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Sample records for acid rain

  1. Acid Rain.

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  2. Understanding Acid Rain

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  3. ACID RAIN

    Acid precipitation has become one of the major environmental problems of this decade. It is a challenge to scientists throughout the world. Researchers from such diverse disciplines as plant pathology, soil science, bacteriology, meteorology and engineering are investigating diff...

  4. The Acid Rain Reader.

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  5. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  6. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  7. The acid rain primer

    Acid rain continues to be a major problem in North America, and particularly in eastern Canada. This report introduced the topic of acid rain and discussed its formation, measurement, sources, and geographic distribution. The major sources of sulphur dioxide in Canada are smelting metals, burning coal for electrical power generation, industrial emissions (e.g., pulp and paper, petroleum and aluminum industry), and oil and gas extraction and refining. In Canada, the largest source of nitrogen oxide is the burning of fossil fuels by the transportation sector. Problem areas for acid rain in Canada were identified. The effects of acid rain were examined on lakes and aquatic ecosystems, forests and soils, human-made structures and materials, human health, and on visibility. Acid rain policies and programs were then presented from a historical and current context. Ecosystem recovery from acid rain was discussed with reference to acid rain monitoring, atmospheric response to reductions in acid-causing emissions, and ecosystem recovery of lakes, forests, and aquatic ecosystems. Challenges affecting ecosystem recovery were also presented. These challenges include drought and dry weather, decrease of base cations in precipitation, release of sulphate previously stored in soil, mineralization and immobilization of sulphur/sulphates. Last, the report discussed what still needs to be done to improve the problem of acid rain as well as future concerns. These concerns include loss of base cations from forested watersheds and nitrogen deposition and saturation. 21 refs., 2 tabs., 17 figs

  8. Canadian acid rain policy

    On March 13 of 1991, the Prime Minister of Canada, Brian Mulroney and the President of the United States of America, George Bush, signed an Agreement on Air Quality. This agreement enshrines Principle 21 of the 1972 Stockholm Declaration which states that countries are to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction do not cause damage to the environment of another country. This agreement also includes provisions for controlling acid rain. The Agreement on Air Quality followed years of discussion between the two countries and is a significant milestone in the history of Canadian acid rain policy. This paper begins by describing Canadian acid rain policy and its evolution. The paper also outlines the Canada-United States Air Quality Agreement and the effect of the acid rain provisions on deposition in Canada. Finally, it considers the future work that must be undertaken to further resolve the acid rain problem. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  9. Science of acid rain

    In this report, the mechanism of forming acid rain in the atmosphere and the process of its fall to ground, the mechanism of withering forests by acid substances, and the process of acidifying lakes and marshes are explained. Moreover, the monitoring networks for acid rain and the countermeasures are described. Acid rain is the pollution phenomena related to all environment, that is, atmosphere, hydrosphere, soilsphere, biosphere and so on, and it is a local environmental pollution problem, and at the same time, an international, global environmental pollution problem. In Japan, acid rain has fallen, but the acidification of lakes and marshes is not clear, and the damage to forests is on small scale. However in East Asia region, the release of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides is much, and the increase of the effects of acid rain is expected. It is necessary to devise the measures for preventing the damage due to acid rain. The global monitoring networks of World Meteorological Organization and United Nations Environment Program, and those in Europe, USA and Japan are described. The monitoring of acid rain in Japan is behind that in Europe and USA. (K.I.)

  10. Difficult Decisions: Acid Rain.

    Miller, John A.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses some of the contributing factors and chemical reactions involved in the production of acid rain, its effects, and political issues pertaining to who should pay for the clean up. Supplies questions for consideration and discussion. (RT)

  11. Acid rain: An overview

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary of the effects of acid rain and related processes, sources, issues, corrective actions, research, current law, potential solutions, political solutions,...

  12. Whither Acid Rain?

    Peter Brimblecombe

    2000-01-01

    Acid rain, the environmental cause célèbre of the 1980s seems to have vanished from popular conscience. By contrast, scientific research, despite funding difficulties, has continued to produce hundreds of research papers each year. Studies of acid rain taught much about precipitation chemistry, the behaviour of snow packs, long-range transport of pollutants and new issues in the biology of fish and forested ecosystems. There is now evidence of a shift away from research in precipitation and s...

  13. Whither Acid Rain?

    Peter Brimblecombe

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid rain, the environmental cause célèbre of the 1980s seems to have vanished from popular conscience. By contrast, scientific research, despite funding difficulties, has continued to produce hundreds of research papers each year. Studies of acid rain taught much about precipitation chemistry, the behaviour of snow packs, long-range transport of pollutants and new issues in the biology of fish and forested ecosystems. There is now evidence of a shift away from research in precipitation and sulfur chemistry, but an impressive theoretical base remains as a legacy.

  14. Acid Rain Investigations.

    Hugo, John C.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students investigate the formation of solid ammonium chloride aerosol particles to help students better understand the concept of acid rain. Provides activity objectives, procedures, sample data, clean-up instructions, and questions and answers to help interpret the data. (MDH)

  15. Acid Rain Classroom Projects.

    Demchik, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a curriculum plan in which students learn about acid rain through instructional media, research and class presentations, lab activities, simulations, design, and design implementation. Describes the simulation activity in detail and includes materials, procedures, instructions, examples, results, and discussion sections. (SAH)

  16. The Acid Rain Game.

    Rakow, Steven J.; Glenn, Allen

    1982-01-01

    Provides rationale for and description of an acid rain game (designed for two players), a problem-solving model for elementary students. Although complete instructions are provided, including a copy of the game board, the game is also available for Apple II microcomputers. Information for the computer program is available from the author.…

  17. The Acid Rain Debate.

    Oates-Bockenstedt, Catherine

    1997-01-01

    Details an activity designed to motivate students by incorporating science-related issues into a classroom debate. Includes "The Acid Rain Bill" and "Position Guides" for student roles as committee members, consumers, governors, industry owners, tourism professionals, senators, and debate directors. (DKM)

  18. A Demonstration of Acid Rain

    Fong, Man Wai

    2004-01-01

    A demonstration showing acid rain formation is described. Oxides of sulfur and nitrogen that result from the burning of fossil fuels are the major pollutants of acid rain. In this demonstration, SO[subscript 2] gas is produced by the burning of matches. An acid-base indicator will show that the dissolved gas turns an aqueous solution acidic.

  19. Acidification and Acid Rain

    Norton, S. A.; Veselã½, J.

    2003-12-01

    endangers the existing biota. Concerns about acid (or acidic) rain in its modern sense were publicized by the Swedish soil scientist Svante Odén (1968). He argued, initially in the Swedish press, that long-term increases in the atmospheric deposition of acid could lower the pH of surface waters, cause a decline in fish stocks, deplete soils of nutrients, and accelerate damage to materials. By the 1970s, acidification of surface waters was reported in many countries in Europe as well as in North America. The late twentieth-century rush to understand the impact of acid rain was driven by: (i) reports of damaged or threatened freshwater fisheries and (ii) damaged forests. Perhaps the earliest linkage between acidic surface water and damage to fish was made by Dahl (1921) in southern Norway. There, spring runoff was sufficiently acidic to kill trout. It was not until the 1970s that a strong link was established between depressed pH, mobilization of aluminum from soil, and fish status ( Schofield and Trojnar,1980). The relationship between acidification of soils and forest health started with hypotheses in the 1960s and has slowly developed. Acid rain enhances the availability of some nutrients (e.g., nitrogen), and may either enhance or diminish the availability of others (e.g., calcium, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus). Damage to anthropogenic structures, human health, and visibility have also raised concerns. The history of these early developments was summarized by Cowling (1982). Since the 1970s, sulfur and nitrogen emissions to the atmosphere have been reduced by 50-85% and 0-30%, respectively, both in North America and Europe. The emission reductions have occurred as a consequence of knowledge gained and economic factors. While recovery of water quality is underway in some areas, problems of acidification persist, and are now complicated by the effects of climate change ( Schindler, 1997).

  20. An Umbrella for Acid Rain.

    Randal, Judith

    1979-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has awarded several grants to study effects of and possible solutions to the problem of "acid rain"; pollution from atmospheric nitric and sulfuric acids. The research program is administered through North Carolina State University at Raleigh and will focus on biological effects of acid rain. (JMF)

  1. Acid Rain Limits Global Warming

    Will Knight; 张林玲

    2004-01-01

    @@ Acid rain restricts global warming by reducing methane① emissions from natural wetland areas, suggests a global climate study. Acid rain is the result of industrial pollution,which causes rainwater to carry small quantities of acidic compoumds② such as sulphuric and nitric acid③. Contaminated rainwater can upset rivers and lakes, killing fish and other organisms and also damage plants, trees and buildings.

  2. Acid Rain: The Scientific Challenge.

    Godfrey, Paul J.

    1991-01-01

    Documents the workings and findings of the Massachusetts Acid Rain Monitoring Project, which has pooled the volunteer efforts of more than 1,000 amateur and professional scientists since 1983. Reports on the origins of air pollution, the prediction of acid rain, and its effects on both water life and land resources. (JJK)

  3. Acid Rain: An Educational Opportunity?

    Marion, James I.

    1984-01-01

    Deals with how educators can handle the subject of acid rain; illustrates suggestions with experiences of grade nine students visiting Frost Valley Environmental Education Center (Oliverea, New York) to learn scientific concepts through observation of outdoor phenomena, including a stream; and discusses acid rain, pH levels, and pollution control…

  4. Acid Rain: What's the Forecast?

    Bybee, Rodger

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various types of acid rain, considered to be a century-old problem. Topics include: wet and dry deposition, effects on a variety of environments, ecosystems subject to detrimental effects, and possible solutions to the problem. A list of recommended resources on acid rain is provided. (BC)

  5. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  6. Regulatory aspects of acid rain

    On November 15, 1990, President Bush signed the 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments into law. This was a historical document which marked the beginning of a concerted effort to address a most pressing environmental problem of this century, namely acid rain. Acid rain is the generic term used to describe the phenomenon by which sulfur dioxides (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) react in the atmosphere in the presence of sunlight to form acids which are scrubbed out of the atmosphere during a precipitation event. When this happens the pH of the precipitation falls considerably below 7.0. Years of research have shown that acid rain has a very detrimental effect on soils, vegetation, and marine life. The large amounts of SO2 and NOx being released by coal-fired utility boilers have largely incriminated utility companies as being the culprits. Most of the research work has been in Canada because the direction of the jet stream across the US is such that the emissions from the midwestern and northeastern US are carried into southeastern Canada. An interim report from the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) has assessed that power plants contribute up to 65% of the national annual emissions of SO2, and up to 29% of the NOx emissions. It is for these reasons that acid rain control has been given such a priority by legislators

  7. Acid Rain: The Silent Environmental Threat.

    Zmud, Mia

    1992-01-01

    Describes the silent environmental threat posed by acid rain. Caused mainly by manmade pollutants, acid rain damages water and trees, decreases visibility, corrodes monuments, and threatens public health. The article includes guidelines for action. (SM)

  8. Nature in the Classroom: Acid Rain.

    Doyle, Charles

    1982-01-01

    As a lesson topic, acid rain is defined, its chemistry given, and its development since the 1950s described. The worldwide effects of acid rain are discussed along with the available technology for controlling the problem. (CM)

  9. The acid rain differential game

    Countries emit sulphur which is partly transferred to other countries. Depositions above critical loads ultimately destroy the soil. Countries face a trade-off between the costs of emission reductions and the damage to the soil due to the depletion of the acid buffers. Because of the transboundary externalities the outcome will depend on whether the countries cooperate or not. This paper presents the cooperative outcome and the open-loop and Markov-perfect Nash equilibria of the acid rain differential game. It will be shown that the depositions always converge to the critical loads but the steady-state levels of the buffer stocks differ. The theory is used to analyse the acid rain differential game for sulphur between Great Britain and Ireland. Finally, some results are given for the whole of Europe. 20 refs

  10. Acid Rain: What It Is -- How You Can Help!

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    This publication discusses the nature and consequences of acid precipitation (commonly called acid rain). Topic areas include: (1) the chemical nature of acid rain; (2) sources of acid rain; (3) geographic areas where acid rain is a problem; (4) effects of acid rain on lakes; (5) effect of acid rain on vegetation; (6) possible effects of acid rain…

  11. Acid Rain: What We Must Do.

    Gorham, Eville

    1983-01-01

    Addresses questions about the nature, source, and history of acid rain. In addition, discusses the questions: Why is acid rain a problem? Is acid rain getting worse? What is the threat of further problems? Concludes that it is time to act on the problem and recommends an appropriate course of action. (JN)

  12. The Specifications for Monitoring of Acid Rain

    Tang Jie

    2011-01-01

    Background Since China is a country seriously affected by acid rain pollution,it is a long-term fundamental work for acid rain pollution prevention and control in China by getting well informed of the characteristics of spatial and temporal changes in acid rain and long-term trends of these changes.In order to reach the national demand for acid rain monitoring data,the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) began to construct the network of acid rain monitoring stations in 1992.By the end of 2010,the total number of monitoring stations has exceeded 340.

  13. Acid rain information book. Draft final report

    None

    1980-12-01

    Acid rain is one of the most widely publicized environmental issues of the day. The potential consequences of increasingly widespread acid rain demand that this phenomenon be carefully evaluated. Reveiw of the literature shows a rapidly growing body of knowledge, but also reveals major gaps in understanding that need to be narrowed. This document discusses major aspects of the acid rain phenomenon, points out areas of uncertainty, and summarizes current and projected research by responsible government agencies and other concerned organizations.

  14. Acid Rain. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Hollmann, Pauline, Comp.

    The term "acid rain," also called "acid precipitation," generally refers to any precipitation having a pH value of less than 5.6. This guide to the literature on acid rain in the collections of the Library of Congress is not necessarily intended to be a comprehensive bibliography. It is designed to provide the reader with a set of resources that…

  15. Acid Rain Students Do Original Research.

    Outdoor Communicator, 1984

    1984-01-01

    At Park Senior High School (Cottage Grove, Minnesota), 46 juniors and seniors planted 384 red pine seedlings in connection with their original research on acid rain, with advice from Dr. Harriet Stubbs, director of the Acid Precipitation Awareness Program (West Saint Paul), which has been developing acid rain teaching materials. (MH)

  16. Acid Rain: Activities for Science Teachers.

    Johnson, Eric; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Seven complete secondary/college level acid rain activities are provided. Activities include overview; background information and societal implications; major concepts; student objectives; vocabulary/material lists; procedures; instructional strategies; and questions/discussion and extension suggestions. Activities consider effects of acid rain on…

  17. Human Ecology: Acid Rain and Public Policy.

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    1983-01-01

    A connection between science and society can be seen in the human and ecological dimensions of one contemporary problem: acid rain. Introduces a human ecological theme and relationships between acid rain and public policy, considering scientific understanding and public awareness, scientific research and public policy, and national politics and…

  18. Acid rain: an example of environmental epistemology

    Krug, E.C. (Committee for a Constructive Tomorrow, Washington, DC (USA). Environmental Projects)

    1992-12-01

    The article contends acid rain is not a scientifically proven environmental problem but that any scientist expressing this is ridiculed into oblivion by the environmental lobby. It is suggested scientific data indicating that acid rain is not damaging (e.g. acts as a fertilizer) is ignored because it is politically incorrect.

  19. Acid rain information book. Second edition

    Potential consequences of widespread acid precipitation are reviewed through an extensive literature search. Major aspects of the acid rain phenomena are discussed, areas of uncertainty identified, and current research summarized

  20. Acid Rain: A Teaching Focus for the Intermediate Grades.

    Adams, Renee B.; Adams, Neil D.

    1992-01-01

    The study of acid rain provides ample opportunities for active, interdisciplinary learning. This article describes 12 hands-on activities designed to expand students' understanding of acid rain. Background information on acid rain is included. (LB)

  1. Proposed acid-rain rules: Overview

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed four rules containing the core acid rain requirements: the Permits Rule (40 CFR Part 72), the Allowance System Rule (40 CFR Part 73), the Continuous Emission Monitoring Rule (40 CFR Part 75), and the Excess Emissions Rule (40 CFR Part 77). EPA will also propose additional rules at a future date. These rules will include requirements for facilities that elect to opt into the Acid Rain Program (40 CFR Part 74) and for the nitrogen oxide (NOx) control program (40 CFR Part 76). This fact sheet discusses the interdependence of the core acid rain rules

  2. Acid Rain, pH & Acidity: A Common Misinterpretation.

    Clark, David B.; Thompson, Ronald E.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates the basis for misleading statements about the relationship between pH and acid content in acid rain. Explains why pH cannot be used as a measure of acidity for rain or any other solution. Suggests that teachers present acidity and pH as two separate and distinct concepts. (RT)

  3. TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS FOR ACID RAIN CONTROL

    Discussed are acid rain control options available to the electric utility industry. They include coal switching, flue gas desulfurization, and such emerging lower cost technologies as Limestone Injection Multistage Burners (LIMB) and Advanced Silicate (ADVACATE), both developed ...

  4. Acid rain in an Amazon rainforest

    Haines, Bruce; Jordan, Carl; Clark, Howard; Clark, Kathleen E.

    2011-01-01

    Acid rain is reported from the Amazon territory of Venezuela. The volume weighted average pHwas 4.7 for 70 storms sampled from January 1979 through February 1980. At this location,remote from point sources of industrial pollution, acid rain might result from naturalbiogeochemical processes in the rainforest, from global atmospheric pollution, or from somecombination of natural and polliition processes.DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0889.1983.tb00011.x

  5. Acid Rain Materials for Classroom Use.

    Factor, Lance; Kooser, Robert G.

    This booklet contains three separate papers suitable for use in an advanced high school or college chemistry course. The first paper provides background information on acids and bases. The second paper provides additional background information, focusing on certain aspects of atmospheric chemistry as it relates to the acid rain problem. An attempt…

  6. Acid Rain: A Student's First Sourcebook.

    Kyle, Beth Ann; And Others

    The purpose of this guide is to help students better understand the science, citizen action, and research issues that are part of the acid rain problem. The guide is designed for students in grades 4-8 and their teachers. Following an introduction, the first seven sections are informative in nature. They include: (1) "Observations about Acidity";…

  7. Acid rain in Australia: a national assessment

    This report reviews the work conducted on acid rain in Australia and identify the major emitters of acid rain precursors on a regional and point source basis. It also highlights the geographical regions most susceptible to acidification and finally identify techniques for minimising acid precursor emissions. Although only a small number of extensive monitoring programs on acid deposition have been carried out in Australia, the evidence to date indicates that acid rain is not a national problem. A number of regions however may warrant careful investigation. In particular, the Kalgoorlie region in Western Australia and Mt. Isa in Queensland which by 1990 will have a combined sulfur dioxide emission of 1300 kilotonnes/annum - approximately 85% of the total anthropogenic Australian emission value for 1985. In view of the quality of existing data on rain acidity in the Latrobe Valley, the projected increase in sulfur dioxide emission from coal-fired power stations by the year 2005, and the acid susceptibility of alpine humus soils in national parks to the north and south of the Valley, new studies are recommended for this region. Other regions that are susceptible to soil acidification include the eastern parts of the Dividing Range in north Queensland and sections of the Kakadu National Park in the Northern Territory. 55 refs., 1 tab, 3 figs

  8. Acid rain and electric utilities 2

    This proceedings contains more than 100 technical presentations dealing with a variety of topics concerning the Title IV acid rain provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Some of the major topics addressed include: emerging environmental issues impacting electric utilities (proposed revisions to the ozone and particulate matter NAAQS), acid rain program overview, continuous emissions monitoring rule revisions, global climate change and CO2, emissions data management, Clean Air Power Initiative and regional issues, compliance/designated representative, flow monitoring, emissions control technology, allowance and trading, emission reductions, NOx control issues, hazardous air pollutants, and CEMS advances

  9. Allowance System: Proposed acid-rain rule

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed four rules containing the core acid rain requirements: the Permits Rule (40 CFR Part 72), the Allowance System Rule (40 CFR Part 73), the Continuous Emission Monitoring Rule (40 CFR Part 75), and the Excess Emissions Rule (40 CFR Part 77). EPA will also propose additional rules at a future date. These rules will include requirements for facilities that elect to opt into the Acid Rain Program (40 CFR Part 74) and for the nitrogen oxide (NOx) control program (40 CFR Part 76). The fact sheet summarizes the key components of EPA's proposed Allowance System

  10. Acid Rain: Resource Materials for Schools.

    American Biology Teacher, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Provides listings of acid rain resource material groups under: (1) printed materials (pamphlets, books, articles); (2) audiovisuals (slide/tape presentations, tape, video-cassette); (3) miscellaneous (buttons, pocket lab, umbrella); (4) transparencies; (5) bibliographies; and (6) curriculum materials. Sources and prices (when applicable) are…

  11. Acid Rain. Teacher's Guide. LHS GEMS.

    Hocking, Colin; Barber, Jacqueline; Coonrod, Jan

    This teacher's guide presents a unit on acid rain and introduces hands-on activities for sixth through eighth grade students. In each unit, students act as real scientists and gather evidence by using science process skills such as observing, measuring and recording data, classifying, role playing, problem solving, critical thinking, synthesizing…

  12. Acid Rain: A Description of Bilingual Friesland.

    Zondag, Koen

    1984-01-01

    Using acid rain as a metaphor, discusses the status of the Frisian language and culture as one which, though apparently thriving, is really threatened. Examines the sources of this threat, i.e., the education system, the church, mass communication and transportation, and the demise of the Frisian village community. (SED)

  13. Optimal acid rain abatement policy in Europe

    Halkos, G.E.

    1994-01-01

    Acid rain causes greater environmental damage than would occur if countries act cooperatively. Based on new estimates of sulphur abatement cost functions, the potential gains from cooperation are calculated for Europe. Various cooperative abatement rates are compared with the rates implied by recent international agreements. The distinction is made between primary and secondary abatement, and their respective roles are discussed.

  14. Acid Rain - Acidification and Recovery

    Norton, S. A.; Kopáček, Jiří; Fernandez, I. J.

    2. Elsevier, 2014 - (Holland., H.; Turekian, K.), s. 379-414 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : acid ification * nitrogen * nutrients * sulfur * trace metals Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality

  15. The urban perspectives of acid rain

    This report documents discussions held during a workshop an Urban Perspective of Acid Rain. The workshop was sponsored by the Office of the Director, National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). NAPAP anticipates giving increased emphasis to the benefits in urban areas of emissions reductions. The goal of this informal, exploratory workshop was to serve as a first step towards identifying pollutant monitoring, and research and assessment needs to help answer, from an urban perspective, the two key questions posed to NAPAP by Congress: (1) what are the costs, benefits, and effectiveness of the acid rain control program, and (2) what reductions in deposition, rates are needed in order to prevent adverse effects? The workshop addressed research activities needed to respond to these questions. The discussions focused. sequentially, on data needs, data and model availability, and data and modeling gaps. The discussions concentrated on four areas of effects: human health, materials, urban forests, and visibility

  16. Measurement of rain acidity in Brunei Darussalam

    Although acid rain and its harmful environmental consequences have been recognised and documented in the industrialised countries of Europe and North America there have been few studies of this phenomenon in other regions of the globe. Recent measurements in some tropical countries have demonstrated the occurrence of acid rain. It was therefore considered necessary to set up a routine rainwater acidity monitoring programme in Brunei Darussalam in order to provide a database which would be of use in assessing any potential environmental impacts in the country. This paper describes the rainwater acidity monitoring programme that was initiated in 1995 by the Brunei Meteorological Service as part of the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW). Wet-only deposition samples were collected using an automatic precipitation collector. Rainwater pH was determined in an on-site laboratory immediately upon sample collection. The pH of 185 samples collected so far varied between 4.27 and 6.27. 91% of the samples had pH below 5.6 indicating the occurrence of acid rain in Brunei Darussalam

  17. 40 CFR 76.3 - General Acid Rain Program provisions.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General Acid Rain Program provisions. 76.3 Section 76.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.3 General Acid Rain Program...

  18. Acid Rain in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia

    Rice, Karen C.; Deviney, Frank A., Jr.; Olson, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    Visitors to Shenandoah National Park (SNP) enjoy the animal and plant life and the scenery but may not realize how vulnerable these features are to various threats, such as invasion of exotic plants and insects, improper use of park resources by humans, and air and water pollution. The National Park Service strives to protect natural resources from such threats to ensure that the resources will be available for enjoyment now and in the future. Because SNP has limited influence over the air pollution that envelops the region, acidic deposition--commonly known as acid rain--is one of the more challenging threats facing park managers. With the help of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists, park managers can understand how acid rain interacts with ground- and surface-water resources, which enables them to explain why reductions in air pollution can help preserve park resources. Such understanding also provides essential insight into ecosystem processes, as managers strive to unravel and resolve other environmental problems that are interrelated to acid rain.

  19. Radiation-dose consequences of acid rain

    Acid rain causes accelerated mobilization of many materials in soils. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides, especially Ra and Cs, are among these materials. Generally, a decrease in soil pH by 1 unit will cause increases in mobility and plant uptake by factors of 2 to 7. Several simulation models were tested with most emphasis on an atmospherically driven soil model that predicts water and nuclide flow through a soil profile. We modelled a typical, acid rain sensitive soil using meterological data from Geraldton, Ontario. The results, within the range of effects on the soil expected from acidification, showed direct proportionality between the mobility of the nuclides and dose. Based on the literature available, a decrease in pH of 1 unit may increase the mobility of Ra and Cs by a factor or 2 or more. This will lead to increases in plant uptake and ultimate dose to man of about the same extent

  20. State regulatory issues in acid rain compliance

    This article discusses the results of a US EPA workshop for state regulators and commission staff on acid rain compliance concerns. The topics of the article include the results of market-based emissions control, how emissions trading is expected to reduce emissions, public utility commissions approval of compliance plans, the purposes of the workshop, market information, accounting issues, regulatory process and utility planning, multi-state compliance planning, and relationship to other compliance issues

  1. From acid rain to toxic snow

    Emerging acid rain problems and problems related to various airborne toxins and effects in soils are discussed by David Schindler, the Volvo Environment Prize winner, a member of the Dept. of Biological Sciences, Univ. of Alberta, Canada. A chain of events involving depletion of basic cations in soils and global warming can result ultimately in a significant threat to indigenous peoples living at high latitudes

  2. ACID RAIN - A PROBLEM OF THE PRESENT

    Rozelinda Čož-Rakovac; Mato Hacmanjek; Zlatica Teskeredžić; Marija Tomec; Emin Teskeredžić; Šojat, V.; D Borovečki

    1995-01-01

    Acid rains is one of the most relevant problems of the human environment, the result being pollution of the atmosphere caused by ever growing industrial development. It is caused by the freeing of sulphuric oxides and oxygen, which along with certain chemical reactions transfer into sulphate and nitrate, and through wet or dry sediments reach the ground. This has an effect on lakes, rivers, the entire animal and plant kingdom, including all the good creations of mankind. Over a longer time pe...

  3. Acid rain still plaguing lakes and loons

    Acid rain monitoring began more than two decades ago by Environment Canada and recent numbers indicate that acid levels in the inland waters barely respond to the reductions in sulphur dioxide (SO2). Under the Canada-U.S. Air Quality Agreement, both countries have committed to reduce SO2 emissions by 50 per cent over 1980 levels and to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions. Although Canada's goal for SO2 reductions was achieved in 1994, the nitrogen oxide emissions remained relatively constant. A study of 152 lakes in southeastern Canada indicated that the lakes are only 41 per cent less acidic than they were 20 years ago. The area studied is more vulnerable since it received more acid rain than any other part of the country and the granite bedrock of the Canadian Shield shows a weakness in neutralizing ability. The acidification has caused declines in the populations of fish and invertebrate which loons rely on to survive. A volunteer-based program called Canadian Lakes Loon Survey supported by Environment Canada and other partners began annual monitoring of the breeding success of loons on about 800 lakes. The results showed a decline in the proportion of successful breeding between 1981 and 1997. The decline was more pronounced where the acid level was greatest. Near Sudbury, Ontario, where the emissions of SO2 declined dramatically, invertebrates started reappearing and fish populations were successfully re-established

  4. Effects of simulated acid rain on vegetation

    Ferenbaugh, R.W.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of simulated acid rain on Chenopodium quinoa, Hordeum vulgare and Phaseolus vulgaris. Because of differential species' susceptibility, detailed experiments were conducted only on Phaseolus vulgaris. Acid rain was simulated by spraying the plants with a hand-held atomizer. Sulfuric acid solutions covering a pH range of 1.5 to 3.5 in one half pH unit increments were used. Gross morphological effects noted at lower pH values included failure to attain normal height, necrosis and wrinkling of leaves, excessive and adventitious budding, and premature abscission of primary leaves. Histological effects included smaller cell size, a decreased amount of intercellular space, hypertrophied nuclei and nucleoli, and a reduction in the size of starch granules within the chloroplasts. Dry weight remained an approximately constant percentage of fresh weight, and chlorophyll analyses showed that both chlorophyll concentration and ratio of chlorophyll 'a' to chlorophyll 'b' also remained constant. Respirometer studies showed that, while respiration rate increased only slightly at low pH values, photosynthetic rate increased dramatically. Quantitative analyses indicated that carbohydrate content was reduced at low pH values, with starch content reduced much more than sugar content. Root biomass was also reduced at low pH values. Application of Congo red indicator solution to the acid treated tissue showed that it was being acidified to a pH of below 4. 114 references, 23 figures, 12 tables.

  5. Acid rain legislation and local areas

    This study explores the local economic impacts of the phase I requirements of the 1990 acid rain legislation. This legislation allows electric utilities to adopt least cost ways of reducing sulfur dioxide pollution. The impact on employment, income and size distribution of income due to a switch to low sulfur coal is examined for a selected number of high sulfur coal producing counties in southern Illinois. In order to achieve the above objectives a generalized non-survey input-output model, IMPLAN (Impact Analysis for Planning), is employed to estimate first- and second-order employment and income effects of a switch to low sulfur coal. Two models, I and II, are constructed to provide these estimates. In Model I, income is generated and adjusted to reflect income retained and spent within the four county region. In Model II, no adjustment is made for flows into and out of the region. In addition to adjustments in income, adjustments in direct employment impacts were made in both models to account for retirements. Scenarios reflecting different degrees of coal switching, low and high switching options, were examined under both models. With regards to size distribution impacts, a newly developed operational model compatible with IMPLAN and developed by Rose et al (1988) was employed. This model is a member of a class of models collectively termed extended input-output models. As in the case of employment and income, allowance was made for income generated, retained and spent within the four counties in the assessment of income distribution impacts. The findings indicate that the adverse effects of a switch to low sulfur coal under the 1990 acid rain legislation will primarily hurt the coal mining industry. Coal mining employment and income will be adversely affected. Employment and income declines in other industries in the region will be fairly slight. Second, income distribution becomes slightly more equal for the local area due to acid rain control

  6. The greenhouse effect and acid rain

    The concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxides and chlorofluorocarbons is increasing in the earth's atmosphere. Increased concentrations of these trace gases could lead to global warming, increased acid rain and increased UV radiation on the earth's surface; however, the actual impacts are still uncertain and are also the subject of great debate. Application of clean energy sources such as geothermal are obviously desirable for decreasing these effects and improving our overall general environment. This paper briefly summarizes the global environmental concerns, providing a backdrop for the following papers which describe the geothermal role in future environmental considerations

  7. Technological options for acid rain control

    The paper discusses technological options for acid rain control. Compliance with Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 will require careful scrutiny of a number of issues before selecting control options to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. One key consideration is the effect of fuel switching or control technology upon the existing dust collector, with additional air toxics legislation looming ahead. A number of likely SO2 and NOx retrofit technologies and estimated costs are presented, along with results of retrofit case studies. New hybrid particulate controls are also being developed to meet future requirements

  8. Acid rain control: success on the cheap

    At the time of the fourth Conference of the Parties to the climate change convention in Buenos Aires, the article discusses whether the flexible free-market approach developed in the USA to control acid rain (under the Clean Air Act Amendments) could be adopted to control greenhouse gases around the world. The economic success of Phase I and the effects of Phase II (to start in 2000), with several uncertainties, are discussed. The article quotes opinions of many government officials and also of non-governmental environmentalists. 3 figs

  9. Study of Acid Rain in Tikrit City

    Khaled H. Latef

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A study of the degree of acidity  for the precipitation in four different sites in Tikrit city was done  for the period from 1-February to 1-April/2007 which is the period of rains in this year.      Chemical tests included (pH as the direct indicator of the degree of acidity ,and the concentration of sulphates (SO4-2 and nitrates ( NO3- as indirect indicator.      The (pH range was (5.56-6.4 which indicates the presence of acid rain in the area under study . (SO4-2 concentrations range was (88-223mg/l while  ( NO3- concentrations range was (80-170mg/l.      The wind velocity ,temperature, and humidity during the sample collection period ranged (2.25-4m/s, (1-260C, (22%-90% respectively

  10. Acid rain compliance: Options, facts, and findings

    On January 1, 1995, those utilities affected during the Phase 1 implementation of the amended Clean Air Act will be required to comply with new clean air standards. During the next three years leading up to that date, in order to achieve compliance, those companies need to not only decide on a strategy but also implement a plan. To date very few clear-cut compliance decisions have been made. The reasons for the uncertainty center on future fuel prices and the prospects for more efficient and lower cost FGD systems. Many utility planners look at today's coal market and find it hard to believe that prices for some specialty coals, particularly ultra-low sulfur coals, will be higher than the tremendous costs associated with the development of an FGD system. With that in mind, it comes as no surprise that coal switching has been regarded as the least cost choice among even the largest sulfur emitting companies in the country. However, if companies continue to make least cost decisions based on today's coal market, the US coal and utility industries could be in for some disruptive times ahead. While no paper can completely address the enormous complexity surrounding acid rain compliance, this paper addresses some of the broad issues which result from compliance activity and summarizes the findings outlined in RDI's four volume report, the Acid Rain Handbook

  11. Strategies for controlling acid rain: economic considerations

    There are two competing approaches to reducing pollution such as the acid rain precursors SOsub(2) and NOsub(x). In the command and control approach, pollution control legislation may dictate the technological method by which specified pollution reductions are to be achieved. A key feature of command-and-control regulations is their inflexibility. The alternative approach relies on market mechanisms and incentives to induce firms to reduce pollution voluntarily. Economists generally prefer this approach because it permits flexibility for firms in selecting abatement methods to minimize costs. This chapter deals with qualitative issues in determining and achieving an ''optimal'' pollution level using various taxes, subsidies or quantitative restrictions. Alternative permit schemes for achieving regional pollution control are considered. Statistical studies are discussed which compare the command-and-control approach with the economic incentives approach and show that there are substantial cost differences between them in most cases. Finally, some institutional factors, that may lead to more costly acid rain control schemes being selected, are examined. A list of 61 references is appended. (UK)

  12. Influence of simulated acidic rain on root-infecting fungi

    Shafer, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    Influences of the acidity of simulated rain on root-infecting fungi were investigated. Effects of rain acidity on Phytophthora cinnamomi were studied. Propagule densities in soil depended upon the acidity (pH 5.6, 4.0, 3.2, or 2.4) of simulated rain and soil depth (1, 2, 4, or 8 cm). Lowest densities occurred in 1 to 2 cm soil layers exposed to rains at pH 3.2 or 2.4. Sporangium production on radicles of Lupinus angustifolius in Lakeland sand moistened with rain solution at pH 2.4 was 47% less than production with solution at pH 5.6. A linear response to solution acidity was exhibited. Infection of L. angustifolius roots by zoospores demonstrated a linear response to acidity of rain. Approximately 44% fewer lesions occurred on roots of seedlings exposed to rain at pH 2.4 than on roots of seedlings exposed to rain at pH 5.6. The acidity (pH 5.6, 4.0, 3.2, or 2.4) of repeated rains had no consistent effect on disease progress among L. augustifolius seedlings planted in infested soil. The formation of ectomycorrhizae on Pinus taeda seedlings exhibited a quadratic response to acidity of repeated rains. The percentage of short roots that were ectomycorrhizal was greatest among seedlings exposed to rains at pH 2.4 and least among seedlings exposed to rains at pH 4.0. The density of Macrophomina phaseolina propagules in Lakeland sand exposed to repeated rains at pH 2.4 was an average of 20% less than densities associated with rains at pH 5.6, 4.0, or 3.2.

  13. Effect of simulated acid rain on vegetation

    Ferenbaugh, R.W.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of simulated acid rain on Chenopodium quinoa, Hordeum vulgare and Phaseolus vulgaris. Detailed experiments were conducted only on Phaseolus vulgaris. Sulfuric acid solutions covering a pH range of 1.5 to 3.5 were used. Gross morphological effects noted at lower pH values included failure to attain normal height, necrosis and wrinkling of leaves, excessive and adventitious budding, and premature abscission of primary leaves. Histological effects included smaller cell size, a decreased amount of intercellular space, hypertrophied nuclei and nucleoli, and a reduction in the size of starch granules within the chloroplasts. Dry weight remained an approximately constant percentage of fresh weight, and chlorophyll analyses showed that both chlorophyll concentration and ratio of chlorophyll to chlorophyll also remained constant. Respirometer studies showed that respiration rate increased slightly and photosynthetic rate increased dramatically. Quantitative analyses indicated that carbohydrate content was reduced at low pH values. Root biomass was also reduced. Application of Congo red indicator solution to the acid treated tissue showed that it was being acidified to a pH of below 4. Experiments involving aspiration of control tissue in acid solutions suggest that the increase in photosynthetic rate and the decreases in carbohydrate content and root biomass were caused by an uncoupling of photophosphorylation of adenosine diphosphate. Uncoupling was probably caused by hydrogen ion interference with proton pumps associated with the electron transport chain in the light reactions of photosynthesis. 128 references. (MDF)

  14. Elementary Acid Rain Kit, Interdisciplinary, Grades 4-8.

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    An interdisciplinary approach for teaching about acid rain is offered in this curriculum guide for teachers of grades 4-8. Skill and concept areas of science, math, social studies, art, and the language arts are developed in 12 activities which focus on the acid rain problems. A matrix of the activities and subject areas indicates the coverage…

  15. 40 CFR 75.3 - General Acid Rain Program provisions.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General Acid Rain Program provisions. 75.3 Section 75.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING General § 75.3 General Acid Rain Program provisions....

  16. Acid rain compliance: The need for regulatory guidance

    Solomon, B.D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-07-01

    This article presents a broad view of the need for regulatory guidance when confronting the problem of acid rain. The two major topics addressed are (1) Why is guidance needed and (2) What kind of guidance is needed. Discussion of rate and accounting treatment of allowances, acid rain compliance planning, and allowance trading and energy efficiency are included.

  17. Utility views of acid rain legislation

    The electric utilities consume almost 85% of the coal that is used in the US. The utilities as well as other industries will be seriously affected by revisions currently being considered to the Clean Air Act. We endorse the 10-year scientific National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) which concludes the acid rain is not an environmental crisis but a long-term problem that needs to be addressed. The extreme views expressed by environmentalists and echoed by the media have been rendered unlikely to be correct assording to the NAPAP director. For example, the report found that the majority of North American forests are healthy. In addition, SO2 emissions are down while coal use has doubled since the 70's. However, Congress, by considering any of the proposed Clean Air bills, is ignoring the NAPAP results. Experts from all areas are touting the need for the development of a National Energy Policy which would decrease our reliance on foreign oil and capitalize on the resources in abundance here in the United States -- like coal. The President has urged lawmakers to enact measures that would do just that. Yet the Joint Committee of Congress is marching on with revisions to a Clean Air Act that is already working. This will increase the cost of energy across all areas of industry and call a halt to the industrial recovery in this country

  18. Acid rain stimulation of Lake Michigan phytoplankton growth

    Manny, Bruce A.; Fahnenstiel, G.L.; Gardner, W.S.

    1987-01-01

    Three laboratory experiments demonstrated that additions of rainwater to epilimnetic lake water collected in southeastern Lake Michigan stimulated chlorophyll a production more than did additions of reagent-grade water during incubations of 12 to 20 d. Chlorophyll a production did not begin until 3–5 d after the rain and lake water were mixed. The stimulation caused by additions of rain acidified to pH 3.0 was greater than that caused by additions of untreated rain (pH 4.0–4.5). Our results support the following hypotheses: (1) Acid rain stimulates the growth of phytoplankton in lake water; (2) phosphorus in rain appears to be the factor causing this stimulation. We conclude that acid rain may accelerate the growth of epilimnetic phytoplankton in Lake Michigan (and other similar lakes) during stratification when other sources of bioavailable phosphorus to the epilimnion are limited

  19. Acid rain compliance planning using decision analysis

    Illinois Power Company (IP) is an investor-owned electric and natural gas utility serving portions of downstate Illinois. In addition to one nuclear unit and several small gas and/or oil-fired units, IP has ten coal-fired units. It is easy to understand the impact the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) could have on IP. Prior to passage of the CAAA, IP formed several teams to evaluate the specific compliance options at each of the high sulfur coal units. Following that effort, numerous economic analyses of compliance strategies were conducted. The CAAA have introduced a new dimension to planning under uncertainty. Not only are many of the familiar variables uncertain, but the specific form of regulation, and indeed, the compliance goal itself is hard to define. For IP, this led them to use techniques not widely used within their corporation. This paper summarizes the analytical methods used in these analyses and the preliminary results as of July, 1991. The analysis used three approaches to examine the acid rain compliance decision. These approaches were: (1) the 'most-likely,' or single-path scenario approach; (2) a multi-path strategy analysis using the strategies defined in the single-scenario analysis; and (3) a less constrained multi-path option analysis which selects the least cost compliance option for each unit

  20. Acid Rain Data at Yokohama, Japan (Apr. 2003-Aug. 2004)

    Murayama, Haruta

    2005-01-01

    Rain samples were collected adequately at the center of Yokohama city from April 2003 to August 2004. Total numbers of samples were 214. pH values and electric conductivity (E.G.) were measured immediately after catched samples and then chemical species were analyzed. This report is contained all observed data. Frequency of acid rain(pH

  1. ACID RAIN AND SOIL MICROBIAL ACTIVITY: EFFECTS AND THEIR MECHANISMS

    In the investigation, our aim was to determine if acid rain affects soil microbial activity and to identify possible mechanisms of observed effects. A Sierran forest soil (pH 6.4) planted with Ponderosa pine seedlings was exposed to simulated rain (pH 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.6) with ...

  2. A European Acid Rain Program based on the US experience

    Brandt, U. Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2000-01-01

    The paper shows that cost-effective involvement of the source location involves utmost difficulty in practice. Based on the RAINS model, it is recommended that source location should be ignored in a European market for SO2, as is the case in the US Acid Rain Program. Based on the political target...

  3. Moessbauer study of corrosion induced by acid rain

    Strictly speaking acid rain refers to wet precipitation of pollutants S0/sub 2/SO/sub 3/ and NO/sub x/HNO/sub 3/ which have dissolved in cloud and rain droplets to from sulphuric and nitric acids. Acid rain has seriously damaged pine and spruce forests in Canada, USA and Europe. In these areas it has caused damage to buildings, reduced fish population due to acidification of lakes and rivers, and affected health of human beings as a result of poor water quality. The corrosion products formed in a simulated acid rain environment have been identified with transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy using a /sup 57/Co source. They were found to be gamma-FeOOH, alpha-FeOOH, gamma-Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and a phase with unfamiliar parameters which seems to be amorphous in nature and can be considered as an intermediate phase. (author)

  4. Acid rain project biosurveys of streams in the Wastwater catchment

    Prigg, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    This is the Acid rain project biosurveys of streams in the Wastwater catchment produced by the North West Water Authority in 1985. This report forms part of a series on component biological investigations, identified by location or topic, within the acid rain project. Reporting of the Wastwater catchment data would not have been given priority ordinarily, but it has been brought forward to coincide with J. Robinson's reporting of his investigations of land use and liming in the catchment. Thi...

  5. Acid Rain: A Teacher's Guide. Activities for Grades 4 to 12.

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    This guide on acid rain for elementary and secondary students is divided into three study areas: (1) What Causes Acid Rain; (2) What Problems Acid Rain Has Created; (3) How You and Your Students Can Help Combat Acid Rain. Each section presents background information and a series of lessons pertaining to the section topic. Activities include…

  6. Acid Rain. Activities for Grades 4 to 12. A Teacher's Guide.

    Wood, David; Bryant, Jeannette

    This teacher's guide on acid rain is divided into three study areas to explain: (1) what causes acid rain; (2) what problems acid rain has created; and (3) what teachers and students can do to help combat acid rain. Instructions for activities within the study areas include suggested grade levels, objectives, materials needed, and directions for…

  7. 40 CFR 72.31 - Information requirements for Acid Rain permit applications.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information requirements for Acid Rain... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Permit Applications § 72.31 Information requirements for Acid Rain permit applications. A complete Acid Rain permit application shall include...

  8. Effects of simulated acid rain on fertility of litchi

    QIU Dong-liang; LIU Xing-hui; GUO Su-zhi

    2005-01-01

    The regulatory role of calcium in fertility of pollen and pistil under simulated acid rein was investigated. The germination percentage of pollen treated with acid rain of pH 4.5 was 9.42% lower than that of control, and that of pH 3.5, pH 2.5 and pH 1.5 were 22.47 %, 45.49% and 71.62%, respectively. Simultaneously, the injury character of pollen was obviously observed when flowers were treated with acid rain of pH 3.5. The difference in fruit setting rate between the female flower treated with acid rain of pH 4.0 and the control was significant at p < 0.05. Ca(NO3 )2 of 0.2-0.4 mmol/L could promote pollen germination under the stress of acid rain. The beneficial function was reduced when calcium concentration surpassed 0.8 mmol/L. Spraying 2 mmol/L Ca(NO3 )2 reduced the injury of acid rain to pistil and increased fruit-setting rate significantly. The physiological importance of calcium during pollen germination and pistil development was also discussed.

  9. Simulated acid rain effects on soil chemistry and microbiology

    A research study was carried out regarding the effects of artificial rains at different pH's (3.1, 4.0, 5.6) on soil samples from Appiano Gentile pinewood. Chemical parameters, biological activities and microbiological groups, particularly sensitive to possible variations in the presence of pH changes, were monitored after 2, 4 and 6 months of treatment of the soil on eluate obtained from treatment with artificial acid rains. The paper reports the results research

  10. Characteristic, origin, prediction of acid rain at Chongqing in China

    The characteristics of the acid rain at Chongqing city, Sichuan Province, China is presented. The chemical analysis of the rainwater in major cities in China, seasonal variation of pH of the rain in last decade, concentration of the SO2 in atmosphere and in rain at Chongqing city are reviewed. The possible factors affecting the acidity is analyzed. The closed geography is revealed to be one of the cause. Industries exhausting soot and Chongqing coal thermal plant combusting coal of high sulfur and high ash concentration are the main sources of pollutants. SO2 from coal as domestic fuel may not be ignored. It is estimated that the concentrations of SO2 in atmosphere, SO42- in rain, H+ in rain, and wet precipitation shall be 0.61 mg/m3, 402.2μeq/l, 122.2μeq/l and 3.67mg/m2·yr, respectively. Warning is made that unless rapid countermeasure shall be devised, Chongqing may become one of the worst acid rain districts. (Y.A.)

  11. The regional costs and benefits of acid rain control

    Congress recently enacted acid rain control legislation as part of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments following a decade-long debate among disparate regional interests. Although Congress succeeded in drafting a law acceptable to all regions, the regional costs and benefits of the legislation remain uncertain. The research presented here attempts to estimate the regional costs and benefits and the economic impacts of acid rain controls. These estimates are made using a modeling system composed of econometric, linear programming and input-output models. The econometric and linear programming components describe markets for electricity and coal. The outputs of these components including capital investment, electricity demand, and coal production are taken as exogenous inputs by a multiregional input-output model. The input-output model produces estimates of changes in final demand, gross output, and employment. The utility linear programming model also predicts sulfur dioxide emissions (an acid-rain precursor). According to model simulations, the costs of acid rain control exceed the benefits for many regions including several regions customarily thought to be the major beneficiaries of acid rain control such as New England

  12. Effects of acid rain and sulfur dioxide on marble dissolution

    Schuster, Paul F.; Reddy, Michael M.; Sherwood, Susan I.

    1994-01-01

    Acid precipitation and the dry deposition of sulfur dioxide (SO2) accelerate damage to carbonate-stone monuments and building materials. This study identified and quantified environmental damage to a sample of Vermont marble during storms and their preceding dry periods. Results from field experiments indicated the deposition of SO2 gas to the stone surface during dry periods and a twofold increase in marble dissolution during coincident episodes of low rain rate and decreased rainfall pH. The study is widely applicable to the analysis of carbonate-stone damage at locations affected by acid rain and air pollution.

  13. Acid rain and electric utilities: Permits, allowances, monitoring and meteorology

    This conference was held January 23--25, 1995 in Tempe, Arizona. The purpose of the conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the environmental effects electric utilities have in relation to air pollution and acid rain. Attention is focused on many of the permitting and monitoring issues facing the electric utilities industry. Sulfur dioxide allowances, Title IV and Title V issues, Acid Rain Program implementation and Continuing Emissions Monitoring Systems (CEMS) are some of the relevant topics covered in this proceedings. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  14. Continuous-emission monitoring: Proposed acid-rain rule

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed four rules containing the core acid rain requirements: the Permits Rule (40 CFR Part 72), the Allowances Rule (40 CFR Part 73), the Continuous Emission Monitoring Rule (40 CFR Part 75), and the Excess Emissions Rule (40 CRF Part 77). EPA will also propose additional rules at a future date. These rules will include requirements for facilities that elect to opt into the Acid Rain Program (40 CFR Part 74) and for the nitrogen oxide (NOx) control program (40 CFR Part 76). This fact sheet summarizes the key components of the proposed Continuous Emission Monitoring Rule (40 CFR Part 75)

  15. Acid rain and the NAPAP study

    This article reports on preliminary state of science and technology reports on acidic deposition released by the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program. These are part of the integrated assessment of acidic deposition and related air pollutants to be released at a later date. SO2 and NOx emissions and effects are discussed

  16. A Gaming Approach to the Acid Rain Problem.

    Baba, Norio; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes an educational microcomputer gaming system for dealing with the acid rain problem in Western Europe and discusses its objectives, rules, problems, and future perspectives. Usefulness of gaming as an operational aid in formulating appropriate energy policies worldwide is emphasized. (MBR)

  17. The US Acid Rain Program: design, performance, and assessment

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1998-01-01

    The US Acid Rain Program (ARP) from 1990 allows 1,000 major electric utilities all over the US to trade SO2 permits. Historical emission rights have been grandfathered and the target level is 50% SO2 reduction. Market performance has been successfull with much trade activity and unexpectedly low...

  18. 40 CFR 72.69 - Issuance and effective date of acid rain permits.

    2010-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Federal Acid Rain Permit Issuance Procedures § 72.69 Issuance and effective date of acid rain permits. (a) After the close of the public comment period, the Administrator will issue or deny an Acid Rain permit. The Administrator will serve a copy of any Acid...

  19. 40 CFR 72.71 - Acceptance of State Acid Rain programs-general.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acceptance of State Acid Rain programs... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Acid Rain Phase II Implementation § 72.71 Acceptance of State Acid... State Acid Rain program meeting the requirements of §§ 72.72 and 72.73. (b) The Administrator...

  20. Use of the RAINS model in acid rain negotiations in Europe

    The use of models in international negotiations on environmental problems for which no compulsory action can be imposed is a recent trend. In the past, international agreements have been reached without any model being used. For example, the first step in reducing acid rain in Europe and North America was made in 1985 without using an integrated model. Neither was a model used to establish the Vienna Convention on Protection of the Ozone Layer (1986). Analyzing the reasons for using mathematical models in environmental negotiations is not the subject of this paper. Suffice it to say there are several recent examples of models being used in preparing international policy actions, for instance the Law of the Sea and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The acceptance of models as tools in negotiations depends on many factors. The differences in the attitudes toward use of models in the case of assessment of acid rain in Europe and North America have been analyzed. In this paper, the author reviews the current use of the RAINS model and points out some lessons for the development of models that could be used in international environmental negotiations

  1. Acid Rain Education and Its Implications for Curricular Development: A Teacher Survey.

    Barrow, Lloyd H.; Germann, Paul

    1987-01-01

    Describes a survey which was designed to obtain information on acid rain education. Reviews results pertaining to instructional time, instructional topics, use of labs from a common resource guide, and preference of materials related to acid rain education. (ML)

  2. A Demonstration of Acid Rain and Lake Acidification: Wet Deposition of Sulfur Dioxide.

    Goss, Lisa M.

    2003-01-01

    Introduces a science demonstration on the dissolution of sulfuric oxide emphasizing the concept of acid rain which is an environmental problem. Demonstrates the acidification from acid rain on two lake environments, limestone and granite. Includes safety information. (YDS)

  3. Effect of acid rain on soil microbial processes

    Acid rain is real; the pH of precipitation in many areas of the world is below its normal equilibrium value, and concentrations of inorganic N and S are elevated above background. The impact of acid rain on soil microbial processes is less clear. This is largely because of the chemical buffering of the soil ecosystem and the inherent resiliency and redundancy of soil microorganisms. Microorganisms have an amazing capacity to adapt to new situations, which is enhanced by their ability to evolve under selection pressure. Their resilience is a function of both the large number of microorganisms present in a given volume of soil and their high growth rate relative to macroorganisms. This suggests that microorganisms are likely to be able to adapt more quickly to acidification than plants or animals, which may be one reason why symbiotic associations, such as ectomycorrhizae, are more susceptible to acid inputs than their saprophytic counterparts

  4. US energy and the impact of acid rain legislation

    The 1990 Amendment to the US Clean Air Act aims to mitigate damage to the environment caused by acid rain. This study considers whether earlier US government policies to promote increased use of abundant indigenous coal resources will be aborted by the 1990 Amendment. It also examines whether benefits to the environment and public health resulting from the new law outweigh costs to the consumer. Emphasis is placed on evaluating the efficiency of marketable permits in achieving minimum cost to comply with emission standards set by the amendment. The authors restrict the study to the sections of Title IV (Acid Rain) which pertain specifically to SO2 emissions from electric utilities. 15 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs

  5. Acid Rain in Europe: A Framework to Assist Decision Making

    Alcamo, J.; P. E. Kauppi; Posch, M.; Runca, E.

    1984-01-01

    The ratification of the Geneva Convention on Transboundary Air Pollution in March of 1983 showed that nations of Eastern and Western Europe were determined to control the problem of acid rain. In the same year, IIASA offered its analytical skills to the international community to help solve the problem. It did so by entering into official cooperation with the UN Economic Commission of Europe (ECE) which is responsible for implementing the convention. As part of this cooperation IIASA is devel...

  6. Technologies options for acid-rain control. Book chapter

    The report discusses acid rain control options available to the electric utility industry. They include coal switching, flue gas desulfurization, and such emerging lower cost technologies as Limestone Injection Multistage Burners (LIMB) and Advanced Silicate (ADVACATE), both developed by EPA, selective use of gas to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in coal-fired boilers, and the use of Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology

  7. US acid rain legislation: implications for the steaming coal trade

    Recent acid rain legislation passed by the US Congress aims to drastically reduce sulphur dioxide emissions from coal fired power stations. Compliance with this legislation is expected to impinge on industries involved in steaming coal production, consumption and exports. Australia is a major producer of low sulphur coal, therefore it is assumed that this legislation could have positive implications for the Australian steaming coal industry. 13 refs., tabs., figs

  8. Economic restructuring in Eastern Europe and acid rain abatement strategies

    Acid rain abatement strategies in Europe are currently being discussed in view of the expiration of the Helsinki Protocol on SO2 emission reduction. The changing energy situation in Eastern European countries is expected to have an influence on the deposition pattern in Europe. The paper presents a consistent energy scenario for Eastern European countries and compares optimal strategies to reduce SO2 emissions. These strategies are based on runs with the RAINS model in which environmental targets have been set based on critical loads for sulphur. The analysis shows that economic restructuring and efficiency improvements in Eastern European countries, as well as in Western Europe, may result in significantly lower sulphur abatement costs. Potential assistance to Eastern Europe to guarantee desired environmental standards in Western countries should therefore focus not only on providing emission control devices but also on the success of the economic transition process. (author)

  9. Correlation of acid rain with the distributions of acid and alkaline elements in aerosols

    Acid rain often appeared both in Guiyang city of Guizhou province and Chongqing city of Sichuan province in the southwest of China. Aerosol samples in these two cities were collected by Andersen cascade sampler during the spring and autumn of 1995 respectively. The contents of 18 elements in the aerosol particles were analyzed by PIXE. The distributions of acid elements such as S, Cl and alkaline elements such as Ca, K in the aerosol samples from these two cities were calculated. The comparison of the distributions of acid and alkaline elements in the aerosols samples was made between these two cities and Beijing where no acid rain was found. The results showed that the acid rain in the southwest of China was caused by the dominant concentration of acid elements in the aerosol particles, which mainly resulted from the coal combustion and the lower alkalinity of soil in this area

  10. Foliar nutrient status of Pinus ponderosa exposed to ozone and acid rain

    A direct effect of foliar exposure to acid rain may be increased leaching of nutrient elements. Ozone exposure, through degradation of the cuticle and cellular membranes, may also result in increased nutrient leaching. To test these hypotheses, the foliar concentrations of 13 nutrient elements were monitored for mature branches of three clones of Pinus ponderosa exposed to ozone and/or acid rain. The three clones represented three distinct levels of phenotypic vigor. Branches were exposed to charcoal filtered, ambient, or 2 x ambient concentrations of ozone and received no acid rain (NAP), pH 5.1 rain (5.1), or pH 3.0 (3.0) rain. Following 10 months of continuous ozone exposure and 3 months of weekly rain applications, the concentrations of P and Mg differed significantly among rain treatments with a ranking of: 5.1 < NAP < 3.0. The S concentration increased with rain application regardless of pH. For the clones of moderate and low vigor, the concentration of N decreased with increasing rain acidity. There was no evidence of significant ozone or ozone x acid rain response. Among the three families, high phenotypic vigor was associated with significantly greater concentrations of N, P, K, Mg, B and An. These results indicate generally negligible leaching as a result of exposure to acid rain and/or ozone for one growing season. Increases in foliar concentrations of S, Mg and P are possibly the result of evaporative surface deposition from the rain solution

  11. Wood Properties of Poplar from Stand Affected by Acid Rain

    2002-01-01

    Wood properties from 28 trees (Populus euramericana) selected from healthy and acid rain damaged forest were measured to evaluate the possible impacts on wood quality and utilization. On the heavily damaged location, the pH value of precipitation ranged from 3.7-5.0, and sulfate loading ranged from 20-40 kg·ha-2.y-1. Quantitative and qualitative studies on ring width, physical properties and mechanical properties indicated that changes of wood properties between diseased and healthy poplar occurred. Aci...

  12. Acid rain compliance: Coordination of state and federal regulation

    The Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 impose new controls on emissions by electric utilities of the two major precursors of acid rain: sulfur dioxide (SO2) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Utilities, and the utility holding company systems and power pools of which they are members, will be subject to extensive and costly compliance obligations under the new statute. Most of these utilities, utility systems, and power pools are regulated by more than one utility regulatory authority. Some utilities are regulated by several states, some by a single state and by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), and some by multiple states, by the FERC, and by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Utility regulators will need to coordinate their policies for ratemaking and for reviewing acid rain compliance strategies if least cost solutions are to be implemented without imposing on ratepayers and utility shareholders the costs and risks of inconsistent regulatory determinations. This article outlines the scope of the coordination problem and addresses possible approaches that utility regulators may take to deal with this problem

  13. Canopy leaching of subtropical mixed forests under acid rain

    Renjun XIANG; Liyuan CHAI; Xilin ZHANG; Gong ZHANG; Guifang ZHAO

    2008-01-01

    Leaching of major ions from acid precipitation in a subtropical forest was examined based on an experi-ment in four sample sites in Shaoshan City, Hunan Province, China, from January 2001 to June 2002. Results clearly show that when rain passed through the canopy, pH increased and the evidence of ion uptake was presented for SO42- , NO3-, Mg2+ and NH4+ ions, espe-cially of NH4+ and NO3-. The percentages of dissolved SO42-, Ca2+ and Mg2+ show a decreasing trend with increasing rainfall. Percentages of leaching Ca2+, K+ and Cl- ions show an increasing trend as a function of increased pH values. The forest canopy in Shaoshan City has a strong effect on the uptake of SO42- and NO3- ions under acid rain conditions. The decreasing order of ions leaching in the forest canopy is as follows: K+> Ca2+ > Cl- > Mg2+ > SO42- > NO3- > NH4+ > Na+.

  14. Effects of acidity of simulated rain on the fruiting of 'Summerred' apple trees

    The effects of rain acidity on field-grown Summered apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh) under natural conditions were investigated. One group of four trees was exposed to ambient rainfall. Four other groups were covered with rainshields and received water, pH 5.6, 4, and 3, respectively, as simulated rain. Simulated acid rain, particularly at pH 3, adversely affected fruit production in terms of individual fruit weight, fruit set, fruit appearance (necrosis and russetting of the peel) and dry weight. Ambient rain was not found to cause significant reductions in apple weight. Ambient rain was not found to cause significant reductions in apple fruit production in this study

  15. Factors Affecting Sensitivity of Variable Charge Soils to Acid Rain

    WANGJING-HUA

    1995-01-01

    The sensitivity of a large number of variable charge soils to acid rain was evaluated through examining pH-H2SO4 input curves.Two derivative parameters,the consumption of hydrogen ions by the soil and the acidtolerant limit as defined as the quantity of sulfuric acid required to bring the soil to pH 3.5 in a 0.001mol L-1 Ca(NO3)2 solution,were used.The sensitivity of variable charge soils was higher than that of constant charge soils,due to the predominance of kaolinite in clay mineralogical composition.Among these soils the sensitivity was generally of the order lateritic red soil>red soil> latosol.For a given type of soil within the same region the sensitivity was affected by parent material,due to differences in clay minerals and texture.The sensitivity of surface soil may be lower or higher than that of subsiol,depending on whether organic matter or texture plays the dominant role in determining the buffering capacity.Paddy soils consumed more acid within lower range of acid input when compared with upland soils,due to the presence of more exchangeable bases,but consumed less acid within higher acid input range,caused by the decrease in clay content.

  16. Suppression of rice methane emission by sulfate deposition in simulated acid rain

    Gauci, Vincent; Dise, Nancy B; Howell, Graham; Jenkins, Meaghan E.

    2008-01-01

    Sulfate in acid rain is known to suppress methane (CH4) emissions from natural freshwater wetlands. Here we examine the possibility that CH4 emissions from rice agriculture may be similarly affected by acid rain, a major and increasing pollution problem in Asia. Our findings suggest that acid rain rates of SO2-4 deposition may help to reduce CH4 emissions from rice agriculture. Emissions from rice plants treated with simulated acid rain at levels of SO2-4 consistent with the range of depositi...

  17. Acid Rain: A Selective Bibliography. Second Edition. Bibliography Series Twenty-One.

    O'Neill, Gertrudis, Comp.

    Acid rain is a term for rain, snow, or other precipitation produced from water vapor in the air reacting with emissions from automobiles, factories, power plants, and other oil and coal burning sources. When these chemical compounds, composed of sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide, react with water vapor, the result is sulfuric acid and nitric acid.…

  18. 76 FR 71559 - Acid Rain Program: Notice of Annual Adjustment Factors for Excess Emissions Penalty

    2011-11-18

    ... AGENCY Acid Rain Program: Notice of Annual Adjustment Factors for Excess Emissions Penalty AGENCY.... SUMMARY: The Acid Rain Program under title IV of the Clean Air Act provides for automatic excess emissions penalties in dollars per ton of excess emissions for sources that do not meet their annual Acid...

  19. 78 FR 64496 - Acid Rain Program: Notice of Annual Adjustment Factors for Excess Emissions Penalty

    2013-10-29

    ... AGENCY Acid Rain Program: Notice of Annual Adjustment Factors for Excess Emissions Penalty AGENCY.... SUMMARY: The Acid Rain Program under title IV of the Clean Air Act provides for automatic excess emissions penalties in dollars per ton of excess emissions for sources that do not meet their annual Acid...

  20. Acid rain at Kennedy Space Center, Florida - Recent observations

    Madsen, B. C.

    1981-01-01

    During the period July, 1977 to September, 1979, rainfall was collected in the vicinity of the Kennedy Space Center and subjected to appropriate chemical analysis for purposes of characterization of general composition and acidity. Results obtained form the basis for future comparisons, should significant alteration of the chemical composition of rain occur during the space shuttle era. Acidity extremes calculated on a monthly basis from event samples collected from five sites within a 200 sq km area varied from pH 5.1 in November, 1977, and April, 1978 to pH 4.3 in July, 1978 and July, 1979. Weighted average pH for the entire period was 4.55. Acidity was due to the presence of sulfuric and nitric acids. The mole ratio of excess SO4(-2):NO3(-) was typically greater than one. Monthly weighted average Cl(-) concentrations ranged from 20-240 micromoles/liter. The Cl(-):Na(+) ratio was slightly lower than that present in sea water.

  1. Acid Rain: Federal Policy Action 1983-1985. A Guide to Government Documents and Commercial Sources.

    Lovenburg, Susan, Comp.

    The problems associated with acid rain as well as strategies on what to do and how to do it are addressed in this resource guide. The first section identifies and describes the U.S. agencies and congressional committees which play a role in acid rain research, legislation, and regulation. Actions already taken by the executive and legislative…

  2. Acid Rain: A Resource Guide for Classroom, Laboratory, Field, and Debate Topics.

    Stoss, Frederick W.

    1987-01-01

    Provides a partially annotated bibliography of journals and book chapters which deal with acid rain. Includes selections which provide background information, ideas for introducing acid rain into science or social studies curricula, inventories of audio-visual aids, and non-print media to supplement classroom, laboratory, and field instruction.…

  3. STATE ACID RAIN RESEARCH AND SCREENING SYSTEM - VERSION 1.0 USER'S MANUAL

    The report is a user's manual that describes Version 1.0 of EPA's STate Acid Rain Research and Screening System (STARRSS), developed to assist utility regulatory commissions in reviewing utility acid rain compliance plans. It is a screening tool that is based on scenario analysis...

  4. EFFECT OF SIMULATED ACID RAIN ON NITRIFICATION AND NITROGEN MINERALIZATION IN FOREST SOILS

    To determine the possible microbiological changes in soil resulting from acid rain, columns containing samples of forest soils were leached with either a continuous application of 100cm of simulated acid rain (pH3.2-4.1) at 5 cm/hour or an intermittent 1.5-hour application of 1.2...

  5. EFFECT OF ADDED WATER AND ACIDITY OF SIMULATED RAIN ON GROWTH OF FIELD-GROWN RADISH

    Radish plants were grown in field plots and exposed to simulated rain at four levels of acidity: pH 5.6, pH 4.2, pH 3.5 and pH 2.8. Simulated rain solutions, containing background ions and acidified with a mixture of sulphuric and nitric acids, were applied intermittently between...

  6. Sex Differences in Environmental Concern and Knowledge: The Case of Acid Rain.

    Arcury, Thomas A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presents results of a telephone survey of 516 adults which focused on sex differences in concern and knowledge about one environmental issue, acid rain. The findings contradict predictions that women are more concerned about environmental issues: if there is a sex difference, men are found to be more concerned and knowledgeable about acid rain.…

  7. Influence of Simulated Acid Rain Corrosion on the Uniaxial Tensile Mechanical Properties of Concrete

    Ying-zi Zhang; Ying-fang Fan; Hong-nan Li

    2012-01-01

    An experimental study on the uniaxial tensile property of concrete exposed to the acid rain environment was carried out. Acid rain with pH level of 1.0 was deposed by the mixture of sulfate and nitric acid solution in the laboratory. Dumbbell-shaped concrete specimens were immersed in the simulated acid rain completely. After being exposed to the deposed mixture for a certain period, uniaxial tensile test was performed on the concrete specimens. The results indicate that elastic modulus, tens...

  8. Health risks from acid rain: a Canadian perspective.

    Franklin, C A; Burnett, R T; Paolini, R J; Raizenne, M E

    1985-11-01

    Acidic deposition, commonly referred to as acid rain, is causing serious environmental damage in eastern Canada. The revenues from forest products, tourism and sport fishing are estimated to account for about 8% of the gross national product. The impact on human health is not as clearcut and a multi-department program on the Long-Range Transport of Airborne Pollutants (LRTAP) was approved by the federal government in June 1980. The objectives of the LRTAP program are to reduce wet sulfate deposition to less than 20 kg/ha per year in order to protect moderately sensitive areas. This will require a 50% reduction in Canadian SO2 emissions east of the Saskatchewan/Manitoba border and concomitant reductions in the eastern U.S.A. The objectives of the health sector of the program are to assess the risk to health posed by airborne pollutants which are subjected to long-range transport and to monitor the influence of abatement programs. Two major epidemiology studies were undertaken in 1983, one in which the health effects related to acute exposure to transported air pollutants were studied in asthmatic and nonasthmatic children, and another in which the effects of chronic exposure to these pollutants were studied in school children living in towns with high and low levels of pollutants. Preliminary analysis of the data do not indicate major health effects, but definitive conclusions must await final analysis. Studies on the indirect effects of acid deposition on water quality have shown that acidified lake water left standing in the plumbing system can adversely affect water quality and that federally set guidelines for copper and lead are exceeded. Flushing of the system before using the water rectifies the situation. Additional studies are planned to further delineate the magnitude of the health effects of acidified lake water. PMID:4076081

  9. Actual state of plant decline phenomena due to acid rain and others

    Recently, Japanese mass communication earnestly reports on the effect that acid rain exerts to natural environment. Also the researches have been carried out on the present state of rainwater acidification, the mechanism of the effect of acid rain to plants, the experiment using artificial acid rain, and the foreign theories on the cause of the decline of forests. But the example of the damage of trees and plants in fields, of which the true cause is understood to be acid rain, is not found. The author has engaged in the research on forest protection for long years, and according to his experience, in the present Japanese research on acid rain, there are a number of important pitfalls. Acid rain theory is only one of many hypotheses. It must be verified by the proper research, and this point is important. Ibaraki Prefectural Forest Experiment station has carried out the consultation on the diagnosis and restoration of tree conditions, and the decline of trees and its cause are reported according to the examples of investigation. In the consultation in the last nine years, the decline of trees caused by acid rain was not confirmed. (K.I.)

  10. Effect of simulated acid rain on two populations of Senecio vulgaris L

    Hodgkin, S.E.; Briggs, D.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of simulated acid rain on two populations of Senecio vulgaris was studied. Evidence suggests that the population from a relatively unpolluted area of the British Isles was more sensitive to applied dilute sulfuric acid than a population from east England, where a higher level of air pollution is likely. In making a cautious interpretation of the results, the authors point out that further studies are necessary before the hypothesis, that ecotypic differentiation occurs in response to acid rain, can be accepted.

  11. Externality costs by emission. B. Sulfur dioxide (excluding acid rain effects)

    This chapter reviews various direct costing studies of the damage caused by SO2 and sulfate deposition to human health, materials, crops and visibility. Since so much has been written about SO2's contributions to acid rain, the costs of acid rain are discussed in Chapter 5D of this report. Acid rain effects have been excluded from the estimates presented here, whenever possible. The methodology, scope and results of each study are set forth, and where possible a cost per lb of SO2 is extracted from the data. All dollar figures are stated in the year in which they were reported in the respective study, unless otherwise noted

  12. The effect of acid rain stress on chlorophyll, peroxidase of the conservation of rare earth elements

    Full text: Based on pot experiment, the effect of acid rain stress on chlorophyll, peroxidase of wheat, the relationship of them and the conservation of rare earth elements has been studied. The result showed: stress of acid rain resulted in decrease of chlorophyll content and a/b values, chlorophyll a/b value and chlorophyll content is positive correlation with pH value of acid rain: peroxidase activity was gradually rise with pH value decrease, which indirectly increased decomposition intensity of chlorophyll. Decreased content and a/b value of chlorophyll further speeded blade decay affected the transport and transformation of light energy and metabolism of carbohydrates. After being treated by rare earth elements content and pH value of chlorophyll and peroxidase activity could be relatively stable. Therefore, under lower acidity condition, rare earth elements can influence the effect of acid rain on chlorophyll and peroxidase activity of wheat

  13. Analysis of Natural Buffer Systems and the Impact of Acid Rain

    Powers, David C.; Yoder, Claude H.; Higgs, Andrew T.; Obley, Matt L.; Hess, Kenneth R.; Leber, Phyllis A.

    2005-01-01

    The environmental significance of acid rain on water systems of different buffer capacities is discussed. The most prevalent natural buffer system is created by the equilibrium between carbonate ions and carbon dioxide.

  14. From the Fur Trade to Acid Rain: A Study of Canadian Natural Resources.

    Winans, Linda

    1988-01-01

    Presents a teaching module for upper elementary students that devotes eight class periods of study to Canadian resources. Includes study of the Canadian fur trade, fishing industry, forestry, and the problems caused by acid rain. Includes the unit evaluation. (DB)

  15. Effect of Simulated Acid Rain on Bursaphelenchus xylophilus Infection of Pine Seedlings

    Bolla, R. I.; Fitzsimmons, K.

    1988-01-01

    White, Scots, and Austrian 3-year-old pine seedlings were treated with conditions simulating acid rain and inoculated with the white pine specific pathotype of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, VPSt-1. Oleoresin concentration increased slightly and carbohydrate concentration decreased in all seedlings treated with simulated acid rain (SAR). The changes were significantly increased after inoculation of SAR-treated white and Scots pine seedlings with VPSt-1. Wilting was delayed and nematode reproduct...

  16. Should We Be Worried About the Green Paradox? Announcement Effects of the Acid Rain Program

    Di Maria, Corrado; Lange, Ian; van der Werf, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the first empirical test of the green paradox hypothesis, according to which well-intended but imperfectly implemented policies may lead to detrimental environmental outcomes due to supply side responses. We use the introduction of the Acid Rain Program in the U.S. as a case study. The theory predicts that owners of coal deposits, expecting future sales to decline, would supply more of their resource between the announcement of the Acid Rain Program and its implementation;...

  17. Response of Soil Respiration to Acid Rain in Forests of Different Maturity in Southern China

    Guohua Liang; Xingzhao Liu; Xiaomei Chen; Qingyan Qiu; Deqiang Zhang; Guowei Chu; Juxiu Liu; Shizhong Liu; Guoyi Zhou

    2013-01-01

    The response of soil respiration to acid rain in forests, especially in forests of different maturity, is poorly understood in southern China despite the fact that acid rain has become a serious environmental threat in this region in recent years. Here, we investigated this issue in three subtropical forests of different maturity [i.e. a young pine forest (PF), a transitional mixed conifer and broadleaf forest (MF) and an old-growth broadleaved forest (BF)] in southern China. Soil respiration...

  18. Application of Ground Phosphate Rock to Diminish the Effects of Simulated Acid Rain of Soil Properties

    DONGYUAN-YAN; LIXUE-YUAN

    1992-01-01

    The effects of simulated acid rain retained in soil on the properties of acid soil and its diminishing by application of ground phosphate rock were investigated by using the sorption method.Results show as follows:(1)For yellow brown soil,the effect of simulated acid rain on the properties of soil with a pH value of 5.9 was relatively small,except a great quantity of acid rain deposited on it.(2) for red soil,the effect of simulated acid rain on the properties of soil was significant.With the increase of the amount of acid deposition,the pH value of soil was declined,but the contents of exchangeable H+,Al3+ and Mn2+ and the amount of SO41- retention were increased.(3) Many properties of acid soils could be improved by applying ground phosphate rock.For example,pH value of soils and the amounts of available P and exchangeable Ca2+ and Mg2+ were increased,and the amounts of exchangeable H+ and Al3+ and SO42- retained was reduced.The application of ground posphate rock could effctively diminish the pollution of acid rain to soil.

  19. A Simulation of the Interaction of Acid Rain with Soil Minerals

    Schilling, Amber L.; Hess, Kenneth R.; Leber, Phyllis A.; Yoder, Claude H.

    2004-01-01

    The atmospheric issue of acid rains is subjected to a five-part laboratory experiment by concentrating on the chemistry of the infiltration process of acid rainwater through soils. This procedure of quantitative scrutiny helps students realize the efficacy of soil minerals in the consumption of surplus acidity in rainwater.

  20. Carbon fluxes in an acid rain impacted boreal headwater catchment

    Marx, Anne; Hintze, Simone; Jankovec, Jakub; Sanda, Martin; Dusek, Jaromir; Vogel, Tomas; van Geldern, Robert; Barth, Johannes A. C.

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial carbon export via inland aquatic systems is a key process in the budget of the global carbon cycle. This includes loss of carbon to the atmosphere via gas evasion from rivers or reservoirs as well as carbon fixation in freshwater sediments. Headwater streams are the first endmembers of the transition of carbon between soils, groundwater and surface waters and the atmosphere. In order to quantify these processes the experimental catchment Uhlirska (1.78 km2) located in the northern Czech Republic was studied. Dissolved inorganic, dissolved organic and particulate organic carbon (DIC, DOC, POC) concentrations and isotopes were analyzed in ground-, soil -and stream waters between 2014 and 2015. In addition, carbon dioxide degassing was quantified via a stable isotope modelling approach. Results show a discharge-weighted total carbon export of 31.99 g C m‑2 yr‑1 of which CO2 degassing accounts 79 %. Carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) of DIC, DOC, and POC (in ‰ VPDB) ranged from -26.6 to -12.4 ‰ from -29.4 to -22.7 ‰ and from -30.6 to -26.6 ‰ respectively. The mean values for DIC are -21.8 ±3.8 ‰ -23.6 ±0.9 ‰ and -19.5 ±3.0 ‰ for soil, shallow ground and surface water compartments. For DOC, these compartments have mean values of -27.1 ±0.3 ‰ -27.0 ±0.8 ‰ and -27.4 ±0.7 ‰Ṁean POC value of shallow groundwaters and surface waters are -28.8 ±0.8 ‰ and -29.3 ±0.5 ‰ respectively. These isotope ranges indicate little turnover of organic material and predominant silicate weathering. The degassing of CO2 caused an enrichment of the δ13C-DIC values of up to 6.8 ‰ between a catchment gauge and the catchment outlet over a distance of 866 m. In addition, the Uhlirska catchment has only negligible natural sources of sulphate, yet SO42‑ accounts for 21 % of major stream water ions. This is most likely a remainder from acid rain impacts in the area.

  1. Effects of Simulated Acid Rain on Main Nutritional Indicators of Three Leafy Vegetables

    MENG He; DONG De-ming; WANG Ju; YANG Kai-ning; TIAN Lei; SUN Wei; FANG Chun-sheng

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to identify content changes in the main nutritional indicators of three common leafy vegetables, and to provide a theoretical basis for the protection of leafy vegetables from acid rain. The experiment investigated the effects of simulated acid rain on four main nutritional indicators, including soluble sugar,total free amino acid, soluble protein and vitamin C during the application of simulated acid rain(SAR) in pakchoi( Brassica rapa chihensis), rape(Brassica campestris L.) and lettuce( Lactuca sativa Linn. var. ramnosa Hort). The vegetables were respectively exposed to SAR of pH=7.0, 5.6, 5.0, 4.0, 3.0 and a control level of pH=6.5. The concentrations of the four main nutritional indicators were determined at harvest. The results show that nutritional quality of the three leafy vegetable species decreased with the declining of pH values of SAR. The higher the acidity of SAR was, the more significant the inhibitions were. Nutritional quality of lettuce was the most affected by simulated acid rain, followed by pakchoi and rape. The change range of soluble protein content was higher than those of the other three indicators' contents, which indicates that soluble protein is most sensitive to simulated acid rain.

  2. Influence of acid rain and organic matter on the adsorption of trace elements on soil

    Acid rain has become one of the most serious environmental problems. Soil loses its buffering capacity by long exposure to acid rain, and the soil pH value decreases significantly. The acidification of the soil disturbs the adsorption equilibrium of many elements in the soil-water system. Soil is a very complex heterogeneous system, primarily consisting of clay minerals, hydrous oxides and polymeric organic substances, which possess their own characteristic element-adsorbing properties. On the other hand, the intrinsic properties of elements are reflected in their adsorption process as a matter of course. Therefore, both the effects of the pH of acid rain and that of the components of the soil on the adsorption of different elements should be studied when the adsorption process in acid soils is to be clarified. Although leaching of major cations in soil, such as Ca2+, Mg2+ and Al3+, by acid rain, has been extensively studied, relatively little attention has been focused on trace elements which can also seriously affect the ecological system. We studied the acid rain effects on element adsorption by kaolin, forest soil, black soil, and also these soils with Fe- and Mn-oxides or organic matter selectively removed by using the radioactive multitracer technique. (author)

  3. EFFECT OF AN ACID RAIN ENVIRONMENT ON LIMESTONE SURFACES.

    Mossotti, Victor G.; Lindsay, James R.; Hochella, Michael F., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Salem limestone samples were exposed to weathering for 1 y in several urban and one rural environments. Samples exposed in the rural location were chemically indistinguishable from the freshly quarried limestone, whereas all samples collected from urban exposure sites developed gypsum stains on the ground-facing surfaces where the stones were not washed by precipitation. The gas-solid reaction of SO//2 with calcite was selected for detailed consideration. It appears from the model that under arid conditions, the quantity of stain deposited on an unwashed surface is independent of atmospheric SO//2 concentration once the surface has been saturated with gypsum. Under wet conditions, surface sulfation and weight loss are probably dominated by mechanisms involving wet stone. However, if the rain events are frequent and delimited by periods of dryness, the quantity of gypsum produced by a gas-solid reaction mechanism should correlate with both the frequency of rain events and the atmospheric SO//2 level.

  4. Acid Rain Phenomenon in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria: Economic, Biodiversity, and Public Health Concern

    J. K. C. Nduka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Rain samples were collected from Warri and Port Harcourt, two major oil-producing cities of Nigeria in April-June, July-August, and September-October 2005 and 2006. Awka, a “non-oil” city was used as control. Samples were collected from three points, using clean plastic basins fastened to a table, 2 m above ground level and 115 m away from tall buildings and trees. Water samples were filtered and acidity determined using digital pHmeter. The results show that the rain samples were acidic. The pH values for the 2 years under study show that the rainfall in Warri was more acidic than that of Port Harcourt. Oil exploration and other anthropogenic sources may be responsible for the acid rain in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.

  5. Acid rain phenomenon in niger delta region of Nigeria: economic, biodiversity, and public health concern.

    Nduka, J K C; Orisakwe, O E; Ezenweke, L O; Ezenwa, T E; Chendo, M N; Ezeabasili, N G

    2008-01-01

    Rain samples were collected from Warri and Port Harcourt, two major oil-producing cities of Nigeria in April-June, July-August, and September-October 2005 and 2006. Awka, a "non-oil" city was used as control. Samples were collected from three points, using clean plastic basins fastened to a table, 2 m above ground level and 115 m away from tall buildings and trees. Water samples were filtered and acidity determined using digital pH meter. The results show that the rain samples were acidic. The pH values for the 2 years under study show that the rainfall in Warri was more acidic than that of Port Harcourt. Oil exploration and other anthropogenic sources may be responsible for the acid rain in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. PMID:18758657

  6. Soil-calcium depletion linked to acid rain and forest growth in the eastern United States

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Huntington, T.G.

    1999-01-01

    Since the discovery of acid rain in the 1970's, scientists have been concerned that deposition of acids could cause depletion of calcium in forest soils. Research in the 1980's showed that the amount of calcium in forest soils is controlled by several factors that are difficult to measure. Further research in the 1990's, including several studies by the U.S. Geological Survey, has shown that (1) calcium in forest soils has decreased at locations in the northeastern and southeastern U.S., and (2) acid rain and forest growth (uptake of calcium from the soil by roots) are both factors contributing to calcium depletion.

  7. Prolonged acid rain facilitates soil organic carbon accumulation in a mature forest in Southern China.

    Wu, Jianping; Liang, Guohua; Hui, Dafeng; Deng, Qi; Xiong, Xin; Qiu, Qingyan; Liu, Juxiu; Chu, Guowei; Zhou, Guoyi; Zhang, Deqiang

    2016-02-15

    With the continuing increase in anthropogenic activities, acid rain remains a serious environmental threat, especially in the fast developing areas such as southern China. To detect how prolonged deposition of acid rain would influence soil organic carbon accumulation in mature subtropical forests, we conducted a field experiment with simulated acid rain (SAR) treatments in a monsoon evergreen broadleaf forest at Dinghushan National Nature Reserve in southern China. Four levels of SAR treatments were set by irrigating plants with water of different pH values: CK (the control, local lake water, pH ≈ 4.5), T1 (water pH=4.0), T2 (water pH=3.5), and T3 (water pH=3.0). Results showed reduced pH measurements in the topsoil exposed to simulated acid rains due to soil acidification. Soil respiration, soil microbial biomass and litter decomposition rates were significantly decreased by the SAR treatments. As a result, T3 treatment significantly increased the total organic carbon by 24.5% in the topsoil compared to the control. Furthermore, surface soil became more stable as more recalcitrant organic matter was generated under the SAR treatments. Our results suggest that prolonged acid rain exposure may have the potential to facilitate soil organic carbon accumulation in the subtropical forest in southern China. PMID:26657252

  8. 40 CFR 74.3 - Relationship to the Acid Rain program requirements.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relationship to the Acid Rain program requirements. 74.3 Section 74.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Background and Summary § 74.3 Relationship to the Acid...

  9. Is There Scientific Consensus on Acid Rain? -- Excerpts from Six Governmental Reports.

    Environmental Education Report and Newsletter, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Compiles a series of direct quotations from six governmental reports that reflect a scientific consensus on major aspects of acid deposition. Presents the statements in a question and answer format. Also reviews the sources, extent, and effects of acid rain. (ML)

  10. Simulated acid rain alters litter decomposition and enhances the allelopathic potential of the invasive plant Wedelia trilobata (Creeping Daisy)

    Invasive species and acid rain cause global environmental problems. Limited information exists, however, concerning the effects of acid rain on the invasiveness of these plants. For example, creeping daisy, an invasive exotic allelopathic weed, has caused great damage in southern China where acid ra...

  11. Partial least squares regression for predicting economic loss of vegetables caused by acid rain

    WANG Ju; MENG He; DONG De-ming; LI Wei; FANG Chun-sheng

    2009-01-01

    To predict the economic loss of crops caused by acid rain, we used partial least squares (PLS) regression to build a model of single dependent variable-the economic loss calculated with the decrease in yield related to the pH value and levels of Ca2+, NH4+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, SO42-, NO3-, and Cl- in acid rain. We selected vegetables which were sensitive to acid rain as the sample crops, and collected 12 groups of data, of which 8 groups were used for modeling and 4 groups for testing. Using the cross validation method to evaluate the performace of this prediction model indicates that the optimum number of principal components was 3, determined by the minimum of prediction residual error sum of squares, and the prediction error of the regression equation ranges from-2.25% to 4.32%. The model predicted that the economic loss of vegetables from acid rain is negatively corrrelated to pH and the concentrations of NH4+, SO42-, NO3-, and Cl- in the rain, and positively correlated to the concentrations of Ca2+, Na+, K+ and Mg2+. The precision of the model may be improved if the non-linearity of original data is addressed.

  12. Effects of Simulated Acid Rain on Main Nutritional Indicators of Three Leafy Vegetables

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to identify content changes in the main nutritional indicators of three common leafy vegetables, and to provide a theoretical basis for the protection of leafy vegetables from acid rain. The experiment investigated the effects of simulated acid rain on four main nutritional indicators, including soluble sugar, total free amino acid, soluble protein and vitamin C during the application of simulated acid rain(SAR) in pakchoi(Brassica rapa chinensis), rape(Brassica campestris L.) and lettuce(Lactuca sativa Linn. var. ramosa Hort). The vegetables were respectively exposed to SAR of pH=7.0, 5.6, 5.0, 4.0, 3.0 and a control level of pH=6.5. The concentrations of the four main nutritional indicators were determined at harvest. The results show that nutritional quality of the three leafy vegetable species decreased with the declining of pH values of SAR. The higher the acidity of SAR was, the more significant the inhibitions were. Nutritional quality of lettuce was the most affected by simulated acid rain, followed by pakchoi and rape. The change range of soluble protein content was higher than those of the other three indicators' contents, which indicates that soluble protein is most sensitive to simulated acid rain.

  13. Model study of acid rain effect on adsorption of trace elements on soils using a multitracer

    Using a radioactive multitracer and model acid rain (HCl or H2SO4 solution), batch experiments were performed to examine the pH effect on the adsorption-desorption equilibrium of 16 elements on soils as a model study of an acid rain effect. Kaolin, black soil (original and with organic matter almost removed) and Kureha soil (original and with organic matter almost removed) were used as adsorbents. Characteristic dependence on the pH value of the suspension was observed for the adsorption of the elements on kaolin and the soils. The results of this model study indicate that acid rain decreases the retention of cations, while it increases or does not change the adsorption of anions on soils. Organic matter in soils has a positive effect on the extent of adsorption of most elements investigated. (author)

  14. Acid Rain Phenomenon in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria: Economic, Biodiversity, and Public Health Concern

    J. K. C. Nduka; O. E. Orisakwe; Ezenweke, L. O.; T. E. Ezenwa; M. N. Chendo; Ezeabasili, N. G.

    2008-01-01

    Rain samples were collected from Warri and Port Harcourt, two major oil-producing cities of Nigeria in April-June, July-August, and September-October 2005 and 2006. Awka, a “non-oil” city was used as control. Samples were collected from three points, using clean plastic basins fastened to a table, 2 m above ground level and 115 m away from tall buildings and trees. Water samples were filtered and acidity determined using digital pHmeter. The results show that the rain samples were acidic. The...

  15. Reply [to “Comment on ‘Acid rain: Controllable?’”

    Machta, Lester

    Dr. McTaggart-Cowan's letter states as a fact that enough is now known to take appropriate action to alleviate the transboundary acid rain issue. Others have stated equally as a fact the diametric opposite. I agree that some pollution control measures have already been taken with no more certainty than exists for the acid rain issue. But the costs to society were far smaller than for sulfur dioxide controls. In effect, science only plays part of the role in decisions about environmental protection, and my own personal, proenvironmental views, which might be shared with you, may not be shared by others.

  16. Reply [to “Comment on “Acid rain: Controllable?””

    Machta, Lester

    Dr. McTaggart-Cowan's letter states as a fact that enough is now known to take appropriate action to alleviate the transboundary acid rain issue. Others have stated equally as a fact the diametric opposite. I agree that some pollution control measures have already been taken with no more certainty than exists for the acid rain issue. But the costs to society were far smaller than for sulfur dioxide controls. In effect, science only plays part of the role in decisions about environmental protection, and my own personal, proenvironmental views, which might be shared with you, may not be shared by others.

  17. LIMESTONE AND MARBLE DISSOLUTION BY ACID RAIN: AN ONSITE WEATHERING EXPERIMENT.

    Reddy, Michael M.; Sherwood, Susan I.; Doe, B.R.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe an experimental research program, conducted in conjunction with the National Acidic Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP), to quantify acid-rain damage to commercial and cultural carbonate-rock resources. Initial results of this experiment show that carbonate-rock dissolution and associated surface recession increase with increasing acid deposition to the rock surface. A statistically significant linear relation has been found between carbonate-rock surface-recession rate and hydrogen ion loading to the rock surface.

  18. Combined effects of simulated acid rain and lanthanum chloride on chloroplast structure and functional elements in rice.

    Hu, Huiqing; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2016-05-01

    Acid rain and rare earth element (REE) pollution exist simultaneously in many agricultural regions. However, how REE pollution and acid rain affect plant growth in combination remains largely unknown. In this study, the combined effects of simulated acid rain and lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) on chloroplast morphology, chloroplast ultrastructure, functional element contents, chlorophyll content, and the net photosynthetic rate (P n) in rice (Oryza sativa) were investigated by simulating acid rain and rare earth pollution. Under the combined treatment of simulated acid rain at pH 4.5 and 0.08 mM LaCl3, the chloroplast membrane was smooth, proteins on this membrane were uniform, chloroplast structure was integrated, and the thylakoids were orderly arranged, and simulated acid rain and LaCl3 exhibited a mild antagonistic effect; the Mg, Ca, Mn contents, the chlorophyll content, and the P n increased under this combined treatment, with a synergistic effect of simulated acid rain and LaCl3. Under other combined treatments of simulated acid rain and LaCl3, the chloroplast membrane surface was uneven, a clear "hole" was observed on the surface of chloroplasts, and the thylakoids were dissolved and loose; and the P n and contents of functional elements (P, Mg, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Mo) and chlorophyll decreased. Under these combined treatments, simulated acid rain and LaCl3 exhibited a synergistic effect. Based on the above results, a model of the combined effects of simulated acid rain and LaCl3 on plant photosynthesis was established in order to reveal the combined effects on plant photosynthesis, especially on the photosynthetic organelle-chloroplast. Our results would provide some references for further understanding the mechanism of the combined effects of simulated acid rain and LaCl3 on plant photosynthesis. PMID:26815371

  19. Influence of Simulated Acid Rain Corrosion on the Uniaxial Tensile Mechanical Properties of Concrete

    Ying-zi Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study on the uniaxial tensile property of concrete exposed to the acid rain environment was carried out. Acid rain with pH level of 1.0 was deposed by the mixture of sulfate and nitric acid solution in the laboratory. Dumbbell-shaped concrete specimens were immersed in the simulated acid rain completely. After being exposed to the deposed mixture for a certain period, uniaxial tensile test was performed on the concrete specimens. The results indicate that elastic modulus, tensile strength, and peak strain have a slight increase at the initial corrosion stage, and with the extension of corrosion process, elastic modulus and tensile strength decrease gradually, while the peak strain still increases. It is found that the compressive strength is more sensitive than the tensile strength in aggressive environment. Based on the experimental results, an equation was proposed to describe the ascending branch of the stress-strain curve of the concrete corroded by acid rain.

  20. Alterations in cytosol free calcium in horseradish roots simultaneously exposed to lanthanum(III) and acid rain.

    Zhang, Xuanbo; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Anhua; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2016-04-01

    The extensive use of rare earth elements (REEs) has increased their environmental levels. REE pollution concomitant with acid rain in many agricultural regions can affect crop growth. Cytosol free calcium ions (Ca(2+)) play an important role in almost all cellular activities. However, no data have been reported regarding the role of cytosol free Ca(2+) in plant roots simultaneously exposed to REE and acid rain. In this study, the effects of exposures to lanthanum(III) and acid rain, independently and in combination, on cytosol free Ca(2+) levels, root activity, metal contents, biomass, cytosol pH and La contents in horseradish roots were investigated. The simultaneous exposures to La(III) and acid rain increased or decreased the cytosol free Ca(2+) levels, depending on the concentration of La(III), and these effects were more evident than independent exposure to La(III) or acid rain. In combined exposures, cytosol free Ca(2+) played an important role in the regulation of root activity, metal contents and biomass. These roles were closely related to La(III) dose, acid rain strength and treatment mode (independent exposure or simultaneous exposure). A low concentration of La(III) (20 mg L(-1)) could alleviate the adverse effects on the roots caused by acid rain, and the combined exposures at higher concentrations of La(III) and acid rain had synergic effects on the roots. PMID:26720810

  1. Learning about Acid Rain: A Teacher's Guide for Grades 6 through 8. EPA 430-F-08-002

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Acid rain is a complex environmental problem which affects the United States and many other countries around the world. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was established in 1970 to address environmental issues, such as acid rain. Through its programs, EPA works to protect human health and the environment in the United States…

  2. Acid rain damage to carbonate stone: a quantitative assessment based on the aqueous geochemistry of rainfall runoff from stone

    Reddy, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    An onsite experimental procedure was used to identify and quantify acid rain damage to carbonate stone, based on the change in rain runoff chemical composition. Onsite data obtained during the summer and fall of 1984 at three locations in the northeastern United States indicate that carbonate stone surface recession is related to acid deposition. -from Author

  3. 13C/12C ratios as indicators of plant physiological response to ozone and simulated acid rain

    This paper summarizes work performed to assess the effects of ozone and acid rain on growth, gas exchange and water use efficiency of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata). The results suggest that stem diameter, leaf area and leaf biomass are significantly reduced by exposure to elevated ozone concentrations but that acid rain has no effect on any of the growth measurements. 3 refs, 2 figs

  4. A Fresh Look at the Benefits and Costs of the US Acid Rain Program

    The US Acid Rain Program (Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments) has achieved substantial reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from power plants in the United States. We compare new estimates of the benefits and costs of Title IV to th...

  5. The Influence of a Collaborative Learning Environment on Primary Students' Conceptions about Acid Rain.

    Marinopoulos, Dimitrios; Stavridou, Heleni

    2002-01-01

    Investigates primary students' conceptions of acid rain formation and its consequences to people and the environment before and after a 10-hour constructivist teaching intervention. Reports improvement in conceptions of physical and chemical phenomena among the experimental group participants. (Contains 23 references.) (Author/YDS)

  6. Acid rain compliance and coordination of state and federal utility regulation

    Nordhaus, R.R. [Van Ness, Feldman, and Curtis, P.C., Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) impose new controls on emissions by electric utilities of the two major precursors of acid rain: sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen. Utilities, and the utility holding company systems and power pools of which they are members, will be subject to extensive and costly compliance obligations under the new stature. Most of these utilities, utility systems, and power pools are regulated by more than one utility regulatory authority. Utility regulators will need to coordinate their policies for ratemaking and for review of acid rain compliance strategies if least-cost solutions are to be implemented without imposing on rate payers and utility shareholders the costs and risks of inconsistent regulatory determinations. This article outlines the scope of the coordination problem and spells out possible approaches that utility regulators may take in dealing with it. Topics covered include the following: the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments; acid rain (SO2); acid rain (NOx); costs of compliance; implications for utility regulation - federal and state utility regulatory framework; potential jurisdictional conflicts under existing state/federal utility regulatory scheme - single utility, holding companies, power pools; Utility regulatory issues under the 1990 amendments - planning conflicts, operational conflicts; methods for dealing with potential jurisdictional conflicts; coordination mechanisms - informal consultation, rulemaking,coordination of adjudicatory proceedings, FERC rate filings.

  7. GROWTH CHANGES OF APPLE SEEDLINGS IN RESPONSE TO SIMULATED ACID RAIN

    In a greenhouse experiment, Malus hupehensis seedlings were treated weekly with simulated acid rain solutions ranging from pH 2.25 to pH 7.0. Necrotic lesions developed on leaves at pH 2.25 and pH 2.50 immediately after the first application at the 8-node stage. Following the 9th...

  8. EFFECTS OF ACID RAIN ON APPLE TREE PRODUCTIVITY AND FRUIT QUALITY

    Mature 'McIntosh', 'Empire', and 'Golden Delicious' apple trees (Malus domestica) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions in the pH range of 2.5 to 5.5 at full bloom in 1980 and 1981. In 1981, weekly sprays were applied at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. Necrotic lesions developed o...

  9. Trends in Pinus ponderosa foliar pigment concentration due to chronic exposure of ozone and acid rain

    To determine the effects of ozone and acid rain on mature Ponderosa pine trees, Lawrence Livermore National Lab. has collaborated with University of California Berkeley, University of California Davis, California State University Chico, and the US Forest Service at the latter's Chico Tree Improvement Center. Foliar tissue from mature grafted scions of Pinus ponderosa were exposed to two times ambient ozone for ten months and to acid rain (3.0 pH) weekly for 10 weeks using branch exposure chambers. Pigment extracts were analyzed spectrophotometrically for concentrations of chlorophylls a and b, and carotenoid pigments, at 662 nm, 644 nm, and 470 nm, respectively. Pigment concentrations were expressed on a surface area basis. Preliminary results revealed that chlorophyll a showed a downward trend due to the ozone treatment. Acid rain caused no effects on these three pigments, however, chlorophyll b showed an upward trend due to the interaction of ozone and acid rain. The carotenoid pigments showed no changes due to the treatments either singly, or in combination

  10. From a social problem to a scientific problem: the case of acid rains

    This paper describes the DEFORPA coordinated research programme on the study of forests withering by air pollution (acid rains) which started in 1983 in France and in Germany and strikes the balance of research during the last seven years. 3 refs

  11. State Regulatory responses to acid rain: Implications for electric utility operations

    This article discusses the state regulatory responses to acid rain legislation and how this will affect electric utility operations. Topics discusses include planning and fuel procurement practices, least-cost planning, long-term supply contracts, fuel mix, cogeneration and small power production, qualifying facility contracts, avoided costs, environmental impact, lobbying expense, bill inserts, and forecasting models

  12. Effects of simulated acid rain on the allelopathic potential of invasive weed Wedelia trilobata

    Acid rain continues to pose a major threat to natural ecosystems in rapidly-developing industrialized regions such as southern China. Despite the significant environmental impact of this phenomenon, relatively little is known concerning its effects on important aspects of ecosystem dynamics such as ...

  13. Chemistry For Kids: Pre-Chemistry Acid Rain Activities for Kids.

    Barrow, Lloyd H.

    1985-01-01

    Presents two activities on acid rain for students in intermediate grades. Materials needed and procedures used are included. Also describes "chemical magic" shows performed by high school students for sixth-grade students in seven elementary schools in Altus, Oklahoma. (JN)

  14. The Fugitive Literature of Acid Rain: Making Use of Nonconventional Information Sources in a Vertical File.

    Lovenburg, Susan L.; Stoss, Frederick W.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of vertical file collections for nonconventional literature, and describes the classification scheme used for fugitive literature by the Acid Rain Information Clearinghouse at the Center for Environmental Information. An annotated list of organizations and examples of titles they offer is provided. (8 notes with…

  15. Environmental Policy-Making and Their Impacts in the Case of Acid Rain Abatement.

    Boehmer-Christiansen, Sonja

    1992-01-01

    Great Britain and Germany accepted European Community acid rain reduction directives. Discusses the differences in the amount of reduction required from each country, the strategies adopted to attain those reductions, and the levels of emission reductions already achieved.(52 references) (MDH)

  16. Student Teacher Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion, and Acid Rain.

    Dove, Jane

    1996-01-01

    Describes the results of a survey designed to ascertain details of student teachers' knowledge and misconceptions about the greenhouse effect, acid rain, and ozone layer depletion. Results indicate familiarity with the issues but little understanding of the concepts involved and many commonly held misconceptions. (JRH)

  17. Studies of Different pH Levels of Simulated Acid Rain on Lens culinaris CVS. Malika and L-830.

    RP Malik; De Manisha; Lokendra Singh; VK Deshwal

    2013-01-01

    Simulated acid rain affected seed vigour, relative seed vigour percentage, seeding survival percentage and other related attributes in two cultivars of Lens culinaris. Treatment consist of four acidic levels in simulated acid rain pH 2.5,3.5,4.5 and 5.5.Effect of different pH of acid rain on germination, seed germination, seed germination action index, mean germination frequency etc. on cvs. malika and L-830 of Lens culinaris was studied. High acidic levels were found to be inhibitory for sur...

  18. Monitoring responses of Mason Pine to acid rain in China based on remote sensing vegetation index

    Since the 1970s, acid rain has remained in the public spotlight in both Europe and the United States and recently has emerged as an important problem in other regions such as Southeast Asia. To reveal responses of Masson Pine to acid rain during a long time series in central China, we used the interpolation dataset of acid rain and the Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data to derive the monthly pH and NDVI trajectories based on acidity gradients from 1992 to 2006. Then we analyzed inter-annual and seasonal variation of vegetation growth by improved sinusoidal fitting and regression analysis. In the environment of strong acidity and moderate acidity, the growth of Masson Pine was inhibited during the study period, while the slight acidity promoted growth of Masson Pine to some extent. For the multi-year monthly changing trend of NDVI, late spring to mid autumn, the NDVI showed a decreasing trend, especially in June, while from late autumn to the following spring, the NDVI showed a rising tendency, specifically in December and March

  19. Compliance and the Acid Rain Program : Discussion paper C3-03

    This paper presents the history as well as the implementation and development of the Acid Rain Program and examines whether it was successful in meeting environmental and regulatory goals that led to its enactment. An overview of regulatory policies that influenced sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions were also presented, along with a discussion regarding emission trends before and after implementation of these policies. The Clean Air Act (CAA) was one of the initial pieces of legislation of the Environmental Protection Agency which was formed in 1970. The CAA was amended in 1990 to provide foundation for the Acid Rain Program. The goal was to reduce acid rain by lowering SO2 emissions 10 million tons below their 1980 levels to 8.95 million tons by 2010. Innovative emissions cap and trade programs were established to achieve this goal. The first phase of the Acid Rain Program began in 1995 and included 110 of the dirtiest plants emitting SO2 in the United States. The second phase began in 2000 and included 2,262 operating units. Under the Acid Rain Program, plants have the choice of using technology, previously-implemented controls, retiring plants, and allowances to comply. Many plants are choosing to use more than one of these compliance methods. This paper also discussed the issue of considering emissions trading as a potential component of any future Canadian regulatory policy for greenhouse gases. It was noted that emissions trading provides companies the flexibility to decide how to meet their emissions, or they can pay others to reduce emissions for them. The experience of other jurisdictions were presented in order to effectively design and implement an emissions trading program for greenhouse gases. 16 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs

  20. Spatial characterization of acid rain stress in Canadian Shield Lakes

    Tanis, F. J.; Marshall, E. M.

    1989-01-01

    The lake acidification in Northern Ontario was investigated using LANDSAT TM to sense lake volume reflectance and also to provide important vegetation and terrain characteristics. The purpose of this project was to determine the ability of LANDSAT to assess water quality characteristics associated with lake acidification. Results demonstrate that a remote sensor can discriminate lake clarity based upon reflection. The basic hypothesis is that seasonal and multi-year changes in lake optical transparency are indicative of sensitivity to acidic deposition. In many acid-sensitive lakes optical transparency is controlled by the amount of dissolved organic carbon present. Seasonal changes in the optical transparency of lakes can potentially provide an indication of the stress due to acid deposition and loading.

  1. Acid rain draft study released: No environmental emergency found

    This article discusses the findings released in the draft study of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). Some areas where acidic deposition and related air pollution is evident include 10 percent of eastern lakes and streams, visibility reduction throughout the eastern US and large metropolitan areas of the West, erosion and corrosion damage to stone and metal structures and cultural resources, and a reduction in cold tolerance of red spruce trees at high elevations. Human health effects have not been clearly demonstrated. The report tied sulfur dioxide emissions to regions of high acidic deposition. The problem is characterized as not an environmental emergency but a long term problem that should be addressed with minimum impact on other environmental goals and with efficient use of the nations economic and energy resources

  2. Response of citrus and other selected plant species to simulated HCL - acid rain

    Knott, W. M.; Heagle, A. S.

    1980-01-01

    Mature valencia orange trees were sprayed with hydrochloric acid solutions (pH 7.8, 2.0, 1.0, and 0.5) in the field at the full bloom stage and at one month after fruit set. Potted valencia orange and dwarf citrus trees, four species of plants native to Merritt Island, and four agronomic species were exposed to various pH levels of simulated acid rain under controlled conditions. The acid rain was generated from dilutions of hydrochloric acid solutions or by passing water through an exhaust generated by burning solid rocket fuel. The plants were injured severely at pH levels below 1.0, but showed only slight injury at pH levels of 2.0 and above. Threshold injury levels were between 2.0 and 3.0 pH. The sensitivity of the different plant species to acid solutions was similar. Foliar injury symptoms were representative of acid rain including necrosis of young tissue, isolated necrotic spots or patches, and leaf abscission. Mature valencia orange trees sprayed with concentrations of 1.0 pH and 0.5 pH in the field had reduced fruit yields for two harvests after the treatment. All experimental trees were back to full productivity by the third harvest after treatment.

  3. Control strategy for sulfur dioxide and acid rain pollution inChinaa

    2000-01-01

    Several factors, namely, coal-dominated primary energy mix, extensive economic development mode, inefficient energy utilization, end the imperfect environmental regulations, result in the serious urban sulfur dioxide pollution end large-scale sulfatetype acid precipitation in China. In 1995, China's sulfur dioxide emissions reached 23.70 Mt, and the areas affected by acid rain accounted for 40% of the territory. Chinese government accords considerable importance to the sulfur dioxide end acid rain contamination. New sets of environmental friendly policies have been promulgated. But enforcement of laws and regulations on SO2 emissions need to be further improved and broadened, especially those respond to market conditions. This paper focuses particular attention on the analysis of strategy, policies, and national actions which had or should be taken against sulfur dioxide emissions nationwide to achieve the environmental targets, on the basis of which gives the technical options in future.

  4. GRADIENT DISTRIBUTION OF ACID RAIN IN THE SCENIC RESORT OF THE BAIYUN MOUNTAIN IN GUANGZHOU

    黄健; 李福娇; 江奕光; 李琼

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes the samples of rainwater from January to October 1999 at three monitoring sites of Baiyun Mountain and of aerosol composition in near-surface layer in January and June 1999 at two sites. The results suggest that (1) The pH value of rainwater is between 3.13 and 7.18, and the frequency of acid rain is more than 58 %. With the ascent of the monitoring sites, the pH value of rainwater decreases, and the frequency of acid rain increases. (2) In January, the chemical aerosol compositions at different altitudes are similar, but in June the acidity of aerosol rises at the higher site because of the increase of SO42-. (3) In rainwater, the proportion is such that SO42- is the most significant anion and Ca2+ is the most important cation, but both of them decrease as the altitude ascends. The proportion of NO3- and NH4+ rise at the higher site and have more contribution to the acidity of rainwater. (4) As the impact of automobile emissions around Baiyun Mountain, the proportion of NO3-/SO42-molecular concentration reaches 0.40, and NO3- is relatively more important to the rain acidity at the higher site.

  5. The effect of acid rain stress on membrane protective system of spinach and the conservation of rare earth elements

    Full text: Based on pot experiments, the effect of acid rain stress on membrane protective system of spinach and the effect of rare earth elements has been studied. The results showed, stress of acid rain resulted in decrease of over all level of superoxide dismutase activity, catalase activity and increase of peroxidase (POD) activity. After being treated by rare earth elements, the overall level of superoxide dismutase activity and catalase activity were increased and the peak value of activity variation curve moved toward to the direction of higher acidity. POD activity increased slightly, comparing with the plants that hadn't been treated by rare earth elements under same acid rain condition; the three important enzymes of membrane protective system could be kept on a relatively stable level. It was clear that in relative lower acidity condition, rare earth elements can reduce the impact of acid rain on the membrane protective system

  6. Early smelter sites: A neglected chapter in the history and geography of acid rain in the United States

    Quinn, M.-L.

    Dominant spatial and temporal theories of acid rain in the U.S. are identified, followed by brief comments on how historical data have generally been used in modern acid rain research. A frequently-cited 1982 article by E.B. Cowling is examined, one that has influenced much thinking on the history of acid rain. The article overlooks early American smelters, however, and the role they played in the true history and geography of acid rain in the United States. Continuing with this theme, a connection is established between acid rain and turn-of-the-century smelter smoke problems. Literature on the latter subject is discussed, and American and German examples are given. A beginning is then made on writing acid rain's neglected chapter, focusing on Tennessee's Copper Basin (Ducktown District) where copper smelting dates back to the 1850s. A short historical overview of this area's smelting operations is given, with particular attention to the air pollution and other environmental problems resulting from large emissions of sulfur dioxide. Five additional early smelter sites for potential study are mentioned as well. The paper concludes with some observations regarding the way in which expanded research of early smelter sites could affect the general perception of acid rain in the U.S. It is also suggested that such research might contribute to a better atmosphere for making decisions and policies pertaining to the phenomenon as it exists today.

  7. Studies on distribution and residue of sulfur in simulated acid rain in vegetable and soil by using 35S

    Distribution and residue of sulfur in simulated acid rain in two kinds of vegetables (lettuce and Chinese cabbage) and three types of soils (acid yellow earth, acid and neutral purple soils) were studied by using 35S tracer method. The results showed that the higher concentration of acid rain was sprayed, the more residue of sulfur in vegetable there would be. The residue of sulfur in vegetable varied with the different physical and chemical properties of soils, the order of sulfur residue in vegetable was: acid purple soil>acid yellow earth>neutral purple soil. In the same soil, the residue of sulfur in lettuce was higher than that in Chinese cabbage, for the same vegetable, the residue of sulfur in leaves were higher than that in stems. The order of sulfur residue in different soils was acid purple soil>acid yellow earth>neutral purple soil. The higher concentration of acid rain was sprayed, the more residue of sulfur in soil surface there would be. The sulfur residue varied with the depth of soil and the pH value of acid rain. With the increase of soil depth, a slight increase of sulfur residue with rain of ph 6 and a slight decrease with rain of pH 4.0 and 2.5 were found

  8. Response of soil respiration to acid rain in forests of different maturity in southern China.

    Guohua Liang

    Full Text Available The response of soil respiration to acid rain in forests, especially in forests of different maturity, is poorly understood in southern China despite the fact that acid rain has become a serious environmental threat in this region in recent years. Here, we investigated this issue in three subtropical forests of different maturity [i.e. a young pine forest (PF, a transitional mixed conifer and broadleaf forest (MF and an old-growth broadleaved forest (BF] in southern China. Soil respiration was measured over two years under four simulated acid rain (SAR treatments (CK, the local lake water, pH 4.5; T1, water pH 4.0; T2, water pH 3.5; and T3, water pH 3.0. Results indicated that SAR did not significantly affect soil respiration in the PF, whereas it significantly reduced soil respiration in the MF and the BF. The depressed effects on both forests occurred mostly in the warm-wet seasons and were correlated with a decrease in soil microbial activity and in fine root biomass caused by soil acidification under SAR. The sensitivity of the response of soil respiration to SAR showed an increasing trend with the progressive maturity of the three forests, which may result from their differences in acid buffering ability in soil and in litter layer. These results indicated that the depressed effect of acid rain on soil respiration in southern China may be more pronounced in the future in light of the projected change in forest maturity. However, due to the nature of this field study with chronosequence design and the related pseudoreplication for forest types, this inference should be read with caution. Further studies are needed to draw rigorous conclusions regarding the response differences among forests of different maturity using replicated forest types.

  9. Effect of Simulated Acid Rain on Potential Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization in Forest Soils

    OUYANG Xue-Jun; ZHOU Guo-Yi; HUANG Zhong-Liang; LIU Ju-Xiu; ZHANG De-Qiang; LI Jiong

    2008-01-01

    Acid rain is a serious environmental problem worldwide. In this study, a pot experiment using forest soils planted with the seedlings of four woody species was performed with weekly treatments of pH 4.40, 4.00, 3.52, and 3.05 simulated acid rain (SAR) for 42 months compared to a control of pH 5.00 lake water. The cumulative amounts of C and N mineralization in the five treated soils were determined after incubation at 25 ℃ for 65 d to examine the effects of SAR treatments.For all five treatments, cumulative CO2-C production ranged from 20.24 to 27.81 mg kg-1 dry soil, net production of available N from 17.37 to 48.95 mg kg-1 dry soil, and net production of NO-3-N from 9.09 to 46.23 mg kg-1 dry soil. SAR treatments generally enhanced the emission of CO2-C from the soils; however, SAR with pH 3.05 inhibited the emission.SAR treatments decreased the net production of available N and NO3-N. The cumulative CH4 and N2O productions from the soils increased with increasing amount of simulated acid rain. The cumulative CO2-C production and the net production of available N of the soil under Acmena acuminatissima were significantly higher (P≤0.05) than those under Schima superba and Cryptocarya concinna. The mineralization of soil organic C was related to the contents of soil organic C and N, but was not related to soil pH. However, the overall effect of acid rain on the storage of soil organic matter and the cycling of important nutrients depended on the amount of acid deposition and the types of forests.

  10. Sulfate metabolism. I. Sulfate uptake and redistribution of acid rain sulfate by edible plants

    Sulfur is the major component of polluted air in industrialized societies. Atmospheric sulfur is converted to sulfuric acid through a series of chemical reactions which can eventually reenter many ecosystems. When edible plants are grown in soils containing varying amounts of sulfate, the roots take up and transport inorganic sulfate to the stems and leaves. The sulfate taken up by the roots and the amount transported to the stem and leaves was found to be a function of the concentration of sulfate in the soil. Inorganic sulfate taken up by a corn plant seedling can be rapidly converted to organic sulfate by the root system. Nine days after one of a pair of pea plants was inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate (dilute H235SO4) it was found that the sulfate was translocated not only in the inoculated plant, but also to the uninoculated pea plant in the same container. Also, when the leaves of a mature potato plant were inoculated with artificial acid rain sulfate it was found that the sulfate was translocated into the edible potatoes. Fractionation of the potatoes showed that most of the sulfate was water soluble of which 30% was inorganic sulfate and 70% was in the form of organic sulfur. One third of the non-water soluble translocated acid rain sulfate was equally divided between lipid and non-lipid organic sulfur of the potato. 9 references, 2 figures, 5 tables

  11. Electron beam treatment technology for exhaust gas for preventing acid rain

    Recently, accompanying the increase of the use of fossil fuel, the damage due to acid rain such as withering of trees and extinction of fishes and shells has occurred worldwide, and it has become a serious problem. The sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides contained in exhaust gas are oxidized by the action of sunbeam to become sulfuric acid and nitric acid mists, which fall in the form of rain. Acid rain is closely related to the use of the coal containing high sulfur, and it hinders the use of coal which is rich energy source. In order to simplify the processing system for boiler exhaust gas and to reduce waste water and wastes, Ebara Corp. developed the dry simultaneous desulfurizing and denitrating technology utilizing electron beam in cooperation with Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The flow chart of the system applied to the exhaust gas treatment in a coal-fired thermal power station is shown. The mechanism of desulfurization and denitration, and the features of this system are described. The demonstration plant was constructed in a coal-fired thermal power station in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, and the trial operation was completed in July, 1987. The test results are reported. (K.I.)

  12. Effects of simulated acid rain on microbial characteristics in a lateritic red soil.

    Xu, Hua-qin; Zhang, Jia-en; Ouyang, Ying; Lin, Ling; Quan, Guo-ming; Zhao, Ben-liang; Yu, Jia-yu

    2015-11-01

    A laboratory experiment was performed to examine the impact of simulated acid rain (SAR) on nutrient leaching, microbial biomass, and microbial activities in a lateritic red soil in South China. The soil column leaching experiment was conducted over a 60-day period with the following six SAR pH treatments (levels): 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0 and one control treatment (pH = 7). Compared with the control treatment, the concentrations of soil organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC), soil microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN), and average well color density (AWCD) in the Ecoplates were all significantly decreased by leaching with SAR at different pH levels. The decrease in MBC and MBN indicated that acid rain reduced the soil microbial population, while the decrease in AWCD revealed that acid rain had a negative effect on soil bacterial metabolic function. Soil basal respiration increased gradually from pH 4.0 to 7.0 but decreased dramatically from pH 2.5 to 3.0. The decrease in soil nutrient was the major reason for the change of soil microbial functions. A principal component analysis showed that the major carbon sources used by the bacteria were carbohydrates and carboxylic acids. PMID:26201661

  13. Acid Rain Effects on Adirondack Streams - Results from the 2003-05 Western Adirondack Stream Survey (the WASS Project)

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Roy, Karen M.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Simonin, Howard A.; Passy, Sophia I.; Bode, Robert W.; Capone, Susan B.

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally lakes have been the focus of acid rain assessments in the Adirondack region of New York. However, there is a growing recognition of the importance of streams as environmental indicators. Streams, like lakes, also provide important aquatic habitat, but streams more closely reflect acid rain effects on soils and forests and are more prone to acidification than lakes. Therefore, a large-scale assessment of streams was undertaken in the drainage basins of the Oswegatchie and Black Rivers; an area of 4,585 km2 in the western Adirondack region where acid rain levels tend to be highest in New York State.

  14. Analysis on Harm of Acid Rain to Environment%酸雨对环境的危害分析

    李明桃

    2014-01-01

    阐述了酸雨形成的原理,通过上海地区的实例分析了酸雨对环境造成的危害,旨在帮助人们认识酸雨对环境造成的危害及其严重程度。%This paper described the forming principle of acid rain,and the harm to environment caused by acid rain was analyzed,through the instance in Shanghai area,aimed to help people be conscious of the harm of acid rain on the environment and its extent.

  15. Determination of trace elements in acid rain by reversed phase extraction chromatography and neutron activation

    A preconcentration neutron activation analysis (PNAA) method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of selected trace elements in acid rain and other water samples. The method consists of preconcentration of the elements by reversed phase extraction chromatography using oxine-loaded Amberlite XAD-2 resin. Nearly 100% recoveries were obtained for Co, Cu, Hg, V and Zn at pH 6.0 and for Cd at pH 7.0. Manganese gave incomplete recoveries at the pH range of 4.0-8.0 studies. Various factors that can influence preconcentration of the elements have been investigated in detail. The precision and accuracy of measurements have been evaluated by analyzing certified reference materials. The detection limits have been found to be of the order of ppb. The PNAA method has been applied to a number of acid rain and other water samples

  16. An international research program on acid rain and emissions in Asia

    Strong economic and population growth will accelerate the rapid development of fossil fuel energy systems throughout Asia. If the present trends continue, by early next century Asian emissions of SO2 will exceed the present emission levels in North America and Europe combined. In response to the concern that these emissions have the potential to cause significant damage in Asia, a group of international specialists has established a project on Acid Rain and Emissions in Asia. In the initial phase of this project, work is underway to develop an integrated assessment model to assist policy makers in evaluating options to reduce precursor emissions and to catalyze the process of international policy dialogue on acid rain in Asia. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  17. Regulatory impact analysis of the proposed acid-rain implementation regulations

    This regulatory impact analysis (RIA) was developed in response to Executive Order (EO) 12291, which requires Federal Agencies to assess the costs, benefits, and impacts of all 'major' regulations. In compliance with EO 12291, this RIA assesses costs, benefits and impacts for the important provisions of Title IV. EPA divided its analysis of the Acid Rain Program into two parts. First, EPA analyzed the effects of the statute in the absence of any implementation regulations. In the second part of the analysis, EPA examined a 'regulatory' case that included both the SO2 reductions and the implementation regulations. By comparing costs under the regulatory case to those under the absent regulations case, EPA was able to isolate the incremental savings provided by the regulations. At the same time, by combining the two parts of the analysis, EPA was able to show the total costs imposed by the Acid Rain Program (the statute and the regulations) as a whole

  18. Mobility and speciation of Cd,Cu,and Zn in two acidic soils affected by simulated acid rain

    GUO Zhao-hui; LIAO Bo-han; HUANG Chang-yong

    2005-01-01

    Through a batch experiment, the mobility and speciation of heavy metals(Cd, Cu, Zn) in two acidic forest soils from Hunan Province were studied. The results showed that the release and potential active speciation of Cd, Cu, and Zn in the tested contaminated red soil(CRS) and yellow red soil(CYRS) increased significantly with pH decreasing and ion concentrations increasing of simulated acid rain, and these effects were mainly decided by the pH value of simulated acid rain. Cd had the highest potential risk on the environment compared with Cu and Zn. Cd existed mainly in exchangeable form in residual CRS and CYRS, Cu in organically bound and Mn-oxide occluded forms, and Zn in mineral forms due to the high background values.

  19. Acid rain conference held as Congress gives final approval to bill

    This article is a report on the New Acid Rain Legislation conference held in Washington, D.C. as the final changes were being made to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The topics covered include a brief synopsis of the amendments, representative Jim Cooper's critique of the electric utility industry, EPA implementation of the amendments, emissions trading, and the preliminary results of a survey of 45 electric utilities' plans for implementing the changes

  20. The erosion of carbonate stone by acid rain: Laboratory and field investigations

    Baedecker, P.A.; Reddy, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    One of the goals of research on the effects of acidic deposition on carbonate stone surfaces is to define the incremental impact of acidic deposition relative to natural weathering processes on the rate of carbonate stone erosion. If rain that impacts carbonate stone surfaces is resident on the surface long enough to approach chemical equilibrium, the incremental effect of hydrogen ion is expected to be small (i.e., 6% for a rain of pH 4.0). Under nonequilibrium (i.e., high flow rate) conditions, kinetic considerations suggest that the incremental effect of hydrogen ion deposition could be quite significant. Field run-off experiments involving the chemical analysis of rain collected from inclined stone slabs have been used to evaluate stone dissolution processes under ambient conditions of wet and dry deposition of acidic species. The stoichiometry of the reaction of stone with hydrogen ion is difficult to define from the field data due to scatter in the data attributed to hydrodynamic effects. Laboratory run-off experiments show that the stoichiometry is best defined by a reaction with H+ in which CO2 is released from the system. The baseline effect caused by water in equilibrium with atmospheric CO2 is identical in the field and in laboratory simulation. The experiments show that the solutions are close enough to equilibrium for the incremental effect of hydrogen ion to be minor (i.e., 24% for marble for a rain of pH 4.0) relative to dissolution due to water and carbonic acid reactions. Stone erosion rates based on physical measurement are approximately double the recession rates that are due to dissolution (estimated from the observed calcium content of the run-off solutions). The difference may reflect the loss of granular material not included in recession estimates based on the run-off data. Neither the field nor the laboratory run-off experiments indicate a pH dependence for the grain-removal process.

  1. Effects of Simulated Acid Rain on Growth and Yield of Cassava Manihot esculenta (Crantz)

    B. O. ODIYI; J. J. F. Bamidele

    2013-01-01

    Southern Nigeria is a major cassava producing area that has been subjected to air pollution from increasing industrial activities and population explosion in the coastal towns and cities. The level of pollution is not expected to change drastically in the immediate future. Investigations were carried out to study the changes in the morphology, survival, growth and yield of TMS 96/1672 cultivar of cassava Manihot esculenta (Crantz) to simulated acid rain. The plants were exposed to simulated a...

  2. EFFECTS OF SIMULATED ACIDIC RAIN ON YIELDS OF 'RAPHANUS SATIVUS', 'LACTUCA SATIVA', 'TRITICUM AESTIVUM' AND 'MEDICAGO SATIVA'

    Experiments were performed to determine effects of simulated acidic rain on radishes (Raphanus sativus), wheat(Triticum aestivum) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown under greenhouse conditions. Experimental designs allowed the detection of statistically significant differences a...

  3. Applications of the radiation chemistry of water: acid rain and nuclear power

    The radiation chemistry of water is sufficiently well known under ambient conditions that it is widely used to study the chemistry of free radicals in aqueous solution. One topical application described here is the hydroxyl radical-driven oxidation of sulphur dioxide to sulphuric acid in cloudwater to form acid rain. Another area of current interest is the effects of radiation on the cooling water of pressurized water reactors at ca. 3000C. In studying these effects new information is also being gained on the fundamental processes in the radiation chemistry of water and on the kinetics of fast reactions. (author)

  4. Long term worldwide environmental effects caused by acid rain from fossil fuels

    Acid rain is regarded as an environmental problem of growing importance in many parts of the world; it is one of the adverse effects of air pollution. This paper presents data on emissions of air pollutants from combustion of fossil fuels and discusses atmospheric processes that act on these emissions, various effects of air pollution and acid deposition, and some of the aspects of regulation of these pollutants. Evidence of worldwide concern is shown by contrasting the perceived adverse effects of air pollution with ambient levels and the status of regulation. (author). 25 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  5. Judicial recourse against foreign air polluters: a case study of acid rain in Europe

    Pallemaerts, M.

    1985-01-01

    Many European nations suffering acid damage caused primarily by pollution originating outside of their borders have had little success in persuading polluters to voluntarily reduce emissions. The author explores the opportunities for private litigation by victims against foreign sources of long-range transboundary air pollution. Such private actions would establish the illegality of transboundary air pollution and draw public attention to the magnitude of the damage as well as generate compensation. Recent actions in Norway and Britain suggest that is is procrastination to insist upon more research into the cause and effects of acid rain.

  6. Acid Rain

    ... Report to Congress 2011 Related Information Clean Air Markets Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET) Surface ... About EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy Current Leadership Organization Chart Staff Directory Planning, Budget and Results Jobs and ...

  7. Endophytic fungi in Scots pine needles: Spatial variation and consequences of simulated acid rain

    Helander, M.L.; Neuvonen, S. (Turku Univ., Turku (F)); Sieber, T.N.; Petrini, O. (Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland))

    1994-01-01

    Within- and among-tree variation in assemblages of endophytic fungi in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needles were studied in a subarctic area where background pollution values are low; the effects of tree density and prolonged simulated acid rain on the occurrence of endophytic fungi were investigated. The needle endophyte most frequently isolated was Cenangium ferruginosum, accounting for 64% of all fungal individuals, followed by Cyclaneusma minus (12% of all individuals). Old needles were colonized more frequently by endophytes than young ones. In young needles the colonization by endophytes increased during the summer, whereas in old ones no seasonal variation was detected. Endophyte colonization was positively correlated with stand density and was reduced on pines treated with spring water acidified with either sulphuric acid alone or in combination with nitric acid. In contrast, nitric acid alone did not affect endophyte colonization. 37 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Benefit-cost implications of acid rain controls: An evaluation of the NAPAP integrated assessment

    Concluding ten years of study, the US National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) recently issued its integrated assessment report designed to provide guidance to policy makers on the sources and effects of acid deposition, and the costs and benefits of alternative control measures. This paper focuses on an evaluation of the benefit-cost implications of acid rain controls as revealed by two of the five major questions addressed in the NAPAP assessment framework. While the NAPAP effort made significant scientific contributions to the study of acid deposition, key gaps are found in the assessment of benefits and costs most relevant to policy decisions. Lessons learned from NAPAP may be helpful in avoiding similar problems in assessing emerging environmental issues such as global climate change

  9. Benefit-cost implications of acid rain controls: an evaluation of the NAPAP integrated assessment

    Concluding ten years of study, the US National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) recently issued its integrated assessment report designed to provide guidance to policy makers on the sources and effects of acid deposition, and the costs and benefits of alternative control measures. This paper focuses on an evaluation of the benefit-cost implications of acid rain controls as revealed by two of the five major questions addressed in the NAPAP assessment framework. While the NAPAP effort made significant scientific contributions to the study of acid deposition, key gaps are found in the assessment of benefits and costs most relevant to policy decisions. Lessons learned from NAPAP may be helpful in avoiding similar problems in assessing emerging environmental issues such as global change

  10. Effect of organic/inorganic compounds on the enzymes in soil under acid rain stress

    LIU Guang-shen; XU Dong-mei; WANG Li-ming; LI Ke-bin; LIU Wei-ping

    2004-01-01

    The main effects of pollutions including acid rain, Cu2+, atrazine and their combined products on theactivities of urease, invertin, acid phosphatase and catalase were studied by means of orthogonal test. The resultsshowed that H + and Cu2+ had significant influence on the activities of four enzymes and the ability of their inhibitingfollowed the order: H+ > Cu2+ . Al3+ and atrazine only had litter effects on the activity of urease and phosphatase,respectively. Furthermore, interaction analysis revealed that Cu2+ -H+ affected on the activity of acid phosphatasesignificantly and antagonism on invertin and urease, Cu2+ -atrazine only exhibited the synergism on the activity ofacid phosphatase. But atrazine-H+ had non-interaction within the investigated concentration range. Among fourenzymes, acid phosphatase was the most sensitive one to the contaminations.

  11. [THE EFFECT OF ACID RAIN ON ULTRASTRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONAL PARAMETERS OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC APPARATUS OF PEA LEAVES].

    Polishchuk, A V; Vodka, M V; Belyavskaya, N A; Khomochkin, A P; Zolotareva, E K

    2016-01-01

    The effects of simulated acid rain (SAR) on the ultrastructure and functional parameters of the photosynthetic apparatus were studied using 14-day-old pea leaves as test system. Pea plants were sprayed with an aqueous solution containing NaNO₃(0.2 mM) and Na₂SO₄(0.2 mM) (pH 5.6, a control variant), or with the same solution, which was acidified to pH 2.5 (acid variant). Functional characteristics were determined by chlorophyll fluorescence analysis. Acid rain application caused reduction in the efficiency of the photosynthetic electron transport by 25%, which was accompanied by an increase by 85% in the quantum yield of thermal dissipation of excess light quanta. Ultrastructural changes in chloroplast were registered by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after two days of the SAR-treatment of pea leaves. In this case, the changes in the structure of grana, heterogeneity of thylakoids packaging in granum, namely, the increase of intra-thylakoid gaps and thickness of granal thylakoids compared to the control were found. The migration of protein complexes in thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts isolated from leaves treated with SAR was suppressed. It was shown also that carbonic anhydrase activity was inhibited in chloroplast preparations isolated from SAR-treated pea leaves. We proposed a hypothesis on the possible inactivation of thylakoid carbonic anhydrase under SAR and its involvement in the inhibition of photochemical activity of chloroplasts. The data obtained allows to suggest that acid rains negatively affect the photosynthetic apparatus disrupting the membrane system of chloroplast. PMID:27220252

  12. Actual state of plant decline phenomena due to acid rain and others

    The withering of pine trees in large number became remarkable around 1960, and though efforts have been exerted by scattering insecticide and removing withered trees, it is not yet stopped. Recently, as the cause of the withering of pine trees, the deterioration of the environment of pine tree growth, particularly the effect of atmospheric pollution, has been pointed out. In this study, the relation of the withering of pine trees to acid rain, fog and dew was examined. Pine trees are widely distributed in Hiroshima Prefecture in more than 40% of forest areas. The withering of pine trees tends to expand along new expressways. The correlation of the distribution of pine tree withering with atmospheric pollution utilizing remote sensing technique, the vitality of pine leaves, the acidity and the amount of adhering acid fallout on pine leaves, the acidity of rainwater, rain in forests, water infiltrated in soil and so on are reported. The pine trees in the coastal area of Seto Inland Sea wither, and those in inland area are relatively sound, therefore, atmospheric pollution is dominant in the withering of pine trees. (K.I.)

  13. Response of peroxidase and catalase to acid rain stress during seed germination of rice, wheat, and rape

    Lihong WANG; Xiaohua HUANG; Qing ZHOU

    2008-01-01

    Seed germination of plants with various acid-resistance display different responses to acid rain. To understand the reason why such differences occur, the effects of simulated acid rain (pH 2.5-5.0) on the activities of peroxidase (ROD) and catalase (CAT) during seed ger-mination of rice (O. sativa),-wheat (T. aestivum), and rape (B. chinensis var. oleifera) were investigated. Results indi-cated that the maximum change in activities of CAT and POD by acid rain treatment with different acidity and time in relation to the referent treatment without acid rain, was in the order: rice (28.8%, 31.7%)wheat (4.0)>rape (5.0). Moreover, the change in activity of POD was higher than that of CAT, which showed that POD was more sensitive to acid rain stress than CAT. The difference in the ability of POD and CAT in removing free radicals was one reason why the germina-tion indexes of these three species behaved differently.

  14. Ammonium Variational Trends and the Ammonia Neutralization Effect on Acid Rain over East Asia

    GAO Chao; WANG Zi-Fa; Enagnon A. GBAGUIDI

    2010-01-01

    The distribution and variations of ammonium and the ammonia neutralization effect on acid rain were examined in East Asia during the period of 2000-05 using observed wet deposition data from the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET). Observational trends show a high proportion of NH4+ in the total cations, with a six-year mean proportion of over 20% for continental and inland regions. The concentrations and deposition of NH4+ were higher in western China and Vietnam than in other regions. The annual variations in NH4+ concentration were smooth in most of the regions, except for southern China and Vietnam, where the NH4+ concentrations increased, and western China, where the NH4+ concentrations decreased. The neutralization factors (NFs) of NH4+ indicate that ammonia has a great neutralization capability toward acid rain, including for the regions with low NH4+ concentrations, such as Japan. The NFs were high in summer, with no obvious discrepancies between the northern and southern stations. However, the correlation coefficients between NH4+ concentrations and rain pH values imply that the ammonia neutralization effects on the pH values were distinct only at southern China and southern Japan stations. The neutralization of precipitation by ammonia was estimated by comparing the discrepancies between the observed pH values and the pH values calculated without ammonia consuming the H+ in NH4+. The results demonstrate that ammonia may increase annual mean pH values by 0.4-0.7 in southern China and by 0.15-0.25 in southern Japan.

  15. Different responses of two Mosla species to potassium limitation in relation to acid rain deposition

    Meng WANG; Bao-jing GU; Ying GE; Zhen LIU; De-an JIANG; Scott X. CHANG; Jie CHANG

    2009-01-01

    The increasingly serious problem of acid rain is leading to increased potassium (K) loss from soils, and in our field investigation, we found that even congenerically relative Mosla species show different tolerance to K-deficiency. A hydroponic study was conducted on the growth of two Mosla species and their morphological, physiological and stoichiometric traits in response to limited (0.35 mmol K/L), normal (3.25 mmol K/L) and excessive (6.50 mmol K/L) K concentrations. Mosla hang-chowensis is an endangered plant, whereas Mosla dianthera a widespread weed. In the case of M. hangchowensis, in comparison with normal K concentration, K-limitation induced a significant reduction in net photosynthetic rate (Pn), soluble protein content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. However, leaf mass ratio (LMR) and root mass ratio (RMR) were changed little by K-limitation. In contrast, for M. dianthera, K-limitation had little effect on Pn, soluble protein content, SOD activity, and MDA concentration, but increased LMR and RMR. Critical values of N (nitrogen):K and K:P (phosphorus) ratios in the shoots indicated that limitation in acquiring K occurred under K-limited conditions for M. hangchowensis but not for M. dianthera. We found that low K content in natural habitats was a restrictive factor in the growth and distribution of M. hangchowensis, and soil K-deficiency caused by acid rain worsened the situation of M. hangchowensis, while M. dianthera could well acclimate to the increasing K-deficiency. We suggest that controlling the acid rain and applying K fertilizers may be an effective way to rescue the endangered M. hangchowensis.

  16. An evaluation of the effects of acid rain on low conductivity headwater streams in Pennsylvania

    Ritter, John R.; Brown, Ann E.

    1981-01-01

    Analyses of water collected at 32 sites on headwater streams in Pennsylvania during low-flow conditions in 1970-80 were compared to pre-1971 data to evaluate whether acid rain had changed the chemistry of the streams in the previous decade. Most pH, alkalinity, and sulfate values of the samples collected in 1970-80 fell within the ranges of values for samples collected before 1971. The limited data indicate, however, that pH may have increased and alkalinity and sulfate may have decreased with time.

  17. Moessbauer study of corrosion of mild steel induced by acid rain

    Room temperature corrosion studies have been made on the rust of commercially available mild steel in a simulated acid rain environment using the method of transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy. The main corrosion products identified are α-FeOOH, γ-FeOOH, and a product with unfamiliar parameters which seems to be amorphous in nature (being very large linewidth ∼2.5 mm/s) and may be considered as an intermediate phase. A small amount of γ-Fe2O3 (6-8%) is also observed. (author)

  18. Acid rain program offers free-market incentives, portends future regulation

    The burning of fossil fuels, particularly coal and oil, results in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx). Such emissions and their by-products damage ecosystems and man-made materials, and threaten human health. In 1985, 23 million tons of SO2 and 19 million tons of NOx were emitted from US sources. Nearly 70% of the SO2 and almost 40% of the NOx emissions originated from electric utilities. Title IV of the CAA Amendments requires EPA to establish an acid rain program designed to reduce SO2 and NOx emissions from electric utility plants

  19. Effects of simulated acid rain on leaf anatomy and micromorphology of Genipa americana L. (Rubiaceae

    Bruno Francisco Sant'Anna-Santos

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted in order to characterize the injuries on leaf structure and micromorphology of G. americana and evaluate the degree of susceptibility of this species to simulated acid rain. Plants were exposed to acid rain (pH 3.0 for ten consecutive days. Control plants were submitted only to distilled water (pH 6.0. Leaf tissue was sampled and fixed for light and scanning electron microscopy. Necrotic interveinal spots on the leaf blade occurred. Epidermis and mesophyll cells collapse, hypertrophy of spongy parenchyma cells, accumulation of phenolic compounds and starch grains were observed in leaves exposed to acid rain. The micromorphological analysis showed, in necrotic areas, plasmolized guard cells and cuticle rupture. Epidermal and mesophyll cells alterations occurred before symptoms were visualized in the leaves. These results showed the importance of anatomical data for precocious diagnosis injury and to determine the sensitivity of G. americana to acid rain.Experimentos foram conduzidos para avaliar o grau de susceptibilidade e determinar as injúrias causadas pela chuva ácida simulada na anatomia e micromorfologia foliar de Genipa americana. Plantas foram expostas à chuva com pH 3,0 durante 10 dias consecutivos. No tratamento controle utilizou-se apenas água destilada (pH 6,0. Amostras foliares foram coletadas e fixadas para microscopia de luz e eletrônica de varredura. Foram observados nas folhas expostas à chuva ácida: necroses pontuais intervenais, colapso das células do mesofilo e da epiderme; hipertrofia do parênquima lacunoso e acúmulo de compostos fenólicos e grãos de amido. A análise micromorfológica evidenciou, nas áreas necrosadas, plasmólise das células-guarda e ruptura da cutícula e da crista estomática. Alterações anatômicas ocorreram antes que sintomas visuais fossem observados nas folhas. Estes resultados comprovam a importância de dados anatômicos na diagnose precoce da injúria e na

  20. Assessing the costs and market impacts of carbon sequestration, climate change, and acid rain

    This thesis provides fourteen journal articles and papers. Thirteen of these papers were published in referred journals, covering environmental economics, policy modelling, policy analysis, and the physical sciences. One paper was published as a USDA Forest Service research report. The papers in the thesis are divided into three topical areas: 1) Section 2: The Economics of Carbon Sequestration. Eight papers plus Appendix A of the thesis cover the development and application of models to estimate the economic costs and management consequences of policies to sequester carbon emissions by planting trees on agricultural land in the US or through more intensive forest management. 2) Section 3: The Economics of Climate Change Damages. Two papers of the thesis cover the development of models that can be used to estimate the market and nonmarket damages associated with the impacts of climate change on water resources in the US. 3) Section 4: The Economics of Acid Rain Damages. Three papers in the thesis examine the methods that were developed to estimate the damages due to acid rain in the US by the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) and discuss more generally the role of economic policy analysis in this assessment. (EHS)

  1. Effect of simulated acid rain (sar) on some morphochemical aspects of mash (vigna mungo l.)

    The studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of simulated acid rain (SAR) at early plant growth on some morphochemical characters of two varieties of Mash (Vigna mungo L.) namely Mash 97 and Var. 95009. Different pH values were made by using H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, HNO/sub 3/, and combination of both. The data revealed that low pH (3.5) of either sulphuric acid or the combination of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and HNO/sub 3/ affected more severely at all parameters including number of leaves, shoot: root ratio, water contents of shoot and Potassium ion concentration. Whereas for a few parameters like plant height and number of branches the simulated acid rain of solution of pH 4.5 and 3.5 by using HNO/sub 3/ proved a bit better for plant growth, the root length was increased in case of SAR of solution of pH 3.5 by using H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/+HNO/sub 3/. Foliar application of SAR of solution of pH greater than 4.5 showed some improvement in crop growth due to fertilizer effect of solution's components. (author)

  2. Seasonal changes in dominant bacterial taxa from acidic peatlands of the Atlantic Rain Forest.

    Etto, Rafael Mazer; Cruz, Leonardo Magalhães; da Conceição Jesus, Ederson; Galvão, Carolina Weigert; Galvão, Franklin; de Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; de Oliveira Pedrosa, Fábio; Reynaud Steffens, Maria Berenice

    2014-09-01

    The acidic peatlands of southern Brazil are essential for maintenance of the Atlantic Rain Forest, one of the 25 hot-spots of biodiversity in the world. While these ecosystems are closely linked to conservation issues, their microbial community ecology and composition remain unknown. In this work, histosol samples were collected from three acidic peatland regions during dry and rainy seasons and their chemical and microbial characteristics were evaluated. Culturing and culture-independent approaches based on SSU rRNA gene pyrosequencing were used to survey the bacterial community and to identify environmental factors affecting the biodiversity and microbial metabolic potential of the Brazilian peatlands. All acidic peatlands were dominated by the Acidobacteria phylum (56-22%) followed by Proteobacteria (28-12%). The OTU richness of these phyla and the abundance of their Gp1, Gp2, Gp3, Gp13, Rhodospirillales and Caulobacteriales members varied according to the period of collection and significantly correlated with the rainy season. However, despite changes in acidobacterial and proteobacterial communities, rainfall did not affect the microbial metabolic potential of the southern Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest peatlands, as judged by the metabolic capabilities of the microbial community. PMID:24893336

  3. Efficient inhibition of heavy metal release from mine tailings against acid rain exposure by triethylenetetramine intercalated montmorillonite (TETA-Mt).

    Gong, Beini; Wu, Pingxiao; Huang, Zhujian; Li, Yuanyuan; Yang, Shanshan; Dang, Zhi; Ruan, Bo; Kang, Chunxi

    2016-11-15

    The potential application of triethylenetetramine intercalated montmorillonite (TETA-Mt) in mine tailings treatment and AMD (acid mine drainage) remediation was investigated with batch experiments. The structural and morphological characteristics of TETA-Mt were analyzed with XRD, FTIR, DTG-TG and SEM. The inhibition efficiencies of TETA-Mt against heavy metal release from mine tailings when exposed to acid rain leaching was examined and compared with that of triethylenetetramine (TETA) and Mt. Results showed that the overall inhibition by TETA-Mt surpassed that by TETA or Mt for various heavy metal ions over an acid rain pH range of 3-5.6 and a temperature range of 25-40°C. When mine tailings were exposed to acid rain of pH 4.8 (the average rain pH of the mining site where the mine tailings were from), TETA-Mt achieved an inhibition efficiency of over 90% for Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+) and Mn(2+) release, and 70% for Pb(2+) at 25°C. It was shown that TETA-Mt has a strong buffering capacity. Moreover, TETA-Mt was able to adsorb heavy metal ions and the adsorption process was fast, suggesting that coordination was mainly responsible. These results showed the potential of TETA-Mt in AMD mitigation, especially in acid rain affected mining area. PMID:27450331

  4. Detection system of acid rain pollution using light-induced delayed fluorescence of plant leaf in vivo

    Zeng, Lizhang; Xing, Da

    2006-09-01

    Photosynthetic apparatus is susceptible to environmental stress. Light-induced delayed fluorescence (DF) in plant is an intrinsic label of the efficiency of charge separation at P680 in photosystem II (PS II). In this investigation, we have developed a biosensor that can accurately inspect acid rain pollution by means of DF in vivo. Compared with traditional methods, the proposed technique can continuously monitor environmental changes, making fast, real-time and noninvasive inspection possible. The biosensor is an all-weather measuring instrument; it has its own illumination power and utilizes intrinsic DF as the measurement marker. With soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) seedling as a testing model, which is sensitive to acid rain pollution, the relationship that delayed fluorescence properties and capability of photosynthetic apparatus after being affected by simulated acid rain with different pH value was studied. The current investigation has revealed that the changes of delayed fluorescence (equation available in paper) can probably characterize the pollution degree of simulated acid rain, Inspecting the changes in DF characteristics (φ i) of plant leaf in vivo may be a new approach for the detection of acid rain pollution and its impact on the ecosystem.

  5. Observations on the effects of acid rain treatment on needle surfaces of scots pine and Norway spruce seedlings

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) seedlings were subjected to acid rain treatment at pH 3, pH 4 and pH 7 in a field experiment during 1986-1989. SEM+EDS, TEM, and measurements of wax quantity were used to detect changes in needle surfaces. After 5 weeks at pH 3 and pH 4 acid rain treatment, CaSO4-crystallites were observed on visibly undamaged pine and spruce needle surfaces. Direct acid rain damage in conjunction with CaSO4-crystallites was observed only occasionally in wax structures. Two-month-old pine needles had 50% less wax in early August after exposure at pH 3 and pH 4 than water controls. The occurrence of CaSO4-crystallites on acid rain-treated needle surfaces, and more abundant deposition of Ca oxalate crystallites in the inner walls of epi- and hypodermal cells could be involved with acid rain-induced calcium leaching. Calcium sulphate is probably a result of the disturbed wax and cuticle biosynthesis resulting in undeveloped, permeable cuticles. At the end of experiment, no CaSO4-crystallites were seen on needle surfaces. Soil analysis revealed an increase in the soluble Ca concentrations at pH 3. (orig.)

  6. Externality costs by emission. C. Nitrogen oxides and ozone (excluding acid rain effects)

    Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) are particularly troublesome pollutants since they react in the atmosphere to form tropospheric ozone and smog, and precipitate out to form acid rain. They also contribute to the greenhouse effect by their conversion to nitrous oxide (N2O), by production of ozone, and by reducing the uptake of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, in aerobic temperate forest soils. Recent work suggests that NOx also promote the growth of cancer. This chapter assesses some of the environmental impacts attributed to NOx and tropospheric ozone. NOx emitted from electrical generation facilities forms ozone (O3) in the atmosphere when it reacts with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the presence of sunlight. The effects of NOx and ozone are separated, where possible, in evaluating the studies reviewed. This chapter reviews the non-acid rain, non-global warming effects of NOx emissions and ozone formation on six areas: human health, flora (specifically agriculture, commercial timber and ornamental plants), materials and property, fauna, visibility and ecosystems. For each effect, a brief description of the pollutants physical damages is provided, along with a brief review and analysis of the damages assessed in other costing studies. The discussion attempts to highlight how the damage impacts of NOx and ozone pollution differ in urban and rural locales

  7. The future of emissions trading in light of the acid rain experience

    The idea of emissions trading was developed more than two decades ago by environmental economists eager to provide new ideas for how to improve the efficiency of environmental protection. However, early emissions trading efforts were built on the historical open-quotes command and controlclose quotes infrastructure which has dominated U.S. environmental protection until today. The open-quotes command and controlclose quotes model initially had advantages that were of a very pragmatic character: it assured large pollution reductions in a time when large, cheap reductions were available and necessary; and it did not require a sophisticated government infrastructure. Within the last five years, large-scale emission trading programs have been successfully designed and started that are fundamentally different from the earlier efforts, creating a new paradigm for environmental control just when our understanding of environmental problems is changing as well. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the largest national-scale program--the Acid Rain Program--and from that experience, forecast when emission trading programs may be headed based on our understanding of the factors currently influencing environmental management. The first section of this paper will briefly review the history of emissions trading programs, followed by a summary of the features of the Acid Rain Program, highlighting those features that distinguish it from previous efforts. The last section addresses the opportunities for emissions trading (and its probable future directions)

  8. Corrosion behavior of LY12CZ aluminum alloy in simulated acid rain solution

    安百刚; 张学元; 宋诗哲; 李洪锡; 韩恩厚

    2003-01-01

    The variations of corrosion potential, electrochemical impedance and surface morphology of LY12 alumi-num alloy with pH of simulated acidic rain solutions were investigated with EIS and SEM. It is found that corrosionpotential shifts to less noble value with increasing pH in the solutions of pH lower than 3.1 and shifts to more noblevalue in the solutions of pH higher than 3.1. In the solutions of pH lower than 3.1,the electrochemical impedancediagram has a capacitive loop at higher frequency and an inductive loop at lower frequency and the magnitude of highfrequency loop decreases with decreasing pH and increasing period of immersion. However, in the solutions of pHhigher than 3.4 two capacitive loops appear and the magnitude of high frequency loops increases with pH and periodof immersion. Observation of SEM shows that the pitting intensity increases with decreasing pH in the range ofpH2.0~3.4, no evident pits are observed at pH higher than 3.4. The experiment results were discussed from re-sistance of oxide film and adsorption processes of anions in simulated acid rain solution.

  9. 基于GIS的中国酸雨控制区酸雨空间分布特征研究%Spatial Distribution of Acid Rain in Acid Rain Pollution Controlled Area of China Based on GIS

    徐晓华; 徐光来

    2014-01-01

    利用全国74个酸雨监测站点2004-2006年降水-pH 数据,通过ArcGIS空间插值,模拟酸雨pH空间分布,根据酸雨“两控区”方案,提取酸雨控制区的酸雨pH空间分布,进行GIS空间分析.结果表明:中国的酸雨严重区主要分布在四川盆地、长江以南广大地区,酸雨强度沿长江向西北和东部有扩大趋势,四川盆地酸雨区已与华南酸雨区连成一片;3年间,pH<5.6的酸雨范围相对研究区面积比值由56.73%扩大到73.11%,pH<4.5的严重酸雨区由2.15%扩大到10.41%,2006年增幅最大;不同等级酸雨范围扩大趋势明显,酸雨污染趋于严重.%The pH distribution of acid rain in the acid rain pollution controlled area in China is simu-lated by using the monitoring data of acid rains from 2004 to 2006 obtained from 74 acid rain monitoring sites with spatial interpolation of ArcGIS. GIS spatial analysis method is used to analyze the distribution of acid rain of the acid rain pollution areas which is extracted from the interpolated map. As the results show,the most serious acid rain polluted areas are located in Sichuan Basin and areas to the south of the Yangtze River;the variations of gradual acid rain region expand from southern China to the northwest and Eastern China along the Yangtze River;the ratio of acid rain range of pH less than 5.6 to the acid rain pollution controlled area expands from 56.73% to 73.11% in the 3-year period;the ratio of the most seri-ous polluted area of pH less than 4.5 expands from 2.15% to 10.41%,which grew the fastest in 2006;the expanding trends of acid rain ranges of different grades are very significant;and the acid rain pollution has become more serious.

  10. Acid rain publications by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1979-1989

    Villella, Rita F.

    1989-01-01

    Pollution of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems has been a concern to society since the burning of fossil fuels began in the industrial revolution. In the past decade or so, this concern has been heightened by evidence that chemical transformation in the atmosphere of combustion by-products and subsequent long-range transport can cause environmental damage in remote areas. The extent of this damage and the rates of ecological recovery were largely unknown. "Acid rain" became the environmental issue of the 1980's. To address the increasing concerns of the public, in 1980 the Federal government initiated a 10-year interagency research program to develop information that could be used by the President and the Congress in making decisions for emission controls. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has been an active participant in acid precipitation research. The Service provided support to a number of scientific conferences and forums, including the Action Seminar on Acid Precipitation held in Toronto, Canada, in 1979, an international symposium on Acidic Precipitation and Fishery Impacts in Northeastern North America in 1981, and a symposium on Acidic Precipitation and Atmospheric Deposition: A Western Perspective in 1982. These meetings as well as the growing involvement with the government's National Acidic Precipitation Assessment Program placed the Service in the lead in research on the biological effects of acidic deposition. Research projects have encompassed water chemistry, aquatic invertebrates, amphibians, fish, and waterfowl. Water quality surveys have been conducted to help determine the extent of acid precipitation effects in the northeast, Middle Atlantic, and Rocky Mountain regions. In addition to lake and stream studies, research in wetland and some terrestrial habitats has also been conducted. Specific projects have addressed important sport species such as brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and striped bass (Morone

  11. Effects of inorganic components in acid rain on tube elongation of Camellia pollen

    Masaru, N.; Katsuhisa, F.; Sankichi, T.; Yutaka, W.

    1980-01-01

    Pollen grains of Camellia japonica were cultivated in culture plates containing individual inorganic components found in acid rain (SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, NO/sub 3//sup -/, Cl/sup -/, H/sup +/, Pb/sup +2/, Mg/sup +2/ or Mn/sup +2/). In the case of three acids (HNO/sub 3/, HCl or H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/), a promotion of pollen tube elongation due to nitric acid or hydrogen chloride occurred in the range 0-0.5 millimole/litre and a marked inhibition was observed when the acid concentrations were above 0.6 millimole/litre (pH<3.2). Sulphuric acid promoted tube elongation in the range 0-0.2 millimole/litre and markedly inhibited tube elongation above 0.3 millimole/litre (pH<3.2). Nitric acid promoted tube elongation more than hydrogen chloride and sulphuric acid. However, individual inhibitions due to the three acids were similar to each other. In the case of three metallic salts (Pb(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/, Mg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ or Mn(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/), those of lead and manganese showed a slight promotion of tube elongation at low concentrations (0.005-0.015 millimole/litre). However, the salt of magnesium had no effect in this range. Interaction of various combinations of three acids (HNOHNO/sub 3/, HCl and H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) or three ammonium salts (NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/, NH/sub 4/Cl and (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) were studied. A marked inhibition of tube elongation occurred above 0.47 millimole/litre (pH<3.2) with a combination of the three acids. However, no inhibition occurred in the same concentration range with a combination of the three ammonium salts.

  12. Correlation between microstructural characteristics and weight loss of natural stones exposed to simulated acid rain.

    Franzoni, Elisa; Sassoni, Enrico

    2011-12-15

    The correlation between stone microstructural characteristics and material degradation (in terms of weight loss), in given environmental conditions, was investigated. Seven lithotypes, having very different microstructural characteristics, were used. Four acidic aqueous solutions were prepared to simulate acid rain (two adding H(2)SO(4) and two adding HNO(3) to deionized water, in order to reach, for each acid, pH values of 5.0 and 4.0), and deionized water at pH=5.6 was used to simulate clean rain. Stone samples were then immersed in such aqueous solutions, the surface alteration being periodically inspected and the weight loss periodically measured. After 14 days of immersion, a good correlation was found between weight loss and the product of carbonate content and specific surface area in the starting materials. This was explained considering that this product accounts for the weight loss owing to the sample's fraction actually composed of calcite (the most soluble fraction) and the effective surface area exposed to dissolving solution (which depends on stone porosity and pore size distribution). Such correlation between stone microstructure and degradation may be useful for comparing the durability of different lithotypes, in given environmental conditions, and quantitatively predicting the weight loss of a lithotype, compared to another one. Hence, the correlation found in this study may be used to specifically tailor to various stone types, with different microstructural characteristics, some results that have been calculated in literature for specific stone types and then proposed as possibly representative for a broad category of stones with similar characteristics. PMID:22030245

  13. X-Ray Characterisation of Various Aluminium Phases in the Medicinal Herb Bacopa Monnieri Affected by Simulated Acid Rain

    Mallick, B.

    2012-01-01

    In the present investigation various aluminium-based new phases formed due to substitution of sulphur via simulated acid rain in Bacopa monnieri have been analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. So far there is no report on the effects of acid rain on the B. monnieri herb and its vital properties like memory-boosting mechanism. Therefore, in the present study, an attempt has been made to analyze the various aluminium phase (salt) formations due to the substitution of sulphur via sim...

  14. Acid Rain Examination and Chemical Composition of Atmospheric Precipitation in Tehran, Iran

    Mohsen Saeedi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is one of the most important environmental problems in metropolitan cities like Tehran. Rain and snow, as natural events, may dissolve and absorb contaminants of the air and direct them onto the land or surface waters which become polluted. In the present study, precipitation samples were collected from an urbanized area of Tehran. They were analyzed for NO3-, PO43-, SO42-, pH, turbidity, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Cu, Fe, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cr, and Al. We demonstrate that snow samples were often more polluted and had lower pH than those from the rain, possibly as an effect of adsorption capability of snow flakes. Volume weighted average concentrations were calculated and compared with some other studies. Results revealed that Tehran's precipitations are much more polluted than those reported from other metropolitan cities. Cluster analysis revealed that studied parameters such as metals and acidity originated from the same sources, such as fuel combustion in residential and transportation sectors of Tehran.

  15. Organic acids in cloud water and rainwater at a mountain site in acid rain areas of South China.

    Sun, Xiao; Wang, Yan; Li, Haiyan; Yang, Xueqiao; Sun, Lei; Wang, Xinfeng; Wang, Tao; Wang, Wenxing

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the chemical characteristics of organic acids and to identify their source, cloud water and rainwater samples were collected at Mount Lu, a mountain site located in the acid rain-affected area of south China, from August to September of 2011 and March to May of 2012. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentration of organic acids in cloud water was 38.42 μeq/L, ranging from 7.45 to 111.46 μeq/L, contributing to 2.50 % of acidity. In rainwater samples, organic acid concentrations varied from 12.39 to 68.97 μeq/L (VWM of 33.39 μeq/L). Organic acids contributed significant acidity to rainwater, with a value of 17.66 %. Formic acid, acetic acid, and oxalic acid were the most common organic acids in both cloud water and rainwater. Organic acids had an obviously higher concentration in summer than in spring in cloud water, whereas there was much less discrimination in rainwater between the two seasons. The contribution of organic acids to acidity was lower during summer than during spring in both cloud water (2.20 % in summer vs 2.83 % in spring) and rainwater (12.24 % in summer vs 19.89 % in spring). The formic-to-acetic acid ratio (F/A) showed that organic acids were dominated by primary emissions in 71.31 % of the cloud water samples and whole rainwater samples. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis determined four factors as the sources of organic acids in cloud water, including biogenic emissions (61.8 %), anthropogenic emissions (15.28 %), marine emissions (15.07 %) and soil emissions (7.85 %). The findings from this study imply an indispensable role of organic acids in wet deposition, but organic acids may have a limited capacity to increase ecological risks in local environments. PMID:26841776

  16. Effect of simulated acid rain on the mutualism between tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and an endophytic fungus (Acremonium coenophialum)

    Cheplick, G.P. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Whitewater (United States))

    1993-03-01

    Biotic interactions between plants and microorganisms have the potential to be affected by acidic precipitation. I examined the effect of simulated sulfuric acid rain on the mutualism between a perennial forage grass (Festuca arundinacea) and a fungal endophyte (Acremonium coenophialum). Acid water was supplied as mists sprayed onto leaf surfaces or as water added to the soil for two groups in a greenhouse: one group had high levels of endophyte infection, while the other was predominantly noninfected. Control plants received distilled water (pH 6), while others received sulfuric acid water at pH 4.5 or pH 3. Plants were harvested after 4, 6, 8, and 23 wk. Leaf endophyte infection intensity as measured by hyphal counts was not affected by acid water treatment. Root mass and root: shoot ratios generally decreased with increasing acidity of both foliar sprays and soil water, but shoot mass was mostly not affected. There was a significant pH x infection interaction for plants exposed to acidic foliar sprays for 4 wk; root and shoot mass decreased with acidity, but only for infected plants. It was found that acid rain may be deleterious to tall fescue growth at specific stages of development, but biomass production in response to acid rain is not likely to be influenced by fungal endophytes within mature plants. 55 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Physiological responses of root-less epiphytic plants to acid rain.

    Kováčik, Jozef; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Bačkor, Martin; Stork, František; Hedbavny, Josef

    2011-03-01

    Selected physiological responses of Tillandsia albida (Bromeliaceae) and two lichens (Hypogymnia physodes and Xanthoria parietina) exposed to simulated acid rain (AR) over 3 months were studied. Pigments were depressed in all species being affected the most in Tillandsia. Amounts of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide were elevated and soluble proteins decreased only in AR-exposed Hypogymnia. Free amino acids were slightly affected among species and only glutamate sharply decreased in AR-exposed Xanthoria. Slight increase in soluble phenols but decrease in flavonoids in almost all species suggests that the latter are not essential for tolerance to AR. Almost all phenolic acids in Tillandsia leaves decreased in response to AR and activities of selected enzymes (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, polyphenol oxidase, ascorbate- and guaiacol-peroxidase) were enhanced by AR. In lichens, considerable increase in metabolites (physodalic acid, atranorin and parietin) in response to AR was found but amount of ergosterol was unchanged. Macronutrients (K, Ca, Mg) decreased more pronouncedly in comparison with micronutrients in all species. Xanthoria showed higher tolerance in comparison with Hypogymnia, suggesting that could be useful for long-term biomonitoring. PMID:21161375

  18. The potential role of market mechanisms in the control of acid rain

    The remit of the study was to consider whether, and in what circumstances, market mechanisms can assist in the implementation of policies to control acid rain. The study focuses on static sources of SO2. It examines how market mechanisms might be used to control them from three viewpoints - theoretical, experience of their use in other countries, and simulations of their use in this country. The study draws from all these, in order to offer guidance on the practical benefits which could be expected to flow from their use, and on the best way to introduce them. The study took as its starting point the National Plan for reducing the UK's SO2 emissions to comply with the Large Combustion Plant Directive. These arrangements impose separate quotas, or ''bubbles'' in the parlance of emission control, on England and Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland, for the electricity industry, refineries, and other industry. (Author)

  19. Implications of the Clean Air Act acid rain title on industrial boilers

    This paper discusses the impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments related to acid rain controls, as they apply to industrial boilers. Emphasis is placed on explaining the Title IV provisions of the Amendments that permit nonutility sources to participate in the SO2 allowance system. The allowance system, as it pertains to industrial boiler operators, is described, and the opportunities for operators to trade and/or sell SO2 emission credits is discussed. The paper also reviews flue gas desulfurization system technologies available for industrial boiler operators who may choose to participate in the system. Furnace sorbent injection, advanced silicate process, lime spray drying, dry sorbent injection, and limestone scrubbing are described, including statements of their SO2 removing capability, commercial status, and costs. Capital costs, levelized costs and cost-effectiveness are presented for these technologies

  20. Determination of trace elements in acid rain by reversed-phase extraction chromatography and neutron activation

    A preconcentration neutron activation analysis (PNAA) method involving reversed-phase extraction chromatography on 8-hydroxyquinoline-loaded Amberlite XAD-2 resin has been developed for the simultaneous determination of selected trace elements in acid rain and natural water samples. Quantitative retention has been achieved for Co, Cu, Hg, V and Zn at pH 6.0 and for Cd at pH 7.0. Various factors that can influence the preconcentration procedure have been studied in detail. Concentrations of the elements have been determined by the direct irradiation of the resin without eluting them from the column. Both precision and accuracy of the PNAA method are very good. The detection limits vary between 0.01 and 3 ppb. (author) 48 refs.; 2 figs.; 4 tabs

  1. Evaluation of different approaches for modeling effects of acid rain on soils in China

    Acid deposition is an environmental problem of increasing concern in China. Acidic soils are common in the southern part of the country and soil acidification caused by acid deposition is expected to occur. Here we test and apply two different approaches for modeling effects of acid deposition and compare results with observed data from sites throughout southern China. The dynamic model MAGIC indicates that, during the last few decades, soil acidification rates have increased considerably due to acid deposition. This acidification will continue if sulfur deposition is not reduced, and if reduced more rapidly than base cation deposition. With the Steady State Mass Balance model (SSMB), and assuming that a molar ratio of Ca2+/Al3+<1 in soil water is harmful to vegetation, we estimate a slight probability for exceedance of the critical load for present deposition rates. Results from both modeling approaches show a strong dependence with deposition of base cations as well as sulfur. Hence, according to the models, changes in emission control of alkaline particulate matter prior to sulfur dioxide will be detrimental to the environment. Model calculations are, however, uncertain, particularly because available data on base cation deposition fluxes are scarce, and that model formulation of aluminum chemistry does not fully reproduce observations. An effort should be made to improve our present knowledge regarding deposition fluxes. Improvements to the model are suggested. Our work indicates that the critical loads presented in the regional acid deposition assessment model RAINS-Asia are too stringent. We find weaknesses in the SSMB approach, developed for northern European conditions, when applying it to Chinese conditions. We suggest an improved effort to revise the risk parameters for use in critical load estimates in China

  2. Bolide impacts, acid rain, and biospheric traumas at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary

    Prinn, Ronald G.; Fegley, Bruce, Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Two plausible projectiles are considered: an ice-rich long-period comet and a much smaller rock-metal asteroid. In the framework of a proposal addressed by Lewis et al. (1982), it is shown that, while the impact projectiles themselves do not shock-heat the atmosphere very extensively, the supersonic plume of water vapor and rock produced on impact does shock the atmosphere up to global scales and the shock is of sufficient intensity to produce abundant nitric oxide. For example, an ice-rich long-period comet with a mass of 1.25 x 10 to the 16th kg and a velocity of 65 km/s striking the earth would produce about 7 x 10 to the 40th molecules NO through shock-heating of the atmosphere by the high-velocity ejecta plume fragments. Specific attention is given to the fraction of the atmosphere shock-heated, the global circulation of the nitrogen oxides, the effects of the ejecta plume water on acid rain (AR) predictions, the effects of AR on continental soils, the relationship between AR production rates and the total amount of acid needed to acidify the surface oceans, and the longevity of the oceanic acidity event and the exhaled CO2 event and their implications for the environment in the first millenia or so after the impact.

  3. The role of calcium in improving photosynthesis and related physiological and biochemical attributes of spring wheat subjected to simulated acid rain

    Aria DOLATABADIAN; Sanavy, Seyed Ali Mohammad Modarres; Gholamhoseini, Majid; Joghan, Aydin Khodaei; Majdi, Mohammad; Kashkooli, Arman Beyraghdar

    2013-01-01

    The response of photosynthesis parameters, catalase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activity, malondialdehyde, proline, chlorophyll, yield and yield components to foliar application of calcium and simulated acid rain in wheat were investigated. Foliar treatment of calcium led to significant increases in the photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, proline, chlorophyll, yield and yield components in plants subjected to acid rain. Antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid...

  4. Development and Implementation of a Simple, Engaging Acid Rain Neutralization Experiment and Corresponding Animated Instructional Video for Introductory Chemistry Students

    Rand, Danielle; Yennie, Craig J.; Lynch, Patrick; Lowry, Gregory; Budarz, James; Zhu, Wenlei; Wang, Li-Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe an acid rain neutralization laboratory experiment and its corresponding instructional video. This experiment has been developed and implemented for use in the teaching laboratory of a large introductory chemistry course at Brown University. It provides a contextually relevant example to introduce beginner-level students with…

  5. Evaluating Potential Bias in Media Coverage of the Public Debate over Acid Rain and Chlorofluorocarbons in the 1980s

    Williams, Tiffany Dawn; Moore, Rebecca; Markewitz, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates media coverage of two important environmental issues from the 1980s (acid rain and chlorofluorocarbons), providing historical context for current media coverage analysis. Focusing on popular magazine articles, this study identifies key characteristics of content and presentation. Content-related characteristics are inclusion…

  6. Lysimeter study with a cambric arenosol exposed to artificial acid rain: I. Concentrations of ions in leachate

    The effects of artificial acid rain on soil leachate composition were studied in a lysimeter experiment. Cambic Arenosol (Typic Udipsamment) in monolith lysimeters was treated for 6 1/2 year with 125 mm yr-1 artificial rain in addition to natural precipitation. Artificial acid rain was produced from groundwater with H2SO4 added. pH levels of 6.1, 4 and 3 were used. Increasing content of H2SO4 in the artificial rain increased the concentration of Ca2+ and Mg2+ in the leachate significantly. The pH of the leachate was slightly reduced only by the most acidic treatment (pH 3). The H+ retention was not accompanied by a proportionate increase in the Al ion concentration. A slight increase in the Al ion concentration was only observed in the leachate from the pH 3-treated lysimeter. It is concluded that cation exchange and/or weathering were the main buffer mechanisms in the soil. The study supports conclusions from other acidification studies, that acidic precipitation is likely to increase the leaching of Ca2+ and Mg2+ from soils. 25 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  7. X-Ray Characterisation of Various Aluminium Phases in the Medicinal Herb Bacopa Monnieri Affected by Simulated Acid Rain

    B. Mallick

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation various aluminium-based new phases formed due to substitution of sulphur via simulated acid rain in Bacopa monnieri have been analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD technique. So far there is no report on the effects of acid rain on the B. monnieri herb and its vital properties like memory-boosting mechanism. Therefore, in the present study, an attempt has been made to analyze the various aluminium phase (salt formations due to the substitution of sulphur via simulated acid rain (SiAR in B. Monnieri because of its toxicological importance. The new phases like AlH(SO42 and Al2S3 along with usual Al2O3:H2O, MgO, FeAl2(PO42(OH2:8H2O, (K2Ca(SO42:H2O, have been observed in B. monnieri when treated with sulphuric-simulated acid rain (S-SiAR of two different pH (3.39 and 5.45 for 20 weeks. These Al-based new salts formed in the above medicinal herb due to the induction of S-SiAR may cause Alzheimer’s disease and induce other abnormities.

  8. Atmospheric deposition and canopy exchange of anions and cations in two plantation forests under acid rain influence

    Shen, Weijun; Ren, Huili; Darrel Jenerette, G.; Hui, Dafeng; Ren, Hai

    2013-01-01

    Acid deposition as a widely concerned environmental problem in China has been less studied in plantation forests compared to urban and secondary forests, albeit they constitute 1/3 of the total forested areas of the country. We measured the rainwater amount and chemistry outside and beneath the canopies of two widely distributed plantations (Acacia mangium and Dimocarpus longan) in the severe acid rain influenced Pearl River Delta region of southeastern China for two years. Our results showed that the frequency of acid rain was 96% on the basis of pH value 88%) and NH (10-38%). The two tree species showed distinct impacts on rainfall redistribution and rainwater chemistry due to their differences in canopy architecture and leaf/bark texture, suggesting that species-specific effects should not be overlooked while assessing the acid deposition in forested areas.

  9. Influence of acid rain components on radiocesium-137 desorption from Cetraria islandica (L. Ach. lichen

    Miljanić Šćepan S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Desorption of 137Cs from Cetraria islandica (L. Ach. lichen was performed by five consecutive desorptions with five identical solution volumes. Solutions of H2SO4, HNO3 and their mixtures, with pH 4.61, 5.15 and 5.75 were used for desorption. The desorbed amount of 137Cs (average value, all solutions used from lichen, for a given pH value was 49.2% for pH 4.61; 47.0% for pH 5.15 and 47.6% for pH 5.75. The obtained values of the desorbed amount of 137Cs from lichen are in accordance with the data obtained in earlier work, when 46.2 % 137Cs was desorbed from lichen for pH 3.75, and 47.2% was desorbed for pH 2.87. A higher percentage of 59.8%, obtained for pH 2.00 indicates increased activity of H+ ions. The amount of desorbed 137Cs from lichen using solutions corresponding to acid rain cannot be lower than the stated values as they contain other substances besides the acid solutions used in this work.

  10. Actual state of plant decline phenomena due to acid rain and others

    The decline phenomena of Japanese cedar in Kanto and Koshin districts have attracted large interest regarding the relation with acid fallout. As the cause of the decline, the effect of acid fallout and the drying of the atmosphere was reported. The authors investigated this problem in whole Japan, and reported that in the decline of Japanese cedar trees, the secondary polluting substances in the atmosphere and the amount of rain fall during the growth period seemed to take part. In this report, based on the results of investigation from the viewpoint of field ecology, the present state of the decline of Japanese cedar trees in Kansai-Setouchi district is summarized, and the relation of the decline of Japanese cedar trees to the secondary polluting substances in the atmosphere is reported as the results of the synthetic investigation. The distribution of the decline of Japanese cedar forests and its relation to the distribution of oxidant index and the amount of rainfall, and the relation of the decline of Japanese cedar trees to the secondary polluting substances in the atmosphere are described. (K.I.)

  11. Combined Effects of Lanthanum (III) and Acid Rain on Antioxidant Enzyme System in Soybean Roots.

    Zhang, Xuanbo; Du, Yuping; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua; Sun, Zhaoguo

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth element pollution (REEs) and acid rain (AR) pollution simultaneously occur in many regions, which resulted in a new environmental issue, the combined pollution of REEs and AR. The effects of the combined pollution on the antioxidant enzyme system of plant roots have not been reported. Here, the combined effects of lanthanum ion (La3+), one type of REE, and AR on the antioxidant enzyme system of soybean roots were investigated. In the combined treatment of La3+ (0.08 mM) and AR, the cell membrane permeability and the peroxidation of cell membrane lipid of soybean roots increased, and the superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and reduced ascorbic acid served as scavengers of reactive oxygen species. In other combined treatments of La3+ (0.40 mM, 1.20 mM) and AR, the membrane permeability, malonyldialdehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content increased, while the catalase activity decreased. The increased superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content were inadequate to scavenge the excess hydrogen peroxide and superoxide, leading to the damage of the cell membrane, which was aggravated with the increase in the concentration of La3+ and the level of AR. The deleterious effects of the combined treatment of La3+ and AR were stronger than those of the single treatment of La3+ or AR. Moreover, the activity of antioxidant enzyme system in the combined treatment group was affected directly and indirectly by mineral element content in soybean plants. PMID:26230263

  12. Combined Effects of Lanthanum (III and Acid Rain on Antioxidant Enzyme System in Soybean Roots.

    Xuanbo Zhang

    Full Text Available Rare earth element pollution (REEs and acid rain (AR pollution simultaneously occur in many regions, which resulted in a new environmental issue, the combined pollution of REEs and AR. The effects of the combined pollution on the antioxidant enzyme system of plant roots have not been reported. Here, the combined effects of lanthanum ion (La3+, one type of REE, and AR on the antioxidant enzyme system of soybean roots were investigated. In the combined treatment of La3+ (0.08 mM and AR, the cell membrane permeability and the peroxidation of cell membrane lipid of soybean roots increased, and the superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and reduced ascorbic acid served as scavengers of reactive oxygen species. In other combined treatments of La3+ (0.40 mM, 1.20 mM and AR, the membrane permeability, malonyldialdehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content increased, while the catalase activity decreased. The increased superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content were inadequate to scavenge the excess hydrogen peroxide and superoxide, leading to the damage of the cell membrane, which was aggravated with the increase in the concentration of La3+ and the level of AR. The deleterious effects of the combined treatment of La3+ and AR were stronger than those of the single treatment of La3+ or AR. Moreover, the activity of antioxidant enzyme system in the combined treatment group was affected directly and indirectly by mineral element content in soybean plants.

  13. Acid rain effects on aluminum mobilization clarified by inclusion of strong organic acids

    Lawrence, G.B.; Sutherland, J.W.; Boylen, C.W.; Nierzwicki-Bauer, S. W.; Momen, B.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Simonin, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    Assessments of acidic deposition effects on aquatic ecosystems have often been hindered by complications from naturally occurring organic acidity. Measurements of pH and ANCG, the most commonly used indicators of chemical effects, can be substantially influenced by the presence of organic acids. Relationships between pH and inorganic Al, which is toxic to many forms of aquatic biota, are also altered by organic acids. However, when inorganic Al concentrations are plotted against ANC (the sum of Ca2+, Mg 2+, Na+, and K+, minus SO42-, NO3-, and Cl-), a distinct threshold for Al mobilization becomes apparent. If the concentration of strong organic anions is included as a negative component of ANC, the threshold occurs at an ANC value of approximately zero, the value expected from theoretical charge balance constraints. This adjusted ANC is termed the base-cation surplus. The threshold relationship between the base-cation surplus and Al was shown with data from approximately 200 streams in the Adirondack region of New York, during periods with low and high dissolved organic carbon concentrations, and for an additional stream from the Catskill region of New York. These results indicate that (1) strong organic anions can contribute to the mobilization of inorganic Al in combination with SO42- and NO 3-, and (2) the presence of inorganic Al in surface waters is an unambiguous indication of acidic deposition effects. ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  14. The effect of particulate matter components on the acidity of rain in upper Silesia (Poland)

    Analysis of data characterizing the chemical composition of atmospheric precipitation was presented, with an emphasis on components responsible for neutralization of rain acidity. For this purpose, chemometric methods were applied. Based on a principal component analysis (PCA) a strong correlation between precipitation pH and potassium and ammonium ions in the heating period (October-March) and potassium and sodium ions in the non-heating period (April-September) was observed. Additionally, a classification of eight variables, i.e., Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, and NH4+ according to their similarities was made using a cluster analysis. Based on this study, two ions, potassium and ammonium, together with the pH value were classified into one group (cluster) in the heating period while in the non-heating period ions of potassium and sodium were clustered together with the pH. The results of the cluster analysis indicated that the selected ions contributed the most to the neutralization of the atmospheric precipitation acidity. This relationship was confirmed by a discriminant analysis in which potassium and ammonium ions were selected as components of the highest potential for precipitation classification according to its acidity degree. The relationship between the precipitation pH and the number of non-precipitation days preceding the precipitation was also analyzed. It was found that although the observed an increase of the pH value was not very high, nevertheless, the effect of the duration of the period preceding the precipitation on the pH value recorded on the day of the precipitation occurrence was quite evident. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Ecological Risk Assessment of Acid Rain%酸雨的生态风险评价

    袁传政; 方萍

    2013-01-01

    随着我国的经济发展,酸雨的生态风险评价技术也随之发展,包括酸雨对地表水水生生物、对陆生生物以及地下水的风险评价。综述了我国水生生态风险评价及陆生生态风险评价技术,旨在为我国酸雨的生态风险评价技术的完善和风险管理提供借鉴。%With the development of the economy, the ecological risk assessment technology of acid rain is also developing, including the risk assessment for the aquatic organism and terrestrial organism. To improve ecological risk assessment technology and provide reference for risk management, this paper reviewed technology of aquatic ecological risk assessment and terrestrial ecological risk assessment in China.

  16. The influence of acid rain on the intake of trace elements into rice plant from soils

    Rice plant samples were grown in 14 cultivative pots by irrigation using the six conditions of artificial acid rain waters (pH: 6.5, 6.0, 4.5, 3.5, 3.0 and 2.5) and tap water (pH: 7.5). The rice grain yielded were separated into three parts, i.e., polished rice, bran and chaff, and they were reduced to powder one by one. Twenty six element contents in the three parts of grain (each 14 samples) were determined by a neutron activation analysis. The contents of Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu, Rb, Mo in the polished rice increased with decreasing of pH of the irrigation waters. The contents of Se and Br, on the contrary, decreased with decreasing of pH of the irrigation waters. Significant changes of the contents were not observed for the elements Na, Al, Cl, Sc, Mn, Co, V. The enrichment factor of trace elements to soils were calculated for the polished rice, bran and chaff. The high enrichments of Cl, Mo, Zn, Se, Cu and Ni were observed in the polished rice. The elements K, Rb, Mn, Mg and Cr were highly concentrated in the bran. (author)

  17. Effects of acid rain and surfactant pollution on the foliar structure of some tree species

    For 10 years we have been studying the effects of acid rain and ABS (a surfactant always found in sea aerosols) on several tree species. Alterations of the leaf structure were considered as damage index. We tried to quantify the damage to the wax structure by scoring in accordance with a damage scale given by SEM observations and by computing a damage index that allowed for a comparison among tree provenances and within individuals of the same provenance or clone. We tested the response of several species: Norway spruce, silver fir, cypress, London plane, chestnut, walnut, Italian alder, tree of heaven, common maple, European white elm, manna ash, holm oak, European beech. The different species exhibited different levels of damage in relation to the type of treatment: when ABS was present, the damage was always more severe. In the broadleaved trees, the most frequent disturbances noted were: erosion of the epicuticular wax, alterations in the stomata, lesions, abscission and/or alternation of hairs. Damage from ABS treatments was compared to damge observed in coastal vegetation after strong sea winds. By comparing natural and induced damage, we were able to demonstrate that ABS is one of the possible causes of coastal vegetation decline and that ABS may also impact significantly on vegetation growing far away from the sea. (orig.)

  18. The acid rain allowance system and the integration of energy and environmental policy

    Now that the Acid Rain Title of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 is almost a year old and the process leading to the issuance of proposed rules by EPA is well underway, both utilities and their state regulators are facing some imminent and important decisions. Given the constraints posed by the January 1, 1995 compliance date for Phase 1 affected units, utilities and regulators will be forced to make many of these decisions in the absence of complete information. In addition, the market-based compliance system adds a considerable amount of uncertainty for utility managers and regulators more accustomed to monopoly and 'command and control' than to the rigors of competitive markets. At the same time, these uncertainties are precisely the type which can serve to elicit invention and creativity, whether technological, financial or informational. It is also a near certainty that regulators' attempts to direct the flow of compliance toward pre-selected options rather than permitting the market to function, will not only undermine creativity but also increase compliance costs

  19. Electrochemical and conversion electron Moessbauer study of corrosion induced by acid rain

    The passivation of low carbon steel was studied in aqueous solution of 0.5M Na2SO4+0.001M NaHSO3 (pH 3.5, 6.5 and 8.5) which can be considered as a model of acid rain. The used conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) with the complementary electrochemical investigations proved that the sulfite ions induce pitting corrosion at pH 3.5 and 6.5, while the measurements showed much weaker pitting at pH 8.5. The compositions and thicknesses of the passive films formed during the electrochemical treatments are determined from the CEM spectra. Only γ-FeOOH was found on the surface of the samples at pH 6.5 and 8.5. Nevertheless, at pH 3.5 the sextet belonging to Fe3C appears in the spectra, and also FeSO4.H2O could be detected in low concentration. (orig.)

  20. Planning of an Integrated Acidification Study and Survey on Acid Rain Impacts in China. Final Report

    Lydersen, Espen; Angell, Valter; Eilertsen, Odd; Muniz, Ivar P. [Norsk Inst. for Naturforskning, Trondheim (Norway); Larssen, Thorbjoern; Seip, Hans Martin; Aagaard, Per; Vogt, Rolf D. [Oslo Univ. (Norway); Mulder, Jan

    1997-12-31

    This is the final report from the PIAC project, which was a multidisciplinary survey on acid rain in China. One goal was to document effects of airborne acidifying compounds on vegetation, soil, soil- and surface-water and aquatic biota. Other goals were to exchange knowledge between Chinese and Norwegian scientists, and to visit research sites in highly polluted areas in China and evaluate their need of support in a future collaborative monitoring and research programme. Samples have been collected from over 20 sites in three areas. Negative effects of air pollution are found on all ecosystem levels investigated. The concentration of sulfur in the air in urban and near-urban areas is very high. The concentration of volatile organic compounds is generally high, which means that increased NOx emissions in coming years may increase the ozone problems. Reduced photosynthesis activities were found in some plants and acidification observed in soil and surface water. Aquatic biota also reflect the acidification status of the surface waters investigated. However, it is difficult to assess the degree of damage in these regions because the survey includes too few sites. Surface water acidification is currently not a major environmental problem in China and is unlikely to be one during the next decades. The report includes a status report on acidification in China and a proposed framework for a monitoring programme based on Norwegian experiences. 139 refs., 16 figs., 45 tabs.

  1. Global CO2 emissions trading: early lessons from the US acid rain program

    The US Environmental Protection Agency is implementing a program of SO2 emission allowance trading as part of the Acid Rain Program authorized by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Electric utilities may use allowance trading as part of their compliance strategy to meet SO2 emission reduction requirements, which begin in 1995. In the interest of a free market in emission credits, some utilities began trading in 1992. A strict but essential requirement for continuous-emissions monitoring was developed to support the trading program. This program is being widely watched and will be evaluated as part of an effort to determine if market concepts can be successfully extended to other environmental issues. One such issue is greenhouse gas emissions and their link with global warming and climate change. This paper focuses on the early lessons learned, issues, and challenges involved in going from a domestic electric utility SO2 emissions trading program to inter-industry, inter-gas and international as well as national emissions trading and offsets programs. Prominent among these issues are CO2 allowance allocations, equity, emissions monitoring, enforcement, and cost-effectiveness. 71 refs., 4 tabs

  2. Photosynthesis and oxidative stress in the restinga plant species Eugenia uniflora L. exposed to simulated acid rain and iron ore dust deposition: potential use in environmental risk assessment.

    Neves, Natália Rust; Oliva, Marco Antonio; da Cruz Centeno, Danilo; Costa, Alan Carlos; Ribas, Rogério Ferreira; Pereira, Eduardo Gusmão

    2009-06-01

    The Brazilian sandy coastal plain named restinga is frequently subjected to particulate and gaseous emissions from iron ore factories. These gases may come into contact with atmospheric moisture and produce acid rain. The effects of the acid rain on vegetation, combined with iron excess in the soil, can lead to the disappearance of sensitive species and decrease restinga biodiversity. The effects of iron ore dust deposition and simulated acid rain on photosynthesis and on antioxidant enzymes were investigated in Eugenia uniflora, a representative shrub species of the restinga. This study aimed to determine the possible utility of this species in environmental risk assessment. After the application of iron ore dust as iron solid particulate matter (SPM(Fe)) and simulated acid rain (pH 3.1), the 18-month old plants displayed brown spots and necrosis, typical symptoms of iron toxicity and injuries caused by acid rain, respectively. The acidity of the rain intensified leaf iron accumulation, which reached phytotoxic levels, mainly in plants exposed to iron ore dust. These plants showed the lowest values for net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration, chlorophyll a content and electron transport rate through photosystem II (PSII). Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were decreased by simulated acid rain. Peroxidase activity and membrane injury increased following exposure to acid rain and simultaneous SPM(Fe) application. Eugenia uniflora exhibited impaired photosynthetic and antioxidative metabolism in response to combined iron and acid rain stresses. This species could become a valuable tool in environmental risk assessment in restinga areas near iron ore pelletizing factories. Non-invasive evaluations of visual injuries, photosynthesis and chlorophyll a fluorescence, as well as invasive biochemical analysis could be used as markers. PMID:19321190

  3. Photosynthesis and oxidative stress in the restinga plant species Eugenia uniflora L. exposed to simulated acid rain and iron ore dust deposition: Potential use in environmental risk assessment

    Rust Neves, Natalia; Oliva, Marco Antonio; Cruz Centeno, Danilo da; Costa, Alan Carlos; Ferreira Ribas, Rogerio [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Av. PH Rolfs, Campus, Vicosa, Minas Gerais, 36570-000 (Brazil); Gusmao Pereira, Eduardo, E-mail: egpereira@gmail.com [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Av. PH Rolfs, Campus, Vicosa, Minas Gerais, 36570-000 (Brazil)

    2009-06-01

    The Brazilian sandy coastal plain named restinga is frequently subjected to particulate and gaseous emissions from iron ore factories. These gases may come into contact with atmospheric moisture and produce acid rain. The effects of the acid rain on vegetation, combined with iron excess in the soil, can lead to the disappearance of sensitive species and decrease restinga biodiversity. The effects of iron ore dust deposition and simulated acid rain on photosynthesis and on antioxidant enzymes were investigated in Eugenia uniflora, a representative shrub species of the restinga. This study aimed to determine the possible utility of this species in environmental risk assessment. After the application of iron ore dust as iron solid particulate matter (SPM{sub Fe}) and simulated acid rain (pH 3.1), the 18-month old plants displayed brown spots and necrosis, typical symptoms of iron toxicity and injuries caused by acid rain, respectively. The acidity of the rain intensified leaf iron accumulation, which reached phytotoxic levels, mainly in plants exposed to iron ore dust. These plants showed the lowest values for net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration, chlorophyll a content and electron transport rate through photosystem II (PSII). Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were decreased by simulated acid rain. Peroxidase activity and membrane injury increased following exposure to acid rain and simultaneous SPM{sub Fe} application. Eugenia uniflora exhibited impaired photosynthetic and antioxidative metabolism in response to combined iron and acid rain stresses. This species could become a valuable tool in environmental risk assessment in restinga areas near iron ore pelletizing factories. Non-invasive evaluations of visual injuries, photosynthesis and chlorophyll a fluorescence, as well as invasive biochemical analysis could be used as markers.

  4. Photosynthesis and oxidative stress in the restinga plant species Eugenia uniflora L. exposed to simulated acid rain and iron ore dust deposition: Potential use in environmental risk assessment

    The Brazilian sandy coastal plain named restinga is frequently subjected to particulate and gaseous emissions from iron ore factories. These gases may come into contact with atmospheric moisture and produce acid rain. The effects of the acid rain on vegetation, combined with iron excess in the soil, can lead to the disappearance of sensitive species and decrease restinga biodiversity. The effects of iron ore dust deposition and simulated acid rain on photosynthesis and on antioxidant enzymes were investigated in Eugenia uniflora, a representative shrub species of the restinga. This study aimed to determine the possible utility of this species in environmental risk assessment. After the application of iron ore dust as iron solid particulate matter (SPMFe) and simulated acid rain (pH 3.1), the 18-month old plants displayed brown spots and necrosis, typical symptoms of iron toxicity and injuries caused by acid rain, respectively. The acidity of the rain intensified leaf iron accumulation, which reached phytotoxic levels, mainly in plants exposed to iron ore dust. These plants showed the lowest values for net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration, chlorophyll a content and electron transport rate through photosystem II (PSII). Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were decreased by simulated acid rain. Peroxidase activity and membrane injury increased following exposure to acid rain and simultaneous SPMFe application. Eugenia uniflora exhibited impaired photosynthetic and antioxidative metabolism in response to combined iron and acid rain stresses. This species could become a valuable tool in environmental risk assessment in restinga areas near iron ore pelletizing factories. Non-invasive evaluations of visual injuries, photosynthesis and chlorophyll a fluorescence, as well as invasive biochemical analysis could be used as markers.

  5. Emission control for precursors causing acid rain (V): Improvement of acid soil with the bio-briquette combustion ash.

    Dong, Xu-Hui; Sakamoto, Kazuhiko; Wang, Wei; Gao, Shi-Dong; Isobe, Yugo

    2004-01-01

    The bio-briquette technique which mixes coal, biomass and sulfur fixation agent and bio-briquettes under 3-5 t/cm2 line pressure has aroused people's attention in view of controlling the air pollution and the acid rain. In this paper, the physicochemical properties of bio-briquette and its ash were investigated. And the acid soil was improved by the bio-briquette combustion ash, which contained nutritive substances such as P, N, K and had the acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC). The pH, EC, effective nutrient elements (Ca, Mg, K, P and N), heavy metal elements (Al, Cu, Cd, Cr, Zn and Mn) and acid-neutralizing capacity change of ash-added soils within the range of 0-10%, were also studied. Specially, when 5% bio-briquette combustion ash was added to the tested soil, the content of the effective elements such as Ca, Mg and K rose by 100 times, 7 times and twice, respectively. The total nitrogen also increased by about twice. The results showed the oxyanions such as that of Al, Cu, Cd, Cr, Zn and Mn were not potentially dangerous, because they were about the same as the averages of them in Chinese soil. It is shown that the ANC became stronger, though the ANC hardly increases in the ash-added soil. On the basis of the evaluation indices, it is concluded that the best mixture ratio is to add 2.5%-8% of the bio-briquette combustion ash to the tested soil. PMID:15559796

  6. Emission control for precursors causing acid rain(V):Improvement of acid soil with the bio-briquette combustion ash

    DONG Xu-hui; SAKAMOTO Kazuhiko; WANG Wei; GAO Shi-dong; ISOBE Yugo

    2004-01-01

    The bio-briquette technique which mixes coal, biomass and sulfur fixation agent and bio-briquettes under 3-5 t/cm2 line pressure has aroused people's attention in view of controlling the air pollution and the acid rain. In this paper, the physicochemical properties of bio-briquette and its ash were investigated. And the acid soil was improved by the bio-briquette combustion ash, which contained nutritive substances such as P, N, K and had the acid-neutralizing capacity(ANC). The pH, EC, effective nutrient elements(Ca, Mg, K, P and N), heavy metal elements(Al, Cu, Cd, Cr, Zn and Mn) and acid-neutralizing capacity change of ash-added soils within the range of 0%-10%, were also studied. Specially, when 5% bio-briquette combustion ash was added to the tested soil, the content of the effective elements such as Ca, Mg and K rose by 100 times, 7 times and twice, respectively. The total nitrogen also increased by about twice. The results showed the oxyanions such as that of Al, Cu, Cd, Cr, Zn and Mn were not potentially dangerous, because they were about the same as the averages of them in Chinese soil. It is shown that the ANC became stronger, though the ANC hardly increases in the ash-added soil. On the basis of the evaluation indices, it is concluded that the best mixture ratio is to add 2.5%-8% of the bio-briquette combustion ash to the tested soil.

  7. Accumulation of Rare Earth Elements in Spinach and Soil under Condition of Using REE and Acid Rain Stress

    严重玲; 洪业汤; 林鹏; 王世杰; 李心清; 梁洁

    2002-01-01

    The content and distribution characteristics of REE in spinach and soil under using REE and acid rain stress were studied by pot experiments. The results show that the content of REE is 0.527~0.696 (μgg-1) in the above-ground portion of spinach, 2.668~3.003 (μg*g-1) in the under-ground portion of spinach and 229.09~250.30 (μg*g-1) in the soil. With the acidity of acid rain increasing, the leaching of REE in plants and soil is strengthened and the amount of REE reduces with decreasing of pH value. After REE are used, though plants show the selective absorption to Ce group elements (especially spraying on leaves), regardless under acid rain stress or using REE or not, the distribution model of REE in the above-ground and under-ground portion of plants is basically the same with the control. Plants also follow the Oddo-Harkins rule of the REE of distribution abundance, light rare earth elements is enriched, the minus of Eu is abnormal and admeasure of Ce is a rich model. The results show that REE in plants mainly come from soil and are affected by it.

  8. The role of chemical weathering in the neutralization of acid rain

    Chemical weathering of soils/minerals is an important process which controls the long-term neutralization of acid rain as well as the quality of surface water, ground water, and oceans. Few laboratory studies have been conducted to evaluate the response of real whole soils or soil fractions to acidification. In this research experiments were performed in a laboratory semi-continuous pH-stat reactor over the pH range 2.7 to 4.7 using Band C-horizon soil fractions from the Bear Brook Watershed, Maine, and in presence/absence of 1 to 20 mmol/L oxalate ligand in the bulk solution. Acid consumption rate and the corresponding release rates of sodium, calcium, magnesium, aluminum, iron, and silica were monitored in the laboratory reactor. Both H+-ion and oxalate promoted weathering rates were fractional order based on the concentration in bulk solution. The mixed kinetic model for the soils is: WRT = WRH + WRox = KH (H+)m + Kox [OX TD]p, where m and p are fractional orders. The hydrogen ion consumption rates were approximately equal to cation release rates on an equivalent basis for hydrogen ion promoted weathering situations where secondary precipitation was unlikely (pH < 4.7) as well as for weathering of C-horizon light fraction at pH 4.0 and oxalate concentration 1 and 5 mmol/L. The relative proportions of released species were in the neighborhood of stoichiometric ratios of bulk soil chemistry for weatherable minerals in Band C-horizon soil fractions. The experimental ratios of H/Si, Al/Si, Fe/Si, Ca/Si, Na/Si, and Mg/Si for linear weathering rates of Band C-horizon soil fractions were fairly constant in the presence and absence of oxalate ligand and strongly suggested that silica may be used as a tracer for primary mineral weathering assuming quartz is inert

  9. Assessment of the Acid Rain Mountain Mesoscale Model (ARM3). Section 2

    The Acid Rain Mountain Mesoscale Model (ARM3) was developed for the Rocky Mountain region and consists of two main components: a mesoscale meteorological model and a Lagrangian acid deposition/air quality model. A study was conducted to apply ARM3 to northern Alberta and Saskatchewan and to estimate deposition resulting from the region's oil sands operations. Results of ARM3 performance are compared to those from an earlier simulation for the same region carried out using the RELMAP (REgional Lagrangian Model of Air Pollution) model. ARM3 results differed significantly from observations and from RELMAP results. ARM3 predicted that a maximum annual mean ground-level SO2 concentration of 6.0 μg/m3 occurred near the Whitecourt area while RELMAP indicated a maximum of 1.2 μg/m3 to the southeast of the source region near Fort McMurray. Since topographical effects are not included in the RELMAP model, the disagreement between ARM3 and RELMAP may be attributed to topographically induced air flow. Possible coding errors in ARM3 and inappropriate model default parameters used in the study area may also account for some of the discrepancies. Differences between ARM3 and observations may be due to limited emission sources, exclusion of background and lateral boundary flux of pollutants, lack of weather and precipitation coverage, and difficulties in interpreting precipitation quality data. Considerable computational time and storage were required by ARM3 simulations. The model is not suitable for impact assessments at large downwind distances. However, for single sources, or for impacts of future economic developments in the foothills areas, ARM3 could be useful. 15 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs

  10. Corrosion and Runoff Behavior of Carbon Steel in Simulated Acid Rain

    Baigang AN; Xueyuan ZHANG; Enhou HAN; Honxi LI

    2004-01-01

    Under the condition of simulated rain precipitation in the laboratory, with ElS and SEM observation, the effects of pH value of simulated rain on corrosion and runoff behavior of carbon steel A3 were studied. The corrosion rate of A3 steel increased and runoff action of rain precipitation on A3 steel surface was intensified with decreasing pH value, of simulated rainwater.The runoff and corrosion traces were formed along the flowing direction of rainwater, which appeared more apparently with decreasing pH value.

  11. Effects of calcium on seed germination, seedling growth and photosynthesis of six forest tree species under simulated acid rain

    Liu, Ting-Wu; Wu, Fei-Hua; Wang, Wen-Hua; Chen, Juan; Li, Zhen-Ji; Dong, Xue-Jun; Patton, Janet; Pei, Zhen-Ming; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2011-04-15

    For several decades, acid rain has been an environmental problem in North America and Europe and is now so in China. The aim of that study was to determine the effects and potential interactions between simulated acid rain (SiAR) and calcium on seed germination of different tree species present in China. Seeds from six tree species were grown is a laboratory where they were spread with SiAR or water as control and where calcium was applied at three levels. Results showed that two species were highly tolerant to SiAR while the others were sensitive; the addition of calcium also had a rescue effect on sensitive seeds but no significant effect on the tolerant ones.

  12. Leaching behavior of heavy metals and transformation of their speciation in polluted soil receiving simulated acid rain.

    Shun-an Zheng

    Full Text Available Heavy metals that leach from contaminated soils under acid rain are of increasing concern. In this study, simulated acid rain (SAR was pumped through columns of artificially contaminated purple soil. Column leaching tests and sequential extraction were conducted for the heavy metals Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn to determine the extent of their leaching as well as to examine the transformation of their speciation in the artificially contaminated soil columns. Results showed that the maximum leachate concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn were less than those specified in the Chinese Quality Standards for Groundwater (Grade IV, thereby suggesting that the heavy metals that leached from the polluted purple soil receiving acid rain may not pose as risks to water quality. Most of the Pb and Cd leachate concentrations were below their detection limits. By contrast, higher Cu and Zn leachate concentrations were found because they were released by the soil in larger amounts as compared with those of Pb and Cd. The differences in the Cu and Zn leachate concentrations between the controls (SAR at pH 5.6 and the treatments (SAR at pH 3.0 and 4.5 were significant. Similar trends were observed in the total leached amounts of Cu and Zn. The proportions of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn in the EXC and OX fractions were generally increased after the leaching experiment at three pH levels, whereas those of the RES, OM, and CAR fractions were slightly decreased. Acid rain favors the leaching of heavy metals from the contaminated purple soil and makes the heavy metal fractions become more labile. Moreover, a pH decrease from 5.6 to 3.0 significantly enhanced such effects.

  13. Leaching behavior of heavy metals and transformation of their speciation in polluted soil receiving simulated acid rain.

    Zheng, Shun-an; Zheng, Xiangqun; Chen, Chun

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metals that leach from contaminated soils under acid rain are of increasing concern. In this study, simulated acid rain (SAR) was pumped through columns of artificially contaminated purple soil. Column leaching tests and sequential extraction were conducted for the heavy metals Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn to determine the extent of their leaching as well as to examine the transformation of their speciation in the artificially contaminated soil columns. Results showed that the maximum leachate concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn were less than those specified in the Chinese Quality Standards for Groundwater (Grade IV), thereby suggesting that the heavy metals that leached from the polluted purple soil receiving acid rain may not pose as risks to water quality. Most of the Pb and Cd leachate concentrations were below their detection limits. By contrast, higher Cu and Zn leachate concentrations were found because they were released by the soil in larger amounts as compared with those of Pb and Cd. The differences in the Cu and Zn leachate concentrations between the controls (SAR at pH 5.6) and the treatments (SAR at pH 3.0 and 4.5) were significant. Similar trends were observed in the total leached amounts of Cu and Zn. The proportions of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn in the EXC and OX fractions were generally increased after the leaching experiment at three pH levels, whereas those of the RES, OM, and CAR fractions were slightly decreased. Acid rain favors the leaching of heavy metals from the contaminated purple soil and makes the heavy metal fractions become more labile. Moreover, a pH decrease from 5.6 to 3.0 significantly enhanced such effects. PMID:23185399

  14. Carryover effects of acid rain and ozone on the physiology of multiple flushes of loblolly pine seedlings

    The effects of acid rain and ozone exposure on loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings in the Piedmont of North Carolina were assessed over two exposure seasons (1987-1988). Direct effects and carryover effects of long-term exposure on the photosynthetic potential and photopigment concentrations of different needle age-classes were studied. Three half-sib families were grown in open-top field chambers and exposed two acid rain treatments and five ozone exposures delivered in proportion to ambient concentrations in a complete factorial design. Ozone significantly affected photosynthesis but there were no statistically significant effects of acid rain nor any ozone x acid rain interactions. In 1987, photosynthesis of the 1987 first-flush progressively diverged among the ozone treatments except between charcoal-filtered and nonfiltered air (NF). At the end of the first season, photosynthesis was reduced 24% at 1.5x compared to CF and more than 80% at 2.25x and 3.0x. Chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations were similarly reduced at elevated ozone exposures. In 1988, photosynthesis of the 1987 first-flush in the elevated ozone treatments remained lower. Early in the second season, the 1988 first-flush had a 25% to 50% lower photosynthetic potential at 2.25x and 3.0x compared to CF. This carryover effect on the photosynthetic potential before significant cumulative exposure was progressively smaller in the later 1988 flushes. In the late season flushes in the highest ozone treatments, photosynthesis was significantly higher than in the lower ozone treatments

  15. Controls on suppression of methane flux from a peat bog subjected to simulated acid rain sulfate deposition

    Gauci, Vincent; Dise, Nancy; Fowler, David

    2002-01-01

    The effect of acid rain SO42- deposition on peatland CH4 emissions was examined by manipulating SO42- inputs to a pristine raised peat bog in northern Scotland. Weekly pulses of dissolved Na2SO4 were applied to the bog over two years in doses of 25, 50, and 100 kg S ha-1 yr-1, reflecting the range of pollutant S deposition loads experienced in acid rain-impacted regions of the world. CH4 fluxes were measured at regular intervals using a static chamber/gas chromatographic flame ionization detector method. Total emissions of CH4 were reduced by between 21 and 42% relative to controls, although no significant differences were observed between treatments. Estimated total annual fluxes during the second year of the experiment were 16.6 g m-2 from the controls and (in order of increasing SO42- dose size) 10.7, 13.2, and 9.8 g m-2 from the three SO42- treatments, respectively. The relative extent of CH4 flux suppression varied with changes in both peat temperature and peat water table with the largest suppression during cool periods and episodes of falling water table. Our findings suggest that low doses of SO42- at deposition rates commonly experienced in areas impacted by acid rain, may significantly affect CH4 emissions from wetlands in affected areas. We propose that SO42- from acid rain can stimulate sulfate-reducing bacteria into a population capable of outcompeting methanogens for substrates. We further propose that this microbially mediated interaction may have a significant current and future effect on the contribution of northern peatlands to the global methane budget.

  16. THE INFLUENCE OF ACID RAINS ON THE LITHOTHAMNIAN LIMESTONE ON THE GALLERY OF THE MARY'S ASCENSION CATHEDRAL, ZAGREB, CROATIA

    Branko Crnković

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban, environmental pollution, caused by acid rains and damages of stone elements on Cathedral of Zagreb are described. On the surfaces of limestone elements that are in the »shade«, the black scabs have developed. The outher crusts, and inner powdery matter of the black scabs have been investigated by microscopy, and analyzed by means of x-ray. thermal and chemical analyses. They contain gypsum, calcite, soot, and sporadic fly ash.

  17. HCl in rocket exhaust clouds - Atmospheric dispersion, acid aerosol characteristics, and acid rain deposition

    Pellett, G. L.; Sebacher, D. I.; Bendura, R. J.; Wornom, D. E.

    1983-01-01

    Both measurements and model calculations of the temporal dispersion of peak HCl (g + aq) concentration in Titan III exhaust clouds are found to be well characterized by one-term power-law decay expressions. The respective coefficients and decay exponents, however, are found to vary widely with meteorology. The HCl (g), HCl (g + aq), dewpoint, and temperature-pressure-altitude data for Titan III exhaust clouds are consistent with accurately calculated HCl/H2O vapor-liquid compositions for a model quasi-equilibrated flat surface aqueous aerosol. Some cloud evolution characteristics are also defined. Rapid and extensive condensation of aqueous acid clearly occurs during the first three min of cloud rise. Condensation is found to be intensified by the initial entrainment of relatively moist ambient air from lower levels, that is, from levels below eventual cloud stabilization. It is pointed out that if subsequent dilution air at stabilization altitude is significantly drier, a state of maximum condensation soon occurs, followed by an aerosol evaporation phase.

  18. Multitracer studies on the effects of model acid rain on the adsorption of trace elements on soils

    Using a multitracer technique, the effects of acid rain pH on the adsorption of 15 trace elements on soil were studied. Kaolin, forest soil (original and with partially removed oxides), black soil (original and without organic matter) and Kureha soil (original, with partially removed oxides, and without organic matter) were employed as the adsorbents. Instead of H2SO4 solution, HCl solution was selected as the model acid rain based on the results of adsorption experiments on kaolin. In general, the percentage adsorption of cationic elements on three original soils and kaolin increased with increasing pH. The adsorption of oxyanionic elements, As and Se, on three soils was high over the entire pH range studied, while that on kaolin was low and decreased with an increase in pH. The differences in the physical and chemical properties of soils were reflected on the adsorption. The organic matter in soil had positive effects on the extent of adsorption of most elements studied, while the oxides apparently showed positive effects only for Fe and Se adsorption. The results indicate that acid rain decreases the retention of cations in soil and that it increases or does not change the adsorption of anions. (orig.)

  19. Effects of La3+ on ATPase Activities of Plasma Membrane Vesicles Isolated from Casuarina Equisetifolia Seedlings under Acid Rain Stress

    李裕红; 严重玲; 刘景春; 陈英华; 胡俊; 薛博

    2003-01-01

    The effects of La3+ on the growth and the ATPases activities of plasma membrane(PM) vesicles isolated from Casuarina equisetifolia seedlings under artificial acid rain(pH 4.5) stress were studied. The results show that the height, length of roots, fresh weight and PM H+-ATPase activites of Casuarina equisetifolia seedlings increase by the treatments of soaking seeds in LaCl3 solutions with lower concentrations, and those can reach their peak values by treating with 200 mg·L-1 La3+. However, in comparison with the CK, those are inhibited by the higher La3+ concentrations; PM Ca2+-ATPase activity is inhibited with the treatments of La3+. The results also reveal that the H+-ATPase activity and the growth of cell enlarge have a remarkable positive correlation, and La3+ activating H+-ATPase can facilitate plant growth. La3+ also can alleviate cytosolic acidification of plant under acid rain stress and indirectly maintain the stability of intracellular environment. In order to resistant to acid rain and accelerate the growth of Casuarina equisetifolia, the suitable range of La3+ concentrations to soak seeds for 8 h is 50~200 mg*L-1.

  20. [Relationships between soil moisture and needle-fall in Masson pine forests in acid rain region of Chongqing, Southwest China].

    Wang, Yi-Hao; Wang, Yan-Hui; Li, Zhen-Hua; Yu, Peng-Tao; Xiong, Wei; Hao, Jia; Duan, Jian

    2012-10-01

    From March 2009 to November 2011, an investigation was conducted on the spatiotemporal variation of soil moisture and its effects on the needle-fall in Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) forests in acid rain region of Chongqing, Southeast China, with the corresponding soil moisture thresholds determined. No matter the annual precipitation was abundant, normal or less than average, the seasonal variation of soil moisture in the forests could be obviously divided into four periods, i.e., sufficient (before May), descending (from June to July), drought (from August to September), and recovering (from October to November). With increasing soil depth, the soil moisture content increased after an initial decrease, but the difference of the soil moisture content among different soil layers decreased with decreasing annual precipitation. The amount of monthly needle-fall in the forests in growth season was significantly correlated with the water storage in root zone (0-60 cm soil layer), especially in the main root zone (20-50 cm soil layer). Soil field capacity (or capillary porosity) and 82% of field capacity (or 80% of capillary porosity) were the main soil moisture thresholds affecting the litter-fall. It was suggested that in acid rain region, Masson pine forest was easily to suffer from water deficit stress, especially in dry-summer period. The water deficit stress, together with already existed acid rain stress, would further threaten the health of the Masson forest. PMID:23359920

  1. Analysis of utility acid rain compliance plans: A discussion of issues and methods

    Brick, S. [MSB Energy Associates, Inc., Middleton, WI (United States)

    1993-07-01

    Utility acid rain compliance plans have begun to roll into public utility commissions around the eastern half of the country. These plans typically represent the combined effort of utility staff and consultants, and have evolved since early drafts of Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) began to circulate, several years back. The filings themselves often consist of many volumes of technical analysis, supporting documentation, and accompanying testimony. Hundreds of computer simulations are often presented and these, in turn, are underlain by hundreds of assumptions covering a staggering range of variables. Commissions usually have little time and few external resources with which to review and in some cases, preapprove proposed utility actions. There may be a tendency among commissions to forego a comprehensive review, approve utility plans as filed, and hope for the best. There are at least three important reasons, however, why this should not occur: (1) The magnitude of planned CAAA expenditures is large. (2) Preapproval, either formal or de facto, is becoming increasingly common. Although the approval of specific actions is certainly one outcome of the preapproval process, it should not be the sole or even principal outcome. The main focus of preapproval should involve defining an economic and institutional framework for how utilities, with input from regulators and the public, can best meet future customer needs. Done correctly, the preapproval process provides a meaningful, preexisting context which can be used to analyze outcomes. (3) Without adequate review market opportunities may be ignored and compliance costs increased unnecessarily. This article discusses the following topics in detail: CAAA Compliance Plan Review framework; Emission Reduction Alternatives: How Much is Enough?; Assumptions, Analytical Methods, and Evaluation Criteria of compliance plans; CAAA compliance costs and IRP. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Desorption of metals from Cetraria islandica (L. Ach. Lichen using solutions simulating acid rain

    Čučulović Ana A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Desorption of metals K, Al, Ca, Mg, Fe, Ba, Zn, Mn, Cu and Sr from Cetraria islandica (L. with solutions whose composition was similar to that of acid rain, was investigated. Desorption of metals from the lichen was performed by five successive desorption processes. Solution mixtures containing H2SO4, HNO3 and H2SO4-HNO3 were used for desorption. Each solution had three different pH values: 4.61, 5.15 and 5.75, so that the desorptions were performed with nine different solutions successively five times, always using the same solution volume. The investigated metals can be divided into two groups. One group was comprised of K, Ca and Mg, which were desorbed in each of the five desorption processes at all pH values used. The second group included Al, Fe, Zn, Ba, Mn and Sr; these were not desorbed in each individual desorption and not at all pH values, whereas Cu was not desorbed at all under any circumstances. Using the logarithmic dependence of the metal content as a function of the desorption number, it was found that potassium builds two types of links and is connected with weaker links in lichen. Potassium is completely desorbed, 80% in the first desorption, and then gradually in the following desorptions. Other metals are linked with one weaker link (desorption 1-38% and with one very strong link (desorption below the metal detection limit. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43009 i br. ON 172019

  3. Acid rain research program. Annual progress report, July 1976--September 1977. [Effects on plants and soil microbiological processes

    Evans, L.S.; Francis, A.J.; Raynor, G.S.

    1977-12-01

    Experiments were carried out and chemical aspects of ambient precipitation were determined using a sequential precipitation collector for the period July 1976 through September 1977. A related report provides experimental details. In experiments with plants, experiments were aimed to document: the foliar response of six clones of hybrid poplar to simulated acid rain; effects of buffered solutions and various anions on vegetative and sexual development of gametophytes of the fern (Pteridium aquilinum) and the acid-sensitive steps of symbiotic nitrogen fixation of the garden pea (Pisum sativum). After five 6 min daily exposures to simulated rain of pH 2.7, up to 10 percent of the leaf area of some poplar clones was injured. Lesions developed mostly near stomata and vascular tissue as shown with other plant species. Acidic solutions have a marked effect on sperm motility and fertilization (sexual reproduction) of bracken fern. Since sexual reproduction of ferns is very sensitive to mildly acidic conditions under laboratory conditions, experiments are planned to view the response of sexual stages of other plant species. Nodulation and symbiotic nitrogen fixation in Pisum is very sensitive to nutrient solution acidity. Specific isolates of Rhizobium bacteria are used and the medium pH can be maintained rigidly. In experiments to determine the effects of excess acidity on soil microbiological processes, the rate of denitrification may be slowed so drastically that increases of N/sub 2/O in the atmosphere may result with a subsequent reduction in soil nitrogen levels.

  4. Causes and Countermeasures of Acid Rain in Taiyuan%太原市酸雨成因及防治对策

    时红; 张永波

    2001-01-01

    The author analyses the conditions of acid rain pollution in Taiyuan and the causes of acid rain.Results show that the acid rain pollution of Dongru area in Taiyuan is serious, and the intensity of acid rain pollution is rising gradually. Finally,some comprehensive countermeasures are presented.%通过对太原市酸雨污染状况及成因进行分析,表明太原市酸雨的污染以董茹地区为严重污染区,且污染强度逐渐加大,并提出酸雨的综合防治措施。

  5. Calcium affecting protein expression in longan under simulated acid rain stress.

    Pan, Tengfei; Li, Yongyu; Ma, Cuilan; Qiu, Dongliang

    2015-08-01

    Longan (Dimocarpus longana Lour. cv. Wulongling) of uniform one-aged seedlings grown in pots were selected to study specific proteins expressed in leaves under simulated acid rain (SiAR) stress and exogenous Ca(2+) regulation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) results showed that there was a protein band specifically expressed under SiAR of pH 2.5 stress for 15 days with its molecular weight of about 23 kD. A 17 kD protein band specifically expressed after SiAR stress 5 days. Compared with pH 2.5, the pH 3.5 of SiAR made a less influence to protein expression. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) results showed that six new specific proteins including C4 (20.2 kD pI 6.0), F (24 kD pI 6.35), B3 (22.3 kD pI 6.35), B4 (23.5 kD pI 6.5), C5 (21.8 kD pI 5.6), and C6 (20.2 kD pI 5.6) specifically expressed. C4 always expressed during SiAR stress. F expressed under the stress of pH 2.5 for 15 days and expressed in all pH SiAR stress for 20 days. The expression of proteins including B3, C5, and C6 was related to pH value and stress intensity of SiAR. The expression of B4 resulted from synergistic effects of SiAR and Ca. The expression of G1 (Mr 19.3 kD, pI 4.5), G2 (Mr 17.8 kD, pI 4.65), G3 (Mr 16.6 kD, pI 4.6), and G4 (Mr 14.7 kD, pI 4.4) enhanced under the treatment of 5 mM ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and 2 mM chlorpromazine (CPZ). These proteins showed antagonistic effects and might be relative to the Ca-calmodulin (Ca-CaM) system of longan in response to SiAR stress. PMID:25893616

  6. Characteristics and analysis of acid rain in valley and basin%山谷、盆地酸雨形成的特点及分析

    洪正昉

    2001-01-01

    通过多年来对酸雨监测资料的研究,根据酸雨的发展情况,分析了山谷、盆地的酸雨形成特点,提出了山谷和盆地酸雨形成的新观点,认为其酸雨的形成主要是来自当地自身环境所产生的大气污染,其次才是外界的污染因素,中和离子也是酸雨污染加重的原因之一。%This paper analyzed the formation characteristics of acid rain in valley and basin based on the research on the acid rain mate-rials in the past years and the developed circumstances of acid rain.The new viewpoint of the acid rain formation in valley and basin was presented.It is considered that the formation of acid rain is mainly resulted from the atmospheric pollution of the local environment,and secondly,the outside pullulate factors,and then neutralizing ions are also one of the factors of making the pollution of acid rain.

  7. Kaifeng Acid Rain Appears Circumstance Analysis%近年来开封市酸雨出现情况分析

    王二虎; 仝文伟; 郭艳玲; 李树新

    2011-01-01

    Making use of weather bureau acid rain observation post in Kaifeng prognosticates data, the folio seals city acid rain the phenomenon appears of frequency and pH strength variety carried on analysis. Express as a result: Acid rain in Kaifeng appears the month, quarter of frequency to change a little bit obviously. Acid rain's appearing the month of most frequency is a September, appearing the month of minimal frequency is a February. The autumn appears the frequency of acid rain biggest, secondly is a summer, spring but appear the frequency of acid rain in winter minimal. The month, quarter variety of acid rain pH strength in Kaifeng all presents more obvious "Mountain peak-valley" motion to change,the spring is as biggest as the acid rain strength of the autumn,in summer time, winter minimum. Kaifeng city appears the number of times of one less than 5.6 following acid rains most,pH less than 4.5 stronger acid rain number of timeses are slightly a little bit little, pH the number of times of less than 4.0 following common acid rains is the minimal. But allow of no what to neglect BE,although strong acid rain in Kaifeng appears number of times less, present to obviously and year by year increase of trend. This elucidation acid rain in Kaifeng endangers of the situation is gradually rigorous. The acid rain is the main reason that makes farmland soil sour to turn, so the prevention and cure acid rain harm should strengthen the management of pollutant emissions in the city and raise energy utilization. Moreover still need to strengthen the protection to the farmland environment.%利用开封市气象局酸雨观测站2008-2010年的酸雨观测资料,对开封市酸雨出现的频率及其pH值变化进行了分析.结果表明开封市出现酸雨的月、季变化比较明显:酸雨出现频率最多的是9月份,出现最少的是2月份;秋季出现酸雨的频率最大,其次是夏季、春季、而冬季的频率最少.开封市酸雨pH值强度的月、季变

  8. Detection of Acid Rain Stress Effect on Plant Using Hyperspectral Data in Three Gorges Region,China

    SONG Xiaodong; JIANG Hong; YU Shuquan; ZHOU Guomo

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to use hyperspectral data to detect the spectral change caused by acid stress to a native forest type in the Three Gorges region of China.For this purpose,a ground-based hyperspectral experiment was conducted at the Three Gorges region to detect acid deposition that caused Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) forest degradation.Continuum removal method was used to isolate wavebands more responsive to stress in wavelengths 450-750nm.The differences in chlorophyll concentrations and needle thickness caused by acidic stress are found to be explicable to the different spectral reflectance patterns in the visible and near-infrared wavelengths.Two new chlorotic indices were utilized to explain the stress-caused leaf chiorosis.The comparison of simulated vegetation indices and principal component analysis (PCA) results suggests that it would be possible to monitor acid rain stress effect on forest ecosystem from some wider spectral regions.

  9. Characterization and Evaluation of Acid Rain in East Central Florida from 1978 to 1995 and Evaluation of Some Chromatographic/Spectroscopic Results from Leachate Samples from CELSS

    Madsen, Brooks C.

    1996-01-01

    The results of monitoring the chemical composition of rain in east-central Florida have shown that the rain is moderately acid. The measured acidity of rain is less than that observed in other regions of the U. S., however, it does suggest that the level of acidity is substantial. The annual chemical composition of rain at UCF and at KSC has shown moderate variability. Extreme daily and monthly variations are observed, however these variations are not addressed here. The total ionic composition of rain collected at FL99 is greater than that for rain collected at UCF, however this can be accounted for by site proximity to the ocean with the accompanying marine influence. Difference in acidity data collected from the UCF and FL99 sites which are separated by 50 km may be due in part to the differences that have been observed between laboratory and field pH measurements. Trend assessment for precipitation composition requires evaluation of data that covers some minimum time period. In fact, the subdivision of the multi-year UCF record into individual 10 year records as described above can lead to the conclusion that a significant increase, a significant decrease or no trend exists for acidity depending upon the time period chosen for evaluation. Trend evaluation has also been accomplished by linear and nonlinear regression analysis using monthly volume weighted average concentrations and deposition using the UCF data set and some of the Florida NADP data set.

  10. Effect of reduction in acid rain on phosphate loss-phosphate leached from agriculture soil and Al leaked from upstream acid forest soil

    2012-01-01

    This master thesis was an integrated part of EUTROPIA. The specific aim of this present study is to enhance our understanding of the effects of reduction in acid rain on P-loss from agriculture soil due to reduced co-precipitation between P leached from agriculture soil and Al leaked from upstream acid forest soils. The study was carried out at two watersheds: Dalen, which is an aluminium rich, acidic forest stream water catchment upstream, and Støa1, which is a P-loaded agricultural water ca...

  11. Air pollution and acid rains: status, effects, links with other forms of air pollution; Pollution de l`air et ``pluies acide`` etat des lieux, effets, liens avec d`autres formes de pollution de l`air

    Elichegaray, C. [Agence de l`Environnement et de la Maitrise de l`Energie, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    The evolution of acid rain pollution since 1970 is reviewed; it is shown that, broadly speaking, the acid rain issue is decreasing compared to other forms of long range air pollution, at least in Western Europe. The growing issue is the increasing photochemical pollution and its effects on health, ecosystems and climate. Nevertheless, acid rains are still a major concern in various parts of the world (North America for example) and certain parts of France (Ardennes, Landes, parts of Massif Central) exhibit a very high potential sensitivity to acid falls

  12. The U.S. clean air act amendments of 1990: final contours of the acid rain program

    The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990, enacted on November 15, 1990, created a revolutionary new approach to the control of acidic deposition, more commonly called acid rain. With the electric power industry responsible for 60 to 70 percent of the Nation's emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO2), the precursor element of acid rain, the initial program is directed toward controlling SO2 emissions from electric powerplants. Gone is the old command and control regime that relied upon governmentally mandated control techniques, often on a case-by-case basis. Instead, the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) rely upon a market-based emission trading system that introduces flexibility and low cost solutions for powerplant compliance strategies. The implementation process by the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is moving forward rapidly. One rule already has been finalized, dealing with auctions and sales. The core rules, four rules that deal with the central elements of the program, have been issued for comment and will be finalized in May or June of 1992. Other rules are still in the development stage; however, they deal with less central elements of the program and will not slow down the introduction of the emission trading system in time to meet the CAAA's statutory deadlines. 4 refs

  13. Dispelling the North American acid rain clouds: Developing a framework for political consensus through the identification of elite viewpoints

    Bhatti, N.

    1988-01-01

    Acidic deposition has simultaneously been referred to as an environmental curiosity and as an ecological holocaust. This polarization of opinion on this pollutant has resulted in the policy stalemate in Congress over this issue and is responsible for the major part of the friction which currently besets Canada-United States relations. This study identified the distinctive viewpoints which characterize opposing attitudes. In addition, the specific areas of consensus and disagreement among these elite groups were determined. All of these objectives were carried out using the results of the Q-sort technique and interviews with members of the acid rain elite in both Canada and the United States (i.e. politicians, scientists, regulators, environmental/advocacy groups, and industry/utility personnel). Furthermore, a comprehensive, in-depth review of the scientific, legal, economic, social and political aspects of this tissue was conducted. Results show that implementation of the Acid Rain Experimental Control Program (ARECP) and the Clean Coal Technology project has the potential to break the existing stalemates over this issue and, at the same, could avert damage to many ecosystems, man-made structures and human health.

  14. Effects of acid rain on competitive releases of Cd, Cu, and Zn from two natural soils and two contaminated soils in hunan, China

    Liao, Bo-han; Guo, Zhao-hui; Zeng, Qingru; Probst, Anne; Probst, Jean-Luc

    2007-01-01

    Leaching experiments of rebuilt soil columns with two simulated acid rain solutions (pH 4.6– 3.8) were conducted for two natural soils and two artificial contaminated soils from Hunan, southcentralChina, to study effects of acid rain on competitive releases of soil Cd, Cu, and Zn. Distilled water was used in comparison. The results showed that the total releases were Zn>Cu>Cd for the natural soils and Cd>Zn≫Cu for the contaminated soils, which reflected sensitivity of these metals to acid rai...

  15. 酸雨对林木伤害研究综述%Research Review of the Harm of Acid Rain on Forest Woods

    代永刚; 宋鹏; 冯毅; 鲁洋

    2011-01-01

    Based on the research of acid rain, the formation and distribution of acid rain are elaborated. Acid rain which is a great harm to the ecosystem, human health and materials is a global environmental problem. The study and achievements on the acid rain injury to forest trees were reviewed from three major aspects, such as the injury to metabolism function, growth and development and wood characteristics. Several disruptive problems which should be emphasized in our later acid rain research were proposed.%文章从酸雨的研究历史出发,阐述了酸雨的形成和分布,指出酸雨是一种全球性的环境问题;从酸雨污染对林木代谢功能、生长发育、木材特性这三大方面综述了国内外在酸雨给林木造成伤害方面的研究动态及其成果,并提出了在今后酸雨研究中应该重视的几大突破性问题。

  16. 酸雨观测采集过程中的注意事项%Points for attention in acid rain observation

    黄美纯; 蔡伟坤; 翁永限

    2012-01-01

    The observation of acid rain provides precious scientific data to study its temporal and spatial distribution and long-term trend, which is significant to control atmosphere pollution and prevent acid rain. Meanwhile, acid rain observation is an important part for meteorological business. Based on instrument faults and artificial operation mistakes during daily acid rain collection, this paper puts forward precautions and quality control methods in the process of acid rain observation and acquisition.%酸雨观测为研究酸雨的时空分布及其长期变化趋势提供了宝贵的科学数据,对治理大气污染和防治酸雨具有重要意义。酸雨观测是气象业务工作的重要组成部分。文章针对汕头酸雨观测站在日常酸雨采测过程中容易出现的仪器故障和人为操作错误进行分析,提出了酸雨观测采集中的注意事项及质量控制方法。

  17. Effects of Lanthanum on Redox Systems in Plasma Membranes of Casuarina equisetifolia Seedlings Under Acid Rain Stress

    Li Yuhong (李裕红); Yan Chongling (严重玲); Liu Jingchun (刘景春); Mohammed Almasri; Liang Jie (梁洁); Zhang Ruifeng (张瑞锋)

    2003-01-01

    The effects of lanthanum on some redox system(PMRS) properties of the plasma membrane(PM) vesicles from Casuarina equisetifolia seedlings under artificial acid rain(pH 4.5)stress were studied. The results show that there are NADH oxidase and EDTA-Fe3+ reductase, and nitrate reductase in the seedling PM, and they have different responses to soaking seeds for 8 h in a series of LaCl3 solution. The NADH oxidase activities and the Nitrate reductase activities can be stimulated when La3+ concentrations is in the range of 50~200 mg*L-1, but their activities are inhibited or fluctuate by the higher La3+ concentrations. The EDTA-Fe3+ reductase activities can be stimulated by La3+ concentrations in the range of 50~400 mg*L-1. The research also revealed that La3+ reduces the relative permeability of membranes and have the function in protecting membranes under acid rain stress by the way of inhibiting the leakage of electrolyte.

  18. Significance of Ligand Exchange Relating to Sulfate in Retarding Acidification of Variable Charge Soils Caused by Acid Rain

    WANGJINGHUA; YUTIANREN

    1996-01-01

    For the purpose of evaluating the role of ligand exchange of sulfate ions in retarding the rate of acidification of variable charge soils,the changes in pH after the addition of different amounts of HNO3 or H2SO4 to representative soils of China were measured .A difference between pH changes caused by the two kinds of acids was observed only for variable charge soils and kaolinite,but not for constant charge soils and bentonite,The larger the proportion of H2SO4 in the HNO3-H2SO4 mixture,the lower the calculated H+ ion activities remained in the suspension.The difference in H+ ion activities between H2SO4 systems and HNO3 systems was larger for soils with a low base-saturation(BS) percentage than those with a high BS percentage.The removal of free iron oxides from the soil led to a decrease in the difference,while the coating of Fe2O3 on a bentonite resulted in a remarkable appearance of the difference.The effect of ligand exchange on the acidity status of the soil varied with the soil type.Surface soils with a high organic matter content showed a less pronounced effect of ligand exchange than subsoils did.It was estimated that when acid rain chiefly containing H2SO4 was deposited on variable charge soils the acidification rate might be slower by 20%-40% than that when the acid rain chiefly contained HNO3 for soils with a high organic matter content,and that the rate might be half of that caused by HNO3 for soils with a low organic matter content,especially for latosols.

  19. Effects of simulated acid rain on germination, seedling growth and oxidative metabolism of recalcitrant-seeded Trichilia dregeana grown in its natural seed bank.

    Ramlall, Chandika; Varghese, Boby; Ramdhani, Syd; Pammenter, Norman W; Bhatt, Arvind; Berjak, Patricia; Sershen

    2015-01-01

    Increased air pollution in a number of developing African countries, together with the reports of vegetation damage typically associated with acid precipitation in commercial forests in South Africa, has raised concerns over the potential impacts of acid rain on natural vegetation in these countries. Recalcitrant (i.e. desiccation sensitive) seeds of many indigenous African species, e.g. must germinate shortly after shedding and hence, may not be able to avoid exposure to acid rain in polluted areas. This study investigated the effects of simulated acid rain (rainwater with pH adjusted to pH 3.0 and 4.5 with 70:30, H2 SO4 :HNO3 ) on germination, seedling growth and oxidative metabolism in a recalcitrant-seeded African tree species Trichilia dregeana Sond., growing in its natural seed bank. The results suggest that acid rain did not compromise T. dregeana seed germination and seedling establishment significantly, relative to the control (non-acidified rainwater). However, pH 3.0 treated seedlings exhibited signs of stress typically associated with acid rain: leaf tip necrosis, abnormal bilobed leaf tips, leaf necrotic spots and chlorosis, reduced leaf chlorophyll concentration, increased stomatal density and indications of oxidative stress. This may explain why total and root biomass of pH 3.0 treated seedlings were significantly lower than the control. Acid rain also induced changes in the species composition and relative abundance of the different life forms emerging from T. dregeana's natural seed bank and in this way could indirectly impact on T. dregeana seedling establishment success. PMID:24835442

  20. Characteristics and Effective Factors of Acid Rain in Jinan for Recent Years%济南市近年酸雨特征及其影响因素

    杨何著

    2015-01-01

    The annual and seasonal characteristics of acid rain in Jinan, and the relationship between acid rain, meteorological factors and pollutant concentrations were analyzed based on the observed acid rain data, the sounding data and atmospheric monitoring data from 2008 to 2012 at Acid Rain Observation Station of Jinan. The statistics showed a decreased tendency for both the frequency and intensity of acid rain in Jinan in recent 5 years. The average pH value of precipitation was lowest in autumn and highest in summer, while the frequency of acid rain was highest in autumn and lowest in winter. It was found that PM10 and SO2 were the main atmospheric pollutants contributing to acid rain in Jinan. The transport of pollutants by easterlies enhanced the acidity of precipitation. The acid rain was also influenced by the temperature inversion. The frequency of acid rain increased when temperature inversion occurred at rainy days and the days before. The pH value decreased with the increase of rainfall in a single event. The acid rain was most likely to form when moderate rain occurs. Additionally, fog (light fog) also favored the formation of acid rain.%根据2008~2012年济南市酸雨观测资料、探空资料和大气监测资料,分析了济南市酸雨的年、季变化特征,同时研究了酸性降水与气象条件和大气污染物的关系。统计资料证明:近5年济南市的酸雨无论从频率还是从强度上都呈现减弱趋势。降水pH值秋季最低,夏季最高;酸雨频率秋季最高,冬季最低。分析得出,影响济南市酸雨的主要大气污染物是PM10和SO2;在偏东风影响下,酸雨污染严重;酸雨的发生也会受逆温影响,降水前1 d及当天均出现逆温时,酸雨出现频率最高;随着降水量的增加,pH值逐渐降低,中雨时酸雨频率最高;另外,雾和轻雾也容易导致酸雨的发生。

  1. 蚌埠市酸雨污染趋势分析及对策%Analysis and Countermeasures of Acid Rain in Bengbu city

    姚海军; 孟维娜

    2012-01-01

    According to the statistics of precipitation monitoring data during the "Eleventh Five-Year" in Bengbu City,revealing the temporal and spatial distribution of the acid rain pollution in Bengbu City.Bengbu City of acid rain causes acid rain component monitoring results,and put forward some Countermeasures.%根据对蚌埠市"十一五"期间大气降水监测资料的统计,揭示了蚌埠市酸雨污染的时空分布特征。根据酸雨成分监测结果,分析了蚌埠市酸雨的形成原因,并初步提出一些防治对策。

  2. CHARACTERISTICS AND IMPACT FACTORS OF ACID RAIN IN JINING%济宁市酸雨特征及其影响因素

    王晓默

    2011-01-01

    The property of seasonal variation for acid rain in Jining, also the relationship between acid precipitation and meteorological factor were analyzed according to the observed acid rain data in 2006 till 2010 that from Acid Rain Observation Station of Jining. Through statistics, the tendency for both frequency and intensity of acid rain in Jining was shown to be reduced in those years. Among the 242 precipitation samples, there were 94 of them with pH value below 5.6, accounting for 38. 8% ; the frequency of acid rain in autumn is the highest, while the ones in winter and spring are lower, also the frequency in Winter Half Year was obviously higher than that in Spring Half Year; mostly the acid rain appeared at night, and the non - acid rain appeared in the day, which related to the lower of the mixed layer height. It was analyzed that the formation of acid rain was closely related with SO2, then related with NOX , besides, related with direction and speed of the wind, the amount of precipitation and fog (light fog) , and the geographical position and terrain.%根据济宁市酸雨观测站2006 - 2010年的酸雨观测资料,分析了济宁市酸雨的季节变化特征,同时研究了酸性降水与气象条件的关系.统计得出,济宁市的酸雨无论从频率还是从强度上都呈现减弱趋势.在242个降水样本中,pH值小于5.6的酸性样本94个,占38.8%;酸雨在秋季出现频率最高,冬、夏两季频率较少,且冬半年要明显高于夏半年;济宁市的酸雨多出现在夜间,非酸性降水多出现在白天,这与夜间混合层高度低有关.分析得出,济宁市形成酸雨的主要物质是SO2,其次是NOx,此外还与风向风速、降水量、雾(轻雾)以及地理位置和地形有密切的关系.

  3. 中国酸雨概况及防治对策探讨%Discuss on Present Situation and Countermeasures for Acid Rain Prevention and Control in China

    刘萍; 夏菲; 潘家永; 陈益平; 彭花明; 陈少华

    2011-01-01

    中国受酸雨影响的地区已占国土面积的30%,已成为继欧州和北美之后世界第三大酸雨区。中国的酸雨为典型的硫酸型,其空间分布主要呈现以南方酸雨比北方严重,城市酸雨比郊区严重的特点。酸雨令中国农林业、畜牧业、水产养殖业、建筑业等都遭受了巨大的损失,如不采取果断有效的控制措施,由此所造成的大气污染及环境酸化将进一步加剧。本文系统阐述了中国酸雨的成因特点、现状及其危害,并根据中国酸雨的实际情况,结合国家制定的控制目标,提出了具体的防治对策。%The problem of acid rain has become an important environmental problem at present. The areas which have been affected by acid rain in our country have reached 30% of the total land area, making China the world's third largest acid rain areas nest to Europe and North America. The acid rain of China has the characteristics, including typical sulfuric acid type, more serious in south than in north in spatial distribution, more serious in cities than in suburban areas. Acid rain has inflicted great losses on agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, aquaculture and construction. Without decisive and effective controlling measures, air pollution and environment acidification which made by acid rain will be further intensified, furthermore, it will bring greater threat to Chinese environment which is already in heavy burden. This paper describes the characteristics, situation and harms of acid rain. According to the actual situation of acid rain in China and combined with the control targets set by government, specific prevention and control countermeasures were proposed.

  4. Influence of long-term exposure to simulated acid rain on development, reproduction and acaricide susceptibility of the carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus

    Wang, Jin-Jun; Zhang, Jian-ping; He, Lin; Zhao, Zhi-Mo

    2006-01-01

    Development, reproduction and acaricide susceptibility of Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduvals) (Acari: Tetranychidae) were investigated after long-term (about 40 generations) exposure to various levels of acid rain; pH 2.5, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.6. Deionized water (pH 6.8) served as a control. The mites were reared on eggplant leaves at 28°C, 80%RH and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) in the laboratory. The results showed that the duration of the immature stage was significantly affected by acid rain ...

  5. [Responses of rhizosphere nitrogen and phosphorus transformations to different acid rain intensities in a hilly red soil tea plantation].

    Chen, Xi; Chen, Fu-sheng; Ye, Su-qiong; Yu, Su-qin; Fang, Xiang-min; Hu, Xiao-fei

    2015-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) plantation in hilly red soil region has been long impacted by acid deposition, however its effects on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) transformations in rhizosphere soils remain unclear. A 25-year old tea plantation in a typical hilly red soil region was selected for an in situ simulation experiment treated by pH 4.5, pH 3.5, pH 2.5 and control. Rhizosihere and bulk soils were collected in the third year from the simulated acid deposition experiment. Soil mineral N, available P contents and major enzyme activities were analyzed using the chemical extraction and biochemical methods, and N and P mineralization rates were estimated using the indoor aerobic incubation methods. Our results showed that compared to the control, the treatments of pH 4.5, pH 3.5 and pH 2.5, respectively decreased 7.1%, 42.1% and 49.9% NO3(-)-N, 6.4%, 35.9% and 40.3% mineral N, 10.5%, 41.1% and 46.9% available P, 18.7%, 30.1% and 44.7% ammonification rate, 3.6%, 12.7% and 38.8% net N-mineralization rate, and 31.5%, 41.8% and 63.0% P mineralization rate in rhizosphere soils; however, among the 4 treatments, rhizosphere soil nitrification rate was not significantly different, the rhizosphere soil urease and acid phosphatase activities generally increased with the increasing intensity of acid rain (Pacid intensity, the rhizosphere effects of NH4+-N, NO3(-)-N, mineral N, ammonification and net N-mineralization rates were altered from positive to negative effects, those of urease and acid phosphatease showed the opposite trends, those of available P and P mineralization were negative and that of nitrification was positive. In sum, prolonged elevated acid rain could reduce N and P transformation rates, decrease their availability, alter their rhizosphere effects, and have impact on nutrient cycling in tea plantation. PMID:25985647

  6. Initial corrosion behavior of AZ91 magnesium alloy in simulating acid rain under wet-dry cyclic condition

    2008-01-01

    Corrosion behavior of AZ91 magnesium alloy in simulating acid rain under wet-dry cyclic condition was investigated.The results show that corrosion potential shifts positively and the corrosion current density decreases at low wet-dry cyclic time.Further increase of the cyclic time results in the negative movement of corrosion potential and the increase of current density.SEM observation indicates that corrosion Occurs only in αphase,βphase is inert in corrosive medium,and the corrosion of AZ91 magnesium appears in uniform characteristic.XPS analysis suggests that the corrosion product is mainly composed of oxide and hydroxide of magnesium and aluminum,and a small amount of sulfate is also contained in the film.

  7. Acid rain and related air-pollution research. A directory of USDA and state projects in CRIS. Final report

    The directory is a listing of the ongoing and recently completed research projects from the Current Research Information System (CRIS) database of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), which deal with acid rain and the related effects of air pollutants on crops and livestock. The projects were identified in March 1986, and include research active as of October 1982. The CRIS database contains projects conducted or sponsored by the USDA, State agricultural experiment stations and land-grant institutions, State forestry schools and other cooperating State institutions. CRIS is operated by the Cooperative State Research Service, USDA. Project abstracts appear in the main entry section, which is organized into chapters based upon plant, animal and natural resource categories used for classifying projects in the CRIS database. Projects assigned more than one category are repeated in each of the applicable chapters. Additional points of access are provided by a keyword/title index, investigator index, and performing institution index

  8. An Iterative Process for International Negotiations on Acid Rain in Northern Europe Using a General Convex Formulation

    This paper proposes a game theoretical approach of international negotiations on transboundary pollution. This approach is distinguished by a discrete time formulation and by a suitable formulation of the local information assumption on cost and damage functions: at each stage of the negotiation, the parties assign the best possible cooperative state, given the available information, as an objective for the next stage. It is shown that the resulting sequences of states converges from a non-cooperative situation to an international optimum in a finite number of stages. Furthermore, a financial transfer structure is also presented that makes the desired sequence of states individually rational and strategically stable. The concepts are applied in a numerical simulation of the SO2 transboundary pollution problem related to acid rain in Northern Europe. 14 refs

  9. UV-Vis Spectroscopy Study on Interaction between Microperoxidase-11 and Pr Ion Under Acid Rain Stress

    吉红念; 黄晓华; 周青; 陆天虹

    2002-01-01

    Interaction between rare earth ion praseodymium (Pr(Ⅲ)) and MP11 with/without hydrogen ion (H+) in different media( aqueous, phosphate buffer, physiological condition) were studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy. All the results indicate that Pr(Ⅲ) interacts with MP11, increasing the non-planarity of porphyrin periphery, leading MP11 to form two conformations when titrated by Pr(Ⅲ). Excessive Pr(Ⅲ) acts as a contaminant in living organism. H+ and Pr(Ⅲ) have antagonistic effect on MP11, suggesting that at suitable concentration under physiological conditions, Pr(Ⅲ) can be used as biomodulator in protecting plants from acid rain stress or in rehabilitating the harm.

  10. Study on the influence of acid rain on the intake of trace elements into rice plant from soils

    Rice plant samples were grown in 14 cultivative pots by irrigation using the six conditions of artificial acid rain waters (pH : 6.5, 6.0, 4.5, 3.5, 3.0 and 2.5) and tap water (pH : 7.5). The artificial acid rain waters were prepared by adding a mix solution of 1N H2SO4 and 1N HNO3 (1:1) to tap water. The rice grain yielded were separated into three parts, i.e., polished rice, bran and chaff, and they were reduced to powder one by one. Twenty six element contents in the three parts of grain (each 14 samples) were determined by a neutron activation analysis. It was clarified that the contents of Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu, Rb, Mo in the polished rice increased with decreasing of pH of the irrigation waters. The contents of Se and Br, on the contrary, decreased with decreasing of pH of the irrigation waters. Significant changes of the contents were not observed for the elements Na, Al, Cl, Sc, Mn, Co, V. The relationships between the trace element contents in the bran or chaff and pH of the irrigation waters were not so clear as the case of polished rice. The enrichment factor of trace elements to soils were calculated for the polished rice, bran and chaff. The high enrichments of Cl, Mo, Zn, Se, Cu and Ni were observed in the polished rice. The elements K, Rb, Mn, Mg and Cr were highly concentrated in the bran. (author)

  11. Effects of simulated acid rain on the morphology, phenology and dry biomass of a local variety of maize (Suwan-1) in Southwestern Nigeria.

    Macaulay, Babajide Milton; Enahoro, Gloria Ebarunosen

    2015-10-01

    Effects of acid rain on the morphology, phenology and dry biomass of maize (Suwan-1 variety) were investigated. The maize seedlings were subjected to different pH treatments (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0) of simulated acid rain (SAR) with pH 7.0 as the control for a period of 90 days. The common morphological defects due to SAR application were necrosis and chlorosis. It was observed that necrosis increased in severity as the acidity increased whilst chlorosis was dominant as the acidity decreased. SAR encouraged rapid floral and cob growth but with the consequence of poor floral and cob development in pH 1.0 to 3.0 treatments. The result for the dry biomass indicates that pH treatments 2.0 to 7.0 for total plant biomass were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from one another, but were all significantly higher (P acid rain but with pronounced morphological and phenological defects which, however, have the capacity to reduce drastically the market value of the crop. Therefore, it may be concluded that Suwan-1 tolerated acid rain in terms of the parameters studied at pH 4.0 to 7.0 which makes it a suitable crop in acid rain-stricken climes. This research could also serve as a good reference for further SAR studies on maize or other important cereals. PMID:26362878

  12. Spatial and spectral characterization of acid rain stress in Canadian Shield lakes

    Marshall, Elizabeth J.; Tanis, Frederick J.

    1989-01-01

    Results from this study demonstrate that a remote sensor can discriminate lake clarity based upon reflection. The basic hypothesis was that seasonal and multiyear changes in lake optical transparency are indicative of sensitivity to acidic deposition. In many acid-sensitive lakes optical transparency is controlled by the amount of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) present. DOC is a strong absorbing, nonscattering material which has the greatest impact at short visible wavelengths, including Thematic Mapper band 1. Acid-sensitive lakes have high concentrations of aluminum which have been mobilized by acidic components contained in the runoff. Aluminum complexing with DOC is considered to be the primary mechanism to account for observed increases in lake transparency in acid-sensitive lakes. Thus seasonal changes in the optical transparency of lakes should provide an indication of the stress due to acid deposition and loading.

  13. Research on the acid rain under the short-term environment control measures of the Youth Olympic Games

    Li, S.; Qing, W.; Chen, Y.; Peng, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Northern China emits the most part of acid pollution of the whole nation but turns out to be in a light acid precipitation extent. Research shows that it is the carbonate particles from dust that neutralize the acid in the rainfall. Construction in southern China becomes more and more active so that alkaline dusts from construction are receiving an increasing attention. Nanjing hosts the Youth Olympic Games in 2015 and implements a strict plan to control the emission of construction dust. Thus, The Youth Olympic Games provides a good opportunity to analyze the neutralization of alkaline dusts emitted from construction in Nanjing. Experiment is conducted by collecting the total of rainfall events from June to September in 2015, besides, TSP (total suspended particles) before and after each rainfall events is collected due to find the collaboration with rainfall. Ca2+,Mg2+,K+,Na+,Sr2+,F-,Cl-,SO42-,NO3- concentrations in rain water and water soluble fraction of TSP are analyzed using ICP-OES and ICS in Nanjing University. Results showed that Ca2+and SO42- makes the major part of total ions, indicating the fact that Nanjing is suffering from a severe acid rainfall and alkaline dusts which mainly consist of Ca2+ neutralize a large number of acid particles. pH of rainfall has a good correlation with the flux of TSP. pH of rainfall keeps falling as the YOG plan starts and picking up after the YOG, which indicates that the declination of artificial alkaline dust in TSP reduces the neutralization on the acid rainfall.

  14. PERSISTENT EPISODIC ACIDIFICATION OF STREAMS LINKED TO ACID RAIN EFFECTS ON SOIL

    Episodic acidification of streams, identified in the late 1980s as one of the most significant environmental problems caused by acidic deposition, had not been evaluated since the early 1990s despite decreasing levels of acidic deposition over the past decade. This analysis indic...

  15. Persistent episodic acidification of streams linked to acid rain effects on soil

    Lawrence, G.B.

    2002-01-01

    Episodic acidification of streams, identified in the late 1980s as one of the most significant environmental problems caused by acidic deposition, had not been evaluated since the early 1990s despite decreasing levels of acidic deposition over the past decade. This analysis indicates that episodic acidification of streams in upland regions in the northeastern United States persists, and is likely to be much more widespread than chronic acidification. Depletion of exchangeable Ca in the mineral soil has decreased the neutralization capacity of soils and increased the role of the surface organic horizon in the neutralization of acidic soil water during episodes. Increased accumulation of N and S in the forest floor from decades of acidic deposition will delay the recovery of soil base status, and therefore, the elimination of acidic episodes, which is anticipated from decreasing emissions.

  16. Protective effect of Mn(III)-desferrioxamine B upon oxidative stress caused by ozone and acid rain in the Brazilian soybean cultivar Glycine max "Sambaiba".

    Esposito, Jéssica Bordotti Nobre; Esposito, Breno Pannia; Azevedo, Ricardo Antunes; Cruz, Luciano Soares; da Silva, Luzimar Campos; de Souza, Silvia Ribeiro

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of the Mn complex (Mn(III)-desferrioxamine B (MnDFB)) on oxidative stress in the Brazilian soybean cultivar Glycine max "Sambaiba" following exposure to ozone and acid rain. We determined the suitable dose of MnDFB to apply to G. max seedlings using a dose-response curve. The highest superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and Mn content in leaves were found upon the application of 8 μM MnDFB. Thus, G. max seedlings pretreated with 8 μM MnDFB were individually exposed to ozone and acid rain simulated. Pretreatment with MnDFB reduced lipid peroxidation upon ozone exposure and increased SOD activity in leaves; it did not alter the metal content in any part of the plant. Conversely, following acid rain exposure, neither the metal content in leaves nor SOD enzyme activity were directly affected by MnDFB, unlike pH. Our findings demonstrated that exogenous MnDFB application before ozone exposure may modulate the MnSOD, Cu/ZnSOD, and FeSOD activities to combat the ROS excess in the cell. Here, we demonstrated that the applied dose of MnDFB enhances antioxidative defenses in soybean following exposure to acid rain and especially to ozone. PMID:25510614

  17. A Three-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess Pre-Service Teachers' Misconceptions about Global Warming, Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion, and Acid Rain

    Arslan, Harika Ozge; Cigdemoglu, Ceyhan; Moseley, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the development and validation of a three-tier multiple-choice diagnostic test, the atmosphere-related environmental problems diagnostic test (AREPDiT), to reveal common misconceptions of global warming (GW), greenhouse effect (GE), ozone layer depletion (OLD), and acid rain (AR). The development of a two-tier diagnostic test…

  18. Chronic and episodic acidification of Adirondack streams from acid rain in 2003-2005

    Lawrence, G.B.; Roy, K.M.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Simonin, H.A.; Capone, S.B.; Sutherland, J.W.; Nierzwicki-Bauer, S. A.; Boylen, C.W.

    2008-01-01

    Limited information is available on streams in the Adirondack region of New York, although streams are more prone to acidification than the more studied Adirondack lakes. A stream assessment was therefore undertaken in the Oswegatchie and Black River drainages; an area of 4585 km2 in the western part of the Adirondack region. Acidification was evaluated with the newly developed base-cation surplus (BCS) and the conventional acid-neutralizing capacity by Gran titration (ANCG). During the survey when stream water was most acidic (March 2004), 105 of 188 streams (56%) were acidified based on the criterion of BCS acidic (August 2003), 15 of 129 streams (12%) were acidified based on the criterion of BCS acidic deposition to stream acidification was greater than that of strongly acidic organic acids in each of the surveys by factors ranging from approximately 2 to 5, but was greatest during spring snowmelt and least during elevated base flow in August. During snowmelt, the percentage attributable to acidic deposition was 81%, whereas during the October 2003 survey, when dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were highest, this percentage was 66%. The total length of stream reaches estimated to be prone to acidification was 718 km out of a total of 1237 km of stream reaches that were assessed. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of simulated acid rain on dissolution and transformation of aluminum in acid soils of south China%模拟酸雨对酸性土壤铝溶出及其形态转化的影响

    俞元春; 丁爱芳

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the releasing characteristics and the transformation of aluminum in acid soils of south China with simulated acid rain leaching method. The results revealed that the leaching of acid rain resulted in release of aluminum from the soils. The amount of aluminum released from the soils increased with the decrease of pH value of the acid rain. Leaching of acid rain also cause transformation of aluminum forms in the soils. With the decreasing of pH value of the acid rain, The content of hydroxy aluminum and organic aluminum decreased, whereas exchangeable aluminum in the soils increased%研究了我国南方酸沉降区主要土壤类型在模拟酸雨影响下,土壤中铝离子释放及铝形态转化的特点。结果表明,酸雨淋洗造成土壤中铝离子释放,酸雨pH值越低,铝离子释放量越大;酸雨淋洗还造成土壤中铝形态发生变化,酸雨pH越低,土壤中羟基态铝和腐殖质铝含量愈低,交换态铝含量越高,土壤中铝对植物和生态系统的危害性也越大。

  20. Acid rain abatement in Belgium: lessons in cost-effectiveness studies

    In this paper a cost-effectiveness analysis is presented for combating emissions of acid precursors. The focus of concern is to reach the environmental quality goal at least cost. Two cost-effective approaches are elaborated. Firstly, the maximum allowable emission of each acid precursor seperately is allocated in a cost-effective way across the economic sectors. Secondly, the maximum allowable emissions of acid precursors are allocated in a cost-effective way across the three considered acid precursors as well as across the economic sectors. It is argued that not only the energy consumption but also the agricultural sector could play an important role in a cost-effective strategy by curtailing its ammonia emissions. 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  1. 大连市酸雨的变化趋势及来源简析%Analysis in the Variational Trend and Sources of Acid Rain in Dalian

    王日东; 苏静

    2011-01-01

    “十一五”期间大连市的酸雨污染呈波动趋势,2009年的酸雨污染最为严重,酸雨频率达到40.3%,pH均值4.84,属于中酸雨污染。大连市酸雨的来源受外来地区输送的影响较大,大连市本地源排放对硫和氮的湿沉降的贡献仅在10—20%之间;外来源中,山东排放的贡献占30~40%,辽宁其他区域的贡献10%左右,同时日本、朝鲜和韩国的贡献也不容忽视。%The acid rain pollution of Dalian presents to fluctuant trend during the eleventh five - year plan. The acid rain pollution Was the most serious in 2009. The frequency of the acid rain achieved 40. 3% and the pH value was 4.84 (medium acid rain pollution) . Acid rain in Dalian was significantly affected by external sources via transportation. The emissions from local sources only contributed to 10 -20% of wet deposition of sulfur and nitrogen. Among all external sources, emissions from Shandong contributed to 30 -40%, other regions in Liaoning only accounted for about 10%, and effect of emission in neighbor countries ( such as Japan,Noah Korea and South Korea) should not be neglected.

  2. Potential human health effects of acid rain: report of a workshop

    Goyer, Robert A.; Bachmann, John; Clarkson, Thomas W.; Ferris, Benjamin G.; Graham, Judith; Mushak, Paul; Perl, Daniel P.; Rall, David P.; Schlesinger, Richard; Sharpe, William; Wood, John M.

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes the potential impact of the acid precipitation phenomenon on human health. There are two major components to this phenomenon: the predepositional phase, during which there is direct human exposure to acidic substances from ambient air, and the post-depositional phase, in which the deposition of acid materials on water and soil results in the mobilization, transport, and even chemical transformation of toxic metals. Acidification increases bioconversion of mercury to methylmercury, which accumulates in fish, increasing the risk to toxicity in people who eat fish. Increase in water and soil content of lead and cadmium increases human exposure to these metals which become additive to other sources presently under regulatory control. The potential adverse health effects of increased human exposure to aluminum is not known at the present time. PMID:3896772

  3. Effects of air pollution and simulated acid rain on the ground vegetation of coniferous forests

    Descriptive and experimental studies on the ground vegetation of coniferous forests in Bavaria indicated the following phenomena: a. In N-limited pine forests recent eutrophication effects occur. b. The structure of the moss layer in coniferous forests sensitively reacts to very acid throughfall water (pH < 3.2). c. Oxalis acetosella is a forest herb with a relatively high Ca-demand for optimum growth and is thusly sensitive to distinct acid-caused Ca-losses in the top soil, or inhibition of Ca-uptake. (orig.)

  4. Durability of Concrete Using Rice Husk Ash as Cement Substitution Exposed To Acid Rain

    I. A. Ahmad; Parung, H.

    2014-01-01

    The acidity of rainfall in major areas of Indonesia is under neutral pH. Average pH of rainfall is between 3 and 5. Free lime within concrete will react with acid and cause a decrease in the strength of concrete. A means to anticipate the damage is to reduce the content of free lime within concrete. Silicon oxide contained in rice husk ash can react with free lime to form a new compound that is harder and denser. It became the basis for the use of rice husk ash in concrete mix...

  5. Air Pollution, Acid Rain, and the Future of Forests. Worldwatch Paper 58.

    Postel, Sandra

    This book traces centuries of human use and abuse of forest ecosystems by discussing past decades of intense burning, grazing, and timber cutting that added to the natural acidification of the soil. Air pollutants and acids generated by industrial activities worldwide are also considered. Many forests in Europe and North America now receive as…

  6. Research Progress on Acid Deposition over China and Effect of Acid Rain on Agricultural Production%中国酸雨及其对农业生产影响的研究进展

    冯颖竹; 陈惠阳; 余土元; 冯茜丹

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the characteristics of acid rain in China and its effect on agricultural production, an overview of 30 years of acid rain over China and its impact on agricultural production were elaborated in this paper. The outcome of characteristics of acid rain in China mainly included the spatial and temporal distribution (geographical distribution) of acidity, and the ion concentration in precipitation. The outcomes of various aspects in the research about effects of acid rain on agricultural production were introduced, which mainly included the seed germination, the growth, the quality and yield of main crops. The main origins of acid rain formation were discussed, and measures to reduce acid rain damage were investigated. Finally, future research was suggested.%为了研究中国酸雨特征及其对农业生产的影响,综述了30多年来有关中国酸雨及其对农业生产影响的研究成果.对中国酸雨特征的研究主要包括中国大气降水酸度分布和离子浓度特征.酸雨对农 业生产影响方面主要包括酸雨对主要农作物种子萌发、生长发育、品质和产量的影响.同时,分析了中国酸雨的成因,探讨了减少酸雨危害的措施,指出了有待研究的科学问题.

  7. Acid rain and nitrogen deposition in a sub-tropical watershed (Piracicaba): ecosystem consequences

    Poorly buffered sandy soils may result in acidification problems for forests in this basin. - High levels of wet N and acidic deposition were measured in southeast Brazil. In this study we addressed the sensitivity of water bodies and soils to acidification and N deposition in the Piracicaba River basin (12,400 km2). Average acid neutralization capacity (ANC) at 23 river sampling sites varied from 350 to 1800 μeq l-1. Therefore, rivers and streams in the Piracicaba basin are well buffered, if the lower limit of 200 μeq l-1 is assumed as an indication of poorly buffered waters. ANC is increased by untreated wastewaters discarded into rivers and streams of the region. Average NO3 concentrations varied from 20 to 70 μeq l-1. At the most polluted river sites, NO3 concentration is not highest, however, probably due to NO3 reduction and denitrification. Most of the nitrogen in streams is also provided by wastewaters and not by wet deposition. The majority of the soils in the basin, however, are acidic with a low base cation content and high aluminum concentration. Therefore, soils in this basin are poorly buffered and, in areas of forest over sandy soils, acidification may be a problem

  8. Acid rain mitigation experiment shifts a forested watershed from a net sink to a net source of nitrogen.

    Rosi-Marshall, Emma J; Bernhardt, Emily S; Buso, Donald C; Driscoll, Charles T; Likens, Gene E

    2016-07-01

    Decades of acid rain have acidified forest soils and freshwaters throughout montane forests of the northeastern United States; the resulting loss of soil base cations is hypothesized to be responsible for limiting rates of forest growth throughout the region. In 1999, an experiment was conducted that reversed the long-term trend of soil base cation depletion and tested the hypothesis that calcium limits forest growth in acidified soils. Researchers added 1,189 kg Ca(2+) ha(-1) as the pelletized mineral wollastonite (CaSiO3) to a 12-ha forested watershed within the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in the White Mountains of New Hampshire. Significant increases in the pH and acid-neutralizing capacity of soils and streamwater resulted, and the predicted increase in forest growth occurred. An unanticipated consequence of this acidification mitigation experiment began to emerge a decade later, with marked increases in dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) exports in streamwater from the treated watershed. By 2013, 30-times greater DIN was exported from this base-treated watershed than from adjacent reference watersheds, and DIN exports resulting from this experiment match or exceed earlier reports of inorganic N losses after severe ice-storm damage within the study watershed. The discovery that CaSiO3 enrichment can convert a watershed from a sink to a source of N suggests that numerous potential mechanisms drive watershed N dynamics and provides new insights into the influence of acid deposition mitigation strategies for both carbon cycling and watershed N export. PMID:27335456

  9. The combined effects of urea application and simulated acid rain on soil acidification and microbial community structure.

    Liu, Xingmei; Zhou, Jian; Li, Wanlu; Xu, Jianming; Brookes, Philip C

    2014-05-01

    Our aim was to test the effects of simulated acid rain (SAR) at different pHs, when applied to fertilized and unfertilized soils, on the leaching of soil cations (K, Ca, Mg, Na) and Al. Their effects on soil pH, exchangeable H(+) and Al(3+) and microbial community structure were also determined. A Paleudalfs soil was incubated for 30 days, with and without an initial application of urea (200 mg N kg(-1)soil) as nitrogen (N) fertilizer. The soil was held in columns and leached with SAR at three pH levels. Six treatments were tested: SAR of pH 2.5, 4.0 and 5.6 leaching on unfertilized soil (T1, T2 and T3), and on soils fertilized with urea (T4, T5 and T6). Increasing acid inputs proportionally increased cation leaching in both unfertilized and fertilized soils. Urea application increased the initial Ca and Mg leaching, but had no effect on the total concentrations of Ca, Mg and K leached. There was no significant difference for the amount of Na leached between the different treatments. The SAR pH and urea application had significant effects on soil pH, exchangeable H(+) and Al(3+). Urea application, SAR treated with various pH, and the interactions between them all had significant impacts on total phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs). The highest concentration of total PLFAs occurred in fertilized soils with SAR pH5.6 and the lowest in soils leached with the lowest SAR pH. Soils pretreated with urea then leached with SARs of pH 4.0 and 5.6 had larger total PLFA concentrations than soil without urea. Bacterial, fungal, actinomycete, Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial PLFAs had generally similar trends to total PLFAs. PMID:24488523

  10. Deterioration of Cement-Concrete Cementitious Materials under Acid Rain Attack and Its Evaluation-Effect of Acid Rain Components%酸雨侵蚀下水泥基材料的腐蚀损伤与评价——酸雨介质成分的影响

    陈梦成; 王凯; 谢力

    2012-01-01

    通过测试长期浸泡在不同酸雨中的混凝土试件相对弹性模量随侵蚀时间的变化,着重研究了酸雨酸度( pH值)及其SO2-4浓度等酸雨侵蚀介质参数对水泥混凝土抗酸雨侵蚀能力的影响.研究结果表明:在酸雨静态长期浸泡环境下,水泥基材料表面和内部腐蚀损伤程度及速率与酸雨侵蚀介质H+和SO2-4浓度以及产生的腐蚀产物有关;在酸雨介质其它离子成分保持不变的情况下,酸雨pH值和SO2-4对受酸雨腐蚀后的水泥混凝土表面性能及其内部微观结构有着十分明显的影响,并且从酸雨侵蚀破坏过程来看,各水泥混凝土随着酸雨中的H+和SO2-4浓度的增加而腐蚀越来越严重.%Variations of relative elastic modulus with deterioration duration of cement-concrete specimens immersed for long time in different simulated acid rain solutions were measured, and effects of H+ and SO42- concentrations, etc. On corrosion-resistance of cementitious materials under the acid rain attack were investigated particularly. The experiment results show that the deterioration extent and rate of the outer layer and inner layer of cementitious materials are related to H+ and SOO42- concentrations in the acid rain and their corrosion products under conditions of long-term acid rain immersion. If other components of acid rain remain unchanged, H+ and SO42- concentrations in the acid rain have great impacts on inner microstructures and surface properties of cement-concrete cementitious materials under the acid rain attack. The deterioration of cement-concrete cementitious materials becomes more and more serious with increasing H + and SO42- concentrations in the acid rain from the process of deterioration.

  11. The erosion of carbonate stone by acid rain: Laboratory and field investigations

    This paper describes a laboratory experiment on the effects of acidic deposition on carbonate stone erosion. It can serve as the basis for an undergraduate (or pre college) experiment in environmental chemistry. Recent field investigations are described that provide measurements of carbonate stone dissolution and mechanical erosion under weathering conditions that are prevalent in the eastern US. The purpose of the laboratory work is to answer questions concerning the effects of hydrogen ion deposition on stone erosion processes that were difficult to resolve on the basis of field experiments alone

  12. Seawater strontium isotopes, acid rain, and the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary

    Macdougall, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    A large bolide impact at the end of the Cretaceous would have produced significant amounts of nitrogen oxides by shock heating of the atmosphere. The resulting acid precipitation would have increased continental weathering greatly and could be an explanation for the observed high ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 in seawater at about this time, due to the dissolution of large amounts of strontium from the continental crust. Spikes to high values in the seawater strontium isotope record at other times may reflect similar episodes.

  13. Acid rain monitoring in East-Central Florida from 1977 to present

    Madsen, B. C.; Kheoh, T.; Hinkle, C. R.; Dreschel, T. W.

    1990-01-01

    Rainfall has been collected on the University of Central Florida campus and at the Kennedy Space Center over a 12 year period. The chemical composition has been determined and summarized by monthly, annual periods, and for the entire 12 year period at both locations. The weighted average pH at each site is 4.58; however, annual weighted average pH has been equal to or above the 12 year average during six of the past eight years. Nitrate concentrations have increased slightly during recent years while excess sulfate concentrations have remained below the 12 year weighted average during six of the past seven years. Stepwise regression suggests that sulfate, nitrate, ammonium ion and calcium play major roles in the description of rainwater acidity. Annual acid deposition and annual rainfall have varied from 20 to 50 meg/(m(exp 2) year) and 100 to 180 cm/year, respectively. Sea salt comprises at least 25 percent of the total ionic composition.

  14. Acid rain monitoring in East-Central Florida from 1977 to present

    Rainfall has been collected on the University of Central Florida campus and at the Kennedy Space Center over a 12 year period. The chemical composition has been determined and summarized by monthly, annual periods, and for the entire 12 year period at both locations. The weighted average pH at each site is 4.58; however, annual weighted average pH has been equal to or above the 12 year average during six of the past eight years. Nitrate concentrations have increased slightly during recent years while excess sulfate concentrations have remained below the 12 year weighted average during six of the past seven years. Stepwise regression suggests that sulfate, nitrate, ammonium ion and calcium play major roles in the description of rainwater acidity. Annual acid deposition and annual rainfall have varied from 20 to 50 meg/(m(exp 2) year) and 100 to 180 cm/year, respectively. Sea salt comprises at least 25 percent of the total ionic composition

  15. Durability of Concrete Using Rice Husk Ash as Cement Substitution Exposed To Acid Rain

    I. A. Ahmad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The acidity of rainfall in major areas of Indonesia is under neutral pH. Average pH of rainfall is between 3 and 5. Free lime within concrete will react with acid and cause a decrease in the strength of concrete. A means to anticipate the damage is to reduce the content of free lime within concrete. Silicon oxide contained in rice husk ash can react with free lime to form a new compound that is harder and denser. It became the basis for the use of rice husk ash in concrete mixtures. The mixtures were prepared by replacing 5% and 10% of cement with rice husk ash and the results were compared with a reference mix with 100% cement. This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on the mechanical characteristics of concrete specimens as durability parameters. Then to evaluate the mechanical characteristics, microstructure test was conducted. The lower the mechanical properties of the concrete, the higher the level of gypsum contained within concrete. The percentage of 5% rice husk ash of the cement weight has a lower compressive strength decrease than the 10% rice husk ash. In addition, the proposed durability model is a model of polynomial equation with two variables.

  16. Comparative Proteomic Analysis Reveals the Effects of Exogenous Calcium against Acid Rain Stress in Liquidambar formosana Hance Leaves.

    Hu, Wen-Jun; Wu, Qian; Liu, Xiang; Shen, Zhi-Jun; Chen, Juan; Liu, Ting-Wu; Chen, Juan; Zhu, Chun-Quan; Wu, Fei-Hua; Chen, Lin; Wei, Jia; Qiu, Xiao-Yun; Shen, Guo-Xin; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2016-01-01

    Acid rain (AR) impacts forest health by leaching calcium (Ca) away from soils and plants. Ca is an essential element and participates in various plant physiological responses. In the present study, the protective role of exogenous Ca in alleviating AR stress in Liquidambar formosana Hance at the physiological and proteomic levels was examined. Our results showed that low Ca condition resulted in the chlorophyll content and photosynthesis decreasing significantly in L. formosana leaves; however, these effects could be reversed by high Ca supplementation. Further proteomic analyses successfully identified 81 differentially expressed proteins in AR-treated L. formosana under different Ca levels. In particular, some of the proteins are involved in primary metabolism, photosynthesis, energy production, antioxidant defense, transcription, and translation. Moreover, quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) results indicated that low Ca significantly increased the expression level of the investigated Ca-related genes, which can be reversed by high Ca supplementation under AR stress. Further, Western blotting analysis revealed that exogenous Ca supply reduced AR damage by elevating the expression of proteins involved in the Calvin cycle, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging system. These findings allowed us to better understand how woody plants respond to AR stress at various Ca levels and the protective role of exogenous Ca against AR stress in forest tree species. PMID:26616104

  17. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Differential Responses of Pinus massoniana and Taxus wallichiana var. mairei to Simulated Acid Rain

    Wen-Jun Hu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acid rain (AR, a serious environmental issue, severely affects plant growth and development. As the gymnosperms of conifer woody plants, Pinus massoniana (AR-sensitive and Taxus wallichiana var. mairei (AR-resistant are widely distributed in southern China. Under AR stress, significant necrosis and collapsed lesions were found in P. massoniana needles with remarkable yellowing and wilting tips, whereas T. wallichiana var. mairei did not exhibit chlorosis and visible damage. Due to the activation of a large number of stress-related genes and the synthesis of various functional proteins to counteract AR stress, it is important to study the differences in AR-tolerance mechanisms by comparative proteomic analysis of tolerant and sensitive species. This study revealed a total of 65 and 26 differentially expressed proteins that were identified in P. massoniana and T. wallichiana var. mairei, respectively. Among them, proteins involved in metabolism, photosynthesis, signal transduction and transcription were drastically down-regulated in P. massoniana, whereas most of the proteins participating in metabolism, cell structure, photosynthesis and transcription were increased in T. wallichiana var. mairei. These results suggest the distinct patterns of protein expression in the two woody species in response to AR, allowing a deeper understanding of diversity on AR tolerance in forest tree species.

  18. A study of electrochemically-induced corrosion of low carbon steel in a medium modelling acid rain

    Complementary electrochemical, spectrophotometric and electron microsopic investigations were made in addition to the conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopic (CEMS) measurements to learn more about the mechanism of corrosion of low carbon steel samples in aqueous sulfate and sulfite containing sulfate solutions (pH 3.5, 6.5 and 8.5). Passivation of iron in pure sulfate solution was studied in detail in earlier papers. In the present work, we used a solution containing both sulfate and sulfite anions to obtain more information about the effect of acid rain on low carbon steel samples. The compositions and thicknesses of the passive films formed due to the electrochemical treatments were determined from the CEM spectra. γ-FeOOH was found in each case on the surface of the samples; nevertheless, at pH 3.5 the sextet belonging to Fe3C appears in the CEM spectra, and also FeSO4 . H2O was detected in low concentration after the shortest polarization time (90 min). The results of the applied methods proved that the sulfite ions induce pitting corrosion at pH 3.5 and 6.5, while the measurements referred to suppressed pitting at pH 8.5. (orig.)

  19. Acid rain: a case study at the Universidade de Sao Paulo campus, Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Chuva acida: estudo de caso no campus USP/SP

    Galvao, Patricia

    1996-12-31

    The phenomena called acid rain is considered, by many researchers, one of the most serious environmental problem. This work has the aim of showing, in a theoretical and practical study, the problems caused by the atmospheric-pollutant emission, through natural or anthropogenic sources. In a period of 1 year (nov/94-nov/95), it was realized a practical work on rainwater, which consisted of collecting and, afterwards, analysing some physical and chemical parameters of this water, such as acidity, ionic concentrations, etc, with the purpose of characterizing the rainwater in Cidade Universitaria (SP, Brazil). After ending the practical part, it was possible to observe a 1,236.71 mm/y pluviosity, characterized by rainy summer and dry winter. The chemical-constituent-concentration analysis show us the predominance of SO{sup 2-}{sub 4} and Ca{sup 2+}, and a continental-origin water). The region of sao Paulo (Brazil), site of this study, is one of the largest metropolitan and industrialized areas of the world, which includes 18 million people, beside to an enormous industrial and vehicular complex. The acidity in the rain water is a complex problem and it must be treated by a range of disciplines to have a better comprehension of the cause/effects of the acid rain. (author) 96 refs., 28 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Acid rain and forest decline. 3. rev. ed. Saurer Regen und Waldsterben; Unterrichtsmaterialien

    Kues, J.; Matzner, E.; Murach, D.; Blanck, K.

    1991-01-01

    These materials for sixth-form education and adult education provide information on emissions of SO[sub 2], NO[sub x] and heavy metals and their propagtaion, as well as on the formation of oxidants and other chemical conversion processes in the atmosphere. The pathway of the pollutants is followed up, via their atmospheric transport in their deposition on plants and soil, including forms and rates of deposition, and further to their direct and indirect effects on forest ecosystems and their elements. Effects on leaves, buffering of acids and soil acidification, and hazards to ground water are described; the physiological consequences of heavy-metal release in soil on roots and overground organs are explained. The kinetic of the effect of pollutants is followed up and its interaction with other stress factors discussed. Finally, suitable counter-measures are presented. (UWA)

  1. Characteristcs of Acid Rain in Linyi City and Its Relationship with Meteorological Conditions%临沂市酸雨特征及其与气象条件的关系

    宋莹华; 庄众; 吴忠振

    2014-01-01

    According to the 617 acid rain observation data of 11 years during 2003 to 2013 of Linyi meteorological observation,the interannual and seasonal variability characteristics of Linyi precipitation pH value,the frequency of acid rain,acid rain and the wind,the wind and other weather conditions were analyzed and calculated. The results showed that,the average acid rain pH value of 11 years in Linyi City was 4.84,acid rain frequency was 47.0%,the frequency of acid rain decreased during 2003 to 2013. Seasonal variation characteristics was the frequency of acid rain in autumn and winter was high,the frequency of acid rain in spring and summer was small,showed that acid rain pollution in autumn and winter was more serious than in spring and summer. When the wind speed was≤3.0 m/s,acid rain frequency was 67.6%,with the increase of wind speed,occurrence frequency of acid rain was more and more small. When the wind direction was northeast wind and partial southeast wind,the chance of acid rain was high.%根据临沂市气象观测站2003-2013年11年间617次酸雨观测资料,计算和分析了临沂降水pH值、酸雨频率的年际和季节变化特征,研究了酸雨与风向、风速等气象条件的关系。结果表明,临沂市11年间酸雨平均pH值为4.84,酸雨频率为47.0豫,2003-2013年间酸雨频率呈下降趋势。季节变化特征为秋季和冬季酸雨频率较大,春季和夏季酸雨频率较小,表明秋、冬季两季的酸雨污染比春、夏两季严重。当风速≤3.0 m/s时,酸雨发生频率达67.6豫,随着风速的增大,酸雨发生频率越来越小。当风向为偏东北风和偏东南风时,酸雨发生的机会偏大。

  2. Effects of liming on forage availability and nutrient content in a forest impacted by acid rain.

    Sarah E Pabian

    Full Text Available Acidic deposition and subsequent forest soil acidification and nutrient depletion can affect negatively the growth, health and nutrient content of vegetation, potentially limiting the availability and nutrient content of forage for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus and other forest herbivores. Liming is a mitigation technique that can be used to restore forest health in acidified areas, but little is known about how it affects the growth or nutrient content of deer forage. We examined the effects of dolomitic limestone application on the growth and chemical composition of understory plants in an acidified forest in central Pennsylvania, with a focus on vegetative groups included as white-tailed deer forage. We used a Before-After-Control-Impact study design with observations 1 year before liming and up to 5 years post-liming on 2 treated and 2 untreated 100-ha sites. Before liming, forage availability and several nutrients were below levels considered optimal for white-tailed deer, and many vegetative characteristics were related to soil chemistry. We observed a positive effect of liming on forb biomass, with a 2.7 fold increase on limed sites, but no biomass response in other vegetation groups. We observed positive effects of liming on calcium and magnesium content and negative effects on aluminum and manganese content of several plant groups. Responses to liming by forbs and plant nutrients show promise for improving vegetation health and forage quality and quantity for deer.

  3. Acid rain. Problems for water, soil and organisms; Saurer Regen. Probleme fuer Wasser, Boden und Organismen

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The papers presented in this volume give an overview of geographic-geological and soil-chemical aspects of sites of soil and water acidification. Natural and anthropogenous components of soil acidification and their influence on the water yield situation of forests are discussed. Further subjects are the water chemistry of stagnant and running waters, the impact of water acidification on living organisms as demonstrated by means of selected examples, and possibilities for biological indication of the acidic condition of rivers and lakes. Part of the lectures were presented at the symposium ``Acidification of rivers and lakes in Baden-Wuerttemberg - state of knowledge, causes, effects, counter-measures`` held at Stuttgart from November 27th to 28th, 1989. (vhe) [Deutsch] Die in diesem Band vorgestellten Beitraege geben einen Ueberblick ueber geographisch-geologische und bodenchemische Standortaspekte der Boden- und Gewaesserversauerung. Natuerliche und anthropogene Komponenten der Bodenversauerung und deren Einfluss auf die Abflussbilanz von Waeldern werden besprochen. Weitere Themen sind Wasserchemie stehender und fliessender Gewaesser, die Auswirkungen der Gewaesserversauerung auf lebende Organismen, dargestellt an ausgewaehlten Beispielen, und die Moeglichkeiten der Bioindikation des Saeurezustandes von Gewaessern. Ein Teil der Beitraege wurden auf dem Symposium ``Gewaesserversauerung in Baden-Wuerttemberg - Kenntnisstand, Ursachen, Auswirkungen Massnahmen`` vom 27-28.11.1989 in Stuttgart vorgetragen. (vhe)

  4. 贵州省酸雨情况及其危害防治的初步分析%The Preliminare Analysis for the condition of acid rain and the prevention measures for it ' s risk in Guizhou Provence

    费越

    2011-01-01

    在初步分析了我国以及贵州省酸雨的现状后,阐述了酸雨的形成原因、分布及酸雨对生态系统、人类健康、材料等的危害.最后,结合我国尤其以贵州为典型的硫酸型酸雨特征,提出了可行的防治酸雨的具体对策.%After analyzing the situation of acid rain in toth China and Guizhou Province,formation and distribution of acid rain are elaborated. Great harm of acid bain tu the ecosystem, human health and rnaterials is also described. Finally.specific countemeasures against acid rain are proposed, when typical sulfate acid rain is described.

  5. Wet and dry accelerated aging tests in a spray chamber to understand the effects of acid rain frequencies on bronze corrosion

    Gianni, Liliana; Cavallini, Mauro; Natali, Stefano; Adriaens, Annemie

    2013-01-01

    We have conducted controlled laboratory experiments using a series of bronze alloys exposed to frequent, repeated wet and dry cycles, to simulate frequent acid rain exposure and study the resultant corrosion processes in bronze artifacts exposed to an outdoor urban environment. To simulate rainwater and condensation, a spray chamber for the corrosion tests was assembled, which delivered homogeneous vapor diffusion and drop deposition. Three bi-component bronzes, with 3%, 7% and 20% tin conten...

  6. Effects of simulated acid rain on soil respiration and its components in a subtropical mixed conifer and broadleaf forest in southern China.

    Liang, Guohua; Hui, Dafeng; Wu, Xiaoying; Wu, Jianping; Liu, Juxiu; Zhou, Guoyi; Zhang, Deqiang

    2016-02-01

    Soil respiration is a major pathway in the global carbon cycle and its response to environmental changes is an increasing concern. Here we explored how total soil respiration (RT) and its components respond to elevated acid rain in a mixed conifer and broadleaf forest, one of the major forest types in southern China. RT was measured twice a month in the first year under four treatment levels of simulated acid rain (SAR: CK, the local lake water, pH 4.7; T1, water pH 4.0; T2, water pH 3.25; and T3, water pH 2.5), and in the second year, RT, litter-free soil respiration (RS), and litter respiration (RL) were measured simultaneously. The results indicated that the mean rate of RT was 2.84 ± 0.20 μmol CO2 m(-2) s(-1) in the CK plots, and RS and RL contributed 60.7% and 39.3% to RT, respectively. SAR marginally reduced (P = 0.08) RT in the first year, but significantly reduced RT and its two components in the second year (P acid rain, the decline trend of RT in the forests in southern China appears to be attributable to the decline of soil respiration in the litter layer. PMID:26755128

  7. Study on Formation,Haz-ards, Prevention and Control of Acid Rain%酸雨的形成、危害和防控研究

    祝晓红

    2014-01-01

    Acid rain refers to the me-teoric water which the pH value is lower than 5.60, and it’s serious environmental pollution phenomenon, which affects hu-man life and property security, the pro-tection of ecological environment and e-conomic and social development.The harm of acid rain is growing, mainly due to the increase of sulfide , nitrogen ox-ides and other toxic gases of the air. To reduce the hazards of acid rain,there must be take steps to prevent and control of pollution emissions from the source, and strengthen the development and uti-lization of new energy.%酸雨是指pH小于5.60的大气降水,是一种严重的环境污染现象,其直接影响着人类生命财产安全、生态环境保护、经济社会发展等。大气酸雨问题日益严重,造成酸雨的主要原因是大气中二氧化硫、氮氧化物等有毒气体含量的增加。要减少酸雨的危害,必须从污染源的排放进行防控,同时加强对新能源的开发和利用。

  8. 酸雨对小麦影响的研究进展%Research Progress on the Impacts of Acid Rain on Wheat

    张清华; 肖磊; 苏玉环; 刘保华

    2016-01-01

    阐述了酸雨对小麦种子萌发、麦苗生长、产量、品质及生理特性的影响,以及酸雨与重金属复合作用对小麦的影响;探讨了抵御酸雨逆境胁迫的方式;分析了目前酸雨对小麦影响研究存在的主要问题,并对研究方向进行了展望。%The effect of acid rain on the seed germination,seedling growth,yield,quality and physiolog-ical characteristics of wheat. The effect of the acid rain and heavy metal combination on wheat was de-scribed and the ways to resist acid rain stress was discussed. The problems existing in the current study were analyzed and the prospects were introduced.

  9. 机制砂混凝土的酸雨中性化%Neutralization of artificial sand concrete caused by acid rain

    苏卿

    2013-01-01

    With the effect of carbonation and combining action of acid rain and carbonation,the carbonation depth of concrete with river sand and artificial sand was studied,respectively.The results show that with the effect of carbonation and combined action of acid rain and carbonation,the carbonation depth of concrete lowered with the increase of strength level,and the carbonation depth of artificial sand concrete is less than that of concrete with fiver sand of the same strength level.Compared with single carbonation,the neutralization of concrete was accelerated under the combined action of H+ and SO42-in acid rain.%对碳化及酸雨与碳化复合作用下,机制砂混凝土、河砂混凝土的碳化深度进行对比.结果表明,碳化或酸雨与碳化复合作用下,混凝土的碳化深度随强度等级提高而降低,且机制砂混凝土的碳化深度均小于同强度等级的河砂混凝土;与单一碳化相比,酸雨与碳化复合作用时,由于酸雨中H·和SO42-的共同影响,加速了混凝土中性化进程.

  10. 如何减少酸雨pH计的测量误差浅析%How to reduce measurement errors of acid rain meter

    杨秀勋

    2012-01-01

    According to the practical experience of Tongren National Acid Rain Observation Station, this paper focuses on the working principle, operation method, daily maintenance and common troubleshooting points of Leici PHS-3B acid rain meter made in Shanghai. Being familiar with design principle of the instrument can help observers to correct operate and maintain the instrument, accurate diagnose measurement errors and master troubleshooting skills, which can improve acid rain observation and quality of services.%根据铜仁国家酸雨观测站的实践经验,详细介绍了上海雷磁牌PHS-3B型酸雨pH计的工作原理、操作方法、日常维护以及常见故障排除要点。熟悉和了解设备的工作和设计原理,有助于观测员正确使用和维护仪器,帮助准确诊断分析测量误差和掌握排除故障技能,以利于提高酸雨观测水平和业务质量。

  11. Acid rain research[NIVA contributions to ACID REIGN '95? Conference in Gothenburg, Sweden, 26-30 June 1995

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The conference dealt with various sources, aspects and present and future consequences of pollution, particularly acid precipitation on the environment especially on the terrestrial and aquatic parts, with the focus on acidification. Surveys of the extent of the problems were presented. Various methods of reversing the effects are dealt with. Much attention was focused on various water systems such as rivers, lakes, surface waters and ground water and consequences of pollution chemically, geologically, biologically and botanically. The problems of global warming and changes were also focused upon. The origins of pollutants were discussed.

  12. Chance-constrained/stochastic linear programming model for acid rain abatement—I. Complete colinearity and noncolinearity

    Ellis, J. H.; McBean, E. A.; Farquhar, G. J.

    A Linear Programming model is presented for development of acid rain abatement strategies in eastern North America. For a system comprised of 235 large controllable point sources and 83 uncontrolled area sources, it determines the least-cost method of reducing SO 2 emissions to satisfy maximum wet sulfur deposition limits at 20 sensitive receptor locations. In this paper, the purely deterministic model is extended to a probabilistic form by incorporating the effects of meteorologic variability on the long-range pollutant transport processes. These processes are represented by source-receptor-specific transfer coefficients. Experiments for quantifying the spatial variability of transfer coefficients showed their distributions to be approximately lognormal with logarithmic standard deviations consistently about unity. Three methods of incorporating second-moment random variable uncertainty into the deterministic LP framework are described: Two-Stage Programming Under Uncertainty (LPUU), Chance-Constrained Programming (CCP) and Stochastic Linear Programming (SLP). A composite CCP-SLP model is developed which embodies the two-dimensional characteristics of transfer coefficient uncertainty. Two probabilistic formulations are described involving complete colinearity and complete noncolinearity for the transfer coefficient covariance-correlation structure. Complete colinearity assumes complete dependence between transfer coefficients. Complete noncolinearity assumes complete independence. The completely colinear and noncolinear formulations are considered extreme bounds in a meteorologic sense and yield abatement strategies of largely didactic value. Such strategies can be characterized as having excessive costs and undesirable deposition results in the completely colinear case and absence of a clearly defined system risk level (other than expected-value) in the noncolinear formulation.

  13. S.1234: A bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to provide tax relief to utilities installing acid rain reduction equipment, introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, June 6, 1991

    The bill would allow a tax credit of 6 2/3% of a taxpayer's investment in qualified acid rain control equipment for each of the three years beginning the year the equipment is placed in service. Additionally, a tax credit would be allowed during two years of construction progress, the amount being 6 2/3% of construction expenditures. The bill describes qualified acid rain property', tax-exempt financing of acid rain control property, tax credit for minerals used to reduce the sulfur in coal, coal cleaning minerals credit, exclusion from gross income of receipt of qualified Clean Air allowance and proceeds of disposition thereof, qualified Clean Air allowances, and amortization of acid rain control property

  14. A computer program for geochemical analysis of acid-rain and other low-ionic-strength, acidic waters

    Johnsson, P.A.; Lord, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    ARCHEM, a computer program written in FORTRAN 77, is designed primarily for use in the routine geochemical interpretation of low-ionic-strength, acidic waters. On the basis of chemical analyses of the water, and either laboratory or field determinations of pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen, the program calculates the equilibrium distribution of major inorganic aqueous species and of inorganic aluminum complexes. The concentration of the organic anion is estimated from the dissolved organic concentration. Ionic ferrous iron is calculated from the dissolved oxygen concentration. Ionic balances and comparisons of computed with measured specific conductances are performed as checks on the analytical accuracy of chemical analyses. ARCHEM may be tailored easily to fit different sampling protocols, and may be run on multiple sample analyses. (Author 's abstract)

  15. 混凝土的抗酸雨腐蚀性及其机理研究%Concrete's Resistance to Acide Rain and Its Mechanism

    石立安; 麻海燕; 柯凯

    2012-01-01

    In order to evaluate the durability of concrete constructions exposed to acid rain, such properties of concrete corroded by acid rain are investigated here as compressive strength, flexural strength and resistance to impact. By means of X ray diffraction ( XRD), mercury intrusion poremea-surement(MIP) , scanning electron microscope ( SEM ) and energy dispersive spectrometer ( EDS ), mechanism of fly ash, expansive agent and polypropylene fiber are investigated. Microstructure and porosity characteristics of hydrated products before and after corrosion are also examined. The results indicate that the polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete incorporated with fly ash and expansion agent exhibit better anti acid rain corrosion performance than other mixes. The hydration products of the reference sample are easily converted to gypsum and SiO2 ·nH2O under the action of acid rain. Microstructure of concrete adding admixture is denser so as to effectively prevent concrete damage induced by acid rain.%为了考察混凝土建筑在酸雨环境腐蚀下的耐久性问题,研究不同配合比的混凝土材料在酸雨侵蚀作用下的抗压强度、抗折强度和抗冲击性等性能,通过X射线衍射(XRD)、压汞测孔法(MIP)、扫描电镜和能谱仪(SEM-EDS)等测试方法,从粉煤灰、膨胀剂、聚丙烯纤维的作用机理入手,研究了侵蚀前后混凝土试块中水化产物微观结构及内部孔结构特征的变化.结果表明,聚丙烯纤维粉煤灰膨胀混凝土的抗酸雨腐蚀性效果最佳.基准混凝土水化产物在酸雨介质侵蚀下易转换为石膏和SiO2·nH2O,而聚丙烯纤维粉煤灰膨胀混凝土结构致密,有害孔显著减少,可有效阻碍酸雨介质侵蚀作用.

  16. Evaluation of the RAIN project

    This report presents a scientific assessment of the RAIN project. It describes the main hypotheses tested and the applied methods. The major results of the research are highlighted and discussed, and they are placed in the perspective of national and international acid rain research. An important part of the RAIN project has been to provide information to the public about the acid rain problem, and in this way it has performed an important background role in influencing political decisions and legislation. The RAIN project is regarded as a cost effective research effort, and the novel approach and capital investment will enable further manipulation studies at these sites in the future. It is recommended that the project is continued in the immediate future, with some modification to answer specific questions resulting from the collected data. 24 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  17. ACID RAIN MODELING

    This paper provides an overview of existing statistical methodologies for the estimation of site-specific and regional trends in wet deposition. The interaction of atmospheric processes and emissions tend to produce wet deposition data patterns that show large spatial and tempora...

  18. Acid Rain: Science Projects.

    Hessler, Edward W.; Stubbs, Harriett S.

    Too often science seems to be a matter of studying from books and responding to questions raised by teachers about the information either in the classroom or on examinations. Such a view of science misses its importance as a way of thinking, doing, and preparing for citizenship roles. The problems and activities included in this volume are…

  19. Acid rain legislation update

    This paper presents the author's view that the coal industry should develop a strategy to respond to the global warming issue. A few weeks ago a speaker stated that the global warming issue placed coal at the crossroads. He stated that global warming legislation, could reduce the consumption of coal by approximately twenty-five percent, without global warming legislation coal would continue to grow at a approximately three percent per year. It is believed there is a path to be traveled between the two options, legislation or no legislation, that can result in coal obtaining the position as the primary fuel source for electrical generating throughout the world. This is a path the coal industry can define and should follow

  20. Acid rain: Microphysical model

    Dingle, A. N.

    1980-01-01

    A microphysical model was used to simulate the case of a ground cloud without dilution by entrainment and without precipitation. The numerical integration techniques of the model are presented. The droplet size spectra versus time and the droplet molalities for each value of time are discussed.

  1. Acid rain: Mesoscale model

    Hsu, H. M.

    1980-01-01

    A mesoscale numerical model of the Florida peninsula was formulated and applied to a dry, neutral atmosphere. The prospective use of the STAR-100 computer for the submesoscale model is discussed. The numerical model presented is tested under synoptically undisturbed conditions. Two cases, differing only in the direction of the prevailing geostrophic wind, are examined: a prevailing southwest wind and a prevailing southeast wind, both 6 m/sec at all levels initially.

  2. Acid rain effect in the constituent material of Mexican Mayan monuments; Efecto de la lluvia acida en el material constituyente de los monumentos Mayas mexicanos

    Bravo Alvarez, H.; Soto Ayala, R.; Sosa Echeverria, R.; Sanchez Alvarez, P. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-12-01

    Actually, acid rain is considered as a potential problem that affects materials and ecosystems. The effect on monuments, made mainly from limestone, has been studied for long time. In this work, a sample of limestone from Tulum, Quintana Roo, was studied. The following parameters were measured: density, porosity and percentage of water adsorption. Also, the sample was irrigated with acid rain prepared in the laboratory (pH 4.6), based in the chemical composition of 56 rain samples from Puerto Morelos, Quintana Roo, in 1994 and 1995. The results obtained show that acid rain is neutralized by calcium carbonate from the limestone. The high calcium concentrations in the effluent show that limestone is dissolved by acid rain. Superficial recession was 4.4 {mu}m/year under experimental conditions used. [Spanish] Actualmente la lluvia acida se ha convertido en un problema potencial que afecta en mayor o menor grado a materiales y a los ecosistemas. El efecto que causa la lluvia acida en monumentos construidos fundamentalmente de roca caliza, ha sido objeto de muchas investigaciones realizadas, prioritariamente, por paises que poseen estructuras, cuyo material de construccion es caliza. En este trabajo de investigacion se estudio una muestra de roca caliza proveniente de los monumentos mayas de Tulum, Quintana Roo. Se determinaron los parametros de densidad, porosidad y porcentaje de adsorcion de agua. Asimismo, se efectuo la irrigacion de la muestra con lluvia acida (pH aprox. 4.6), preparada en el laboratorio con base en la composicion quimica que se determino en 56 muestras de agua de lluvia provenientes de Puerto Morelos, punto cercano a los monumentos de Tulum, Quintana Roo, durante los anos 1994 y 1995. Los resultados permiten concluir que la lluvia acida sufre un proceso de neutralizacion con el carbonato de calcio de la roca caliza. Las altas concentraciones de calcio en el efluente, mostraron que la roca caliza sufrio una disolucion con la lluvia acida. La

  3. Effect of the acid rain in the constituent material of the Mayan Mexican monuments; Efecto de la lluvia acida en el material constituyente de los monuments mayas mexicanos

    Bravo Alvarez, H; Soto Ayala, R; Sosa Echeverria, R; Sanchez Alvarez, P [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-10-15

    Actually, acid rain is considered as a potential problem that affects materials and ecosystems. The effect on monuments, made mainly from limestone, has been studied for long time. In this work, a sample of limestone from Tulum, Qintana Roo, was studied. The following parameters were measured: density, porosity and percentage of water adsorption. Also, the sample was irrigated with acid rain prepared in the laboratory (pH = 4.6), based in the chemical composition of 56 rain samples from Puerto Morelos, Quintana Roo, in 1994 and 1995. The results obtained show that acid rain is neutralized by calcium carbonate from the limestone. The high calcium concentrations in the effluent, show that limestone is dissolved by acid rain. Superficial recession was 4.4 {mu}m/year under experimental conditions used. [Spanish] Actualmente la lluvia acida se ha convertido en un problema potencial que afecta en mayor o menor grado a materiales y a los ecosistemas. El efecto que causa la lluvia acida en monumentos construidos fundamentalmente de roca caliza, ha sido objeto de muchas investigaciones realizadas, prioritariamente, por paises que poseen estructuras, cuyo material de construccion es caliza. En este trabajo de investigacion se estudio una muestra de roca caliza proveniente de los monumentos mayas de Tulum, Quintana Roo. Se determinaron los parametros de densidad, porosidad y porcentaje de adsorcion de agua. Asimismo, se efectuo la irrigacion de la muestra con lluvia acida (pH aprox.4.6), preparada en el laboratorio con base en la composicion quimica que se determino en 56 muestras de agua de lluvia provenientes de Puerto Morelos, punto cercano a los monumentos de Tulum, Quintana Roo, durante los anos 1994 y 1995. Los resultados permiten concluir que la lluvia acida sufre un proceso de naturalizacion con el carbonato de calcio de la roca caliza. Las altas concentraciones de calcio en el efluente, mostraron que la roca caliza sufrio una disolucion con la lluvia acida. La

  4. 近5a江苏省苏南五市酸雨分布特征分析%An analysis of acid rain distribution characteristics of five cities in south Jiangsu in recent five years

    蒋名淑; 施丹平; 陈彦

    2011-01-01

    Acid rain distribution characteristics of 7 acid rain monitoring stations in Nanjing, Zhen-jiang,Changzhou,Wuxi and Suzhou in south Jiangsu were analyzed based on acid rain monitoring data from January 2007 to December 2011. The results indicate that the frequency of acid rain was maximum in Dongshan and minimum in Nanjing. The frequency was minimum in 2011 and maximum in 2009. The frequency of strong acid rain was maximum in Dongshan and minimum in Liyang. The frequency was maximum when the rainfall was strong acidity at 3 points at the same time. The strong acid precipitation failed at 7 points at the same time appeared only on February 22, 2009. The acid rain intensity was the strongest in Dongshan and weakest in Liyang. The precipitation of the four seasons in a year were acidic. The precipitation in 2011 was weak acidity, but it was strong acidity during 2008 -2010.%统计江苏省苏南地区南京、镇江、常州、无锡和苏州5市7个酸雨监测站2007年1月至2011年12月的酸雨监测资料得到:(1)酸雨发生频率以东山最高,南京最低;2011年最低,2009年最高.强酸雨发生概率以东山最高,溧阳最低;3站同时出现强酸雨的概率最高,7站同时为强酸雨的仅2009年2月22日1d.(2)四季均为酸性降水;酸雨强度以东山最强,溧阳最弱.2011年呈弱酸性,其余3 a呈强酸性.

  5. Effects of precipitation variation on severe acid rain in southern China%降水变化对中国南方强酸雨分布的影响

    谢志清; 杜银; 曾燕; 李亚春; 严明良; 焦圣明

    2009-01-01

    Acid rain has been recognized as a serious environmental problem in China since the 1980s, but little is known about the effects of the climatic change in regional precipitation on the temporal and spatial variability of severe acid rain. We present the effects of the re-gional precipitation trend change on the area and intensity of severe acid rain in southern China, and the spatio-temporal distribution characteristics of SO2 and NO2 concentrations are analyzed on the basis of SO2 and NO2 column concentration data. The results are as follows. (1) The emission levels of SO2 and NO2 have reached or passed the precipitation scavenging capacity in parts of southern China owing to the emission totals of SO2 and NO2 increasing from 1993 to 2004. (2) Notable changes in the proportion of cities subject to severe acid rain occurred mainly in the south of the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River during 1993-2004. With an abrupt change in 1999, the severe acid rain regions were mainly located in central and western China during 1993-1999 and moved obviously eastward to the south of the lower-middle reaches of the Yangtze River with the proportion of cities subject to se-vere acid rain increasing significantly from 2000 to 2004. (3) The spatial distribution and variation in the seasonal precipitation change rate of more than 10 mm/10a are similar to those of severe acid rain in southern China. An abrupt change in 1999 is seen for winter and summer precipitation, the same as for the proportion of cities subject to severe acid rain in southern China. The significant increase in summer storm precipitation from 1991 to 1999 mitigated the annual precipitation acidity in the south of the Yangtze River and reduced the area of severe acid rainfall. On the other hand, the decrease in storm rainfall in summer ex-panded the area of severe acid rainfall in the south of the Yangtze River in 2000-2006. Therefore, the change in seasonal precipitation is an important factor in the

  6. 基于EOF分析的广西酸雨时空分布特征研究%Study on the Temporal and Spatial Distribution Characteristic of Acid Rain in Guangxi Based on EOF Analysis

    孙崇智; 梁骏; 王超球; 郑凤琴

    2011-01-01

    Based on acid rain data from ten monitoring sites in Guangxi from 2003 to 2009, the temporal and spatial distribution characteristic of acid rain in Guangxi were analyzed by means of empirical orthogonal function resolution (EOF). The results showed that there was fluctuating change of acid rain frequency in Guangxi , and acid rain pollution became severer in 2004 - 2008; acid rain frequency changed conformably in the whole region and it was higher in eastern and northwestern Guangxi, while acid rain pollution became severe in western Guangxi;acid rain frequency varied out of phase between northeastern and seuthwestern Guangxi in an individual year.%利用广西10个酸雨监测点2003~2009年的酸雨资料,采用经验正交函数分解(EOF)的统计方法,分析了广西区域酸雨的空间分布特征与时间变化趋势.结果表明,广西酸雨频率呈波动性变化,特别是2004~2008年酸雨污染趋势加剧;全区域酸雨频率变化一致,东部、西北部明显高于其他地区,酸雨污染严重的地带已扩展到西部;个别年份广西东北部与西南部的酸雨频率变化反位相.

  7. The Comparative Analysis on Acid Rain' Characteristics in Xichang, Panzhihua and Wenjiang%西昌攀枝花温江三地酸雨特征对比分析

    莫芳; 郑丽英; 房鹏; 郑自君; 李林; 王哲

    2015-01-01

    利用西昌、攀枝花、温江三站近7年的酸雨观测资料,分析三地的酸雨月、年变化特征.结果表明:西昌1—12月为弱酸雨污染;攀枝花1—3月无酸雨污染,4—12月为弱酸雨污染,温江秋、冬、春三季均为强酸雨污染,夏季为弱酸雨污染.西昌近年来pH值有增大趋势,攀枝花与温江年变化趋势不显著.经综合比较,温江为重酸雨区,攀枝花与西昌为轻酸雨区.%Based on Xichang, Panzhihua and Wenjiang's nearly seven years acid rain monitoring data, the month and annual variation characteristics of acid rain in three places are analyzed. The results shows that: in Xichang, there is weak acid rain pollution all year in Panzhihua, there is no acid rain pollution from January to March and weak pollution from April to December in Wenjiang, there is strong acid rain pollution in spring autumn and winter and weak pollution in summer The value of Xichang's PH has increasing trend in recent years, while the trend of Panzhihua and Wenjiang's Ph is not significant. Through comprehensive comparison, Wenjiang belongs to heavy acid rain area, Panzhihua and Xichang belong to light acid rain area.

  8. The formation of acid rain in the atmosphere, adjacent to the TTP with the joint-condensing of sulfur dioxide and water vapor

    Gvozdyakov, D. V.; Gubin, V. E.; Matveeva, A. A.

    2014-08-01

    Presents the results of mathematical simulation of the condensation process of sulphur dioxide and water vapor on the condensation nuclei surface under the action of natural factors. Numerical investigations were carried out for the summer at a moderate speed of the wind. The influence of the parameter of condensation on the speed of the process of sulfuric acid drops formation in the air space was analyzed. Time ranges, sufficient for the formation of the acid rain sedimentation in the atmosphere, adjacent to the areas of thermal power station work were established. It is shown that the speed of air masses movement effects on the process of acid anthropogenic admixtures dispersion in the atmosphere. Approbation of the obtained results was carried out by checking the difference scheme conservative and solution of test problems.

  9. Characteristics of acid rain and its influencing factors from 2006 to 2010 in Nangong,Hebei province%2006—2010年南宫酸雨变化特征及影响因素

    杨允凌; 王丛梅

    2012-01-01

    Based on the observational data of acid rain,the ground meteorological data in Nangong from 2006 to 2010,the sounding data and synoptic situation,the characteristics of acid rain and the effect of meteorological conditions on it were analyzed.The results indicate that the mean pH value of precipitation is less than 4.70 in Nangong and acid rain frequency is more than 50%,so it belongs to the serious or more serious acid rain area.The acidity of precipitation is stronger in summer and autumn,while the frequency of acid rain is high in autumn and winter.The conductivity of precipitation is the largest in winter.Acid rain often occurs when the dominant wind is the eastward,calm and north-northwest wind.The frequencies of acid rain and serious acid rain increase with the increase of precipitation grade when upper weather system is a shear line.The intensity of acid rain increases with the increase of relative humidity and inverse temperature.%利用2006—2010年南宫酸雨观测资料和地面气象资料,结合邢台探空资料及天气形势,采用数理统计方法,分析南宫酸雨变化特征及不同气象条件对酸雨的影响。结果表明:近年来南宫降水平均pH值均小于4.70,酸雨频率大于50%,属于重酸雨区或较重酸雨区。降水酸性在夏秋两季较强,而酸雨出现频率则在秋冬两季较大,降水电导率冬季最大。南宫酸雨多出现在主导风向为偏东风或静风及北—西北风;高空天气系统为切变线时,酸雨及强酸雨频率随降水量级增大而增大;酸雨强度随相对湿度和逆温增加而增强。

  10. Characteristics of acid rain and its relationship with meteorological elements in Datong,Shanxi province%大同市酸雨变化特征及其与气象要素的关系

    李明明; 王雁; 韩照宇; 闫世明; 张逢生

    2011-01-01

    利用2007—2009年大同市酸雨资料,应用《酸雨观测规范》方法对大同市酸雨变化及其与气象要素的关系进行分析。结果表明:大同市酸雨发生频率为25.0%—36.36%,10月酸雨频率最高,达到75%;其他月份酸雨频率较低。大同市夏季酸雨强度为弱酸雨程度,而秋季酸雨频率则为最高。大同市小雨时酸雨发生频率为33.33%;中雨时酸雨发生频率为19.23%;大雨时酸雨发生频率为60.00%;暴雨时酸雨发生频率为0。由此可见,大同市在大雨天气时,酸雨出现的概率较高。随着风速的增大,降水的酸雨频率逐渐增大。大同市在S风向下的酸雨频率最高为18.60%,ESE和NNW风向下的酸雨频率较高为13.95%。通过分析大同市酸雨变化规律、气象气候条件等因素对酸雨的影响,探讨影响大同市酸雨形成的主要因素,从而为大同市酸雨污染控制提供科学依据。%Based on the acid rain data from 2007 to 2009,the characteristics of acid rain and its relationship with meteorological elements were analyzed in terms of a method provided by "acid rain observational criterion".The results indicate that the frequency of occurrence for acid rain is about 25.0%-36.36% in Datong.The highest frequency of 75% occurs in October,while the frequencies are lower in other months.The intensity of acid rain is weak in summer,and the frequency of occurrence is the highest in autumn.The frequencies of occurrence for acid rain reach 33.33%,19.23%,60.00% and 0 under light rain,moderate rain,heavy rain and rainstorm conditions.The frequency of occurrence for acid rain increases with the increase of wind speed.The frequency of occurrence for acid rain reaches 18.60% under S wind direction in Datong and this is the highest frequency in relation to the wind direction.The frequency is about 13.95% under ESE and NNW wind directions.According to the analysis of acid rain changes and their relationship with meteorological

  11. 酸雨对我国生态环境的危害及防治对策%THE HARMFULNESS OF ACID RAIN TO AGRICULTURALECO-ENVIRONMFENT IN CHINA AND THECORRESPONDING PREVENTIVE COUNTERMEASURES

    张士功; 张华

    2001-01-01

    The viewpoints that the harnmfulness of acid rain to macro-agriculture is one of the most serious 10environmental problems were put forward at the 3rd international symposium on environmental protection in 1996.With the development of modem industry,following the North Europe and North America,China has became the 3rd largest acid rain area in the world,and 40% of her area is harmed by acid rain.Acid rain already has become one of the main factors restraining sustainable development of economy in China.Based on the studies of harmfulness of acid rain to agricultural eeo-environment and macro-agriculture in China,the relative preventive countermeasures were presented.%随着现代工业的发展,我国已成为继北欧和北美之后的第三大酸雨区,占国土总面积的40%的地区受到酸雨的危害。酸雨问题已成为制约我国经济可持续发展的主要因素之一。文章从农业可持续发展角度出发,在分析酸雨对我国大农业危害的基础上,提出了酸雨防治的对策建议。

  12. Effects of simulated acid rain on soil and soil solution chemistry in a monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest in southern China.

    Qiu, Qingyan; Wu, Jianping; Liang, Guohua; Liu, Juxiu; Chu, Guowei; Zhou, Guoyi; Zhang, Deqiang

    2015-05-01

    Acid rain is an environmental problem of increasing concern in China. In this study, a laboratory leaching column experiment with acid forest soil was set up to investigate the responses of soil and soil solution chemistry to simulated acid rain (SAR). Five pH levels of SAR were set: 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, and 4.5 (as a control, CK). The results showed that soil acidification would occur when the pH of SAR was ≤3.5. The concentrations of NO₃(-)and Ca(2+) in the soil increased significantly when the pH of SAR fell 3.5. The concentration of SO₄(2-) in the soil increased significantly when the pH of SAR was acidity of SAR. The releases of soluble Al and Fe were SAR pH dependent, and their net exports under pH 2.5 treatment were 19.6 and 5.5 times, respectively, higher than that under CK. The net export of DOC was reduced by 12-29% under SAR treatments as compared to CK. Our results indicate the chemical constituents in the soil are more sensitive to SAR than those in the soil solution, and the effects of SAR on soil solution chemistry depend not only on the intensity of SAR but also on the duration of SAR addition. The soil and soil solution chemistry in this region may not be affected by current precipitation (pH≈4.5) in short term, but the soil and soil leachate chemistry may change dramatically if the pH of precipitation were below 3.5 and 3.0, respectively. PMID:25893761

  13. Ectomycorrhizae-induced mitigation mechanisms against the damages of acid rain on plants: A review%外生菌根缓解植物酸雨胁迫的机理研究进展

    张慰; 陈展; 邓仕槐; 尚鹤

    2012-01-01

    森林作为陆地生态系统的主体,是酸雨污染的主要受体,酸雨对生态系统产生着巨大的影响.菌根是菌根真菌与植物营养根的共生体.外生菌根真菌与宿主植物间互惠互利,在森林生态系统中,外生菌根在维持生态系统的养分平衡和改善树木营养等方面有重要的作用.本文综述了国内外关于菌根和酸雨关系的研究,酸雨能抑制外生菌根的形成,降低其活力;但另一方面,外生菌根能够缓解酸雨造成的植物危害,提高植株对酸雨的耐受力.外生菌根主要通过以下几方面缓解酸雨胁迫:(1)菌根形态结构的物理屏蔽作用;(2)增加养分吸收,增加御酸能力;(3)增强酶活性,提高植物生存能力;(4)产生有机酸或其他物质.%As a main body of terrestrial ecosystem, forest is a major receptor of acid rain pollu tion. Acid rain has severe impact on forest ecosystem. Ectomycorrhizal fungi symbiose with plant roots, and protect their hosts against various aggressions, including that from acid rain. Many of the macrofungi form symbiotic ectomycorrhizae with forest trees, playing an important role in maintaining the nutrient balance of the trees and protecting the trees against pathogens. This paper reviewed the research advances in the relationships between mycorrhizae and acid rain. Acid rain can inhibit and reduce ectomycorrhizal formation and vitality, whereas ectomycorrhizae can alleviate the damage of acid rain to host plants and improve the hosts' tolerance against acid rain. The ectomycorrhizae-induced mitigation mechanisms against the acid rain stress on plants are: 1) physical shielding effect of ectomycorrhizal morphological structure, 2) promoting host plant nutrient uptake and increasing host plant acid-defense capability, 3) improving host plant enzyme activities and host plant viability, and 4) secreting organic acids or other substances.

  14. 酸雨对混凝土建筑物和文物损坏机理的研究%Acid Rain on the Damage Mechanism of Concrete Buildings and Cultural Relics

    李灏阳; 李衍红

    2016-01-01

    Introduces the acid rain macro analysis of the mechanism of concrete damage of buildings and cultural relics , adding a small amount of gypsum, cement can delay setting time, but when adding quantity is big, will cause cement expansion, so that debacle, and acid rain on concrete structure and microscopic analysis of damage of cultural relics, such as acid rain are particularly to generate a variety of sulfate, through the analysis of the acid rain from the chemical reaction principle of sulfur diox-ide generated by reaction with calcium ions in the concrete mechanism of gypsum, acid rain are discussed from the gypsum charac-teristics of concrete buildings and cultural relics of the erosion mechanism, and thus puts forward the protection of concrete build-ings and cultural relics under the condition of acid rain .%介绍了酸雨对混凝土建筑物和文物损坏机理的宏观分析,水泥中加入少量石膏,可延缓凝结时间,但当加入量大,将引起水泥膨胀,以致溃裂,探讨了酸雨对混凝土建筑物与文物损坏的微观分析,特别是酸雨等生成各种硫酸盐,通过从化学反应原理上分析了酸雨中二氧化硫与混凝土中钙离子反应生成石膏机理,从石膏特性上探讨了酸雨对混凝土建筑物和文物侵蚀机制,并由此提出了酸雨条件下保护混凝土建筑物和文物应对措施。

  15. 模拟酸雨对台湾桤木光合特性的影响%Effects of simulated acid rain on photosynthesis of Alnus formosana

    黄桂芬; 吴承祯; 洪伟; 林晗; 洪滔; 林勇明; 陈灿; 李键

    2012-01-01

    By simulated acid rain experiment, the effects of acid rain in different intensity stress (pH 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5) on photosynthesis of Alnm formosana were investigated. It showed that the lower the acidity of acid rain, the net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomata] conductance in A. formosana leaves were generally observed in upward trend. When the pH value is 2.5, the net photosynthetic rate reached a minimum, decreased by 28.6% to the control CK; when the pH value is 4.5, its net pho- tosynthetic rate increased by I0.2% compared with the control; when the pH value is 2.5, transpiration rate reached a minimum, decreased by 59.5% to the control; and when the pH being 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, their net photosynthetic rates were decreased by 57.4%, 53.1%, 50.1% and 34.7% compared with the control, respectively. With the persistence of stress time by acid rain, the net photosynthetic rate of the A. formosana leaves showed a trend which first increased and then decreased, the transpiration rate generally increased firstly and then decreased, the stomata] conductance decreased at first and then rose, the intercellular carbon di- oxide concentration generally reduced to a minimum in September and then increased, the stomatai limitation generally increased firstly and then decreased, the water use efficiency decreased at first and then increased.%通过模拟酸雨实验,研究酸雨胁迫(pH2.5、3.0、35、4.0、4.5)对台湾桤木光合作用的影响。结果表明,随着酸雨酸度的降低,台湾桤木叶片的净光合速率、蒸腾速率和气孔导度呈上升趋势。pH2.5时,叶片的净光合速率达最低点,比对照(CK)降低28.6%;pH4.5时,叶片的净光合速率比CK高10.2%;pH2.5时,叶片的蒸腾速率达最低点,比cK降低59.5%,而pH3.0、3.5、4.0、4.5分别比CK降低57.4%、53.1%、50.1%和34.7%。随着酸雨胁迫时间的持续,台湾桤木叶

  16. 模拟酸雨胁迫对杨梅幼苗水分生理特性的影响%Effects of simulated acid rain on water physiological characteristics of Myrica rubra seed lings.

    姚兆斌; 江洪; 余树全; 鲁美娟

    2011-01-01

    选择浙江省典型亚热带经济植物杨梅为对象,通过盆栽试验研究了重度酸雨( pH2.5)、中度酸雨(pH 4.0)和对照(pH 5.6)处理对杨梅幼苗水分生理特性的影响.结果表明:季节、年份和酸雨对杨梅幼苗的光合速率均有显著影响,各处理中,夏季的差异大于春、秋季,pH 4.0处理对光合速率有促进作用;季节、年份、酸雨,季节-年份交互作用以及三者交互作用对气孔导度均有显著影响,各处理在夏季的差异大于春、秋季,酸雨对气孔导度有抑制作用;季节、年份、酸雨及季节-年份和季节-酸雨两两交互作用对蒸腾速率有显著影响,各处理夏季的差异大干春秋季,且pH2.5处理对蒸腾速率的抑制作用最强;酸雨、季节-年份和季节-酸雨交互作用对水分利用率有显著影响,且pH2.5处理对水分利用率有一定的促进作用.%Taking the seedlings of typical subtropical economic tree species Myrica rubra in Zhe-jiang Province as test materials, a pot experiment was conducted to study their water physiological characteristics under effects of simulated acid rain (pH 2. 5 and pH 4. 0), with water ( pH 5. 6) as the control. Season, year, and acid rain all had significant effects on the photosynthetic rate (Pn). Among the treatments, the Pn had a greater difference in summer than in spring and autumn, and was higher in treatment acid rain (pH 4. 0). Season, year, acid rain, and the interactions of season and year and of the three factors had significant effects on the stomata conductance (G,), and also, the G, had a greater difference among the treatments in summer than in spring and autumn. Acid rain had inhibitory effect on G,. Season, year, acid rain, and the interactions of season and year and of season and acid rain affected the transpiration rate (TT) significantly. Same as Pn and Gs, the Tt had a greater difference among the treatments in summer than in spring and autumn. Acid rain (pH 2. 5) had

  17. 酸雨对菜地系统氮素收支的影响%EFFECT OF ACID RAIN ON NITROGEN BUDGET IN VEGETABLE FIELD ECOSYSTEMS

    王定勇; 蒋红梅; 魏世强

    2009-01-01

    分别在酸沉降重污染区、轻污染区和对照区选择代表性的蔬菜样地,对土壤、蔬菜、降水、施肥、渗滤水等的氮素动态进行为时一年的定位、定时监测,研究了不同酸雨影响区氮素在菜地系统中的收支平衡.结果表明:在相同的种植条件下,由于酸雨影响了蔬菜的正常生长,致使酸雨影响区菜地系统中氮素收支失衡,酸沉降重污染区和轻污染区菜地系统中氮素I/O值分别为1.27和1.19;而对照区菜地系统中氮素I/O值为1.08,收支基本平衡.在酸沉降重污染区,降水输入系统的氮远大于轻污染区和对照区(约3~4倍),同时因酸雨危害,蔬菜产量明显低于对照区,仅为对照区产量的60%,使系统中通过作物收获的氮输出减少,结果导致大量氮滞留于土壤中并以硝态氮等形态淋失,给水环境带来了氮污染风险.%In order to understand effects of acid rain on nitrogen (N) balance of soil-vegetable systems, field experiments were carried out at three sites in Chongqing for one year to monitor N dynamics in soils and vegetables, atmospheric N deposition from rainfall, and N leaching loss. These sites were subjected to acid rain to a varying extent, i.e. heavily polluted area (HPA), lightly polluted area (LPA), and control area (CK). Under the condition of similar field management, acid rain affected normal growth of vegetables and hence N balance in the soil vegetable systems at the three sites. The N I/O ratio (input/output) was 1.27 and 1.19 in HPA and LPA, respectively, while it was 1.08 (nearly reaching the balance) in CK. The N input from rainfall in HPA was about 3 to 4 times higher than that in LPA and CK. However, the biomass of vegetables in HPA was decreased by up to 40%, when compared with that in CK, thus leading to a significant decrease in N output through crop harvesting. As a result, a large proportion of N was sequestrated in the soils subjected to acid rain, which subsequently

  18. Asit Yağmurlarının Canlılar Üzerine Etkileri / The Effects on Organsms of Acid Rains

    Kant, Canan; Kızıloğlu, Tülay

    2011-01-01

    ÖZET: Bacalar ve yoğun trafikten salınan kükürt dioksit ve azot oksit gazları atmosferde oksijen ve nem ile birleşerek sülfürik ve nitrik asitleri meydana getirir. Bunlar toprağa yağmur olarak indiğinde ise canlı cansız her şeye olumsuz etki eder. Bu derlemede, asit yağmurlarının canlılar üzerine etkisi ele alınmıştır.Anahtar Kelimeler: Asit yağmurları, canlılar.The Effects on Organsms of Acid Rains ABSTRACT: SOX and NOX gazos from fuel-oil emissions interac...

  19. 2012年丰都县酸雨特征及其相关分析%Characteristic of Acid Rain of Fengdu in 20 1 2 and Its Correlation Analysis

    郭小路

    2014-01-01

    The acid rain situation in Fengdu District was studied according to the rainfall monitoring data of this re-gion in 2012.It came to the conclusion that the acid rain pollution was serious in Fengdu District.The acid rain frequency in every month was above 90%,the rainfall acidity changed obviously from season to season and the se-verity was higher in winter than in summer.SO2-4 was the major anion in the rainfall which should be sulfate acid rain,and the correlation matrix analysis showed the definite correlation among the concentration of SO2-4 ,NO3-and F-in the rainfall.%根据2012年丰都县降水监测资料,对该地区的酸雨状况进行研究。结果表明,丰都县酸雨污染状况较重,各月的酸雨频率均在90%以上,降雨酸性的季节变化明显,冬季较夏季高。降雨成分中以SO2-4为主要阴离子,仍为硫酸型酸雨。相关矩阵分析表明,SO2-4、NO3-、F-相关性较好。

  20. Effects of Simulated Acid Rain on Photosynthetic Physiology Characteristics of Ipomoea Cairica Seedling%模拟酸雨对五爪金龙幼苗光合生理特性的影响

    赵则海

    2014-01-01

    The inhibition of acid rain on growth and development of crop and economic crop often caused serious economic lossess in the Southern China. However, some harmful invasive species was still spreading and its harmfulness was not obviously inhibited under acid rain conditions. Therefore, the study on biological characteristics of invasive species with acid rain condition will help reveal its invasion rules. The pot experiments for Ipomoea cairica seedling were implemented under artificial environmental conditions (light incubator conditions:temperature was 30℃, relative humidity was 47.6%and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) was 63.6 μmol·m-2·s-1). And nutrient solution was spraying on leaves of I. cairica seedling every day. I. cairica seedling were continuously treated with simulated acid rain (pH value of acid rain were 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6). The photosynthetic physiology characteristics were mensurated using LI-6400 portable photosynthesis system and spectrophotometry. The results showed that:the net photosynthetic rate of leaves of I. cairica decreased with reducing the pH values of acid rain. When the photosynthetic active radiation was less than 200 μmol·m-2·s-1, the net photosynthetic rate increased with increasing of photosynthetic active radiation under different acid rain treatments. When the photosynthetic active radiation was more than 200 μmol·m-2·s-1, rules of the net photosynthetic rates with different pH values of acid rain at the same photosynthetic active radiation were as follows: CK(control check)> pH6.0> pH5.0> pH4.0 > pH3.0> pH2.0. With decreasing of pH values of acid rain, light saturation point (LSP), light compensation point (LCP), maximum net photosynthetic rate, apparent quantum yield (AQY) and dark respiration rate displayed a decrease trend. Among them, the inhibitory effects on all photosynthetic characteristic parameters reached the significant level under the acid rain treatments of pH3.0 and pH2.0. The treatments of acid

  1. Analysis on Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Acid Rain Pollution in Fushun%抚顺市酸雨污染特征及影响因素分析

    解宇

    2011-01-01

    Based on the acid rain data from monitoring sites between 2006 and 2010, the variation characteristics and related factors of acid rain in recent five years are analyzed in this paper. The results show that the acidity reduced and the frequency of acid rain dropped in recent fives years. The frequency of acid rain increased when the continuous rainfall and heavy rainfall appeared. The precipitation pH value and the ratio of anion and cation are closely related. The precipitation pH value is negatively correlated with sulfur dioxide and positively correlated with dust. Acid rain is the combined result of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and alkaline dust.%文章利用2006年-2010年抚顺市环境监测中心站酸雨监测点位的监测数据,分析了近五年来抚顺市酸雨的变化特征及其相关因素。结果表明:近五年来抚顺市的降水酸度减轻,酸雨频率下降;降水量大时酸雨频率增加;降水pH值与阴阳离子的比率密切相关;降水pH值与大气污染物二氧化硫呈负相关,与尘呈正相关,酸雨是由大气污染物二氧化硫、二氧化氮和碱性尘共同作用的结果。

  2. Effect of simulated different types of acid rain on physiological characteristics in Carya cathayensis%模拟不同类型酸雨胁迫对山核桃生理特征的影响

    陶欣桐; 江洪; 郭凯

    2013-01-01

    随着经济的发展,中国酸雨污染类型由硫酸型向硫酸、硝酸复合型转变,为了解转变对我国陆地植物生态系统的影响,以山核桃(Carya cathayensis)为试验对象,研究模拟硫酸型酸雨(SAR)、硝酸型酸雨(NAR)及混合型酸雨(MAR)对山核桃的生理特征影响.试验测定了山核桃在不同酸雨类型下,生长量,叶绿素含量和光合反应参数在pH值为5.6,4.0,2.5时的数据.结果表明:SAR处理下,山核桃的株高、基径在pH 5.6时高于另两个梯度,NAR处理下,生长量的大小为pH5.6处理<pH 2.5处理<pH 4.0处理;MAR处理下,对株高的胁迫明显高于SAR和NAR;在相同pH值下对叶绿素的胁迫影响表现为NAR> MAR> SAR,有显著差异,但三种酸雨类型各梯度间的叶绿素含量差异不显著;三种酸雨对山核桃的光合作用都产生抑制,净光合速率在pH2.5处理下小于pH5.6处理,对表观量子效率(AQE)、最大净光合速率(Pnmax)、光饱和点(LSP)都表现为MAR< NAR.@@研究结果表明NAR和MAR对植物的生理特征影响较SAR更复杂,混合型酸雨对植物的株高和叶绿素含量的胁迫都大于硫酸型酸雨.%With economic development,the type of acid rain pollution in China changed from the sulfuric acid to sulfuric acid and nitric acid complex,due to the increase of nitrogen content in the acid rain,which may lead to the change of terrestrial plant ecosystem.In this paper,Carya cathayensis was used as the experimental material to study the effect of simulated sulfuric acid rain (SAR),nitric acid rain (NAR) and the mixed acid rain (MAR) on physiological characteristics in Carya cathayensis.In experimental design,in addition to three types of acid rain,three gradients of pH value as pH 2.5 (severe acid rain stress),pH 4.0 (moderately acid rain stress),pH 5.6 (acid rain control treatment) were also designed.The growth parameters,chlorophyll content and photosynthetic reaction paameters of Carya cathayensis under three

  3. 模拟酸雨对南方红豆杉生理特性的影响%Effect of Simulated Acid Rain on Physiological Characteristics in Taxus chinensis var. Mairei

    刘建福; 杨晨; 王明元

    2012-01-01

    The test was conducted with 2—year—old trees of Taxus chinensis var. Mairei. Leaves were sprayed with the simulated acid rain with different pH values to study the effects of the acid rain on the physiological characteristics and leaf morphology in Taxus chinensis var. Mairei. The results indicated that blade tip appeared damage spots and leaf loss occurred under the stress of acid rain. There were not significant change of the content of chlorophyll and carotenoids and malondialdehyde and soluble sugar and protein. Superoxide dismutase activity did not change significantly under the acid rain stress. Compared to the control, catalase activity significantly increased with acid rain of pH4.0 and 5.6, decreased with acid rain of pH2.5. and peroxidase activity was significantly higher than those of control in pH5.6, and lower than those of control in pH4.0 and 2.5. Therefore, it has been showed a certain resistance to acid rain stress of Taxus chinensis var. Mairei. in pH4.0 and 5.6.%研究模拟酸雨对南方红豆杉叶片形态和生理特性的影响.结果表明:酸雨胁迫下南方红豆杉叶尖出现伤害症状,叶片发生脱落,随着酸雨胁迫程度的加剧,叶片损伤程度加重;酸雨胁迫下叶绿素、类胡萝卜素、丙二醛和可溶性糖含量变化不明显;酸雨胁迫下超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性变化不明显;中度胁迫(pH4.0)和轻度胁迫(pH5.6)时过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性显著高于对照,而重度胁迫(pH2.5)的CAT活性显著低于对照;轻度胁迫时过氧化物酶(POD)活性显著高于对照,而中度胁迫和重度胁迫的POD活性显著低于对照.这说明南方红豆杉对pH4.0~5.6的酸雨胁迫有一定的适应性和抵抗力.

  4. Effect of Three Types of Simulated Acid Rain on Photosynthetic Characteristics of Schima superba%模拟3种类型酸雨对木荷光合生理特性的影响

    郭凯; 江洪; 陶欣桐; 胡莉

    2013-01-01

    我国酸雨类型正在由硫酸型酸雨(Sulfuric acid rain,SAR)逐步向混合型酸雨(Mixed acid rain,MAR)、硝酸型酸雨(Nitric acid rain,NAR)转变,电此将产生各种未知环境效应.以木荷(Schima superba)为试验材料,在试验大棚内测定其在此3种光合生理特性参数.结果表明,在酸雨胁迫下木荷都受到不同程度的伤害.在同酸雨类型不同pH值处理下,3种酸雨类型均以pH 2.5处理各类光合参数数值较低,但是在pH 4.0时MAR处理的光饱和点(LSP)值最高,达到508.3 μmol/(m2·s),此时对应的表观量子效率(AQE)值最低,为0.023 CO2/photon;对照组(CK,pH 5.6)在3种类型酸雨处理中,以SAR处理数值最低.不同酸雨类型同pH值处理下,SAR和MAR处理的光响应曲线pH 4.0组均低于pH 2.5组和CK组,而NAR处理的光响应曲线pH 4.0组高于pH 2.5组和CK组;而且,3种酸雨类型处理pH 2.5组的最大光合速率(Amax)始终低于CK组.这说明植物的Amax在一定程度上随着酸雨浓度的增加而减小.%Types of acid rain in China have been in transformation from sulfuric acid rain (SAR) to mixed acid rain (MAR) and nitric acid rain (NAR). To explore the effect of acid rain on Schima superba in Zhejiang Province, photosynthetic characteristics of Schima superba were studied under SAR, NAR and MAR stress with pH 2.5,4.0 and 5.6 (CK). Results showed that simulated acid rain can inhibit photosynthesis of Schima superba in various degrees. At pH 2.5, values for photosynthetic parameters were lower among all the treatments. At pH 4.0, light saturation point peaked at 508.3μmol/m2·s, and apparent quantum efficiency dropped to a minimum of 0.023 CO2/photon accordingly. Data changes of CK, pH 5.6 in the pattern of SAR was least observable. In the pattern of SAR and MAR, the light response curve at pH 4.0 was lower than that at pH 2.5 and CK. But there was a contrary result in the pattern of NAR. Maximum photosynthetic rate at pH 2.5 had been consistently

  5. Effects of acid rain attack on uniaxial compression properties of marble%酸雨腐蚀对大理岩单轴压缩特性的影响

    陈文玲; 谢娟; 孙韵

    2013-01-01

    Indoor simulation test was conducted to study the effects of acid rain attack on uniaxial compression properties of marble.The marble specimens were soaked in enclosed simulated acid rain solution.With the same soak time and temperature,the pH value of the acid rain solution was changed; when keep the same pH value,the temperature of acid rain solution was changed.The conductivity of acid rain at different time and the concentration of calcium ion in acid rain solution after chemical reaction were inspected to analyze the influence of pH value and temperature on the chemical reaction between the marble and the acid rain solution.In order to analyze the consequent influence on uniaxial compression strength of marble,uniaxial compression test was carried on the marble specimens after soaking.The test results show that the brittle property of failure weakens by soaking the specimen in a simulated acid rain solution.At room temperature,with the decrease of pH of soaking solution,the marble and acid rain solution react more fully and the uniaxial compressive strength of marble decreases.While the temperature is 80 ℃,the uniaxial compressive strength of marble increases with the decrease of the pH of soaking solution.It also shows that with the increase of the temperature of acid rain solution,the chemical reactions accelerate and the time to reach a stable state shortens,as a result,comparing with the condition of room temperature,the uniaxial compression strength reduces significantly in a short time.%采用室内模拟试验研究酸雨腐蚀对大理岩单轴压缩特性的影响.将大理岩岩样浸泡在封闭的模拟酸雨溶液中,在浸泡时间和温度相同的条件下,改变酸雨溶液的pH;在pH相同的条件下,改变酸雨溶液的温度.通过测定不同时间的酸雨溶液电导率、反应后浸泡溶液的钙离子浓度,分析pH和温度变化对大理岩与酸雨溶液之间化学反应的影响.将浸泡后的大理岩岩样进行单轴压

  6. 重庆市主城区酸雨的影响因素及防治措施%Influencing Factors of Acid Rain in Main Urban Districts of Chongqing and Its Prevention Measures

    何勇; 熊增连; 陈昌鸣

    2012-01-01

    Through analysis of acid rain pollution situation and changing trend of acid rain concentration in main urban districts of Chongqing in decades, this paper holds that irrational energy structure and industrial layout is the main reason for acid rain pollution in main urban districts of Chongqing and that special meteorology and geological condition make acid rain pollution more serious in the main urban districts of Chongqing. Prevention measures for acid rain based on the real situation of the main urban districts of Chongqing are put forward, which shows that the only way for sustainable development in the main urban districts of Chongqing is the harmonious development between economy and environment.%通过分析重庆市主城区历年来的酸雨污染状况及酸雨浓度的变化趋势,认为不合理的能源结构和产业布局是造成重庆市主城区酸雨污染的主要原因,而特殊的气象和地形条件使主城区的酸雨污染程度进一步加重;并结合主城区的实际情况提出了酸雨的治理措施,表明走经济与环境协调发展是重庆市主城区实现可持续发展的唯一途径。

  7. 1992~2012年福州市和厦门市酸雨变化特征及影响因素%Characteristics and the Impact Factors of Acid Rain in Fuzhou and Xiamen 1992-2012

    郑秋萍; 王宏; 陈彬彬; 隋平; 林文

    2014-01-01

    利用1992~2012年福州市和厦门市的酸雨观测资料、天气形势和大气污染物浓度资料,分析酸雨变化特征及酸雨可能的影响因素.结果表明,福州市非酸雨和酸雨频率分别为38.1%和61.9%,厦门市分别为40.6%和59.4%;福州市年均降水pH值在4.1~5.5之间,2007年之后酸雨污染减轻,厦门市2006年之后酸雨污染减轻;冬、春季节酸雨污染重,夏、秋季节酸雨污染轻.降水强度能改变降水的酸性程度;福州市在东南( SE)、西南( SW)、西( W)、西北( NW)风向下酸雨污染较严重,厦门市在东北( NE)、SW、W、NW风向下酸雨污染较重;变性冷高压下酸雨污染最重,台风(热带辐合带)及其外围的天气形势下酸雨污染最轻;福州市大气污染物SO2、NO2、PM10浓度与降水pH值呈负相关关系.%Based on the observed acid rain data, synoptic situations and mass concentrations of atmospheric pollutants data from 1992 to 2012, the temporal variation characteristics and the impact factors of acid rain were analyzed in Fuzhou and Xiamen. The results showed that acid rain and non-acid rain accounted for 38. 1% and 61. 9% respectively in Fuzhou, 40. 6% and 59. 4% respectively in Xiamen. The annual average pH was 4. 1-5. 5 in Fuzhou. Acid rain pollution alleviated after 2007 in Fuzhou, and alleviated after 2006 in Xiamen. Acid rain was more serious in winter and spring than in summer and autumn. Precipitation intensity could affect the acidity of rain. Acid rain was observed more serious in southeast, southwest, west and northwest wind in Fuzhou, and more serious in northeast, southwest, west and northwest wind in Xiamen. Acid rain was most severe under the condition of transformed surface cold high, while most light under the conditions of typhoon ( intertropical convergence zone ) and outside of typhoon ( intertropical convergence zone) . There was a negative correlation between the mass concentrations of atmospheric pollutants

  8. 佛山市降水成分及酸雨污染状况分析%Analysis of Components of Precipitation and Pollution Status of Acid Rain in Foshan City

    姚镇; 梁丽红

    2012-01-01

    以“十一五”期间佛山市降水样品监测资料为基础,对佛山市大气降水的离子组成和酸雨污染状况进行了分析,结果表明:佛山市降水pH值较低,酸雨污染较为严重,降水中的主要阳离子是Ca2+和NH4+,主要阴离子为SO4^2-和NO3-,酸雨类型已从单一的硫酸型逐渐转变为硫酸和硝酸混合型。%The ion composition of atmospheric precipitation and the acid rain pollution status of Foshan are studied in this paper on the basis of monitoring data measured during the Eleventh Five Year Plan period. The results show that the pH value of precipitation is low, and the acid rain pollution status is serious; the major cations in precipitation are Ca2+ and NH4+ and the major anions are SO4^2- and NO3^2- ;the acid rain type has been gradually transformed from a single sulfate acid type into the mixed type of sulfuric acid and nitric acid.

  9. Precipitation Chemistry and Occurrence of Acid Rain over the Oil-Producing Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

    John Kanayo Chukwu Nduka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the nitrate, sulfate, total dissolved solid (TDS, electrical conductivity, total hardness (TH, and bicarbonates of rainwater samples collected from Warri and Port Harcourt between April–June, July–August, and September–October of 2005 and 2006 to depict onset of rainy season, mid-rainy season, and end of rainy season for the two major crude oil–producing cities of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria (although Port Harcourt is also noted for non-oil manufacturing industries. The same was done in Awka, a non-oil producing city in the hinterland of southeastern Nigeria. In each of the cities, rain samples were collected from three points in a triangular equilibrium using a clean plastic basin fastened to a table 2 m above ground level and 115 m away from tall buildings and trees. The parameters were determined after filtering, using their respective standard methods. Averages of 1.50, 1.81, 1.13 and 2.14, 1.50, 1.86 mg/l of nitrate for April–June, July–August, and September–October were recorded for Warri in 2005 and 2006, respectively. While 15.21, 3.23, 22.31 and 20.89, 9.96, and 14.27 mg/l were recorded in Port Harcourt. Sulfate levels for Warri and Port Harcourt for the same periods are follows: 1.38, 1.88, 1.06, 1.50, 1.43, 1.50 and 2.64, 1.15, 5.88, 4.73, 1.90, 1.55 mg/l, respectively. Nitrate levels were higher than sulfate. Other parameters include TDS (5.44, 4.79, 3.30 and 7.63, 3.69, 2.56 mg/l for Warri in 2005 and 2006; 12.57, 2.07, 25.214 and 28.87, 6.73, 7.80 mg/l for Port Harcourt for the same periods. Other parameters also varied in that order for the 2 years in same cities. Crude oil exploration and gas flaring in the Niger Delta, and multiplicity of cottage industries in Awka, impacted on the inorganic ion pollution of the rainwater. This may have public health implications in the region.

  10. The Disaster Risk Assessment of Acid Rain in Jiangsu Province Based on Information Diffusion Theory%基于信息扩散理论的江苏省酸雨风险评估

    王伟丽; 吴洪颜; 贺金芳; 朱双

    2015-01-01

    Data of acid rain from 24 stations during 2008-201 3 are used to analyze the trends of acid rain in Jiangsu Province.It is shown that the intensity and frequency of acid rain are decreasing within the recent 6 years and the frequency is highest in autumn and winter and lowest in summer.The acid rain risk of the province is eval-uated based on information diffusion theory.The results indicate that:the distribution characteristics between the pH value of precipitation and the frequency of acid rain is consistent in different level of risk and it increases gradu-ally from Northwest to Southeast.The pH value of annual precipitation is between 3.8 and 4.5 with about 80%probability and it presents weak acidity.There is more than 90% probability that the acid rain is with 40% risk level in South of Huaihe River.%利用江苏省2008-2013年24个站的酸雨监测资料,分析出2008-2013年江苏省酸雨的强度和发生频率都有下降趋势,秋冬季酸雨发生频率高,夏季最低。基于信息扩散理论对全省酸雨进行风险评估,结果发现:年降水pH值和酸雨发生频率在不同风险水平分布特征较为一致,呈西北-东南逐渐增强趋势;年降水pH值80%的可能介于4.5~5.6之间,呈弱酸性;淮河以南地区酸雨发生频率的风险为40%的概率超过90%。

  11. Effect of simulated acid rain stress on germination of four turf grass seeds%模拟酸雨胁迫对4种草坪草种子萌发的影响

    田如男; 张培东; 程澄

    2011-01-01

    以中性溶液(pH =7.0)为对照,研究了模拟酸雨(pH为2.0、2.5、3.0、3.5、4.0、5.0)胁迫对黑麦草(Lolium perenne)、高羊茅(Festuca arundinacea)、匍匐剪股颖(Agrostis palustris)和狗牙根(Cynodon dactylon)4种多年生草坪草种子萌发的影响.结果表明:酸雨胁迫对4种草坪草种子萌发的影响不同,pH =2.0的酸雨完全抑制了4种草坪草种子的萌发,表现为发芽率、发芽势、活力指数均为零.黑麦草、高羊茅种子能在pH:≥2.5的酸雨胁迫下正常萌发,匍匐剪股颖种子能在pH≥3.0的酸雨胁迫下正常萌发,狗牙根种子在不同程度酸雨胁迫下均萌发不良.此外,酸雨胁迫还延缓了4种草坪草种子的萌发进程.应用主成分分析和隶属函数分析法对4种草坪草种子抗酸雨胁迫能力进行综合评定,得出4种草坪草种子抗酸雨胁迫能力由强到弱的顺序依次为高羊茅、黑麦草、匍匐剪股颖、狗牙根.%The seeds of Lolium perenne, Festuca arundinacea, Agrostis palustris and Cynodon dactylon were treated with simulated acid rain at pH 2.0,2.5,3.0,3.5,4. 0,5.0 and 7. 0(as control) to study the effects of acid rain on their germination. The results showed that the seeds germination of four turf grass under acid rain stress were affected at different levels. Acid rain intensity pH 2.0 completely inhibited the seed germination of turf grass, showing no germination was observed and germination energy and vigor index was 0.0. The seeds of L. Perenne and F. Arundinacea could germinate normally under acid rain stress (pH^2. 5) ,and the seeds of A. Paluslris could germinate normally under acid rain stress (pH^3.0).The seeds of C. Dactylon germinated poorly under acid rain stress. In addition, the process of germination became slow under acid rain stress. The comprehensive evaluation results derived from principal components analysis and subordinate function analysis showed the order (from strong to weak) of anti-acid rain ability

  12. Acid rain and resulting chemical composition of soils; Der saure Regen und die daraus resultierende chemische Zusammensetzung der Bodenloesungen

    Ugolini, F.C. [Dipt. di Scienza del Suolo e Nutrizione della Pianta, Univ. Florenz (Italy); Cecchini, G. [Dipt. di Scienza del Suolo e Nutrizione della Pianta, Univ. Florenz (Italy); Buffoni, A. [ENEL - CRTN, Mailand (Italy); Sanesi, G. [Dipt. di Scienza del Suolo e Nutrizione della Pianta, Univ. Florenz (Italy)

    1993-11-01

    The input of free acids in the central and northern Appenine mountains is low and gets almost fully neutralised on its path through the vegetation. Nitrogen penetrating the ecosystem is largely accumulated. Soil solutions show low acidities and low aluminium contents. Formation of chelates of organic pollutant and stratification of vermiculite account for Al-immobilisation. At Monte Mottarone too, acid input which is considerably higher but neutralised during transition through the vegetation. A greater part of the ammonia is accumulated in the soil, a considerable output of nitrate takes place. This leads to strong acidification and mobilises large amounts of aluminium. (orig./EW). [Deutsch] Im zentralen und noerdlichen Appenin ist der Input an freien Saeuren gering und wird auch fast zur Gaenze beim Durchgang durch die Vegetation neutralisiert. Der ins Oekosystem gelangende Stickstoff wird zum Grossteil angereichert. Die Bodenloesung ist gering sauer und enthaelt wenig Aluminium. Die Chelatbildung der organischen Substanz und die Vermikulitschichtung sind die beiden fuer die Al-Immobilisierung ausschlaggebenden Prozesse. Auch am Monte Mottarone wird der Saeure-Input, der dort allerdings um einiges hoeher ist, zum Grossteil beim Durchgang durch den Bewuchs neutralisiert. Im Boden wird ein grosser Teil des Ammoniums angereichert, waehrend ein beachtlicher Nitrat-Austrag stattfindet. Dies fuehrt zu einer starken Versauerung und dementsprechend auch zur Mobilisierung grosser Aluminiummengen. (orig.)

  13. Rain project. Annual report for 1984

    Wright, R.

    1985-01-01

    Project Rain is a 5-year international research project aimwed at investigation the effects on water chemistry of changing acid deposition to whole catchments. The project comprices 2 paralell largescale experimental manipulations - artificial acidification at Sogndal and exclution of acid rain at Risdalsheia. The project began in June 1983. The first year was devoted to selection of sites, collection of background data on precipitation, runoff and soils, and design and construction of roofs,...

  14. Characterization and evaluation of acid rain in East Central Florida from 1978 to 1987: Ten year summary report

    Madsen, Brooks C.; Dreschel, Thomas W.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1989-01-01

    Rainfall was collected on the University of Central Florida (UCF) campus near Orlando since July 1977 and at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida since August 1977. Since November 1983, the KSC site has been affiliated with the National Atmospheric Deposition Network. Annual volume weighted pH was slightly above the 10 year mean of 4.58 during four of the past five years. Nitrate concentrations have risen somewhat during recent years while excess sulfate concentrations have remained below the 10 year mean during four of the past years. These observations hold for both the UCF and KSC data. The distribution of individual sample pH was nearly identical at UCF and KSC. Stepwise regression suggests that sulfate, nitrate, ammonium ion, and calcium play major roles in the description of rainwater acidity. Annual acid deposition and annual rainfall have varied from 30 to 50 meq/m2-yr and 100 to 180 cm/yr, respectively. Sea salt comprises about 25 percent (UCF) and greater than 50 percent (KSC) of total ionic composition.

  15. An examination of models of issue development: Environmental scanning using on-line databases: Final report. [Acid rain, PCBs, thermal pollution, ground water pollution

    Clabaugh, G.T.; Hallett, J.J.

    1987-02-01

    Examining the evolution of six environmental issues over a ten-year period, this study investigates the dominant theories of issue development and the applicability of on-line information sources to the issues management process. The research methodology used was a form of content analysis known as bibliometric analysis. Six environmental issues (acid rain, PCBs, thermal pollution, groundwater contamination, leaking underground storage tanks and leachate) were selected for a retrospective analysis of their evolution as public issues. Their evolution was tracked through the scientific, popular, legislative and national press, then compared to existing models of issue development. The research was conducted using a high-speed proprietary software program, and was based on how often the chosen issues were mentioned in selected databases. The rise and/or fall in frequency for each issue was charted and the resultant patterns were compared to theoretical models. More than 20 million articles from 24 databases were individually scanned for mentions of the issues, and efforts were made to find patterns in their growth and evolution. Charts and graphs of the results were generated and analyzed. A number of questions were raised about the use of computers and on-line information as issues management tools, plus suggestions for future research.

  16. Photosynthetic and antioxidant responses of Liquidambar formosana and Schima superba seedlings to sulfuric-rich and nitric-rich simulated acid rain.

    Chen, Juan; Wang, Wen-Hua; Liu, Ting-Wu; Wu, Fei-Hua; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2013-03-01

    To study whether differential responses occur in photosynthesis and antioxidant system for seedlings of Liquidambar formosana, an acid rain (AR)-sensitive tree species and Schima superba, an AR-tolerant tree species treated with three types of pH 3.0 simulated AR (SiAR) including sulfuric-rich (S-SiAR), nitric-rich (N-SiAR), sulfate and nitrate mixed (SN-SiAR), we investigated the changes of leaf necrosis, chlorophyll content, soluble protein and proline content, photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics, reactive oxygen species production, membrane lipid peroxidation, small molecular antioxidant content, antioxidant enzyme activities and related protein expressions. Our results showed that SiAR significantly caused leaf necrosis, inhibited photosynthesis, induced superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide generation, aggravated membrane lipid peroxidation, changed antioxidant enzyme activities, modified related protein expressions such as Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), l-ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1. 11. 1. 11), glutathione S transferase (GST, EC 2. 5. 1. 18) and Rubisco large subunit (RuBISCO LSU), altered non-protein thiols (NPT) and glutathione (GSH) content in leaves of L. formosana and S. superba. Taken together, we concluded that the damages caused by SiAR in L. formosana were more severe and suffered from more negative impacts than in S. superba. S-SiAR induced more serious damages for the plants than did SN-SiAR and N-SiAR. PMID:23353765

  17. Responses of antioxidant enzyme and photosynthesis in rape seedling to the combined stresses of acid rain and ultraviolet-B radiation

    LIANG Chan-juan; HUANG Xiao-hua; TAO Wen-yi; ZHOU Qing

    2005-01-01

    Effects of the simulated acid rain(AR) and ultraviolet-B(UV-B, 280-320 nm) radiation with a single or two ways simultaneously (AR + UV-B) on the antioxidant enzyme and photosynthesis of the rape seedlings were investigated by the hydroponic culture. The results of static experiment indicated that the tolerance of rape seedling to single stress(AR or UV-B) is stronger than that to dual stresses(AR +UV-B). Furthermore, the dual stresses had additive effect on catalase activity, and a synergistic effect on MDA content, net photosynthesis rate, water use efficiency as well as intercellular CO2 concentration. Meanwhile, it has an independent effect on chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate as well as membrane permeability. During 64 h restoration course, the dynamic change in the curves of physiological and biochemical indices were not identical, and none of them show a simple linear variation.According to the static and dynamic experiments, it was found that a responsive sequence of catalase activity, membrane permeability,M DA content and photosynthetic characteristics to the above-mentioned stresses was as follows: AR + UV-B > UV-B > AR.

  18. On Feature Analysis and Control Strategies of Acid Rain Pollution in Bengbu Downtown%蚌埠市区酸雨污染特征分析及控制对策

    刘翀

    2013-01-01

    利用2008年至2012年蚌埠市区降水监测数据,综合分析蚌埠市区酸雨污染时空、季节、化学组分的变化特征、变化趋势及其成因,致酸前体物、气象因素等与酸雨污染的关系,同时针对蚌埠市区酸雨污染提出几点治理措施和建议。%On the basis of monitoring data of precipitation between 2008 and 2012 in Bengbu downtown , the paper makes a synthesis of acid rain here involving the following aspects: pollution space and time , pollution season , the variation characteristics of chemical compositions , variation tendency and cause , and the relations between acid rain pollution and acidic precursor as well as meteorological factor, furthermore, in view of acid rain pollution in Bengbu downtown , the paper puts forwards several countermeasures and proposals .

  19. Using Enviro-Pod low altitude imagery to inventory building surface materials for an acid rain study - A Baltimore example

    Ellefsen, Richard; Coffland, Bruce

    1987-01-01

    Low altitude, oblique and vertical color photography taken from EPA's Enviro-Pod Ka 85 camera system has provided the data for taking an inventory of building surface materials in a test area of downtown Baltimore. Photography was acquired from a gridded flight plan to provide views of all sides of buildings. Color, texture, and linear detail are employed in the photo interpretation aided by contextual reference to a classification of building construction type developed in an earlier study. The work could potentially support a materials inventory initiated by the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) by scientists from EPA, Geological Survey, and the Department of Energy. Initial results show the method to be viable. Discrete surface materials such as brick, both bare and painted, stone, and metal are identified.

  20. Regional differences in the annual deposition of acid rain in open fields and old fir forest stands in West Germany

    Comparative evaluation of the measured results of the individual federal states, mostly for several years in the period 1982-1988 for H Cl, SO4-S, NO3-N, and NH4-N. At least to a certain extent it can be seen that the acid depositions in particular in older spruce stands of Rheinland-Pfalz, Baden-Wuerttemberg and, to a lesser extent, also Bavaria, are generally lower than in the other federal states. It was tested to what extent linear correlation and regression relations between the summed-up yearly precipitation and the precipitation deposition of acidifying agents could be used; in this way, the results of deposition measurements distributed irregularly over the investigation areas are extrapolated for entire forest areas with the aid of available, regionally differentiated precipitation measurement results. However, such interdependences could be proved to be significant only for the open land of some federal states, not for the spruce forest. (orig./EF)

  1. Rain Gauges Handbook

    Bartholomew, M. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-01-01

    To improve the quantitative description of precipitation processes in climate models, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility deployed rain gauges located near disdrometers (DISD and VDIS data streams). This handbook deals specifically with the rain gauges that make the observations for the RAIN data stream. Other precipitation observations are made by the surface meteorology instrument suite (i.e., MET data stream).

  2. Fast-growing Acer rubrum differs from slow-growing Quercus alba in leaf, xylem and hydraulic trait coordination responses to simulated acid rain.

    Medeiros, Juliana S; Tomeo, Nicholas J; Hewins, Charlotte R; Rosenthal, David M

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the effects of historic soil chemistry changes associated with acid rain, i.e., reduced soil pH and a shift from nitrogen (N)- to phosphorus (P)-limitation, on the coordination of leaf water demand and xylem hydraulic supply traits in two co-occurring temperate tree species differing in growth rate. Using a full-factorial design (N × P × pH), we measured leaf nutrient content, water relations, leaf-level and canopy-level gas exchange, total biomass and allocation, as well as stem xylem anatomy and hydraulic function for greenhouse-grown saplings of fast-growing Acer rubrum (L.) and slow-growing Quercus alba (L.). We used principle component analysis to characterize trait coordination. We found that N-limitation, but not P-limitation, had a significant impact on plant water relations and hydraulic coordination of both species. Fast-growing A. rubrum made hydraulic adjustments in response to N-limitation, but trait coordination was variable within treatments and did not fully compensate for changing allocation across N-availability. For slow-growing Q. alba, N-limitation engendered more strict coordination of leaf and xylem traits, resulting in similar leaf water content and hydraulic function across all treatments. Finally, low pH reduced the propensity of both species to adjust leaf water relations and xylem anatomical traits in response to nutrient manipulations. Our data suggest that a shift from N- to P-limitation has had a negative impact on the water relations and hydraulic function of A. rubrum to a greater extent than for Q. alba We suggest that current expansion of A. rubrum populations could be tempered by acidic N-deposition, which may restrict it to more mesic microsites. The disruption of hydraulic acclimation and coordination at low pH is emphasized as an interesting area of future study. PMID:27231270

  3. 影响精确界定我国酸雨区空间分布的因素探讨%Study on the influence factors of accurate definition of the spatial distribution of acid rain area in China

    胡炳清; 易鹏; 段宁; 赵德刚; 赵金民; 程轲

    2015-01-01

    利用酸雨监测网的实测数据对影响精确界定我国酸雨区空间分布的因素进行了深入分析,结果表明:首要影响因素是酸雨监测网的站点数量及其空间分布,可导致在同一插值与地统计方法下所获得的酸雨区的分布存在较大差异;其次是选择正确、合适的空间插值方法及其相应参数的设置,反距离加权(IDW)插值法的重酸雨区分布比克里格(Kriging)插值法多而广;最后是精确的面积比测算方法,网格法计算的酸雨区面积比小于等值面法。建议我国酸雨监测网建设应优先在西藏、内蒙古北部及西部等地区布点,进行酸雨区空间分析时应采用多种插值方法进行比较与分析评估,确保在现有酸雨监测网的基础上获得精确、可靠的酸雨区空间分布。%The influential factors of accurate definition of the spatial distribution of acid rain area was analyzed based on the monitoring data of Acid Rain Monitoring Network in China. The results showed that the number and spatial distribution of the sites of Acid Rain Monitoring Network were the primary influence factor, which can cause a great difference to the acid rain distribution by using the same interpolation and geostatistical analysis methodologies. The secondary factor was the selection of a proper spatial interpolation method and corresponding parameter settings. As the result, the distribution size of heavy acid rain area that obtained by using the IDW interpolation was larger and wider than that used the Kriging method. Moreover, a precise calculation method for area ratio was another key factor. The ratio of heavy acid rain area got based on the grid method was smaller than that obtained from the isosurface method. The research suggests that some areas should be given a priority consideration for the establishing of Acid Rain Monitoring Network such as Xizang, north and west of Inner Mongolia. In addition, multiple

  4. Effect of acid rain on mercury leaching from forest yellow soil in Jinyun Mountain%酸雨对缙云山林地黄壤汞溶出的影响

    李静; 魏世强; 杨学春

    2004-01-01

    Forest yellow soil and arable yellow soil in Jinyun Mountain were collected to study the effect of simulated acid rain(adjusted to pH 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0) on the Hg leaching from soils by the methods of static extraction and dynamic leaching. The results showed that in forest yellow soils, surface accumulation of Hg occurred, and the accumulated Hg was easier to be leached out than that in arable yellow soil by acid rain. The amount of leached Hg was the largest at pH 4.0. To abate the risk of Hg pollution in water bodies by the Hg leaching from this forest soil, the Mountain should be closed, and timber-felling should be forbidden.

  5. 模拟酸雨对杜仲叶膜脂过氧化及氮代谢的影响%Effects of Simulated Acid Rain on Lipid Peroxidation of Memb rane And Nitrogen Metabolism of Eucommia Ulmoides Leaves

    齐泽民; 钟章成; 邓君; 刘素君

    2001-01-01

    研究了模拟酸雨对杜仲叶膜脂过氧化及氮代谢 的影响.结果表明:杜仲叶超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD) 和过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性在春夏两季均随酸雨pH值的降低而先升后降;随酸雨降雨量增大和 胁迫时间的延长,3种保护酶受抑情况夏季较春季严重,膜脂过氧化产物丙二醛(MDA)含量 与酸雨pH值呈显著负相关;春夏两季氮代谢关键酶硝酸还原酶(NR)和谷酰胺合成酶(GS) 活性在一定pH值酸雨胁迫下随酸雨pH值降低而降低,夏季2种酶活性下降率比春季高;可溶 性蛋白质和总氮含量春夏两季也随酸雨pH值降低而降低(夏季可溶性蛋白质含量与pH值呈正 相关).由此可见,酸雨对杜仲叶膜脂过氧化及氮代谢产生了显著影响.%The effects of simulated acid rain on lipid peroxidation of membrane and N-metabolism of Eucommia ulmoides leaves were stu died in spring and summer. It was showed that the activities of three kinds of p rotecting enzymes(SOD, CAT, POD)increased and then decreased with declined pH values of acid rain in spring and summer ,and the acid rain restrained the acti vities of these enzymes in summer more seriously than that in spring and the con tents of MDA ware negatively correlated with the pH values of acid rain. It was also found that under a certain pH value of acid rain stress the activities of N R and GS decreased in spring and summer with declined pH values of acid rain and the decreasing rates in summer ware higher than those in spring. At the same ti me, in spring and summer the contents of soluble protein and total nitrogen decr eased with declined pH values of acid rain(the contents of soluble protein in su mmer ware positively correlated with it). These results indicated that the simul ated acid rain had significant effects on lipid peroxidation of membrane and N- metabolism of Eucommia ulmoides leaves.

  6. Combining Long-Term Watershed Monitoring at Buck Creek with Spatially Extensive Ecosystem Data to Understand the Processes of Acid Rain Effects and Recovery

    Lawrence, G. B.; Ross, D. S.; Sullivan, T. J.; McDonnell, T. C.; Bailey, S. W.; Dukett, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Buck Creek Monitoring Watershed, in the western Adirondack Region of New York, has provided long-term data back to 1982 for tracking acid rain effects and recovery, and for supporting fundamental research on environmental change. At Buck Creek, monitoring acidic deposition effects as they worsened, then diminished, has advanced our understanding of key biogeochemical processes such as Al mobilization. Although Al mobilization has been one of the primary adverse effects of acidic deposition, in the recovery phase it is now affecting terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in new ways that could be both positive and negative, as soils and surface waters respond to further declines in acidic deposition. Using stream Al measurements from Buck Creek over varying seasons and flows, a new index, the base cation surplus (BCS), was developed to account for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) effects on the relationship between ANC and inorganic Al. Mobilization of inorganic Al, the form toxic to biota, occurs below a BCS of zero, regardless of DOC concentrations. Soil and stream data from Adirondack surveys showed that a BCS value of zero corresponds to a soil base saturation value in the B horizon of approximately 12%. Additional Adirondack survey work indicated that, where sugar maple stands grew in soils with base saturation values below 12%, seedling regeneration was nearly zero, suggesting a link between Al mobilization and impairment of tree regeneration. In recovering Adirondack lakes, the BCS was also used to show that increasing trends in DOC were accelerating decreases of inorganic Al beyond what would be expected from the increasing trends of ANC. Similar decreases of inorganic Al in Buck Creek, were coupled with increases in organic Al concentrations, which resulted in no trend in total Al concentrations despite a strong increase in pH. Sampling of Buck Creek soils in 1997, and again in 2009-2010, indicated a substantial decrease in forest floor exchangeable Al, of

  7. 模拟酸雨对亚热带阔叶树苗土壤呼吸的影响%SHORT-TERM EFFECTS OF ACID RAIN ON SOIL RESPIRATION IN BROADLEAF TREE SAPLING-SOIL SYSTEMS IN SUBTROPICAL CHINA

    刘源月; 江洪; 李雅红; 原焕英

    2011-01-01

    To explore short-term effects of acid rain on soil respiration in three zonal evergreen broadleaf tree sapling-soil systems, i.e. Paramecia latungensis ( PL), Cyclobalanopsis glauca (CG) and Elaeocarpus glabripetalus (EG), typical of Zhejiang Province, where acid rain pollution has been severe for a long time, showers of acid rain different in pH (2.5, 4. 0 and 5.6 separately) were simulated. Soil carbon effluxes (E) of the three sapling stands were monitored in various growing seasons. ( 1 ) When the stands were stressed by severe acid rain ( pH 2.5 ), E decreased significantly in all seasons in the PL stand; dropped in winter but rose in spring and summer in the CG stand compared to the control, and varied sharply only in winter in the EG stand. the effect of acid rain moderate in pH (4.0) was significant in the PL stand where E was lower than the control in all the two years except for in August 2007, when E was 25.3% higher than the control; in the CG stand, E dropped well below the control in December 2006 and rose up to 1.96 μmol m-2 s -1 in August 2007; and in the EG stand, E decreased by 18.0% only in November 2007. (2) the effect of acid rain on E was not significant in the PL and EG stands at the growing period-time scale. Although in the CG stand, E increased by 87.8% and 11.1% respectively, by exposure to severe acid rain and moderate acid rain, only the effect of severe acid rain was significant. (3) The leading factors affecting soil respiration were soil temperature and acid rain in the PL and CG stands; soil temperature in the EG stand; and acid rain in the CG stand, where a negative relationship of E with pH of acid rain was observed.%通过利用pH 2.5、4.0和5.6的模拟酸雨喷淋乐东拟单性木兰(Paramecia latungensis)、青冈(Cyclobalanopsis glauca)和秃瓣杜英(Elaeocarpus glabripetalus)3种浙江典型地带性阔叶植物幼苗-土壤系统(编号分别为PL、CG和EG),研究了模拟酸雨短期胁迫对土

  8. A Three-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess Pre-Service Teachers' Misconceptions about Global Warming, Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion, and Acid Rain

    Ozge Arslan, Harika; Cigdemoglu, Ceyhan; Moseley, Christine

    2012-07-01

    This study describes the development and validation of a three-tier multiple-choice diagnostic test, the atmosphere-related environmental problems diagnostic test (AREPDiT), to reveal common misconceptions of global warming (GW), greenhouse effect (GE), ozone layer depletion (OLD), and acid rain (AR). The development of a two-tier diagnostic test procedure as described by Treagust constitutes the framework for this study. To differentiate a lack of knowledge from a misconception, a certainty response index is added as a third tier to each item. Based on propositional knowledge statements, related literature, and the identified misconceptions gathered initially from 157 pre-service teachers, the AREPDiT was constructed and administered to 256 pre-service teachers. The Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient of the pre-service teachers' scores was estimated to be 0.74. Content and face validations were established by senior experts. A moderate positive correlation between the participants' both-tiers scores and their certainty scores indicated evidence for construct validity. Therefore, the AREPDiT is a reliable and valid instrument not only to identify pre-service teachers' misconceptions about GW, GE, OLD, and AR but also to differentiate these misconceptions from lack of knowledge. The results also reveal that a majority of the respondents demonstrated limited understandings about atmosphere-related environmental problems and held six common misconceptions. Future studies could test the AREPDiT as a tool for assessing the misconceptions held by pre-service teachers from different programs as well as in-service teachers and high school students.

  9. 模拟酸雨对水稻根系激素含量与生长的影响%Effects of simulated acid rain on hormone concentration and growth of rice roots

    吴玺; 梁婵娟

    2016-01-01

    为进一步清晰酸雨抑制植物生长的内在机制,采用水培法研究酸雨(pH 5.0—2.5)对水稻根系激素含量(生长素IAA、赤霉素GA、玉米素ZT、脱落酸ABA)、根系活力与质膜H+?ATPase活性及根系生长的影响.结果表明,与对照(CK)相比,经酸雨胁迫5 d后,pH 5.0组水稻幼苗根长及鲜重下降,但激素含量IAA和ABA、根系活力、H+?ATPase活性、根表面积和体积均显著上升,表明pH 5.0酸雨下水稻幼苗通过提高IAA、ABA含量,根系活力以及激活H+?ATPase活性调控水稻对营养的吸收,使根长及鲜重较其他酸雨处理组受抑较弱.pH 4.5、pH 3.5和pH 2.5酸雨组水稻幼苗IAA/ABA、GA/ABA、ZT/ABA、根系活力以及根系生长指标显著下降,表明pH 4.5、pH 3.5和pH 2.5酸雨降低激素含量影响根系细胞分裂和伸长,抑制根系活力导致水稻根系各生长指标受抑.将胁迫后幼苗移至对照条件下恢复5 d后,pH 5.0酸雨组根系活力和生长指标均恢复至CK,IAA/ABA、GA/ABA和ZT/ABA和质膜H+?ATPase活性有所上升;而pH 4.5—2.5酸雨组各指标变幅减小且优于胁迫期,表明水稻幼苗通过提高生长促进型激素(IAA、GA、ZT)含量、根系活力以及质膜H+?ATPase活性减轻酸雨对根系生长的制约,根系生长指标均有一定程度的恢复,且恢复程度受酸雨强度制约.%To clarify further the internal mechanism on damage caused by acid rain to plants, we studied effects of acid rain (pH 5.0—pH 2.5) on hormone concentrations (auxin IAA, gibberellin GA, zeatin ZT and abscisic acid ABA), root activity, plasma membrane H+?ATPase activity and growth in rice roots by hydroponic culture. Results show that root length and fresh weight in rice seedlings treated with acid rain at pH 5. 0 were lower than those of the control, whereas concentrations of IAA and ABA, root activity, H+?ATPase activity, root surface area and volume were higher. They indicate that the decrease of root length and fresh

  10. Rain Forest Murals

    Kleiner, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    The rain forest murals in the author's school began as a request from her principal to have students decorate the cafeteria with their own paintings. She decided to brainstorm ideas with her eighth-grade students. Taking into consideration the architectural space and the environmental concerns they wanted to convey, students chose the rain forest…

  11. Effects of Simulated Acid Rain on Growth,Physiology and Quality of Crop in Northeast of China%模拟酸雨对东北地区农作物生长、生理及品质的影响

    孟赫; 董德明; 王菊; 张胜楠; 侯洁; 杨萌尧; 房春生

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to reveal the effects of simulated acid rain on growth, physiology and quality of crop(pakchoi), in Northeast of China. Pakchoi growing in the greenhouse was exposed to simulated acid rain and to a control group. The results showed that the injury of pakchoi was highly correlated to pH of acid rain. Biomass and plant height decreased significantly after the exposure to simulated acid rain indicating that simulated acid rain may limit the growth of pakchoi. Compared with root, eat-part was more sensitive to acid rain. The contents of total free amino acids, soluble sugar,soluble protein and vitamin C were decreased under the treatment of simulated acid rain. As increasing acidity of simulated acid rain, the concentrations of quality decreased obviously. Under the treatment of weak acid, the synthesis of nutrients of pakchoi was promoted. The synthesis of chlorophyll and carotenoid were inhibited, and the photosynthesis affected by acid rain,which ultimately lead to lower production, quality degradation.%通过模拟试验,研究不同pH模拟酸雨胁迫对农作物(小白菜)生长、生理及品质的影响,量化不同PHH酸雨对小白菜的影响程度.试验结果表明:小白菜植株受害与pH密切相关,酸性越强,胁迫影响越显著,受害程度越重.随着酸雨酸性增强,小白菜生长受抑,生物量、株高等明显降低,食部鲜质量、干质量受影响程度比根部鲜质量、干质量大.在酸雨胁迫下,小白菜游离氨基酸总量、可溶性糖、可溶性蛋白质和维生素C含量均出现不同程度的降低,且酸性越强,受影响幅度越大,弱酸务件下可在一定程度上促进营养物质的合成.酸雨可抑制叶绿素类与类胡萝卜素合成,影响光合作用,最终导致产量降低、品质下降.

  12. Chemical analysis of acid rains collected in 1993 at ENEA Research Center of Brasimone, Bologna; Caratterizzazione chimiche delle deposizioni raccolte nel 1993 presso il Centro Ricerche ENEA del Brasimone, Bologna

    Barilli, L.; Olivieri, P. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche ``E. Clementel`` Bologna (Italy). Dip. di Ambiente; Salvi, S. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Brasimone, Bologna (Italy). Dip. di Ambiente

    1995-06-01

    In this paper the measurements of the water quality in acid rains, collected in 1993 at the ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) research centre of Brasimone station, are reported. Chemical analysis was performed on pH, the electric conductivity, the alkalinity and Ca, Mg, Na, K, NH{sub 4}, NO{sub 3}, SO{sub 4}, Cl concentrations in weekly samples.The wet depositions are weakly acid, the median value of pH being 5.94; this reflects that the most of samples have been of `bulk` type. Therefore the amount of the calcium ion has been very high and higly correlated with the alkalinity. The loads of nitrogen and sulfur are maximum in the first months of the year, after a period of lack of precipitations.

  13. Rain radar instrument definition

    Vincent, Nicolas; Chenebault, J.; Suinot, Noel; Mancini, Paolo L.

    1996-12-01

    As a result of a pre-phase a study, founded by ESA, this paper presents the definition of a spaceborne Rain Radar, candidate instrument for earth explorer precipitation mission. Based upon the description of user requirements for such a dedicated mission, a mission analysis defines the most suitable space segment. At system level, a parametric analysis compares pros and cons of instrument concepts associated with rain rate retrieval algorithms in order to select the most performing one. Several trade-off analysis at subsystem level leads then to the definition of the proposed design. In particular, as pulse compression is implemented in order to increase the radar sensitivity, the selected method to achieve a pulse response with a side-lobe level below--60 dB is presented. Antenna is another critical rain radar subsystem and several designs are com pared: direct radiating array, single or dual reflector illuminated by single or dual feed arrays. At least, feasibility of centralized amplification using TWTA is compared with criticality of Tx/Rx modules for distributed amplification. Mass and power budgets of the designed instrument are summarized as well as standard deviations and bias of simulated rain rate retrieval profiles. The feasibility of a compliant rain radar instrument is therefore demonstrated.

  14. Waving in the rain

    Cavaleri, Luigi; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond

    2015-01-01

    We consider the effect of rain on wind wave generation and dissipation. Rain falling on a wavy surface may have a marked tendency to dampen the shorter waves in the tail of the spectrum, the related range increasing with the rain rate. Following the coupling between meteorological and wave models, we derive that on the whole this should imply stronger wind and higher waves in the most energetic part of the spectrum. This is supported by numerical experiments. However, a verification based on the comparison between operational model results and measured data suggests that the opposite is true. This leads to a keen analysis of the overall process, in particular on the role of the tail of the spectrum in modulating the wind input and the white-capping. We suggest that the relationship between white-capping and generation by wind is deeper and more implicative than presently generally assumed.

  15. Estimating Rain Rates from Tipping-Bucket Rain Gauge Measurements

    Wang, Jianxin; Fisher, Brad L.; Wolff, David B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the cubic spline based operational system for the generation of the TRMM one-minute rain rate product 2A-56 from Tipping Bucket (TB) gauge measurements. Methodological issues associated with applying the cubic spline to the TB gauge rain rate estimation are closely examined. A simulated TB gauge from a Joss-Waldvogel (JW) disdrometer is employed to evaluate effects of time scales and rain event definitions on errors of the rain rate estimation. The comparison between rain rates measured from the JW disdrometer and those estimated from the simulated TB gauge shows good overall agreement; however, the TB gauge suffers sampling problems, resulting in errors in the rain rate estimation. These errors are very sensitive to the time scale of rain rates. One-minute rain rates suffer substantial errors, especially at low rain rates. When one minute rain rates are averaged to 4-7 minute or longer time scales, the errors dramatically reduce. The rain event duration is very sensitive to the event definition but the event rain total is rather insensitive, provided that the events with less than 1 millimeter rain totals are excluded. Estimated lower rain rates are sensitive to the event definition whereas the higher rates are not. The median relative absolute errors are about 22% and 32% for 1-minute TB rain rates higher and lower than 3 mm per hour, respectively. These errors decrease to 5% and 14% when TB rain rates are used at 7-minute scale. The radar reflectivity-rainrate (Ze-R) distributions drawn from large amount of 7-minute TB rain rates and radar reflectivity data are mostly insensitive to the event definition.

  16. Analysis of Temporal-spatial Variation Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Acid Rain in Guangxi dur- ing 2004 ~ 2011%2004-2011年广西酸雨时空变化特征及影响因素分析

    蒋芸芸

    2012-01-01

    基于2004-2011年广西14个设区市及部分县的降水监测数据,对降水pH值进行统计和空间插值,分析广西酸雨特征的变化趋势和时空分布状况,并探讨影响广西酸雨形成的主要因素。结果表明,2004~2011年,广西降水pH值年均值均小于5.6,酸雨城市比例自2007年起逐年下降;酸雨发生频率在25%以上的城市比例自2006年起逐年下降;2004-2007年,广西酸雨区域分布格局变化不大,自2008年起,广西酸雨区域面积呈现较大幅度的减少。广西的酸雨污染有所减轻,这与广西近年来对二氧化硫排放量的严格控制有关。%Based on the acid rain monitoring data of 14 cities and some counties in Guangxi Province during 2004-2011,the annual variation trend and temporal-spatial distribution of the acid rain were analyzed, and the influencing factors were explored. The results showed that the annual mean pH value was less than 5.6 during 2004-2011. The proportion of acid rain cities annually had decreased since 2007, and the proportion of acid rain cities with acid rain occurrence frequency being over than 25% had decreased gradually since 2006. During 2004-2007,the distribution pattern of Guangxi acid rain region slightly changed. The area of acid rain region in Guangxi dramatically decreased. The rigid control of the SO2 emission recent years in Guangxi is play an important role in the decrease of pollution caused by acid rain.

  17. Slouching in the Rain

    Bailey, Herb

    2013-01-01

    A number of papers find the velocity that minimizes the wetness of a traveler caught in the rain. In this capsule we determine, in addition, the necessary amount of forward bend (slouching) so that the traveler stays as dry as possible.

  18. Torrential Rain in China

    2007-01-01

    Concentric ovals of red, orange, yellow, and green are draped over southern China, showing rainfall totals for the week of June 4 through June 11, 2007. The rainfall totals are from the Goddard Space Flight Center Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis, which is based on rainfall measurements taken by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. Though seasonal rains are not unexpected in the area, the rain that fell during the week was torrential and relentless. As the image shows, a broad stretch of China received up to 200 millimeters (8 inches) of rain, and some areas were inundated with up to 500 millimeters (20 inches). Floods and landslides resulted, destroying crops and forcing some 643,000 people from their homes, reported the Xinhua News Agency on ReliefWeb. As of June 11, 71 people had died and 13 were missing. The most affected area was the southern coast, where rainfall totals are highest in this image. Heavy tropical rains combined with steep mountains make southeastern China prone to devastating landslides. Monitoring landslide-producing conditions typically requires extensive networks of ground-based rain gauges and weather instruments. But many developing countries in high-risk areas lack the resources to maintain such systems; heavy rains and flooding often wash away ground-based instruments. Robert Adler, a senior scientist in the Laboratory for Atmospheres at Goddard Space Flight Center, and Yang Hong, a research scientist at Goddard Earth Sciences Technology Center, are confronting the problem by developing a satellite-based system for predicting landslides. The system relies on TRMM data to predict when rainfall in different areas has reached a landslide-triggering threshold. The system makes data available on the Internet just a few hours after the satellite makes its observations. To read more about the landslide-monitoring system, please read the feature article Satellite Monitors Rains That Trigger Landslides, http

  19. 模拟酸雨对水芹根部NH4+ NO3- 、H+离子通量的影响%Effects of simulated acid rain on NH4+, NO3-, H + ion fluxes in roots of Oenanthe javanica

    罗英; 薛建辉; 尹璐; 吴殿鸣

    2012-01-01

    氮素是植物生长发育必需的营养元素,利用水生植物吸收水体中的氮素是富营养化水体生态修复的重要途径.以水芹(Oenanthe javanica)为研究材料,在中富营养和超富营养两种水平下,探讨模拟酸雨对水芹根部H+、NH4+和NO3-离子流及根系活力的影响.结果表明,酸雨对水芹根系吸收水体中氮素产生影响,并随富营养化水平提高其影响加大.分析发现:(1)水芹对NH4+有吸收偏好;(2)与对照相比,模拟酸雨降低了根部H+的外排,相应地减弱了NH4+的内流,增加了NO3-的外排,但对根系活力无显著影响;(3)超富营养水平下,酸雨对水芹离子流的影响增强,并使根系活力显著降低.%Nitrogen is necessary for plant growth of the nutritional elements. To absorb Nitrogen from eutrophicational water by using aquatic plants is important means to ecological restoration. Acid rain has become a serious region environment problem. China is the third acid rain area in the world. It should be further studied that how aquatic plants responded with simulated acid rain, and how acid rain effected on the nutrition cycle of roots. It was significant for the further physiological and ecological studies on the interrelationship between acid rain and aquatic plants in acid rain region. In this study, Oenanthe javanica was selected as research material to study the effects of simulated acid rain on H+ , NH4+ , NO3- fluxes in the roots and root activity among middle eutropher or hyper eutropher. The results showed: (1) 0. javanica preference to absorption of NH4+. (2)Compared with the contrast, simulated acid rain reduced H + effluxes, receded NH4+ influxes, increased NO3- effluxes, and no significant effect on the root activity. (3)The effect of simulated acid rain on ion fluxes in the roots was enhanced and the root activity was significant deceased among hyper eutropher. To conclude that acid rain affected the absorption of Nitrogen ions fluxes and

  20. Weighing Rain Gauge Recording Charts

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weighing rain gauge charts record the amount of precipitation that falls at a given location. The vast majority of the Weighing Rain Gauge Recording Charts...

  1. 模拟酸雨对银杏雌雄幼苗生长及生理特性的影响%Effects of Simulated Acid Rain on the Growth and Physiological Features of Female and Male Ginkgo biloba Seedlings

    蒋雪梅; 戚文华; 肖娟; 胥晓

    2014-01-01

    本试验采用盆栽方法,研究了4种pH值(5.6、5.0、4.0、3.0)条件下的模拟酸雨对银杏雌、雄幼苗生长及叶片主要生理生化特性的影响。结果表明,随着模拟酸雨pH值的不断降低,银杏雌、雄幼苗地上部分可见伤害逐渐出现,其叶片相对含水量、光合色素含量和抗氧化酶活性逐渐降低,而丙二醛、可溶性蛋白质和游离脯氨酸含量逐渐升高。与pH值为5.6的对照相比, pH值5.0和4.0的模拟酸雨对上述测定值的影响并不明显,而在pH值3.0的模拟酸雨处理后,大部分测定值的变化幅度达到了显著水平。尽管在上述4种处理条件下银杏雌、雄幼苗地上部分所表现出的可见伤害并无明显差异,但从叶片相对含水量、比叶面积、抗氧化酶活性、光合色素含量和各种生化物质含量的测定值进行分析发现,银杏雄株内部生理生化过程受到的干扰要大于雌株。由此推测,高浓度的酸雨(pH=3.0)会影响银杏雌、雄幼苗的正常生长,其耐酸阈值应在pH值4.0~3.0间,且银杏雌株幼苗在耐酸性方面强于雄株。%We conducted a series of pot experiments to study the effects of simulated acid rain on the growth and physiological features of 3-year-old seedlings in female and male Ginkgo biloba. The leaves of female and male Ginkgo biloba were sprayed with simulated acid rain (pH=3.0, 4.0, or 5.0), and the treatment with pH 5.6 as the control. The results showed that under simulated acid rain stress, the aerial parts injury of female and male Ginkgo biloba seedlings gradually exposed, and leaf relative water content, photosynthetic pigment con-tent and antioxidase activity decreased simultaneously as the pH of rainwater decreased;while the malondialde-hyde, soluble protein and free proline content increased gradually. Compared with the control of pH 5.6, the above-mentioned values as affected by acid rain of pH 5.0 and 4.0 were inlfuenced

  2. When It Rains, It Pours

    Mills, Linda

    2012-01-01

    "It's raining, it's pouring, the old man is snoring!" "The itsy, bitsy spider crawled up the waterspout, down came the rain and washed the spider out. Out came the sun and dried up all the rain, and the itsy, bitsy spider went up the spout again." What do children's nursery rhymes have to do with the school library? The author begins by telling a…

  3. Ação do enxofre em chuva ácida simulada sobre parâmetros morfofisiológicos de Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae = Sulfur effect by simulated acid rain on morphophysiological parameters of the bean plant

    Bruna Borba Dias

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de analisar os efeitos do enxofre e da chuva ácida simulada sobre a estrutura foliar do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L, nos aspectos morfoanatômicos, teores de clorofila a, b, total e feofitina. As plantas-controle sofreram simulações de chuva com pH 6,0 e as plantas-teste sofreram simulação de chuva ácida com pH 3,0. As concentrações de clorofila a, b e total diminuíram no estádio de floração (R6. Já, no estádio R7, onde surgem as primeiras vagens, os teores aumentaram, indicando possível resistência e/ou adaptação dos espécimes às simulações ácidas. O tratamento ácido afetou a concentração de clorofila que foi degradada por processos oxidativos sem a sua conversão em feofitina. Também se observou diminuição na frequência de tricomas tectores e glandulares, assim como de estômatos. As injúrias visualizadas foram classificadas como de caráter leve, provavelmente pela existência de anexos epidérmicos para proteção foliar e peciolar.The goal of this work was to evaluate the effects of sulfur and simulated acid rain on the leaf of Phaseolus vulgaris. Acid rain (pH 3.0 and an aqueous solution (Ph 6.0 were performed on test and control plants, respectively. A decrease in chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll concentrations was observed in theflowering stage (R6. However, increased rates were determined in the maturation stage (R7, which can suggest a resistance and/or adjustment of the plants to the acid simulation conditions. The acid treatment achieved chlorophyll degradation by oxidative processes without conversion to pheophytin. A reduction was also seen in the number of glandular and non-glandular trichomes and stomata on the test plants. Moreover, only small injuries were verified on the blade and peciolar areas of the tested individuals of P. vulgaris, probablydue to the presence of the reported epidermal structures.

  4. Effects of Simulated Acid Rain on the Migration and Transformation of Hexavalent Chromium in a Water Spinach-soil System%模拟酸雨对空心菜-土壤系统中六价铬迁移转化的影响

    陈桂葵; 李志鹏; 陈恋; 刘明中; 黎华寿

    2013-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of acid rain on the distribution, migration and transformation of hexavalent chromium in a water spinach(Ipomoea aquatica) soil system. Results showed that the amount of total chromium in water spinach treated with simulated acid rain was significantly higher than those without acid rain. The content of chromium in the underground part of water spinach was significantly higher than it in the aboveground part in treatments with simulated acid rain. While water spinach could survive and grow normally in soil with 100 mg·kg-1 chromium, they couldn't survive in soil with chromium up to 200 mg·kg-1. Valences of more than 97.0% added hexavalent chromium was changed. The majority portion of the chromium was remained in soil. Only very small portion was absorbed by water spinach. The simulated acid rain could significantly enhance the absorption rate of chromium by water spinach. The amount of absorbed chromium in treatments with acid rain was 2.6 to 5 times as those in the treatments without acid rain. The chromium enrichment coefficients were 2.2 and 4.6 for the aboveground part and the underground part of water spinach respectively by comparing the treatments with and without acid rain. The research result shows that acid rain increases the risk of crop grown in soil contaminated by chromium especially through the absorption of chromium by root system. Hence, agricultural food safety problem in chromium polluted area will be enhanced by acid rain.%通过盆栽试验,研究了模拟酸雨条件下六价铬在土壤和空心菜之间的分布、迁移和转化规律.结果发现,酸雨处理显著提高了空心菜体内铬的含量,其中空心菜地下部的铬含量显著高于其地上部;空心菜在100 mg·kg-1的铬处理下仍然可以正常生长,但当土壤中的铬达到200 mg· kg-1时,空心菜生长数天后即全部死亡;添加到土壤中的六价铬97.0%以上已经转化成其他形态而留

  5. Physiochemical properties of soils at Risdalsheia and Sogndal: RAIN project

    Lotse, E.; Otabbong, E.

    1985-01-01

    The RAIN project investigates the interactions between acid deposition, vegetation, soil and water. This report presents physical and chemical properties of soil samples collected in the fall of 1982. These are background data before the artificial acidification at Sogndal and the exclusion of acid rain at Risdalsheia started. The Risdalsheia soils are strongly acid with ph (H2O) values ranging from 3.7 to 4.7. The Sogndal soils are weakly acid with ph (H2O) values varying between 4.2 and 5.8...

  6. The Effect of Simulated Acid Rain on the Leaching Behavior of Havy Metals from Brick Made in MSWI Lime - ash%模拟酸雨对污泥焚烧灰渣砖中重金属浸出影响

    刘世宇; 童飞; 陈兴凡

    2012-01-01

    Bricks made in ted acid rain. Effect of soaking municipal sludge waste incineration (MSWI) lime - ash were soaked in kinks of simulatime of brick and pH of simulated acid rain on the leaching behavior of heavy metals from the bricks was investigated. Results showed that under the same dip in times, the total leaching concentration of 4 kinds of heavy metals was Cr, Mn, Cu and Fe, with the simulated acid rain pH accretion and drop. At the pH 4.4 of simulated acid rain, the order to leaching concentration of 4 kinds of heavy metals was Cr 〉 Mn 〉 Cu 〉 Fe, after 8 h dip in times. The total leaching concentration of Cd, Ni and Cu was lower than 0. 1 ppb, at the kinks of simulated acid rain.%用不同pH的模拟酸雨浸泡掺杂污泥焚烧灰渣自制的混凝土路面砖,探讨了相同浸泡时间时,模拟酸雨pH对自制路面砖中重金属浸出的影响。结果表明,在相同浸泡时间时,铬、锰、铜、铁的浸出浓度都随着模拟酸雨pH的增大而下降。在pH为4.4的模拟酸雨中,浸泡时间大于8小时后,铬、锰、铜、铁浸出浓度的大小关系是铬〉锰〉铜〉铁。而镉、镍、铅的浸出浓度在各种模拟酸雨中都小于0.1 ppb。

  7. Automated Rain Sampler for Real time pH and Conductivity Measurements

    Weerasinghe, R.; Pannila, A. S.; M. K. Jayananda; Sonnadara, D. U. J.

    2015-01-01

    To monitor the acidity of rain water in real time, a rain water sampling system was developed. The rain sampler detects the initial rain after a dry spell and collects a water sample. Before performing the measurements, the pH probe is calibrated using a standard buffer solution whereas the conductivity probe is calibrated using deionized water. After calibrating the probes the pH and the conductivity of the collected rain water sample are measured using the pH and the conductivity probe. Wea...

  8. Soil Chemistry 1983-86 at the Rain Project Catchments

    Lotse, E.G.; Wright, R.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the rain project is to explain the effects of changed acid deposition on soils and waters. This report presents results from chemical and physical analyses of soil samples collected yearly 1984-1986 at the rain project catchments at Sogndal and Risdalsheia. Estimates of historical weathering rates based on total elemental analysis of soil and bedrock are 295 and 12 meq/m"/yr at Sogndal and Risdalsheia, respectively. Of the key chemical parameters measured only absorbed sulfate show...

  9. Rain pH estimation based on the particulate matter pollutants and wet deposition study.

    Singh, Shweta; Elumalai, Suresh Pandian; Pal, Asim Kumar

    2016-09-01

    In forecasting of rain pH, the changes caused by particulate matter (PM) are generally neglected. In regions of high PM concentration like Dhanbad, the role of PM in deciding the rain pH becomes important. Present work takes into account theoretical prediction of rain pH by two methods. First method considers only acid causing gases (ACG) like CO2, SO2 and NOx in pH estimation, whereas, second method additionally accounts for effect of PM (ACG-PM). In order to predict the rain pH, site specific deposited dust that represents local PM was studied experimentally for its impact on pH of neutral water. After incorporation of PM correction factor, it was found that, rain pH values estimated were more representative of the observed ones. Fractional bias (FB) for the ACG-PM method reduced to values of the order of 10(-2) from those with order of 10(-1) for the ACG method. The study confirms neutralization of rain acidity by PM. On account of this, rain pH was found in the slightly acidic to near neutral range, despite of the high sulfate flux found in rain water. Although, the safer range of rain pH blurs the severity of acid rain from the picture, yet huge flux of acidic and other ions get transferred to water bodies, soil and ultimately to the ground water system. Simple use of rain pH for rain water quality fails to address the issues of its increased ionic composition due to the interfering pollutants and thus undermines severity of pollutants transferred from air to rain water and then to water bodies and soil. PMID:27139302

  10. Music after the rain

    2006-01-01

    The group Home Cooking (left to right: Jean-Marie Planche, Tony Arnold, Serge Waeffler, Django Manglunki) entertains the crowd with a humoristic blues/rock performance. The earth moved in Prévessin on 29 July. This was not an earthquake but an 'international' music event, the seventeenth CERN Hardronic Festival, which saw musicians from many different countries, including Russia, Britain, Spain, France, Belgium and the USA, take to the stage. The audience rocked to music from eight different groups until the early hours. About a thousand people flocked to CERN to hear what the best of its musical talents had to offer. The evening was very nearly a wash-out, though. After a week of scorching hot temperatures, the heavens suddenly opened and the rain didn't stop until a few minutes before the first act came on stage. Thanks to this narrow escape, the organisers can boast a 17-year run of rain-free Hardronic festivals. All the different musical styles were given a warm reception, from traditional Russian folk...

  11. EFFECTS OF SIMULATED ACID RAIN STRESS ON GAS EXCHANGE AND CHLOROPHYLL A FLUORESCENCE PARAMETERS IN LEAVES OF LONGAN%模拟酸雨对龙眼叶片气体交换和叶绿素a荧光参数的影响

    邱栋梁; 刘星辉; 郭素枝

    2002-01-01

    Longan (Dimorcarpus longana Lour. cv. Wulongling) seedlings of two different ages grown in pots were selected to study the effects of acid rain stress on gas exchange, and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters and their recovery. Sulfuric acid and nitric acid were selected for the preparation of artificial acid rain, based on the mole ratio 1:5 of sulfuric acid to nitric acid in the precipitation of southern Fujian. Dilution of reagent grade acid was done with distilled water and determined by Phsj-4 acidity analyzer. A series of solutions of simulated acid rains with pH 5.6, 3.0 and 2.5 were prepared. A sprayer was used to apply the acid solution to young trees. At each application, leaves were thoroughly wetted. Sprays were repeated 12 times in 6 h at 30 min intervals. Gas exchange was detected with an open gas analyzer CID-301PS, and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters with OS5-FL modulated chlorophyll fluorometer.The results showed that photosynthesis was inhibited by acid rain stress, and light compensation point (LCP) of stressed leaves increased. Gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters of leaves were reduced after 6 h stress with acid rain of pH 3.0, and could be recovered to the level of control 72 h after the treatment ended. Net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Cs), transpiration rate (Tr), ratio of variable fluorescence to initial fluorescence (Fv/F0), ratio of variable fluorescence to maximum fluorescence (Fv/Fm), quantum yield of PSⅡelectron transport (ΦPSⅡ), ratio of fluorescence decrease (Rfd), nonphotochemical quenching (qN) and photochemical quenching (qP) were reduced after a 6 h stress with acid rain of pH 2.5, and could not be recovered 72 h after the stress ceased. Intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) decreased under treatment with acid rain of pH 2.5, rose in the first day and surpassed the level of control 72 h after the acid rain spraying stopped. Dark respiration (Rd) was increased by acid rain, and

  12. Evaluation of the behavior of clouds in a region of severe acid rain pollution in southern China: species, complexes, and variations.

    Sun, Lei; Wang, Yan; Yue, Taixing; Yang, Xueqiao; Xue, Likun; Wang, Wenxing

    2015-09-01

    Cloud samples were collected during the summer of 2011 and the spring of 2012 at a high-elevation site in southern China in an effort to examine the chemical characteristics of acid clouds. In total, 141 cloud samples were collected during 44 cloud events over the observation period. The dominant ionic species were SO4(2-), NH4(+), and NO3(-), contributing approximately 75% of the total inorganic ion concentration. The primary acidifying factors were sulfate and nitrate, and the primary neutralizing factors were ammonium and calcium. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) pH of the cloud water was 3.79, indicating an acidic nature. In these cloud samples, Zn and Al exhibited the highest trace metal concentrations, contributing approximately 60% of the total trace element concentration. Toxic metals, such as Pb, Ba, As, and Cr, were detected at high concentrations, indicating potential hazards for human health, vegetation, and waters in this region. Visual MINTEQ 3.0 results revealed that the majority of Zn(II) and Pb(II) existed in the form of free ions. The behavior of Al, however, differed from the behaviors of zinc and lead. The temporal variation in cloud chemistry indicated that temperature, sandstorms, and long-range transport could affect the concentrations of species. During the lifetime of a cloud event, the concentrations of the chemical species were controlled by the transfer of gases or particles to liquid droplets. PMID:25976330

  13. Effect of simulated acid rain on biomass and physiological index of rape (Brassica napus L.) seedling%模拟酸雨对油菜幼苗生物量及其生理指标的影响

    张佩; 周琴; 张国正; 王福政; 江海东; 濮梅娟

    2010-01-01

    采用土培的方法研究了不同pH值的模拟酸雨(acid rain,AR)对油菜幼苗生长的影响.结果表明,pH≥4.0的酸雨刺激幼苗生长,生物量和色素含量维持在与对照(pH6.0)相当或更高的水平;抗氧化酶(超氧化物歧化酶SOD、过氧化物酶POD和过氧化氢酶CAT)活性和非酶抗氧化剂(抗坏血酸AsA和谷胱甘肽GSH)含量与对照相比无显著差异.随着酸雨酸度的进一步增强(pH≤4.0),油菜幼苗的生物量、色素含量、抗氧化酶活性和非酶抗氧化剂含量逐渐下降,且下降速度越来越快;膜脂发生过氧化,丙二醛含量和相对电导率显著增加.当pH≤2.5时,幼苗叶片可观察到不同程度的伤斑.

  14. The Rain Keeps Falling

    Deborah Rose

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The force of disaster hit me in the heart when, as a young woman, I heard Bob Dylan sing ‘Hard Rain’. In a voice stunned by violence, the young man reports on a multitude of forces that drag the world into catastrophe. In the 1960s I heard the social justice in the song. In 2004 the environmental issues ambush me. The song starts and ends in the dying world of trees and rivers. The poet’s words in both domains of justice are eerily prophetic. They call across the music, and across the years, saying that a hard rain is coming. The words bear no story at all; they give us a series of compelling images, an account of impending calamity. The artistry of the poet—Bob (Billy Boy Dylan—offers sequences of reports that, like Walter Benjamin’s storm from paradise, pile wreckage upon wreckage.

  15. Regional characteristics of land use in northeast and southern Blue Ridge province: Associations with acid-rain effects on surface-water chemistry

    The Direct/Delayed Response Project (DDRP) is one of several being conducted by the United States Environmental Protection Agency to assess risk to surface waters from acidic deposition in the eastern United States. In one phase of DDRP, land use, wetland, and forest cover data were collected for statistical samples of 145 northeast lakes and 35 southern Blue Ridge Province stream watersheds. Land use and other data were then extrapolated from individual to target watershed populations in both study regions. Project statistical design allows summarization of results for various subsets of the target population. The article discusses results and implications of the land-use and land-cover characterization for both regions

  16. 模拟酸雨对赣南稀土矿淋滤实验研究%Leaching experiments on rare earth ore in Southern Jiangxi under condition of simulated acid rain

    温春辉; 刘祖文; 张念; 徐春燕; 张旭东

    2016-01-01

    采用模拟土柱淋滤实验研究酸雨条件下浸矿土壤和尾矿土壤中氮化物的迁移.选取有机玻璃管为试验柱,模拟酸雨淋滤液pH为5.4~5.6,测量两类土壤中NH4+-N、NO3--N、有效氮含量,实验结果表明:稀土土壤对铵态氮有一定截留作用,铵态氮流失是导致矿区土壤及周边水环境污染的主要原因;铵态氮在两类土壤的含量随着淋洗量增加而逐渐减少;硝态氮在两类土壤的含量随着淋洗量增加呈现先减少至最低再有所回升,且受土壤pH和土壤埋深影响;有效氮在两类土壤中的迁移特征与铵态氮相似.实验研究为有效控制赣南稀土矿土壤污染和水体污染提供理论基础.%The leaching mine and tailings migration of nitrogen in the soil were studied by simulation of soil column and leaching experiment under the condition of acid rain. The organic glass tube was chosen for testing column, the pH value of acid rain drench filtrate was simulated at 5.4~5.6, and the two types of NH4+-N, NO3--N, and effective nitrogen content in the soil were measured. The experimental results show that the rare earth soil play a certain role in entrapment of ammonia nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen loss, which is the main cause of water pollution in mining area and the surrounding soil. Ammonia nitrogen in the two types of the content of the soil reduce gradually as the elution volume increases. The NO3--N in the two types of the content of soil re-duce to a minimum first then recovered with elution volume rendering increase, and it is affected by soil pH and soil depth. The characteristics of effective nitrogen migration in two kinds of soil are similar to ammonia nitrogen. Experimental study provides the theoretical foundation for the effective control soil pollution and wa-ter pollution of the rare earth ores in Southern Jiangxi.

  17. RAIN project. Annual report for 1987

    Wright, R.

    1988-01-01

    The RAIN project (Reversing Acidification in Norway) is an international research project aimed at investigating the effect on water and soil chemistry of changing acid deposition to whole catchment. The results from 1987 represent 4 years of treatment from Sogndal and 3 1/2 years at Risdalsheia. The original 5-year project period will be extended an additional 3 year through June 1991. Sulfate concentration have increased from about 20-25 µeg/l to 50-57 µeg/l at SOG2 and 35-45 µeg/l at SOG4....

  18. Thermal power plants and acid rain

    The slow acidification of the environment and the frequent occurrence of the precipitation with pH lower than 5.6 over areas continuously extending are caused by the pollutant releases, especially SO2 and NOx from anthropic sources. There is a relationship between the SO2 release from the high stacks of thermal power plants and the long-range transfrontier pollution. The most efficient method to avoid damage on environment is to reduce the releases from stationary and mobile sources. (author)

  19. Automated Rain Sampler for Real time pH and Conductivity Measurements

    Weerasinghe, R; Jayananda, M K; Sonnadara, D U J

    2015-01-01

    To monitor the acidity of rain water in real time, a rain water sampling system was developed. The rain sampler detects the initial rain after a dry spell and collects a water sample. Before performing the measurements, the pH probe is calibrated using a standard buffer solution whereas the conductivity probe is calibrated using deionized water. After calibrating the probes the pH and the conductivity of the collected rain water sample are measured using the pH and the conductivity probe. Weather parameters such as air temperature, humidity and pressure are also recorded simultaneously. The pH and conductivity measurement data including weather parameters are transmitted to central station using a GSM modem for further analysis. The collected rain water sample is preserved at the remote monitoring station for post chemical analysis. A programmable logic controller controls the entire process.

  20. Effect of Simulated Acid Rain on Physiological and Bio-chemical Characteristics of Ficus elastica cv. Deco-ra%模拟酸雨胁迫对橡胶榕生理生化特征的影响

    吴中军; 李君可

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of simulated acid rain with different pH (3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 7.0) onthe leaf injury, soluble sugar content, catalase activity, net photosynthetic rate, malondialdehyde (MDA) content and freeproline content of the potted seedlings of Ficus elastica cv. Deco-ra. With the decrease of pH value, the percent of foliardamage gradually increased; soluble sugar content first decreased and then increased, and a maximum is attained at pH of3.0; catalase activity firstly increased and then decreased, and its maximum appeared at pH of 4.0; the proline contentand MDA content both gradually increased, and reached their maximum values at pH of 3.0; the net photosynthetic rateshowed an irregular decrease.%采用盆栽方法研究了4种不同pH值(3.0、4.0、5.0、7.0)的模拟酸雨对榕树幼苗叶片损伤、可溶性糖质量分数、净光合速率(Pn)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性、丙二醛(MDA)质量摩尔浓度、游离脯氨酸质量摩尔浓度的影响.结果表明:叶片受害率随着pH值的降低而增高;可溶性糖质量分数随着pH值的降低先减小后增高,在pH=3.0时迭最大值;CAT活性随着pH值的降低先增大后降低,在pH=4.0时达最大值;游离脯氨酸、MDA质量摩尔浓度随着pH值的降低均逐渐增高,且都在pH=3.0时达最大值;净光合速率随着pH值的降低与对照相比,呈现不规律下降.

  1. Climate change as a confounding factor in reversibility of acidification: RAIN and CLIMEX projects

    R. F. Wright; Jenkins, A.

    2001-01-01

    The RAIN and CLIMEX experiments at Risdalsheia, southernmost Norway, together cover 17 years (1984-2000) of whole-catchment manipulation of acid deposition and climate. A 1200 m2 roof placed over the forest canopy at KIM catchment excluded about 80% of ambient acid deposition; clean rain was sprinkled under the roof. A climate change treatment (3.7°C increase in air temperature and increase in air carbon dioxide concentrations to 560 ppmv) was superimposed on the clean rain treatment for...

  2. Large deviations and rain showers

    Wilkinson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Rainfall from ice-free cumulus clouds requires collisions of large numbers of microscopic droplets to create every raindrop. The onset of rain showers can be surprisingly rapid, much faster than the mean time required for a single collision. Large-deviation theory is used to explain this observation.

  3. Vegetable production after heavy rains

    It is not clear if extraordinary precipitation stored in the soil was able to support vegetable crops planted after rains events returned to normal levels. Cucumber and sweet corn were established from seed and non-pungent jalapeno peppers were established from 8-week old transplants on beds. Half...

  4. Voronoi Diagrams and Spring Rain

    Perham, Arnold E.; Perham, Faustine L.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this geometry project is to use Voronoi diagrams, a powerful modeling tool across disciplines, and the integration of technology to analyze spring rainfall from rain gauge data over a region. In their investigation, students use familiar equipment from their mathematical toolbox: triangles and other polygons, circumcenters and…

  5. Large deviations and rain showers

    Wilkinson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Rainfall from ice-free cumulus clouds requires collisions of large numbers of microscopic droplets to create every raindrop. The onset of rain showers can be surprisingly rapid, much faster than the mean time required for a single collision. Large-deviation theory is used to explain this observation.

  6. The adaptation mechanism of plasma membrane H + -atpase in rice leaves to acid rain stress%水稻叶片质膜H+-ATPase对酸雨胁迫的适应机制∗

    葛玉晴; 吕霞; 梁婵娟∗∗

    2013-01-01

      采用水培法研究酸雨胁迫对水稻叶片质膜 H +-ATPase 活性的影响,结果表明,高强度酸雨(pH 2.5和 pH 3.0组)胁迫下,pH 2.5组质膜 H +-ATPase 活性显著受抑,胞内 pH 降低,POD 活性受抑,pH3.0组质膜H +-ATPase 活性上升,胞内 pH 降低,POD 活性升高,质膜透性和 MDA 含量均增加,Fv/ Fm 和叶鲜重降低;低强度酸雨(3.0< pH≤5.5)胁迫下,质膜 H +-ATPase 活性应激升高,虽胞内 pH 降低,POD 活性升高,质膜未遭明显损伤,对生长的抑制程度明显低于高强度酸雨胁迫.可见,酸雨胁迫下,质膜功能蛋白 H +-ATPase 能在一定范围内调节胞内 pH,进而缓解大量 H +引发的活性氧积累,减轻质膜损伤,从而增强作物对酸雨胁迫的抗逆性和适应性.%The effect of acid rain( AR) on plasma membrane H + -ATPase activity of rice leaves was investigated under hydroponic conditions in order to explore the relationship between change of H + -ATPase activity and adaptation of plants to AR stress. The results show that AR (pH 2. 5) led to a decrease in plasma membrane H + -ATPase activity, intracellular pH and POD activity,while AR ( pH 3. 0) led to an increase in plasma membrane H + -ATPase activity and POD activity and a decrease in intracellular pH Both groups led to an increase in membrane permeability and MDA content, and reduced Fv / Fm and fresh weight of leaves. AR (3. 0 < pH≤5. 5) caused an increase in the plasma membrane H + -ATPase activity and POD activity, and a decrease in intracellular pH. However, no obvious change was observed for membrane permeability and MDA content, indicating that low intensity of AR did not obviously damage cell membrane. Inhibition of low intensity AR on growth was less than that caused by high intensity AR. Under AR stress, H + -ATPase in plasma membrane can regulate intracellular pH within a certain range, and alleviate the damage caused by excess H + on plasma membrane, thereby showing that crop stress resistance

  7. Chemical and isotopic methods for characterization of pollutant sources in rain water

    The acid rain formation is related with industrial pollution. An isotopic and chemical study of the spatial and temporary distribution of the acidity in the rain gives information about the acidity source. The predominant species in the acid rain are nitrates and sulfates. For the rain monitoring is required the determination of the anion species such as HCO3, Cl, SO4, NO3 and p H. So it was analyzed the cations Na+ , K+ , Ca2+ and Mg2+ to determine the quality analysis. All of them species can be determined with enough accuracy, except HCO3 by modern equipment such as, liquid chromatograph, atomic absorption, etc. The HCO3 concentration is determined by traditional methods like acid-base titration. This work presents the fundamental concepts of the titration method for samples with low alkalinity (carbonic species), for rain water. There is presented a general overview over the isotopic methods for the characterization of the origin of pollutant sources in the rain. (Author)

  8. Quality in the organizations (enterprises and institutions of production and of services). Validation of the determination by atomic absorption of sodium and potassium in acid rain; Calidad de las organizaciones (empresas e instituciones de produccion y de servicios). Validacion de la determinacion por absorcion atomica de sodio y potasio en lluvia acida

    Arreola T, D.L

    2005-07-01

    The present work is focused to the environmental area and in specific to the validation of an analytical method by means of one of the techniques more used for the determination of metals, the atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Applied to the study of the acid rain and its diverse forms in the nature. As well as their consequences and the role that the man carries out in the contribution toward this phenomenon. To approach the following text it will be mention shortly how is distributed, beginning with the introduction that is about the importance of the role of the acid rain, its effects and repercussions in the environment. In the first chapter the points that we should be evaluated to carry out a validation are analyzed. Being the main ones, the precision, accuracy, lineal interval, among others. Continuing in the second chapter with the foundation study, equipment and interferences of the atomic absorption spectrophotometry technique. The last chapter contains the experimental part, continuing for each evaluated point, from the experimental development, results and its analysis. (Author)

  9. Study on the Change of Soil Organic Matter Content of Moisture Soil in Pearl River Delta by High Intensity Simulated Acid Rain Leaching Experiment%高强度模拟酸雨淋滤珠江三角洲地区潮土的有机质含量变化研究

    李展强; 杨晓艳; 曾宇斌; 陈福

    2011-01-01

    采用高强度(平均离子强下10年、20年、30年雨量)模拟酸雨淋滤珠江三角洲地区的潮土,用重铬酸钾滴定法测定淋滤后土壤的有机质含量。研究表明:高强度模拟酸雨对土壤有机质含量的影响不大。各层土有机质含量变化最大的为下降13.04%,最小的为-1.33%。%The moisture soil in Pearl Rivet Delta was leached by high intensity(ten,twenty and thirty years rainfall amount) simulated acid rain and the content of soil organic matter was determined by titration with potassium dichromate.The study showed that the high intensity simulated acid rain had little influence on the change of soil organic matter content.The maximum percent of decrement of soil organic matter content was 13.04 %,and the minimum was-1.33 %.

  10. Evidence of trends in rain event size effecting trends in rain fade

    Paulson, Kevin S.

    2016-03-01

    Rain gauge studies have shown that the incidence of rain at rates associated with outage on terrestrial links has shown an increasing trend in several countries over the last 30 years. However, no evidence is available from microwave links to show whether outage rates, or the incidence of fade, is similarly increasing. This paper presents evidence of fade trends, derived from a decade of rain radar data. Although a decade is too short a period to observe rain rate trends, evidence is presented that trends in the size of rain events is leading to changes in the relationship between point rain rates and rain fade. Furthermore, these trends are shown to vary significantly across the UK. Temporal trends in both rain rates and their link to rain fade, make it more difficult to adapt International Telecommunication Union Radiocommunication Reccomendations to a changing climate.

  11. Effects of simulated acid rain on seed germination and seedling growth of different type corn (Zea mays)%模拟酸雨对不同类型玉米种子萌发和幼苗生长的影响

    张海艳

    2013-01-01

    以普通玉米、糯玉米、爆裂玉米和甜玉米为材料,研究了不同模拟酸雨(pH 6.0、5.0、4.0、3.0、2.0、1.0)对玉米种子萌发和幼苗生长的影响.结果表明:pH 2.0 ~5.0模拟酸雨对玉米种子萌发和幼苗生长没有显著影响;pH l.0处理的普通玉米、糯玉米、爆裂玉米和甜玉米的种子发芽率分别为91.3%、68.7%、27.5%和11.7%.与pH 6.0处理(CK)相比,pH l.0模拟酸雨显著降低了玉米种子的发芽率、发芽指数、活力指数、发芽速度、苗高、根长、苗和根干物质、贮藏物质运转效率,延长了平均发芽时间.pH l.0模拟酸雨对玉米幼苗生长阶段的影响大于发芽阶段,对幼苗地下部分的影响大于地上部分;受基因型的影响,普通玉米和糯玉米的抗酸雨能力最强,其次为爆裂玉米,甜玉米最差.玉米属于抗酸雨作物,酸雨抑制阈值介于pH1.0~2.0之间.酸雨地区可优先选择种植普通玉米和糯玉米.%Taking normal corn,waxy corn,pop corn,and sweet corn as test materials,this paper studied their seed germination and seedling growth under effects of simulated acid rain (pH 6.0,5.0,4.0,3.0,2.0,and 1.0).Simulated acid rain at pH 2.0-5.0 had no significant effects on the seed germination and seedling growth,but at pH 1.0,the germination rate of normal corn,waxy corn,pop corn,and sweet corn was 91.3%,68.7%,27.5%,and 11.7%,respectively.As compared with those at pH 6.0 (CK),the germination rate,germination index,vigor index,germination velocity,shoot height,root length,shoot and root dry mass,and the transformation rate of stored substances at pH 1.0 had significant decrease,and the average germination time extended apparently.At pH 1.0,the effects of acid rain were greater at seedling growth stage than at germination stage,and greater on underground part than on aboveground part.Due to the differences in gene type,normal corn and waxy corn had the strongest capability against acid rain

  12. RainTools Software Development

    Van Luijtelaar, Dirk Jan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this Bachelor’s thesis was to develop the RainTools software pack-age for the customer, Stichting RIONED, and learn about the process of soft-ware development. The main aim of this Bachelor’s thesis was to learn the ca-pabilities and possibilities of C# in combination with WPF and XAML as op-posed to regular WinForms. To achieve this brainstorm began to develop a user interface for the customer to translate input data to XML, feed it to a third party application, read the re-su...

  13. MEASUREMENTS OF RAIN DROP SIZE DISTRBUTION FROM RADAR REFLECTIVITY AND ASSOCIATED RAIN ATTENUATION OF RADIO WAVES

    A. B. Bhattacharya,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Radar measurements of rainfall at different climatological conditions have been taken into account emphasizing rain rate and associated radar reflectivity. It is observed from the analysis that thereflectivity measurement is being consistent at high rain intensities. From the knowledge of radar reflectivity, the rain drop size distribution is examined. The most probable drop size diameter and rain rate have been calculated wherefrom it appears that the most probable rain drop size vary exponentially with radar reflectivity and also with rain rate. The theoretical model implemented by using the measured rain drop sizes over the tropical sites also show similar kind of variation. For estimating rain attenuation two important parameters, viz., the point rainfall rates and the vertical and horizontal structures of rain have been considered. The elevation angle we have chosen is ~ 560 as most of the stations in India havethat value of elevation angle with geostationary satellite. Taking the frequencies 11 to 14 GHz separately and 00 C isotherm height as 5.0 km, the effective rain height values are determined. The attenuation of radio waves due to rain are calculated for different rain rates assigning different γ-values. The attenuation is found to vary significantly with the γ-values. Also the attenuation curves are closer when the γ-values are of low order. An increase in attenuation with the γ-values is found to be more prominent for higher rain rates.

  14. Rain from Tropical Storm Noel

    2007-01-01

    Though not the most powerful storm of the 2007 Atlantic Hurricane season, Tropical Storm Noel was among the most deadly. Only Category 5 Hurricane Felix and its associated flooding had a higher toll. The slow-moving Tropical Storm Noel inundated the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Cuba, and the Bahamas with heavy rain between October 28 and November 1, 2007. The resulting floods and mudslides left at least 115 dead and thousands homeless throughout the Caribbean, reported the Associated Press on November 2, 2007. This image shows the distribution of the rainfall that made Noel a deadly storm. The image shows rainfall totals as measured by the Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (MPA) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center from October 26 through November 1, 2007. The analysis is based on measurements taken by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. The heaviest rainfall fell in the Dominican Republic and the Bahamas, northeast of Noel's center. Areas of dark red show that rainfall totals over the south-central Dominican Republic and parts of the Bahamas were over 551 millimeters (21 inches). Much of eastern Hispaniola, including both the Dominican Republic and Haiti received at least 200 mm (about 8 inches) of rain, shown in yellow. Rainfall totals over Haiti and Cuba were less, with a range of at least 50 mm (2 inches) to over 200 mm (8 inches).

  15. Rain Attenuation Analysis using Synthetic Storm Technique in Malaysia

    Lwas, A. K.; Islam, Md R.; Chebil, J.; Habaebi, M. H.; Ismail, A. F.; Zyoud, A.; Dao, H.

    2013-12-01

    Generated rain attenuation time series plays an important role for investigating the rain fade characteristics in the lack of real fade measurements. A suitable conversion technique can be applied to measured rain rate time series to produce rain attenuation data and be utilized to understand the rain fade characteristics. This paper focuses on applicability of synthetic storm technique (SST) to convert measured rain rate data to rain attenuation time series. Its performance is assessed for time series generation over a tropical location Kuala Lumpur, in Malaysia. From preliminary analysis, it is found that SST gives satisfactory results to estimate the rain attenuation time series from the rain rate measurements over this region.

  16. Evaluation of TRMM Ground-Validation Radar-Rain Errors Using Rain Gauge Measurements

    Wang, Jianxin; Wolff, David B.

    2009-01-01

    Ground-validation (GV) radar-rain products are often utilized for validation of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spaced-based rain estimates, and hence, quantitative evaluation of the GV radar-rain product error characteristics is vital. This study uses quality-controlled gauge data to compare with TRMM GV radar rain rates in an effort to provide such error characteristics. The results show that significant differences of concurrent radar-gauge rain rates exist at various time scales ranging from 5 min to 1 day, despite lower overall long-term bias. However, the differences between the radar area-averaged rain rates and gauge point rain rates cannot be explained as due to radar error only. The error variance separation method is adapted to partition the variance of radar-gauge differences into the gauge area-point error variance and radar rain estimation error variance. The results provide relatively reliable quantitative uncertainty evaluation of TRMM GV radar rain estimates at various times scales, and are helpful to better understand the differences between measured radar and gauge rain rates. It is envisaged that this study will contribute to better utilization of GV radar rain products to validate versatile spaced-based rain estimates from TRMM, as well as the proposed Global Precipitation Measurement, and other satellites.

  17. Rain garden guidelines for southwest Ohio

    Rain gardens are a unique and practical landscape feature that can enhance the beauty of home gardens. When properly installed, they are one method of limiting the negative effects of rainfall runoff in urban areas. Indeed, rain gardens turn a "negative" into a "positive" by capt...

  18. Desert Dust and Monsoon Rain

    Lau, William K. M.; Kim, Kyu-Myong

    2014-01-01

    For centuries, inhabitants of the Indian subcontinent have know that heavy dust events brought on by strong winds occur frequently in the pre-monsoon season, before the onset of heavy rain. Yet scientists have never seriously considered the possibility that natural dust can affect monsoon rainfall. Up to now, most studies of the impacts of aerosols on Indian monsoon rainfall have focused on anthropogenic aerosols in the context of climate change. However, a few recent studies have show that aerosols from antropogenic and natural sources over the Indian subcontinent may affect the transition from break to active monsoon phases on short timescales of days to weeks. Writing in Nature Geoscience, Vinoj and colleagues describe how they have shown that desert dust aerosols over the Arabian Sea and West Asia can strenghten the summer monsoon over the Indial subcontinent in a matter of days.

  19. Non-rain deposition significantly modifies rain samples at a coastal site

    R. Losno; Colin, J.L.; Spokes, L.; T. Jickells; M. Schulz; Rebers, A.; Leermakers, M.; Meuleman, C.; Baeyens, W.F.J.

    1998-01-01

    Rain water sampling in marine areas was undertaken by four groups working independently at the same lime at the same place. The analytical results of the samples collected exhibit large variations and the main cause of these variations is the "non-rain deposition" as sea salt during the rain itself. The collected water is a mixture of rain water and variable amounts of more concentrated sea salt transported by the wind. This non-rain deposition is influenced by the exposure geometry of the sa...

  20. A Bayesian Probabilistic Framework for Rain Detection

    Chen Yao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Heavy rain deteriorates the video quality of outdoor imaging equipments. In order to improve video clearness, image-based and sensor-based methods are adopted for rain detection. In earlier literature, image-based detection methods fall into spatio-based and temporal-based categories. In this paper, we propose a new image-based method by exploring spatio-temporal united constraints in a Bayesian framework. In our framework, rain temporal motion is assumed to be Pathological Motion (PM, which is more suitable to time-varying character of rain steaks. Temporal displaced frame discontinuity and spatial Gaussian mixture model are utilized in the whole framework. Iterated expectation maximization solving method is taken for Gaussian parameters estimation. Pixels state estimation is finished by an iterated optimization method in Bayesian probability formulation. The experimental results highlight the advantage of our method in rain detection.

  1. Scale Dependence of Spatiotemporal Intermittence of Rain

    Kundu, Prasun K.; Siddani, Ravi K.

    2011-01-01

    It is a common experience that rainfall is intermittent in space and time. This is reflected by the fact that the statistics of area- and/or time-averaged rain rate is described by a mixed distribution with a nonzero probability of having a sharp value zero. In this paper we have explored the dependence of the probability of zero rain on the averaging space and time scales in large multiyear data sets based on radar and rain gauge observations. A stretched exponential fannula fits the observed scale dependence of the zero-rain probability. The proposed formula makes it apparent that the space-time support of the rain field is not quite a set of measure zero as is sometimes supposed. We also give an ex.planation of the observed behavior in tenus of a simple probabilistic model based on the premise that rainfall process has an intrinsic memory.

  2. Chemical Composition of Rain Water in Lebanon

    Samples of rainfall water were collected from fifteen stations in Lebanon during the period between October 1999 and April 2000 (the rainy season in Lebanon). Nine of these stations are distributed along the urban coastal cities, from the north to the south. The remaining 6 stations which have different altitudes ranging fom 400 m to 1200 m high are distributed in the mountainous rural areas. The concentrations of major cations (H+ ,Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and NH+4) and major anions (Cl-, NO-3 , HCO-3 and SO2-4 are determined for the first time in Lebanon. It has been found that the rain water is not acidic, due to the presence of carbonate dust particles in the atmosphere, which arise from the natural carbonate rocks, especially predominance in the mountains and internal regions of Lebanon. The high predominance of Na+ and Cl- in the coastal investigated stations, is attributed to marine aerosol spray. The concentrations of SO-4 and NO-3 are close to the concentrations expected in typical urban areas. The correlation between the concentration of chemical species confirms the influence of natural and anthropogenic sources. (author)

  3. Climate change as a confounding factor in reversibility of acidification: RAIN and CLIMEX projects

    R. F. Wright; Jenkins, A.

    2001-01-01

    International audience The RAIN and CLIMEX experiments at Risdalsheia, southernmost Norway, together cover 17 years (1984-2000) of whole-catchment manipulation of acid deposition and climate. A 1200 m2 roof placed over the forest canopy at KIM catchment excluded about 80% of ambient acid deposition; clean rain was sprinkled under the roof. A climate change treatment (3.7°C increase in air temperature and increase in air carbon dioxide concentrations to 560 ppmv) was superimposed on the cle...

  4. NESDIS Blended Rain Rate (RR) Products

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The blended Rain Rate (RR) product is derived from multiple sensors/satellites. The blended products were merged from polar-orbiting and geostationary satellite...

  5. Rain Erosion/Measurement Impact Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The FARM Rain Erosion/Impact Measurement Lab develops solutions for deficiencies in the ability of materials, coatings and designs to withstand a severe operational...

  6. Vegetation and pollen rain relationship from the tropical Atlantic rain forest in Southern Brazil

    Hermann Behling; Raquel R.B. Negrelle

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between the southern Brazilian tropical Atlantic lowland rain forest and modern pollen rain was studied by pollen traps. The study was carried out on a one hectare plot undisturbed rain forest of the reserve Volta Velha and two secondary forests, ± 50 and 7 years old. About 248 identified tree, shrub and herb species (excluding epiphytes) of 50 families were represented by 126 different pollen and spore types (including non-local taxa). The calculated average influx of...

  7. Providing driving rain data for hygrothermal calculations

    Kragh, Mikkel Kristian

    1996-01-01

    Due to a wish for driving rain data as input for hygrothermal calculations, this report deals with utilizing commonly applied empirical relations and standard meteorological data, in an attempt to provide realistic estimates rather than exact correlations.......Due to a wish for driving rain data as input for hygrothermal calculations, this report deals with utilizing commonly applied empirical relations and standard meteorological data, in an attempt to provide realistic estimates rather than exact correlations....

  8. Neutral rains at Athens, Greece: a natural safeguard against acidification of rains

    Samples of all rains in a period from October, 1998 to January, 1999 at Athens, Greece, were collected. The pH values of almost all of these rains clustered in a high range of 7.0-7.5, with no relation between pH and their SO42-, NO3- and Cl- contents. In addition, a few rains with low contents of chemical components similar to pure water also were observed, giving a pH (approx. 5.5) of rain caused by dissolution of only atmospheric CO2 in it. These results indicate that the level of air pollution of Athens by human activity has become lower during the last decade, restoring the neutral condition of rain in this area. Furthermore, the Ca contents and Ca/Mg ratios in these rains, as well as their chemical and isotopic behavior, suggest that particles of calcium carbonate taken in as dust act as a neutralizer of rains. The dust must be derived not only from the urban area of Athens but also from its environs or areas distant from it. Such a mechanism causing universally neutral rains throughout the rainy season at Athens must have worked as a natural safeguard against rains acidified naturally and artificially from ancient times up to recent years, keeping the remains of ancient Greece in a good state of preservation during such a long period

  9. Neutral rains at Athens, Greece: a natural safeguard against acidification of rains

    Kita, Itsuro; Sato, Takayuki; Kase, Yoshinori; Mitropoulos, Panagiotis

    2004-07-05

    Samples of all rains in a period from October, 1998 to January, 1999 at Athens, Greece, were collected. The pH values of almost all of these rains clustered in a high range of 7.0-7.5, with no relation between pH and their SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -} and Cl{sup -} contents. In addition, a few rains with low contents of chemical components similar to pure water also were observed, giving a pH (approx. 5.5) of rain caused by dissolution of only atmospheric CO{sub 2} in it. These results indicate that the level of air pollution of Athens by human activity has become lower during the last decade, restoring the neutral condition of rain in this area. Furthermore, the Ca contents and Ca/Mg ratios in these rains, as well as their chemical and isotopic behavior, suggest that particles of calcium carbonate taken in as dust act as a neutralizer of rains. The dust must be derived not only from the urban area of Athens but also from its environs or areas distant from it. Such a mechanism causing universally neutral rains throughout the rainy season at Athens must have worked as a natural safeguard against rains acidified naturally and artificially from ancient times up to recent years, keeping the remains of ancient Greece in a good state of preservation during such a long period.

  10. Neutral rains at Athens, Greece: a natural safeguard against acidification of rains.

    Kita, Itsuro; Sato, Takayuki; Kase, Yoshinori; Mitropoulos, Panagiotis

    2004-07-01

    Samples of all rains in a period from October, 1998 to January, 1999 at Athens, Greece, were collected. The pH values of almost all of these rains clustered in a high range of 7.0-7.5, with no relation between pH and their SO(4)(2-), NO(3)(-) and Cl(-) contents. In addition, a few rains with low contents of chemical components similar to pure water also were observed, giving a pH (approx. 5.5) of rain caused by dissolution of only atmospheric CO(2) in it. These results indicate that the level of air pollution of Athens by human activity has become lower during the last decade, restoring the neutral condition of rain in this area. Furthermore, the Ca contents and Ca/Mg ratios in these rains, as well as their chemical and isotopic behavior, suggest that particles of calcium carbonate taken in as dust act as a neutralizer of rains. The dust must be derived not only from the urban area of Athens but also from its environs or areas distant from it. Such a mechanism causing universally neutral rains throughout the rainy season at Athens must have worked as a natural safeguard against rains acidified naturally and artificially from ancient times up to recent years, keeping the remains of ancient Greece in a good state of preservation during such a long period. PMID:15172587

  11. Endangering of the groundwater by acid rain - investigations in the catchment area of a drinking-water gallery of the Wiesbadener Hochtaunus. Pt. 1. Presentation of the investigation area and description of the water section-model

    A research programme for water- and groundwater-acidification was realized in the catchment-area of the shallow groundwater-gallery ''Kalter Born'', which is part of the public water supply of Wiesbaden. The water chemistry of the sources and galleries shows the strongest acidification in the upper part of the aquifer, whereas the deeper groundwater sections show less acidification symptoms. Therefore the water of the deep gallery ''Kellerskopfstollen'' is nearly free of acidification signs in consequence of its long percolation distance (about 200-300 m) between the infiltration level and the gallery. On the other hand, we get an absolutely acid water with pH-values of about 4 and aluminium-concentrations of about 6 mg/l from the upper sources representing the highest groundwater level in the investigation area. As a whole, the aquifer can at least be separated in 4 levels of well distinguishable acidification rates. An exact analysis of the change of ion-concentrations by the water passage between the different water sections shows, that a considerable part of the acid depositions (H+) is temporarily neutralized by the aluminium puffer close below the infiltration level. So the acid is transported downwards masked as aluminium sulfates. In deeper regions the masked acid is converted and finally neutralized by contact with carbonates. (orig.)

  12. Relationships between soil moisture and needle-fall in Masson pine forests in acid rain region of Chongqing, Southwest China%重庆酸雨区受害马尾松林土壤水分与针叶凋落的关系

    王轶浩; 王彦辉; 李振华; 于澎涛; 熊伟; 郝佳; 段健

    2012-01-01

    From March 2009 to November 2011, an investigation was conducted on the spatiotem-poral variation of soil moisture and its effects on the needle-fall in Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) forests in acid rain region of Chongqing, Southeast China, with the corresponding soil moisture thresholds determined. No matter the annual precipitation was abundant, normal or less than average , the seasonal variation of soil moisture in the forests could be obviously divided into four periods , i. e. , sufficient ( before May) , descending ( from June to July) , drought ( from August to September), and recovering (from October to November). With increasing soil depth, the soil moisture content increased after an initial decrease, but the difference of the soil moisture content among different soil layers decreased with decreasing annual precipitation. The amount of monthly needle-fall in the forests in growth season was significantly correlated with the water storage in root zone (0-60 cm soil layer) , especially in the main root zone (20-50 cm soil layer). Soil field capacity (or capillary porosity) and 82% of field capacity (or 80% of capillary porosity) were the main soil moisture thresholds affecting the litter-fall. It was suggested that in acid rain region, Mas-son pine forest was easily to suffer from water deficit stress, especially in dry-summer period. The water deficit stress, together with already existed acid rain stress, would further threaten the health of the Masson forest.%2009年3月-2011年11月,研究了重庆铁山坪酸雨区马尾松林土壤水分的时空变化及其对针叶凋落的影响,并确定了其相应的土壤水分阈值.结果表明:无论是丰水年、平水年还是少水年,马尾松林土壤水分年内变化均明显分为丰富期(5月前)、下降期(6-7月)、伏旱期(8-9月)和恢复期(10-11月);随土层深度增加,土壤含水量先减少后增加,各土层间土壤含水量的差异随年降水量的

  13. Study on Germination Characteristics of Perilla frutescens under Simulation Environment of Acid Rain and Bryophyta%模拟酸雨及苔藓植物化感条件下紫苏种子萌发特性的研究

    谢天; 江安娜; 王曼君; 颜凤; 方元平; 项俊

    2012-01-01

    通过模拟酸雨胁迫及苔藓化感作用两种不同的生长环境,初步探讨了模拟酸雨及3种苔藓凤尾藓(Fissidens bryoides)、提灯藓(Mnium hornum)、缩叶藓(Ptychomitrium)种植水对紫苏(Perilla frutescens)种子萌发特性的影响.结果表明,pH为5.0及以上的低浓度模拟酸雨环境对紫苏种子的萌发及幼苗生长影响不大,但随着酸化程度的加深,对紫苏种子萌发的抑制作用明显增加,当pH降到1.0时种子不发芽.紫苏幼苗叶片POD活力随胁迫时间的延长呈先升后降的趋势.而叶片MDA含量除pH为5.0处理组与对照组相近外,其他胁迫浓度下均有显著增加,说明pH低于5.0紫苏幼苗生长受到较严重损害.在苔藓种植水培养环境中,与对照组相比,紫苏种子发芽率、发芽指数、活力指数均随苔藓植物种植水浓度的升高而升高,在浓度为100%时对种子萌发的促进效果最为显著.%By simulating two different growth environment, acid rain stress and moss allelopathy, the effects of acid rain and three bryophyte cultivate water (Fissidens bryoides ,Mnium hornum,Ptychomitrium) on Perilla frutescens seed germination was studied. The results showed that the simulated acid rain with pH lower than 5.0 had little effect on P. frutescens seed germination and seedling growth; as the increasing of acidification, there was a significant inhibition of seed germination, and the seed could not germinate under the pH lower than 1.0. The POD activity in P. frutescens blade increased firstly and then decreased as the stress time prolonged, and the MDA content was decreased when pH was lower than 5.0, suggesting that P. frutescens seedling growth was affected by pH lower than 5.0. In the culture water environment, compared to the control, P. frutescens germination rate, germination index, vigor index increased as the bryophyte planting concentration increasing, and the treatment with the most significant effect was 100% bryophyte planting

  14. Rain-Shelter Cultivation Modifies Carbon Allocation in the Polyphenolic and Volatile Metabolism of Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay Grapes

    Han, Mei-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Fan; Li, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the biosynthesis of flavonoids and volatiles in grapes, with an aim of determining whether rain-shelter application could help to improve the sensory attributes and quality of grapes. Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay grapes, grown in the Huaizhuo basin region of northern China, were selected within two consecutive years. A rain-shelter roof was constructed using a colorless polyethylene (PE) film with a light transmittance of 80%. Results showed that rain-shelter treatment did not affect the accumulation of soluble solids during grape maturation. However, the allocation of assimilated carbon in phenolic and volatile biosynthetic pathways varied significantly, leading to alterations in polyphenolic and volatile profiles. The rain-shelter cultivation enhanced the concentration of flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3’5’-hydroxylase (F3’5’H) pathway, but reduced the level of flavonols and flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3’-hydroxylase (F3’H) pathway. In addition, the rain-shelter cultivation significantly enhanced the synthesis of fatty acid-derived volatiles, isoprene-derived terpenoids and amino acid-derived branched-chain aliphatics, but led to a decrease in the accumulation of isoprene-derived norisoprenoids and amino acid-derived benzenoids. Principal component analysis revealed some key compounds that differentiated the grapes cultivated under open-field and rain-shelter conditions. Moreover, the effect of the rain-shelter application on the accumulation of these compounds appeared to be vintage dependent. The alteration of their profiles caused by the rain-shelter treatment was significant in the vintage that received higher rainfall, which usually took place in the first rapid growth and veraison phases. PMID:27218245

  15. Climate change as a confounding factor in reversibility of acidification: RAIN and CLIMEX projects

    R. F. Wright

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The RAIN and CLIMEX experiments at Risdalsheia, southernmost Norway, together cover 17 years (1984-2000 of whole-catchment manipulation of acid deposition and climate. A 1200 m2 roof placed over the forest canopy at KIM catchment excluded about 80% of ambient acid deposition; clean rain was sprinkled under the roof. A climate change treatment (3.7°C increase in air temperature and increase in air carbon dioxide concentrations to 560 ppmv was superimposed on the clean rain treatment for four years (1995-1998. Sea-salt inputs and temperature are climate-related factors that influence water chemistry and can confound long-term trends caused by changes in deposition of sulphur and nitrogen. The RAIN and CLIMEX experiments at Risdalsheia provided direct experimental data that allow quantitative assessment of these factors. Run-off chemistry responded rapidly to the decreased acid deposition. Sulphate concentrations decreased by 50% within three years; nitrate and ammonium concentrations decreased to new steady-state levels within the first year. Acid neutralising capacity increased and hydrogen ion and inorganic aluminium decreased. Similar recovery from acidification was also observed at the reference catchment, ROLF, in response to the general 50% reduction in sulphate deposition over southern Norway in the late 1980s and 1990s. Variations in sea-salt deposition caused large variations in run-off chemistry at the reference catchment ROLF and the year-to-year noise in acid neutralising capacity was as large as the overall trend over the period. These variations were absent at KIM catchment because the sea-salt inputs were held constant over the entire 17 years of the clean rain treatment. The climate change experiment at KIM catchment resulted in increased leaching of inorganic nitrogen, probably due to increased mineralisation and nitrification rates in the soils. Keywords: acid deposition, global change, water, soil, catchment, experiment, Norway.

  16. Rain retrieval method for mesoscale convective systems

    Cadeddu, M.P.; Dalu, G. [CNR, Centro Nazionale delle Ricerche, Cagliari (Italy). Area della Ricerca; Prabhakara, C. [NASA, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center; Iacovazzi, R. [Hughs, STX, Lanham, MD (United States)

    1999-04-01

    The analysis of recent high-resolution aircraft observations over the ocean made by radar and passive microwave radiometer reveals significant problems in relating the brightness temperature measurements of the radiometer with the radar-derived rain rates. A predominant cause of this problem is that the information on rain drops contained in the radiometric measurements is contaminated by scattering and emission from other hydro meteors present in the field of view (fov) of the radiometer. Extensive observations of rain rate made by ship-borne radars and by the multichannel Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I), with a much larger fov, lead to similar conclusions. Considering the variability in the meteorological conditions, and in the hydro meteors spatial distribution, the authors developed an empirical method to estimate rain rates based on two parameters derived from SSM/I data, which are related to the convective dynamics. The calibration of this empirical algorithm was performed with radar ground truth for November 1992, available over the TOGA-COARE (Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere-Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment) region. Then the algorithm was applied to the same TOGA-COARE region for the remaining three months available. The comparison between the estimated rain rate and the radar observations gives a correlation coefficient of about 0.85, and the monthly total estimated rainfall has an error of about 13%. This rain retrieval method, tuned for Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs), is applicable to the Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM), where microwave radiometric observations and simultaneous radar observations are available.

  17. Study of interference by rain scatter

    Capsoni, C.; Paraboni, A.; Barbaliscia, F.; Martellucci, A.; Ordano, L.; Tarducci, D.; Poiares Baptista, J. P. V.

    Of the more important aspects of the problem of rain-scatter interference between radio links at frequencies above 10 GHz, some involve electromagnetic phenomena and the interaction between waves and scattering particles, and others the statistical properties of the rain structures and their influence on the interference statistics resulting from the movement of these structures across the antenna beams. The main physical, geometrical and 'system' aspects that play a role in the interference phenomena are briefly reviewed and appraised. The statistical aspects are also considered and the effects of the rain's spatial structure are described. The role of the radiating characteristics of the antennas is also considered. The algorithms proposed are then applied to practical systems and the results discussed. The main areas investigated are the bistatic radar equation, the effect of wave polarization and drop shape, a model for the horizontal structure of rain, a model for the spatial distribution of rain cells, the effect of the real antenna pattern, and the degradation of radio system performance.

  18. Rain-induced spring wheat harvest losses

    Bauer, A.; Black, A. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    When rain or a combination of rain and high humidity delay wheat harvest, losses can occur in grain yield and/or grain quality. Yield losses can result from shattering, from reduction in test weight, and in the case of windrowed grain, from rooting of sprouting grain at the soil: windrow contact. Losses in grain quality can result from reduction in test weight and from sprouting. Sprouting causes a degradation of grain proteins and starches, hence flour quality is reduced, and the grain price deteriorates to the value of feed grain. Although losses in grain yield and quality are rain-induced, these losses do not necessarily occur because a standing or windrowed crop is wetted by rain. Spike water concentration in hard red spring wheat must be increased to about 45-49% before sprouting is initiated in grain that has overcome dormancy. The time required to overcome this dormancy after the cultivar has dried to 12 to 14% water concentration differs with hard red spring cultivars. The effect of rain on threshing-ready standing and windrowed hard red spring wheat grain yeild and quality was evaluated. A goal was to develop the capability to forecast the extent of expected loss of grain yield and quality from specific climatic events that delay threshing.

  19. MULTIDIMENSIONAL MODELING OF CORONAL RAIN DYNAMICS

    Fang, X.; Xia, C.; Keppens, R. [Centre for mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, KU Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2013-07-10

    We present the first multidimensional, magnetohydrodynamic simulations that capture the initial formation and long-term sustainment of the enigmatic coronal rain phenomenon. We demonstrate how thermal instability can induce a spectacular display of in situ forming blob-like condensations which then start their intimate ballet on top of initially linear force-free arcades. Our magnetic arcades host a chromospheric, transition region, and coronal plasma. Following coronal rain dynamics for over 80 minutes of physical time, we collect enough statistics to quantify blob widths, lengths, velocity distributions, and other characteristics which directly match modern observational knowledge. Our virtual coronal rain displays the deformation of blobs into V-shaped features, interactions of blobs due to mostly pressure-mediated levitations, and gives the first views of blobs that evaporate in situ or are siphoned over the apex of the background arcade. Our simulations pave the way for systematic surveys of coronal rain showers in true multidimensional settings to connect parameterized heating prescriptions with rain statistics, ultimately allowing us to quantify the coronal heating input.

  20. MULTIDIMENSIONAL MODELING OF CORONAL RAIN DYNAMICS

    We present the first multidimensional, magnetohydrodynamic simulations that capture the initial formation and long-term sustainment of the enigmatic coronal rain phenomenon. We demonstrate how thermal instability can induce a spectacular display of in situ forming blob-like condensations which then start their intimate ballet on top of initially linear force-free arcades. Our magnetic arcades host a chromospheric, transition region, and coronal plasma. Following coronal rain dynamics for over 80 minutes of physical time, we collect enough statistics to quantify blob widths, lengths, velocity distributions, and other characteristics which directly match modern observational knowledge. Our virtual coronal rain displays the deformation of blobs into V-shaped features, interactions of blobs due to mostly pressure-mediated levitations, and gives the first views of blobs that evaporate in situ or are siphoned over the apex of the background arcade. Our simulations pave the way for systematic surveys of coronal rain showers in true multidimensional settings to connect parameterized heating prescriptions with rain statistics, ultimately allowing us to quantify the coronal heating input.

  1. Rain Drop Measurement Techniques: A Review

    Gopinath Kathiravelu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For over a century there have been many studies that describe the use of rain drop measurement techniques. Initial manual measurement methods evolved due to improved technology to include photographic and, more recently, automated disdrometer and laser measurement techniques. Despite these numerous studies, there have been few comparative reviews of the range of methodologies, and their relative performance. This review explores the raindrop measurement techniques available, and summarizes and classifies the techniques according to the method or principle involved. The requirements of a robust raindrop measurement technique are suggested, and these are reviewed against existing rain drop measurement techniques to provide a comparative guide to the use of the range of techniques available for any research study. This review revealed that while advances in technology have allowed many of the deficiencies of early techniques to be eliminated, challenges remain in relation to the precision of the measurement of the size, shape, and velocity of rain drops.

  2. Propagating Characteristics of Pulsed Laser in Rain

    Jing Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand the performance of laser ranging system under the rain weather condition, we need to know the propagating characteristics of laser pulse in rain. In this paper, the absorption and attenuation coefficients were calculated based on the scattering theories in discrete stochastic media, and the propagating characteristics of laser pulse in rain were simulated and analyzed using Monte-Carlo method. Some simulation results were verified by experiments, and the simulation results are well matched with the experimental data, with the maximal deviation not less than 7.5%. The results indicated that the propagating laser beam would be attenuated and distorted due to the scattering and absorption of raindrops, and the energy attenuation and pulse shape distortion strongly depended on the laser pulse widths.

  3. Multidimensional modeling of coronal rain dynamics

    Fang, X; Keppens, R

    2013-01-01

    We present the first multidimensional, magnetohydrodynamic simulations which capture the initial formation and the long-term sustainment of the enigmatic coronal rain phenomenon. We demonstrate how thermal instability can induce a spectacular display of in-situ forming blob-like condensations which then start their intimate ballet on top of initially linear force-free arcades. Our magnetic arcades host chromospheric, transition region, and coronal plasma. Following coronal rain dynamics for over 80 minutes physical time, we collect enough statistics to quantify blob widths, lengths, velocity distributions, and other characteristics which directly match with modern observational knowledge. Our virtual coronal rain displays the deformation of blobs into $V$-shaped like features, interactions of blobs due to mostly pressure-mediated levitations, and gives the first views on blobs which evaporate in situ, or get siphoned over the apex of the background arcade. Our simulations pave the way for systematic surveys o...

  4. A slight recovery of soils from Acid Rain over the last three decades is not reflected in the macro nutrition of beech (Fagus sylvatica) at 97 forest stands of the Vienna Woods.

    Berger, Torsten W; Türtscher, Selina; Berger, Pétra; Lindebner, Leopold

    2016-09-01

    Rigorous studies of recovery from soil acidification are rare. Hence, we resampled 97 old-growth beech stands in the Vienna Woods. This study exploits an extensive data set of soil (infiltration zone of stemflow and between trees area at different soil depths) and foliar chemistry from three decades ago. It was hypothesized that declining acidic deposition is reflected in soil and foliar chemistry. Top soil pH within the stemflow area increased significantly by 0.6 units in both H2O and KCl extracts from 1984 to 2012. Exchangeable Ca and Mg increased markedly in the stemflow area and to a lower extent in the top soil of the between trees area. Trends of declining base cations in the lower top soil were probably caused by mobilization of organic S and associated leaching with high amounts of sulfate. Contents of C, N and S decreased markedly in the stemflow area from 1984 to 2012, suggesting that mineralization rates of organic matter increased due to more favorable soil conditions. It is concluded that the top soil will continue to recover from acidic deposition. However, in the between trees areas and especially in deeper soil horizons recovery may be highly delayed. The beech trees of the Vienna Woods showed no sign of recovery from acidification although S deposition levels decreased. Release of historic S even increased foliar S contents. Base cation levels in the foliage declined but are still adequate for beech trees. Increasing N/nutrient ratios over time were considered not the result of marginally higher N foliar contents in 2012 but of diminishing nutrient uptake due to the decrease in ion concentration in soil solution. The mean foliar N/P ratio already increased to the alarming value of 31. Further nutritional imbalances will predispose trees to vitality loss. PMID:27344089

  5. Rain in the U.S. Midwest

    2007-01-01

    The powerful storms that moved across the U.S. Midwest during the first week of May 2007 brought wind, hail, tornadoes, and drenching rain. This image shows rainfall totals over parts of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska between May 1 and May 8, based in part on measurements made by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. More than 400 millimeters (15.7 inches) of rain fell over some regions, corresponding with locations where the National Weather Service reported severe weather. A wide swath of red and orange (between 240 and 400 millimeters of rain) arcs in a clockwise direction from western Oklahoma, through central Kansas, and into southeastern Nebraska. The reddish-orange bull's-eye over southeastern Louisiana is evidence of the torrential rains that pounded visitors to the annual New Orleans Jazz Festival. South-central Texas' Edward Plateau was soaked with more than 240 millimeters of rain during the period, as well. From May 4 to May 8, the National Weather Service received approximately 683 reports of severe weather, 140 of which were reports of tornadoes, including the massive F5 tornado that devastated the city of Greensburg, Kansas. Beyond the damaging winds and tornadoes, the torrential rain triggered extensive flooding throughout the Central Plains. On the evening of May 7, flood warnings were in effect from South Dakota to southern Texas, and by May 8, the Hydrologic Information Center reported moderate to major flooding at 53 stream gauge sites in South Dakota, Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, Missouri, and Arkansas. The floods could be as severe as the 1993 flood, one of the costliest floods in U.S. history, reported the Associated Press.

  6. The litter-fall characteristics and their response to drought stress in the Masson pins forests damaged by acid rain at Chongqing, China%重庆酸雨区马尾松林凋落物特征及对干旱胁迫的响应

    王轶浩; 王彦辉; 于澎涛; 熊伟; 李振华; 郝佳; 段健

    2013-01-01

    The health condition of forests especially those already damaged in the acid rain region will be increasingly influenced by the increasing extreme drought events caused by climate change.Understanding the forest health response to multiple stresses is a new challenge.The characteristics of litter-fall can be used as an important indicator to reflect forest health condition and its response to environmental stresses.The aim of this study is to detect how drought stress affect the litter-fall characteristics of forests for a better understanding and more precise prediction of the forest health decline in the acid rain region of south China.Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) is a native and widely distributed tree species in south China, it is also one of the most important tree species used for forestation and widely damaged by acid rain.The litter-fall quantity and its components ( dead needles, green needles, twigs, debris, bark and cones, and broad leaves of other tree species) in the Masson pine forest stands were monitored at Tieshanping of Chongqing in 2010, and their responses to soil moisture was analyzed through Pearson correlation.The results showed that the monthly variation of litter-fall presented a "two-peak" pattern.The highest peak appeared in the dry-summer period of August-September with the lowest soil moisture and amounted to 2.30 t/hm2 ; the second peak appeared during the dormancy period of December and was only 0.65 t/ hm ; the amount of litter-fall in the two peak periods accounted for 49.56% of the annual total (5.96 t/hm ) in 2010.The annual dead needle was 2.89 t/hm ; it accounted for 48.42% of the annual total of litter-fall.The order of weight percentage of the litter-fall components was; needles > twigs > broad leaves > debris > bark and cones.The variation of monthly dead needle amount well presented the variation of total litter-fall amount.The monthly proportion of dead needle to total litter-fall was almost the highest in the whole year

  7. Rain initiation time in turbulent warm clouds

    Falkovich, G; Vucelja, M

    2004-01-01

    We present a mean-field model that describes droplet growth due to condensation and collisions and droplet loss due to fallout. The model allows for an effective numerical simulation. We study how the rain initiation time depends on different parameters. We also present a simple model that allows one to estimate the rain initiation time for turbulent clouds with an inhomogeneous concentration of cloud condensation nuclei. In particular, we show that over-seeding even a part of a cloud by small hygroscopic nuclei one can substantially delay the onset of precipitation.

  8. The use of permit markets for incorporating source location. The case of acis rain in Europe

    Steiner, U.; Tinggaard Svendsen, G.

    1997-12-31

    The paper shows that cost-effective involvement of the source location involves utmost difficulty in practice. Based on the RAINS model, it is recommended that source location should be ignored in a European market for SO{sub 2}, as is the case in the US Acid Rain Program. The RAINS-model predicts a cost-saving of 37 percent but an average loss of 2 percent in ecological protection. To overcome this reduction in protection, we recommend that some of the large cost-savings should be reallocated in further overall reduction and that the countries suffering the most from introducing the permit-market should be compensated by receiving extra permits in the initial distribution. (au)

  9. A heterogeneous chemistry model for acid rain`s effect on ozone

    Ye, Tao [Univ. of New York, Stonybrook, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    A computer model for simulating heterogeneous reactions in cloud is developed to determine the S(IV) species` effect on ozone. Crutzen claims that NO{sub x}, HO{sub x} families and H{sub 2}CO in the troposphere can decrease ozone by 5 to 10%. However, is this claim valid for a SO{sub x} polluted atmosphere? The SO{sub x} family reacts with the ozone destroyers. These reactions seem to be significant enough to reduce the H{sub 2}CO`s destructive effect on ozone.

  10. Fog and rain water chemistry at Mt. Fuji: A case study during the September 2002 campaign

    Watanabe, Koichi; Takebe, Yusaku; Sode, Nobuhiro; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Dokiya, Yukiko

    2006-12-01

    Measurements of fog and rain water chemistry at the summit of Mt. Fuji, the highest peak in Japan, as well as at Tarobo, the ESE slope of Mt. Fuji in September 2002. The pH of fog and rain water sampled at Mt. Fuji varied over a range of 4.0-6.8. Acidic fogs (pH industrial regions on the Asian continent. The ratio of [SO 42-]/[NO 3-] in the fog water was lower at Tarobo than at the summit. High concentrations of Na + and Cl - were determined in the rain water sampled at the summit, possibly because of the long-range transport of sea-salt particles raised by a typhoon through the middle troposphere. The vertical transport of sea-salt particles would influence the cloud microphysical properties in the middle troposphere. Significant loss of Mg 2+ was seen in the rain water at the summit. The concentrations of peroxides in the fog and rain water were relatively large (10-105 μM). The potential capacity for SO 2 oxidation seems to be strong from summer to early autumn at Mt. Fuji. The fog water peroxide concentrations displayed diurnal variability. The peroxide concentrations in the nighttime were significantly higher than those in the daytime.

  11. Rain Barrels: A Catalyst for Change?

    Bakacs, Michele E.; Haberland, Mike; Mangiafico, Salvatore S.; Winquist, Aileen; Obropta, Christopher C.; Boyajian, Amy; Mellor, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 4 years, rain barrel programming for residents has been implemented in both Northern Virginia and New Jersey as a method for educating the public about stormwater management and water conservation. Program participants demonstrated a significant increase in knowledge of water resource issues. Follow-up surveys showed 58% of New…

  12. Universality of rain event size distributions

    Peters, O; Corral, A; Neelin, J D; Holloway, C E

    2010-01-01

    We compare rain event size distributions derived from measurements in climatically different regions, which we find to be well approximated by power laws of similar exponents over broad ranges. Differences can be seen in the large-scale cutoffs of the distributions. Event duration distributions suggest that the scale-free aspects are related to the absence of characteristic scales in the meteorological mesoscale.

  13. Agro-climatic Methodology of rain distribution

    Rain distribution is almost, the most important impute on agricultural activities in any place in Colombia. The method to define when rain is well or bad distributed follows the next criteria: one effective rainy day or day with sufficient amount of water for crop development is one, in which, the amount of precipitation is between 0.5 ETP and 3 ETP. On the other hand, one dray day has rain less than 0.5 ETP and one humid day one with more than 3 ETP. Which that in main, it's possible to considered a very well distributed month for agricultural practices, one who has more effective rainy days than dray or humid days or intermittent effective, humid and dray days. In this exercise was used the daily precipitation data for 1969 -1997 period of Tangua meteorological station, located at 01 degrade 05 minutes 50 seconds N latitude and 77 degrade 23 minutes 53 seconds W longitude, and 2400 meters over the sea level. The results show October and November as the only months of the year, with one humid month, each one, during the whole period, that means 3 % of the cases and July, august and September as the driest epoch. On the other hand, months with suitable rain for agricultural activities are, January with 21 % of the cases, February 45%, march 38 %, April 55 %, may 28 %, June 7 %, October 28 %, November 48 % and December with 34 % of the cases

  14. Promoting nitrate removal in rain gardens

    Rain gardens are vegetated surface depressions, often located at low points in landscapes, designed to receive stormwater runoff from roads, roofs, and parking lots. The gardens’ sandy soils allow stormwater to drain quickly to the native soils below and eventually to groundwate...

  15. Universality of rain event size distributions

    We compare rain event size distributions derived from measurements in climatically different regions, which we find to be well approximated by power laws of similar exponents over broad ranges. Differences can be seen in the large-scale cutoffs of the distributions. Event duration distributions suggest that the scale-free aspects are related to the absence of characteristic scales in the meteorological mesoscale

  16. Long-period polar rain variations, solar wind and hemispherically symmetric polar rain

    On the basic of electron data obtained by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F2 satellite the long-period variations of the polar rain flux are examined for four consecutive solar rotations. It is clearly demonstrated that the asymmetric enhancement of the polar rain flux is strongly controlled by the sector structure of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). However, the orbit-to-orbit and day-to-day variations of the polar rain flux are detected even during a very stable sector period, and the polar rain flux does not have any clear relationship to the magnitude of the IMF B/sub x/ or B/sub y/. Thus the polarity of B/sub x/ controls only the accessibility of a polar region. It is also noticed that the intensity of polar rain fluxes does not show any relationship to the density of the solar wind, suggesting that the origin of the polar rain electrons is different from the commonly observed part of the solar wind electron distribution function. In addition to the asymmetric polar rain distribution, increasing polar rain fluxes of similar high intensity are sometimes detected over both polar caps. An examination of more than 1 year's data from the DMSP F2 and F4 satellites shows that simultaneous intense uniform precipitations (>107 electrons/cm2 s sr) over both polar caps are not coincidental; it also shows that the spectra are similar. The occurrence of hemispherically symmetric events is not common. They generally are observed after an IMF sector transition period, during unstable periods in the sector structure, and while the solar wind density is high. copyright American Geophysical Union 1987

  17. Acid Rain Resistant Property of Hydrophobic Silica Coating for Stone%疏水二氧化硅涂层对石材的抗酸保护性能

    徐飞高; 李丹; 袁艳丽; 林娜

    2012-01-01

    采用溶胶-凝胶法、辅以超声的作用,制备疏水二氧化硅粒子:所用的前躯体为端羟基的聚二甲基硅氧烷(PDMS-OH)和正硅酸乙酯(TEOS)、催化剂为氨水(NH3·H2O),制备过程中添加或不添加修饰剂3-缩水甘油丙基三甲氧基硅烷(GPTMS).其反应物的摩尔比为(TEOS):(乙醇):(H2O):CNH3·H2O):(PDMS—OH)=1:73:192:7.6:0.27~0.675.扫描电镜观察表明,所制备的二氧化硅粒子平均粒径为167nm.GPTMS的修饰通过FT-IR证实,它的添加导致疏水二氧化硅复合物的稳定性下降.以(PDMS-OH):(TEOS)=0.675时制得的疏水二氧化硅配制的涂料施涂于石材表面,所形成涂层的接触角最高达152°、有良好的耐酸性能.%By means of sol-gel process coupled with ultrasonic, hydrophobic silica particles have been synthesized by using hydroxyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS-OH) and tetraethoxyorthosilicate (TEOS) as precursor and ammonium hydroxide as catalyst, with and without addition of a crosslinking agent, 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS). The molar ratio of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), ethanol, basic water, H2O was kept constant at 1 : 73 : 192 : 7.6 and the molar ratio of PDMS-OH/TEOS (M) varied from 0.27 to 0.675. The particle size of the synthesized silica is 167 nm measured by SEM and the organic GPTMS modification was confirmed by infrared spectroscopic studies, incorporation of which leads to decrease of the stability of the composite. Then samples of limestone were coated with a paint consisted of the hydrophobic silica particles synthesised with a precursor (PDMS-OH) : (TEOS)=0.675, that coating showed a contact angle up to 152° and a satisfied corrosion resistance to cyclic spraying with dilute sulfuric acid.

  18. Novel Processing of Tipping-Bucket Rain Gauge Records

    Fišer, Ondřej; Wilfert, O.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 3 (2009), s. 283-288. ISSN 0169-8095. [International workshop on precipitation in urban areas /7./. St. Moritz, 07.12.2006-10.12.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/0851 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Tipping-bucket rain gauge * rain rate * rain data processing * rain data simulation Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.811, year: 2009

  19. New Czech Rain Data and Methods Applied to Radiowave Propagation

    Fišer, Ondřej; Fišer, O., jr.

    New York : IEEE, 2009, s. 301-304. ISBN 978-1-4244-4753-4. [European Conference on Antennas and Propagation /3./. Berlin (DE), 22.03.2009-27.03.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/0851 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : rain attenuation * rain parameters * rain event duration * rain processing Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  20. 14 CFR 33.78 - Rain and hail ingestion.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rain and hail ingestion. 33.78 Section 33... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.78 Rain and... rain and hail, as defined in appendix B to this part. Acceptable engine operation precludes...