequencies of genotypes and alleles were significantly different in the test popula-tions. Sequence analysis revealed that C → T, G → A, and C → T transitions were responsible for the polymorph-isms. Some fat-related traits such as body weight, content of intramuscular fat (IMF) and percentage of abdominal fat (AFP) were measured in Dwarf chickens and male Beijing-You chickens. We found out that chicken quality was significantly related to different genotypes in these two populations.

  9. Direct Comparison of Mice Null for Liver or Intestinal Fatty Acid-binding Proteins Reveals Highly Divergent Phenotypic Responses to High Fat Feeding*

    Gajda, Angela M.; Zhou, Yin Xiu; Agellon, Luis B.; Fried, Susan K.; Kodukula, Sarala; Fortson, Walter; Patel, Khamoshi; Storch, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The enterocyte expresses two fatty acid-binding proteins (FABP), intestinal FABP (IFABP; FABP2) and liver FABP (LFABP; FABP1). LFABP is also expressed in liver. Despite ligand transport and binding differences, it has remained uncertain whether these intestinally coexpressed proteins, which both bind long chain fatty acids (FA), are functionally distinct. Here, we directly compared IFABP−/− and LFABP−/− mice fed high fat diets containing long chain saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, reasoning that providing an abundance of dietary lipid would reveal unique functional properties. The results showed that mucosal lipid metabolism was indeed differentially modified, with significant decreases in FA incorporation into triacylglycerol (TG) relative to phospholipid (PL) in IFABP−/− mice, whereas LFABP−/− mice had reduced monoacylglycerol incorporation in TG relative to PL, as well as reduced FA oxidation. Interestingly, striking differences were found in whole body energy homeostasis; LFABP−/− mice fed high fat diets became obese relative to WT, whereas IFABP−/− mice displayed an opposite, lean phenotype. Fuel utilization followed adiposity, with LFABP−/− mice preferentially utilizing lipids, and IFABP−/− mice preferentially metabolizing carbohydrate for energy production. Changes in body weight and fat may arise, in part, from altered food intake; mucosal levels of the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol and arachidonoylethanolamine were elevated in LFABP−/−, perhaps contributing to increased energy intake. This direct comparison provides evidence that LFABP and IFABP have distinct roles in intestinal lipid metabolism; differential intracellular functions in intestine and in liver, for LFABP−/− mice, result in divergent downstream effects at the systemic level. PMID:23990461

  10. Endogenous Glucagon-like peptide-1 suppresses high-fat food intake by reducing synaptic drive onto mesolimbic dopamine neurons

    Wang, Xue-Feng; Liu, Jing-Jing; Xia, Julia; Liu, Ji; Mirabella, Vincent; Pang, Zhiping P.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its analogs act as appetite suppressants and have been proven to be clinically efficacious in reducing body weight in obese individuals. Central GLP-1 is expressed in a small population of brainstem cells located in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), which project to a wide range of brain areas. However, it remains unclear how endogenous GLP-1 released in the brain contributes to appetite regulation. By using chemogenetic tools, we discovered that central GLP-1 acts on the midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA) and suppresses high-fat food intake. We used integrated pathway tracing and synaptic physiology to further demonstrate that activation of GLP-1 receptors specifically reduces the excitatory synaptic strength of dopamine (DA) neurons within the VTA that project to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) medial shell. These data suggest that GLP-1 released from NTS neurons can reduce highly palatable food intake by suppressing mesolimbic DA signaling. PMID:26212334

  11. Processes for converting lignocellulosics to reduced acid pyrolysis oil

    Kocal, Joseph Anthony; Brandvold, Timothy A

    2015-01-06

    Processes for producing reduced acid lignocellulosic-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. In a process, lignocellulosic material is fed to a heating zone. A basic solid catalyst is delivered to the heating zone. The lignocellulosic material is pyrolyzed in the presence of the basic solid catalyst in the heating zone to create pyrolysis gases. The oxygen in the pyrolysis gases is catalytically converted to separable species in the heating zone. The pyrolysis gases are removed from the heating zone and are liquefied to form the reduced acid lignocellulosic-derived pyrolysis oil.

  12. Procedure for reducing hydrogen ion concentration in acidic anion eluate

    A procedure is suggested for reducing the concentration of hydrogen ions in the acidic anionic eluate formed during the separation of uranium. The procedure involves anex elution, precipitation, filtration, precipitate rinsing, and anex rinsing. The procedure is included in the uranium elution process and requires at least one ion exchanger column and at least one tank in the continuous or discontinuous mode. Sparing the neutralizing agent by reducing the hydrogen ion concentration in the acidic anionic eluate is a major asset of this procedure. (Z.S.). 1 fig

  13. Fatty acid composition in serum correlates with that in the liver and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity scores in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Wang, Xing-He; Li, Chun-Yan; Muhammad, Ishfaq; Zhang, Xiu-Ying

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the correlation between the serum fatty acid composition and hepatic steatosis, inflammation, hepatocellular ballooning scores, and liver fatty acids composition in mice fed a high-fat diet. Livers were collected for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease score analysis. Fatty acid compositions were analysed by gas chromatography. Correlations were determined by Pearson correlation coefficient. Exposed to a high-fat diet, mice developed fatty liver disease with varying severity without fibrosis. The serum fatty acid variation became more severe with prolonged exposure to a high-fat diet. This variation also correlated significantly with the variation in livers, with the types of fatty acids corresponding to liver steatosis, inflammation, and hepatocellular ballooning scores. Results of this study lead to the following hypothesis: the extent of serum fatty acid variation may be a preliminary biomarker of fatty liver disease caused by high-fat intake. PMID:27179602

  14. Ketogenic Diet, but Not Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Diet, Reduces Spontaneous Seizures in Juvenile Rats with Kainic Acid-induced Epilepsy

    Dustin, Simone M.; Stafstrom, Carl E

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) is effective in many cases of drug-resistant epilepsy, particularly in children. In the classic KD, fats consist primarily of long-chain saturated triglycerides. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially the n-3 type, decrease neuronal excitability and provide neuroprotection; pilot human studies have raised the possibility of using PUFAs to control seizures in patients. Methods: To determine the relative roles o...

  15. Green Tea Polyphenols Reduced Fat Deposits in High Fat-Fed Rats via erk1/2-PPARγ-Adiponectin Pathway

    Chong Tian; Xiaolei Ye; Rui Zhang; Jia Long; Weiye Ren; Shibin Ding; Dan Liao; Xin Jin; Hongmei Wu; Shunqin Xu; Chenjiang Ying

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Hypoadiponectinemia contributes to the development of obesity and related disorders such as diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and cardiovascular diseases. In this study we investigated the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) on adiponectin levels and fat deposits in high fat (HF) fed rats, the mechanism of signaling pathway was explored as well. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male Wistar rats were fed with high-fat diet. GTPs (0.8, 1.6, 3.2 g/L) were administered via drinking water. Serum adipon...

  16. Effect of fatty acid profile in vegetable oils and antioxidant supplementation on dairy cattle performance and milk fat depression.

    He, M; Armentano, L E

    2011-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of unprotected vegetable oils differing in fatty acid profiles with or without a commercial antioxidant (Agrado Plus, Novus International, St. Charles, MO) on dairy cattle performance, milk fatty acid profiles, and milk fat depression. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were blocked by production (high and low) and assigned to Agrado Plus or no Agrado Plus diets as the main plot in this experiment. The 6 cows in each of the fixed effect groups (high with and without Agrado, low with and without Agrado) were then assigned to a 6 × 6 Latin square as a split plot with 21-d periods. The 6 dietary treatments in the split-plot Latin square were no added oil (control), or 5% DM as oil from palm (PO), high-oleic safflower (OSAF), high-linoleic safflower (LSAF), linseed (LNSD), or corn (CO). Added oil replaced corn starch in the total mixed ration. Diets were formulated to have similar crude protein and neutral detergent fiber, and consisted of 41.2% alfalfa silage, 18.3% corn silage, and 40.5% concentrate mix (dry matter basis). Feeding Agrado Plus did not affect milk, milk fat, or milk protein production or milk fatty acid composition in this study. No significant differences were found between oil feeding versus control for dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk protein yield, but oils other than PO significantly decreased milk fat concentration and proportion and yield of milk short- and medium-chain fatty acids (C(<16)). Feeding PO effectively maintained milk fat yield (1.18 kg/d) and concentration (3.44%), whereas the oils rich in linoleic acid (CO and LSAF) significantly decreased milk fat yield (0.98 and 0.86 vs. 1.14 kg/d) and concentration (3.05 and 2.83 vs. 3.41%) compared with control. Similar lactation performance between OSAF and LNSD suggests that oleic and linolenic acids are roughly equal in potency of milk fat depression. PMID:21524540

  17. Studies of fatty acid composition, physicochemical and thermal properties, and crystallization behavior of mango kernel fats from various Thai varieties.

    Sonwai, Sopark; Ponprachanuvut, Punnee

    2014-01-01

    Mango kernel fat (MKF) has received attention in recent years due to the resemblance between its characteristics and those of cocoa butter (CB). In this work, fatty acid (FA) composition, physicochemical and thermal properties and crystallization behavior of MKFs obtained from four varieties of Thai mangoes: Keaw-Morakot (KM), Keaw-Sawoey (KS), Nam-Dokmai (ND) and Aok-Rong (AR), were characterized. The fat content of the mango kernels was 6.40, 5.78, 5.73 and 7.74% (dry basis) for KM, KS, ND and AR, respectively. The analysis of FA composition revealed that all four cultivars had oleic and stearic acids as the main FA components with ND and AR exhibiting highest and lowest stearic acid content, respectively. ND had the highest slip melting point and solid fat content (SFC) followed by KS, KM and AR. All fat samples exhibited high SFC at 20℃ and below. They melted slowly as the temperature increased and became complete liquids as the temperature approached 35°C. During static isothermal crystallization at 20°C, ND displayed the highest Avrami rate constant k followed by KS, KM and AR, indicating that the crystallization was fastest for ND and slowest for AR. The Avrami exponent n of all samples ranged from 0.89 to 1.73. The x-ray diffraction analysis showed that all MKFs crystallized into a mixture of pseudo-β', β', sub-β and β structures with β' being the predominant polymorph. Finally, the crystals of the kernel fats from all mango varieties exhibited spherulitic morphology. PMID:24919475

  18. Physicochemical properties, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of sheep and goat meat sausages manufactured with different pork fat levels.

    Leite, Ana; Rodrigues, Sandra; Pereira, Etelvina; Paulos, Kátia; Oliveira, António Filipe; Lorenzo, José Manuel; Teixeira, Alfredo

    2015-07-01

    The effect of three pork backfat levels (0% vs. 10% vs. 30%) on chemical composition, fatty acid profile and sensory properties on sheep and goat meat sausages was studied. All physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. Sausages manufactured with 30% of pork backfat showed the lowest moisture and protein contents and the highest total fat content. The lower a(w) values in sausages manufactured with higher fat content while in pH happened the reverse situation. The addition of pork backfat modified the total fatty acid profile, prompting a significant drop in the relative percentages of C14:0, C16:0, C17:0, C17:1, C18:0 and TVA (trans-vaccenic acid), together with a marked increase in oleic and linoleic acids. Finally, in goat sausages, the fat content significantly affected sensory parameters: taste, texture and overall acceptability (P<0.05). As expected, all physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. PMID:25839884

  19. Quantum dots increased fat storage in intestine of Caenorhabditis elegans by influencing molecular basis for fatty acid metabolism.

    Wu, Qiuli; Zhi, Lingtong; Qu, Yangyang; Wang, Dayong

    2016-07-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is a useful model animal for fat storage study. In nematodes, CdTe quantum dots (QDs) induced an increase in fat storage in intestine that is partially due to prolonged defecation cycle length, and not attributed to altered feeding or cadmium ion released from CdTe QDs. Moreover, CdTe QDs altered the molecular basis of both synthesis and degradation of fatty acid; however, CdTe QDs did not influence that of degradation of phospholipids. CdTe QDs increased expression of fasn-1 and pod-2 genes encoding enzymes required for fatty acid synthesis, and decreased expression of acs-2 and ech-1 genes encoding enzymes required for fatty acid β-oxidation. The altered molecular basis of fatty acid synthesis or degradation by CdTe QDs acted in intestine to regulate fat storage. Our study highlights the potential of CdTe QDs in influencing lipid metabolism in certain organs or tissues in animals. PMID:26956412

  20. Okara, a soymilk industry by-product, as a non-meat protein source in reduced fat beef burgers

    Simone Ing Tie Su

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Okara is a by-product generated during the manufacture of soymilk and tofu. Wet okara was added to beef burgers at 0%, 20%, and 25%. The effects of okara on certain physicochemical, textural, and sensory properties of reduced fat beef burgers were investigated. The beef burgers formulated with okara (104.0-106.0 kcal/100 g had 60% less calories than commercial beef burgers (268.8 kcal/100 g. The texture profile analysis showed that the addition of wet okara led to a significant increase in hardness (p < 0.05 and a concomitant reduction in the values of chewiness, springiness, and cohesiveness. Lower sensory scores (p < 0.05 of flavour were observed in the beef burgers containing 25% wet okara. However, the sensory evaluation results showed that juiciness, appearance, tenderness, and overall acceptability of beef burgers formulated with okara did not differ statistically from that of the control (0% okara. Wet okara (20% can be used as a non-meat protein source in the production of reduced-fat beef burgers without changing their sensory quality.

  1. Safety and efficacy of reduced doses of Brucella melitensis strain Rev. 1 vaccine in pregnant Iranian fat-tailed ewes

    Mohammad Ebrahimi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases and is a significant cause of abortion in animals. Brucella melitensis strain Rev. 1 is recommended as the most effective vaccine for small ruminants but the application of full doses in adult animals is restricted. This study was conducted to determine a proper reduced dose of vaccine which confers protection but which is not abortifacient in Iranian fat-tailed sheep. A total of 51 non-vaccinated pregnant ewes were divided into three main groups and several subgroups. Ewes in different groups were vaccinated at different stages of pregnancy and various subgroups were subcutaneously immunised with different quantities of the micro-organism (7.5 × 106, 106, 5 × 105. Ewes again became pregnant a year later and were challenged with the wild-type strain to evaluate the protection conferred. Results revealed that the proportion of vaccination-induced abortions was significantly higher in ewes immunised with 7.5 × 106 Rev. 1 organisms than in those which received 106 or 5 × 105 bacteria. While 80% of non-vaccinated ewes aborted after challenge, none of the vaccinated ewes aborted post-challenge. This study indicated that a reduced dose of Rev. 1 vaccine containing 106 or 5 × 105 live cells could be safely used to induce protection in Iranian fat-tailed sheep at various stages of pregnancy.

  2. Surgical removal of visceral fat decreases plasma free fatty acid and increases insulin sensitivity on liver and peripheral tissue in monosodium glutamate (MSG)-obese rats.

    Kim, Y. W.; Kim, J. Y.; Lee, S K

    1999-01-01

    In order to evaluate the role of visceral and subcutaneous fat tissue in insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism, we measured the fasting levels of plasma free fatty acid (FFA) and insulin, glucose disappearance rate (Rd), and hepatic glucose production rate (HGP) after surgical removal of visceral (VF) or subcutaneous (SF) fat tissue in monosodium glutamate-obese (MSG-Ob) rats. Monosodium glutamate obesity was induced in rats by neonatal injection of MSG. Surgery to remove fat was done at 1...

  3. High ω3-polyunsaturated fatty acids in fat-1 mice prevent streptozotocin-induced Purkinje cell degeneration through BDNF-mediated autophagy

    Dong Ho Bak; Enji Zhang; Min-Hee Yi; Do-Kyung Kim; Kyu Lim; Jwa-Jin Kim; Dong Woon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Loss of Purkinje cells has been implicated in the development of diabetic neuropathy, and this degeneration is characterized by impairment of autophagic processes. We evaluated whether fat-1 transgenic mice, a well-established animal model that endogenously synthesizes ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFA), are protected from Purkinje cell degeneration in streptozotocin (STZ)-treated model with fat-1 mice. STZ-treated fat-1 mice did not develop hyperglycemia, motor deficits, or Purkinje ce...

  4. Mechanism of fat taste perception: Association with diet and obesity.

    Liu, Dongli; Archer, Nicholas; Duesing, Konsta; Hannan, Garry; Keast, Russell

    2016-07-01

    Energy homeostasis plays a significant role in food consumption and body weight regulation with fat intake being an area of particular interest due to its palatability and high energy density. Increasing evidence from humans and animal studies indicate the existence of a taste modality responsive to fat via its breakdown product fatty acids. These studies implicate multiple candidate receptors and ion channels for fatty acid taste detection, indicating a complex peripheral physiology that is currently not well understood. Additionally, a limited number of studies suggest a reduced ability to detect fatty acids is associated with obesity and a diet high in fat reduces an individual's ability to detect fatty acids. To support this, genetic variants within candidate fatty acid receptors are also associated with obesity reduced ability to detect fatty acids. Understanding oral peripheral fatty acid transduction mechanisms and the association with fat consumption may provide the basis of novel approaches to control development of obesity. PMID:27155595

  5. Seasonal and regional influences on the fatty acid composition of cow's milk fat from Asturias. Spain

    Bada, Juan Carlos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of seasonal and geographical influences on the fatty acid compositions of cow's milk fat from Asturias (northern Spain was studied. The majority of the fatty acids analysed presented differences (p Se estudia el efecto de la influencia estacional y de la situación geográfica en la composición de ácidos grasos de la grasa de leche de vaca de Asturias (Norte de España. La mayoría de los ácidos grasos analizados presentaron diferencias (p<0.05 debido a factores estacionales, solo tres ácidos grasos (iC14; iC16 and C18:1 no presentaron diferencias significativas (p<0.05 ni debido a factores estacionales ni geográficos. Los ácidos grasos de cadena corta, media y larga presentaron diferencias debidas al factor estacional y sólo los ácidos grasos de larga cadena presentaron diferencias con el área geográfica. Sin embargo, sólo los ácidos grasos insaturados mostraron diferencias (p<0.05 debidas a la estación del año y al área geográfica. El coeficiente de correlación obtenido mostró una fuerte relación lineal entre los pares de ácidos grasos C4-C12, C6-C10 y C10-C12.

  6. N-Acetylneuraminic acid attenuates hypercoagulation on high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats

    Zhang Yida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: N-Acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac, a type of sialic acid, has close links with cholesterol metabolism and is often used as a biomarker in evaluating the risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, most studies on the health implications of Neu5Ac have focused on its effects on the nervous system, while its effects on cardiovascular risk factors have largely been unreported. Thus, the effects of Neu5Ac on coagulation status in high fat diet (HFD-induced hyperlipidemic rats were evaluated in this study. Methods: Sprague Dawley male rats were divided into five different groups and fed with HFD alone, HFD low-dose Neu5Ac, HFD high-dose Neu5Ac, HFD simvastatin (10 mg/kg day, and normal pellet alone. Food was given ad libitum while body weight of rats was measured weekly. After 12 weeks of intervention, rats were sacrificed and serum and tissue samples were collected for biochemistry and gene expression analysis, respectively. Results: The results showed that Neu5Ac could improve lipid metabolism and hyperlipidemia-associated coagulation. Neu5Ac exerted comparable or sometimes better physiological effects than simvastatin, at biochemical and gene expression levels. Conclusions: The data indicated that Neu5Ac prevented HFD-induced hyperlipidemia and associated hypercoagulation in rats through regulation of lipid-related and coagulation-related genes and, by extension, induced metabolite and protein changes. The implications of the present findings are that Neu5Ac may be used to prevent coagulation-related cardiovascular events in hyperlipidemic conditions. These findings are worth studying further.

  7. Inhibition of fatty acid metabolism reduces human myeloma cells proliferation.

    José Manuel Tirado-Vélez

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma is a haematological malignancy characterized by the clonal proliferation of plasma cells. It has been proposed that targeting cancer cell metabolism would provide a new selective anticancer therapeutic strategy. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of β-oxidation and de novo fatty acid synthesis would reduce cell proliferation in human myeloma cells. We evaluated the effect of etomoxir and orlistat on fatty acid metabolism, glucose metabolism, cell cycle distribution, proliferation, cell death and expression of G1/S phase regulatory proteins in myeloma cells. Etomoxir and orlistat inhibited β-oxidation and de novo fatty acid synthesis respectively in myeloma cells, without altering significantly glucose metabolism. These effects were associated with reduced cell viability and cell cycle arrest in G0/G1. Specifically, etomoxir and orlistat reduced by 40-70% myeloma cells proliferation. The combination of etomoxir and orlistat resulted in an additive inhibitory effect on cell proliferation. Orlistat induced apoptosis and sensitized RPMI-8226 cells to apoptosis induction by bortezomib, whereas apoptosis was not altered by etomoxir. Finally, the inhibitory effect of both drugs on cell proliferation was associated with reduced p21 protein levels and phosphorylation levels of retinoblastoma protein. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid metabolism represents a potential therapeutic approach to treat human multiple myeloma.

  8. The expression of the Cuphea palustris thioesterase CpFatB2 in Yarrowia lipolytica triggers oleic acid accumulation.

    Stefan, Alessandra; Hochkoeppler, Alejandro; Ugolini, Luisa; Lazzeri, Luca; Conte, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    The conversion of industrial by-products into high-value added compounds is a challenging issue. Crude glycerol, a by-product of the biodiesel production chain, could represent an alternative carbon source for the cultivation of oleaginous yeasts. Here, we developed five minimal synthetic glycerol-based media, with different C/N ratios, and we analyzed the production of biomass and fatty acids by Yarrowia lipolytica Po1g strain. We identified two media at the expense of which Y. lipolytica was able to accumulate ∼5 g L(-1) of biomass and 0.8 g L(-1) of fatty acids (0.16 g of fatty acids per g of dry weight). These optimized media contained 0.5 g L(-1) of urea or ammonium sulfate and 20 g L(-1) of glycerol, and were devoid of yeast extract. Moreover, Y. lipolytica was engineered by inserting the FatB2 gene, coding for the CpFatB2 thioesterase from Cuphea palustris, in order to modify the fatty acid composition towards the accumulation of medium-chain fatty acids. Contrary to the expected, the expression of the heterologous gene increased the production of oleic acid, and concomitantly decreased the level of saturated fatty acids. PMID:26518537

  9. The reducibility of sulphuric acid and sulphate in aqueous solution

    In connection with the Swedish project for final storage of spent fuel elements it was necessary to assess whether dissolved sulphate can corrode the copper canister. A simple reaction between copper and sulphate is thermodynamically impossible, but copper can react to give copper sulphide if an additional electron donor such as iron(II) is available. The problem was extended to the more general question of the reducibility of sulphur(VI) in dilute aqueous solution. Chemical reduction of sulphate does not take place in dilute solution at temperatures below 100oC. In experiments on the reduction of sulphates under hydrothermal conditions a reaction only takes place at temperatures above 275-300oC. The oxidising action of sulphuric acid on metals becomes perceptible only at acid concentrations over 45-50%. In experiments on the cathodic reduction of 74% sulphuric acid the formation of hydrogen sulphide and elementary sulphur starts, depending on the current density, at 50-130oC, and polarographic measurements suggest that the reducible species is not the hydrogen sulphate ion but molecular sulphuric acid. The resistance of copper to oxygen-free sulphuric acid up to a concentration of 60% is well-known. Numerous processes in industrial electrochemistry take place in sulphuric acid or sulphate electrolytes. The reversible metal/metal-sulphate electrodes of lead and cadmium are unstable relative to the corresponding metal sulphides. Nevertheless the reversible lead sulphate electrode does not fail from sulphide formation. All these facts confirm that sulphur(VI) in dilute solution is completely inert towards chemical reducing agents and also to cathodic reduction. Thus corrosion of copper by sulphate under final-storage conditions and in the absence of sulphate reducing bacteria can be almost certainly be ruled out. (author) 5 figs., 85 refs

  10. Gut Microbial Fatty Acid Metabolites Reduce Triacylglycerol Levels in Hepatocytes.

    Nanthirudjanar, Tharnath; Furumoto, Hidehiro; Zheng, Jiawen; Kim, Young-Il; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo; Park, Si-Bum; Hirata, Akiko; Kitamura, Nahoko; Kishino, Shigenobu; Ogawa, Jun; Hirata, Takashi; Sugawara, Tatsuya

    2015-11-01

    Hydroxy and oxo fatty acids were recently found to be produced as intermediates during gut microbial fatty acid metabolism. Lactobacillus plantarum produces these fatty acids from unsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid. In this study, we investigated the effects of these gut microbial fatty acid metabolites on the lipogenesis in liver cells. We screened their effect on sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) expression in HepG2 cells treated with a synthetic liver X receptor α (LXRα) agonist (T0901317). The results showed that 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid (18:1) (HYA), 10-hydroxy-6(Z),12(Z)-octadecadienoic acid (18:2) (γHYA), 10-oxo-12(Z)-18:1 (KetoA), and 10-oxo-6(Z),12(Z)-18:2 (γKetoA) significantly decreased SREBP-1c mRNA expression induced by T0901317. These fatty acids also downregulated the mRNA expression of lipogenic genes by suppressing LXRα activity and inhibiting SREBP-1 maturation. Oral administration of KetoA, which effectively reduced triacylglycerol accumulation and acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2) expression in HepG2 cells, for 2 weeks significantly decreased Srebp-1c, Scd-1, and Acc2 expression in the liver of mice fed a high-sucrose diet. Our findings suggest that the hypolipidemic effect of the fatty acid metabolites produced by L. plantarum can be exploited in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases or dyslipidemia. PMID:26399511

  11. Short term effects of different omega-3 fatty acid formulation on lipid metabolism in mice fed high or low fat diet

    Tang, Xiao; Li, Zhao-Jie; Xu, Jie; Xue, Yong; Li, Jin-Zhang; Wang, Jing-Feng; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Xue, Chang-Hu; Wang, Yu-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Background Bioactivities of Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) depend on their chemical forms. The present study was to investigate short term effects of triglyceride (TG), ethyl ester (EE), free fatty acid (FFA) and phospholipid (PL) forms of omega-3 fatty acid (FA) on lipid metabolism in mice, fed high fat or low fat diet. Method Male Balb/c mice were fed with 0.7% different Omega-3 fatty acid formulation: DHA bound free fatty acid (DHA-FFA), DHA bound triglyceride (...

  12. Comparison of fatty acid, cholesterol, vitamin A and E composition, and trans fats in eggs from brown and white egg strains that were molted or nonmolted.

    Anderson, Kenneth E

    2013-12-01

    The impact of egg color, hen strain, and molting on the nutritional composition of eggs is limited. Therefore, this study compared nutritional composition and component percentages of cage-produced shell eggs with respect to egg color, hen strain, and molt. Four strains were selected from the North Carolina Layer Performance and Management Test: Hy-Line Brown (HB) and Bovans Brown (BB), and Hy-Line W-36 (HW) and Bovans White (BovW) were selected. Two groups from each strain were selected and 2 groups of molted HW and BovW were selected and compared with their nonmolted counterparts to examine the molt's impact. Two sets of eggs from each replicate were collected simultaneously at 101 wk of age. One sample of eggs was broken into a 12-egg pool stomached for 3 min (n = 12 samples), then divided into six 50-mL tubes, sealed, and frozen to be sent for cholesterol, n-3 fatty acids, saturated fat, monounsaturated fats, polyunsaturated fats, β-carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E analyses. The other set of 12 eggs was then assessed for component percentages. The HW eggs had a greater (P hens had a greater (P hens reduced (P laying hens. PMID:24235237

  13. Near-infrared Spectral Detection of the Content of Soybean Fat Acids Based on Genetic Multilayer Feed forward Neural Network

    CHAI Yu-hua; PAN Wei; NING Hai-long

    2005-01-01

    In the paper, a method of building mathematic model employing genetic multilayer feed forward neural network is presented, and the quantitative relationship of chemical measured values and near-infrared spectral data is established. In the paper, quantitative mathematic model related chemical assayed values and near-infrared spectral data is established by means of genetic multilayer feed forward neural network, acquired near-infrared spectral data are taken as input of network with the content of five kinds of fat acids tested from chemical method as output,weight values of multilayer feed forward neural network are trained by genetic algorithms and detection model of neural network of soybean is built. A kind of multilayer feed forward neural network trained by genetic algorithms is designed in the paper. Through experiments, all the related coefficients of five fat acids can approach 0.9 which satisfies the preliminary test of soybean breeding.

  14. Differences in essential fatty acid requirements by enteral and parenteral routes of administration in patients with fat malabsorption

    Jeppesen, Palle B; Høy, Carl-Erik; Mortensen, Per B

    1999-01-01

    Background: Essential fatty acid (EFA) requirements of patients receiving home parenteral nutrition (HPN) are uncertain. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the influence of the route of administration (enteral compared with parenteral) on plasma phospholipid EFA concentrations. Design......: Intestinal absorption, parenteral supplement of EFAs, and plasma phospholipid EFA concentrations were investigated in balance studies in 4 groups (A, B, C, and D) of 10 patients with short-bowel syndrome and a fecal loss of >2000 kJ/d. Groups A (fat malabsorption <50%) and B (fat malabsorption >50%) did not...... absorption was negligible in groups C and D. Thus, intestinal absorption of EFAs in group A. corresponded to parenteral EFA supplements in group C, whereas group D was almost totally deprived of EFAs. The median plasma phospholipid concentration of linoleic acid decreased by 21.9%, > 16.3%, >13.8%, 11...

  15. A Difference in Fatty Acid Composition of Isocaloric High-Fat Diets Alters Metabolic Flexibility in Male C57BL/6JOlaHsd Mice.

    Loes P M Duivenvoorde

    Full Text Available Poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are considered to be healthier than saturated fatty acids (SFAs, but others postulate that especially the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 PUFAs (n6/n3 ratio determines health. Health can be determined with biomarkers, but functional health status is likely better reflected by challenge tests that assess metabolic flexibility. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of high-fat diets with different fatty acid compositions, but similar n6/n3 ratio, on metabolic flexibility. Therefore, adult male mice received isocaloric high-fat diets with either predominantly PUFAs (HFpu diet or predominantly SFAs (HFs diet but similar n6/n3 ratio for six months, during and after which several biomarkers for health were measured. Metabolic flexibility was assessed by the response to an oral glucose tolerance test, a fasting and re-feeding test and an oxygen restriction test (OxR; normobaric hypoxia. The latter two are non-invasive, indirect calorimetry-based tests that measure the adaptive capacity of the body as a whole. We found that the HFs diet, compared to the HFpu diet, increased mean adipocyte size, liver damage, and ectopic lipid storage in liver and muscle; although, we did not find differences in body weight, total adiposity, adipose tissue health, serum adipokines, whole body energy balance, or circadian rhythm between HFs and HFpu mice. HFs mice were, furthermore, less flexible in their response to both fasting- re-feeding and OxR, while glucose tolerance was indistinguishable. To conclude, the HFs versus the HFpu diet increased ectopic fat storage, liver damage, and mean adipocyte size and reduced metabolic flexibility in male mice. This study underscores the physiological relevance of indirect calorimetry-based challenge tests.

  16. Differential Effects of Military Training on Fat-Free Mass and Plasma Amino Acid Adaptations in Men and Women

    McClung, James P.; Lee M. Margolis; Williams, Kelly W; Young, Andrew J.; J. Philip Karl; Rood, Jennifer C.; Cable, Sonya J; Pasiakos, Stefan M.

    2012-01-01

    Fat-free mass (FFM) adaptations to physical training may differ between sexes based on disparities in fitness level, dietary intake, and levels of plasma amino acids (AA). This investigation aimed to determine FFM and plasma AA responses to military training, examine whether adaptations differ between male and female recruits, and explore potential associations between FFM and AA responses to training. Body composition and plasma AA levels were assessed in US Army recruits (n = 209, 118 males...

  17. Dietary lipids: less fat or best fat?

    Chardigny Jean-Michel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and overweight occurrence is growing around the word. This is often considered as a consequence of high fat diets, and some recommendations encourage ‘‘light’’ diets, including low fat intake. However, most trials with low fat intake do not demonstrate any benefit and could be worse than low carbohydrate diets. The key role of insulin could explain that eating fat do not make body fat. On the other hand, several unbalanced fatty acid intake are reported, i.e. saturated/mononunsaturated fatty acids and w6/w3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus, fat intake could be improved in this respect. Moreover, the molecular and supramolecular structures of fat in food are new challenges to address in order to ameliorate the recommendations for healthy diets.

  18. Reduced intestinal lipid absorption and body weight-independent improvements in insulin sensitivity in high-fat diet-fed Park2 knockout mice.

    Costa, Diana K; Huckestein, Brydie R; Edmunds, Lia R; Petersen, Max C; Nasiri, Ali; Butrico, Gina M; Abulizi, Abudukadier; Harmon, Daniel B; Lu, Canying; Mantell, Benjamin S; Hartman, Douglas J; Camporez, João-Paulo G; O'Doherty, Robert M; Cline, Gary W; Shulman, Gerald I; Jurczak, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with many human diseases and results from mismatch of damage and repair over the life of the organelle. PARK2 is a ubiquitin E3 ligase that regulates mitophagy, a repair mechanism that selectively degrades damaged mitochondria. Deletion of PARK2 in multiple in vivo models results in susceptibility to stress-induced mitochondrial and cellular dysfunction. Surprisingly, Park2 knockout (KO) mice are protected from nutritional stress and do not develop obesity, hepatic steatosis or insulin resistance when fed a high-fat diet (HFD). However, these phenomena are casually related and the physiological basis for this phenotype is unknown. We therefore undertook a series of acute HFD studies to more completely understand the physiology of Park2 KO during nutritional stress. We find that intestinal lipid absorption is impaired in Park2 KO mice as evidenced by increased fecal lipids and reduced plasma triglycerides after intragastric fat challenge. Park2 KO mice developed hepatic steatosis in response to intravenous lipid infusion as well as during incubation of primary hepatocytes with fatty acids, suggesting that hepatic protection from nutritional stress was secondary to changes in energy balance due to altered intestinal triglyceride absorption. Park2 KO mice showed reduced adiposity after 1-wk HFD, as well as improved hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity. These studies suggest that changes in intestinal lipid absorption may play a primary role in protection from nutritional stress in Park2 KO mice by preventing HFD-induced weight gain and highlight the need for tissue-specific models to address the role of PARK2 during metabolic stress. PMID:27166280

  19. COH-SR4 reduces body weight, improves glycemic control and prevents hepatic steatosis in high fat diet-induced obese mice.

    James Lester Figarola

    Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder caused by imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, and is one of the principal causative factors in the development of metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cancer. COH-SR4 ("SR4" is a novel investigational compound that has anti-cancer and anti-adipogenic properties. In this study, the effects of SR4 on metabolic alterations in high fat diet (HFD-induced obese C57BL/J6 mice were investigated. Oral feeding of SR4 (5 mg/kg body weight. in HFD mice for 6 weeks significantly reduced body weight, prevented hyperlipidemia and improved glycemic control without affecting food intake. These changes were associated with marked decreases in epididymal fat mass, adipocyte hypertrophy, increased plasma adiponectin and reduced leptin levels. SR4 treatment also decreased liver triglycerides, prevented hepatic steatosis, and normalized liver enzymes. Western blots demonstrated increased AMPK activation in liver and adipose tissues of SR4-treated HFD obese mice, while gene analyses by real time PCR showed COH-SR4 significantly suppressed the mRNA expression of lipogenic genes such as sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (Srebf1, acetyl-Coenzyme A carboxylase (Acaca, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg, fatty acid synthase (Fasn, stearoyl-Coenzyme A desaturase 1 (Scd1, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (Hmgcr, as well as gluconeogenic genes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (Pck1 and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pc in the liver of obese mice. In vitro, SR4 activates AMPK independent of upstream kinases liver kinase B1 (LKB1 and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ. Together, these data suggest that SR4, a novel AMPK activator, may be a promising therapeutic compound for treatment of obesity, fatty liver disease, and related metabolic disorders.

  20. Effects of Dietary Fatty Acids on Lipid Traits in the Muscle and Perirenal Fat of Growing Rabbits Fed Mixed Diets

    Pier Giorgio Peiretti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of various raw materials (spirulina, curcuma, tomato pomace, false flax, linseed, chia, perilla seeds as suitable polyunsaturated fatty acid n-3 (n-3 PUFA sources, on the lipid traits in the longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat of growing rabbits. The fatty acid (FA analyses of the diets, carried out by gas chromatography, differed over a wide range on the basis of the highly varied ingredients in 27 experimental formulations. Among the 29 identified FAs, three from feeds were catabolized in the rabbits, five were de novo synthesized and stored chiefly in the muscle. It was possible to linearly characterize the incorporation from the feed to the muscle of 16 FAs. This study has confirmed that the dietary inclusion of various raw materials could be considered as a way of enriching the n-3 PUFA of rabbit meat. A proposal for the prediction of n-3 PUFA from dietary α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3 and a panel of another 10 FAs has been made for intramuscular fat (R2 = 0.94 and perirenal fat (R2 = 0.96.

  1. Peripancreatic fat necrosis worsens acute pancreatitis independent of pancreatic necrosis via unsaturated fatty acids increased in human pancreatic necrosis collections

    Noel, Pawan; Patel, Krutika; Durgampudi, Chandra; Trivedi, Ram N; de Oliveira, Cristiane; Crowell, Michael D; Pannala, Rahul; Lee, Kenneth; Brand, Randall; Chennat, Jennifer; Slivka, Adam; Papachristou, Georgios I; Khalid, Asif; Whitcomb, David C; DeLany, James P; Cline, Rachel A; Acharya, Chathur; Jaligama, Deepthi; Murad, Faris M; Yadav, Dhiraj; Navina, Sarah; Singh, Vijay P

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Peripancreatic fat necrosis occurs frequently in necrotising pancreatitis. Distinguishing markers from mediators of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is important since targeting mediators may improve outcomes. We evaluated potential agents in human pancreatic necrotic collections (NCs), pseudocysts (PCs) and pancreatic cystic neoplasms and used pancreatic acini, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and an acute pancreatitis (AP) model to determine SAP mediators. Methods We measured acinar and PBMC injury induced by agents increased in NCs and PCs. Outcomes of caerulein pancreatitis were studied in lean rats coadministered interleukin (IL)-1β and keratinocyte chemoattractant/growth-regulated oncogene, triolein alone or with the lipase inhibitor orlistat. Results NCs had higher fatty acids, IL-8 and IL-1β versus other fluids. Lipolysis of unsaturated triglyceride and resulting unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) oleic and linoleic acids induced necro-apoptosis at less than half the concentration in NCs but other agents did not do so at more than two times these concentrations. Cytokine coadministration resulted in higher pancreatic and lung inflammation than caerulein alone, but only triolein coadministration caused peripancreatic fat stranding, higher cytokines, UFAs, multisystem organ failure (MSOF) and mortality in 97% animals, which were prevented by orlistat. Conclusions UFAs, IL-1β and IL-8 are elevated in NCs. However, UFAs generated via peripancreatic fat lipolysis causes worse inflammation and MSOF, converting mild AP to SAP. PMID:25500204

  2. Dietary constituents reduce lipid accumulation in murine C3H10 T1/2 adipocytes: A novel fluorescent method to quantify fat droplets

    Fuhrer Erna

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adipocyte volume (fat accumulation and cell number (adipogenesis is increased in obese individuals. Our objective was the identification of dietary constituents with inhibitory effects on triglyceride formation during adipogenesis. Therefore an in vitro adipose cell assay in murine C3H10 T1/2 cells was developed, which enabled rapid quantification of intracellular fat droplet accumulation during adipocyte differentiation. Results were corroborated by expression levels of several specific adipogenic and lipogenic genes which are known to regulate triglyceride accumulation. Methods C3H10 T1/2 adipocyte differentiation was conducted with rosiglitazone in the presence of test compounds for 7 days. Accumulation of intracellular lipid droplets was measured using the Cellomics® ArrayScan® VTI HCS reader and SpotDetector® BioApplication from ThermoFisher. Fluorescent images were automatically acquired and analysed employing the fluorescent dyes BODIPY® 493/503 and Hoechst 33342, for staining neutral lipids and localisation of nuclei, respectively. The expression levels of adipogenic and lipogenic genes, such as PPARα and PPARγ, C/EBPα, aP2, adiponectin, LPL and HSL, CPT-1β, ACC1, Glut4 and FAS, were determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Dietary ingredients including PUFAs, carotenoids, polyphenols and catechins were tested for their effect on lipid accumulation. Results The ω-3 PUFAs docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, the carotenoid β-carotene and hydroxytyrosol exhibited the strongest inhibitory effects on the rosiglitazone-stimulated lipid formation. (all-E-lycopene and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG showed a moderate inhibition, whereas resveratrol did not reduce fat droplet formation. Additionally, it was demonstrated that adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression was attenuated. DHA, β-carotene and hydroxytyrosol inhibited the gene expression of PPARγ, C/EBPα, aP2 and CPT-1β. Conclusion This in

  3. Lipid transport function is the main target of oral oleoylethanolamide to reduce adiposity in high-fat-fed mice[S

    Thabuis, Clémentine; Destaillats, Frédéric; Lambert, Didier M; Muccioli, Giulio G.; Maillot, Matthieu; Harach, Touafiq; Tissot-Favre, Delphine; Martin, Jean-Charles

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated the biological basis of reduced fat gain by oleoylethanolamide (OEA) in high-fat-fed mice and sought to determine how degradation of OEA affected its efficiency by comparing its effects to those of KDS-5104, a nonhydrolyzable lipid OEA analog. Mice were given OEA or KDS-5104 by the oral route (100 mg/kg body weight). Sixty-eight variables per mouse, describing six biological processes (lipid transport, lipogenesis, energy intake, energy expenditure, endocannabinoid signa...

  4. Study on the change of total fat content and fatty acid composition of the ethanol extract from cooking drips of thunnus thynnus by ionizing irradiation

    Lee, Hee Sub; Choi, Jong Il; Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Jin Kyu; Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Cheon Woo; Kim, Ju Bong [Dongwon Research and Development Center, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Young Jung [Division of Food Science, Jinju International University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young Jin [Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of a gamma irradiation (GM) and an electron-beam irradiation (EB) on the total fat content and fatty acid composition of ethanol extract from cooking drips of Thunnus thynnus (ECT). The total fat content of samples were determined by fat extraction (Folch method) and fatty acid composition was by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after fat extraction. The results showed that total fat contents were not changed by GM and EB up to the dose of 50 kGy. The content of unsaturated fatty acids (USFA) such as vaccenic acid and DHA, was decreased by irradiation. But, the content of palmitoleic acid was not changed by GM. In contrast, the content of saturated fatty acids(SFA) such as myristic acid and palmitic acid, was increased by the irradiation. But, the content of stearic acid was decreased with the increase of irradiation dose. Also, it has been shown that the GM had further affected the change of fatty acid content than EB.

  5. The Fat-1 Transgene in Mice Increases Antioxidant Potential, Reduces Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Levels, and Enhances PPARγ and SIRT-1 Expression on a Calorie Restricted Diet

    Md Mizanur Rahman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Both n-3 fatty acids (FA and calorie-restriction (CR are known to exert anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects in animals and humans. In this study, we investigated the synergistic anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative capacity of n-3 FA and CR using Fat-1 transgenic mice (Fat-1 that are capable of converting n-6 FA to n-3 FA endogenously. Wild type (WT and Fat-1 mice were maintained on ad libitum (AL or CR (40% less than AL AIN-93 diet supplemented with 10% corn oil (rich in n-6 FA for 5 months. Significantly lower levels of n-6/n-3 FA ratio were observed in serum, muscle and liver of Fat-1 mice fed AL or CR as compared to that of WT mice fed AL or CR. Muscle catalase (CAT, super oxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX activities, and liver CAT and SOD activities were found higher in Fat-1 mice as compared to that of WT mice. These activities were more pronounced in Fat-1/CR group as compared to other groups. Serum pro-inflammatory markers, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNFα, interleukin (IL-1β and IL-6 were found lower in Fat-1 mice, as compared to that of WT mice. This anti-inflammatory effect was also more pronounced in Fat-1/CR group as compared to that of other groups. Furthermore, significantly higher levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPA Rgamma and life prolonging gene, sirtuin (SIRT-1 expression were found in liver of Fat-1/CR mice, as compared to that of WT/CR mice. These data suggest that n-3 FA along with moderate CR may prolong lifespan by attenuating inflammation and oxidative stress.

  6. The effect of a controlled manipulation of maternal dietary fat intake on medium and long chain fatty acids in human breast milk in Saskatoon, Canada

    Stephen Alison M; Nasser Roseann; Goh Yeow K; Clandinin M Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Few studies in recent years have demonstrated the effect of maternal diet on fatty acid composition of human milk. Methods Fourteen free-living lactating women participated in a cross-over dietary intervention study, consuming a low fat diet (17.6% of energy as fat, 14.4% of energy as protein, 68.0% of energy as carbohydrate) and a high fat diet (40.3% of energy as fat, 14.4% of energy as protein, 45.3% of energy as carbohydrate) each for periods of 4 days, in randomised o...

  7. Fatty acid composition and contents of trans monounsaturated fatty acids in frying fats, and in margarines and shortenings marketed in Denmark

    Ovesen, L.; Leth, Torben; Hansen, K.

    1998-01-01

    This study examined trans monounsaturated fatty acid contents in all margarines and shortenings marketed in Denmark, and in frying fats used by the fast-food restaurants Burger King and McDonald's. Trans C-18:1 content was 4.1 +/- 3.8% (g per 100 g fatty acids) in hard margarines, significantly...... higher than the content in soft margarines of 0.4 +/- 0.8%. Shortenings had an even higher content of trans C-18:1, 6.7 +/- 2.3%, than the hard margarines. Margarines and shortenings with high contents of long-chain fatty acids had about 20% total trans monoenoic of which close to 50% were made up of...... trans long-chain fatty acids. Both fast-food frying fats contained large amounts of trans C-18:1, 21.9 +/- 2.9% in Burger King and 16.6 +/- 0.4% in McDonald's. In Denmark the per capita supply of trans C-18:1 from margarines and shortenings and frying fats has decreased steadily during recent years. The...

  8. Prediction of microvascular invasion of hepatocellular carcinomas with gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging: Impact of intra-tumoral fat detected on chemical-shift images

    Min, Ji Hye [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Kon, E-mail: jmyr@dreamwiz.com [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Sanghyeok [Department of Radiology, Guri Hospital, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Guri (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Choi, Dongil; Lee, Won Jae [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Intra-tumoral fat detected with MR imaging may suggest lower risk for MVI of HCC. • Alfa-fetoprotein, tumor size, and fat component were associated with MVI of HCC. • Chemical shift MRI should be considered for the evaluation of HCC. - Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the impact of intra-tumoral fat detected by chemical-shift MR imaging in predicting the MVI of HCC. Materials and methods: Gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging of 365 surgically proven HCCs from 365 patients (306 men, 59 women; mean age, 55.6 years) were evaluated. HCCs were classified into two groups, fat-containing and non-fat-containing, based on the presence of fat on chemical-shift images. Fat-containing HCCs were subdivided into diffuse or focal fatty change groups. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify clinical and MR findings associated with MVI. Results: Based on MR imaging, 66 tumors were classified as fat-containing HCCs and 299 as non-fat-containing HCCs. Among the 66 fat-containing HCCs, 38 (57.6%) showed diffuse fatty changes and 28 (42.4%) showed focal fatty changes. MVI was present in 18 (27.3%) fat-containing HCCs and in 117 (39.1%) non-fat-containing HCCs (P = 0.07). Univariate analysis revealed that serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and tumor size were significantly associated with MVI (P < 0.001). A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that log AFP (odds ratio 1.178, P = 0.0016), tumor size (odds ratio 1.809, P < 0.001), and intra-tumoral fat (odds ratio 0.515, P = 0.0387) were independent variables associated with MVI. Conclusion: Intra-tumoral fat detected with MR imaging may suggest lower risk for MVI of HCC and, therefore, a possibly more favorable prognosis, but the clinical value of this finding is uncertain.

  9. Prediction of microvascular invasion of hepatocellular carcinomas with gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging: Impact of intra-tumoral fat detected on chemical-shift images

    Highlights: • Intra-tumoral fat detected with MR imaging may suggest lower risk for MVI of HCC. • Alfa-fetoprotein, tumor size, and fat component were associated with MVI of HCC. • Chemical shift MRI should be considered for the evaluation of HCC. - Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the impact of intra-tumoral fat detected by chemical-shift MR imaging in predicting the MVI of HCC. Materials and methods: Gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging of 365 surgically proven HCCs from 365 patients (306 men, 59 women; mean age, 55.6 years) were evaluated. HCCs were classified into two groups, fat-containing and non-fat-containing, based on the presence of fat on chemical-shift images. Fat-containing HCCs were subdivided into diffuse or focal fatty change groups. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify clinical and MR findings associated with MVI. Results: Based on MR imaging, 66 tumors were classified as fat-containing HCCs and 299 as non-fat-containing HCCs. Among the 66 fat-containing HCCs, 38 (57.6%) showed diffuse fatty changes and 28 (42.4%) showed focal fatty changes. MVI was present in 18 (27.3%) fat-containing HCCs and in 117 (39.1%) non-fat-containing HCCs (P = 0.07). Univariate analysis revealed that serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and tumor size were significantly associated with MVI (P < 0.001). A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that log AFP (odds ratio 1.178, P = 0.0016), tumor size (odds ratio 1.809, P < 0.001), and intra-tumoral fat (odds ratio 0.515, P = 0.0387) were independent variables associated with MVI. Conclusion: Intra-tumoral fat detected with MR imaging may suggest lower risk for MVI of HCC and, therefore, a possibly more favorable prognosis, but the clinical value of this finding is uncertain

  10. Comparison of gas chromatographic and gravimetric methods for quantization of total fat and fatty acids in foodstuffs

    Sabria Aued-Pimentel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Different methods to determine total fat (TF and fatty acids (FA, including trans fatty acids (TFA, in diverse foodstuffs were evaluated, incorporating gravimetric methods and gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC/FID, in accordance with a modified AOAC 996.06 method. Concentrations of TF and FA obtained through these different procedures diverged (p< 0.05 and TFA concentrations varied beyond 20 % of the reference values. The modified AOAC 996.06 method satisfied both accuracy and precision, was fast and employed small amounts of low toxicity solvents. Therefore, the results showed that this methodology is viable to be adopted in Brazil for nutritional labeling purposes.

  11. FAT/CD36-mediated Long-Chain Fatty Acid Uptake in Adipocytes Requires Plasma Membrane Rafts

    Pohl, Jürgen; Ring, Axel; Korkmaz, Ümine; Ehehalt, Robert; Stremmel, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    We previously reported that lipid rafts are involved in long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The present data show that LCFA uptake does not depend on caveolae endocytosis because expression of a dominant negative mutant of dynamin had no effect on uptake of [3H]oleic acid, whereas it effectively prevented endocytosis of cholera toxin. Isolation of detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) from 3T3-L1 cell homogenates revealed that FAT/CD36 was expressed in both DRMs and deter...

  12. Psyllium husk fibre supplementation to soybean and coconut oil diets of humans: effect on fat digestibility and faecal fatty acid excretion.

    Ganji, V; Kies, C V

    1994-08-01

    The effects of psyllium fibre supplementation to polyunsaturated fatty acid rich soybean oil and saturated fatty acid rich coconut oil diets on fat digestibility and faecal fatty acid excretion were investigated in healthy humans. The study consisted of four 7-day experimental periods. Participants consumed soybean oil (SO), soybean oil plus psyllium fibre (20 g/day) (SO+PF), coconut oil (CO) and coconut oil plus psyllium fibre (20 g/day) (CO+PF) diets. Laboratory diet provided 30% calories from fat (20% from test oils and 10% from basal diet), 15% calories from protein and 55% calories from carbohydrate. Fat digestibility was significantly lower and faecal fat excretion was significantly higher with SO+PF diet than SO diet and with CO+PF diet than CO diet. Faecal excretion of myristic and lauric acids was not affected by test diets. Percent faecal palmitic acid excretion was significantly higher during psyllium supplementation periods. Higher faecal linoleic acid excretion was observed with soybean oil diets compared with coconut oil diets. Increased faecal fat loss, decreased fat digestibility and increased faecal palmitic acid excretion with psyllium supplementation may partly explain the hypocholesterolaemic action of psyllium fibre. PMID:7957006

  13. Platycodon grandiflorum extract represses up-regulated adipocyte fatty acid binding protein triggered by a high fat feeding in obese rats

    Yoon Shin Park; Yoosik Yoon; Hong Seok Ahn

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of Platycodon grandiflorum extract (PGE) on lipid metabolism and FABP mRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue of high fat diet-induced obese rats.METHODS: PGE was treated to investigate the inhibitory effect on the pre-adipocyte 3T3-L1 differentiation and pancreatic lipase activity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats with an average weight of 439.03 ± 7.61 g were divided into four groups: the control groups that fed an experimental diet alone (C and H group) and PGE treatment groups that administered PGE along with a control diet or HFD at a concentration of 150 mg/kg body weight (C + PGE and H + PGE group, respectively) for 7 wk. Plasma total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerol (TG) concentrations were measured from the tail vein of rats. Adipocyte cell area was measured from subcutaneous adipose tissue and the fatty acid binding protein (FABP) mRNA expression was analyzed by northern blot analysis.RESULTS: PGE treatment inhibited 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation, and also decreased pancreatic lipase activity. In this experiment, PGE significantly reduced plasma TC and TG concentrations as well as body weight and subcutaneous adipose tissue weight. PGE also significantly decreased the size of subcutaneous adipocytes. Furthermore, it significantly repressed the up-regulation of FABP mRNA expression induced by a high-fat feeding in subcutaneous adipose tissue.CONCLUSION: PGE has a plasma lipid lowering-effect and anti-obesity effect in obese rats fed a high fat diet.From these results, we can suggest the possibility that PGE can be used as a food ingredient or drug component to therapeutically control obesity.

  14. Reduced humic acid nanosheets and its uses as nanofiller

    Duraia, El-shazly M.; Henderson, B.; Beall, Gary W.

    2015-10-01

    Leonardite is highly oxidized form of lignite coal and contains a number of carboxyl groups around the edges of a graphene-like core. A novel approach has been developed to synthesize graphene oxide-like nanosheets in large scale utilizing leonardite as a starting material. Humic acid extracted from leonardite has been reduced by performing a high pressure catalytic hydrogenation. The reaction was carried out inside a high pressure stirred reactor at 150 °C and 750 psi (~5.2×106 Pa). Morphology of the as-synthesized samples showed porous platy particles and EDAX analysis indicates the carbon and oxygen atomic ratios as 96:4-97:3%. The as-synthesized material has been used as nanofiller in polyurethane. The reduced humic acid-polyurethane nanocomposite showed over 250% increase of Young's modulus. This new approach provides a low cost and scalable source for graphene oxide-like nanosheets in nanocomposite applications.

  15. Survey of SSC12 regions affecting fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat using high density SNP data

    María eMuñoz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid composition is a critical aspect of pork because it affects sensorial and technological aspects of meat quality and it is relevant for human health. Previous studies identified significant QTLs in porcine chromosome 12 for fatty acid profile of backfat and intramuscular fat. In the present study, 374 SNPs mapped in SSC12 from the 60K Porcine SNP Beadchip were used. We have combined linkage and association analyses with expression data analysis in order to identify regions of SSC12 that could affect fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat in longissimus muscle. The QTL scan showed a region around the 60 cM position that significantly affects palmitic fatty acid and two related fatty acid indexes. The Iberian QTL allele increased the palmitic content (+2.6% of mean trait. This QTL does not match any of those reported in the previous study on fatty acid composition of backfat, suggesting different genetic control acting at both tissues. The SNP association analyses showed significant associations with linolenic and palmitic acids besides several indexes. Among the polymorphisms that affect palmitic fatty acid and match the QTL region at 60 cM, there were three that mapped in the Phosphatidylcholine Transfer Protein (PCTP gene and one in the Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase  gene (ACACA. Interestingly one of the PCTP SNPs also affected significantly unsaturated and double bound indexes and the ratio between polyunsaturated/monounsaturated fatty acids. Differential expression was assessed on longissimus muscle conditional on the genotype of the QTL and on the most significant SNPs, according to the results obtained in the former analyses. Results from the microarray expression analyses, validated by RT-qPCR, showed that PCTP expression levels significantly vary depending on the QTL as well as on the own PCTP genotype. The results obtained with the different approaches point out the PCTP gene as a powerful candidate underlying the QTL for

  16. Maternal high fat diet is associated with decreased plasma n-3 fatty acids and fetal hepatic apoptosis in nonhuman primates.

    Wilmon F Grant

    Full Text Available To begin to understand the contributions of maternal obesity and over-nutrition to human development and the early origins of obesity, we utilized a non-human primate model to investigate the effects of maternal high-fat feeding and obesity on breast milk, maternal and fetal plasma fatty acid composition and fetal hepatic development. While the high-fat diet (HFD contained equivalent levels of n-3 fatty acids (FA's and higher levels of n-6 FA's than the control diet (CTR, we found significant decreases in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and total n-3 FA's in HFD maternal and fetal plasma. Furthermore, the HFD fetal plasma n-6:n-3 ratio was elevated and was significantly correlated to the maternal plasma n-6:n-3 ratio and maternal hyperinsulinemia. Hepatic apoptosis was also increased in the HFD fetal liver. Switching HFD females to a CTR diet during a subsequent pregnancy normalized fetal DHA, n-3 FA's and fetal hepatic apoptosis to CTR levels. Breast milk from HFD dams contained lower levels of eicosopentanoic acid (EPA and DHA and lower levels of total protein than CTR breast milk. This study links chronic maternal consumption of a HFD with fetal hepatic apoptosis and suggests that a potentially pathological maternal fatty acid milieu is replicated in the developing fetal circulation in the nonhuman primate.

  17. Linseed dietary fibers reduce apparent digestibility of energy and fat and weight gain in growing rats

    Kristensen, M.; Knudsen, K. E. B.; Jørgensen, H.;

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fibers (DF) may affect energy balance, an effect often ascribed to the viscous nature of some water soluble DF, which affect luminal viscosity and thus multiple physiological processes. We have tested the hypothesis that viscous linseed DF reduce apparent nutrient digestibility, and limit...

  18. Effect of silage type and concentrate level on conjugated linoleic acids, trans-C18 : 1 isomers and fat content in milk from dairy cows

    Nielsen, Torben Skov; Straarup, Ellen Marie; Jungersen, Mogens Vestergaard;

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine how the fatty acid composition of milk especially concentrations of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and trans-C18:1 isomers and milk fat percentage were affected by silage type and concentrate level. Forty dairy cows were blocked and randomly assigned...... concentrations of CLA isomers compared with grass silage diets, but there was a significant interaction between silage type and concentrate level for concentrations of cis9, trans11-CLA; trans10, cis12-CLA; trans11-C18:1 and trans10-C18:1. A high level of concentrate increased trans10, cis12-CLA and trans10-C18......:1 and reduced cis9, trans11-CLA and trans11-C18:1 when maize but not grass silage was provided. The results suggest that high levels of concentrate (grain) do not significantly alter the pattern of PUFA biohydrogenation in the rumen, the concentration of CLA and trans-C18:1 isomers in milk or cause milk fat...

  19. Fatty acid analysis of Iranian junk food, dairy, and bakery products: Special attention to trans-fats

    Bahar Nazari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low attention to dairy product consumptions and high intake of junk foods and bakery products might be related to high prevalence of chronic diseases because of their fat content and fatty acid composition. Objective: In this study we investigated the kind and amount of fatty acid content in Iranian junk foods, dairy, and bakery products Materials and Methods: Some common brands of Iranian′s junk foods, dairy, and bakery products were chosen randomly from different supermarkets in Iran. The amount of 10 g sample was considered for fatty acid analysis by gas chromatography equipment with flam ionization detector. Results: In this study stearic acid (C18:0 and palmitic (C16:0 acid have the highest amount among other saturated fatty acids in all groups. In junk foods and bakery products, the most common trans-fatty acid (TFA is elaidic acid (C18:1 9t with ranging from 2.4% to 18.5% and in dairy products vaccinic acid (C18:1 11t has the high level of TFAs among others (2.1% to 11.5%. Conclusion: The amount of TFAs in Iranian junk foods and bakery products was in a high level.

  20. Modulatory Effect of Rice Bran and Phytic Acid on Glucose Metabolism in High Fat-Fed C57BL/6N Mice

    Kim, Soo Mi; Rico, Catherine W.; Lee, Sang Chul; Kang, Mi Young

    2010-01-01

    The effect of dietary feeding of rice bran and phytic acid on the glucose metabolism in high fat-fed C57BL/6N mice fed was investigated. The mice were given with either a high fat diet only (HF group) or a high fat diet supplemented with rice bran (HF-RB group) or phytic acid (HF-PA group) for 7 weeks. The control mice (NC group) received a normal diet. At the end of the experimental period, the HF group exhibited substantially higher blood glucose level than the NC group. However, the HF-RB ...

  1. Fat and fatty acid composition of cooked meat from UK retail chickens labelled as from organic and non-organic production systems

    Dalziel, C. J.; Kliem, Kirsty E.; Givens, D. Ian

    2015-01-01

    This study compared fat and fatty acids in cooked retail chicken meat from conventional and organic systems. Fat contents were 1.7, 5.2, 7.1 and 12.9 g/100 g cooked weight in skinless breast, breast with skin, skinless leg and leg with skin respectively, with organic meat containing less fat overall (P < 0.01). Meat was rich in cis-monounsaturated fatty acids, although organic meat contained less than did conventional meat (1850 vs. 2538 mg/100 g; P < 0.001). Organic meat was also lower (P < ...

  2. Apoptosis, mastocytosis, and diminished adipocytokine gene expression accompany reduced epididymal fat mass in long-standing diet-induced obese mice

    Altintas Mehmet M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is characterized by increased cell death and inflammatory reactions in the adipose tissue. Here, we explored pathophysiological alterations taking place in the adipose tissue in long-standing obesity. In the epididymal fat of C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet for 20 weeks, the prevalence and distribution of dead adipocytes (crown-like structures, mast cells (toluidine blue, mMCP6, macrophages (F4/80, and apoptotic cells (cleaved caspase-3 were measured. Moreover, gene and/or protein expression of several adipocytokines (leptin, adiponectin, TNF-α, IL-10, IL-6, MCP-1, F4/80, mMCP6, cleaved caspase-3 were determined. Results We observed that the epididymal fat mass was lower in obese than in lean mice. In obese mice, the epididymal fat mass correlated inversely with body weight and liver mass. Dead adipocytes, mast cells, macrophages, and apoptotic cells were abundant in the epididymal fat of obese mice, especially in the rostral vs. caudal zone. Accordingly, mMCP6, F4/80, and cleaved caspase-3 gene and/or protein expression was increased. Conversely, adiponectin, leptin, IL-6, and MCP-1 gene expression levels were lower in the epididymal fat of obese than lean mice. Although TNF-α and IL-10 gene expression was higher in the epididymal fat of obese mice, their expression relative to F4/80 and mMCP6 expression were lower in the heavily infiltrated rostral than caudal zone. Conclusions This study demonstrates that in mice with long-standing obesity diminished gene expression of several adipocytokines accompany apoptosis and reduced mass of the epididymal fat. Our findings suggest that this is due to both increased prevalence of dead adipocytes and altered immune cell activity. Differential distribution of metabolically challenged adipocytes is indicative of the presence of biologically diverse zones within the epididymal fat.

  3. The effect of a controlled manipulation of maternal dietary fat intake on medium and long chain fatty acids in human breast milk in Saskatoon, Canada

    Stephen Alison M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies in recent years have demonstrated the effect of maternal diet on fatty acid composition of human milk. Methods Fourteen free-living lactating women participated in a cross-over dietary intervention study, consuming a low fat diet (17.6% of energy as fat, 14.4% of energy as protein, 68.0% of energy as carbohydrate and a high fat diet (40.3% of energy as fat, 14.4% of energy as protein, 45.3% of energy as carbohydrate each for periods of 4 days, in randomised order. Each mother was her own control. Mature milk samples were collected during each period and analysed for medium and long chain fatty acids. Results The concentration of medium chain fatty acids (MCFA, was 13.6% in breast milk for the low fat diet compared to 11.4% for the high fat (p Conclusions Changing maternal dietary fat intake has a rapid response in terms of changes to fatty acids in breast milk.

  4. Exercise and diet enhance fat oxidation and reduce insulin resistance in older obese adults

    Solomon, Thomas; Sistrun, Sakita N; Krishnan, Raj K;

    2008-01-01

    training improves resting substrate oxidation and creates a metabolic milieu that appears to promote lipid utilization in skeletal muscle, thus facilitating a reversal of insulin resistance. We also demonstrate that leptin sensitivity is improved but that such a trend may rely on reducing caloric intake...... fitness (Vo(2max)), leptinemia, insulin sensitivity, and intramyocellular lipid accumulation (IMCL) in skeletal muscle improved in both groups (P

  5. Mycocerosic acid synthase exemplifies the architecture of reducing polyketide synthases.

    Herbst, Dominik A; Jakob, Roman P; Zähringer, Franziska; Maier, Timm

    2016-03-24

    Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are biosynthetic factories that produce natural products with important biological and pharmacological activities. Their exceptional product diversity is encoded in a modular architecture. Modular PKSs (modPKSs) catalyse reactions colinear to the order of modules in an assembly line, whereas iterative PKSs (iPKSs) use a single module iteratively as exemplified by fungal iPKSs (fiPKSs). However, in some cases non-colinear iterative action is also observed for modPKSs modules and is controlled by the assembly line environment. PKSs feature a structural and functional separation into a condensing and a modifying region as observed for fatty acid synthases. Despite the outstanding relevance of PKSs, the detailed organization of PKSs with complete fully reducing modifying regions remains elusive. Here we report a hybrid crystal structure of Mycobacterium smegmatis mycocerosic acid synthase based on structures of its condensing and modifying regions. Mycocerosic acid synthase is a fully reducing iPKS, closely related to modPKSs, and the prototype of mycobacterial mycocerosic acid synthase-like PKSs. It is involved in the biosynthesis of C20-C28 branched-chain fatty acids, which are important virulence factors of mycobacteria. Our structural data reveal a dimeric linker-based organization of the modifying region and visualize dynamics and conformational coupling in PKSs. On the basis of comparative small-angle X-ray scattering, the observed modifying region architecture may be common also in modPKSs. The linker-based organization provides a rationale for the characteristic variability of PKS modules as a main contributor to product diversity. The comprehensive architectural model enables functional dissection and re-engineering of PKSs. PMID:26976449

  6. Overexpression of Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase-1 in Skeletal Muscle Is Sufficient to Enhance Fatty Acid Oxidation and Improve High-Fat Diet–Induced Insulin Resistance

    Bruce, Clinton R.; Hoy, Andrew J.; Turner, Nigel; Watt, Matthew J.; Allen, Tamara L.; Carpenter, Kevin; Cooney, Gregory J.; Febbraio, Mark A.; Kraegen, Edward W.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is associated with lipid accumulation, but whether insulin resistance is due to reduced or enhanced flux of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria is both controversial and unclear. We hypothesized that skeletal muscle–specific overexpression of the muscle isoform of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), the enzyme that controls the entry of long-chain fatty acyl CoA into mitochondria, would enhance rates of fatty acid oxidation and improve insulin action in muscle in high-fat diet insulin-resistant rats. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Rats were fed a standard (chow) or high-fat diet for 4 weeks. After 3 weeks, in vivo electrotransfer was used to overexpress the muscle isoform of CPT1 in the distal hindlimb muscles (tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus [EDL]). Skeletal muscle insulin action was examined in vivo during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. RESULTS—In vivo electrotransfer produced a physiologically relevant increase of ∼20% in enzyme activity; and although the high-fat diet produced insulin resistance in the sham-treated muscle, insulin action was improved in the CPT1-overexpressing muscle. This improvement was associated with a reduction in triacylglycerol content, the membrane-to-cytosolic ratio of diacylglycerol, and protein kinase C θ activity. Importantly, overexpression of CPT1 did not affect markers of mitochondrial capacity or function, nor did it alter skeletal muscle acylcarnitine profiles irrespective of diet. CONCLUSIONS—Our data provide clear evidence that a physiological increase in the capacity of long-chain fatty acyl CoA entry into mitochondria is sufficient to ameliorate lipid-induced insulin resistance in muscle. PMID:19073774

  7. Simvastatin reduces atherogenesis and promotes the expression of hepatic genes associated with reverse cholesterol transport in apoE-knockout mice fed high-fat diet

    Tian Hua

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Statins are first-line pharmacotherapeutic agents for hypercholesterolemia treatment in humans. However the effects of statins on atherosclerosis in mouse models are very paradoxical. In this work, we wanted to evaluate the effects of simvastatin on serum cholesterol, atherogenesis, and the expression of several factors playing important roles in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT in apoE-/- mice fed a high-fat diet. Results The atherosclerotic lesion formation displayed by oil red O staining positive area was reduced significantly by 35% or 47% in either aortic root section or aortic arch en face in simvastatin administrated apoE-/- mice compared to the control. Plasma analysis by enzymatic method or ELISA showed that high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I contents were remarkably increased by treatment with simvastatin. And plasma lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT activity was markedly increased by simvastatin treatment. Real-time PCR detection disclosed that the expression of several transporters involved in reverse cholesterol transport, including macrophage scavenger receptor class B type I, hepatic ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters ABCG5, and ABCB4 were induced by simvastatin treatment, the expression of hepatic ABCA1 and apoA-I, which play roles in the maturation of HDL-C, were also elevated in simvastatin treated groups. Conclusions We demonstrated the anti-atherogenesis effects of simvastatin in apoE-/- mice fed a high-fat diet. We confirmed here for the first time simvastatin increased the expression of hepatic ABCB4 and ABCG5, which involved in secretion of cholesterol and bile acids into the bile, besides upregulated ABCA1 and apoA-I. The elevated HDL-C level, increased LCAT activity and the stimulation of several transporters involved in RCT may all contribute to the anti-atherosclerotic effect of simvastatin.

  8. Long-chain SFA at the sn-1, 3 positions of TAG reduce body fat deposition in C57BL/6 mice.

    Gouk, Shiou Wah; Cheng, Sit Foon; Mok, Josephine Shiueh Lian; Ong, Augustine Soon Hock; Chuah, Cheng Hock

    2013-12-14

    The present study aimed to determine the effect of positional distribution of long-chain SFA in TAG, especially at the sn-1, 3 positions, on fat deposition using the C57BL/6 mouse model. Throughout the 15 weeks of the study, mice were fed with diets fortified with palm olein (POo), chemically interesterified POo (IPOo) and soyabean oil (SOY). Mice receiving the SOY-enriched diet gained significantly higher amounts of subcutaneous fat (P= 0·011) and total fat (P= 0·013) compared with the POo group, despite similar body mass gain being recorded. During normalisation with food consumption to obtain the fat:feed ratio, mice fed with the POo-enriched diet exhibited significantly lower visceral (P= 0·044), subcutaneous (P= 0·006) and total (P= 0·003) fat:feed than those fed with the SOY-enriched diet. It is noteworthy that mice fed with the IPOo-enriched diet gained 14·3 % more fat per food consumed when compared with the POo group (P= 0·013), despite their identical total fatty acid compositions. This was mainly attributed to the higher content of long-chain SFA at the sn-1, 3 positions of TAG in POo, which results in delayed absorption after deacylation as evidenced by the higher amounts of long-chain SFA excreted in the faeces of mice fed with the POo-enriched diet. Negative correlations were found between the subcutaneous, visceral as well as total fat accretion per food consumption and the total SFA content at the sn-1, 3 positions, while no relationships were found for MUFA and PUFA. The present results show that the positional distribution of long-chain SFA exerts a more profound effect on body fat accretion than the total SFA content. PMID:23756564

  9. Influence of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria on the proteolysis, microstructure and sensory properties of low fat UF cheeses during ripening

    Dragana Pesic Mikulec

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of commercial bacteria Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis and Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris (cheese A and combinations of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB strains Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei 08, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris 656, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis 653 (cheese B and C on composition, proteolysis, microstructure and sensory properties of low fat cheeses during ripening was investigated. Low fat cast ultra-filtered (UF cheeses were produced according to the defined production procedure by mixing UF milk protein powder, skim milk and cream. Significant influence of different LAB strains on composition, primary proteolysis and microstructure was not found. Cheeses made with autochthonous LAB showed a higher rate of secondary proteolysis, as well as higher flavour scores, and were more acceptable than control cheese.

  10. Myocardial Lipid Profiling During Time Course of High Fat Diet and its Relationship to the Expression of Fatty Acid Transporters

    Ewa Harasim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: It is well documented that increased fatty acids (FA supply causes lipid accumulation and insulin resistance in skeletal muscles. Whether the same mechanism is present in the heart is still unclear. Therefore, the goal of our study was to determine the content of specific myocardial lipid fractions during feeding rats a high fat diet (HFD for 5 weeks. Moreover, the relation between changes in myocardial lipid content, whole body insulin resistance and the expression of fatty acid transporters in each week of HFD was established. Methods: Gas liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography were used to determine the content of lipid fractions in the left ventricle. Expression of selected proteins was estimated by Western blot technique. All measurements were made after each week of HFD. Results: As expected, lipid profile in myocardium was altered by HFD in different weeks of the study with the most intense changes in triacylglycerols, long chain fatty acid-CoA and ceramide. Furthermore, there was a significant elevation of plasmalemmal (the 4th and the 5th week and mitochondrial expression (from the 3rd to the 5th week of fatty acid translocase. Conclusion: High fat diet affects myocardial lipid profile in each week of its duration and causes alternations in FA metabolism in cardiomyocytes.

  11. Feeding dairy cows with full fat extruded or toasted soybean seeds as replacement of soybean meal and effects on milk yield, fatty acid profile and CLA content

    Giovanni Bittante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the replacement of about 70% of soybean meal (SBM with extruded(ES or toasted (TS full-fat soybean seeds in diets for lactating cows on milk quality, fatty acid profile, and conjugatedlinoleic acid (CLA content. Eighteen lactating cows were assigned to 3 groups which received a basal diet, supplementedwith 1.8, 2.1 and 2.1 kg/head, respectively, of SBM, ES and TS. There was no significant effect on milk yield,calculated as the difference between daily yield during the experimental period and the mean of the last 5 days of adaptation(-1.65, -1.29 and -0.20 kg/d, respectively, for SBM, ES and TS; P>0.10 and milk quality parameters (fat, protein,urea and cheese making parameters among treatments. In the ES group there was a decrease in the short chainFA content (from C4 to C13 in milk fat (9.2 vs 11.0 and 10.8 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for ES, SBM and TS; PMedium chain FA (from C14 to C17 content in milk fat was lower for ES and TS groups compared with SBM (46.8 and48.0 vs 54.8 g/100 g lipids respectively; PSBM group compared to the others (34.3 vs 44.2 and 41.2 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for SBM, ES and TS; PThe replacement of SBM with ES enhanced oleic and linoleic acid and, particularly, CLA content. Intermediate values wereobserved for the TS group. CLA content (0.91, 0.62 and 0.56 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for ES, TS and SBM; Pincreased throughout the trial in all groups. ES also reduced the proportion of SFA with respect to SBM (65.2, 68.2 and70.9 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for ES, TS and SBM; Pin the same order; Pimproving the health-quality of milk. The various soybean products did not affect either metabolic profile (protein, urea,glucose, cholesterol, NEFA, triglycerides, liver parameters and mineral serum content or rumen parameters (pH, ammoniaand VFAs. The replacement of SBM with ES and TS permitted an improvement in the nutritional properties of milkwithout negatively

  12. Dietary interesterified fat enriched with palmitic acid induces atherosclerosis by impairing macrophage cholesterol efflux and eliciting inflammation.

    Afonso, Milessa Silva; Lavrador, Maria Silvia Ferrari; Koike, Marcia Kiyomi; Cintra, Dennys Esper; Ferreira, Fabiana Dias; Nunes, Valeria Sutti; Castilho, Gabriela; Gioielli, Luiz Antonio; Paula Bombo, Renata; Catanozi, Sergio; Caldini, Elia Garcia; Damaceno-Rodrigues, Nilsa Regina; Passarelli, Marisa; Nakandakare, Edna Regina; Lottenberg, Ana Maria

    2016-06-01

    Interesterified fats are currently being used to replace trans fatty acids. However, their impact on biological pathways involved in the atherosclerosis development was not investigated. Weaning male LDLr-KO mice were fed for 16weeks on a high-fat diet (40% energy as fat) containing polyunsaturated (PUFA), TRANS, palmitic (PALM), palmitic interesterified (PALM INTER), stearic (STEAR) or stearic interesterified (STEAR INTER). Plasma lipids, lipoprotein profile, arterial lesion area, macrophage infiltration, collagen content and inflammatory response modulation were determined. Macrophage cholesterol efflux and the arterial expression of cholesterol uptake and efflux receptors were also performed. The interesterification process did not alter plasma lipid concentrations. Although PALM INTER did not increase plasma cholesterol concentration as much as TRANS, the cholesterol enrichment in the LDL particle was similar in both groups. Moreover, PALM INTER induced the highest IL-1β, MCP-1 and IL-6 secretion from peritoneal macrophages as compared to others. This inflammatory response elicited by PALM INTER was confirmed in arterial wall, as compared to PALM. These deleterious effects of PALM INTER culminate in higher atherosclerotic lesion, macrophage infiltration and collagen content than PALM, STEAR, STEAR INTER and PUFA. These events can partially be attributed to a macrophage cholesterol accumulation, promoted by apoAI and HDL2-mediated cholesterol efflux impairment and increased Olr-1 and decreased Abca1 and Nr1h3 expressions in the arterial wall. Interesterified fats containing palmitic acid induce atherosclerosis development by promoting cholesterol accumulation in LDL particles and macrophagic cells, activating the inflammatory process in LDLr-KO mice. PMID:27142741

  13. The relation of high fat diet, metabolic disturbances and brain oxidative dysfunction: modulation by hydroxy citric acid

    Kamel Hamdy H

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims This study aimed to examine the effect of high fat diet (HFD to modulate brain dysfunction, and understand the linkages between obesity, metabolic disturbances and the brain oxidative stress (BOS dysfunction and modulation with hydroxyl citric acid of G. Cambogia. Methods Rats were divided into 3 groups; 1st control, maintained on standard normal rat chow diet, 2nd HFD, maintained on high fat diet along 12 week and 3rd HFD+G, administered G. Cambogia for 4 weeks and each group include 8 rats. Blood, brain and abdominal fat were collected for biochemical measurements. Results HFD group showed significant increase in energy intake, final BW and BW gain. Also significant increase in weight of abdominal fat in HFD group. HFD induce metabolic disturbance through increasing the lipid profile (LDL, TG, TC, γGT and α-amylase activity, uric acid level and hyperglycemia, while decreasing creatine kinase (CK activity. These changes associated with lowering in brain nitric oxide (NO level and rising in serum butyrylcholinesterase (BChE, brain catalase activity and MDA levels as oxidative stress markers. These alterations improved by G. Cambogia that decrease BOS and increased NO level. Conclusions Rats fed HFD showed, metabolic disturbances produce hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia and increased LDL associated with increased BOS. Involvement of BuChE, NO and oxidative stress associated with metabolic disturbances in the pathophysiological progression in brain, suggesting association between obesity, metabolic disorders and brain alteration while, using G. Cambogia, ameliorate the damaging effects of the HFD via lowering feed intake and BOS.

  14. The Influence of Different Vegetable Oils on Some ω-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from Thigh and Abdominal Fat of Broilers

    Dragoş Sorin Fota

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy sources, especialy vegetable oils, added to the combined fodder can segnificantly modefy the fatty acids profile of the chicken feed, thus through its control the fatty acids profile of the carcases can be modefied, through enrichment in some fatty acids. In this respect an experiment was coduced on broilers, made up of three experimental groups, fed with a combined base fodder (corn and soybean meal in which 2% of different energy sources were added (sunflower oil, soybean oil, linseed oil. At the end of the 42 days growing period, using gaz cromatography, the fatty acids profile, % of fatty acids in 100 g product (EPA,DPA, DHA, Σ SFA, Σ MUFA, Σ PUFA from the studied cut pieces, were determined. The results obtained after statistc processing and interpretation of the data, showed the fact that regarding the fatty acids profile in chicken thigh and abdominal fat we can observe variations, what denotes that the fatty acids profile can be influenced by dietary factors, the quantity being yet determined by the participation % of the energy sources (vegetable oils, but also by the fatty acids content of the participating raw materials.

  15. Effect of Enteral Nutrition Formula on Fat Absorption and Serum Free Fatty Acid Profiles in Rat with Short-Bowel Syndrome

    ZHOU Jian-Nong; TAN Li; WANG Xue-Hao; JU Huang-Xian

    2006-01-01

    The effects of enteral nutrition containing long chain triglycerides (LCT) and medium chain triglycerides (MCT) or L-arginine (Arg) on fat absorbability, serum free fatty acid profiles and intestinal morphology in rats with short-bowel syndrome (SBS) were studied using gas chromatography. Twenty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: sham operation fed with LCT as control; 85% small bowel resection fed with LCT,MCT/LCT, and Arg/LCT, respectively. SBS rats showed a decrease of fat absorptivity. Enteral nutrition supplemented with MCT could increase fat absorptivity. L-Arginine enhanced enteral nutrition was associated with the elevation of fat absorptivity, possibly due to its enterotrophic effect on remnant small bowel mucosa. LCT group showed a significant deficiency of total free fatty acid and the decreased essential fatty acid content, which was improved in other two SBS groups.

  16. Effect of genotype on fatty acid composition of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat of Celta pig breed

    Domínguez, R.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 45 Celta breed pigs were used to investigate the effect of genotype (Barcina, Carballiña and Santiaguesa lines on the fatty acid composition of intramuscular (IMF and subcutaneous fat (SF. The total IMF content was influenced by genotype (P Un total de 45 cerdos de raza Celta fueron usados para estudiar el efecto del genotipo (líneas Barcina, Carballiña y Santiaguesa sobre la composición de ácidos grasos de la grasa intramuscular y subcutánea. El contenido en grasa intramuscular estuvo influenciado por el genotipo (P < 0.05; la Barcina presentó los mayores valores (5.21% vs 1.99 y 3.59 para las líneas Santiaguesa y Carballiña respectivamente. Los lípidos totales y neutros de la grasa intramuscular de la línea Santiaguesa mostraron mayores contenidos de PUFA que las otras dos líneas. Los índices nutricionales también se vieron influenciados por el genotipo; la línea Santiguesa presentó los menores valores de los índices aterogénico y trombogénico y los mayores de la relación entre ácidos grasos hipo e hipercolesterolémicos. En los lípidos totales y neutros de la grasa intramuscular se obtuvieron mayores valores de MUFA y menores de PUFA (P < 0.05 que en la grasa subcutánea. En los lípidos polares, las muestras de grasa intramuscular presentaron los mayores valores de PUFA (entre 37–44%. Finalmente, la grasa subcutánea mostró valores superiores de MUFA y SFA que la intramuscular (P < 0.05. Las diferencias en el contenido de grasa intramuscular y de espesor de grasa subcutánea implica que su deposición puede estar regulada por diferentes mecanismos.

  17. Impact of ingredient replacers on the physicochemical properties and sensory quality of reduced salt and fat black puddings.

    Fellendorf, Susann; O'Sullivan, Maurice G; Kerry, Joseph P

    2016-03-01

    Twenty-two black puddings possessing different fat (10%, 5%) and sodium (0.6%, 0.4%) levels were used as base formulations for 11 different salt and fat replacers. Compositional, physicochemical and sensory analyses were conducted. Black pudding samples with 5% fat and 0.6% sodium containing potassium chloride (KCl), potassium chloride and glycine mixture (KClG), and seaweed, respectively, and 10% fat and 0.4% sodium containing carrageen were rated higher (PFood Safety Authority of Ireland (FSAI) recommends a sodium target level of 0.6% and an even lower sodium level (0.4%) was achieved. PMID:26595176

  18. The effect of dietary fat on the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of Hy-line and Warren hen eggs from Hy-line and Warren hens

    Gonzalez-Munoz, M. J.; Bastida, S.; Jimenez, O.; Lorenzo, C. de; Vergara, G.; Sanchez-Muniz, F. J.

    2009-07-01

    The present study analyzed the effect of dietary fat and strain on the fatty acid and cholesterol contents of eggs over a 20 month-period. Hy-line and Warren hens received three consecutive 7% lipid diets in which the basal constituents of the diet supplied 3% of the fats while the remaining 4% was composed of fats, oils or oleins added to progressively increase polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels, while decreasing dietary levels of both saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). In general, the percentages of most fatty acids in egg lipids were affected by changes in dietary lipids but not by the strain. Data suggest the existence of a dietary threshold for elaidic acid to appear in eggs. Mufa decreased and total PUFA increased throughout the study. The cholesterol egg content was higher at the animal fat plus soybean oil than at the animal fat or the olein plus soybean oil blend. Overall, results showed that changes in dietary lipids influenced fatty acid composition and hence atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes much more than the strain. (Author) 37 refs.

  19. Pulmonary epithelial permeability is immediately increased after embolisation with oleic acid but not with neutral fat.

    Jones, J G; Minty, B D; Beeley, J. M.; Royston, D; Crow, J; Grossman, R F

    1982-01-01

    Pulmonary fat embolism occurs frequently after trauma but its functional significance is often unclear. To obtain direct evidence of lung damage caused by fat embolism we have measured changes in permeability of the alveolar-capillary interface. A permeability index was derived from the half time clearance from lung to blood (T1/2LB) of 99mTcDTPA introduced into the lung in a 1 ml bolus. Three groups of rabbits were studied. Baseline T1/2LB. did not differ significantly between groups. After ...

  20. Transgenesis of humanized fat1 promotes n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis and expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism in goat cells.

    Fan, Yixuan; Ren, Caifang; Wang, Zhibo; Jia, Ruoxin; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Yanli; Zhang, Guomin; Wan, Yongjie; Huang, Mingrui; Wang, Feng

    2016-01-15

    The n-3 fatty acid desaturase gene fat1 codes for the n-3 desaturase enzyme, which can convert n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to n-3 PUFAs. The n-3 PUFAs are essential components required for normal cellular function and have preventive and therapeutic effects on many diseases. Goat is an important domestic animal for human consumption of meat and milk. To elevate the concentrations of n-3 PUFAs and examine the regulatory mechanism of fat1 in PUFA metabolism in goat cells, we successfully constructed a humanized fat1 expression vector and confirmed the efficient expression of fat1 in goat ear skin-derived fibroblast cells (GEFCs) by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Fatty acid analysis showed that fat1 overexpression significantly increased the levels of total n-3 PUFAs and decreased the levels of total n-6 PUFAs in GEFCs. In addition, qRT-PCR results indicate that the FADS1 and FADS2 desaturase genes, ELOV2 and ELOV5 elongase genes, ACO and CPT1 oxidation genes, and PPARa and PPARγ transcription factors are up-regulated, and transcription factors of SREBP-1c gene are down-regulated in the fat1 transgenic goat cells. Overall, fat1-overexpression resulted in an increase in the n-3 fatty acids and altered expression of PUFA synthesis related genes in GEFCs. This work lays a foundation for both the production of fat1 transgenic goats and further study of the mechanism of fat1 function in the PUFAs metabolism. PMID:26474750

  1. Relation of fatty acid composition in lead-exposed mallards to fat mobilization, lipid peroxidation and alkaline phosphatase activity

    Mateo, R.; Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    The increase of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in animal tissues has been proposed as a mechanism of Pb poisoning through lipid peroxidation or altered eicosanoids metabolism. We have studied fatty acid (FA) composition in liver and brain of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) feeding for three weeks on diets containing combinations of low or high levels of vitamin E (20 or 200 UI/kg) and Pb (0 or 2 g/kg). Saturated FA, n-6 PUFA and total concentrations of FA were higher in livers of Pb-exposed mallards, but not in their brains. The percentage of n-6 PUFA in liver and brain was slightly higher in Pb-exposed mallards. The increase of n-6 PUFA in liver was associated with increased triglycerides and cholesterol in plasma, thus could be in part attributed to feed refusal and fat mobilization. The hepatic ratios between adrenic acid (22:4 n-6) and arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) or between adrenic acid and linoleic acid (18:2 n-6) were higher in Pb exposed birds, supporting the existing hypothesis of increased fatty acid elongation by Pb. Among the possible consequences of increased n-6 PUFA concentration in tissues, we found increased lipid peroxidation in liver without important histopathological changes, and decreased plasma alkaline phosphatase activity that may reflect altered bone metabolism in birds.

  2. Oil and fat in broiler nutrition

    NC Baião

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The terms "fat" and "oil" refer to triglycerides of several profiles of fatty acids. Fatty acids that are not bound to other organic components as glycerol are the so-called free fatty acids. Lipids constitute the main energetic source for animals and they have the highest caloric value among all the nutrients. Linoleic acid is the only fatty acid whose dietetic requirement has been demonstrated. Besides supplying energy, the addition of fat to animal diets improves the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, decreases pulverulence, increases diet palatability, and the efficiency of utilization of the consumed energy. Furthermore, it reduces the rate of food passage through the gastrointestinal tract, which allows a better absorption of all nutrients present in the diet. The energetic value of oils and fats depend on the following: the length of the carbonic chain, the number of double bonds, the presence or absence of ester bonds (triglycerides or free fatty acids, the specific arrangements of the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids on the glycerol backbone, the composition of the free fatty acid, the composition of the diet, the quantity and the type of the triglycerides supplemented in the diet, the intestinal flora, the sex and the age of the birds. In birds, body fat composition is similar to the composition of the fat from the diet. The apparent digestibility of unsaturated fats is high in the first days of life of birds, whereas apparent digestibility of saturated fats is low. The quantity of oils or fats is assessed by the following methods: titration, moisture, impurities, unsaponifiable, saponification value, percentage of fat, percentage of free fatty acids/acidity and the profile of fatty acids. The methods initial peroxide value, active oxygen method, osi, iodine value, and analysis of the thiobarbituric acid (TBARS are specific to evaluate the oxidative stability. Considering diets with the same nutritive values, birds fed with

  3. Inhibition of Fat Accumulation by Hesperidin in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Peng, Huimin; Wei, Zhaohan; Luo, Hujie; Yang, Yiting; Wu, Zhengxing; Gan, Lu; Yang, Xiangliang

    2016-06-29

    Hesperidin, abundant in citrus fruits, has a wide range of pharmacological effects, including anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, radioprotective, and antiviral activities. However, relatively few studies on the effects of hesperidin on lipid metabolism have been reported. Here, using Caenorhaditis elegans as a model animal, we found that 100 μM hesperidin significantly decreased fat accumulation in both high-fat worms cultured in nematode growth medium containing 10 mM glucose (83.5 ± 1.2% versus control by Sudan Black B staining and 87.6 ± 2.0% versus control by Oil Red O staining; p acid/stearic acid (C18:1Δ9/C18:0) (p acid could restore the inhibitory effect of hesperidin on fat accumulation. Hesperidin significantly downregulated the expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase, fat-6, and fat-7 (p < 0.05), and mutation of fat-6 and fat-7 reversed fat accumulation inhibited by hesperidin. In addition, hesperidin decreased the expression of other genes involved in lipid metabolism, including pod-2, mdt-15, acs-2, and kat-1 (p < 0.05). These results suggested that hesperidin reduced fat accumulation by affecting several lipid metabolism pathways, such as fat-6 and fat-7. This study provided new insights into elucidating the mechanism underlying the regulation of lipid metabolism by hesperidin. PMID:27267939

  4. Structure-Function of CD36 and Importance of Fatty Acid Signal Transduction in Fat Metabolism

    Pepino, M. Y.; Kuda, Ondřej; Samovski, D.; Abumrad, N. A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 34, JULY (2014), s. 281-303. ISSN 0199-9885 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP13-04449P Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : fat taste * chylomicron * VLDL * CCK * secretin * calcium * FA binding * phospholipase * eicosanoid Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 8.359, year: 2014

  5. Unusual fatty acids in the fat body of the early nesting bumblebee, Bombus pratorum

    Cvačka, Josef; Kofroňová, Edita; Vašíčková, Soňa; Stránský, Karel; Jiroš, Pavel; Hovorka, Oldřich; Kindl, Jiří; Valterová, Irena

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 5 (2008), s. 441-450. ISSN 0024-4201 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4055403; GA MŠk 2B06007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : bumblebees * fat body lipids * marking pheromone biosynthesis Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.888, year: 2008

  6. Injectable Poly-l-Lactic Acid: A Novel Sculpting Agent for the Treatment of Dermal Fat Atrophy After Severe Acne

    Sadove, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Acne vulgaris affects up to 80% of people 11 to 30 years of age, and scarring can occur for up to 95% of these patients. Scarring may be pitted or hypertrophic in nature, although in most cases it is atrophic. Atrophic acne scarring follows dermal collagen and fat loss after moderate to severe acne infection. Injectable poly-L-acid (PLLA) is a biocompatible, biodegradable, synthetic polymer device that is hypothesized to enhance dermal volume via the endogenous production of fibroblasts and, ...

  7. The Effect of Genetic Variation of the Retinoic Acid Receptor-Related Orphan Receptor C Gene on Fatness in Cattle

    Barendse, W.; Bunch, R. J.; Kijas, J. W.; M. B. Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Genotypes at the retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor C (RORC) gene were associated with fatness in 1750 cattle. Ten SNPs were genotyped in RORC and the adjacent gene leucine-rich repeat neuronal 6D (LRRN6D) to map the QTL, 7 of which are in a 4.2-kb sequence around the ligand-binding domain of the RORC gene. Of the 29 inferred haplotypes for these SNPs, 2 have a combined frequency of 54.6% while the top 5 haplotypes have a combined frequency of 85.3%. The average D′ value of linkag...

  8. Maternal High Folic Acid Supplement Promotes Glucose Intolerance and Insulin Resistance in Male Mouse Offspring Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Yifan Huang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Maternal nutrition may influence metabolic profiles in offspring. We aimed to investigate the effect of maternal folic acid supplement on glucose metabolism in mouse offspring fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Sixty C57BL/6 female mice were randomly assigned into three dietary groups and fed the AIN-93G diet containing 2 (control, 5 (recommended folic acid supplement, RFolS or 40 (high folic acid supplement, HFolS mg folic acid/kg of diet. All male offspring were fed HFD for eight weeks. Physiological, biochemical and genetic variables were measured. Before HFD feeding, developmental variables and metabolic profiles were comparable among each offspring group. However, after eight weeks of HFD feeding, the offspring of HFolS dams (Off-HFolS were more vulnerable to suffer from obesity (p = 0.009, glucose intolerance (p < 0.001 and insulin resistance (p < 0.001, compared with the controls. Off-HFolS had reduced serum adiponectin concentration, accompanied with decreased adiponectin mRNA level but increased global DNA methylation level in white adipose tissue. In conclusion, our results suggest maternal HFolS exacerbates the detrimental effect of HFD on glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in male offspring, implying that HFolS during pregnancy should be adopted cautiously in the general population of pregnant women to avoid potential deleterious effect on the metabolic diseases in their offspring.

  9. Low-fat, high-carbohydrate and high-fat, low-carbohydrate diets decrease primary bile acid synthesis in humans

    Bisschop, PH; Bandsma, RHJ; Stellaard, F; Meijer, AJ; Sauerwein, HP; Kuipers, F; Romijn, JA

    2004-01-01

    Background: Dietary fat content influences bile salt metabolism, but quantitative data from controlled studies in humans are scarce. Objective: The objective of the study was to establish the effect of dietary fat content on the metabolism of primary bile salts. Design: The effects of eucaloric extr

  10. Adiponectin stimulates autophagy and reduces oxidative stress to enhance insulin sensitivity during high-fat diet feeding in mice.

    Liu, Ying; Palanivel, Rengasamy; Rai, Esther; Park, Min; Gabor, Tim V; Scheid, Michael P; Xu, Aimin; Sweeney, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have characterized the antidiabetic effects of adiponectin, yet the precise cellular mechanisms in skeletal muscle, in particular, changes in autophagy, require further clarification. In the current study, we used a high-fat diet (HFD) to induce obesity and insulin resistance in wild-type (WT) or adiponectin knockout (Ad-KO) mice with and without adiponectin replenishment. Temporal analysis of glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity using hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and muscle insulin receptor substrate and Akt phosphorylation demonstrated exaggerated and more rapid HFD-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle of Ad-KO mice. Superoxide dismutase activity, the reduced glutathione-to-glutathione disulfide ratio, and lipid peroxidation indicated that HFD-induced oxidative stress was corrected by adiponectin. Gene array analysis implicated several antioxidant enzymes, including Gpxs, Prdx, Sod, and Nox4, in mediating this effect. Adiponectin also attenuated palmitate-induced reactive oxygen species production in cultured myotubes and improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in primary muscle cells. Increased LC3-II and decreased p62 expression suggested that HFD induced autophagy in muscle of WT mice; however, these changes were not observed in Ad-KO mice. Replenishing adiponectin in Ad-KO mice increased LC3-II and Beclin1 and decreased p62 protein levels, induced fibroblast growth factor-21 expression, and corrected HFD-induced decreases in LC3, Beclin1, and ULK1 gene expression. In vitro studies examining changes in phospho-ULK1 (Ser555), LC3-II, and lysosomal enzyme activity confirmed that adiponectin directly induced autophagic flux in cultured muscle cells in an AMPK-dependent manner. We overexpressed an inactive mutant of Atg5 to create an autophagy-deficient cell model, and together with pharmacological inhibition of autophagy, demonstrated reduced insulin sensitivity under these conditions. In summary, adiponectin stimulated

  11. Oleic acid content of a meal promotes oleoylethanolamide response and reduces subsequent energy intake in humans.

    Mennella, Ilario; Savarese, Maria; Ferracane, Rosalia; Sacchi, Raffaele; Vitaglione, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Animal data suggest that dietary fat composition may influence endocannabinoid (EC) response and dietary behavior. This study tested the hypothesis that fatty acid composition of a meal can influence the short-term response of ECs and subsequent energy intake in humans. Fifteen volunteers on three occasions were randomly offered a meal containing 30 g of bread and 30 mL of one of three selected oils: sunflower oil (SO), high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) and virgin olive oil (VOO). Plasma EC concentrations and appetite ratings over 2 h and energy intake over 24 h following the experimental meal were measured. Results showed that after HOSO and VOO consumption the circulating oleoylethanolamide (OEA) was significantly higher than after SO consumption; a concomitantly significant reduction of energy intake was found. For the first time the oleic acid content of a meal was demonstrated to increase the post-prandial response of circulating OEA and to reduce energy intake at subsequent meals in humans. PMID:25347552

  12. Anacardic acid from brazilian cashew nut trees reduces dentine erosion.

    Silveira, Cintia; Oliveira, Flávia; Dos Santos, Maria Lucilia; de Freitas, Thiago; Imparato, José Carlos; Magalhães, Ana Carolina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of solutions containing saturated anacardic acid (AA) on dentine erosion in vitro. AA was chemically isolated from natural cashew nutshell liquid obtained by continuous extraction in a Soxhlet extractor and was fully saturated by catalytic hydrogenation. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) activity, when exposed to buffers containing 100 µmol/l AA, was analyzed using zymography. Bovine root samples were subjected to erosive demineralization (Sprite Zero™, 4 × 90 s/day) and remineralization with artificial saliva between the erosive cycles for 5 days. The samples were treated as follows, after the first and the last acid exposure (1 min; n = 12/group): (1) 100 µmol/l epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) (positive control); (2) 0.05% NaF; (3) 100 µmol/l saturated AA; (4) saturated AA and EGCG; (5) saturated AA, EGCG and NaF; (6) untreated (negative control). Dentine erosion was measured using a contact profilometer. Two dentine samples from each group were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. Saturated AA reduced the activity of MMP-2. ANOVA and Tukey's test revealed that all treatments significantly reduced dentine loss compared to the negative control (6.03 ± 0.98 µm). Solutions containing saturated AA (1.97 ± 1.02 µm) showed the greatest reduction in dentine erosion compared to the NaF (3.93 ± 1.54 µm) and EGCG (3.79 ± 0.83 µm) solutions. Therefore, it may be concluded that AA significantly reduces dentine erosion in vitro, possibly by acting as an MMP-2 inhibitor. PMID:24993776

  13. Bioactive Components from Flowers of Sambucus nigra L. Increase Glucose Uptake in Primary Porcine Myotube Cultures and Reduce Fat Accumulation in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Bhattacharya, Sumangala; B. Christensen, Kathrine; C. B. Olsen, Louise;

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance in skeletal muscles are major features of type 2 diabetes. In the present study, we examined the potential of Sambucus nigra flower (elderflowers) extracts to stimulate glucose uptake (GU) in primary porcine myotubes and reduce fat accumulation (FAc) in Caenorhabditis...

  14. Fish Oil-Based Fat Emulsion Reduces Acute Kidney Injury and Inflammatory Response in Antibiotic-Treated Polymicrobial Septic Mice

    Shih, Juey-Ming; Shih, Yao-Ming; Pai, Man-Hui; Hou, Yu-Chen; Yeh, Chiu-Li; Yeh, Sung-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in sepsis. This study compared the effects of a fish oil-based with a mixed oil fat emulsion on remote renal injury in an antibiotic-treated septic murine model. Mice were randomly assigned to a normal control (NC) group and three septic groups. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). The antibiotic was injected intraperitoneally (IP) after CLP and then daily till the time of sacrifice. Three hours after antibiotic treatment, one of the septic groups was injected IP with a fish oil-based emulsion (FO), while the other two groups were given either a mixed oil emulsion (MO) or saline (SC). The septic groups were further divided into two separate time groups, with blood and kidneys samples collected at 24 h or 72 h post-CLP. The results showed that sepsis leads to the activation of neutrophils, T helper (Th)1/Th-2/Th-17 and Treg cells (p emulsion had decreased plasma NGAL by 22% and Treg by 33%. Furthermore, renal gene expressions of MyD88 and TLR4 reduced by 46% and 62%, respectively, whereas heat shock protein 70 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ increased by 158% and 69%, respectively (p emulsion has favorable effects, maintaining blood T cell percentage, downregulating Treg expression, attenuating systemic and local inflammation and offering renal protection under conditions of antibiotic-treated polymicrobial sepsis. PMID:26999192

  15. Fish Oil-Based Fat Emulsion Reduces Acute Kidney Injury and Inflammatory Response in Antibiotic-Treated Polymicrobial Septic Mice.

    Shih, Juey-Ming; Shih, Yao-Ming; Pai, Man-Hui; Hou, Yu-Chen; Yeh, Chiu-Li; Yeh, Sung-Ling

    2016-03-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in sepsis. This study compared the effects of a fish oil-based with a mixed oil fat emulsion on remote renal injury in an antibiotic-treated septic murine model. Mice were randomly assigned to a normal control (NC) group and three septic groups. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). The antibiotic was injected intraperitoneally (IP) after CLP and then daily till the time of sacrifice. Three hours after antibiotic treatment, one of the septic groups was injected IP with a fish oil-based emulsion (FO), while the other two groups were given either a mixed oil emulsion (MO) or saline (SC). The septic groups were further divided into two separate time groups, with blood and kidneys samples collected at 24 h or 72 h post-CLP. The results showed that sepsis leads to the activation of neutrophils, T helper (Th)1/Th-2/Th-17 and Treg cells (p group, the group given the fish oil-based emulsion had decreased plasma NGAL by 22% and Treg by 33%. Furthermore, renal gene expressions of MyD88 and TLR4 reduced by 46% and 62%, respectively, whereas heat shock protein 70 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ increased by 158% and 69%, respectively (p blood T cell percentage, downregulating Treg expression, attenuating systemic and local inflammation and offering renal protection under conditions of antibiotic-treated polymicrobial sepsis. PMID:26999192

  16. Nature of fatty acids in high fat diets differentially delineates obesity-linked metabolic syndrome components in male and female C57BL/6J mice

    El Akoum Souhad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse effects of high-fat diets (HFD on metabolic homeostasis are linked to adipose tissue dysfunction. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of the HFD nature on adipose tissue activity, metabolic disturbances and glucose homeostasis alterations in male mice compared with female mice. Methods C57BL/6J mice were fed either a chow diet or HFD including vegetal (VD or animal (AD fat. Body weight, plasmatic parameters and adipose tissue mRNA expression levels of key genes were evaluated after 20 weeks of HFD feeding. Results HFD-fed mice were significantly heavier than control at the end of the protocol. Greater abdominal visceral fat accumulation was observed in mice fed with AD compared to those fed a chow diet or VD. Correlated with weight gain, leptin levels in systemic circulation were increased in HFD-fed mice in both sexes with a significant higher level in AD group compared to VD group. Circulating adiponectin levels as well as adipose tissue mRNA expression levels were significantly decreased in HFD-fed male mice. Although its plasma levels remained unchanged in females, adiponectin mRNA levels were significantly reduced in adipose tissue of both HFD-fed groups with a more marked decrease in AD group compared to VD group. Only HFD-fed male mice were diabetic with increased fasting glycaemia. On the other hand, insulin levels were only increased in AD-fed group in both sexes associated with increased resistin levels. VD did not induce any apparent metabolic alteration in females despite the increased weight gain. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors gamma-2 (PPARγ2 and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα mRNA expression levels in adipose tissue were decreased up to 70% in HFD-fed mice but were more markedly reduced in male mice as compared with female mice. Conclusions The nature of dietary fat determines the extent of metabolic alterations reflected in adipocytes through modifications in the pattern of

  17. Higher Intakes of Antioxidants and Unsaturated Fatty Acid Reduce the Cardiac Autonomic Effects of Particles

    Higher intakes of antioxidants (vitamins C and E, carotene) found in foods such as cruciferous vegetables, and unsaturated fatty acids, including omega-3 from fish and monounsaturated fats from nuts and seeds, may prevent cardiovascular disease. We examined whether higher intake of such antioxidants...

  18. Uptake of long chain fatty acids is regulated by dynamic interaction of FAT/CD36 with cholesterol/sphingolipid enriched microdomains (lipid rafts

    Herrmann Thomas

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanisms of long chain fatty acid uptake across the plasma membrane are important targets in treatment of many human diseases like obesity or hepatic steatosis. Long chain fatty acid translocation is achieved by a concert of co-existing mechanisms. These lipids can passively diffuse, but certain membrane proteins can also accelerate the transport. However, we now can provide further evidence that not only proteins but also lipid microdomains play an important part in the regulation of the facilitated uptake process. Methods Dynamic association of FAT/CD36 a candidate fatty acid transporter with lipid rafts was analysed by isolation of detergent resistant membranes (DRMs and by clustering of lipid rafts with antibodies on living cells. Lipid raft integrity was modulated by cholesterol depletion using methyl-β-cyclodextrin and sphingolipid depletion using myriocin and sphingomyelinase. Functional analyses were performed using an [3H]-oleate uptake assay. Results Overexpression of FAT/CD36 and FATP4 increased long chain fatty acid uptake. The uptake of long chain fatty acids was cholesterol and sphingolipid dependent. Floating experiments showed that there are two pools of FAT/CD36, one found in DRMs and another outside of these domains. FAT/CD36 co-localized with the lipid raft marker PLAP in antibody-clustered domains at the plasma membrane and segregated away from the non-raft marker GFP-TMD. Antibody cross-linking increased DRM association of FAT/CD36 and accelerated the overall fatty acid uptake in a cholesterol dependent manner. Another candidate transporter, FATP4, was neither present in DRMs nor co-localized with FAT/CD36 at the plasma membrane. Conclusion Our observations suggest the existence of two pools of FAT/CD36 within cellular membranes. As increased raft association of FAT/CD36 leads to an increased fatty acid uptake, dynamic association of FAT/CD36 with lipid rafts might regulate the process. There is no

  19. Fatty acids in serum lipid fractions as indicators of fat intake in 5-year-old children in the STRIP project

    Hagström, Hanna; Jokinen, Eero; Seppänen, Ritva; Salo, Pia; Viikari, Jorma; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Helenius, Hans; Simell, Olli

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the association between dietary fat composition and the proportion of fatty acids in serum lipid fractions as biomarkers of previous dietary fat quality in 5-year-old children. Using 4-consecutive-day food records, the food consumption of half (n=50) of a group of randomly selected children who are participating in a prospective randomized coronary risk factor intervention project (STRIP; n=1062 at recruitment at 7 months of age) was estim...

  20. Acid-independent release of secretin and cholecystokinin by intraduodenal infusion of fat in humans.

    Rhodes, R A; Skerven, G; Chey, W Y; Chang, T M

    1988-01-01

    In order to clarify a possible role of fat content in the release of secretin and cholecystokinin by liquid nutritional supplements in humans, duodenal pH and plasma concentrations of secretin and cholecystokinin were studied during the intraduodenal infusion of Ensure, Vivonex, 10% Intralipid, and sodium oleate. Significant release of secretin was observed with Intralipid and sodium oleate, while significant release of cholecystokinin was observed with all four testing solutions. Duodenal pH was rarely below 4.5 during the infusion of Ensure, Intralipid, and sodium oleate. Duodenal pH was high, greater than 6.0, when plasma secretin and cholecystokinin levels were elevated during the administration of Ensure, Intralipid, and sodium oleate. We conclude that both secretin and cholecystokinin are released in response to fat solutions in the duodenum and that low duodenal pH was not responsible for either secretin or cholecystokinin release during intraduodenal infusions of Ensure, Intralipid, or sodium oleate. PMID:3140233

  1. The inhibition of fat cell proliferation by fatty acids in dietary obese mice

    Hensler, Michal; Bardová, Kristina; Macek Jílková, Zuzana; Wahli, W.; Meztger, D.; Chambon, P.; Kopecký, Jan; Flachs, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 10, - (2011), s. 128. ISSN 1476-511X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/0226; GA ČR(CZ) GD305/08/H037 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : DHA and EPA * fish oil * fat cell turnover Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 2.170, year: 2011

  2. Seven-Day Caloric and Saturated Fat Restriction Increases Myocardial Dietary Fatty Acid Partitioning in Impaired Glucose-Tolerant Subjects.

    Noll, Christophe; Kunach, Margaret; Frisch, Frédérique; Bouffard, Lucie; Dubreuil, Stéphanie; Jean-Denis, Farrah; Phoenix, Serge; Cunnane, Stephen C; Guérin, Brigitte; Turcotte, Eric E; Carpentier, André C

    2015-11-01

    Subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) have increased myocardial partitioning of dietary fatty acids (DFAs) with left ventricular dysfunction, both of which are improved by modest weight loss over 1 year induced by lifestyle changes. Here, we determined the effects of a 7-day hypocaloric diet (-500 kcal/day) low in saturated fat (R,S)-[18F]-fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid positron emission tomography method after 7 days of an ISOCAL diet versus a LOWCAL diet using a randomized crossover design. The LOWCAL diet led to reductions in weight and postprandial insulin area under the curve. Myocardial DFA partitioning over 6 h was increased after the LOWCAL diet (2.3 ± 0.1 vs. 1.9 ± 0.2 mean standard uptake value, P < 0.04). However, the early (90-120 min) myocardial DFA fractional uptake was unchanged after the LOWCAL diet (0.055 ± 0.025 vs. 0.046 ± 0.009 min(-1), P = 0.7). Liver DFA partitioning was unchanged, but liver fractional uptake of DFA tended to be increased. Very short-term caloric and saturated fat dietary restrictions do not lead to the same changes in organ-specific DFA metabolism as those associated with weight loss in subjects with IGT. PMID:26224886

  3. Unilateral Ibotenic Acid Lesions of the Prefrontal Cortex Reduce

    Kuriyama,Shigeki

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Rats with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA-induced lesions of the substantia nigra are used as a model of Parkinson’s disease (PD, and these “lesioned” rats exhibit a rotational behavior when further injected with apomorphine (APO. We examined whether lesions in the prefrontal cortex (PFC could modify the rotational behavior in PD model rats. Rats initially received unilateral lesions of the substantia nigra by 6-OHDA injection, and then their rotational behavior was measured. Two PFC lesions were achieved by intracerebral infusions of ibotenic acid, followed by measurement of APOinduced rotation. Rotation was reduced by approximately 30オ after PFC injury. The PFC may have functional infl uences on the basal ganglia and may be involved in the pathophysiology of the rotational behavior of PD model rats.

  4. Twenty-Four Hour Total and Dietary Fat Oxidation in Lean, Obese and Reduced-Obese Adults with and without a Bout of Exercise

    Bergouignan, Audrey; Kealey, Elizabeth H.; Schmidt, Stacy L.; Jackman, Matthew R.; Bessesen, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been hypothesized that obese and reduced-obese individuals have decreased oxidative capacity, which contributes to weight gain and regain. Recent data have challenged this concept. Objective To determine (1) whether total and dietary fat oxidation are decreased in obese and reduced-obese adults compared to lean but increase in response to an acute exercise bout and (2) whether regular physical activity attenuates these metabolic alterations. Design We measured 24-hr total (w...

  5. Effect of dietary oil supplementation on fatty acid profile of backfat and intramuscular fat in finishing pigs

    Giuseppe Pulina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two groups of finishing gilts were fed, for 4 weeks, a commercial feed enriched (2% with either rapeseed oil or sunflower oil. Pig growth was monitored bi-weekly and the fatty acid composition of backfat and Longissimus muscle was determined after slaughtering. Type of dietary oil affected significantly the fatty acid profile of pork fat, especially the C18:3n-3 concentration which was higher in pigs fed rapeseed oil than in those fed sunflower oil. The content of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA of Longissimus muscle was significantly higher than that of backfat, due to the its higher concentration of C18:1cis9 and C16:1. Differently, the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA content was higher in backfat than in Longissimus muscle. These results confirm that it is possible to manipulate the fatty acid composition of the diet, in order to improve the health properties of the adipose tissues of pork meat.

  6. Effects of treatment of whole fat soybeans or soy flour with formaldehyde to protect the polyunsaturated fatty acids from biohydrogenation in the rumen.

    Ackerson, B A; Johnson, R R; Hendrickson, R L

    1976-10-01

    Full-fat, ground soy flour (GSF) was treated with 37% formaldehyde (HCHO) and evaluated by in vitro and in vivo criteria to determine the protection afforded linoleic acid against ruminal biohydrogenation when the materials described above were fed as a protein supplement to rations for growing lambs. The supplements compared were soybean meal (SBM), uked for 2 hours. Organoleptic evaluations were conducted to determine if any flavor differences in meat from lambs fed these supplements could be detected. Excellent protection of linoleic acid, the major polyunsaturated fatty acid in soybeans, was noted both in vitro and in vivo. Rump, shoulder, kidney knob and omental fat depots of lambs fed the HCHO treated GSF ration had significantly more linoleic acid than lambs fed untreated GSF while lambs fed untreated GSF had significantly, more linoleic acid in their fat depots than lambs fed SBM. Linoleic acid content of intramuscular (loin) fat from lambs fed HCHO treated GSF was not significantly different from lambs fed untreated GSF, but lambs fed untreated GSF had significantly more loin linoleic acid than lambs fed SBM. No significant differences were noted in daily feed intake, feed efficiency or average daily gain for lambs fed growing-finishing rations containing any of the products tested as the protein supplement. A taste panel could not detect any differences in flavor of ground loin among any of the treatments. PMID:987164

  7. Postprandial fatty acid uptake and adipocyte remodeling in angiotensin type 2 receptor-deficient mice fed a high-fat/high-fructose diet.

    Noll, Christophe; Labbé, Sébastien M; Pinard, Sandra; Shum, Michael; Bilodeau, Lyne; Chouinard, Lucie; Phoenix, Serge; Lecomte, Roger; Carpentier, André C; Gallo-Payet, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The role of the angiotensin type-2 receptor in adipose physiology remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate whether genetic angiotensin type-2 receptor-deficiency prevents or worsens metabolic and adipose tissue morphometric changes observed following a 6-week high-fat/high-fructose diet with injection of a small dose of streptozotocin. We compared tissue uptake of nonesterified fatty acid and dietary fatty acid in wild-type and angiotensin type-2 receptor-deficient mice by using the radiotracer 14(R,S)-[(1) (8)F]-fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid in mice fed a standard or high-fat diet. Postprandial fatty acid uptake in the heart, liver, skeletal muscle, kidney and adipose tissue was increased in wild-type mice after a high-fat diet and in angiotensin type-2 receptor-deficient mice on both standard and high-fat diets. Compared to the wild-type mice, angiotensin type-2 receptor-deficient mice had a lower body weight, an increase in fasting blood glucose and a decrease in plasma insulin and leptin levels. Mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited increased adipocyte size that was prevented by angiotensin type-2 receptor-deficiency. Angiotensin type-2 receptor-deficiency abolished the early hypertrophic adipocyte remodeling induced by a high-fat diet. The small size of adipocytes in the angiotensin type-2 receptor-deficient mice reflects their inability to store lipids and explains the increase in fatty acid uptake in non-adipose tissues. In conclusion, a genetic deletion of the angiotensin type-2 receptor is associated with metabolic dysfunction of white adipose depots, and indicates that adipocyte remodeling occurs before the onset of insulin resistance in the high-fat fed mouse model. PMID:27144096

  8. Oral treatment with γ-aminobutyric acid improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity by inhibiting inflammation in high fat diet-fed mice.

    Jide Tian

    Full Text Available Adipocyte and β-cell dysfunction and macrophage-related chronic inflammation are critical for the development of obesity-related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, which can be negatively regulated by Tregs. Our previous studies and those of others have shown that activation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA receptors inhibits inflammation in mice. However, whether GABA could modulate high fat diet (HFD-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance has not been explored. Here, we show that although oral treatment with GABA does not affect water and food consumption it inhibits the HFD-induced gain in body weights in C57BL/6 mice. Furthermore, oral treatment with GABA significantly reduced the concentrations of fasting blood glucose, and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in the HFD-fed mice. More importantly, after the onset of obesity and T2DM, oral treatment with GABA inhibited the continual HFD-induced gain in body weights, reduced the concentrations of fasting blood glucose and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in mice. In addition, oral treatment with GABA reduced the epididymal fat mass, adipocyte size, and the frequency of macrophage infiltrates in the adipose tissues of HFD-fed mice. Notably, oral treatment with GABA significantly increased the frequency of CD4(+Foxp3(+ Tregs in mice. Collectively, our data indicated that activation of peripheral GABA receptors inhibited the HFD-induced glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and obesity by inhibiting obesity-related inflammation and up-regulating Treg responses in vivo. Given that GABA is safe for human consumption, activators of GABA receptors may be valuable for the prevention of obesity and intervention of T2DM in the clinic.

  9. Apricot and pumpkin oils reduce plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Ramadan, Mohamed F.; Zayed, R.; Abozid, M.; Asker, M. M. S.

    2011-01-01

    Non-conventional oilseeds are being taken into greater consideration because their constituents have unique chemical properties and may increase the supply of edible oils. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of apricot kernel oil (AO) and pumpkin kernel oil (PO) on the lipid profiles and liver functions of rats fed high fat diets. The high fat diet resulted in great alterations in plasma lipid profiles and liver functions. Twenty-four male albino rats were used over...

  10. Moderate physical activity from childhood contributes to metabolic health and reduces hepatic fat accumulation in adult rats

    de Moura, Leandro Pereira; Sponton, Amanda Christine da Silva; de Araújo, Michel Barbosa; Dalia, Rodrigo Augusto; PAULI, JOSÉ RODRIGO; Rostom de Mello, Maria Alice

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity, oxidative stress and inflammation, by triggering insulin resistance, may contribute to the accumulation of hepatic fat, and this accumulation by lipotoxicity can lead the organ to fail. Because obesity is growing at an alarming rate and, worryingly, in a precocious way, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of moderate physical training performed from childhood to adulthood on liver fat metabolism in rats. Methods Twenty rats that were 28 days old were divided...

  11. Liver Fat Measured by MR Spectroscopy: Estimate of Imprecision and Relationship with Serum Glycerol, Caeruloplasmin and Non-Esterified Fatty Acids.

    France, Michael; Kwok, See; Soran, Handrean; Williams, Steve; Ho, Jan Hoong; Adam, Safwaan; Canoy, Dexter; Liu, Yifen; Durrington, Paul N

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive method for quantitative estimation of liver fat. Knowledge of its imprecision, which comprises biological variability and measurement error, is required to design therapeutic trials with measurement of change. The role of adipocyte lipolysis in ectopic fat accumulation remains unclear. We examined the relationship between liver fat content and indices of lipolysis, and determine whether lipolysis reflects insulin resistance or metabolic liver disease. Imprecision of measurement of liver fat was estimated from duplicate measurements by MRS at one month intervals. Patients provided fasting blood samples and we examined the correlation of liver fat with indices of insulin resistance, lipolysis and metabolic liver disease using Kendall Tau statistics. The coefficient of variation of liver fat content was 14.8%. Liver fat was positively related to serum insulin (T = 0.48, p = 0.042), homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-B% (T = -0.48, p = 0.042), and body mass index (BMI) (T = 0.59, p = 0.012); and inversely related to HOMA-S% (T = -0.48, p = 0.042), serum glycerol (T = -0.59, p = 0.014), and serum caeruloplasmin (T = 0.055, p = 0.047). Our estimate of total variability in liver fat content (14.8%) is nearly twice that of the reported procedural variability (8.5%). We found that liver fat content was significantly inversely related to serum glycerol but not to non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), suggesting progressive suppression of lipolysis. Reduction of caeruloplasmin with increasing liver fat may be a consequence or a cause of hepatic steatosis. PMID:27399690

  12. Liver Fat Measured by MR Spectroscopy: Estimate of Imprecision and Relationship with Serum Glycerol, Caeruloplasmin and Non-Esterified Fatty Acids

    Michael France

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS is a non-invasive method for quantitative estimation of liver fat. Knowledge of its imprecision, which comprises biological variability and measurement error, is required to design therapeutic trials with measurement of change. The role of adipocyte lipolysis in ectopic fat accumulation remains unclear. We examined the relationship between liver fat content and indices of lipolysis, and determine whether lipolysis reflects insulin resistance or metabolic liver disease. Imprecision of measurement of liver fat was estimated from duplicate measurements by MRS at one month intervals. Patients provided fasting blood samples and we examined the correlation of liver fat with indices of insulin resistance, lipolysis and metabolic liver disease using Kendall Tau statistics. The coefficient of variation of liver fat content was 14.8%. Liver fat was positively related to serum insulin (T = 0.48, p = 0.042, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-B% (T = −0.48, p = 0.042, and body mass index (BMI (T = 0.59, p = 0.012; and inversely related to HOMA-S% (T = −0.48, p = 0.042, serum glycerol (T = −0.59, p = 0.014, and serum caeruloplasmin (T = 0.055, p = 0.047. Our estimate of total variability in liver fat content (14.8% is nearly twice that of the reported procedural variability (8.5%. We found that liver fat content was significantly inversely related to serum glycerol but not to non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, suggesting progressive suppression of lipolysis. Reduction of caeruloplasmin with increasing liver fat may be a consequence or a cause of hepatic steatosis.

  13. Fat and fatty acid composition of cooked meat from UK retail chickens labelled as from organic and non-organic production systems.

    Dalziel, Courtney J; Kliem, Kirsty E; Givens, D Ian

    2015-07-15

    This study compared fat and fatty acids in cooked retail chicken meat from conventional and organic systems. Fat contents were 1.7, 5.2, 7.1 and 12.9 g/100 g cooked weight in skinless breast, breast with skin, skinless leg and leg with skin respectively, with organic meat containing less fat overall (Pacids, although organic meat contained less than did conventional meat (1850 vs. 2538 mg/100 g; POrganic meat was also lower (Pacid (30.9 vs. 13.7 mg/100 g), this was due to the large effect of one supermarket. This system by supermarket interaction suggests that poultry meat labelled as organic is not a guarantee of higher long chain n-3 fatty acids. Overall there were few major differences in fatty acid contents/profiles between organic and conventional meat that were consistent across all supermarkets. PMID:25722144

  14. Inflammatory cytokines up-regulate FAT/CD36 expression in renal cells loaded by fatty acids%炎症对脂肪酸负荷的肾细胞FAT/CD36表达的影响

    万克强; 廖俊蕾; 赵蕾; 李青; 陈压西; 阮雄中

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察炎症是否干扰脂肪酸负荷的肾细胞[人系膜细胞(HMCs)和肾小管上皮细胞HK-2]脂肪酸转运蛋白(FAT/CD36)的表达.方法:分别给予不同浓度软脂酸(0 mmol/L、0.02 mmol/L、0.04 mmol/L、0.08 mmol/L、0.16 mmol/L、0.32 mmol/L)处理HMCs和HK-2细胞24 h.采用实时定量PCR和Western blotting方法检测细胞FAT/CD36的mRNA及蛋白的表达.进一步选取0.04 mmol/L软脂酸联合炎症因子(25 μg/L TNF-α或20 μg/L IL-6)处理肾细胞24 h后,观察炎症因子对肾细胞FAT/CD36 mRNA及蛋白表达的影响;油红O染色及酶比色法检测细胞甘油三酯(TG)水平;ELISA检测细胞游离脂肪酸(FFA)含量.结果:软脂酸呈浓度依赖性上调HMCs和HK-2细胞FAT/CD36 mRNA和蛋白表达.炎症因子明显刺激脂肪酸负荷的肾细胞FAT/CD36 mRNA和蛋白表达进一步增加.油红O染色及胞内TG和FFA含量测定显示炎症因子促进肾细胞脂质积聚.结论:炎症上调脂肪酸负荷的肾细胞FAT/CD36表达,加重胞内脂质积聚.%AIM: To investigate the effects of inflammatory cytokines on the expression of fatty acid transporter ( FAT/CD36 ) in renal cells loaded by fatty acids. METHODS: Human mesangial cells ( HMCs ) and renal tubular epithelial HK -2 cells were treated with palmitate at concentrations of 0 mmol/L, 0. 02 mmol/L, 0. 04 mmol/L, 0. 08 mmol/L, 0. 16 mmol/L and 0. 32 mmol/L for 24 h. The expression of FAT/CD36 at mRNA and protein levels was detected by real - time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The renal cells were treated with palmitate at concentration of 0. 04 mmol/L combined with TNF - a ( 25 μg/L ) or IL - 6 ( 20 μg/L ) for 24 h. The effect of inflammatory cytokines on the mRNA and protein levels of FAT/CD36 in the renal cells was also investigated. Oil red 0 staining was used to determine the intracellular lipid droplet formation. The intracellular triglyceride ( TG ) and free fatty acid ( FFA ) were measured by enzymic assay and ELISA, respectively

  15. New evolution: Inhibitors of fatty acid synthase and fat-reducing study

    2002-01-01

    @@ Obesity sweeps all over the world presently at an astonishing speed. The rate of the disease ascends in both the developed and developing countries. According to a recent report from the World Health Organization, it can be estimated that about 250 million adults are obese all over the world, and that at least 500 million adults are overweight[1]. In the United States, more than 10% of children are obese and more than 15% of children are overweight[2]. About 2%-7% annual medical expenses of the developed countries are used for obesity by conservative estimation[3].

  16. Does the fat tailed Damara ovine breed have a distinct lipid metabolism leading to a high concentration of branched chain fatty acids in tissues?

    Alves, Susana P; Bessa, Rui J B; Quaresma, Mário A G; Kilminster, Tanya; Scanlon, Tim; Oldham, Chris; Milton, John; Greeff, Johan; Almeida, André M

    2013-01-01

    Fat tailed sheep breeds are known for their adaptation to nutritional stress, among other harsh production conditions. Damara sheep, native to Southern Africa, have recently been exported to other areas of the world, particularly Australia, aiming to produce lamb in semi-arid regions. Damaras have a unique hanging fat tail, a fat depot able to be mobilized under nutritional stress. In this article we perform an in-depth characterization of the fatty acid profiles of the fat tail in underfed and control Damara rams. Profiles were very similar between experimental groups, with the exception of palmitic acid (16:0) that was lower (P = 0.014) in underfed animals. However, the most striking result was the very high proportions of non-terminal branched chain fatty acids found in the fat tail adipose tissue, as well as the gastrocnemius muscle of Damara rams. The muscle of Dorper and Merino rams used in the same experiment did not present non-terminal branched chain fatty acids, suggesting that Damara rams have a unique lipid metabolism. Herein, we interpret this trait relating it to a higher ability of Damara sheep to digest fibrous fodder and to putative differences in the propionate metabolism by comparison to other sheep breeds. PMID:24204803

  17. Lipid-Encapsulated Echium Oil (Echium plantagineum) Increases the Content of Stearidonic Acid in Plasma Lipid Fractions and Milk Fat of Dairy Cows.

    Bainbridge, Melissa L; Lock, Adam L; Kraft, Jana

    2015-05-20

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of feeding lipid-encapsulated echium oil (EEO) on animal performance and milk fatty acid profile. Twelve Holstein dairy cows were used in a 3 × 3 Latin Square design with 14 day periods. Treatments were a control diet (no supplemental fat), 1.5% dry matter (DM) as EEO and 3.0% DM as EEO. Treatments had no negative effect on animal performance (dry matter intake, milk yield, and fat yield). The milk fat content of total n-3 fatty acids and stearidonic acid (SDA) increased with EEO supplementation (P < 0.001). The proportion of SDA increased in all plasma lipid fractions with EEO supplementation (P < 0.001). Transfer of SDA from EEO into milk fat was 3.4 and 3.2% for the 1.5 and 3% EEO treatments, respectively. In conclusion, EEO increases the content of n-3 fatty acids in milk fat; however, the apparent transfer efficiency was low. PMID:25904162

  18. Fasting Plasma Insulin Concentrations Are Associated With Changes in Hepatic Fatty Acid Synthesis and Partitioning Prior to Changes in Liver Fat Content in Healthy Adults.

    Pramfalk, Camilla; Pavlides, Michael; Banerjee, Rajarshi; McNeil, Catriona A; Neubauer, Stefan; Karpe, Fredrik; Hodson, Leanne

    2016-07-01

    Resistance to the action of insulin affects fatty acid delivery to the liver, fatty acid synthesis and oxidation within the liver, and triglyceride export from the liver. To understand the metabolic consequences of hepatic fatty acid synthesis, partitioning, oxidation, and net liver fat content in the fasted and postprandial states, we used stable-isotope tracer methodologies to study healthy men and women with varying degrees of insulin resistance before and after consumption of a mixed meal. Subjects were classified as being normoinsulinemic (NI) (fasting plasma insulin 11.2 mU/L, n = 19). Liver fat content was similar between HI and NI individuals, despite HI subjects having marginally more visceral fat. However, de novo lipogenesis was higher and fatty acid oxidation was lower in HI individuals compared with NI subjects. These data suggest that metabolic pathways promoting fat accumulation are enhanced in HI but, paradoxically, without any significant effect on liver fat content when observed in healthy people. This is likely to be explained by increased triglyceride secretion as observed by hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:27207513

  19. Edible oils and fats

    Kostik, Vesna; Memeti, Shaban; Bauer, Biljana

    2013-01-01

    Edible oils and fats are biological mixtures of plant origin consisting of ester mixtures derived from glycerol with chain of fatty acids. The rate of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids in edible oils and fats is very important for human nutrition. While high levels of saturated fatty acids is desirable to increase oil stability, on the other hand nutritionally they become undesirable, because high levels of saturated fatty acids are frequently considered to have influence in increasing...

  20. Protective Effect of Vanillic Acid against Hyperinsulinemia, Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia via Alleviating Hepatic Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet (HFD)-Fed Rats

    Wen-Chang Chang; James Swi-Bea Wu; Chen-Wen Chen; Po-Ling Kuo; Hsu-Min Chien; Yuh-Tai Wang; Szu-Chuan Shen

    2015-01-01

    Excess free fatty acid accumulation from abnormal lipid metabolism results in the insulin resistance in peripheral cells, subsequently causing hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and/or hyperlipidemia in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Herein, we investigated the effect of phenolic acids on glucose uptake in an insulin-resistant cell-culture model and on hepatic insulin resistance and inflammation in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The results show that vanillic acid (VA) demonstrated the highes...

  1. Low circulating levels of IGF-1 in healthy adults are associated with reduced β-cell function, increased intramyocellular lipid, and enhanced fat utilization during fasting

    Thankamony, Ajay; Capalbo, Donatella; Marcovecchio, M Loredana;

    2014-01-01

    free fatty acids (P = .028) and β-hydroxybutyrate (P = .014), increased accumulation of IMCLs in tibialis anterior muscle (P = .008), and a tendency for elevated fat oxidation rates (P = .058); however, glycerol Ra values were similar. Gene expression of the fatty acid metabolism pathway (P = .0014......) was upregulated, whereas the GLUT1 gene was downregulated (P = .005) in the skeletal muscle in low-IGF subjects. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that serum IGF-1 levels could be an important marker of β-cell function and glucose as well as lipid metabolic responses during fasting....

  2. Fish Oil-Based Fat Emulsion Reduces Acute Kidney Injury and Inflammatory Response in Antibiotic-Treated Polymicrobial Septic Mice

    Juey-Ming Shih

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a common complication in sepsis. This study compared the effects of a fish oil-based with a mixed oil fat emulsion on remote renal injury in an antibiotic-treated septic murine model. Mice were randomly assigned to a normal control (NC group and three septic groups. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP. The antibiotic was injected intraperitoneally (IP after CLP and then daily till the time of sacrifice. Three hours after antibiotic treatment, one of the septic groups was injected IP with a fish oil-based emulsion (FO, while the other two groups were given either a mixed oil emulsion (MO or saline (SC. The septic groups were further divided into two separate time groups, with blood and kidneys samples collected at 24 h or 72 h post-CLP. The results showed that sepsis leads to the activation of neutrophils, T helper (Th1/Th-2/Th-17 and Treg cells (p < 0.05. Plasma NGAL and mRNA expressions of renal MyD88 and TLR4 were also enhanced (p < 0.05. Compared to the SC group, the group given the fish oil-based emulsion had decreased plasma NGAL by 22% and Treg by 33%. Furthermore, renal gene expressions of MyD88 and TLR4 reduced by 46% and 62%, respectively, whereas heat shock protein 70 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ increased by 158% and 69%, respectively (p < 0.05, at Day 3 after CLP. These results suggest that administration of a fish oil-based emulsion has favorable effects, maintaining blood T cell percentage, downregulating Treg expression, attenuating systemic and local inflammation and offering renal protection under conditions of antibiotic-treated polymicrobial sepsis.

  3. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...

  4. n3- polyunsaturated Fat Acid Content of Some Edible Fish from Bahrain Waters

    Al-Arrayedu, F. H.; Al Maskati, H. A.; Abdullah, F. J.

    1999-08-01

    This study was performed to determine the content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids in 10 fish species that are commonly consumed in Bahrain in addition to the main commercial shrimp species. White sardinella, which is a plankton feeder, had the highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids. It had the highest value of eicosapentaenoic acid (146.5 ± 20 mg 100 g-1) and linolenic acid (98.9±f 100 g-1) and the second highest value of docosahexaenoic acid at (133.7 ± 22 mg 100 g-1). Spanish mackerel which feeds mainly on sardinella was second with eicosapentaenoc acid at 55 ± 5.4 mg 100 g-1, docosahexaenoic acid at 161 ± 19.8 mg 100 g-1, linolenic acid at 16.4 mg 100 g-1 and docosapentaenoic acid at 25 ± 1.9 mg 100 g-1. Rabbitfish, the most popular edible fish in Bahrain which feeds mainly on benthic algae had the third highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids with eicosapentaenoic acid at 37.5 ± 3.9 mg 100 g-1, docosahexaenoic acid at 76 ± 6.7 mg 100 g-1, and docosapentaenoic acid at 85.8 ± 10 mg 100 g-1. The other fish and crustacean species studied were Arabian carpet shark, doublebar bream, grouper, gray grunt, golden travally, keeled mullet, spangled emperor and shrimp. The study explores the transfer of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids through the food webs of the examined fish. It is apparent, generally, that plankton feeders displayed the highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids followed by seaweed and algae grazers, with benthic carnivores feeding on invertebrates displaying the poorest content. The values reported here, however, are much lower than those reported for fish available in American markets and in Mediterranean fish. Warm water temperature and high salinity which lead to lowering of the density of phytoplankton and phytoplankton content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids are suggested as the reason for the observed low values of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids in Bahrain fish.

  5. Endoplasmic reticulum stress involved in high-fat diet and palmitic acid-induced vascular damages and fenofibrate intervention

    Fenofibrate (FF) is widely used to lower blood lipids in clinical practice, but whether its protective effect on endothelium-dependent vasodilatation (EDV) in thoracic aorta is related with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress remains unknown. In this study, female Sprauge Dawley rats were divided into standard chow diets (SCD), high-fat diets (HFD) and HFD plus FF treatment group (HFD + FF) randomly. The rats of latter two groups were given HFD feeding for 5 months, then HFD + FF rats were treated with FF (30 mg/kg, once daily) via gavage for another 2 months. The pathological and tensional changes, protein expression of eNOS, and ER stress related genes in thoracic aorta were measured. Then impacts of palmitic acid (PA) and FF on EDV of thoracic aorta from normal female SD rats were observed. Ultimately the expression of ER stress related genes were assessed in primary mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAEC) treated by fenofibric acid (FA) and PA. We found that FF treatment improved serum lipid levels and pathological changes in thoracic aorta, accompanied with decreased ER stress and increased phosphorylation of eNOS. FF pretreatment also improved EDV impaired by different concentrations of PA treatment. The dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation by PA were inverted by FA pretreatment. Phosphorylation of eNOS and expression of ER stress related genes were all inverted by FA pretreatment in PA-treated MAEC. Our findings show that fenofibrate recovers damaged EDV by chronic HFD feeding and acute stimulation of PA, this effect is related with decreased ER stress and increased phosphorylation of eNOS. - Highlights: • Fenofibrate treatment improved pathological changes in thoracic aorta by chronic high-fat-diet feeding. • Fenofibrate pretreatment improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation impaired by different concentrations of palmitic acid. • The inhibition of proliferation in endothelial cells by palmitic acid were inverted by fenofibric

  6. Endoplasmic reticulum stress involved in high-fat diet and palmitic acid-induced vascular damages and fenofibrate intervention

    Lu, Yunxia, E-mail: wwwdluyx@sina.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); The Comprehensive Laboratory, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); Cheng, Jingjing [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); Chen, Li [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); Department of Medical Laboratory, Anhui Provincial Hospital, Hefei, Anhui 230001 (China); Li, Chaofei; Chen, Guanjun [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); Gui, Li [The Comprehensive Laboratory, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); Shen, Bing [Department of Physiology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); Zhang, Qiu [Department of Endocrinology, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230022 (China)

    2015-02-27

    Fenofibrate (FF) is widely used to lower blood lipids in clinical practice, but whether its protective effect on endothelium-dependent vasodilatation (EDV) in thoracic aorta is related with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress remains unknown. In this study, female Sprauge Dawley rats were divided into standard chow diets (SCD), high-fat diets (HFD) and HFD plus FF treatment group (HFD + FF) randomly. The rats of latter two groups were given HFD feeding for 5 months, then HFD + FF rats were treated with FF (30 mg/kg, once daily) via gavage for another 2 months. The pathological and tensional changes, protein expression of eNOS, and ER stress related genes in thoracic aorta were measured. Then impacts of palmitic acid (PA) and FF on EDV of thoracic aorta from normal female SD rats were observed. Ultimately the expression of ER stress related genes were assessed in primary mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAEC) treated by fenofibric acid (FA) and PA. We found that FF treatment improved serum lipid levels and pathological changes in thoracic aorta, accompanied with decreased ER stress and increased phosphorylation of eNOS. FF pretreatment also improved EDV impaired by different concentrations of PA treatment. The dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation by PA were inverted by FA pretreatment. Phosphorylation of eNOS and expression of ER stress related genes were all inverted by FA pretreatment in PA-treated MAEC. Our findings show that fenofibrate recovers damaged EDV by chronic HFD feeding and acute stimulation of PA, this effect is related with decreased ER stress and increased phosphorylation of eNOS. - Highlights: • Fenofibrate treatment improved pathological changes in thoracic aorta by chronic high-fat-diet feeding. • Fenofibrate pretreatment improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation impaired by different concentrations of palmitic acid. • The inhibition of proliferation in endothelial cells by palmitic acid were inverted by fenofibric

  7. Protective Effect of Vanillic Acid against Hyperinsulinemia, Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia via Alleviating Hepatic Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet (HFD-Fed Rats

    Wen-Chang Chang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Excess free fatty acid accumulation from abnormal lipid metabolism results in the insulin resistance in peripheral cells, subsequently causing hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and/or hyperlipidemia in diabetes mellitus (DM patients. Herein, we investigated the effect of phenolic acids on glucose uptake in an insulin-resistant cell-culture model and on hepatic insulin resistance and inflammation in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD. The results show that vanillic acid (VA demonstrated the highest glucose uptake ability among all tested phenolic acids in insulin-resistant FL83B mouse hepatocytes. Furthermore, rats fed HFD for 16 weeks were orally administered with VA daily (30 mg/kg body weight at weeks 13–16. The results show that levels of serum insulin, glucose, triglyceride, and free fatty acid were significantly decreased in VA-treated HFD rats (p < 0.05, indicating the protective effects of VA against hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in HFD rats. Moreover, VA significantly reduced values of area under the curve for glucose (AUCglucose in oral glucose tolerance test and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index, suggesting the improving effect on glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in HFD rats. The Western blot analysis revealed that VA significantly up-regulated expression of hepatic insulin-signaling and lipid metabolism-related protein, including insulin receptor, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, glucose transporter 2, and phosphorylated acetyl CoA carboxylase in HFD rats. VA also significantly down-regulated hepatic inflammation-related proteins, including cyclooxygenase-2 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expressions in HFD rats. These results indicate that VA might ameliorate insulin resistance via improving hepatic insulin signaling and alleviating inflammation pathways in HFD rats. These findings also suggest the potential of VA in preventing the progression of DM.

  8. Protective Effect of Vanillic Acid against Hyperinsulinemia, Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia via Alleviating Hepatic Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet (HFD)-Fed Rats.

    Chang, Wen-Chang; Wu, James Swi-Bea; Chen, Chen-Wen; Kuo, Po-Ling; Chien, Hsu-Min; Wang, Yuh-Tai; Shen, Szu-Chuan

    2015-12-01

    Excess free fatty acid accumulation from abnormal lipid metabolism results in the insulin resistance in peripheral cells, subsequently causing hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and/or hyperlipidemia in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Herein, we investigated the effect of phenolic acids on glucose uptake in an insulin-resistant cell-culture model and on hepatic insulin resistance and inflammation in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The results show that vanillic acid (VA) demonstrated the highest glucose uptake ability among all tested phenolic acids in insulin-resistant FL83B mouse hepatocytes. Furthermore, rats fed HFD for 16 weeks were orally administered with VA daily (30 mg/kg body weight) at weeks 13-16. The results show that levels of serum insulin, glucose, triglyceride, and free fatty acid were significantly decreased in VA-treated HFD rats (p effects of VA against hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in HFD rats. Moreover, VA significantly reduced values of area under the curve for glucose (AUCglucose) in oral glucose tolerance test and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, suggesting the improving effect on glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in HFD rats. The Western blot analysis revealed that VA significantly up-regulated expression of hepatic insulin-signaling and lipid metabolism-related protein, including insulin receptor, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, glucose transporter 2, and phosphorylated acetyl CoA carboxylase in HFD rats. VA also significantly down-regulated hepatic inflammation-related proteins, including cyclooxygenase-2 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expressions in HFD rats. These results indicate that VA might ameliorate insulin resistance via improving hepatic insulin signaling and alleviating inflammation pathways in HFD rats. These findings also suggest the potential of VA in preventing the progression of DM. PMID:26633482

  9. Comparison of the CT and pathologic findings of pulmonary fat embolism induced by triolein and oleic acid in rabbits

    Baik, Hye Won; Yoo, Seung Min; Lee, Hwa Yeon [Chung-Ang University Hopital, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2006-02-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the CT findings of pulmonary fat embolism syndrome that was induced by triolein and oleic acid, along with tis pathologic correlation. 16 rabbits were included in this study. The rabbits in group I (n=8) were embolized with 0.2 mL triolein and the rabbits of group II (n=8) were embolized with 0.2 mL oleic acid through ear veins. HRCT scans were done prior to embolization and at 0.5, 4, 24, 48 and 72 hours post-embolization. The pathologic correlation were determined at 0.5, 24, 48 and 72 hours. At 24 hours, one group I rabbit showed abnormal CT findings that were composed of several 2-3 mm nodules and multiple ill-defined peripheral ground glass opacities. The pathologic finding of this rabbit at 48 hours was mainly intraarveolar edema. All the group II rabbits (n=8/8) showed ill-defined bilateral and peripheral ground glass opacities with (n=6/8) or without consolidations (n=2/8) on the 0.5 hour CT. All the rabbits (n=7/7) showed that the new ground glass opacities and ground glass opacities noted on the 0.5 hour CT were changed into consolidation. The margins of the ground glass opacities and consolidations were more sharpened on the 24 hours CT. All 6 rabbits (n=6/6) showed consolidations without ground glass opacities and the margins of the consolidations were more sharpened on the 48 hours CT. There was no significant interval change on the 72 hours CT. The pathologic findings of ground glass opacities were interstitial edema or mild intraalveolar edema. The pathologic findings of consolidation were intraalveolar edema, hemorrhage and coagulation necrosis. The CT findings after fat embolization using triolein and oleic acid were ill-defined peripheral ground glass opacities with/without consolidations. These findings occurred in only one triolein group with the time lag, but these findings were immediately and extensively seen in all group II rabbits. These CT findings may be important for making a diagnosis of pulmonary

  10. Muscle and genotype effects on fatty acid composition of goat kid intramuscular fat

    Valeriano Domenech; Oliva Polvillo; Pilar Garcia; Adriana Bonvillani; Manuel Juárez; Francisco Peña

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the fatty acid composition of the major muscles in goats from different breeds. Forty entire male suckling kids, 20 Criollo Cordobes and 20 Anglo Nubian, were slaughtered at 75 days of age and the fatty acid composition of their longissimus thoracis (LT) and semitendinosus (ST) muscles was analysed to clarify the effects of genotype and muscle type on goat kid meat. Genotype had a great influence on the fatty acid composition of goat kid meat. Meat from Criollo Cordobes ...

  11. Inactivation of fatty acid transport protein 1 prevents fat-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle

    Jason K Kim; Gimeno, Ruth E.; Higashimori, Takamasa; Kim, Hyo-Jeong; Choi, Hyejeong; Punreddy, Sandhya; Mozell, Robin L.; TAN, GUO; Stricker-Krongrad, Alain; Hirsch, David J.; Fillmore, Jonathan J.; Liu, Zhen-Xiang; Dong, Jianying; Cline, Gary; Stahl, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle plays a major role in the development of type 2 diabetes and may be causally associated with increases in intramuscular fatty acid metabolites. Fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1) is an acyl-CoA synthetase highly expressed in skeletal muscle and modulates fatty acid uptake and metabolism by converting fatty acids into fatty acyl-CoA. To investigate the role of FATP1 in glucose homeostasis and in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, we examined the e...

  12. Associations of polymorphisms in bovine DGAT1, FABP4, FASN, and PPARGC1A genes with intramuscular fat content and the fatty acid composition of muscle and subcutaneous fat in Fleckvieh bulls.

    Bartoň, L; Bureš, D; Kott, T; Řehák, D

    2016-04-01

    Allelic and genotypic distribution of polymorphisms in diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), fatty acid synthase (FASN), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PPARGC1A) genes were assessed in 679 Fleckvieh bulls. Single-locus genotype effects and the combined effect of the two polymorphisms within the FASN gene were evaluated for association with the intramuscular fat content and fatty acid profile determined in muscle and subcutaneous fat. The FASN (g.16024G>A) and FASN (g.17924A>G) polymorphisms were significantly associated mainly with C14:0, C16:0, and C18:1 n-9 concentrations as well as with the atherogenic index. The proportion of explained phenotypic variation markedly increased when the effect of a combination of the two polymorphisms within the FASN gene was tested, with the highest values of 8.6% and 14.8%, respectively, observed for C14:0 in muscle and subcutaneous fat. With a focus on improving the fatty acid composition of beef, the results of this study provide valuable information about the markers applicable in marker-assisted selection. PMID:26720887

  13. Predictions of Daily Milk and Fat Yields, Major Groups of Fatty Acids, and C18:1 cis-9 from Single Milking Data without a Milking Interval

    Valérie M. R. Arnould

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the frequency of milk recording would help reduce the costs of official milk recording. However, this approach could also negatively affect the accuracy of predicting daily yields. This problem has been investigated in numerous studies. In addition, published equations take into account milking intervals (MI, and these are often not available and/or are unreliable in practice. The first objective of this study was to propose models in which the MI was replaced by a combination of data easily recorded by dairy farmers. The second objective was to further investigate the fatty acids (FA present in milk. Equations to predict daily yield from AM or PM data were based on a calibration database containing 79,971 records related to 51 traits [milk yield (expected AM, expected PM, and expected daily; fat content (expected AM, expected PM, and expected daily; fat yield (expected AM, expected PM, and expected daily; g/day; levels of seven different FAs or FA groups (expected AM, expected PM, and expected daily; g/dL milk, and the corresponding FA yields for these seven FA types/groups (expected AM, expected PM, and expected daily; g/day]. These equations were validated using two distinct external datasets. The results obtained from the proposed models were compared to previously published results for models which included a MI effect. The corresponding correlation values ranged from 96.4% to 97.6% when the daily yields were estimated from the AM milkings and ranged from 96.9% to 98.3% when the daily yields were estimated from the PM milkings. The simplicity of these proposed models should facilitate their use by breeding and milk recording organizations.

  14. Effect of dairy fat on plasma phytanic acid in healthy volunteers - a randomized controlled study

    Werner, Louise B.; Hellgren, Lars; Raff, Marianne; Jensen, Søren K.; Petersen, Rikke A.; Drachmann, Tue; Tholstrup, Tine

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phytanic acid produced in ruminants from chlorophyll may have preventive effects on the metabolic syndrome, partly due to its reported RXR and PPAR- α agonist activity. Milk from cows fed increased levels of green plant material, contains increased phytanic acid concentrations, but it...

  15. Sexually dimorphic brain fatty acid composition in low and high fat diet-fed mice

    Carlos Rodriguez-Navas

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Our data suggest male and female brains, and not plasma, differ in their fatty acid profile. This is the first time, to our knowledge, lipidomic analyses has been used to directly test the hypothesis there is a sexual dimorphism in brain and plasma fatty acid composition following consumption of the chow diet, as well as following exposure to the WD.

  16. Transcriptomic Analysis Identifies Candidate Genes Related to Intramuscular Fat Deposition and Fatty Acid Composition in the Breast Muscle of Squabs (Columba).

    Ye, Manhong; Zhou, Bin; Wei, Shanshan; Ding, MengMeng; Lu, Xinghui; Shi, Xuehao; Ding, Jiatong; Yang, Shengmei; Wei, Wanhong

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that squab is consumed throughout the world because of its high nutritional value and appreciated sensory attributes, aspects related to its characterization, and in particular genetic issues, have rarely been studied. In this study, meat traits in terms of pH, water-holding capacity, intramuscular fat content, and fatty acid profile of the breast muscle of squabs from two meat pigeon breeds were determined. Breed-specific differences were detected in fat-related traits of intramuscular fat content and fatty acid composition. RNA-Sequencing was applied to compare the transcriptomes of muscle and liver tissues between squabs of two breeds to identify candidate genes associated with the differences in the capacity of fat deposition. A total of 27 differentially expressed genes assigned to pathways of lipid metabolism were identified, of which, six genes belonged to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway along with four other genes. Our results confirmed in part previous reports in livestock and provided also a number of genes which had not been related to fat deposition so far. These genes can serve as a basis for further investigations to screen markers closely associated with intramuscular fat content and fatty acid composition in squabs. The data from this study were deposited in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)'s Sequence Read Archive under the accession numbers SRX1680021 and SRX1680022. This is the first transcriptome analysis of the muscle and liver tissue in Columba using next generation sequencing technology. Data provided here are of potential value to dissect functional genes influencing fat deposition in squabs. PMID:27175015

  17. Methionine deficiency leads to hepatic fat accretion via impairment of fatty acid import by carnitine palmitoyltransferase I.

    Kikusato, M; Sudo, S; Toyomizu, M

    2015-04-01

    1. To clarify the underlying mechanism of hepatic fat accretion due to methionine (Met) deficiency in broiler chickens, the present study investigated the effect of Met deficiency on the hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) system, which imports fatty acids into mitochondria. 2. Fifteen-d-old male meat-type chickens were fed on either a control diet (containing 0.52 g/100 g Met) or a Met-deficient diet (containing 0.27 g Met/100 g). After a 10-d feeding period, the birds were killed by decapitation and their livers excised to determine hepatic CPT1 and CPT2 mRNA levels and for the related hepatic fatty acid-supported mitochondrial respiration to be measured. 3. Met deficiency decreased body weight gain and feed efficiency and increased hepatic lipid content compared to the control group. Whereas the hepatic CPT2 mRNA level in the Met-deficient group remained unchanged compared to that of the control group, the CPT1 mRNA level was decreased in the Met-deficient group and CPT1-dependent hepatic mitochondrial respiration was impaired. 4. Our results suggest that the hepatic lipid accretion that occurs in response to Met deficiency might be attributable to the impairment of CPT1-mediated fatty acid import into mitochondria. PMID:25561085

  18. Fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins in ewe's milk predicted by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Determination of seasonality.

    Revilla, I; Escuredo, O; González-Martín, M I; Palacios, C

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine the fatty acid and fat-soluble vitamin composition and the season of ewe's milk production using NIR spectroscopy. 219 ewe's milk samples from different breeds and feeding regimes were taken each month over one year. Fatty acids were analyzed by gas chromatography, and retinol and α-, and γ-tocopherol by liquid chromatography. The results showed that the quantification was more accurate for the milk dried on paper, except for vitamins. Calibration statistical descriptors on milk dried on paper were good for capric, lauric, myristic, palmitoleic, stearic and oleic acids, and acceptable for caprilic, undecanoic, 9c, 11tCLA, ΣCLA, PUFA, ω3, ω6, retinol and α-tocopherol. The equations for the discrimination of seasonality was obtained using the partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) algorithm. 93% of winter samples and 89% of summer samples were correctly classified using the NIR spectra of milk dried on paper. PMID:27507500

  19. Phenolic acids inhibit the formation of advanced glycation end products in food simulation systems depending on their reducing powers and structures.

    Chen, Hengye; Virk, Muhammad Safiullah; Chen, Fusheng

    2016-06-01

    The concentration of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in foods, which are formed by Maillard reaction, has demonstrated as risk factors associated with many chronic diseases. The AGEs inhibitory activities of five common phenolic acids (protocatechuic acid, dihydroferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and salicylic acid) with different chemical properties had been investigated in two food simulation systems (glucose-bovine serum albumin (BSA) and oleic acid-BSA). The results substantiated that the AGEs inhibitory abilities of phenolic acids in the oleic acid BSA system were much better than the glucose-BSA system for their strong reducing powers and structures. Among them, dihydrogenferulic acid showed strong inhibition of AGEs formation in oleic acid-BSA system at 0.01 mg/mL compared to nonsignificant AGEs inhibitory effect in oleic acid-BSA system at 10-fold higher concentration (0.1 mg/mL). This study suggests that edible plants rich in phenolic acids may be used as AGEs inhibitor during high-fat cooking. PMID:27102241

  20. A residential summer camp can reduce body fat and improve health-related quality of life in obese children

    In an earlier report, we showed that a 2-week, residential summer camp (Kamp K'aana) led to improved body weight, body mass index, body mass index z score, and self-esteem among obese children. To assess whether improvements in body weight and self-esteem translate into improvement in body fat and w...

  1. A 12-Week Aerobic Exercise Program Reduces Hepatic Fat Accumulation and Insulin Resistance in Obese, Hispanic Adolescents

    van der Heijden, Gert-Jan; Wang, Zhiyue J.; Chu, Zili D.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Haymond, Morey W.; Rodriguez, Luisa M.; Sunehag, Agneta L.

    2010-01-01

    The rise in obesity-related morbidity in children and adolescents requires urgent prevention and treatment strategies. Currently, only limited data are available on the effects of exercise programs on insulin resistance, and visceral, hepatic, and intramyocellular fat accumulation. We hypothesized t

  2. Loss of Fatty Acid Binding Protein 4/aP2 Reduces Macrophage Inflammation Through Activation of SIRT3.

    Xu, Hongliang; Hertzel, Ann V; Steen, Kaylee A; Bernlohr, David A

    2016-03-01

    Activation of proinflammatory macrophages plays an important role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and atherosclerosis. Previous work using high fat-fed mice has shown that ablation of the adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (FABP4/aP2) in macrophages leads to an antiinflammatory state both in situ and in vivo, and the mechanism is linked, in part, to increased intracellular monounsaturated fatty acids and the up-regulation of uncoupling protein 2. Here, we show that loss of FABP4/aP2 in macrophages additionally induces sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) expression and that monounsaturated fatty acids (C16:1, C18:1) lead to increased SIRT3 protein expression. Increased expression of SirT3 in FABP4/aP2 null macrophages occurs at the protein level with no change in SirT3 mRNA. When compared with controls, silencing of SIRT3 in Raw246.7 macrophages leads to increased expression of inflammatory cytokines, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2. In contrast, loss of SIRT3 in FABP4/aP2-deficient macrophages attenuates the suppressed inflammatory signaling, reduced reactive oxygen species production, lipopolysaccharide-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, and increased fatty acid oxidation. These results suggest that the antiinflammatory phenotype of FABP4/aP2 null mice is mediated by increased intracellular monounsaturated fatty acids leading to the increased expression of both uncoupling protein 2 and SirT3. PMID:26789108

  3. Use of organosmectites to reduce leaching losses of acidic herbicides

    Carrizosa, M. J.; Hermosín, M. C.; Koskinen, W. C.; Cornejo, J.

    2003-01-01

    The modification of smectitic clays with organic cations via cation-exchange reactions produces sorbents with an increased sorption capacity for organic compounds such as acidic herbicides. These organoclays (OCIs) could be used as carriers in controlled release formulations of herbicides to decrease their contamination potential. Various OCIs and two acidic herbicides (bentazone [3-isopropyl-1H-2,1,3-benzothiadiazin-4 (3H) one 2,2-dioxide] and dicamba [2-methoxy-3,6-dichlorobenzoic acid]) we...

  4. Studies on the trans-fatty acids and the stability of the fats present in Indian bakery products

    Shariff, R.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fat is one of the most important ingredients in baked products which is highly susceptible to heat and moisture. Therefore, this study has been conducted to assess the thermoxidative changes occurring in the fat as well as the extent to which trans-fatty acids are present. Fats were extracted from products like rusk, white bread, sweet bun, dilkhush, pizza, plain cake, vegetable roll, gluco-biscuits and wafers. These fats and control shortening samples were taken for study. The totox value was found to be high (4.0-30.9 whereas the free fatty acid, peroxide and anisidine values were, 0.31-0.90%, 1.2-11.0 and 11.6-8.9 respectively. Since the products are baked at 180 to 200 °C polar components were determined to be between 3.3 to 5.3% showing a moderate hydrolysis and oxidative changes. Iodine value (51.0 to 73.3 and the Butyro-refractometer reading (42.2 to 55.8 showed moderate unsaturation and all the samples melted below 37 °C. Trans-fatty acid ranged from 35.5 to 46.2% as has also been confirmed by FT-IR. The products selected were considered safe but nutritionally inferior to products prepared with liquid shortenings.La grasa es uno de los ingredientes más importantes de los productos horneados altamente susceptible al calor y la humedad. Se han realizado estudios para evaluar los cambios termoxidativos ocurridos en las grasas y también la presencia de ácidos grasos trans. Las grasas se extrajeron de productos como galletas, pan blanco, pan dulce, Dilkhush, pizza, pastel, rollo vegetal, gluco-galletas y barquillos. Se utilizaron en este estudio las grasas extraidas de los mencionados productos, así como muestras control de shortening. Los valor encontrados de índice Totox fueron altos (4,0-30,9 en tanto que los porcentajes de ácidos grasos libres (%, índice de peróxido y anisidina fueron, 0,31-0,90, 1,2-11,0 y 11,6- 8,9, respectivamente. Puesto que los productos se hornean entre 180-200 °C se determinaron los componentes polares

  5. Adipose-specific disruption of autotaxin enhances nutritional fattening and reduces plasma lysophosphatidic acid

    Dusaulcy, Rodolphe; Rancoule, Chloé; Grès, Sandra; Wanecq, Estelle; Colom, André; Guigné, Charlotte; van Meeteren, Laurens A.; Moolenaar, Wouter H.; Valet, Philippe; Saulnier-Blache, Jean Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    Autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted lysophospholipase D that generates the lipid mediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). ATX is secreted by adipose tissue and its expression is enhanced in obese/insulin-resistant individuals. Here, we analyzed the specific contribution of adipose-ATX to fat expansion associated with nutritional obesity and its consequences on plasma LPA levels. We established ATXF/F/aP2-Cre (FATX-KO) transgenic mice carrying a null ATX allele specifically in adipose tissue. FATX-KO m...

  6. Effect of cooking on the chemical composition of low-salt, low-fat Wakame/olive oil added beef patties with special reference to fatty acid content

    López-López, I.; Cofrades, Susana; Cañeque, V.; Díaz, M. Teresa; López, O.; Jiménez Colmenero, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Changes in chemical composition, with special reference to fatty acids, as affected by cooking, were studied in low-salt (0.5%)/low-fat patties (10%) with added Wakame (3%) and partial or total replacement of pork backfat with olive oil-in-water emulsion. The addition of Wakame and olive oil-in-water emulsion improved (P

  7. A Difference in Fatty Acid Composition of Isocaloric High-Fat Diets Alters Metabolic Flexibility in Male C57BL/6JOlaHsd Mice

    Duivenvoorde, L. P. M.; van Schothorst, E. M.; Swarts, H. M.; Kuda, Ondřej; Steenbergh, E.; Termeulen, S.; Kopecký, Jan; Keijer, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 6 (2015), e0128515. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E10059 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : PUFA * satureted fatty acids * high fat diet * metabolic flexibility * indirect calorimetry Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  8. Vectorial acylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Fat1p and fatty acyl-CoA synthetase are interacting components of a fatty acid import complex

    Zou, Zhiying; Tong, Fumin; Færgeman, Nils J.;

    2003-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fat1p and fatty acyl-CoA synthetase (FACS) are hypothesized to couple import and activation of exogenous fatty acids by a process called vectorial acylation. Molecular genetic and biochemical studies were used to define further the functional and physical interactions ...

  9. Effects of Ghrelin on Triglyceride Accumulation and Glucose Uptake in Primary Cultured Rat Myoblasts under Palmitic Acid-Induced High Fat Conditions

    Lingling Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to study the effects of acylated ghrelin on glucose and triglyceride metabolism in rat myoblasts under palmitic acid- (PA- induced high fat conditions. Rat myoblasts were treated with 0, 10−11, 10−9, or 10−7 M acylated ghrelin and 0.3 mM PA for 12 h. Triglyceride accumulation was determined by Oil-Red-O staining and the glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase-peroxidase enzymatic method, and glucose uptake was determined by isotope tracer. The glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, and uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3 were assessed by RT-PCR and western blot. Compared to 0.3 mM PA, ghrelin at 10−9 and 10−7 M reduced triglyceride content (5.855 ± 0.352 versus 5.030 ± 0.129 and 4.158 ± 0.254 mM, P<0.05 and prevented PA-induced reduction of glucose uptake (1.717 ± 0.264 versus 2.233 ± 0.333 and 2.333 ± 0.273 10−2 pmol/g/min, P<0.05. The relative protein expression of p-AMPKα/AMPKα, UCP3, and p-ACC under 0.3 mM PA was significantly reduced compared to controls (all P<0.05, but those in the 10−9 and 10−7 M ghrelin groups were significantly protected from 0.3 mM PA (all P<0.05. In conclusion, acylated ghrelin reduced PA-induced triglyceride accumulation and prevented the PA-induced decrease in glucose uptake in rat myoblasts. These effects may involve fatty acid oxidation.

  10. Dietary fat source affects metabolism of fatty acids in pigs as evaluated by altered expression of lipogenic genes in liver and adipose tissues

    Duran-Montge, P; Theil, Peter Kappel; Lauridsen, Charlotte;

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about pig gene expressions related to dietary fatty acids (FAs) and most work have been conducted in rodents. The aim of this study was to investigate how dietary fats regulate fat metabolism of pigs in different tissues. Fifty-six crossbred gilts (62 ± 5.2 kg BW) were fed one of...... seven dietary treatments (eight animals per treatment): a semi-synthetic diet containing a very low level of fat (no fat (NF)) and six fat-supplemented diets (ca. 10%) based on barley and soybean meal. The supplemental fat sources were tallow (T), high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSF), sunflower oil (SFO...... liver, the mRNA abundances of genes encoding lipogenic enzymes were highest in pigs fed HOSF and lowest in pigs fed FO. In adipose tissue, the mRNA abundances were highest in pigs fed the NF diet and lowest in pigs fed T. The study demonstrated that dietary FAs stimulate lipogenic enzyme gene expression...

  11. Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Associated With Aerobic Exercise on Body Fat and Lipid Profile in Obese Women: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, and Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Ribeiro, Alex S; Pina, Fábio Luiz; Dodero, Soraya R; Silva, Danilo R; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Sugihara Júnior, Paulo; Fernandes, Rodrigo R; Barbosa, Décio S; Cyrino, Edilson S; Tirapegui, Julio

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of 8 weeks of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation associated with aerobic exercise on body fat and lipid profile on obese women. We performed a randomized, double-blinded and placebo-controlled trial with 28 obese women who received 3.2 g/day of CLA or 4 g/day of olive oil (placebo group) while performing an 8-week protocol of aerobic exercise. Dietary intake (food record), body fat (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and biochemical analysis (blood sample) were assessed before and after the intervention period. Independent of CLA supplementation, both groups improved (p CLA group, 13.2%; PLC group, 14.8%), trunk fat (CLA group, -1.0%; PLC group, -0.5%), leg fat (CLA group, -1.0%; PLC group, -1.6%), and total body fat (CLA group, -1.7%; PLC group, -1.3%) after the 8-week intervention. No main effect or Group × Time interaction was found for total cholesterol, triglycerides, and plasma lipoproteins (p > .05). We conclude that CLA supplementation associated with aerobic exercise has no effect on body fat reduction and lipid profile improvements over placebo in young adult obese women. PMID:26402730

  12. The physico-chemical properties of dietary fibre determine metabolic responses, short-chain Fatty Acid profiles and gut microbiota composition in rats fed low- and high-fat diets.

    Frida Fåk

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate how physico-chemical properties of two dietary fibres, guar gum and pectin, affected weight gain, adiposity, lipid metabolism, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA profiles and the gut microbiota in male Wistar rats fed either low- or high-fat diets for three weeks. Both pectin and guar gum reduced weight gain, adiposity, liver fat and blood glucose levels in rats fed a high-fat diet. Methoxylation degree of pectin (low, LM and high (HM and viscosity of guar gum (low, medium or high resulted in different effects in the rats, where total blood and caecal amounts of SCFA were increased with guar gum (all viscosities and with high methoxylated (HM pectin. However, only guar gum with medium and high viscosity increased the levels of butyric acid in caecum and blood. Both pectin and guar gum reduced cholesterol, liver steatosis and blood glucose levels, but to varying extent depending on the degree of methoxylation and viscosity of the fibres. The medium viscosity guar gum was the most effective preparation for prevention of diet-induced hyperlipidaemia and liver steatosis. Caecal abundance of Akkermansia was increased with high-fat feeding and with HM pectin and guar gum of all viscosities tested. Moreover, guar gum had distinct bifidogenic effects independent of viscosity, increasing the caecal abundance of Bifidobacterium ten-fold. In conclusion, by tailoring the viscosity and possibly also the degree of methoxylation of dietary fibre, metabolic effects may be optimized, through a targeted modulation of the gut microbiota and its metabolites.

  13. Cardiomyocyte Triglyceride Accumulation and Reduced Ventricular Function in Mice with Obesity Reflect Increased Long Chain Fatty Acid Uptake and De Novo Fatty Acid Synthesis

    Fengxia Ge

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonarteriosclerotic cardiomyopathy is increasingly seen in obese patients. Seeking a rodent model, we studied cardiac histology, function, cardiomyocyte fatty acid uptake, and transporter gene expression in male C57BL/6J control mice and three obesity groups: similar mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD and db/db and ob/ob mice. At sacrifice, all obesity groups had increased body and heart weights and fatty livers. By echocardiography, ejection fraction (EF and fractional shortening (FS of left ventricular diameter during systole were significantly reduced. The Vmax for saturable fatty acid uptake was increased and significantly correlated with cardiac triglycerides and insulin concentrations. Vmax also correlated with expression of genes for the cardiac fatty acid transporters Cd36 and Slc27a1. Genes for de novo fatty acid synthesis (Fasn, Scd1 were also upregulated. Ten oxidative phosphorylation pathway genes were downregulated, suggesting that a decrease in cardiomyocyte ATP synthesis might explain the decreased contractile function in obese hearts.

  14. Meat fatty acid composition as affected by fatness and genetic factors: a review

    De Smet, Stefaan; Raes, Katleen; Demeyer, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Influence des facteurs génétiques et de l'état d'engraissement sur la composition en acides gras de la viande. Revue. La composition en acides gras de la viande est affectée par divers facteurs : des facteurs nutritionnels, mais aussi des facteurs génétiques, quoiqu'à un degré moindre. L'espèce animale est également une source de variation importante, c'est même la plus importante. La viande des ruminants est plus riche en acides gras saturés que celle des monogastriques, en raison de la bioh...

  15. Dietary hyodeoxycholic acid exerts hypolipidemic effects by reducing farnesoid X receptor antagonist bile acids in mouse enterohepatic tissues.

    Watanabe, Shiro; Fujita, Kyosuke

    2014-10-01

    Mice were fed a control diet or a diet supplemented with hyodeoxycholic acid, the most abundant bile acid contained in pig bile, for 4 weeks, after which their serum and livers were collected. The contents of total fatty acids of serum and liver cholesteryl esters, and of liver triglycerides, were reduced following the administration of the hyodeoxycholic acid-supplemented diet, which was mainly due to the reductions in the contents of monounsaturated fatty acids. Free cholesterol contents in the serum and liver were not changed by hyodeoxycholic acid administration. Hyodeoxycholic acid administration reduced the gene expression levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1. Hyodeoxycholic acid administration markedly changes the ratio of FXR-antagonist/FXR-agonist bile acids in the enterohepatic tissues of the mice (1.13 and 7.60 in hyodeoxycholic acid and control diet groups, respectively). Our findings demonstrate that hyodeoxycholic acid administration exerts the hypolipidemic effect in mice, in which downregulations of de novo lipogenesis and desaturation of saturated fatty acids are suggested to play important roles. In addition, regulation of FXR activation through the selective modification of the enterohepatic bile acid pool may be involved in the hypolipidemic effect of hyodeoxycholic acid administration. PMID:25189147

  16. Long-term high fructose and saturated fat diet affects plasma fatty acid profile in rats

    Fabrice TRANCHIDA; Léopold TCHIAKPE; Zo RAKOTONIAINA; Valérie DEYRIS; Olivier RAVION; Abel HIOL

    2012-01-01

    As the consumption of fructose and saturated fatty acids (FAs) has greatly increased in western diets and is linked with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome,the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a moderate (10 weeks) and a prolonged (30 weeks) high fructose and saturated fatty acid (HFS) diet on plasma FA composition in rats.The effects of a few weeks of HFS diet had already been described,but in this paper we tried to establish whether these effects persist or if they are modified after 10 or 30 weeks.We hypothesized that the plasma FA profile would be altered between 10 and 30 weeks of the HFS diet.Rats fed with either the HFS or a standard diet were tested after 10 weeks and again after 30 weeks.After 10 weeks of feeding,HFS-fed rats developed the metabolic syndrome,as manifested by an increase in fasting insulinemia,total cholesterol and triglyceride levels,as well as by impaired glucose tolerance.Furthermore,the plasma FA profile of the HFS group showed higher proportions of monounsaturated FAs like palmitoleic acid [16:1(n-7)] and oleic acid [18:1(n-9)],whereas the proportions of some polyunsaturated n-6 FAs,such as linoleic acid [18:2(n-6)] and arachidonic acid [20:4(n-6)],were lower than those in the control group.After 30 weeks of the HFS diet,we observed changes mainly in the levels of 16:1(n-7) (decreased)and 20:4(n-6) (increased).Together,our results suggest that an HFS diet could lead to an adaptive response of the plasma FA profile over time,in association with the development of the metabolic syndrome.

  17. HCI Treatment Followed by Bligh and Dyer Extraction Extract More Fatty Acids than Stoldt Fat Extraction in Feed and Fecal Samples

    Jensen, Søren Krogh; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    HCl Treatment Followed By Bligh and Dyer Extraction Extract More Fatty Acids than Stoldt Fat Extraction in Feed and Fecal Samples., S.K. Jensen, C. Lauridsen, Aarhus University, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Tjele, Denmark. The official EU method for fatty acid analysis in feed is based......-15% more total fatty acids and a 30-50% increase in some of the PUFA compared with the official EU method. Thus, besides being much more efficient for extraction of fatty acids, the HCl-Bligh and Dyer method is much faster, and allows inclusion of an internal standard from the beginning of the sample...

  18. A maternal high fat diet programmes endothelial function and cardiovascular status in adult male offspring independent of body weight, which is reversed by maternal conjugated linoleic acid (CLA supplementation.

    Clint Gray

    Full Text Available Maternal high fat intake during pregnancy and lactation can result in obesity and adverse cardio-metabolic status in offspring independent of postnatal diet. While it is clear that maternal high fat intake can cause hypertension in adult offspring, there is little evidence regarding the role of dietary interventions in terms of reversing these adverse effects. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is an omega 6 fatty acid with beneficial effects in obesity and metabolic status. However, the impact of CLA supplementation in the context of pregnancy disorders and high fat diet-induced developmental programming of offspring cardio-metabolic dysfunction has not been investigated. We have utilised a model of maternal overnutrition to examine the effects of CLA supplementation on programmed endothelial dysfunction during adulthood. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a purified control diet (CON or purified control diet supplemented with 1% CLA (of total fat, a purified high fat (HF diet (45%kcal from fat and a purified HF diet supplemented with 1% CLA (of total fat (HFCLA. All dams were fed ad libitum throughout pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were fed a standard chow diet from weaning (day 21 until the end of the study (day 150. Systolic blood pressure (SBP was measured at day 85 and 130 by tail cuff plethysmography. At day 150, offspring mesenteric vessels were mounted on a pressure myograph and vascular responses to agonist-induced constriction and endothelium-dependent vasodilators were investigated. SBP was increased at day 85 and 130 in HF and HFCLA adult male offspring compared to CON and CLA groups with no effect of CLA supplementation. An overall effect of a maternal HF diet was observed in adult male vessels with a reduced vasoconstrictor response to phenylephrine and blunted vasodilatory response to acetylcholine (ACh. Furthermore, HF and HFCLA offspring displayed a reduction in nitric oxide pathway function and an increased compensatory

  19. Enteric neuropathy can be induced by high fat diet in vivo and palmitic acid exposure in vitro.

    Ulrikke Voss

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Obese and/or diabetic patients have elevated levels of free fatty acids and increased susceptibility to gastrointestinal symptoms. Since the enteric nervous system is pivotal in regulating gastrointestinal functions alterations or neuropathy in the enteric neurons are suspected to occur in these conditions. Lipid induced intestinal changes, in particular on enteric neurons, were investigated in vitro and in vivo using primary cell culture and a high fat diet (HFD mouse model. DESIGN: Mice were fed normal or HFD for 6 months. Intestines were analyzed for neuronal numbers, remodeling and lipid accumulation. Co-cultures of myenteric neurons, glia and muscle cells from rat small intestine, were treated with palmitic acid (PA (0 - 10(-3 M and / or oleic acid (OA (0 - 10(-3 M, with or without modulators of intracellular lipid metabolism. Analyses were by immunocyto- and histochemistry. RESULTS: HFD caused substantial loss of myenteric neurons, leaving submucous neurons unaffected, and intramuscular lipid accumulation in ileum and colon. PA exposure in vitro resulted in neuronal shrinkage, chromatin condensation and a significant and concentration-dependent decrease in neuronal survival; OA exposure was neuroprotective. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 inhibition, L-carnitine- or alpha lipoic acid supplementation all counteracted PA-induced neuronal loss. PA or OA alone both caused a significant and concentration-dependent loss of muscle cells in vitro. Simultaneous exposure of PA and OA promoted survival of muscle cells and increased intramuscular lipid droplet accumulation. PA exposure transformed glia from a stellate to a rounded phenotype but had no effect on their survival. CONCLUSIONS: HFD and PA exposure are detrimental to myenteric neurons. Present results indicate excessive palmitoylcarnitine formation and exhausted L-carnitine stores leading to energy depletion, attenuated acetylcholine synthesis and oxidative stress to be main

  20. Effect of cereal grain and fibre supplements on the fatty acid composition of milk fat of grazing dairy cows in early lactation.

    Wijesundera, Chakra; Shen, Zhiping; Wales, William J; Dalley, Dawn E

    2003-08-01

    Two experiments were undertaken to determine the effects of cereal grain and fibre (hay or straw) supplements on the fatty acid composition of milk fat of grazing dairy cows in early lactation. In both experiments, grain supplements significantly increased (P < 0.05) the proportion of the endogenously synthesized 10:0-16:0 fatty acids. Of the C18 acids, the proportion of 18:0 and 18:3 was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) by grain supplementation, while that of 18:2 was significantly increased (P < 0.05). Irrespective of diet, 18:1 trans-11 was the most dominant trans 18:1 isomer in milk fat. In the first experiment, the proportions of the 18:1 trans-11 isomer and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, 18:2 cis-9, trans-11) were highest for the pasture-only diets, and significantly (P < 0.05) decreased with grain supplementation. The opposite result was observed in the second experiment, conducted in a different dairy region, suggesting that factors such as the quality of pasture on offer and the physiological state of the cow could affect the content of CLA and trans fatty acids in milk fat. In both experiments, there was a significant positive linear relationship between CLA and 18:1 trans-11. Fibre supplements had little effect on the fatty acid composition of the milk. PMID:12916819

  1. Ghrelin reduces hepatic mitochondrial fatty acid beta oxidation.

    Rigault, C; Le Borgne, F; Georges, B; Demarquoy, J

    2007-04-01

    Ghrelin is a 28-amino-acid peptide secreted during starvation by gastric cells. Ghrelin physiologically induces food intake and seems to alter lipid and glucid metabolism in several tissues such as adipose tissue and liver. Liver has a key position in lipid metabolism as it allows the metabolic orientation of fatty acids between oxidation and esterification. We investigated the effects of peripheral ghrelin administration on 2 crucial parameters of fatty acid oxidation: the levocarnitine (L-carnitine)-dependent entry of the fatty acids in the mitochondria and the mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. Ghrelin was either given to rats prior to the hepatocyte preparation and culture or used to treat hepatocytes prepared from control animals. Direct incubation of ghrelin to raw hepatocytes did not induce any change in the studied parameters. In hepatocytes prepared from 3 nmol ghrelin-treated rats, a 44% reduction of the mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation while no alteration of the L-carnitine-related parameters were observed. These results suggested (a) that ghrelin has no direct effect on liver, and (b) that when administrated to a whole organism, ghrelin may alter the lipid metabolism and the energy balance through a marked decrease in liver fatty acid oxidation. PMID:17556859

  2. Do Fat Supplements Increase Physical Performance?

    Valentina Di Felice

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA belong to a popular class of food supplements known as “fat supplements”, which are claimed to reduce muscle glycogen breakdown, reduce body mass, as well as reduce muscle damage and inflammatory responses. Sport athletes consume fish oil and CLA mainly to increase lean body mass and reduce body fat. Recent evidence indicates that this kind of supplementation may have other side-effects and a new role has been identified in steroidogenensis. Preliminary findings demonstrate that fish oil and CLA may induce a physiological increase in testosterone synthesis. The aim of this review is to describe the effects of fish oil and CLA on physical performance (endurance and resistance exercise, and highlight the new results on the effects on testosterone biosynthesis. In view of these new data, we can hypothesize that fat supplements may improve the anabolic effect of exercise.

  3. Growth hormone-mediated breakdown of body fat

    Johansen, T.; Malmlöf, K.; Richelsen, Bjørn; Hansen, Harald S.; Din, N.

    2003-01-01

    regimen. Twelve-month-old rats fed first a high-fat diet or a low-fat diet for 14 weeks were injected with saline or growth hormone (4 mg/kg/d) for four days or three weeks in different combinations with either high- or low-fat diets. In adipose tissue, growth hormone generally inhibited lipoprotein...... lipase and also attenuated the inhibiting effect of insulin on hormone-sensitive lipase activity. Growth hormone treatment combined with restricted high-fat feeding reduced the activity of both lipases in adipose tissue and stimulated hormone-sensitive lipase in muscle. Generally, plasma levels of free...... fatty acids, glycerol and cholesterol were reduced by growth hormone, and in combination with restricted high-fat feeding, triglyceride levels improved too. We conclude that growth hormone inhibits lipid storage in adipose tissue by reducing both lipoprotein lipase activity and insulin's inhibitory...

  4. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid modify gene expression in liver, muscles, and fat tissues of finishing pigs

    Tous, Nuria; Theil, Peter Kappel; Lauridsen, Charlotte;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate underlying mechanisms of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on lipid metabolism in various tissues of pigs. Sixteen gilts (73 ± 3 kg) were fed a control (containing sunflower oil) or an experimental diet in which 4% of sunflower oil was replaced by CLA...

  5. Multidisciplinary care of obese children and adolescents for one year reduces ectopic fat content in liver and skeletal muscle

    Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Chabanova, Elizaveta; Ohrt, Johanne Dam;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ectopic fat deposition in liver and skeletal muscle tissue is related to cardiovascular disease risk and is a common metabolic complication in obese children. We evaluated the hypotheses of ectopic fat in these organs could be diminished following 1 year of multidisciplinary care...... specialized in childhood obesity, and whether this reduction would associate with changes in other markers of metabolic function. METHODS: This observational longitudinal study evaluated 40 overweight children and adolescents enrolled in a multidisciplinary treatment protocol at the Children's Obesity Clinic...... of care. Univariate linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, treatment duration, baseline degree of obesity, and pubertal developmental stage were used for investigating possible associations. RESULTS: The standard deviation score (SDS) of baseline median body mass index (BMI) was 2.80 (range: 1...

  6. Possibilities to develop low-fat products: a review

    Tufeanu Roxana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research has proved a relationship between high fat consumption and rise in obesity, atherosclerosis, coronary heart diseases and high blood pressure. Therefore is recommended the moderate consumption of fat, such that the total fat does not exceed 30% of total energy intake. Our body needs fats because are providers of calories, essential fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins and also they are necessary ingredients of the foods. The development of products with low-fat content can be considerate a challenge because the lipids offers aroma, texture, appearance, flavour and mouth feel, qualities that customers want in food products. A fat reduction can be achieved by using different fat replacers to ensure the functionality of the replaced fat. Functional components of fat replacers can have a significant role in promotion of wellbeing, in treating and preventing diseases. Thus, fat replacers should be recognized as safe and healthy, which have sensorial and functional properties. This paper reviews the fat replacers used to obtain foods as meat-based or dairy products. Some ways to obtain healthier meat products by reducing saturated fats content consist in the utilization of unsaturated vegetable oils, vegetable products, fibre. The utilization of fibre in products such bolognas, sausages or hamburgers, can improve the texture profile, binding properties and the characteristics regarding the cooking process. A fat reduction in dairy products can be achieved by replacing it with starches, polysaccharides, gums or fibres from cereal, vegetables and fruits. In acidified milk products, fibres have benefits as: low syneresis, sensory characteristics accepted by consumers, improvement of texture and rheological properties. In cheeses production, the fat reduction can be realised by replacing it with carbohydrate or protein-based replacers in order to obtain a final product with proper characteristics.

  7. Reduced vagal control of the heart in high-fat diet mice: a potential role of increased butyrylcholinesterase

    Hartnett, Sigurd; Gao, Hongbo; Schnack, Sabrina; Li, Yifan

    2015-01-01

    Suppressed parasympathetic function is commonly present in cardiovascular diseases, aging, obesity, and various other health conditions. Impaired parasympathetic action is known as a detrimental factor and contributes to the adverse outcomes in these conditions. However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully addressed. In this study, using high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice as a model, the potential peripheral mechanisms underlying the impaired parasympathetic vagal control of the ...

  8. RENAL PRO-APOPTOTIC PROTEINS ARE REDUCED BY GROWTH HORMONE RESISTANCE BUT NOT BY VISCERAL FAT REMOVAL

    Gesing, Adam; Bartke, Andrzej; Wang, Feiya; Karbownik-Lewinska, Malgorzata; Masternak, Michal M.

    2011-01-01

    The growth hormone (GH) receptor knockout (GHRKO) mice are highly insulin sensitive and long-lived. Surgical visceral fat removal (VFR) improves insulin signaling in normal mice and rats and extends longevity in rats. We have previously demonstrated decreased expression of certain pro-apoptotic genes in kidneys of GHRKO mice, and suggested that this may contribute to the increased longevity of these animals. The aim of the present study was to examine the level of the following proteins: casp...

  9. JTT-130, a Novel Intestine-Specific Inhibitor of Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein, Reduces Food Preference for Fat

    Yasuko Mera; Takahiro Hata; Yukihito Ishii; Daisuke Tomimoto; Takashi Kawai; Takeshi Ohta; Makoto Kakutani

    2014-01-01

    Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is involved in the assembly and secretion of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins from enterocytes and hepatocytes. JTT-130 is a novel intestine-specific MTP inhibitor, which has been shown to be useful in the prevention and treatment of dyslipidemia, obesity, and diabetes. JTT-130 has also been shown to suppress food intake in a dietary fat-dependent manner in rats. However, whether JTT-130 enables changes in food preference and nutrient consumption r...

  10. Translational research to reduce trans-fat intakes in Northern Québec (Nunavik Inuit communities: a success story?

    Émilie Counil

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Following our results, based on population studies conducted in Greenland and Northern Canada, that Nunavik Inuit were thrice as highly exposed to dietary trans-fat as were Greenlandic Inuit, and that the biological levels found in Nunavik were already associated with deleterious blood lipid profiles, we decided to engage in translational activities. Our goal was to support Inuit communities in the practical implementation of a reduction of the trans-fat content of food sold in Nunavik. We carried out a preliminary feasibility study in Kuujjuaq and participated in several meetings. This translational phase involved an Inuk leader, an Inuk student, a southern student, a southern nutritionist and a southern researcher in the framework of a public health project. In the present article, we recount the different phases of the process, from research implementation to results dissemination and institutional commitment to implement a primary prevention program of reduction in trans-fat exposure in Nunavik. This is the occasion to draw broader conclusions on the factors that could either act in favour of or, on the contrary, would likely compromise the implementation of primary prevention interventions dealing with food and nutrition in the Arctic. Finally, we share some reflections on future translational activities dealing with trans-fat as well as other junk food issues. The analytical framework we propose integrates a range of factors, from geo-climatic to socio-economic, ethno-cultural, and even political, that we think should be examined while identifying and building preventive recommendations and strategies related to the Northern diet.

  11. Whey-reduced weight gain is associated with a temporary growth reduction in young mice fed a high-fat diet

    Tranberg, Britt; Madsen, Andreas N.; Hansen, Axel K.;

    2015-01-01

    Whey protein consumption reportedly alleviates parameters of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in young mice fed a high-fat diet. We hypothesized that whey as the sole protein source reduced early weight gain associated with retarded growth...... and decreased concentration of insulin-like growth factor-1. Moreover, we hypothesized that these changes were explained by increased nitrogen loss via elevated urea production and/or increased energy expenditure. Male 5-week-old C57BL/6 mice were fed high-fat diets with the protein source being either whey......, casein or a combination of both for 5 weeks. After 1, 3 or 5 weeks, respectively, the mice were subjected to a meal challenge with measurements of blood and urinary urea before and 1 and 3 h after eating a weighed meal of their respective diets. In a subset of mice, energy expenditure was measured...

  12. Chemical chaperones reduce ER stress and adipose tissue inflammation in high fat diet-induced mouse model of obesity.

    Chen, Yaqin; Wu, Zhihong; Zhao, Shuiping; Xiang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, which is characteristic by chronic inflammation, is defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation in adipose tissues. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is increased in adipose tissue of obese state and is known to be strongly associated with chronic inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ER stress on adipokine secretion in obese mice and explore the potential mechanisms. In this study, we found high-fat diet induced-obesity contributed to strengthened ER stress and triggered chronic inflammation in adipose tissue. Chemical chaperones, 4-PBA and TUDCA, modified metabolic disorders and decreased the levels of inflammatory cytokines in obese mice fed a high-fat diet. The alleviation of ER stress is in accordance with the decrease of free cholesterol in adipose tissue. Furthermore chemical chaperones suppress NF-κB activity in adipose tissue of obese mice in vivo. In vitro studies showed IKK/NF-κB may be involved in the signal transduction of adipokine secretion dysfunction induced by ER stress. The present study revealed the possibility that inhibition of ER stress may be a novel drug target for metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity. Further studies are now needed to characterize the initial incentive of sustained ER stress in obese. PMID:27271106

  13. Adequacy of the Measurement Capability of Fatty Acid Compositions and Sterol Profiles to Determine Authenticity of Milk Fat Through Formulation of Adulterated Butter.

    Soha, Sahel; Mortazavian, Amir M; Piravi-Vanak, Zahra; Mohammadifar, Mohammad A; Sahafar, Hamed; Nanvazadeh, Sara

    2015-01-01

    In this research a comparison has been made between the fatty acid and sterol compositions of Iranian pure butter and three samples of adulterated butter. These samples were formulated using edible vegetable fats/oils with similar milk fat structures including palm olein, palm kernel and coconut oil to determine the authenticity of milk fat. The amount of vegetable fats/oils used in the formulation of the adulterated butter was 10%. The adulterated samples were formulated so that their fatty acid profiles were comforted with acceptable levels of pure butter as specified by the Iranian national standard. Based on the type of the vegetable oil/fat, fatty acids such as C4:0, C12:0 and C18:2 were used as indicators for the adulterated formulations. According to the standard method of ISO, the analysis was performed using gas chromatography. The cholesterol contents were 99.71% in pure butter (B1), and 97.61%, 98.48% and 97.98% of the total sterols in the samples adulterated with palm olein, palm kernel and coconut oil (B2, B3 and B4), respectively. Contents of the main phytosterol profiles such as β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol were also determined. The β-sitosterol content, as an indicator of phytosterols, was 0% in pure butter, and 1.81%, 1.67% and 2.16%, of the total sterols in the adulterated samples (B2, B3 and B4), respectively. Our findings indicate that fatty acid profiles are not an efficient indicator for butter authentication. Despite the increase in phytosterols and the reduction in cholesterol and with regard to the conformity of the sterol profiles of the edible fats/oils used in the formulations with Codex standards, lower cholesterol and higher phytosterols contents should have been observed. It can therefore be concluded that sterol measurement is insufficient to verify the authenticity of the milk fat in butter. It can therefore be concluded that sterol measurement is insufficient in verifying the authenticity of milk fat. PMID:26246145

  14. Egg quality, fatty acid composition and immunoglobulin Y content in eggs from laying hens fed full fat camelina or flax seed

    Cherian, Gita; Quezada, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Background The current study was conducted to evaluate egg quality and egg yolk fatty acids and immunoglobulin (IgY) content from laying hens fed full fat camelina or flax seed. Methods A total of 75, 48-week-old Lohman brown hens were randomly allocated to 3 treatments, with 5 replicates containing 5 laying hens each replicate. The hens were fed corn-soybean basal diet (Control), or Control diet with 10 % of full fat camelina (Camelina) or flax seed (Flax) for a period of 16 wk. Hen producti...

  15. Adequacy of the measurement capability of fatty acid compositions and sterol profiles to determine authenticity of milk fat through formulation of adulterated butter

    Soha, Sahel; Mortazavian, Amir M.; Piravi-Vanak, Zahra;

    2015-01-01

    In this research a comparison has been made between the fatty acid and sterol compositions of Iranian pure butter and three samples of adulterated butter. These samples were formulated using edible vegetable fats/oils with similar milk fat structures including palm olein, palm kernel and coconut...... butter (B1), and 97.61%, 98.48% and 97.98% of the total sterols in the samples adulterated with palm olein, palm kernel and coconut oil (B2, B3, and B4), respectively. Contents of the main phytosterol profiles such as β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol were also determined. The β...

  16. Short communication. Fatty acid composition of lamb fat depots as an origin discriminator

    Horcada Ibáñez, Alberto Luis; Aldai, N.; Polvillo Polo, Oliva; Valera Córdoba, María Mercedes; A. Molina; Juárez Dávila, Manuel María

    2010-01-01

    The development of quality labels for different lamb meats makes necessary to implement analytical methodologies to guarantee consumers the origin of the products. Eighty single birth male lambs from five Southern Spain sheep breeds (Grazalema Merino, Churra Lebrijana, Spanish Merino, Montesina and Segureña) were selected for the study and fed according to their traditional production system (with or without weaning). The fatty acid composition of five different depots (intramuscu...

  17. Polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine origin induce mitochondrial biogenesis and beta-oxidation in white fat

    Flachs, Pavel; Matějková, Olga; Pecina, Petr; Frassen, N.; Brauner, Petr; Rossmeisl, Martin; Keijer, J.; Houštěk, Josef; Kopecký, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. S1 (2005), s. 10-10. ISSN 1467-7881. [European Congress on Obesity /14./. 01.06.2005-04.06.2005, Athens] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/05/2580; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : adipose tissue * n-3 PUFA * mitochondria * fatty acid oxidation * gene expression Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  18. Polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine origin induce mitochondrial biogenesis and beta-oxidation in white fat

    Flachs, Pavel; Matějková, Olga; Pecina, Petr; Frassen, N.; Brauner, Petr; Rossmeisl, Martin; Keijer, J.; Houštěk, Josef; Kopecký, Jan

    Elsevier. Roč. 6, č. 1 (2005), s. 8-8. ISSN 1567-5688. [Congress of the European Atherosclerosis Society /75./. 23.04.2005-26.04.2005, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/05/2580; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : n-3 PUFA * adipose tissue * mitochondria * fatty acid oxidation * gene expression Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  19. Effect of GABA on oxidative stress in the skeletal muscles and plasma free amino acids in mice fed high-fat diet.

    Xie, Z X; Xia, S F; Qiao, Y; Shi, Y H; Le, G W

    2015-06-01

    Increased levels of plasma free amino acids (pFAAs) can disturb the blood glucose levels in patients with obesity, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome (MS) and are associated with enhanced protein oxidation. Oxidation of proteins, especially in the muscles, can promote protein degradation and elevate the levels of pFAAs. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a food additive, can reduce high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperglycaemia; however, the mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of GABA on protein oxidation and pFAAs changes. One hundred male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into five groups that were fed with control diet, HFD and HFD supplied with 0.2%, 0.12% and 0.06% GABA in drinking water for 20 weeks respectively. HFD feeding led to muscular oxidative stress, protein oxidation, pFAA disorders, hyperglycaemia and augmented plasma GABA levels. Treatment with GABA restored normally fasting blood glucose level and dose-dependently inhibited body weight gains, muscular oxidation and protein degradation. While medium and low doses of GABA mitigated HFD-induced pFAA disorders, the high dose of GABA deteriorated the pFAA disorders. Medium dose of GABA increased the levels of GABA, but high dose of GABA reduced the levels of plasma GABA and increased the activity of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase in the liver. Therefore, treatment with GABA mitigated HFD-induced hyperglycaemia probably by repairing HFD-induced muscular oxidative stress and pFAA disorders in mice. Our data also suggest that an optimal dose of GABA is crucial for the prevention of excess GABA-related decrease in the levels of pFAA and GABA as well as obesity. PMID:25266692

  20. Possible role of intestinal fatty acid oxidation in the eating-inhibitory effect of the PPAR-α agonist Wy-14643 in high-fat diet fed rats.

    Elnaz Karimian Azari

    Full Text Available PPAR-α plays a key role in lipid metabolism; it enhances fatty acid oxidation (FAO and ketogenesis. Pharmacological PPAR-α activation improves insulin sensitivity and reduces food intake, but its mechanisms of action remain unknown. We here report that intraperitoneal (IP administration of the PPAR-α agonist Wy-14643 (40 mg/kg BW reduced food intake in adult male rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD, 49% of the energy mainly through an increase in the latency to eat after injection, and without inducing a conditioned taste avoidance. Also, IP administered Wy-14643 caused an acute (the first 60 min decrease in the respiratory quotient (RQ and an increase in hepatic portal vein β-hydroxybutyrate level (at 35 min without affecting plasma non-esterified fatty acids. Given the known stimulatory effect of PPAR-α on FAO and ketogenesis, we measured the protein expression level of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT 1A and mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase (HMG-CoAS2, two key enzymes for FAO and ketogenesis, respectively, in liver, duodenum and jejunum. Wy-14643 induced a significant increase in the expression of CPT 1A in the jejunum and duodenum and of HMG-CoAS2 in the jejunum, but neither CPT 1A nor HMG-CoAS2 expression was increased in the liver. The induction of CPT 1A and HMG-CoAS2 expression was associated with a decrease in the lipid droplet content selectively in the jejunum. Our findings indicate that Wy-14643 stimulates FAO and ketogenesis in the intestine, in particular in the jejunum, rather than in the liver, thus supporting the hypothesis that PPAR-α activation inhibits eating by stimulating intestinal FAO.

  1. Addition of a dairy fraction rich in milk fat globule membrane to a high-saturated fat meal reduces the postprandial insulinaemic and inflammatory response in overweight and obese adults.

    Demmer, Elieke; Van Loan, Marta D; Rivera, Nancy; Rogers, Tara S; Gertz, Erik R; German, J Bruce; Smilowitz, Jennifer T; Zivkovic, Angela M

    2016-01-01

    Meals high in SFA, particularly palmitate, are associated with postprandial inflammation and insulin resistance. Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) has anti-inflammatory properties that may attenuate the negative effects of SFA-rich meals. Our objective was to examine the postprandial metabolic and inflammatory response to a high-fat meal composed of palm oil (PO) compared with PO with an added dairy fraction rich in MFGM (PO+MFGM) in overweight and obese men and women (n 36) in a randomised, double-blinded, cross-over trial. Participants consumed two isoenergetic high-fat meals composed of a smoothie enriched with PO with v. without a cream-derived complex milk lipid fraction ( dairy fraction rich in MFGM) separated by a washout of 1-2 weeks. Serum cytokines, adhesion molecules, cortisol and markers of inflammation were measured at fasting, and at 1, 3 and 6 h postprandially. Glucose, insulin and lipid profiles were analysed in plasma. Consumption of the PO + MFGM v. PO meal resulted in lower total cholesterol (P = 0·021), LDL-cholesterol (P = 0·046), soluble intracellular adhesion molecule (P = 0·005) and insulin (P = 0·005) incremental AUC, and increased IL-10 (P = 0·013). Individuals with high baseline C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations (≥3 mg/l, n 17) had higher (P = 0·030) insulin at 1 h after the PO meal than individuals with CRP concentrations meal by reducing postprandial cholesterol, inflammatory markers and insulin response in overweight and obese individuals, particularly in those with elevated CRP. PMID:27313850

  2. Differential Effects of Military Training on Fat-Free Mass and Plasma Amino Acid Adaptations in Men and Women

    James P. McClung

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fat-free mass (FFM adaptations to physical training may differ between sexes based on disparities in fitness level, dietary intake, and levels of plasma amino acids (AA. This investigation aimed to determine FFM and plasma AA responses to military training, examine whether adaptations differ between male and female recruits, and explore potential associations between FFM and AA responses to training. Body composition and plasma AA levels were assessed in US Army recruits (n = 209, 118 males, 91 females before (baseline and every three weeks during basic combat training (BCT, a 10-week military training course. Body weight decreased in men but remained stable in women during BCT (sex-by-time interaction, P < 0.05. Fifty-eight percent of recruits gained FFM during BCT, with more (P < 0.05 females (88% gaining FFM than males (36%. Total plasma AA increased (P < 0.05 during BCT, with greater (P < 0.05 increases observed in females (17% then in males (4%. Essential amino acids (EAA and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA were increased (P < 0.05 in females but did not change in males (sex-by-time interaction, P < 0.05. Independent of sex, changes in EAA (r = 0.34 and BCAA (r = 0.27 from baseline were associated with changes in FFM (P < 0.05; greater (P < 0.05 increases in AA concentrations were observed for those who gained FFM. Increases in FFM and plasma AA suggest that BCT elicits a more pronounced anabolic response in women compared to men, which may reflect sex-specific differences in the relative intensity of the combined training and physiological stimulus associated with BCT.

  3. Milk fat triacylglycerols and their relations with milk fatty acid composition, DGAT1 K232A polymorphism, and milk production traits.

    Tzompa-Sosa, D A; van Valenberg, H J F; van Aken, G A; Bovenhuis, H

    2016-05-01

    Milk fat (MF) triacylglycerols (TAG) determine the physical and functional properties of butter and products rich in MF. To predict these properties, it is necessary to understand the variability of fatty acids, TAG, their associations, and their effect on milk productive traits, days in milk (DIM), and genes related to fat synthesis. Therefore, the aim of this research was to study the variability of TAG using MF from individual cows and to investigate the effect of fatty acid composition, DGAT1 K232A polymorphism, DIM, and milk production traits (fat content and morning milk yield) on MF TAG profile in the Dutch Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle population. Large differences in MF TAG profiles were seen among cows. We showed that the variability of TAG is highest for low and high molecular weight TAG [TAG with carbon numbers (Cn) 26-30 and Cn52-54, respectively] and lowest for TAG with Cn38, which was the most abundant TAG. Saturation index (saturated fatty acid/unsaturated fatty acid) and the ratio C16:0/C18:1 cis-9 showed significant effects on TAG Cn34, Cn36, Cn52, and Cn54: TAG Cn34 and Cn36 increased as the saturation index and ratio C16:0/C18:1 cis-9 increased, whereas the opposite was seen for TAG Cn52 and Cn54. Moreover, the DGAT1 K232A polymorphism significantly affected TAG Cn38. We showed that the relative concentration of TAG with Cn38 was higher in cows with DGAT1 KK genotype. Production traits (fat content and morning milk yield) and DIM had no significant effect on TAG profile. This is a relevant observation because considerable increases of milk yield and fat content have been seen in the Netherlands over the last 60 yr. The large differences shown between individual cows in MF TAG profile imply differences in physical properties of MF. PMID:26971154

  4. Modified high-intensity interval training reduces liver fat and improves cardiac function in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized controlled trial.

    Hallsworth, Kate; Thoma, Christian; Hollingsworth, Kieren G; Cassidy, Sophie; Anstee, Quentin M; Day, Christopher P; Trenell, Michael I

    2015-12-01

    Although lifestyle changes encompassing weight loss and exercise remain the cornerstone of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) management, the effect of different types of exercise on NAFLD is unknown. This study defines the effect of modified high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on liver fat, cardiac function and metabolic control in adults with NAFLD. Twenty-three patients with NAFLD [age 54±10 years, body mass index (BMI) 31±4 kg/m(2), intra-hepatic lipid >5%) were assigned to either 12 weeks HIIT or standard care (controls). HIIT involved thrice weekly cycle ergometry for 30-40 min. MRI and spectroscopy were used to assess liver fat, abdominal fat and cardiac structure/function/energetics. Glucose control was assessed by oral glucose tolerance test and body composition by air displacement plethysmography. Relative to control, HIIT decreased liver fat (11±5% to 8±2% compared with 10±4% to 10±4% P=0.019), whole-body fat mass (35±7 kg to 33±8 kg compared with 31±9 kg to 32±9 kg, P=0.013), alanine (52±29 units/l to 42±20 units/l compared with 47±22 units/l to 51±24 units/l, P=0.016) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST; 36±18 units/l to 33±15 units/l compared with 31±8 units/l to 35±8 units/l, P=0.017) and increased early diastolic filling rate (244±84 ml/s to 302±107 ml/s compared with 255±82 ml/s to 251±82 ml/s, P=0.018). There were no between groups differences in glucose control. Modified HIIT reduces liver fat and improves body composition alongside benefits to cardiac function in patients with NAFLD and should be considered as part of the broader treatment regimen by clinical care teams. ISRCTN trial ID: ISRCTN78698481. PMID:26265792

  5. Effect of fat content on sensory characteristics of marbled beef from Japanese Black steers.

    Iida, Fumiko; Saitou, Kaoru; Kawamura, Tadashi; Yamaguchi, Shizuko; Nishimura, Toshihide

    2015-07-01

    To analyze the sensory characteristics of meat samples with a crude fat content between 23.8% and 48.6% taken from 34 Japanese Black steers, we grilled the meat and subjected it to analytical sensory evaluation. We also measured the amounts of moisture, protein, nucleic acid and glutamic acid. An increase in crude fat content increased the tenderness, juiciness, and fattiness in the meat quality evaluation. An increase in crude fat content reduced the crude protein and moisture contents; it also slightly reduced the nucleic acid and glutamic acid contents, although when the reductions in these umami components were assessed relative to the moisture content they changed little. Increasing the fat content up to a certain point greatly enhanced the umami intensity and beef flavor intensity in the meat quality evaluation and raised the overall evaluation score; the peak of the appropriate crude fat content for these purposes was about 36%. PMID:25492124

  6. Polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine origin induce adiponectin in mice fed a high-fat diet

    Flachs, Pavel; Mohamed-Ali, V.; Horáková, Olga; Rossmeisl, Martin; Hosseinzadeh-Attar, M. J.; Hensler, Michal; Růžičková, Jana; Kopecký, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2006), s. 394-397. ISSN 0012-186X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB5011410; GA ČR(CZ) GA303/05/2580; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520 Grant ostatní: Wellcome Trust(GB) 070821/Z/03/Z; GA-(NO) Pronova Biocare; European Commission(XE) LSHM-CT-2004-005272 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : insulin * fatty acids * adiponektin Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 5.247, year: 2006

  7. Lactobionic acid reduces body weight gain in diet-induced obese rats by targeted inhibition of galectin-1.

    Mukherjee, Rajib; Yun, Jong Won

    2015-08-01

    Galectin-1 (GAL1), an animal lectin with a carbohydrate recognition domain, is known for its roles in cancer, tumor progression, as well as obesity and related complications. Here, we investigated the anti-obesity effect of lactobionic acid (LBA), a GAL1 inhibitor, both in vitro and in vivo. LBA treatment significantly reduced lipogenic capacity of both 3T3-L1 and HIB1B adipocytes through down-regulation of major adipogenic transcription factors at both mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, oral administration and intraperitoneal injection of LBA in Sprague-Dawley male rats fed a high fat diet caused marked reduction of body weight gain as well as improvement of related metabolic parameters. Important lipogenic transcription factors were also down-regulated in LBA-treated rats, resulting in attenuated lipogenesis and fat accumulation. Collectively, pharmaceutical targeting of GAL1 using LBA would be a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of obesity. PMID:26116537

  8. Embelia ribes extract reduces high fat diet and low dose streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephrotoxicity in rats

    Chaudhari, Hemantkumar Somabhai; Bhandari, Uma; KHANNA, Geetika

    2013-01-01

    Nephropathy associated with type 2 diabetes is the single most common cause of end-stage renal disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the preventive effect of ethanolic extract of Embelia ribes fruit (EER) against high fat diet (HFD) and low dose streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic nephrotoxicity in Wistar rats. HFD-fed and low dose STZ (35 mg/kg, i.p)-induced diabetic rats were treated with EER (100 and 200 mg/kg/day) for 21 days while continuing on HFD. Preventive eff...

  9. The Influence Of Isomerised Plant Oils With High Content Of Conjugated Dienes Of Linoleic Acids c9,t11 And t10,c12 On The Fat Reduction In The Carcass And Meat of Lamb

    B. Patkowska-Sokoła

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An influence of isomerised poppy seed oil on lamb body fat and fat content in meat, and also fatty acids content was determined in the research. As a result of poppy seed oil isomerisation, the synthesis of conjugated dienes of linoleic acid of trans-10, cis-12 and cis-9, trans-11 configuration in amounts 34.3% and 32.2%, respectively, occurred. The enrichment of feed dose of fattening lambs with this additive caused body fat reduction at a level from 13 to 37%, and a lowering of fat content in muscular tissue from 13 to 27 percentage points. An addition of isomerised poppy seed oil also profitably modified the content of fatty acids in adipose tissues causing an increase of biologically active beneficial components such as: c9,t11 and t10,c12 isomers of linoleic acid, vaccenic acid, and a decrease of saturated fatty acids content.

  10. Study of oleanolic acid on the estrodiol production and the fat production of mouse preadipocyte 3T3-L1 in vitro.

    Wan, Qian; Lu, Hua; Liu, Xia; Yie, Shangmian; Xiang, Junbei; Yao, Zouying

    2015-01-01

    The women during the menopause period have an increased tendency for the obesity, which represents the more fat production than during the premenopausal period. Although this is not beneficial overall, it could provide a compensatory source for the estrogen production for the menopausal women. So it would be meaningful to find an agent that could inhibit the fat production while does not disturb the total estrogen production by fat tissues. In the present study, the effect of oleanolic acid (OA) on the fat production and the total estrogen production of the differentiating mouse preadipocyte 3T3-L1 as well as the mechanisms behind those effects were preliminarily investigated. The cell line 3T3-L1 was chosen as the model cell because it is usually used for the research about the obesity. During the induced differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells, cells were intervened continuously with OA. The fat production was determined with the oil red staining assay and the total estrogen production was measured with the ELISA assay. Finally, the expression patterns for important genes of the fat production and the estrogen production were studied, respectively with the real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (qPCR). The results showed that for the differentiating 3T3-L1 cells, OA could significantly inhibit the fat production and did not disturb the total estrogen production significantly. In the mechanism studies, OA was found to significantly down-regulate ACC, the key gene for fat synthesis, which could explain the inhibitory effect of OA on the fat production; OA was also found to significantly up-regulate CYP11A1, CYP17, CYP19, the key genes for the estrogen synthesis and significantly down-regulate CYP1A1, the key gene for the estrogen decomposition, which preliminarily explained the lack of the effect of OA on the total estrogen production. In conclusion, OA was found able to inhibit the fat production while maintaining the total estrogen level and the mechanisms for the above

  11. Transgenic increase in N-3/n-6 Fatty Acid ratio reduces maternal obesity-associated inflammation and limits adverse developmental programming in mice.

    Margaret J R Heerwagen

    Full Text Available Maternal and pediatric obesity has risen dramatically over recent years, and is a known predictor of adverse long-term metabolic outcomes in offspring. However, which particular aspects of obese pregnancy promote such outcomes is less clear. While maternal obesity increases both maternal and placental inflammation, it is still unknown whether this is a dominant mechanism in fetal metabolic programming. In this study, we utilized the Fat-1 transgenic mouse to test whether increasing the maternal n-3/n-6 tissue fatty acid ratio could reduce the consequences of maternal obesity-associated inflammation and thereby mitigate downstream developmental programming. Eight-week-old WT or hemizygous Fat-1 C57BL/6J female mice were placed on a high-fat diet (HFD or control diet (CD for 8 weeks prior to mating with WT chow-fed males. Only WT offspring from Fat-1 mothers were analyzed. WT-HFD mothers demonstrated increased markers of infiltrating adipose tissue macrophages (P<0.02, and a striking increase in 12 serum pro-inflammatory cytokines (P<0.05, while Fat1-HFD mothers remained similar to WT-CD mothers, despite equal weight gain. E18.5 Fetuses from WT-HFD mothers had larger placentas (P<0.02, as well as increased placenta and fetal liver TG deposition (P<0.01 and P<0.02, respectively and increased placental LPL TG-hydrolase activity (P<0.02, which correlated with degree of maternal insulin resistance (r = 0.59, P<0.02. The placentas and fetal livers from Fat1-HFD mothers were protected from this excess placental growth and fetal-placental lipid deposition. Importantly, maternal protection from excess inflammation corresponded with improved metabolic outcomes in adult WT offspring. While the offspring from WT-HFD mothers weaned onto CD demonstrated increased weight gain (P<0.05, body and liver fat (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively, and whole body insulin resistance (P<0.05, these were prevented in WT offspring from Fat1-HFD mothers. Our results

  12. Stearidonic acid-enriched flax oil reduces the growth of human breast cancer in vitro and in vivo.

    Subedi, K; Yu, H-M; Newell, M; Weselake, R J; Meesapyodsuk, D; Qiu, X; Shah, S; Field, C J

    2015-01-01

    The 20 and 22 carbon n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) inhibit the growth of tumors in vitro and in animal models, but less is known about the 18 carbon n-3, stearidonic acid (SDA). This study aimed to establish and determine a mechanism for the anti-cancer activity of SDA-enriched oil (SO). SO (26 % of lipid) was produced by genetically engineering flax and used to treat human tumorigenic (MDA-MB-231, MCF-7) and non-tumorigenic (MCF-12A) breast cells. Nu/nu mice bearing MDA-MB-231 tumor were fed SO (SDA, 4 % of fat). Cell/tumor growth, phospholipid (PL) composition, apoptosis, CD95, and pro-apoptotic molecules were determined in SO-treated cells/tumors. Compared to a control lipid mixture, SO reduced (p < 0.05) the number of tumorigenic, but not MCF-12A cells, and resulted in higher concentration of most of the n-3 fatty acids in PL of all cells (p < 0.05). However, docosapentaenoic acid increased only in tumorigenic cells (p < 0.05). SO diet decreased tumor growth and resulted in more n-3 LCPUFA, including DPA and less arachidonic acid (AA) levels in major tumor PL (p < 0.05). Treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells/tumors with SO resulted in more apoptotic cells (in tumors) and in vivo and in vitro, more CD95+ positive cells and a higher expression of apoptotic molecules caspase-10, Bad, or Bid (p < 0.05). Supplementing SO alters total PL and PL classes by increasing membrane content of n-3 LCPUFA and lowering AA (in vivo), which is associated with increased CD95-mediated apoptosis, thereby suggesting a possible mechanism for reduce tumor survival. PMID:25417173

  13. Surgical removal of visceral fat decreases plasma free fatty acid and increases insulin sensitivity on liver and peripheral tissue in monosodium glutamate (MSG)-obese rats.

    Kim, Y W; Kim, J Y; Lee, S K

    1999-10-01

    In order to evaluate the role of visceral and subcutaneous fat tissue in insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism, we measured the fasting levels of plasma free fatty acid (FFA) and insulin, glucose disappearance rate (Rd), and hepatic glucose production rate (HGP) after surgical removal of visceral (VF) or subcutaneous (SF) fat tissue in monosodium glutamate-obese (MSG-Ob) rats. Monosodium glutamate obesity was induced in rats by neonatal injection of MSG. Surgery to remove fat was done at 15 weeks of age. The experiments were done four weeks after the surgery. MSG-Ob rats showed increased levels of FFA, insulin, and HGP and decreased Rd compared to normal rats. In the VF group, the FFA level and HGP were decreased to normal values, Rd was partially normalized, but the level of insulin did not change significantly compared to MSG-Ob. In the SF group, FFA and Rd were partially normalized, but HGP was not suppressed significantly compared to MSG-Ob. These results suggest that visceral fat affects the insulin sensitivity of liver and FFA concentration more than subcutaneous fat; however, no significant difference was shown on whole body insulin sensitivity and fasting insulin concentration. PMID:10576150

  14. Astaxanthin reduces hepatic lipid accumulations in high-fat-fed C57BL/6J mice via activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha and inhibition of PPAR gamma and Akt.

    Jia, Yaoyao; Wu, Chunyan; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Bobae; Lee, Sung-Joon

    2016-02-01

    We have previously reported that astaxanthin (AX), a dietary carotenoid, directly interacts with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors PPARα and PPARγ, activating PPARα while inhibiting PPARγ, and thus reduces lipid accumulation in hepatocytes in vitro. To investigate the effects of AX in vivo, high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice were orally administered AX (6 or 30mg/kg body weight) or vehicle for 8weeks. AX significantly reduced the levels of triglyceride both in plasma and in liver compared with the control HFD mice. AX significantly improved liver histology and thus reduced both steatosis and inflammation scores of livers with hematoxylin and eosin staining. The number of inflammatory macrophages and Kupffer cells were reduced in livers by AX administration assessed with F4/80 staining. Hepatic PPARα-responsive genes involved in fatty acid uptake and β-oxidation were upregulated, whereas inflammatory genes were downregulated by AX administration. In vitro radiolabeled assays revealed that hepatic fatty acid oxidation was induced by AX administration, whereas fatty acid synthesis was not changed in hepatocytes. In mechanism studies, AX inhibited Akt activity and thus decreased SREBP1 phosphorylation and induced Insig-2a expression, both of which delayed nuclear translocation of SREBP1 and subsequent hepatic lipogenesis. Additionally, inhibition of the Akt-mTORC1 signaling axis by AX stimulated hepatic autophagy that could promote degradation of lipid droplets. These suggest that AX lowers hepatic lipid accumulation in HFD-fed mice via multiple mechanisms. In addition to the previously reported differential regulation of PPARα and PPARγ, inhibition of Akt activity and activation of hepatic autophagy reduced hepatic steatosis in mouse livers. PMID:26878778

  15. Effects of Different High Fat Diets on Fatty Acid Composition of Skeletal Muscle and Liver in Nude Mice Bearing Pancreatic Cancer

    Yi-jie DUAN; Feng WANG; Zhong-wen LIU; Ming YU

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impacts of different dietary fatty acids on fatty acid composition in skeletal muscle and liver in nude mice bearing pancreatic cancer.MethodsSixty C57BL/6 nude mice were randomly divided into 6 groups: saturated fatty acid-fed group (SFA group), monounsaturated fatty acid-fed group (MUFA group), n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid-fed group (n-6 PUFA group), n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid-fed group (n-3 PUFA group), iso-caloric control (ISO-C) and normal control (NC). Four high fat diets containing 15% oils derived from coconut (SFA group), olive (MUFA group), soybean (n-6 PUFA group) andflaxseed (n-3 PUFA group) respectively, were prepared. ISO-C and NC groups were fed diet containing 4%-5% soybean oil. After one week of feeding, HPAF-Ⅱ human pancreatic cancer cells were transplanted orthotopically. The mice were fed corresponding diets in the following 14 weeks and then sacrificed. Skeletal muscle and liver tissues were sampled. Fatty acids in the samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.ResultsFatty acid composition of skeletal muscle and liver were similar between ISO-C group and NC group.Compared to ISO-C group, the contents of fatty acids in skeletal muscle were: (1) palmitic acid (C16:0), hepentadecane acid (C17:0), stearic acid (C18:0) and arachidonic acid (C20:0) increased inSFA group (P< 0.05); (2)oleic acid (C18:1) increased in MUFA group (P< 0.05); (3)γ-linolenic acid (γ-C18:3) increased in n-6 PUFA group (P<0.05);(4) linolenic acid (C18:3), eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5) and clupanodonic acid (C22:5) increased in n-3 PUFA group (P<0.05). In the liver, the contents of fatty acids were: (1) saturated fatty acids not increased in SFA group; (2) eicosenoic acid (C20:1) increased in MUFA group (P< 0.05); (3) eicosadienoic acid (C20:2) and arachidonic acid (C20:4) increased in n-6 PUFA group (P < 0.05); (4) linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, clupanodonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid increased in n-3 PUFA

  16. DHEA supplementation in ovariectomized rats reduces impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion induced by a high-fat diet

    Katherine Veras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and the dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S are steroids produced mainly by the adrenal cortex. There is evidence from both human and animal models suggesting beneficial effects of these steroids for obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and osteoporosis, conditions associated with the post-menopausal period. Accordingly, we hypothesized that DHEA supplementation in ovariectomized (OVX female rats fed a high-fat diet would maintain glucose-induced insulin secretion (GSIS and pancreatic islet function. OVX resulted in a 30% enlargement of the pancreatic islets area compared to the control rats, which was accompanied by a 50% reduction in the phosphorylation of AKT protein in the pancreatic islets. However, a short-term high-fat diet induced insulin resistance, accompanied by impaired GSIS in isolated pancreatic islets. These effects were reversed by DHEA treatment, with improved insulin sensitivity to levels similar to the control group, and with increased serine phosphorylation of the AKT protein. These data confirm the protective effect of DHEA on the endocrine pancreas in a situation of diet-induced overweight and low estrogen concentrations, a phenotype similar to that of the post-menopausal period.

  17. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol

    Tetens, Inge

    formulate a DRV for the intake of total cis-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); not to set specific values for the n-3/n-6 ratio; to set an Adequate Intake (AI) of 4 E% for linoleic acid (LA); not to set any DRV for arachidonic acid; not to set an UL for total or any of the n-6 PUFA; to set an AI for alpha...... gradually be reduced from 40 E% in the 6-12 month period to 35-40 E% in the 2nd and 3rd year of life. For specific fatty acids the following is proposed: saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans fatty acid intake should be as low as possible; not to set any DRV for cis-monounsaturated fatty acids; not to......-linolenic acid (ALA) of 0.5 E%; not to set an UL for ALA; to set an AI of 250 mg for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for adults; to set an AI of 100 mg DHA for infants (>6 months) and young children...

  18. Fat intake, diet variety and health promotion.

    Elmadfa, I; Freisling, H

    2005-01-01

    Different epidemiological studies indicated that the optimization of diet and nutrition combined with healthy life style can decrease the risk and even lead to amelioration of various noncommunicable diseases. Promising food-based dietary guidelines have been recommended in order to improve the nutritional and health status. One of the most popular recommendations is related to the amount (less fat and fat-rich foods) and type of the dietary fat component (less saturated, more polyunsaturated fatty acids, lower n-6:n-3 ratio). An overview on the nutrient intake among different age groups in Austria shows that the general consumption of some food groups--especially those rich in carbohydrates--is too low and that the intake of fat is far beyond the recommended amount of 30% of total energy (E%). The results of the 24-hour recall made among Austrian adults (n = 2,585) showed that about 18% of this population group had a fat intake of 30-35 E%, whereas 60% had an intake higher than 35 E%. Only 24% of the female and male adults had a fat intake lower than 30 E%. A result of this high proportion of fat--in the form of foods rich in fat--in the average total energy consumption is a too low intake of carbohydrates, and foods rich in carbohydrates, respectively. An increasing fat intake is associated with an increasing intake of some nutrients such as vitamin A, E, calcium and zinc, but a decreasing intake of other nutrients like vitamin C, folate, carotenoids and others. The diversity of foods consumed during a day increases with decreasing amount of fat in the diet of adults. People with a high amount of fat in their daily diet show a lower intake of vegetables and fruit, cereal products, carotenoids, folates and dietary fibers, but a higher intake of meat and meat products, milk and milk products, sweets and flummeries as well as saturated fatty acids (SFA) and cholesterol. Of course, a higher variety of food items in the daily diet should not be associated with a

  19. Reducing fat levels in cheddar-like goat cheese: impact on proteolysis and rheological properties over 6 months of refrigerated storage

    Development of low-fat goat cheeses that appeal to health conscious consumers requires information on how the reduction of fat affects the quality traits of the cheese, such as its proteolysis and rheology. Goat milk samples containing 3.6, 2.0, 1.0, and <0.5% fat were processed into full-fat (F...

  20. Cactus pear peel flour as a fiber source and its effect on physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low fat-sodium reduced-sausages

    Ocampo-Olalde, Raul; Delgado-Suarez, J. Enrique; Gutierrez-Pabello, Jose A.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the higher fiber content of fiber and antioxidant compounds cactus pear peel can be employed as a functional ingredient in meat products. The aim of this work was to study the effect of cactus pear peel flour as fiber source in the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low fat sodium reduced cooked sausages. There different formulations were employed, two with 2.5 and 5% of cactus pear peel flour, respectively, and control with no cactus pear peel flour. Sausages were vacuum p...

  1. Terpenes and fatty acid profiles of milk fat and "Bitto" cheese as affected by transhumance of cows on different mountain pastures.

    Noni, Ivano De; Battelli, Giovanna

    2008-07-15

    The evolution of fatty acid (FA) and terpenoid profiles was studied in milk (n=20) and "Bitto" (n=3), a protected designation of origin cheese produced in a restricted Italian alpine area. Milk came from 25 Italian Brown cows successively grazing pastures at 1400, 2100 and 2200m during transhumance in June-September 2006. The fat matter was analyzed for FAs and terpenes by means of gas chromatography and purge & trap/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. FA composition of milk fat varied significantly (p<0.0001) in relation to contents of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), stearic, linoleic and trans-vaccenic acids. Similar monoterpene profiles characterized milk fat from cows grazing the different pastures and the highest amount of terpenes was measured in milk coming from cows grazing at 1400m. High levels of δ3-carene in milk fat were likely related to the important presence of Ligusticum mutellina in the pasture. Only negligible amounts of sesquiterpenes were detected in milk fat whereas they were the most abundant class in fodder. Both FA and terpene profiles of ripened (70 days) cheeses resembled those of the original milks. Overall, results confirm the influence of the botanical composition of mountain pastures both in enhancing the ruminal synthesis of CLA and in modifying the FA and terpenoid profiles of milk and "Bitto" cheese. Nevertheless, neither the FA nor the terpenoid profiles revealed here can be considered as "unique" to "Bitto" cheese and, for this reason, they can hardly be assumed to be biomarkers for defining a specific relationship among grazing area, milk and "Bitto" cheese. They better represent the chemical fingerprint of the cow feeding, adopted in mountain areas. PMID:26003351

  2. Retinoic acid expands the evolutionarily reduced dentition of zebrafish

    Seritrakul, Pawat; Samarut, Eric,; Lama, Tenzing T. S.; Gibert, Yann; Laudet, Vincent; Jackman, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Zebrafish lost anterior teeth during evolution but retain a posterior pharyngeal dentition that requires retinoic acid (RA) cell-cell signaling for its development. The purposes of this study were to test the sufficiency of RA to induce tooth development and to assess its role in evolution. We found that exposure of embryos to exogenous RA induces a dramatic anterior expansion of the number of pharyngeal teeth that later form and shifts anteriorly the expression patterns of genes normally exp...

  3. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA versus saturated fats/cholesterol: their proportion in fatty and lean meats may affect the risk of developing colon cancer

    Lopez Cristina B

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In spite of the considerable amount of experimental, clinical and epidemiological research about the consumption of red meat, total fats, saturated/unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol with regard to the risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC, the issue remains controversial. The general belief is a reduction of red meat intake, and subsequent nutritional advice usually strongly recommends this. Paradoxically, beef together with whole milk and dairy derivatives, are almost the only sources for conjugated linoleic acid (CLAs family. Furthermore CLAs are the only natural fatty acids accepted by the National Academy of Sciences of USA as exhibiting consistent antitumor properties at levels as low as 0.25 – 1.0 per cent of total fats. Beside CLA, other polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA belonging to the essential fatty acid (EFA n-3 family, whose main source are fish and seafood, are generally believed to be antipromoters for several cancers. The purpose of this work is to critically analyze the epidemiological and experimental evidence by tentatively assuming that the reciprocal proportions of saturated fats (SA plus cholesterol (CH versus CLAs levels in fatty or lean beef may play an antagonistic role underlying the contradictory effects reported for red meats consumption and CRC risk. Recent results about meat intake and risk for CRC in Argentina have shown an unexpected dual behaviour related to the type of meats. Fatty meat derivatives, such as cold cuts and sausages, mainly prepared from fatty beef (up to 37% fat were associated with higher risk, whereas high consumption of lean beef (

  4. Effect of trans fatty acid intake on abdominal and liver fat deposition and blood lipids

    Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup; Chabanova, E.; Thomsen, Henrik S.;

    2011-01-01

    abdominal and liver fat deposition.Objective:We examined the effect of a high intake of TFA as part of an isocaloric diet on whole-body, abdominal and hepatic fat deposition, and blood lipids in postmenopausal women.Methods:In a 16-week double-blind parallel intervention study, 52 healthy overweight...

  5. Dietary structured lipids for post-weaning piglets: fat digestibility, nitrogen retention and fatty acid profiles of tissues

    Straarup, Ellen Marie; Danielsen, V.; Høy, Carl-Erik;

    2006-01-01

    examined. Dietary fats included as 10% (w/w) of the diets were two structured fats of rapeseed oil interesterified with tridecanoin (R1) or coconut oil (R2), respectively, one mixture of rapeseed oil and coconut oil (R3) and rapeseed oil as control (R4). Faeces and urine from piglets weaned at 28 days...

  6. Apricot and pumpkin oils reduce plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Ramadan, Mohamed F.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-conventional oilseeds are being taken into greater consideration because their constituents have unique chemical properties and may increase the supply of edible oils. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of apricot kernel oil (AO and pumpkin kernel oil (PO on the lipid profiles and liver functions of rats fed high fat diets. The high fat diet resulted in great alterations in plasma lipid profiles and liver functions. Twenty-four male albino rats were used over a 28 day period. The animals were divided into 4 groups, where group 1 represents the negative control which were a fed basal diet, while group 2 received a high fat diet to serve as the hypercholesterolemic group (positive control. The other two groups were given a high fat diet supplemented with AO and PO. Group 3 was treated daily with AO (1g/Kg body weight, while group 4 was treated with PO (1g/Kg body weight. The plasma lipid profile and liver functions in the different groups were determined after 14 and 28 days. The rats in the treated groups (AO and PO showed significantly lower levels of total cholesterol (TC, total triglycerides (TG, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, alanine-aminotransferase (ALT and aspartateaminotransferase (AST activities as well as high levels of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C and total protein in comparison with the hypercholesterolemic group. It could be concluded that AO and PO under study are useful for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.

    Las semillas oleaginosas no convencionales están siendo consideradas debido a que sus componentes tienen propiedades químicas únicas y pueden aumentar la oferta de los aceites comestibles. El propósito del presente estudio fue investigar el efecto de los aceites de semilla de albaricoque (AO y de calabaza (PO sobre los perfiles de lípidos y las funciones del hígado de ratas alimentadas con una dieta rica en grasas. Las dietas ricas en grasas dan lugar

  7. Production of reducing sugar from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) cellulose fibres via acid hydrolysis

    Siew Xian Chin; Chin Hua Chia; Sarani Zakaria

    2013-01-01

    Cellulosic fibre of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) were used as a raw material for acid hydrolysis using mineral acids (H2SO4 and HCl) to produce reducing sugar at moderate temperature and atmospheric pressure. Experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of the hydrolysis parameters, including acid concentration, temperature, and reaction time, on the total reducing sugar (TRS) yield with the aid of response surface methodology (RSM). The preliminary hydrolysis studies of the E...

  8. Genome-wide association study for intramuscular fat deposition and composition in Nellore cattle

    Red meat from Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds are an important source of nutrients for humans and intramuscular fat (IMF) influences its flavor, nutritional value and impacts human health. Human consumption of fat that contains high levels of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) can reduce the conce...

  9. Can essential fatty acids reduce the burden of disease(s?

    Das Undurti N

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cancer, depression schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and collagen vascular diseases are low-grade systemic inflammatory conditions that are a severe burden on health care resources. Essential fatty acids (EFAs and their metabolites: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, gamma-linolenic acid (GLA, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA, and arachidonic acid (AA and their products: prostaglandin E1, prostacyclin, lipoxins, resolvins, and protectins suppress inflammation, augment healing, and are of benefit in the prevention and management of these conditions. Hence, supplementation of EFAs could reduce burden of these disease(s.

  10. Teichuronic acid reducing terminal N-acetylglucosamine residue linked by phosphodiester to peptidoglycan of Micrococcus luteus

    Teichuronic acid-peptidoglycan complex isolated from Micrococcus luteus cells by lysozyme digestion in osmotically stabilized medium was treated with mild acid to cleave the linkage joining teichuronic acid to peptidoglycan. This labile linkage was shown to be the phosphodiester which joins N-acetylglucosamine, the residue located at the reducing end of the teichuronic acid, through its anomeric hydroxyl group to a 6-phosphomuramic acid, a residue of the glycan strand of peptidoglycan. 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the lysozyme digest of cell walls demonstrated the presence of a phosphodiester which was converted to a phosphomonoester by the conditions which released teichuronic acid from cell walls. Reduction of acid-liberated reducing end groups by NaB3H4 followed by complete acid hydrolysis yielded [3H] glucosaminitol from the true reducing end residue of teichuronic acid and [3H]glucitol from the sites of fragmentation of teichuronic acid. The amount of N-acetylglucosamine detected was approximately stoichiometric with the amount of phosphate in the complex. Partial fragmentation of teichuronic acid provides an explanation of the previous erroneous identification of the reducing end residue

  11. Supplementation of conjugated linoleic acid in dairy cows reduces endogenous glucose production during early lactation.

    Hötger, Kristin; Hammon, Harald M.; Weber, Claudia; Görs, Solvig; Tröscher, Arnulf; Bruckmaier, Rupert M; Metges, Cornelia C.

    2013-01-01

    Trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation causes milk fat depression in dairy cows, but CLA effects on glucose metabolism are not clear. The objective of the study was to investigate glucose metabolism, especially endogenous glucose production (eGP) and glucose oxidation (GOx), as well as hepatic genes involved in endogenous glucose production in Holstein cows supplemented either with 50 g of rumen-protected CLA (9% trans-10,cis-12 and 10% cis-9,trans-11; CLA; n=10) or 50...

  12. Low-fat sodium-reduced sausages: Effect of the interaction between locust bean gum, potato starch and κ-carrageenan by a mixture design approach.

    García-García, Elizabeth; Totosaus, Alfonso

    2008-04-01

    A mixture design approach was used to evaluate interactions between potato starch, locust bean gum and κ-carrageenan and their effect on cooking yield, expressible moisture, texture and color in low-fat sodium-reduced sausages formulated with potassium and calcium chloride. Starch had a notable influence on cooking yield and texture, increasing product hardness and resilience as starch proportion increased. The added salt did not allow complete starch granule gelatinization and swelling, which negatively affected water retention, cohesiveness and lightness. Locust bean gum and κ-carrageenan improved cooking yield and reduced expressible moisture in formulations containing higher proportions of potato starch. The presence of other ions could have enhanced κ-carrageenan functionality and its synergistic interaction with locust bean gum, improving texture and water retention, with only minor effects on sausage color. At the lower tested proportions starch can be used as an extender in low-fat cooked meat products if κ-carrageenan and locust bean gum are included in similar proportions. PMID:22062459

  13. Effects of stereospecific positioning of fatty acids in triacylglycerol structures in native and randomized fats: a review of their nutritional implications

    Sundram Kalyana

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Most studies on lipid lowering diets have focused on the total content of saturated, polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. However, the distribution of these fatty acids on the triacylglycerol (TAG molecule and the molecular TAG species generated by this stereospecificity are characteristic for various native dietary TAGs. Fat randomization or interesterification is a process involving the positional redistribution of fatty acids, which leads to the generation of new TAG molecular species. A comparison between native and randomized TAGs is the subject of this review with regards to the role of stereospecificity of fatty acids in metabolic processing and effects on fasting lipids and postprandial lipemia. The positioning of unsaturated versus saturated fatty acids in the sn-2 position of TAGs indicate differences in early metabolic processing and postprandial clearance, which may explain modulatory effects on atherogenecity and thrombogenecity. Both human and animal studies are discussed with implications for human health.

  14. Polymorphisms in Genes Involved in Fatty Acid β-Oxidation Interact with Dietary Fat Intakes to Modulate the Plasma TG Response to a Fish Oil Supplementation

    Annie Bouchard-Mercier

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A large inter-individual variability in the plasma triglyceride (TG response to an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA supplementation has been observed. The objective was to examine gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response after a fish oil supplementation, between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes. Two hundred and eight (208 participants were recruited in the greater Quebec City area. The participants completed a six-week fish oil supplementation (5 g fish oil/day: 1.9–2.2 g EPA and 1.1 g DHA. Dietary fat intakes were measured using three-day food records. SNPs within RXRA, CPT1A, ACADVL, ACAA2, ABCD2, ACOX1 and ACAA1 genes were genotyped using TAQMAN methodology. Gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response were observed for SNPs within RXRA (rs11185660, rs10881576 and rs12339187 and ACOX1 (rs17583163 genes. For rs11185660, fold changes in RXRA gene expression levels were different depending on SFA intakes for homozygotes T/T. Gene-diet interaction effects of SNPs within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes may be important in understanding the inter-individual variability in plasma TG levels and in the plasma TG response to a fish oil supplementation.

  15. Cholesterol reduces the effects of dihydroxy bile acids and fatty acids on water and solute transport in the human jejunum.

    Broor, S L; Slota, T; Ammon, H V

    1980-01-01

    Jejunal perfusion studies were performed in 16 healthy volunteers to test the hypothesis that intraluminal cholesterol can mitigate the fluid secretion induced by dihydroxy bile acids and fatty acids. Fluid secretion in the presence of 5 mM taurodeoxycholate was somewhat reduced by 4 mM mono-olein which was used for the solubilization of cholesterol. Addition of 0.8 mM cholesterol reduced fluid secretion further (P less than 0.05). Fluid secretion induced by 4 mM oleic acid was changed to net...

  16. 内源性n-3多不饱和脂肪酸对fat-1转基因小鼠血糖血脂的影响%Effects of Endogenous n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) on Blood Glucose and Serum Lipid in fat-1 Transgenic Mouse Model

    周飞; 张晓宏; 邹祖全; 张才乔

    2015-01-01

    利用fat-1转基因小鼠模型,研究内源性n-3多不饱和脂肪酸(n-3 PUFAs)的血糖血脂调节作用.采用fat-1转基因小鼠和C57BL/6野生型小鼠喂食高n-6、低n-3 PUFAs的标准配方饲料4周,然后2组小鼠给予高糖饮液自由饮用4周,每周测体重.第8周末,取血离心测血糖、胰岛素、甘油三脂(TG)、胆固醇(TC)、高密度脂蛋白(HDL-C)、低密度脂蛋白(LDL-C)水平.结果表明:fat-1转基因小鼠体重增加幅度、空腹血糖值、血清胰岛素、胰岛素抵抗指数、血清TC、TG、HDL-C、LDL-C水平明显低于野生型小鼠(P<0.05).认为n-3 PUFAs能抑制体重增长,降低小鼠血糖、血脂和胰岛素抵抗,起到调节血糖、血脂的作用.%In this study, we investigate the effects of endogenous n-3 PUFAs on blood glucose and serum lipid in fat-1 transgenic mouse model. The transgenic and wild type mice are maintained on a 10%corn oil diet which has high ratio of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for 4 weeks. Then make them drink high sugar pinocytosis freely for another four weeks. On the eighth weekend, serum glucose, insulin, serum triglyceride (TG), serum total cholesterol (TC), serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels of blood serum are tested after blood collection and centrifugation. The weight gain rate, fasting blood sugar and serum insulin levels, insulin resistance index, serum TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C of fat-1 transgenic mice are found to be significantly lower than those of wild type mice (P<0.05). The tests indicate that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids can reduce the blood glucose and serum lipid, which may play a vital role in regulating blood lipid and decreasing insulin resistance.

  17. Effects of hydrocolloids addition on the retention and release profile of diacetyl and (--α-pinene in model reduced fat salad dressings

    Grażyna Bortnowska

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Salad dressings due to their gustatory and nutritious advantages have been very often used in many food products. Traditional dressings usually contain large amount of fat (20-65%. Reduction of its content in such systems in most cases leads to their physical destabilization and causes worsening of sensory properties particularly because of increase in volatility of lipophilic aroma compounds which have been mostly found in food products. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of hydrocolloid type and concentration on the retention and release profile of diacetyl and (--α-pinene in model reduced fat salad dressings formed with sodium caseinate. Material and methods. Model reduced fat salad dressings containing 10 wt% vegetable fat and stabilized by both 1 wt% sodium caseinate and 0.01-0.2 wt% hydrocolloids (xanthan gum, guar gum, gum arabic, native pregelatinised rice starch – Remyline XS-DR-P and acetylated distarch phosphate – Microlys CA – produced from potato starch were investigated. The samples were flavoured with diacetyl or (--α-pinene at concentration of 0.1 wt% for each flavour compound. Following measurements were done: dressings characteristics (oil droplet size and distribution, apparent viscosity, thermodynamic and kinetic stability, stability of the odorants (relative retention and release profile and odour intensity by method using scale. Results. The studies showed significant dependence (α £ 0.001 between relative retention of the investigated odorants and hydrocolloid type as well as concentration. Moreover, it was detected that the values of persistence index of flavour compounds (related to the release profile were in majority significantly correlated (α £ 0.05 with viscosity and creaming stability of the dressings, whereas relatively low and mostly statistically insignificantly with mean droplet size (D[3,2]. Furthermore, significant correlation values (α £ 0.05 were

  18. Fat intake and energy-balance effects.

    Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    2004-12-30

    This paper focuses on the effects of dietary fats or fatty acids on key targets of metabolic intermediates for body-weight control, i.e. satiety, thermogenesis, fat oxidation and body composition. With respect to sensory satiety, it appeared, e.g. that linoleic acid tasters showed a different mechanism for meal termination than non-tasters did. They stopped eating linoleic acid containing food based upon satiety, whereas the non-tasters stopped eating based upon the change in pleasantness of taste. Moreover, in the normal range of body mass index, an inverse relationship was shown between % 'tasters' and BMI. In a high fat diet vs. a low fat high protein high carbohydrate diet, metabolic satiety appeared to be continuously lower and correlated positively to diet-induced energy expenditure. However, with respect to the intermeal interval, satiety appeared to be more sustained following a high fat vs. a high CHO preload, resulting in a lower meal frequency. Covert fat replacement during breakfast by sucrose polyester was successful in combination with dietary restraint, yet overt fat replacement in snacks was successful in the dietary-unrestrained subjects, i.e. those who habitually ate snacks. With respect to fat oxidation, from a respiration-chamber experiment on the effects of diacylglycerol compared (DG) to triacylglycerol (TG) intake, it was concluded that consumption of DG increased fat oxidation and beta-hydroxy-butyrate levels, but did not affect energy metabolism or triacylglycerol level. Parameters of appetite were all lowered by DG compared to TG. With respect to body composition, the effects of 13 weeks CLA supplementation in overweight subjects during weight regain were assessed. Although CLA did not affect %body-weight regain, the regain of fat-free mass was increased by CLA, independently of %body-weight regain and physical activity, and as a consequence resting metabolic rate was increased. At the same time, appetite was reduced and satiety and

  19. Dietary Fats and Metabolic Syndrome

    Danijela Ristic-Medic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The quantity and quality of fats consumed in the diet can have important effects on prevention and/or improvement clustering metabolic abnormalities of the metabolic syndrome. Fatty acids as food ingredients regulate cholesterol homeostasis and concentrations of blood lipoproteins, and affect the levels of other cardiometabolic risk factors, such as blood pressure, haemostasis, and body weight, through various mechanisms. There is convincing evidence that exchanging dietary saturated fat with monounsaturated fat produces beneficial effects on metabolic control, i.a. it lowers LDL-cholesterol concentrations, improves the postprandial lipid profile and lowers the blood pressure. Serum fatty acid composition mainly reflects dietary fat intake, but also endogenous fatty acid synthesis catalyzed by desaturases. Furthermore, high fat intake and serum fatty acid profile may influence the progression of obesity and insulin sensitivity. This review highlights current dietary guidance of fats quality recommendation in health and cardio metabolic risk.

  20. Accuracy of sequence alignment and fold assessment using reduced amino acid alphabets.

    Melo, Francisco; Marti-Renom, Marc A

    2006-06-01

    Reduced or simplified amino acid alphabets group the 20 naturally occurring amino acids into a smaller number of representative protein residues. To date, several reduced amino acid alphabets have been proposed, which have been derived and optimized by a variety of methods. The resulting reduced amino acid alphabets have been applied to pattern recognition, generation of consensus sequences from multiple alignments, protein folding, and protein structure prediction. In this work, amino acid substitution matrices and statistical potentials were derived based on several reduced amino acid alphabets and their performance assessed in a large benchmark for the tasks of sequence alignment and fold assessment of protein structure models, using as a reference frame the standard alphabet of 20 amino acids. The results showed that a large reduction in the total number of residue types does not necessarily translate into a significant loss of discriminative power for sequence alignment and fold assessment. Therefore, some definitions of a few residue types are able to encode most of the relevant sequence/structure information that is present in the 20 standard amino acids. Based on these results, we suggest that the use of reduced amino acid alphabets may allow to increasing the accuracy of current substitution matrices and statistical potentials for the prediction of protein structure of remote homologs. PMID:16506243

  1. Seamustard (Undaria pinnatifida) Improves Growth, Immunity, Fatty Acid Profile and Reduces Cholesterol in Hanwoo Steers.

    Hwang, J A; Islam, M M; Ahmed, S T; Mun, H S; Kim, G M; Kim, Y J; Yang, C J

    2014-08-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the effect of 2% seamustard (Undaria pinnatifida) by-product (SW) on growth performance, immunity, carcass characteristics, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile in Hanwoo steers. A total of 20 Hanwoo steers (ave. 22 months old; 619 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to control (basal diet) and 2% SW supplemented diet. Dietary SW supplementation significantly (pquality grade of meat and carcass yield grades evaluated at the end of the trial were found to be unaffected by SW supplementation. Dietary SW significantly reduced meat cholesterol concentration (p<0.05). Dietary SW supplementation significantly reduced the myristic acid (C14:0) and palmitoleic acid (C16:ln-7) concentration, while SW increased the concentration of stearic acid (C18:0) and linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) compared to control (p<0.05). Dietary SW supplementation had no effect on saturated fatty acids (SFA), unsaturated fatty acids, poly unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) or mono unsaturated fatty acid content in muscles. A reduced ratio of PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 were found in SW supplemented group (p<0.05). In conclusion, 2% SW supplementation was found to improve growth, immunity and fatty acid profile with significantly reduced cholesterol of beef. PMID:25083105

  2. Retinoic acid expands the evolutionarily reduced dentition of zebrafish.

    Seritrakul, Pawat; Samarut, Eric; Lama, Tenzing T S; Gibert, Yann; Laudet, Vincent; Jackman, William R

    2012-12-01

    Zebrafish lost anterior teeth during evolution but retain a posterior pharyngeal dentition that requires retinoic acid (RA) cell-cell signaling for its development. The purposes of this study were to test the sufficiency of RA to induce tooth development and to assess its role in evolution. We found that exposure of embryos to exogenous RA induces a dramatic anterior expansion of the number of pharyngeal teeth that later form and shifts anteriorly the expression patterns of genes normally expressed in the posterior tooth-forming region, such as pitx2 and dlx2b. After RA exposure, we also observed a correlation between cartilage malformations and ectopic tooth induction, as well as abnormal cranial neural crest marker gene expression. Additionally, we observed that the RA-induced zebrafish anterior teeth resemble in pattern and number the dentition of fish species that retain anterior pharyngeal teeth such as medaka but that medaka do not express the aldh1a2 RA-synthesizing enzyme in tooth-forming regions. We conclude that RA is sufficient to induce anterior ectopic tooth development in zebrafish where teeth were lost in evolution, potentially by altering neural crest cell development, and that changes in the location of RA synthesis correlate with evolutionary changes in vertebrate dentitions. PMID:22942074

  3. Renal pro-apoptotic proteins are reduced by growth hormone resistance but not by visceral fat removal.

    Gesing, Adam; Bartke, Andrzej; Wang, Feiya; Karbownik-Lewinska, Malgorzata; Masternak, Michal M

    2011-05-01

    Growth hormone (GH) receptor knockout (GHRKO) mice are highly insulin sensitive and long-lived. Surgical visceral fat removal (VFR) improves insulin signaling in normal mice and rats and extends longevity in rats. We have previously demonstrated decreased expression of certain pro-apoptotic genes in kidneys of GHRKO mice and suggested that this could contribute to the increased longevity of these animals. The aim of the present study was to examine the level of the following proteins: caspase-3, caspase-9, caspase-8, bax, bad, phospho-bad, bcl-2, Smac/DIABLO, Apaf-1, phospho-p53 (pp53) and cytochrome c in male GHRKO and normal (N) mice subjected to VFR or sham surgery, at approximately six months of age. The kidneys were collected two months after VFR. Caspase-3, caspase-8, bax, bad, Smac/DIABLO, Apaf-1 and pp53 levels were decreased in GHRKO mice as compared to N animals. VFR did not change the level of any of the examined proteins. The decreased renal levels of pro-apoptotic proteins could contribute to the extended life-span caused by targeted disruption of the GH receptor gene but are apparently not involved in mediating the effects of VFR. PMID:21391871

  4. Chenodeoxycholic acid reduces intestinal permeability in newly weaned piglets

    van der Meer, Y; Gerrits, W J J; van den Bosch, M;

    2012-01-01

    euthanized, intestines were harvested, and permeability was measured ex vivo using the everted gut sac technique with 4 kDa fluorescein isothiocyanato (FITC)-dextran as marker at 25, 50, and 75% of the length of the small intestine. Dietary CDCA did not affect (P > 0.05) ADFI, ADG, G:F, blood glucose, and...... plasma GLP-2 and PYY. Serum cobalt and lactulose at day 10.5 tended to be lower in CDCA pigs compared with control pigs. Serum cobalt and lactulose concentrations were positively correlated (r = 0.67; P <0.01). In conclusion, CDCA tended to reduce intestinal permeability at 10.5 d after weaning when fed...... to newly weaned piglets, implying that CDCA deserves further study as a means for improving intestinal health. The positive correlation found between Co-EDTA and lactulose indicates that both marker molecules measure similar change in permeability....

  5. Effects of chicory inulin on serum metabolites of uric acid, lipids, glucose, and abdominal fat deposition in quails induced by purine-rich diets.

    Lin, Zhijian; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Xiaoqing; Jin, Rui; Zhu, Wenjing

    2014-11-01

    Inulin, a group of dietary fibers, is reported to improve the metabolic disorders. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chicory inulin on serum metabolites of uric acid (UA), lipids, glucose, and abdominal fat deposition in quail model induced by a purine-rich diet. In this study, 60 male French quails were randomly allocated to five groups: CON (control group), MOD (model group), BEN (benzbromarone-treated group), CHI-H (high-dosage chicory inulin-treated group), and CHI-L (low-dosage chicory inulin-treated group). The serum UA level was significantly increased in the model group from days 7 to 28, as well as triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) increased later in the experimental period. The abdominal fat ratio was increased on day 28. Benzbromarone can decrease UA levels on days 14 and 28. The high and low dosage of chicory inulin also decreased serum UA levels on days 7, 14, and 28. The abdominal fat ratio, activity, and protein of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) were decreased in chicory inulin-treated groups. The activities of xanthine oxidase (XOD) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were increased in the model group and decreased in the benzbromarone and chicory inulin groups. This study evaluated a quail model of induced hyperuricemia with other metabolic disorders caused by a high-purine diet. The results indicated that a purine-rich diet might contribute to the development of hyperuricemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and abdominal obesity. Chicory inulin decreased serum UA, TG, and abdominal fat deposition in a quail model of hyperuricemia by altering the ACC protein expression and FAS and XOD activities. PMID:25314375

  6. Potential of essential fatty acid deficiency with extremely low fat diet in lipoprotein lipase deficiency during pregnancy: A case report

    Anderson Gregory J

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy in patients with lipoprotein lipase deficiency is associated with high risk of maternal pancreatitis and fetal death. A very low fat diet ( Case presentation A 23 year-old gravida 1 woman with primary lipoprotein lipase deficiency was seen at 7 weeks of gestation in the Lipid Clinic for management of severe hypertriglyceridemia that had worsened with pregnancy. While on her habitual fat intake of 10% of total calories, her pregnancy resulted in an exacerbation of the hypertriglyceridemia, which prompted further restriction of fat intake to Conclusions An extremely low fat diet in combination with topical sunflower oil and gemfibrozil administration was safely implemented in pregnancy associated with the severe hypertriglyceridemia of lipoprotein lipase deficiency.

  7. Potential of essential fatty acid deficiency with extremely low fat diet in lipoprotein lipase deficiency during pregnancy: A case report

    Anderson Gregory J; Veldee Megan Y; Brown Judy A; Tsai Elaine C; Chait Alan; Brunzell John D

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Pregnancy in patients with lipoprotein lipase deficiency is associated with high risk of maternal pancreatitis and fetal death. A very low fat diet (< 10% of calories) is the primary treatment modality for the prevention of acute pancreatitis, a rare but potentially serious complication of severe hypertriglyceridemia. Since pregnancy can exacerbate hypertriglyceridemia in the genetic absence of lipoprotein lipase, a further reduction of dietary fat intake to < 1–2% of tota...

  8. Effect of the ratios of unsaturated fatty acids on the expressions of genes related to fat and protein in the bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    Sheng, R; Yan, S M; Qi, L Z; Zhao, Y L

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the different ratios of unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) (oleic acid, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid) on the cell viability and triacylglycerol (TAG) content, as well as the mRNA expression of the genes related to lipid and protein synthesis in bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs). Primary cells were isolated from the mammary glands of Holstein dairy cows and were passaged twice. Afterward, the cells were randomly allocated to six treatments, five UFA-treated groups, and one control group. For all of the treatments, the the fetal bovine serum in the culture solution was replaced with fatty acid-free BSA (1 g/L), and the cells were treated with different ratios of oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids (0.75:4:1, 1.5:10:1, 2:13.3:1, 3:20:1, and 4:26.7:1) for 48 h, which were group 1 to group 5. The control culture solution contained only fatty acid-free BSA without UFAs (0 μM). The results indicated that the cell viability was not affected by adding different ratios of UFAs, but the accumulation of TAG was significantly influenced by supplementing with different ratios of UFAs. Adding different ratios of UFAs suppressed the expression of ACACA and FASN but had the opposite effect on the abundances of FABP3 and CD36 mRNA. The expression levels of PPARG, SPEBF1, CSN1S1, and CSN3 mRNA in the BMECs were affected significantly after adding different ratios of UFAs. Our results suggested that groups 1, 2, and 3 (0.75:4:1, 1.5:10:1, and 2:13.3:1) had stronger auxo-action on fat synthesis in the BMECs, where group 3 (2:13.3:1) was the best, followed by group 4 (3:20:1). However, group 5 (4:26.7:1) was the worst. Genes related to protein synthesis in the BMECs were better promoted in groups 2 and 3, and group 3 had the strongest auxo-action, whereas the present study only partly examined the regulation of protein synthesis at the transcriptional level; more studies on translation level are needed in the future

  9. Influence of animal fat substitution by vegetal fat on Mortadella-type products formulated with different hydrocolloids

    Erick Saldaña

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Meat has played a crucial role in human evolution and is an important component of a healthy and well-balanced diet on account of its nutritional properties, its high biological value as a source of protein, and the vitamins and minerals it supplies. We studied the effects of animal fat reduction and substitution by hydrogenated vegetal fat, sodium alginate and guar gum. Fatty acid composition, lipid oxidation, color and instrumental texture as well as the sensorial difference between low, substituted-fat and the traditional formulations for mortadella-type products were analyzed. Both substitution and reduction of animal fat decreased the saturated fatty acids percentage from 40% down to 31%. A texture profile analysis showed differences between the formulations. Furthermore, lipid oxidation values were not significant for treatments as regards the type and quantity of fat used while the use of sodium alginate and guar gum reduced the amounts of liquid released after cooking. Animal fat substitution does cause, however, a difference in overall sensorial perception compared with non-substituted products. The results confirm the viability of substituting vegetal fat for animal fat.

  10. Heat Killed Lactobacillus reuteri GMNL-263 Reduces Fibrosis Effects on the Liver and Heart in High Fat Diet-Hamsters via TGF-β Suppression

    Wei-Jen Ting

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is one of the major risk factors for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, and NAFLD is highly associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Scholars have suggested that certain probiotics may significantly impact cardiovascular health, particularly certain Lactobacillus species, such as Lactobacillus reuteri GMNL-263 (Lr263 probiotics, which have been shown to reduce obesity and arteriosclerosis in vivo. In the present study, we examined the potential of heat-killed bacteria to attenuate high fat diet (HFD-induced hepatic and cardiac damages and the possible underlying mechanism of the positive effects of heat-killed Lr263 oral supplements. Heat-killed Lr263 treatments (625 and 3125 mg/kg-hamster/day were provided as a daily supplement by oral gavage to HFD-fed hamsters for eight weeks. The results show that heat-killed Lr263 treatments reduce fatty liver syndrome. Moreover, heat-killed Lactobacillus reuteri GMNL-263 supplementation in HFD hamsters also reduced fibrosis in the liver and heart by reducing transforming growth factor β (TGF-β expression levels. In conclusion, heat-killed Lr263 can reduce lipid metabolic stress in HFD hamsters and decrease the risk of fatty liver and cardiovascular disease.

  11. Influence of dietary fat source and copper supplementation on broiler performance, fatty acid profile of meat and depot fat, and on cholesterol content in meat

    Skřivan, M.; Skřivanová, V.; Marounek, Milan; Tůmová, E.; Wolf, J.

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 41, 6 (2000), s. 608-614. ISSN 1466-1799 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/99/0101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : fatty acid * cholesterol Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.705, year: 2000

  12. Ácidos graxos como marcadores biológicos da ingestão de gorduras Fatty acids as biological markers of fat intake

    Juliana dos Santos Vaz

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Os ácidos graxos da dieta têm sido associados ao desenvolvimento de doenças crônicas. Os inquéritos alimentares, utilizados em estudos clínicos e epidemiológicos para estimativa da ingestão de nutrientes, apresentam limitações na coleta de informações. Nesse sentido, a utilização da composição de ácidos graxos do plasma e do tecido adiposo como marcadores do tipo de gordura alimentar pode fornecer uma medida mais acurada da ingestão de gorduras. Esta pesquisa tem como objetivo evidenciar aspectos metabólicos de alguns ácidos graxos e o papel como marcadores da ingestão de gorduras, e apresentar as técnicas analíticas empregadas na sua determinação. A biópsia do tecido adiposo, com determinação da composição de ácidos graxos, fornece uma informação a longo prazo da ingestão de gorduras, enquanto que a avaliação da composição das frações lipídicas séricas representa a ingestão a curto e médio prazos. Os ácidos graxos essenciais, os ácidos graxos saturados com número ímpar de carbonos (15:0 e 17:0 e os ácidos graxos trans, por não apresentarem síntese endógena, são utilizados como marcadores biológicos da ingestão de gorduras ou de sua própria ingestão. As principais técnicas utilizadas para a determinação de ácidos graxos são a cromatografia gasosa e a cromatografia líquida de alta precisão. No presente momento, o uso de marcadores biológicos para a ingestão de gorduras, associados aos inquéritos alimentares, representa a forma mais completa de avaliação da ingestão de gorduras.Dietary fatty acids have been associated with the development of chronic diseases. The methods commonly used in dietary assessment for estimating nutrient intake in clinical and epidemiological studies present limitations regarding data collection. The use of plasma and adipose tissue fatty acid composition as markers of the type of fat ingested has been studied and can provide a more accurate measurement

  13. Reduced absorption of long-chain fatty acids during methotrexate-induced gastrointestinal mucositis in the rat

    Fijlstra, Margot; Tissing, Wim J. E.; Stellaard, Frans; Verkade, Henkjan J.; Rings, Edmond H. H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background & aims: Patients with chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal mucositis suffer from weight loss and possibly malabsorption. Since long-chain fatty acids serve important functions in the body, we aimed to determine the intestinal capacity of fat absorption in rats with and without methotrexa

  14. Genome-Wide Association Study Singles Out SCD and LEPR as the Two Main Loci Influencing Intramuscular Fat Content and Fatty Acid Composition in Duroc Pigs.

    Roger Ros-Freixedes

    Full Text Available Intramuscular fat (IMF content and fatty acid composition affect the organoleptic quality and nutritional value of pork. A genome-wide association study was performed on 138 Duroc pigs genotyped with a 60k SNP chip to detect biologically relevant genomic variants influencing fat content and composition. Despite the limited sample size, the genome-wide association study was powerful enough to detect the association between fatty acid composition and a known haplotypic variant in SCD (SSC14 and to reveal an association of IMF and fatty acid composition in the LEPR region (SSC6. The association of LEPR was later validated with an independent set of 853 pigs using a candidate quantitative trait nucleotide. The SCD gene is responsible for the biosynthesis of oleic acid (C18:1 from stearic acid. This locus affected the stearic to oleic desaturation index (C18:1/C18:0, C18:1, and saturated (SFA and monounsaturated (MUFA fatty acids content. These effects were consistently detected in gluteus medius, longissimus dorsi, and subcutaneous fat. The association of LEPR with fatty acid composition was detected only in muscle and was, at least in part, a consequence of its effect on IMF content, with increased IMF resulting in more SFA, less polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, and greater SFA/PUFA ratio. Marker substitution effects estimated with a subset of 65 animals were used to predict the genomic estimated breeding values of 70 animals born 7 years later. Although predictions with the whole SNP chip information were in relatively high correlation with observed SFA, MUFA, and C18:1/C18:0 (0.48-0.60, IMF content and composition were in general better predicted by using only SNPs at the SCD and LEPR loci, in which case the correlation between predicted and observed values was in the range of 0.36 to 0.54 for all traits. Results indicate that markers in the SCD and LEPR genes can be useful to select for optimum fatty acid profiles of pork.

  15. Reduced postprandial energy expenditure and increased exogenous fat oxidation in young woman after ingestion of test meals with a low protein content

    Klaus Susanne

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macronutrient composition of diets can influence energy balance in humans. We tested the hypothesis whether low protein content in single meals may induce lower values of energy expenditure (EE and fat oxidation (FO as compared to adequate protein content. Methods Indirect calorimetry was combined with a breath test using naturally 13C-enriched corn oil to differentiate between postprandial exogenous and endogenous FO. Young women ingested single meals containing either 3.9% (low protein, LP or 11.4% (adequate protein, AP of total energy (~3100 kJ as protein. Results Postprandial EE was 160 kJ/6 h lower (p Conclusion Breath tests using naturally 13C-labeled corn oil mirror exogenous FO. Low protein meals resulted in reduced postprandial EE and increased exogenous FO as compared to adequate protein meals without differences in total FO.

  16. Ascorbic acid glucoside reduces neurotoxicity and glutathione depletion in mouse brain induced by nitrotriazole radiosensitazer

    Nadezda V Cherdyntseva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the potential of the anti-oxidant ascorbic acid glucoside (AA-2G to modulate neurotoxicity induced by high doses of nitrotriazole radiosensitizer. Materials and Methods: Male and female C56Bl/6xCBA hybrid mice aged 8-14 weeks (weight 18-24 g were used. Nitrotriazole drug radiosensitizer sanazole at a high dose of 2, 1 g/kg was per os administered to induce neurotoxicity at mice. Ascorbic acid glucoside was given 30 min before the sanazole administration. Serum ascorbic acid, brain glutathione level, as well as behavioral performance using open field apparatus were measured. Results: Administration of high (non-therapeutic doses of the nitrotriazole drug sanazole results in neurotoxicity in mice as evidenced from behavioral performance, emotional activity and depletion of the cellular antioxidant, glutathione, in the brain. The serum levels of ascorbic acid was also found reduced in high dose sanazole treated animals. Per os administration of ascorbic acid glucoside significantly reduced the neurotoxicity. This effect was associated with the prevention of glutathione depletion in mouse brain and restoring the ascorbic acid level in serum. Conclusion: Administration of ascorbic acid glucoside, but not ascorbic acid, before sanazole administration protected from sanazole-induced neurotoxicity by preventing the decrease in the brain reduced glutathione level and providing high level of ascorbic acid in plasma.

  17. Reduced efficiency, but increased fat oxidation, in mitochondria from human skeletal muscle after 24-h ultraendurance exercise

    Fernström, Maria; Bakkman, Linda; Tonkonogi, Michail;

    2007-01-01

    (Post-Ex), and after 28 h of recovery (Rec). Respiration was analyzed in isolated mitochondria during state 3 (coupled to ATP synthesis) and state 4 (noncoupled respiration), with fatty acids alone [palmitoyl carnitine (PC)] or together with pyruvate (Pyr). Electron transport chain activity was measured...... with NADH in permeabilized mitochondria. State 3 respiration with PC increased Post-Ex by 39 and 41% (P electron transport chain activity, respectively. State 3 respiration with Pyr was not changed (P > 0.05). State 4 respiration with PC increased Post...

  18. Aspirin reduces hypertriglyceridemia by lowering VLDL-triglyceride production in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Diepen, J.A. van; Vroegrijk, I.O.; Berbee, J.F.; Shoelson, S.E.; Romijn, J.A.; Havekes, L.M.; Rensen, P.C.; Voshol, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Systemic inflammation is strongly involved in the pathophysiology of the metabolic syndrome, a cluster of metabolic risk factors that includes hypertriglyceridemia. Aspirin treatment lowers inflammation via inhibition of NF-kappaB activity but also reduces hypertriglyceridemia in humans. The aim of

  19. Aspirin reduces hypertriglyceridemia by lowering VLDL-triglyceride production in mice fed a high-fat diet

    Diepen, J.A. van; Vroegrijk, I.O.C.M.; Berbée, J.F.P.; Shoelson, S.E.; Romijn, J.A.; Havekes, L.M.; Rensen, P.C.N.; Voshol, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Systemic inflammation is strongly involved in the pathophysiology of the metabolic syndrome, a cluster of metabolic risk factors that includes hypertriglyceridemia. Aspirin treatment lowers inflammation via inhibition of NF-?B activity but also reduces hypertriglyceridemia in humans. The aim of this

  20. Combination of amino acids reduces pigmentation in B16F0 melanoma cells.

    Ishikawa, Masago; Kawase, Ichiro; Ishii, Fumio

    2007-04-01

    Amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, play significant roles in numerous physiological events in mammals. As the effects of amino acids on melanogenesis have yet to be demonstrated, the present study was conducted to identify whether amino acids, in particular alanine, glycine, isoleucine and leucine, influence melanogenesis in B16F0 melanoma cells. Glycine and L-isoleucine, but not D-isoleucine, reduced melanogenesis in a concentration-dependent manner without any morphological changes in B16F0 melanoma cells. L-Alanine and L-leucine, but not D-alanine and D-leucine, also reduced melanogenesis without any morphological changes in B16F0 melanoma cells. However these amino acids did not show a concentration-dependency. Combination of L-alanine and the other amino acids, particularly 4 amino acids combination, had an additive effect on the inhibition of melanogenesis compared with single treatment of L-alanine. None of the amino acids affected the activity of tyrosinase, a key enzyme in melanogenesis. These results suggest that L-alanine, glycine, L-isoleucine and L-leucine, but not the D-form amino acids, have a hypopigmenting effect in B16F0 melanoma cells, and that these effects are not due to the inhibition of tyrosinase activity. Combination of these 4 amino acids had the additive effect on hypopigmentation that was as similar as that of kojic acid. PMID:17409501