WorldWideScience

Sample records for acid prevents high

  1. Tetradecylthioacetic acid prevents high fat diet induced adiposity and insulin resistance

    Madsen, Lise; Guerre-Millo, Michéle; Flindt, Esben N;

    2002-01-01

    Tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) is a non-beta-oxidizable fatty acid analog, which potently regulates lipid homeostasis. Here we evaluate the ability of TTA to prevent diet-induced and genetically determined adiposity and insulin resistance. In Wistar rats fed a high fat diet, TTA administration...... completely prevented diet-induced insulin resistance and adiposity. In genetically obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats TTA treatment reduced the epididymal adipose tissue mass and improved insulin sensitivity. All three rodent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) subtypes were activated by TTA in the...... ranking order PPARalpha > PPARdelta > PPARgamma. Expression of PPARgamma target genes in adipose tissue was unaffected by TTA treatment, whereas the hepatic expression of PPARalpha-responsive genes encoding enzymes involved in fatty acid uptake, transport, and oxidation was induced. This was accompanied...

  2. Eicosapentaenoic acid prevents high fat diet-induced metabolic disorders: Genomic and metabolomic analyses of underlying mechanism

    Previously our lab demonstrated eicosapenaenoic acid (EPA)'s ability to prevent high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity by decreasing insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and inflammation. In the current study, we used genomic and metabolomic approaches to further investigate the molecular basis for t...

  3. Prevention of High Blood Pressure

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Prevention of High Blood Pressure Healthy lifestyle habits, proper use of medicines, and ... high blood pressure or its complications. Preventing High Blood Pressure Onset Healthy lifestyle habits can help prevent high ...

  4. Preventing High Blood Pressure

    ... Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... meal and snack options can help you avoid high blood pressure and its complications. Be sure to eat plenty ...

  5. Acetylsalicylic Acid Compared to Placebo in Treating High-Risk Patients With Subsolid Lung Nodules | Division of Cancer Prevention

    This randomized phase II trial studies acetylsalicylic acid compared to placebo in treating high-risk patients with subsolid lung nodules. A nodule is a growth or lump that may be malignant (cancer) or benign (not cancer). Chemoprevention is the use of drugs to keep cancer from forming or coming back. The use of acetylsalicylic acid may keep cancer from forming in patients with subsolid lung nodules. |

  6. Effectiveness of Folic Acid Fortified Flour for Prevention of Neural Tube Defects in a High Risk Region.

    Wang, Haochen; De Steur, Hans; Chen, Gong; Zhang, Xiaotian; Pei, Lijun; Gellynck, Xavier; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    Despite efforts to tackle folate deficiency and Neural Tube Defects (NTDs) through folic acid fortification, its implementation is still lacking where it is needed most, highlighting the need for studies that evaluate the effectiveness of folic acid fortified wheat flour in a poor, rural, high-risk, NTD region of China. One of the most affected regions, Shanxi Province, was selected as a case study. A community intervention was carried out in which 16,648 women of child-bearing age received fortified flour (eight villages) and a control group received ordinary flour (three villages). NTD birth prevalence and biological indicators were measured two years after program initiation at endline only. The effect on the NTD burden was calculated using the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) method. In the intervention group, serum folate level was higher than in the control group. NTDs in the intervention group were 68.2% lower than in the control group (OR = 0.313, 95% CI = 0.207-0473, p Flour fortification was associated with lower birth prevalence and burden of NTDs in economically developing regions with a high risk of NTDs. The positive findings confirm the potential of fortification when selecting an appropriate food vehicle and target region. As such, this study provides support for decision makers aiming for the implementation of (mandatory) folic acid fortification in China. PMID:27005659

  7. Effectiveness of Folic Acid Fortified Flour for Prevention of Neural Tube Defects in a High Risk Region

    Haochen Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite efforts to tackle folate deficiency and Neural Tube Defects (NTDs through folic acid fortification, its implementation is still lacking where it is needed most, highlighting the need for studies that evaluate the effectiveness of folic acid fortified wheat flour in a poor, rural, high-risk, NTD region of China. One of the most affected regions, Shanxi Province, was selected as a case study. A community intervention was carried out in which 16,648 women of child-bearing age received fortified flour (eight villages and a control group received ordinary flour (three villages. NTD birth prevalence and biological indicators were measured two years after program initiation at endline only. The effect on the NTD burden was calculated using the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs method. In the intervention group, serum folate level was higher than in the control group. NTDs in the intervention group were 68.2% lower than in the control group (OR = 0.313, 95% CI = 0.207–0473, p < 0.001. In terms of DALYs, burden in intervention group was approximately 58.5% lower than in the control group. Flour fortification was associated with lower birth prevalence and burden of NTDs in economically developing regions with a high risk of NTDs. The positive findings confirm the potential of fortification when selecting an appropriate food vehicle and target region. As such, this study provides support for decision makers aiming for the implementation of (mandatory folic acid fortification in China.

  8. Role of amino acids and vitamins in prevention of and rapid recovery from fatigue in the officers and soldiers at high altitude

    Wen HUANG

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the role of amino acids and vitamins in the prevention of and recovery from the fatigue related to military operation in the officers and soldiers at high altitude. Methods  The participants were 100 officers and soldiers, whose Modified Fatigue Rating Scale (MFIS scores were >21 points. The participants were randomly divided into three groups: capsule, placebo, and granules. Amino acids capsule (8 kinds of essential amino acids and 11 kinds of vitamins were contained, placebo, or amino acid-fructose beverage was given to respective group for 14 days continuously. The 3000-m running performance of the officers and soldiers stationed on a plateau was measured on the first and 14th days. The maximal grip strength of the right hand, fist-making times per minute, and the height reaching by the hand after three-step run-up for the same candidate were observed before and after fatigue loading (3000-m running. The blood levels of lactic acid and urea nitrogen of the candidates were measured after fatigue loading on the first and the 14th days. Results  The 3000-m running performance of officers and soldiers in the capsule and granules groups on the 14th day were better than that of the first day (PP>0.05. The difference between the capsule and the granules groups in grip strength, fist-making times per minute, and hand reaching height on the 14th day were obviously lower than that on the first day (PP>0.05. The blood levels of lactic acid and urea nitrogen in the capsule and granules groups on the 14th day were lower than that on the first day (PP>0.05. Conclusions  Amino acids and vitamins preparations can obviously improve the military performance capacity of officers and soldiers stationed on the plateau. Similarly, they can effectively prevent the lowering of jumping ability and grip strength caused by military fatigue. Therefore, amino acids and vitamins preparations play an important role in the prevention of and rapid

  9. The primary prevention of birth defects: Multivitamins or folic acid?

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Periconceptional use of folic acid alone or in multivitamin supplements is effective for the primary prevention of neural-tube defects. The Hungarian randomized and two-cohort controlled trials showed that periconceptional multivitamin supplementation can reduce the occurrence of some other structural birth defects, i.e. congenital abnormalities. These findings were supported by many, but not all observational studies. Recently there have been two main debated questions. The first one is whether the use of folic acid alone or folic acid-containing multivitamins is better. The second one is connected with the dilemma of whether high dose of folic acid (e.g. 5 mg might be better than a daily multivitamin with 0.4 – 0.8 mg of folic acid. Comparison of the pooled data of two Hungarian trials using a multivitamin containing 0.8 mg folic acid and the data of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities using high dose of folic acid seemed to be appropriate to answer these questions. Multivitamins containing 0.4 – 0.8 mg of folic acid were more effective for the reduction of neural-tube defects than high dose of folic acid. Both multivitamins and folic acid can prevent some part of congenital cardiovascular malformations. Only multivitamins were able to reduce the prevalence at birth of obstructive defects of urinary tract, limb deficiencies and congenital pyloric stenosis. However, folic acid was effective in preventing some part of rectal/anal stenosis/atresia, and high dose of folic acid had effect in preventing some orofacial clefts. The findings are consistent that periconceptional multivitamin and folic acid supplementation reduce the overall occurrence of congenital abnormalities in addition to the demonstrated effect on neural-tube defects.

  10. The primary prevention of birth defects: Multivitamins or folic acid?

    Czeizel, Andrew E

    2004-01-01

    Periconceptional use of folic acid alone or in multivitamin supplements is effective for the primary prevention of neural-tube defects. The Hungarian randomized and two-cohort controlled trials showed that periconceptional multivitamin supplementation can reduce the occurrence of some other structural birth defects, i.e. congenital abnormalities. These findings were supported by many, but not all observational studies. Recently there have been two main debated questions. The first one is whether the use of folic acid alone or folic acid-containing multivitamins is better. The second one is connected with the dilemma of whether high dose of folic acid (e.g. 5 mg) might be better than a daily multivitamin with 0.4 - 0.8 mg of folic acid. Comparison of the pooled data of two Hungarian trials using a multivitamin containing 0.8 mg folic acid and the data of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities using high dose of folic acid seemed to be appropriate to answer these questions. Multivitamins containing 0.4 - 0.8 mg of folic acid were more effective for the reduction of neural-tube defects than high dose of folic acid. Both multivitamins and folic acid can prevent some part of congenital cardiovascular malformations. Only multivitamins were able to reduce the prevalence at birth of obstructive defects of urinary tract, limb deficiencies and congenital pyloric stenosis. However, folic acid was effective in preventing some part of rectal/anal stenosis/atresia, and high dose of folic acid had effect in preventing some orofacial clefts. The findings are consistent that periconceptional multivitamin and folic acid supplementation reduce the overall occurrence of congenital abnormalities in addition to the demonstrated effect on neural-tube defects. PMID:15912190

  11. Cellular glutathione prevents cytolethality of monomethylarsonic acid

    Inorganic arsenicals are clearly toxicants and carcinogens in humans. In mammals, including humans, inorganic arsenic often undergoes methylation, forming compounds such as monomethylarsonic acid (MMAsV) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAsV). However, much less information is available on the in vitro toxic potential or mechanisms of these methylated arsenicals, especially MMAsV. We studied the molecular mechanisms of in vitro cytolethality of MMAsV using a rat liver epithelial cell line (TRL 1215). MMAsV was not cytotoxic in TRL 1215 cells even at concentrations exceeding 10 mM, but it became weakly cytotoxic and induced both necrotic and apoptotic cell death when cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) was depleted with the glutathione synthase inhibitor, L-buthionine-[S,R]-sulfoximine (BSO), or the glutathione reductase inhibitor, carmustine. Similar results were observed in the other mammalian cells, such as human skin TIG-112 cells, chimpanzee skin CRT-1609 cells, and mouse metallothionein (MT) positive and MT negative embryonic cells. Ethacrynic acid (EA), an inhibitor of glutathione S-transferase (GST) that catalyses GSH-substrate conjugation, also enhanced the cytolethality of MMAsV, but aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA), an inhibitor of β-lyase that catalyses the final breakdown of GSH-substrate conjugates, had no effect. Both the cellular GSH levels and the cellular GST activity were increased by the exposure to MMAsV in TRL 1215 cells. On the other hand, the addition of exogenous extracellular GSH enhanced the cytolethality of MMAsV, although cellular GSH levels actually prevented the cytolethality of combined MMAsV and exogenous GSH. These findings indicate that human arsenic metabolite MMAsV is not a highly toxic compound in mammalian cells, and the level of cellular GSH is critical to its eventual toxic effects

  12. Ursolic acid prevents augmented peripheral inflammation and inflammatory hyperalgesia in high-fat diet-induced obese rats by restoring downregulated spinal PPARα.

    Zhang, Yanan; Song, Chengwei; Li, Haiou; Hou, Jingdong; Li, Dongliang

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for several pain syndromes and is associated with increased pain sensitivity. Evidence suggests that obesity causes the downregulation of peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor (PPAR)α in the spinal cord, contributing to augmented peripheral edema and inflammatory hyperalgesia. Ursolic acid (UA), a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid carboxylic acid, has been shown to upregulate PPARα in the peripheral tissues of obese animals. The present study hypothesized that UA prevents augmented peripheral inflammation and inflammatory hyperalgesia in obesity by restoring downregulated spinal PPARα. The present study demonstrated that Sprague‑Dawley rats fed a high‑fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks developed obesity and metabolic disorder. Following carrageenan injection, the HFD rats exhibited increased thermal hyperalgesia and paw edema, compared with the rats fed a low‑fat diet. Molecular investigations revealed that the HFD rats exhibited decreased PPARα activity, and exaggerated expression of inflammatory mediators and nuclear factor‑kB activity in the spinal cord in response to carrageenan. Oral administration of UA ameliorated obesity and metabolic disorder, and prevented increased thermal hyperalgesia and paw edema in the HFD rats. Additionally, UA normalized PPARα activity and inhibited the exaggerated spinal cord inflammatory response to carrageenan. Although the knockdown of spinal PPARα with small interfering RNA following the administration of UA did not alter obesity or metabolic parameters, it eradicated the beneficial effects of UA on thermal hyperalgesia and paw edema, and reversed the spinal cord inflammatory response. These results suggested that the systemic administration of UA inhibited the exaggerated spinal cord inflammatory response to peripheral inflammatory stimulation in HFD‑induced obesity by restoring downregulated spinal PPARα, preventing peripheral inflammation and inflammatory hyperalgesia. UA may be a

  13. Isoflavone and Protein Constituents of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soy Milk Combine to Prevent Dyslipidemia in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    Maki Kobayashi; Shintaro Egusa; Mitsuru Fukuda

    2014-01-01

    A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS) improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavon...

  14. DOES JASMONIC ACID PREVENT THE GERMINATION

    ÇAVUŞOĞLU, Kürşat

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: Effect of jasmonic acid on seed germination and seedling growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Bülbül 89) was investigated in the present study. Jasmonic acid concentrations less than 1500 µM have not inhibited the seed germination, while 1500 and 2000 µM jasmonic acid levels caused atypical germination. The germination was completely inhibited at 3000 µM level of jasmonic acid. However, the seedling growth clearly slowed down with increasing concentrations of jasmonic acid. Furt...

  15. Folic acid and primary prevention of birth defects.

    Taruscio, Domenica; Carbone, Pietro; Granata, Orietta; Baldi, Francesca; Mantovani, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Birth defects (BDs) are an important public health problem, due to their overall incidence, occurring in 2-3% of live births in European Union. Neural tube defects (NTDs) are among major NTDs, due to their severity and relatively high incidence; in the meanwhile NTDs are also the most effectively preventable BDs to date. In particular, an adequate folic acid (FA) intake reduces both the occurrence and the recurrence of NTDs; FA is the synthetic form of folates, naturally occurring vitamins in a number of foods, especially vegetables. The daily intake of 0.4 mg of FA should be recommended to all women of childbearing age who plan to become pregnant. The Italian Network for Primary Prevention of BDs through FA Promotion has achieved a significant improvement in FA awareness and use in the periconceptional period. Nevertheless, primary prevention of BDs needs to make further progress; the Italian National Centre for Rare Diseases participates in european sureveillance of congenital anomalies (EUROCAT) Joint Action as coordinator of activities on the effectiveness of BDs prevention. Mandatory food fortification with FA has not been introduced in any European country. The health benefits of FA in reducing the risk of NTDs are undisputed; however mechanistic and animal studies suggest a relationship between high FA intakes and increased cancer promotion, while human studies are still inconsistent and inconclusive. A Working Group organized by the European Food Safety Authority pointed out significant uncertainties about fortification safety and the need for more studies; currently, FA intake from fortified foods and supplements should not exceed 1 mg/day in adults. In conclusion, based on up-to-date scientific evidence, the Italian Network strategy pivots on periconceptional supplementation integrated with promotion of healthy eating habits, support to health education, enhancing the role of women in managing life choices about their health and pregnancy and increasing

  16. Isoflavone and Protein Constituents of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soy Milk Combine to Prevent Dyslipidemia in Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    Maki Kobayashi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet, a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet, a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavone-poor diet, or a high cholesterol diet containing 23.2% intact LFS (intact LFS diet for five weeks. The plasma total cholesterol (TC level was increased in the rats fed the LFS extract diet compared with those fed the high cholesterol diet. The TC level was decreased by the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. The cholesterol-lowering effect was stronger in the rats fed the intact LFS diet than those fed the ethanol-washed LFS diet. The plasma triglyceride (TG level was unchanged in the rats fed the LFS extract diet, but it decreased in rats fed the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. Although, compared with the high cholesterol diet, the LFS extract and ethanol-washed LFS diets did not reduce hepatic cholesterol and TG, both levels were remarkably lowered by the intact LFS diet. These results suggest that the improvement in lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet containing LFS isoflavone aglycones is not due to an independent effect but due to a cooperative effect with soy protein.

  17. Folic acid and birth defect prevention

    ... of certain birth defects. These include spina bifida, anencephaly, and some heart defects. Experts recommend women who ... Women who have had a baby with a neural tube defect may need a higher dose of folic acid. ...

  18. Efficacy of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and feasibility of optimizing preventive strategies in patients at high cardiovascular risk: rationale, design and baseline characteristics of the Rischio and Prevenzione study, a large randomised trial in general practice

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimization of preventive strategies in patients at high risk of cardiovascular events and the evaluation of bottlenecks and limitations of transferring current guidelines to the real world of clinical practice are important limiting steps to cardiovascular prevention. Treatment with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids improves prognosis after myocardial infarction, but evidence of this benefit is lacking in patients at high cardiovascular risk, but without a history of myocardial infarction. Methods/design Patients were eligible if their general practitioner (GP considered them at high cardiovascular risk because of a cardiovascular disease other than myocardial infarction, or multiple risk factors (at least four major risk factors in non-diabetic patients and one in diabetics. Patients were randomly allocated to treatment with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (1 g daily or placebo in a double-blind study and followed up for five years by their GPs to assess the efficacy of the treatment in preventing cardiovascular mortality (including sudden death and hospitalization for cardiovascular reasons. The secondary, epidemiological, aim of the study is to assess whether it is feasible to adopt current guidelines in everyday clinical practice, with a view to optimizing all the available preventive strategies in people at high cardiovascular risk. A nation-wide network of 860 GPs admitted 12,513 patients to the study between February 2004 and March 2007. The mean age was 64 years and 62% were males. Diabetes mellitus plus one or more cardiovascular risk factors was the main inclusion criterion (47%. About 30% of patients were included because of a history of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, 21% for four or more risk factors, and less than 1% for other reasons. Discussion The Rischio and Prevenzione (R&P project provides a feasible model to test the efficacy of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid therapy in patients at high

  19. Bronchoscopic intratumoral injection of tranexamic acid to prevent excessive bleeding during multiple forceps biopsies of lesions with a high risk of bleeding: a prospective case series

    Significant bleeding may occur following endobronchial forceps biopsy or brushing of necrotic or hypervascular tumors in the airways. In some cases, methods such as endobronchial instillation of iced saline lavage and epinephrine may fail to control bleeding. The present study evaluated the efficacy and safety of a new bronchoscopic technique using intratumoral injection of tranexamic acid (IIT) for control of bleeding during forceps biopsy in patients with endobronchial tumors with a high risk of bleeding. The study was a prospective case series carried out in a single center. Bronchoscopic IIT was performed in those patients who had endoscopically visible tumoral lesions with persistent active bleeding following the first attempt at bronchoscopic sampling. Tranexamic acid (TEA) was injected through a 22-gauge Wang cytology needle into the lesion in nominal doses of 250–500 mg. After 2–3 minutes, multiple forceps biopsy specimens were obtained from the lesion. Of the 57 consecutive patients included in the study, 20 patients (35.1%) underwent bronchoscopic IIT. The first attempt in 18 patients was endobronchial forceps biopsy (EBB), and because of a high risk of bleeding, the first attempt for the remaining two patients, who were on continuous dual antiplatelet therapy (aspirin and clopidogrel), employed endobronchial needle aspiration (EBNA) as a precautionary measure. Following IIT, subsequent specimens were obtained using EBB in all patients. Multiple forceps biopsy specimens (3–10) were obtained from the lesions (8 necrotic and 12 hypervascular) without incurring active bleeding. The following histopathologic diagnoses were made: squamous cell carcinoma (n = 14), adenocarcinoma (n = 2), small-cell lung cancer (n = 3), and malignant mesenchymal tumor (n = 1). No side effects of TEA were observed. Bronchoscopic IIT is a useful and safe technique for controlling significant bleeding from a forceps biopsy procedure and can be considered as a pre

  20. High ω3-polyunsaturated fatty acids in fat-1 mice prevent streptozotocin-induced Purkinje cell degeneration through BDNF-mediated autophagy

    Dong Ho Bak; Enji Zhang; Min-Hee Yi; Do-Kyung Kim; Kyu Lim; Jwa-Jin Kim; Dong Woon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Loss of Purkinje cells has been implicated in the development of diabetic neuropathy, and this degeneration is characterized by impairment of autophagic processes. We evaluated whether fat-1 transgenic mice, a well-established animal model that endogenously synthesizes ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFA), are protected from Purkinje cell degeneration in streptozotocin (STZ)-treated model with fat-1 mice. STZ-treated fat-1 mice did not develop hyperglycemia, motor deficits, or Purkinje ce...

  1. Eicosapentaenoic Acid as long-term secondary prevention after ischemic stroke

    Nakase, Taizen; Sasaki, Masahiro; Suzuki, Akifumi

    2015-01-01

    Background It is sometimes difficult to choose anti-thrombotic agents for secondary prevention in stroke patients at high bleeding risk. Recently, Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) was reported to reduce the recurrence of stroke in hypercholesterolemic patients without increasing hemorrhagic risk. In this study, we investigated the features of recurrent stroke patients during EPA medication as secondary stroke prevention. Methods Following the approval of the ethical committee, stroke patients in t...

  2. Hyaluronic Acid Binding Peptides Prevent Experimental Staphylococcal Wound Infection

    Zaleski, Kathleen J. ; Kolodka, Tadeusz; Cywes-Bentley, Colette; McLoughlin, Rachel M.; Mary L. Delaney; Charlton, Bernard T.; Johnson, Wendy; Tzianabos, Arthur O.

    2006-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of surgical wound infections. The development of mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance by this and other bacterial pathogens has prompted the search for new approaches to treat infectious diseases. Hyaluronic acid binding peptides have been shown to modulate cellular trafficking during host responses and were assessed for their ability to treat and possibly prevent experimental surgical wound infections caused by S. aureus. Treatment with these peptides...

  3. The primary prevention of birth defects: Multivitamins or folic acid?

    Andrew E. Czeizel

    2004-01-01

    Periconceptional use of folic acid alone or in multivitamin supplements is effective for the primary prevention of neural-tube defects. The Hungarian randomized and two-cohort controlled trials showed that periconceptional multivitamin supplementation can reduce the occurrence of some other structural birth defects, i.e. congenital abnormalities. These findings were supported by many, but not all observational studies. Recently there have been two main debated questions. The first one is whet...

  4. Once-yearly zoledronic acid in hip fracture prevention

    Oddom Demontiero

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Oddom Demontiero, Gustavo DuqueAging Bone Research Program, Nepean Clinical School, University of Sydney, Penrith, NSW, Australia; Department of Geriatric Medicine, Nepean Hospital, Penrith, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: Osteoporosis is an escalating global problem. Hip fractures, the most catastrophic complication of osteoporosis, continue to cause significant mortality and morbidity despite increasing availability of effective preventative agents. Among these agents, oral bisphosphonates have been the first choice for the treatment and prevention of osteoporotic fractures. However, the use of oral bisphosphonates, especially in the older population, has been limited by their side effects and method of administration thus compromising their persistent use. The resultant low adherence by patients has undermined their full potential and has been associated with an increase in the incidence of fragility fractures. Recently, annual intravenous zoledronic acid (ZOL has been approved for osteoporosis. Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated ZOL to be safe, have good tolerability and produce significant effect on bone mass and microarchitecture. Adherence has also been shown to be better with ZOL. Furthermore two large trials firmly demonstrated significant anti-osteoporotic effect (-59% relative risk reduction of hip fractures and mortality benefit (28% reduction in mortality of ZOL in older persons with recent hip fractures. In this review, we report the current evidence on the use of ZOL for the prevention of hip fractures in the elderly. We also report the pharmacological characteristics and the advantages and disadvantages of ZOL in this particular group.Keywords: osteoporosis, zoledronic acid, hip fracture, elderly

  5. Nucleic acid detection in the diagnosis and prevention of schistosomiasis.

    He, Ping; Song, Lan-Gui; Xie, Hui; Liang, Jin-Yi; Yuan, Dong-Ya; Wu, Zhong-Dao; Lv, Zhi-Yue

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is an important zoonotic parasitic disease that causes serious harms to humans and animals. Surveillance and diagnosis play key roles in schistosomiasis control, however, current techniques for surveillance and diagnosis of the disease have limitations. As genome data for parasites are increasing, novel techniques for detection incorporating nucleotide sequences are receiving widespread attention. These sensitive, specific, and rapid detection methods are particularly important in the diagnosis of low-grade and early infections, and may prove to have clinical significance. This paper reviews the progress of nucleic acid detection in the diagnosis and prevention of schistosomiasis, including such aspects as the selection of target genes, and development and application of nucleic acid detection methods. PMID:27025210

  6. Folic acid supplements to prevent neural tube defects: trends in East of Ireland 1996-2002.

    Ward, M

    2004-10-01

    Promotion of folic acid to prevent neural Tube Defects (NTD) has been ongoing for ten years in Ireland, without a concomitant reduction in the total birth prevalence of NTD. The effectiveness of folic acid promotion as the sole means of primary prevention of NTD is therefore questionable. We examined trends in folic acid knowledge and peri-conceptional use from 1996-2002 with the aim of assessing the value of this approach. From 1996-2002, 300 women attending ante-natal clinics in Dublin hospitals annually were surveyed regarding their knowledge and use of folic acid. During the period the proportion who had heard of folic acid rose from 54% to 94% between 1996 and 2002 (c2 test for trend: p<0.001). Knowledge that folic acid can prevent NTD also rose from 21% to 66% (c2 test for trend: p<0.001). Although the proportion who took folic acid during pregnancy increased from 14% to 83% from 1996 to 2002 (c2 test for trend: p<0.001), peri-conceptional intake did not rise above 24% in any year. There is a high awareness of folic acid and its relation to NTD, which is not matched by peri-conceptional uptake. The main barrier to peri-conceptional uptake is the lack of pregnancy planning. To date promotional campaigns appear to have been ineffective in reducing the prevalence of NTD in Ireland. Consequently, fortification of staple foodstuffs is the only practical and reliable means of primary prevention of NTD.

  7. Acid Sphingomyelinase Inhibition Prevents Hemolysis During Erythrocyte Storage

    Richard S. Hoehn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: During storage, units of human red blood cells (pRBCs experience membrane destabilization and hemolysis which may cause harm to transfusion recipients. This study investigates whether inhibition of acid sphingomyelinase could stabilize erythrocyte membranes and prevent hemolysis during storage. Methods: Human and murine pRBCs were stored under standard blood banking conditions with and without the addition of amitriptyline, a known acid sphingomyelinase inhibitor. Hemoglobin was measured with an electronic hematology analyzer and flow cytometry was used to measure erythrocyte size, complexity, phosphatidylserine externalization, and band 3 protein expression. Results: Cell-free hemoglobin, a marker of hemolysis, increased during pRBC storage. Amitriptyline treatment decreased hemolysis in a dose-dependent manner. Standard pRBC storage led to loss of erythrocyte size and membrane complexity, increased phosphatidylserine externalization, and decreased band 3 protein integrity as determined by flow cytometry. Each of these changes was reduced by treatment with amitriptyline. Transfusion of amitriptyline-treated pRBCs resulted in decreased circulating free hemoglobin. Conclusion: Erythrocyte storage is associated with changes in cell size, complexity, membrane molecular composition, and increased hemolysis. Acid sphingomyelinase inhibition reduced these changes in a dose-dependent manner. Our data suggest a novel mechanism to attenuate the harmful effects after transfusion of aged blood products.

  8. Preventive and therapeutic effects of tranexamic acid on postpartum bleeding

    Samaneh Solltani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Postpartum hemorrhage is among the leading causes of maternal mortality throughout the world. Severe blood loss contributes to  the increased blood transfusion risk with its concerned inherent adverse events and therefore increased rate of emergency re-operative interventions such as arterial ligation or hysterectomy. It also can lead to protracted anemia, particularly in low or median income countries. Extended application of antifibrinolytic agents such as tranexamic acid has been customary for long years to stop or reduce blood loss in postpartum period. However, there are not enough reliable evidence to approve the real efficacy of these drugs. In this brief and summary review, we pointed to a few conducted studies. The PubMed was searched for keyword including postpartum hemorrhage, tranexamic acid, cesarean section, vaginal delivery, and blood loss prevention. The articles with language other than English were excluded from our review.  We concluded that more convincing information is needed to determine the precise effects of tranexamic acid, and its benefits against adverse effects.

  9. Effect of Tanshitone on prevention and treatment of retinoic acid-induced osteoporosis in mice

    ZHOU Yan-meng; LIU Yu-bo; GAO Yun-sheng

    2008-01-01

    Objective To observe the prevention and therapeutic effects of tanshitone (TAN) on retinoic acid induced osteoporosis in mice. Methods The mice osteoporosis was induced by given retinoic acid intragasttrically for two weeks. The histomorphological features of bone were observed and biochemical indexes in serum (Ca, P, ALP, TRAP, E2, BGP) were determined after mice were given TAN at the dose of 40, 80, 160 mg·kg-1 respectively. Results Tanshitone can induce high conversion of osteoporosis. The levels of P, ALP, TRAP and BGP in the TAN groups were lower than the model group, while the E2 level was higher than the model group. Conclusions Tanshitone can prevent the loss bone in the experimental mice. The mechanism may be that it improves the level of estrogenic hormone and inhibits the high bone turnover.

  10. Inhibition of fatty acid synthase prevents preadipocyte differentiation

    Inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FAS) reduces food intake in rodents. As adipose tissue expresses FAS, we sought to investigate the effect of reduced FAS activity on adipocyte differentiation. FAS activity was suppressed either pharmacologically or by siRNA during differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. Cerulenin (10 μM), triclosan (50 μM), and C75 (50 μM) reduced dramatically visible lipid droplet accumulation, while incorporation of [1-14C]acetate into lipids was reduced by 75%, 70%, and 90%, respectively. Additionally, the substances reduced FAS, CEBPα, and PPARγ mRNA by up to 85% compared to that of control differentiated cells. Transient transfection with FAS siRNA suppressed FAS mRNA and FAS activity, and this was accompanied by reduction of CEBPα and PPARγ mRNA levels, and complete prevention of lipid accumulation. CD36, a late marker of differentiation, was also reduced. Together, these results suggest that FAS generated signals may be essential to support preadipocyte differentiation

  11. Dietary Berries and Ellagic Acid Prevent Oxidative DNA Damage and Modulate Expression of DNA Repair Genes

    Ramesh C. Gupta

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage is a pre-requisite for the initiation of cancer and agents that reduce this damage are useful in cancer prevention. In this study, we evaluated the ability of whole berries and berry phytochemical, ellagic acid to reduce endogenous oxidative DNA damage. Ellagic acid was selected based on > 95% inhibition of 8-oxodeoxyguosine (8-oxodG and other unidentified oxidative DNA adducts induced by 4-hydroxy-17B;-estradiol and CuCl2 in vitro. Inhibition of the latter occurred at lower concentrations (10 u(microM than that for 8-oxodG (100 u(microM. In the in vivo study, female CD-1 mice (n=6 were fed either a control diet or diet supplemented with ellagic acid (400 ppm and dehydrated berries (5% w/w with varying ellagic acid contents -- blueberry (low, strawberry (medium and red raspberry (high, for 3 weeks. Blueberry and strawberry diets showed moderate reductions in endogenous DNA adducts (25%. However, both red raspberry and ellagic acid diets showed a significant reduction of 59% (p < 0.001 and 48% (p < 0.01, respectively. Both diets also resulted in a 3-8 fold over-expression of genes involved in DNA repair such as xeroderma pigmentosum group A complementing protein (XPA, DNA excision repair protein (ERCC5 and DNA ligase III (DNL3. These results suggest that red raspberry and ellagic acid reduce endogenous oxidative DNA damage by mechanisms which may involve increase in DNA repair.

  12. Prevention

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  13. Eicosapentaenoic Acid Versus Docosahexaenoic Acid as Options for Vascular Risk Prevention: A Fish Story.

    Singh, Sarabjeet; Arora, Rohit R; Singh, Mukesh; Khosla, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Vascular inflammation is a key component involved in the process of arthrosclerosis, which in turn increases the risk for cardiovascular injury. In the last 10 years, there have been many trials that looked at omega-3 fatty acids as a way to reduce cardiovascular risk. These trials observed the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the traditional lipid panel and found that both EPA and DHA reduce triglyceride (TG) level and increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels but also increase the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. In the 2 more recent trials, the MARINE and ANCHOR, EPA was given as an adjunct therapy to high-risk patients and not only was the traditional lipids measured but also examined the vascular inflammatory biomarkers. The results of these 2 trials not only showed reduction in cardiovascular risk because of reduction in vascular inflammation and reduction in the lipid panel but also showed that one of the MARINE-derived omega-3 fatty acid is superior to the other. Data search for omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular risk was performed, and articles were selected for review from 2006 to date. The research studies were all double-blind randomized trials except for one, which was a single-blind and focused on the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on the entire lipid panel. The participants received DHA/EPA and compared with a placebo group on the effect seen in the lipid panel. The first 7 studies looked at the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on TG, LDL-C, and HDL-C; of the 7, 1 directly compared DHA and EPA, 2 focused on EPA, and 4 were directed towards DHA alone. The MARINE and ANCHOR trials were more recent and also looked at the same parameter but also monitored vascular inflammatory biomarkers and how they were affected by omega-3 fatty acids. A second data search was performed for vascular biomarkers and cardiovascular risk, and articles that focused on high-sensitivity C

  14. Intravenous ascorbic acid to prevent and treat cancer-associated sepsis?

    Bogin Vladimir

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The history of ascorbic acid (AA and cancer has been marked with controversy. Clinical studies evaluating AA in cancer outcome continue to the present day. However, the wealth of data suggesting that AA may be highly beneficial in addressing cancer-associated inflammation, particularly progression to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS and multi organ failure (MOF, has been largely overlooked. Patients with advanced cancer are generally deficient in AA. Once these patients develop septic symptoms, a further decrease in ascorbic acid levels occurs. Given the known role of ascorbate in: a maintaining endothelial and suppression of inflammatory markers; b protection from sepsis in animal models; and c direct antineoplastic effects, we propose the use of ascorbate as an adjuvant to existing modalities in the treatment and prevention of cancer-associated sepsis.

  15. Dropout Prevention: A Study of Prevention Programs Used by High Schools to Increase Graduation Rate

    Simmons, Christopher L.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study focused on the relationship between dropout prevention programs and graduation rates in one school district in Florida during the 2010-2011 school year. The dropout prevention program data analyzed included high school principals' perceptions in regard to perceived effectiveness, fidelity of implementation, cost efficacy,…

  16. Adding Folic Acid to Corn Masa Flour May Prevent Birth Defects

    ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Adding Folic Acid to Corn Masa Flour May Prevent Birth Defects Share Tweet ... mainstay of their regular diets—which often are corn masa-based.” This could be a reason why ...

  17. Dehydroeburicoic Acid from Antrodia camphorata Prevents the Diabetic and Dyslipidemic State via Modulation of Glucose Transporter 4, Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α Expression and AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphorylation in High-Fat-Fed Mice

    Yueh-Hsiung Kuo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the potential effects of dehydroeburicoic acid (TT, a triterpenoid compound from Antrodia camphorata, in vitro and examined the effects and mechanisms of TT on glucose and lipid homeostasis in high-fat-diet (HFD-fed mice. The in vitro study examined the effects of a MeOH crude extract (CruE of A. camphorata and Antcin K (AnK; the main constituent of fruiting body of this mushroom on membrane glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 and phospho-Akt in C2C12 myoblasts cells. The in vitro study demonstrated that treatment with CruE, AnK and TT increased the membrane levels of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 and phospho-Akt at different concentrations. The animal experiments were performed for 12 weeks. Diabetic mice were randomly divided into six groups after 8 weeks of HFD-induction and treated with daily oral gavage doses of TT (at three dose levels, fenofibrate (Feno (at 0.25 g/kg body weight, metformin (Metf (at 0.3 g/kg body weight or vehicle for another 4 weeks while on an HFD diet. HFD-fed mice exhibited increased blood glucose levels. TT treatment dramatically lowered blood glucose levels by 34.2%~43.4%, which was comparable to the antidiabetic agent-Metf (36.5%. TT-treated mice reduced the HFD-induced hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia, and hypercholesterolemia. Membrane levels of GLUT4 were significantly higher in CruE-treated groups in vitro. Skeletal muscle membrane levels of GLUT4 were significantly higher in TT-treated mice. These groups of mice also displayed lower mRNA levels of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6 Pase, an inhibitor of hepatic glucose production. The combination of these agents produced a net hypoglycemic effect in TT-treated mice. TT treatment enhanced the expressions of hepatic and skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation in mice. TT-treated mice exhibited enhanced expression of hepatic fatty acid oxidation enzymes, including peroxisome proliferator

  18. Dehydroeburicoic Acid from Antrodia camphorata Prevents the Diabetic and Dyslipidemic State via Modulation of Glucose Transporter 4, Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α Expression and AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphorylation in High-Fat-Fed Mice.

    Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Lin, Cheng-Hsiu; Shih, Chun-Ching

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the potential effects of dehydroeburicoic acid (TT), a triterpenoid compound from Antrodia camphorata, in vitro and examined the effects and mechanisms of TT on glucose and lipid homeostasis in high-fat-diet (HFD)-fed mice. The in vitro study examined the effects of a MeOH crude extract (CruE) of A. camphorata and Antcin K (AnK; the main constituent of fruiting body of this mushroom) on membrane glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and phospho-Akt in C2C12 myoblasts cells. The in vitro study demonstrated that treatment with CruE, AnK and TT increased the membrane levels of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and phospho-Akt at different concentrations. The animal experiments were performed for 12 weeks. Diabetic mice were randomly divided into six groups after 8 weeks of HFD-induction and treated with daily oral gavage doses of TT (at three dose levels), fenofibrate (Feno) (at 0.25 g/kg body weight), metformin (Metf) (at 0.3 g/kg body weight) or vehicle for another 4 weeks while on an HFD diet. HFD-fed mice exhibited increased blood glucose levels. TT treatment dramatically lowered blood glucose levels by 34.2%~43.4%, which was comparable to the antidiabetic agent-Metf (36.5%). TT-treated mice reduced the HFD-induced hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia, and hypercholesterolemia. Membrane levels of GLUT4 were significantly higher in CruE-treated groups in vitro. Skeletal muscle membrane levels of GLUT4 were significantly higher in TT-treated mice. These groups of mice also displayed lower mRNA levels of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6 Pase), an inhibitor of hepatic glucose production. The combination of these agents produced a net hypoglycemic effect in TT-treated mice. TT treatment enhanced the expressions of hepatic and skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in mice. TT-treated mice exhibited enhanced expression of hepatic fatty acid oxidation enzymes, including peroxisome proliferator

  19. The potential role of boswellic acids in cancer prevention and treatment.

    Roy, Nand Kishor; Deka, Anindita; Bordoloi, Devivasha; Mishra, Srishti; Kumar, Alan Prem; Sethi, Gautam; Kunnumakkara, Ajaikumar B

    2016-07-10

    Despite the extensive research carried out in the field of cancer therapeutics, cancer is one of the most dreadful diseases in the world with no definitive treatment to date. The key attributes responsible for this are the various limiting factors associated with conventional chemotherapeutics that primarily include adverse side-effects and development of chemoresistance. Hence, there is an utter need to find compounds that are highly safe and efficacious for the prevention and treatment of cancer. Boswellic acid, a group of pentacyclic compounds, seems to be promising enough due to its inherent anti-cancerous properties. Considering this perspective, the present review highlights the established studies related to the anti-cancer potential of boswellic acid against different cancer types. The molecular mechanisms underlying the targets of boswellic acid that are accountable for its potent anti-cancer effect are also discussed. Overall, this review projects the pieces of evidence that reveal the potential of boswellic acid as a suitable candidate that can be appropriately developed and designed into a promising anti-cancer drug. PMID:27091399

  20. Synthetic Fatty Acids Prevent Plasmid-Mediated Horizontal Gene Transfer

    Getino Redondo, María; Sanabria Ríos, David J.; Fernández López, Raúl; Campos Gómez, Javier; Sánchez López, José M.; Fernández Medarde, Antonio; Carballeira Cabranes, Néstor M.; Cruz Calahorra, Fernando de la

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial conjugation constitutes a major horizontal gene transfer mechanism for the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes among human pathogens. Antibiotic resistance spread could be halted or diminished by molecules that interfere with the conjugation process. In this work, synthetic 2-alkynoic fatty acids were identified as a novel class of conjugation inhibitors. Their chemical properties were investigated by using the prototype 2-hexadecynoic acid and its derivatives. Essential fe...

  1. Incorporated fish oil fatty acids prevent action potential shortening induced by circulating fish oil fatty acids

    Hester M Den Ruijter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased consumption of fatty fish, rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (3-PUFAs reduces the severity and number of arrhythmias. Long term 3-PUFA-intake modulates the activity of several cardiac ion channels leading to cardiac action potential shortening. Circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream and incorporated 3-PUFAs in the cardiac membrane have a different mechanism to shorten the action potential. It is, however, unknown whether circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream enhance or diminish the effects of incorporated 3-PUFAs. In the present study, we address this issue. Rabbits were fed a diet rich in fish oil (3 or sunflower oil (9, as control for 3 weeks. Ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and action potentials were measured using the perforated patch clamp technique in the absence and presence of acutely administered 3-PUFAs. Plasma of 3 fed rabbits contained more free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and isolated myocytes of 3 fed rabbits contained higher amounts of both EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in their sarcolemma compared to control. In the absence of acutely administered fatty acids, 3 myocytes had a shorter action potential with a more negative plateau than 9 myocytes. In the 9 myocytes, but not in the 3 myocytes, acute administration of a mixture of EPA+DHA shortened the action potential significantly. From these data we conclude that incorporated 3-PUFAs into the sarcolemma and acutely administered 3 fatty acids do not have a cumulative effect on action potential duration and morphology. As a consequence, patients with a high cardiac 3-PUFA status will probably not benefit from short term 3 supplementation as an antiarrhythmic therapy.

  2. High School Teachers' Perceptions of Cyberbullying Prevention and Intervention Strategies

    Stauffer, Sterling; Heath, Melissa Allen; Coyne, Sarah Marie; Ferrin, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses indicate that bully prevention programs produce minimal change in student behavior. This study examined 66 high school teachers' perceptions regarding the effect of cyberbullying on students, which intervening strategies teachers would use when dealing with cyberbullying, and which prevention strategies would assist in…

  3. α-Linolenic acid prevents endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis of stearic acid lipotoxicity on primary rat hepatocytes

    Shi Hongyang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims Lipid accumulation in non-adipose tissues leads to cell dysfunction and apoptosis, a phenomenon known as lipotoxicity. Unsaturated fatty acids may offset the lipotoxicity associated with saturated fatty acids. Stearic acid induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and caused apoptotic and necrotic cell death in the primary rat hepatocytes. Methods Cell viability was investigated using MTT assay, and apoptosis was evaluated with Hoechst 33342 staining. Western blot analysis was used to examine the changes in the expression levels of glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78, glucose regulated protein 94 (GRP94, and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP. Caspase-3 activity was evaluated using a Caspase-3 substrate kit. Results We have studied the ability of α-linolenic acid to prevent endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis of rat hepatocytes elicited by stearic acid and thapsigargin. Incubation of primary rat hepatocytes for 16 h with stearic acid produced a significant increase in cell death. Stearic acid also increased levels of three indicators of ER stress -- GRP78, CHOP, and GRP94. α-Linolenic acid distinctly reduced cell death and levels of all three indicators of ER stress brought about by stearic acid. Thapsigargin, which induces ER stress produced similar effects to those obtained using stearic acid; its effects were partly reversed by α-linolenic acid. Conclusion These results suggest that α-linolenic acid prevents ER stress-mediated apoptosis of stearic acid lipotoxicity on primary rat hepatocytes might become a target to develop new antiapoptotic compounds in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD.

  4. Perinatal exposure to germinated brown rice and its gamma amino-butyric acid-rich extract prevents high fat diet-induced insulin resistance in first generation rat offspring

    Hadiza Altine Adamu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence suggests perinatal environments influence the risk of developing insulin resistance. Objective: The present study was aimed at determining the effects of intrauterine exposure to germinated brown rice (GBR and GBR-derived gamma (γ aminobutyric acid (GABA extract on epigenetically mediated high fat diet–induced insulin resistance. Design: Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were fed high-fat diet (HFD, HFD+GBR, or HFD+GABA throughout pregnancy until 4 weeks postdelivery. The pups were weighed weekly and maintained on normal pellet until 8 weeks postdelivery. After sacrifice, biochemical markers of obesity and insulin resistance including oral glucose tolerance test, adiponectin, leptin, and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4 were measured. Hepatic gene expression changes and the global methylation and histone acetylation levels were also evaluated. Results: Detailed analyses revealed that mothers given GBR and GABA extract, and their offspring had increased adiponectin levels and reduced insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, leptin, oxidative stress, and RBP4 levels, while their hepatic mRNA levels of GLUT2 and IPF1 were increased. Furthermore, GBR and GABA extract lowered global DNA methylation levels and modulated H3 and H4 acetylation levels. Conclusions: These results showed that intrauterine exposure to GBR-influenced metabolic outcomes in offspring of rats with underlying epigenetic changes and transcriptional implications that led to improved glucose homeostasis.

  5. Dietary n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in allergy prevention and asthma treatment.

    Willemsen, Linette E M

    2016-08-15

    The rise in non-communicable diseases, such as allergies, in westernized countries links to changes in lifestyle and diet. N-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) present in marine oils facilitate a favorable milieu for immune maturation and may contribute to allergy prevention. N-3 LCPUFA can suppress innate and adaptive immune activation and induce epigenetic changes. Murine studies convincingly show protective effects of fish oil, a source of n-3 LCPUFA, in food allergy and asthma models. Observational studies in human indicate that high dietary intake of n-3 LCPUFA and low intake of n-6 PUFA may protect against the development of allergic disease early in life. High n-6 PUFA intake is also associated with an increased asthma risk while n-3 LCPUFA may be protective and reduce symptoms. The quality of the marine oil used has impact on efficacy of allergy prevention and several observations link in particular n-3 LCPUFA DHA to allergy suppression. Randomized controlled trials indicate that optimal timing, duration and dosage of n-3 LC-PUFA is required to exert an allergy protective effect. Supplementation during early pregnancy and lactation has shown promising results regarding allergy prevention. However these findings should be confirmed in a larger cohort. Although clinical trials in asthma patients reveal no consistent clinical benefits of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation on lung function, it can suppress airway inflammation. Future food-pharma approaches may reveal whether adjunct therapy with dietary n-3 LCPUFA can improve allergy prevention or immunotherapy via support of allergen specific oral tolerance induction or contribute to the efficacy of drug therapy for asthma patients. PMID:27041644

  6. Preventive Effect of Phytic Acid on Isoproterenol-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Wistar Rats

    Brindha, E.; Rajasekapandiyan, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the preventive role of phytic acid on membrane bound enzymes such as sodium potassium- dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Na+ /K+ ATPase), calcium-dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Ca2+ ATPase) and magnesium- dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Mg2+ ATPase) and glycoproteins such as hexose, hexosamine, fucose and sialic acid in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. Male albino Wistar rats were pretreated with phytic acid (25 and 50...

  7. Preventive Effects of Zoledronic Acid on Bone Metastasis in Mice Injected with Human Breast Cancer Cells

    Jeong, Joon; Lee, Kyung Sun; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Oh, Young Ju; Lee, Hy-De

    2011-01-01

    Bisphosphonates are used routinely to reduce bone-related events in breast cancer patients with bone metastasis. We evaluated the effects of zoledronic acid, a third generation, nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, to prevent bone metastasis in breast cancer. Zoledronic acid or vehicle alone was administered to nude mice either simultaneously or after intracardiac injection of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Nude mice treated with zoledronic acid at early time points showed a lower incid...

  8. Fatty acids in treatment and prevention of depression

    Wilczyńska, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    The increase of incident rates for depression and other psychiatric disorders is a serious threat for all communities.The study presents data verifying the relationship between the level of omega-3 PUFAs in the blood and an increased risk of depression, including the parallel standard therapy with antidepressants or not.There is an increasing number of evidences that fatty acids like DHA, AA and EPA are linked to depression. In epidemiological studies and clinical trials a correlation between...

  9. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) prevents age associated skeletal muscle loss

    Rahman, Md M.; Ganesh V. Halade; Jamali, Amina El; Fernandes, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of CLA isomers in preventing age-associated muscle loss and the mechanisms underlying this effect, using 12 months old C57BL/6 mice fed 10% corn oil (CO) or a diet supplemented with 0.5% c9t11-CLA, t10c12-CLA or c9t11-CLA+t10c12-CLA (CLA-mix) for 6 months. Both t10c12-CLA and CLA-mix groups showed significantly higher muscle mass, as compared to CO and c9t11-CLA groups, measured by dual-energy-Xray-absorptiometry and muscle wet weight. Enhanced mitochondr...

  10. Fatty acids in treatment and prevention of depression

    Wilczyńska, Agnieszka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The increase of incident rates for depression and other psychiatric disorders is a serious threat for all communities.The study presents data verifying the relationship between the level of omega-3 PUFAs in the blood and an increased risk of depression, including the parallel standard therapy with antidepressants or not.There is an increasing number of evidences that fatty acids like DHA, AA and EPA are linked to depression. In epidemiological studies and clinical trials a correlation between the decline of omega-3 PUFA intake and an increasing risk for developing depression is considered.

  11. Nucleic Acid Drugs for Prevention of Cardiac Rejection

    Jun-ichi Suzuki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart transplantation has been broadly performed in humans. However, occurrence of acute and chronic rejection has not yet been resolved. Several inflammatory factors, such as cytokines and adhesion molecules, enhance the rejection. The graft arterial disease (GAD, which is a type of chronic rejection, is characterized by intimal thickening comprised of proliferative smooth muscle cells. Specific treatments that target the attenuation of acute rejection and GAD formation have not been well studied in cardiac transplantation. Recent progress in the nucleic acid drugs, such as antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs to regulate the transcription of disease-related genes, has important roles in therapeutic applications. Transfection of cis-element double-stranded DNA, named as “decoy,” has been also reported to be a useful nucleic acid drug. This decoy strategy has been not only a useful method for the experimental studies of gene regulation but also a novel clinical strategy. In this paper, we reviewed the experimental results of NF-κB, E2F, AP-1, and STAT-1 decoy and other ODNs using the experimental heart transplant models.

  12. Protocatechuic acid and human disease prevention: biological activities and molecular mechanisms.

    Masella, R; Santangelo, C; D'Archivio, M; Li Volti, G; Giovannini, C; Galvano, F

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence has shown that a high dietary intake of vegetables and fruit rich in polyphenols is associated with a reduction of cancer incidence and mortality from coronary heart disease. The healthy effects associated with polyphenol consumption have made the study of the mechanisms of action a matter of great importance. In particular, the hydroxybenzoic acid protocatechuic acid (PCA) has been eliciting a growing interest for several reasons. Firstly, PCA is one of the main metabolites of complex polyphenols such as anthocyanins and procyanidins that are normally found at high concentrations in vegetables and fruit, and are absorbed by animals and humans. Since the daily intake of anthocyanins has been estimated to be much higher than that of other polyphenols, the nutritional value of PCA is increasingly recognized. Secondly, a growing body of evidence supports the concept that PCA can exert a variety of biological effects by acting on different molecular targets. It has been shown that PCA possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory as well as antihyperglycemic and neuroprotective activities. Furthermore, PCA seems to have chemopreventive potential because it inhibits the in vitro chemical carcinogenesis and exerts pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects in different tissues. This review is aimed at providing an up-dated and comprehensive report on PCA giving a special emphasis on its biological activities and the molecular mechanisms of action most likely responsible for a beneficial role in human disease prevention. PMID:22519395

  13. Highly Efficient Syntheses of Hyaluronic Acid Oligosaccharides

    Huang, Lijun; Huang, Xuefei

    2007-01-01

    Highly efficient syntheses of hyaluronic acid oligosaccharides have been accomplished through the pre-activation based iterative one-pot strategy. A series of oligosaccharides ranging from di- to hexasaccharides were rapidly assembled using only near stoichiometric amounts of the building blocks without aglycon adjustment or purifications of intermediate oligosaccharides. Deprote...

  14. Role of n-3 series polyunsaturated fatty acids in cardiovascular disease prevention

    Lee AH

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Andy H Lee1, Naoko Hiramatsu21School of Public Health, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia; 2Laboratory of Nutritional Science, School of Human Science and Environment, University of Hyogo, Himeji, Hyogo, JapanAbstract: Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Its prevention through a healthy lifestyle and appropriate diet is important. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA therapy has shown promise in both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. This commentary discusses the nutritional role of n-3 PUFA, including its metabolism and physiological role, comparison with n-6 series PUFA, as well as complications due to deficiency. Clinical use of n-3 PUFA for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease, recommended intake, and potential adverse effects will also be examined. The available scientific evidence suggests that its supplementation and clinical use ranging from 0.4 to 1 g/day can provide tangible benefits. However, further studies are required to determine optimal dosing and the relative ratio of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid that provides maximal cardioprotection and treatment of cardiovascular disease.Keywords: alpha-linolenic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, cardiovascular disease, fish oil, polyunsaturated fatty acids

  15. Folic acid supplement use in the prevention of neural tube defects.

    Delany, C

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, planned folic acid fortification for the prevention of Neural Tube Defects (NTD) was postponed. Concurrently, the economic recession may have affected dietary folic acid intake, placing increased emphasis on supplement use. This study examined folic acid supplement use in 2009. A cross-sectional survey of 300 ante-natal women was undertaken to assess folic acid knowledge and use. Associations between demographic, obstetric variables and folic acid knowledge and use were examined. A majority, 284\\/297 (96%), had heard of folic acid, and 178\\/297 (60%) knew that it could prevent NTD. Most, 270\\/297 (91%) had taken it during their pregnancy, but only 107\\/297 (36%) had used it periconceptionally. Being older, married, planned pregnancy and better socioeconomic status were associated with periconceptional use. Periconceptional folic acid use in 2009 was very low, little changed from economic status were associated with periconceptional use. Periconceptional folic acid use in 2009 was very low, little changed from earlier years. Continuous promotion efforts are necessary. Close monitoring of folic acid intake and NTD rates is essential, particularly in the absence of fortification.

  16. Biodegradation of high molecular weight polylactic acid

    Stloukal, Petr; Koutný, Marek; Sedlařík, Vladimír; Kucharczyk, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Polylactid acid seems to be an appropriate replacement of conventional non-biodegradable synthetic polymer primarily due to comparable mechanical, thermal and processing properties in its high molecular weight form. Biodegradation of high molecular PLA was studied in compost for various forms differing in their specific surface area. The material proved its good biodegradability under composting conditions and all investigated forms showed to be acceptable for industrial composting. Despite e...

  17. Highly crystallized poly (lactic acid) under high pressure

    Jin Zhang; Ding-Xiang Yan; Jia-Zhuang Xu; Hua-Dong Huang; Jun Lei; Zhong-Ming Li

    2012-01-01

    Biodegradable poly (lactic acid) (PLA) usually has a crystallinity less than 10% due to its poor crystallization ability. In this work, we found high pressure could significantly facilitate formation of crystallites of PLA, resulting in a crystallinity high up to 66.3% at pressure and temperature of 300 MPa and 185 ºC. High-pressure induced crystalline reorganization and lamellar thickening led to two melting temperatures in the highly crystallized PLA but without cold crystallization compare...

  18. Simultaneous analysis of small organic acids and humic acids using high performance size exclusion chromatography

    Qin, X.P.; Liu, F.; Wang, G.C.; Weng, L.P.

    2012-01-01

    An accurate and fast method for simultaneous determination of small organic acids and much larger humic acids was developed using high performance size exclusion chromatography. Two small organic acids, i.e. salicylic acid and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and one purified humic acid material were used

  19. Serum Phospholipid Fatty Acids and Prostate Cancer Risk: Results From the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

    Brasky, Theodore M.; Till, Cathee; White, Emily; Neuhouser, Marian L; Song, Xiaoling; Goodman, Phyllis; Thompson, Ian M; King, Irena B.; Albanes, Demetrius; Kristal, Alan R.

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation may be involved in prostate cancer development and progression. This study examined the associations between inflammation-related phospholipid fatty acids and the 7-year-period prevalence of prostate cancer in a nested case-control analysis of participants, aged 55–84 years, in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial during 1994–2003. Cases (n = 1,658) were frequency matched to controls (n = 1,803) on age, treatment, and prostate cancer family history. Phospholipid fatty acids were ...

  20. Periconceptional use of folic acid and risk of miscarriage – Findings of Oral Cleft Prevention Program in Brazil

    Vila-Nova, C; Wehby, GL; Queirós, F; Chakraborty, H; Félix, TM; Goco, N; J. Moore; Gewehr, EV; Lins, L.; Affonso, CMC; Murray, JC

    2013-01-01

    We report on the risk of miscarriage due to high dosage periconceptional folic acid (FA) supplementation from a double blind randomized clinical trial for prevention of orofacial clefts in Brazil. The miscarriage rate was 14.2% in the low dose FA group (0.4 mg per day) and 11.3% for the high dose (4 mg per day) group (p=0.4877); the population miscarriage rate is 14%. These results indicate that high dose FA does not increase miscarriage risk in this population and add further information to ...

  1. Membrane Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency as a Preventable Risk Factor for Comorbid Coronary Heart Disease in Major Depressive Disorder

    Robert K. McNamara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Major depression disorder (MDD significantly increases the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD which is a leading cause of mortality in patients with MDD. Moreover, depression is frequently observed in a subset of patients following acute coronary syndrome (ACS and increases risk for mortality. Here evidence implicating omega-3 (n-3 fatty acid deficiency in the pathoaetiology of CHD and MDD is reviewed, and the hypothesis that n-3 fatty acid deficiency is a preventable risk factor for CHD comorbidity in MDD patients is evaluated. This hypothesis is supported by cross-national and cross-sectional epidemiological surveys finding an inverse correlation between n-3 fatty acid status and prevalence rates of both CHD and MDD, prospective studies finding that lower dietary or membrane EPA+DHA levels increase risk for both MDD and CHD, case-control studies finding that the n-3 fatty acid status of MDD patients places them at high risk for emergent CHD morbidity and mortality, meta-analyses of controlled n-3 fatty acid intervention studies finding significant advantage over placebo for reducing depression symptom severity in MDD patients, and for secondary prevention of cardiac events in CHD patients, findings that n-3 fatty acid status is inversely correlated with other documented CHD risk factors, and patients diagnosed with MDD after ACS exhibit significantly lower n-3 fatty acid status compared with nondepressed ACS patients. This body of evidence provides strong support for future studies to evaluate the effects of increasing dietary n-3 fatty acid status on CHD comorbidity and mortality in MDD patients.

  2. Quality and quantity of the alkaline amendments needed to prevent acid mine drainage

    Control of acid mine drainage requires not only treatment of existing drainage but prevention of future acidic drainage. Waste rock exposed during coal mining and processing may contain up to 6% pyritic sulfur. These rocks may have little inherent neutralization capacity and appear to be very long lived acid generators. This paper summarizes recent research into the influence of additives to coal waste rock for the prevention of acidic mine drainage. Methods have been developed whereby additives can be evaluated using an extended acid-base accounting method and by Soxhlet extraction methods. The former method provides a means for gross determination of dose and the latter method provides some kinetic information on acid release. In addition to the evaluation of the effect of ameliorants on acidity, metal release has also been examined. Mass balances on sulfur, iron manganese and aluminum are used to discuss the nature of the treatment chemical reactions. The economics and efficacy of various treatment products (lime, combustion ash, kiln dust, and phosphate in particular) are discussed

  3. Salicylic acid: a link between aspirin, diet and the prevention of colorectal cancer.

    Paterson, J R; Lawrence, J R

    2001-08-01

    Aspirin was introduced into clinical practice more than 100 years ago. This unique drug belongs to a family of compounds called the salicylates, the simplest of which is salicylic acid, the principal metabolite of aspirin. Salicylic acid is responsible for the anti-inflammatory action of aspirin, and may cause the reduced risk of colorectal cancer observed in those who take aspirin. Yet salicylic acid and other salicylates occur naturally in fruits and plants, while diets rich in these are believed to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. Serum salicylic acid concentrations are greater in vegetarians than non-vegetarians, and there is overlap between concentrations in vegetarians and those taking low-dose aspirin. We propose that the cancer-preventive action of aspirin is due to its principal metabolite, salicylic acid, and that dietary salicylates can have the same effect. It is also possible that natural salicylates contribute to the other recognized benefits of a healthy diet. PMID:11493722

  4. Treatments of free fatty acids to prevent or decrease colour fixation in cottonseed oil

    Helmy, H. E.

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Some treatments have been investigated to prevent or remove colour fixation of cottonseed oil containing high level of free fatty acids without using excess of sodium hydroxide in the refining step. The treatments included use of sodium carbonate and ethanolamine before and after subjecting a crude cottonseed oil containing excess of free fatty acid to a colour fixation treatment.
    The results revealed that the carbonate/ethanolamine treatment improved the oil colour by decreasing the free fatty acids and gossypol in the oil, without using any excess of sodium hydroxide.
    Carrying out the carbonate/ethanolamine treatment on cottonseed oil with high levels of free fatty acid before colour fixation takes place is more recommended than carrying out the same treatment on the same oil after it has been fixed.

    Se han investigado algunos tratamientos para prevenir o eliminar la fijación del color de aceite de semilla de algodón que contienen alto nivel de ácidos grasos libres, sin utilizar un exceso de hidróxido sódico en la etapa de refinación.
    Los tratamientos incluyeron el uso de carbonato sódico y etanolamina antes y después, sometiendo un aceite crudo de semilla de algodón que contiene exceso de ácidos grasos libres a tratamiento de fijación del color.
    Los resultados mostraron que el tratamiento carbonato/etanolamina mejoró el color del aceite por disminución de los ácidos grasos libres y gosipol en el aceite, sin utilizar un exceso de hidróxido sódico.
    Llevar a cabo el tratamiento con carbonato/etanolamina sobre aceite de semilla de algodón con niveles altos de ácidos grasos libres antes que tenga lugar la fijación del color es más recomendable que llevar a cabo el mismo tratamiento sobre el mismo aceite después de que se haya fijado.

  5. Interactions between prebiotics, probiotics, polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols: diet or supplementation for metabolic syndrome prevention?

    Peluso, Ilaria; Romanelli, Luca; Palmery, Maura

    2014-05-01

    The metabolic syndrome can be prevented by the Mediterranean diet, characterized by fiber, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols. However, the composition of the Mediterranean diet, which can be viewed as a natural multiple supplement, is poorly controlled, and its beneficial effects poorly predictable. The metabolic syndrome is associated with intestinal dysbiosis and the gut microbioma seems to be the main target and player in the interactions occurring between probiotics, prebiotics, omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and polyphenols. From the reviewed evidence, it is reasonable to manage growth and metabolism of gut microflora with specific prebiotics and polyphenols. Even though the healthy properties of functional foods and nutraceuticals still need to be fully elucidated, available data suggest that well-designed supplements, containing the better ratio of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants, specific probiotic strains, and selected polyphenols and prebiotics, could be useful in metabolic syndrome prevention and treatment. PMID:24467635

  6. Accidents Preventive Practice for High-Rise Construction

    Goh Kai Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand of high-rise projects continues to grow due to the reducing of usable land area in Klang Valley, Malaysia. The rapidly development of high-rise projects has leaded to the rise of fatalities and accidents. An accident that happened in a construction site can cause serious physical injury. The accidents such as people falling from height and struck by falling object were the most frequent accidents happened in Malaysian construction industry. The continuous growth of high-rise buildings indicates that there is a need of an effective safety and health management. Hence, this research aims to identify the causes of accidents and the ways to prevent accidents that occur at high-rise building construction site. Qualitative method was employed in this research. Interview surveying with safety officers who are involved in highrise building project in Kuala Lumpur were conducted in this research. Accidents were caused by man-made factors, environment factors or machinery factors. The accidents prevention methods were provide sufficient Personal Protective Equipment (PPE, have a good housekeeping, execute safety inspection, provide safety training and execute accidents investigation. In the meanwhile, interviewees have suggested the new prevention methods that were develop a proper site layout planning and de-merit and merit system among sub-contractors, suppliers and even employees regarding safety at workplace matters. This research helps in explaining the causes of accidents and identifying area where prevention action should be implemented, so that workers and top management will increase awareness in preventing site accidents.

  7. Acidic polyanion poly(acrylic acid) prevents calcium oxalate crystal deposition

    Kleinman, Jack G.; Alatalo, Laura J.; Beshensky, Ann M.; Wesson, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Acidic macromolecules inhibit calcium oxalate nucleation, growth, aggregation and attachment to cells in vitro. To test for such an effect in vivo we used osmotic minipumps to continuously infuse several doses of the 5.1 kDa poly(acrylic acid) (pAA5.1) into rats fed a diet which causes renal calcium oxalate crystal deposition. Although kidneys of rats receiving the saline control contained calcium oxalate crystals, measured by polarized light microscopy, those of animals given pAA5.1 had sign...

  8. Effects of Comprehensive, Multiple High-Risk Behaviors Prevention Program on High School Students

    Collier, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine the effect of a multiple high-risk behaviors prevention program applied comprehensively throughout an entire school-system involving universal, selective, and indicated levels of students at a local private high school during a 4-year period. The prevention program was created based upon the…

  9. Acute intestinal injury induced by acetic acid and casein: prevention by intraluminal misoprostol

    Acute injury was established in anesthetized rabbits by intraluminal administration of acetic acid with and without bovine casein, into loops of distal small intestine. Damage was quantified after 45 minutes by the blood-to-lumen movement of 51Cr-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-tagged bovine serum albumin as well as luminal fluid histamine levels. The amount of titratable acetic acid used to lower the pH of the treatment solutions to pH 4.0 was increased by the addition of calcium gluconate. Luminal acetic acid caused a 19-fold increase in 51Cr-EDTA accumulation over saline controls; casein did not modify this effect. In saline controls, loop fluid histamine levels bordered on the limits of detection (1 ng/g) but were elevated 19-fold by acetic acid exposure and markedly increased (118-fold) by the combination of acid and casein. Intraluminal misoprostol (3 or 30 micrograms/mL), administered 30 minutes before acetic acid, significantly attenuated the increase in epithelial permeability (luminal 51Cr-EDTA, fluorescein isothiocyanate-bovine serum albumin accumulation) and histamine release (P less than 0.05). Diphenhydramine, alone or in combination with cimetidine, and indomethacin (5 mg/kg IV) were not protective. It is concluded that exposure of the epithelium to acetic acid promotes the transepithelial movement of casein leading to enhanced mast cell activation and mucosal injury. Damage to the epithelial barrier can be prevented by misoprostol

  10. Can migraine prophylaxis prevent acute mountain sickness at high altitude?

    Kim, M W; Kim, M

    2011-11-01

    Acute mountain sickness (AMS) develops in people trekking at high altitude. The underlying mechanism is vasodilation due to low pressure of oxygen. However, individual susceptibility for AMS is unknown, thus, one cannot predict when or to whom it happens. Because AMS usually begins with headache, and because migraineurs are more vulnerable to AMS, we studied by the literatures review on the mechanism and clinical features in common, and assessed the treatment modalities for both disorders. This led to us the following hypothesis that, migraine prophylaxis may prevent or delay the onset of AMS at high altitude. Clinical features of AMS include nausea or vomiting when it progresses. Hypobaric hypoxia, dehydration or increased physical exertion trigger or aggravate both disorders. In migraine, cerebral vasodilation can happen following alteration of neuronal activity, whereas the AMS is associated with peripheral vessel dilation. Medications that dilate the vessels worsen both conditions. Acute treatment strategies for migraine overlap with to those of AMS, including drugs such as vasoconstrictors, or other analgesics. To prevent AMS, adaptation to high altitude or pharmacological prophylaxis, i.e., acetazolamide has been recommended. This carbonic anhydrase inhibitor lowers serum potassium level, and thus stabilizes membrane excitability. Acetazolamide is also effective on specific forms of migraine. Taken together, these evidences implicate that migraine prophylaxis may prevent or delay the onset of AMS by elevating the threshold for high altitude. PMID:21856088

  11. Prevention of volatile fatty acids production and limitation of odours from winery wastewaters by denitrification.

    Bories, André; Guillot, Jean-Michel; Sire, Yannick; Couderc, Marie; Lemaire, Sophie-Andréa; Kreim, Virginie; Roux, Jean-Claude

    2007-07-01

    The effect of the addition of nitrate to winery wastewaters to control the formation of VFA in order to prevent odours during storage and treatment was studied in batch bioreactors at different NO(3)/chemical oxygen demand (COD) ratios and at full scale in natural evaporation ponds (2 x 7000 m(2)) by measuring olfactory intensity. In the absence of nitrate, butyric acid (2304 mgL(-1)), acetic acid (1633 mgL(-1)), propionic acid (1558 mgL(-1)), caproic acid (499 mgL(-1)) and valeric acid (298 mgL(-1)) were produced from reconstituted winery wastewater. For a ratio of NO(3)/COD=0.4 gg(-1), caproic and valeric acids were not formed. The production of butyric and propionic acids was reduced by 93.3% and 72.5%, respectively, at a ratio of NO(3)/COD=0.8, and by 97.4% and 100% at a ratio of NO(3)/COD=1.2 gg(-1). Nitrate delayed and decreased butyric acid formation in relation to the oxidoreduction potential. Studies in ponds showed that the addition of concentrated calcium nitrate (NITCAL) to winery wastewaters (3526 m(3)) in a ratio of NO(3)/COD=0.8 inhibited VFA production, with COD elimination (94%) and total nitrate degradation, and no final nitrite accumulation. On the contrary, in ponds not treated with nitrate, malodorous VFA (from propionic to heptanoïc acids) represented up to 60% of the COD. Olfactory intensity measurements in relation to the butanol scale of VFA solutions and the ponds revealed the pervasive role of VFA in the odour of the untreated pond as well as the clear decrease in the intensity and not unpleasant odour of the winery wastewater pond enriched in nitrates. The results obtained at full scale underscored the feasibility and safety of the calcium nitrate treatment as opposed to concentrated nitric acid. PMID:17467770

  12. Conjugation of Hyaluronic Acid onto Surfaces via the Interfacial Polymerization of Dopamine to Prevent Protein Adsorption.

    Huang, Renliang; Liu, Xia; Ye, Huijun; Su, Rongxin; Qi, Wei; Wang, Libing; He, Zhimin

    2015-11-10

    A versatile, convenient, and cost-effective method that can be used for grafting antifouling materials onto different surfaces is highly desirable in many applications. Here, we report the one-step fabrication of antifouling surfaces via the polymerization of dopamine and the simultaneous deposition of anionic hyaluronic acid (HA) on Au substrates. The water contact angle of the Au surfaces decreased from 84.9° to 24.8° after the attachment of a highly uniform polydopamine (PDA)/HA hybrid film. The results of surface plasmon resonance analysis showed that the Au-PDA/HA surfaces adsorbed proteins from solutions of bovine serum albumin, lysozyme, β-lactoglobulin, fibrinogen, and soybean milk in ultralow or low amounts (4.8-31.7 ng/cm(2)). The hydrophilicity and good antifouling performance of the PDA/HA surfaces is attributable to the HA chains that probably attached onto their upper surface via hydrogen bonding between PDA and HA. At the same time, the electrostatic repulsion between PDA and HA probably prevents the aggregation of PDA, resulting in the formation of a highly uniform PDA/HA hybrid film with the HA chains (with a stretched structure) on the upper surface. We also developed a simple method for removing this PDA/HA film and recycling the Au substrates by using an aqueous solution of NaOH as the hydrolyzing agent. The Au surface remained undamaged, and a PDA/HA film could be redeposited on the surface, with the surface exhibiting good antifouling performance even after 10 such cycles. Finally, it was found that this grafting method is applicable to other substrates, including epoxy resins, polystyrene, glass, and steel, owing to the strong adhesion of PDA with these substrates. PMID:26488547

  13. Maintenance of an acidic stratum corneum prevents emergence of murine atopic dermatitis.

    Hatano, Yutaka; Man, Mao-Qiang; Uchida, Yoshikazu; Crumrine, Debra; Scharschmidt, Tiffany C; Kim, Esther G; Mauro, Theodora M; Feingold, Kenneth R; Elias, Peter M; Holleran, Walter M

    2009-07-01

    Neutralization of stratum corneum (SC) adversely impacts key epidermal functions, including permeability barrier homeostasis and SC integrity. Conversely, acidification of SC improves these functions in developmentally impaired (neonatal or aged) skin, and enhances function in normal skin. Hence, we hypothesized that acidification could alter the course of inflammatory dermatoses, which invariably exhibit an increased SC pH. Maintenance of a low pH by topical applications of the polyhydroxyl acid, lactobionic acid, during the repeated-challenge phase inhibited the development of oxazolone-induced atopic dermatitis (AD). Neither gross/histological dermatitis nor altered barrier function developed, and emergence of epidermal hyperplasia was prevented; however, cytokine generation decreased. Acidification also largely normalized the development of hapten-induced changes in eosinophil/mast cell densities, density of chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on TH2-positive lymphocytes, and serum IgE levels. The pH-induced improvement in barrier function most likely accounts for the anti-inflammatory activity, which could be further attributed to normalization of both lamellar body secretion and lamellar bilayer formation. Acidification of SC alone substantially prevents development of barrier abnormalities and downstream immune abnormalities during the elicitation phase of murine AD. These results provide direct evidence for the "outside-inside" pathogenesis of AD and further suggest that maintenance of an acidic SC pH could prevent the emergence of AD in humans. PMID:19177139

  14. Prevention of clogging phenomenon with high-grouting pressure

    This paper describes a study on grouting strategy for crystalline rock. First, grouting practices used in Nordic countries are summarized. Their main characteristics are the usage of thick slurry of micro-cement, dense pattern of grout holes and simultaneous injection of plural holes, which enable both of high-level water sealing and shortening of grouting work. To investigate the applicability of thick cement slurry, high-pressure clogging test simulating real grouting work has been conducted. The test results indicated the possibility to prevent the clogging phenomenon of thick cement slurry, i.e. water cement ratio of 1.6, by increasing the injection pressure gradually. (author)

  15. Inactivation of fatty acid transport protein 1 prevents fat-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle

    Jason K Kim; Gimeno, Ruth E.; Higashimori, Takamasa; Kim, Hyo-Jeong; Choi, Hyejeong; Punreddy, Sandhya; Mozell, Robin L.; TAN, GUO; Stricker-Krongrad, Alain; Hirsch, David J.; Fillmore, Jonathan J.; Liu, Zhen-Xiang; Dong, Jianying; Cline, Gary; Stahl, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle plays a major role in the development of type 2 diabetes and may be causally associated with increases in intramuscular fatty acid metabolites. Fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1) is an acyl-CoA synthetase highly expressed in skeletal muscle and modulates fatty acid uptake and metabolism by converting fatty acids into fatty acyl-CoA. To investigate the role of FATP1 in glucose homeostasis and in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, we examined the e...

  16. Prevention of neural tube defects with folic acid: The Chinese experience.

    Ren, Ai-Guo

    2015-08-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are a group of congenital malformations of the central nervous system that are caused by the closure failure of the embryonic neural tube by the 28(th) day of conception. Anencephaly and spina bifida are the two major subtypes. Fetuses with anencephaly are often stillborn or electively aborted due to prenatal diagnosis, or they die shortly after birth. Most infants with spina bifida are live-born and, with proper surgical treatment, can survive into adulthood. However, these children often have life-long physical disabilities. China has one of the highest prevalence of NTDs in the world. Inadequate dietary folate intake is believed to be the main cause of the cluster. Unlike many other countries that use staple fortification with folic acid as the public health strategy to prevent NTDs, the Chinese government provides all women who have a rural household registration and who plan to become pregnant with folic acid supplements, free of charge, through a nation-wide program started in 2009. Two to three years after the initiation of the program, the folic acid supplementation rate increased to 85% in the areas of the highest NTD prevalence. The mean plasma folate level of women during early and mid-pregnancy doubled the level before the program was introduced. However, most women began taking folic acid supplements when they knew that they were pregnant. This is too late for the protection of the embryonic neural tube. In a post-program survey of the women who reported folic acid supplementation, less than a quarter of the women began taking supplements prior to pregnancy, indicating that the remaining three quarters of the fetuses remained unprotected during the time of neural tube formation. Therefore, staple food fortification with folic acid should be considered as a priority in the prevention of NTDs. PMID:26261765

  17. Pump design for High Temperature Sulfuric acid transfer system

    In the sulfuric acid concentration / decomposition section, consequent issues handling material corrosion and the coupling with high temperature energy source were generated, as well as the study of catalyst activity and stability. And Onuki et al., mentioned that material resistance issues are also important for the development of the hydriodic acid concentration/decomposition section. Moreover, the transfer of high temperature H2SO4 is a very important factor considering safety in successive reaction process and efficiency. As mentioned above, the pump to carry sulfuric acid is very important in SI process, but this study is insufficient. After forced cooling of high temperature H2SO4, reduction of safety and process efficiency which is caused by transfer, re-heating, and pressurization is one of the weaknesses in H2SO4 transfer system. Therefore, in this study, we proposed the newly designed H2SO4 transfer system for SI thermo-chemical cycle and the proposed H2SO4 transfer system was analyzed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis in order to investigate thermodynamic /hydrodynamic characteristics. As the results, we identify as follows as: By the thermal analysis result of bellows in developed transfer system, it is verified that continuous operation is possible within the deformation temperature limit of Teflon 430 K. Physical/chemical environment of inside the bellows box and performance of bellows in continuous operation condition were evaluated. It is verified that not only the bellows, but also the end-plate made of STS can provide reliability and durability during continuous operation. The CFD results on thermohydrodynamic characteristics show good performance for the proposed H2SO4 transfer system. It is evaluated that it will be efficient in actual manufacturing process because it can provide quantitative transfer and prevent heat loss

  18. Techniques for preventing damage to high power laser components

    Techniques for preventing damage to components of the LASL Shiva high power laser system were briefly presented. Optical element damage in the disk amplifier from the combined fluence of the primary laser beam and the Xenon flash lamps that pump the cavity was discussed. Assembly and cleaning techniques were described which have improved optical element life by minimizing particulate and optically absorbing film contamination on assembled amplifier structures. A Class-100 vertical flaw clean room used for assembly and inspection of laser components was also described. The life of a disk amplifier was extended from less than 50 shots to 500 shots through application of these assembly and cleaning techniques

  19. Intermittent preventive treatment for the prevention of malaria during pregnancy in high transmission areas

    Massougbodji Achille

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malaria in pregnancy is one of the major causes of maternal morbidity and adverse birth outcomes. In high transmission areas, its prevention has recently changed, moving from a weekly or bimonthly chemoprophylaxis to intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp. IPTp consists in the administration of a single curative dose of an efficacious anti-malarial drug at least twice during pregnancy – regardless of whether the woman is infected or not. The drug is administered under supervision during antenatal care visits. Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP is the drug currently recommended by the WHO. While SP-IPTp seems an adequate strategy, there are many issues still to be explored to optimize it. This paper reviewed data on IPTp efficacy and discussed how to improve it. In particular, the determination of both the optimal number of doses and time of administration of the drug is essential, and this has not yet been done. As both foetal growth and deleterious effects of malaria are maximum in late pregnancy women should particularly be protected during this period. Monitoring of IPTp efficacy should be applied to all women, and not only to primi- and secondigravidae, as it has not been definitively established that multigravidae are not at risk for malaria morbidity and mortality. In HIV-positive women, there is an urgent need for specific information on drug administration patterns (need for higher doses, possible interference with sulpha-based prophylaxis of opportunistic infections. Because of the growing level of resistance of parasites to SP, alternative drugs for IPTp are urgently needed. Mefloquine is presently one of the most attractive options because of its long half life, high efficacy in sub-Saharan Africa and safety during pregnancy. Also, efforts should be made to increase IPTp coverage by improving the practices of health care workers, the motivation of women and their perception of malaria complications in pregnancy. Because IPTp

  20. NSAID-associated adverse effects and acid control aids to prevent them: a review of current treatment options.

    Naesdal, Jørgen; Brown, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    NSAIDs are central to the clinical management of a wide range of conditions. However, NSAIDs in combination with gastric acid, which has been shown to play a central role in upper gastrointestinal (GI) events, can damage the gastroduodenal mucosa and result in dyspeptic symptoms and peptic lesions such as ulceration.NSAID-associated GI mucosal injury is an important clinical problem. Gastroduodenal ulcers or ulcer complications occur in up to 25% of patients receiving NSAIDs. However, these toxicities are often not preceded by indicative symptoms. Data obtained from the Arthritis, Rheumatism, and Aging Medical Information System have shown that 50-60% of NSAID-associated peptic ulcer cases can remain clinically silent and do not present until complications occur. Therefore, prophylactic treatment to prevent GI complications may be necessary in a substantial proportion of NSAID users, especially those in groups associated with a high risk of developing these complications. Use of cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 selective NSAIDs, also known as 'coxibs', substantially reduces the incidence of upper GI toxicities seen with non-selective NSAIDs. However, there are concerns regarding the cardiovascular safety of coxibs. For this reason, the US FDA recommends minimal use of coxibs and only when strictly necessary. Additionally, rofecoxib has been removed from the US market and sales of valdecoxib have been suspended. Furthermore, upper GI toxicities still occur in patients receiving coxibs. Therefore, cotherapies are required to prevent and/or heal upper GI effects associated with NSAID use. Effective prophylactic and treatment strategies include misoprostol, histamine H(2) receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). The key role that gastric acid plays in upper GI adverse events among NSAID users suggests that it is important to choose the most effective agent for acid control to alleviate symptoms, heal mucosal erosions and improve the reduced quality of life in

  1. Antimicrobial activity of transition metal acid MoO3 prevents microbial growth on material surfaces

    Serious infectious complications of patients in healthcare settings are often transmitted by materials and devices colonised by microorganisms (nosocomial infections). Current strategies to generate material surfaces with an antimicrobial activity suffer from the consumption of the antimicrobial agent and emerging multidrug-resistant pathogens amongst others. Consequently, materials surfaces exhibiting a permanent antimicrobial activity without the risk of generating resistant microorganisms are desirable. This publication reports on the extraordinary efficient antimicrobial properties of transition metal acids such as molybdic acid (H2MoO4), which is based on molybdenum trioxide (MoO3). The modification of various materials (e.g. polymers, metals) with MoO3 particles or sol–gel derived coatings showed that the modified materials surfaces were practically free of microorganisms six hours after contamination with infectious agents. The antimicrobial activity is based on the formation of an acidic surface deteriorating cell growth and proliferation. The application of transition metal acids as antimicrobial surface agents is an innovative approach to prevent the dissemination of microorganisms in healthcare units and public environments. Highlights: ► The presented modifications of materials surfaces with MoO3 are non-cytotoxic and decrease biofilm growth and bacteria transmission. ► The material is insensitive towards emerging resistances of bacteria. ► Strong potential to reduce spreading of infectious agents on inanimate surfaces.

  2. Nitro-Arachidonic Acid Prevents Angiotensin II-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction in a Cell Line of Kidney Proximal Tubular Cells.

    Beatriz Sánchez-Calvo

    Full Text Available Nitro-arachidonic acid (NO2-AA is a cell signaling nitroalkene that exerts anti-inflammatory activities during macrophage activation. While angiotensin II (ANG II produces an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS production and mitochondrial dysfunction in renal tubular cells, little is known regarding the potential protective effects of NO2-AA in ANG II-mediated kidney injury. As such, this study examines the impact of NO2-AA on ANG II-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in an immortalized renal proximal tubule cell line (HK-2 cells. Treatment of HK-2 cells with ANG II increases the production of superoxide (O2●-, nitric oxide (●NO, inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2 expression, peroxynitrite (ONOO- and mitochondrial dysfunction. Using high-resolution respirometry, it was observed that the presence of NO2-AA prevented ANG II-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. Attempting to address mechanism, we treated isolated rat kidney mitochondria with ONOO-, a key mediator of ANG II-induced mitochondrial damage, in the presence or absence of NO2-AA. Whereas the activity of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH and ATP synthase (ATPase were diminished upon exposure to ONOO-, they were restored by pre-incubating the mitochondria with NO2-AA. Moreover, NO2-AA prevents oxidation and nitration of mitochondrial proteins. Combined, these data demonstrate that ANG II-mediated oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction is abrogated by NO2-AA, identifying this compound as a promising pharmacological tool to prevent ANG II-induced renal disease.

  3. Investigating Ascorbic Acid Effect in Prevention of CIN in Diabetic Patients

    Nough

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN is one the complications resulting from coronary catheterization and is regarded as one of the reasons of acute kidney failure. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of ascorbic acid in the prevention of CIN in Yazd in 2012. Methods: This study involves a double blind clinical trial in which 90 Diabetic patients with coronary catheterization have attended. The patients were divided randomly into two groups: control group and treatment group. Demographic and clinical data were collected by a questionnaire. Treatment group received vitamin C (2 grams 2 hours before the intervention and the control groups were given 2 grams of the Placebo. The GFR (Glomerular filtration rate, BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen, and Cr (Creatinin were measured and compared after 2-3 days. Results: The CIN in treatment group was about 3 patients (7.7% and was 7 (16.7% in the control group. Thus, no significant difference was observed; though, there was a significant difference between Cr and GFR before and after the treatment in vitamin C group (PV= 0.006, PV=0.001, but these differences were not significant in the placebo group.(PV=0.661, PV=0.747. Moreover, considering the participants’ age, sex and their primary function of kidney, a significant difference had not appeared due to the incidence of CIN between the two groups. Conclusion: Our study did not show Ascorbic Acid effects in prevention of CIN in Diabetic patients.

  4. Biodiesel development from high free fatty acid Punnakka oil

    Ramaraju A.; Ashok Kumar T. V.

    2011-01-01

    Punnakka oil, non-edible oil available in India, was esterified to produce biodiesel. The procedure involves a two stage process, acid esterification and alkaline esterification. The oil contains high free fatty acid (FFA) content of 19.8%. The acid value of the oil was reduced by acid esterification. The product from this stage was subjected to alkaline esterification to produce biodiesel. The effects of important parameters like methanol to oil ratio, reaction temperature, catalyst concentr...

  5. "Cancer--Educate to Prevent"--high-school teachers, the new promoters of cancer prevention education campaigns.

    Ana Barros

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and thus represents a priority for national public health programs. Prevention has been assumed as the best strategy to reduce cancer burden, however most cancer prevention programs are implemented by healthcare professionals, which constrain range and educational impacts. We developed an innovative approach for cancer prevention education focused on high-school biology teachers, considered privileged mediators in the socialization processes. A training program, "Cancer, Educate to Prevent" was applied, so that the teachers were able to independently develop and implement prevention campaigns focused on students and school-related communities. The program encompassed different educational modules, ranging from cancer biology to prevention campaigns design. Fifty-four teachers were empowered to develop and implement their own cancer prevention campaigns in a population up to five thousands students. The success of the training program was assessed through quantitative evaluation--questionnaires focused on teachers' cancer knowledge and perceptions, before the intervention (pre-test and immediately after (post-test. The projects developed and implemented by teachers were also evaluated regarding the intervention design, educational contents and impact on the students' knowledge about cancer. This study presents and discusses the results concerning the training program "Cancer, Educate to Prevent" and clearly shows a significant increase in teacher's cancer literacy (knowledge and perceptions and teachers' acquired proficiency to develop and deliver cancer prevention campaigns with direct impact on students' knowledge about cancer. This pilot study reinforces the potential of high-school teachers and schools as cancer prevention promoters and opens a new perspective for the development and validation of cancer prevention education strategies, based upon focused interventions in restricted

  6. EFFICACY OF ZOLEDRONIC ACID IN THE PREVENTION OF BONE METASTASES IN PATIENTS WITH LOCALLY ADVANCED PROSTATE CANCER

    T. N. Musaev

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the performed study has established that zoledronic acid is an effective agent in multimodality therapy for locally advanced prostate cancer (PC and allows long-term stabilization of bone tissue. In addition, there is evidence for the efficacy of zoledronic acid in preventing bone metastases (BM and increasing the time to the first BM. The currently accumulated experience with zoledronic acid used in PC permits one to consider its use as standard concomitant therapy.

  7. Reducing cannabinoid abuse and preventing relapse by enhancing endogenous brain levels of kynurenic acid.

    Justinova, Zuzana; Mascia, Paola; Wu, Hui-Qiu; Secci, Maria E; Redhi, Godfrey H; Panlilio, Leigh V; Scherma, Maria; Barnes, Chanel; Parashos, Alexandra; Zara, Tamara; Fratta, Walter; Solinas, Marcello; Pistis, Marco; Bergman, Jack; Kangas, Brian D; Ferré, Sergi; Tanda, Gianluigi; Schwarcz, Robert; Goldberg, Steven R

    2013-11-01

    In the reward circuitry of the brain, α-7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs) modulate effects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), marijuana's main psychoactive ingredient. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous negative allosteric modulator of α7nAChRs. Here we report that the kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) inhibitor Ro 61-8048 increases brain KYNA levels and attenuates cannabinoid-induced increases in extracellular dopamine in reward-related brain areas. In the self-administration model of drug abuse, Ro 61-8048 reduced the rewarding effects of THC and the synthetic cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 in squirrel monkeys and rats, respectively, and it also prevented relapse to drug-seeking induced by reexposure to cannabinoids or cannabinoid-associated cues. The effects of enhancing endogenous KYNA levels with Ro 61-8048 were prevented by positive allosteric modulators of α7nAChRs. Despite a clear need, there are no medications approved for treatment of marijuana dependence. Modulation of KYNA offers a pharmacological strategy for achieving abstinence from marijuana and preventing relapse. PMID:24121737

  8. Omega-3 fatty acid oxidation products prevent vascular endothelial cell activation by coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls

    Coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may facilitate development of atherosclerosis by stimulating pro-inflammatory pathways in the vascular endothelium. Nutrition, including fish oil-derived long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6ω-3), can reduce inflammation and thus the risk of atherosclerosis. We tested the hypothesis that cyclopentenone metabolites produced by oxidation of DHA can protect against PCB-induced endothelial cell dysfunction. Oxidized DHA (oxDHA) was prepared by incubation of the fatty acid with the free radical generator 2,2-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH). Cellular pretreatment with oxDHA prevented production of superoxide induced by PCB77, and subsequent activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). A4/J4-neuroprostanes (NPs) were identified and quantitated using HPLC ESI tandem mass spectrometry. Levels of these NPs were markedly increased after DHA oxidation with AAPH. The protective actions of oxDHA were reversed by treatment with sodium borohydride (NaBH4), which concurrently abrogated A4/J4-NP formation. Up-regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) by PCB77 was markedly reduced by oxDHA, but not by un-oxidized DHA. These protective effects were proportional to the abundance of A4/J4 NPs in the oxidized DHA sample. Treatment of cells with oxidized eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5ω-3) also reduced MCP-1 expression, but less than oxDHA. Treatment with DHA-derived cyclopentenones also increased DNA binding of NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and downstream expression of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), similarly to the Nrf-2 activator sulforaphane. Furthermore, sulforaphane prevented PCB77-induced MCP-1 expression, suggesting that activation of Nrf-2 mediates the observed protection against PCB77 toxicity. Our data implicate A4/J4-NPs as mediators of omega-3 fatty acid-mediated protection against the endothelial toxicity of coplanar PCBs.

  9. Prevention of bone growth defects, increased bone resorption and marrow adiposity with folinic acid in rats receiving long-term methotrexate.

    Chia-Ming Fan

    Full Text Available The underlying pathophysiology for bone growth defects in paediatric cancer patients receiving high dose methotrexate chemotherapy remains unclear and currently there are no standardized preventative treatments for patients and survivors. Using a model in young rats, we investigated damaging effects of long-term treatment with methotrexate on growth plate and metaphyseal bone, and the potential protective effects of antidote folinic acid. This study demonstrated that chronic folinic acid supplementation can prevent methotrexate-induced chondrocyte apoptosis and preserve chondrocyte columnar arrangement and number in the growth plate. In the metaphysis, folinic acid supplementation can preserve primary spongiosa heights and secondary spongiosa trabecular volume by preventing osteoblasts from undergoing apoptosis and suppressing methotrexate-induced marrow adiposity and osteoclast formation. Systemically, plasma of folinic acid supplemented rats, in comparison to plasma from rats treated with MTX alone, contained a significantly lower level of IL-1β and suppressed osteoclast formation in vitro in normal bone marrow cells. The importance of IL-1β in supporting plasma-induced osteoclast formation was confirmed as the presence of an anti-IL-1β neutralizing antibody attenuated the ability of the plasma (from MTX-treated rats in inducing osteoclast formation. Findings from this study suggest that folinic acid supplementation during chronic methotrexate treatment can alleviate growth plate and metaphyseal damages and therefore may be potentially useful in paediatric patients who are at risk of skeletal growth suppression due to chronic methotrexate chemotherapy.

  10. Very high gravity ethanol and fatty acid production of Zymomonas mobilis without amino acid and vitamin.

    Wang, Haoyong; Cao, Shangzhi; Wang, William Tianshuo; Wang, Kaven Tianyv; Jia, Xianhui

    2016-06-01

    Very high gravity (VHG) fermentation is the mainstream technology in ethanol industry, which requires the strains be resistant to multiple stresses such as high glucose concentration, high ethanol concentration, high temperature and harsh acidic conditions. To our knowledge, it was not reported previously that any ethanol-producing microbe showed a high performance in VHG fermentations without amino acid and vitamin. Here we demonstrate the engineering of a xylose utilizing recombinant Zymomonas mobilis for VHG ethanol fermentations. The recombinant strain can produce ethanol up to 136 g/L without amino acid and vitamin with a theoretical yield of 90 %, which is significantly superior to that produced by all the reported ethanol-producing strains. The intracellular fatty acids of the bacterial were about 16 % of the bacterial dry biomass, with the ratio of ethanol:fatty acids was about 273:1 (g/g). The recombinant strain was achieved by a multivariate-modular strategy tackles with the multiple stresses which are closely linked to the ethanol productivity of Z. mobilis. The over-expression of metB/yfdZ operon enabled the growth of the recombinant Z. mobilis in a chemically defined medium without amino acid and vitamin; and the fatty acids overproduction significantly increased ethanol tolerance and ethanol production. The coupled production of ethanol with fatty acids of the Z. mobilis without amino acid and vitamin under VHG fermentation conditions may permit a significant reduction of the production cost of ethanol and microbial fatty acids. PMID:27033536

  11. High dynamic range image display with halo and clipping prevention.

    Guarnieri, Gabriele; Marsi, Stefano; Ramponi, Giovanni

    2011-05-01

    The dynamic range of an image is defined as the ratio between the highest and the lowest luminance level. In a high dynamic range (HDR) image, this value exceeds the capabilities of conventional display devices; as a consequence, dedicated visualization techniques are required. In particular, it is possible to process an HDR image in order to reduce its dynamic range without producing a significant change in the visual sensation experienced by the observer. In this paper, we propose a dynamic range reduction algorithm that produces high-quality results with a low computational cost and a limited number of parameters. The algorithm belongs to the category of methods based upon the Retinex theory of vision and was specifically designed in order to prevent the formation of common artifacts, such as halos around the sharp edges and clipping of the highlights, that often affect methods of this kind. After a detailed analysis of the state of the art, we shall describe the method and compare the results and performance with those of two techniques recently proposed in the literature and one commercial software. PMID:21078576

  12. Enhanced Acid/Base Catalysis in High Temperature Liquid Water

    Xiu Yang LU; Qi JING; Zhun LI; Lei YUAN; Fei GAO; Xin LIU

    2006-01-01

    Two novel and environmentally benign solvent systems, organic acids-enriched high temperature liquid water (HTLW) and NH3-enriched HTLW, were developed, which can enhance the reaction rate of acid/base-catalyzed organic reactions in HTLW. We investigated the decomposition of fructose in organic acids-enriched HTLW, hydrolysis of cinnamaldehyde and aldol condensation of phenylaldehyde with acetaldehyde in NH3-enriched HTLW. The experimental results demonstrated that organic acids-enriched or NH3-enriched HTLW can greatly accelerate acid/base-catalyzed organic reactions in HTLW.

  13. Ligand-enhanced electrokinetic remediation of metal-contaminated marine sediments with high acid buffering capacity.

    Masi, Matteo; Iannelli, Renato; Losito, Gabriella

    2016-06-01

    The suitability of electrokinetic remediation for removing heavy metals from dredged marine sediments with high acid buffering capacity was investigated. Laboratory-scale electrokinetic remediation experiments were carried out by applying two different voltage gradients to the sediment (0.5 and 0.8 V/cm) while circulating water or two different chelating agents at the electrode compartments. Tap water, 0.1 M citric acid and 0.1 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solutions were used respectively. The investigated metals were Zn, Pb, V, Ni and Cu. In the unenhanced experiment, the acid front could not propagate due to the high acid buffering capacity of the sediments; the production of OH(-) ions at the cathode resulted in a high-pH environment causing the precipitation of CaCO3 and metal hydroxides. The use of citric acid prevented the formation of precipitates, but solubilisation and mobilisation of metal species were not sufficiently achieved. Metal removal was relevant when EDTA was used as the conditioning agent, and the electric potential was raised up to 0.8 V/cm. EDTA led to the formation of negatively charged complexes with metals which migrated towards the anode compartment by electromigration. This result shows that metal removal from sediments with high acid buffering capacity may be achieved by enhancing the electrokinetic process by EDTA addition when the acidification of the medium is not economically and/or environmentally sustainable. PMID:26490900

  14. Preventive and curative effects of dicaffeoylquinic acid on early pulmonary fibrosis in mice

    Objective: To explore the effect of dicaffeoylquinic acid (IBE5) on prevention and treatment of pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin (BLM) in mice and its mechanism. Methods: Hydroxyproline content determination, imaging analysis, collagen I and III assay, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP-7 ) immunohistochemistry were performed. Results: 1)Hydroxyproline content decreased in fibrotic lung tissue after administration of IBE5(P<0.05). 2)The number of pulmonary alveoli reduced, alveolus interstitium was thickened and collagen deposition and fibrosis were formed in lung tissue of BLM group. The break of pulmonary alveoli and extension of pulmonary fibrosis were decreased by use of IBE5 (P<0.05). 3)A lot of collagen I and III were synthesized in lung interstitium in BLM group and their quantity was reduced in IBE5 group (P<0.05). 4) In BLM group, α-SMA expression increased and located in myofibroblasts in fibrotic area, and MMP7 immunohistochemical signal was located in myofibroblasts also. They were decreased in IBE5 group(P<0.05). Conclusion: IBE5 plays a preventive and curative role in pulmonary fibrosis by inhibition of transformation of fibroblasts towards myofibroblasts and MMP7 expression. (authors)

  15. N-acetylcysteine and/or ascorbic acid versus placebo to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy in patients undergoing elective cardiac catheterization: The NAPCIN trial; A single-center, prospective, randomized trial

    Mohammed Habib; Alaa Hillis; Amen Hammad

    2016-01-01

    Several protective measures have been described to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). This study is aimed to evaluate the effect of a high dose of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) plus hydration, a low dose of NAC plus ascorbic acid and hydration or hydration alone on the prevention of CIN in high-risk patients undergoing elective coronary artery intervention. We conducted a randomized, prospective, placebo-controlled trial of 105 high-risk patients undergoing elective cardiac catheterization....

  16. Catalytic oxidative conversion of cellulosic biomass to formic acid and acetic acid with exceptionally high yields

    Zhang, Jizhe

    2014-09-01

    Direct conversion of raw biomass materials to fine chemicals is of great significance from both economic and ecological perspectives. In this paper, we report that a Keggin-type vanadium-substituted phosphomolybdic acid catalyst, namely H4PVMo11O40, is capable of converting various biomass-derived substrates to formic acid and acetic acid with high selectivity in a water medium and oxygen atmosphere. Under optimized reaction conditions, H4PVMo11O40 gave an exceptionally high yield of formic acid (67.8%) from cellulose, far exceeding the values achieved in previous catalytic systems. Our study demonstrates that heteropoly acids are generally effective catalysts for biomass conversion due to their strong acidities, whereas the composition of metal addenda atoms in the catalysts has crucial influence on the reaction pathway and the product selectivity. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Acidity-induced watercourse defects and their prevention on the River Sanginjoki; Happamuuden aiheuttamat vesistoehaitat ja niiden torjuntakeinot Sanginjoella

    Tertsunen, J.; Martinmaeki, K.; Heikkinen, K. [and others

    2012-11-15

    As the first tributary of the River Oulujoki, the River Sanginjoki is one of the most important recreational areas in the Oulu region. It is also the closest potential reproduction area for salmon and trout using the Merikoski fishway. During flood peaks, occasional low pH values reduce the recreational and ecological value of the River Sanginjoki. The origin of low pH values was located as part of the 'City and Water - Improving the recreational value and ecological restoration of River Sanginjoki -project', during the years 2008-2011. This project involved largescale monitoring of the River Sanginjoki area for pH changes, while methods for preventing and reducing low pH values were tested. Based on the project's results, guidelines were drawn up for controlling problems associated with low pH values. The report also contains general information on the River Sanginjoki and its watershed, the river's ecological state and the development of its water quality. The results demonstrated a connection between low pH values and high discharges, but the lowest pH values were measured during summer and autumn rain floods in particular. A water sample analysis with other information showed that low pH values mainly originate in soil, land use and vegetation. The origin of acid runoff mainly lies in organic acids from peatlands and moss, but local factors such as acid sulphate soils and black shales may also contribute. Due to acidic peatlands, the water of the River Sanginjoki has naturally been slightly acidic, but ditch drainage of peat- and forestland has probably increased this effect. The effect of the restoration and water protection methods used in the project varied. Some methods proved effective and can be suggested for practical use at the Sanginjoki watershed, as well as other watersheds suffering from the same problems. Development of these methods should be continued, to improve their effectiveness and durability. Although defects due to

  18. Solvent degradation and high sulphuric acid stripping in the Rabbit Lake uranium mill

    The Rabbit Lake uranium mill started processing Collins Bay B-Zone ore in 1985 using the conventional process of acid leaching/tertiary amine extraction followed by a new stripping method employing 400 g/L sulphuric acid as the stripping agent. By mid-1986 a large portion of the tertiary amine component of the solvent had degraded, producing a waxy gel which resulted in numerous operational problems and eventually required replacement of the solvent inventory. This paper describes several aspects of this problem including: i) plant experience; ii) identification of the degradation products as secondary amines complexed with sulphuric acid as both cationic and anionic complexes; and iii) testwork directed at the resolution of the solvent degradation problem. This latter program identified the key operational parameters which must be controlled to prevent a recurrence of the problem, thereby allowing for routine use of the high acid stripping process

  19. Enhanced high temperature thermoelectric response of sulphuric acid treated conducting polymer thin films

    Kumar, Sarath

    2015-11-24

    We report the high temperature thermoelectric properties of solution processed pristine and sulphuric acid treated poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (or PEDOT:PSS) films. The acid treatment is shown to simultaneously enhance the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of the metal-like films, resulting in a five-fold increase in thermoelectric power factor (0.052 W/m. K ) at 460 K, compared to the pristine film. By using atomic force micrographs, Raman and impedance spectra and using a series heterogeneous model for electrical conductivity, we demonstrate that acid treatment results in the removal of PSS from the films, leading to the quenching of accumulated charge-induced energy barriers that prevent hopping conduction. The continuous removal of PSS with duration of acid treatment also alters the local band structure of PEDOT:PSS, resulting in simultaneous enhancement in Seebeck coefficient.

  20. Emerging technologies for the prevention of dental caries. Are current methods of prevention sufficient for the high risk patient?

    Bretz, Walter A.; Odila P. S. Rosa

    2011-01-01

    Fluorides and chlorhexidine are technologies that are 65 and 40 yeas old, respectively. This overview argues that current methods of caries prevention are not effective for the high caries risk patient. In this review examples, arguments and recommendations are provided to address the high caries risk patient that include: failure of comprehensive chemical modalities treatments to address the high caries risk patient; ecological alteration - would this be an effective approach?; and biomateri...

  1. Electron beam treatment technology for exhaust gas for preventing acid rain

    Recently, accompanying the increase of the use of fossil fuel, the damage due to acid rain such as withering of trees and extinction of fishes and shells has occurred worldwide, and it has become a serious problem. The sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides contained in exhaust gas are oxidized by the action of sunbeam to become sulfuric acid and nitric acid mists, which fall in the form of rain. Acid rain is closely related to the use of the coal containing high sulfur, and it hinders the use of coal which is rich energy source. In order to simplify the processing system for boiler exhaust gas and to reduce waste water and wastes, Ebara Corp. developed the dry simultaneous desulfurizing and denitrating technology utilizing electron beam in cooperation with Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The flow chart of the system applied to the exhaust gas treatment in a coal-fired thermal power station is shown. The mechanism of desulfurization and denitration, and the features of this system are described. The demonstration plant was constructed in a coal-fired thermal power station in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, and the trial operation was completed in July, 1987. The test results are reported. (K.I.)

  2. Role and significance of polyunsaturated fatty acids in nutrition in prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis

    Ristić Vanja I.; Ristić Gordana N.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction Hyperlipoproteinemia is a key factor in development of atherosclerosis, whereas regression of atherosclerosis mostly depends on decreasing the plasma level of total and LDL-cholesterol. Many studies have reported the hypocholesterolemic effect of linolenic acid. Types of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) Linoleic and α-linolenic acids are essential fatty acids. The main sources of linoleic acid are vegetable seeds and of α-linolenic acid - green parts of plants. α-linolenic acid...

  3. Acacetin inhibits glutamate release and prevents kainic acid-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    Tzu-Yu Lin

    Full Text Available An excessive release of glutamate is considered to be a molecular mechanism associated with several neurological diseases that causes neuronal damage. Therefore, searching for compounds that reduce glutamate neurotoxicity is necessary. In this study, the possibility that the natural flavone acacetin derived from the traditional Chinese medicine Clerodendrum inerme (L. Gaertn is a neuroprotective agent was investigated. The effect of acacetin on endogenous glutamate release in rat hippocampal nerve terminals (synaptosomes was also investigated. The results indicated that acacetin inhibited depolarization-evoked glutamate release and cytosolic free Ca(2+ concentration ([Ca(2+]C in the hippocampal nerve terminals. However, acacetin did not alter synaptosomal membrane potential. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of acacetin on evoked glutamate release was prevented by the Cav2.2 (N-type and Cav2.1 (P/Q-type channel blocker known as ω-conotoxin MVIIC. In a kainic acid (KA rat model, an animal model used for excitotoxic neurodegeneration experiments, acacetin (10 or 50 mg/kg was administrated intraperitoneally to the rats 30 min before the KA (15 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection, and subsequently induced the attenuation of KA-induced neuronal cell death and microglia activation in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. The present study demonstrates that the natural compound, acacetin, inhibits glutamate release from hippocampal synaptosomes by attenuating voltage-dependent Ca(2+ entry and effectively prevents KA-induced in vivo excitotoxicity. Collectively, these data suggest that acacetin has the therapeutic potential for treating neurological diseases associated with excitotoxicity.

  4. Efficacy of intravenous zoledronic acid in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis:A meta-analysis

    Jun Zhang; Ran Wang; Yi-Lei Zhao; Xiao-Hui Sun; Hong-Xing Zhao; Tan Lu; De-Cai Chen; Hai-Bin Xu

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To compare the effect of zoledronic acid in treatment and prevention of osteoporosis with placebo.Methods:Random control trials regarding zoledronic acid in treatment of osteoporosis were retrieved by selectingMedline,EMbase andPubmed databases tillApril2012. TheRevMan software was used for all of the statistical analysis.Results:A total of9 trials were included in this meta-analysis.The pooled effect showed that zoledronic acid could increase the bone mineral density by2.98 times compared with placebo, and reduce the rate of fracture in patients by32%.The results should the zoledronic acid intervention had significantly less serious adverse events than controls, and the odds ratio was0.81(0.76-0.87).The longer term intervention, more than12 months intervention, could gain a better prevention effect for osteoporosis(OR,95%CI forBMD was3.35,2.77-3.92; for fracture was0.67,0.54-0.82).Conclusions:This present study shows that zoledronic acid could be effective approach in the prevention of osteoporosis, and could increase the bone mineral density and reduce the risk of facture.

  5. A full-scale porous reactive wall for prevention of acid mine drainage

    The generation and release of acidic drainage containing high concentrations of dissolved metals from decommissioned mine wastes is an environmental problem of international scale. A potential solution to many acid drainage problems is the installation of permeable reactive walls into aquifers affected by drainage water derived from mine waste materials. A permeable reactive wall installed into an aquifer impacted by low-quality mine drainage waters was installed in August 1995 at the Nickel Rim mine site near Sudbury, Ontario. The reactive mixture, containing organic matter, was designed to promote bacterially mediated sulfate reduction and subsequent metal sulfide precipitation. The reactive wall is installed to an average depth of 12 feet (3.6 m) and is 49 feet (15 m) long perpendicular to ground water flow. The wall thickness (flow path length) is 13 feet (4 m). Initial results, collected nine months after installation, indicate that sulfate reduction and metal sulfide precipitation is occurring. The reactive wall has effectively removed the capacity of the ground water to generate acidity on discharge to the surface. Calculations based on comparison to previously run laboratory column experiments indicate that the reactive wall has potential to remain effective for at least 15 years

  6. α-Lipoic acid prevents lipotoxic cardiomyopathy in acyl CoA-synthase transgenic mice

    α-Lipoic acid (α-LA) mimics the hypothalamic actions of leptin on food intake, energy expenditure, and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). To determine if, like leptin, α-LA protects against cardiac lipotoxicity, α-LA was fed to transgenic mice with cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of the acyl CoA synthase (ACS) gene. Untreated ACS-transgenic mice died prematurely with increased triacylglycerol content and dilated cardiomyopathy, impaired systolic function and myofiber disorganization, apoptosis, and interstitial fibrosis on microscopy. In α-LA-treated ACS-transgenic mice heart size, echocardiogram and TG content were normal. Plasma TG fell 50%, hepatic-activated phospho-AMPK rose 6-fold, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c declined 50%, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ cofactor-1α mRNA rose 4-fold. Since food restriction did not prevent lipotoxicity, we conclude that α-LA treatment, like hyperleptinemia, protects the heart of ACS-transgenic mice from lipotoxicity

  7. Role and significance of polyunsaturated fatty acids in nutrition in prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis

    Ristić Vanja I.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hyperlipoproteinemia is a key factor in development of atherosclerosis, whereas regression of atherosclerosis mostly depends on decreasing the plasma level of total and LDL-cholesterol. Many studies have reported the hypocholesterolemic effect of linolenic acid. Types of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA Linoleic and α-linolenic acids are essential fatty acids. The main sources of linoleic acid are vegetable seeds and of α-linolenic acid - green parts of plants. α-linolenic acid is converted to eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. Linoleic acid is converted into arachidonic acid competing with eicosapentaenoic acid in the starting point for synthesis of eicosanoids, which are strong regulators of cell functions and as such, very important in physiology and pathophysiology of cardiovascular system. Eicosanoids derived from eicosapentaenoic acid have different biological properties in regard to those derived from arachidonic acid, i.e. their global effects result in decreased vasoconstriction platelet aggregation and leukocyte toxicity. Role and significant of PUFA The n-6 to n-3 ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the food is very important, and an optimal ratio 4 to 1 in diet is a major issue. Traditional western diets present absolute or relative deficiency of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and a ratio 15-20 to 1. In our diet fish and fish oil are sources of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. Refined and processed vegetable oils change the nature of polyunsaturated fatty acids and obtained derivates have atherogenic properties.

  8. Biosynthesis of highly unsaturated fatty acids by hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms

    MEHDI GHASEMI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Disruption of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA metabolism leads to many diseases. In this study, producers of γ-linolenic acid (GLA, arachidonic acid (ARA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA were selected: Cephalosporium humicola IE (on glucose, dry biomass – 14 g/l, total lipids – 18-20%, GLA in lipids – 12.0%, Mucor globosus 11 (respectively – 15 g/l, 18% and 5% and Pythium irregulare LX (on glucose, dry biomass – 14.5 g/l, total lipids – 18-20%, 9.2 and 7.8% of ARA and EPA, respectively. On crude oil as the only source of carbon, the amount of biomass of the specified fungi decreases by 3-4 times, whereas the quantity of lipids and highly unsaturated fatty acids increases in four and 1.2 - 3.4 times, respectively. The maximum γ-linolenic acid in M. globosus and C. humicola was detected at neutral рН. Optimum volume of inoculate was 2.0-4.0%, nitrogen source NH4NO3, a carbon-nitrogen ratio 34:1. For biosynthesis of ARA and EPA by P. irregulare, the optimum nitrogen source was NH4Cl, рН 7.0- 8.0 and С/N - 50:1 at 28°C. The process of adaptation to stressful situation under crude oil motivated the increase of the rate of membrane phospholipids with high quantity of unsaturated fatty acids.

  9. Ellagic Acid Prevents L-NAME-Induced Hypertension via Restoration of eNOS and p47phox Expression in Rats

    Thewarid Berkban

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ellagic acid on oxidative stress and hypertension induced by Nω-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME was investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administrated with L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day for five weeks. L-NAME induced high systolic blood pressure (SBP and increased heart rate (HR, hindlimb vascular resistance (HVR and oxidative stress. Concurrent treatment with ellagic acid (7.5 or 15 mg/kg prevented these alterations. Co-treatment with ellagic acid was associated with up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS protein production and alleviation of oxidative stress as indicated by decreased superoxide production in the vascular tissue, reduced plasma malondialdehyde levels, reduced NADPH oxidase subunit p47phox expression and increased plasma nitrate/nitrite levels. Our results indicate that ellagic acid attenuates hypertension by reducing NADPH oxidase subunit p47phox expression, which prevents oxidative stress and restores NO bioavailability.

  10. Bioactive 1,4-dihydroisonicotinic acid derivatives prevent oxidative damage of liver cells.

    Borovic, Suzana; Tirzitis, Gunars; Tirzite, Dace; Cipak, Ana; Khoschsorur, Gholam A; Waeg, Georg; Tatzber, Franz; Scukanec-Spoljar, Mira; Zarkovic, Neven

    2006-05-10

    1,4-Dihydroisonicotinic acid derivatives (1,4-DHINA) are compounds closely related to derivatives of 1,4-dihydropyridine, a well-known calcium channel antagonists. 1,4-DHINA we used were derived from a well-known antioxidant Diludin. Although some compounds have neuromodulatory or antimutagenic properties, their activity mechanisms are not well known. This study was performed to obtain data on antioxidant and bioprotective activities of: 2,6-dimethyl-3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydroisonicotinic acid (Ia); sodium 2-(2,6-dimethyl-3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-4-carboxamido)glutamate (Ib) and sodium 2-(2,6-dimethyl-3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-4-carboxamido)ethane-sulphate (Ic). 1,4-DHINA's activities were studied in comparison to Trolox by: N,N-Diphenyl-N'-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*), deoxyribose degradation, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging and antioxidative capacity assays; copper-induced lipid peroxidation of cultured rat liver cells (malondialdehyde determination by high performance liquid chromatography and 4-hydroxynonenal-protein conjugates by dot-blot); (3)H-thymidine incorporation and trypan blue assay for liver cells growth and viability. In all assays used Ia was the most potent antioxidant. Ia was also a potent antioxidant at non-toxic concentrations for liver cell cultures. It completely abolished, while Ic only slightly decreased copper-induced lipid peroxidation of liver cells. Thus, antioxidant capacities are important activity principle of Ia, which was even superior to Trolox in the cell cultures used, while activity principles of Ic and Ib remain yet to be determined. PMID:16600211

  11. Structured triacylglycerol containing behenic and oleic acids suppresses triacylglycerol absorption and prevents obesity in rats

    Takamatsu Kiyoharu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary 1(3-behenoyl-2,3(1-dioleoyl-rac-glycerol (BOO has been reported to inhibit pancreatic lipase activity in vitro and suppress postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia in humans. In the present study, the anti-obesity activities of BOO and its inhibitory effects on lymphatic triacylglycerol (TAG absorption were investigated in rats. Methods In Experiment 1, rats were fed either BOO or soybean oil (SO diet for 6 weeks. In the BOO diet, 20% of SO was replaced with an experimental oil rich in BOO. In Experiments 2 and 3, rats cannulated in the thoracic duct were administered an emulsions containing trioleoylglycerol (OOO or an oil mixture (OOO:BOO, 9:1. Tri[1-14C]oleoylglycerol (14C-OOO was added to the emulsions administered in Experiment 3. Results No observable differences were detected in food intake or body weight gain between the BOO and SO groups in Experiment 1. Plasma and liver TAG concentrations and visceral fat weights were significantly lower in the BOO group than in the SO group. The apparent absorption rate of fat was significantly lower in the BOO group than in the SO group. In Experiment 2, the lymphatic recovery of oleic and behenic acids was significantly lower at 5 and 6 h after BOO administration than after OOO administration. In Experiment 3, the lymphatic recovery of 14C-OOO was significantly lower at 5 and 6 h after BOO administration than after OOO administration. Conclusions These results suggest that BOO prevents deposition of visceral fat and hepatic TAG by lowering and delaying intestinal absorption of TAG.

  12. role of conjugated linoleic acid in the prevention of radiation hazard in male rats

    the objective of the present study was to examine the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as a natural product in minimizing the radiation hazards. male rats were assigned to six groups each of 7 animals throughout six weeks, fed 1% CLA (wt/wt)added to commercial diet in the form of milk powder 182 g/kg diet. rats exposed to 6 Gy whole body gamma irradiation showed significant increase in total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C).triglycerides (TG), atherosclerosis index, total lipid (TL), phospholipids (ph-lipids), malondialdehyde (MDA), urea,creatinine, uric acid, calcium (Ca) and phosphorous levels associated with decrease in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), activity of reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), total antioxidant status, body weight, testes weight and testosterone both irradiated and non-irradiated milk powder administrated to irradiated rat groups minimized the radiation damage in the assayed parameters indicating its beneficial role as a promising antioxidant in scavenging free radicals and reactive oxygen species

  13. Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation during Pregnancy: A Potential Tool to Prevent Membrane Rupture and Preterm Labor

    Emanuela Pietrantoni

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are required to maintain the fluidity, permeability and integrity of cell membranes. Maternal dietary supplementation with ω-3 PUFAs during pregnancy has beneficial effects, including increased gestational length and reduced risk of pregnancy complications. Significant amounts of ω-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA are transferred from maternal to fetal blood, hence ensuring high levels of DHA in the placenta and fetal bloodstream and tissues. Fetal DHA demand increases exponentially with gestational age, especially in the third trimester, due to fetal development. According to the World Health Organization (WHO and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO, a daily intake of DHA is recommended during pregnancy. Omega-3 PUFAs are involved in several anti-inflammatory, pro-resolving and anti-oxidative pathways. Several placental disorders, such as intrauterine growth restriction, premature rupture of membranes (PROM and preterm-PROM (pPROM, are associated with placental inflammation and oxidative stress. This pilot study reports on a preliminary evaluation of the significance of the daily DHA administration on PROM and pPROM events in healthy pregnant women. Further extensive clinical trials will be necessary to fully elucidate the correlation between DHA administration during pregnancy and PROM/pPROM occurrence, which is related in turn to gestational duration and overall fetal health.

  14. Asiatic Acid Prevents the Deleterious Effects of Valproic Acid on Cognition and Hippocampal Cell Proliferation and Survival

    Jariya Umka Welbat; Apiwat Sirichoat; Wunnee Chaijaroonkhanarak; Parichat Prachaney; Wanassanun Pannangrong; Poungrat Pakdeechote; Bungorn Sripanidkulchai; Peter Wigmore

    2016-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is commonly prescribed as an anticonvulsant and mood stabilizer used in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. A recent study has demonstrated that VPA reduces histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity, an action which is believed to contribute to the effects of VPA on neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation which may explain the cognitive impairments produced in rodents and patients. Asiatic acid is a triterpenoid derived from the medicinal plant Centella as...

  15. Updated estimates of neural tube defects prevented by mandatory folic Acid fortification - United States, 1995-2011.

    Williams, Jennifer; Mai, Cara T; Mulinare, Joe; Isenburg, Jennifer; Flood, Timothy J; Ethen, Mary; Frohnert, Barbara; Kirby, Russell S

    2015-01-16

    In 1992, the U.S. Public Health Service recommended that all women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 µg of folic acid daily to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs). NTDs are major birth defects of the brain and spine that occur early in pregnancy as a result of improper closure of the embryonic neural tube, which can lead to death or varying degrees of disability. The two most common NTDs are anencephaly and spina bifida. Beginning in 1998, the United States mandated fortification of enriched cereal grain products with 140 µg of folic acid per 100 g. Immediately after mandatory fortification, the birth prevalence of NTD cases declined. Fortification was estimated to avert approximately 1,000 NTD-affected pregnancies annually. To provide updated estimates of the birth prevalence of NTDs in the period after introduction of mandatory folic acid fortification (i.e., the post-fortification period), data from 19 population-based birth defects surveillance programs in the United States, covering the years 1999-2011, were examined. After the initial decrease, NTD birth prevalence during the post-fortification period has remained relatively stable. The number of births occurring annually without NTDs that would otherwise have been affected is approximately 1,326 (95% confidence interval = 1,122-1,531). Mandatory folic acid fortification remains an effective public health intervention. There remain opportunities for prevention among women with lower folic acid intakes, especially among Hispanic women, to further reduce the prevalence of NTDs in the United States. PMID:25590678

  16. Folate Deficiency and Folic Acid Supplementation: The Prevention of Neural-Tube Defects and Congenital Heart Defects

    Andrew E. Czeizel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Diet, particularly vitamin deficiency, is associated with the risk of birth defects. The aim of this review paper is to show the characteristics of common and severe neural-tube defects together with congenital heart defects (CHD as vitamin deficiencies play a role in their origin. The findings of the Hungarian intervention (randomized double-blind and cohort controlled trials indicated that periconceptional folic acid (FA-containing multivitamin supplementation prevented the major proportion (about 90% of neural-tube defects (NTD as well as a certain proportion (about 40% of congenital heart defects. Finally the benefits and drawbacks of three main practical applications of folic acid/multivitamin treatment such as (i dietary intake; (ii periconceptional supplementation; and (iii flour fortification are discussed. The conclusion arrived at is indeed confirmation of Benjamin Franklin’s statement: “An ounce of prevention is better than a pound of care”.

  17. High-Altitude Illnesses: Physiology, Risk Factors, Prevention, and Treatment

    Taylor, Andrew T.

    2011-01-01

    High-altitude illnesses encompass the pulmonary and cerebral syndromes that occur in non-acclimatized individuals after rapid ascent to high altitude. The most common syndrome is acute mountain sickness (AMS) which usually begins within a few hours of ascent and typically consists of headache variably accompanied by loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, disturbed sleep, fatigue, and dizziness. With millions of travelers journeying to high altitudes every year and sleeping above 2,500 m, acute m...

  18. Accidents Preventive Practice for High-Rise Construction

    Goh Kai Chen; Goh Hui Hwang; Omar Mohd Faizal; Toh Tien Choon; Mohd Zin Abdullah Asuhaimi

    2016-01-01

    The demand of high-rise projects continues to grow due to the reducing of usable land area in Klang Valley, Malaysia. The rapidly development of high-rise projects has leaded to the rise of fatalities and accidents. An accident that happened in a construction site can cause serious physical injury. The accidents such as people falling from height and struck by falling object were the most frequent accidents happened in Malaysian construction industry. The continuous growth of high-rise buildi...

  19. Glass microporous fiber/nanoporous polytetrafluoroethene composite membranes for high efficient phosphoric acid fuel cell

    This paper reports a high efficient phosphoric acid fuel cell by employing a micro/nano composite proton exchange membrane incorporating glass microfiber (GMF) sealed by polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) nano-porous film. This multilayer membrane not only possesses both thermal and chemical stability at phosphoric acid fuel cell working temperature at 150∼220°C but also is cost effective. As a result, the inclusion of the high porosity and proton conductivity from glass microfiber and the prevention of phosphoric acid leakage from PTEF nano film can be achieved at the same time.The composite membrane maximum proton conductivity achieves 0.71 S/cm at 150 °C from AC impedance analysis, much higher than common phosphoric acid porous membranes For single cell test, The GMF fuel cell provides a 63.6mW/cm2 power density at 200mA/cm2 current density while GMF plus methanol treated PTFE (GMF+mPTFE) provides 59.2mW/cm2 power density at 160mA/cm2 current density for hydrogen and oxygen supply at 150 °C. When we change the electrodes that are more suited for phosphoric acid fuel cell, the GMF+mPTFE single cell gets higher performance which achieve 296mW/cm2 power density at 900mA/cm2 current density for hydrogen and oxygen supply at 150 °C

  20. Secondary prevention of heart disease – knowledge among cardiologists and Ω-3 (Omega-3 fatty acid prescribing behaviors in Karachi, Pakistan

    Ravasia Wasik F

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of omega-3 fatty acids is a currently proven strategy for secondary prevention of heart disease. The prescription practices for this important nutraceutical is not currently known. It is imperative to assess the knowledge of cardiologists regarding the benefits of omega-3 fatty acids and to determine the frequency of its prescription. The aim of the study was to determine the practices and associations of dietary fish prescribing among cardiologists of Karachi and to assess their knowledge of fish oil supplementation and attitudes toward dietary practices. Methods A cross sectional survey was conducted during the period of January to March, 2008. A self report questionnaire was employed. All practicing cardiologists of Karachi were included in the study. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the independent factors associated with high fish prescribers. Results The sample comprised of a total of 163 cardiologists practicing in Karachi, Pakistan. Most (73.6% of the cardiologists fell in the age range of 28 – 45 years and were male (90.8%. High fish prescribers only comprised 36.2% of the respondents. After adjusting for age and gender, multivariate analysis revealed that only the variable of knowledge about fish oil's role in reducing sudden cardiac death was independently associated with high fish prescribers OR = 6.38 [95% CI 2.58–15.78]. Conclusion The level of knowledge about the benefits of omega-3 fatty acids is high and the cardiologists harbor a favorable attitude towards dispensing dietary fish advice. However, the prescription practices are less than optimal and not concordant with recommendations of organisations such as the American Heart Association and National Heart Foundation of Australia. The knowledge of prevention of sudden cardiac death in CVD patients has been identified as an important predictor of high fish prescription. This particular life-saving property of omega

  1. A Birth Defects Prevention Curriculum for Inner-City Junior High School Students.

    Cohen, Ellen J.; Cohen, Carl I.

    1981-01-01

    Educators have begun to recognize that the public school system is an ideal setting in which to introduce the topic of birth defects prevention. A highly structured two week curriculum was developed using March of Dimes materials to teach inner-city school children about birth defects prevention. (JN)

  2. Suicide Prevention: An Analysis and Replication of a Curriculum-Based High School Program

    Ciffone, Jerry

    2007-01-01

    This article highlights some of the concerns about and benefits of curriculum-based suicide prevention programs delivered to students in a high school setting. In addition, it presents information about a specific curriculum-based prevention program and provides evidence that the program changed unwanted attitudes about suicide in all the areas…

  3. Preventive maintenance basis: Volume 24 -- Battery -- flooded lead-acid (lead-calcium, lead antimony, plante). Final report

    US nuclear power plants are implementing preventive maintenance (PM) tasks with little documented basis beyond fundamental vendor information to support the tasks or their intervals. The Preventive Maintenance Basis project provides utilities with the technical basis for PM tasks and task intervals associated with 40 specific components such as valves, electric motors, pumps, and HVAC equipment. This document provides a program of preventive maintenance tasks suitable for application to flooded lead-acid batteries. The PM tasks that are recommended provide a cost-effective way to intercept the causes and mechanisms that lead to degradation and failure. They can be used in conjunction with material from other sources, to develop a complete PM program or to improve an existing program. This document provides a program of preventive maintenance (PM) tasks suitable for application to flooded lead-acid batteries. The PM tasks that are recommended provide a cost-effective way to intercept the causes and mechanisms that lead to degradation and failure. They can be used, in conjunction with material from other sources, to develop a complete PM program or to improve an existing program. Users of this information will be utility managers, supervisors, system engineers, craft technicians, and training instructors responsible for developing, optimizing, or fine-tuning PM programs

  4. Dietary Supplementation with Docosahexaenoic Acid, but Not Eicosapentanoic Acid, Dramatically Alters Cardiac Mitochondrial Phospholipid Fatty Acid Composition and Prevents Permeability Transition

    Khairallah, Ramzi J.; Sparagna, Genevieve C.; Khanna, Nishanth; O’Shea, Karen M.; Hecker, Peter A; Kristian, Tibor; Fiskum, Gary; Rosiers, Christine Des; Polster, Brian M.; Stanley, William C.

    2010-01-01

    Treatment with the ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) docosahexanoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) exerts cardioprotective effects, and suppresses Ca2+-induced opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP). These effects are associated with increased DHA and EPA, and lower arachidonic acid (ARA) in cardiac phospholipids. While clinical studies suggest the triglyceride lowering effects of DHA and EPA are equivalent, little is known about the independent effe...

  5. Characterization of Green Liquor Dregs, Potentially Useful for Prevention of the Formation of Acid Rock Drainage

    Maria Mäkitalo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Using alternative materials such as residual products from other industries to mitigate the negative effects of acid rock drainage would simultaneously solve two environmental problems. The main residual product still landfilled by sulphate paper mills is the alkaline material green liquor dregs (GLD. A physical, mineralogical and chemical characterization of four batches of GLD was carried out to evaluate the potential to use it as a sealing layer in the construction of dry covers on sulphide-bearing mine waste. GLD has relatively low hydraulic conductivity (10−8 to 10−9 m/s, a high water retention capacity (WRC and small particle size. Whilst the chemical and mineralogical composition varied between the different batches, these variations were not reflected in properties such as hydraulic conductivity and WRC. Due to relatively low trace element concentrations, leaching of contaminants from the GLD is not a concern for the environment. However, GLD is a sticky material, difficult to apply on mine waste deposits and the shear strength is insufficient for engineering applications. Therefore, improving the mechanical properties is necessary. In addition, GLD has a high buffering capacity indicating that it could act as an alkaline barrier. Once engineering technicalities have been overcome, the long-term effectiveness of GLD should be studied, especially the effect of aging and how the sealing layer would be engineered in respect to topography and climatic conditions.

  6. Algerian mint species: high performance thin layer chromatography quantitative determination of rosmarinic acid and in vitro inhibitory effects on linoleic acid peroxidation

    Brahmi Fatiha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the quantitative paremeters of rosmarinic acid in Algerian mints, Mentha spicata L. (M. spicata, Mentha pulegium L. and Mentha rotundifolia (L. Huds by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC-densitometric method and screen the effects of these plant extracts on linoleic acid peroxidation. Methods: The analyses were performed on HPTLC silica gel 60 F254 plates with chloroform: acetone: formic acid (75:16.5:8.5, v/v as the mobile phase. Rosmarinic acid was determined in UV at 365 nm and fluorescence at λexc 325 nm with a 550 nm filter, respectively. The effects of plants extracts on linoleic acid peroxidation were measured by an indirect in vitro colorimetric method. Results: Chromatographic resolution permitted reliable quantification in both measurement modes and calibration curves were linear in a range of 150-1 000 ng/spot. M. spicata was found to contain significantly higher concentrations of rosmarinic acid. The densitometric quantification allowed the analysis of many samples in a short time with reasonable precision (total precision for Mentha spp extracts, 5.1% and 5.8% for UV and fluorescence detection, respectively. The HPTLC data, allied to assays of linoleic acid peroxidation prevention, suggested the potential of M. spicata (52% Trolox® equivalents as a natural source for inhibitors of lipid peroxidation. Conclusions: Densitometry can be used for routine determination and quality control of rosmarinic acid in herbal and formulations containing Mentha species.

  7. Algerian mint species:high performance thin layer chromatography quantitative determination of rosmarinic acid and in vitro inhibitory effects on linoleic acid peroxidation

    Brahmi Fatiha; Madani Khodir; Stvigny Caroline; Chibane Mohamed; Duez Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the quantitative paremeters of rosmarinic acid in Algerian mints,Mentha spicata L. (M. spicata), Mentha pulegium L. and Mentha rotundifolia (L.) Huds by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC)-densitometric method and screen the effects of these plant extracts on linoleic acid peroxidation.Methods:The analyses were performed on HPTLC silica gel 60 F254 plates with chloroform:acetone: formic acid (75:16.5:8.5, v/v) as the mobile phase. Rosmarinic acid was determined in UV at 365 nm and fluorescence at λexc 325 nm with a 550 nm filter, respectively. The effects of plants extracts on linoleic acid peroxidation were measured by an indirect in vitro colorimetric method.Results:Chromatographic resolution permitted reliable quantification in both measurement modes and calibration curves were linear in a range of 150-1000 ng/spot. M. spicata was found to contain significantly higher concentrations of rosmarinic acid. The densitometric quantification allowed the analysis of many samples in a short time with reasonable precision (total precision for Mentha spp extracts, 5.1% and 5.8% for UV and fluorescence detection, respectively). The HPTLC data, allied to assays of linoleic acid peroxidation prevention, suggested the potential of M. spicata (52% Trolox®equivalents) as a natural source for inhibitors of lipid peroxidation.Conclusions:Densitometry can be used for routine determination and quality control of rosmarinic acid in herbal and formulations containing Mentha species.

  8. Vitamines en visvetzuren ter preventie van hart- en vaatziekten: Gezondmakers uit potjes en flesjes T2 = Health from jars and bottles. Vitamins and fish oil fatty acids for prevention of cardiovascular diseases

    Severs, A.H.; Bouterse-van Haaren, M.R.T.

    2000-01-01

    A high dietary intake of antioxidants ascorbic acid, tocopherol and beta-carotene and 1 or 2 servings of fish per week is associated with a lower risk of coronary heart diseases, but the 'evidence' for a preventive effect still has not been produced. A raised homocysteine level can be lowered with f

  9. Do Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Prevent Cardiovascular Disease? A Review of the Randomized Clinical Trials

    Kimmig, Lucas M; Karalis, Dean G.

    2013-01-01

    Fish oil is rich in the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Numerous epidemiological studies and several large randomized clinical trials have shown that modest doses of omega-3 PUFAs significantly reduce the risk of unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death as well as death in coronary artery disease and heart failure patients. Based on the scientific evidence, the American Heart Association (AHA) has ...

  10. Conjugated linoleic acid as a potential protective factor in prevention of breast cancer 

    Agnieszka Białek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancers are the second leading cause of deaths in Poland, among both women and men. Breast cancer is the malignancy most frequently diagnosed in women. In 2008 mammary cancer was diagnosed in up to 14 500 patients. It is also the second most common cause of cancer deaths among women in our country. Although the etiology of most cases of this disease is not known, risk factors include a variety of nutritional factors. The amount of fat consumed in the diet and the quantity and quality of fatty acids are especially crucial. Among fatty acids to which great importance in modification of cancer risk is attributed are conjugated linoleic acid. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA are a group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid, with a conjugated double bond system in the carbon chain. The main natural source of them is milk and dairy products and meat of different species of ruminants, in which cis-9, trans-11 octadecadienoic acid (rumenic acid occurs in the largest quantities, constituting over 90�0of the total pool of CLA. Another important isomer is trans-10, cis-12 octadecadienoic acid, which occurs with rumenic acid in dietary supplements, usually in the ratio 1:1. Surveys conducted show their possible health promoting effects in obesity, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, diabetes, insulin resistance, inflammation, and various types of cancer, especially breast cancer. 

  11. Resveratrol potentiates rapamycin to prevent hyperinsulinemia and obesity in male mice on high fat diet

    Leontieva, O V; Paszkiewicz, G; Demidenko, Z N; Blagosklonny, M V

    2013-01-01

    High doses of rapamycin, an antiaging agent, can prevent obesity in mice on high fat diet (HFD). Obesity is usually associated with hyperinsulinemia. Here, we showed that rapamycin given orally, at doses that did not affect weight gain in male mice on HFD, tended to decrease fasting insulin levels. Addition of resveratrol, which alone did not affect insulin levels, potentiated the effect of rapamycin, so that the combination decreased obesity and prevented hyperinsulinemia. Neither rapamycin ...

  12. High Level Waste System Impacts from Acid Dissolution of Sludge

    KETUSKY, EDWARD

    2006-04-20

    This research evaluates the ability of OLI{copyright} equilibrium based software to forecast Savannah River Site High Level Waste system impacts from oxalic acid dissolution of Tank 1-15 sludge heels. Without further laboratory and field testing, only the use of oxalic acid can be considered plausible to support sludge heel dissolution on multiple tanks. Using OLI{copyright} and available test results, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Material and energy balances, coupled with the model, identify potential safety concerns. Overpressurization and overheating are shown to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen could, however, overwhelm the tank ventilation. While pH adjustment can restore the minimal hydrogen generation, resultant precipitates will notably increase the sludge volume. OLI{copyright} is used to develop a flowsheet such that additional sludge vitrification canisters and other negative system impacts are minimized. Sensitivity analyses are used to assess the processability impacts from variations in the sludge/quantities of acids.

  13. Analysis of Organic Acids in Blueberry Juice and its Fermented Wine by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Hongxue Fu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A rapid analytical method for simultaneous separation and determination of organic acids is of the essence for quality control of blueberry juice and its fermented wine. In this present study, a High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC method for separation and determination of organic acids (oxalic acid, gluconic acid, tartaric acid, formic acid, pyruvic acid, malic acid, isocitric acid, shikimic acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, succinic acid and propionic acid in blueberry juice and wine has been developed. The chromatographic separation was performed at 35°C by using an ammonium hydrogen phosphate buffer (pH 2.8 as mobile phase and 0.6 mL/min as the column flow rate. A C18 analytical column and Ultraviolet Detection (UV at &lembda = 210 nm were used for all acids above. The method was validated for linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, accuracy and precision. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by analyzing organic acids in real samples of six species of blueberry juices and wines. The results show that species significantly affect distribution of organic acids in samples but not the kinds of organic acids between six species. Oxalic acid, gluconic acid, malic acid, shikimic acid and citric acid are detected in blueberry juice. Citric acid, which accounts for a percentage >75% of the whole content of organic acids, is the major acid in four kinds of tested species (Sharpblue, Misty, Anna and Bluecrop. In the other two species (Britewell and Premier, malic acid, gluconic acid and citric acid own a mean percentage of 40, 32 and 25%, respectively. After yeast fermentation and aging, several new organic acids (pyruvic acid, isocitric acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, succinic acid and propionic acid appear in wine.

  14. Highly Concentrated Acetic Acid Poisoning: 400 Cases Reviewed

    Konstantin Brusin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caustic substance ingestion is known for causing a wide array of gastrointestinal and systemic complications. In Russia, ingestion of acetic acid is a major problem which annually affects 11.2 per 100,000 individuals. The objective of this study was to report and analyze main complications and outcomes of patients with 70% concentrated acetic acid poisoning. Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients with acetic acid ingestion who were treated at Sverdlovsk Regional Poisoning Treatment Center during 2006 to 2012. GI mucosal injury of each patient was assessed with endoscopy according to Zargar’s scale. Data analysis was performed to analyze the predictors of stricture formation and mortality. Results: A total of 400 patients with median age of 47 yr were included. GI injury grade I was found in 66 cases (16.5%, IIa in 117 (29.3%, IIb in 120 (30%, IIIa in 27 (16.7% and IIIb in 70 (17.5%. 11% of patients developed strictures and overall mortality rate was 21%. Main complications were hemolysis (55%, renal injury (35%, pneumonia (27% and bleeding during the first 3 days (27%. Predictors of mortality were age 60 to 79 years, grade IIIa and IIIb of GI injury, pneumonia, stages “I”, “F” and “L” of kidney damage according to the RIFLE scale and administration of prednisolone. Predictors of stricture formation were ingestion of over 100 mL of acetic acid and grade IIb and IIIa of GI injury. Conclusion: Highly concentrated acetic acid is still frequently ingested in Russia with a high mortality rate. Patients with higher grades of GI injury, pneumonia, renal injury and higher amount of acid ingested should be more carefully monitored as they are more susceptible to develop fatal consequences.          

  15. Treatment and prevention systems for acid mine drainage and halogenated contaminants

    Jin, Song; Fallgren, Paul H.; Morris, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-31

    Embodiments include treatments for acid mine drainage generation sources (10 perhaps by injection of at least one substrate (11) and biologically constructing a protective biofilm (13) on acid mine drainage generation source materials (14). Further embodiments include treatments for degradation of contaminated water environments (17) with substrates such as returned milk and the like.

  16. Nutraceuticals and prevention of atherosclerosis: focus on omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and Mediterranean diet polyphenols

    Massaro, Marika; Scoditti, Egeria; Carluccio, Maria Annunziata; De Caterina, Raffaele

    2010-01-01

    Nutraceuticals are potentially healthful foods that play a role in maintaining human well being, enhancing health and preventing, or even treating, specific diseases. More than for any other diseases, cardiovascular diseases occur in association with risk factors that are amenable to prevention or treatment by nutraceutical interventions. Several ingredients marketed for use in dietary supplements address such risk factors. The ability of nutraceuticals to favorably influence cardiovascular r...

  17. High resolution acetic acid survey and water vapor radiometer

    Shiao, Yu-Shao

    2008-08-01

    Planets, comets, stars, galaxies and the interstellar medium (ISM) emit complex but distinct molecular spectra. These spectra reveal the chemical composition and physical conditions in the objects. For example, many biologically important molecules, such as acetic acid, formic acid, vinyl cyanide and ethyl cyanide, have been detected in hot molecular cores in the ISM. A diversity of molecules creates complicated and yet interesting astrochemistry in hot cores. However, the formation mechanisms of large molecules are still unclear. Hence large molecule observations are essential to understand hot core chemistry. Among these molecules, acetic acid is one of the most important large species in hot cores. It is a possible precursor of glycine, the simplest amino acid. It only has been detected in high-mass hot cores without oxygen/nitrogen chemical differentiation, which is key to hot core chemical models. Using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA), we have conducted an acetic acid survey in hot cores. In our survey, we have discovered a new acetic acid hot core, G19.61-0.23, which also shows no chemical differentiation. Therefore, we suggest that both large oxygen and nitrogen- bearing species play important roles in acetic acid formation. Ground-based interferometric observations are severely affected by atmospheric conditions. Phase correction is a technique to obtain high quality data and achieve great scientific goals. For our acetic acid survey, a better phase correction technique can not only detect weaker transitions of large molecules, but also increase the map resolution of hot cores. Water vapor radiometers (WVRs) are designed to improve the technique by observing tropospheric water vapor along the lines of sight of interferometers. We have numerically demonstrated the importance of phase correction for interferometric observations and examined the water vapor phase correction technique. Furthermore, we have built two WVR

  18. Beyond the Role of Dietary Protein and Amino Acids in the Prevention of Diet-Induced Obesity

    Klaus J. Petzke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High-protein diets have been shown to prevent the development of diet-induced obesity and can improve associated metabolic disorders in mice. Dietary leucine supplementation can partially mimic this effect. However, the molecular mechanisms triggering these preventive effects remain to be satisfactorily explained. Here we review studies showing a connection between high protein or total amino nitrogen intake and obligatory water intake. High amino nitrogen intake may possibly lower lipid storage, and prevent insulin resistance. Suggestions are made for further systematical studies to explore the relationship between water consumption, satiety, and energy expenditure. Moreover, these examinations should better distinguish between leucine-specific and unspecific effects. Research in this field can provide important information to justify dietary recommendations and strategies in promoting long-term weight loss and may help to reduce health problems associated with the comorbidities of obesity.

  19. Gentamicin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles for the prevention of maxillofacial and orthopedic implant infections.

    Flores, Claudia; Degoutin, Stephanie; Chai, Feng; Raoul, Gwenael; Hornez, Jean-Chritophe; Martel, Bernard; Siepmann, Juergen; Ferri, Joel; Blanchemain, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    Trauma and orthopedic surgery can cause infections as any open surgical procedures. Such complications occur in only1 to 5% of the cases, but the treatment is rather complicated due to bacterial biofilm formation and limited drug access to the site of infection upon systemic administration. An interesting strategy to overcome this type of complications is to prevent bacterial proliferation and biofilm formation via the local and controlled release of antibiotic drugs from the implant itself. Obviously, the incorporation of the drug into the implant should not affect the latter's biological and mechanical properties. In this context, we optimized the preparation process for gentamicin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles, which can be incorporated in the macropores of calcium phosphate-based bone substitutes. Microparticles were prepared using a double emulsion solvent extraction/evaporation technique. The processing parameters were optimized in order to provide an average microparticle size of about 60μm, allowing for incorporation inside the macropores (100μm) of the hydroxyapatite scaffold. Gentamicin-loaded PLGA microparticles showed a sustained release for 25-30days and a rapid antibacterial activity due to a burst effect, the extent of which was controlled by the initial loading of the microparticles. SEM pictures revealed a highly porous microparticle structure, which can help to reduce the micro environmental pH drop and autocatalytic effects. The biological evaluation showed the cytocompatibility and non-hemolytic property of the microparticles, and the antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus under the given conditions. PMID:27127034

  20. Design and analysis of a high pressure and high temperature sulfuric acid experimental system

    We discuss the design and analysis of a small scale sulfuric acid experimental system that can simulate a part of the hydrogen production module. Because nuclear hydrogen coupled components such as a SO3 decomposer and a sulfuric acid evaporator should be tested under high pressure and high temperature operating conditions, we developed the sulfuric acid loop to satisfy design specifications of 900 °C in temperature and 1.0 MPa in pressure. The components for the sulfuric acid loop were specially designed using a combination of materials with good corrosion resistance; a ceramic and Hastelloy-C276. The design feature of the loop was tested for performance in a 10 h sulfuric acid experiment and optimized using Aspen+ code simulation.

  1. Luteolin prevents uric acid-induced pancreatic β-cell dysfunction

    Ding, Ying; Shi, Xuhui; Shuai, Xuanyu; Xu, Yuemei; Liu, Yun; Liang, Xiubin; Wei, Dong; Su, Dongming

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Elevated uric acid causes direct injury to pancreatic β-cells. In this study, we examined the effects of luteolin, an important antioxidant, on uric acid-induced β-cell dysfunction. We first evaluated the effect of luteolin on nitric oxide (NO) formation in uric acid-stimulated Min6 cells using the Griess method. Next, we performed transient transfection and reporter assays to measure transcriptional activity of nuclear factor (NF)-κB. Western blotting assays were also performed to a...

  2. Oral Ascorbic Acid in Combination with Beta-Blockers Is More Effective than Beta-Blockers Alone in the Prevention of Atrial Fibrillation after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    Eslami, Masoud; Badkoubeh, Roya Sattarzadeh; Mousavi, Mehdi; Radmehr, Hassan; Salehi, Mehrdad; Tavakoli, Nafiseh; Avadi, Mohamad Reza

    2007-01-01

    Because adrenergic beta antagonists are not sufficient to prevent atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass grafting, this prospective, randomized trial was designed to evaluate the effects of ascorbic acid as an adjunct to β-blockers.

  3. 78 FR 31571 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for the “Technology-based Products to Prevent High...

    2013-05-24

    ... and Registration for the ``Technology-based Products to Prevent High-Risk Drinking Among College... organizations to help prevent high-risk drinking among college students. Excessive and underage drinking among... illness on America's communities. SAMHSA recognizes that preventing high-risk drinking among...

  4. Biomimetic High Density Lipoprotein Nanoparticles For Nucleic Acid Delivery

    McMahon, Kaylin M.; Mutharasan, R. Kannan; Tripathy, Sushant; Veliceasa, Dorina; Bobeica, Mariana; Shumaker, Dale K.; Luthi, Andrea J.; Helfand, Brian T.; Ardehali, Hossein; Mirkin, Chad A.; Volpert, Olga; Thaxton, C. Shad

    2011-01-01

    We report a gold nanoparticle-templated high density lipoprotein (HDL AuNP) platform for gene therapy which combines lipid-based nucleic acid transfection strategies with HDL biomimicry. For proof-of-concept, HDL AuNPs are shown to adsorb antisense cholesterylated DNA. The conjugates are internalized by human cells, can be tracked within cells using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and regulate target gene expression. Overall, the ability to directly image the AuNP core within cells, t...

  5. Determination of free acid in high level liquid waste

    A Flow-dilution spectrophotometric method is developed for rapid determination of free acid in High Level Liquid Waste. Orange IV is used as developer in this method. The results show that the precision of the analysis is less than 3% (n=3) and the quantity of sample is small, the procedure is simple and fast (completed within 3 min). Moreover, the method is much less hazardous for the operator in the analysis of radioactive samples. (authors)

  6. Solvent extraction of molybdophosphoric acid with high-molecular alkylamines

    Extraction of dodecamolibdophosphoric acid H3PMo12O40 by nitrates of some high molecular amines (di-(2-ethylene-hexyl)-amine, diponylamine, diisoamyloctylamine) dichlorthane solution has been studied. The composition of associates in the organic phase may be presented as (BH3)PMo12O40, where BH+ is the protonized form of the amine. The overall conventional equilibrium constant of complex formation and extraction equals (1.51+-0.35)x1011

  7. N-3 (Omega-3) Fatty Acids in Postpartum Depression: Implications for Prevention and Treatment

    Beth Levant

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of clinical and epidemiological evidence suggests that low dietary intake and/or tissue levels of n-3 (omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are associated with postpartum depression. Low tissue levels of n-3 PUFAs, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are reported in patients with either postpartum or nonpuerperal depression. Moreover, the physiological demands of pregnancy and lactation put childbearing women at particular risk of experiencing a loss of DHA from ti...

  8. [Prevention and therapeutic effects of sika deer velvet collagen hydrolysate on osteoporosis in rats by retinoic acid].

    Li, Yinqing; Zhao, Yu; Sun, Xiaodi; Qu, Xiaobo

    2010-03-01

    The objective was to evaluate the preventive and therapeutic effects of the collagen hydrolysate extracted from Sika deer velvet (CSDV) on osteoporosis rats induced by retinoicacid. Histomorphometric indices and serum biochemical parameters were measured in osteoporosis rats treated with/without antler collagen and in sham-operated rats. Our results were as follows: compared with the osteoporosis group, significant elevation in the levels of bone mineral density (BMD), Ca, P and static histomorphometric indexes and biomechanical properties, but reduction in the level of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were observed in antler collagen-treated groups. However, the above function with the collagenase solution velvet material varied with the different doses. In conclusion, the extracted collagen is found to play a role in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis rats by retinoic acid. PMID:20545204

  9. High throughput determination of cleaning solutions to prevent the fouling of an anion exchange resin.

    Elich, Thomas; Iskra, Timothy; Daniels, William; Morrison, Christopher J

    2016-06-01

    Effective cleaning of chromatography resin is required to prevent fouling and maximize the number of processing cycles which can be achieved. Optimization of resin cleaning procedures, however, can lead to prohibitive material, labor, and time requirements, even when using milliliter scale chromatography columns. In this work, high throughput (HT) techniques were used to evaluate cleaning agents for a monoclonal antibody (mAb) polishing step utilizing Fractogel(®) EMD TMAE HiCap (M) anion exchange (AEX) resin. For this particular mAb feed stream, the AEX resin could not be fully restored with traditional NaCl and NaOH cleaning solutions, resulting in a loss of impurity capacity with resin cycling. Miniaturized microliter scale chromatography columns and an automated liquid handling system (LHS) were employed to evaluate various experimental cleaning conditions. Cleaning agents were monitored for their ability to maintain resin impurity capacity over multiple processing cycles by analyzing the flowthrough material for turbidity and high molecular weight (HMW) content. HT experiments indicated that a 167 mM acetic acid strip solution followed by a 0.5 M NaOH, 2 M NaCl sanitization provided approximately 90% cleaning improvement over solutions containing solely NaCl and/or NaOH. Results from the microliter scale HT experiments were confirmed in subsequent evaluations at the milliliter scale. These results identify cleaning agents which may restore resin performance for applications involving fouling species in ion exchange systems. In addition, this work demonstrates the use of miniaturized columns operated with an automated LHS for HT evaluation of chromatographic cleaning procedures, effectively decreasing material requirements while simultaneously increasing throughput. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1251-1259. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26552005

  10. Docosahexaenoic acid prevents paraquat-induced reactive oxygen species production in dopaminergic neurons via enhancement of glutathione homeostasis

    Lee, Hyoung Jun; Han, Jeongsu; Jang, Yunseon; Kim, Soo Jeong; Park, Ji Hoon; Seo, Kang Sik [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Soyeon; Shin, Soyeon; Lim, Kyu [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Infection Signaling Network Research Center, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Jun Young, E-mail: junyoung3@gmail.com [Brainscience Institute, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kweon, Gi Ryang, E-mail: mitochondria@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Infection Signaling Network Research Center, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-30

    Highlights: • DHA prevents PQ-induced dopaminergic neuronal loss via decreasing of excessive ROS. • DHA increases GR and GCLm derivate GSH pool by enhancement of Nrf2 expression. • Protective mechanism is removal of PQ-induced ROS via DHA-dependent GSH pool. • DHA may be a good preventive strategy for Parkinson’s disease (PD) therapy. - Abstract: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels are reduced in the substantia nigra area in Parkinson’s disease patients and animal models, implicating docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as a potential treatment for preventing Parkinson’s disease and suggesting the need for investigations into how DHA might protect against neurotoxin-induced dopaminergic neuron loss. The herbicide paraquat (PQ) induces dopaminergic neuron loss through the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We found that treatment of dopaminergic SN4741 cells with PQ reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, but pretreatment with DHA ameliorated the toxic effect of PQ. To determine the toxic mechanism of PQ, we measured intracellular ROS content in different organelles with specific dyes. As expected, all types of ROS were increased by PQ treatment, but DHA pretreatment selectively decreased cytosolic hydrogen peroxide content. Furthermore, DHA treatment-induced increases in glutathione reductase and glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLm) mRNA expression were positively correlated with glutathione (GSH) content. Consistent with this increase in GCLm mRNA levels, Western blot analysis revealed that DHA pretreatment increased nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein levels. These findings indicate that DHA prevents PQ-induced neuronal cell loss by enhancing Nrf2-regulated GSH homeostasis.

  11. Docosahexaenoic acid prevents paraquat-induced reactive oxygen species production in dopaminergic neurons via enhancement of glutathione homeostasis

    Highlights: • DHA prevents PQ-induced dopaminergic neuronal loss via decreasing of excessive ROS. • DHA increases GR and GCLm derivate GSH pool by enhancement of Nrf2 expression. • Protective mechanism is removal of PQ-induced ROS via DHA-dependent GSH pool. • DHA may be a good preventive strategy for Parkinson’s disease (PD) therapy. - Abstract: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels are reduced in the substantia nigra area in Parkinson’s disease patients and animal models, implicating docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as a potential treatment for preventing Parkinson’s disease and suggesting the need for investigations into how DHA might protect against neurotoxin-induced dopaminergic neuron loss. The herbicide paraquat (PQ) induces dopaminergic neuron loss through the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We found that treatment of dopaminergic SN4741 cells with PQ reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, but pretreatment with DHA ameliorated the toxic effect of PQ. To determine the toxic mechanism of PQ, we measured intracellular ROS content in different organelles with specific dyes. As expected, all types of ROS were increased by PQ treatment, but DHA pretreatment selectively decreased cytosolic hydrogen peroxide content. Furthermore, DHA treatment-induced increases in glutathione reductase and glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLm) mRNA expression were positively correlated with glutathione (GSH) content. Consistent with this increase in GCLm mRNA levels, Western blot analysis revealed that DHA pretreatment increased nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein levels. These findings indicate that DHA prevents PQ-induced neuronal cell loss by enhancing Nrf2-regulated GSH homeostasis

  12. Antimicrobial activity of transition metal acid MoO{sub 3} prevents microbial growth on material surfaces

    Zollfrank, Cordt, E-mail: cordt.zollfrank@ww.uni-erlangen.de [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Materials Science and Engineering 3-Glass and Ceramics, Martensstr. 5, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Gutbrod, Kai [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Materials Science and Engineering 3-Glass and Ceramics, Martensstr. 5, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Wechsler, Peter [LEONI Kabel GmbH, Stieberstrasse 5, D-91154 Roth (Germany); Guggenbichler, Josef Peter [Laboratory for the Development of Healthcare Products, Leitweg 23, A-6345 Koessen (Austria)

    2012-01-01

    Serious infectious complications of patients in healthcare settings are often transmitted by materials and devices colonised by microorganisms (nosocomial infections). Current strategies to generate material surfaces with an antimicrobial activity suffer from the consumption of the antimicrobial agent and emerging multidrug-resistant pathogens amongst others. Consequently, materials surfaces exhibiting a permanent antimicrobial activity without the risk of generating resistant microorganisms are desirable. This publication reports on the extraordinary efficient antimicrobial properties of transition metal acids such as molybdic acid (H{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}), which is based on molybdenum trioxide (MoO{sub 3}). The modification of various materials (e.g. polymers, metals) with MoO{sub 3} particles or sol-gel derived coatings showed that the modified materials surfaces were practically free of microorganisms six hours after contamination with infectious agents. The antimicrobial activity is based on the formation of an acidic surface deteriorating cell growth and proliferation. The application of transition metal acids as antimicrobial surface agents is an innovative approach to prevent the dissemination of microorganisms in healthcare units and public environments. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The presented modifications of materials surfaces with MoO{sub 3} are non-cytotoxic and decrease biofilm growth and bacteria transmission. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The material is insensitive towards emerging resistances of bacteria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strong potential to reduce spreading of infectious agents on inanimate surfaces.

  13. School-Based Drug Abuse Prevention Programs in High School Students

    Sharma, Manoj; Branscum, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Drug abuse, or substance abuse, is a substantial public health problem in the United States, particularly among high school students. The purpose of this article was to review school-based programs implemented in high schools for substance abuse prevention and to suggest recommendations for future interventions. Included were English language…

  14. Preventative therapies for healthy women at high risk of breast cancer

    Sestak I

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ivana Sestak Centre for Cancer Prevention, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, Charterhouse Square, London, UKAbstract: Tamoxifen has been shown to reduce the risk of developing estrogen receptor (ER-positive breast cancer by at least 50%, in both pre- and postmenopausal women. The current challenge is to find new agents with fewer side effects and to find agents that are specifically suitable for premenopausal women with ER-negative breast cancer. Other selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs, such as raloxifene, arzoxifene, and lasofoxifene, have been shown to reduce the incidence of breast cancer by 50%–80%. SERMs are interesting agents for the prevention of breast cancer, but longer follow-up is needed for some of them for a complete risk–benefit profile of these drugs. Aromatase inhibitors have emerged as new drugs in the prevention setting for postmenopausal women. In the Mammary Prevention 3 (MAP3 trial, a 65% reduction in invasive breast cancer with exemestane was observed, and the Breast Cancer Intervention Study-II trial, which compared anastrozole with placebo, reported a 60% reduction in those cancers. Although SERMs and aromatase inhibitors have been proven to be excellent agents in the preventive setting specifically for postmenopausal women and ER-positive breast cancer, newer agents have to be found specifically for ER-negative breast cancers, which mostly occur in premenopausal women. Keywords: breast cancer, preventive therapy, selective estrogen receptor modulators, aromatase inhibitors, high-risk women

  15. Antiemetic Therapy With or Without Olanzapine in Preventing Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Patients With Cancer Receiving Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy | Division of Cancer Prevention

    This randomized phase III trial studies antiemetic therapy with olanzapine to see how well they work compared to antiemetic therapy alone in preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with cancer receiving highly emetogenic (causes vomiting) chemotherapy. Antiemetic drugs, such as palonosetron hydrochloride, ondansetron, and granisetron hydrochloride, may help lessen or prevent nausea and vomiting in patients treated with chemotherapy. |

  16. Vitamin E supplementation does not prevent ethanol-reduced hepatic retinoic acid levels in rats

    Chronic, excessive ethanol intake can increase retinoic acid (RA) catabolism by inducing cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1). Vitamin E (VE) is an antioxidant implicated in CYP2E1 inhibition. In the current study, we hypothesized that VE supplementation inhibits CYP2E1 and decreases RA catabolism, thereby ...

  17. Kynurenic acid prevented social recognition deficits induced by MK-801 in rats

    Hliňák, Zdeněk; Krejčí, I.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 6 (2003), s. 805-808. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/00/1644 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : amnesia * kynurenic acid * MK-801 Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 0.939, year: 2003

  18. Corrosion Prevention of Cold Rolled Steel Using Water Dispersible Lignosulfonic Acid Doped Polyaniline

    Viswanathan, Tito (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The invention provides coatings useful for preventing corrosion of metals. The coatings comprise a film-forming resin and conductive polymers comprising linearly conjugated x-systems and residues of sulfonated lignin or a sulfonated polyflavonoid or derivatives of solfonated lignin or a sulfonated polyflavonoid. The invention also provides a latex formulation of the coatings, and articles of manufacture comprising a metal substrate and a coating in contact with the metal substrate.

  19. Cinnamaldehyde supplementation prevents fasting-induced hyperphagia, lipid accumulation, and inflammation in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Khare, Pragyanshu; Jagtap, Sneha; Jain, Yachna; Baboota, Ritesh K; Mangal, Priyanka; Boparai, Ravneet K; Bhutani, Kamlesh K; Sharma, Shyam S; Premkumar, Louis S; Kondepudi, Kanthi K; Chopra, Kanwaljit; Bishnoi, Mahendra

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamaldehyde, a bioactive component of cinnamon, is increasingly gaining interest for its preventive and therapeutic effects against metabolic complications like type-2 diabetes. This study is an attempt to understand the effect of cinnamaldehyde in high-fat diet (HFD)-associated increase in fasting-induced hyperphagia and related hormone levels, adipose tissue lipolysis and inflammation, and selected cecal microbial count in mice. Cinnamaldehyde, at 40 µm dose, prevented lipid accumulation and altered gene expression toward lipolytic phenotype in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell lines. In vivo, cinnamaldehyde coadministration prevented HFD-induced body weight gain, decreased fasting-induced hyperphagia, as well as circulating leptin and leptin/ghrelin ratio. In addition to that, cinnamaldehyde altered serum biochemical parameters related to lipolysis, that is, glycerol and free fatty acid levels. At transcriptional level, cinnamaldehyde increased anorectic gene expression in hypothalamus and lipolytic gene expression in visceral white adipose tissue. Furthermore, cinnamaldehyde also decreased serum IL-1β and inflammatory gene expression in visceral white adipose tissue. However, cinnamaldehyde did not modulate the population of selected gut microbial (Lactobacillus, Bifidibaceria, and Roseburia) count in cecal content. In conclusion, cinnamaldehyde increased adipose tissue lipolysis, decreased fasting-induced hyperphagia, normalized circulating levels of leptin/ghrelin ratio, and reduced inflammation in HFD-fed mice, which augurs well for its antiobesity role. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(2):201-211, 2016. PMID:26893251

  20. Prediction of the long-term performance of green liquor dregs as a sealing layer to prevent the formation of acid mine drainage

    Mäkitalo, Maria; Lu, Jinmei; Maurice, Christian; Öhlander, Björn

    2015-01-01

    One of the mining industry's main concerns is the management of waste rock and tailings generated by sulfide ore extraction. Upon exposure of atmospheric oxygen, iron sulfides oxidize generating acidity. Infiltrating water form a metal-rich acidic leachate called acid mine drainage (AMD), that can cause serious environmental problems. Green liquor dregs (GLD) is a material that resists the passage of oxygen and water and could thus be used to seal mine wastes, preventing their oxidation and A...

  1. High Throughput Screening of Valganciclovir in Acidic Microenvironments of Polyester Thin Films

    Teilo Schaller

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ganciclovir and valganciclor are antiviral agents used for the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis. The conventional method for administering ganciclovir in cytomegalovirus retinitis patients is repeated intravitreal injections. In order to obviate the possible detrimental effects of repeated intraocular injections, to improve compliance and to eliminate systemic side-effects, we investigated the tuning of the ganciclovir pro-drug valganciclovir and the release from thin films of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA, polycaprolactone (PCL, or mixtures of both, as a step towards prototyping periocular valganciclovir implants. To investigate the drug release, we established and evaluated a high throughput fluorescence-based quantification screening assay for the detection of valganciclovir. Our protocol allows quantifying as little as 20 ng of valganciclovir in 96-well polypropylene plates and a 50× faster analysis compared to traditional HPLC measurements. This improvement can hence be extrapolated to other polyester matrix thin film formulations using a high-throughput approach. The acidic microenvironment within the polyester matrix was found to protect valganciclovir from degradation with resultant increases in the half-life of the drug in the periocular implant to 100 days. Linear release profiles were obtained using the pure polyester polymers for 10 days and 60 days formulations; however, gross phase separations of PCL and acid-terminated PLGA prevented tuning within these timeframes due to the phase separation of the polymer, valganciclovir, or both.

  2. High-pressure transformations in sulfuric acid hydrates

    The Galilean moons of Jupiter; Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto, have surfaces that are composed of very different materials to the silicates that make up our Earth. For Europa and Ganymede, two moons under intense investigation from past and future space missions, their surfaces are made up of ice and hydrates. Despite the apparent ‘simplicity’ of these materials, we still observe very complex geological formations on these moons – including subduction. This means we need to understand the transformations of candidate surface materials under a range of pressure/temperature conditions in order to accurately explain the formations on these icy surfaces. One hydrate candidate material for the surfaces of these moons are sulfuric acid hydrates, formed from radolytic sulfur (from Io) reacting with the surface ice. Sulfuric acid hydrates have already been established to have a complex phase diagram with composition. We have now used the Mito cell at the PLANET instrument to undertake the first investigation of the high-pressure behavior of the water rich sulfuric acid hydrates. Compressing at 100 K and 180 K we see that the hemitriskaidekahydrate becomes the stable water-rich hydrate and observe some interesting relaxation behaviour in this material at pressure, which could have significant consequences for the interiors of Ganymede.

  3. Is the high-risk strategy to prevent cardiovascular disease equitable?

    Wallach Kildemoes, Helle; Diderichsen, Finn; Krasnik, Allan;

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Statins are increasingly prescribed to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) in asymptomatic individuals. Yet, it is unknown whether those at higher CVD risk - i.e. individuals in lower socio-economic position (SEP) - are adequately reached by this high-risk strategy. Aim......: To examine whether the Danish implementation of the strategy to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) by initiating statin (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor) therapy in high-risk individuals is equitable across socioeconomic groups. METHODS: Design: Cohort study. Setting and participants: Applying individual...

  4. Pencegahan primer pada anak yang berisiko karies tinggi (Primary prevention in children with high caries risk

    Ami Angela

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Oral and dental health has got improvement tremendously over the last century but the prevalence of dental caries in children has remained a significant clinical problem. Caries risk varies between individuals according to each subject’s balance between factors exposing to and protecting from caries attack. It is important to assess the risk of caries for all patients on a routine basis. Caries risk is divided into three levels: high, moderate, and low. Thereby, the dental professional is better to make a specific prevention and treatment recommendations to reduce a child risk and improve overall oral health. The goal of caries-risk assessment and preventive treatment is to eliminate caries or at least to reduce the high-caries occurrence down to the level of the remaining part of the age group. Preventive treatment is divided into three parts: primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. This paper describes the primary prevention in children with high caries risk by behavior modification and tooth protection. Behavior modification is about dental health education, oral hygiene, diet and sugar consumption, sugar-free chewing gum and sugar-free medicines. Tooth protection is about sealant, usage of flouride and chlorhexidine.

  5. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: Their potential role in blood pressure prevention and management

    2010-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) from fish and fish oils appear to protect against coronary heart disease: their dietary intake is in fact inversely associated to cardiovascular disease morbidity/mortality in population studies. Recent evidence suggests that at least part of their heart protective effect is mediated by a relatively small but significant decrease in blood pressure level. In fact, omega-3 PUFAs exhibit wide-ranging biological actions that include regulating both vaso...

  6. Preventive effect of ursodeoxycholic acid on parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease in infants

    Simić Dušica; Milojević Irina; Bogićević Dragana; Milenović Miodrag; Radlović Vladimir; Drašković Biljana; Uram-Benka Anna; Sinđić Sanja; Maksimović Ružica

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis is well recognized phenomenon in the term and preterm infant receiving long-term parenteral nutrition. Objectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) use on cholestasis in newborns on prolonged TPN. Methods. A total of 56 infants were enrolled in this retrospective study: control group consisted of lower (1500 g) birth weight infants (n=30), as well as the...

  7. Fusarium Head Blight Control and Prevention of Mycotoxin Contamination in Wheat with Botanicals and Tannic Acid

    Hans-Rudolf Forrer; Tomke Musa; Fabienne Schwab; Eveline Jenny; Bucheli, Thomas D.; Felix E. Wettstein; Susanne Vogelgsang

    2014-01-01

    Suspensions or solutions with 1% of Chinese galls (Galla chinensis, GC) or 1% of tannic acid (TA), inhibited germination of conidia or mycelium growth of Fusarium graminearum (FG) by 98%–100% or by 75%–80%, respectively, whereas dried bark from buckthorn (Frangula alnus, FA) showed no effect at this concentration. In climate chamber experiments where the wheat variety “Apogee” was artificially inoculated with FG and F. crookwellense (FCr) and treated with 5% suspensions of TA, GC and FA, the ...

  8. Oxidation of calprotectin by hypochlorous acid prevents chelation of essential metal ions and allows bacterial growth: Relevance to infections in cystic fibrosis.

    Magon, Nicholas J; Turner, Rufus; Gearry, Richard B; Hampton, Mark B; Sly, Peter D; Kettle, Anthony J

    2015-09-01

    Calprotectin provides nutritional immunity by sequestering manganese and zinc ions. It is abundant in the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis but fails to prevent their recurrent infections. Calprotectin is a major protein of neutrophils and composed of two monomers, S100A8 and S100A9. We show that the ability of calprotectin to limit growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is exquisitely sensitive to oxidation by hypochlorous acid. The N-terminal cysteine residue on S100A9 was highly susceptible to oxidation which resulted in cross-linking of the protein monomers. The N-terminal methionine of S100A8 was also readily oxidized by hypochlorous acid, forming both the methionine sulfoxide and the unique product dehydromethionine. Isolated human neutrophils formed these modifications on calprotectin when their myeloperoxidase generated hypochlorous acid. Up to 90% of the N-terminal amine on S100A8 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from young children with cystic fibrosis was oxidized. Oxidized calprotectin was higher in children with cystic fibrosis compared to disease controls, and further elevated in those patients with infections. Our data suggest that oxidative stress associated with inflammation in cystic fibrosis will stop metal sequestration by calprotectin. Consequently, strategies aimed at blocking extracellular myeloperoxidase activity should enable calprotectin to provide nutritional immunity within the airways. PMID:26006104

  9. Postprandial fatty acid uptake and adipocyte remodeling in angiotensin type 2 receptor-deficient mice fed a high-fat/high-fructose diet.

    Noll, Christophe; Labbé, Sébastien M; Pinard, Sandra; Shum, Michael; Bilodeau, Lyne; Chouinard, Lucie; Phoenix, Serge; Lecomte, Roger; Carpentier, André C; Gallo-Payet, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The role of the angiotensin type-2 receptor in adipose physiology remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate whether genetic angiotensin type-2 receptor-deficiency prevents or worsens metabolic and adipose tissue morphometric changes observed following a 6-week high-fat/high-fructose diet with injection of a small dose of streptozotocin. We compared tissue uptake of nonesterified fatty acid and dietary fatty acid in wild-type and angiotensin type-2 receptor-deficient mice by using the radiotracer 14(R,S)-[(1) (8)F]-fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid in mice fed a standard or high-fat diet. Postprandial fatty acid uptake in the heart, liver, skeletal muscle, kidney and adipose tissue was increased in wild-type mice after a high-fat diet and in angiotensin type-2 receptor-deficient mice on both standard and high-fat diets. Compared to the wild-type mice, angiotensin type-2 receptor-deficient mice had a lower body weight, an increase in fasting blood glucose and a decrease in plasma insulin and leptin levels. Mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited increased adipocyte size that was prevented by angiotensin type-2 receptor-deficiency. Angiotensin type-2 receptor-deficiency abolished the early hypertrophic adipocyte remodeling induced by a high-fat diet. The small size of adipocytes in the angiotensin type-2 receptor-deficient mice reflects their inability to store lipids and explains the increase in fatty acid uptake in non-adipose tissues. In conclusion, a genetic deletion of the angiotensin type-2 receptor is associated with metabolic dysfunction of white adipose depots, and indicates that adipocyte remodeling occurs before the onset of insulin resistance in the high-fat fed mouse model. PMID:27144096

  10. Solvent extraction studies on uranium (VI) with high molecular weight carboxylic acids from acetate medium

    Carboxylic acids are cation exchanger type of extractant which extract metal ions from weak acidic solutions by ion exchange mechanism. They are present as dimer (H2A2) in the non polar organic diluents. High molecular weight carboxylic acids such as versatic 10 acid and naphthenic acid are used for the separation of high purity of yttrium from heavy fraction of rare earths. Extraction behavior of rare earths with different types of carboxylic acids is also reported. Literature survey revealed that the extraction behavior of uranium from aqueous solutions with carboxylic acids is scanty. An attempt has been made in the present work to examine the extraction behavior of U(VI) with three different types of high molecular weight carboxylic acids namely cekanoic acid, neoheptanoic acid and versatic 10 acid dissolved in xylene. Extraction of metal ions is very much dependent on pH of the solution

  11. Harm Reduction for the Prevention of Youth Gambling Problems: Lessons Learned From Adolescent High-Risk Behavior Prevention Programs

    Dickson, Laurie M.; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Gupta, Rina

    2004-01-01

    Despite the growing popularity of the harm reduction approach in the field of adolescent alcohol and substance abuse, a harm reduction approach to prevention and treatment of youth problem gambling remains largely unexplored. This article poses the question of whether the harm reduction paradigm is a promising approach to the prevention of…

  12. High-pressure polymorphism of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin): Raman spectroscopy

    Crowell, Ethan L.; Dreger, Zbigniew A.; Gupta, Yogendra M.

    2015-02-01

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to elucidate the high-pressure polymorphic behavior of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), an important pharmaceutical compound known as aspirin. Using a diamond anvil cell (DAC), single crystals of the two polymorphic phases of aspirin existing at ambient conditions (ASA-I and ASA-II) were compressed to 10 GPa. We found that ASA-I does not transform to ASA-II, but instead transforms to a new phase (ASA-III) above ∼2 GPa. It is demonstrated that this transformation primarily introduces structural changes in the bonding and arrangement of the acetyl groups and is reversible upon the release of pressure. In contrast, a less dense ASA-II shows no transition in the pressure range studied, though it appears to exhibit a disordered structure above 7 GPa. Our results suggest that ASA-III is the most stable polymorph of aspirin at high pressures.

  13. Acupressure in Controlling Nausea in Young Patients Receiving Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy | Division of Cancer Prevention

    RATIONALE: Acupressure wristbands may prevent or reduce nausea and caused by chemotherapy. It is not yet known whether standard care is more effective with or without acupressure wristbands in controlling acute and delayed nausea. PURPOSE: This randomized phase III trial is studying how well acupressure wristbands work with or without standard care in controlling nausea in young patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy. |

  14. The Effectiveness of an Alcohol Abuse Prevention Program among High School Students in Rural Missouri.

    Dixon, David J.; McLearen, Alix M.

    2002-01-01

    A three-pronged program to prevent underage drinking delivered alcohol education and anti-drinking messages to high school students and their parents and distributed pertinent information to local alcohol retailers in a rural community. Compared to a control community, students in the intervention community were less likely to develop risky…

  15. A High School Depression and Suicide Prevention Program: A Collaboration between Health Education and Psychological Services.

    Moilanen, Donna L.; Bradbury, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Examined a collaboration between health education and psychological services in generating a high school depression and suicide prevention program. The five-component program raised awareness of teen depression and suicide, increased communication about these issues within the school and community, and provided information about available…

  16. Violence Prevention at Thurgood Marshall Academy Public Charter High School. Summary Brief

    Fontaine, Jocelyn; Debus-Sherrill, Sara; Downey, P. Mitchell; Lowry, Samantha S.

    2010-01-01

    This summary brief is based on research conducted by the Urban Institute's Justice Policy Center on the violence prevention activities taking place at the Thurgood Marshall Academy Public Charter High School during the 2008-2009 school year. Researchers from the Justice Policy Center conducted an assessment of the school's violence prevention…

  17. Enhancing Recruitment and Data Quality in a Junior High School-based Teen Pregnancy Prevention Study.

    Aarons, Sigrid; Rose, Allison; Walker, June; Lyles, Beverly; Jenkins, Renee; Raine, Tina

    2001-01-01

    Describes the methods used to maximize participation and enhance data quality in a randomized, controlled evaluation of an adolescent pregnancy prevention program targeting seventh graders in six urban junior high schools. Documents research procedures and evaluation survey design, discusses cross-cultural issues related to recruitment and survey…

  18. Postoperative high-dose-rate brachytherapy in the prevention of keloids

    Veen, Ronald E.; Kal, Henk B.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to show the efficiency of keloidectomy and postoperative interstitial high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy in the prevention of keloids. Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2004, 35 patients with 54 keloids were treated postoperatively with HDR brachytherapy. T

  19. The Effectiveness of Peer-Led FAS/FAE Prevention Presentations in Middle and High Schools

    Boulter, Lyn

    2007-01-01

    Pregnant women and women who might become pregnant, including middle school- and high school-age adolescents, continue to consume alcohol, placing themselves at risk of having a child with the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. However, most prevention programs that attempt to increase public awareness and knowledge of FAS and related disorders…

  20. Core Competencies and the Prevention of High-Risk Sexual Behavior

    Charles, Vignetta Eugenia; Blum, Robert Wm.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent sexual risk-taking behavior has numerous individual, family, community, and societal consequences. In an effort to contribute to the research and propose new directions, this chapter applies the core competencies framework to the prevention of high-risk sexual behavior. It describes the magnitude of the problem, summarizes explanatory…

  1. The omega-3 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, prevents the damaging effects of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha during murine skeletal muscle cell differentiation

    Pearson Stephen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA is a ώ-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid with anti-inflammatory and anti-cachetic properties that may have potential benefits with regards to skeletal muscle atrophy conditions where inflammation is present. It is also reported that pathologic levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α are associated with muscle wasting, exerted through inhibition of myogenic differentiation and enhanced apoptosis. These findings led us to hypothesize that EPA may have a protective effect against skeletal muscle damage induced by the actions of TNF-α. Results The deleterious effects of TNF-α on C2C12 myogenesis were completely inhibited by co-treatment with EPA. Thus, EPA prevented the TNF-mediated loss of MyHC expression and significantly increased myogenic fusion (p p p p p p Conclusion In conclusion, EPA has a protective action against the damaging effects of TNF-α on C2C12 myogenesis. These findings support further investigations of EPA as a potential therapeutic agent during skeletal muscle regeneration following injury.

  2. Structural evidence for solvent-stabilisation by aspartic acid as a mechanism for halophilic protein stability in high salt concentrations.

    Lenton, Samuel; Walsh, Danielle L; Rhys, Natasha H; Soper, Alan K; Dougan, Lorna

    2016-07-21

    Halophilic organisms have adapted to survive in high salt environments, where mesophilic organisms would perish. One of the biggest challenges faced by halophilic proteins is the ability to maintain both the structure and function at molar concentrations of salt. A distinct adaptation of halophilic proteins, compared to mesophilic homologues, is the abundance of aspartic acid on the protein surface. Mutagenesis and crystallographic studies of halophilic proteins suggest an important role for solvent interactions with the surface aspartic acid residues. This interaction, between the regions of the acidic protein surface and the solvent, is thought to maintain a hydration layer around the protein at molar salt concentrations thereby allowing halophilic proteins to retain their functional state. Here we present neutron diffraction data of the monomeric zwitterionic form of aspartic acid solutions at physiological pH in 0.25 M and 2.5 M concentration of potassium chloride, to mimic mesophilic and halophilic-like environmental conditions. We have used isotopic substitution in combination with empirical potential structure refinement to extract atomic-scale information from the data. Our study provides structural insights that support the hypothesis that carboxyl groups on acidic residues bind water more tightly under high salt conditions, in support of the residue-ion interaction model of halophilic protein stabilisation. Furthermore our data show that in the presence of high salt the self-association between the zwitterionic form of aspartic acid molecules is reduced, suggesting a possible mechanism through which protein aggregation is prevented. PMID:27327567

  3. Ascorbic acid prevents acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice by ameliorating glutathione recovery and autophagy.

    Kurahashi, Toshihiro; Lee, Jaeyong; Nabeshima, Atsunori; Homma, Takujiro; Kang, Eun Sil; Saito, Yuka; Yamada, Sohsuke; Nakayama, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Ken-Ichi; Miyata, Satoshi; Fujii, Junichi

    2016-08-15

    Aldehyde reductase (AKR1A) plays a role in the biosynthesis of ascorbic acid (AsA), and AKR1A-deficient mice produce about 10-15% of the AsA that is produced by wild-type mice. We found that acetaminophen (AAP) hepatotoxicity was aggravated in AKR1A-deficient mice. The pre-administration of AsA in the drinking water markedly ameliorated the AAP hepatotoxicity in the AKR1A-deficient mice. Treatment of the mice with AAP decreased both glutathione and AsA levels in the liver in the early phase after AAP administration, and an AsA deficiency delayed the recovery of the glutathione content in the healing phase. While in cysteine supply systems; a neutral amino acid transporter ASCT1, a cystine transporter xCT, enzymes for the transsulfuration pathway, and autophagy markers, were all elevated in the liver as the result of the AAP treatment, the AsA deficiency suppressed their induction. Thus, AsA appeared to exert a protective effect against AAP hepatotoxicity by ameliorating the supply of cysteine that is available for glutathione synthesis as a whole. Because some drugs produce reactive oxygen species, resulting in the consumption of glutathione during the metabolic process, the intake of sufficient amounts of AsA would be beneficial for protecting against the hepatic damage caused by such drugs. PMID:27288086

  4. High contents of very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in different moss species

    Beike, Anna K; Jaeger, Carsten; Zink, Felix; Decker, Eva L; Reski, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Key message Mosses have high contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Tissue-specific differences in fatty acid contents and fatty acid desaturase (FADS)-encoding gene expression exist. The arachidonic acid-synthesizing FADS operate in the ER. Abstract Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important cellular compounds with manifold biological functions. Many PUFAs are essential for the human diet and beneficial for human health. In this study, we report on the high amounts of very long-chai...

  5. A Proposed Molecular Mechanism of High-Dose Vitamin D3 Supplementation in Prevention and Treatment of Preeclampsia

    Piotr Zabul

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A randomized prospective clinical study performed on a group of 74 pregnant women (43 presenting with severe preeclampsia proved that urinary levels of 15-F2t-isoprostane were significantly higher in preeclamptic patients relative to the control (3.05 vs. 2.00 ng/mg creatinine. Surprisingly enough, plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in both study groups were below the clinical reference range with no significant difference between the groups. In vitro study performed on isolated placental mitochondria and placental cell line showed that suicidal self-oxidation of cytochrome P450scc may lead to structural disintegration of heme, potentially contributing to enhancement of oxidative stress phenomena in the course of preeclampsia. As placental cytochrome P450scc pleiotropic activity is implicated in the metabolism of free radical mediated arachidonic acid derivatives as well as multiple Vitamin D3 hydroxylations and progesterone synthesis, we propose that Vitamin D3 might act as a competitive inhibitor of placental cytochrome P450scc preventing the production of lipid peroxides or excess progesterone synthesis, both of which may contribute to the etiopathogenesis of preeclampsia. The proposed molecular mechanism is in accord with the preliminary clinical observations on the surprisingly high efficacy of high-dose Vitamin D3 supplementation in prevention and treatment of preeclampsia.

  6. Vascular composition data supporting the role of N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the prevention of cardiovascular disease events.

    Ohwada, Takayuki; Yokokawa, Tetsuro; Kanno, Yuki; Hotsuki, Yu; Sakamoto, Takayuki; Watanabe, Kenichi; Nakazato, Kazuhiko; Takeishi, Yasuchika

    2016-06-01

    N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are thought to have protective effects against cardiovascular disease. Here, we report the relationship between serum PUFA concentrations and plaque composition, as evaluated by virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS). Consecutive patients (n=61) who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were pre-operatively examined using VH-IVUS to assess the composition of culprit plaques. Gray-scale IVUS and VH-IVUS data of fibrous, fibro-fatty, necrotic core, and dense calcium regions of plaques were estimated at the minimal luminal area sites of culprit lesions. Serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and PUFAs, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and arachidonic acid (AA), were compared between patients with (ACS, n=27) and without acute coronary syndrome (non-ACS, n=34) before PCI. Multiple logistic regression analysis of the data showed that EPA/AA under the median was more highly associated with ACS than hsCRP over the median. In addition, EPA/AA was negatively correlated with the percentage of fibrous plaque regions and EPA/AA and DHA/AA were positively correlated with the percentage of dense calcium regions in plaques. Furthermore, the correlation index of EPA/AA was the most highly (R=0.513) correlated with the percentage of dense calcium regions in plaques. PMID:27222841

  7. Alcohol Abuse Prevention Among High-Risk Youth: Computer-Based Intervention

    Schinke, Steven P.; Schwinn, Traci M.; Ozanian, Alfred J.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility of a CD-ROM intervention to prevent alcohol abuse among high-risk youths. Youths from 41 community-based agencies in greater New York City participated in a randomized trial of a skills-based interactive CD-ROM. Outcome data were collected on 489 early adolescents in these agencies before and after a randomized subset of youths interacted with a 10-session alcohol abuse prevention program on CD-ROM. Compared to control participants, youths in the interventi...

  8. Highly Conductive Carbon Fiber Reinforced Concrete for Icing Prevention and Curing

    Oscar Galao; Luis Bañón; Francisco Javier Baeza; Jesús Carmona; Pedro Garcés

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to study the feasibility of highly conductive carbon fiber reinforced concrete (CFRC) as a self-heating material for ice formation prevention and curing in pavements. Tests were carried out in lab ambient conditions at different fixed voltages and then introduced in a freezer at −15 °C. The specimens inside the freezer were exposed to different fixed voltages when reaching +5 °C for prevention of icing and when reaching the temperature inside the freezer, i.e., −15 °C, for cur...

  9. Implementing preventive iron-folic acid supplementation among women of reproductive age in some Western Pacific countries: possibilities and challenges.

    Smitasiri, Suttilak; Solon, Florentino S

    2005-12-01

    Lack of effective implementation mechanisms is identified as a major obstacle in the prevention and control of iron-deficiency anemia. This paper discusses experiences gained from implementing iron-folic acid supplementation in the Philippines, Vietnam, and Cambodia. The understanding of contextual elements is proposed as a foundation for planning interventions. Moreover, it is suggested that a social marketing framework should provide a way of thinking about how to influence related behaviors. The application of a social marketing framework applied using a "5 P's" approach: public relations and collaboration, product, price, place, and promotion, is described, as well as enabling factors (possibilities) and inhibiting factors (challenges) of this approach. Although a program to improve iron nutrition among women of reproductive age may not be simple to implement, it is essential to enhancing health, human development, and economic advancement in developing countries. PMID:16466083

  10. Evaluation of a Public Awareness Campaign to Prevent High School Dropout.

    Babinski, Leslie M; Corra, Ashley J; Gifford, Elizabeth J

    2016-08-01

    Many advocacy organizations devote time and resources to increasing community awareness and educating the public in an effort to gain support for their issue. One such effort, the Dropout Prevention Campaign by America's Promise Alliance, aimed to increase the visibility of the high school dropout problem and mobilize the community to take action. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the framing of the Dropout Prevention Campaign in television news media. To evaluate this campaign, television news coverage about high school dropout in 12 U.S. communities (N = 982) was examined. A content analysis of news transcripts was conducted and coded to determine the definition of the problem, the reasons for dropout and the possible solutions. Findings indicated that the high school dropout problem was most often framed (30 % of news segments) in terms of the economic and societal implications for the community. Individual student factors as well as broader societal influences were frequently discussed as possible reasons for dropout. The most commonly mentioned solutions were school-based interventions. News segments that mentioned America's Promise Alliance were more likely to frame the issue as a crisis and to use statistics to illustrate that point. Solutions that were more likely to appear in America's Promise segments promoted community and cross-sector involvement, consistent with the messages promoted by the Dropout Prevention Campaign. The findings suggest that a media content analysis can be an effective framework for analyzing a prevention campaign. PMID:27357504

  11. Highly Conductive Carbon Fiber Reinforced Concrete for Icing Prevention and Curing

    Oscar Galao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the feasibility of highly conductive carbon fiber reinforced concrete (CFRC as a self-heating material for ice formation prevention and curing in pavements. Tests were carried out in lab ambient conditions at different fixed voltages and then introduced in a freezer at −15 °C. The specimens inside the freezer were exposed to different fixed voltages when reaching +5 °C for prevention of icing and when reaching the temperature inside the freezer, i.e., −15 °C, for curing of icing. Results show that this concrete could act as a heating element in pavements with risk of ice formation, consuming a reasonable amount of energy for both anti-icing (prevention and deicing (curing, which could turn into an environmentally friendly and cost-effective deicing method.

  12. Adsorption of naphthenic acids on high surface area activated carbons.

    Iranmanesh, Sobhan; Harding, Thomas; Abedi, Jalal; Seyedeyn-Azad, Fakhry; Layzell, David B

    2014-01-01

    In oil sands mining extraction, water is an essential component; however, the processed water becomes contaminated through contact with the bitumen at high temperature, and a portion of it cannot be recycled and ends up in tailing ponds. The removal of naphthenic acids (NAs) from tailing pond water is crucial, as they are corrosive and toxic and provide a substrate for microbial activity that can give rise to methane, which is a potent greenhouse gas. In this study, the conversion of sawdust into an activated carbon (AC) that could be used to remove NAs from tailings water was studied. After producing biochar from sawdust by a slow-pyrolysis process, the biochar was physically activated using carbon dioxide (CO2) over a range of temperatures or prior to producing biochar, and the sawdust was chemically activated using phosphoric acid (H3PO4). The physically activated carbon had a lower surface area per gram than the chemically activated carbon. The physically produced ACs had a lower surface area per gram than chemically produced AC. In the adsorption tests with NAs, up to 35 mg of NAs was removed from the water per gram of AC. The chemically treated ACs showed better uptake, which can be attributed to its higher surface area and increased mesopore size when compared with the physically treated AC. Both the chemically produced and physically produced AC provided better uptake than the commercially AC. PMID:24766592

  13. High-Pressure Effects in Benzoic Acid Dimers: Vibrational Spectroscopy

    Tao, Yuchuan; Dreger, Zbigniew; Gupta, Yogendra

    2013-06-01

    To understand pressure effects on dimer structure stability, Raman and FTIR spectroscopy were used to examine changes in hydrogen bonded dimers of benzoic acid crystals up to 31 GPa. Raman measurements indicated a phase transition around 7-8 GPa. It is proposed that this transition is caused by a rearrangement of molecules within the dimer leading to a symmetry change from C2h to likely C2 or Cs. This change was reversible upon pressure release from 15 GPa. Pressures above 15 GPa, induced gradual changes in luminescence and a color change in the crystal from white to brownish. FTIR measurements at 31 GPa revealed the formation of a new broad band centered around 3250 cm-1, which was attributed to the stretching vibrations of the O -H bond. It is proposed that hydrogen bonded dimers of benzoic acid transform partially to a covalently bonded compound composed of benzoic anhydride-like molecules and H2O. This study demonstrates that application of high pressure can lead to significant changes in the H-bonded dimer structure, including formation of chemical bonding. Work supported by DOE/NNSA and ONR/MURI.

  14. Tolerance of Nile tilapia juveniles to highly acidic rearing water

    Vanessa Tomaz Rebouças

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed at determining the tolerance of Nile tilapia juveniles to highly acidic rearing waters and the effects of water acidity on the quality of tank effluents. The experimental design consisted of four treatments with different water pH values (4.12 ± 0.84; 5.13 ± 0.74; 6.14 ± 0.64 and 8.06 ± 0.48, with five replicates each. No exchange of water was performed throughout the study, only water replenishment to maintain the initial level. Variables of water quality, soil, growth performance, metabolism and effluents were monitored for eight weeks. Despite the lower total ammonia nitrogen (TAN concentration in the pH 8 tanks, their levels of non-ionized ammonia (NH3 were the highest ones. At the end, the lowest body weight of fish was observed in the pH 8 tanks. There was a significant improvement in feed conversion ratio (FCR and protein efficiency ratio (PER due to to water acidification. There were reduced concentrations of NH3 in the acidified tanks’ effluents. It was concluded that the gradual water acidification up to pH 4 can improve the Nile tilapia juveniles’ growth performance.

  15. Bardoxolone Methyl Prevents High-Fat Diet-Induced Colon Inflammation in Mice.

    Dinh, Chi H L; Yu, Yinghua; Szabo, Alexander; Zhang, Qingsheng; Zhang, Peng; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2016-04-01

    Obesity induces chronic, low-grade inflammation, which increases the risk of colon cancer. We investigated the preventive effects of Bardoxolone methyl (BARD) on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced inflammation in a mouse colon. Male C57BL/6J mice (n=7) were fed a HFD (HFD group), HFD plus BARD (10 mg/kg) in drinking water (HFD/BARD group), or normal laboratory chow diet (LFD group) for 21 weeks. In HFD mice, BARD reduced colon thickness and decreased colon weight per length. This was associated with an increase in colon crypt depth and the number of goblet cells per crypt. BARD reduced the expression of F4/80 and CD11c but increased CD206 and IL-10, indicating an anti-inflammatory effect. BARD prevented an increase of the intracellular pro-inflammatory biomarkers (NF-қB, p NF-қB, IL-6, TNF-α) and cell proliferation markers (Cox2 and Ki67). BARD prevented fat deposition in the colon wall and prevented microbial population changes. Overall, we report the preventive effects of BARD on colon inflammation in HFD-fed mice through its regulation of macrophages, NF-қB, cytokines, Cox2 and Ki67, fat deposition and microflora. PMID:26920068

  16. Intracellular spermine prevents acid-induced uncoupling of Cx43 gap junction channels.

    Skatchkov, Serguei N; Bukauskas, Feliksas F; Benedikt, Jan; Inyushin, Mikhail; Kucheryavykh, Yuriy V

    2015-06-17

    Polyamines (PAs), such as spermine and spermidine, modulate the activity of numerous receptors and channels in the central nervous system (CNS) and are stored in glial cells; however, little attention has been paid to their role in the regulation of connexin (Cx)-based gap junction channels. We have previously shown that PAs facilitate diffusion of Lucifer Yellow through astrocytic gap junctions in acute brain slices; therefore, we hypothesized that spermine can regulate Cx43-mediated (as the most abundant Cx in astrocytes) gap junctional communication. We used electrophysiological patch-clamp recording from paired Novikoff cells endogenously expressing Cx43 and HeLaCx43-EGFP transfectants to study pH-dependent modulation of cell-cell coupling in the presence or absence of PAs. Our results showed (i) a higher increase in gap junctional communication at higher concentrations of cytoplasmic spermine, and (ii) that spermine prevented uncoupling of gap junctions at low intracellular pH. Taken together, we conclude that spermine enhances Cx43-mediated gap junctional communication and may preserve neuronal excitability during ischemia and trauma when pH in the brain acidifies. We, therefore, suggest a new role of spermine in the regulation of a Cx43-based network under (patho)physiological conditions. PMID:26011388

  17. Preventive and therapeutic effects of NF-kappaB inhibitor curcumin in rats colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid

    Yan-Ting Jian; Guo-Feng Mai; Ji-De Wang; Ya-Li Zhang; Rong-Cheng Luo; Yong-Xin Fang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To ascertain the molecule mechanism of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) inhibitor curcumin preventive and therapeutic effects in rats' colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS).METHODS: Sixty rats with TNBS-induced colitis weretreated with 2.0% curcumin in the diet. Thirty positive control rats were treated with 0.5% sulfasalazine (SASP).Thirty negative control rats and thirty model rats were treated with general diet. Changes of body weight together with histological scores were evaluated. Survival rates were also evaluated. Cell nuclear NF-κB activity in colonic mucosa was evaluated by using electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Cytoplasmic IκB protein in colonic mucosa was detected by using Western Blot analysis.Cytokine messenger expression in colonic tissue was assessed by using semiquantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction.RESULTS: Treatment with curcumin could prevent and treat both wasting and histopathologic signs of rats with TNBS-induced intestinal inflammation. In accordance with these findings, NF-κB activation in colonic mucosa was suppressed in the curcumin-treated groups. Degradations of cytoplasmic IκB protein in colonic mucosa were blocked by curcumin treatment. Proinfiammatory cytokine messenger RNA expression in colonic mucosa was also suppressed.CONCLUSION: This study shows that NF-κB inhibitor curcumin could prevent and improve experimental colitis in murine model with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).The findings suggest that NF-κB inhibitor curcumin could be a potential target for the patients with IBD.

  18. STUDY ON HIGH ACID LEACHING REACTIVE CALCINED KAOLIN

    1999-01-01

    Leaching experiments on metakaolin show that the final Al extraction ratio reached in a batch reaction is strikingly influenced by the inferior pore structure geometry of the metakaolin pellets. By calcining kaolin particles adhered in low humidity state,a variety of metakaolin pellet,inside which a large openings structure developed,has been prepared. The structure remarkably benefits leachant ion transference,so,the variety has high acid leaching reactivity,even coarse as the pellets are,its aluminum extracted ratio still has a linear relationship with leaching time,and the leaching kinetics is maintained zero order up to a significant conversion degree. A revised Pellet-Particle Model has been developed to interpret the structure influence on Al extraction ratio.

  19. A Prevention of Pre-eclampsia with the Use of Acetylsalicylic Acid and Low-molecular Weight Heparin - Molecular Mechanisms.

    Darmochwal-Kolarz, Dorota; Kolarz, Bogdan; Korzeniewski, Michal; Kimber-Trojnar, Zaneta; Patro-Malysza, Jolanta; Mierzynski, Radzisław; Przegalinska-Kałamucka, Monika; Oleszczuk, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia appears to be the main cause for the maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Pregnant women with pre-eclampsia are more likely to be threatened with conditions which potentially may be lethal, such as: disseminated intravascular coagulation, cerebral hemorrhage, liver and renal failure. Pregnancy complicated with pre-eclampsia is also associated with a greater risk for iatrogenic prematurity, intrauterine growth retardation, premature abruption of placenta, and even intrauterine fetal death. In the majority of cases the reasons for arterial hypertension among pregnant women remain obscure. For the past decades, there were many abortive attempts in the use of some microelements, vitamins or specific diets, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, for the prophylaxis of pre-eclampsia. Recently, it has been shown that a prevention of pre-eclampsia with the use of a lowmolecular- weight heparins (LMWHs) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) could considerably reduce the frequency of preeclampsia. In this review, we present the studies concerning the applications of LMWHs and aspirin in the prophylaxis of pre-eclampsia and some important data about the mechanisms of anti-inflammatory actions of LMWHs and ASA. PMID:26927215

  20. N-Acetylneuraminic acid attenuates hypercoagulation on high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats

    Zhang Yida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: N-Acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac, a type of sialic acid, has close links with cholesterol metabolism and is often used as a biomarker in evaluating the risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, most studies on the health implications of Neu5Ac have focused on its effects on the nervous system, while its effects on cardiovascular risk factors have largely been unreported. Thus, the effects of Neu5Ac on coagulation status in high fat diet (HFD-induced hyperlipidemic rats were evaluated in this study. Methods: Sprague Dawley male rats were divided into five different groups and fed with HFD alone, HFD low-dose Neu5Ac, HFD high-dose Neu5Ac, HFD simvastatin (10 mg/kg day, and normal pellet alone. Food was given ad libitum while body weight of rats was measured weekly. After 12 weeks of intervention, rats were sacrificed and serum and tissue samples were collected for biochemistry and gene expression analysis, respectively. Results: The results showed that Neu5Ac could improve lipid metabolism and hyperlipidemia-associated coagulation. Neu5Ac exerted comparable or sometimes better physiological effects than simvastatin, at biochemical and gene expression levels. Conclusions: The data indicated that Neu5Ac prevented HFD-induced hyperlipidemia and associated hypercoagulation in rats through regulation of lipid-related and coagulation-related genes and, by extension, induced metabolite and protein changes. The implications of the present findings are that Neu5Ac may be used to prevent coagulation-related cardiovascular events in hyperlipidemic conditions. These findings are worth studying further.

  1. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: Their potential role in blood pressure prevention and management

    Claudio Borghi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs from fish and fish oils appear to protect against coronary heart disease: their dietary intake is in fact inversely associated to cardiovascular disease morbidity/mortality in population studies. Recent evidence suggests that at least part of their heart protective effect is mediated by a relatively small but significant decrease in blood pressure level. In fact, omega-3 PUFAs exhibit wide-ranging biological actions that include regulating both vasomotor tone and renal sodium excretion, partly competing with omega- 6 PUFAs for common metabolic enzymes and thereby decreasing the production of vasocostrincting rather than vasodilating and anti-inflammatory eicosanoids. PUFAs also reduce angiotensin- converting enzyme (ACE activity, angiotensin II formation, TGF-beta expression, enhance eNO generation and activate the parasympathetic nervous system. The final result is improved vasodilation and arterial compliance of both small and large arteries. Preliminary clinical trials involving dyslipidemic patients, diabetics and elderly subjects, as well as normotensive and hypertensive subjects confirm this working hypothesis. Future research will clarify if PUFA supplementation could improve the antihypertensive action of specific blood pressure lowering drug classes and of statins.

  2. The FXR agonist obeticholic acid prevents gut barrier dysfunction and bacterial translocation in cholestatic rats.

    Verbeke, Len; Farre, Ricard; Verbinnen, Bert; Covens, Kris; Vanuytsel, Tim; Verhaegen, Jan; Komuta, Mina; Roskams, Tania; Chatterjee, Sagnik; Annaert, Pieter; Vander Elst, Ingrid; Windmolders, Petra; Trebicka, Jonel; Nevens, Frederik; Laleman, Wim

    2015-02-01

    Bacterial translocation (BTL) drives pathogenesis and complications of cirrhosis. Farnesoid X-activated receptor (FXR) is a key transcription regulator in hepatic and intestinal bile metabolism. We studied potential intestinal FXR dysfunction in a rat model of cholestatic liver injury and evaluated effects of obeticholic acid (INT-747), an FXR agonist, on gut permeability, inflammation, and BTL. Rats were gavaged with INT-747 or vehicle during 10 days after bile-duct ligation and then were assessed for changes in gut permeability, BTL, and tight-junction protein expression, immune cell recruitment, and cytokine expression in ileum, mesenteric lymph nodes, and spleen. Auxiliary in vitro BTL-mimicking experiments were performed with Transwell supports. Vehicle-treated bile duct-ligated rats exhibited decreased FXR pathway expression in both jejunum and ileum, in association with increased gut permeability through increased claudin-2 expression and related to local and systemic recruitment of natural killer cells resulting in increased interferon-γ expression and BTL. After INT-747 treatment, natural killer cells and interferon-γ expression markedly decreased, in association with normalized permeability selectively in ileum (up-regulated claudin-1 and occludin) and a significant reduction in BTL. In vitro, interferon-γ induced increased Escherichia coli translocation, which remained unaffected by INT-747. In experimental cholestasis, FXR agonism improved ileal barrier function by attenuating intestinal inflammation, leading to reduced BTL and thus demonstrating a crucial protective role for FXR in the gut-liver axis. PMID:25592258

  3. Salicylic acid reduces napropamide toxicity by preventing its accumulation in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    Cui, Jing; Zhang, Rui; Wu, Guo Lin; Zhu, Hong Mei; Yang, Hong

    2010-07-01

    Napropamide is a widely used herbicide for controlling weeds in crop production. However, extensive use of the herbicide has led to its accumulation in ecosystems, thus causing toxicity to crops and reducing crop production and quality. Salicylic acid (SA) plays multiple roles in regulating plant adaptive responses to biotic and environmental stresses. However, whether SA regulates plant response to herbicides (or pesticides) was unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of SA on herbicide napropamide accumulation and biological processes in rapeseed (Brassica napus). Plants exposed to 8 mg kg(-1) napropamide showed growth stunt and oxidative damage. Treatment with 0.1 mM SA improved growth and reduced napropamide levels in plants. Treatment with SA also decreased the abundance of O (2) (-.) and H(2)O(2) as well as activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and increased activities of guaiacol peroxidase (POD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in napropamide-exposed plants. Analysis of SOD, CAT, and POD activities using nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) confirmed the results. These results may help to understand how SA regulates plant response to organic contaminants and provide a basis to control herbicide/pesticide contamination in crop production. PMID:19967348

  4. Does high serum uric acid level cause aspirin resistance?

    Yildiz, Bekir S; Ozkan, Emel; Esin, Fatma; Alihanoglu, Yusuf I; Ozkan, Hayrettin; Bilgin, Murat; Kilic, Ismail D; Ergin, Ahmet; Kaftan, Havane A; Evrengul, Harun

    2016-06-01

    In patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), though aspirin inhibits platelet activation and reduces atherothrombotic complications, it does not always sufficiently inhibit platelet function, thereby causing a clinical situation known as aspirin resistance. As hyperuricemia activates platelet turnover, aspirin resistance may be specifically induced by increased serum uric acid (SUA) levels. In this study, we thus investigated the association between SUA level and aspirin resistance in patients with CAD. We analyzed 245 consecutive patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP) who in coronary angiography showed more than 50% occlusion in a major coronary artery. According to aspirin resistance, two groups were formed: the aspirin resistance group (Group 1) and the aspirin-sensitive group (Group 2). Compared with those of Group 2, patients with aspirin resistance exhibited significantly higher white blood cell counts, neutrophil counts, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios, SUA levels, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, and fasting blood glucose levels. After multivariate analysis, a high level of SUA emerged as an independent predictor of aspirin resistance. The receiver-operating characteristic analysis provided a cutoff value of 6.45 mg/dl for SUA to predict aspirin resistance with 79% sensitivity and 65% specificity. Hyperuricemia may cause aspirin resistance in patients with CAD and high SUA levels may indicate aspirin-resistant patients. Such levels should thus recommend avoiding heart attack and stroke by adjusting aspirin dosage. PMID:26656902

  5. Recovery of nitric acid from simulated acidic high level radioactive waste using pore-filled anion exchange membranes

    Acidic waste is generated at different stages of nuclear fuel cycle. The waste contains minor amounts of actinides (241Am, Pu, Np) along with large number of long-lived radionuclides such as 137Cs, 90Sr, 106Ru etc. Before disposal or storage, the overall activity of the waste needs to be reduced. Along with this, the high amount of acid present in the waste needs to be removed. In this study, DD has been used to recover nitric acid from acidic solutions with compositions similar to radioactive waste using pore-filled anion exchange membranes

  6. Ferulic Acid Alleviates Changes in a Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome Induced by High-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Diet

    Ketmanee Senaphan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities characterized by obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Ferulic acid (FA is the major phenolic compound found in rice oil and various fruits and vegetables. In this study, we examined the beneficial effects of FA in minimizing insulin resistance, vascular dysfunction and remodeling in a rat model of high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic changes, which is regarded as an analogue of metabolic syndrome (MS in man. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high carbohydrate, high fat (HCHF diet and 15% fructose in drinking water for 16 weeks, where control rats were fed with standard chow diet and tap water. FA (30 or 60 mg/kg was orally administered to the HCHF and control rats during the last six weeks of the study. We observed that FA significantly improved insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles, and reduced elevated blood pressure, compared to untreated controls (p < 0.05. Moreover, FA also improved vascular function and prevented vascular remodeling of mesenteric arteries. The effects of FA in HCHF-induced MS may be realized through suppression of oxidative stress by down-regulation of p47phox, increased nitric oxide (NO bioavailability with up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and suppression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α. Our results suggest that supplementation of FA may have health benefits by minimizing the cardiovascular complications of MS and alleviating its symptoms.

  7. Comparative stability of the bioresorbable ferric crosslinked hyaluronic acid adhesion prevention solutions.

    Luu, Hoan-My Do; Chen, Angela; Isayeva, Irada S

    2013-08-01

    The Intergel® ferric crosslinked hyaluronate (FeHA) adhesion prevention solution (APS) (FDA) is associated with serious post-operative complications (Henley, http://www.lawyersandsettlements.com/features/gynecare-intergel/intergel-timeline.html, 2007; FDA, 2003; Roman et al., Fertil Steril 2005, 83 Suppl 1:1113-1118; Tang et al., Ann Surg 2006;243(4):449-455; Wiseman, Fertil Steril 2006;86(3):771; Wiseman, Fertil Steril 2006;85(4):e7). This prompted us to examine the in situ stability of crosslinked HA materials to hyaluronidase lyase degradation. Variables such as ferric ionic crosslink density, HA concentration, gel geometry, and molecular weight (MW) of HA polymer were studied. Various formulations of the crosslinked "in house" [Isayeva et al., J Biomed Mater Res: Part B - Appl Biomater 2010, 95B (1):9-18] FeHA (0.5%, w/v; 30, 50, 90% crosslinked), the Intergel® FeHA (0.5%, w/v; 90%), and the non-crosslinked HA (0.05-0.5%, w/v) were degraded at a fixed activity of hyaluronidase lyase from Streptomyces hyalurolyticus (Hyase) at 37°C over time according to the method [Payan et al., J Chrom B: Biomed Sci Appl 1991;566(1):9-18]. Under our conditions, the data show that the crosslink density affects degradation the most, followed by HA concentration and then gel geometry. We found that MW has no effect. Our results are one possible explanation of the observations that the Intergel® FeHA APS (0.5%, w/v; 90%) material persisted an order of magnitude longer than expected [t1/2 = 500 hrs vs. t1/2 = 50 hrs (FDA; Johns et al., Fertil Steril 1997;68(1):37-42)]. These data also demonstrate the sensitivity of the in vitro hyaluronidase assay to predict the in situ stability of crosslinked HA medical products as previously reported [Sall et al., Polym Degrad Stabil 2007;92(5):915-919]. PMID:23559362

  8. Reduced gastric acid production in burn shock period and its significance in the prevention and treatment of acute gastric mucosal lesions.

    Zhu, Li; Yang, Zhong-Cheng; Li, Ao; Cheng, De-Chang

    2000-02-01

    AIM:To investigate the changes of gastric acid production and its mechanism in shock period of severe burn in rats.METHODS:A rat model with 30% TBSA full thickness burn injury was employed and the gastric acid production,together with gastric mucosal blood flow (GMBF) and energy charge (EC) were measured serially within 48h postburn.RESULTS:The gastric acid production in the acute shock period was markedly inhibited after severe burn injury.At the 3rd h postburn,the gastric juice volume, total acidity and acid output were already significantly decreased (P anti-acid drugs during burn shock period was unreasonable in some respects. Therefore, taking effective measures to improve gastric mucosal blood perfusion as early as possible postburn might be more preferable for the AGML prevention and treatment. PMID:11819529

  9. High titer gluconic acid fermentation by Aspergillus niger from dry dilute acid pretreated corn stover without detoxification.

    Zhang, Hongsen; Zhang, Jian; Bao, Jie

    2016-03-01

    This study reported a high titer gluconic acid fermentation using dry dilute acid pretreated corn stover (DDAP) hydrolysate without detoxification. The selected fermenting strain Aspergillus niger SIIM M276 was capable of inhibitor degradation thus no detoxification on pretreated corn stover was required. Parameters of gluconic acid fermentation in corn stover hydrolysate were optimized in flasks and in fermentors to achieve 76.67 g/L gluconic acid with overall yield of 94.91%. The sodium gluconate obtained from corn stover was used as additive for extending setting time of cement mortar and similar function was obtained with starch based sodium gluconate. This study provided the first high titer gluconic acid production from lignocellulosic feedstock with potential of industrial applications. PMID:26724553

  10. Secondary prevention of heart disease – knowledge among cardiologists and Ω-3 (Omega-3) fatty acid prescribing behaviors in Karachi, Pakistan

    Ravasia Wasik F; Hanif Hashim M; Taqui Ather M; Shoukat Sana; Gowani Saqib A; Qadri Zeeshan; Dhakam Sajid H

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The use of omega-3 fatty acids is a currently proven strategy for secondary prevention of heart disease. The prescription practices for this important nutraceutical is not currently known. It is imperative to assess the knowledge of cardiologists regarding the benefits of omega-3 fatty acids and to determine the frequency of its prescription. The aim of the study was to determine the practices and associations of dietary fish prescribing among cardiologists of Karachi and ...

  11. Nitric oxide donors prevent while the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME increases arachidonic acid plus CYP2E1-dependent toxicity

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic acid (AA) play an important role in alcohol-induced liver injury. AA promotes toxicity in rat hepatocytes with high levels of cytochrome P4502E1 and in HepG2 E47 cells which express CYP2E1. Nitric oxide (NO) participates in the regulation of various cell activities as well as in cytotoxic events. NO may act as a protectant against cytotoxic stress or may enhance cytotoxicity when produced at elevated concentrations. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the effect of endogenously or exogenously produced NO on AA toxicity in liver cells with high expression of CYP2E1 and assess possible mechanisms for its actions. Pyrazole-induced rat hepatocytes or HepG2 cells expressing CYP2E1 were treated with AA in the presence or absence of an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase L-N G-Nitroarginine Methylester (L-NAME) or the NO donors S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), and (Z)-1-[-(2-aminoethyl)-N-(2-aminoethyl)]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (DETA-NONO). AA decreased cell viability from 100% to 48 ± 6% after treatment for 48 h. In the presence of L-NAME, viability was further lowered to 23 ± 5%, while, SNAP or DETA-NONO increased viability to 66 ± 8 or 71 ± 6%. The L-NAME potentiated toxicity was primarily necrotic in nature. L-NAME did not affect CYP2E1 activity or CYP2E1 content. SNAP significantly lowered CYP2E1 activity but not protein. AA treatment increased lipid peroxidation and lowered GSH levels. L-NAME potentiated while SNAP prevented these changes. Thus, L-NAME increased, while NO donors decreased AA-induced oxidative stress. Antioxidants prevented the L-NAME potentiation of AA toxicity. Damage to mitochondria by AA was shown by a decline in the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). L-NAME potentiated this decline in MMP in association with its increase in AA-induced oxidative stress and toxicity. NO donors decreased this decline in MMP in association with their decrease in AA-induced oxidative stress and

  12. Clinical characteristics and preventable acute care spending among a high cost inpatient population

    Ronksley, Paul E.; Kobewka, Daniel M.; McKay, Jennifer A.; Rothwell, Deanna M.; Mulpuru, Sunita; Forster, Alan J

    2016-01-01

    Background A small proportion of patients account for the majority of health care spending. The objectives of this study were to explore the clinical characteristics, patterns of health care use, and the proportion of acute care spending deemed potentially preventable among high cost inpatients within a Canadian acute-care hospital. Methods We identified all individuals within the Ottawa Hospital with one or more inpatient hospitalization between April 1, 2010 and March 31, 2011. Clinical cha...

  13. Long-term omega-3 fatty acid supplementation prevents expression changes in cochlear homocysteine metabolism and ameliorates progressive hearing loss in C57BL/6J mice.

    Martínez-Vega, Raquel; Partearroyo, Teresa; Vallecillo, Néstor; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Pajares, María A; Varela-Nieto, Isabel

    2015-12-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential nutrients well known for their beneficial effects, among others on cognitive development and maintenance, inflammation and oxidative stress. Previous studies have shown an inverse association between high plasma levels of PUFAs and age-related hearing loss, and the relationship between low serum folate and elevated plasma homocysteine levels and hearing loss. Therefore, we used C57BL/6J mice and long-term omega-3 supplementation to evaluate the impact on hearing by analyzing their auditory brainstem response (ABR) and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) thresholds. The omega-3 group showed significantly lower ABR hearing thresholds (~25 dB sound pressure level) and higher DPOAE amplitudes in mid-high frequencies when compared to the control group. These changes did not correlate with alterations between groups in plasma homocysteine or serum folate levels as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and a microbiological method, respectively. Aging in the control group was associated with imbalanced cytokine expression toward increased proinflammatory cytokines as determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction; these changes were prevented by omega-3 supplementation. Genes involved in homocysteine metabolism showed decreased expression during aging of control animals, and only alterations in Bhmt and Cbs were significantly prevented by omega-3 feeding. Western blotting showed that omega-3 supplementation precluded the CBS protein increase detected in 10-month-old controls but also produced an increase in BHMT protein levels. Altogether, the results obtained suggest a long-term protective role of omega-3 supplementation on cochlear metabolism and progression of hearing loss. PMID:26321228

  14. Glutamine is highly effective in preventing in vivo cobalt-induced oxidative stress in rat liver

    Soledad Gonzales; Ariel H. Polizio; María A. Erario; María L. Tomaro

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the in vivo effect of glutamine on cobaltgenerated oxidative stress and (HO-1) induction in rat liver.METHODS: Fasted female Wistar rats received a single injection of cobalt chloride (375 μmol/kg body weight) and then were killed at different times. Lipid peroxidation and soluble and enzymatic antioxidant defense system (reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) were measured in liver homogenates. Ferritin and ferritin iron contents as well as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) activity and expression were also determined. The antioxidant properties of glutamine (Gin) were also evaluated. RESULTS: Cobalt chloride increased lipid peroxidation (50% over control values) 1 h after treatment. GSH reached a minimum at 3 h (40%) increasing thereafter. Twelve hours after CoCl2 injection, the antioxidant enzymes CAT, GSH-Px and SOD also diminished by about 30%. Heme oxygenase-1 induction was observed 6 h after treatment reaching a maximum value of 14-fold over the controls, 12 h after cobalt treatment. A 1.7-fold increase in ferritin and ferritin-bound iron 24 h after treatment were also obtained. Administration of glutamine (300 mg/kg body weight) by gavage 24 h before CoCl2 treatment entirely prevented the increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content, the decrease in GSH levels, and partially reverted heme oxygenase-1 induction. CONCLUSION: These results suggested that a natural product such as glutamine prevents glutathione depletion and consequently heme oxygenase induction.

  15. Aldolase B knockdown prevents high glucose-induced methylglyoxal overproduction and cellular dysfunction in endothelial cells.

    Jianghai Liu

    Full Text Available We used cultured endothelial cells as a model to examine whether up-regulation of aldolase B and enhanced methylglyoxal (MG formation play an important role in high glucose-induced overproduction of advanced glycosylation endproducts (AGEs, oxidative stress and cellular dysfunction. High glucose (25 mM incubation up-regulated mRNA levels of aldose reductase (an enzyme converting glucose to fructose and aldolase B (a key enzyme that catalyzes MG formation from fructose and enhanced MG formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs and HUVEC-derived EA. hy926 cells. High glucose-increased MG production in EA. hy926 cells was completely prevented by siRNA knockdown of aldolase B, but unaffected by siRNA knockdown of aldolase A, an enzyme responsible for MG formation during glycolysis. In addition, inhibition of cytochrome P450 2E1 or semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase which produces MG during the metabolism of lipid and proteins, respectively, did not alter MG production. Both high glucose (25 mM and MG (30, 100 µM increased the formation of N(ε-carboxyethyl-lysine (CEL, a MG-induced AGE, oxidative stress (determined by the generation of oxidized DCF, H(2O(2, protein carbonyls and 8-oxo-dG, O-GlcNAc modification (product of the hexosamine pathway, membrane protein kinase C activity and nuclear translocation of NF-κB in EA. hy926 cells. However, the above metabolic and signaling alterations induced by high glucose were completely prevented by knockdown of aldolase B and partially by application of aminoguanidine (a MG scavenger or alagebrium (an AGEs breaker. In conclusion, efficient inhibition of aldolase B can prevent high glucose-induced overproduction of MG and related cellular dysfunction in endothelial cells.

  16. Direct production of biodiesel from high-acid value Jatropha oil with solid acid catalyst derived from lignin

    Pua Fei-ling

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Solid acid catalyst was prepared from Kraft lignin by chemical activation with phosphoric acid, pyrolysis and sulfuric acid. This catalyst had high acid density as characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDX and Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET method analyses. It was further used to catalyze the esterification of oleic acid and one-step conversion of non-pretreated Jatropha oil to biodiesel. The effects of catalyst loading, reaction temperature and oil-to-methanol molar ratio, on the catalytic activity of the esterification were investigated. Results The highest catalytic activity was achieved with a 96.1% esterification rate, and the catalyst can be reused three times with little deactivation under optimized conditions. Biodiesel production from Jatropha oil was studied under such conditions. It was found that 96.3% biodiesel yield from non-pretreated Jatropha oil with high-acid value (12.7 mg KOH/g could be achieved. Conclusions The catalyst can be easily separated for reuse. This single-step process could be a potential route for biodiesel production from high-acid value oil by simplifying the procedure and reducing costs.

  17. Prevention of school violence face to face and virtual in the high school

    Rocío Martínez Vilchis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present article pretends contribute a complete vision about the problems of bullying and cyberbullying in high school students, and some tools who helps as a prevention factor in face to face environments and virtual environments, as generic competences and digital competence; all this starting with three researches, two of these descriptive transversal studies and one correlational study, made on high school students of the Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México; in these studies were applied self-report questionnaires to obtain information about the perception of the teenagers about these issues, and in case of generic competences and digital competence, the knowledge they have.

  18. Comparative evaluation between ascorbic acid and N-acetyl cysteine for preventing tourniquet induced ischaemic reperfusion injury during lower limb surgery, a randomized controlled trial

    Mahmoud Hassan Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Both N-acetyl cysteine and ascorbic acid reduce post-deflation increase in blood levels of markers of oxidative stress and markers of systemic inflammation and thus both are beneficial in preventing post-tourniquet deflation ischemic reperfusion injury in lower limb surgery.

  19. Bardoxolone Methyl Prevents Mesenteric Fat Deposition and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet Mice

    Dinh, Chi H. L.; Szabo, Alexander; Yu, Yinghua; Camer, Danielle; Wang, Hongqin; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Mesenteric fat belongs to visceral fat. An increased deposition of mesenteric fat contributes to obesity associated complications such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. We have investigated the therapeutic effects of bardoxolone methyl (BARD) on mesenteric adipose tissue of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Male C57BL/6J mice were administered oral BARD during HFD feeding (HFD/BARD), only fed a high-fat diet (HFD), or fed low-fat diet (LFD) for 21 weeks. Histology and immunohistochemistry were used to analyse mesenteric morphology and macrophages, while Western blot was used to assess the expression of inflammatory, oxidative stress, and energy expenditure proteins. Supplementation of drinking water with BARD prevented mesenteric fat deposition, as determined by a reduction in large adipocytes. BARD prevented inflammation as there were fewer inflammatory macrophages and reduced proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1 beta and tumour necrosis factor alpha). BARD reduced the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt, suggesting an antioxidative stress effect. BARD upregulates energy expenditure proteins, judged by the increased activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) proteins. Overall, BARD induces preventive effect in HFD mice through regulation of mesenteric adipose tissue. PMID:26618193

  20. Bardoxolone Methyl Prevents Mesenteric Fat Deposition and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet Mice

    Chi H. L. Dinh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenteric fat belongs to visceral fat. An increased deposition of mesenteric fat contributes to obesity associated complications such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. We have investigated the therapeutic effects of bardoxolone methyl (BARD on mesenteric adipose tissue of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Male C57BL/6J mice were administered oral BARD during HFD feeding (HFD/BARD, only fed a high-fat diet (HFD, or fed low-fat diet (LFD for 21 weeks. Histology and immunohistochemistry were used to analyse mesenteric morphology and macrophages, while Western blot was used to assess the expression of inflammatory, oxidative stress, and energy expenditure proteins. Supplementation of drinking water with BARD prevented mesenteric fat deposition, as determined by a reduction in large adipocytes. BARD prevented inflammation as there were fewer inflammatory macrophages and reduced proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1 beta and tumour necrosis factor alpha. BARD reduced the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK and Akt, suggesting an antioxidative stress effect. BARD upregulates energy expenditure proteins, judged by the increased activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α, and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 proteins. Overall, BARD induces preventive effect in HFD mice through regulation of mesenteric adipose tissue.

  1. High prevalence of hypertension among an ethnic group in Sudan: implications for prevention.

    Noor, Sufian K; Elsugud, Nada A; Bushara, Sarra O; Elmadhoun, Wadie M; Ahmed, Mohamed H

    2016-04-01

    Objective Hypertension is an emerging non-communicable disease in developing countries. Due to its silent nature and serious complications, active screening is essential in order to prevent complications. For instance, premature mortality from cardiovascular diseases could be prevented by the effective control of hypertension. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed hypertension among Nuba ethnic group living in Atbara city, north Sudan and to identify the associated risk factors. Subject and methods All consenting 500 adults from Nuba tribe who live in El Wihda District, Atbara were included. Blood pressure (BP) and body mass index were measured. Standard interviewing procedures were used to record medical history, socio-demographic data, and lifestyle characteristics. Results Among the 500 participants, females were 364 (72.8%) and males were 136 (27.2%). The overall prevalence of undiagnosed hypertension was 49.4% (30.8% stage 1 hypertension and 18.6% stage 2 hypertension). In addition, 41% of the population was having prehypertension. The significant risk factors for high BP were: male sex, age above 45 years, overweight, illiteracy, and alcohol consumption. Conclusion Undiagnosed high BP is very common among Nuba ethnic group; therefore, active screening and early management are recommended to prevent complications. PMID:26738696

  2. High temperature corrosion during waste incineration : characterisation, causes and prevention of chlorine-induced corrosion

    Viklund, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Waste-fired boilers suffer severely from corrosion of critical components such as superheater tubes. In this work the high temperature corrosion of candidate superheater alloys have been investigated by detailed laboratory studies and controlled field exposures in full-scale boilers. In a laboratory study the detrimental effect of gaseous hydrochloric acid (HCl) on three  different ground surface and preoxidised austenitic stainless steels was investigated. Exposures were conducted in an envi...

  3. Prevention and repair of ''end grain corrosion'' of Type 347 stainless steel in hot nitric acid using laser surface remelting

    Operational experience in the original nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield in the United Kingdom showed that in very corrosive situations, 347 stainless steel could suffer from preferential attack on tubes, plates and forgings in a direction parallel to the hot working direction. This became known as ''end grain'' corrosion. The key reason that ''end grain'' attack occurs is believed to be due to regions of impurity segregation associated with stringer inclusions of Mn 5 elongated in the rolling direction during the rolling operation. In hot nitric acid environments the Mn5 stringers dissolve quickly and the impurity regions are also susceptible to attack. Investigations are reported into the effectiveness of laser surface remelting as a means of refining and homogenising the microstructure and leading to the uniform redistribution of impurities. Niobium stabilized 347 stainless steel was used in the experiments. The results show that laser surface remelting techniques are a feasible means for the repair or prevention of ''end grain'' attack. Laser surface remelting of the as-formed 347 stainless steel plate surfaces is not recommended, however, as it leads to a reduced corrosion resistance level for these areas. (13 figures, 2 tables, 12 references. (UK)

  4. Protocatechuic Acid Prevents oxLDL-Induced Apoptosis by Activating JNK/Nrf2 Survival Signals in Macrophages.

    Varì, Rosaria; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; Santangelo, Carmela; Filesi, Carmelina; Galvano, Fabio; D'Archivio, Massimo; Masella, Roberta; Giovannini, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Protocatechuic acid (PCA), one of the main metabolites of complex polyphenols, exerts numerous biological activities including antiapoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and antiatherosclerotic effects. Oxidised LDL have atherogenic properties by damaging arterial wall cells and inducing p53-dependent apoptosis in macrophages. This study was aimed at defining the molecular mechanism responsible for the protective effects of PCA against oxidative and proapoptotic damage exerted by oxLDL in J774 A.1 macrophages. We found that the presence of PCA in cells treated with oxLDL completely inhibited the p53-dependent apoptosis induced by oxLDL. PCA decreased oxLDL-induced ROS overproduction and in particular prevented the early increase of ROS. This decrease seemed to be the main signal responsible for maintaining the intracellular redox homeostasis hindering the activation of p53 induced by ROS, p38MAPK, and PKCδ. Consequently the overexpression of the proapoptotic p53-target genes such as p66Shc protein did not occur. Finally, we demonstrated that PCA induced the activation of JNK, which, in turn, determined the increase of nuclear Nrf2, leading to inhibition of the early ROS overproduction. We concluded that the antiapoptotic mechanism of PCA was most likely related to the activation of the JNK-mediated survival signals that strengthen the cellular antioxidant defences rather than to the PCA antioxidant power. PMID:26180584

  5. Protocatechuic Acid Prevents oxLDL-Induced Apoptosis by Activating JNK/Nrf2 Survival Signals in Macrophages

    Rosaria Varì

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Protocatechuic acid (PCA, one of the main metabolites of complex polyphenols, exerts numerous biological activities including antiapoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and antiatherosclerotic effects. Oxidised LDL have atherogenic properties by damaging arterial wall cells and inducing p53-dependent apoptosis in macrophages. This study was aimed at defining the molecular mechanism responsible for the protective effects of PCA against oxidative and proapoptotic damage exerted by oxLDL in J774 A.1 macrophages. We found that the presence of PCA in cells treated with oxLDL completely inhibited the p53-dependent apoptosis induced by oxLDL. PCA decreased oxLDL-induced ROS overproduction and in particular prevented the early increase of ROS. This decrease seemed to be the main signal responsible for maintaining the intracellular redox homeostasis hindering the activation of p53 induced by ROS, p38MAPK, and PKCδ. Consequently the overexpression of the proapoptotic p53-target genes such as p66Shc protein did not occur. Finally, we demonstrated that PCA induced the activation of JNK, which, in turn, determined the increase of nuclear Nrf2, leading to inhibition of the early ROS overproduction. We concluded that the antiapoptotic mechanism of PCA was most likely related to the activation of the JNK-mediated survival signals that strengthen the cellular antioxidant defences rather than to the PCA antioxidant power.

  6. The excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist MK-801 prevents the hypersensitivity induced by spinal cord ischemia in the rat

    Protection by the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 against transient spinal cord ischemia-induced hypersensitivity was studied in rats. The spinal ischemia was initiated by vascular occlusion resulting from the interaction between the photosensitizing dye Erythrosin B and an argon laser beam. The hypersensitivity, termed allodynia, where the animals reacted by vocalization to nonnoxious mechanical stimuli in the flank area, was consistently observed during several days after induction of the ischemia. Pretreatment with MK-801 (0.1-0.5 mg/kg, iv) 10 min before laser irradiation dose dependently prevented the occurrence of allodynia. The neuroprotective effect of MK-801 was not reduced by maintaining normal body temperature during and after irradiation. There was a significant negative correlation between the delay in the administration of MK-801 after irradiation and the protective effect of the drug. Histological examination revealed slight morphological damage in the spinal cord in 38% of control rats after 1 min of laser irradiation without pretreatment with MK-801. No morphological abnormalities were observed in rats after pretreatment with MK-801 (0.5 mg/kg). The present results provide further evidence for the involvement of excitatory amino acids, through activation of the NMDA receptor, in the development of dysfunction following ischemic trauma to the spinal cord

  7. Current Review of Genetically Modified Lactic Acid Bacteria for the Prevention and Treatment of Colitis Using Murine Models.

    de Moreno de LeBlanc, Alejandra; Del Carmen, Silvina; Chatel, Jean-Marc; Miyoshi, Anderson; Azevedo, Vasco; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; LeBlanc, Jean Guy

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) are disorders of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by recurrent inflammation that requires lifelong treatments. Probiotic microorganisms appear as an alternative for these patients; however, probiotic characteristics are strain dependent and each probiotic needs to be tested to understand the underlining mechanisms involved in their beneficial properties. Genetic modification of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was also described as a tool for new IBD treatments. The first part of this review shows different genetically modified LAB (GM-LAB) described for IBD treatment since 2000. Then, the two principally studied strategies are discussed (i) GM-LAB producing antioxidant enzymes and (ii) GM-LAB producing the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Different delivery systems, including protein delivery and DNA delivery, will also be discussed. Studies show the efficacy of GM-LAB (using different expression systems) for the prevention and treatment of IBD, highlighting the importance of the bacterial strain selection (with anti-inflammatory innate properties) as a promising alternative. These microorganisms could be used in the near future for the development of therapeutic products with anti-inflammatory properties that can improve the quality of life of IBD patients. PMID:26064086

  8. Treating High-grade Lesions to Prevent Anal Cancer in HIV-infected People

    This study, called the ANCHOR trial, will investigate whether screening and prevention methods similar to those used to prevent cervical cancer can help prevent anal cancer in HIV-infected men and women.

  9. High Physiological Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Affects Muscle Fatty Acid Composition and Glucose and Insulin Homeostasis in Obese Adolescents

    Frida Dangardt; Yun Chen; Eva Gronowitz; Jovanna Dahlgren; Peter Friberg; Birgitta Strandvik

    2012-01-01

    Obese adolescents have high concentrations of saturated fatty acids and low omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCUFAs) in plasma phospholipids. We aimed to investigate effects of omega-3 LCPUFA supplementation to obese adolescents on skeletal muscle lipids and glucose and insulin homeostasis. Twenty-five obese adolescents (14–17 years old, 14 females) completed a randomized double-blind crossover study supplying capsules containing either 1.2 g omega-3 LCPUFAs or placebo, for 3 m...

  10. Proanthocyanidins Prevent High Glucose-Induced Eye Malformation by Restoring Pax6 Expression in Chick Embryo

    Rui-Rong Tan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is one of the leading causes of offspring malformations, in which eye malformation is an important disease. It has raised demand for therapy to improve fetal outcomes. In this study, we used chick embryo to establish a GDM model to study the protective effects of proanthocyanidins on eye development. Chick embryos were exposed to high glucose (0.2 mmol/egg on embryo development day (EDD 1. Proanthocyanidins (1 and 10 nmol/egg were injected into the air sac on EDD 0. Results showed that both dosages of proanthocyanidins could prevent the eye malformation and rescue the high glucose-induced oxidative stress significantly, which the similar effects were showed in edaravone. However, proanthocyanidins could not decrease the glucose concentration of embryo eye. Moreover, the key genes regulating eye development, Pax6, was down-regulated by high glucose. Proanthocyanidins could restore the suppressed expression of Pax6. These results indicated proanthocyanidins might be a promising natural agent to prevent high glucose-induced eye malformation by restoring Pax6 expression.

  11. “Cancer – Educate to Prevent” – High-School Teachers, the New Promoters of Cancer Prevention Education Campaigns

    Barros, Ana; Moreira, Luís; Santos, Helena; Ribeiro, Nuno; Carvalho, Luís; Santos-Silva, Filipe

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and thus represents a priority for national public health programs. Prevention has been assumed as the best strategy to reduce cancer burden, however most cancer prevention programs are implemented by healthcare professionals, which constrain range and educational impacts. We developed an innovative approach for cancer prevention education focused on high-school biology teachers, considered privileged mediators in the socialization proce...

  12. Polymorphism and polymerisation of acrylic and methacrylic acid at high pressure

    Oswald, Iain D. H.; Urquhart, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    The polymorphism and polymerisation of two related acids have been investigated under high pressure conditions. Acrylic acid crystallises as a new polymorph at 0.65 GPa whilst methacrylic acid crystallises in a new polymorph at a higher pressure of 1.5 GPa. Both these new polymorphs exhibit similar...

  13. Highly Efficient Procedure for the Synthesis of Fructone Fragrance Using a Novel Carbon based Acid

    Xuezheng Liang; Shao-Qin Lv; Lin-Mei Rong; Sheng-Xian Zhao; Chunqing Li; Baowei Hu; Chenze Qi

    2010-01-01

    The novel carbon based acid has been synthesized via one-step hydrothermal carbonization of furaldehyde and hydroxyethylsulfonic acid. A highly efficient procedure for the synthesis of fructone has been developed using the novel carbon based acid. The results showed that the catalyst possessed high activity for the reaction, giving a yield of over 95%. The advantages of high activity, stability, reusability and low cost for a simple synthesis procedure and wide applicability to various diols ...

  14. Heat-killed Lactobacillus Reuteri GMNL-263 Prevents Epididymal Fat Accumulation and Cardiac Injury in High-Calorie Diet-Fed Rats.

    Liao, Po-Hsiang; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Hsieh, Dennis Jine-Yuan; Yeh, Yu-Lan; Day, Cecilia-Hsuan; Chen, Ya-Hui; Chang, Sheng-Huang; Padma, V Vijaya; Chen, Yi-Hsing; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-01-01

    High-calorie diet-induced obesity leads to cardiomyocyte dysfunction and apoptosis. Impaired regulation of epididymal fat content in obese patients has been known to increase the risk of cardiac injury. In our study, a lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus reuteri GMNL-263, was evaluated for its potential to reduce body weight and body fat ratio and to prevent heart injury in rats with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Lactic acid bacteria supplementation restored the cardiac function and decreased the physiological changes in the heart of the obese rats. In addition, the Fas/Fas-associated protein pathway-induced caspase 3/e Poly polymerase mediated apoptosis in the cardiomyocytes of the obese rats was reversed in the Lr263-treated rats. These results reveal that fed with Lr-263 reduces body fat ratio, inhibits caspase 3-mediated apoptosis and restores cardiac function in obese rats through recovery of ejection fraction and fractional shortening. Our results indicated that the administration of Lr263 lactic acid bacteria can significantly down-regulate body fat and prevent cardiomyocyte injury in obese rats. PMID:27499689

  15. Facile synthesis of highly efficient and recyclable magnetic solid acid from biomass waste

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Tian, Ke; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Han-Qing

    2013-08-01

    In this work, sawdust, a biomass waste, is converted into a magnetic porous carbonaceous (MPC) solid acid catalyst by an integrated fast pyrolysis-sulfonation process. The resultant magnetic solid acid has a porous structure with high surface area of 296.4 m2 g-1, which can be attributed to the catalytic effect of Fe. The catalytic activity and recyclability of the solid acid catalyst are evaluated during three typical acid-catalyzed reactions: esterification, dehydration, and hydrolysis. The favorable catalytic performance in all three reactions is attributed to the acid's high strength with 2.57 mmol g-1 of total acid sites. Moreover, the solid acid can be reused five times without a noticeable decrease in catalytic activity, indicating the stability of the porous carbon (PC)-sulfonic acid group structure. The findings in the present work offer effective alternatives for environmentally friendly utilization of abundant biomass waste.

  16. Novel Polymers with a High Carboxylic Acid Loading

    Thomsen, Anders Daugaard; Malmström, Eva; Hvilsted, Søren

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Click chemistry has been used to prepare a range of novel polymers with pendant carboxylic acid side groups. Four azido carboxylic acids, either mono- or difunctional and aliphatic or aromatic, have been prepared and thoroughly characterized. Extensive model reactions with 1-ethyl-4......-hydroxybenzene, the simplest model for poly(4-hydroxystyrene), and the four azido carboxylic acids have been conucted to establish the proper reaction conditions and provide an analytical frame for the corresponding polymers. Poly(4-hydroxystyrene) moieties in three different polymers—poly (4-hydroxystyrene......), poly(4-hydroxystyrene-co-methyl methacrylate), and poly(4-hydroxy- styrene-b-styrene)-----have been quantitatively transformed into oxypropynes by the use of either Williamson nr Mitsunobu strategies and subsequently reacted with the azido carboxylic acids. Detailed differential scanning calorimetry...

  17. Anti-angiogenic effect of high doses of ascorbic acid

    Ichim Thomas E; Mikirova Nina A; Riordan Neil H

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Pharmaceutical doses of ascorbic acid (AA, vitamin C, or its salts) have been reported to exert anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo. One proposed mechanism involves direct cytotoxicity mediated by accumulation of ascorbic acid radicals and hydrogen peroxide in the extracellular environment of tumor cells. However, therapeutic effects have been reported at concentrations insufficient to induce direct tumor cell death. We hypothesized that AA may exert anti-angiogenic effects. To ...

  18. Preventing High Fat Diet-induced Obesity and Improving Insulin Sensitivity through Neuregulin 4 Gene Transfer.

    Ma, Yongjie; Gao, Mingming; Liu, Dexi

    2016-01-01

    Neuregulin 4 (NRG4), an epidermal growth factor-like signaling molecule, plays an important role in cell-to-cell communication during tissue development. Its function to regulate energy metabolism has recently been reported. This current study was designed to assess the preventive and therapeutic effects of NRG4 overexpression on high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Using the hydrodynamic gene transfer method, we demonstrate that Nrg4 gene transfer in mice suppressed the development of diet-induced obesity, but did not affect pre-existing adiposity and body weight in obese mice. Nrg4 gene transfer curbed HFD-induced hepatic steatosis by inhibiting lipogenesis and PPARγ-mediated lipid storage. Concurrently, overexpression of NRG4 reduced chronic inflammation in both preventive and treatment studies, evidenced by lower mRNA levels of macrophage marker genes including F4/80, Cd68, Cd11b, Cd11c, and macrophage chemokine Mcp1, resulting in improved insulin sensitivity. Collectively, these results demonstrate that overexpression of the Nrg4 gene by hydrodynamic gene delivery prevents HFD-induced weight gain and fatty liver, alleviates obesity-induced chronic inflammation and insulin resistance, and supports the health benefits of NRG4 in managing obesity and obesity-associated metabolic disorders. PMID:27184920

  19. Primary prevention of Down's syndrome

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antenatal screening has the capacity to detect more than 90% of Down's syndrome pregnancies leading to therapeutic abortion. Successes in recent years with such so-called 'secondary' prevention have not been matched with progress in primary prevention. Despite considerable research over many decades the principle cause of the disorder is unknown. Methods: This paper considers three potential primary prevention strategies, (1 avoiding reproduction at advanced maternal age, (2 pre-implantation genetic diagnosis for couples who are at high risk of Down's syndrome, and (3 folic acid supplementation. The principle aetiological hypotheses are also reviewed. Interpretation: A strategy of completing the family before a maternal age of 30 could more than halve the birth prevalence of this disorder. Women with a high a priori risk should have access to pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, which can lead to a reasonably high pregnancy rate with an extremely low risk of a Down's syndrome. The evidence suggesting an aetiological role for defective folate and methyl metabolism is not sufficient to justify an active preventative strategy of folic acid supplementation without performing a large clinical trial. Current supplementation policies designed to prevent neural tube defects may incidentally prevent Down's syndrome, provided a sufficiently high dose of folic acid is used. Further progress in primary prevention is hampered by limited aetiological knowledge and there is an urgent need to refocus research in that direction.

  20. Caffeoylquinic Acids Generated In Vitro in a High-Anthocyanin-Accumulating Sweet potato Cell Line

    Izabela Konczak; Shigenori Okuno; Makoto Yoshimoto; Osamu Yamakawa

    2004-01-01

    Accumulation of phenolic compounds has been monitored in a suspension culture of anthocyanin-accumulating sweet potato cell line grown under the conditions of modified Murashige and Skoog high-anthocyanin production medium (APM) over a period of 24 days. Tissue samples extracted with 15% acetic acid were analysed using HPLC at a detection wavelength of 326 nm. Among others, the following derivatives of caffeoylquinic acids were detected: 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3...

  1. Facile synthesis of highly efficient and recyclable magnetic solid acid from biomass waste

    Wu-Jun Liu; Ke Tian; Hong Jiang; Han-Qing Yu

    2013-01-01

    In this work, sawdust, a biomass waste, is converted into a magnetic porous carbonaceous (MPC) solid acid catalyst by an integrated fast pyrolysis–sulfonation process. The resultant magnetic solid acid has a porous structure with high surface area of 296.4 m2 g−1, which can be attributed to the catalytic effect of Fe. The catalytic activity and recyclability of the solid acid catalyst are evaluated during three typical acid-catalyzed reactions: esterification, dehydration, and hydrolysis. The...

  2. Highly simplified lateral flow-based nucleic acid sample preparation and passive fluid flow control

    Cary, Robert E.

    2015-12-08

    Highly simplified lateral flow chromatographic nucleic acid sample preparation methods, devices, and integrated systems are provided for the efficient concentration of trace samples and the removal of nucleic acid amplification inhibitors. Methods for capturing and reducing inhibitors of nucleic acid amplification reactions, such as humic acid, using polyvinylpyrrolidone treated elements of the lateral flow device are also provided. Further provided are passive fluid control methods and systems for use in lateral flow assays.

  3. Comparing the Efficacy of High and Low Doses of Vitamin A in Prevention of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

    Majid Mahallei; Manizheh Mostafa Gharehbaghi; Leila Majidzadeh; Nazanin Hazhir

    2016-01-01

    Background Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is one of the most common serious squeal of preterm infants. It involves approximately one quarter of infants with birth weight less than 1500 grams and 30% of less than 1000 grams. Vitamin A has been shown to reduce BPD rate. We compared efficacy of low and high doses of vitamin A for prevention of BPD in very low birth weight preterm infants. Materials and Methods In a randomized clinical trial, 120 preterm infants with gestation age 32 weeks or l...

  4. High elastic modulus polymer electrolytes suitable for preventing thermal runaway in lithium batteries

    Mullin, Scott; Panday, Ashoutosh; Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Singh, Mohit; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gomez, Enrique Daniel

    2014-04-22

    A polymer that combines high ionic conductivity with the structural properties required for Li electrode stability is useful as a solid phase electrolyte for high energy density, high cycle life batteries that do not suffer from failures due to side reactions and dendrite growth on the Li electrodes, and other potential applications. The polymer electrolyte includes a linear block copolymer having a conductive linear polymer block with a molecular weight of at least 5000 Daltons, a structural linear polymer block with an elastic modulus in excess of 1.times.10.sup.7 Pa and an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-5 Scm.sup.-1. The electrolyte is made under dry conditions to achieve the noted characteristics. In another aspect, the electrolyte exhibits a conductivity drop when the temperature of electrolyte increases over a threshold temperature, thereby providing a shutoff mechanism for preventing thermal runaway in lithium battery cells.

  5. Preparation of high purification and food grade phosphoric acid from technical grade phosphoric acid by liquid-liquid detraction method

    Pay attention to increasing consumption of high purification and food grade phosphoric acid in various industries and food industries and on in on hand and lack of preparation between production and distribution of this products its purification is so vital. In this article of liquid-liquid extraction method with normal hexane-mixture of ammonia and acetone-diisopropyl alcohol and normal butanol solvents and these determination of distribution coefficient each one with ph-me try titration we can evaluate effectiveness and sufficiency each one. Because of proper coefficient distribution and its local production of normal butanol solvent and low price is the best solvent. To phosphoric acid modifying coefficient distribution for extraction of phosphoric acid we can add a little value sulfuric acid to the mixture and to remove flouride impurity we add a little Na2O. After extraction stage extracted phosphoric acid in the normal strips by evaluating with distilled water and then by passing the carbon active bed and following passes of cationic resine column and concentrated with vacuum distillation. Conclusion of this article is produce of phosphoric acid 85% w/w and food grade from impure phosphoric acid 52% w/w with technical grade

  6. Implementing an Alcohol and Other Drug Use Prevention Program Using University-High School Partnerships: Challenges and Lessons Learned

    Milroy, Jeffrey J.; Orsini, Muhsin Michael; Wyrick, David L.; Fearnow-Kenney, Melodie; Wagoner, Kimberly G.; Caldwell, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Background: School-based alcohol and other drug use prevention remains an important national strategy. Collaborative partnerships between universities and high schools have the potential to enhance prevention programming; however, there are challenges to sustaining such partnerships. Purpose: The purpose of this commentary is to underscore…

  7. Violence Prevention in Schools: A Case Study of the Thurgood Marshall Academy Public Charter High School. Final Report

    Fontaine, Jocelyn; Debus-Sherrill, Sara; Downey, P. Mitchell; Lowry, Samantha S.

    2010-01-01

    This report is based on research conducted by the Urban Institute's Justice Policy Center on the violence prevention activities taking place at the Thurgood Marshall Academy Public Charter High School during the 2008-2009 school year. Based on an assessment of the school's violence prevention approach using qualitative and quantitative data from…

  8. Integrating Life Skills Into a Theory-Based Drug-Use Prevention Program: Effectiveness among Junior High Students in Taiwan

    Huang, Chiu-Mieh; Chien, Li-Yin; Cheng, Chin-Feng; Guo, Jong-Long

    2012-01-01

    Background: Drug use has been noted among students in Taiwan during the past decade and schools have a role in preventing or delaying students' drug use. We developed and evaluated a school-based, drug-use prevention program integrating the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and life skills for junior high school students. Methods: We recruited…

  9. Impact of a School-Based Sexual Abuse Prevention Education Program on the Knowledge and Attitude of High School Girls

    Ogunfowokan, Adesola A.; Fajemilehin, Reuben B.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual abuse has been considered a public health issue because of the various health implications resulting from it. The school nurse has a responsibility in assisting the high school girl to prevent victimization. This study adopted a quasi-experimental design in which a sexual abuse prevention education package was developed and used to educate…

  10. Re-evaluating the Rose approach: comparative benefits of the population and high-risk preventive strategies.

    Cooney, Marie-Therese

    2009-10-01

    Options for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, the greatest global cause of death, include population preventive measures (the Rose approach), or specifically seeking out and managing high-risk cases. However, the likely benefit of a population approach has been recently questioned.

  11. Chebulic acid prevents hepatic fibrosis induced by advanced glycation end-products in LX-2 cell by modulating Nrf2 translocation via ERK pathway.

    Koo, Yun-Chang; Pyo, Min Cheol; Nam, Mi-Hyun; Hong, Chung-Oui; Yang, Sung-Yong; Lee, Kwang-Won

    2016-08-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are formed during normal aging, and at an accelerated rate in metabolic syndrome patients. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can be caused by the AGEs in plasma, while glyceraldehyde-derived AGEs (glycer-AGEs) are significantly higher in the serum of NASH patients. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of chebulic acid, isolated from Terminalia chebula Retz., in the inhibition of glycer-AGEs induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and collagen accumulation using the LX-2 cell line. Chebulic acid significantly inhibited the induction of ROS and accumulation of collagen proteins by glycer-AGEs. ERK phosphorylation and total nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein expression were induced by chebulic acid in a dose-dependent manner. Chebulic acid was also found to induce translocation of Nrf2 into the nucleus, which was attenuated by inhibition of ERK phosphorylation through treatment with PD98059. Following translocation of Nrf2, chebulic acid induced the protein expressions of catalytic subunit of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione synthesis. Collagen accumulation was also significantly reduced by chebulic acid treatment. The observed effects of chebulic acid were all inhibited by PD98059 treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that chebulic acid prevents the glycer-AGEs-induced ROS formation of LX-2 cells and collagen accumulation by ERK-phosphorylation-mediated Nrf2 nuclear translocation, which causes upregulation of antioxidant protein production. PMID:27021876

  12. The first Iranian recommendations on prevention, evaluation and management of high blood pressure.

    Noohi, Feridoun; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Khosravi, Alireza; Andalib, Elham

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the complete report of the first Iranian Recommendations on Prevention, Evaluation and Management of High Blood Pressure. The purpose is to provide an evidence-based approach to the prevention, management and control of hypertension (HTN) by adapting the most internationally known and used guidelines to the local health care status with consideration of the currently available data and based on the locally conducted researches on HTN as well as social and health care requirements. A working group of national and international experts participated in discussions and collaborated in decision-making, writing and reviewing the whole report. Multiple subcommittees worked together to review the recent national and international literature on HTN in different areas. We used the evaluation tool that is called "AGREE" and considered a score of > 60% as a high score. We adapted the Canadian Hypertension Education Program (CHEP), the United Kingdom's National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) and the US-based joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC7). The key topics that are highlighted in this report include: The importance of ambulatory and self-measurement of blood pressure, evaluation of cardiovascular risk in HTN patients, the role of lifestyle modification in the prevention of HTN and its control with more emphasis on salt intake reduction and weight control, introducing pharmacotherapy suitable for uncomplicated HTN or specific situations and the available drugs in Iran, highlighting the importance of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers and calcium channel blockers as the first line therapy in many situations, the non-use of beta blockers as the first time treatment except in specific conditions, treating HTN in women, children, obese and elderly patients, the patient compliance to improve HTN control, practical guidelines to improve

  13. High-temperature dissolution of nickel chromium ferrites by oxalic acid and nitrilotriacetic acid

    A study of the dissolution of a number of spinel-type oxides containing iron(III) ions by oxalic acid and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) is reported. Increasing the chromium content of oxides of general composition Nisub(0.6)Crsub(x)Fesub(2.4-x)O4 (x = 0.3 to 1.5) brought about a marked reduction in dissolution rate, and it is suggested that this arises by a mechanism involving a change from kink-site attack to ledge-site attack as the former become 'blocked' by less reactive chromium(III) ions. The Nisub(0.6)Crsub(0.6)Fesub(1.8)O4 oxide was investigated in more detail. The concentration dependences determined suggest that both oxalic acid and NTA are adsorbed at surface sites prior to dissolution. NTA brings about dissolution simply by 'complexing' attack, but with oxalic acid it was not possible to distinguish directly between complexing and reductive attack. The divalent cation also plays a role, for in the dissolution of a number of ferrites, AFe2O4 (A = Co, Fe, Mn, Ni), in oxalic acid appreciable differences in dissolution rate were found, the order of reactivity being Fe > Mn > Co > Ni. The reasons for this are discussed. (author)

  14. Corrosion of iron in highly acidic hydro-organic solutions

    In acidic water-organic solvents of ethylene glycol (EGOH), propylene glycol (PGOH), methanol (MeOH) and ethanol (EtOH), iron corrosion was studied by monitoring the corrosion potential, the potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance diagrams. In these aqueous glycols and alcoholic solutions containing HCl having concentrations of 0.5 up to 9 M, it has been shown by electrochemical analysis (I-E curves) that dissolution mechanism of iron is similar to that one in pure acidic aqueous solutions if only we take into account the relative amount of water in the medium. Based in our experimental data, water has an important role in the transfer kinetics of protons to the metallic electrode and limits electro dissolution rate of iron. When water quantity is sufficient at the metal surface, the acidity is a governing factor in the evolution of corrosion process

  15. A novel once daily microparticulate dosage form comprising lansoprazole to prevent nocturnal acid breakthrough in the case of gastro-esophageal reflux disease: preparation, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation.

    Alai, Milind; Lin, Wen Jen

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to formulate and evaluate the lansoprazole (LPZ)-loaded microparticles to prevent nocturnal acid breakthrough in the case of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). The microparticulate delivery system was prepared by solvent evaporation method using Eudragit RS100 as a matrix polymer followed by enteric coated with Eudragit S100 and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate HP55 using spray drying method. The enteric coated microparticles were stable in gastric pH condition. In vivo pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies in male Wistar rats demonstrated that enteric coated microparticles sustained release of LPZ and promoted ulcer healing activity. In other words, the microparticulate dosage form provided effective drug concentration for a longer period as compared to conventional extended release dosage form, and showed sufficient anti-acid secretion activity to treat acid related disorders including the enrichment of nocturnal acid breakthrough event based on a once daily administration. PMID:23294453

  16. Efficient isolation of high quality nucleic acids from different tissues of Taxus baccata L.

    Abbasi Kejani, Abolghasem; Hosseini Tafreshi, Sayed Ali; Khayyam Nekouei, Sayed Mojtaba; Mofid, Mohammad Reza

    2010-02-01

    Improved and efficient methods were developed for isolating high quality DNA and RNA from different sources of Iranian Yew (Taxus baccata L.). The methods were based on CTAB extraction buffer added with high levels of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and beta-mercaptoethanol to properly remove polysaccharides and prevent oxidation of phenolics. The pellets obtained by ethanol precipitation were washed only with Chloroform: isoamyl alcohol (24:1). So, we could successfully eliminate the dangerous phenol/chloroform extraction steps from the isolation procedure. Both spectrophotometric (A(260)/A(280) and A(260)/A(230) ratios) and agarose electrophoresis analysis of isolated nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) indicated good results. DNA with the average yield of 100-300 microg/g leaf and stem tissue and total RNA with an average yield of 20-30 microg/g cell culture and 80-100 microg/g leaf and stem tissue of Iranian yew could be obtained. Successful amplification of pam and pds by PCR and RT-PCR, showed the integrity of isolated DNA and RNA, respectively. PMID:19578976

  17. Performance of High Strength POFA Concrete in Acidic Environment

    Mohamed Ismail

    2010-03-01

    disposing palm oil fuel ash, a by-product of palm oil mill since many years ago. The discovery made by researchers of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia last century in revealing the potential of this finely ground waste as a partial cement replacement in normal concrete has stem efforts towards studying the possibility of using it in high strength concrete production. This paper illustrates the durability aspect of high strength concrete produced using POFA of different fineness when exposed to acidic environment. Two POFA concrete mixes with different fineness termed (POFA 45 and POFA 10 at 20% replacement level by weight of cement and an OPC concrete mix functioning as control specimen termed Po was considered in this study. All the specimens were subjected to water curing for 28 days before immersed in the hydrochloric solution having pH 2 for 1800 hours. The progressive deterioration was evaluated through mass changing of the specimens, visual inspection and relative compressive strength determinations. Conclusively, the study found that increase in the POFA fineness enhances the resistance of high strength POFA concrete towards acid attack.

  18. The uptake in the pancreatic islets of nicotimamide, nicotinic acid and tryptophan and their ability to prevent streptozotocin diabetes in mice

    The uptake of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-precursors nicotinamide, nicotinic acid and tryptophan in the pancreatic islets of mice was studied by use of autoradio-graphical methods. The ability of these substances to prevent streptozotocin diabetes was studied in the same species. It was found that only nicotinamide was strongly accumulated in the pancreatic islets and nicotinamide was also the only NAD-precursor which protected against the streptozotocin diabetes. Apparently there is a relationship between the ability of the NAD-precursors to be taken up in the pancreatic islets and their ability to prevent streptozotocin diabetes. (author)

  19. Highly Efficient Procedure for the Synthesis of Fructone Fragrance Using a Novel Carbon based Acid

    Xuezheng Liang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The novel carbon based acid has been synthesized via one-step hydrothermal carbonization of furaldehyde and hydroxyethylsulfonic acid. A highly efficient procedure for the synthesis of fructone has been developed using the novel carbon based acid. The results showed that the catalyst possessed high activity for the reaction, giving a yield of over 95%. The advantages of high activity, stability, reusability and low cost for a simple synthesis procedure and wide applicability to various diols and β-keto esters make this novel carbon based acid one of the best choices for the reaction.

  20. Fatty acid composition of maize germ oil from high-oil hybrids wet-milling processing

    Jovanović Petar Lj.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize germ was obtained by wet-milling laboratory processing of domestic high-oil maize hybrids. After separation, the germ was subjected to extraction of maize oil. Fatty acid composition of maize germ oil was determined by gas chromatography. The results showed very high levels of unsaturated fatty acids and a constant sum of oleic and linoleic acids in oils of different maize hybrids.

  1. Preventing Addiction.

    Moore, Susan Fordney

    The purpose of this paper is to provide the beginning counselor with an overview of prevention concepts. Prevention is a relatively new emphasis in community efforts to stem the rising costs of substance abuse and other high-risk behaviors. The paper discusses agent, host, and environmental prevention models and how they relate to causal theories…

  2. Micellar and sub-micellar ultra-high performance liquid chromatography of hydroxybenzoic acid and phthalic acid positional isomers.

    Fasciano, Jennifer M; Danielson, Neil D

    2016-03-18

    Micellar liquid chromatography (MLC) has been used primarily for the separation of neutral analytes of varying polarities, most commonly phenols and polyaromatic hydrocarbons, but does not seem to have been used to study aromatic hydroxy acids in detail. We have studied the separation of hydroxybenzoic acid mixtures, including monohydroxybenzoic and dihydroxybenzoic acid positional isomers by MLC. Sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) is investigated as the modifying surfactant on a C18 ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) column (100×2.1mm, 1.8μm). The addition of only SDS (no organic solvent) to the mobile phase reduced the influence of hydrophobic interactions while improving the retention times, resolution, and peak shapes, even at concentrations below the critical micellization concentration (CMC). The UHPLC separation of 7 hydroxybenzoic acids, including 6 dihydroxybenzoic acid positional isomers and one trihydroxybenzoic acid, is achieved with high efficiency using 0.1% SDS in 1.84mM sulfuric acid (pH 2.43) mobile phase, in less than 6min with a flow rate of 0.3mLmin(-1), and in less than four min with a flow rate of 0.7mLmin(-1). Six monohydroxybenzoic acid isomers are also effectively separated by MLC, using a 0.5% SDS mobile phase modifier, in less than 20min with a flow rate of 0.3mLmin(-1), and in less than 14min with a flow rate of 0.7mLmin(-1). The 3 phthalic acid isomers could be separated using a similar mobile phase and flow rates in less than 6 and 4min. Solute-micelle equilibrium constants and partition coefficients are calculated for 6 monohydroxybenzoic acids based on a plot of MLC retention factor vs. mobile phase micelle concentration. All aromatic acid isomers studied can be classified as binding solutes in the MLC retention mechanism. Less effective separations are observed with shorter chain surfactants, leading to higher retention times and poor peak shapes. It is concluded that increasing chain length led to more efficient MLC

  3. Preventing performance drops of coal mills due to high moisture content

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Mataji, B.

    2007-01-01

    Coal mills pulverize and dry the coal dust before it is blown into the furnace in coal-fired power plants. The coal mills can only deliver the requested coal flow if certain conditions are fulfilled. These are normally considered as constraints on individual variables. However, combinations of more...... than one variable might cause problems even though these individually variables are in an acceptable region. This paper deals with such a problem. The combination of a high load of the power plant, a large load change and high moisture content in the coal, can force the coal mill into a state where...... coal is accumulated instead of being blown into the furnace. This paper suggests a simple method for preventing the accumulation of the coal in the mill, by limiting the requested coal flow considering the coal moisture content and the temperature outside the mill.  ...

  4. Evaluation of Hanford high level waste vitrification chemistry for an NCAW simulant -- FY 1994: Potential exothermic reactions in the presence of formic acid, glycolic acid, and oxalic acid

    A potential for an uncontrollable exothermic reaction between nitrate and organic salts during preparation of a high level waste melter feed has been identified. In order to examine this potential more closely, the thermal behavior of simulated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) treated with various organic reductants was studied. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements were collected on simulated waste samples and their supernates treated with organics. Organic reductants used were formic acid, glycolic acid, and oxalic acid. For comparison, samples of untreated simulant and untreated simulant with added noble metals were tested. When heated, untreated simulant samples both with and without noble metals showed no exothermic behavior. All of the treated waste simulant samples showed exothermic behavior. Onset temperatures of exothermic reactions were 120 C to 210 C. Many onset temperatures, particularly those for formic acid treated samples, are well below 181 C, the estimated maximum steam coil temperature (considered to be a worst case maximum temperature for chemical process tank contents). The enthalpies of the reactions were -180 x 10-3 J/Kg supernate (-181 J/g) for the oxalic acid treated simulant supernate to -1,150 x 10-3 J/Kg supernate (-1,153 J/g) for the formic acid treated simulant supernate

  5. Prevention of methionine and ammonia-induced coma by intravenous infusion of a branched chain amino acid solution to rats with liver injury.

    Shiota,Tetsuya

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevention of hepatic encephalopathy by the intravenous infusion of a branched chain amino acid (BCAA-enriched solution was investigated in methionine and ammonium acetate-treated rats whose liver was already injured with carbon tetrachloride. A BCAA-enriched solution protected the rats from entering a coma. The brain BCAA contents became higher, and the brain methionine and tyrosine levels and the ratio of glutamine to glutamic acid in the brain diminished after administering the BCAA-enriched solution.

  6. Life at high salt concentrations, intracellular KCl concentrations, and acidic proteomes

    Aharon eOren

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Extremely halophilic microorganisms that accumulate KCl for osmotic balance (the Halobacteriaceae, Salinibacter have a large excess of acidic amino acids in their proteins. This minireview explores the occurrence of acidic proteomes in halophiles of different physiology and phylogenetic affiliation. For fermentative bacteria of the order Halanaerobiales, known to accumulate KCl, an acidic proteome was predicted. However, this is not confirmed by genome analysis. The reported excess of acidic amino acids is due to a high content of Gln and Asn, which yield Glu and Asp upon acid hydrolysis. The closely related Halorhodospira halophila and Halorhodospira halochloris use different strategies to cope with high salt. The first has an acidic proteome and accumulates high KCl concentrations at high salt concentrations; the second does not accumulate KCl and lacks an acidic proteome. Acidic proteomes can be predicted from the genomes of some moderately halophilic aerobes that accumulate organic osmotic solutes (Halomonas elongata, Chromohalobacter salexigens and some marine bacteria. Based on the information on cultured species it is possible to understand the pI profiles predicted from metagenomic data from hypersaline environments.

  7. The kinetics of the solidification of highly supersaturated solutions of palmitic acid in oleic acid: a comparison between two models

    RAMIRO RICO-MARTINEZ

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available The crystallization of fatty acids is very important in industrial applications and biological systems. A comparison between theoretical models and experimental data helps in clarifying mechanistic aspects of these systems. In this contribution, we compare the performance of two models in fitting data from the crystallization of supersaturated solutions of palmitic acid in oleic acid. One of the models was developed by Avrami and the other is based on considering diffusion as limiting (the D-model. The D-model fitted the data better than the Avrami model in all cases. The D-model has a low value of the regression coefficient (r2, lower than 0.9 in only three cases. For these points, the thermodynamic force was smaller. Differences in the parameter n (an index of dimensionality were observed; these differences indicate that clusters were present previous to the crystallization process. Furthermore, there appears to be a difference in the mechanism of crystallization of pure solutions of palmitic acid and solutions with a small fraction of oleic acid. Thus, one is lead to the conclusion that the rate of crystallization of fatty acids at high concentrations is limited by diffusion.

  8. Is the high-risk strategy to prevent cardiovascular disease equitable? A pharmacoepidemiological cohort study

    Wallach-Kildemoes Helle

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Statins are increasingly prescribed to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD in asymptomatic individuals. Yet, it is unknown whether those at higher CVD risk – i.e. individuals in lower socio-economic position (SEP – are adequately reached by this high-risk strategy. We aimed to examine whether the Danish implementation of the strategy to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD by initiating statin (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor therapy in high-risk individuals is equitable across socioeconomic groups. Methods Design: Cohort study. Setting and participants: Applying individual-level nationwide register information on socio-demographics, dispensed prescription drugs and hospital discharges, all Danish citizens aged 20+ without previous register-markers of CVD, diabetes or statin therapy were followed during 2002–2006 for first occurrence of myocardial infarction (MI and a dispensed statin prescription (N = 3.3 mill. Main outcome measures: Stratified by gender, 5-year age-groups and socioeconomic position (SEP, incidence of MI was applied as a proxy for statin need. Need-standardized statin incidence rates were calculated, applying MI incidence rate ratios (IRR as need-weights to adjust for unequal needs across SEP.Horizontal equity in initiating statin therapy was tested by means of Poisson regression analysis. Applying the need-standardized statin parameters and the lowest SEP-group as reference, a need-standardized statin IRR > 1 translates into horizontal inequity favouring the higher SEP-groups. Results MI incidence decreased with increasing SEP without a parallel trend in incidence of statin therapy. According to the regression analyses, the need-standardized statin incidence increased in men aged 40–64 by 17%, IRR 1.17 (95% CI: 1.14-1.19 with each increase in income quintile. In women the proportion was 23%, IRR 1.23 (1.16-1.29. An analogous pattern was seen applying education as SEP indicator and among subjects

  9. Astragaloside IV prevents high glucose-induced podocyte apoptosis via downregulation of TRPC6.

    Yao, Xing-Mei; Liu, Yu-Jun; Wang, Yun-Man; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Bing-Bing; Liang, Yong-Ping; Yao, Wei-Guo; Yu, Hui; Wang, Nian-Song; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Peng, Wen

    2016-06-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most important causes of end‑stage renal disease. Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) is a saponin isolated from Astragalus membranaceus, which possesses various pharmacological activities. AS‑IV prevents podocyte apoptosis and ameliorates renal injury in DN; however, few studies have focused on its effects on ion channels. The transient receptor potential channel 6 (TRPC6) is an important Ca2+‑permeable ion channel in podocytes, which is involved in high glucose (HG)-induced podocyte apoptosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether AS‑IV prevented HG‑induced podocyte apoptosis via TRPC6. Cultured podocytes were pre‑treated with 10, 20 or 40 µM AS‑IV for 1 h prior to HG exposure for 24 h. Apoptosis, cell viability, expression of TRPC6, nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT2) and B‑cell lymphoma 2‑associated X protein (Bax), as well as the intracellular Ca2+ concentration were subsequently analyzed. The results indicated that HG induced podocyte apoptosis and upregulation of TRPC6, and increased intracellular Ca2+. Furthermore, enhanced NFAT2 and Bax expression was detected. Conversely, AS‑IV protected HG‑induced podocyte apoptosis, downregulated TRPC6 expression and suppressed intracellular Ca2+ in HG-stimulated podocytes. AS‑IV also suppressed NFAT2 and Bax expression. These results suggest that AS‑IV may prevent HG-induced podocyte apoptosis via downregulation of TRPC6, which is possibly mediated via the calcineurin/NFAT signaling pathway. PMID:27109610

  10. Clearance of fear memory from the hippocampus through neurogenesis by omega-3 fatty acids: a novel preventive strategy for posttraumatic stress disorder?

    Matsuoka Yutaka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Not only has accidental injury been shown to account for a significant health burden on all populations, regardless of age, sex and geographic region, but patients with accidental injury frequently present with the psychiatric condition of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Prevention of accident-related PTSD thus represents a potentially important goal. Physicians in the field of psychosomatic medicine and critical care medicine have the opportunity to see injured patients in the immediate aftermath of an accident. This article first briefly reviews the prevalence and associated factors of accident-related PTSD, then focuses on a conceptual model of fear memory and proposes a new, rationally hypothesized translational preventive intervention for PTSD through promoting hippocampal neurogenesis by omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. The results of an open-label pilot trial of injured patients admitted to the intensive care unit suggest that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation immediately after accidental injury can reduce subsequent PTSD symptoms.

  11. Glycochenodeoxycholic acid inhibits calcium phosphate precipitation in vitro by preventing the transformation of amorphous calcium phosphate to calcium hydroxyapatite.

    Qiu, S M; Wen, G.; Hirakawa, N; Soloway, R D; Hong, N K; Crowther, R S

    1991-01-01

    Calcium hydroxyapatite can be a significant component of black pigment gallstones. Diverse molecules that bind calcium phosphate inhibit hydroxyapatite precipitation. Because glycine-conjugated bile acids, but not their taurine counterparts, bind calcium phosphate, we studied whether glycochenodeoxycholic acid inhibits calcium hydroxyapatite formation. Glycochenodeoxycholic acid (2 mM) totally inhibited transformation of amorphous calcium phosphate microprecipitates to macroscopic crystalline...

  12. Fatty acid transfer in the food web of a coastal Mediterranean lagoon: Evidence for high arachidonic acid retention in fish

    Koussoroplis, Apostolos-Manuel; Bec, Alexandre; Perga, Marie-Elodie; Koutrakis, Emmanuil; Bourdier, Gilles; Desvilettes, Christian

    2011-02-01

    The transfer of fatty acids (FAs) in the food web of a Mediterranean lagoon was studied using FA compositional patterns across several trophic levels. The structure of the food web was inferred from C and N stable isotopes values and an isotope mixing model was used in order to estimate the relative contribution of the different potential food sources to the biomass of consumers. Bidimensional plots of FA composition of food web components against their δ 15N values indicated a general trend of increasing proportions of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) with increasing trophic levels while the proportions of saturated fatty acids (SAFAs) and 18-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) decreased. Using the relative contributions of food sources to consumers and their FA compositions, a model was built in order to estimate the PUFA composition of consumer mixed diets which was compared to consumer PUFA profiles. The latter allowed the identification of the PUFAs which were mostly enriched/retained in consumer lipids. There was a surprisingly high retention of arachidonic acid (ARA), a trend which challenges the idea of low ARA needs in marine fish and suggests the important physiological role of this essential FA for fish in estuarine environments.

  13. Association analysis of retinoic acid receptor beta (RARβ) gene with high myopia in Chinese subjects

    Ding, Yang; Chen, Xiaoyan; Yan, Dongsheng; Xue, Anquan; Lu, Fan; Qu, Jia; Zhou, Xiangtian

    2010-01-01

    Purpose High myopia or pathological myopia is a common refractive error. Individuals with high myopia are subject to increased risk of serious eye complications. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated the role for heritability in ocular growth and in the development of high myopia. Retinoic acid and retinoic acid receptors play important roles in ocular development and in experimentally induced myopia. The purpose of this study was to determine if high myopia is associated with single nucleot...

  14. PPAR/RXR Regulation of Fatty Acid Metabolism and Fatty Acid -Hydroxylase (CYP4 Isozymes: Implications for Prevention of Lipotoxicity in Fatty Liver Disease

    James P. Hardwick

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty liver disease is a common lipid metabolism disorder influenced by the combination of individual genetic makeup, drug exposure, and life-style choices that are frequently associated with metabolic syndrome, which encompasses obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and insulin resistant diabetes. Common to obesity related dyslipidemia is the excessive storage of hepatic fatty acids (steatosis, due to a decrease in mitochondria -oxidation with an increase in both peroxisomal -oxidation, and microsomal -oxidation of fatty acids through peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs. How steatosis increases PPAR activated gene expression of fatty acid transport proteins, peroxisomal and mitochondrial fatty acid -oxidation and -oxidation of fatty acids genes regardless of whether dietary fatty acids are polyunsaturated (PUFA, monounsaturated (MUFA, or saturated (SFA may be determined by the interplay of PPARs and HNF4 with the fatty acid transport proteins L-FABP and ACBP. In hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis, the -oxidation cytochrome P450 CYP4A gene expression is increased even with reduced hepatic levels of PPAR. Although numerous studies have suggested the role ethanol-inducible CYP2E1 in contributing to increased oxidative stress, Cyp2e1-null mice still develop steatohepatitis with a dramatic increase in CYP4A gene expression. This strongly implies that CYP4A fatty acid -hydroxylase P450s may play an important role in the development of steatohepatitis. In this review and tutorial, we briefly describe how fatty acids are partitioned by fatty acid transport proteins to either anabolic or catabolic pathways regulated by PPARs, and we explore how medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA CYP4A and long-chain fatty acid (LCFA CYP4F -hydroxylase genes are regulated in fatty liver. We finally propose a hypothesis that increased CYP4A expression with a decrease in CYP4F genes may promote the progression of steatosis to

  15. Preventive effects of amino-acid-rich elemental diet Elental® on chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis in patients with colorectal cancer: a prospective pilot study

    Ogata, Yutaka; Ishibashi, Nobuya; Yamaguchi, Keizou; UCHIDA, SHINJI; Kamei, Hideki; Nakayama, Goichi; Hirakawa, Hiroaki; Tanigawa, Masahiko; Akagi, Yoshito

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The prospective pilot study was designed to evaluate the preventive effects of amino-acid-rich elemental diet (ED), Elental®, on chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis in patients with colorectal cancer. The factors influencing its efficacy are also investigated. Methods A total of 22 eligible patients with colorectal cancer experiencing grade 1–3 oral mucositis during treatment with fluorouracil-based chemotherapy entered the current study. Their average age was 67 years. There were 10 ...

  16. An Evaluation of a Teat Dip with Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonic Acid in Preventing Bovine Mammary Gland Infection from Experimental Exposure to Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus

    Barnum, D A; Johnson, R. E.; Brooks, B W

    1982-01-01

    The effectiveness of a teat dip with dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid (1.94%) for the prevention of intramammary infections was determined in cows experimentally challenged with Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus. The infection rates with Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus were 62.5% and 75% in undipped quarters, 12.5% and 21.5% in dipped quarters with a reduction rate of 80% and 71% respectively. The significance of some findings in relation to mastitis control a...

  17. Producing biodiesel from yellow greases with high free fatty acids

    Amrani Mahacine

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a diesel replacement fuel that is manufactured from vegetable oils recycled cooking greases and oils or animal fats. Biodiesel offers many advantages because it is renewable, nontoxic, biodegradable, and suitable for sensitive environments. It can also be used in most diesel equipments with no or only minor modifications. These yellow greases contain great quantities of free fatty acids which form soaps in the presence of alkaline catalyst. Pretreatments of the raw material with acid catalysts are necessary to avoid the soap formation. The transesterification of yellow greases is supplemented in the presence of an alkaline catalyst. The greatest production of biodiesel corresponds to molar flows of 4.985 kmol.hr-1 of methyl oleate, and 4.658 kmol.hr-1 of methyl butyrate.

  18. Effects of Community Based Educational Prevention Program of Drug Abuse in Reduction of High Risk Behavior

    H Aranpour

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Overcoming social problems requires a participatory approach. This study was performed in order to determine the effect of community based educational prevention program of drug abuse in reduction of high risk behavior. Methods: This study was a community based participatory research. According to planned approach to community health model, "the health companion group" was established with participation of public representatives of villages, researchers, and managers of health sectors. Need assessment and priority setting of health problems was done. Drug abuse was selected as the topmost priority of health problems. By interviewing 10 year olds and older members of households, the questionnaires were completed. By conducting workshops, distributing educational pamphlets and face to face training for six months, the educational program was carried out. After this period, the study population was interviewed again. Data was analyzed by SPSS software, X2, and T tests. Results: The mean score of drug abuse related high risk behavior was 26.8 +/- 2.05 before educational program and 25.2 ±2.3 after the program. The mean score of psychological health was 26.2±5.8 before educational program and 26.4±5.7 after the program. The rate of negative drug abusing related behavior decreased and positive behavior increased after the educational program. Conclusion: The community based participatory research with participation of the public can be a proper pattern to prevent drug abuse and related high risk behaviors and as a result reduce costs and complications of this problem.

  19. Tailoring of catalytic routes towards high performance polylactic acid polymers.

    Dusselier, Michiel

    2013-01-01

    Renewable polymers offer a promising alternative for certain fossil fuel derived plastics and harness potential as well in specialty applications. One of the top 3 polymers in this respect is polylactic acid (PLA). Next to its renewable origin Â# sugars, abundantly encountered in food crops but also in non-edible cellulose Â# PLA is biocompatible and biodegradable. These unique features render this polymer suitable for many custom applications, for instance in medicine (prostheses, drug deliv...

  20. Preventing Violence Among High-Risk Youth and Communities with Economic, Policy, and Structural Strategies.

    Massetti, Greta M; David-Ferdon, Corinne

    2016-02-12

    Youth violence is preventable, and the reduction of health disparities is possible with evidence-based approaches. Achieving community-wide reductions in youth violence and health disparities has been limited in part because of the lack of prevention strategies to address community risk factors. CDC-supported research has resulted in three promising community-level approaches: Business Improvement Districts (BIDs) in Los Angeles, California; alcohol policy to reduce youth access in Richmond, Virginia; and the Safe Streets program in Baltimore, Maryland. Evaluation findings indicated that BIDs in Los Angeles were associated with a 12% reduction in robberies (one type of violent crime) and an 8% reduction in violent crime overall. In Richmond's alcohol policy program, investigators found that the monthly average of ambulance pickups for violent injuries among youth aged 15-24 years had a significantly greater decrease in the intervention (19.6 to 0 per 1,000) than comparison communities (7.4 to 3.3 per 1,000). Investigators of Safe Streets found that some intervention communities experienced reductions in homicide and/or nonfatal shootings, but results were not consistent across communities. Communitywide rates of violence can be changed in communities with disproportionately high rates of youth violence associated with entrenched health disparities and socioeconomic disadvantage. Community-level strategies are a critical part of comprehensive approaches necessary to achieve broad reductions in violence and health disparities. PMID:26916848

  1. Longitudinal Impact of Two Universal Preventive Interventions in First Grade on Educational Outcomes in High School.

    Bradshaw, Catherine P; Zmuda, Jessika H; Kellam, Sheppard G; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2009-11-01

    This study examined the longitudinal effects of 2 first-grade universal preventive interventions on academic outcomes (e.g., achievement, special education service use, graduation, postsecondary education) through age 19 in a sample of 678 urban, primarily African American children. The classroom-centered intervention combined the Good Behavior Game (H. H. Barrish, Saunders, & Wolfe, 1969) with an enhanced academic curriculum, whereas a second intervention, the Family-School Partnership, focused on promoting parental involvement in educational activities and bolstering parents' behavior management strategies. Both programs aimed to address the proximal targets of aggressive behavior and poor academic achievement. Although the effects varied by gender, the classroom-centered intervention was associated with higher scores on standardized achievement tests, greater odds of high school graduation and college attendance, and reduced odds of special education service use. The intervention effects of the Family-School Partnership were in the expected direction; however, only 1 effect reached statistical significance. The findings of this randomized controlled trial illustrate the long-term educational impact of preventive interventions in early elementary school. PMID:23766545

  2. Postural muscle atrophy prevention and recovery and bone remodelling through high frequency proprioception for astronauts

    Riva, Dario; Rossitto, Franco; Battocchio, Luciano

    2009-09-01

    The difficulty in applying active exercises during space flights increases the importance of passive countermeasures, but coupling load and instability remains indispensable for generating high frequency (HF) proprioceptive flows and preventing muscle atrophy and osteoporosis. The present study, in microgravity conditions during a parabolic flight, verified whether an electronic system, composed of a rocking board, a postural reader and a bungee-cord loading apparatus creates HF postural instability comparable to that reachable on the Earth. Tracking the subject, in single stance, to real-time visual signals is necessary to obtain HF instability situations. The bungee-cord loading apparatus allowed the subject to manage the 81.5% body weight load (100% could easily be exceeded). A preliminary training programme schedule on the Earth and in space is suggested. Comparison with a pathological muscle atrophy is presented. The possibility of generating HF proprioceptive flows could complement current countermeasures for the prevention and recovery of muscle atrophy and osteoporosis in terrestrial and space environments. These exercises combine massive activation of spindles and joint receptors, applying simultaneously HF variations of pressure to different areas of the sole of the foot. This class of exercises could improve the effectiveness of current countermeasures, reducing working time and fatigue.

  3. Exploring the high-mass components of humic acid by laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry.

    Chilom, Gabriela; Chilom, Ovidiu; Rice, James A

    2008-05-01

    Leonardite and Elliot soil humic acids have been analyzed by laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (LDI MS) in the m/z 4000-200,000 range. Positive ion mass spectra for each humic acid obtained under optimum conditions showed a broad high-mass distribution between m/z 20,000 and 80,000. The dependence of the mass distribution on instrumental parameters and solution conditions was used to investigate the nature of the high-mass peaks from humic acid spectra. Our data suggests that macromolecular ions and humic acid aggregates have the same probability of occurrence while cluster ion formation has a low probability of occurrence. PMID:18421699

  4. Detoxification of acidic biorefinery waste liquor for production of high value amino acid.

    Christopher, Meera; Anusree, Murali; Mathew, Anil K; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan; Sukumaran, Rajeev Kumar; Pandey, Ashok

    2016-08-01

    The current study evaluates the detoxification of acid pretreatment liquor (APL) using adsorbent (ADS 400 & ADS 800) or ion-exchange (A-27MP & A-72MP) resins and its potential for amino acid production. The APL is generated as a by-product from the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass and is rich monomeric sugars as well as sugar degradation products (fermentation inhibitors) such as furfural and hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF). Of the four resins compared, ADS 800 removed approximately 85% and 60% of furfural and HMF, respectively. ADS 800 could be reused for up to six cycles after regeneration without losing its adsorption properties. The study was further extended by assessing the fermentability of detoxified APL for l-lysine production using wild and mutant strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum. The detoxified APL was superior to APL for l-lysine production. PMID:26996259

  5. Effects of Mycophenolic Acid on High Glucose-induced Expression of TGF-β and CTGF in Mesangial Cells

    L(U) Yongman; CHEN Junying; SHAO Jufang

    2006-01-01

    The effects of mycophenolic acid (MPA) on high glucose-induced expression of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in mesangial cells (MC) were investigated. Rat MC were cultured in the presence of different concentrations of MPA (1.0 and 10.0 μmol/L) or MPA plus high glucose for 72 h. The expression of TGF-β and CTGF was detected by Western blot. The results showed that high glucose could induce the expression of TGF-β and CTGF in MC, but MPA could inhibit this effects. MPA did not influence the expression of TGF-β and CTGF in normal glucose. It was concluded that MPA might prevent the progression of diabetic nephropathy by inhibiting the expression of TGF-β and CTGF in MC.

  6. Physiological characterization of the high malic acid-producing Aspergillus oryzae strain 2103a-68

    Knuf, Christoph; Nookaew, Intawat; Remmers, Ilse;

    2014-01-01

    Malic acid is a C4 dicarboxylic acid that is currently mainly used in the food and beverages industry as an acidulant. Because of the versatility of the group of C4 dicarboxylic acids, the chemical industry has a growing interest in this chemical compound. As malic acid will be considered as a bulk...... chemical, microbial production requires organisms that sustain high rates, yields, and titers. Aspergillus oryzae is mainly known as an industrial enzyme producer, but it was also shown that it has a very competitive natural production capacity for malic acid. Recently, an engineered A. oryzae strain, 2103......a-68, was presented which overexpressed pyruvate carboxylase, malate dehydrogenase, and a malic acid transporter. In this work, we report a detailed characterization of this strain including detailed rates and yields under malic acid production conditions. Furthermore, transcript levels of the genes...

  7. Chemical derivatives of docosahexaenoic acid prevent glucose intolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet

    Rossmeisl, Martin; Jílková, Zuzana; Jeleník, Tomáš; Hensler, Michal; Flachs, Pavel; Mohamed-Ali, V.; Bryhn, M.; Kopecký, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 31, Suppl.1 (2007), S76-S76. ISSN 0307-0565. [European congress on obesity /15./. 22.04.2007-25.04.2007, Budapest] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : obesity * insulin resistance * DHA * C57BL/6N mice Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  8. High-level production of C-11-carboxyl-labeled amino acids

    Carbon-11-labeled amino acids have significant potential as agents for positron tomographic functional imaging. We have developed a rapid, high-temperature, high-pressure modification of the Buecherer--Strecker amino acid synthesis and found it to be quite general for the production of C-11-carboxyl-labeled neutral amino acids. Production of C-11-carboxyl-labeled DL-tryptophan requires certain modifications in the procedure. Twelve different amino acids have been produced to date by this technique. Synthesis and chromatographic purification require approximately 40 min, and C-11-carboxyl-labeled amino acids have been produced in yields of up to 425 mCi. Two C-11-carboxyl-labeled amino acids are being investigated clinically for tumor scanning and two others for pancreatic imaging. Over 120 batches of the various agents have been produced for clinical use over a three-year period

  9. A new and direct synthesis of lactic acid from acrylic acid using an excimer laser with high intensity

    A new and direct method of XeF (351 nm) laser irradiation of acrylic acid 1 solution containing H2O2 are described for the chemical synthesis of lactic acid 2. Increase in the yield strongly depended on the irradiation dose and H2O2 feeding rate, and the formation of 2 showed the quantum yield, 0.3, and the selectivity, 50%, at the maximum yield. Product analysis indicated that OH radicals formed with high density by the laser-photolysis of H2O2 are equally bonded to the carbons of α- and β-positions of 1 to produce 2 and 3-hydroxy propanoic acid with ratio of 1 to 1. (author)

  10. Lack of Thromboxane Synthase Prevents Hypertension and Fetal Growth Restriction after High Salt Treatment during Pregnancy.

    Chen-Hsueh Pai

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is a potentially fatal pregnancy-related hypertensive disorder characterized by poor placenta development that can cause fetal growth restriction. PE-associated pathologies, including thrombosis, hypertension, and impaired placental development, may result from imbalances between thromboxane A2 (TXA2 and prostacyclin. Low-dose aspirin, which selectively inhibits TXA2 production, is used to prevent high-risk PE. However, the role of TXA2 in aspirin-mediated protective effects in women with PE is not understood fully. In this study, we examined the role of prostanoids in PE using human samples and an induced PE mouse model. We demonstrated that the administration of salted drinking water (2.7% NaCl to wild-type mice resulted in elevated placental TXA2 synthase (TXAS and plasma TXA2, but not prostacyclin, levels, which was also found in our clinical PE placenta samples. The high salt-treated wild-type pregnant mice had shown unchanged maternal body weight, hypertension (MAP increase 15 mmHg, and decreased pup weight (~50% and size (~24%, but these adverse effects were ameliorated in TXAS knockout (KO mice. Moreover, increased expression of interleukin-1β and downstream phosphorylated-p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase were concordant with apoptosis induction in the placentas of salt water-treated wild-type mice. These alterations were not observed in TXAS KO mice. Together, our data suggest that TXA2 depletion has anti-PE effects due to the prevention of hypertension and placental damage through downregulation of the interleukin-1β pathway.

  11. Effect of low temperature on highly unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in activated sludge.

    He, Su; Ding, Li-Li; Xu, Ke; Geng, Jin-Ju; Ren, Hong-Qiang

    2016-07-01

    Low temperature is a limiting factor for the microbial activity of activated sludge for sewage treatment plant in winter. Highly unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) biosynthesis, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) constituents and microbial structure in activated sludge at low temperature were investigated. Over 12 gigabases of metagenomic sequence data were generated with the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. The result showed 43.11% of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) in the activated sludge participated in UFA biosynthesis, and γ-Linolenic could be converted to Arachidonic acid at low temperature. The highly UFA biosynthesis in activated sludge was n-6 highly UFA biosynthesis, rather than n-3 highly UFA biosynthesis. The microbial community structures of activated sludge were analyzed by PLFA and high-throughput sequencing (HiSeq) simultaneously. Acidovorax, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium and Polaromonas occupied higher percentage at 5°C, and genetic changes of highly UFA biosynthesis derived from microbial community structures change. PMID:27035483

  12. Uronic acid determination by high performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn fluorescence derivatization.

    Kakita, Hirotaka; Kamishima, Hiroshi; Inouye, Kuniyo

    2006-10-01

    To develop a fluorimetric high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique for uronic acid microanalysis, a saline mobile phase and the postcolumn fluorimetric determination were combined. The detection limits of D-glucuronic, D-galacturonic and D-mannuronic acids were 7.19, 23.88 and 7.08 pmol, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to uronic acid microanalysis in a polysaccharide hydrolysate and a drink. PMID:16956616

  13. Phosphoric acid doped AB-PBI membranes and its applications in high temperature PEMFC

    He, Ronghuan; Qingfeng, Li; Bjerrum, Niels

    2005-01-01

    Poly(2,5-benzimidazole) (ab-PBI) was prepared from 3,4-diaminobenzoic acid via a polymerisation reaction. The obtained polymer exhibits excellent thermal stability in a temperature range ….. The membrane of ab-PBI when doped with phosphoric acid at room temperaturepresents high proton conductivity......C with phosphoric acid doped ab-PBI as the electrolyte under atmospheric pressure at 200°C without humidification....

  14. Screening of soybean germplasm for high inorganic phosphorus and low phytic acid

    S. Abirami, A. Kalamani and T. Kalaimagal

    2014-01-01

    Phytic acid, is the major storage form of phosphorus in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] which comprises 75% of total seed phosphorus. It decreases the availability of some essential elements via bonding between the negatively charged phytic acid and the positively charged elements. Thus, diets high in phytate may lead to nutrient deficiencies. So, identification of lines with low phytic acid is of paramount importance. A germplasm survey was conducted among 250 soybean accessions to identify...

  15. High oleic acid content materials of rapeseed (Brassica napus) produced by radiation breeding

    High oleic acid content rapeseed breeding has great significance, because high oleic acid oil is a healthy and nutritious oil, which is of a long shelflife and also propitious to producing biodiesel fuel. The high oleic acid content breeding materials of rapeseed (B. napus) were obtained by 80-100 kR ~(60)Co gamma ray ionizing radiation treatment of dry seeds and continuous selection. The results showed that the oleic acid contents of M (2), M (3) and M (4) progenies increased by different grades. Moreover, the oleic acid content of M (5) progeny increased greatly. The oleic acid contents were higher than 70% in the most of the plants and the highest one reached 93.5 %. The base G was transited by base A in fad (2) gene at the 270 site of high oleic acid mutation (M(6) 04-855). The location is at the beta folding area and conservative area of this protein. Base mutation at sites 1 044 and 1 062 also led to produce a stop condon. These changes in structure led to loss the function of fad (2). According to molecular mechanism of gene mutation, no matter what transvertion or transition happens, several replications are needed. That is to say several generations are needed. That was also the reason why high oleic acid content mutation occurred in later generations

  16. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for biotechnological production of high-value organic acids and alcohols

    Yu, Chao; Cao, Yujin; Zou, Huibin; Xian, Mo [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao (China). Key Lab. of Biofuels

    2011-02-15

    Confronted with the gradual and inescapable exhaustion of the earth's fossil energy resources, the bio-based process to produce platform chemicals from renewable carbohydrates is attracting growing interest. Escherichia coli has been chosen as a workhouse for the production of many valuable chemicals due to its clear genetic background, convenient to be genetically modified and good growth properties with low nutrient requirements. Rational strain development of E. coli achieved by metabolic engineering strategies has provided new processes for efficiently biotechnological production of various high-value chemical building blocks. Compared to previous reviews, this review focuses on recent advances in metabolic engineering of the industrial model bacteria E. coli that lead to efficient recombinant biocatalysts for the production of high-value organic acids like succinic acid, lactic acid, 3-hydroxypropanoic acid and glucaric acid as well as alcohols like 1,3-propanediol, xylitol, mannitol, and glycerol with the discussion of the future research in this area. Besides, this review also discusses several platform chemicals, including fumaric acid, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, sorbitol, itaconic acid, and 2,5-furan dicarboxylic acid, which have not been produced by E. coli until now. (orig.)

  17. High affinity nucleic acid aptamers for streptavidin incorporated into bi-specific capture ligands

    Tahiri-Alaoui, Abdessamad; Frigotto, Laura; Manville, Nick; Ibrahim, Jamal; Romby, Pascale; James, William

    2002-01-01

    We have isolated 2′-Fluoro-substituted RNA aptamers that bind to streptavidin (SA) with an affinity around 7 ± 1.8 nM, comparable with that of recently described peptide aptamers. Binding to SA was not prevented by prior saturation with biotin, enabling nucleic acid aptamers to form useful ternary complexes. Mutagenesis, secondary structure analysis, ribonuclease footprinting and deletion analysis provided evidence for the essential structural features of SA-binding aptamers. In order to prov...

  18. Mucositis Prevention for Patients Receiving High Dose Chemotherapy and Stem Cell Transplantation : Preventive Strategies - There is Always More to do

    Svanberg, Anncarin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate oral cryotherapy (OC) as prophy-laxis against oral mucositis (OM) in patients given high-dose chemotherapy for stem cell transplantation (SCT). A new mouth rinse device was tested for possible additive effect to OC. For study I-III, 78 patients were randomised to OC or standard oral care (SOC). Papers I and II showed that OC patients had significantly less severe mucositis, pain, opioid use, lower C-reactive protein and less parenteral nutrition treat...

  19. High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy of the Formic Acid Dimer

    Birer, Özgür; Havenith, Martina

    2009-05-01

    The formic acid dimer (HCOOH)2 (FAD), an eight-membered ring with double hydrogen bonds, has been a model complex for physical chemists. The acidic protons of the complex interchange between the oxygens of different units in a concerted tunneling motion. This proton tunneling can be described by a symmetric double-well potential. The double well results in a splitting of each rovibrational level. The magnitude of the splitting depends sensitively on the shape of the potential and the reduced mass along the tunneling path. Experimentally, one can determine the proton transfer tunneling splittings in the ground and vibrationally excited states separately. It is possible to work out the splitting of the energy levels, assign the correct symmetry, and obtain the sum and the difference of the tunneling splitting in the ground and vibrationally excited states independently using isotopically labeled molecules. Conversely, an accurate prediction of tunneling splitting even for this small prototype system still remains a challenge for theoretical chemistry because of the splitting's great sensitivity to the shape and barrier height of the potential surface. The FAD therefore has evolved into a prototype system to study theoretical methods for a description of proton transfer.

  20. Effectiveness of Palivizumab in Preventing RSV Hospitalization in High Risk Children: A Real-World Perspective

    Nusrat Homaira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is one of the major causes globally of childhood respiratory morbidity and hospitalization. Palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody, has been recommended for high risk infants to prevent severe RSV-associated respiratory illness. This recommendation is based on evidence of efficacy when used under clinical trial conditions. However the real-world effectiveness of palivizumab outside of clinical trials among different patient populations is not well established. We performed a systematic review focusing on postlicensure observational studies of the protective effect of palivizumab prophylaxis for reducing RSV-associated hospitalizations in infants and children at high risk of severe infection. We searched studies published in English between 1 January 1999 and August 2013 and identified 420 articles, of which 20 met the inclusion criteria. This review supports the recommended use of palivizumab for reducing RSV-associated hospitalization rates in premature infants born at gestational age < 33 weeks and in children with chronic lung and heart diseases. Data are limited to allow commenting on the protective effect of palivizumab among other high risk children, including those with Down syndrome, cystic fibrosis, and haematological malignancy, indicating further research is warranted in these groups.

  1. Theory and application of rock burst prevention using deep hole high pressure hydraulic fracturing

    Shan-Kun ZHAO; Jun LIU; Xiang-Zhi WEI; Chuan-Hong DING; Yu-Lei LV; Gang-Feng LI

    2013-01-01

    In order to analyze the mechanism of deep hole high pressure hydraulic fracturing,nonlinear dynamic theory,damage mechanics,elastic-plastic mechanics are used,and the law of crack propagation and stress transfer under two deep hole hydraulic fracturing in tectonic stress areas is studied using seepage-stress coupling models with RFPA simulation software.In addition,the effects of rock burst control are tested using multiple methods,either in the stress field or in the energy field.The research findings show that with two deep holes hydraulic fracturing in tectonic stress areas,the direction of the main crack propagation under shear-tensile stress is parallel to the greatest principal stress direction.High-pressure hydraulic fracturing water seepage can result in the destruction of the coal structure,while also weakening the physical and mechanical properties of coal and rock.Therefore the impact of high stress concentration in hazardous areas will level off,which has an effect on rock burst prevention and control in the region.

  2. N-acetylcysteine and/or ascorbic acid versus placebo to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy in patients undergoing elective cardiac catheterization: The NAPCIN trial; A single-center, prospective, randomized trial

    Mohammed Habib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several protective measures have been described to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN. This study is aimed to evaluate the effect of a high dose of N-acetylcysteine (NAC plus hydration, a low dose of NAC plus ascorbic acid and hydration or hydration alone on the prevention of CIN in high-risk patients undergoing elective coronary artery intervention. We conducted a randomized, prospective, placebo-controlled trial of 105 high-risk patients undergoing elective cardiac catheterization. The patients were divided into three different groups: Group A (n = 30, NAC 1200 mg orally before angiography and 1200 mg orally twice daily for three doses along with good hydration; Group B (n = 30, NAC 600 mg before angiography and 600 mg orally twice daily for three doses plus ascorbic acid (3000 mg one dose before angiography and 2000 mg two doses after angiography and good hydration; and Group C (n = 45, hydration with 0.9% saline started just before contrast media injection and continued for 12 h at a rate 1.0 mL/kg/min after angiography or 0.5 mL/kg/h in cases with overt heart failure for 12 h. CIN was defined as an increase in serum creatinine of >25% of baseline or an absolute increase of 0.5 mg/dL above baseline after 48 h. The incidence of CIN was significantly lower in Group A (6.66% compared with Group B (16.66% or Group C (17.77%. The difference between Groups A and B and between Groups A and C was also highly significant (P = 0.001. In contrast, the difference between Groups B and C was not statistically significant (P = 0.37. Our study indicates that high doses of NAC plus hydration provide better protection against CIN than combination therapy of NAC and ascorbic acid plus hydration, or hydration alone.

  3. N-acetylcysteine and/or ascorbic acid versus placebo to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy in patients undergoing elective cardiac catheterization: The NAPCIN trial; A single-center, prospective, randomized trial.

    Habib, Mohammed; Hillis, Alaa; Hammad, Amen

    2016-01-01

    Several protective measures have been described to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). This study is aimed to evaluate the effect of a high dose of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) plus hydration, a low dose of NAC plus ascorbic acid and hydration or hydration alone on the prevention of CIN in high-risk patients undergoing elective coronary artery intervention. We conducted a randomized, prospective, placebo-controlled trial of 105 high-risk patients undergoing elective cardiac catheterization. The patients were divided into three different groups: Group A (n=30), NAC 1200 mg orally before angiography and 1200 mg orally twice daily for three doses along with good hydration; Group B (n=30), NAC 600 mg before angiography and 600 mg orally twice daily for three doses plus ascorbic acid (3000 mg one dose) before angiography and 2000 mg two doses after angiography and good hydration; and Group C (n=45), hydration with 0.9% saline started just before contrast media injection and continued for 12 h at a rate 1.0 mL/kg//min after angiography or 0.5 mL/kg/h in cases with overt heart failure for 12 h. CIN was defined as an increase in serum creatinine of >25% of baseline or an absolute increase of 0.5 mg/dL above baseline after 48 h. The incidence of CIN was significantly lower in Group A (6.66%) compared with Group B (16.66%) or Group C (17.77%). The difference between Groups A and B and between Groups A and C was also highly significant (P=0.001). In contrast, the difference between Groups B and C was not statistically significant (P=0.37). Our study indicates that high doses of NAC plus hydration provide better protection against CIN than combination therapy of NAC and ascorbic acid plus hydration, or hydration alone. PMID:26787567

  4. Acid stress damage of DNA is prevented by Dps binding in Escherichia coli O157:H7

    Baumler David J; Hung Kai; Jeong Kwang; Byrd Jeffrey J; Kaspar Charles W

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Acid tolerance in Escherichia coli O157:H7 contributes to persistence in its bovine host and is thought to promote passage through the gastric barrier of humans. Dps (DNA-binding protein in starved cells) mutants of E. coli have reduced acid tolerance when compared to the parent strain although the role of Dps in acid tolerance is unclear. This study investigated the mechanism by which Dps contributes to acid tolerance in E. coli O157:H7. Results The results from this stud...

  5. Application of citrate as a tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle intermediate, prevents diabetic-induced heart damages in mice

    Qianqian Liang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Results indicate that application of citrate, a tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle intermediate, might alleviate cardiac dysfunction by reducing cardiac inflammation, apoptosis, and increasing cardiac EC.

  6. Structurally divergent lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferases with high selectivity for saturated medium chain fatty acids from Cuphea seeds.

    Kim, Hae Jin; Silva, Jillian E; Iskandarov, Umidjon; Andersson, Mariette; Cahoon, Rebecca E; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2015-12-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAT) catalyzes acylation of the sn-2 position on lysophosphatidic acid by an acyl CoA substrate to produce the phosphatidic acid precursor of polar glycerolipids and triacylglycerols (TAGs). In the case of TAGs, this reaction is typically catalyzed by an LPAT2 from microsomal LPAT class A that has high specificity for C18 fatty acids containing Δ9 unsaturation. Because of this specificity, the occurrence of saturated fatty acids in the TAG sn-2 position is infrequent in seed oils. To identify LPATs with variant substrate specificities, deep transcriptomic mining was performed on seeds of two Cuphea species producing TAGs that are highly enriched in saturated C8 and C10 fatty acids. From these analyses, cDNAs for seven previously unreported LPATs were identified, including cDNAs from Cuphea viscosissima (CvLPAT2) and Cuphea avigera var. pulcherrima (CpuLPAT2a) encoding microsomal, seed-specific class A LPAT2s and a cDNA from C. avigera var. pulcherrima (CpuLPATB) encoding a microsomal, seed-specific LPAT from the bacterial-type class B. The activities of these enzymes were characterized in Camelina sativa by seed-specific co-expression with cDNAs for various Cuphea FatB acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterases (FatB) that produce a variety of saturated medium-chain fatty acids. CvLPAT2 and CpuLPAT2a expression resulted in accumulation of 10:0 fatty acids in the Camelina sativa TAG sn-2 position, indicating a 10:0 CoA specificity that has not been previously described for plant LPATs. CpuLPATB expression generated TAGs with 14:0 at the sn-2 position, but not 10:0. Identification of these LPATs provides tools for understanding the structural basis of LPAT substrate specificity and for generating altered oil functionalities. PMID:26505880

  7. High Intensity Exercise Countermeasures does not Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance Following Prolonged Bed Rest

    Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Lee, Stuart M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 20% of Space Shuttle astronauts became presyncopal during operational stand and 80deg head-up tilt tests, and the prevalence of orthostatic intolerance increases after longer missions. Greater than 60% of the US astronauts participating in Mir and early International Space Station missions experienced presyncope during post-flight tilt tests, perhaps related to limitations of the exercise hardware that prevented high intensity exercise training until later ISS missions. The objective of this study was to determine whether an intense resistive and aerobic exercise countermeasure program designed to prevent cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning during 70 d of bed rest (BR), a space flight analog, would protect against post-BR orthostatic intolerance. METHODS Twenty-six subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups: non-exercise controls (n=11) or one of two exercise groups (ExA, n=8; ExB, n=7). Both ExA and ExB groups performed the same resistive and aerobic exercise countermeasures during BR, but one exercise group received testosterone supplementation while the other received a placebo during BR in a double-blinded fashion. On 3 d/wk, subjects performed lower body resistive exercise and 30 min of continuous aerobic exercise (=75% max heart rate). On the other 3 d/wk, subjects performed only highintensity, interval-style aerobic exercise. Orthostatic intolerance was assessed using a 15-min 80? head-up tilt test performed 2 d (BR-2) before and on the last day of BR (BR70). Plasma volume was measured using carbon monoxide rebreathing on BR-3 and before rising on the first recovery day (BR+0). The code for the exercise groups has not been broken, and results are reported here without group identification. RESULTS Only one subject became presyncopal during tilt testing on BR-2, but 7 of 11 (63%) controls, 3 of 8 (38%) ExA, and 4 of 7 (57%) ExB subjects were presyncopal on BR70. Survival analysis of post-BR tilt tests revealed no

  8. Practicing provider-initiated HIV testing in high prevalence settings: consent concerns and missed preventive opportunities

    Shayo Elizabeth H

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Counselling is considered a prerequisite for the proper handling of testing and for ensuring effective HIV preventive efforts. HIV testing services have recently been scaled up substantially with a particular focus on provider-initiated models. Increasing HIV test rates have been attributed to the rapid scale-up of the provider-initiated testing model, but there is limited documentation of experiences with this new service model. The aim of this study was to determine the use of different types of HIV testing services and to investigate perceptions and experiences of these services with a particular emphasis on the provider initiated testing in three selected districts in Kenya, Tanzania, and, Zambia. Methods A concurrent triangulation mixed methods design was applied using quantitative and qualitative approaches. A population-based survey was conducted among adults in the three study districts, and qualitative data were obtained from 34 focus group discussions and 18 in-depth interviews. The data originates from the ongoing EU funded research project "REsponse to ACountable Priority Setting for Trust in Health Systems" (REACT implemented in the three countries which has a research component linked to HIV and testing, and from an additional study focusing on HIV testing, counselling perceptions and experiences in Kenya. Results Proportions of the population formerly tested for HIV differed sharply between the study districts and particularly among women (54% Malindi, 34% Kapiri Mposhi and 27% Mbarali (p Conclusion Counselling emerged as a highly valued process during HIV testing. However, counselling efforts were limited in the implementation of the provider-initiated opt-out HIV testing model. The approach was moreover not perceived as voluntary. This raises serious ethical concerns and implies missed preventive opportunities inherent in the counselling concept. Moreover, implementation of the new testing approach seem to

  9. Toothpaste Prevents Debonded Brackets on Erosive Enamel

    Barros, Érico Luiz Damasceno; Pinto, Shelon Cristina Souza; Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Ellwood, Roger Phillip; Pretty, Ian; Bandéca, Matheus Coelho

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of high fluoride dentifrice on the bond strength of brackets after erosive challenge. Eighty-four enamel specimens were divided into seven groups (n = 12): WN (distilled water/no acid challenge), W3C (distilled water/3 cycles of acid challenge), and W6C (distilled water/6 cycles of acid challenge) were not submitted to dentifrice treatment. Groups RF3C (regular fluoride dentifrice/3 cycles of acid challenge) and RF6C (regular fluoride dentifrice/6 cycles of acid challenge) were treated with dentifrices containing 1450 μg F−/g and HF3C (high fluoride dentifrice/3 cycles of acid challenge) and HF6C (high fluoride dentifrice/6 cycles of acid challenge) were with 5000 μg F−/g. Acid challenges were performed for seven days. After bond strength test, there was no significant difference among groups submitted to 3 cycles of acid challenge (P > 0.05). Statistically significant difference was found between the regular and high fluoride dentifrices after 6 cycles of acid challenge (<0.05). Similar areas of adhesive remaining were found among control groups and among groups W6C, RF3C, RF6C, HF3C, and HF6C. The high fluoride dentifrice was able to prevent the reduction of bond strength values of brackets submitted to acid challenge. Clinical relevance: the high fluoride toothpaste prevents debonded brackets on erosive enamel. PMID:25879058

  10. Canonical Pedagogical Content Knowledge by Cores for Teaching Acid-Base Chemistry at High School

    Alvarado, Clara; Cañada, Florentina; Garritz, Andoni; Mellado, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    The topic of acid-base chemistry is one of the oldest in general chemistry courses and it has been almost continuously in academic discussion. The central purpose of documenting the knowledge and beliefs of a group of ten Mexican teachers with experience in teaching acid-base chemistry in high school was to know how they design, prepare and…

  11. Improved Release of Celecoxib from High Drug Loading Amorphous Solid Dispersions Formulated with Polyacrylic Acid and Cellulose Derivatives.

    Xie, Tian; Taylor, Lynne S

    2016-03-01

    Amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) have been extensively exploited as a strategy for improving the dissolution performance of poorly water-soluble drugs. However, factors underpinning the observed dissolution profiles are not clearly understood, and the choice of polymeric carriers is largely empirical. In the current study, the dissolution performance of a high drug loading ASD containing the poorly water-soluble, anti-inflammatory agent, celecoxib, was optimized by using binary polymers combinations. Polyacrylic acid (PAA), a highly water-soluble polymer, was used to substantially increase the dissolution rate of the drug, while hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) or HPMC acetate succinate (HPMCAS) were added to stabilize the solid amorphous matrix against crystallization upon hydration, as well as to maintain supersaturation. Quantitative measurements of the impact of the polymers on the solution nucleation and growth rates of celecoxib revealed that, while the cellulose derivatives are effective nucleation inhibitors, it is more difficult to completely prevent crystal growth in solutions containing seed crystals, in particular at high supersaturations. Therefore, it is critical to prevent the formation of crystals in the dissolving matrix during dissolution. By using certain ratios of HPMC and PAA, both rapid release as well as crystallization inhibition could be achieved, even at high drug loadings. Utilizing combinations of polymers may therefore be useful to tailor release profiles while providing optimized crystallization inhibition. PMID:26791934

  12. Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency selectively up-regulates delta6-desaturase expression and activity indices in rat liver: prevention by normalization of omega-3 fatty acid status.

    Hofacer, Rylon; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Magrisso, I Jack; Benoit, Stephen C; McNamara, Robert K

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of perinatal dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid depletion and subsequent repletion on the expression of genes that regulate long-chain (LC) polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in rat liver and brain. It was hypothesized that chronic n-3 fatty acid deficiency would increase liver Fads1 and Fads2 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression/activity and that n-3 fatty acid repletion would normalize this response. Adult rats fed the n-3-free diet during perinatal development exhibited significantly lower erythrocyte, liver, and frontal cortex LCn-3 fatty acid composition and reciprocal elevations in LC omega-6 (n-6) fatty acid composition compared with controls (CONs) and repleted rats. Liver Fads2, but not Fads1, Elovl2, or Elovl5, mRNA expression was significantly greater in n-3-deficient (DEF) rats compared with CONs and was partially normalized in repleted rats. The liver 18:3n-6/18:2n-6 ratio, an index of delta6-desturase activity, was significantly greater in DEF rats compared with CON and repleted rats and was positively correlated with Fads2 mRNA expression among all rats. The liver 18:3n-6/18:2n-6 ratio, but not Fads2 mRNA expression, was also positively correlated with erythrocyte and frontal cortex LCn-6 fatty acid compositions. Neither Fads1 or Fads2 mRNA expression was altered in brain cortex of DEF rats. These results confirm previous findings that liver, but not brain, delta6-desaturase expression and activity indices are negatively regulated by dietary n-3 fatty acids. PMID:22024496

  13. Unusually High Levels of n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Whale Sharks and Reef Manta Rays

    Couturier, L. I. E.; Rohner, C. A.; Richardson, A. J.; Pierce, S. J.; Marshall, A. D.; Jaine, F. R. A.; Townsend, K A; Bennett, M. B.; Weeks, S.J.; Nichols, P D

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid (FA) signature analysis has been increasingly used to assess dietary preferences and trophodynamics in marine animals. We investigated FA signatures of connective tissue of the whale shark Rhincodon typus and muscle tissue of the reef manta ray Manta alfredi. We found high levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), dominated by arachidonic acid (20:4n-6; 12–17 % of total FA), and comparatively lower levels of the essential n-3 PUFA—eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3; ~1 %) and d...

  14. EGFR Inhibition Blocks Palmitic Acid-induced inflammation in cardiomyocytes and Prevents Hyperlipidemia-induced Cardiac Injury in Mice.

    Li, Weixin; Fang, Qilu; Zhong, Peng; Chen, Lingfeng; Wang, Lintao; Zhang, Yali; Wang, Jun; Li, Xiaokun; Wang, Yi; Wang, Jingying; Liang, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is often associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies suggest that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antagonism may be effective for the treatment of angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy and diabetic cardiomyopathy. This study was performed to demonstrate if EGFR plays a role in the pathogenesis of hyperlipidemia/obesity-related cardiac injuries. The in vivo studies using both wild type (WT) and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) knockout mice fed with high fat diet (HFD) showed the beneficial effects of small-molecule EGFR inhibitors, AG1478 and 542, against obesity-induced myocardial injury. Administration of AG1478 and 542 significantly reduced myocardial inflammation, fibrosis, apoptosis, and dysfunction in both two obese mouse models. In vitro, EGFR signaling was blocked by either siRNA silencing or small-molecule EGFR inhibitors in palmitic acid (PA)-stimulated cardiomyocytes. EGFR inhibition attenuated PA-induced inflammatory response and apoptosis in H9C2 cells. Furthermore, we found that PA-induced EGFR activation was mediated by the upstream TLR4 and c-Src. This study has confirmed the detrimental effect of EGFR activation in the pathogenesis of obesity-induced cardiac inflammatory injuries in experimental mice, and has demonstrated the TLR4/c-Src-mediated mechanisms for PA-induced EGFR activation. Our data suggest that EGFR may be a therapeutic target for obesity-related cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27087279

  15. Neutralization/prevention of acid rock drainage using mixtures of alkaline by-products and sulfidic mine wastes.

    Alakangas, Lena; Andersson, Elin; Mueller, Seth

    2013-11-01

    Backfilling of open pit with sulfidic waste rock followed by inundation is a common method for reducing sulfide oxidation after mine closure. This approach can be complemented by mixing the waste rock with alkaline materials from pulp and steel mills to increase the system's neutralization potential. Leachates from 1 m3 tanks containing sulfide-rich (ca.30 wt %) waste rock formed under dry and water saturated conditions under laboratory conditions were characterized and compared to those formed from mixtures. The waste rock leachate produced an acidic leachate (pHhigh concentrations of As (65 mg/L), Cu (6 mg/L), and Zn (150 mg/L) after 258 days. The leachate from water-saturated waste rock had lower concentrations of As and Cu (9). The decrease of elemental concentration in the leachate was most pronounced for Pb and Zn, while Al and S were relatively high. Overall, the results obtained were promising and suggest that alkaline by-products could be useful additives for minimizing ARD formation. PMID:23740301

  16. Metaproteomics and ultrastructure characterization of Komagataeibacter spp. involved in high-acid spirit vinegar production.

    Andrés-Barrao, Cristina; Saad, Maged M; Cabello Ferrete, Elena; Bravo, Daniel; Chappuis, Marie-Luise; Ortega Pérez, Ruben; Junier, Pilar; Perret, Xavier; Barja, François

    2016-05-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are widespread microorganisms in nature, extensively used in food industry to transform alcohols and sugar alcohols into their corresponding organic acids. Specialized strains are used in the production of vinegar through the oxidative transformation of ethanol into acetic acid. The main AAB involved in the production of high-acid vinegars using the submerged fermentation method belong to the genus Komagataeibacter, characterized by their higher ADH stability and activity, and higher acetic acid resistance (15-20%), compared to other AAB. In this work, the bacteria involved in the production of high-acid spirit vinegar through a spontaneous acetic acid fermentation process was studied. The analysis using a culture-independent approach revealed a homogeneous bacterial population involved in the process, identified as Komagataeibacter spp. Differentially expressed proteins during acetic acid fermentation were investigated by using 2D-DIGE and mass spectrometry. Most of these proteins were functionally related to stress response, the TCA cycle and different metabolic processes. In addition, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and specific staining of polysaccharide SDS-PAGE gels confirmed that Komagataeibacter spp. lacked the characteristic polysaccharide layer surrounding the outer membrane that has been previously reported to have an important role in acetic acid resistance in the genus Acetobacter. PMID:26742622

  17. Study on Mechanism for Formation of Carbon Oxides During Catalytic Cracking of High Acidic Crude

    Wei Xiaoli; Mao Anguo; Xie Chaogang

    2007-01-01

    Based on the basis of analysis and interpretation of the products distribution of catalytic cracking of high acidic crude,the mechanism for decarboxylation of petroleum acids during FCC process was discussed.The protons originated from the Br(o)nsted acid sites can combine with oxygen of the carbonyl groups with more negative charges to form reaction intermediates that Call be subjected to cleavage at the weak bonds,leading to breaking of carboxylic groups from the carboxylic acids followed by its decomposition to form alkyl three-coordinated carbenium ions,CO and H2O.The Lewis acid as an electrophilic reagent can abstract carboxylic groups from carboxylic acids to subsequently release CO2.

  18. Effect of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester on Vascular Damage Caused by Consumption of High Fructose Corn Syrup in Rats

    Gun, Aburrahman; Bilgic, Sedat; Kocaman, Nevin; Ozan, Gonca

    2016-01-01

    Fructose corn syrup is cheap sweetener and prolongs the shelf life of products, but fructose intake causes hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. All of them are referred to as metabolic syndrome and they are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Hence, the harmful effects of increased fructose intake on health and their prevention should take greater consideration. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE) has beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome and vascular function which is important in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, there are no known studies about the effect of CAPE on fructose-induced vascular dysfunction. In this study, we examined the effect of CAPE on vascular dysfunction due to high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). HFCS (6 weeks, 30% fed with drinking water) caused vascular dysfunction, but treatment with CAPE (50 micromol/kg i.p. for the last two weeks) effectively restored this problem. Additionally, hypertension in HFCS-fed rats was also decreased in CAPE supplemented rats. CAPE supplements lowered HFCS consumption-induced raise in blood glucose, homocysteine, and cholesterol levels. The aorta tissue endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) production was decreased in rats given HFCS and in contrast CAPE supplementation efficiently increased its production. The presented results showed that HFCS-induced cardiovascular abnormalities could be prevented by CAPE treatment. PMID:27042260

  19. Effect of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester on Vascular Damage Caused by Consumption of High Fructose Corn Syrup in Rats

    Aburrahman Gun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fructose corn syrup is cheap sweetener and prolongs the shelf life of products, but fructose intake causes hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. All of them are referred to as metabolic syndrome and they are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Hence, the harmful effects of increased fructose intake on health and their prevention should take greater consideration. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE has beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome and vascular function which is important in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, there are no known studies about the effect of CAPE on fructose-induced vascular dysfunction. In this study, we examined the effect of CAPE on vascular dysfunction due to high fructose corn syrup (HFCS. HFCS (6 weeks, 30% fed with drinking water caused vascular dysfunction, but treatment with CAPE (50 micromol/kg i.p. for the last two weeks effectively restored this problem. Additionally, hypertension in HFCS-fed rats was also decreased in CAPE supplemented rats. CAPE supplements lowered HFCS consumption-induced raise in blood glucose, homocysteine, and cholesterol levels. The aorta tissue endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS production was decreased in rats given HFCS and in contrast CAPE supplementation efficiently increased its production. The presented results showed that HFCS-induced cardiovascular abnormalities could be prevented by CAPE treatment.

  20. Effect of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester on Vascular Damage Caused by Consumption of High Fructose Corn Syrup in Rats.

    Gun, Aburrahman; Ozer, Mehmet Kaya; Bilgic, Sedat; Kocaman, Nevin; Ozan, Gonca

    2016-01-01

    Fructose corn syrup is cheap sweetener and prolongs the shelf life of products, but fructose intake causes hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. All of them are referred to as metabolic syndrome and they are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Hence, the harmful effects of increased fructose intake on health and their prevention should take greater consideration. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE) has beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome and vascular function which is important in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, there are no known studies about the effect of CAPE on fructose-induced vascular dysfunction. In this study, we examined the effect of CAPE on vascular dysfunction due to high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). HFCS (6 weeks, 30% fed with drinking water) caused vascular dysfunction, but treatment with CAPE (50 micromol/kg i.p. for the last two weeks) effectively restored this problem. Additionally, hypertension in HFCS-fed rats was also decreased in CAPE supplemented rats. CAPE supplements lowered HFCS consumption-induced raise in blood glucose, homocysteine, and cholesterol levels. The aorta tissue endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) production was decreased in rats given HFCS and in contrast CAPE supplementation efficiently increased its production. The presented results showed that HFCS-induced cardiovascular abnormalities could be prevented by CAPE treatment. PMID:27042260

  1. Acid mine drainage prevention, control and treatment technology development for the Stockett/Sand Coulee area. Topical report, March 1, 1995 - March 31, 1996

    The project was initiated to assist the State of Montana to develop a methodology to ameliorate acid mine drainage problems associated with the abandoned mines located in the Stockett/Sand Coulee area near Great Falls, Montana. Extremely acidic water is continuously discharging from abandoned coal mines in the Stockett/Sand Coulee area at an estimated rate of greater than 600 acre-feet per year (about 350 to 400 gallons per minute). Due to its extreme acidity, the water is unusable and is contaminating other water supplies. Most of the local alluvial aquifers have been contaminated, and nearly 5% of the private wells that were tested in the area during the mid-1980's showed some degree of contamination. Significant government money has been spent replacing water supplies due to the magnitude of this problem. In addition, millions of dollars have been spent trying to remediate acid mine drainage occurring in this coal field. To date, the techniques used have focused on the management and containment of mine waters, rather than designing technologies that would prevent the formation of acid mine drainage

  2. Durability Issues of High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Based on Acid Doped Polybenzimidazole Membranes

    To achieve high temperature operation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), preferably under ambient pressure, phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane represents an effective approach, which in recent years has motivated extensive research activities with great progress. As...

  3. Unusually high levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in whale sharks and reef manta rays.

    Couturier, L I E; Rohner, C A; Richardson, A J; Pierce, S J; Marshall, A D; Jaine, F R A; Townsend, K A; Bennett, M B; Weeks, S J; Nichols, P D

    2013-10-01

    Fatty acid (FA) signature analysis has been increasingly used to assess dietary preferences and trophodynamics in marine animals. We investigated FA signatures of connective tissue of the whale shark Rhincodon typus and muscle tissue of the reef manta ray Manta alfredi. We found high levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), dominated by arachidonic acid (20:4n-6; 12-17 % of total FA), and comparatively lower levels of the essential n-3 PUFA-eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3; ~1 %) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; 3-10 %). Whale sharks and reef manta rays are regularly observed feeding on surface aggregations of coastal crustacean zooplankton during the day, which generally have FA profiles dominated by n-3 PUFA. The high levels of n-6 PUFA in both giant elasmobranchs raise new questions about the origin of their main food source. PMID:23975574

  4. The Peroxisomal Enzyme L-PBE Is Required to Prevent the Dietary Toxicity of Medium-Chain Fatty Acids

    Jun Ding

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Specific metabolic pathways are activated by different nutrients to adapt the organism to available resources. Although essential, these mechanisms are incompletely defined. Here, we report that medium-chain fatty acids contained in coconut oil, a major source of dietary fat, induce the liver ω-oxidation genes Cyp4a10 and Cyp4a14 to increase the production of dicarboxylic fatty acids. Furthermore, these activate all ω- and β-oxidation pathways through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR α and PPARγ, an activation loop normally kept under control by dicarboxylic fatty acid degradation by the peroxisomal enzyme L-PBE. Indeed, L-pbe−/− mice fed coconut oil overaccumulate dicarboxylic fatty acids, which activate all fatty acid oxidation pathways and lead to liver inflammation, fibrosis, and death. Thus, the correct homeostasis of dicarboxylic fatty acids is a means to regulate the efficient utilization of ingested medium-chain fatty acids, and its deregulation exemplifies the intricate relationship between impaired metabolism and inflammation.

  5. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Status Enhances the Prevention of Cognitive Decline by B Vitamins in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Oulhaj, Abderrahim; Jernerén, Fredrik; Refsum, Helga; Smith, A David; de Jager, Celeste A

    2015-01-01

    A randomized trial (VITACOG) in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) found that B vitamin treatment to lower homocysteine slowed the rate of cognitive and clinical decline. We have used data from this trial to see whether baseline omega-3 fatty acid status interacts with the effects of B vitamin treatment. 266 participants with MCI aged ≥70 years were randomized to B vitamins (folic acid, vitamins B6 and B12) or placebo for 2 years. Baseline cognitive test performance, clinical dementia rating (CDR) scale, and plasma concentrations of total homocysteine, total docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids (omega-3 fatty acids) were measured. Final scores for verbal delayed recall, global cognition, and CDR sum-of-boxes were better in the B vitamin-treated group according to increasing baseline concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids, whereas scores in the placebo group were similar across these concentrations. Among those with good omega-3 status, 33% of those on B vitamin treatment had global CDR scores >0 compared with 59% among those on placebo. For all three outcome measures, higher concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid alone significantly enhanced the cognitive effects of B vitamins, while eicosapentaenoic acid appeared less effective. When omega-3 fatty acid concentrations are low, B vitamin treatment has no effect on cognitive decline in MCI, but when omega-3 levels are in the upper normal range, B vitamins interact to slow cognitive decline. A clinical trial of B vitamins combined with omega-3 fatty acids is needed to see whether it is possible to slow the conversion from MCI to AD. PMID:26757190

  6. Identification of Phenolic Acids and Flavonoids in Monofloral Honey from Bangladesh by High Performance Liquid Chromatography: Determination of Antioxidant Capacity

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the phenolic acids, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties of monofloral honey collected from five different districts in Bangladesh. A new high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a UV detector method was developed for the identification of the phenolic acids and flavonoids. A total of five different phenolic acids were identified, with the most abundant being caffeic acid, benzoic acid, gallic acid, followed by chlorogenic ...

  7. Evidence for rapid inter- and intramolecular chlorine transfer reactions of histamine and carnosine chloramines: implications for the prevention of hypochlorous-acid-mediated damage.

    Pattison, David I; Davies, Michael J

    2006-07-01

    Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is a powerful oxidant generated from H(2)O(2) and Cl(-) by the heme enzyme myeloperoxidase, which is released from activated leukocytes. HOCl possesses potent antibacterial properties, but excessive production can lead to host tissue damage that is implicated in a wide range of human diseases (e.g., atherosclerosis). Histamine and carnosine have been proposed as protective agents against such damage. However, as recent studies have shown that histidine-containing compounds readily form imidazole chloramines that can rapidly chlorinate other targets, it was hypothesized that similar reactions may occur with histamine and carnosine, leading to propagation, rather than prevention, of HOCl-mediated damage. In this study, the reactions of HOCl with histamine, histidine, carnosine, and other compounds containing imidazole and free amine sites were examined. In all cases, rapid formation (k, 1.6 x 10(5) M(-)(1) s(-)(1)) of imidazole chloramines was observed, followed by chlorine transfer to yield more stable, primary chloramines (R-NHCl). The rates of most of these secondary reactions are dependent upon substrate concentrations, consistent with intermolecular mechanisms (k, 10(3)-10(4) M(-)(1) s(-)(1)). However, for carnosine, the imidazole chloramine transfer rates are independent of the concentration, indicative of intramolecular processes (k, 0.6 s(-)(1)). High-performance liquid chromatography studies show that in all cases the resultant R-NHCl species can slowly chlorinate N-alpha-acetyl-Tyr. Thus, the current data indicate that the chloramines formed on the imidazole and free amine groups of these compounds can oxidize other target molecules but with limited efficiency, suggesting that histamine and particularly carnosine may be able to limit HOCl-mediated oxidation in vivo. PMID:16800640

  8. Weathering behaviour of overburden-coal ash blending in relation to overburden management for acid mine drainage prevention in coal surface mine

    Potentially acid forming (PAF) materials are encapsulated with non-acid forming materials (NAF) in order to prevent acid mine drainage (AMD) in surface coal mines. NAF compaction techniques with fly and bottom ashes from coal-fired power plants are used in mines with limited amounts of NAF materials. This study investigated the weathering behaviour of blended overburden and coal combustion ash in laboratory conditions. Free draining column leach tests were conducted on different blending schemes. The weathering process was simulated by spraying the samples with de-ionized water once per day. The leachates were then analyzed using X-ray diffraction and fluorescence analyses in order to identify the mineral composition of the samples over a 14 week period. Results of the study indicated that the weathering process plays a significant role in controlling infiltration rates, and may increase the capability of capping materials to prevent infiltration into PAF materials. Fly- and bottom-ash additions improved the performance of the encapsulation materials. 3 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  9. Vocal cord palsy after vincristine treatment in a child and the inefficacy of glutamic acid in the prevention of relapse: a case report

    Farruggia Piero

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Vincristine is an antineoplastic drug with a well known efficacy for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and many solid tumors. No more than 20 pediatric patients with vincristine-induced vocal cord palsy have been reported, and to the best of our knowledge this is the first case where glutamic acid was administered with the aim of preventing a relapse of laryngeal dysfunction. Case presentation The larynx paralysis presented with hoarseness and stridor in a Caucasian 18-month-old girl and spontaneously resolved in about a month. In order to administer a subsequent full dose of vincristine, our patient received oral glutamic acid whose efficacy against vincristine neurological side effects has been previously reported. Conclusions Since in our patient the amino acid proved to be ineffective in the prevention of laryngeal paralysis relapse, we suggest that a dose reduction of vincristine should be preferred by oncologists as an initial approach after a case of drug-induced vocal cord palsy.

  10. Water-free Alkaline Polymer-inorganic Acid Complexes with High Conductivity at Ambient Temperature

    O.V.Chervakov; M.V.Andriianova; V.V.Riabenko; A.V.Markevich; E.M.Shembel; D.Meshri

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Recently increased interest is shown to proton conducting materials based on the alkaline polymer-inorganic acid complexes that is caused by a possibility of their application as the high-temperature electrolyte systems for various electrochemical devices (fuel cells,sensors,lithium power sources etc.).Complexes of inorganic acids with the alkaline polymers (polybenzimidazoles[1],polyvinylpyridines[2]) are characterized by high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures (up to 10-2 Ω-1·cm-1) a...

  11. High parental monitoring prevents adolescents from engaging in risky sexual practices in Harar, Ethiopia

    Yadeta Dessie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emerging findings have shown that high parental monitoring of adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health (SRH communications between parents and adolescents and good parenting styles prevent adolescents from engaging in risky sexual practices. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the associations of parental monitoring, parent–adolescent SRH communications, and parenting styles with risky sexual practices among adolescents in Harar, Ethiopia. Designs: This was a cross-sectional study conducted on adolescents aged 13–18 who had sexual initiations. Adolescents who failed to use any contraceptive method and/or condom during last sexual intercourse and who experienced multiple sexual partners in the 12 months prior to the study were taken as ‘at risk’. In view of these, the adolescents risk count ranged from zero to three – greater number indicates higher count of risky sexual practices. Poisson regression model was used to examine the associations and p<0.05 indicated a statistical significance. Results: It was found out that 301 of 633 (47.55%; 95% CI=43.62%, 51.45% adolescents experienced one or more risky sexual practices. High parental monitoring compared to low decreases the Incidence Rate of engaging in risky sexual practices by 28% (adjusted incidence rate ratio, or IRR=0.72; 95% CI=0.520, 0.986. Those who had a satisfactory level of SRH communications with their parents compared to poor communicators experianced less incidence rate of risky sexual practices which was marginal (adjusted IRR=0.82; 95% CI=0.637, 1.051. Conclusions: A significant proportion of the adolescents engaged in one or more risky sexual practices. Importantly, high parental monitoring decreases the likelihood of these risky practices. Therefore, parents need to be encouraged to keep an eye on their young children.

  12. Applying Fear Appeals Theory for Preventing Drug Abuse among Male High School Students in Tehran

    K. Witte

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Drug abuse is one of the complicated phenomenons in the human communities that it produces health problems. The effect of applying fear appeal message on attitudes and intention against drug abuse, drug resistance skills, knowledge about side effect of drugs and drug abuse related behaviors among male high school students was studied based on applying extended parallel process model as a theoretical framework. Materials & Methods: Two high schools were chosen from six state high schools as an intervention (n=86 and control (n=97 groups. Educational curriculum, that was designed, based on students’ educational needs, appealed students’ fear and recommended messages developed students' ability for resisting against drugs. Before intervention 5-6 students who were known as a favourite and leader of students, were selected by student’s opinion in each class as students' leaders. The each leader of the group had a coordinator and mediate role between his group and health educators. Henceforth a favourite teacher was chosen by students’ vote for helping health educators and participated in the educational intervention program.Results: The result showed that educational manipulation had significant effect on intervention group’s average response for intention (t= -4.03, p<0.000 and attitude against drug abuse (t= -6.19, p<0.000, peer resistance skills (t=-0.82, p<0.000, and knowledge (t= -10.88, p<0.000. In addition, it was not found positive urinary rapid immune-chromatography test for opium and marijuana in the intervention group whereas 6.3% in the control groups.Conclusion: This findings suggest that applying fear appeals theories and effective health risk message would be an efficient tool for preventing drug abuse education programs but further studies are needed to define function of EPPM as a effective model for creating social inoculation against drug abuse among non- drug expose adolescents.

  13. Optimizing Violence Prevention Programs: An Examination of Program Effectiveness among Urban High School Students

    Thompkins, Amanda C.; Chauveron, Lisa M.; Harel, Ofer; Perkins, Daniel F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: While demand for youth violence prevention programs increases, the ability of the school-day schedule to accommodate their time requirements has diminished. Viable school-based prevention programs must strike a balance between brevity and effectiveness. This article reports results from an effectiveness trial of a 12-session…

  14. Risk of atherosclerosis in general Czech population is very high - preventive examinations

    Tomečková, Marie; Grünfeldová, H.; Peleška, Jan; Hanuš, P.; Martinková, Patrícia

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 14, suppl 1 (2007), S66-S66. ISSN 1741-8267. [EuroPrevent Congress. 19.04.2007-21.04.2007, Madrid] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : risk of atherosclerosis * preventive examinations * general population Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  15. Liraglutide prevents high glucose level induced insulinoma cells apoptosis by targeting autophagy

    CHEN Ze-fang; LI Yan-bo; HAN Jun-yong; YIN Jia-jing; WANG Yang; ZHU Li-bo; XIE Guang-ying

    2013-01-01

    Background The pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes is progressive pancreatic beta cell failure with consequential reduced insulin secretion.Glucotoxicity results in the reduction of beta cell mass in type 2 diabetes by inducing apoptosis.Autophagy is essential for the maintenance of normal islet architecture and plays a crucial role in maintaining the intracellular insulin content by accelerating the insulin degradation rate in beta cells.Recently more attention has been paid to the effect of autophagy in type 2 diabetes.The regulatory pathway of autophagy in controlling pancreatic beta cells is still not clear.The aim of our study was to evaluate whether liraglutide can inhibit apoptosis and modulate autophagy in vitro in insulinoma cells (INS-1 cells).Methods INS-1 cells were incubated for 24 hours in the presence or absence of high levels of glucose,liraglutide (a long-acting human glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue),or 3-methyadenine (3-MA).Cell viability was measured using the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8) viability assay.Autophagy of INS-1 cells was tested by monodansylcadaverine (MDC)staining,an autophagy fluorescent compound used for the labeling of autophagic vacuoles,and by Western blotting of microtubule-associated protein I light chain 3 (LC3),a biochemical markers of autophagic initiation.Results The viability of INS-1 cells was reduced after treatment with high levels of glucose.The viability of INS-1 cells was reduced and apoptosis was increased when autophagy was inhibited.The viability of INS-1 cells was significantly increased by adding liraglutide to supplement high glucose level medium compared with the cells treated with high glucose levels alone.Conclusions Apoptosis and autophagy were increased in rat INS-1 cells when treated with high level of glucose,and the viability of INS-1 cells was significantly reduced by inhibiting autophagy.Liraglutide protected INS-1 cells from high glucose level-induced apoptosis that is accompanied by a significant

  16. Solvent extraction in the treatment of acidic high-level liquid waste : where do we stand?

    During the last 15 years, a number of solvent extraction/recovery processes have been developed for the removal of the transuranic elements, 90Sr and 137Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste. These processes are based on the use of a variety of both acidic and neutral extractants. This chapter will present an overview and analysis of the various extractants and flowsheets developed to treat acidic high-level liquid waste streams. The advantages and disadvantages of each extractant along with comparisons of the individual systems are discussed

  17. Solvent extraction in the treatment of acidic high-level liquid waste : where do we stand?

    Horwitz, E. P.; Schulz, W. W.

    1998-06-18

    During the last 15 years, a number of solvent extraction/recovery processes have been developed for the removal of the transuranic elements, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste. These processes are based on the use of a variety of both acidic and neutral extractants. This chapter will present an overview and analysis of the various extractants and flowsheets developed to treat acidic high-level liquid waste streams. The advantages and disadvantages of each extractant along with comparisons of the individual systems are discussed.

  18. Unexpectedly high indoor hydroxyl radical concentrations associated with nitrous acid.

    Gómez Alvarez, Elena; Amedro, Damien; Afif, Charbel; Gligorovski, Sasho; Schoemaecker, Coralie; Schoemacker, Coralie; Fittschen, Christa; Doussin, Jean-Francois; Wortham, Henri

    2013-08-13

    The hydroxyl (OH) radical is the most important oxidant in the atmosphere since it controls its self-oxidizing capacity. The main sources of OH radicals are the photolysis of ozone and the photolysis of nitrous acid (HONO). Due to the attenuation of solar radiation in the indoor environment, the possibility of OH formation through photolytic pathways indoors has been ignored up to now. In the indoor air, the ozonolysis of alkenes has been suggested as an alternative route of OH formation. Models and indirect measurements performed up to now according to this hypothesis suggest concentrations of OH radicals on the order of 10(4)-10(5) molecules per cubic centimeter. Here, we present direct measurements of significant amounts of OH radicals of up to 1.8⋅10(6) molecules per cubic centimeter during an experimental campaign carried out in a school classroom in Marseille. This concentration is on the same order of magnitude of outdoor OH levels in the urban scenario. We also show that photolysis of HONO is an important source of OH radicals indoors under certain conditions (i.e., direct solar irradiation inside the room). Additionally, the OH concentrations were found to follow a linear dependence with the product J(HONO)⋅[HONO]. This was also supported by using a simple quasiphotostationary state model on the OH radical budget. These findings force a change in our understanding of indoor air quality because the reactivity linked to OH would involve formation of secondary species through chemical reactions that are potentially more hazardous than the primary pollutants in the indoor air. PMID:23898188

  19. Black tea polyphenols and polysaccharides improve body composition, increase fecal fatty acid, and regulate fat metabolism in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.

    Wu, Tao; Guo, Yu; Liu, Rui; Wang, Kuan; Zhang, Min

    2016-05-18

    With the current changes in diet and living habits, obesity has become a global health problem. Thus, the weight-reducing function of tea has attracted considerable attention. This study investigated the anti-obesity effect and the mechanism of black tea (BT) polyphenols and polysaccharides in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The BT polyphenols and polysaccharides reduced the body weight, Lee's index, visceral fat weight, and fat cell size but improved the biochemical profile and increased the fecal fatty acid content, thereby preventing high-fat diet-induced obesity. A gene expression profile array was used to screen eight upregulated and five downregulated differentially expressed genes that affect fat metabolic pathways, such as glycerolipid and glycerophospholipid metabolism, fatty acid degradation, glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, bile and pancreatic secretion, the insulin signaling pathway, and steroid hormone secretion. The BT polyphenols and polysaccharides suppressed the formation and accumulation of fat and promoted its decomposition to prevent obesity. PMID:27161951

  20. Effect of high oleic acid soybean on seed oil, protein concentration, and yield

    Soybeans with high oleic acid content are desired by oil processors because of their improved oxidative stability for broader use in food, fuel and other products. However, non-GMO high-oleic soybeans have tended to have low seed yield. The objective of this study was to test non-GMO, high-oleic s...

  1. Prevention of cardiac dysfunction, kidney fibrosis and lipid metabolic alterations in l-NAME hypertensive rats by sinapic acid-Role of HMG-CoA reductase.

    Silambarasan, Thangarasu; Manivannan, Jeganathan; Raja, Boobalan; Chatterjee, Suvro

    2016-04-15

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of sinapic acid, a bioactive phenolic acid on high blood pressure associated cardiac dysfunction, kidney fibrosis and lipid alterations in N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME) induced hypertensive rats. Sinapic acid was administered to rats orally at a dosage of 40mg/kg everyday for a period of 4 weeks. Sinapic acid treatment significantly decreased mean arterial pressure, left ventricular end diastolic pressure, organ weights (liver and kidney), lipid peroxidation products in tissues (liver and kidney), activities of hepatic marker enzymes and the levels of renal function markers in serum of l-NAME rats. Sinapic acid treatment also significantly increased the level of plasma nitric oxide metabolites, and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in tissues of l-NAME rats. Tissue damage was assessed by histopathological examination. Alterations in plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme activity, level of plasma lipoproteins and tissue lipids were corrected by sinapic acid treatment in l-NAME rats. Sinapic acid treatment significantly decreased the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase in plasma and liver, whereas the activity of lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase was significantly increased in the plasma of hypertensive rats. Docking result showed the interaction between sinapic acid and HMG-CoA reductase. Sinapic acid has shown best ligand binding energy of -5.5kcal/M. Moreover, in chick embryo model, sinapic acid improved vessel density on chorioallantoic membrane. These results of the present study concludes that sinapic acid acts as a protective agent against hypertension associated cardiac dysfunction, kidney fibrosis and lipid alterations. PMID:26945821

  2. Metformin prevents aggressive ovarian cancer growth driven by high-energy diet: similarity with calorie restriction.

    Al-Wahab, Zaid; Mert, Ismail; Tebbe, Calvin; Chhina, Jasdeep; Hijaz, Miriana; Morris, Robert T; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Giri, Shailendra; Munkarah, Adnan R; Rattan, Ramandeep

    2015-05-10

    Caloric restriction (CR) was recently demonstrated by us to restrict ovarian cancer growth in vivo. CR resulted in activation of energy regulating enzymes adenosine monophosphate activated kinase (AMPK) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) followed by downstream inhibition of Akt-mTOR. In the present study, we investigated the effects of metformin on ovarian cancer growth in mice fed a high energy diet (HED) and regular diet (RD) and compared them to those seen with CR in an immunocompetent isogeneic mouse model of ovarian cancer. Mice either on RD or HED diet bearing ovarian tumors were treated with 200 mg/kg metformin in drinking water. Metformin treatment in RD and HED mice resulted in a significant reduction in tumor burden in the peritoneum, liver, kidney, spleen and bowel accompanied by decreased levels of growth factors (IGF-1, insulin and leptin), inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, IL-6) and VEGF in plasma and ascitic fluid, akin to the CR diet mice. Metformin resulted in activation of AMPK and SIRT1 and inhibition of pAkt and pmTOR, similar to CR. Thus metformin can closely mimic CR's tumor suppressing effects by inducing similar metabolic changes, providing further evidence of its potential not only as a therapeutic drug but also as a preventive agent. PMID:25895126

  3. High-performance liquid chromatography of amino acids in urine and cerebrospinal fluid.

    Lam, S; Azumaya, H; Karmen, A

    1984-10-19

    Two different methods for analyzing amino acids by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), both of which can separate D- and L- stereoisomers, have been used for studying the amino acid composition of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and urine. One method, by which Dns derivatives of amino acids are separated as mixed chelate complexes with Cu(II) and a single stereoisomer of a second amino acid, was used to analyze CSF. CSF contains ca. 10 mumole/l per amino acid, compared to 100 mumole/l in serum. The high sensitivity of fluorescence detection enabled complete analysis, starting with 50 microliter of fluid. The second method, which uses lower concentrations of both the copper and the second amino acid and detects amino acids by the change in absorbance of the copper complex, was used to measure the urine concentration of the lysine metabolite, pipecolic acid (piperidine-2-carboxylic acid), a secondary amino acid that is difficult to detect by the more usual detection methods. Our procedure involves passing urine through a cation-exchange column, collecting the fraction containing pipecolic acid, and chromatographing it on a reversed-phase HPLC column with a mobile phase containing L-aspartame and Cu(II). To assess the utility of the method, urine samples from a patient given loading doses of D- or L-isomers were analyzed. When either isomer was administered, both D- and L-isomers were detected, but in different proportions. Varying proportions and concentrations of both isomers were also detected in the urines of patients with hyperpipecolatemia from different metabolic abnormalities. PMID:6501504

  4. N-3 polyunsaturated Fatty acids prevent diabetic retinopathy by inhibition of retinal vascular damage and enhanced endothelial progenitor cell reparative function.

    Maria Tikhonenko

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The vasodegenerative phase of diabetic retinopathy is characterized by not only retinal vascular degeneration but also inadequate vascular repair due to compromised bone marrow derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs. We propose that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA deficiency in diabetes results in activation of the central enzyme of sphingolipid metabolism, acid sphingomyelinase (ASM and that ASM represents a molecular metabolic link connecting the initial damage in the retina and the dysfunction of EPCs. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Type 2 diabetic rats on control or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA-rich diet were studied. The number of acellular capillaries in the retinas was assessed by trypsin digest. mRNA levels of interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1 in the retinas from diabetic animals were compared to controls and ASM protein was assessed by western analysis. EPCs were isolated from blood and bone marrow and their numbers and ability to form colonies in vitro, ASM activity and lipid profiles were determined. RESULTS: DHA-rich diet prevented diabetes-induced increase in the number of retinal acellular capillaries and significantly enhanced the life span of type 2 diabetic animals. DHA-rich diet blocked upregulation of ASM and other inflammatory markers in diabetic retina and prevented the increase in ASM activity in EPCs, normalized the numbers of circulating EPCs and improved EPC colony formation. CONCLUSIONS: In a type 2 diabetes animal model, DHA-rich diet fully prevented retinal vascular pathology through inhibition of ASM in both retina and EPCs, leading to a concomitant suppression of retinal inflammation and correction of EPC number and function.

  5. Omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil supplements, but not alpha-linolenic acid benefit cardiovascular disease outcomes in primary & secondary prevention studies: a systematic review

    The relationship between dietary omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease is uncertain. The published literature is replete with studies of varying methodological quality and sometimes contradictory results. The objective of this work was to conduct a systematic review and critical appraisal ...

  6. Taurine ameliorates cholesterol metabolism by stimulating bile acid production in high-cholesterol-fed rats.

    Murakami, Shigeru; Fujita, Michiko; Nakamura, Masakazu; Sakono, Masanobu; Nishizono, Shoko; Sato, Masao; Imaizumi, Katsumi; Mori, Mari; Fukuda, Nobuhiro

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary taurine on cholesterol metabolism in high-cholesterol-fed rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two dietary groups (n = 6 in each group): a high-cholesterol diet containing 0.5% cholesterol and 0.15% sodium cholate, and a high-cholesterol diet with 5% (w/w) taurine. The experimental diets were given for 2 weeks. Taurine supplementation reduced the serum and hepatic cholesterol levels by 37% and 32%, respectively. Faecal excretion of bile acids was significantly increased in taurine-treated rats, compared with untreated rats. Biliary bile acid concentrations were also increased by taurine. Taurine supplementation increased taurine-conjugated bile acids by 61% and decreased glycine-conjugated bile acids by 53%, resulting in a significant decrease in the glycine/taurine (G/T) ratio. Among the taurine-conjugated bile acids, cholic acid and deoxycholic acid were significantly increased. In the liver, taurine supplementation increased the mRNA expression and enzymatic activity of hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis, by three- and two-fold, respectively. Taurine also decreased the enzymatic activity of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP). These observations suggest that taurine supplementation increases the synthesis and excretion of taurine-conjugated bile acids and stimulates the catabolism of cholesterol to bile acid by elevating the expression and activity of CYP7A1. This may reduce cholesterol esterification and lipoprotein assembly for very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion, leading to reductions in the serum and hepatic cholesterol levels. PMID:26710098

  7. Adalimumab in prevention of postoperative recurrence of Crohn's disease in high-risk patients

    Mariam Aguas; Guillermo Bastida; Elena Cerrillo; Belén Beltrán; Marisa Iborra; Cristina Sánchez-Montes; Fernando Mu(n)oz

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the effectiveness of adalimumab in preventing recurrence after intestinal resection for Crohn's disease in high-risk patients.METHODS:A multicenter,prospective,observational study was conducted from June 2009 until June 2010.We consecutively included high-risk Crohn's disease patients who had undergone an ileal/ileocolonic resection.High-risk patients were defined as two or more criteria:smokers,penetrating pattern,one or more previous surgical resections or prior extensive resection.Subcutaneous adalimumab was administered 2 wk (±5 d) after surgery at a dose of 40 mg eow,with an initial induction dose of 160/80 mg at weeks 0 and 2.Demographic data,previous and concomitant treatments (antibiotics,5-aminosalicylates,corticosteroids,immunomodulators or biologic therapies),smoking status at the time of diagnosis and after the index operation and number of previous resections (type and reason for surgery) were all recorded.Biological status was assessed with C-reactive protein,erythrocyte sedimentation rate and fecal calprotectin.One year (± 3 mo) after surgery,an ileocolonoscopy and/or magnetic resonance enterography was performed.Endoscopic recurrence was defined as Rutgeerts score ≥ i2.Morphological recurrence was based on magnetic resonance (MR) score ≥ MR1.RESULTS:Twenty-nine patients (55.2% males,48.3% smokers at diagnosis and 13.8% after the index operation),mean age 42.3 years and mean duration of the disease 13.8 years were included in the study.A mean of 1.76 (range:1-4) resections previous to adalimumab administration and in 37.9% was considered extensive resection.51.7% had previously received infliximab.Immunomodulators were given concomitantly to 17.2% of patients.Four of the 29 (13.7%) developed clinical recurrence,6/29 (20.7%) endoscopic recurrence and 7/19 (36.8%) morphological recurrence after 1-year.All patients with clinical recurrence showed endoscopic and morphological recurrence.A high degree of concordance

  8. Temporal and spatial variation in the status of acid rivers and potential prevention methods of AS soil-related leaching in peatland forestry

    Saarinen, T.

    2013-06-01

    maintenance drainage in peatland forestry on runoff water quality showed a clear risk of oxidation of sulphidic materials during dry summers. This can be prevented mainly by avoiding too deep drainage. Knowledge of the hydrochemical impacts of acidic load derived from AS soils and drained peatlands is necessary for land use planning and sustainable water management of river basins affected by these soils. (orig.)

  9. The extremely high stability of carbofuran pesticide in acidic media

    Tomašević Anđelka V.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Environment friendly iron catalysts were applied in the decomposition reactions of some toxic compounds like phenol, methomyl and corbofuran pesticide. The applied catalytic processes belong to photo-Fenton reactions. Heterogeneous iron catalysts showed significant activity in phenol and methomyl conversion, however, these catalysts were completely inactive in destruction of carbofuran molecule, even in the catalytic reaction promoted with UV light at high temperature.

  10. Comparing the Efficacy of High and Low Doses of Vitamin A in Prevention of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

    Majid Mahallei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD is one of the most common serious squeal of preterm infants. It involves approximately one quarter of infants with birth weight less than 1500 grams and 30% of less than 1000 grams. Vitamin A has been shown to reduce BPD rate. We compared efficacy of low and high doses of vitamin A for prevention of BPD in very low birth weight preterm infants. Materials and Methods In a randomized clinical trial, 120 preterm infants with gestation age 32 weeks or less and birth weight less than 1,500 grams were enrolled in the study. Group A (n=60 received 1,500 IU vitamin A intramuscularly three times per week and group B (n=60 received 5,000 IU vitamin A intramuscularly 3 times/week. Vitamin A was continued for 4 weeks in all patients. Oxygen dependency at age 28 days after birth and at 36 weeks’ postmenstrual age was determined in all studied infants. Results The mean gestation age and birth weight in group A was 29.2 ± 2.1 weeks and 1095 ± 211 gr and in group B 28.7 ± 2.1week and 1147 ± 218 grams (P>0.05. Moderate to severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia was detected in 6 (10% neonates in group A and 13(21.6% infants in group B, P= 0.09. Mortality rate was 4 (6.6% infants in group A and 3 (5% patients in group B (P>0.05. Conclusion In our study, high and low doses of vitamin A were similar with respect to the BPD, intra-ventricular hemorrhage, and retinopathy of prematurity and total number of days for hospital stay in very low birth weight preterm infants.

  11. Leakage of high active liquid waste into the thermowell of HALW evaporator (4/4). Repair work for leakage prevention

    Leakage of high active liquid waste into the thermowell of High Active Liquid Waste (HALW) Evaporator was confirmed when thermometers were replaced in Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant. We estimate that the cause of the leakage is tunnel corrosion at the bottom cap of the thermowell due to high temperature at the bottom of the evaporator. This paper deals with the repair work for the leakage prevention. (author)

  12. Initial impact of the Fast Track prevention trial for conduct problems: I. The high-risk sample. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group.

    1999-10-01

    Fast Track is a multisite, multicomponent preventive intervention for young children at high risk for long-term antisocial behavior. Based on a comprehensive developmental model, intervention included a universal-level classroom program plus social skills training, academic tutoring, parent training, and home visiting to improve competencies and reduce problems in a high-risk group of children selected in kindergarten. At the end of Grade 1, there were moderate positive effects on children's social, emotional, and academic skills; peer interactions and social status; and conduct problems and special-education use. Parents reported less physical discipline and greater parenting satisfaction/ease of parenting and engaged in more appropriate/consistent discipline, warmth/positive involvement, and involvement with the school. Evidence of differential intervention effects across child gender, race, site, and cohort was minimal. PMID:10535230

  13. Preventing AVF thrombosis: the rationale and design of the Omega-3 fatty acids (Fish Oils and Aspirin in Vascular access OUtcomes in REnal Disease (FAVOURED study

    Rosman Johan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haemodialysis (HD is critically dependent on the availability of adequate access to the systemic circulation, ideally via a native arteriovenous fistula (AVF. The Primary failure rate of an AVF ranges between 20–54%, due to thrombosis or failure of maturation. There remains limited evidence for the use of anti-platelet agents and uncertainty as to choice of agent(s for the prevention of AVF thrombosis. We present the study protocol for a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial examining whether the use of the anti-platelet agents, aspirin and omega-3 fatty acids, either alone or in combination, will effectively reduce the risk of early thrombosis in de novo AVF. Methods/Design The study population is adult patients with stage IV or V chronic kidney disease (CKD currently on HD or where HD is planned to start within 6 months in whom a planned upper or lower arm AVF is to be the primary HD access. Using a factorial-design trial, patients will be randomised to aspirin or matching placebo, and also to omega-3 fatty acids or matching placebo, resulting in four treatment groups (aspirin placebo/omega-3 fatty acid placebo, aspirin/omega-3 fatty acid placebo, aspirin placebo/omega-3 fatty acid, aspirin/omega-3 fatty acid. Randomisation will be achieved using a dynamic balancing method over the two stratification factors of study site and upper versus lower arm AVF. The medication will be commenced pre-operatively and continued for 3 months post surgery. The primary outcome is patency of the AVF at three months after randomisation. Secondary outcome measures will include functional patency at six and twelve months, primary patency time, secondary (assisted patency time, and adverse events, particularly bleeding. Discussion This multicentre Australian and New Zealand study has been designed to determine whether the outcome of surgery to create de novo AVF can be improved by the use of aspirin and/or omega-3 fatty

  14. An outpatient multifactorial falls prevention intervention does not reduce falls in high-risk elderly Danes

    Vind, Ane B; Andersen, Hanne E; Pedersen, Kirsten D;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of multifactorial fall prevention in community-dwelling people aged 65 and older in Denmark. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled clinical trial. SETTING: Geriatric outpatient clinic at Glostrup University Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred ninety-two elderly people......% CI 0.81-1.79), frequent falls (OR=0.97, 95% CI=0.60-1.56), or injurious falls (OR=0.97, 95% CI=0.57-1.62). CONCLUSION: A program of multifactorial fall prevention aimed at elderly Danish people experiencing at least one injurious fall was not effective in preventing further falls....

  15. Pollution prevention for process engineers

    Richardson, P.E.; Scheiner, B.J.; Lanzetta, F. Jr. [eds.

    1996-12-31

    Topics covered at the conference include: concepts and policies of pollution prevention; acid mine drainage; water treatment; pollution prevention - energy minerals; precious metal processing; applications of biotechnologies; emerging technologies for pollution prevention; and fertilizer industry.

  16. Dietary α-linolenic acid-rich flaxseed oil prevents against alcoholic hepatic steatosis via ameliorating lipid homeostasis at adipose tissue-liver axis in mice

    Wang, Meng; Zhang, Xiao-Jing; Feng, Kun; He, Chengwei; Li, Peng; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Su, Huanxing; Wan, Jian-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Low levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in serum and liver tissue biopsies are the common characteristics in patients with alcoholic liver disease. The α-linolenic acid (ALA) is a plant-derived n-3 PUFA and is rich in flaxseed oil. However, the impact of ALA on alcoholic fatty liver is largely unknown. In this study, we assessed the potential protective effects of ALA-rich flaxseed oil (FO) on ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis and observed that dietary FO supplementation effectively attenuated the ethanol-induced hepatic lipid accumulation in mice. Ethanol exposure stimulated adipose lipolysis but reduced fatty acid/lipid uptake, which were normalized by FO. Our investigations into the corresponding mechanisms demonstrated that the ameliorating effect of FO might be associated with the lower endoplasmic reticulum stress and normalized lipid metabolism in adipose tissue. In the liver, alcohol exposure stimulated hepatic fatty acid uptake and triglyceride synthesis, which were attenuated by FO. Additionally, dietary FO upregulated plasma adiponectin concentration, hepatic adiponectin receptor 2 expression, and the activation of hepatic adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase. Collectively, dietary FO protects against alcoholic hepatic steatosis by improving lipid homeostasis at the adipose tissue-liver axis, suggesting that dietary ALA-rich flaxseed oil might be a promising approach for prevention of alcoholic fatty liver. PMID:27220557

  17. Caries prevention in high-risk preschool children in the United States

    Autio-Gold, J. (Jaana)

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Dental caries is a common infectious disease affecting young children living in low-income families in the United States. Efficacious, safe, feasible and cost-effective caries prevention methods for these children are essential. Several studies have shown the efficacy of fluoride varnish and xylitol to improve the oral health of children. The efficiency of caries prevention programs including the use of fluoride varnish or xylitol chewing gum in early childhood has not been w...

  18. EQUIPping High School Students. Effects of a universal prevention program on antisocial behavior

    Van der Velden, F.

    2010-01-01

    Aggression and delinquency among youth form a major social concern, since adolescent externalizing problem behavior is associated with immediate and lasting problems throughout life. In response, there has been a surge of research investigating preventive strategies aiming to reduce these problem behaviors among adolescents. EQUIP for Educators (EFE) is one of those prevention programs, teaching youth (grades 5-8) to think and act responsibly. The program is based on cognitive-behavioral theo...

  19. Use of Tranexamic acid is a cost effective method in preventing blood loss during and after total knee replacement

    Umer Chaudhry Muhammad

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & Purpose Allogenic blood transfusion in elective orthopaedic surgery is best avoided owing to its associated risks. Total knee replacement often requires blood transfusion, more so when bilateral surgery is performed. Many strategies are currently being employed to reduce the amount of peri-operative allogenic transfusions. Anti-fibrinolytic compounds such as aminocaproic acid and tranexamic acid have been used systemically in perioperative settings with promising results. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of tranexamic acid in reducing allogenic blood transfusion in total knee replacement surgery. Methodology This was a retrospective cohort study conducted on patients undergoing total knee replacement during the time period November 2005 to November 2008. Study population was 99 patients, of which 70 underwent unilateral and 29 bilateral knee replacement. Forty-seven patients with 62 (49.5% knees (group-I had received tranexamic acid (by surgeon preference while the remaining fifty-two patients with 66 (51.5% knees (group-II had did not received any tranexamic acid either pre- or post-operatively. Results The mean drop in the post-operative haemoglobin concentration in Group-II for unilateral and bilateral cases was 1.79 gm/dl and 2.21 gm/dl, with a mean post-operative drainage of 1828 ml (unilateral and 2695 ml (bilateral. In comparison, the mean drop in the post-op haemoglobin in Group-I was 1.49 gm/dl (unilateral and 1.94 gm/dl (bilateral, with a mean drainage of 826 ml (unilateral and 1288 ml (bilateral (p-value Interpretation Tranexamic acid is effective in reducing post-operative drainage and requirement of blood transfusion after knee replacement.

  20. 中国酸雨概况及防治对策探讨%Discuss on Present Situation and Countermeasures for Acid Rain Prevention and Control in China

    刘萍; 夏菲; 潘家永; 陈益平; 彭花明; 陈少华

    2011-01-01

    中国受酸雨影响的地区已占国土面积的30%,已成为继欧州和北美之后世界第三大酸雨区。中国的酸雨为典型的硫酸型,其空间分布主要呈现以南方酸雨比北方严重,城市酸雨比郊区严重的特点。酸雨令中国农林业、畜牧业、水产养殖业、建筑业等都遭受了巨大的损失,如不采取果断有效的控制措施,由此所造成的大气污染及环境酸化将进一步加剧。本文系统阐述了中国酸雨的成因特点、现状及其危害,并根据中国酸雨的实际情况,结合国家制定的控制目标,提出了具体的防治对策。%The problem of acid rain has become an important environmental problem at present. The areas which have been affected by acid rain in our country have reached 30% of the total land area, making China the world's third largest acid rain areas nest to Europe and North America. The acid rain of China has the characteristics, including typical sulfuric acid type, more serious in south than in north in spatial distribution, more serious in cities than in suburban areas. Acid rain has inflicted great losses on agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, aquaculture and construction. Without decisive and effective controlling measures, air pollution and environment acidification which made by acid rain will be further intensified, furthermore, it will bring greater threat to Chinese environment which is already in heavy burden. This paper describes the characteristics, situation and harms of acid rain. According to the actual situation of acid rain in China and combined with the control targets set by government, specific prevention and control countermeasures were proposed.

  1. A comprehensive evaluation of food fortification with folic acid for the primary prevention of neural tube defects

    Lam Angeline

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Periconceptional use of vitamin supplements containing folic acid reduces the risk of a neural tube defect (NTD. In November 1998, food fortification with folic acid was mandated in Canada, as a public health strategy to increase the folic acid intake of all women of childbearing age. We undertook a comprehensive population based study in Newfoundland to assess the benefits and possible adverse effects of this intervention. Methods This study was carried out in women aged 19–44 years and in seniors from November 1997 to March 1998, and from November 2000 to March 2001. The evaluation was comprised of four components: I Determination of rates of NTDs; II Dietary assessment; III Blood analysis; IV Assessment of knowledge and use of folic acid supplements. Results The annual rates of NTDs in Newfoundland varied greatly between 1976 and 1997, with a mean rate of 3.40 per 1,000 births. There was no significant change in the average rates between 1991–93 and 1994–97 (relative risk [RR] 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.76–1.34. The rates of NTDs fell by 78% (95% CI 65%–86% after the implementation of folic acid fortification, from an average of 4.36 per 1,000 births during 1991–1997 to 0.96 per 1,000 births during 1998–2001 (RR 0.22, 95% CI 0.14–0.35. The average dietary intake of folic acid due to fortification was 70 μg/day in women aged 19–44 years and 74 μg/day in seniors. There were significant increases in serum and RBC folate levels for women and seniors after mandatory fortification. Among seniors, there were no significant changes in indices typical of vitamin B12 deficiencies, and no evidence of improved folate status masking haematological manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency. The proportion of women aged 19–44 years taking a vitamin supplement containing folic acid increased from 17% to 28%. Conclusions Based on these findings, mandatory food fortification in Canada should continue at the

  2. FATTY ACIDS PROFILE IN A HIGH CELL DENSITY CULTURE OF ARACHIDONIC ACID-RICH PARIETOCHLORIS INCISA (TREBOUXIOPHYCEAE,CHLOROPHYTA) EXPOSED TO HIGH PFD

    2002-01-01

    The changes in arachidonic acid (AA) and fatty acids profiles along the growth curve of Parietochloris incisa, a coccoid snow green alga, were studied in a 2.8 cm light-path flat photobioreactor, exposed to strong photon flux density [PFD, 2400 μEmol/(m2*s)]. Sixteen fatty acids were identified by gas chromatography showing that AA was the dominant fatty acid (33%-41%) followedby linoleic acid (17%-21%). AA content was closely investigated with respect tototal fatty acids (TFA), ash free dry weight (AFDW) of cell mass as well as total culture content. These parameters were influenced significantly in a similar manner by culture growth phase, i.e., slightly decreasing in the lag period, gradually increasing in the logarithmic phase, becoming maximal at the early stationary phase, starting to decrease at the late stationary phase, sharply dropping at the decline phase. The increase in AA per culture volume during the logarithmic phase was not only associated with the increase in AFDW but also connected with a corresponding increase in AA/TFA, TFA/AFDW as well as AA/AFDW. The sharp decrease in AA content of the culture during the decline phase was mainly due to the decrease in AA/TFA, TFA/AFDW and AA/AFDW, although AFDW declined only a smallextent. Maximal AA concentration, obtained at the early stationary phase, was 900 mg/L culture volume, and the average daily net increase of AA during 9 days logarithmic growth was 1.7 g/(m2*day). Therefore, harvesting prior to the declinephase in a batch culture, or at steady state in continuous culture mode seems best for high AA production. The latter possibility was also further confirmed bycontinuous culture with 5 gradients of harvesting rate. ``

  3. Preventive measures to prevent loss to follow-up in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART): implementing a strategy in Ziguinchor (Casamance, Senegal) in 2014.

    Randé, H; Rouffy, D

    2016-05-01

    Since 2010, the Pharmacie et Aide Humanitaire (PAH) in Casamance (Senegal) has been maintaining a software package (Tacojo) that allows monthly monitoring of the distribution of treatment to every patient with HIV infection receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We used this program to set up measures to prevent the loss to follow-up of patients receiving HAART. Our involvement focused on two main areas. First, each patient is routinely contacted after inclusion, to help us to understand the patient's experience of the disease and the treatment. This process aims to improve adherence to the treatment. Then, all patients who miss an appointment are routinely contacted by telephone within seven days of that appointment. The goal is to understand the reasons for the absence and to encourage patients to continue their treatment. Despite the lack of distance due to the relative newness of this program, these preventive measures have shown hopeful results (80% of the patients came back after a call). It would be interesting to apply it in a sustainable manner and in more medical facilities. PMID:27412981

  4. High-fat-induced intestinal permeability dysfunction associated with altered fecal bile acids

    Lotta K Stenman; Reetta Holma; Riitta Korpela

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate whether high-fat-feeding is associated with increased intestinal permeability via alterations in bile acid metabolism.METHODS:Male C57B1/6J mice were fed on a high-fat (n =26) or low-fat diet (n =24) for 15 wk.Intestinal permeability was measured from duodenum,jejunum,ileum and colon in an Ussing chamber system using 4 kDa FITC-labeled dextran as an indicator.Fecal bile acids were analyzed with gas chromatography.Segments of jejunum and colon were analyzed for the expression of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF).RESULTS:Intestinal permeability was significantly increased by high-fat feeding in jejunum (median 0.334 for control vs 0.393 for high-fat,P =0.03) and colon (0.335 for control vs 0.433 for high-fat,P =0.01),but not in duodenum or ileum.The concentration of nearly all identified bile acids was significantly increased by high-fat feeding (P < 0.001).The proportion of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in all bile acids was decreased (1.4% ± 0.1% in high-fat vs 2.8% ± 0.3% in controls,P < 0.01) and correlated inversely with intestinal permeability (r =-0.72,P =0.01).High-fat feeding also increased jejunal FXR expression,as well as TNF expression along the intestine,especially in the colon.CONCLUSION:High-fat-feeding increased intestinal permeability,perhaps by a mechanism related to bile acid metabolism,namely a decreased proportion of fecal UDCA and increased FXR expression.

  5. Extended duration of prehydration does not prevent nephrotoxicity or delayed drug elimination in high-dose methotrexate infusions

    Mikkelsen, Torben Stamm; Mamoudou, Aissata Diop; Tuckuviene, Ruta;

    2014-01-01

    Alkalized hydration is used as supportive care to prevent renal toxicity during infusions with high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX). In children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the hydration is commonly initiated 4 hours before start of the methotrexate (MTX) infusion. To test if longer durati...

  6. Effect of Social Cognitive Theory-Based HIV Education Prevention Program among High School Students in Nanjing, China

    Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Liying; Mao, Rong; Zhao, Qun; Stanton, Bonita

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate potential preventive effects of a cultural adaption of the Focus on Kids (FOK) program among Chinese adolescents through a quasi-experimental intervention trial in Nanjing, China. High school students were assigned to either experimental groups (n = 140) or control groups (n = 164) by schools (with three schools…

  7. The Prevention of Depression and Anxiety in a Sample of High-Risk Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Dobson, Keith S.; Hopkins, Jamie Ahnberg; Fata, Ladan; Scherrer, Martin; Allan, Lauren C.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) techniques in preventing depression and anxiety in a group of adolescent high school students with elevated risk for developing emotional disorders. Students were screened using a measure of depression severity and clinical interview. Following screening procedures,…

  8. Fruit juice drinks prevent endogenous antioxidant response to high-fat meal ingestion.

    Miglio, Cristiana; Peluso, Ilaria; Raguzzini, Anna; Villaño, Deborah V; Cesqui, Eleonora; Catasta, Giovina; Toti, Elisabetta; Serafini, Mauro

    2014-01-28

    High-fat meals (HFM) induce metabolic stress, leading to the activation of protective mechanisms, including inflammation and endogenous antioxidant defences. In the present study, we investigated the effects of antioxidant-rich fruit juice drinks on the endogenous antioxidant response induced by HFM. In a double-blind, cross-over design (10 d washout), fourteen overweight volunteers were randomly assigned to one of the following interventions: HFM+500 ml placebo beverage (HFM-PB, free from fruit); HFM+500 ml antioxidant beverage 1 (HFM-AB1; apple, grape, blueberry and pomegranate juices and grape skin, grape seed and green tea extracts); HFM+500 ml antioxidant beverage 2 (HFM-AB2; pineapple, black currant and plum juices). HFM-PB consumption increased the plasma levels of thiols (SH) (4 h, Ptrapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) (4 h, PTRAP (2 h, P< 0·001) and urinary ferric reducing antioxidant power (0-8 h, P< 0·01) were increased by HFM-AB1 consumption, the drink with the highest in vitro antioxidant capacity, but not by HFM-AB2 consumption. In urine, UA levels were significantly increased from basal levels after the consumption of HFM-PB and HFM-AB2. However, neither of the beverages increased the urinary excretion of UA with respect to the placebo beverage. In conclusion, the increase in UA and SH levels induced by HFM as part of an endogenous antioxidant response to postprandial stress can be prevented by the concomitant ingestion of antioxidant-rich fruit juice drinks. PMID:23930843

  9. Phosphoric acid doped imidazolium polysulfone membranes for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Yang, Jingshuai; Li, Qingfeng; Jensen, Jens Oluf;

    2012-01-01

    A novel acid–base polymer membrane is prepared by doping of imidazolium polysulfone with phosphoric acid for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Polysulfone is first chloromethylated, followed by functionalization of the chloromethylated polysulfone with alkyl imidazoles i.......e. methyl (MePSU), ethyl (EtPSU) and butyl (BuPSU) imidazoliums, as revealed by 1H NMR spectra. The imidazolium polysulfone membranes are then doped with phosphoric acid and used as a proton exchange membrane electrolyte in fuel cells. An acid doping level of about 10–11mol H3PO4 per mole of the imidazolium...

  10. Regiospecific Analysis of Marine Oil Triacylglycerols Using Boric Acid High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography

    ANDO, Yasuhiro; Haba, Yusuke; Takase, Kiwamu; Sakai, Shinya

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a smaller-sized procedure for regiospecific analysis of triacylglycerols (TAG) using boric acid high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). Cod liver/mackerel, bonito head, and seal oils TAG (2mg) were partially hydrolyzed by ethyl magnesium bromide, and resulting 1(3)-and 2-monoacylglycerols (MAG) were isolated by the HPTLC. Fatty acids of the 1(3)-and 2-MAG were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). Positional distributions of fatty acids in TAG observed f...

  11. Muramic Acid Measurements for Bacterial Investigations in Marine Environments by High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography

    Mimura, Toru; Romano, Jean-Claude

    1985-01-01

    Muramic acid, a constituent of procaryotic cell walls, was assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography in samples from several marine environments (water column, surface microlayer, and sediment) and a bacterial culture. It is used as a microbial biomass indicator. The method gave a good separation of muramic acid from interfering compounds with satisfactory reproducibility. A pseudomonad culture had a muramic acid content of 4.7 × 10−10 to 5.3 × 10−10 μg per cell during growth. In natural...

  12. Bile Acids Reduce Endocytosis of High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) in HepG2 Cells

    Clemens Röhrl; Karin Eigner; Stefanie Fruhwürth; Herbert Stangl

    2014-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) transports lipids to hepatic cells and the majority of HDL-associated cholesterol is destined for biliary excretion. Cholesterol is excreted into the bile directly or after conversion to bile acids, which are also present in the plasma as they are effectively reabsorbed through the enterohepatic cycle. Here, we provide evidence that bile acids affect HDL endocytosis. Using fluorescent and radiolabeled HDL, we show that HDL endocytosis was reduced in the presence...

  13. Replacing 32 Proline Residues by a Noncanonical Amino Acid Results in a Highly Active DNA Polymerase

    Holzberger, Bastian; Marx, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Protein engineering may be achieved by rational design, directed evolution-based methods, or computational protein design. Mostly these methods make recourse to the restricted pool of the 20 natural amino acids. With the ability to introduce different new kinds of functionalities into proteins, the use of noncanonical amino acids became a promising new method in protein engineering. Here, we report on the generation of a multifluorinated DNA polymerase. DNA polymerases are highly dynamic enzy...

  14. Hyaluronic Acid Gel Injection to Prevent Thermal Injury of Adjacent Gastrointestinal Tract during Percutaneous Liver Radiofrequency Ablation

    Hasegawa, Takaaki, E-mail: hasegawat@clin.medic.mie-u.ac.jp; Takaki, Haruyuki; Miyagi, Hideki; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Uraki, Junji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Fujimori, Masashi; Sakuma, Hajime; Yamakado, Koichiro [Mie University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated the safety, feasibility, and clinical utility of hyaluronic acid gel injection to separate the gastrointestinal tract from the tumor during liver radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Eleven patients with liver tumors measuring 0.9-3.5 cm (mean {+-} standard deviation, 2.1 {+-} 0.8 cm) that were adjacent to the gastrointestinal tracts received RFA after the mixture of hyaluronic acid gel and contrast material (volume, 26.4 {+-} 14.5 mL; range, 10-60 mL) was injected between the tumor and the gastrointestinal tract under computed tomographic-fluoroscopic guidance. Each tumor was separated from the gastrointestinal tract by 1.0-1.5 cm (distance, 1.2 {+-} 0.2 cm) after injection of hyaluronic acid gel, and subsequent RFA was performed without any complications in all patients. Although tumor enhancement disappeared in all patients, local tumor progression was found in a patient (9.1 %, 1 of 11) during the follow-up of 5.5 {+-} 3.2 months (range, 0.4-9.9 months). In conclusion, hyaluronic acid gel injection is a safe and useful technique to avoid thermal injury of the adjacent gastrointestinal tract during liver RFA.

  15. Hyaluronic Acid Gel Injection to Prevent Thermal Injury of Adjacent Gastrointestinal Tract during Percutaneous Liver Radiofrequency Ablation

    This study evaluated the safety, feasibility, and clinical utility of hyaluronic acid gel injection to separate the gastrointestinal tract from the tumor during liver radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Eleven patients with liver tumors measuring 0.9–3.5 cm (mean ± standard deviation, 2.1 ± 0.8 cm) that were adjacent to the gastrointestinal tracts received RFA after the mixture of hyaluronic acid gel and contrast material (volume, 26.4 ± 14.5 mL; range, 10–60 mL) was injected between the tumor and the gastrointestinal tract under computed tomographic–fluoroscopic guidance. Each tumor was separated from the gastrointestinal tract by 1.0–1.5 cm (distance, 1.2 ± 0.2 cm) after injection of hyaluronic acid gel, and subsequent RFA was performed without any complications in all patients. Although tumor enhancement disappeared in all patients, local tumor progression was found in a patient (9.1 %, 1 of 11) during the follow-up of 5.5 ± 3.2 months (range, 0.4–9.9 months). In conclusion, hyaluronic acid gel injection is a safe and useful technique to avoid thermal injury of the adjacent gastrointestinal tract during liver RFA

  16. Genetic engineering of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 for rapid and high-yield production of vanillin from ferulic acid.

    Graf, Nadja; Altenbuchner, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Vanillin is one of the most important flavoring agents used today. That is why many efforts have been made on biotechnological production from natural abundant substrates. In this work, the nonpathogenic Pseudomonas putida strain KT2440 was genetically optimized to convert ferulic acid to vanillin. Deletion of the vanillin dehydrogenase gene (vdh) was not sufficient to prevent vanillin degradation. Additional inactivation of a molybdate transporter, identified by transposon mutagenesis, led to a strain incapable to grow on vanillin as sole carbon source. The bioconversion was optimized by enhanced chromosomal expression of the structural genes for feruloyl-CoA synthetase (fcs) and enoyl-CoA hydratase/aldolase (ech) by introduction of the strong tac promoter system. Further genetic engineering led to high initial conversion rates and molar vanillin yields up to 86% within just 3 h accompanied with very low by-product levels. To our knowledge, this represents the highest productivity and molar vanillin yield gained with a Pseudomonas strain so far. Together with its high tolerance for ferulic acid, the developed, plasmid-free P. putida strain represents a promising candidate for the biotechnological production of vanillin. PMID:24136472

  17. Enhanced Amelioration of High-Fat Diet-Induced Fatty Liver by Docosahexaenoic Acid and Lysine Supplementations

    Hsin-Yu Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty liver disease is the most common pathological condition in the liver. Here, we generated high-fat diet-(HFD- induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in mice and tested the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and lysine during a four-week regular chow (RCfeeding. Our results showed that 1% lysine and the combination of 1% lysine + 1% DHA reduced body weight. Moreover, serum triglyceride levels were reduced by 1% DHA and 1% lysine, whereas serum alanine transaminase activity was reduced by 1% DHA and 1% DHA + 0.5% lysine. Switching to RC reduced hepatic lipid droplet accumulation, which was further reduced by the addition of DHA or lysine. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of hepatic proinflammatory cytokines were suppressed by DHA and combinations of DHA + lysine, whereas the mRNA for the lipogenic gene, acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1, was suppressed by DHA. In the gonadal adipose tissues, combinations of DHA and lysine inhibited mRNA expression of lipid metabolism-associated genes, including ACC1, fatty acid synthase, lipoprotein lipase, and perilipin. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that, in conjunction with RC-induced benefits, supplementation with DHA or lysine further ameliorated the high-fat diet-induced NAFLD and provided an alternative strategy to treat, and potentially prevent, NAFLD.

  18. Studies on high γ-aminobutyric acid-producing monascus purpureus which breeding with heavy ion beam radiation

    γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) is a kind of nonprotein amino acid, which is reported to antihypertension, tranquilization, improve liver function, prevent obesity and avoid senile dementia, etc., and is an important effective component in health products. In this study, Monascus Purpureus spores were radiated with 96 MeV/u, LET=28.12 keV/μm 12C6+ ion beams. Doses were set as 20, 50 and 80 Gy, respectively. The experiments were run as follows: preparation of monospore suspension → irradiated with heavy ion beam → diluted and spread on dish → screening and stored in inclined plane → shaking culture → GABA extraction → GABA concentration determined by paper chromatography. One stable high productive strain HQ06 was obtained in this study. The content of GABA in HQ06 was 2.50±0.04 mg/ml, 3.7±1.7% higher than that in control (which was 2.41±0.03 mg/ml). Results showed that it is feasible for breeding high GABA producing strains with heavy ion beam radiation, and the heavy ion beam is a kind of effective mutation source. Further studies should be done for breeding much higher productive strains to satisfy the demands of industry. (authors)

  19. Mitoprotective antioxidant EUK-134 stimulates fatty acid oxidation and prevents hypertrophy in H9C2 cells.

    Purushothaman, Sreeja; Nair, R Renuka

    2016-09-01

    Oxidative stress is an important contributory factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases like hypertension-induced hypertrophy. Mitochondrion is the major source of reactive oxygen species. Hence, protecting mitochondria from oxidative damage can be an effective therapeutic strategy for the prevention of hypertensive heart disease. Conventional antioxidants are not likely to be cardioprotective, as they cannot protect mitochondria from oxidative damage. EUK-134 is a salen-manganese complex with superoxide dismutase and catalase activity. The possible role of EUK-134, a mitoprotective antioxidant, in the prevention of hypertrophy of H9C2 cells was examined. The cells were stimulated with phenylephrine (50 μM), and hypertrophy was assessed based on cell volume and expression of brain natriuretic peptide and calcineurin. Enhanced myocardial lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content, accompanied by nuclear factor-kappa B gene expression, confirmed the presence of oxidative stress in hypertrophic cells. Metabolic shift was evident from reduction in the expression of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. Mitochondrial oxidative stress was confirmed by the reduced expression of mitochondria-specific antioxidant peroxiredoxin-3 and enhanced mitochondrial superoxide production. Compromised mitochondrial function was apparent from reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. Pretreatment with EUK-134 (10 μM) was effective in the prevention of hypertrophic changes in H9C2 cells, reduction of oxidative stress, and prevention of metabolic shift. EUK-134 treatment improved the oxidative status of mitochondria and reversed hypertrophy-induced reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential. Supplementation with EUK-134 is therefore identified as a novel approach to attenuate cardiac hypertrophy and lends scope for the development of EUK-134 as a therapeutic agent in the management of human cardiovascular disease. PMID:27514538

  20. Ursolic acid protects monocytes against metabolic stress-induced priming and dysfunction by preventing the induction of Nox4

    Sarah L. Ullevig

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: UA protects THP-1 monocytes against dysfunction by suppressing metabolic stress-induced Nox4 expression, thereby preventing the Nox4-dependent dysregulation of redox-sensitive processes, including actin turnover and MAPK-signaling, two key processes that control monocyte migration and adhesion. This study provides a novel mechanism for the anti-inflammatory and athero- and renoprotective properties of UA and suggests that dysfunctional blood monocytes may be primary targets of UA and related compounds.

  1. Re-evaluating the Rose approach: comparative benefits of the population and high-risk preventive strategies

    Cooney, Marie-Therese; Dudina, Alexandra; Whincup, Peter; Capewell, Simon; Menotti, Alessandro; Jousilahti, Pekka; Njølstad, Inger; Oganov, Raphel; Thomsen, Troels; Tverdal, Aage; Wedel, Hans; Wilhelmsen, Lars; Graham, Ian

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Options for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, the greatest global cause of death, include population preventive measures (the Rose approach), or specifically seeking out and managing high-risk cases. However, the likely benefit of a population approach has been recently...... questioned. OBJECTIVE: To compare the estimated effects of population strategies at varying levels of population-wide risk factor reduction and high-risk strategies at varying rates of screening uptake on cardiovascular disease mortality. METHODS: Data (of 109 954 participants) were pooled from six European...... general population cohort studies [the high-risk cohorts from the SCORE (Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation) dataset]. The effects of various population and high-risk strategies for the reduction of risk factors were estimated by calculating the change in 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease mortality...

  2. Isolation and characterisation of high molecular weight ( sup 3 H)hyaluronic acid

    Chabrecek, P. (Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Inst. of Biotechnology); Soltes, L.; Kallay, Z. (Slovenska Akademia Vied, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Ustav Experimentalnej Farmakologie); Fugedi, A. (Slovenska Akademia, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Computing Centre)

    1990-10-01

    A high-performance gel permeation chromatographic separation method was developed for the isolation and characterisation of high molecular weight ({sup 3}H)hyaluronic acid. The molecular characteristics of the labelled sample were M{sub w}=3.92 x 10{sup 5} Da, M{sub w}/M{sub n}=1.55. (author).

  3. Isolation and characterisation of high molecular weight [3H]hyaluronic acid

    A high-performance gel permeation chromatographic separation method was developed for the isolation and characterisation of high molecular weight [3H]hyaluronic acid. The molecular characteristics of the labelled sample were Mw=3.92 x 105 Da, Mw/Mn=1.55. (author)

  4. High pressure sulfuric acid decomposition experiments for the sulfur-iodine thermochemical cycle.

    Velasquez, Carlos E; Reay, Andrew R.; Andazola, James C.; Naranjo, Gerald E.; Gelbard, Fred

    2005-09-01

    A series of three pressurized sulfuric acid decomposition tests were performed to (1) obtain data on the fraction of sulfuric acid catalytically converted to sulfur dioxide, oxygen, and water as a function of temperature and pressure, (2) demonstrate real-time measurements of acid conversion for use as process control, (3) obtain multiple measurements of conversion as a function of temperature within a single experiment, and (4) assess rapid quenching to minimize corrosion of metallic components by undecomposed acid. All four of these objectives were successfully accomplished. This report documents the completion of the NHI milestone on high pressure H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} decomposition tests for the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) thermochemical cycle project. All heated sections of the apparatus, (i.e. the boiler, decomposer, and condenser) were fabricated from Hastelloy C276. A ceramic acid injection tube and a ceramic-sheathed thermocouple were used to minimize corrosion of hot liquid acid on the boiler surfaces. Negligible fracturing of the platinum on zirconia catalyst was observed in the high temperature decomposer. Temperature measurements at the exit of the decomposer and at the entry of the condenser indicated that the hot acid vapors were rapidly quenched from about 400 C to less than 20 C within a 14 cm length of the flow path. Real-time gas flow rate measurements of the decomposition products provided a direct measurement of acid conversion. Pressure in the apparatus was preset by a pressure-relief valve that worked well at controlling the system pressure. However, these valves sometimes underwent abrupt transitions that resulted in rapidly varying gas flow rates with concomitant variations in the acid conversion fraction.

  5. Initial Impact of the Fast Track Prevention Trial for Conduct Problems: I. The High-Risk Sample

    1999-01-01

    Fast Track is a multisite, multicomponent preventive intervention for young children at high risk for long-term antisocial behavior. Based on a comprehensive developmental model intervention included a universal-level classroom program plus social skills training, academic tutoring, parent training, and home visiting to improve competencies and reduce problems in a high-risk group of children selected in kindergarten. At the end of Grade 1, there were moderate positive effects on children's s...

  6. Comparison of ramosetron's and ondansetron's preventive anti-emetic effects in highly susceptible patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy

    Lee, Jae-Woo; Park, Hye Jin; Choi, Juyoun; Park, So Jin; Kang, Hyoseok; Kim, Eu-Gene

    2011-01-01

    Background This study compared the preventive effects of ramosetron and ondansetron on postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in highly susceptible patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy. Methods In a prospective, randomized, double-blinded study, a total of 120 highly susceptible women (nonsmokers, those receiving opioid-based IV patient-controlled analgesia [PCA]) undergoing abdominal hysterectomy were included in the study. Patients were divided into 2 groups and each group received ...

  7. Prevention of venous thromboembolism after total knee replacement by high-dose aspirin or intermittent calf and thigh compression.

    McKenna, R; Galante, J; Bachmann, F.; Wallace, D.L.; Kaushal, P S; Meredith, P.

    1980-01-01

    A prospective study of patients undergoing total knee replacement was carried out by using a combination of 125I-fibrinogen scanning and phlebography, and showed a high incidence of venous thromboembolic disease (TE). Ventilation-perfusion lung scanning was performed to detect pulmonary emboli in most patients. High doses of aspirin and an intermittent low-pressure pneumatic compression device (IPCD) were effective, even in women, in preventing TE. Low doses of aspirin and placebo were equall...

  8. Determinants of Knowledge and Biosecurity Preventive Behaviors for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Risk Among Chinese Poultry Farmers.

    Cui, Bin; Liu, Zong Ping

    2016-06-01

    Biosecurity measures are the first line of defense against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) on farms. It is generally recognized that an individual's behavior can be influenced by the knowledge they possess. However, empirical study has not reported an association between poultry producers' awareness of HPAI symptoms and their actual biosecurity actions. The aim of this study is to classify knowledge items of HPAI by exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and to examine the determinants of different types of knowledge and the effect of different types of knowledge on biosecurity preventive behaviors (BPBs). The survey (n = 297) was conducted using a questionnaire to measure the level of awareness of items related to HPAI and the actual adoption of BPBs among poultry farmers in the Chinese province of Jiangsu. The EFA revealed three main types of knowledge, which were categorized as avian influenza (AI) epidemic characteristics, primary biosecurity preventive knowledge (basic biosecurity preventive knowledge against AI), and essential biosecurity preventive knowledge (crucial biosecurity preventive knowledge against infection of AI). Multivariate regression showed that only poultry farmers' awareness of essential biosecurity preventive knowledge was positively associated with their actual BPBs. Additionally, educational attainment, number of years of experience raising poultry, farming operation size, and training were associated both with BPB and most of the knowledge factors or knowledge items. Training of existing poultry farmers is probably a feasible scheme; furthermore, the training should focus on the essential biosecurity preventive knowledge. On the other hand, policy initiatives to encourage large-scale poultry farming while discouraging small-scale backyard poultry husbandry would be an effective method of improving the management standards of rural poultry farming. PMID:27309291

  9. Knowledge about transmission and prevention of HIV/AIDS among th e high risk groups (HRG population of Ahmedabad city.

    Dr. Puwar Bhavna T

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV epidemic in India is concentrated in populations with high-risk behaviour. So if knowledge about HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention among these people is improved, then it may help in controlling the epidemic. Objectives 1 .To assess knowledge about HIV/AIDS transmission among different HRGs population. 2 . To assess knowledge about myths related to HIV/AIDS among different HRGs population. 3 . To assess knowledge about HIV/AIDS prevention among different HRGs population. Methodology A Cross sectional study was conducted amongst 3125 HRGs (high risk groups comprising of IDUs (Injectable Drug Users, Female Sex workers (FSWs, MSMs(Male having Sex with Males and Single Male Migrants(SMMs of Ahmedabad during April - July 2010. Results Mean age of the study population was 28.69± 8.2 yrs .About 85% HRGs knew about HIV and 76% about AIDS. Knowledge about HIV/AIDS transmission was highest for sexual route among HRGs and same was poor for all routes among MSMs. Regarding myths surrounding the disease, correct information was found among more than half for sharing clothes and bathroom and living/eating together and in 81% for hand shake and 34% for mosquito bite .About half of HRGs knew about all major modes of prevention. Conclusions Good knowledge about transmission and prevention of HIV/AIDS among HRGs is essential to change the high risk behaviour so in this context extensive work needs to be done among HRGs specially MSMs

  10. Failure of old and new anticoagulants to prevent ischemic stroke in high-risk atrial fibrillation: a case report.

    Bilora, Franca; Adamo, Angelo; Pomerri, Fabio; Prandoni, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    Rivaroxaban is an oral anticoagulant that acts as a direct, competitive factor Xa inhibitor. Large randomized clinical trials have shown that, at a daily dose of 20 mg, Rivaroxaban is at least as effective as dose-adjusted warfarin for the prevention of stroke or other embolic complications in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF). The safety and efficacy of combining Rivaroxaban with an antiplatelet agent for secondary stroke prevention has not been established. We report the case of an elderly patient with permanent AF and coronary heart disease, who had already suffered an ischemic stroke while on warfarin treatment, and was consequently switched to treatment with an association of Rivaroxaban and Aspirin. Her CHA2DS2-VASc score was 9. The patient developed a severe recurrent disabling ischemic stroke. This case goes to show that the novel direct anticoagulants may fail to prevent recurrent stroke in patients at particularly high risk, even when associated with antiplatelet drugs. PMID:27228488

  11. Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid and Eicosapentaenoic Acid Influence Liver Triacylglycerol and Insulin Resistance in Rats Fed a High-Fructose Diet

    Gabriela Salim de Castro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the benefits of different amounts of omega-3 (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish oil (FO on lipid metabolism, insulin resistance and gene expression in rats fed a high-fructose diet. Male Wistar rats were separated into two groups: Control (C, n = 6 and Fructose (Fr, n = 32, the latter receiving a diet containing 63% by weight fructose for 60 days. After this period, 24 animals from Fr group were allocated to three groups: FrFO2 (n = 8 receiving 63% fructose and 2% FO plus 5% soybean oil; FrFO5 (n = 8 receiving 63% fructose and 5% FO plus 2% soybean oil; and FrFO7 (n = 8 receiving 63% fructose and 7% FO. Animals were fed these diets for 30 days. Fructose led to an increase in liver weight, hepatic and serum triacylglycerol, serum alanine aminotransferase and HOMA1-IR index. These alterations were reversed by 5% and 7% FO. FO had a dose-dependent effect on expression of genes related to hepatic β-oxidation (increased and hepatic lipogenesis (decreased. The group receiving the highest FO amount had increased markers of oxidative stress. It is concluded that n-3 fatty acids may be able to reverse the adverse metabolic effects induced by a high fructose diet.

  12. An outpatient multifactorial falls prevention intervention does not reduce falls in high-risk elderly Danes

    Vind, Ane B; Andersen, Hanne E; Pedersen, Kirsten D;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of multifactorial fall prevention in community-dwelling people aged 65 and older in Denmark. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled clinical trial. SETTING: Geriatric outpatient clinic at Glostrup University Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred ninety-two elderly people......% CI 0.81-1.79), frequent falls (OR=0.97, 95% CI=0.60-1.56), or injurious falls (OR=0.97, 95% CI=0.57-1.62). CONCLUSION: A program of multifactorial fall prevention aimed at elderly Danish people experiencing at least one injurious fall was not effective in preventing further falls......., mean age 74, 73.7%women, who had visited the emergency department or had been hospitalized due to a fall. INTERVENTION: Identification of general medical, cardiovascular, and physical risk factors for falls and individual intervention in the intervention group. Participants in the control group...

  13. ‘‘The Internet is a Mask’’: High School Students’ Suggestions for Preventing Cyberbullying

    Leandra N. Parris

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Interactions through technology have an important impact on today’s youth. While some of these interactions are positive, there are concerns regarding students engaging in negative interactions like cyberbullying behaviors and the negative impact these behaviors have on others. The purpose of the current study was to explore participant suggestions for both students and adults for preventing cyberbullying incidents. Methods: Forty high school students participated in individual, semi-structured interviews. Participant experiences and perceptions were coded using constant comparative methods to illustrate ways in which students and adults may prevent cyberbullying from occurring within their school and community. Results: Students reported that peers would benefit from increasing online security, as well as becoming more aware of their cyber-surroundings. Regarding adult-provided prevention services, participants often discussed that there is little adults can do to reduce cyberbullying. Reasons included the difficulties in restricting online behaviors or providing effective consequences. However, some students did discuss the use of in-school curricula while suggesting that adults blame people rather than technology as potential ways to prevent cyberbullying. Conclusion: Findings from the current study indicate some potential ways to improve adult efforts to prevent cyberbullying. These strategies include parent/teacher training in technology and cyberbullying, interventions focused more on student behavior than technology restriction, and helping students increase their online safety and awareness.

  14. Preeclampsia prevention

    Vitorino Modesto Santos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Colombia and Brazil are developing countries where pregnancy-related hypertensive disorders and associated conditions constitute major concerns in public health area. Calcium plus conjugated linoleic acid used by pregnant adolescents had preventive effect on PE, but the prevention did not occur with utilization of calcium alone. After implementation of Colombian prenatal care program based on the bio-psychosocial model, maternal mortality and the rate of PE reduced in 23% and 22%, respectively. Late postpartum eclampsia, is the onset of seizuress more than 48 hours, but less than four weeks after delivery. This severe condition may occur without antecedent of PE. Lower maternal mortality due to preeclampsia/ eclampsia can follow implementation of prenatal programs based on BPSM, and use of calcium plus conjugated linoleic acid

  15. Conjugated linoleic acid prevents ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice by modulating both osteoclastogenesis and osteoblastogenesis

    Rahman, Md Mizanur; Fernandes, Gabriel; Williams, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency is associated with severe morbidity and mortality. Beneficial effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on bone mineral density (BMD) have been reported in mice, rats and humans, but the effect of long term CLA supplementation against ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice and the mechanisms underlying this effect have not been studied yet. Eight weeks old ovariectomized (Ovx) and sham operated C57BL/6 mice were fed either a diet containin...

  16. Protocatechuic Acid Prevents oxLDL-Induced Apoptosis by Activating JNK/Nrf2 Survival Signals in Macrophages

    Rosaria Varì; Beatrice Scazzocchio; Carmela Santangelo; Carmelina Filesi; Fabio Galvano; Massimo D’Archivio; Roberta Masella; Claudio Giovannini

    2015-01-01

    Protocatechuic acid (PCA), one of the main metabolites of complex polyphenols, exerts numerous biological activities including antiapoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and antiatherosclerotic effects. Oxidised LDL have atherogenic properties by damaging arterial wall cells and inducing p53-dependent apoptosis in macrophages. This study was aimed at defining the molecular mechanism responsible for the protective effects of PCA against oxidative and proapoptotic damage exerted by oxLDL in J774 A.1 mac...

  17. The prevention of peritoneal adhesions by in-situ cross-linking hydrogels of hyaluronic acid and cellulose derivatives

    Ito, Taichi; Yeo, Yoon; Highley, Christopher B.; Bellas, Evangelia; Benitez, Carlos A; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2006-01-01

    Postoperative peritoneal adhesions can cause pelvic pain, infertility, and potentially lethal bowel obstruction. We have designed and synthesized injectable hydrogels that are formed by mixing hydrazide-modified hyaluronic acid (HA) with aldehyde-modified versions of cellulose derivatives such as carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC), and methyl cellulose (MC). Gelation of these hydrogels occurred in less than 1 min, and had higher shear moduli than that of HA-HA ...

  18. A novel approach to the protection of cocoa beans by preventing free fatty acid formation under hermetic storage

    Navarro, S; Navarro, H. (Hipólito); Finkelman, S.; Jonfia-Essien, W. A.

    2010-01-01

    Hermetic storage has provided a successful storage method for the protection of dry cocoa beans by replacing fumigants for insect control and for quality preservation. Hermetic storage is achieved in specially constructed flexible plastic structures and is based on the principle of generation of an oxygendepleted, carbon dioxide-enriched interstitial atmosphere caused by the respiration of the living organisms in the ecological system of a sealed storage. An increase in free fatty acids (FFA...

  19. Medium-chain fatty acids and plant-derived antimicrobials to prevent Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens

    Hermans, David; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Van Deun, Kim; Martel, An; Verlinden, Marc; Garmyn, An; Heyndrickx, Marc; Pasmans, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial-mediated diarrhoeal disease worldwide. Because poultry products are a major source of C. jejuni infections in humans, efforts should be taken to develop strategies to decrease Campylobacter colonization of poultry during primary production. Organic acids and plant-derived antimicrobial compounds possess marked bactericidal activity toward C. jejuni in vitro and might therefore have potential as feed additives to control C. jejuni colo...

  20. Mechanism of Corrosion by Naphthenic Acids and Organosulfur Compounds at High Temperatures

    Jin, Peng

    Due to the law of supply and demand, the last decade has witnessed a skyrocketing in the price of light sweet crude oil. Therefore, refineries are increasingly interested in "opportunity crudes", characterized by their discounted price and relative ease of procurement. However, the attractive economics of opportunity crudes come with the disadvantage of high acid/organosulfur compound content, which could lead to corrosion and even failure of facilities in refineries. However, it is generally accepted that organosulfur compounds may form protective iron sulfide layers on the metal surface and decrease the corrosion rate. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the corrosive property of crudes at high temperatures, the mechanism of corrosion by acids (naphthenic acids) in the presence of organosulfur compounds, and methods to mitigate its corrosive effect. In 2004, an industrial project was initiated at the Institute for Corrosion and Multiphase Technology to investigate the corrosion by naphthenic acids and organosulfur compounds. In this project, for each experiment there were two experimentation phases: pretreatment and challenge. In the first pretreatment phase, a stirred autoclave was filled with a real crude oil fraction or model oil of different acidity and organosulfur compound concentration. Then, the stirred autoclave was heated to high temperatures to examine the corrosivity of the oil to different materials (specimens made from CS and 5% Cr containing steel were used). During the pretreatment, corrosion product layers were formed on the metal surface. In the second challenge phase, the steel specimens pretreated in the first phase were inserted into a rotating cylinder autoclave, called High Velocity Rig (HVR). The HVR was fed with a high-temperature oil solution of naphthenic acids to attack the iron sulfide layers. Based on the difference of specimen weight loss between the two steps, the net corrosion rate could be calculated and the protectiveness

  1. High contents of very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in different moss species.

    Beike, Anna K; Jaeger, Carsten; Zink, Felix; Decker, Eva L; Reski, Ralf

    2014-02-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important cellular compounds with manifold biological functions. Many PUFAs are essential for the human diet and beneficial for human health. In this study, we report on the high amounts of very long-chain (vl) PUFAs (≥C₂₀) such as arachidonic acid (AA) in seven moss species. These species were established in axenic in vitro culture, as a prerequisite for comparative metabolic studies under highly standardized laboratory conditions. In the model organism Physcomitrella patens, tissue-specific differences in the fatty acid compositions between the filamentous protonema and the leafy gametophores were observed. These metabolic differences correspond with differential gene expression of fatty acid desaturase (FADS)-encoding genes in both developmental stages, as determined via microarray analyses. Depending on the developmental stage and the species, AA amounts for 6-31 %, respectively, of the total fatty acids. Subcellular localization of the corresponding FADS revealed the endoplasmic reticulum as the cellular compartment for AA synthesis. Our results show that vlPUFAs are highly abundant metabolites in mosses. Standardized cultivation techniques using photobioreactors along with the availability of the P. patens genome sequence and the high rate of homologous recombination are the basis for targeted metabolic engineering in moss. The potential of producing vlPUFAs of interest from mosses will be highlighted as a promising area in plant biotechnology. PMID:24170342

  2. Efficient fermentation of xylose to ethanol at high formic acid concentrations by metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Matsuda, Fumio [Kobe Univ., Hyogo (Japan). Organization of Advanced Science and Technology; Sung, Kyung-mo; Sanda, Tomoya; Kondo, Akihiko [Kobe Univ., Hyogo (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Science and Engineering

    2011-05-15

    Recombinant yeast strains highly tolerant to formic acid during xylose fermentation were constructed. Microarray analysis of xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain overexpressing endogenous xylulokinase in addition to xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase from Pichia stipitis revealed that upregulation of formate dehydrogenase genes (FDH1 and FDH2) was one of the most prominent transcriptional events against excess formic acid. The quantification of formic acid in medium indicated that the innate activity of FDH was too weak to detoxify formic acid. To reinforce the capability for formic acid breakdown, the FDH1 gene was additionally overexpressed in the xylose-metabolizing recombinant yeast. This modification allowed the yeast to rapidly decompose excess formic acid. The yield and final ethanol concentration in the presence of 20 mM formic acid is as essentially same as that of control. The fermentation profile also indicated that the production of xylitol and glycerol, major by-products in xylose fermentation, was not affected by the upregulation of FDH activity. (orig.)

  3. Efficient production of propionic acid through high density culture with recycling cells of Propionibacterium acidipropionici.

    Liu, Zhen; Ge, Yongsheng; Xu, Jing; Gao, Chao; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore propionic acid production via high density culture of Propionibacterium acidipropionici and recycling of cells. Results showed that final cells of P. acidipropionici from high density culture still had high metabolic activity for reuse. Using our process, 75.9gl(-1) propionic acid was produced, which was 1.84-fold of that in fed-batch fermentation with low cell density (41.2gl(-1)); the corresponding productivity was 100.0% higher than that in fed-batch fermentation with low cell density (0.16gl(-1)h(-1)). This bioprocess may have potential for the industrial production of propionic acid. PMID:27318164

  4. Preventing stroke

    Stroke - prevention; CVA - prevention; cerebral vascular accident - prevention; TIA - prevention, transient ischemic attack - prevention ... live a longer, healthier life. This is called preventive care. An important way to help prevent stroke ...

  5. Tellurium-123m-labeled isosteres of palmitoleic and oleic acids show high myocardial uptake

    These studies were directed at determining if the telluro fatty acids prepared by the isosteric replacement of the Δ9-double bonds of oleic and palmitoleic acids with /sup 123m/Te would show heart uptake in rats. The isostere of palmitoleic acid, 9-tellurapentadecanoic acid(II), was prepared by basic hydrolysis of the product formed by the coupling of /sup 123m/Te-sodium hexyl tellurol with methyl-8-bromooctadecanoate. Similarly, the isostere of oleic acid, 9-telluraheptadecanoic acid(IV), was prepared by the same route beginning with the reaction of /sup 123m/Te-sodium octyl tellurol with methyl-8-bromooctadecanoate. Both /sup 123m/Te-(II) and /sup 123m/Te-(IV) showed remarkably high heart uptake in rats (2 to 3% dose/gm) ten minutes after intravenous administration, and the heart/blood ratios were high (20-30/1). Finally, the hearts of rats injected with /sup 123m/Te-(IV) have been clearly imaged with a rectilinear scanner

  6. Continuous Ethanol Production with a Membrane Bioreactor at High Acetic Acid Concentrations

    Päivi Ylitervo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The release of inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid from lignocellulosic raw materials during hydrolysis is one of the main concerns for 2nd generation ethanol production. The undissociated form of acetic acid can enter the cell by diffusion through the plasma membrane and trigger several toxic effects, such as uncoupling and lowered intracellular pH. The effect of acetic acid on the ethanol production was investigated in continuous cultivations by adding medium containing 2.5 to 20.0 g·L−1 acetic acid at pH 5.0, at a dilution rate of 0.5 h−1. The cultivations were performed at both high (~25 g·L−1 and very high (100–200 g·L−1 yeast concentration by retaining the yeast cells inside the reactor by a cross-flow membrane in a membrane bioreactor. The yeast was able to steadily produce ethanol from 25 g·L−1 sucrose, at volumetric rates of 5–6 g·L−1·h−1 at acetic acid concentrations up to 15.0 g·L−1. However, the yeast continued to produce ethanol also at a concentration of 20 g·L−1 acetic acid but at a declining rate. The study thereby demonstrates the great potential of the membrane bioreactor for improving the robustness of the ethanol production based on lignocellulosic raw materials.

  7. Study on Formation,Haz-ards, Prevention and Control of Acid Rain%酸雨的形成、危害和防控研究

    祝晓红

    2014-01-01

    Acid rain refers to the me-teoric water which the pH value is lower than 5.60, and it’s serious environmental pollution phenomenon, which affects hu-man life and property security, the pro-tection of ecological environment and e-conomic and social development.The harm of acid rain is growing, mainly due to the increase of sulfide , nitrogen ox-ides and other toxic gases of the air. To reduce the hazards of acid rain,there must be take steps to prevent and control of pollution emissions from the source, and strengthen the development and uti-lization of new energy.%酸雨是指pH小于5.60的大气降水,是一种严重的环境污染现象,其直接影响着人类生命财产安全、生态环境保护、经济社会发展等。大气酸雨问题日益严重,造成酸雨的主要原因是大气中二氧化硫、氮氧化物等有毒气体含量的增加。要减少酸雨的危害,必须从污染源的排放进行防控,同时加强对新能源的开发和利用。

  8. Formate supplementation enhances folate-dependent nucleotide biosynthesis and prevents spina bifida in a mouse model of folic acid-resistant neural tube defects.

    Sudiwala, Sonia; De Castro, Sandra C P; Leung, Kit-Yi; Brosnan, John T; Brosnan, Margaret E; Mills, Kevin; Copp, Andrew J; Greene, Nicholas D E

    2016-07-01

    The curly tail mouse provides a model for neural tube defects (spina bifida and exencephaly) that are resistant to prevention by folic acid. The major ct gene, responsible for spina bifida, corresponds to a hypomorphic allele of grainyhead-like 3 (Grhl3) but the frequency of NTDs is strongly influenced by modifiers in the genetic background. Moreover, exencephaly in the curly tail strain is not prevented by reinstatement of Grhl3 expression. In the current study we found that expression of Mthfd1L, encoding a key component of mitochondrial folate one-carbon metabolism (FOCM), is significantly reduced in ct/ct embryos compared to a partially congenic wild-type strain. This expression change is not attributable to regulation by Grhl3 or the genetic background at the Mthfd1L locus. Mitochondrial FOCM provides one-carbon units as formate for FOCM reactions in the cytosol. We found that maternal supplementation with formate prevented NTDs in curly tail embryos and also resulted in increased litter size. Analysis of the folate profile of neurulation-stage embryos showed that formate supplementation resulted in an increased proportion of formyl-THF and THF but a reduction in proportion of 5-methyl THF. In contrast, THF decreased and 5-methyl THF was relatively more abundant in the liver of supplemented dams than in controls. In embryos cultured through the period of spinal neurulation, incorporation of labelled thymidine and adenine into genomic DNA was suppressed by supplemental formate, suggesting that de novo folate-dependent biosynthesis of nucleotides (thymidylate and purines) was enhanced. We hypothesise that reduced Mthfd1L expression may contribute to susceptibility to NTDs in the curly tail strain and that formate acts as a one-carbon donor to prevent NTDs. PMID:26924399

  9. A Novel and Highly Regioselective Synthesis of New Carbamoylcarboxylic Acids from Dianhydrides

    Adrián Ochoa-Terán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A regioselective synthesis has been developed for the preparation of a series of N,N′-disubstituted 4,4′-carbonylbis(carbamoylbenzoic acids and N,N′-disubstituted bis(carbamoyl terephthalic acids by treatment of 3,3′,4,4′-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (1 and 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (2 with arylalkyl primary amines (A-N. The carbamoylcarboxylic acid derivatives were synthesized with good yield and high purity. The specific reaction conditions were established to obtain carbamoyl and carboxylic acid functionalities over the thermodynamically most favored imide group. Products derived from both anhydrides 1 and 2 were isolated as pure regioisomeric compounds under innovative experimental conditions. The chemo- and regioselectivity of products derived from dianhydrides were determined by NMR spectroscopy and confirmed by density functional theory (DFT. All products were characterized by NMR, FTIR, and MS.

  10. MOF-Derived Tungstated Zirconia as Strong Solid Acids toward High Catalytic Performance for Acetalization.

    Wang, Peng; Feng, Jian; Zhao, Yupei; Wang, Shaobin; Liu, Jian

    2016-09-14

    A strong solid acid, tungstated zirconia (WZ), has been prepared first using tungstate immobilized UiO-66 as precursors through a "double-solvent" impregnation method under mild calcination temperature. With moderate W contents, the as-synthesized WZ catalysts possess a high density of acid sites, and the proper heat treatment also has facilely led to a bunch of oligomeric tungsten clusters on stabilized tetragonal ZrO2. The resultant solid acids show an improved catalytic performance toward the benzaldehyde's acetalization in comparison with traditional zirconium hydroxide-prepared WZ. Notably, due to large surface area and additionally introduced strong acid sites, the MOF-derived WZ catalysts afforded conversion up to 86.0%. The facile method endows the WZ catalysts with superior catalytic activities and excellent recyclability, thus opening a new avenue for preparation of metal oxide-based solid superacids and superbases. PMID:27557351

  11. Electrochemical assisted photocatalytic degradation of salicylic acid with highly ordered TiO2 nanotube electrodes

    To explore the kinetics of photoelectrocatalytic degradation of salicylic acid, one of the important PPCPs, highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays (NTs) were prepared by the electrochemical anodization and characterized with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. The effect of TiO2 NTs properties, bias potential, initial salicylic acid concentration and solution pH on the degradation efficiency was studied and carefully analyzed. The results revealed that the salicylic acid degradation follows quasi-first order kinetics in the photoelectrocatalytic process, and the fastest decay kinetics was achieved in acidic environment (pH 2). The result was further interpreted through the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It is confirmed that the electrochemical assisted photocatalysis is a synergetic approach to combat stable organic substances with improved efficiency.

  12. An Evaluation of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program's Effectiveness in a High School Setting

    Losey, Raymond Alan

    2009-01-01

    An ecological approach to bullying prevention is critical for the reduction of bullying and victimization. Any intervention implemented in a school to reduce bullying should include a variety of targets on all levels of the ecology and these interventions need to be sustainable by the school following introduction of the intervention. Schools are…

  13. Preventative therapies for healthy women at high risk of breast cancer

    Tamoxifen has been shown to reduce the risk of developing estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer by at least 50%, in both pre- and postmenopausal women. The current challenge is to find new agents with fewer side effects and to find agents that are specifically suitable for premenopausal women with ER-negative breast cancer. Other selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), such as raloxifene, arzoxifene, and lasofoxifene, have been shown to reduce the incidence of breast cancer by 50%–80%. SERMs are interesting agents for the prevention of breast cancer, but longer follow-up is needed for some of them for a complete risk–benefit profile of these drugs. Aromatase inhibitors have emerged as new drugs in the prevention setting for postmenopausal women. In the Mammary Prevention 3 (MAP3) trial, a 65% reduction in invasive breast cancer with exemestane was observed, and the Breast Cancer Intervention Study-II trial, which compared anastrozole with placebo, reported a 60% reduction in those cancers. Although SERMs and aromatase inhibitors have been proven to be excellent agents in the preventive setting specifically for postmenopausal women and ER-positive breast cancer, newer agents have to be found specifically for ER-negative breast cancers, which mostly occur in premenopausal women

  14. Suicide Prevention in the Schools: Guidelines for Middle and High School Settings. Second Edition

    Capuzzi, David

    2009-01-01

    In this book, David Capuzzi, a renowned expert on suicide, encourages suicide prevention in schools through the use of a clear and effective crisis management plan designed to identify and serve at-risk youth. His concise, step-by-step framework provides essential information for school counselors, administrators, and faculty on suicide…

  15. High reinfection rate after preventive chemotherapy for fishborne zoonotic trematodes in Vietnam

    Lier, Tore; Do, Dung Trung; Johansen, Maria Vang; Nguyen, Thi Hop; Dalsgaard, Anders; Asfeldt, Anne Mette

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization aims for complete morbidity control of fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) in endemic areas by 2020. The main intervention tool for achieving this goal is regular use of preventive chemotherapy by offering praziquantel to those at risk in endemic areas. The...

  16. EQUIPping High School Students. Effects of a universal prevention program on antisocial behavior

    Van der Velden, F.

    2010-01-01

    Aggression and delinquency among youth form a major social concern, since adolescent externalizing problem behavior is associated with immediate and lasting problems throughout life. In response, there has been a surge of research investigating preventive strategies aiming to reduce these problem be

  17. Topical Hyaluronic Acid vs. Standard of Care for the Prevention of Radiation Dermatitis After Adjuvant Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer: Single-Blind Randomized Phase III Clinical Trial

    Pinnix, Chelsea; Perkins, George H.; Strom, Eric A.; Tereffe, Welela; Woodward, Wendy; Oh, Julia L.; Arriaga, Lisa [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Munsell, Mark F. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Kelly, Patrick; Hoffman, Karen E.; Smith, Benjamin D.; Buchholz, Thomas A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Yu, T. Kuan, E-mail: tkyu@houstonprecisioncc.com [Houston Precision Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of an emulsion containing hyaluronic acid to reduce the development of {>=}Grade 2 radiation dermatitis after adjuvant breast radiation compared with best supportive care. Methods and Materials: Women with breast cancer who had undergone lumpectomy and were to receive whole-breast radiotherapy to 50 Gy with a 10- to 16-Gy surgical bed boost were enrolled in a prospective randomized trial to compare the effectiveness of a hyaluronic acid-based gel (RadiaPlex) and a petrolatum-based gel (Aquaphor) for preventing the development of dermatitis. Each patient was randomly assigned to use hyaluronic acid gel on the medial half or the lateral half of the irradiated breast and to use the control gel on the other half. Dermatitis was graded weekly according to the Common Terminology Criteria v3.0 by the treating physician, who was blinded as to which gel was used on which area of the breast. The primary endpoint was development of {>=}Grade 2 dermatitis. Results: The study closed early on the basis of a recommendation from the Data and Safety Monitoring Board after 74 of the planned 92 patients were enrolled. Breast skin treated with the hyaluronic acid gel developed a significantly higher rate of {>=}Grade 2 dermatitis than did skin treated with petrolatum gel: 61.5% (40/65) vs. 47.7% (31/65) (p = 0.027). Only 1ne patient developed Grade 3 dermatitis using either gel. A higher proportion of patients had worse dermatitis in the breast segment treated with hyaluronic acid gel than in that treated with petrolatum gel at the end of radiotherapy (42% vs. 14%, p = 0.003). Conclusion: We found no benefit from the use of a topical hyaluronic acid-based gel for reducing the development of {>=}Grade 2 dermatitis after adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer. Additional studies are needed to determine the efficacy of hyaluronic acid-based gel in controlling radiation dermatitis symptoms after they develop.

  18. Scalable preparation of high purity rutin fatty acid esters following enzymatic synthesis

    Lue, Bena-Marie; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing;

    2010-01-01

    Investigations into expanded uses of modified flavonoids are often limited by the availability of these high purity compounds. As such, a simple, effective and relatively fast method for isolation of gram quantities of both long and medium chain fatty acid esters of rutin following scaled......-up biosynthesis reactions was established. Acylation reactions of rutin and palmitic or lauric acids were efficient in systems containing dried acetone and molecular sieves, yielding from 70–77% bioconversion after 96 h. Thereafter, high purity isolates (>97%) were easily obtained in significant quantities...

  19. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of naturally occurring D-amino acids in sake.

    Gogami, Yoshitaka; Okada, Kaori; Oikawa, Tadao

    2011-11-01

    We measured all of the D- and L-amino acids in 141 bottles of sakes using HPLC. We used two precolumn derivatization methods of amino acid enantiomer detection with o-phthalaldehyde and N-acetyl-L-cysteine, as well as (+)-1-(9-fluorenyl)ethyl chloroformate/1-aminoadamantane and one postcolumn derivatization method with o-phthalaldehyde and N-acetyl-L-cysteine. We found that the sakes contained the D-amino acids forms of Ala, Asn, Asp, Arg, Glu, Gln, His, Ile, Leu, Lys, Ser, Tyr, Val, Phe, and Pro. We were not able to detect D-Met, D-Thr D-Trp in any of the sakes analyzed. The most abundant D-Ala, D-Asp, and D-Glu ranged from 66.9 to 524.3 μM corresponding to relative 34.4, 12.0, and 14.6% D-enantiomer. The basic parameters that generally determine the taste of sake such as the sake meter value (SMV; "Nihonshudo"), acidity ("Sando"), amino acid value ("Aminosando"), alcohol content by volume, and rice species of raw material show no significant relationship to the D-amino acid content of sake. The brewing water ("Shikomimizu") and brewing process had effects on the D-amino acid content of the sakes: the D-amino acid contents of the sakes brewed with deep-sea water "Kaiyoushinosousui", "Kimoto yeast starter", "Yamahaimoto", and the long aging process "Choukijukusei" are high compared with those of other sakes analyzed. Additionally, the D-amino acid content of sakes that were brewed with the adenine auxotroph of sake yeast ("Sekishoku seishu kobo", Saccharomyces cerevisiae) without pasteurization ("Hiire") increased after storage at 25 °C for three months. PMID:21555255

  20. Algerian mint species: high performance thin layer chromatography quantitative determination of rosmarinic acid and in vitro inhibitory effects on linoleic acid peroxidation

    Brahmi Fatiha; Madani Khodir; Stévigny Caroline; Chibane Mohamed; Duez Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the quantitative paremeters of rosmarinic acid in Algerian mints, Mentha spicata L. (M. spicata), Mentha pulegium L. and Mentha rotundifolia (L.) Huds by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC)-densitometric method and screen the effects of these plant extracts on linoleic acid peroxidation. Methods: The analyses were performed on HPTLC silica gel 60 F254 plates with chloroform: acetone: formic acid (75:16.5:8.5, v/v) as the mobile phase....

  1. Effect of glutamic acid on broilers given submarginal crude protein with adequate essential amino acids using feeds high and low in potassium.

    Moran, E T; Stilborn, H L

    1996-01-01

    Broiler males were examined for their response to feeds containing CP 1 to 2% below levels advocated by NRC (1994) and when supplemented with L-glutamic acid. Crude protein and glutamic acid treatments were imposed in starting, growing, and finishing feeds over 7 wk with K at high and low levels likely to occur in practice (0.80 vs 0.65 to 0.55%). All feeds were formulated to be isocaloric (3.20 kcal ME/g) and satisfy NRC (1994) essential amino acid (EAA) minimum requirements. Improved live weight gain occurred during the first 6 wk with supplementation of glutamic acid to the low CP feed but not when intact protein per se was used to increase CP. A similar advantage in growth was obtained from glutamic acid in response to its addition at equivalence of 1 to 2% CP as well as when dietary adjustments maintained low CP. Response to altered K could not be interpreted because of concurrent differences in glutamic acid and AMEn intakes. High glutamic acid levels did not decrease abdominal fat unless CP increased concurrently, whereas carcass back bruising and drumstick deformations were relieved by supplemental glutamic acid independent of CP. Increased weight gain from glutamic acid was only evident with drumsticks and debris that included the back when carcasses were cone-deboned. Supplemental glutamic acid is believed to improve the rate of connective tissue formation during rapid growth. PMID:8650101

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus subtilis GXA-28, a Thermophilic Strain with High Productivity of Poly-γ-Glutamic Acid

    Zeng, Wei; Chen, Guiguang; Tang, Zhen; Wu, Hao; Shu, Lin; Liang, Zhiqun

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis GXA-28 is a thermophilic strain that can produce high yield and high molecular weight of poly-γ-glutamic acid under high temperature. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this strain, which may provide the genomic basis for the high productivity of poly-γ-glutamic acid.

  3. Effect of Lactic Acid Bacteria on Lipid Metabolism and Fat Synthesis in Mice Fed a High-fat Diet

    YONEJIMA, Yasunori; Ushida, Kazunari; Mori, Yoshiro

    2013-01-01

    Visceral fat accumulation is a major risk factor for the development of obesity-related diseases, including diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and arteriosclerosis. Stimulation of lipolytic activity in adipose tissue or inhibition of fat synthesis is one way to prevent these serious diseases. Lactic acid bacteria have an anti-obesity effect, but the mechanisms are unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of the administration of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus gasseri NT) on lipid...

  4. High coercivity of oleic acid capped CoFe2O4 nanoparticles at room temperature.

    Limaye, Mukta V; Singh, Shashi B; Date, Sadgopal K; Kothari, Deepti; Reddy, V Raghavendra; Gupta, Ajay; Sathe, Vasant; Choudhary, Ram Jane; Kulkarni, Sulabha K

    2009-07-01

    High coercivity (9.47 kOe) has been obtained for oleic acid capped chemically synthesized CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticles of crystallite size approximately 20 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the formation of spinel phase in these nanoparticles. Thermal annealing at various temperatures increases the particle size and ultimately shows bulk like properties at particle size approximately 56 nm. The nature of bonding of oleic acid with CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticles and amount of oleic acid in the sample is determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogrvimetric analysis, respectively. The Raman analysis suggests that the samples are under strain due to capping molecules. Cation distribution in the sample is studied using Mossbauer spectroscopy. Oleic acid concentration dependent studies show that the amount of capping molecules plays an important role in achieving such a high coercivity. On the basis of above observations, it has been proposed that very high coercivity (9.47 kOe) is the result of the magnetic anisotropy, strain, and disorder of the surface spins developed by covalently bonded oleic acid to the surface of CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticles. PMID:19522478

  5. Preventing neonatal group B streptococcal infection. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis in some high-risk situations.

    2011-03-01

    Group B streptococci (GBS) are the leading cause of life-threatening neonatal bacterial infections in developed countries. The newborn is initially colonised during passage through the birth canal. Maternal vaginal carriage is usually asymptomatic. How safe and effective are strategies aimed at preventing severe neonatal GBS infection? To answer these questions, we conducted a review of the literature using the standard Prescrire methodology. In France, Group B streptococci are present in the vagina of about 10-15% of women towards the end of pregnancy. Mother-to-child transmission can occur when the membranes rupture, or during delivery. About one-third of infants born to mothers who carry Group B streptococci are colonised at birth. GBS colonisation rarely affects the newborn's health but, during the first 7 days of life, about 3% of colonised children develop a serious early-onset infection, particularly meningitis, which may be fatal or leave sequelae. Late-onset infections (after 7 days of life) do not appear to be linked to intrapartum colonisation. The risk of early neonatal GBS infection increases in cases of preterm delivery, maternal fever during delivery, and membrane rupture more than 18 hours before delivery. These situations account for 50% to 75% of early neonatal GBS infections. Several randomised trials suggest that intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis in women who carry Group B streptococci, from the onset of labour until delivery, reduces the risk of early-onset neonatal GBS infection from 4.7% to 0.4% (p = 0.02). Other antibiotic strategies are less well assessed or appear to be less effective. Penicillin G (benzylpenicillin) is the antibiotic of choice, while penicillin A (ampicillin or amoxicillin) is an alternative. In case of penicillin allergy, erythromycin or clindamycin are generally active against Group B streptococci and carry no particular risks for the infant. The greatest risk associated with penicillin, especially injectable forms, is

  6. SFH2 regulates fatty acid synthase activity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is critical to prevent saturated fatty acid accumulation in response to haem and oleic acid depletion

    Desfougères, Thomas; Ferreira, Thierry; Bergès, Thierry; Régnacq, Matthieu

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a facultative anaerobic organism. In anaerobiosis, sustained growth relies on the presence of exogenously supplied unsaturated fatty acids and ergosterol that yeast is unable to synthesize in the absence of oxygen or upon haem depletion. In the absence of exogenous supplementation with unsaturated fatty acid, a net accumulation of saturated fatty acid (SFA) is observed that induces significant modification of phospholipid profile [1]. ...

  7. Evidence that the branched-chain amino acid L-valine prevents exercise-induced release of 5-HT in rat hippocampus.

    Gomez-Merino, D; Béquet, F; Berthelot, M; Riverain, S; Chennaoui, M; Guezennec, C Y

    2001-07-01

    The branched-chain amino acid L-valine competes with tryptophan for transport into the brain and has previously been shown to decrease brain 5-HT synthesis. The purpose of this study was to assess, using a combined venous catheterization and in vivo microdialysis method, the effect of pre-exercise L-valine administration on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) metabolism in the ventral hippocampus of rats submitted to an acute intensive treadmill running (120 min at 25 m x min(-1) followed by 150 min of recovery). The presented results include measurement of extracellular tryptophan (TRP), the 5-HT precursor, and extracellular 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), the 5-HT metabolite. The data clearly demonstrate that exercise induces 5-HT release in the rat hippocampus: in control group, hippocampal 5-HT levels increase from 123.7 +/- 6.4% at the end of exercise to 133.9 +/- 6.4% after 60 min of recovery. Moreover, two hours of intensive running induced significant increases both in extracellular TRP levels (from 120 min of exercise to 30 min of recovery) and 5-HIAA levels (from 90 min of exercise to 90 min of recovery). Pre-exercise administration of L-valine prevents significantly the exercise-induced 5-HT release: 5-HT levels are maintained to baseline during exercise and recovery. With regard to the competitive effect of L-valine with TRP, we could observe a treatment-induced decrease in brain TRP levels (from 120 min of exercise to the end of recovery). Besides, L-valine does not prevent exercise-induced increase in 5-HIAA levels. The present study evidences that an acute intensive exercise stimulates 5-HT metabolism in the rat hippocampus, and that a pre-exercise administration of L-valine prevents, via a limiting effect on 5-HT synthesis, exercise-induced 5-HT release. This study provides some anwers to previous human and animal investigations, showing physiological and psychological benefits of branched-chain amino acids supplementation on performance. PMID:11510866

  8. Rapid simultaneous determination of amines and organic acids in citrus using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Uckoo, Ram M; Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K; Nelson, Shad D; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2011-01-15

    Rapid analytical method for the simultaneous separation and determination of amines and organic acids is a vital interest for quality control of citrus and their products. In the present study, a simultaneous high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the rapid separation of three amines and two organic acids was developed. Chromatographic separation of compounds was achieved using Xbridge C(18) column at ambient temperature, with an isocratic mobile phase of 3mM phosphoric acid at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). A photodiode array (PDA) detector was used to monitor the eluent at 223 nm and 254 nm with a total analysis time of 10 min. Extraction of amines and organic acids from citrus juice was optimized. The method was validated by tests of linearity, recovery, precision and ruggedness. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for amines and ascorbic acid were determined to be 5 ng and 9.8 ng, respectively. All calibration curves showed good linearity (R(2) ≥ 0.9999) within the test ranges. The recoveries of the amines and organic acids ranged between 84% and 117%. The identity of each peak was confirmed by mass spectral (MS) analysis. The developed method was successfully applied to analyze the content of amines and organic acids in six different species and two varieties of citrus. Results indicate that mandarin and Marrs sweet orange contain high level of amines, while pummelo and Rio Red grapefruit had high content of ascorbic acid (137-251 μg mL(-1)) and citric acid (5-22 mg mL(-1)). Synephrine was the major amine present in Clementine (114 μg mL(-1)) and Marrs sweet orange (85 μg mL(-1)). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on simultaneous separation and quantification of amines and organic acids in Marrs sweet orange, Meyer lemon, Nova tangerine, Clementine, Ugli tangelo and Wekiwa tangelo. PMID:21147342

  9. Observation of gaseous nitric acid production at a high-energy proton accelerator facility

    Kanda, Y; Nakajima, H

    2005-01-01

    High-energy protons and neutrons produce a variety of radionuclides as well as noxious and oxidative gases, such as ozone and nitric acid, in the air mainly through the nuclear spallation of atmospheric elements. Samples were collected from the surfaces of magnets, walls, and floors in the neutrino beamline tunnel and the target station of the KEK 12-GeV proton synchrotron facility by wiping surfaces with filter paper. Considerably good correlations were found between the amounts of nitrate and tritium and between those of nitrate and /sup 7/Be. This finding gives evidence that at high-energy proton facilities, nitric acid is produced in the radiolysis of air in beam- loss regions. Also, the nitric acid on the surfaces was found to be desorbed and tended to be more uniform throughout the tunnel due to air circulation. The magnitude of diminishing from the surfaces was in the order of tritium>nitrate>/sup 7/Be1).

  10. Observation of gaseous nitric acid production at a high-energy proton accelerator facility

    High-energy protons and neutrons produce a variety of radionuclides as well as noxious and oxidative gases, such as ozone and nitric acid, in the air mainly through the nuclear spallation of atmospheric elements. Samples were collected from the surfaces of magnets, walls, and floors in the neutrino beamline tunnel and the target station of the KEK 12-GeV proton synchrotron facility by wiping surfaces with filter paper. Considerably good correlations were found between the amounts of nitrate and tritium and between those of nitrate and 7Be. This finding gives evidence that at high-energy proton facilities, nitric acid is produced in the radiolysis of air in beam-loss regions. Also, the nitric acid on the surfaces was found to be desorbed and tended to be more uniform throughout the tunnel due to air circulation. The magnitude of diminishing from the surfaces was in the order of tritium>nitrate>7Be

  11. Biodiesel production from mixture of mahua and simarouba oils with high free fatty acids

    Jena, Prakash C.; Raheman, Hifjur; Prasanna Kumar, G.V.; Machavaram, Rajendra [Agricultural and Food Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2010-08-15

    A suitable process comprising acid pretreatment followed by main base transesterification reaction was developed to produce biodiesel from mixture of Mahua (M) and Simarouba (S) oils with high free fatty acids (FFA). The acid pretreatment reduced the high FFAs of the mixture of oils to around 1% which were then transesterified with methanol and KOH as catalyst at a reaction temperature of 60 C. A genetic algorithm coupled with artificial neural network (ANN-GA) model to obtain the best pretreatment process parameters for bringing down the FFA level of individual vegetable oils to around 1% was modified to include the wide range of oils and validated for mixtures of M and S oils. The quality of biodiesel produced was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC), which indicated above 90% ester conversion. The fuel properties of biodiesel were found to be comparable to diesel and were conforming to the latest biodiesel standards. (author)

  12. Effect of spinel content on the properties of phosphoric acid bonded high alumina castables

    Zichun Yang; Hongwei Duan; Lin Li; Shuqin Li; Wen Ni

    2003-01-01

    In order to study the effect of fused spinel on the properties of phosphoric acid bonded high alumina castables, samples with different contents of fused spinel were prepared. The results show that when the contents of the fused spinel are between 8% and 16% (mass fraction), the castables have good properties. The castables overcome the shortages of the phosphoric acid bonded high alumina castables with bauxite cement as a hardening promoter. The experiments demonstrate that most of the service properties of the castables with fused spinel are better than those of the normal phosphoric acid bonded castables which use bauxite cement as a hardening promoter. The examination of the materials indicates that free MgO inclusions in the spinel powder can promote the hardening of the castables.

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis IO-1, a Lactic Acid Bacterium That Utilizes Xylose and Produces High Levels of l-Lactic Acid

    Kato, Hiroaki; Shiwa, Yuh; Oshima, Kenshiro; Machii, Miki; Araya-Kojima, Tomoko; Zendo, Takeshi; Shimizu-Kadota, Mariko; Hattori, Masahira; Sonomoto, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi

    2012-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of Lactococcus lactis IO-1 (= JCM7638). It is a nondairy lactic acid bacterium, produces nisin Z, ferments xylose, and produces predominantly l-lactic acid at high xylose concentrations. From ortholog analysis with other five L. lactis strains, IO-1 was identified as L. lactis subsp. lactis.

  14. Basal omega-3 fatty acid status affects fatty acid and oxylipin responses to high-dose n3-HUFA in healthy volunteers

    Objective: Baseline concentrations of highly unsaturated omega-3 fatty acid (n3-HUFA) may influence the ability of dietary n3-HUFA to affect changes in concentrations of esterified fatty acids and their metabolites. This study evaluates the influence of basal n3-HUFA and n3-HUFA metabolite status ...

  15. Waste minimization/pollution prevention study of high-priority waste streams

    Although waste minimization has been practiced by the Metals and Ceramics (M ampersand C) Division in the past, the effort has not been uniform or formalized. To establish the groundwork for continuous improvement, the Division Director initiated a more formalized waste minimization and pollution prevention program. Formalization of the division's pollution prevention efforts in fiscal year (FY) 1993 was initiated by a more concerted effort to determine the status of waste generation from division activities. The goal for this effort was to reduce or minimize the wastes identified as having the greatest impact on human health, the environment, and costs. Two broad categories of division wastes were identified as solid/liquid wastes and those relating to energy use (primarily electricity and steam). This report presents information on the nonradioactive solid and liquid wastes generated by division activities. More specifically, the information presented was generated by teams of M ampersand C staff members empowered by the Division Director to study specific waste streams

  16. Designation of highly efficient catalysts for one pot conversion of glycerol to lactic acid

    Tao, Meilin; Dan Zhang; Guan, Hongyu; Huang, Guohui; Wang, Xiaohong

    2016-07-01

    Production of lactic acid from glycerol is a cascade catalytic procedure using multifunctional catalysts combined with oxidative and acidic catalytic sites. Therefore, a series of silver-exchanged phosphomolybdic acid catalysts (AgxH3‑xPMo12O40, x = 1 ~ 3, abbreviated as AgxPMo) was designed and applied in glycerol oxidation with O2 as an oxidant to produce lactic acid (LA) without adding any base. Among all, total silver exchanged phosphomolybdic acid (Ag3PMo) was found to be the most active one with LA selectivity of 93% at 99% conversion under mild conditions of 5 h at 60 °C. The exceptionally high efficiency was contributed to the generation of strong Lewis acid sites, enhanced redox potentials and water-tolerance. More importantly, Ag3PMo was tolerant in crude glycerol from biodiesel production. And the reaction mechanism was also discussed. Meanwhile, Ag3PMo acted as a heterogeneous catalyst for 12 recycles without loss of activity.

  17. Pump design and computation fluid dynamic analysis for high temperatrue sulfuric acid transfer system

    In this study, we proposed a newly designed sulfuric acid transfer system for the sulfur-iodine (SI) thermochemical cycle. The proposed sulfuric acid transfer system was evaluated using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis for investigating thermodynamic/hydrodynamic characteristics and material properties. This analysis was conducted to obtain reliable continuous operation parameters; in particular, a thermal analysis was performed on the bellows box and bellows at amplitudes and various frequencies (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 Hz). However, the high temperatures and strongly corrosive operating conditions of the current sulfuric acid system present challenges with respect to the structural materials of the transfer system. To resolve this issue, we designed a novel transfer system using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, Teflon[R]) as a bellows material for the transfer of sulfuric acid. We also carried out a CFD analysis of the design. The CFD results indicated that the maximum applicable temperature of PTFE is about 533 K (260 degrees Celsius), even though its melting point is around 600 K. This result implies that the PTFE is a potential material for the sulfuric acid transfer system. The CFD simulations also confirmed that the sulfuric acid transfer system was designed properly for this particular investigation.

  18. Designation of highly efficient catalysts for one pot conversion of glycerol to lactic acid.

    Tao, Meilin; Dan Zhang; Guan, Hongyu; Huang, Guohui; Wang, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    Production of lactic acid from glycerol is a cascade catalytic procedure using multifunctional catalysts combined with oxidative and acidic catalytic sites. Therefore, a series of silver-exchanged phosphomolybdic acid catalysts (AgxH3-xPMo12O40, x = 1 ~ 3, abbreviated as AgxPMo) was designed and applied in glycerol oxidation with O2 as an oxidant to produce lactic acid (LA) without adding any base. Among all, total silver exchanged phosphomolybdic acid (Ag3PMo) was found to be the most active one with LA selectivity of 93% at 99% conversion under mild conditions of 5 h at 60 °C. The exceptionally high efficiency was contributed to the generation of strong Lewis acid sites, enhanced redox potentials and water-tolerance. More importantly, Ag3PMo was tolerant in crude glycerol from biodiesel production. And the reaction mechanism was also discussed. Meanwhile, Ag3PMo acted as a heterogeneous catalyst for 12 recycles without loss of activity. PMID:27431610

  19. Resveratrol Prevents High Fluence Red Light-Emitting Diode Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Photoinhibition of Human Skin Fibroblast Migration.

    Andrew Mamalis

    Full Text Available Skin fibrosis is a significant medical problem that leads to a functional, aesthetic, and psychosocial impact on quality-of-life. Light-emitting diode-generated 633-nm red light (LED-RL is part of the visible light spectrum that is not known to cause DNA damage and is considered a safe, non-invasive, inexpensive, and portable potential alternative to ultraviolet phototherapy that may change the treatment paradigm of fibrotic skin disease.The goal of our study was to investigate the how reactive oxygen species (ROS free radicals generated by high fluence LED-RL inhibit the migration of skin fibroblasts, the main cell type involved in skin fibrosis. Fibroblast migration speed is increased in skin fibrosis, and we studied cellular migration speed of cultured human skin fibroblasts as a surrogate measure of high fluence LED-RL effect on fibroblast function. To ascertain the inhibitory role of LED-RL generated ROS on migration speed, we hypothesized that resveratrol, a potent antioxidant, could prevent the photoinhibitory effects of high fluence LED-RL on fibroblast migration speed.High fluence LED-RL generated ROS were measured by flow cytometry analysis using dihydrorhodamine (DHR. For purposes of comparison, we assessed the effects of ROS generated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 on fibroblast migration speed and the ability of resveratrol, a well known antioxidant, to prevent LED-RL and H2O2 generated ROS-associated changes in fibroblast migration speed. To determine whether resveratrol could prevent the high fluence LED-RL ROS-mediated photoinhibition of human skin fibroblast migration, treated cells were incubated with resveratrol at concentrations of 0.0001% and 0.001% for 24 hours, irradiated with high fluences LED-RL of 480, 640, and 800 J/cm2.High fluence LED-RL increases intracellular fibroblast ROS and decreases fibroblast migration speed. LED-RL at 480, 640 and 800 J/cm2 increased ROS levels to 132.8%, 151.0%, and 158.4% relative to matched

  20. Preventing mood and anxiety disorders in youth: a multi-centre RCT in the high risk offspring of depressed and anxious patients

    Nauta Maaike H; Festen Helma; Reichart Catrien G; Nolen Willem A; Stant A; Bockting Claudi LH; van der Wee Nic JA; Beekman Aartjan; Doreleijers Theo AH; Hartman Catharina A; de Jong Peter J; de Vries Sybolt O

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Anxiety and mood disorders are highly prevalent and pose a huge burden on patients. Their offspring is at increased risk of developing these disorders as well, indicating a clear need for prevention of psychopathology in this group. Given high comorbidity and non-specificity of intergenerational transmission of disorders, prevention programs should target both anxiety and depression. Further, while the indication for preventive interventions is often elevated symptoms, off...

  1. Selective oxidation of glycerol to formic acid in highly concentrated aqueous solutions with molecular oxygen using V-substituted phosphomolybdic acids

    Zhang, Jizhe

    2014-01-01

    Formic acid is an important commodity chemical as well as a promising medium for hydrogen storage and hydrogen production. In this paper, we report that formic acid can be produced through selective oxidation of glycerol, a low-cost by-product of biodiesel, by using vanadium-substituted phosphomolybdic acids as catalysts and molecular oxygen as the oxidant. Significantly, this catalytic system allows for high-concentration conversions and thus leads to exceptional efficiency. Specifically, 3.64 g of formic acid was produced from 10 g of glycerol/water (50/50 in weight) solution. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

  2. Creation of a high-yielding recombinant maize hybrid for the production of a microbicide to prevent HIV-1 transmission

    Eugenia Barros; Sydney W. Nelson

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use conventional breeding to increase the production in maize of the human monoclonal antibody 2G12, known to have potential therapeutic properties in the prevention of HIV-1 transmission. The recombinant antibody, together with a fluorescent marker, was introduced into two South African high-performing maize elite inbred lines by crossing them with a transgenic maize line that had been transformed with the monoclonal antibody 2G12. The effect of breeding to produ...

  3. SFH2 regulates fatty acid synthase activity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is critical to prevent saturated fatty acid accumulation in response to haem and oleic acid depletion.

    Desfougères, Thomas; Ferreira, Thierry; Bergès, Thierry; Régnacq, Matthieu

    2008-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a facultative anaerobic organism. Under anaerobiosis, sustained growth relies on the presence of exogenously supplied unsaturated fatty acids and ergosterol that yeast is unable to synthesize in the absence of oxygen or upon haem depletion. In the absence of exogenous supplementation with unsaturated fatty acid, a net accumulation of SFA (saturated fatty acid) is observed that induces significant modification of phospholipid profile [Ferreira, Régnacq, Alimardani, Moreau-Vauzelle and Bergès (2004) Biochem. J. 378, 899-908]. In the present paper, we focus on the role of SFH2/CSR1, a hypoxic gene related to SEC14 and its involvement in lipid metabolism upon haem depletion in the absence of oleic acid supplementation. We observed that inactivation of SFH2 results in enhanced accumulation of SFA and phospholipid metabolism alterations. It results in premature growth arrest and leads to an exacerbated sensitivity to exogenous SFA. This phenotype is suppressed in the presence of exogenous oleic acid, or by a controlled expression of FAS1, one of the two genes encoding FAS. We present several lines of evidence to suggest that Sfh2p and oleic acid regulate SFA synthase in yeast at different levels: whereas oleic acid acts on FAS2 at the transcriptional level, we show that Sfh2p inhibits fatty acid synthase activity in response to haem depletion. PMID:17803462

  4. Telmisartan prevents hepatic fibrosis and enzyme-altered lesions in liver cirrhosis rat induced by a choline-deficient L-amino acid-defined diet

    Rennin-angiotensin system is involved in liver fibrogenesis through activating hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Telmisartan (Tel) is an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, could function as a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ activator. Here we studied the effect of Tel on liver fibrosis, pre-neoplastic lesions in vivo and primary HSCs in vitro. In vivo study, we used the choline-deficient L-amino acid-defined (CDAA)-diet induced rat NASH model. The rats were fed the CDAA diet for 8 weeks to induce liver fibrosis and pre-neoplastic lesions, and then co-administrated with Tel for another 10 weeks. Tel prevented liver fibrogenesis and pre-neoplastic lesions by down-regulating TGFβ1 and TIMP-1, 2 and increasing MMP-13 expression. Tel inhibited HSCs activation and proliferation. These results suggested that Tel could be a promising drug for NASH related liver fibrosis

  5. Mitigation of naphthenate related production upsets in high TAN (Total Acid Number) crude oil

    Ostojic, Nik [Maersk Oil, Copenhagen (Denmark); Vijn, Pieter; Reiners, Robert [Champion Technologies Europe BV, Delden (Netherlands)

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes a strategy for prediction, evaluation and mitigation of calcium naphthenate related production problems. Developing fields with acidic crude in the North Sea, West Africa, Bohai Bay (China) and Brazil is becoming more common in recent years. The high acid crude contains a considerable amount of naphthenic acids, typically having a Total Acid Number (TAN) higher than 0.5 mg KOH/g. Formation of either hard type 'calcium naphthenate precipitates' or soft type 'sodium carboxylate/emulsions' during crude oil production can lead to severe flow assurance and separation problems. In severe cases this may lead to production shutdowns to clean-up the equipment. A number of different naphthenate mitigation approaches have been published but no one particular approach is considered to be the most efficient as it depends significantly on the particular field conditions. Initially, this problem was addressed by deploying large volumes of (usually organic) acid, but more recently high efficiency low dose naphthenate inhibitors have been introduced. For predicting naphthenate scaling potential, methods were developed to determine the concentration of 1230 Dalton naphthenic tetra acid (ARN acids) in either deposit or crude oil and this information can be used to locate and potentially isolate the problem to a certain reservoir. Also, methods were developed to design suitable low dose naphthenate inhibitors. As these inhibitors are field tested, monitoring is required to ensure the product is performing most efficiently. In cases of tight emulsions however, this is less difficult as the oil dehydration and water quality is affected instantly. Methods were developed to allow monitoring of the calcium naphthenate deposition in field trails, thus allow trending and evaluation of the chemicals performance. After detailed analyses and discussions of the developed methods, a North Sea case history is presented reviewing several years of treating

  6. Catalyst Degradation in High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Based on Acid Doped Polybenzimidazole Membranes

    Cleemann, Lars Nilausen; Buazar, F.; Li, Qingfeng; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Pan, Chao; Steenberg, T.; Dai, S.; Bjerrum, Niels J.

    2013-01-01

    Degradation of carbon supported platinum catalysts is a major failure mode for the long term durability of high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells based on phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole membranes. With Vulcan carbon black as a reference, thermally treated carbon black and...

  7. Effects of high night temperature and abscisic acid (ABA) on rice (Oryza sativa L.) physiology

    High night temperature (HNT) is known to decrease rice yields. The impact of abscisic acid (ABA) on plants has been the subject of many studies. However, little or no work has been carried out on rice response to ABA under HNT-stress conditions. This study determined the effects of ABA on rice leaf ...

  8. High specific activity 15-(p-[123I]Iodophenyl)pentadecanoic acid

    An improved labeling procedure for 15-(p-[123I]iodophenyl)pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) is reported. The exchange labeling yield was greater than 95%. The radiochemical yield is influenced by the presence of sodium. The major advantage of this method is that very high specific activity i.e. upto 190 mCi/mg labeled IPPA can be prepared. (author)

  9. Use of vitamin E to protect highly unsaturated fatty acids in poultry feeds

    Vitamin E can protect sensitive compounds from oxidative degradation but at high concentrations it acts as a prooxidant to accelerate oxidative degradation process. The addition of polyunsaturated acids to poultry feeds provides a straightforward approach to improve the nutritional quality of poultr...

  10. Effect of high pressure on peanut allergens in the presence of polyphenol oxidase and caffeic acid

    High pressure (HP) enhances enzymatic reactions. Because polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is an enzyme, and reduces IgE binding of peanut allergens in presence of caffeic acid (CA), we postulated that a further reduction in IgE binding can be achieved, using HP together with PPO and CA. Peanut extracts cont...

  11. [Simultaneous determination of pantothenic acid and D-panthenol in cosmetics by high performance liquid chromatography].

    Mao, Xiqin; Hu, Xia; Pan, Wei

    2010-11-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic method (HPLC) and sample pretreatment method were developed for the simultaneous determination of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) and D-panthenol (provitamin B5) in cosmetics with different matrices (including of creams, lotions, aqueous cosmetics, oily cosmetics, wax-based cosmetics, nail polish etc). A liquid-liquid extraction system composed of water and water-immiscible solvent was used to preliminarily separate the target components from other oil-soluble components and surfactants in cosmetics, then macromolecular water-soluble matrices in cosmetics were removed by coprecipitation with potassium ferrocyanide-zinc acetate precipitating agent, and then under acid condition, pantothenic acid and D-panthenol were enriched on a C18 solid-phase extraction sorbent. After the removal of other water-soluble impurities, target components were eluted by 40% methanol and then separated and quantitatively analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with external standard method. Good linear relationship was achieved in the concentration range of 0.1-10 microg/g for pantothenic acid and D-panthenol. The linear correlation coefficients were separately 0.998 9 and 0.999 6. The average recoveries of the target components in cosmetics were more than 90%. Limit of detection of the method was 30 microg/g and the limit of quantification was 100 microg/g. This method can be used to simultaneously determine pantothenic acid and D-panthenol in cosmetics. The results are accurate and reliable. PMID:21381423

  12. Bile acids reduce endocytosis of high-density lipoprotein (HDL in HepG2 cells.

    Clemens Röhrl

    Full Text Available High-density lipoprotein (HDL transports lipids to hepatic cells and the majority of HDL-associated cholesterol is destined for biliary excretion. Cholesterol is excreted into the bile directly or after conversion to bile acids, which are also present in the plasma as they are effectively reabsorbed through the enterohepatic cycle. Here, we provide evidence that bile acids affect HDL endocytosis. Using fluorescent and radiolabeled HDL, we show that HDL endocytosis was reduced in the presence of high concentrations of taurocholate, a natural non-cell-permeable bile acid, in human hepatic HepG2 and HuH7 cells. In contrast, selective cholesteryl-ester (CE uptake was increased. Taurocholate exerted these effects extracellularly and independently of HDL modification, cell membrane perturbation or blocking of endocytic trafficking. Instead, this reduction of endocytosis and increase in selective uptake was dependent on SR-BI. In addition, cell-permeable bile acids reduced HDL endocytosis by farnesoid X receptor (FXR activation: chenodeoxycholate and the non-steroidal FXR agonist GW4064 reduced HDL endocytosis, whereas selective CE uptake was unaltered. Reduced HDL endocytosis by FXR activation was independent of SR-BI and was likely mediated by impaired expression of the scavenger receptor cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36. Taken together we have shown that bile acids reduce HDL endocytosis by transcriptional and non-transcriptional mechanisms. Further, we suggest that HDL endocytosis and selective lipid uptake are not necessarily tightly linked to each other.

  13. High-Temperature Synthesis of Ordered Mesoporous Aluminosilicates from ZSM-5 Nanoseeds with Improved Acidic Properties

    Xuan Hoan Vu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ordered mesoporous SBA-15 analogs with different Si/Al ratios were successfully prepared in a two-step process from self-assembly of ZSM-5 nanoseeds at high temperature in mildly acidic media (473 K, pH 3.5. The obtained products were characterized as SAXS, XRD, N2 sorption, FTIR, TEM, NH3-TPD, AAS and ICP. The results show that the initial Si/Al molar ratio of ZSM-5 precursors strongly affects the final materials’ properties. A highly condensed, well-ordered mesoporous SBA-15 analog with improved hydrothermal stability and acidic properties can be prepared from low aluminum containing ZSM-5 precursors (Si/Al ≥ 20. Reducing the initial Si/Al molar ratio to 10, however, leads to the formation of a disordered mesoporous SBA-15 type material accompanied by degraded textural and acidic properties. The gas phase cracking of cumene, carried out as probe reaction to evaluate Brønsted acidity, reveals that an increased density of Brønsted acid sites has been achieved over the SBA-15 analogs compared to conventional Al-SBA-15 due to the preservation of zeolite building units in the mesopore walls of the SBA-15 analogs.

  14. Highly efficient organosolv fractionation of cornstalk into cellulose and lignin in organic acids.

    Shui, Tao; Feng, Shanghuan; Yuan, Zhongshun; Kuboki, Takashi; Xu, Chunbao Charles

    2016-10-01

    In this study, effects of fractionation solvents, catalysts, temperatures and residence time on yields, purity and chemical composition of the products were investigated at the solid/solvent ratio of 1:5 (g/g). It was revealed that mixture of acetic acid/formic acid/water at the ratio of 3:6:1 (v/v/v) resulted in crude cellulose and lignin products of relatively high purity. The use of HCl catalyst contributed to a high crude cellulose yield, while H2SO4 showed an adverse effect on cellulose yield. However, both of these acidic catalysts contributed to much lower hemicellulose contents in the resulted crude cellulose products compared with those obtained without a catalyst. Fractionation at 90°C for 180min in mixed solvents of acetic acid/formic acid/water (3:6:1, v/v/v) with or without catalyst produced crude cellulose with very low residual lignin contents (<4%). PMID:27450125

  15. Glycyrrhizic acid prevents astrocyte death by neuromyelitis optica-specific IgG via inhibition of C1q binding.

    Kim, Ji-Sun; Cheon, Soyoung; Kim, Seung Woo; Kim, Boram; Kim, Heejaung; Park, Ki Duk; Kim, Sung-Min

    2016-09-16

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system and is mediated by complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) of NMO-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies (NMO-IgG). Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) has numerous pharmacological effects including inhibition of the complement pathway. We aimed to study the influence of GA on NMO-IgG-induced CDC. NMO-IgG samples from 7 patients with NMO, together with human complement, induced CDC in an aquaporin 4 M23-overexpressing glial cell line, an in vitro NMO model. GA attenuated NMO-IgG-induced CDC in a dose-dependent manner. The mechanism of the GA-related CDC inhibition was sequentially dissected and found to involve inhibition of C1q binding to NMO-IgG. Consequently, GA attenuates NMO-IgG-induced CDC and may be a promising novel therapeutic agent against NMO. PMID:27462020

  16. A single dose of caffeic acid phenethyl ester prevents initiation in a medium-term rat hepatocarcinogenesis model

    Claudia Esther Carrasco-Legleu; Yesennia Sánchez-Pérez; Lucrecia Márquez-Rosado; Samia Fattel-Fazenda; Evelia Arce-Popoca; Sergio Hernández-García; Saú1 Villa-Trevi(n)o

    2006-01-01

    AIM:To study of the effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on the initiation period in a medium-term assay of hepatocarcinogenesis.METHODS: Male Wistar rats were subjected to a carcinogenic treatment (CT) and sacrificed at 25th d;altered hepatic foci (AHF) were generated efficiently.To a second group of rats a single 20 mg/kg doses of CAPE was given 12 h before initiation with CT and were sacrificed at 25th d. We evaluated the expression of preneoplastic markers as y-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) and glutathione S-transferase type pi protein (GSTp) by histochemistry, RT-PCR and Western blot analyses, respectively. We measured thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in homogenates of liver and used Unscheduled DNA Synthesis (UDS) assay by incorporation of [3H] thymidine (3HdT) in primary hepatocyte cultures (PHC).RESULTS:At 25th d after CT CAPE reduced the observed increase of GGT+AHF by 84% and liver expression of ggt mRNA by 100%. In case of the GSTp protein, the level was reduced by 90%. As indicative of oxidative stress generated by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) 12 h after its administration, we detected a 68% increase of TBARS.When CAPE was administered before DEN, it completely protected from liver TBARS induction. To have an indication of the sole effect of CAPE on initiation, two carcinogens were tested in a UDS assay in PHC, we used methyl-n-nitrosoguanidine as a direct carcinogen and DEN, as indirect carcinogen. In this assay, genotoxic damage caused by carcinogens was abolished at 5μM CAPE concentration.CONCLUSION:Our results demonstrated that CAPE possesses anti-genotoxic and antineoplastic capabilities,by an anti-oxidative and free-radical scavenging mechanism.

  17. High variability of the heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate

    Wagner, R.; Möhler, O.; Saathoff, H.; Schnaiter, M.; Leisner, T.

    2010-08-01

    The heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of airborne oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate particles in the deposition and condensation mode has been investigated by controlled expansion cooling cycles in the AIDA aerosol and cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology at temperatures between 244 and 228 K. Previous laboratory studies have highlighted the particular role of oxalic acid dihydrate as the only species amongst a variety of other investigated dicarboxylic acids to be capable of acting as a heterogeneous ice nucleus in both the deposition and immersion mode. We could confirm a high deposition mode ice activity for 0.03 to 0.8 μm sized oxalic acid dihydrate particles that were either formed by nucleation from a gaseous oxalic acid/air mixture or by rapid crystallisation of highly supersaturated aqueous oxalic acid solution droplets. The critical saturation ratio with respect to ice required for deposition nucleation was found to be less than 1.1 and the size-dependent ice-active fraction of the aerosol population was in the range from 0.1 to 22%. In contrast, oxalic acid dihydrate particles that had crystallised from less supersaturated solution droplets and had been allowed to slowly grow in a supersaturated environment from still unfrozen oxalic acid solution droplets over a time period of several hours were found to be much poorer heterogeneous ice nuclei. We speculate that under these conditions a crystal surface structure with less-active sites for the initiation of ice nucleation was generated. Such particles partially proved to be almost ice-inactive in both the deposition and condensation mode. At times, the heterogeneous ice nucleation ability of oxalic acid dihydrate significantly changed when the particles had been processed in preceding cloud droplet activation steps. Such behaviour was also observed for the second investigated species, namely sodium oxalate. Our experiments address the atmospheric scenario that coating layers

  18. High variability of the heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate

    R. Wagner

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of airborne oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate particles in the deposition and condensation mode has been investigated by controlled expansion cooling cycles in the AIDA aerosol and cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology at temperatures between 244 and 228 K. Previous laboratory studies have highlighted the particular role of oxalic acid dihydrate as the only species amongst a variety of other investigated dicarboxylic acids to be capable of acting as a heterogeneous ice nucleus in both the deposition and immersion mode. We could confirm a high deposition mode ice activity for 0.03 to 0.8 μm sized oxalic acid dihydrate particles that were either formed by nucleation from a gaseous oxalic acid/air mixture or by rapid crystallisation of highly supersaturated aqueous oxalic acid solution droplets. The critical saturation ratio with respect to ice required for deposition nucleation was found to be less than 1.1 and the size-dependent ice-active fraction of the aerosol population was in the range from 0.1 to 22%. In contrast, oxalic acid dihydrate particles that had crystallised from less supersaturated solution droplets and had been allowed to slowly grow in a supersaturated environment from still unfrozen oxalic acid solution droplets over a time period of several hours were found to be much poorer heterogeneous ice nuclei. We speculate that under these conditions a crystal surface structure with less-active sites for the initiation of ice nucleation was generated. Such particles partially proved to be almost ice-inactive in both the deposition and condensation mode. At times, the heterogeneous ice nucleation ability of oxalic acid dihydrate significantly changed when the particles had been processed in preceding cloud droplet activation steps. Such behaviour was also observed for the second investigated species, namely sodium oxalate. Our experiments address the atmospheric scenario

  19. High variability of the heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate

    R. Wagner

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of airborne oxalic acid dihydrate and sodium oxalate particles in the deposition and condensation mode has been investigated by controlled expansion cooling cycles in the AIDA aerosol and cloud chamber of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology at temperatures between 244 and 228 K. Previous laboratory studies have highlighted the particular role of oxalic acid dihydrate as the only species amongst a variety of other investigated dicarboxylic acids to be capable of acting as a heterogeneous ice nucleus in both the deposition and immersion mode. We could confirm a high deposition mode ice activity for 0.03 to 0.8 μm sized oxalic acid dihydrate particles that were either formed by nucleation from a gaseous oxalic acid/air mixture or by rapid crystallisation of highly supersaturated aqueous oxalic acid solution droplets. The critical saturation ratio with respect to ice required for deposition nucleation was found to be less than 1.1 and the size-dependent ice-active fraction of the aerosol population was in the range from 0.1 to 22%. In contrast, oxalic acid dihydrate particles that had crystallised from less supersaturated solution droplets and had been allowed to slowly grow in a supersaturated environment from still unfrozen oxalic acid solution droplets over a time period of several hours were found to be much poorer heterogeneous ice nuclei. We speculate that under these conditions a crystal surface structure with less-active sites for the initiation of ice nucleation was generated. Such particles partially proved to be almost ice-inactive in both the deposition and condensation mode. At times, the heterogeneous ice nucleation ability of oxalic acid dihydrate significantly changed when the particles had been processed in preceding cloud droplet activation steps. Such behaviour was also observed for the second investigated species, namely sodium oxalate. Our experiments address the atmospheric scenario

  20. Prevention of degradation of the natural high potency sweetener (2R,4R)-monatin in mock beverage solutions

    Storkey, Corin; Pattison, David I; Koehler, Jamie A; Gaspard, Dan S; Evans, Jeff C; Hagestuen, Erik D; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Exposure of the naturally-occurring sweetener monatin to light and metal ions results in loss of both parent monatin and total indole (monatin plus monatin lactone/lactam) in mock beverage solutions, with an accompanying decrease in sweetness. In this study potential protective strategies to...... prevent degradation were investigated. Metal ion chelating resin, or the chelators EDTA and desferrioxamine decreased monatin and indole loss for solutions kept either in darkness or exposed to light. Tannic acid and Chinese bayberry extract both afforded protection, but this did not arise from a light...... filtering effect. Plastics with defined absorbance characteristics provided protection with this being wavelength dependent; yellow transparent PET plastic was most effective. The contribution of these interventions (metal ion removal/binding; antioxidant; light absorption) was additive, with combinations...

  1. Gallic acid ameliorates hyperglycemia and improves hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in rats fed a high-fructose diet.

    Huang, Da-Wei; Chang, Wen-Chang; Wu, James Swi-Bea; Shih, Rui-Wen; Shen, Szu-Chuan

    2016-02-01

    Herein, we investigated the hypoglycemic effect of plant gallic acid (GA) on glucose uptake in an insulin-resistant cell culture model and on hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in rats with a high-fructose diet (HFD)-induced diabetes. Our hypothesis is that GA ameliorates hyperglycemia via alleviating hepatic insulin resistance by suppressing hepatic inflammation and improves abnormal hepatic carbohydrate metabolism by suppressing hepatic gluconeogenesis and enhancing the hepatic glycogenesis and glycolysis pathways in HFD-induced diabetic rats. Gallic acid increased glucose uptake activity by 19.2% at a concentration of 6.25 μg/mL in insulin-resistant FL83B mouse hepatocytes. In HFD-induced diabetic rats, GA significantly alleviated hyperglycemia, reduced the values of the area under the curve for glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test, and reduced the scores of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index. The levels of serum C-peptide and fructosamine and cardiovascular risk index scores were also significantly decreased in HFD rats treated with GA. Moreover, GA up-regulated the expression of hepatic insulin signal transduction-related proteins, including insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate 1, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, Akt/protein kinase B, and glucose transporter 2, in HFD rats. Gallic acid also down-regulated the expression of hepatic gluconeogenesis-related proteins, such as fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, and up-regulated expression of hepatic glycogen synthase and glycolysis-related proteins, including hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, and aldolase, in HFD rats. Our findings indicate that GA has potential as a health food ingredient to prevent diabetes mellitus. PMID:26547672

  2. The Optimized Synthesis of Starch-g-Lactic Acid Copolymer with High Grafting Degree Catalyzed by Sulfuric Acid

    HU Zhiying

    2014-01-01

    The starch-g-lactic acid copolymer was synthesized with catalysis of sulfuric acid by one-step process, and the structure of starch-g-lactic acid copolymer was characterized by means of IR, 13C-NMR, HMBC, XRD, and SEM. The experimental results show that the maximum grafting degree of starch can reach 75%when the starch-g-lactic acid copolymer is activated at 80℃for 2 h and reacted with lactic acid at 90℃for 4 h in vacuum.

  3. Modulation of reactive oxygen species by salicylic acid in arabidopsis seed germination under high salinity

    Lee, Sangmin; Park, Chung-Mo

    2010-01-01

    Potential roles of salicylic acid (SA) on seed germination have been explored in many plant species. However, it is still controversial how SA regulates seed germination, mainly because the results have been somewhat variable, depending on plant genotypes used and experimental conditions employed. We found that SA promotes seed germination under high salinity in Arabidopsis. Seed germination of the sid2 mutant, which has a defect in SA biosynthesis, is hypersensitive to high salinity, but the...

  4. Carnosic Acid Prevents Beta-Amyloid-Induced Injury in Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells via the Induction of Autophagy.

    Liu, Jie; Su, Hua; Qu, Qiu-Min

    2016-09-01

    Beta-amyloid (Aβ), the hallmark protein in Alzheimer's disease (AD), induces neurotoxicity that involves oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to cell death. Carnosic acid (CA), a polyphenolic diterpene isolated from the herb rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis), was investigated in our study to assess its neuroprotective effect and underlying mechanism against Aβ-induced injury in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. We found that CA pretreatment alleviated the Aβ25-35-induced loss of cell viability, inhibited both Aβ1-42 accumulation and tau hyperphosphorylation, reduced reactive oxygen species generation, and maintained the mitochondrial membrane potential. Moreover, CA increased the microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3)-II/I ratio and decreased SQSTM1(p62), indicating that CA could induce autophagy. Autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) attenuated the neuroprotective effect of CA, suggesting that autophagy was involved in the neuroprotection of CA. It was also observed that CA activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) but inhibited mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Furthermore, blocking AMPK with si-AMPKα successfully inhibited the upregulation of LC3-II/I, prevented the downregulation of phosphorylation of mTOR and SQSTM1(p62), indicating that CA induced autophagy in SH-SY5Y cells via the activation of AMPK. These results suggested that CA might be a potential agent for preventing AD. PMID:27168327

  5. Uric Acid Determination in Gestational Hypertension: Is it as Effective a Delineator of Risk as Proteinuria in High-Risk Women?

    Schmella, Mandy J; Clifton, Rebecca G; Althouse, Andrew D; Roberts, James M

    2015-10-01

    We asked, is uric acid as effective as proteinuria at identifying perinatal risk in high-risk women with gestational hypertension? Uric acid was measured in samples obtained ≈4.6 weeks predelivery in 259 women with prior preeclampsia from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development network study of low-dose aspirin to prevent preeclampsia. Participants were grouped according to the presence/absence of gestational hypertension (H), proteinuria (P), and hyperuricemia (U). Adverse perinatal outcomes were not different between H or U and women with normal values (normal blood pressure, urinary protein, and uric acid [NNN]). Preterm birth was greater in hypertension and proteinuria (HP) and hypertension and hyperuricemia (HU) compared to NNN (relative risk [RR] = 2.4, P = .03 and 3.8, P uric acid is as effective as proteinuria at identifying perinatal risk in high-risk women with gestational hypertension. Our results suggest that hyperuricemia is at least as accurate as proteinuria at identifying perinatal risk in high-risk women with gestational hypertension. PMID:25717062

  6. Maternal Methyl Donors Supplementation during Lactation Prevents the Hyperhomocysteinemia Induced by a High-Fat-Sucrose Intake by Dams

    Paul Cordero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Maternal perinatal nutrition may program offspring metabolic features. Epigenetic regulation is one of the candidate mechanisms that may be affected by maternal dietary methyl donors intake as potential controllers of plasma homocysteine levels. Thirty-two Wistar pregnant rats were randomly assigned into four dietary groups during lactation: control, control supplemented with methyl donors, high-fat-sucrose and high-fat-sucrose supplemented with methyl donors. Physiological outcomes in the offspring were measured, including hepatic mRNA expression and global DNA methylation after weaning. The newborns whose mothers were fed the obesogenic diet were heavier longer and with a higher adiposity and intrahepatic fat content. Interestingly, increased levels of plasma homocysteine induced by the maternal high-fat-sucrose dietary intake were prevented in both sexes by maternal methyl donors supplementation. Total hepatic DNA methylation decreased in females due to maternal methyl donors administration, while Dnmt3a hepatic mRNA levels decreased accompanying the high-fat-sucrose consumption. Furthermore, a negative association between Dnmt3a liver mRNA levels and plasma homocysteine concentrations was found. Maternal high-fat-sucrose diet during lactation could program offspring obesity features, while methyl donors supplementation prevented the onset of high hyperhomocysteinemia. Maternal dietary intake also affected hepatic DNA methylation metabolism, which could be linked with the regulation of the methionine-homocysteine cycle.

  7. Ion-exchange preparation of high-purity vanadium acid from industrial liquors

    The results of investigations on production of special-purity vanadium acid and vanadium oxide directly from process solutions (technical grade liquors) using ionites are presented. Potentiality of thorough purification of vanadium(5) oxide, when producing vanadium acid on the KU-2 cationite with subsequent purification on anionite, is shown. On the basis of the results obtained a principle flowsheet of ion-exchange production of high-purity vanadium(5) oxide from industrial liquors has been developed. 2 refs.; 1 fig.; 4 tabs

  8. N-Acetylcysteine Prevents Spatial Memory Impairment Induced by Chronic Early Postnatal Glutaric Acid and Lipopolysaccharide in Rat Pups

    Rodrigues, Fernanda S.; Souza, Mauren A.; Magni, Danieli V.; Ferreira, Ana Paula O.; Mota, Bibiana C.; Cardoso, Andreia M.; Paim, Mariana; Xavier, Léder L.; Ferreira, Juliano; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C.; Da Costa, Jaderson C.; Royes, Luiz Fernando F.; Fighera, Michele R.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Glutaric aciduria type I (GA-I) is characterized by accumulation of glutaric acid (GA) and neurological symptoms, such as cognitive impairment. Although this disease is related to oxidative stress and inflammation, it is not known whether these processes facilitate the memory impairment. Our objective was to investigate the performance of rat pups chronically injected with GA and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in spatial memory test, antioxidant defenses, cytokines levels, Na+, K+-ATPase activity, and hippocampal volume. We also evaluated the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on theses markers. Methods Rat pups were injected with GA (5umol g of body weight-1, subcutaneously; twice per day; from 5th to 28th day of life), and were supplemented with NAC (150mg/kg/day; intragastric gavage; for the same period). LPS (2mg/kg; E.coli 055 B5) or vehicle (saline 0.9%) was injected intraperitoneally, once per day, from 25th to 28th day of life. Oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers as well as hippocampal volume were assessed. Results GA caused spatial learning deficit in the Barnes maze and LPS potentiated this effect. GA and LPS increased TNF-α and IL-1β levels. The co-administration of these compounds potentiated the increase of IL-1β levels but not TNF-α levels in the hippocampus. GA and LPS increased TBARS (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance) content, reduced antioxidant defenses and inhibited Na+, K+-ATPase activity. GA and LPS co-administration did not have additive effect on oxidative stress markers and Na+, K+ pump. The hippocampal volume did not change after GA or LPS administration. NAC protected against impairment of spatial learning and increase of cytokines levels. NAC Also protected against inhibition of Na+,K+-ATPase activity and oxidative markers. Conclusions These results suggest that inflammatory and oxidative markers may underlie at least in part of the neuropathology of GA-I in this model. Thus, NAC could represent a possible

  9. N-acetylcysteine prevents spatial memory impairment induced by chronic early postnatal glutaric acid and lipopolysaccharide in rat pups.

    Fernanda S Rodrigues

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Glutaric aciduria type I (GA-I is characterized by accumulation of glutaric acid (GA and neurological symptoms, such as cognitive impairment. Although this disease is related to oxidative stress and inflammation, it is not known whether these processes facilitate the memory impairment. Our objective was to investigate the performance of rat pups chronically injected with GA and lipopolysaccharide (LPS in spatial memory test, antioxidant defenses, cytokines levels, Na+, K+-ATPase activity, and hippocampal volume. We also evaluated the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC on theses markers. METHODS: Rat pups were injected with GA (5 umol g of body weight-1, subcutaneously; twice per day; from 5th to 28th day of life, and were supplemented with NAC (150 mg/kg/day; intragastric gavage; for the same period. LPS (2 mg/kg; E.coli 055 B5 or vehicle (saline 0.9% was injected intraperitoneally, once per day, from 25th to 28th day of life. Oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers as well as hippocampal volume were assessed. RESULTS: GA caused spatial learning deficit in the Barnes maze and LPS potentiated this effect. GA and LPS increased TNF-α and IL-1β levels. The co-administration of these compounds potentiated the increase of IL-1β levels but not TNF-α levels in the hippocampus. GA and LPS increased TBARS (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance content, reduced antioxidant defenses and inhibited Na+, K+-ATPase activity. GA and LPS co-administration did not have additive effect on oxidative stress markers and Na+, K+ pump. The hippocampal volume did not change after GA or LPS administration. NAC protected against impairment of spatial learning and increase of cytokines levels. NAC Also protected against inhibition of Na+,K+-ATPase activity and oxidative markers. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that inflammatory and oxidative markers may underlie at least in part of the neuropathology of GA-I in this model. Thus, NAC could

  10. Consensus recommendations for the prevention of vomiting and nausea following high-emetic-risk chemotherapy

    Kris, Mark G; Tonato, Maurizio; Bria, Emilio;

    2011-01-01

    emetic risk. A three-drug combination of a 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor (5-HT(3)) receptor antagonist, dexamethasone, and aprepitant beginning before chemotherapy and continuing for up to 4 days remains the standard of care. We address issues of dose, schedule, and route of administration of five...... superior in emesis prevention, while adverse effects were comparable. Furthermore, for all classes of antiemetic agents, a single dose is as effective as multiple doses or a continuous infusion. The oral route is as efficacious as the intravenous route of administration....

  11. Iodinated contrast media and patients with high-risk kidneys. Aiming at rational prevention

    Acute renal failure induced by iodinated contrast media (CM) accounts for about 10% of all hospital cases of renal failure, especially in azotemic patients. The specific anatomy and physiology of the inner medulla renalis render it particularly sensitive to even a moderate reduction in blood supply. Renal function will be estimated by measuring serum creatinine levels, before and within 72 hours after administration of the iodinated contrast medium. Hypovolaemia, diabetes mellitus-induced microangiopathy, nephrotoxic drugs and especially dehydratation may provoke renal accidents. Proper hydration, choosing a low osmolality medium and adequately spacing exposures to CM are elementary measures to be adopted to prevent renal failure. (authors)

  12. Extra virgin olive oil reduces liver oxidative stress and tissue depletion of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids produced by a high saturated fat diet in mice

    Valenzuela, R.; Hernandez-Rodas, M. C.; Espinosa, A.; Rincón, M. A.; Romero, N; Barrera, C. (Carlos); Marambio, M.; Vivero, J.; Valenzuela, A.

    2016-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) which are synthesized mainly in the liver have relevant functions in the organism. A diet high in fat (HFD) generates an increase in the levels of fat and induces oxidative stress (lipo-peroxidation) in the liver, along with a reduction in tissue n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is rich in anti-oxidants (polyphenols and tocopherols) which help to prevent the development of oxidative stress. This study evaluated the role of EVOO ...

  13. Prevention of cold cracks in heat affected zone in underwater welding of low-alloyed high-strength steels

    Maksimov, Serhii Yu.

    2014-01-01

    In the underwater welding of the low-alloyed high-strength steels of 17G1S or H60 types the unfavorable combination of the hardening structures and the high level of hydrogen leads to the cold cracking. The article aim is to clarify the mechanism of cold cracking and to suggest the measures of their prevention. The Tekken samples14 mmthick were used for research which were welded under the water at a depth of1 m. 5 polished sections were cut from each sample and the presence of cracks was det...

  14. Sardine protein diet increases plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 levels and prevents tissue oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fructose diet.

    Madani, Zohra; Sener, Abdullah; Malaisse, Willy J; Dalila, Ait Yahia

    2015-11-01

    The current study investigated whether sardine protein mitigates the adverse effects of fructose on plasma glucagon‑like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and oxidative stress in rats. Rats were fed casein (C) or sardine protein (S) with or without high‑fructose (HF) for 2 months. Plasma glucose, insulin, GLP‑1, lipid and protein oxidation and antioxidant enzymes were assayed. HF rats developed obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and oxidative stress despite reduced energy and food intakes. High plasma creatinine and uric acid levels, in addition to albuminuria were observed in the HF groups. The S‑HF diet reduced plasma glucose, insulin, creatinine, uric acid and homeostasis model assessment‑insulin resistance index levels, however increased GLP‑1 levels compared with the C‑HF diet. Hydroperoxides were reduced in the liver, kidney, heart and muscle of S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. A reduction in liver, kidney and heart carbonyls was observed in S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. Reduced levels of nitric oxide (NO) were detected in the liver, kidney and heart of the S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. The S diet compared with the C diet reduced levels of liver hydroperoxides, heart carbonyls and kidney NO. The S‑HF diet compared with the C‑HF diet increased the levels of liver and kidney superoxide dismutase, liver and muscle catalase, liver, heart and muscle glutathione peroxidase and liver ascorbic acid. The S diet prevented and reversed insulin resistance and oxidative stress, and may have benefits in patients with metabolic syndrome. PMID:26398482

  15. Glycyrrhizic acid pretreatment prevents sepsis-induced acute kidney injury via suppressing inflammation, apoptosis and oxidative stress.

    Zhao, Hongyu; Liu, Zhenning; Shen, Haitao; Jin, Shuai; Zhang, Shun

    2016-06-15

    Glycyrrhizic acid (GA), an active ingredient in licorice, has multiple pharmacological activities. The aim of our study was to investigate the molecular mechanism involved in the protective effects of GA in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated rat mesangial cells (HBZY-1) and septic rats. Sepsis model was established by injection of 5mg/kg LPS in rats or incubation with 1μg/ml LPS for 24h in HBZY-1 cells. A variety of molecular biological experiments were carried out to assess the effects of GA on inflammation, apoptosis, and oxidative stress. First we found that GA alleviated sepsis-induced kidney injury in vivo. Furthermore, GA suppressed inflammatory response in vivo and in vitro. Additionally, GA inhibited cell apoptosis and the changes in expressions of apoptosis related proteins induced by LPS. Moreover, GA markedly inhibited oxidative stress induced by LPS via activation of ERK signaling pathway. Finally GA could inhibit the activation of NF-κ B induced by LPS. Our present study indicates that GA has a protective effect against sepsis-induced inflammatory response, apoptosis, and oxidative stress damage, which provides a molecular basis for a new medical treatment of septic acute kidney injury. PMID:27063444

  16. Preventive Effects of Dexmedetomidine on the Liver in a Rat Model of Acid-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    Velat Şen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine whether dexmedetomidine improves acute liver injury in a rat model. Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats weighing 300–350 g were allocated randomly to four groups. In group 1, normal saline (NS was injected into the lungs and rats were allowed to breathe spontaneously. In group 2, rats received standard ventilation (SV in addition to NS. In group 3, hydrochloric acid was injected into the lungs and rats received SV. In group 4, rats received SV and 100 µg/kg intraperitoneal dexmedetomidine before intratracheal HCl instillation. Blood samples and liver tissue specimens were examined by biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical methods. Acute lung injury (ALI was found to be associated with increased malondialdehyde (MDA, total oxidant activity (TOA, oxidative stress index (OSI, and decreased total antioxidant capacity (TAC. Significantly decreased MDA, TOA, and OSI levels and significantly increased TAC levels were found with dexmedetomidine injection in group 4 (P<0.05. The highest histologic injury scores were detected in group 3. Enhanced hepatic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression and reduced CD68 expression were found in dexmedetomidine group compared with the group 3. In conclusion, the presented data provide the first evidence that dexmedetomidine has a protective effect on experimental liver injury induced by ALI.

  17. Preventive effects of dexmedetomidine on the liver in a rat model of acid-induced acute lung injury.

    Sen, Velat; Güzel, Abdulmenap; Şen, Hadice Selimoğlu; Ece, Aydın; Uluca, Unal; Söker, Sevda; Doğan, Erdal; Kaplan, İbrahim; Deveci, Engin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether dexmedetomidine improves acute liver injury in a rat model. Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats weighing 300-350 g were allocated randomly to four groups. In group 1, normal saline (NS) was injected into the lungs and rats were allowed to breathe spontaneously. In group 2, rats received standard ventilation (SV) in addition to NS. In group 3, hydrochloric acid was injected into the lungs and rats received SV. In group 4, rats received SV and 100 µg/kg intraperitoneal dexmedetomidine before intratracheal HCl instillation. Blood samples and liver tissue specimens were examined by biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical methods. Acute lung injury (ALI) was found to be associated with increased malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant activity (TOA), oxidative stress index (OSI), and decreased total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Significantly decreased MDA, TOA, and OSI levels and significantly increased TAC levels were found with dexmedetomidine injection in group 4 (P < 0.05). The highest histologic injury scores were detected in group 3. Enhanced hepatic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and reduced CD68 expression were found in dexmedetomidine group compared with the group 3. In conclusion, the presented data provide the first evidence that dexmedetomidine has a protective effect on experimental liver injury induced by ALI. PMID:25165710

  18. Fumaric acid esters prevent the NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated and ATP-triggered pyroptosis of differentiated THP-1 cells.

    Miglio, Gianluca; Veglia, Eleonora; Fantozzi, Roberto

    2015-09-01

    Fumaric acid esters (FAEs) exert therapeutic effects in patients with psoriasis and multiple sclerosis, however their mode of action remains elusive. Pyroptosis is a caspase-1-dependent pro-inflammatory form of programmed cell death, mediated by the activation of inflammasomes. To understand the pharmacological basis of the therapeutic effects of FAEs, the anti-pyroptotic activity of dimethyl fumarate (DMF) and its hydrolysis metabolite monomethyl fumarate (MMF) was studied in a model of NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated pyroptosis of human macrophages. Phorbol myristate acetate-differentiated THP-1 cells were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (5 μg/ml; 4h), then pulsed with ATP (5mM; 1h). MMF, DMF, or parthenolide (positive control) were added 1h before the ATP pulse. The pyroptotic cell death was evaluated by morphological examination and quantified by measuring the lactate dehydrogenase leakage. The ATP-triggered death of THP-1 cells (60.4 ± 4.0%) was significantly (Pmolecular cascade leading to cell death. These results indicate that FAEs are endowed with anti-pyroptotic activity, which may contribute to their therapeutic effects. PMID:26096886

  19. Macroinvertebrate community response to acid mine drainage in rivers of the High Andes (Bolivia)

    Several High Andes Rivers are characterized by inorganic water pollution known as acid mine drainage (AMD). The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between metal concentrations in the sediments and the macroinvertebrate communities in two river basins affected by AMD. In general, the taxon diversity of the macroinvertebrate community at the family level was low. The concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni at mining sites were higher than at unpolluted sites. The pH of the water was alkaline (7.0-8.5) in unpolluted sites, whereas it dropped to very low values (<3) at mining sites. Redundancy Analysis (RDA) showed that pH was the best predictor of macroinvertebrate community richness. The number of macroinvertebrate families decreased gradually with increasing acidity, both in pools and riffles, though it is suggested that riffle communities were more affected because they are in closer contact with the acid water. - Community response to AMD

  20. Macroinvertebrate community response to acid mine drainage in rivers of the High Andes (Bolivia)

    Van Damme, Paul Andre [Asociacion Faunagua, Cochabamba (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Centre of Limnology and Aquatic Resources, University of San Simon, Casilla 5263, Cochabamba (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Hamel, Caroli; Ayala, Alfredo [Centre of Limnology and Aquatic Resources, University of San Simon, Casilla 5263, Cochabamba (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Bervoets, Lieven [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: lieven.bervoets@ua.ac.be

    2008-12-15

    Several High Andes Rivers are characterized by inorganic water pollution known as acid mine drainage (AMD). The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between metal concentrations in the sediments and the macroinvertebrate communities in two river basins affected by AMD. In general, the taxon diversity of the macroinvertebrate community at the family level was low. The concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni at mining sites were higher than at unpolluted sites. The pH of the water was alkaline (7.0-8.5) in unpolluted sites, whereas it dropped to very low values (<3) at mining sites. Redundancy Analysis (RDA) showed that pH was the best predictor of macroinvertebrate community richness. The number of macroinvertebrate families decreased gradually with increasing acidity, both in pools and riffles, though it is suggested that riffle communities were more affected because they are in closer contact with the acid water. - Community response to AMD.

  1. Modeling of a High Temperature Sulfuric Acid Loop using Aspen Plus

    Hydrogen energy needs are growing with increased demands for alternatives to fossil fuel. Recently, many researchers have been investigating into hydrogen production technologies from a renewable and a nuclear energy. Very High Temperature gas cooled nuclear Reactor (VHTR) is considered to be suitable for massive hydrogen production systems when it coupled with Sulfur-Iodine (SI) thermo-chemical cycle. Kim et al. are developing a hybrid heat exchanger as a process heat exchanger for the sulfur trioxide decomposition. Hong et al. constructed and are operating a small scale sulfuric acid loop for the integrity and feasibility tests of a process heat exchanger coupled with VHTR and SI cycle. In this study, we performed preliminary analysis of small scale sulfuric acid test loop using Aspen Plus chemical process simulator. In addition, we studied the behavior of main component in the sulfuric acid loop on the basis of experimental results

  2. Study on prevention of spread of vertical fire along finishing materials for external wall of high-rise buildings

    Yoo Yong Ho

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although there are laws in the Korea Building Act relating to exterior finishing materials, fireproof structures and fire-stop of curtain wall structures, the standards relating to and test methods on securing detailed fire safety functions for exterior materials of all buildings including high-rise buildings have not been prepared. This is due to the fact that test methods and standards to quantitatively evaluate the vertical fire spread of the exterior material of buildings do not exist. In addition, while semi non-combustible materials or non-combustible materials are required to be used to prevent fire spread in buildings which exceed 30-stories, it is necessary to review the standards and regulations in cases where fire blocking systems, capable of preventing the vertical fire spread within the curtain wall, are installed to consider permitting the utilization of fire retardant material following an assessment of the construction characteristics of high-rise buildings. The functional evaluation standards and test methods on the vertical fire spread introduced in this study will be a more effective method for performing evaluations to prevent fire spread compared to the currently utilized method of performing small scale tests.

  3. Nanomolar Caffeic Acid Decreases Glucose Uptake and the Effects of High Glucose in Endothelial Cells.

    Lucia Natarelli

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies suggest that moderate and prolonged consumption of coffee is associated with a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes but the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect are not known. In this study, we report the effects of physiological concentrations of caffeic acid, easily achievable by normal dietary habits, in endothelial cells cultured in 25 mM of glucose (high glucose, HG. In HG, the presence of 10 nM caffeic acid was associated with a decrease of glucose uptake but not to changes of GLUT-1 membrane localization or mRNA levels. Moreover, caffeic acid countered HG-induced loss of barrier integrity, reducing actin rearrangement and FITC-dextran passage. The decreased flux of glucose associated to caffeic acid affected HG induced apoptosis by down-regulating the expression of initiator (caspase 8 and 9 and effector caspases (caspase 7 and 3 and by increasing the levels of phosphorylated Bcl-2. We also observed that caffeic acid in HG condition was associated to a reduction of p65 subunit nuclear levels with respect to HG alone. NF-κB activation has been shown to lead to apoptosis in HG treated cells and the analysis of the expression of a panel of about 90 genes related to NF-κB signaling pathway revealed that caffeic acid significantly influenced gene expression changes induced by HG. In conclusion, our results suggest that caffeic acid, decreasing the metabolic stress induced by HG, allows the activation of survival mechanisms mediated by a different modulation of NF-κB-related signaling pathways and to the activation of anti-apoptotic proteins.

  4. Waste minimization/pollution prevention study of high-priority waste streams

    Ogle, R.B. [comp.

    1994-03-01

    Although waste minimization has been practiced by the Metals and Ceramics (M&C) Division in the past, the effort has not been uniform or formalized. To establish the groundwork for continuous improvement, the Division Director initiated a more formalized waste minimization and pollution prevention program. Formalization of the division`s pollution prevention efforts in fiscal year (FY) 1993 was initiated by a more concerted effort to determine the status of waste generation from division activities. The goal for this effort was to reduce or minimize the wastes identified as having the greatest impact on human health, the environment, and costs. Two broad categories of division wastes were identified as solid/liquid wastes and those relating to energy use (primarily electricity and steam). This report presents information on the nonradioactive solid and liquid wastes generated by division activities. More specifically, the information presented was generated by teams of M&C staff members empowered by the Division Director to study specific waste streams.

  5. Preventive effect of a pectic polysaccharide of the common cranberry Vaccinium oxycoccos L. on acetic acid-induced colitis in mice

    Sergey V Popov; Pavel A Markov; Ida R Nikitina; Sergey Petrishev; Vasily Smirnov; Yury S Ovodov

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study isolation and chemical characterization of pectin derived from the common cranberry Vaccinium oxycoccos L. (oxycoccusan OP) and the testing of its preventive effect on experimental colitis.METHODS: Mice were administrated orally with OP two days prior to a rectal injection of 5% acetic acid and examined for colonic damage 24 h later. Colonic inflammation was characterized by macroscopical injury and enhanced levels of myeloperoxidase activity measured spectrophotometrically with o-phenylene diamine as the substrate. The mucus contents of the colon were determined by the Alcian blue dye binding method. Vascular permeability was estimated using 4%Evans blue passage after i.p. injection of 0.05 mol/L acetic acid.RESULTS: In the mice treated with OP, colonic macroscopic scores (1.1 ± 0.4 vs 2.7, P < 0.01) and the total square area of damage (10 ± 2 vs 21 ± 7, P < 0.01)were significantly reduced when compared with the vehicle-treated colitis group. OP was shown to decrease the tissue myeloperoxidase activity in colons (42 ± 11 vs 112 ± 40, P < 0.01) and enhance the amount of mucus of colitis mice (0.9 ± 0.1 vs 0.4 ± 0.1, P < 0.01). The level of colonic malondialdehyde was noted to decrease in OP-pretreated mice (3.6 ± 0.7 vs 5.1 ± 0.8, P < 0.01).OP was found to decrease the inflammatory status of mice as was determined by reduction of vascular permeability (161 ± 34 vs 241 ± 21, P < 0.01). Adhesion of peritoneal neutrophils and macrophages was also shown to decrease after administration of OP (141 ± 50vs 235 ± 37, P < 0.05).CONCLUSION: Thus, a preventive effect of pectin from the common cranberry, namely oxycoccusan OP,on acetic acid-induced colitis in mice was detected.A reduction of neutrophil infiltration and antioxidant action may be implicated in the protective effect of oxycoccusan.

  6. Corrosion resistance of stainless steels and high Ni-Cr alloys to acid fluoride wastes

    TRUEX processing of Hanford Site waste will utilize potentially corrosive acid fluoride processing solutions. Appropriate construction materials for such a processing facility need to be identified. Toward this objective, candidate stainless steels and high Ni-Cr alloys have been corrosion tested in simulated acid fluoride process solutions at 333K. The high Ni-Cr alloys exhibited corrosion rates as low as 0.14 mm/y in a solution with an HF activity of about 1.2 M, much lower than the 19 to 94 mm/y observed for austenitic stainless steels. At a lower HF activity (about 0.008 M), stainless steels display delayed passivation while high Ni-Cr alloys display essentially no reaction

  7. Kinetic Study and Mathematical Model of Hemimorphite Dissolution in Low Sulfuric Acid Solution at High Temperature

    Xu, Hongsheng; Wei, Chang; Li, Cunxiong; Deng, Zhigan; Li, Minting; Li, Xingbin

    2014-10-01

    The dissolution kinetics of hemimorphite with low sulfuric acid solution was investigated at high temperature. The dissolution rate of zinc was obtained as a function of dissolution time under the experimental conditions where the effects of sulfuric acid concentration, temperature, and particle size were studied. The results showed that zinc extraction increased with an increase in temperature and sulfuric acid concentration and with a decrease in particle size. A mathematical model able to describe the process kinetics was developed from the shrinking core model, considering the change of the sulfuric acid concentration during dissolution. It was found that the dissolution process followed a shrinking core model with "ash" layer diffusion as the main rate-controlling step. This finding was supported with a linear relationship between the apparent rate constant and the reciprocal of squared particle radius. The reaction order with respect to sulfuric acid concentration was determined to be 0.7993. The apparent activation energy for the dissolution process was determined to be 44.9 kJ/mol in the temperature range of 373 K to 413 K (100 °C to 140 °C). Based on the shrinking core model, the following equation was established:

  8. Acid esterification of a high free fatty acid crude palm oil and crude rubber seed oil blend: Optimization and parametric analysis

    Khan, Modhar A.; Yusup, Suzana; Ahmad, Murni M. [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Chemical Engineering, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2010-12-15

    Free fatty acids content plays an important role in selecting the appropriate route for biodiesel production. Oils with high content of free fatty acids can be treated by acid esterification where an alcohol reacts with the given oil in the presence of acid catalyst. In the current study, an equivolume blend of crude rubber seed oil and crude palm oil is fed to the reaction with methanol as the alcohol of choice and sulfuric acid. Selected reaction parameters were optimized, using Taguchi method for design of experiments, to yield the lowest free fatty acid content in the final product. The investigated parameters include alcohol to oil ratio, temperature and amount of catalyst. The effect and significance of each parameter were then studied based on the fractional factorial design and verified by additional experiments. The optimum conditions for acid esterification which could reduce the free fatty acid content in the feedstock to lower than 0.6% (95% reduction) were 65 C, 15:1 methanol to oil ratio (by mole) and 0.5 wt% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} after 3 h of reaction time. Temperature had been found to have the most effect on the reduction of free fatty acids followed by reactants ratio while increasing catalyst amount had nominal effect. (author)

  9. Intraperitoneal Alpha-Lipoic Acid to prevent neural damage after crush injury to the rat sciatic nerve

    Ozbag Davut

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Crush injury to the sciatic nerve causes oxidative stress. Alfa Lipoic acid (a-LA is a neuroprotective metabolic antioxidant. This study was designed to investigate the antioxidant effects of pretreatment with a-LA on the crush injury of rat sciatic nerve. Methods Forty rats were randomized into four groups. Group I and Group II received saline (2 ml, intraperitoneally and a-LA (100 mg/kg, 2 ml, intraperitoneally in the groups III and IV at the 24 and 1 hour prior to the crush injury. In groups II, III and IV, the left sciatic nerve was exposed and compressed for 60 seconds with a jeweler's forceps. In Group I (n = 10, the sciatic nerve was explored but not crushed. In all groups of rats, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activities, as well as malondialdehyde (MDA levels were measured in samples of sciatic nerve tissue. Results Compared to Group I, Group II had significantly decreased tissue SOD and CAT activities and elevated MDA levels indicating crush injury (p < 0.05. In the a-LA treatment groups (groups III and IV, tissue CAT and SOD activities were significantly increased and MDA levels significantly decreased at the first hour (p < 0.05 and on the 3rd day (p < 0.05. There was no significant difference between a-LA treatment groups (p > 0.05. Conclusion A-LA administered before crush injury of the sciatic nerve showed significant protective effects against crush injury by decreasing the oxidative stress. A-LA should be considered in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries, but further studies are needed to explain the mechanism of its neuroprotective effects.

  10. Prevention of tri-nitrobenzene of sulfonic acid-induced colitis in chicken by using extract of Aloe vera

    Motamed Elsayed Mahmoud

    Full Text Available Aim: Aloe vera, species of succulent plant in the genus Aloe, has multiple clinical activities and used routinely to accelerate wound healing. The present study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of Aloe vera extracts (AVE in vitro and in vivo. Materials and Methods: The effect of crude AVE on inducible nitric oxide production by LPS/IFNg-stimulated cultured macrophages was evaluated. The therapeutic effect of administering crude Aloe vera extracts (100 mg/kg b.w. on the development of tri-nitrobenzene of sulfonic acid (TNBS-induced colitis (40 mg/kg b. w. in chicken was also investigated. Chicken is a valuable model for this purpose because it showed preference to bitter taste of Aloe vera. Diverse clinical pictures of the colitis including weight loss, diarrhea and histopathological changes were evaluated. Results: Nitrite production by LPS/IFNg-stimulated macrophages was maximally reduced by adding of AVE (100 μg/ml. This result suggests a direct inhibitory effect of AVE on the inflammatory cells. Chicks treated orally with AVE showed improvement of the histological signs with no inflammatory cell infiltrates and reduction of myeloperoxidase (MPO activities when compared with colitis control group. AVE pretreatment ameliorated significantly the clinical and histopathological severity of the TNBS-induced colitis; decreased body weight loss and diarrhea and increased survival. Conclusion: It was concluded that oral administration of AVE represents a valuable therapeutic approach for the treatment of colitis in chicken. [Vet. World 2012; 5(8.000: 469-476

  11. Protocatechuic Acid Attenuates Osteoclastogenesis by Downregulating JNK/c-Fos/NFATc1 Signaling and Prevents Inflammatory Bone Loss in Mice.

    Park, Sun-Hyang; Kim, Ju-Young; Cheon, Yoon-Hee; Baek, Jong Min; Ahn, Sung-Jun; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Lee, Myeung Su; Oh, Jaemin

    2016-04-01

    Protocatechuic acid (PCA) plays a critical role in nutritional metabolism; it is a major metabolite of anthocyanins, which are flavonoids with a range of health benefits. PCA has a variety of biological activities including anti-oxidant, antiinflammatory, anti-apoptosis, and anti-microbial activities. However, the pharmacological effect of PCA, especially on osteoclastogenesis, remains unknown. We examined the effect of PCA on receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. PCA dose-dependently inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in mouse bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) and suppressed the bone-resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts. At the molecular level, PCA suppressed RANKL-induced phosphorylation of JNK among MAPKs only, without significantly affecting the early signaling pathway. PCA also suppressed RANKL-stimulated expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) at the mRNA and protein levels, without altering c-Fos mRNA expression. Additionally, PCA down-regulated the expression of downstream osteoclastogenesis-related genes including β3-integrin, DC-STAMP, OC-STAMP, Atp6v0d2, CTR, and CtsK. Mice treated with PCA efficiently recovered from lipopolysaccharide-induced bone loss in vivo. Thus, PCA inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and function by suppressing JNK signaling, c-Fos stability, and expression of osteoclastic marker genes. These results suggest that PCA could be useful in treatment of inflammatory bone disorders. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26792397

  12. The kinetics of the solidification of highly supersaturated solutions of palmitic acid in oleic acid: a comparison between two models

    RAMIRO RICO-MARTINEZ; JOSE ALBERTO GALLEGOS-INFANTE

    1999-01-01

    The crystallization of fatty acids is very important in industrial applications and biological systems. A comparison between theoretical models and experimental data helps in clarifying mechanistic aspects of these systems. In this contribution, we compare the performance of two models in fitting data from the crystallization of supersaturated solutions of palmitic acid in oleic acid. One of the models was developed by Avrami and the other is based on considering diffusion as limiting (the D-...

  13. Simultaneous separation and quantitative determination of monosaccharides, uronic acids, and aldonic acids by high performance anion-exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection in corn stover prehydrolysates

    Xing Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A method for simultaneous separation and quantitative determination of arabinose, galactose, glucose, xylose, xylonic acid, gluconic acid, galacturonic acid, and glucuronic acid was developed by using high performance anion-exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD. The separation was performed on a CarboPacTM PA-10 column (250 mm × 2 mm with a various gradient elution of NaOH-NaOAc solution as the mobile phase. The calibration curves showed good linearity (R2 ≥ 0.9993 for the monosaccharides, uronic acids, and aldonic acids in the range of 0.1 to 12.5 mg/L. The detection limits (LODs and the quantification limits (LOQs were 4.91 to 18.75 μg/L and 16.36 to 62.50 μg/L, respectively. Relative standard deviations (RSDs of the retention times and peak areas for the seven consecutive determinations of an unknown amount of mixture were 0.15% to 0.44% and 0.22% to 2.31%, respectively. The established method was used to separate and determine four monosaccharides, two uronic acids, and two aldonic acids in the prehydrolysate from dilute acid steam-exploded corn stover within 21 min. The spiked recoveries of monosaccharides, uronic acids, and aldonic acids ranged from 91.25% to 108.81%, with RSDs (n=3 of 0.04% ~ 6.07%. This method was applied to evaluate the quantitative variation of sugar and sugar acid content in biomass prehydrolysates.

  14. Reducing Internalizing Symptoms Among High-Risk, Hispanic Adolescents: Mediators of a Preventive Family Intervention.

    Perrino, Tatiana; Brincks, Ahnalee; Howe, George; Brown, C Hendricks; Prado, Guillermo; Pantin, Hilda

    2016-07-01

    Familias Unidas is a family-focused preventive intervention that has been found to reduce drug use and sexual risk behaviors among Hispanic adolescents. In some trials, Familias Unidas has also been found to be efficacious in reducing adolescent internalizing symptoms (i.e., depressive and anxiety symptoms), even though the intervention did not specifically target internalizing symptoms. This study examines potential mediators or mechanisms by which Familias Unidas influences internalizing symptoms, specifically the role of intervention-targeted improvements in parent-adolescent communication and reductions in youth externalizing behaviors. A total of 213 Hispanic eighth grade students with a history of externalizing behavior problems and their primary caregivers were recruited from the public school system. Participants, with a mean age of 13.8 years, were randomized into the Familias Unidas intervention or community practice control condition and assessed at baseline, 6, 18, and 30 months post-baseline. A cascading mediation model was tested in which the Familias Unidas intervention was hypothesized to decrease adolescent internalizing symptoms through two mediators: improvements in parent-adolescent communication leading to decreases in externalizing behaviors. Findings show that the intervention had significant direct effects on youth internalizing symptoms at 30 months post-baseline. In addition, the cascading mediation model was supported in which the Familias Unidas intervention predicted significant improvements in parent-adolescent communication at 6 months, subsequently decreasing externalizing behaviors at 18 months, and ultimately reducing youth internalizing symptoms at 30 months post-baseline. Implications for prevention interventions are discussed. PMID:27154768

  15. Reducing Internalizing Symptoms among High-Risk, Hispanic Adolescents: Mediators of a Preventive Family Intervention

    Perrino, Tatiana; Brincks, Ahnalee; Howe, George; Brown, C. Hendricks; Prado, Guillermo; Pantin, Hilda

    2016-01-01

    Familias Unidas is a family-focused preventive intervention that has been found to reduce drug use and sexual risk behaviors among Hispanic adolescents. In some trials, Familias Unidas has also been found to be efficacious in reducing adolescent internalizing symptoms (i.e., depressive and anxiety symptoms), even though the intervention did not specifically target internalizing symptoms. This study examines potential mediators or mechanisms by which Familias Unidas influences internalizing symptoms, specifically the role of intervention-targeted improvements in parent-adolescent communication and reductions in youth externalizing behaviors. A total of 213 Hispanic eighth grade students with a history of externalizing behavior problems and their primary caregivers were recruited from the public school system. Participants, with a mean age of 13.8 years, were randomized into the Familias Unidas intervention or community practice control condition, and assessed at baseline, 6-months, 18-months, and 30-months post-baseline. A cascading mediation model was tested in which the Familias Unidas intervention was hypothesized to decrease adolescent internalizing symptoms through two mediators: improvements in parent-adolescent communication leading to decreases in externalizing behaviors. Findings show that the intervention had significant direct effects on youth internalizing symptoms at 30-months post-baseline. In addition, the cascading mediation model was supported in which the Familias Unidas intervention predicted significant improvements in parent-adolescent communication at 6-months, subsequently decreasing externalizing behaviors at 18-months, and ultimately reducing youth internalizing symptoms at 30-months post-baseline. Implications for prevention interventions are discussed. PMID:27154768

  16. Corrosion of high purity Fe-Cr-Ni alloys in 13 N boiling nitric acid

    Corrosion in boiling nitric acid was investigated for high purity Fe-18%Cr-12%Ni alloys and type 304L stainless steels (SS). Owing to very low impurity concentration, the solution treated high purity alloys show almost no intergranular corrosion while the type 304L SS show severe intergranular corrosion. Both in the high purity alloys and type 304L SS, aging treatments ranging from 873 K to 1073 K for 1 h enhance intergranular corrosion. During the aging treatments, impurities should be segregated to the grain boundaries. The corrosion behaviors were discussed from a standpoint of impurity segregation to grain boundaries. This study is of importance for purex reprocessing of spent fuels

  17. Development of ultra high power, valve-regulated lead-acid batteries for industrial applications

    Soria, M. Luisa; Valenciano, Jesús; Ojeda, Araceli

    There is a recent market trend towards industrial battery powered products that demand occasionally very high discharge rates. This fact is today solved by oversizing the battery or by using more expensive high power nickel-cadmium batteries. Within an EC funded project, ultra high power lead-acid batteries for UPS applications are being developed. The batteries are characterised by a thin electrode design linked to the use of novel separator materials to increase the battery life under floating and deep cycling conditions. Battery performance under different working conditions is presented, in comparison to standard products, and the battery improvements and failure mechanisms are also discussed.

  18. Preparation and characterization of the high molecular weight [3H]hyaluronic acid

    Two methods of preparation were investigated. In the first, hydrogen atoms in the molecule are replaced by tritium. This isotopic substitution was performed in aqueous solution using Pd/CaCO3 as catalyst. In the second method, the high molecular weight hyaluronic acid was alkylated with [3H]methyl bromide in liquid ammonia at a temperature of -33.5 degC. High-performance gel permeation chromatographic separation was used for the separation and characterization of the high molecular weight [3H]hyaluronic acid. Molecular weight parameters for the labelled biopolymers were: M-barw=128 kDa, M-barw/M-barn=1.88 (first method) and M-barw=268 kDa, M-barw/M-barn=1.55 (second method). The high molecular weight [3H]hyaluronic acid with M-barw=268 kDa was degraded further by specific hyaluronidase. Products of the enzymatic depolymerization were observed to be identical for both the labelled and cold biopolymer. This finding indicates that the described labelling procedure using [3H]methyl bromide does not induce any major structural rearrangements in the molecule. (author) 3 figs., 2 tabs., 13 refs

  19. Production of biodiesel from high free fatty acid Karanja (Pongamia pinnata) oil

    Naik, Malaya; Das, L.M. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Meher, L.C.; Naik, S.N. [Centre for Rural and Development and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2008-04-15

    Non-edible oil contains several unsaponifiable and toxic components, which make them unsuitable for human consumption. Karanja (Pongamia pinnata) is an underutilized plant which is grown in many parts of India. Sometimes the oil is contaminated with high free fatty acids (FFAs) depending upon the moisture content in the seed during collection as well as oil expression. The present study deals with production of biodiesel from high FFA Karanja oil because the conventional alkali-catalyzed route is not the feasible route. This paper discusses the mechanism of a dual process adopted for the production of biodiesel from Karanja oil containing FFA up to 20%. The first step is acid-catalyzed esterification by using 0.5% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, alcohol 6:1 molar ratio with respect to the high FFA Karanja oil to produce methyl ester by lowering the acid value, and the next step is alkali-catalyzed transesterification. The yield of biodiesel from high FFA Karanja oil by dual step process has been observed to be 96.6-97%. (author)

  20. HIV among immigrants living in high-income countries: a realist review of evidence to guide targeted approaches to behavioural HIV prevention

    McMahon Tadgh; Ward Paul R

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Immigrants from developing and middle-income countries are an emerging priority in HIV prevention in high-income countries. This may be explained in part by accelerating international migration and population mobility. However, it may also be due to the vulnerabilities of immigrants including social exclusion along with socioeconomic, cultural and language barriers to HIV prevention. Contemporary thinking on effective HIV prevention stresses the need for targeted approache...