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Sample records for acid pdb entries

  1. Re-refinement from deposited X-ray data can deliver improved models for most PDB entries.

    Joosten, R.P.; Womack, T.; Vriend, G.; Bricogne, G.

    2009-01-01

    The deposition of X-ray data along with the customary structural models defining PDB entries makes it possible to apply large-scale re-refinement protocols to these entries, thus giving users the benefit of improvements in X-ray methods that have occurred since the structure was deposited. Automated

  2. Re-refinement from deposited X-ray data can deliver improved models for most PDB entries

    Joosten, Robbie P. [CMBI, NCMLS, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Womack, Thomas [Global Phasing, Sheraton House, Castle Park, Cambridge CB3 0AX (United Kingdom); Vriend, Gert, E-mail: vriend@cmbi.ru.nl [CMBI, NCMLS, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Bricogne, Gérard [Global Phasing, Sheraton House, Castle Park, Cambridge CB3 0AX (United Kingdom); CMBI, NCMLS, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2009-02-01

    An evaluation of validation and real-space intervention possibilities for improving existing automated (re-)refinement methods. The deposition of X-ray data along with the customary structural models defining PDB entries makes it possible to apply large-scale re-refinement protocols to these entries, thus giving users the benefit of improvements in X-ray methods that have occurred since the structure was deposited. Automated gradient refinement is an effective method to achieve this goal, but real-space intervention is most often required in order to adequately address problems detected by structure-validation software. In order to improve the existing protocol, automated re-refinement was combined with structure validation and difference-density peak analysis to produce a catalogue of problems in PDB entries that are amenable to automatic correction. It is shown that re-refinement can be effective in producing improvements, which are often associated with the systematic use of the TLS parameterization of B factors, even for relatively new and high-resolution PDB entries, while the accompanying manual or semi-manual map analysis and fitting steps show good prospects for eventual automation. It is proposed that the potential for simultaneous improvements in methods and in re-refinement results be further encouraged by broadening the scope of depositions to include refinement metadata and ultimately primary rather than reduced X-ray data.

  3. Re-refinement from deposited X-ray data can deliver improved models for most PDB entries.

    Joosten, Robbie P; Womack, Thomas; Vriend, Gert; Bricogne, Gérard

    2009-02-01

    The deposition of X-ray data along with the customary structural models defining PDB entries makes it possible to apply large-scale re-refinement protocols to these entries, thus giving users the benefit of improvements in X-ray methods that have occurred since the structure was deposited. Automated gradient refinement is an effective method to achieve this goal, but real-space intervention is most often required in order to adequately address problems detected by structure-validation software. In order to improve the existing protocol, automated re-refinement was combined with structure validation and difference-density peak analysis to produce a catalogue of problems in PDB entries that are amenable to automatic correction. It is shown that re-refinement can be effective in producing improvements, which are often associated with the systematic use of the TLS parameterization of B factors, even for relatively new and high-resolution PDB entries, while the accompanying manual or semi-manual map analysis and fitting steps show good prospects for eventual automation. It is proposed that the potential for simultaneous improvements in methods and in re-refinement results be further encouraged by broadening the scope of depositions to include refinement metadata and ultimately primary rather than reduced X-ray data. PMID:19171973

  4. PDB2Graph: A toolbox for identifying critical amino acids map in proteins based on graph theory.

    Niknam, Niloofar; Khakzad, Hamed; Arab, Seyed Shahriar; Naderi-Manesh, Hossein

    2016-05-01

    The integrative and cooperative nature of protein structure involves the assessment of topological and global features of constituent parts. Network concept takes complete advantage of both of these properties in the analysis concomitantly. High compatibility to structural concepts or physicochemical properties in addition to exploiting a remarkable simplification in the system has made network an ideal tool to explore biological systems. There are numerous examples in which different protein structural and functional characteristics have been clarified by the network approach. Here, we present an interactive and user-friendly Matlab-based toolbox, PDB2Graph, devoted to protein structure network construction, visualization, and analysis. Moreover, PDB2Graph is an appropriate tool for identifying critical nodes involved in protein structural robustness and function based on centrality indices. It maps critical amino acids in protein networks and can greatly aid structural biologists in selecting proper amino acid candidates for manipulating protein structures in a more reasonable and rational manner. To introduce the capability and efficiency of PDB2Graph in detail, the structural modification of Calmodulin through allosteric binding of Ca(2+) is considered. In addition, a mutational analysis for three well-identified model proteins including Phage T4 lysozyme, Barnase and Ribonuclease HI, was performed to inspect the influence of mutating important central residues on protein activity. PMID:27043857

  5. Data mining the PDB for glyco-related data.

    Lütteke, Thomas; von der Lieth, Claus W

    2009-01-01

    The 3D structural data of glycoprotein or protein-carbohydrate complexes that are found in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) are an interesting data source for glycobiologists. Unfortunately, carbohydrate components are difficult to find with the means provided by the PDB. The GLYCOSCIENCES.de internet portal offers a variety of tools and databases to locate and analyze these structures. This chapter describes how to find PDB entries that feature a specific carbohydrate structure and how to locate carbohydrate residues in a 3D structure file and to check their consistency. In addition to this, methods to statistically analyze torsion angles and the abundance of amino acids both in the neighborhood of glycosylation sites and in the spatial vicinity of non-covalently bound carbohydrate chains are summarized. PMID:19277543

  6. PDB_REDO: automated re-refinement of X-ray structure models in the PDB

    Joosten, R.P.; Salzemann, J.; Bloch, V.; Stockinger, H.; Berglund, A; Blanchet, C.; Bongcam-Rudloff, E.; Combet, C.; Da Costa, A.L.; Deleage, G.; Diarena, M.; Fabbretti, R.; Fettahi, G.; Flegel, V.; Gisel, A.

    2009-01-01

    Structural biology, homology modelling and rational drug design require accurate three-dimensional macromolecular coordinates. However, the coordinates in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) have not all been obtained using the latest experimental and computational methods. In this study a method is presented for automated re-refinement of existing structure models in the PDB. A large-scale benchmark with 16 807 PDB entries showed that they can be improved in terms of fit to the deposited experimenta...

  7. PDB_REDO: automated re-refinement of X-ray structure models in the PDB.

    Joosten, Robbie P; Salzemann, Jean; Bloch, Vincent; Stockinger, Heinz; Berglund, Ann-Charlott; Blanchet, Christophe; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Combet, Christophe; Da Costa, Ana L; Deleage, Gilbert; Diarena, Matteo; Fabbretti, Roberto; Fettahi, Géraldine; Flegel, Volker; Gisel, Andreas; Kasam, Vinod; Kervinen, Timo; Korpelainen, Eija; Mattila, Kimmo; Pagni, Marco; Reichstadt, Matthieu; Breton, Vincent; Tickle, Ian J; Vriend, Gert

    2009-06-01

    Structural biology, homology modelling and rational drug design require accurate three-dimensional macromolecular coordinates. However, the coordinates in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) have not all been obtained using the latest experimental and computational methods. In this study a method is presented for automated re-refinement of existing structure models in the PDB. A large-scale benchmark with 16 807 PDB entries showed that they can be improved in terms of fit to the deposited experimental X-ray data as well as in terms of geometric quality. The re-refinement protocol uses TLS models to describe concerted atom movement. The resulting structure models are made available through the PDB_REDO databank (http://www.cmbi.ru.nl/pdb_redo/). Grid computing techniques were used to overcome the computational requirements of this endeavour. PMID:22477769

  8. Protein Data Bank (PDB)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Protein Data Bank (PDB) archive is the single worldwide repository of information about the 3D structures of large biological molecules, including proteins and...

  9. PDBCOP: PDB comparison program

    Fejfarová, Karla; Dohnálek, Jan; Hašek, Jindřich

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2015), s. 35. ISSN 1211-5894. [Discussions in Structural Molecular Biology /13./. 19.03.2015-21.03.2015, Nové Hrady] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0029; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:86652036 Keywords : crystal structure * protein * PDB Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  10. Mirrors in the PDB: left-handed α-turns guide design with D-amino acids

    Nanda Vikas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incorporating variable amino acid stereochemistry in molecular design has the potential to improve existing protein stability and create new topologies inaccessible to homochiral molecules. The Protein Data Bank has been a reliable, rich source of information on molecular interactions and their role in protein stability and structure. D-amino acids rarely occur naturally, making it difficult to infer general rules for how they would be tolerated in proteins through an analysis of existing protein structures. However, protein elements containing short left-handed turns and helices turn out to contain useful information. Molecular mechanisms used in proteins to stabilize left-handed elements by L-amino acids are structurally enantiomeric to potential synthetic strategies for stabilizing right-handed elements with D-amino acids. Results Propensities for amino acids to occur in contiguous αL helices correlate with published thermodynamic scales for incorporation of D-amino acids into αR helices. Two backbone rules for terminating a left-handed helix are found: an αR conformation is disfavored at the amino terminus, and a βR conformation is disfavored at the carboxy terminus. Helix capping sidechain-backbone interactions are found which are unique to αL helices including an elevated propensity for L-Asn, and L-Thr at the amino terminus and L-Gln, L-Thr and L-Ser at the carboxy terminus. Conclusion By examining left-handed α-turns containing L-amino acids, new interaction motifs for incorporating D-amino acids into right-handed α-helices are identified. These will provide a basis for de novo design of novel heterochiral protein folds.

  11. PDB explorer -- a web based algorithm for protein annotation viewer and 3D visualization.

    Nayarisseri, Anuraj; Shardiwal, Rakesh Kumar; Yadav, Mukesh; Kanungo, Neha; Singh, Pooja; Shah, Pratik; Ahmed, Sheaza

    2014-12-01

    The PDB file format, is a text format characterizing the three dimensional structures of macro molecules available in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Determined protein structure are found in coalition with other molecules or ions such as nucleic acids, water, ions, Drug molecules and so on, which therefore can be described in the PDB format and have been deposited in PDB database. PDB is a machine generated file, it's not human readable format, to read this file we need any computational tool to understand it. The objective of our present study is to develop a free online software for retrieval, visualization and reading of annotation of a protein 3D structure which is available in PDB database. Main aim is to create PDB file in human readable format, i.e., the information in PDB file is converted in readable sentences. It displays all possible information from a PDB file including 3D structure of that file. Programming languages and scripting languages like Perl, CSS, Javascript, Ajax, and HTML have been used for the development of PDB Explorer. The PDB Explorer directly parses the PDB file, calling methods for parsed element secondary structure element, atoms, coordinates etc. PDB Explorer is freely available at http://www.pdbexplorer.eminentbio.com/home with no requirement of log-in. PMID:25118648

  12. Outcome of the First wwPDB/CCDC/D3R Ligand Validation Workshop.

    Adams, Paul D; Aertgeerts, Kathleen; Bauer, Cary; Bell, Jeffrey A; Berman, Helen M; Bhat, Talapady N; Blaney, Jeff M; Bolton, Evan; Bricogne, Gerard; Brown, David; Burley, Stephen K; Case, David A; Clark, Kirk L; Darden, Tom; Emsley, Paul; Feher, Victoria A; Feng, Zukang; Groom, Colin R; Harris, Seth F; Hendle, Jorg; Holder, Thomas; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Kleywegt, Gerard J; Krojer, Tobias; Marcotrigiano, Joseph; Mark, Alan E; Markley, John L; Miller, Matthew; Minor, Wladek; Montelione, Gaetano T; Murshudov, Garib; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Nakamura, Haruki; Nicholls, Anthony; Nicklaus, Marc; Nolte, Robert T; Padyana, Anil K; Peishoff, Catherine E; Pieniazek, Susan; Read, Randy J; Shao, Chenghua; Sheriff, Steven; Smart, Oliver; Soisson, Stephen; Spurlino, John; Stouch, Terry; Svobodova, Radka; Tempel, Wolfram; Terwilliger, Thomas C; Tronrud, Dale; Velankar, Sameer; Ward, Suzanna C; Warren, Gregory L; Westbrook, John D; Williams, Pamela; Yang, Huanwang; Young, Jasmine

    2016-04-01

    Crystallographic studies of ligands bound to biological macromolecules (proteins and nucleic acids) represent an important source of information concerning drug-target interactions, providing atomic level insights into the physical chemistry of complex formation between macromolecules and ligands. Of the more than 115,000 entries extant in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) archive, ∼75% include at least one non-polymeric ligand. Ligand geometrical and stereochemical quality, the suitability of ligand models for in silico drug discovery and design, and the goodness-of-fit of ligand models to electron-density maps vary widely across the archive. We describe the proceedings and conclusions from the first Worldwide PDB/Cambridge Crystallographic Data Center/Drug Design Data Resource (wwPDB/CCDC/D3R) Ligand Validation Workshop held at the Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics at Rutgers University on July 30-31, 2015. Experts in protein crystallography from academe and industry came together with non-profit and for-profit software providers for crystallography and with experts in computational chemistry and data archiving to discuss and make recommendations on best practices, as framed by a series of questions central to structural studies of macromolecule-ligand complexes. What data concerning bound ligands should be archived in the PDB? How should the ligands be best represented? How should structural models of macromolecule-ligand complexes be validated? What supplementary information should accompany publications of structural studies of biological macromolecules? Consensus recommendations on best practices developed in response to each of these questions are provided, together with some details regarding implementation. Important issues addressed but not resolved at the workshop are also enumerated. PMID:27050687

  13. PDB_REDO: constructive validation, more than just looking for errors.

    Joosten, Robbie P; Joosten, Krista; Murshudov, Garib N; Perrakis, Anastassis

    2012-04-01

    Developments of the PDB_REDO procedure that combine re-refinement and rebuilding within a unique decision-making framework to improve structures in the PDB are presented. PDB_REDO uses a variety of existing and custom-built software modules to choose an optimal refinement protocol (e.g. anisotropic, isotropic or overall B-factor refinement, TLS model) and to optimize the geometry versus data-refinement weights. Next, it proceeds to rebuild side chains and peptide planes before a final optimization round. PDB_REDO works fully automatically without the need for intervention by a crystallographic expert. The pipeline was tested on 12 000 PDB entries and the great majority of the test cases improved both in terms of crystallographic criteria such as R(free) and in terms of widely accepted geometric validation criteria. It is concluded that PDB_REDO is useful to update the otherwise `static' structures in the PDB to modern crystallographic standards. The publically available PDB_REDO database provides better model statistics and contributes to better refinement and validation targets. PMID:22505269

  14. Widespread occurrence of the tfd-II genes in soil bacteria revealed by nucleotide sequence analysis of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid degradative plasmids pDB1 and p712.

    Kim, Dong-Uk; Kim, Min-Sun; Lim, Jong-Sung; Ka, Jong-Ok

    2013-05-01

    Variovorax sp. strain DB1 and Pseudomonas pickettii strain 712 are 2,4-dicholorophenoxy-acetic acid (2,4-D)-degrading bacteria, which were isolated from agricultural soils in Republic of Korea and USA, respectively. Each strain harbors a 2,4-D degradative plasmid and is able to utilize 2,4-D as the sole source of carbon for its growth. The 2,4-D degradative plasmid pDB1 of strain DB1 consisted of a 65,269-bp circular molecule with a G+C content of 66.23% and had 68 ORFs. The 2,4-D degradative plasmid p712 of strain 712 was composed of a 62,798-bp circular molecule with a 62.11% G+C content and had 62 ORFs. The plasmids pDB1 and p712 share significantly homologous 2,4-D degradative genes with high similarity to the tfdR, tfdB-II, tfdC-II, tfdD-II, tfdE-II, tfdF-II, tfdK and tfdA genes of plasmid pJP4 of Alcaligenes eutrophus isolated from Australia. In a phylogenetic analysis with trfA, traL, and trbA genes, pDB1 belonged to IncP-1β with pJP4, while p712 belonged to IncP-1ε with pKJK5 and pEMT3. The results indicated that, in spite of the differences in their backbone regions, the 2,4-D catabolic genes of the two plasmids were closely related and also related to the well-known 2,4-D degradative plasmid pJP4 even though all were isolated from different geographic regions. Other similarities in the genetic organization and the presence of IS1071 suggested that these catabolic genes may be on a transposable element, leading to widespread occurrence in soil bacteria. PMID:23376020

  15. Entry of double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid during transformation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Biswas, G D; Sparling, P F

    1981-01-01

    The state of donor deoxyribonucleic acid after entry into competent cells was examined by assaying the transformed cell lysates for donor-marker transforming activity and density of donor deoxyribonucleic acid in CsCl gradients. The experiments showed that deoxyribonucleic acid entered in native, double-stranded form.

  16. NMR structure calculation for all small molecule ligands and non-standard residues from the PDB Chemical Component Dictionary.

    Yilmaz, Emel Maden; Güntert, Peter

    2015-09-01

    An algorithm, CYLIB, is presented for converting molecular topology descriptions from the PDB Chemical Component Dictionary into CYANA residue library entries. The CYANA structure calculation algorithm uses torsion angle molecular dynamics for the efficient computation of three-dimensional structures from NMR-derived restraints. For this, the molecules have to be represented in torsion angle space with rotations around covalent single bonds as the only degrees of freedom. The molecule must be given a tree structure of torsion angles connecting rigid units composed of one or several atoms with fixed relative positions. Setting up CYANA residue library entries therefore involves, besides straightforward format conversion, the non-trivial step of defining a suitable tree structure of torsion angles, and to re-order the atoms in a way that is compatible with this tree structure. This can be done manually for small numbers of ligands but the process is time-consuming and error-prone. An automated method is necessary in order to handle the large number of different potential ligand molecules to be studied in drug design projects. Here, we present an algorithm for this purpose, and show that CYANA structure calculations can be performed with almost all small molecule ligands and non-standard amino acid residues in the PDB Chemical Component Dictionary. PMID:26123317

  17. NMR structure calculation for all small molecule ligands and non-standard residues from the PDB Chemical Component Dictionary

    An algorithm, CYLIB, is presented for converting molecular topology descriptions from the PDB Chemical Component Dictionary into CYANA residue library entries. The CYANA structure calculation algorithm uses torsion angle molecular dynamics for the efficient computation of three-dimensional structures from NMR-derived restraints. For this, the molecules have to be represented in torsion angle space with rotations around covalent single bonds as the only degrees of freedom. The molecule must be given a tree structure of torsion angles connecting rigid units composed of one or several atoms with fixed relative positions. Setting up CYANA residue library entries therefore involves, besides straightforward format conversion, the non-trivial step of defining a suitable tree structure of torsion angles, and to re-order the atoms in a way that is compatible with this tree structure. This can be done manually for small numbers of ligands but the process is time-consuming and error-prone. An automated method is necessary in order to handle the large number of different potential ligand molecules to be studied in drug design projects. Here, we present an algorithm for this purpose, and show that CYANA structure calculations can be performed with almost all small molecule ligands and non-standard amino acid residues in the PDB Chemical Component Dictionary

  18. NMR structure calculation for all small molecule ligands and non-standard residues from the PDB Chemical Component Dictionary

    Yilmaz, Emel Maden; Güntert, Peter, E-mail: guentert@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Center for Biomolecular Magnetic Resonance, Institute of Biophysical Chemistry (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    An algorithm, CYLIB, is presented for converting molecular topology descriptions from the PDB Chemical Component Dictionary into CYANA residue library entries. The CYANA structure calculation algorithm uses torsion angle molecular dynamics for the efficient computation of three-dimensional structures from NMR-derived restraints. For this, the molecules have to be represented in torsion angle space with rotations around covalent single bonds as the only degrees of freedom. The molecule must be given a tree structure of torsion angles connecting rigid units composed of one or several atoms with fixed relative positions. Setting up CYANA residue library entries therefore involves, besides straightforward format conversion, the non-trivial step of defining a suitable tree structure of torsion angles, and to re-order the atoms in a way that is compatible with this tree structure. This can be done manually for small numbers of ligands but the process is time-consuming and error-prone. An automated method is necessary in order to handle the large number of different potential ligand molecules to be studied in drug design projects. Here, we present an algorithm for this purpose, and show that CYANA structure calculations can be performed with almost all small molecule ligands and non-standard amino acid residues in the PDB Chemical Component Dictionary.

  19. Entry of Bluetongue Virus Capsid Requires the Late Endosome-specific Lipid Lysobisphosphatidic Acid.

    Patel, Avnish; Mohl, Bjorn-Patrick; Roy, Polly

    2016-06-01

    The entry of viruses into host cells is one of the key processes of infection. The mechanisms of cellular entry for enveloped virus have been well studied. The fusion proteins as well as the facilitating cellular lipid factors involved in the viral fusion entry process have been well characterized. The process of non-enveloped virus cell entry, in comparison, remains poorly defined, particularly for large complex capsid viruses of the family Reoviridae, which comprises a range of mammalian pathogens. These viruses enter cells without the aid of a limiting membrane and thus cannot fuse with host cell membranes to enter cells. Instead, these viruses are believed to penetrate membranes of the host cell during endocytosis. However, the molecular mechanism of this process is largely undefined. Here we show, utilizing an in vitro liposome penetration assay and cell biology, that bluetongue virus (BTV), an archetypal member of the Reoviridae, utilizes the late endosome-specific lipid lysobisphosphatidic acid for productive membrane penetration and viral entry. Further, we provide preliminary evidence that lipid lysobisphosphatidic acid facilitates pore expansion during membrane penetration, suggesting a mechanism for lipid factor requirement of BTV. This finding indicates that despite the lack of a membrane envelope, the entry process of BTV is similar in specific lipid requirements to enveloped viruses that enter cells through the late endosome. These results are the first, to our knowledge, to demonstrate that a large non-enveloped virus of the Reoviridae has specific lipid requirements for membrane penetration and host cell entry. PMID:27036941

  20. Proteins of Unknown Function in the Protein Data Bank (PDB: An Inventory of True Uncharacterized Proteins and Computational Tools for Their Analysis

    Nurul Nadzirin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Proteins of uncharacterized functions form a large part of many of the currently available biological databases and this situation exists even in the Protein Data Bank (PDB. Our analysis of recent PDB data revealed that only 42.53% of PDB entries (1084 coordinate files that were categorized under “unknown function” are true examples of proteins of unknown function at this point in time. The remainder 1465 entries also annotated as such appear to be able to have their annotations re-assessed, based on the availability of direct functional characterization experiments for the protein itself, or for homologous sequences or structures thus enabling computational function inference.

  1. PDB: CBRC-BTAU-01-1602 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available (Identity=90%) PDB:1FFX Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:346-794(Identity=90%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:B (EM Resolution...=15.00),Region:346-794(Identity=90%) PDB:1JFF Chain:B (EM Resolution=3.50),Region:346-794(Identity=9...0%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:346-794(Identity=90%) PDB:1SA1 Chain:B (X-ray Resoluti...on=4.20),Region:346-794(Identity=90%) PDB:2WBE Chain:B (EM Resolution=9.40),Region:...346-794(Identity=89%) PDB:1Z2B Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:346-794(Identity=89%) PDB:3DCO Chain:B (EM Resolution

  2. PDB: CBRC-MDOM-01-0507 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available (Identity=93%) PDB:1FFX Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:324-795(Identity=93%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:B (EM Resolution...=15.00),Region:324-795(Identity=93%) PDB:1JFF Chain:B (EM Resolution=3.50),Region:324-795(Identity=9...3%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:324-795(Identity=93%) PDB:1SA1 Chain:B (X-ray Resoluti...on=4.20),Region:324-795(Identity=93%) PDB:2WBE Chain:B (EM Resolution=9.40),Region:...324-795(Identity=92%) PDB:1Z2B Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:324-795(Identity=92%) PDB:3DCO Chain:B (EM Resolution

  3. PDB: CBRC-MDOM-02-0275 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available (Identity=96%) PDB:1FFX Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:374-798(Identity=96%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:B (EM Resolution...=15.00),Region:374-798(Identity=96%) PDB:1JFF Chain:B (EM Resolution=3.50),Region:374-798(Identity=9...6%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:374-798(Identity=96%) PDB:1SA1 Chain:B (X-ray Resoluti...on=4.20),Region:374-798(Identity=96%) PDB:2WBE Chain:B (EM Resolution=9.40),Region:...374-798(Identity=95%) PDB:1Z2B Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:374-798(Identity=95%) PDB:3DCO Chain:B (EM Resolution

  4. PDB: CBRC-PVAM-01-1491 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available (Identity=90%) PDB:1FFX Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:337-792(Identity=90%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:B (EM Resolution...=15.00),Region:337-792(Identity=90%) PDB:1JFF Chain:B (EM Resolution=3.50),Region:337-792(Identity=9...0%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:337-792(Identity=90%) PDB:1SA1 Chain:B (X-ray Resoluti...on=4.20),Region:337-792(Identity=90%) PDB:2WBE Chain:B (EM Resolution=9.40),Region:...337-792(Identity=89%) PDB:1Z2B Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:337-792(Identity=89%) PDB:3DCO Chain:B (EM Resolution

  5. PDB: CBRC-AGAM-03-0006 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available (Identity=90%) PDB:1FFX Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:493-923(Identity=90%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:B (EM Resolution...=15.00),Region:493-923(Identity=90%) PDB:1JFF Chain:B (EM Resolution=3.50),Region:493-923(Identity=9...0%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:493-923(Identity=90%) PDB:1SA1 Chain:B (X-ray Resoluti...on=4.20),Region:493-923(Identity=90%) PDB:2WBE Chain:B (EM Resolution=9.40),Region:...493-923(Identity=89%) PDB:1Z2B Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:493-923(Identity=89%) PDB:3DCO Chain:B (EM Resolution

  6. PDB: CBRC-RNOR-19-0067 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available (Identity=92%) PDB:1FFX Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:352-778(Identity=92%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:B (EM Resolution...=15.00),Region:352-778(Identity=92%) PDB:1JFF Chain:B (EM Resolution=3.50),Region:352-778(Identity=9...2%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:352-778(Identity=92%) PDB:1SA1 Chain:B (X-ray Resoluti...on=4.20),Region:352-778(Identity=92%) PDB:2WBE Chain:B (EM Resolution=9.40),Region:...352-778(Identity=91%) PDB:1Z2B Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:352-778(Identity=91%) PDB:3DCO Chain:B (EM Resolution

  7. PDB: CBRC-CJAC-01-0391 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available on:421-804(Identity=82%) PDB:1FFX Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:421-804(Identity=82%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:B (EM Resolution...=15.00),Region:421-804(Identity=82%) PDB:1JFF Chain:B (EM Resolution=3.50),Region:421-804(...Identity=82%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:421-804(Identity=82...%) PDB:1SA1 Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=4.20),Region:421-788(Identity=82%) PDB:1TUB Chain:B (EM Resolution=3.7...0),Region:421-788(Identity=82%) PDB:1TVK Chain:B (EM Resolution=2.89),Region:421-804(Identity=82%) PDB:2WBE Chain:B (EM Resolution

  8. PDB: CBRC-TGUT-37-0329 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available (Identity=87%) PDB:1FFX Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:577-967(Identity=87%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:B (EM Resolution...=15.00),Region:577-967(Identity=87%) PDB:1JFF Chain:B (EM Resolution=3.50),Region:577-967(Identity=8...7%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:577-967(Identity=87%) PDB:1SA1 Chain:B (X-ray Resoluti...on=4.20),Region:577-967(Identity=87%) PDB:2WBE Chain:B (EM Resolution=9.40),Region:...577-967(Identity=87%) PDB:1Z2B Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:577-967(Identity=87%) PDB:3DCO Chain:B (EM Resolution

  9. PDB: CBRC-XTRO-01-3362 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available (Identity=84%) PDB:1FFX Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:362-748(Identity=84%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:B (EM Resolution...=15.00),Region:362-748(Identity=84%) PDB:1JFF Chain:B (EM Resolution=3.50),Region:362-748(Identity=8...4%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:362-748(Identity=84%) PDB:1SA1 Chain:B (X-ray Resoluti...on=4.20),Region:362-748(Identity=84%) PDB:2WBE Chain:B (EM Resolution=9.40),Region:...362-750(Identity=84%) PDB:1Z2B Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:362-750(Identity=84%) PDB:3DCO Chain:B (EM Resolution

  10. PDB: CBRC-PABE-07-0039 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available (Identity=96%) PDB:1FFX Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:377-801(Identity=96%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:B (EM Resolution...=15.00),Region:377-801(Identity=96%) PDB:1JFF Chain:B (EM Resolution=3.50),Region:377-801(Identity=9...6%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:377-801(Identity=96%) PDB:1SA1 Chain:B (X-ray Resoluti...on=4.20),Region:377-801(Identity=96%) PDB:2WBE Chain:B (EM Resolution=9.40),Region:...377-801(Identity=95%) PDB:1Z2B Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:377-801(Identity=95%) PDB:3DCO Chain:B (EM Resolution

  11. PDB: CBRC-OANA-01-2184 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available (Identity=91%) PDB:1FFX Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:381-814(Identity=91%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:B (EM Resolution...=15.00),Region:381-814(Identity=91%) PDB:1JFF Chain:B (EM Resolution=3.50),Region:381-814(Identity=9...1%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:381-814(Identity=91%) PDB:1SA1 Chain:B (X-ray Resoluti...on=4.20),Region:381-814(Identity=91%) PDB:2WBE Chain:B (EM Resolution=9.40),Region:...381-814(Identity=90%) PDB:1Z2B Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:381-814(Identity=90%) PDB:3DCO Chain:B (EM Resolution

  12. PDB: CBRC-FCAT-01-1094 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available (Identity=92%) PDB:1FFX Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:394-820(Identity=92%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:B (EM Resolution...=15.00),Region:394-820(Identity=92%) PDB:1JFF Chain:B (EM Resolution=3.50),Region:394-820(Identity=9...2%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:394-820(Identity=92%) PDB:1SA1 Chain:B (X-ray Resoluti...on=4.20),Region:394-820(Identity=92%) PDB:2WBE Chain:B (EM Resolution=9.40),Region:...394-820(Identity=92%) PDB:1Z2B Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:394-820(Identity=92%) PDB:3DCO Chain:B (EM Resolution

  13. PDB: CBRC-RMAC-04-0031 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available (Identity=95%) PDB:1FFX Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:385-812(Identity=95%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:B (EM Resolution...=15.00),Region:385-812(Identity=95%) PDB:1JFF Chain:B (EM Resolution=3.50),Region:385-812(Identity=9...5%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:385-812(Identity=95%) PDB:1SA1 Chain:B (X-ray Resoluti...on=4.20),Region:385-812(Identity=95%) PDB:2WBE Chain:B (EM Resolution=9.40),Region:...385-812(Identity=95%) PDB:1Z2B Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:385-812(Identity=95%) PDB:3DCO Chain:B (EM Resolution

  14. PDB: CBRC-CFAM-05-0065 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available (Identity=92%) PDB:1FFX Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:383-810(Identity=92%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:B (EM Resolution...=15.00),Region:383-810(Identity=92%) PDB:1JFF Chain:B (EM Resolution=3.50),Region:383-810(Identity=9...2%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:383-810(Identity=92%) PDB:1SA1 Chain:B (X-ray Resoluti...on=4.20),Region:383-810(Identity=92%) PDB:2WBE Chain:B (EM Resolution=9.40),Region:...383-810(Identity=91%) PDB:1Z2B Chain:B (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:383-810(Identity=91%) PDB:3DCO Chain:B (EM Resolution

  15. PDB: CBRC-PABE-08-0030 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-08-0030 1U34,2JNC,2JND, Region:45-139(Identity=85%) PDB:1U34 Chain:A (NMR...),Region:45-139(Identity=85%) PDB:2JNC Chain:A (NMR),Region:45-139(Identity=85%) PDB:2JND Chain:A (NMR), ...

  16. PDB: CBRC-RNOR-04-0137 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-RNOR-04-0137 1U34,2JNC,2JND, Region:39-132(Identity=95%) PDB:1U34 Chain:A (NMR...),Region:39-132(Identity=95%) PDB:2JNC Chain:A (NMR),Region:39-132(Identity=95%) PDB:2JND Chain:A (NMR), ...

  17. PDB: CBRC-BTAU-01-2619 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-2619 1U34,2JNC,2JND, Region:43-137(Identity=85%) PDB:1U34 Chain:A (NMR...),Region:43-137(Identity=85%) PDB:2JNC Chain:A (NMR),Region:43-137(Identity=85%) PDB:2JND Chain:A (NMR), ...

  18. PDB: CBRC-PCAP-01-1657 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-PCAP-01-1657 1U34,2JNC,2JND, Region:43-137(Identity=80%) PDB:1U34 Chain:A (NMR...),Region:43-137(Identity=80%) PDB:2JNC Chain:A (NMR),Region:43-137(Identity=80%) PDB:2JND Chain:A (NMR), ...

  19. PDB: CBRC-ACAR-01-1016 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available 2E4H, Region:331-779(Identity=95%) PDB:3E22 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.80),Region:331-779(Identity=97%) PDB:3DCO Chain:A (EM Resolut...ion=1.90),Region:331-779(Identity=97%) PDB:3EDL Chain:A (EM Resolution=28.00),Regio...n:331-779(Identity=96%) PDB:1FFX Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:331-779(I...dentity=96%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:A (EM Resolution=15.00),Region:331-779(Identity=96%) PDB:1JFF Chain:A (EM Resolution...=3.50),Region:331-779(Identity=96%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:331-779(Identity=96%

  20. PDB: CBRC-FRUB-02-0211 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available 3E22, Region:369-811(Identity=95%) PDB:1Z2B Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:369-814(Identity=95%) PDB:3DCO Chain:A (EM Resolut...ion=1.90),Region:369-814(Identity=95%) PDB:3EDL Chain:A (EM Resolution=28.00),Regio...n:369-814(Identity=94%) PDB:1FFX Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region:369-814(I...dentity=94%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:A (EM Resolution=15.00),Region:369-814(Identity=94%) PDB:1JFF Chain:A (EM Resolution...=3.50),Region:369-814(Identity=94%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:369-814(Identity=94%

  1. PDB: CBRC-FRUB-02-0776 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available 2E4H, Region:1326-1773(Identity=90%) PDB:2WBE Chain:A (EM Resolution=9.40),Region:1326-1773(Identity=91%) PDB:3DCO Chain:A (EM Resolu...tion=1.90),Region:1326-1773(Identity=91%) PDB:3EDL Chain:A (EM Resolution=28.00),Re...gion:1326-1773(Identity=91%) PDB:3DU7 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:1326...-1773(Identity=91%) PDB:3E22 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.80),Region:1326-1773(Identity=90%) PDB:1FFX Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.95),Region:1326-1773(Identity=90%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:A (EM Resolution=15.00),Region:1326-1

  2. PDB: CBRC-DRER-10-0153 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available 3DU7,3E22, Region:383-831(Identity=93%) PDB:3DCO Chain:A (EM Resolution=1.90),Region:383-831(Identity=93%) PDB:3EDL Chain:A (EM Resol...ution=28.00),Region:383-831(Identity=93%) PDB:1FFX Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.95),...Region:383-831(Identity=93%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:A (EM Resolution=15.00),Region:383-83...1(Identity=93%) PDB:1JFF Chain:A (EM Resolution=3.50),Region:383-831(Identity=93%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.58),Region:383-831(Identity=93%) PDB:1SA1 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=4.20),Region:383-821(Identit

  3. PDB: CBRC-TNIG-22-0159 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available 2WBE,3DU7,2E4H, Region:346-770(Identity=93%) PDB:3E22 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.80),Region:346-770(Identit...y=95%) PDB:3DCO Chain:A (EM Resolution=1.90),Region:346-770(Identity=95%) PDB:3EDL Chain:A (EM Resolution=28....00),Region:346-770(Identity=94%) PDB:1FFX Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.95),Region...:346-770(Identity=94%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:A (EM Resolution=15.00),Region:346-770(Identity=94%) PDB:1JFF Chain:A (EM Resolution...=3.50),Region:346-770(Identity=94%) PDB:1SA0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.58),Region:346-770(Id

  4. PDB: CBRC-TGUT-37-0154 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available 2E4H, Region:400-819(Identity=93%) PDB:3DU7 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=4.10),Region:400-819(Identity=93%) PDB...:3E22 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.80),Region:400-819(Identity=93%) PDB:2WBE Chain:A (EM Resolution=9.40),Reg...ion:400-819(Identity=93%) PDB:3DCO Chain:A (EM Resolution=1.90),Region:400-819(Id...entity=93%) PDB:3EDL Chain:A (EM Resolution=28.00),Region:400-819(Identity=93%) PDB:1FFX Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.95),Region:400-819(Identity=93%) PDB:1IA0 Chain:A (EM Resolution=15.00),Region:400-819(Identity=93%

  5. Identification of a D-amino acid decapeptide HIV-1 entry inhibitor

    Entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virion into host cells involves three major steps, each being a potential target for the development of entry inhibitors: gp120 binding to CD4, gp120-CD4 complex interacting with a coreceptor, and gp41 refolding to form a six-helix bundle. Using a D-amino acid decapeptide combinatorial library, we identified peptide DC13 as having potent HIV-1 fusion inhibitory activity, and effectively inhibiting infection by several laboratory-adapted and primary HIV-1 strains. While DC13 did not block binding of gp120 to CD4, nor disrupt the gp41 six-helix bundle formation, it effectively blocked the binding of an anti-CXCR4 monoclonal antibody and chemokine SDF-1α to CXCR4-expressing cells. However, because R5-using primary viruses were also neutralized, the antiviral activity of DC13 implies additional mode(s) of action. These results suggest that DC13 is a useful HIV-1 coreceptor antagonist for CXCR4 and, due to its biostability and simplicity, may be of value for developing a new class of HIV-1 entry inhibitors

  6. PDB: CBRC-PABE-06-0012 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available ion=3.10),Region:38-64(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRO Chain:R (X-ray Resolution=3.10),Regi...on:38-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRP Chain:R (X-ray Resolution=3.00),Region:40-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRQ Chain:R (X-ray Resolution...=3.50),Region:43-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRR Chain:R (X-ray Resolution...=2.40),Region:49-57(Identity=100%) PDB:3BEF Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=2.20), ... ...CBRC-PABE-06-0012 1NRN,1NRO,1NRP,1NRQ,1NRR,3BEF, Region:38-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRN Chain:R (X-ray Resolut

  7. PDB: CBRC-PHAM-01-0359 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available ion=3.10),Region:38-64(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRO Chain:R (X-ray Resolution=3.10),Regi...on:38-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRP Chain:R (X-ray Resolution=3.00),Region:40-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRQ Chain:R (X-ray Resolution...=3.50),Region:43-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRR Chain:R (X-ray Resolution...=2.40),Region:49-57(Identity=100%) PDB:3BEF Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=2.20), ... ...CBRC-PHAM-01-0359 1NRN,1NRO,1NRP,1NRQ,1NRR,3BEF, Region:38-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRN Chain:R (X-ray Resolut

  8. PDB: CBRC-PTRO-06-0019 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available ion=3.10),Region:38-64(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRO Chain:R (X-ray Resolution=3.10),Regi...on:38-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRP Chain:R (X-ray Resolution=3.00),Region:40-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRQ Chain:R (X-ray Resolution...=3.50),Region:43-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRR Chain:R (X-ray Resolution...=2.40),Region:49-57(Identity=100%) PDB:3BEF Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=2.20), ... ...CBRC-PTRO-06-0019 1NRN,1NRO,1NRP,1NRQ,1NRR,3BEF, Region:38-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRN Chain:R (X-ray Resolut

  9. PDB: CBRC-RMAC-06-0015 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available ion=3.10),Region:38-64(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRO Chain:R (X-ray Resolution=3.10),Regi...on:38-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRP Chain:R (X-ray Resolution=3.00),Region:40-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRQ Chain:R (X-ray Resolution...=3.50),Region:43-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRR Chain:R (X-ray Resolution...=2.40),Region:49-57(Identity=100%) PDB:3BEF Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=2.20), ... ...CBRC-RMAC-06-0015 1NRN,1NRO,1NRP,1NRQ,1NRR,3BEF, Region:38-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRN Chain:R (X-ray Resolut

  10. PDB: CBRC-PABE-06-0013 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available ion=3.10),Region:21-47(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRO Chain:R (X-ray Resolution=3.10),Regi...on:21-43(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRP Chain:R (X-ray Resolution=3.00),Region:23-43(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRQ Chain:R (X-ray Resolution...=3.50),Region:26-43(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRR Chain:R (X-ray Resolution...=2.40),Region:32-40(Identity=100%) PDB:3BEF Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=2.20), ... ...CBRC-PABE-06-0013 1NRN,1NRO,1NRP,1NRQ,1NRR,3BEF, Region:21-43(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRN Chain:R (X-ray Resolut

  11. PDB: CBRC-HSAP-05-0018 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available ion=3.10),Region:38-64(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRO Chain:R (X-ray Resolution=3.10),Regi...on:38-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRP Chain:R (X-ray Resolution=3.00),Region:40-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRQ Chain:R (X-ray Resolution...=3.50),Region:43-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRR Chain:R (X-ray Resolution...=2.40),Region:49-57(Identity=100%) PDB:3BEF Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=2.20), ... ...CBRC-HSAP-05-0018 1NRN,1NRO,1NRP,1NRQ,1NRR,3BEF, Region:38-60(Identity=100%) PDB:1NRN Chain:R (X-ray Resolut

  12. PDB: CBRC-CFAM-23-0006 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-CFAM-23-0006 1OF2,1OGT,3B3I, Region:402-410(Identity=100%) PDB:1OF2 Chain:C (X-ray Resolution...=2.20),Region:402-410(Identity=100%) PDB:1OGT Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=1.47),Region:402-410(Identity=100%) PDB:3B3I Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=1.86), ...

  13. PDB: CBRC-PABE-18-0028 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-18-0028 3EHS,3EHT,3EHU, Region:36-131(Identity=100%) PDB:3EHS Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.76),Region:36-131(Identity=100%) PDB:3EHT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40),Region:36-131(Identity=100%) PDB:3EHU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=1.96), ...

  14. PDB: CBRC-OPRI-01-1523 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-1523 1OF2,1OGT,3B3I, Region:401-409(Identity=100%) PDB:1OF2 Chain:C (X-ray Resolution...=2.20),Region:401-409(Identity=100%) PDB:1OGT Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=1.47),Region:401-409(Identity=100%) PDB:3B3I Chain:C (X-ray Resolution=1.86), ...

  15. PDB: CBRC-MLUC-01-0880 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-0880 3EHS,3EHT,3EHU, Region:22-117(Identity=91%) PDB:3EHS Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.76),Region:22-117(Identity=91%) PDB:3EHT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40),Region:22-117(Identity=91%) PDB:3EHU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=1.96), ...

  16. Acid hydrolysis of cellulose as the entry point into biorefinery schemes.

    Rinaldi, Roberto; Schüth, Ferdi

    2009-01-01

    Cellulose is a major source of glucose because it is readily available, renewable, and does not compete with the food supply. Hydrolysis of cellulose is experiencing a new research and development cycle in which this reaction is carried out over solid catalysts and coupled to other reactions for increased efficiency. Cellulose is typically not soluble in conventional solvents and very resistant to chemical and biological transformations. This Review focuses on aspects related to the hydrolysis of cellulose as this process is a significant entry point into the biorefinery scheme based on carbohydrates for the production of biofuels and biochemicals. Structural features of cellulose, conventional acid-catalyzed reactions, and the use of solid acid catalysts for hydrolysis are discussed. The longterm success of the biorefinery concept depends on the development of energetically efficient processes to convert cellulose directly or indirectly into biofuels and chemicals. PMID:19950346

  17. PDB: CBRC-PTRO-06-0041 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-06-0041 2R4R,2RH1,3D4S,2R4S, Region:85-449(Identity=99%) PDB:2R4R Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.40),Region:85-449(Identity=99%) PDB:2RH1 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:85-449(...Identity=99%) PDB:3D4S Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:108-449(Identity=99%) PDB:2R4S Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  18. PDB: CBRC-HSAP-05-0044 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-05-0044 2R4R,2RH1,3D4S,2R4S, Region:1-365(Identity=99%) PDB:2R4R Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.40),Region:1-365(Identity=99%) PDB:2RH1 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:1-365(Ide...ntity=99%) PDB:3D4S Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:24-365(Identity=99%) PDB:2R4S Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  19. PDB: CBRC-RMAC-06-0031 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-06-0031 2R4R,2RH1,3D4S,2R4S, Region:1-367(Identity=98%) PDB:2R4R Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.40),Region:1-367(Identity=98%) PDB:2RH1 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:1-367(Ide...ntity=98%) PDB:3D4S Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:24-367(Identity=97%) PDB:2R4S Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  20. PDB: CBRC-PABE-06-0027 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-06-0027 2R4R,2RH1,3D4S,2R4S, Region:126-492(Identity=98%) PDB:2R4R Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.40),Region:126-492(Identity=98%) PDB:2RH1 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:126-4...92(Identity=98%) PDB:3D4S Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:149-492(Identity=98%) PDB:2R4S Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  1. PDB: CBRC-CJAC-01-1334 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-CJAC-01-1334 2R4R,2RH1,3D4S,2R4S, Region:32-398(Identity=96%) PDB:2R4R Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.40),Region:32-398(Identity=96%) PDB:2RH1 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:32-398(...Identity=96%) PDB:3D4S Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.80),Region:55-398(Identity=96%) PDB:2R4S Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  2. Local Unfolding of Fatty Acid Binding Protein to Allow Ligand Entry for Binding.

    Xiao, Tianshu; Fan, Jing-Song; Zhou, Hu; Lin, Qingsong; Yang, Daiwen

    2016-06-01

    Fatty acid binding proteins are responsible for the transportation of fatty acids in biology. Despite intensive studies, the molecular mechanism of fatty acid entry to and exit from the protein cavity is still unclear. Here a cap-closed variant of human intestinal fatty acid binding protein was generated by mutagenesis, in which the helical cap is locked to the β-barrel by a disulfide linkage. Structure determination shows that this variant adopts a closed conformation, but still uptakes fatty acids. Stopped-flow experiments indicate that a rate-limiting step exists before the ligand association and this step corresponds to the conversion of the closed form to the open one. NMR relaxation dispersion and H-D exchange data demonstrate the presence of two excited states: one is native-like, but the other adopts a locally unfolded structure. Local unfolding of helix 2 generates an opening for ligands to enter the protein cavity, and thus controls the ligand association rate. PMID:27105780

  3. PDB: CBRC-BTAU-01-2536 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-2536 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:10-324(Identity=92%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.5),Region:10-324(Identity=92%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:10-3...30(Identity=92%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:10-324(Identity=92%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.1),Region:10-324(Identity=92%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  4. PDB: CBRC-MMUR-01-1429 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-1429 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.35),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25...-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.75),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  5. PDB: CBRC-PHAM-01-1532 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-1532 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:8-323(Identity=97%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.5),Region:8-323(Identity=97%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:8-329(...Identity=97%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:8-323(Identity=97%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.1),Region:8-323(Identity=97%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  6. PDB: CBRC-PABE-03-0008 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-03-0008 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:8-324(Identity=99%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.5),Region:8-324(Identity=99%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:8-330(...Identity=99%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:8-324(Identity=99%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.1),Region:8-324(Identity=99%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  7. PDB: CBRC-TTRU-01-0390 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0390 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:2-320(Identity=93%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.5),Region:2-320(Identity=93%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:2-326(...Identity=93%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:2-320(Identity=93%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.1),Region:2-320(Identity=93%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  8. PDB: CBRC-OGAR-01-0515 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-OGAR-01-0515 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:2-318(Identity=94%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.5),Region:2-318(Identity=94%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:2-324(...Identity=94%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:2-318(Identity=94%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.1),Region:2-318(Identity=94%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  9. PDB: CBRC-CFAM-14-0054 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-CFAM-14-0054 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:25-571(Identity=89%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.35),Region:25-571(Identity=89%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25...-571(Identity=89%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25-571(Identity=89%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.75),Region:25-571(Identity=89%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  10. PDB: CBRC-CJAC-01-1379 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-CJAC-01-1379 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:8-323(Identity=97%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.5),Region:8-323(Identity=97%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:8-329(...Identity=97%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:8-323(Identity=97%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.1),Region:8-323(Identity=97%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  11. PDB: CBRC-MDOM-04-0074 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0074 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:18-334(Identity=82%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.5),Region:18-334(Identity=82%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:18-3...40(Identity=82%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:18-334(Identity=82%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.1),Region:18-334(Identity=82%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  12. PDB: CBRC-HSAP-02-0054 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-02-0054 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:8-323(Identity=99%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.5),Region:8-323(Identity=99%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:8-329(...Identity=99%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:8-323(Identity=99%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.1),Region:8-323(Identity=99%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  13. PDB: CBRC-MDOM-02-0383 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0383 1EWK,1EWT,1EWV,1ISR,1ISS, Region:33-522(Identity=96%) PDB:1EWK Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.20),Region:33-522(Identity=96%) PDB:1EWT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.70),Region:33...-522(Identity=96%) PDB:1EWV Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=96%) PDB:1ISR Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=96%) PDB:1ISS Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.30), ...

  14. PDB: CBRC-LAFR-01-1328 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-LAFR-01-1328 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:2-311(Identity=93%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.5),Region:2-311(Identity=93%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:2-317(...Identity=93%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:2-311(Identity=93%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.1),Region:2-311(Identity=93%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  15. PDB: CBRC-ETEL-01-1471 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-ETEL-01-1471 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:52-369(Identity=87%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.5),Region:52-369(Identity=87%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:52-3...75(Identity=87%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:52-369(Identity=87%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.1),Region:52-369(Identity=87%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  16. PDB: CBRC-MMUS-10-0003 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUS-10-0003 1EWK,1EWT,1EWV,1ISR,1ISS, Region:33-522(Identity=99%) PDB:1EWK Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.20),Region:33-522(Identity=99%) PDB:1EWT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.70),Region:33...-522(Identity=99%) PDB:1EWV Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=99%) PDB:1ISR Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=99%) PDB:1ISS Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.30), ...

  17. PDB: CBRC-RMAC-04-0056 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-04-0056 1EWK,1EWT,1EWV,1ISR,1ISS, Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1EWK Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.20),Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1EWT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.70),Region:33...-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1EWV Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1ISR Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1ISS Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.30), ...

  18. PDB: CBRC-RNOR-04-0019 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-RNOR-04-0019 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:25-575(Identity=100%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.35),Region:25-575(Identity=100%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:...25-575(Identity=100%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25-575(Identity=100%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.75),Region:25-575(Identity=100%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  19. PDB: CBRC-CFAM-01-0008 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-CFAM-01-0008 1EWK,1EWT,1EWV,1ISR,1ISS, Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1EWK Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.20),Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1EWT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.70),Region:33...-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1EWV Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1ISR Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1ISS Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.30), ...

  20. PDB: CBRC-TGUT-10-0011 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-10-0011 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:13-329(Identity=81%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.5),Region:13-329(Identity=81%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:13-3...35(Identity=82%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:13-329(Identity=81%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.1),Region:13-329(Identity=81%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  1. PDB: CBRC-SARA-01-0838 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-SARA-01-0838 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:8-324(Identity=89%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.5),Region:8-324(Identity=89%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:8-330(...Identity=90%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:8-324(Identity=89%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.1),Region:8-324(Identity=89%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  2. PDB: CBRC-GGOR-01-0300 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGOR-01-0300 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:8-271(Identity=98%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.5),Region:8-271(Identity=98%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:8-271(...Identity=98%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:8-271(Identity=98%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.1),Region:8-271(Identity=98%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  3. PDB: CBRC-TGUT-05-0017 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-05-0017 1EWK,1EWT,1EWV,1ISR,1ISS, Region:33-520(Identity=81%) PDB:1EWK Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.20),Region:33-520(Identity=81%) PDB:1EWT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.70),Region:33...-520(Identity=81%) PDB:1EWV Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=4.00),Region:33-520(Identity=81%) PDB:1ISR Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=4.00),Region:33-520(Identity=81%) PDB:1ISS Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.30), ...

  4. PDB: CBRC-PCAP-01-1190 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-PCAP-01-1190 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:1-485(Identity=92%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.35),Region:1-485(Identity=92%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:1-48...5(Identity=92%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:1-485(Identity=92%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.75),Region:1-485(Identity=92%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  5. PDB: CBRC-MMUS-05-0006 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUS-05-0006 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:25-575(Identity=98%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.35),Region:25-575(Identity=98%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25...-575(Identity=98%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25-575(Identity=98%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.75),Region:25-575(Identity=98%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  6. PDB: CBRC-GGAL-07-0011 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGAL-07-0011 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:9-325(Identity=81%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.5),Region:9-325(Identity=81%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:9-331(...Identity=81%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:9-325(Identity=81%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.1),Region:9-325(Identity=81%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  7. PDB: CBRC-RMAC-03-0043 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-03-0043 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.35),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25...-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.75),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  8. PDB: CBRC-PVAM-01-1450 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-1450 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:113-429(Identity=92%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.5),Region:113-429(Identity=92%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:11...3-435(Identity=92%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:113-429(Identity=92%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.1),Region:113-429(Identity=92%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  9. PDB: CBRC-TSYR-01-0036 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-TSYR-01-0036 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:1-551(Identity=97%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.35),Region:1-551(Identity=97%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:1-55...1(Identity=97%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:1-551(Identity=97%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.75),Region:1-551(Identity=97%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  10. PDB: CBRC-MEUG-01-2373 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-2373 1EWK,1EWT,1EWV,1ISR,1ISS, Region:33-522(Identity=90%) PDB:1EWK Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.20),Region:33-522(Identity=90%) PDB:1EWT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.70),Region:33...-522(Identity=90%) PDB:1EWV Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=90%) PDB:1ISR Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=90%) PDB:1ISS Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.30), ...

  11. PDB: CBRC-OANA-01-1931 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-1931 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:37-348(Identity=84%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.5),Region:37-348(Identity=84%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:37-3...54(Identity=84%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:37-348(Identity=84%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.1),Region:37-348(Identity=84%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  12. PDB: CBRC-PABE-08-0035 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-08-0035 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.35),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25...-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.75),Region:25-575(Identity=96%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  13. PDB: CBRC-EEUR-01-1356 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-EEUR-01-1356 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:35-347(Identity=90%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.5),Region:35-347(Identity=90%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:35-3...53(Identity=90%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:35-347(Identity=90%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.1),Region:35-347(Identity=90%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  14. PDB: CBRC-MLUC-01-0762 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-0762 3ODU,3OE0,3OE6,3OE8,3OE9, Region:3-319(Identity=93%) PDB:3ODU Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.5),Region:3-319(Identity=93%) PDB:3OE0 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.9),Region:3-325(...Identity=93%) PDB:3OE6 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.2),Region:3-319(Identity=93%) PDB:3OE8 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=3.1),Region:3-319(Identity=93%) PDB:3OE9 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.1), ...

  15. PDB: CBRC-PTRO-07-0089 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-07-0089 1EWK,1EWT,1EWV,1ISR,1ISS, Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1EWK Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.20),Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1EWT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.70),Region:33...-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1EWV Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1ISR Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=98%) PDB:1ISS Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.30), ...

  16. PDB: CBRC-RNOR-01-0027 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-RNOR-01-0027 1EWK,1EWT,1EWV,1ISR,1ISS, Region:33-522(Identity=100%) PDB:1EWK Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=2.20),Region:33-522(Identity=100%) PDB:1EWT Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.70),Region:...33-522(Identity=100%) PDB:1EWV Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=100%) PDB:1ISR Chain:A (X-ray Resolution...=4.00),Region:33-522(Identity=100%) PDB:1ISS Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.30), ...

  17. PDB: CBRC-TGUT-02-0002 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-02-0002 2E4U,2E4V,2E4W,2E4X,2E4Y, Region:25-575(Identity=89%) PDB:2E4U Chain:A (X-ray Resolut...ion=2.35),Region:25-575(Identity=89%) PDB:2E4V Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25...-575(Identity=89%) PDB:2E4W Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.40),Region:25-575(Identity=89%) PDB:2E4X Chain:A (X-ray Resolut...ion=2.75),Region:25-575(Identity=89%) PDB:2E4Y Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=3.40), ...

  18. Solution structure of human intestinal fatty acid binding protein: Implications for ligand entry and exit

    Zhang Fengli [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Biophysics (United States); Luecke, Christian [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet (Germany); Baier, Leslie J. [NIDDK, NIH, Phoenix Epidemiology and Clinical Research Branch (United States); Sacchettini, James C. [Texas A and M University, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics (United States); Hamilton, James A. [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Biophysics (United States)

    1997-04-15

    The human intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) is a small (131 amino acids) protein which binds dietary long-chain fatty acids in the cytosol of enterocytes. Recently, an alanine to threonine substitution at position 54 in I-FABP has been identified which affects fatty acid binding and transport, and is associated with the development of insulin resistance in several populations including Mexican-Americans and Pima Indians. To investigate the molecular basis of the binding properties of I-FABP, the 3D solution structure of the more common form of human I-FABP (Ala54) was studied by multidimensional NMR spectroscopy.Recombinant I-FABP was expressed from E. coli in the presence and absence of 15N-enriched media. The sequential assignments for non-delipidated I-FABP were completed by using 2D homonuclear spectra (COSY, TOCSY and NOESY) and 3D heteronuclear spectra(NOESY-HMQC and TOCSY-HMQC). The tertiary structure of human I-FABP was calculated by using the distance geometry program DIANA based on 2519 distance constraints obtained from the NMR data. Subsequent energy minimization was carried out by using the program SYBYL in the presence of distance constraints. The conformation of human I-FABP consists of 10 antiparallel {beta}-strands which form two nearly orthogonal {beta}-sheets of five strands each, and two short {alpha}-helices that connect the {beta}-strands A and B. The interior of the protein consists of a water-filled cavity between the two {beta}-sheets. The NMR solution structure of human I-FABP is similar to the crystal structure of rat I-FABP.The NMR results show significant conformational variability of certain backbone segments around the postulated portal region for the entry and exit of fatty acid ligand.

  19. An Integrated Sequence-Structure Database incorporating matching mRNA sequence, amino acid sequence and protein three-dimensional structure data.

    Adzhubei, I A; Adzhubei, A. A.; Neidle, S.

    1998-01-01

    We have constructed a non-homologous database, termed the Integrated Sequence-Structure Database (ISSD) which comprises the coding sequences of genes, amino acid sequences of the corresponding proteins, their secondary structure and straight phi,psi angles assignments, and polypeptide backbone coordinates. Each protein entry in the database holds the alignment of nucleotide sequence, amino acid sequence and the PDB three-dimensional structure data. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences for ...

  20. PDB: CBRC-RMAC-02-0036 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available C BRC -RMAC -02-0036 1OF2,1OGT,3B3I, Region:400-408(Identity=100%) PDB:1OF2 C hain:C ... (X-ray Resoluti ... on=2.20),Region:400-408(Identity=100%) PDB:1OGT C hain:C ... (X-ray Resolution=1.47),Region:400-408(Ident ... ity=100%) PDB:3B3I C hain:C ... (X-ray Resolution=1.86), ...

  1. PDB: CBRC-PTRO-04-0013 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available C BRC -PTRO-04-0013 1OF2,1OGT,3B3I, Region:401-409(Identity=100%) PDB:1OF2 C hain:C ... (X-ray Resoluti ... on=2.20),Region:401-409(Identity=100%) PDB:1OGT C hain:C ... (X-ray Resolution=1.47),Region:401-409(Ident ... ity=100%) PDB:3B3I C hain:C ... (X-ray Resolution=1.86), ...

  2. PDB: CBRC-TTRU-01-0897 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available C BRC -TTRU-01-0897 1OF2,1OGT,3B3I, Region:408-416(Identity=100%) PDB:1OF2 C hain:C ... (X-ray Resoluti ... on=2.20),Region:408-416(Identity=100%) PDB:1OGT C hain:C ... (X-ray Resolution=1.47),Region:408-416(Ident ... ity=100%) PDB:3B3I C hain:C ... (X-ray Resolution=1.86), ...

  3. PDB: CBRC-GGOR-01-1356 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available C BRC -GGOR-01-1356 1OF2,1OGT,3B3I, Region:417-425(Identity=100%) PDB:1OF2 C hain:C ... (X-ray Resoluti ... on=2.20),Region:417-425(Identity=100%) PDB:1OGT C hain:C ... (X-ray Resolution=1.47),Region:417-425(Ident ... ity=100%) PDB:3B3I C hain:C ... (X-ray Resolution=1.86), ...

  4. PDB: CBRC-BTAU-01-1625 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available C BRC -BTAU-01-1625 1OF2,1OGT,3B3I, Region:401-409(Identity=100%) PDB:1OF2 C hain:C ... (X-ray Resoluti ... on=2.20),Region:401-409(Identity=100%) PDB:1OGT C hain:C ... (X-ray Resolution=1.47),Region:401-409(Ident ... ity=100%) PDB:3B3I C hain:C ... (X-ray Resolution=1.86), ...

  5. PDB: CBRC-MMUS-09-0212 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available C BRC -MMUS-09-0212 1OF2,1OGT,3B3I, Region:402-410(Identity=100%) PDB:1OF2 C hain:C ... (X-ray Resoluti ... on=2.20),Region:402-410(Identity=100%) PDB:1OGT C hain:C ... (X-ray Resolution=1.47),Region:402-410(Ident ... ity=100%) PDB:3B3I C hain:C ... (X-ray Resolution=1.86), ...

  6. PDB: CBRC-MMUR-01-1589 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available C BRC -MMUR-01-1589 1OF2,1OGT,3B3I, Region:367-375(Identity=100%) PDB:1OF2 C hain:C ... (X-ray Resoluti ... on=2.20),Region:367-375(Identity=100%) PDB:1OGT C hain:C ... (X-ray Resolution=1.47),Region:367-375(Ident ... ity=100%) PDB:3B3I C hain:C ... (X-ray Resolution=1.86), ...

  7. PDB: CBRC-HSAP-03-0017 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available C BRC -HSAP-03-0017 1OF2,1OGT,3B3I, Region:400-408(Identity=100%) PDB:1OF2 C hain:C ... (X-ray Resoluti ... on=2.20),Region:400-408(Identity=100%) PDB:1OGT C hain:C ... (X-ray Resolution=1.47),Region:400-408(Ident ... ity=100%) PDB:3B3I C hain:C ... (X-ray Resolution=1.86), ...

  8. PDB: CBRC-CJAC-01-0834 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available C BRC -C JAC -01-0834 1OF2,1OGT,3B3I, Region:400-408(Identity=100%) PDB:1OF2 C hain:C ... (X-ray Resoluti ... on=2.20),Region:400-408(Identity=100%) PDB:1OGT C hain:C ... (X-ray Resolution=1.47),Region:400-408(Ident ... ity=100%) PDB:3B3I C hain:C ... (X-ray Resolution=1.86), ...

  9. PDB: CBRC-PABE-04-0051 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available C BRC -PABE-04-0051 1OF2,1OGT,3B3I, Region:400-408(Identity=100%) PDB:1OF2 C hain:C ... (X-ray Resoluti ... on=2.20),Region:400-408(Identity=100%) PDB:1OGT C hain:C ... (X-ray Resolution=1.47),Region:400-408(Ident ... ity=100%) PDB:3B3I C hain:C ... (X-ray Resolution=1.86), ...

  10. PDB: CBRC-PHAM-01-0319 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available C BRC -PHAM-01-0319 1OF2,1OGT,3B3I, Region:389-397(Identity=100%) PDB:1OF2 C hain:C ... (X-ray Resoluti ... on=2.20),Region:389-397(Identity=100%) PDB:1OGT C hain:C ... (X-ray Resolution=1.47),Region:389-397(Ident ... ity=100%) PDB:3B3I C hain:C ... (X-ray Resolution=1.86), ...

  11. Boronic acid-modified lipid nanocapsules: a novel platform for the highly efficient inhibition of hepatitis C viral entry

    Khanal, Manakamana; Barras, Alexandre; Vausselin, Thibaut; Fénéant, Lucie; Boukherroub, Rabah; Siriwardena, Aloysius; Dubuisson, Jean; Szunerits, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    The search for viral entry inhibitors that selectively target viral envelope glycoproteins has attracted increasing interest in recent years. Amongst the handful of molecules reported to show activity as hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry inhibitors are a variety of glycan-binding proteins including the lectins, cyanovirin-N (CV-N) and griffithsin. We recently demonstrated that boronic acid-modified nanoparticles are able to reduce HCV entry through a similar mechanism to that of lectins. A major obstacle to any further development of these nanostructures as viral entry inhibitors is their only moderate maximal inhibition potential. In the present study, we report that lipid nanocapsules (LNCs), surface-functionalized with amphiphilic boronic acid (BA) through their post-insertion into the semi-rigid shell of the LNCs, are indeed far superior as HCV entry inhibitors when compared with previously reported nanostructures. These 2nd generation particles (BA-LNCs) are shown to prevent HCV infection in the micromolar range (IC50 = 5.4 μM of BA moieties), whereas the corresponding BA monomers show no significant effects even at the highest analyzed concentration (20 μM). The new BA-LNCs are the most promising boronolectin-based HCV entry inhibitors reported to date and are thus observed to show great promise in the development of a pseudolectin-based therapeutic agent.The search for viral entry inhibitors that selectively target viral envelope glycoproteins has attracted increasing interest in recent years. Amongst the handful of molecules reported to show activity as hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry inhibitors are a variety of glycan-binding proteins including the lectins, cyanovirin-N (CV-N) and griffithsin. We recently demonstrated that boronic acid-modified nanoparticles are able to reduce HCV entry through a similar mechanism to that of lectins. A major obstacle to any further development of these nanostructures as viral entry inhibitors is their only moderate maximal

  12. Millisecond Timescale Dynamics of Human Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein: Testing of Its Relevance to the Ligand Entry Process

    Long, Dong; Yang, Daiwen

    2010-01-01

    For over a decade, scientists have been attempting to know more about the conformational dynamics of fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs), to answer the puzzling question of how ligands could access the internalized binding site(s). Conformational exchange of FABPs on the microsecond to millisecond timescales has been found in many FABPs and offers an important hypothesis for the ligand entry mechanism. Despite the potential significance, the validity of this hypothesis has not been verified y...

  13. Sialic acid-dependent cell entry of human enterovirus D68

    Liu, Yue; Sheng, Ju; Baggen, Jim; Meng, Geng; Xiao, Chuan; Thibaut, Hendrik J; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M; Rossmann, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    Human enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a causative agent of childhood respiratory diseases and has now emerged as a global public health threat. Nevertheless, knowledge of the tissue tropism and pathogenesis of EV-D68 has been hindered by a lack of studies on the receptor-mediated EV-D68 entry into host

  14. Improving links between literature and biological data with text mining: a case study with GEO, PDB and MEDLINE.

    Névéol, Aurélie; Wilbur, W John; Lu, Zhiyong

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput experiments and bioinformatics techniques are creating an exploding volume of data that are becoming overwhelming to keep track of for biologists and researchers who need to access, analyze and process existing data. Much of the available data are being deposited in specialized databases, such as the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) for microarrays or the Protein Data Bank (PDB) for protein structures and coordinates. Data sets are also being described by their authors in publications archived in literature databases such as MEDLINE and PubMed Central. Currently, the curation of links between biological databases and the literature mainly relies on manual labour, which makes it a time-consuming and daunting task. Herein, we analysed the current state of link curation between GEO, PDB and MEDLINE. We found that the link curation is heterogeneous depending on the sources and databases involved, and that overlap between sources is low, mining tools can automatically provide valuable evidence to help curators broaden the scope of articles and database entries that they review. As a result, we made recommendations to improve the coverage of curated links, as well as the consistency of information available from different databases while maintaining high-quality curation. Database URLs: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PubMed, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/, http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/ PMID:22685160

  15. PDB: CBRC-GGOR-01-1431 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGOR-01-1431 2PED,3C9L,3CAP,1EDX,1F88,3DQB,1GZM,1HZX,1JFP,1L9H,1LN6,1U19,2G87,2HPY,2I35,2I3 ... M,1RY1,1EDS,1EDV,1EDW,1FDF,1NZS,1VQX, Region:1-348(Identity =93%) PDB:2PED Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.95),Regi ... on:1-348(Identity =93%) PDB:3C9L Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.65),Regi ...

  16. PDB: CBRC-OANA-01-1800 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-1800 2I37,2PED,3C9L,3CAP,1EDX,1F88,3DQB,1GZM,1HZX,1JFP,1L9H,1LN6,1U19,2G87,2HPY,2I3 ... Y,1RY1,1EDS,1EDV,1EDW,1FDF,1NZS,1VQX, Region:1-353(Identity =89%) PDB:2I37 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=4.15),Regi ... on:1-353(Identity =89%) PDB:2PED Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.95),Regi ...

  17. PDB: CBRC-PVAM-01-0804 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-0804 2PED,3C9L,3CAP,1EDX,1F88,3DQB,1GZM,1HZX,1JFP,1L9H,1LN6,1U19,2G87,2HPY,2I35,2I3 ... M,1RY1,1EDS,1EDV,1EDW,1FDF,1NZS,1VQX, Region:1-348(Identity =94%) PDB:2PED Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.95),Regi ... on:1-348(Identity =94%) PDB:3C9L Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.65),Regi ...

  18. PDB: CBRC-TTRU-01-1321 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-1321 2I37,2PED,3C9L,3CAP,1EDX,1F88,3DQB,1GZM,1HZX,1JFP,1L9H,1LN6,1U19,2G87,2HPY,2I3 ... Y,1RY1,1EDS,1EDV,1EDW,1FDF,1NZS,1VQX, Region:1-348(Identity =92%) PDB:2I37 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=4.15),Regi ... on:1-348(Identity =92%) PDB:2PED Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.95),Regi ...

  19. PDB: CBRC-RMAC-11-0073 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-11-0073 2PED,3C9L,3CAP,1EDX,1F88,3DQB,1GZM,1HZX,1JFP,1L9H,1LN6,1U19,2G87,2HPY,2I35,2I3 ... M,1RY1,1EDS,1EDV,1EDW,1FDF,1NZS,1VQX, Region:1-348(Identity =93%) PDB:2PED Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.95),Regi ... on:1-348(Identity =93%) PDB:3C9L Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.65),Regi ...

  20. PDB: CBRC-RNOR-04-0298 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-RNOR-04-0298 2PED,3C9L,3CAP,1EDX,1F88,3DQB,1GZM,1HZX,1JFP,1L9H,1LN6,1U19,2G87,2HPY,2I35,2I3 ... M,1RY1,1EDS,1EDV,1EDW,1FDF,1NZS,1VQX, Region:1-348(Identity =93%) PDB:2PED Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.95),Regi ... on:1-348(Identity =93%) PDB:3C9L Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.65),Regi ...

  1. PDB: CBRC-CPOR-01-1479 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-CPOR-01-1479 2I37,2PED,3C9L,3CAP,1EDX,1F88,3DQB,1GZM,1HZX,1JFP,1L9H,1LN6,1U19,2G87,2HPY,2I3 ... Y,1RY1,1EDS,1EDV,1EDW,1FDF,1NZS,1VQX, Region:1-354(Identity =88%) PDB:2I37 Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=4.15),Regi ... on:1-354(Identity =88%) PDB:2PED Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.95),Regi ...

  2. PDB: CBRC-PTRO-04-0067 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-04-0067 2PED,3C9L,3CAP,1EDX,1F88,3DQB,1GZM,1HZX,1JFP,1L9H,1LN6,1U19,2G87,2HPY,2I35,2I3 ... M,1RY1,1EDS,1EDV,1EDW,1FDF,1NZS,1VQX, Region:1-348(Identity =93%) PDB:2PED Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.95),Regi ... on:1-348(Identity =93%) PDB:3C9L Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.65),Regi ...

  3. PDB: CBRC-HSAP-03-0075 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-03-0075 2PED,3C9L,3CAP,1EDX,1F88,3DQB,1GZM,1HZX,1JFP,1L9H,1LN6,1U19,2G87,2HPY,2I35,2I3 ... M,1RY1,1EDS,1EDV,1EDW,1FDF,1NZS,1VQX, Region:1-348(Identity =93%) PDB:2PED Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.95),Regi ... on:1-348(Identity =93%) PDB:3C9L Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.65),Regi ...

  4. PDB: CBRC-MMUS-06-0155 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUS-06-0155 2PED,3C9L,3CAP,1EDX,1F88,3DQB,1GZM,1HZX,1JFP,1L9H,1LN6,1U19,2G87,2HPY,2I35,2I3 ... M,1RY1,1EDS,1EDV,1EDW,1FDF,1NZS,1VQX, Region:1-348(Identity =93%) PDB:2PED Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.95),Regi ... on:1-348(Identity =93%) PDB:3C9L Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.65),Regi ...

  5. PDB: CBRC-MDOM-06-0154 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-06-0154 2PED,3C9L,3CAP,1EDX,1F88,3DQB,1GZM,1HZX,1JFP,1L9H,1LN6,1U19,2G87,2HPY,2I35,2I3 ... M,1RY1,1EDS,1EDV,1EDW,1FDF,1NZS,1VQX, Region:1-348(Identity =93%) PDB:2PED Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.95),Regi ... on:1-348(Identity =93%) PDB:3C9L Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.65),Regi ...

  6. PDB: CBRC-PABE-04-0004 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-04-0004 2PED,3C9L,3CAP,1EDX,1F88,3DQB,1GZM,1HZX,1JFP,1L9H,1LN6,1U19,2G87,2HPY,2I35,2I3 ... M,1RY1,1EDS,1EDV,1EDW,1FDF,1NZS,1VQX, Region:1-348(Identity =93%) PDB:2PED Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.95),Regi ... on:1-348(Identity =93%) PDB:3C9L Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.65),Regi ...

  7. PDB: CBRC-CFAM-20-0004 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-CFAM-20-0004 2PED,3C9L,3CAP,1EDX,1F88,3DQB,1GZM,1HZX,1JFP,1L9H,1LN6,1U19,2G87,2HPY,2I35,2I3 ... M,1RY1,1EDS,1EDV,1EDW,1FDF,1NZS,1VQX, Region:1-348(Identity =94%) PDB:2PED Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.95),Regi ... on:1-348(Identity =94%) PDB:3C9L Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.65),Regi ...

  8. PDB: CBRC-BTAU-01-2416 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-2416 2PED,3C9L,3CAP,1EDX,1F88,3DQB,1GZM,1HZX,1JFP,1L9H,1LN6,1U19,2G87,2HPY,2I35,2I3 ... M,1RY1,1EDS,1EDV,1EDW,1FDF,1NZS,1VQX, Region:1-348(Identity =100%) PDB:2PED Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.95),Reg ... ion:1-348(Identity =100%) PDB:3C9L Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.65),Reg ...

  9. PDB: CBRC-FCAT-01-1134 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-FCAT-01-1134 2PED,3C9L,3CAP,1EDX,1F88,3DQB,1GZM,1HZX,1JFP,1L9H,1LN6,1U19,2G87,2HPY,2I35,2I3 ... M,1RY1,1EDS,1EDV,1EDW,1FDF,1NZS,1VQX, Region:1-348(Identity =95%) PDB:2PED Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.95),Regi ... on:1-348(Identity =95%) PDB:3C9L Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.65),Regi ...

  10. PDB: CBRC-PHAM-01-1599 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-1599 2PED,3C9L,3CAP,1EDX,1F88,3DQB,1GZM,1HZX,1JFP,1L9H,1LN6,1U19,2G87,2HPY,2I35,2I3 ... M,1RY1,1EDS,1EDV,1EDW,1FDF,1NZS,1VQX, Region:1-348(Identity =93%) PDB:2PED Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.95),Regi ... on:1-348(Identity =93%) PDB:3C9L Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.65),Regi ...

  11. PDB: CBRC-OPRI-01-1186 [SEVENS

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-1186 2PED,3C9L,3CAP,1EDX,1F88,3DQB,1GZM,1HZX,1JFP,1L9H,1LN6,1U19,2G87,2HPY,2I35,2I3 ... M,1RY1,1EDS,1EDV,1EDW,1FDF,1NZS,1VQX, Region:1-348(Identity =91%) PDB:2PED Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.95),Regi ... on:1-348(Identity =91%) PDB:3C9L Chain:A (X-ray Resolution=2.65),Regi ...

  12. Continuous mutual improvement of macromolecular structure models in the PDB and of X-ray crystallographic software: the dual role of deposited experimental data

    Macromolecular structures deposited in the PDB can and should be continually reinterpreted and improved on the basis of their accompanying experimental X-ray data, exploiting the steady progress in methods and software that the deposition of such data into the PDB on a massive scale has made possible. Accurate crystal structures of macromolecules are of high importance in the biological and biomedical fields. Models of crystal structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) are in general of very high quality as deposited. However, methods for obtaining the best model of a macromolecular structure from a given set of experimental X-ray data continue to progress at a rapid pace, making it possible to improve most PDB entries after their deposition by re-analyzing the original deposited data with more recent software. This possibility represents a very significant departure from the situation that prevailed when the PDB was created, when it was envisioned as a cumulative repository of static contents. A radical paradigm shift for the PDB is therefore proposed, away from the static archive model towards a much more dynamic body of continuously improving results in symbiosis with continuously improving methods and software. These simultaneous improvements in methods and final results are made possible by the current deposition of processed crystallographic data (structure-factor amplitudes) and will be supported further by the deposition of raw data (diffraction images). It is argued that it is both desirable and feasible to carry out small-scale and large-scale efforts to make this paradigm shift a reality. Small-scale efforts would focus on optimizing structures that are of interest to specific investigators. Large-scale efforts would undertake a systematic re-optimization of all of the structures in the PDB, or alternatively the redetermination of groups of structures that are either related to or focused on specific questions. All of the resulting structures should be

  13. Continuous mutual improvement of macromolecular structure models in the PDB and of X-ray crystallographic software: the dual role of deposited experimental data

    Terwilliger, Thomas C., E-mail: terwilliger@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mail Stop M888, Los Alamos, NM 87507 (United States); Bricogne, Gerard, E-mail: terwilliger@lanl.gov [Global Phasing Ltd, Sheraton House, Castle Park, Cambridge CB3 0AX (United Kingdom); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mail Stop M888, Los Alamos, NM 87507 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Macromolecular structures deposited in the PDB can and should be continually reinterpreted and improved on the basis of their accompanying experimental X-ray data, exploiting the steady progress in methods and software that the deposition of such data into the PDB on a massive scale has made possible. Accurate crystal structures of macromolecules are of high importance in the biological and biomedical fields. Models of crystal structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) are in general of very high quality as deposited. However, methods for obtaining the best model of a macromolecular structure from a given set of experimental X-ray data continue to progress at a rapid pace, making it possible to improve most PDB entries after their deposition by re-analyzing the original deposited data with more recent software. This possibility represents a very significant departure from the situation that prevailed when the PDB was created, when it was envisioned as a cumulative repository of static contents. A radical paradigm shift for the PDB is therefore proposed, away from the static archive model towards a much more dynamic body of continuously improving results in symbiosis with continuously improving methods and software. These simultaneous improvements in methods and final results are made possible by the current deposition of processed crystallographic data (structure-factor amplitudes) and will be supported further by the deposition of raw data (diffraction images). It is argued that it is both desirable and feasible to carry out small-scale and large-scale efforts to make this paradigm shift a reality. Small-scale efforts would focus on optimizing structures that are of interest to specific investigators. Large-scale efforts would undertake a systematic re-optimization of all of the structures in the PDB, or alternatively the redetermination of groups of structures that are either related to or focused on specific questions. All of the resulting structures should be

  14. soaPDB: a web application for searching the Protein Data Bank, organizing results, and receiving automatic email alerts

    Lesburg, Charles A.; Duca, José S.

    2008-01-01

    soaPDB is a web application that allows generation and organization of saved PDB searches, and offers automatic email alerts. This tool is used from a web interface to store PDB searches and results in a backend relational database. Written using the Ruby on Rails open-source web framework, soaPDB is easy to deploy, maintain and customize. soaPDB is freely available upon request for local installation and is also available at http://soapdb.dyndns.org:3000.

  15. All-trans retinoic acid promotes neural lineage entry by pluripotent embryonic stem cells via multiple pathways

    Fang Bo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All-trans retinoic acid (RA is one of the most important morphogens with pleiotropic actions. Its embryonic distribution correlates with neural differentiation in the developing central nervous system. To explore the precise effects of RA on neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs, we detected expression of RA nuclear receptors and RA-metabolizing enzymes in mouse ESCs and investigated the roles of RA in adherent monolayer culture. Results Upon addition of RA, cell differentiation was directed rapidly and exclusively into the neural lineage. Conversely, pharmacological interference with RA signaling suppressed this neural differentiation. Inhibition of fibroblast growth factor (FGF signaling did not suppress significantly neural differentiation in RA-treated cultures. Pharmacological interference with extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK pathway or activation of Wnt pathway effectively blocked the RA-promoted neural specification. ERK phosphorylation was enhanced in RA-treated cultures at the early stage of differentiation. Conclusion RA can promote neural lineage entry by ESCs in adherent monolayer culture systems. This effect depends on RA signaling and its crosstalk with the ERK and Wnt pathways.

  16. Drug Promiscuity in PDB: Protein Binding Site Similarity Is Key.

    V Joachim Haupt

    Full Text Available Drug repositioning applies established drugs to new disease indications with increasing success. A pre-requisite for drug repurposing is drug promiscuity (polypharmacology - a drug's ability to bind to several targets. There is a long standing debate on the reasons for drug promiscuity. Based on large compound screens, hydrophobicity and molecular weight have been suggested as key reasons. However, the results are sometimes contradictory and leave space for further analysis. Protein structures offer a structural dimension to explain promiscuity: Can a drug bind multiple targets because the drug is flexible or because the targets are structurally similar or even share similar binding sites? We present a systematic study of drug promiscuity based on structural data of PDB target proteins with a set of 164 promiscuous drugs. We show that there is no correlation between the degree of promiscuity and ligand properties such as hydrophobicity or molecular weight but a weak correlation to conformational flexibility. However, we do find a correlation between promiscuity and structural similarity as well as binding site similarity of protein targets. In particular, 71% of the drugs have at least two targets with similar binding sites. In order to overcome issues in detection of remotely similar binding sites, we employed a score for binding site similarity: LigandRMSD measures the similarity of the aligned ligands and uncovers remote local similarities in proteins. It can be applied to arbitrary structural binding site alignments. Three representative examples, namely the anti-cancer drug methotrexate, the natural product quercetin and the anti-diabetic drug acarbose are discussed in detail. Our findings suggest that global structural and binding site similarity play a more important role to explain the observed drug promiscuity in the PDB than physicochemical drug properties like hydrophobicity or molecular weight. Additionally, we find ligand

  17. Hydrolyzable Tannins (Chebulagic Acid and Punicalagin) Target Viral Glycoprotein-Glycosaminoglycan Interactions To Inhibit Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Entry and Cell-to-Cell Spread▿

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Chen, Ting-Ying; Chung, Chueh-Yao; Noyce, Ryan S.; Grindley, T. Bruce; McCormick, Craig; Lin, Ta-Chen; Wang, Guey-Horng; Lin, Chun-Ching; Richardson, Christopher D.

    2011-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a common human pathogen that causes lifelong latent infection of sensory neurons. Non-nucleoside inhibitors that can limit HSV-1 recurrence are particularly useful in treating immunocompromised individuals or cases of emerging acyclovir-resistant strains of herpesvirus. We report that chebulagic acid (CHLA) and punicalagin (PUG), two hydrolyzable tannins isolated from the dried fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae), inhibit HSV-1 entry at noncytot...

  18. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel L-ascorbic acid-conjugated pentacyclic triterpene derivatives as potential influenza virus entry inhibitors.

    Wang, Han; Xu, Renyang; Shi, Yongying; Si, Longlong; Jiao, Pingxuan; Fan, Zibo; Han, Xu; Wu, Xingyu; Zhou, Xiaoshu; Yu, Fei; Zhang, Yongmin; Zhang, Liangren; Zhang, Lihe; Zhou, Demin; Xiao, Sulong

    2016-03-01

    Since the influenza viruses can rapidly evolve, it is urgently required to develop novel anti-influenza agents possessing a novel mechanism of action. In our previous study, two pentacyclic triterpene derivatives (Q8 and Y3) have been found to have anti-influenza virus entry activities. Keeping the potential synergy of biological activity of pentacyclic triterpenes and l-ascorbic acid in mind, we synthesized a series of novel l-ascorbic acid-conjugated pentacyclic triterpene derivatives (18-26, 29-31, 35-40 and 42-43). Moreover, we evaluated these novel compounds for their anti-influenza activities against A/WSN/33 virus in MDCK cells. Among all evaluated compounds, the 2,3-O,O-dibenzyl-6-deoxy-l-ascorbic acid-betulinic acid conjugate (30) showed the most significant anti-influenza activity with an EC50 of 8.7 μM, and no cytotoxic effects on MDCK cells were observed. Time-of-addition assay indicated that compound 30 acted at an early stage of the influenza life cycle. Further analyses revealed that influenza virus-induced hemagglutination of chicken red blood cells was inhibited by treatment of compound 30, and the interaction between the influenza hemagglutinin (HA) and compound 30 was determined by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) with a dissociation constant of KD = 3.76 μM. Finally, silico docking studies indicated that compound 30 and its derivative 31 were able to occupy the binding pocket of HA for sialic acid receptor. Collectively, these results suggested that l-ascorbic acid-conjugated pentacyclic triterpenes were promising anti-influenza entry inhibitors, and HA protein associated with viral entry was a promising drug target. PMID:26866456

  19. Structural and functional studies of a phosphatidic acid-binding antifungal plant defensin MtDef4: Identification of an RGFRRR motif governing fungal cell entry

    Sagaram, Uma S.; El-Mounadi, Kaoutar; Buchko, Garry W.; Berg, Howard R.; Kaur, Jagdeep; Pandurangi, Raghoottama; Smith, Thomas J.; Shah, Dilip

    2013-12-04

    A highly conserved plant defensin MtDef4 potently inhibits the growth of a filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum. MtDef4 is internalized by cells of F. graminearum. To determine its mechanism of fungal cell entry and antifungal action, NMR solution structure of MtDef4 has been determined. The analysis of its structure has revealed a positively charged patch on the surface of the protein consisting of arginine residues in its γ-core signature, a major determinant of the antifungal activity of MtDef4. Here, we report functional analysis of the RGFRRR motif of the γ-core signature of MtDef4. The replacement of RGFRRR to AAAARR or to RGFRAA not only abolishes fungal cell entry but also results in loss of the antifungal activity of MtDef4. MtDef4 binds strongly to phosphatidic acid (PA), a precursor for the biosynthesis of membrane phospholipids and a signaling lipid known to recruit cytosolic proteins to membranes. Mutations of RGFRRR which abolish fungal cell entry of MtDef4 also impair its binding to PA. Our results suggest that RGFRRR motif is a translocation signal for entry of MtDef4 into fungal cells and that this positively charged motif likely mediates interaction of this defensin with PA as part of its antifungal action.

  20. PDB_REDO: constructive validation, more than just looking for errors

    Joosten, Robbie P.; Joosten, Krista; Murshudov, Garib N.; Perrakis, Anastassis

    2012-01-01

    Developments of the PDB_REDO procedure that combine re-refinement and rebuilding within a unique decision-making framework to improve structures in the PDB are presented. PDB_REDO uses a variety of existing and custom-built software modules to choose an optimal refinement protocol (e.g. anisotropic, isotropic or overall B-factor refinement, TLS model) and to optimize the geometry versus data-refinement weights. Next, it proceeds to rebuild side chains and peptide planes before a final optimiz...

  1. soaPDB: a web application for searching the Protein Data Bank, organizing results, and receiving automatic email alerts.

    Lesburg, Charles A; Duca, José S

    2008-07-01

    soaPDB is a web application that allows generation and organization of saved PDB searches, and offers automatic email alerts. This tool is used from a web interface to store PDB searches and results in a backend relational database. Written using the Ruby on Rails open-source web framework, soaPDB is easy to deploy, maintain and customize. soaPDB is freely available upon request for local installation and is also available at http://soapdb.dyndns.org:3000. PMID:18487276

  2. Structure-activity relationships of 3-O-β-chacotriosyl ursolic acid derivatives as novel H5N1 entry inhibitors.

    Song, Gaopeng; Shen, Xintian; Li, Sumei; Li, Yibin; Liu, Yunpeng; Zheng, Yushan; Lin, Ruheng; Fan, Jihong; Ye, Hanming; Liu, Shuwen

    2015-03-26

    A series of methyl ursolate 3-O-β-chacotrioside analogs have been designed, synthesized and evaluated as H5N1 entry inhibitors based on a small molecule inhibitor saponin 3 previously discovered by us. Detailed structure-activity relationships (SARs) studies on the aglycone of compound 3 indicated that both the type of pentacyclic triterpene and the subtle modification of ursolic acid as an aglycon had key influences on the antiviral activity. These results suggested that either the introduction of a disubstituted amide structure at the 17-COOH of ursolic acid or alteration of the C-3 configuration of ursolic acid from 3β-to 3α-forms was helpful to significantly improve the selective index while keeping their antiviral activities. PMID:25728024

  3. Web servers and services for electrostatics calculations with APBS and PDB2PQR

    Unni, Samir; Huang, Yong; Hanson, Robert; Tobias, Malcolm; Krishnan, Sriram; Li, Wilfred W.; Nielsen, Jens E.; Baker, Nathan A.

    2011-01-01

    APBS and PDB2PQR are widely utilized free software packages for biomolecular electrostatics calculations. Using the Opal toolkit, we have developed a Web services framework for these software packages that enables the use of APBS and PDB2PQR by users who do not have local access to the necessary amount of computational capabilities. This not only increases accessibility of the software to a wider range of scientists, educators, and students but it also increases the availability of electrosta...

  4. Primary Biliary Acids Inhibit Hepatitis D Virus (HDV) Entry into Human Hepatoma Cells Expressing the Sodium-Taurocholate Cotransporting Polypeptide (NTCP)

    Veloso Alves Pereira, Isabel; Buchmann, Bettina; Sandmann, Lisa; Sprinzl, Kathrin; Schlaphoff, Verena; Döhner, Katinka; Vondran, Florian; Sarrazin, Christoph; Manns, Michael P.; Pinto Marques Souza de Oliveira, Cláudia; Sodeik, Beate; Ciesek, Sandra; von Hahn, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background The sodium-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) is both a key bile acid (BA) transporter mediating uptake of BA into hepatocytes and an essential receptor for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis D virus (HDV). In this study we aimed to characterize to what extent and through what mechanism BA affect HDV cell entry. Methods HuH-7 cells stably expressing NTCP (HuH-7/NTCP) and primary human hepatocytes (PHH) were infected with in vitro generated HDV particles. Infectivity in the absence or presence of compounds was assessed using immunofluorescence staining for HDV antigen, standard 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) assays and quantitative PCR. Results Addition of primary conjugated and unconjugated BA resulted in a dose dependent reduction in the number of infected cells while secondary, tertiary and synthetic BA had a lesser effect. This effect was observed both in HuH-7/NTCP and in PHH. Other replication cycle steps such as replication and particle assembly and release were unaffected. Moreover, inhibitory BA competed with a fragment from the large HBV envelope protein for binding to NTCP-expressing cells. Conversely, the sodium/BA-cotransporter function of NTCP seemed not to be required for HDV infection since infection was similar in the presence or absence of a sodium gradient across the plasma membrane. When chenodeoxycolic acid (15 mg per kg body weight) was administered to three chronically HDV infected individuals over a period of up to 16 days there was no change in serum HDV RNA. Conclusions Primary BA inhibit NTCP-mediated HDV entry into hepatocytes suggesting that modulation of the BA pool may affect HDV infection of hepatocytes. PMID:25646622

  5. Web servers and services for electrostatics calculations with APBS and PDB2PQR.

    Unni, Samir; Huang, Yong; Hanson, Robert M; Tobias, Malcolm; Krishnan, Sriram; Li, Wilfred W; Nielsen, Jens E; Baker, Nathan A

    2011-05-01

    APBS and PDB2PQR are widely utilized free software packages for biomolecular electrostatics calculations. Using the Opal toolkit, we have developed a Web services framework for these software packages that enables the use of APBS and PDB2PQR by users who do not have local access to the necessary amount of computational capabilities. This not only increases accessibility of the software to a wider range of scientists, educators, and students but also increases the availability of electrostatics calculations on portable computing platforms. Users can access this new functionality in two ways. First, an Opal-enabled version of APBS is provided in current distributions, available freely on the web. Second, we have extended the PDB2PQR web server to provide an interface for the setup, execution, and visualization of electrostatic potentials as calculated by APBS. This web interface also uses the Opal framework which ensures the scalability needed to support the large APBS user community. Both of these resources are available from the APBS/PDB2PQR website: http://www.poissonboltzmann.org/. PMID:21425296

  6. Comparison of temporal trends in VOCs as measured with PDB samplers and low-flow sampling methods

    Harte, P.T.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of temporal trends in tetrachloroethylene (PCE) concentration determined by two sample techniques showed that passive diffusion bag (pdb) samplers adequately sample the large variation in PCE concentrations at the site. The slopes of the temporal trends in concentrations were comparable between the two techniques, and the pdb sample concentration generally reflected the instantaneous concentration sampled by the low-flow technique. Thus, the pdb samplers provided an appropriate sampling technique for PCE at these wells. One or two wells did not make the case for widespread application of pdb samples at all sites. However, application of pdb samples in some circumstances was appropriate for evaluating temporal and spatial variations in VOC concentrations, thus, should be considered as a useful tool in hydrogeology.

  7. Expression of Vibrio harveyi Acyl-ACP Synthetase Allows Efficient Entry of Exogenous Fatty Acids into the Escherichia coli Fatty Acid and Lipid A Synthetic Pathways

    Jiang, Yanfang; Morgan-Kiss, Rachael M.; Campbell, John W.; Chan, Chi Ho; Cronan, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Although the Escherichia coli fatty acid synthesis (FAS) pathway is the best studied type II fatty acid synthesis system, a major experimental limitation has been the inability to feed intermediates into the pathway in vivo because exogenously-supplied free fatty acids are not efficiently converted to the acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesters required by the pathway. We report that expression of Vibrio harveyi acyl-ACP synthetase (AasS), a soluble cytosolic enzyme that ligates free fatty acids to ACP to form acyl-ACPs, allows exogenous fatty acids to enter the E. coli fatty acid synthesis pathway. The free fatty acids are incorporated intact and can be elongated or directly incorporated into complex lipids by acyltransferases specific for acyl-ACPs. Moreover, expression of AasS strains and supplementation with the appropriate fatty acid restored growth to E. coli mutant strains that lack essential fatty acid synthesis enzymes. Thus, this strategy provides a new tool for circumventing the loss of enzymes essential for FAS function. PMID:20028080

  8. LIBP-Pred: web server for lipid binding proteins using structural network parameters; PDB mining of human cancer biomarkers and drug targets in parasites and bacteria.

    González-Díaz, Humberto; Munteanu, Cristian R; Postelnicu, Lucian; Prado-Prado, Francisco; Gestal, Marcos; Pazos, Alejandro

    2012-03-01

    Lipid-Binding Proteins (LIBPs) or Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins (FABPs) play an important role in many diseases such as different types of cancer, kidney injury, atherosclerosis, diabetes, intestinal ischemia and parasitic infections. Thus, the computational methods that can predict LIBPs based on 3D structure parameters became a goal of major importance for drug-target discovery, vaccine design and biomarker selection. In addition, the Protein Data Bank (PDB) contains 3000+ protein 3D structures with unknown function. This list, as well as new experimental outcomes in proteomics research, is a very interesting source to discover relevant proteins, including LIBPs. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are no general models to predict new LIBPs based on 3D structures. We developed new Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) models based on 3D electrostatic parameters of 1801 different proteins, including 801 LIBPs. We calculated these electrostatic parameters with the MARCH-INSIDE software and they correspond to the entire protein or to specific protein regions named core, inner, middle, and surface. We used these parameters as inputs to develop a simple Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) classifier to discriminate 3D structure of LIBPs from other proteins. We implemented this predictor in the web server named LIBP-Pred, freely available at , along with other important web servers of the Bio-AIMS portal. The users can carry out an automatic retrieval of protein structures from PDB or upload their custom protein structural models from their disk created with LOMETS server. We demonstrated the PDB mining option performing a predictive study of 2000+ proteins with unknown function. Interesting results regarding the discovery of new Cancer Biomarkers in humans or drug targets in parasites have been discussed here in this sense. PMID:22234525

  9. The PDB database is a rich source of alpha-helical anti-microbial peptides to combat disease causing pathogens.

    Chakraborty, Sandeep; Phu, My; de Morais, Tâmara Prado; Nascimento, Rafael; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo; Rao, Basuthkar J; Asgeirsson, Bjarni; Dandekar, Abhaya M

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of α-helical anti-microbial peptides (AH-AMP) to combat pathogens is fast gaining prominence. Based on recently published open access software for characterizing α-helical peptides (PAGAL), we elucidate a search methodology (SCALPEL) that leverages the massive structural data pre-existing in the PDB database to obtain AH-AMPs belonging to the host proteome. We provide in vitro validation of SCALPEL on plant pathogens ( Xylella fastidiosa, Xanthomonas arboricola and Liberibacter crescens) by identifying AH-AMPs that mirror the function and properties of cecropin B, a well-studied AH-AMP. The identified peptides include a linear AH-AMP present within the existing structure of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PPC20), and an AH-AMP mimicing the properties of the two α-helices of cecropin B from chitinase (CHITI25). The minimum inhibitory concentration of these peptides are comparable to that of cecropin B, while anionic peptides used as control failed to show any inhibitory effect on these pathogens. Substitute therapies in place of conventional chemotherapies using membrane permeabilizing peptides like these might also prove effective to target cancer cells. The use of native structures from the same organism could possibly ensure that administration of such peptides will be better tolerated and not elicit an adverse immune response. We suggest a similar approach to target Ebola epitopes, enumerated using PAGAL recently, by selecting suitable peptides from the human proteome, especially in wake of recent reports of cationic amphiphiles inhibiting virus entry and infection. PMID:26629331

  10. Defining and searching for structural motifs using DeepView/Swiss-PdbViewer

    Johansson Maria U; Zoete Vincent; Michielin Olivier; Guex Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Today, recognition and classification of sequence motifs and protein folds is a mature field, thanks to the availability of numerous comprehensive and easy to use software packages and web-based services. Recognition of structural motifs, by comparison, is less well developed and much less frequently used, possibly due to a lack of easily accessible and easy to use software. Results In this paper, we describe an extension of DeepView/Swiss-PdbViewer through which structura...

  11. Chemical modification of B4C cap layers on Pd/B4C multilayers

    Supruangnet, Ratchadaporn; Morawe, Christian; Peffen, Jean-Christophe; Nakajima, Hideki; Rattanasuporn, Surachet; Photongkam, Pat; Jearanaikoon, Nichada; Busayaporn, Wutthikri

    2016-03-01

    Chemical modifications of B4C cap layers on sputtered Pd/B4C multilayer coatings for X-ray optical applications were investigated using X-ray reflectivity, photoemission electron spectroscopy, photoemission electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. The results indicate oxidation down to probing depths of about 10 nm and strong evidence for the formation of B2O3 crystals at the sample surface, while B4C like compounds are absent.

  12. High-resolution structure of the M14-type cytosolic carboxypeptidase from Burkholderia cenocepacia refined exploiting PDB-REDO strategies

    The structure of a bacterial M14-family carboxypeptidase determined exploiting microfocus synchrotron radiation and highly automated refinement protocols reveals its potential to act as a polyglutamylase. A potential cytosolic metallocarboxypeptidase from Burkholderia cenocepacia has been crystallized and a synchrotron-radiation microfocus beamline allowed the acquisition of diffraction data to 1.9 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit comprises a tetramer containing over 1500 amino acids, and the high-throughput automated protocols embedded in PDB-REDO were coupled with model–map inspections in refinement. This approach has highlighted the value of such protocols for efficient analyses. The subunit is constructed from two domains. The N-terminal domain has previously only been observed in cytosolic carboxypeptidase (CCP) proteins. The C-terminal domain, which carries the Zn2+-containing active site, serves to classify this protein as a member of the M14D subfamily of carboxypeptidases. Although eukaryotic CCPs possess deglutamylase activity and are implicated in processing modified tubulin, the function and substrates of the bacterial family members remain unknown. The B. cenocepacia protein did not display deglutamylase activity towards a furylacryloyl glutamate derivative, a potential substrate. Residues previously shown to coordinate the divalent cation and that contribute to peptide-bond cleavage in related enzymes such as bovine carboxypeptidase are conserved. The location of a conserved basic patch in the active site adjacent to the catalytic Zn2+, where an acetate ion is identified, suggests recognition of the carboxy-terminus in a similar fashion to other carboxypeptidases. However, there are significant differences that indicate the recognition of substrates with different properties. Of note is the presence of a lysine in the S1′ recognition subsite that suggests specificity towards an acidic substrate

  13. High-resolution structure of the M14-type cytosolic carboxypeptidase from Burkholderia cenocepacia refined exploiting PDB-REDO strategies

    Rimsa, Vadim; Eadsforth, Thomas C. [University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland (United Kingdom); Joosten, Robbie P. [Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hunter, William N., E-mail: w.n.hunter@dundee.ac.uk [University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-01

    The structure of a bacterial M14-family carboxypeptidase determined exploiting microfocus synchrotron radiation and highly automated refinement protocols reveals its potential to act as a polyglutamylase. A potential cytosolic metallocarboxypeptidase from Burkholderia cenocepacia has been crystallized and a synchrotron-radiation microfocus beamline allowed the acquisition of diffraction data to 1.9 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit comprises a tetramer containing over 1500 amino acids, and the high-throughput automated protocols embedded in PDB-REDO were coupled with model–map inspections in refinement. This approach has highlighted the value of such protocols for efficient analyses. The subunit is constructed from two domains. The N-terminal domain has previously only been observed in cytosolic carboxypeptidase (CCP) proteins. The C-terminal domain, which carries the Zn{sup 2+}-containing active site, serves to classify this protein as a member of the M14D subfamily of carboxypeptidases. Although eukaryotic CCPs possess deglutamylase activity and are implicated in processing modified tubulin, the function and substrates of the bacterial family members remain unknown. The B. cenocepacia protein did not display deglutamylase activity towards a furylacryloyl glutamate derivative, a potential substrate. Residues previously shown to coordinate the divalent cation and that contribute to peptide-bond cleavage in related enzymes such as bovine carboxypeptidase are conserved. The location of a conserved basic patch in the active site adjacent to the catalytic Zn{sup 2+}, where an acetate ion is identified, suggests recognition of the carboxy-terminus in a similar fashion to other carboxypeptidases. However, there are significant differences that indicate the recognition of substrates with different properties. Of note is the presence of a lysine in the S1′ recognition subsite that suggests specificity towards an acidic substrate.

  14. Entry and incumbent innovation

    Weinschenk, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    We explore how the threat of entry influences the innovation activity of an incumbent. We show that the incumbent’s investment is hump-shaped in the entry threat. When the entry threat is small and increases, the incumbent invests more to deter entry, or to make it unlikely. This is due to the entry deterrence effect. However, when the threat becomes huge, entry can no longer profitably be deterred or made unlikely and the investment becomes small. Then the Schumpeterian effect dominates. The...

  15. Entry Modes of Starbucks

    Santamaría Sotillo, Beatriz; Ni, Shuang

    2008-01-01

    Topic:When an MNC seeks to enter a foreign country, it must choose the most appropriate entry mode for that specific market, such as exporting, licensing, a turnkey project, franchising, joint ventures or wholly-owned subsidiaries. There are many factors which affect the choice of entry modes. Influential factors contributing to the entry mode decision can have different degrees of impact for each particular country. As a consequence, an MNC has to use different entry modes in order to adapt ...

  16. FeatureMap3D - a tool to map protein features and sequence conservation onto homologous structures in the PDB

    Wernersson, Rasmus; Rapacki, Krzysztof; Stærfeldt, Hans Henrik;

    2006-01-01

    FeatureMap3D is a web-based tool that maps protein features onto 3D structures. The user provides sequences annotated with any feature of interest, such as post-translational modifications, protease cleavage sites or exonic structure and FeatureMap3D will then search the Protein Data Bank (PDB) for...

  17. Characterization of hepatitis C virus recombinants with chimeric E1/E2 envelope proteins and identification of single amino acids in the E2 stem region important for entry

    Carlsen, Thomas H R; Scheel, Troels K H; Ramirez, Santseharay;

    2013-01-01

    . For recovered 1b-E2 recombinants, single E2 stem region amino acid changes were identified at residues 706, 707, and 710. In reverse genetic studies, these mutations increased infectivity titers by ~100-fold, apparently without influencing particle stability or cell binding although introducing slight...... decrease in particle density. In addition, the 1b-E2 exchange led to a decrease in secreted core protein of 25 to 50%, which was further reduced by the E2 stem region mutations. These findings indicated that compensatory mutations permitted robust infectious virus production, without increasing assembly....../release. Studies of E1/E2 heterodimerization showed no differences in intracellular E1/E2 interaction for chimeric constructs with or without E2 stem region mutations. Interestingly, the E2 stem region mutations allowed efficient entry, which was verified in 1a-E1/1b-E2 HCV pseudoparticle assays. A CD81 inhibition...

  18. Web-based visualisation and analysis of 3D electron-microscopy data from EMDB and PDB.

    Lagerstedt, Ingvar; Moore, William J; Patwardhan, Ardan; Sanz-García, Eduardo; Best, Christoph; Swedlow, Jason R; Kleywegt, Gerard J

    2013-11-01

    The Protein Data Bank in Europe (PDBe) has developed web-based tools for the visualisation and analysis of 3D electron microscopy (3DEM) structures in the Electron Microscopy Data Bank (EMDB) and Protein Data Bank (PDB). The tools include: (1) a volume viewer for 3D visualisation of maps, tomograms and models, (2) a slice viewer for inspecting 2D slices of tomographic reconstructions, and (3) visual analysis pages to facilitate analysis and validation of maps, tomograms and models. These tools were designed to help non-experts and experts alike to get some insight into the content and assess the quality of 3DEM structures in EMDB and PDB without the need to install specialised software or to download large amounts of data from these archives. The technical challenges encountered in developing these tools, as well as the more general considerations when making archived data available to the user community through a web interface, are discussed. PMID:24113529

  19. Web-based visualisation and analysis of 3D electron-microscopy data from EMDB and PDB

    Lagerstedt, Ingvar; Moore, William J.; Patwardhan, Ardan; Sanz-García, Eduardo; Best, Christoph; Swedlow, Jason R.; Kleywegt, Gerard J

    2013-01-01

    The Protein Data Bank in Europe (PDBe) has developed web-based tools for the visualisation and analysis of 3D electron microscopy (3DEM) structures in the Electron Microscopy Data Bank (EMDB) and Protein Data Bank (PDB). The tools include: (1) a volume viewer for 3D visualisation of maps, tomograms and models, (2) a slice viewer for inspecting 2D slices of tomographic reconstructions, and (3) visual analysis pages to facilitate analysis and validation of maps, tomograms and models. These tool...

  20. PDB_Hydro: incorporating dipolar solvents with variable density in the Poisson-Boltzmann treatment of macromolecule electrostatics.

    Azuara, Cyril; Lindahl, Erik; Koehl, Patrice; Orland, Henri; Delarue, Marc

    2006-01-01

    We describe a new way to calculate the electrostatic properties of macromolecules which eliminates the assumption of a constant dielectric value in the solvent region, resulting in a Generalized Poisson-Boltzmann-Langevin equation (GPBLE). We have implemented a web server (http://lorentz.immstr.pasteur.fr/pdb_hydro.php) that both numerically solves this equation and uses the resulting water density profiles to place water molecules at preferred sites of hydration. Surface atoms with high or l...

  1. Lobbying on Entry

    Perotti, E.C.; Volpin, P.

    2004-01-01

    We develop a model of endogenous lobby formation in which wealth inequality and political accountability undermine entry and financial development. Incumbents seek a low level of effective investor protection to prevent potential entrants from raising capital. They succeed because they can promise larger political contributions than the entrants due to the higher rents earned with less competition. Entry and investor protection improve when wealth distribution becomes less unequal, and the po...

  2. Entry Threat in Duopoly

    Peitz, Martin

    1996-01-01

    Abstract: An oligopolistic market with vertical product differentiation is parametrized in cost parameters. This allows me to study the impact of the technology of the firms (cost parameters) on market structure, conduct, and performance. Firms which differ only by the order of the sequential move to choose a quality use sophisticated entry deterring or entry accomodating strategies. I show that infinitesimal changes in the cost parameters can generate discontinuities in market profits. In pa...

  3. Flavivirus cell entry and membrane fusion

    Smit, Jolanda M.; Moesker, Bastiaan; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela; Wilschut, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Flaviviruses, such as dengue virus and West Nile virus, are enveloped viruses that infect cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and fusion from within acidic endosomes. The cell entry process of flaviviruses is mediated by the viral E glycoprotein. This short review will address recent advance

  4. Mitochondrial myopathy in rats fed with a diet containing beta-guanidine propionic acid, an inhibitor of creatine entry in muscle cells.

    Gori, Z.; De Tata, V.; Pollera, M.; Bergamini, E

    1988-01-01

    In rats with phosphoryl-creatine depletion (fed a standard Randoin-Causeret diet containing 1% beta-guanidine propionic acid) abnormal mitochondria were observed in slow skeletal muscles, often containing paracrystalline inclusions very like those induced by ischaemia or mitochondrial poisons and in human mitochondrial myopathy.

  5. Low temperature activation of methane over a zinc-exchanged heteropolyacid as an entry to its selective oxidation to methanol and acetic acid

    Patil, Umesh

    2014-01-01

    A Zn-exchanged heteropolyacid supported onto silica (Zn-HPW/SiO2) activates methane at 25 °C into Zn-methyl. At higher temperatures and with CH4/O2 or CH4/CO2, it gives methanol and acetic acid respectively. This journal is

  6. Structural and Functional Studies of a Phosphatidic Acid-Binding Antifungal Plant Defensin MtDef4: Identification of an RGFRRR Motif Governing Fungal Cell Entry

    Sagaram, Uma Shankar; El-Mounadi, Kaoutar; Buchko, Garry W.; Berg, Howard R.; Kaur, Jagdeep; Raghu S Pandurangi; Thomas J Smith; Dilip M Shah

    2013-01-01

    MtDef4 is a 47-amino acid cysteine-rich evolutionary conserved defensin from a model legume Medicago truncatula. It is an apoplast-localized plant defense protein that inhibits the growth of the ascomycetous fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum in vitro at micromolar concentrations. Little is known about the mechanisms by which MtDef4 mediates its antifungal activity. In this study, we show that MtDef4 rapidly permeabilizes fungal plasma membrane and is internalized by the fungal cells where ...

  7. Time card entry system

    Montierth, B.S.

    1996-05-01

    The Time Card Entry System was developed to interface with the DOE Headquarters Electronic Time and Attendance (ETA) system. It features pop-up window pick lists for Work Breakdown Structure Numbers and Hour Codes and has extensive processing that ensures that time and attendance reported by the employee fulfills US Government/OMB requirements before Timekeepers process the data at the end of the two week payroll cycle using ETA. Tours of Duty (e.g. ten hour day, four day week with Friday through Sunday off), established in the ETA system, are imported into the Time Card Entry System by the Timekeepers. An individual`s Tour of Duty establishes the basis for validation of time of day and number of hours worked per day. At the end of the two week cycle, data is exported by the Timekeepers from the Time Card Entry System into ETA data files.

  8. Exclusive Dealing and Entry

    João Leão

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the use of exclusive dealing agreements to prevent the entry of rival firms. An exclusive dealing agreement is a contract between a buyer and a seller where the buyer commits to buy a good exclusively from the seller. One main concern of the literature is to explain how an incumbent seller is able to persuade the buyers to sign an exclusive dealing agreement that deters the entry of a more efficient rival seller. We propose a new explanation when the buyers are downstream ...

  9. Pairwise amino acid secondary structural propensities

    Chemmama, Ilan E.; Chapagain, Prem P.; Gerstman, Bernard S.

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the propensities for amino acids to form a specific secondary structure when they are paired with other amino acids. Our investigations use molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations, and we compare the results to those from the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Proper comparison requires weighting of the MD results in a manner consistent with the relative frequency of appearance in the PDB of each possible pair of amino acids. We find that the propensity for an amino acid to assume a secondary structure varies dramatically depending on the amino acid that is before or after it in the primary sequence. This cooperative effect means that when selecting amino acids to facilitate the formation of a secondary structure in peptide engineering experiments, the adjacent amino acids must be considered. We also examine the preference for a secondary structure in bacterial proteins and compare the results to those of human proteins.

  10. Deployable Entry-system Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Deployable Entry-system ProjecT (ADEPT) will develop requirements for the ADEPT flight test.  Prior entry systems used high mass thermal protection...

  11. Analyzing Modes of Foreign Entry

    Müller, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the entry decision of a multinational enterprise into a foreign market. Two alternative entry modes for a foreign direct investment are considered: Greenfield investment versus acquisition. In contrast to existing approaches, the acquisition price and the profits under both entry modes are endogenously determined. Interestingly, we find that the optimal entry mode decision is a ected by the competition intensity in the market in a non-monotonic way. When markets are very mu...

  12. Corruption, Entry and Pollution

    Eleni Stathopoulou; Dimitrios Varvarigos

    2013-01-01

    We model an economy where imperfectly competitive firms choose whether to employ a dirty technology and pay an emission tax or employ a clean technology and incur the cost of its adoption. Bureaucrats who are entrusted with the task of monitoring the emissions of each firm, are corruptible in the sense that they may accept bribes in order to mislead authorities on the firms’ actual emissions. Market entry is an important element in the relation between corruption and pollution. Particularly, ...

  13. Carbohydrate-Related Inhibitors of Dengue Virus Entry

    Takashi Suzuki

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV, which is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, causes fever and hemorrhagic disorders in humans. The virus entry process mediated through host receptor molecule(s is crucial for virus propagation and the pathological progression of dengue disease. Therefore, elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying virus entry is essential for an understanding of dengue pathology and for the development of effective new anti-dengue agents. DENV binds to its receptor molecules mediated through a viral envelope (E protein, followed by incorporation of the virus-receptor complex inside cells. The fusion between incorporated virus particles and host endosome membrane under acidic conditions is mediated through the function of DENV E protein. Carbohydrate molecules, such as sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAG and glycosphingolipids, and carbohydrate-recognition proteins, termed lectins, inhibit virus entry. This review focuses on carbohydrate-derived entry inhibitors, and also introduces functionally related compounds with similar inhibitory mechanisms against DENV entry.

  14. An automated system designed for large scale NMR data deposition and annotation: application to over 600 assigned chemical shift data entries to the BioMagResBank from the Riken Structural Genomics/Proteomics Initiative internal database

    Biomolecular NMR chemical shift data are key information for the functional analysis of biomolecules and the development of new techniques for NMR studies utilizing chemical shift statistical information. Structural genomics projects are major contributors to the accumulation of protein chemical shift information. The management of the large quantities of NMR data generated by each project in a local database and the transfer of the data to the public databases are still formidable tasks because of the complicated nature of NMR data. Here we report an automated and efficient system developed for the deposition and annotation of a large number of data sets including 1H, 13C and 15N resonance assignments used for the structure determination of proteins. We have demonstrated the feasibility of our system by applying it to over 600 entries from the internal database generated by the RIKEN Structural Genomics/Proteomics Initiative (RSGI) to the public database, BioMagResBank (BMRB). We have assessed the quality of the deposited chemical shifts by comparing them with those predicted from the PDB coordinate entry for the corresponding protein. The same comparison for other matched BMRB/PDB entries deposited from 2001–2011 has been carried out and the results suggest that the RSGI entries greatly improved the quality of the BMRB database. Since the entries include chemical shifts acquired under strikingly similar experimental conditions, these NMR data can be expected to be a promising resource to improve current technologies as well as to develop new NMR methods for protein studies.

  15. Sport entries and qualification manual

    2014-01-01

    This manual is designed to provide National Olympic Committees (NOCs) with the Olympic Sport Entries process, relevant policies, and instructions for completing the online registration for athletes participating in the Sochi 2014 Olympic Winter Games and to assist NOCs in using the online Sport Entries and Qualification (eSEQ) system to complete the entries of their athletes to the Sochi 2014 Olympic Winter Games.

  16. Entry deterrence and experimentation under demand uncertainty

    Jain, N

    2011-01-01

    We examine the effect of a threat of entry on experimentation about demand by an incumbent monopolist when there is a fixed cost of entry. We show that experimentation may itself be used as a tool for entry deterrence and derive conditions under which experimentation reduces the probability of entry. These conditions depend on the entry rule which in turn depends on entry costs. We show that if experimentation does not deter entry, the monopolist incumbent experiments less. We also characteri...

  17. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Entry Is Dependent on Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis

    Lecot, Steve; Belouzard, Sandrine; Dubuisson, Jean; Rouillé, Yves

    2005-01-01

    Cellular mechanisms of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) entry in MDBK cells were investigated. Chloroquine, bafilomycin A1, or ammonium chloride inhibited BVDV infection, indicating that an acidic endosomal pH is required for BVDV entry. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein partially inhibited BVDV infection at a postentry step, whereas BVDV entry was strongly inhibited by chlorpromazine or by the overexpression of a dominant-negative form of EPS15, a protein essential for the formation ...

  18. GOCE Re-Entry Campaign

    Bastida, B.; Flohrer, T.; Lemmens, S.; Krag, H.

    2015-03-01

    Every year ESA, through the Space Debris Office, participates to an Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) Re-entry Test Campaign.. For the campaign of 2013, ESA’s proposal to select GOCE's re-entry was accepted. The campaign opened on the 21st October 2013 after fuel depletion of the drag-compensating ion propulsion. GOCE was expected to enter into a phase of attitude-controlled fine-pointing mode (FPM) until the attitude controllers would be unable to cope with the atmospheric torques and then the satellite would enter in a phase of fully uncontrolled flight. In this paper, we present the evolution of ESA’s daily predictions on the re-entry epoch using different sources of orbital information. The uncertainties on the spacecraft operability (i.e. the physical limits of the attitude controller) led to a non-standard re-entry scenario were different attitudes had to be considered (instead of the commonly assumed random tumbling mode case that is used whenever no information on the physical properties of a re-entering object is available). A daily assessment of the status, in coordination with the flight control team, was required and implied a continuous update on the predicted failure point of the attitude controller. This in turn imposed the need for considering an asymmetric re-entry window. These operation-bound uncertainties were simulated to predict the attitude evolution after failure at different altitudes and their effects evaluated to be taken into account for the re-entry predictions. We present ESA’s re-entry prediction activities for GOCE, internally, and within the IADC, and address specific technical aspects and challenges for re-entry predictions, which are related to the expected and occurred attitude of GOCE during the final re-entry phase.

  19. Brownfield Entry in Emerging Markets

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Saul Estrin

    2001-01-01

    This paper focuses on the brown-field entry mode, as a special case of acquisition, in which the resources transferred by the investor dominate over those provided by the acquired firm. We see this mode as having particular relevance for entry strategies in emerging markets. The choice of entry mode is analyzed on the basis of a framework utilizing both resource-based and transaction-cost theories. The resource requirements have to be matched with resources available to the investor through a...

  20. Financial Intermediation and Entry Deterrence

    Jain, Neelam; Thomas D. Jeitschko; Mirman, Leonard J.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the interaction between an incumbent firm's financial contract with abank and its product market decisions in the face of the threat of entry, in a dynamic model.The main results of the paper are: there exists a separating equilibrium with no limit pricing; thelow-cost incumbent repays more to the bank in the first period, due to the threat of entry; andthere are parameter values for which the bank makes more profits with the threat of entry thanwithout.

  1. Entry Threat and Entry Deterrence: The Timing of Broadband Rollout

    Mo Xiao; Orazem, Peter F.

    2007-01-01

    Past empirical literature provides strong evidence that competition increases when new firms enter a market. However, rarely have economists been able to examine how competition changes with the threat of entry. This paper uses the evolution of the zip code level market structure of facilities-based broadband providers from 1999 to 2004 to investigate how a firm adjusts its entry strategy when facing the threat of additional entrants. We identify the potential entrant into a local market as t...

  2. The PDB database is a rich source of alpha-helical anti-microbial peptides to combat disease causing pathogens [version 2; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Sandeep Chakraborty

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic potential of α-helical anti-microbial peptides (AH-AMP to combat pathogens is fast gaining prominence. Based on recently published open access software for characterizing α-helical peptides (PAGAL, we elucidate a search methodology (SCALPEL that leverages the massive structural data pre-existing in the PDB database to obtain AH-AMPs belonging to the host proteome. We provide in vitro validation of SCALPEL on plant pathogens (Xylella fastidiosa, Xanthomonas arboricola and Liberibacter crescens by identifying AH-AMPs that mirror the function and properties of cecropin B, a well-studied AH-AMP. The identified peptides include a linear AH-AMP present within the existing structure of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PPC20, and an AH-AMP mimicing the properties of the two α-helices of cecropin B from chitinase (CHITI25. The minimum inhibitory concentration of these peptides are comparable to that of cecropin B, while anionic peptides used as control failed to show any inhibitory effect on these pathogens. Substitute therapies in place of conventional chemotherapies using membrane permeabilizing peptides like these might also prove effective to target cancer cells. The use of native structures from the same organism could possibly ensure that administration of such peptides will be better tolerated and not elicit an adverse immune response. We suggest a similar approach to target Ebola epitopes, enumerated using PAGAL recently, by selecting suitable peptides from the human proteome, especially in wake of recent reports of cationic amphiphiles inhibiting virus entry and infection.

  3. Analisis Pengaruh Penanaman Modal Asing Langsung (PMAL) Dan Pengeluaran Pemerintah (PP) Terhadap Produk Domestik Bruto (PDB) Di Indonesia Pasca Krisis Ekonomi 1998

    Simandjorang, Bonataon MTV

    2011-01-01

    Penelitian ini berjudul Analisis Pengaruh Penanaman Modal Asing Langsung (PMAL) dan Pengeluaran Pemerintah (PP) terhadap Produk Domestik Bruto (PDB) Di Indonesia Pasca Krisis Ekonomi 1998. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode ekonometrika melalui model regresi linear berganda (metode OLS) dengan menggunakan data runtut waktu (time series) 12 tahun, yaitu mulai 1999 hingga 2010 yang diperoleh dari Asian Development Bank (ADB) dan Badan Koordinasi Penanaman Modal (BKPM) Republik Indonesia. Hasi...

  4. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  5. Tactile Data Entry System Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Building on our successful Phase I Tactile Data Entry program, Barron Associates proposes development of a Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO) system to permit...

  6. Corporate Author Entries. Revision 5

    This reference authority has been created and is maintained to provide standard forms for recording the names of organizations consistently in bibliographic citations. This revision includes approximately 42,000 entries established since 1973

  7. Orion Entry Handling Qualities Assessments

    Bihari, B.; Tiggers, M.; Strahan, A.; Gonzalez, R.; Sullivan, K.; Stephens, J. P.; Hart, J.; Law, H., III; Bilimoria, K.; Bailey, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Orion Command Module (CM) is a capsule designed to bring crew back from the International Space Station (ISS), the moon and beyond. The atmospheric entry portion of the flight is deigned to be flown in autopilot mode for nominal situations. However, there exists the possibility for the crew to take over manual control in off-nominal situations. In these instances, the spacecraft must meet specific handling qualities criteria. To address these criteria two separate assessments of the Orion CM s entry Handling Qualities (HQ) were conducted at NASA s Johnson Space Center (JSC) using the Cooper-Harper scale (Cooper & Harper, 1969). These assessments were conducted in the summers of 2008 and 2010 using the Advanced NASA Technology Architecture for Exploration Studies (ANTARES) six degree of freedom, high fidelity Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) simulation. This paper will address the specifics of the handling qualities criteria, the vehicle configuration, the scenarios flown, the simulation background and setup, crew interfaces and displays, piloting techniques, ratings and crew comments, pre- and post-fight briefings, lessons learned and changes made to improve the overall system performance. The data collection tools, methods, data reduction and output reports will also be discussed. The objective of the 2008 entry HQ assessment was to evaluate the handling qualities of the CM during a lunar skip return. A lunar skip entry case was selected because it was considered the most demanding of all bank control scenarios. Even though skip entry is not planned to be flown manually, it was hypothesized that if a pilot could fly the harder skip entry case, then they could also fly a simpler loads managed or ballistic (constant bank rate command) entry scenario. In addition, with the evaluation set-up of multiple tasks within the entry case, handling qualities ratings collected in the evaluation could be used to assess other scenarios such as the constant bank angle

  8. Stackelberg competition with endogenous entry

    Etro, F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes market structures where leaders have a first mover advantage and entry by the followers is endogenous. The strategy of the leaders is always more aggressive than the strategy of the followers independently from strategic substitutability or complementarity. Under quantity competition, the leader produces more than any other firm and I determine the conditions for entry deterrence to be optimal (high substitutability and constant or decreasing marginal costs). Under price c...

  9. Autonomous gliding entry guidance with

    Guo Jie; Wu Xuzhong; Tang Shengjing

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel three-dimensional autonomous entry guidance for relatively high lift-to-drag ratio vehicles satisfying geographic constraints and other path constraints. The guidance is composed of onboard trajectory planning and robust trajectory tracking. For trajectory planning, a longitudinal sub-planner is introduced to generate a feasible drag-versus-energy profile by using the interpolation between upper boundary and lower boundary of entry corridor to get the desired traje...

  10. Network Competition and Entry Deterrence

    Calzada, Joan; Valletti, Tommaso

    2005-01-01

    We develop a model of logit demand that extends to a multi-firm industry the traditional duopoly framework of network competition with access charges. Firstly, we show that, when incumbents do not face the threat of entry and compete in prices, they inefficiently establish the reciprocal access charge below cost. This inefficiency disappears if incumbents compete in utilities instead of prices. Secondly, we study how incumbents change their choices under the threat of entry when they determin...

  11. Re-entry flight clearance

    Juliana, S.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the research was to identify and evaluate promising mathematical techniques for re-entry flight clearance. To fulfil this objective, two mathematical methods were investigated and developed: μ analysis for linear models and interval analysis for both linear and non-linear models. The stability of re-entry vehicles in the presence of model uncertainties was chosen as the clearance criterion, which is represented by two mathematical criteria: worst-case eigenvalues (linear...

  12. 19 CFR 142.16 - Entry summary documentation.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry summary documentation. 142.16 Section 142.16... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Entry Summary Documentation § 142.16 Entry summary documentation. (a) Entry summary not filed at time of entry. When the entry documentation is filed before the entry...

  13. Entry Mode Choice of Multinational Banks

    Lehner, Maria

    2008-01-01

    When expanding abroad, a multinational bank faces a trade-off between accessing a foreign country via cross border lending or a financial foreign direct investment, i.e. greenfield or acquisition entry. We analyze the entry mode choice of multinational banks and explicitly derive the entry mode pattern in the banking industry. Moreover, we show that in less developed banking markets, a trend towards cross border lending and acquisition entry exists. Greenfield entry prevails in more developed...

  14. Autonomous gliding entry guidance with

    Guo Jie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel three-dimensional autonomous entry guidance for relatively high lift-to-drag ratio vehicles satisfying geographic constraints and other path constraints. The guidance is composed of onboard trajectory planning and robust trajectory tracking. For trajectory planning, a longitudinal sub-planner is introduced to generate a feasible drag-versus-energy profile by using the interpolation between upper boundary and lower boundary of entry corridor to get the desired trajectory length. The associated magnitude of the bank angle can be specified by drag profile, while the sign of bank angle is determined by lateral sub-planner. Two-reverse mode is utilized to satisfy waypoint constraints and dynamic heading error corridor is utilized to satisfy no-fly zone constraints. The longitudinal and lateral sub-planners are iteratively employed until all of the path constraints are satisfied. For trajectory tracking, a novel tracking law based on the active disturbance rejection control is introduced. Finally, adaptability tests and Monte Carlo simulations of the entry guidance approach are performed. Results show that the proposed entry guidance approach can adapt to different entry missions and is able to make the vehicle reach the prescribed target point precisely in spite of geographic constraints.

  15. Characterization of Hepatitis C Virus Recombinants with Chimeric E1/E2 Envelope Proteins and Identification of Single Amino Acids in the E2 Stem Region Important for Entry

    Carlsen, Thomas H. R.; Scheel, Troels K. H.; Ramirez, Santseharay; Foung, Steven K. H.; Bukh, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope proteins E1 and E2 play a key role in host cell entry and represent important targets for vaccine and drug development. Here, we characterized HCV recombinants with chimeric E1/E2 complexes in vitro. Using genotype 1a/2a JFH1-based recombinants expressing 1a core-NS2, we exchanged E2 with functional isolate sequences of genotypes 1a (alternative isolate), 1b, and 2a. While the 1a-E2 exchange did not impact virus viability, the 2a-E2 recombinant was nonviab...

  16. Chemical characterization of fatty acids, alkanes, n-diols and alkyl esters produced by a mixed culture of Trichoderma koningii and Penicillium janthinellum grown aerobically on undecanoic acid, potatoe dextrose and their mixture.

    Monreal, Carlos M; Chahal, Amarpreet; Schnitzer, Morris; Rowland, Owen

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about the mixed fungal synthesis of high-value aliphatics derived from the metabolism of simple and complex carbon substrates. Trichoderma koningii and Penicillium janthinellum were fed with undecanoic acid (UDA), potatoe dextrose broth (PDB), and their mixture. Pyrolysis Field Ionization Mass Spectrometry (Py-FIMS) together with (1)H and (13)C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) characterized CHCl3 soluble aliphatics in the fungal cell culture. Data from NMR and Py-FIMS analysis were complementary to each other. On average, the mixed fungal species produced mostly fatty acids (28% of total ion intensity, TII) > alkanes (2% of TII) > n-diols (2% of TII) > and alkyl esters (0.8% of TII) when fed with UDA, PDB or UDA+PDB. The cell culture accumulated aliphatics extracellularly, although most of the identified compounds accumulated intracellularly. The mixed fungal culture produced high-value chemicals from the metabolic conversion of simple and complex carbon substrates. PMID:26852878

  17. The pace of MNEs’ sequential entries: Cumulative entry experience and the dynamic process

    Gerald Yong Gao; Yigang Pan

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the pace with which multinational enterprises undertake sequential entries in a foreign market. We focus on learning effects from cumulative entry experience of different modes within a host market. Moreover, we investigate the dynamic process of entry mode switch, and how cumulative entry experience reduces the expansion constraint. Using a dataset of sequential entries by US firms in China during 1979–2002, we find that the impact of cumulative entry experience on the pa...

  18. Poxvirus entry and membrane fusion

    The study of poxvirus entry and membrane fusion has been invigorated by new biochemical and microscopic findings that lead to the following conclusions: (1) the surface of the mature virion (MV), whether isolated from an infected cell or by disruption of the membrane wrapper of an extracellular virion, is comprised of a single lipid membrane embedded with non-glycosylated viral proteins; (2) the MV membrane fuses with the cell membrane, allowing the core to enter the cytoplasm and initiate gene expression; (3) fusion is mediated by a newly recognized group of viral protein components of the MV membrane, which are conserved in all members of the poxvirus family; (4) the latter MV entry/fusion proteins are required for cell to cell spread necessitating the disruption of the membrane wrapper of extracellular virions prior to fusion; and furthermore (5) the same group of MV entry/fusion proteins are required for virus-induced cell-cell fusion. Future research priorities include delineation of the roles of individual entry/fusion proteins and identification of cell receptors

  19. Delayed School Entry in Uganda

    Moyi, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Since 1997 Uganda has seen a large increase in school enrolment. Despite this increased enrolment, universal education has remained elusive. Many children enrol in school, but not at the recommended age, and they drop out before completing school. This article focuses on one of these problems--delayed school entry. What household factors are…

  20. Crystal structure and ligand affinity of avidin in the complex with 4‧-hydroxyazobenzene-2-carboxylic acid

    Strzelczyk, Paweł; Bujacz, Grzegorz

    2016-04-01

    Avidin is a protein found in egg white that binds numerous organic compounds with high affinity, especially biotin and its derivatives. Due to its extraordinary affinity for its ligands, avidin is extensively used in biotechnology. X-ray crystallography and fluorescence-based biophysical techniques were used to show that avidin binds the dye 4‧-hydroxyazobenzene-2-carboxylic acid (HABA) with a lower affinity than biotin. The apparent dissociation constant determined for the avidin complex with HABA by microscale thermophoresis (MST) is 4.12 μM. The crystal structure of avidin-HABA complex was determined at a resolution of 2.2 Å (PDB entry 5chk). The crystals belong to a hexagonal system, in the space group P6422. In that structure, the hydrazone tautomer of HABA is bound at the bottom part of the central calyx near the polar residues. We show interactions of the dye with avidin and compare them with the previously reported avidin-biotin complex.

  1. Crystal structure and ligand affinity of avidin in the complex with 4‧-hydroxyazobenzene-2-carboxylic acid

    Strzelczyk, Paweł; Bujacz, Grzegorz

    2016-04-01

    Avidin is a protein found in egg white that binds numerous organic compounds with high affinity, especially biotin and its derivatives. Due to its extraordinary affinity for its ligands, avidin is extensively used in biotechnology. X-ray crystallography and fluorescence-based biophysical techniques were used to show that avidin binds the dye 4‧-hydroxyazobenzene-2-carboxylic acid (HABA) with a lower affinity than biotin. The apparent dissociation constant determined for the avidin complex with HABA by microscale thermophoresis (MST) is 4.12 μM. The crystal structure of avidin-HABA complex was determined at a resolution of 2.2 Å (PDB entry 5chk). The crystals belong to a hexagonal system, in the space group P6422. In that structure, the hydrazone tautomer of HABA is bound at the bottom part of the central calyx near the polar residues. We show interactions of the dye with avidin and compare them with the previously reported avidin-biotin complex.

  2. Bi-weekly waterfowl survey data entry

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Data sheet for the entry of bi-weekly waterfowl survey data from the state of Kansas. This Excel file contains the data entry sheet and a chart displaying waterfowl...

  3. Sunk Costs and Antitrust Barriers to Entry

    SCHMALENSEE, Richard

    2004-01-01

    US antitrust policy takes as its objective consumer welfare, not total economic welfare. With that objective, Joe Bain's definition of entry barriers is more useful than George Stigler's or definitions based on economic welfare. It follows that economies of scale that involve sunk costs may create antitrust barriers to entry. A simple model shows that sunk costs without scale economies may discourage entry without creating an antitrust entry barrier.

  4. Predicting the Diversity of Foreign Entry Modes

    Hashai, Niron; Asmussen, Christian G.; Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Petersen, Bent

    2007-01-01

    This paper expands entry mode literature by referring to multiple modes exerted in different value chain activities within and across host markets, rather than to a single entry mode at the host market level. Scale of operations and knowledge intensity are argued to affect firms’ entry mode diversity across value chain activities and host markets. Analyzing a sample of Israeli based firms we show that larger firms exhibit a higher degree of entry mode diversity both across value chain activit...

  5. Endogenous Market Structure and Foreign Market Entry

    Markusen, James R.; Frank Stähler

    2009-01-01

    Models dealing with cross-border acquisitions versus greenfield investment usually assume that the entry of a foreign firm into a market has effects on the outputs of all domestic firms in that market, but exit or entry of local firms is not considered. The purpose of this paper is to re-examine the acquisition versus greenfield versus exporting question under fixed versus free entry assumptions for local firms. Our finding is that greenfield entry and exporting options are more attractive re...

  6. BioMagResBank (BMRB) as a partner in the Worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB): new policies affecting biomolecular NMR depositions

    We describe the role of the BioMagResBank (BMRB) within the Worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB) and recent policies affecting the deposition of biomolecular NMR data. All PDB depositions of structures based on NMR data must now be accompanied by experimental restraints. A scheme has been devised that allows depositors to specify a representative structure and to define residues within that structure found experimentally to be largely unstructured. The BMRB now accepts coordinate sets representing three-dimensional structural models based on experimental NMR data of molecules of biological interest that fall outside the guidelines of the Protein Data Bank (i.e., the molecule is a peptide with 23 or fewer residues, a polynucleotide with 3 or fewer residues, a polysaccharide with 3 or fewer sugar residues, or a natural product), provided that the coordinates are accompanied by representation of the covalent structure of the molecule (atom connectivity), assigned NMR chemical shifts, and the structural restraints used in generating model. The BMRB now contains an archive of NMR data for metabolites and other small molecules found in biological systems

  7. Sport entries and qualification manual: Nanjing 2014

    2014-01-01

    Sport entries constitute an important part of the delegation registration process of the Nanjing 2014 Summer Youth Olympic Games. This manual aims to introduce to NOCs the process, relevant policies and requirements regarding sport entries so as to ensure that NOCs can successfully complete the entries for their athletes to the Nanjing 2014 Youth Olympic Games.

  8. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing...

  9. 76 FR 66875 - Informal Entry Limit and Removal of a Formal Entry Requirement

    2011-10-28

    ... increasing the informal entry limit to $2,500 will save the trade community approximately $11 million in... informal entry from $2,000 to $2,500. Unless exempt under a free trade agreement and in addition to any..., 143, 145, and 148 RIN 1515-AD69 Informal Entry Limit and Removal of a Formal Entry Requirement...

  10. Developing the Brand Entry Strategy

    Gupta, Pramesh

    2004-01-01

    With more than two decades of experience in the flashlight industry, Vinpol is all set to launch the flashlights, under their brand name, into the market. This dissertation describes a process of generating a brand entry strategy for Vinpol. A model is proposed that adapts the approach of 4Ps and Relationship Marketing. The rationale for this report has come about due to initial secondary research which shows that there will be constant growth in the flashlight industry. Some factors that nee...

  11. Marketing Mix Reactions to Entry

    Robinson, William T.

    1988-01-01

    Initial product, distribution, marketing expenditure, and price reactions by incumbents are examined for 115 entrants into oligopolistic markets. The most common reaction pattern is either no reaction or only a single reaction. It is very unusual for entrants to face reactions across the entire marketing mix. Reactions in the first two years after entry are explained as a function of the entrant's strategy, incumbent characteristics, and industry characteristics. The explanation provides insi...

  12. Bargaining agenda, timing, and entry

    Fanti, Luciano; Buccella, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    In a unionised Cournot duopoly, the present paper extensively re-examines the subject of the bargaining scope between firms and unions. It investigates the endogenous equilibrium agenda (Right-to-Manage vs Efficient Bargaining) that can arise under three timing specification of the bargaining game both for a given duopoly and monopoly with threat of entry. A novel result is that, in sequential negotiations, Efficient Bargaining emerges in equilibrium for a range of the unions’ power larger th...

  13. SPANISH COMPANY FOREIGN MARKET ENTRY

    Francisco J. Más; Felipe Ruiz Moreno

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the determinants of diversification mode (acquisition versus greenfield) through foreign direct investment considering various theories, such as those of mergers and acquisitions, transaction costs, the learning organisation, the institutional context of the company and the cultural environment of the host country, and to analyse the determinants of entry mode combining diversification mode with ownership structure decision (greenfield wholly-owned subsidia...

  14. Predicting the Diversity of Foreign Entry Modes

    Hashai, Niron; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Benito, Gabriel;

    2007-01-01

    This paper expands entry mode literature by referring to multiple modes exerted in different value chain activities within and across host markets, rather than to a single entry mode at the host market level. Scale of operations and knowledge intensity are argued to affect firms' entry mode...... diversity across value chain activities and host markets. Analyzing a sample of Israeli based firms we show that larger firms exhibit a higher degree of entry mode diversity both across value chain activities and across host markets. Higher levels of knowledge intensity are also associated with more...... diversity in firms' entry modes across both dimensions....

  15. Atmospheric Entry Experiments at IRS

    Auweter-Kurtz, M.; Endlich, P.; Herdrich, G.; Kurtz, H.; Laux, T.; Löhle, S.; Nazina, N.; Pidan, S.

    2002-01-01

    Entering the atmosphere of celestial bodies, spacecrafts encounter gases at velocities of several km/s, thereby being subjected to great heat loads. The thermal protection systems and the environment (plasma) have to be investigated by means of computational and ground facility based simulations. For more than a decade, plasma wind tunnels at IRS have been used for the investigation of TPS materials. Nevertheless, ground tests and computer simulations cannot re- place space flights completely. Particularly, entry mission phases encounter challenging problems, such as hypersonic aerothermodynamics. Concerning the TPS, radiation-cooled materials used for reuseable spacecrafts and ablator tech- nologies are of importance. Besides the mentioned technologies, there is the goal to manage guidance navigation, con- trol, landing technology and inflatable technologies such as ballutes that aim to keep vehicles in the atmosphere without landing. The requirement to save mass and energy for planned interplanetary missions such as Mars Society Balloon Mission, Mars Sample Return Mission, Mars Express or Venus Sample Return mission led to the need for manoeuvres like aerocapture, aero-breaking and hyperbolic entries. All three are characterized by very high kinetic vehicle energies to be dissipated by the manoeuvre. In this field flight data are rare. The importance of these manoeuvres and the need to increase the knowledge of required TPS designs and behavior during such mission phases point out the need of flight experiments. As result of the experience within the plasma diagnostic tool development and the plasma wind tunnel data base, flight experiments like the PYrometric RE-entry EXperiment PYREX were developed, fully qualified and successfully flown. Flight experiments such as the entry spectrometer RESPECT and PYREX on HOPE-X are in the conceptual phase. To increase knowledge in the scope of atmospheric manoeuvres and entries, data bases have to be created combining both

  16. Endocytic Pathways Involved in Filovirus Entry: Advances, Implications and Future Directions

    Suchita Bhattacharyya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Detailed knowledge of the host-virus interactions that accompany filovirus entry into cells is expected to identify determinants of viral virulence and host range, and to yield targets for the development of antiviral therapeutics. While it is generally agreed that filovirus entry into the host cytoplasm requires viral internalization into acidic endosomal compartments and proteolytic cleavage of the envelope glycoprotein by endo/lysosomal cysteine proteases, our understanding of the specific endocytic pathways co-opted by filoviruses remains limited. This review addresses the current knowledge on cellular endocytic pathways implicated in filovirus entry, highlights the consensus as well as controversies, and discusses important remaining questions.

  17. BioMagResBank databases DOCR and FRED containing converted and filtered sets of experimental NMR restraints and coordinates from over 500 protein PDB structures

    We present two new databases of NMR-derived distance and dihedral angle restraints: the Database Of Converted Restraints (DOCR) and the Filtered Restraints Database (FRED). These databases currently correspond to 545 proteins with NMR structures deposited in the Protein Databank (PDB). The criteria for inclusion were that these should be unique, monomeric proteins with author-provided experimental NMR data and coordinates available from the PDB capable of being parsed and prepared in a consistent manner. The Wattos program was used to parse the files, and the CcpNmr FormatConverter program was used to prepare them semi-automatically. New modules, including a new implementation of Aqua in the BioMagResBank (BMRB) software Wattos were used to analyze the sets of distance restraints (DRs) for inconsistencies, redundancies, NOE completeness, classification and violations with respect to the original coordinates. Restraints that could not be associated with a known nomenclature were flagged. The coordinates of hydrogen atoms were recalculated from the positions of heavy atoms to allow for a full restraint analysis. The DOCR database contains restraint and coordinate data that is made consistent with each other and with IUPAC conventions. The FRED database is based on the DOCR data but is filtered for use by test calculation protocols and longitudinal analyses and validations. These two databases are available from websites of the BMRB and the Macromolecular Structure Database (MSD) in various formats: NMR-STAR, CCPN XML, and in formats suitable for direct use in the software packages CNS and CYANA

  18. Who Benefits from Store Brand Entry?

    Koen Pauwels; Shuba Srinivasan

    2004-01-01

    Store brand entry has become a key issue in marketing as it may structurally change the performance of and the interactions among all market players. Based on their multivariate time-series analysis, the authors demonstrate permanent performance effects of store brand entry, typically benefiting the retailer, the consumers, and premium-brand manufacturers, while harming second-tier brand manufacturers. For the , they consistently find two of store brand entry: . This increase in unit margins ...

  19. Entry Strategies, Welfare Analysis and Firms’ Behaviors

    Wang Xun; Luo Ting

    2007-01-01

    Before serving a new market, a multinational enterprise (MNE) has several entry strategies, which include foreign direct investment (FDI), joint venture (JV) and exclusive licensing (EL). Entry cost, market size of the host country, and the discount rate are the main determinants when the MNE chooses its optimal entry strategy. At a certain level of ownership share that the MNE holds, JV will generate the highest social welfare. If firms can choose between competition and collusion, at differ...

  20. Foreign market entry strategies and post-entry growth: Acquisitions vs greenfield investments

    Danchi Tan

    2009-01-01

    We examine the relationship between the foreign market entry strategy and the subsequent growth of a subsidiary. We build upon the Penrose theory of firm growth, and on the organizational economics, international management, and foreign market entry strategy literatures. We hypothesize that the post-entry growth of acquisitions is positively associated with weak and codifiable interdependence within the multinational enterprise network, whereas the post-entry growth of greenfield investments ...

  1. Specification of the Model 3 Entry Lexicon.

    Rhode, Mary

    The Model 3 communication skills lexicon consists of three lists of words developed by the Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) for use in communication skills instruction in K-6. This report documents the procedures followed in compiling the entry lexicon, the first component of the Model 3 communication skills lexicon. The entry lexicon is…

  2. Entry Mode and Performance of Nordic Firms

    Wulff, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    market entries made by Norwegian, Danish and Swedish firms suggests that the association between equity mode choice and non-location bound international experience diminishes in the presence of higher levels of multinational experience. Furthermore, firms whose entry mode choice is predicted by the model...

  3. 19 CFR 141.91 - Entry without required invoice.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry without required invoice. 141.91 Section 141... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Invoices § 141.91 Entry without required invoice. If a required invoice is not available in proper form at the time the entry or entry summary documentation...

  4. Modeling late entry bias in survival analysis.

    Matsuura, Masaaki; Eguchi, Shinto

    2005-06-01

    In a failure time analysis, we sometimes observe additional study subjects who enter during the study period. These late entries are treated as left-truncated data in the statistical literature. However, with real data, there is a substantial possibility that the delayed entries may have extremely different hazards compared to the other standard subjects. We focus on a situation in which such entry bias might arise in the analysis of survival data. The purpose of the present article is to develop an appropriate methodology for making inference about data including late entries. We construct a model that includes parameters for the effect of delayed entry bias having no specification for the distribution of entry time. We also discuss likelihood inference based on this model and derive the asymptotic behavior of estimates. A simulation study is conducted for a finite sample size in order to compare the analysis results using our method with those using the standard method, where independence between entry time and failure time is assumed. We apply this method to mortality analysis among atomic bomb survivors defined in a geographical study region. PMID:16011705

  5. Optimal firm growth under the threat of entry

    Peter M. Kort; Wrzaczek, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The paper studies the incumbent-entrant problem in a fully dynamic setting. We find that under an open-loop information structure the incumbent anticipates entry by overinvesting, whereas in the Markov perfect equilibrium the incumbent slightly underinvests in the period before the entry. The entry cost level where entry accommodation passes into entry deterrence is lower in the Markov perfect equilibrium. Further we find that the incumbent’s capital stock level needed to deter entry is hump ...

  6. Advances in spacecraft atmospheric entry guidance

    Benito Manrique, Joel

    In order to advance entry guidance technology two different research areas have been explored with the objective of increasing the reachable landing area and the landing accuracy for future Mars missions. Currently only the northern hemisphere of Mars is available for landing due to its low elevation. Only low elevation landing sites have the necessary atmospheric density to allow landing using current Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology. In order to reach most of the Ancient Highlands, the majority of the southern hemisphere, advanced EDL technology is needed in multiple fields, including entry guidance. The first research area is the definition and applications of reachable and controllable sets for entry. The definition of the reachable and controllable sets provides a framework for the study of the capabilities of an entry vehicle in a given planet. Reachable and controllable sets can be used to comprehensively characterize the envelope of trajectories that a vehicle can fly, the sites it can reach and the entry states that can be accommodated. The sets can also be used for the evaluation of trajectory planning algorithms and to assist in the selection of the entry or landing sites. In essence, the reachable and controllable sets offer a powerful vehicle and trajectory analysis and design framework that allows for better mission design choices. In order to illustrate the use of the sets, they are computed for a representative Mars mission using two different vehicle configurations. The sets characterize the impact of the vehicle configuration on the entry capability. Furthermore, the sets are used to find the best skip-entry trajectory for a return from the Moon mission, highlighting the utility of the sets in atmospheric maneuvers other than entry. The second research area is the development of the components of an entry guidance algorithm that allow high elevation landing and provide as well high landing accuracy. The approach taken follows the

  7. Foreign Entry and Heterogeneous Growth of Firms

    Deng, Paul Duo; Jefferson, Gary H.

    We adopt the framework of Schumpeterian creative destruction formalized by Aghion et al. (2009) to analyze the impact of foreign entry on the productivity growth of domestic firms. In the face of foreign entry, domestic firms exhibit heterogeneous patterns of growth depending on their technological...... distance from foreign firms. Domestic firms with smaller technological distance from their foreign counterparts tend to experience faster productivity growth, while firms with larger technological distance tend to lag further behind. We test this hypothesis using a unique firm-level data of Chinese...... manufacturing. Our empirical results confirm that foreign entry indeed generates strong heterogeneous growth patterns among domestic firms....

  8. Physical security workshop summary: entry control

    Entry control hardware has been used extensively in the past to assist security forces in separating the authorized from the unauthorized at the plant perimeter. As more attention is being focused on the insider threat, these entry control elements are being used to extend the security inspectors' presence into the plant by compartmentalizing access and monitoring vital components. This paper summarizes the experiences expressed by the participants at the March 16 to 19, 1982 INMM Physical Protection Workshop in utilizing access control and contraband detection hardware for plant wide entry control applications

  9. Entry Regulation under Asymmetric Information about Demand

    Paula Sarmento

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate how an incumbent firm can use the regulatory policy about entry and the informational advantage to protect his market position. This question is studied through the construction of a signalling game where we assume that the regulator has less information about demand than the firms. We conclude that there is a pooling equilibrium and partially separating equilibria in which entry is deterred and, if demand is high, there will be insufficient entry. The final effect on welfare depends on the tradeoff between short-run benefits (lower price and long-run losses (weaker competition.

  10. Texting while driving: is speech-based text entry less risky than handheld text entry?

    He, J; Chaparro, A; Nguyen, B; Burge, R J; Crandall, J; Chaparro, B; Ni, R; Cao, S

    2014-11-01

    Research indicates that using a cell phone to talk or text while maneuvering a vehicle impairs driving performance. However, few published studies directly compare the distracting effects of texting using a hands-free (i.e., speech-based interface) versus handheld cell phone, which is an important issue for legislation, automotive interface design and driving safety training. This study compared the effect of speech-based versus handheld text entries on simulated driving performance by asking participants to perform a car following task while controlling the duration of a secondary text-entry task. Results showed that both speech-based and handheld text entries impaired driving performance relative to the drive-only condition by causing more variation in speed and lane position. Handheld text entry also increased the brake response time and increased variation in headway distance. Text entry using a speech-based cell phone was less detrimental to driving performance than handheld text entry. Nevertheless, the speech-based text entry task still significantly impaired driving compared to the drive-only condition. These results suggest that speech-based text entry disrupts driving, but reduces the level of performance interference compared to text entry with a handheld device. In addition, the difference in the distraction effect caused by speech-based and handheld text entry is not simply due to the difference in task duration. PMID:25089769

  11. The Effects of Entry in Bilateral Oligopoly

    Alex Dickson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of entry into the market for a single commodity in which both sellers and buyers are permitted to interact strategically. With the inclusion of an additional seller, the market is quasi-competitive: the price falls and volume of trade increases, as expected. However, contrary to the conventional wisdom, existing sellers’ payoffs may increase. The conditions under which entry by new sellers raises the equilibrium payoffs of existing sellers are derived. These depend in an intuitive way on the elasticity of a strategic analog of demand and the market share of existing sellers, and encompass entirely standard economic environments. Similar results are derived relating to the entry of additional buyers and the effects of entry on both sides of the market are investigated.

  12. Entry tank calibration in TOR pilot plant

    The objective of this communication is the description of calibration measurements used for determining the uranium and plutonium mass entry in the fast neutron fuel reprocessing pilot plant (TOR) of Marcoule

  13. Adaptive Text Entry for Mobile Devices

    Proschowsky, Morten Smidt

    for mobile devices and a framework for adaptive context-aware language models. Based on analysis of current text entry methods, the requirements to the new text entry methods are established. Transparent User guided Prediction (TUP) is a text entry method for devices with one dimensional touch input....... It can be touch sensitive wheels, sliders or similar input devices. The interaction design of TUP is done with a combination of high level task models and low level models of human motor behaviour. Three prototypes of TUP are designed and evaluated by more than 30 users. Observations from the...... evaluations are used to improve the models of human motor behaviour. TUP-Key is a variant of TUP, designed for 12 key phone keyboards. It is introduced in the thesis but has not been implemented or evaluated. Both text entry methods support adaptive context-aware language models. YourText is a framework for...

  14. Aerocapture Inflatable Decelerator for Planetary Entry

    Reza, Sajjad; Hund, Richard; Kustas, Frank; Willcockson, William; Songer, Jarvis; Brown, Glen

    2007-01-01

    Forward Attached Inflatable Decelerators, more commonly known as inflatable aeroshells, provide an effective, cost efficient means of decelerating spacecrafts by using atmospheric drag for aerocapture or planetary entry instead of conventional liquid propulsion deceleration systems. Entry into planetary atmospheres results in significant heating and aerodynamic pressures which stress aeroshell systems to their useful limits. Incorporation of lightweight inflatable decelerator surfaces with increased surface-area footprints provides the opportunity to reduce heat flux and induced temperatures, while increasing the payload mass fraction. Furthermore, inflatable aeroshell decelerators provide the needed deceleration at considerably higher altitudes and Mach numbers when compared with conventional rigid aeroshell entry systems. Inflatable aeroshells also provide for stowage in a compact space, with subsequent deployment of a large-area, lightweight heatshield to survive entry heating. Use of a deployable heatshield decelerator enables an increase in the spacecraft payload mass fraction and may eliminate the need for a spacecraft backshell.

  15. Market entry strategies into the BRIC countries

    Boyd, Britta; Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie

    2014-01-01

    Based on a sample of 177 exporting SMEs, this study investigates what market entry strategy is used by Danish family and non-family businesses. From a resource-based view, three critical internal factors (risk, flexibility and control) affecting the entry mode choice into the BRIC markets...... compared to non-family firms. Furthermore, the Danish exporters regarded China as being the most established of the four BRIC markets which could be seen in their willingness to use high control entry modes in China. Finally, non-family firms are more concerned about higher flexibility and lower control...... when entering the BRIC markets. In contrast, family firms choose high commitment entry modes which involve high risk and low flexibility when entering the BRIC markets. Further implications discuss the suitability of export strategies to BRIC markets for managers of Danish family and non-family firms....

  16. Border Crossing/Entry Data - Boarder Crossing

    Department of Transportation — Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics for incoming crossings at the U.S.-Canadian and the U.S.-Mexican border at the port level. Data are available...

  17. Predecessors of Double-Entry Accounting

    Mykhaylo Kuter; Maryna Gurskaya; Artem Musaelyan

    2013-01-01

    The article covers analysis of some historically significant issues of accounting development in the home-country of contemporary accounting made with reference to the archived materials found in Italy. In particular, the issue of purpose and order of taking entries in the book titled 'RICORDANZE' ('Memorials') has been considered. Resulting from the analysis done, the significance has been grounded for keeping accounting records which do not subject to double-entry principle thus being busin...

  18. Developing Quantitative Models for Auditing Journal Entries

    Argyrou, Argyris

    2013-01-01

    The thesis examines how the auditing of journal entries can detect and prevent financial statement fraud. Financial statement fraud occurs when an intentional act causes financial statements to be materially misstated. Although it is not a new phenomenon, financial statement fraud has attracted much publicity in the wake of numerous cases of financial malfeasance (e.g. ENRON, WorldCom). Existing literature has provided limited empirical evidence on the link between auditing journal entrie...

  19. Entry and exit decisions under uncertainty

    Kongsted, Hans Christian

    1996-01-01

    This paper establishes the general deterministic limit that corresponds to Dixit's model of entry and exit decisions under uncertainty. The interlinked nature of decisions is shown to be essential also in the deterministic limit. A numerical example illustrates the result......This paper establishes the general deterministic limit that corresponds to Dixit's model of entry and exit decisions under uncertainty. The interlinked nature of decisions is shown to be essential also in the deterministic limit. A numerical example illustrates the result...

  20. Market Structure and Entry: Where's the Beef?.

    Toivanen, O.; Waterson, M

    2001-01-01

    We study the effects of market structure on entry using data from the UK fast food (counter-service burger)industry over the years 1991-1995. Over this period, the market can be characterized as a duopoly. We find that market structure matters greatly: for both firms, rival presence increases the probability of entry. We control for market specific time-invariant unobservable and their correlation with existing outlets of both firms through a variety of methods.

  1. Entry Modes for British MNCs into China

    Phillips, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    China has undergone massive economic reforms and institutional changes over the last 3 decades. Increasingly liberalized government regulations and the opening up of the Chinese market have attracted British MNCs to enter into this ‘dream market’. This paper seeks to primarily explore the factors that affect the entry mode selection of British MNCs. It will also seek to investigate how the current institutional environment affects entry mode selection. This paper uses a case study method to a...

  2. Entry and Exit in a Liberalised Market

    Maria José Gil-Moltó; Claudio A. Piga

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the entry and exit activity in the UK airline markets in the post-liberalisation period and study the differential traits between traditional and low cost carriers. Alongside with the characteristics traditionally highlighted as determinants of entry (e.g., airport presence and network economies), we find that the existence of charter or seasonal operators, product differentiation opportunities and the level of quality provided by the incumbents are also relevant in explaining entr...

  3. Global Strategy and Multinationals' Entry Mode Choice

    W. Chan Kim; Peter Hwang

    1992-01-01

    This paper makes a case directed towards establishing the importance of global strategic considerations in choosing multinationals' entry mode. Specifically, it is our contention that beyond the environmental and transaction-specific factors well established in the literature to affect the entry mode decision, we should also consider the strategic relationship a multinational envisages between its operations across borders in reaching this decision. After incorporating various global strategi...

  4. Entry modes of European firms in Vietnam

    Daniel Simonet

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to explore the entry modes of EU firms setting up operations in Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach: we use a case study approach on Haymarket, Cadbury, Creative Education, Fairchild, Aventis and Artemisinin and Farming International using interviews from managerial professionals in Vietnam. Findings: Despite the fact that Vietnam has been opening up for more than 20 years, licensing is the preferred entry mode because of the risks involved in ventur...

  5. Double Entry in Accounting of Small Businesses

    Gogol Tatyana A.

    2013-01-01

    The article states that a separate category of small businesses (starting from 2011) acquired the right to conduct simplified accounting of income and expenses without application of the plan of accounts and method of double entry. Analysis of literature sources allowed drawing a conclusion that it is impossible to imagine development of accounting without the use of the method of double entry and appearance of various theories regarding the reasons of its appearance. Having analysed methods ...

  6. Setting up a large set of protein-ligand PDB complexes for the development and validation of knowledge-based docking algorithms

    Aguilera Longendri

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of algorithms available to predict ligand-protein interactions is large and ever-increasing. The number of test cases used to validate these methods is usually small and problem dependent. Recently, several databases have been released for further understanding of protein-ligand interactions, having the Protein Data Bank as backend support. Nevertheless, it appears to be difficult to test docking methods on a large variety of complexes. In this paper we report the development of a new database of protein-ligand complexes tailored for testing of docking algorithms. Methods Using a new definition of molecular contact, small ligands contained in the 2005 PDB edition were identified and processed. The database was enriched in molecular properties. In particular, an automated typing of ligand atoms was performed. A filtering procedure was applied to select a non-redundant dataset of complexes. Data mining was performed to obtain information on the frequencies of different types of atomic contacts. Docking simulations were run with the program DOCK. Results We compiled a large database of small ligand-protein complexes, enriched with different calculated properties, that currently contains more than 6000 non-redundant structures. As an example to demonstrate the value of the new database, we derived a new set of chemical matching rules to be used in the context of the program DOCK, based on contact frequencies between ligand atoms and points representing the protein surface, and proved their enhanced efficiency with respect to the default set of rules included in that program. Conclusion The new database constitutes a valuable resource for the development of knowledge-based docking algorithms and for testing docking programs on large sets of protein-ligand complexes. The new chemical matching rules proposed in this work significantly increase the success rate in DOCKing simulations. The database developed in this work is

  7. “Fuzzy oil drop” model applied to individual small proteins built of 70 amino acids

    Prymula, Katarzyna; Sałapa, Kinga; Roterman, Irena

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The proteins composed of short polypeptides (about 70 amino acid residues) representing the following functional groups (according to PDB notation): growth hormones, serine protease inhibitors, antifreeze proteins, chaperones and proteins of unknown function, were selected for structural and functional analysis. Classification based on the distribution of hydrophobicity in terms of deficiency/excess as the measure of structural and functional specificity is presented. The ...

  8. Fatty acid induced remodeling within the human liver fatty acid-binding protein.

    Sharma, Ashwani; Sharma, Amit

    2011-09-01

    We crystallized human liver fatty acid-binding protein (LFABP) in apo, holo, and intermediate states of palmitic acid engagement. Structural snapshots of fatty acid recognition, entry, and docking within LFABP support a heads-in mechanism for ligand entry. Apo-LFABP undergoes structural remodeling, where the first palmitate ingress creates the atomic environment for placement of the second palmitate. These new mechanistic insights will facilitate development of pharmacological agents against LFABP. PMID:21757748

  9. Fatty Acid Induced Remodeling within the Human Liver Fatty Acid-binding Protein*

    Sharma, Ashwani; Sharma, Amit

    2011-01-01

    We crystallized human liver fatty acid-binding protein (LFABP) in apo, holo, and intermediate states of palmitic acid engagement. Structural snapshots of fatty acid recognition, entry, and docking within LFABP support a heads-in mechanism for ligand entry. Apo-LFABP undergoes structural remodeling, where the first palmitate ingress creates the atomic environment for placement of the second palmitate. These new mechanistic insights will facilitate development of pharmacological agents against ...

  10. Role of endocytosis and cathepsin-mediated activation in Nipah virus entry

    The recent discovery that the Nipah virus (NiV) fusion protein (F) is activated by endosomal cathepsin L raised the question if NiV utilize pH- and protease-dependent mechanisms of entry. We show here that the NiV receptor ephrin B2, virus-like particles and infectious NiV are internalized from the cell surface. However, endocytosis, acidic pH and cathepsin-mediated cleavage are not necessary for the initiation of infection of new host cells. Our data clearly demonstrate that proteolytic activation of the NiV F protein is required before incorporation into budding virions but not after virus entry

  11. Atmospheric Entry Studies for Venus Missions: 45 Sphere-Cone Rigid Aeroshells and Ballistic Entries

    Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Spilker, Thomas R.; Allen, Gary A., Jr.; Hwang, Helen H.; Cappuccio, Gelsomina; Moses, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    The present study considers direct ballistic entries into the atmosphere of Venus using a 45deg sphere-cone rigid aeroshell, a legacy shape that has been used successfully in the past in the Pioneer Venus Multiprobe Mission. For a number of entry mass and heatshield diameter combinations (i.e., various ballistic coefficients) and entry velocities, the trajectory space in terms of entry flight path angles between skip out and -30deg is explored with a 3DoF trajectory code, TRAJ. From these trajectories, the viable entry flight path angle space is determined through the use of mechanical and thermal performance limits on the thermal protection material and science payload; the thermal protection material of choice is entry-grade carbon phenolic, for which a material thermal response model is available. For mechanical performance, a 200 g limit is placed on the peak deceleration load experienced by the science instruments, and 10 bar is assumed as the pressure limit for entry-grade carbon-phenolic material. For thermal performance, inflection points in the total heat load distribution are used as cut off criteria. Analysis of the results shows the existence of a range of critical ballistic coefficients beyond which the steepest possible entries are determined by the pressure limit of the material rather than the deceleration load limit.

  12. Autonomous gliding entry guidance with geographic constraints

    Guo Jie; Wu Xuzhong; Tang Shengjing

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel three-dimensional autonomous entry guidance for relatively high lift-to-drag ratio vehicles satisfying geographic constraints and other path constraints. The guidance is composed of onboard trajectory planning and robust trajectory tracking. For trajectory planning, a longitudinal sub-planner is introduced to generate a feasible drag-versus-energy profile by using the interpolation between upper boundary and lower boundary of entry corridor to get the desired trajectory length. The associated magnitude of the bank angle can be specified by drag profile, while the sign of bank angle is determined by lateral sub-planner. Two-reverse mode is utilized to satisfy waypoint constraints and dynamic heading error corridor is utilized to satisfy no-fly zone constraints. The longitudinal and lateral sub-planners are iteratively employed until all of the path constraints are satisfied. For trajectory tracking, a novel tracking law based on the active disturbance rejection control is introduced. Finally, adaptability tests and Monte Carlo simulations of the entry guidance approach are performed. Results show that the proposed entry guidance approach can adapt to different entry missions and is able to make the vehicle reach the prescribed target point precisely in spite of geographic constraints.

  13. Optimal R&D investment strategies with quantity competition under the threat of superior entry

    Lukach, R.; Kort, P.M.; Plasmans, J.E.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies R&D investment decisions of a firm facing the threat of new technology entry and subject to technical uncertainty. We distinguish four scenarios: inevitable entry, entry deterrence, entry blockade, and non-credible entry threat. The entry threat stimulates the incumbent to innovate in case entry prevention is possible, but discourages R&D if entry is inevitable. In the case of entry deterrence the incumbent successfully prevents entry by innovating. Greater technical uncert...

  14. Studying Pellet Formation of a Filamentous Fungus Rhizopus oryzae to Enhance Organic Acid Production

    Liao, Wei; Liu, Yan; Chen, Shulin

    Using pelletized fungal biomass can effectively improve the fermentation performance for most of fugal strains. This article studied the effects of inoculum and medium compositions such as potato dextrose broth (PDB) as carbon source, soybean peptone, calcium carbonate, and metal ions on pellet formation of Rhizopus oryzae. It has been found that metal ions had significantly negative effects on pellet formation whereas soybean peptone had positive effects. In addition PDB and calcium carbonate were beneficial to R. oryzae for growing small smooth pellets during the culture. The study also demonstrated that an inoculum size of less than 1.5×109 spores/L had no significant influence on pellet formation. Thus, a new approach to form pellets has been developed using only PDB, soybean peptone, and calcium carbonate. Meanwhile, palletized fungal fermentation significantly enhanced organic acid production. Lactic acid concentration reached 65.0 g/L in 30 h using pelletized R. oryzae NRRL 395, and fumeric acid concentration reached 31.0 g/L in 96 h using pelletized R. oryzae ATCC 20344.

  15. Mechanism of store-operated calcium entry

    Devkanya Dutta

    2000-12-01

    Activation of receptors coupled to the phospholipase C/IP3 signalling pathway results in a rapid release of calcium from its intracellular stores, eventually leading to depletion of these stores. Calcium store depletion triggers an influx of extracellular calcium across the plasma membrane, a mechanism known as the store-operated calcium entry or capacitative calcium entry. Capacitative calcium current plays a key role in replenishing calcium stores and activating various physiological processes. Despite considerable efforts, very little is known about the molecular nature of the capacitative channel and the signalling pathway that activates it. This review summarizes our current knowledge about store operated calcium entry and suggests possible hypotheses for its mode of activation.

  16. Role of the vaccinia virus O3 protein in cell entry can be fulfilled by its Sequence flexible transmembrane domain

    The vaccinia virus O3 protein, a component of the entry–fusion complex, is encoded by all chordopoxviruses. We constructed truncation mutants and demonstrated that the transmembrane domain, which comprises two-thirds of this 35 amino acid protein, is necessary and sufficient for interaction with the entry–fusion complex and function in cell entry. Nevertheless, neither single amino acid substitutions nor alanine scanning mutagenesis revealed essential amino acids within the transmembrane domain. Moreover, replication-competent mutant viruses were generated by randomization of 10 amino acids of the transmembrane domain. Of eight unique viruses, two contained only two amino acids in common with wild type and the remainder contained one or none within the randomized sequence. Although these mutant viruses formed normal size plaques, the entry–fusion complex did not co-purify with the mutant O3 proteins suggesting a less stable interaction. Thus, despite low specific sequence requirements, the transmembrane domain is sufficient for function in entry. - Highlights: • The 35 amino acid O3 protein is required for efficient vaccinia virus entry. • The transmembrane domain of O3 is necessary and sufficient for entry. • Mutagenesis demonstrated extreme sequence flexibility compatible with function

  17. Role of the vaccinia virus O3 protein in cell entry can be fulfilled by its Sequence flexible transmembrane domain

    Satheshkumar, P.S.; Chavre, James; Moss, Bernard, E-mail: bmoss@nih.gov

    2013-09-15

    The vaccinia virus O3 protein, a component of the entry–fusion complex, is encoded by all chordopoxviruses. We constructed truncation mutants and demonstrated that the transmembrane domain, which comprises two-thirds of this 35 amino acid protein, is necessary and sufficient for interaction with the entry–fusion complex and function in cell entry. Nevertheless, neither single amino acid substitutions nor alanine scanning mutagenesis revealed essential amino acids within the transmembrane domain. Moreover, replication-competent mutant viruses were generated by randomization of 10 amino acids of the transmembrane domain. Of eight unique viruses, two contained only two amino acids in common with wild type and the remainder contained one or none within the randomized sequence. Although these mutant viruses formed normal size plaques, the entry–fusion complex did not co-purify with the mutant O3 proteins suggesting a less stable interaction. Thus, despite low specific sequence requirements, the transmembrane domain is sufficient for function in entry. - Highlights: • The 35 amino acid O3 protein is required for efficient vaccinia virus entry. • The transmembrane domain of O3 is necessary and sufficient for entry. • Mutagenesis demonstrated extreme sequence flexibility compatible with function.

  18. RTLS entry ranging analysis. [space shuttle reentry trajectory

    Crull, T. J.

    1975-01-01

    Definition of the ranging capability of a mission 3A return-to-launch-site entry is reported. The limits on downrange and crossrange are established at the initiation of RTLS entry so that terminal area energy management interface conditions were achieved satisfactorily. The downrange and crossrange limits were defined for both nominal RTLS entry conditions and a composite set of dispersed RTLS entry conditions. The results indicate a wide range of acceptable downrange and crossrange positions are available at RTLS entry initiation for nominal conditions. This is greatly reduced when dispersions are considered. For dispersed RTLS entry conditions, an 18 nautical mile range of acceptable downranges is available at zero crossrange.

  19. Perceptions regarding strategic and structural entry barriers

    Lutz, Clemens H. M.; Kemp, Ron G. M.; Dijkstra, S. Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    This article uses factor analysis to identify the underlying dimensions of strategic and structural entry barriers. We find that, in the perception of firms, both types of barriers are important and that the effectiveness of strategic barriers depends on attributes of the market structure. Based on

  20. Duopoly Dynamics with a Barrier to Entry

    Abbring, J.H.; Campbell, Jeffrey R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers the effects of raising the cost of entry for a potential competitor on infinite-horizon Markov-perfect duopoly dynamics with ongoing demand uncertainty. All entrants serving the model industry incur sunk costs, and exit avoids future fixed costs. We focus on the unique equilibri

  1. Septins regulate bacterial entry into host cells.

    Serge Mostowy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Septins are conserved GTPases that form filaments and are required in many organisms for several processes including cytokinesis. We previously identified SEPT9 associated with phagosomes containing latex beads coated with the Listeria surface protein InlB. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we investigated septin function during entry of invasive bacteria in non-phagocytic mammalian cells. We found that SEPT9, and its interacting partners SEPT2 and SEPT11, are recruited as collars next to actin at the site of entry of Listeria and Shigella. SEPT2-depletion by siRNA decreased bacterial invasion, suggesting that septins have roles during particle entry. Incubating cells with InlB-coated beads confirmed an essential role for SEPT2. Moreover, SEPT2-depletion impaired InlB-mediated stimulation of Met-dependent signaling as shown by FRET. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Together these findings highlight novel roles for SEPT2, and distinguish the roles of septin and actin in bacterial entry.

  2. 32 CFR 763.5 - Entry procedures.

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Entry procedures. 763.5 Section 763.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY ISLANDS UNDER NAVY JURISDICTION RULES... penal codes may be prosecuted by the Federal Government and/or barred from any future access to...

  3. 40 CFR 170.112 - Entry restrictions.

    2010-07-01

    .... (2) Entry-restricted areas in greenhouses are specified in column D in table 2 under § 170.110(c)(4... at the appropriate address as set forth in 40 CFR 150.17(a) or (b) and must be accompanied by two...; using an alternative to the hand labor tasks, such as machine cultivation; or substituting a...

  4. Entry modes of European firms in Vietnam

    Daniel Simonet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to explore the entry modes of EU firms setting up operations in Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach: we use a case study approach on Haymarket, Cadbury, Creative Education, Fairchild, Aventis and Artemisinin and Farming International using interviews from managerial professionals in Vietnam. Findings: Despite the fact that Vietnam has been opening up for more than 20 years, licensing is the preferred entry mode because of the risks involved in venturing with local firms; that preference signals a low level commitment and a high perception of risk and state interference. In line with Vietnam transition to state - rather than private market - capitalism, a foreign company opting for a joint-venture will do so with a state-owned rather than privately-owned company. The choice of a subsidiary can be explained by the lack of trust in partners and institutions, not by improvement in the socio-political environment. Limitations: In determining the entry mode strategy, the paper focuses on the Uppsala school’s “psychic distance” (e.g. cultural distance, lack of trust rather than on firm-specific advantages (Rugman, 1980; 2006. Key-words: international entry mode; emerging markets; subsidiary; joint-venture; India; Vietnam

  5. Targeting HCV Entry For Development of Therapeutics

    Jeffrey F. McKelvy

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress in defining the molecular mechanisms of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV entry affords the opportunity to exploit new viral and host targets for therapeutic intervention. Entry inhibitors would limit the expansion of the infected cell reservoir, and would complement the many replication inhibitors now under development. The current model for the pathway of entry involves the initial docking of the virus onto the cell surface through interactions of virion envelope and associated low density lipoproteins (LDL with cell surface glycosaminoglycans and lipoprotein receptors, followed by more specific utilization with other hepatocyte membrane proteins: Scavenger Receptor Class B type 1 (SR-BI, CD81, Claudin 1 (CLDN1 and Occludin (OCLN. The use of blockers of these interactions, e.g. specific antibodies, suggests that inhibition of any one step in the entry pathway can inhibit infection. Despite this knowledge base, the tools for compound screening, HCV pseudoparticles (HCVpp and cell culture virus (HCVcc, and the ability to adapt them to industrial use are only recently available and as a result drug discovery initiatives are in their infancy. Several therapies aiming at modulating the virus envelope to prevent host cell binding are in early clinical testing. The first test case for blocking a cellular co-receptor is an SR-BI modulator. ITX 5061, an orally active small molecule, targets SR-BI and has shown potent antiviral activity against HCVpp and HCVcc. ITX 5061 has exhibited good safety in previous clinical studies, and is being evaluated in the clinic in chronic HCV patients and patients undergoing liver transplantation. Entry inhibitors promise to be valuable players in the future development of curative therapy against HCV.

  6. Role of Dickeya dadantii 3937 chemoreceptors in the entry to Arabidopsis leaves through wounds.

    Río-Álvarez, Isabel; Muñoz-Gómez, Cristina; Navas-Vásquez, Mariela; Martínez-García, Pedro M; Antúnez-Lamas, María; Rodríguez-Palenzuela, Pablo; López-Solanilla, Emilia

    2015-09-01

    Chemotaxis enables bacteria to move towards an optimal environment in response to chemical signals. In the case of plant-pathogenic bacteria, chemotaxis allows pathogens to explore the plant surface for potential entry sites with the ultimate aim to prosper inside plant tissues and to cause disease. Chemoreceptors, which constitute the sensory core of the chemotaxis system, are usually transmembrane proteins which change their conformation when sensing chemicals in the periplasm and transduce the signal through a kinase pathway to the flagellar motor. In the particular case of the soft-rot pathogen Dickeya dadantii 3937, jasmonic acid released in a plant wound has been found to be a strong chemoattractant which drives pathogen entry into the plant apoplast. In order to identify candidate chemoreceptors sensing wound-derived plant compounds, we carried out a bioinformatics search of candidate chemoreceptors in the genome of Dickeya dadantii 3937. The study of the chemotactic response to several compounds and the analysis of the entry process to Arabidopsis leaves of 10 selected mutants in chemoreceptors allowed us to determine the implications of at least two of them (ABF-0020167 and ABF-0046680) in the chemotaxis-driven entry process through plant wounds. Our data suggest that ABF-0020167 and ABF-0046680 may be candidate receptors of jasmonic acid and xylose, respectively. PMID:25487519

  7. Market Entry Strategies : Case: McDonald's entry on the Russian market

    Karataev, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    The thesis considers the entry strategy and development of the company McDonald's into international markets. The theoretical aspects of the entry strategy of the company into the international markets. Analyzes the key features of the development of McDonald's in Russia. Investigated the prospects of the company in international markets. In theoretic part there was regarded some important aspects of international strategic management, such as: strategic alternatives, elements and levels o...

  8. Entry Location and Entry Timing (ELET Decision Model for International Construction Firms

    Che Maznah Mat Isa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model for entry location (EL and entry timing (ET decisions to guide construction firms in accessing targeted international markets.  Neglecting to properly choose the right combination of the entry location and entry timing (ELET decisions can lead to poor performance of the firms’ international ventures.  The sampling frame was from the Malaysian construction firms that have undertaken and completed projects abroad.  Survey questionnaires sent to 115 firms registered with Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB Malaysia, operating in more than 50 countries, achieved a 39.1 per cent response rate. Based on a comprehensive statistical analysis of survey data it was found that the mutually inclusive significant factors that influenced the firms’ ELET decisions were: the firm’s ability to assess market signals and opportunities, international experience, financial capacity, competencies and capabilities (project management, specialist expertise and technology, resources (level of knowledge based on research and development, experience in similar works, financial support from the home country banks, technical complexities of projects and availability of funds for projects.  Hence, the present research builds on and extends the literature on the ELET decisions in a more integrated way. Keywords: Entry location, entry timing, resource-based view, international markets, Malaysian construction firms.

  9. Design and Simulation Tools for Planetary Atmospheric Entry Vehicles Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Atmospheric entry is one of the most critical phases of flight during planetary exploration missions. During the design of an entry vehicle, experimental and...

  10. Adaptive Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT) Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ADEPT Project is developing a mechanically deployable low-ballistic coefficient aeroshell entry system to perform entry descent landing (EDL) functions for...

  11. Strategic Advantage and the Optimal Exercise of Entry Options

    Perotti, Enrico C; Rossetto, Silvia

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the timing and the valuation of strategic investment aimed at enhancing entry opportunities in related market segments. As demand is uncertain, entry options should be exercised at the optimal time, trading off the market share gain against the option to wait until more information is revealed, while anticipating competitors' entry behaviour. When the strategic investment grants a strong competitive advantage, the innovator can optimally choose the timing of entry; in case of w...

  12. Model-based guidance and control for atmospheric guided entry

    Canuto, Enrico; Ospina, Jose Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a solution of the translational control for a biconic atmospheric entry capsule using the bank angle as a command. The control algorithm is separated into path planning and reference-path tracking. The path-planning algorithm computes the entry trajectory from the navigated state at the Entry Interface Point until the desired Parachute Deployment Point. The algorithm aims to recover the landing site uncertainty caused by Entry Interface Point dispersions. Atmospheric and a...

  13. RITD - Re-entry: Inflatable Technology Development in Russian Collaboration

    Heilimo, J.; Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Koryanov, V.; Arruego, I.; Schmidt, W.; Haukka, H.; Finchenko, V.; Martynov, M.; Ostresko, B.; Ponomarenko, A.; Kazakovtsev, V.; Martin, S.; Siili, T.

    2014-04-01

    A new generation of inflatable Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) for Mars has been developed. It is used in both the initial atmospheric entry and atmospheric descent before the semi-hard impact of the penetrator into Martian surface. The EDLS applicability to Earth's atmosphere is studied by the EU/RITD [1] project. Project focuses on the analysis and tests of the transonic behaviour of this compact and light weight payload entry system at the Earth re-entry.

  14. Multi entry framework for financial and risk reporting

    Staszkiewicz, Piotr W.

    2011-01-01

    Author challenges one of the oldest accounting double bookkeeping rules, used since 1494, and proposes instead application of the quadruple accounting entry. He presents the concept of the multiply accounting entry for the risk financial statements and risk management. The development gap concept is described and introduces a simplified entry and reporting example. Model is illustrated with a number of financial-risk statements and attributes including the journal entries. The potential co...

  15. Free Entry and Social Inefficiency in Radio Broadcasting

    Steven Berry; Joel Waldfogel

    1996-01-01

    In theory, free entry can lead to social inefficiency. When new products are substitutes for existing products, the business stolen from incumbents places a wedge between private and social benefits of entry. The business stealing effect can be offset if entry reduces prices or increases available product variety. Our study of the radio industry provides one of the first empirical attempts to quantify the inefficiency associated with free entry. Using data on advertising prices, number of sta...

  16. Analyzing Modes of Foreign Entry. Greenfield Investment versus Acquisition

    Müller, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the entry decision of a multinational enterprise into a foreign market. Two alternative entry modes for a foreign direct investment are considered: Greenfield investment versus acquisition. In contrast to existing approaches, the acquisition price and the profits under both entry modes are endogenously determined. Interestingly, we find that the optimal entry mode decision is a ected by the competition intensity in the market in a non-monotonic way. When markets are very mu...

  17. Get Taiwanized! : Swedish Firms' Change of Entry Mode

    Nilsson, Karin; Olofsson, Elisabet; Sennevik, Marie

    2005-01-01

    Expanding to foreign markets is increasingly popular for companies. The company has to decide which organisational structure, entry mode, to use in the new market. Factors affecting the change from one entry mode to another have obtained little attention. This thesis concerns Swedish companies’ changes of entry mode in Taiwan. The purpose is to investigate which factors that serve as triggers respectively barriers for the change of entry modes, to be able to examine which theories that can be...

  18. SMEs entry mode decision making process: Rational or cybernetic?

    Quan, Rose

    2012-01-01

    Entry mode choice is a critical decision when a firm expends its business to foreign markets. By applying rational and cybernetic strategies to international strategic decision-making process, this paper investigates how small and medium sized firms (SMEs) decision makers decide their entry mode choices. By focusing on the entry decision making process, this research distinguishes the prior entry mode studies that emphasize the relationship between influencing factors and their impacts on ent...

  19. Collusion and downstream entry in a vertically integrated industry

    Éric Avenel; Stéphane Caprice

    2012-01-01

    We analyse the impact of an entry threat at the downstream level on the ability of a pair of vertically integrated incumbents to collude. We present an original model of horizontal product differentiation on the final market and characterize the structures of this market for which an entry threat facilitates collusion between incumbents. While the entry threat leaves collusion and deviation profits unchanged, it lowers profits in punishment periods. Consequently, an entry threat discourages d...

  20. The Double-Entry Journal in Literature Classes.

    Nugent, Harold; Nugent, Susan

    The double-entry journal requires students to write affective response statements to literature readings and to compare such entries with those of classmates. Use of the double-entry journal is intended to activate students' prior learning and present feelings, foster collaborative learning, integrate major language skills, and encourage the…

  1. 31 CFR 337.6 - Conversions to book-entry.

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conversions to book-entry. 337.6... HOUSING ADMINISTRATION DEBENTURES Certificated Debentures § 337.6 Conversions to book-entry. Upon implementation of the book-entry debenture system, to be announced in advance by separate public notice, all...

  2. 32 CFR 643.11 - Rights of entry.

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Rights of entry. 643.11 Section 643.11 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE General § 643.11 Rights of entry. Pending the signing of the formal instrument, no right of entry will be granted unless authorized by the...

  3. 50 CFR 91.31 - Return of entries after contest.

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Return of entries after contest. 91.31... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING AND CONSERVATION STAMP CONTEST Post-Contest Procedures § 91.31 Return of entries after contest. (a) All entries will be returned by certified mail to...

  4. 19 CFR 143.16 - Substitution of warehouse entry.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitution of warehouse entry. 143.16 Section 143.16 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... warehouse entry. The importer may substitute an entry for warehouse at any time within 1 year from the...

  5. 78 FR 38069 - Expansion of Global Entry to Additional Airports

    2013-06-25

    ... Register on February 6, 2012 (77 FR 5681), promulgated the regulation to establish Global Entry as an... FR 17492.) Travelers who wish to participate in Global Entry must apply via the CBP Global Entry Web..., New York (JFK); George Bush Intercontinental Airport, Houston, Texas (IAH); Washington...

  6. Optimal firm growth under the threat of entry

    Kort, Peter; Wrzaczek, S.

    2015-01-01

    The paper studies the incumbent-entrant problem in a fully dynamic setting. We find that under an open-loop information structure the incumbent anticipates entry by overinvesting, whereas in the Markov perfect equilibrium the incumbent slightly underinvests in the period before the entry. The entry

  7. 32 CFR 809a.1 - Random installation entry point checks.

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Random installation entry point checks. 809a.1... Entry Policy § 809a.1 Random installation entry point checks. The installation commander determines when, where, and how to implement random checks of vehicles or pedestrians. The commander conducts...

  8. 19 CFR 143.23 - Form of entry.

    2010-04-01

    ... List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and on... (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Informal Entry § 143.23 Form of entry. Except for the types of... is prescribed by § 10.1 of this chapter; (c) Personal effects and tools of trade for which...

  9. Available hardware for automated entry control

    Automated entry control has become an increasingly important issue at facilities where budget constraints are limiting options for manned entry control points. Ongoing work at Sandia National Laboratories is attempting to establish a data base for use by facility security managers working the problem of how to maintain security on a limited budget. Sandia National Laboratories conducted a performance test of the following biometric verifiers: (1) voice verifier by Alpha Microsystems of Santa Ana, California; (2) signature dynamics verifier by Autosig Systems of Irving, Texas; (3) voice verifier by Ecco Industries of Danvers, Massachusetts (now International Electronics); (4) retinal pattern verifier by EyeDentify of Portland, Oregon; (5) fingerprint verifier by Identix of Sunnyvale, California; and (6) hand geometry verifier by Recognition Systems of San Jose, California

  10. Summary analysis of the Gemini entry aerodynamics

    Whitnah, A. M.; Howes, D. B.

    1972-01-01

    The aerodynamic data that were derived in 1967 from the analysis of flight-generated data for the Gemini entry module are presented. These data represent the aerodynamic characteristics exhibited by the vehicle during the entry portion of Gemini 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 12 missions. For the Gemini, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 12 missions, the flight-generated lift-to-drag ratios and corresponding angles of attack are compared with the wind tunnel data. These comparisons show that the flight generated lift-to-drag ratios are consistently lower than were anticipated from the tunnel data. Numerous data uncertainties are cited that provide an insight into the problems that are related to an analysis of flight data developed from instrumentation systems, the primary functions of which are other than the evaluation of flight aerodynamic performance.

  11. Tactile Data Entry for Extravehicular Activity

    Adams, Richard J.; Olowin, Aaron B.; Hannaford, Blake; Sands, O Scott

    2012-01-01

    In the task-saturated environment of extravehicular activity (EVA), an astronaut's ability to leverage suit-integrated information systems is limited by a lack of options for data entry. In particular, bulky gloves inhibit the ability to interact with standard computing interfaces such as a mouse or keyboard. This paper presents the results of a preliminary investigation into a system that permits the space suit gloves themselves to be used as data entry devices. Hand motion tracking is combined with simple finger gesture recognition to enable use of a virtual keyboard, while tactile feedback provides touch-based context to the graphical user interface (GUI) and positive confirmation of keystroke events. In human subject trials, conducted with twenty participants using a prototype system, participants entered text significantly faster with tactile feedback than without (p = 0.02). The results support incorporation of vibrotactile information in a future system that will enable full touch typing and general mouse interactions using instrumented EVA gloves.

  12. Dependency of radon entry on pressure difference

    Radon levels, ventilation rate and pressure differences were monitored continuously in four apartment houses with different ventilation systems. Two of them were ventilated by mechanical exhaust, one by mechanical supply and exhaust, and one by natural ventilation. The two-storey houses were constructed from concrete elements on a slab and located on a gravel esker. It was surprising to find that increasing the ventilation rate increased levels of radon in the apartments. Increased ventilation caused increased outdoor-indoor pressure difference, which in turn increased the entry rate of radon and counteracted the diluting effect of ventilation. The increase was significant when the outdoor-indoor pressure difference exceeded 5 Pa. Especially in the houses with mechanical exhaust ventilation the pressure difference was the most important factor of radon entry rate, and contributed up to several hundred Bq m-3h-1. (Author)

  13. RTLS entry load relief parameter optimization

    Crull, T. J.

    1975-01-01

    The results are presented of a study of a candidate load relief control law for use during the pullup phase of Return-to-Launch-Site (RTLS) abort entries. The control law parameters and cycle time which optimized performance of the normal load factor limiting phase (load relief phase) of an RTLS entry are examined. A set of control law gains, a smoothing parameter, and a normal force coefficient curve fit are established which resulted in good load relief performance considering the possible aerodynamic coefficient uncertainties defined. Also, the examination of various guidance cycle times revealed improved load relief performance with decreasing cycle time. A .5 second cycle provided smooth and adequate load relief in the presence of all the aerodynamic uncertainties examined.

  14. Data entry and error embedding system

    Woo, Jr., John (Inventor); Woo, Daniel N. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A data entry and error embedding system in which, first, a document is bitmapped and recorded in a first memory. Then, it is displayed, and portions of it to be replicated by data entry are underlayed by a window, into which window replicated data is entered in location and size such that it is juxtaposed just below that which is replicated, enhancing the accuracy of replication. Second, with this format in place, selected portions of the replicated data are altered by the insertion of character or word substitutions, thus the embedding of errors. Finally, a proofreader would endeavor to correct the error embedded data and a record of his or her changes recorded. In this manner, the skill level of the proofreader and accuracy of the data are computed.

  15. Contributions of herpes simplex virus type 1 envelope proteins to entry by endocytosis

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) proteins specifically required for endocytic entry but not direct penetration have not been identified. HSVs deleted of gE, gG, gI, gJ, gM, UL45, or Us9 entered cells via either pH-dependent or pH-independent endocytosis and were inactivated by mildly acidic pH. Thus, the ...

  16. System for histogram entry, retrieval, and plotting

    This manual describes the systems for producing histograms and dot plots that were designed for use in connection with the Q general-purpose data-acquisition system. These systems allow for the creation of histograms; the entry, retrieval, and plotting of data in the form of histograms; and the dynamic display of scatter plots as data are acquired. Although the systems are designed for use with Q, they can also be used as a part of other applications. 3 figures

  17. Hex: dynamics and probabilistic text entry

    J. Williamson; Murray-Smith, R.

    2005-01-01

    We present a gestural interface for entering text on a mobile device via continuous movements, with control based on feedback from a probabilistic language model. Text is represented by continuous trajectories over a hexagonal tessellation, and entry becomes a manual control task. The language model is used to infer user intentions and provide predictions about future actions, and the local dynamics adapt to reduce effort in entering probable text. This leads to an interface with a stable lay...

  18. Horizontal mergers, entry, and efficiency defences

    Spector, David

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses the effect of horizontal mergers on prices. It is shown that if firms compete in quantities and marginal costs are nondecreasing, any profitable merger failing to generate technological synergies must harm consumers through higher prices, irrespective of entry conditions in the industry. However this result does not hold if products are differentiated and firms compete in prices. The implications for merger policy are discussed.

  19. Export Discoveries, Diversification and Barriers to Entry

    Klinger, Bailey; Lederman, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The literature on the relationship between economic diversification and development established that diversification rises with development up to a point. Some have argued that market failures reduce private investments that are necessary to find out whether a new product can be exported profitably, thus implying that the threat of entry can reduce export discoveries and consequently hamper diversification. In parallel, the trade literature on the "extensive margin" of trade has focused on th...

  20. Contingency tables with uniformly bounded entries

    Shapiro, Austin

    2011-01-01

    We consider nonnegative integer matrices with specified row and column sums and upper bounds on the entries. We show that the logarithm of the number of such matrices is approximated by a concave function of the row and column sums. We give efficiently computable estimators for this function, including one suggested by a maximum-entropy random model; we show that these estimators are asymptotically exact as the dimension of the matrices goes to infinity. We finish by showing that, for kappa >...

  1. Analysis of Ebola Virus Entry Into Macrophages

    Dahlmann, F; Biedenkopf, N.; Babler, A; Jahnen-Dechent, W; Karsten, CB; Gnirß, K; Schneider, H; Wrensch, F; O'Callaghan, CA; Bertram, S. (Sabine); Herrler, G; Becker, S.; Pöhlmann, S; Hofmann-Winkler, H

    2015-01-01

    Ebolaviruses constitute a public health threat, particularly in Central and Western Africa. Host cell factors required for spread of ebolaviruses may serve as targets for antiviral intervention. Lectins, TAM receptor tyrosine kinases (Tyro3, Axl, Mer), T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM) proteins, integrins, and Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) have been reported to promote entry of ebolaviruses into certain cellular systems. However, the factors used by ebolaviruses to invade macrophages, maj...

  2. Protease Inhibitors Targeting Coronavirus and Filovirus Entry

    Zhou, Yanchen; Vedantham, Punitha; Lu, Kai; Agudelo, Juliet; Carrion, Ricardo; Nunneley, Jerritt W.; Barnard, Dale; Pöhlmann, Stefan; McKerrow, James H.; Renslo, Adam R; Simmons, Graham

    2015-01-01

    In order to gain entry into cells, diverse viruses, including Ebola virus, SARS-coronavirus and the emerging MERS-coronavirus, depend on activation of their envelope glycoproteins by host cell proteases. The respective enzymes are thus excellent targets for antiviral intervention. In cell culture, activation of Ebola virus, as well as SARS- and MERS-coronavirus can be accomplished by the endosomal cysteine proteases, cathepsin L (CTSL) and cathepsin B (CTSB). In addition, SARS- and MERS-coron...

  3. Spectrum licensing, policy instruments and market entry

    Madden, Gary; Bohlin, Erik; Tran, Thien; Morey, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Competition policy attempts to address the potential for market failure by encouraging competition in service markets. Often, in wireless communication service markets, national regulatory authorities seek to encourage entry via the spectrum assignment process. Instruments used include the assignment mode (auction or beauty contest), setting aside licenses and providing bidding (price and quantity) credits for potential entrants, and making more licenses (spectrum blocks) available than incum...

  4. Market Entry into Nigeria : Case study: Uros

    Itoje, Tobore

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to look into the telecommunication market on a business-to-business basis for foreign companies like Uros with partnership. It focuses on the Nigerian telecommunication market and the possibilities for entry. The thesis could also be of help to any foreign companies that wants to enter into the telecommunication market in Nigeria. The main reason for Uros to enter into the Nigerian market is to expand their network, gain more international audience to their pr...

  5. Fixed-fee Pricing and Entry

    Ryoko Oki

    2015-01-01

    This study considers the anti-competitive effect of fixed-fee pricing, such as the one seen in a recent antitrust case in Japan. We show that fixed-fee pricing has stronger exclusionary effect than the per-use pricing's exclusionary effect. However, the restriction on usage of fixed-fee pricing may have a welfare-decreasing effect, although the restriction promotes entry.

  6. Cellular Factors Implicated in Filovirus Entry

    Suchita Bhattacharyya; Hope, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Although filoviral infections are still occurring in different parts of the world, there are no effective preventive or treatment strategies currently available against them. Not only do filoviruses cause a deadly infection, but they also have the potential of being used as biological weapons. This makes it imperative to comprehensively study these viruses in order to devise effective strategies to prevent the occurrence of these infections. Entry is the foremost step in the filoviral replica...

  7. Analysis of Ebola Virus Entry Into Macrophages

    Dahlmann, Franziska; Biedenkopf, Nadine; Babler, Anne; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi; Karsten, Christina B.; Gnirß, Kerstin; Schneider, Heike; Wrensch, Florian; O'Callaghan, Christopher A.; Bertram, Stephanie; Herrler, Georg; Becker, Stephan; Pöhlmann, Stefan; Hofmann-Winkler, Heike

    2015-01-01

    Ebolaviruses constitute a public health threat, particularly in Central and Western Africa. Host cell factors required for spread of ebolaviruses may serve as targets for antiviral intervention. Lectins, TAM receptor tyrosine kinases (Tyro3, Axl, Mer), T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM) proteins, integrins, and Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) have been reported to promote entry of ebolaviruses into certain cellular systems. However, the factors used by ebolaviruses to invade macrophages, major viral targets, are poorly defined. Here, we show that mannose-specific lectins, TIM-1 and Axl augment entry into certain cell lines but do not contribute to Ebola virus (EBOV)-glycoprotein (GP)–driven transduction of macrophages. In contrast, expression of Mer, integrin αV, and NPC1 was required for efficient GP-mediated transduction and EBOV infection of macrophages. These results define cellular factors hijacked by EBOV for entry into macrophages and, considering that Mer and integrin αV promote phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, support the concept that EBOV relies on apoptotic mimicry to invade target cells. PMID:25877552

  8. Orion Entry, Descent, and Landing Simulation

    Hoelscher, Brian R.

    2007-01-01

    The Orion Entry, Descent, and Landing simulation was created over the past two years to serve as the primary Crew Exploration Vehicle guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) design and analysis tool at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The Advanced NASA Technology Architecture for Exploration Studies (ANTARES) simulation is a six degree-of-freedom tool with a unique design architecture which has a high level of flexibility. This paper describes the decision history and motivations that guided the creation of this simulation tool. The capabilities of the models within ANTARES are presented in detail. Special attention is given to features of the highly flexible GN&C architecture and the details of the implemented GN&C algorithms. ANTARES provides a foundation simulation for the Orion Project that has already been successfully used for requirements analysis, system definition analysis, and preliminary GN&C design analysis. ANTARES will find useful application in engineering analysis, mission operations, crew training, avionics-in-the-loop testing, etc. This paper focuses on the entry simulation aspect of ANTARES, which is part of a bigger simulation package supporting the entire mission profile of the Orion vehicle. The unique aspects of entry GN&C design are covered, including how the simulation is being used for Monte Carlo dispersion analysis and for support of linear stability analysis. Sample simulation output from ANTARES is presented in an appendix.

  9. Gated entry into the ciliary compartment.

    Takao, Daisuke; Verhey, Kristen J

    2016-01-01

    Cilia and flagella play important roles in cell motility and cell signaling. These functions require that the cilium establishes and maintains a unique lipid and protein composition. Recent work indicates that a specialized region at the base of the cilium, the transition zone, serves as both a barrier to entry and a gate for passage of select components. For at least some cytosolic proteins, the barrier and gate functions are provided by a ciliary pore complex (CPC) that shares molecular and mechanistic properties with nuclear gating. Specifically, nucleoporins of the CPC limit the diffusional entry of cytosolic proteins in a size-dependent manner and enable the active transport of large molecules and complexes via targeting signals, importins, and the small G protein Ran. For membrane proteins, the septin protein SEPT2 is part of the barrier to entry whereas the gating function is carried out and/or regulated by proteins associated with ciliary diseases (ciliopathies) such as nephronophthisis, Meckel–Gruber syndrome and Joubert syndrome. Here, we discuss the evidence behind these models of ciliary gating as well as the similarities to and differences from nuclear gating. PMID:26472341

  10. Analysis of Ebola Virus Entry Into Macrophages.

    Dahlmann, Franziska; Biedenkopf, Nadine; Babler, Anne; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi; Karsten, Christina B; Gnirß, Kerstin; Schneider, Heike; Wrensch, Florian; O'Callaghan, Christopher A; Bertram, Stephanie; Herrler, Georg; Becker, Stephan; Pöhlmann, Stefan; Hofmann-Winkler, Heike

    2015-10-01

    Ebolaviruses constitute a public health threat, particularly in Central and Western Africa. Host cell factors required for spread of ebolaviruses may serve as targets for antiviral intervention. Lectins, TAM receptor tyrosine kinases (Tyro3, Axl, Mer), T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM) proteins, integrins, and Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) have been reported to promote entry of ebolaviruses into certain cellular systems. However, the factors used by ebolaviruses to invade macrophages, major viral targets, are poorly defined. Here, we show that mannose-specific lectins, TIM-1 and Axl augment entry into certain cell lines but do not contribute to Ebola virus (EBOV)-glycoprotein (GP)-driven transduction of macrophages. In contrast, expression of Mer, integrin αV, and NPC1 was required for efficient GP-mediated transduction and EBOV infection of macrophages. These results define cellular factors hijacked by EBOV for entry into macrophages and, considering that Mer and integrin αV promote phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, support the concept that EBOV relies on apoptotic mimicry to invade target cells. PMID:25877552

  11. Mars Exploration Entry, Descent and Landing Challenges

    Braun, Robert D.; Manning, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    The United States has successfully landed five robotic systems on the surface of Mars. These systems all had landed mass below 0.6 metric tons (t), had landed footprints on the order of hundreds of km and landed at sites below -1.4 km MOLA elevation due the need to perform entry, descent and landing operations in an environment with sufficient atmospheric density. At present, robotic exploration systems engineers are struggling with the challenges of increasing landed mass capability to 0.8 t while improving landed accuracy to tens of km and landing at a site as high as +2 km MOLA elevation for the Mars Science Laboratory project. Meanwhile, current plans for human exploration of Mars call for the landing of 40-80 t surface elements at scientifically interesting locations within close proximity (tens of m) of pre-positioned robotic assets. This paper summarizes past successful entry, descent and landing systems and approaches being developed by the robotic Mars exploration program to increased landed performance (mass, accuracy and surface elevation). In addition, the entry, descent and landing sequence for a human exploration system will be reviewed, highlighting the technology and systems advances required.

  12. Nuclear Chk1 prevents premature mitotic entry.

    Matsuyama, Makoto; Goto, Hidemasa; Kasahara, Kousuke; Kawakami, Yoshitaka; Nakanishi, Makoto; Kiyono, Tohru; Goshima, Naoki; Inagaki, Masaki

    2011-07-01

    Chk1 inhibits the premature activation of the cyclin-B1-Cdk1. However, it remains controversial whether Chk1 inhibits Cdk1 in the centrosome or in the nucleus before the G2-M transition. In this study, we examined the specificity of the mouse monoclonal anti-Chk1 antibody DCS-310, with which the centrosome was stained. Conditional Chk1 knockout in mouse embryonic fibroblasts reduced nuclear but not centrosomal staining with DCS-310. In Chk1(+/myc) human colon adenocarcinoma (DLD-1) cells, Chk1 was detected in the nucleus but not in the centrosome using an anti-Myc antibody. Through the combination of protein array and RNAi technologies, we identified Ccdc-151 as a protein that crossreacted with DCS-310 on the centrosome. Mitotic entry was delayed by expression of the Chk1 mutant that localized in the nucleus, although forced immobilization of Chk1 to the centrosome had little impact on the timing of mitotic entry. These results suggest that nuclear but not centrosomal Chk1 contributes to correct timing of mitotic entry. PMID:21628425

  13. Cellular factors implicated in filovirus entry.

    Bhattacharyya, Suchita; Hope, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Although filoviral infections are still occurring in different parts of the world, there are no effective preventive or treatment strategies currently available against them. Not only do filoviruses cause a deadly infection, but they also have the potential of being used as biological weapons. This makes it imperative to comprehensively study these viruses in order to devise effective strategies to prevent the occurrence of these infections. Entry is the foremost step in the filoviral replication cycle and different studies have reported the involvement of a myriad of cellular factors including plasma membrane components, cytoskeletal proteins, endosomal components, and cytosolic factors in this process. Signaling molecules such as the TAM family of receptor tyrosine kinases comprising of Tyro3, Axl, and Mer have also been implicated as putative entry factors. Additionally, filoviruses are suggested to bind to a common receptor and recent studies have proposed T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) and Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) as potential receptor candidates. This paper summarizes the existing literature on filoviral entry with a special focus on cellular factors involved in this process and also highlights some fundamental questions. Future research aimed at answering these questions could be very useful in designing novel antiviral therapeutics. PMID:23365575

  14. Cellular Factors Implicated in Filovirus Entry

    Suchita Bhattacharyya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although filoviral infections are still occurring in different parts of the world, there are no effective preventive or treatment strategies currently available against them. Not only do filoviruses cause a deadly infection, but they also have the potential of being used as biological weapons. This makes it imperative to comprehensively study these viruses in order to devise effective strategies to prevent the occurrence of these infections. Entry is the foremost step in the filoviral replication cycle and different studies have reported the involvement of a myriad of cellular factors including plasma membrane components, cytoskeletal proteins, endosomal components, and cytosolic factors in this process. Signaling molecules such as the TAM family of receptor tyrosine kinases comprising of Tyro3, Axl, and Mer have also been implicated as putative entry factors. Additionally, filoviruses are suggested to bind to a common receptor and recent studies have proposed T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1 and Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1 as potential receptor candidates. This paper summarizes the existing literature on filoviral entry with a special focus on cellular factors involved in this process and also highlights some fundamental questions. Future research aimed at answering these questions could be very useful in designing novel antiviral therapeutics.

  15. Using the Tools and Resources of the RCSB Protein Data Bank.

    Costanzo, Luigi Di; Ghosh, Sutapa; Zardecki, Christine; Burley, Stephen K

    2016-01-01

    The Protein Data Bank (PDB) archive is the worldwide repository of experimentally determined three-dimensional structures of large biological molecules found in all three kingdoms of life. Atomic-level structures of these proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies thereof are central to research and education in molecular, cellular, and organismal biology, biochemistry, biophysics, materials science, bioengineering, ecology, and medicine. Several types of information are associated with each PDB archival entry, including atomic coordinates, primary experimental data, polymer sequence(s), and summary metadata. The Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics Protein Data Bank (RCSB PDB) serves as the U.S. data center for the PDB, distributing archival data and supporting both simple and complex queries that return results. These data can be freely downloaded, analyzed, and visualized using RCSB PDB tools and resources to gain a deeper understanding of fundamental biological processes, molecular evolution, human health and disease, and drug discovery. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27603019

  16. Ezrin interacts with the SARS coronavirus Spike protein and restrains infection at the entry stage.

    Jean Kaoru Millet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Entry of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV and its envelope fusion with host cell membrane are controlled by a series of complex molecular mechanisms, largely dependent on the viral envelope glycoprotein Spike (S. There are still many unknowns on the implication of cellular factors that regulate the entry process. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a yeast two-hybrid screen using as bait the carboxy-terminal endodomain of S, which faces the cytosol during and after opening of the fusion pore at early stages of the virus life cycle. Here we show that the ezrin membrane-actin linker interacts with S endodomain through the F1 lobe of its FERM domain and that both the eight carboxy-terminal amino-acids and a membrane-proximal cysteine cluster of S endodomain are important for this interaction in vitro. Interestingly, we found that ezrin is present at the site of entry of S-pseudotyped lentiviral particles in Vero E6 cells. Targeting ezrin function by small interfering RNA increased S-mediated entry of pseudotyped particles in epithelial cells. Furthermore, deletion of the eight carboxy-terminal amino acids of S enhanced S-pseudotyped particles infection. Expression of the ezrin dominant negative FERM domain enhanced cell susceptibility to infection by SARS-CoV and S-pseudotyped particles and potentiated S-dependent membrane fusion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Ezrin interacts with SARS-CoV S endodomain and limits virus entry and fusion. Our data present a novel mechanism involving a cellular factor in the regulation of S-dependent early events of infection.

  17. Exporting Complex Digital Products: Motives and Entry Modes

    Rask, Morten

    When the product is digital, it will most often be distributed directly to the customer through the Internet, and therefore the entry modes, considered in this paper, are different flavors of the entry mode called direct export: Virtual export channel are generally understood as the entry mode for...... digital product providers. However other types of entry modes like what wee call direct digital export with F2F-sales, direct digital export with F2F-support and virtual sales subsidiary are entry modes that respond to a higher degree of pre- and after-sales complexity....

  18. Exporting Complex Digital Products: Motives and Entry Modes

    Rask, Morten

    2005-01-01

    When the product is digital, it will most often be distributed directly to the customer through the Internet, and therefore, the entry modes, considered in this paper, are different flavors of the entry mode called direct export: virtual export channel is generally understood as the entry mode for...... digital product providers. However, other types of entry modes like what we call direct digital export with F2F-sales, direct digital export with F2F-support, and virtual sales subsidiary are entry modes that respond to a higher degree of pre- and postsales complexity....

  19. How to Get Entry-Level Employment at the Top 100 Advertising Agencies.

    Donnelly, William J.

    1994-01-01

    Reports on a survey which quantifies the entry-level market in top advertising agencies. Discusses employment projections, entry-level job distribution, source of entry-level employment, college degree of entry-level employees, academic major of entry-level employees, and entry-level assignments by major. Concludes that an advertising major is far…

  20. Determinants of Human CD134 Essential for Entry of Human Herpesvirus 6B

    Tang, Huamin; Mori, Yasuko

    2015-01-01

    We identified two key amino acid residues within human CD134 (hCD134) that are required for its interaction with human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) and for HHV-6B entry into cells. One of the residues (K79) allows access of the HHV-6B ligand to hCD134. Murine CD134 (mCD134) functioned as an HHV-6B receptor when these two amino acid residues were replaced with homologous human residues. This study identifies both the HHV-6B receptor-ligand interaction and the species-specific determinants of hCD134...

  1. Entry properties and entry inhibitors of a human H7N9 influenza virus.

    Youhui Si

    Full Text Available The recently identified human infections with a novel avian influenza H7N9 virus in China raise important questions regarding possible risk to humans. However, the entry properties and tropism of this H7N9 virus were poorly understood. Moreover, neuraminidase inhibitor resistant H7N9 isolates were recently observed in two patients and correlated with poor clinical outcomes. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the entry properties of H7N9 virus, design and evaluate inhibitors for H7N9 virus entry. We optimized and developed an H7N9-pseudotyped particle system (H7N9pp that could be neutralized by anti-H7 antibodies and closely mimicked the entry process of the H7N9 virus. Avian, human and mouse-derived cultured cells showed high, moderate and low permissiveness to H7N9pp, respectively. Based on influenza virus membrane fusion mechanisms, a potent anti-H7N9 peptide (P155-185-chol corresponding to the C-terminal ectodomain of the H7N9 hemagglutinin protein was successfully identified. P155-185-chol demonstrated H7N9pp-specific inhibition of infection with IC50 of 0.19 µM. Importantly, P155-185-chol showed significant suppression of A/Anhui/1/2013 H7N9 live virus propagation in MDCK cells and additive effects with NA inhibitors Oseltamivir and Zanamivir. These findings expand our knowledge of the entry properties of the novel H7N9 viruses, and they highlight the potential for developing a new class of inhibitors targeting viral entry for use in the next pandemic.

  2. Flight Path Characteristics for Re entry Trajectories

    S. K. Gurtu

    1972-07-01

    Full Text Available Approximate analytical solutions on velocity, range, deceleration, maximum deceleration, distance and time of flight, etc. are obtained for object entry in a planetary atmosphere when (i rate of change of velocity is proportional to the nth power of the velocity, and (ii rate of change of altitude is proportional to the pth power of the velocity. Loh's results for constant deceleration flight and constant rate of change of decent flight are obtained as particular cases. Finally, trajectory characteristics are obtained rate of change of range flight.

  3. Reference pricing with endogenous generic entry

    Brekke, Kurt R.; Canta, Chiara; Straume, Odd Rune

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study the effect of reference pricing on pharmaceutical prices and ex-penditures when generic entry is endogenously determined. We develop a Salop-type model where a brand-name producer competes with generic producers in terms of prices. In the market there are two types of consumers: (i) brand biased consumers who choose between brand-name and generic drugs, and (ii) brand neutral consumers who choose between the different generic drugs. We find that, for a given number of ...

  4. HIV Nuclear Entry: Clearing the Fog

    Shah, Vaibhav B.; Christopher Aiken

    2010-01-01

    HIV-1 and other lentiviruses have the unusual capability of infecting nondividing cells, but the mechanism by which they cross an intact nuclear membrane is mysterious. Recent work, including a new study (Lee, K.; Ambrose, Z.; Martin, T.D.; Oztop, I.; Mulky, A.; Julias, J.G.; Vandergraaff, N.; Baumann, J.G.; Wang, R.; Yuen, W. et al. Flexible use of nuclear import pathways by HIV-1. Cell Host Microbe 2010,7, 221-233) confirms that the viral capsid plays a key role in HIV-1 nuclear entry in bo...

  5. Radon entry into a simple test structure

    Andersen, C.E.; Søgaard-Hansen, J.; Majborn, B.

    1992-01-01

    A simple test structure for studies of radon entry into houses has been constructed at a field site at Riso National Laboratory. It consists of a 40 1, stainless-steel cylinder placed in a 0.52 m deep quadratic excavation with a side length of 2.4 m. The excavation is lined with an airtight...... cylinder and in selected locations in the soil. In this paper, the test structure is described, and initial results concerning the transport of soil gas and radon under steady-state conditions are reported. It is found that the soil in the vicinity of the structure is partially depleted with respect to...

  6. About Pascal's tetrahedron with hypercomplex entries

    Cruz, C.; Falcão, M. I.; Malonek, H. R.

    2013-10-01

    It is evident, that the properties of monogenic polynomials in (n + 1)-real variables significantly depend on the generators e1,e2,...,en of the underlying 2n-dimensional Clifford algebra Cℓ0,n over R and their interactions under multiplication. The case of n = 3 is studied through the consideration of Pascal's tetrahedron with hypercomplex entries as special case of the general Pascal simplex for arbitrary n, which represents a useful geometric arrangement of all possible products. The different layers Lk of Pascal's tetrahedron (or pyramid) are built by ordered symmetric products contained in the trinomial expansion of (e1+e2+e3)k,k = 0,1,....

  7. Extraterrestrial Regolith Derived Atmospheric Entry Heat Shields

    Hogue, Michael D.; Mueller, Robert P.; Sibille, Laurent; Hintze, Paul E.; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    High-mass planetary surface access is one of NASAs technical challenges involving entry, descent and landing (EDL). During the entry and descent phase, frictional interaction with the planetary atmosphere causes a heat build-up to occur on the spacecraft, which will rapidly destroy it if a heat shield is not used. However, the heat shield incurs a mass penalty because it must be launched from Earth with the spacecraft, thus consuming a lot of precious propellant. This NASA Innovative Advanced Concept (NIAC) project investigated an approach to provide heat shield protection to spacecraft after launch and prior to each EDL thus potentially realizing significant launch mass savings. Heat shields fabricated in situ can provide a thermal-protection system for spacecraft that routinely enter a planetary atmosphere. By fabricating the heat shield with space resources from materials available on moons and asteroids, it is possible to avoid launching the heat-shield mass from Earth. Regolith has extremely good insulating properties and the silicates it contains can be used in the fabrication and molding of thermal-protection materials. In this paper, we will describe three types of in situ fabrication methods for heat shields and the testing performed to determine feasibility of this approach.

  8. Text Entry by Gazing and Smiling

    Outi Tuisku

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Face Interface is a wearable prototype that combines the use of voluntary gaze direction and facial activations, for pointing and selecting objects on a computer screen, respectively. The aim was to investigate the functionality of the prototype for entering text. First, three on-screen keyboard layout designs were developed and tested (n=10 to find a layout that would be more suitable for text entry with the prototype than traditional QWERTY layout. The task was to enter one word ten times with each of the layouts by pointing letters with gaze and select them by smiling. Subjective ratings showed that a layout with large keys on the edge and small keys near the center of the keyboard was rated as the most enjoyable, clearest, and most functional. Second, using this layout, the aim of the second experiment (n=12 was to compare entering text with Face Interface to entering text with mouse. The results showed that text entry rate for Face Interface was 20 characters per minute (cpm and 27 cpm for the mouse. For Face Interface, keystrokes per character (KSPC value was 1.1 and minimum string distance (MSD error rate was 0.12. These values compare especially well with other similar techniques.

  9. Synergy Between Entry Probes and Orbiters

    Young, Richard E.

    2005-01-01

    We identify two catagories of probe-orbiter interactions which benefit the science return from a particular mission. The first category is termed "Mission Design Aspects". This category is meant to describe those aspects of the mission design involving the orbiter that affect the science return from the probe(s). The second category of probe-orbiter interaction is termed "Orbiter-Probe Science Interactions", and is meant to include interactions between oribter and probe(s) that directly involve science measurements made from each platform. Two mission related aspects of probe-orbiter interactions are delivery of a probe(s) to the entry site(s) by an orbiter, and communication between each probe and the orbiter. We consider four general probe-orbiter science interactions that greatly enhance, or in certain cases are essential for, the mission science return. The four topics are, global context of the probe entry site(s), ground truth for remote sensing observations of an orbiter, atmospheric composition measurements, and wind measurements.

  10. The Hera Saturn Entry Probe Mission

    Mousis, O; Spilker, T; Venkatapathy, E; Poncy, J; Frampton, R; Coustenis, A; Reh, K; Lebreton, J -P; Fletcher, L N; Hueso, R; Amato, M J; Colaprete, A; Ferri, F; Stam, D; Wurz, P; Atreya, S; Aslam, S; Banfield, D J; Calcutt, S; Fischer, G; Holland, A; Keller, C; Kessler, E; Leese, M; Levacher, P; Morse, A; Munoz, O; Renard, J -B; Sheridan, S; Schmider, F -X; Snik, F; Waite, J H; Bird, M; Cavalié, T; Deleuil, M; Fortney, J; Gautier, D; Guillot, T; Lunine, J I; Marty, B; Nixon, C; Orton, G S; Sanchez-Lavega, A

    2015-01-01

    The Hera Saturn entry probe mission is proposed as an M--class mission led by ESA with a contribution from NASA. It consists of one atmospheric probe to be sent into the atmosphere of Saturn, and a Carrier-Relay spacecraft. In this concept, the Hera probe is composed of ESA and NASA elements, and the Carrier-Relay Spacecraft is delivered by ESA. The probe is powered by batteries, and the Carrier-Relay Spacecraft is powered by solar panels and batteries. We anticipate two major subsystems to be supplied by the United States, either by direct procurement by ESA or by contribution from NASA: the solar electric power system (including solar arrays and the power management and distribution system), and the probe entry system (including the thermal protection shield and aeroshell). Hera is designed to perform in situ measurements of the chemical and isotopic compositions as well as the dynamics of Saturn's atmosphere using a single probe, with the goal of improving our understanding of the origin, formation, and ev...

  11. Structural correlates of rotavirus cell entry.

    Aliaa H Abdelhakim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cell entry by non-enveloped viruses requires translocation into the cytosol of a macromolecular complex--for double-strand RNA viruses, a complete subviral particle. We have used live-cell fluorescence imaging to follow rotavirus entry and penetration into the cytosol of its ∼ 700 Å inner capsid particle ("double-layered particle", DLP. We label with distinct fluorescent tags the DLP and each of the two outer-layer proteins and track the fates of each species as the particles bind and enter BSC-1 cells. Virions attach to their glycolipid receptors in the host cell membrane and rapidly become inaccessible to externally added agents; most particles that release their DLP into the cytosol have done so by ∼ 10 minutes, as detected by rapid diffusional motion of the DLP away from residual outer-layer proteins. Electron microscopy shows images of particles at various stages of engulfment into tightly fitting membrane invaginations, consistent with the interpretation that rotavirus particles drive their own uptake. Electron cryotomography of membrane-bound virions also shows closely wrapped membrane. Combined with high resolution structural information about the viral components, these observations suggest a molecular model for membrane disruption and DLP penetration.

  12. Evaluation of potential genotoxicity of HIV entry inhibitors derived from natural sources.

    Paskaleva, Elena E; Arra, Manoj; Liu, Yanze; Guo, Huijun; Swartz, Glenn; Kennedy, Jeffrey S; Breneman, Curt; Shekhtman, Alexander; Canki, Mario

    2014-01-01

    AIDS is a global pandemic that has seen the development of novel and effective treatments to improve the quality of life of those infected and reduction of spread of the disease. Palmitic Acid (PA), which we identified and isolated from Sargassum fusiforme, is a naturally occurring fatty acid that specifically inhibits HIV entry by binding to a novel pocket on the CD4 receptor. We also identified a structural analogue, 2-bromopalmitate (2-BP), as a more effective HIV entry inhibitor with a 20-fold increase in efficacy. We have used the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of 2-BP as a platform to identify new small chemical molecules that fit into the various identified active sites in an effort to identify more potent CD4 entry inhibitors. To validate further drug development, we tested the PA and 2-BP scaffold molecules for genotoxic potential. The FDA and International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) recommends using a standardized 3-test battery for testing compound genotoxicity consisting of the bacterial reverse mutation assay, mouse lymphoma assay, and rat micronucleus assay. PA and 2-BP and their metabolites tested negative in all three genotoxicty tests. 2-BP is the first derivative of PA to undergo pre-clinical screening, which will enable us to now test multiple simultaneous small chemical structures based on activity in scaffold modeling across the dimension of pre-clinical testing to enable transition to human testing. PMID:24667334

  13. Orthopoxvirus species and strain differences in cell entry

    Bengali, Zain; Satheshkumar, P.S. [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-3210 (United States); Moss, Bernard, E-mail: bmoss@nih.gov [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-3210 (United States)

    2012-11-25

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) enters cells by a low pH endosomal route or by direct fusion with the plasma membrane. We previously found differences in entry properties of several VACV strains: entry of WR was enhanced by low pH, reduced by bafilomycin A1 and relatively unaffected by heparin, whereas entry of IHD-J, Copenhagen and Elstree were oppositely affected. Since binding and entry modes may have been selected by specific conditions of in vitro propagation, we now examined the properties of three distinct, recently isolated cowpox viruses and a monkeypox virus as well as additional VACV and cowpox virus strains. The recent isolates were more similar to WR than to other VACV strains, underscoring the biological importance of endosomal entry by orthopoxviruses. Sequence comparisons, gene deletions and gene swapping experiments indicated that viral determinants, other than or in addition to the A26 and A25 'fusion-suppressor' proteins, impact entry properties.

  14. Orthopoxvirus species and strain differences in cell entry

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) enters cells by a low pH endosomal route or by direct fusion with the plasma membrane. We previously found differences in entry properties of several VACV strains: entry of WR was enhanced by low pH, reduced by bafilomycin A1 and relatively unaffected by heparin, whereas entry of IHD-J, Copenhagen and Elstree were oppositely affected. Since binding and entry modes may have been selected by specific conditions of in vitro propagation, we now examined the properties of three distinct, recently isolated cowpox viruses and a monkeypox virus as well as additional VACV and cowpox virus strains. The recent isolates were more similar to WR than to other VACV strains, underscoring the biological importance of endosomal entry by orthopoxviruses. Sequence comparisons, gene deletions and gene swapping experiments indicated that viral determinants, other than or in addition to the A26 and A25 “fusion-suppressor” proteins, impact entry properties.

  15. Deregulation of Bank Entry and Branching: Impact on Competition

    Milo, Melanie S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper looks at public policy towards bank entry and branching in the Philippines and its impact on the sector’s structure, conduct and performance. In particular, it argues that regulatory restrictions on bank entry and branching have had adverse effects on competition, while the liberalization of these restrictions have led to a more competitive banking sector. The paper has two main sections. Section II presents the history of regulation of bank entry and branching in the Philippines. ...

  16. Denying Foreign Bank Entry: Implications For Bank Interest Margins

    Ross Levine

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of restricting foreign bank entry on bank net interest margins while controlling for (a) impediments to domestic bank entry, (b) the degree of foreign bank ownership of the domestic banking industry, (c) an array of bank-specific characteristics, (c) banking sectorconcentration, and (d) various country traits. Using data on almost 1200 banks across 47 countries, the results suggest that restricting foreign bank entry boosts bank net interest margins. Also, restr...

  17. Europe's revolving doors: Import competition and endogenous firm entry institutions

    Lastauskas, Povilas

    2013-01-01

    The close relationship between politics and enterprises made the revolving door wide open and reinforced business influence on political decisions. This paper analyses the relationship between firm entry institutions and import competition inside the EU. Though there is a clear tendency for entry and startup costs to decrease over time and particularly in space, I challenge the view that greater openness to trade automatically leads to improved firm entry institutions. My model enables calcul...

  18. Labour Market Entry Conditions, Wages and Job Mobility

    Bachmann, Ronald; Bauer, Thomas K.; David, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    Economic conditions at the time of labour market entry can induce wage differentials between workers entering the labour market at different points in time. While the existence and persistence of these entry wage differentials are well documented, little is known about their interaction with employees’ mobility behaviour. This paper contributes to this research area by analyzing the interaction between job mobility and entry wage differentials using German administrative data. The results sug...

  19. Labor Market Entry Conditions, Wages and Job Mobility

    Bauer, Thomas K.; Bachmann, Ronald; David, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    Economic conditions at the time of labour market entry can induce wage differentials between workers entering the labour market at different points in time. While the existence and persistence of these entry wage differentials are well documented, little is known about their interaction with employees' mobility behaviour. This paper contributes to this research area by analyzing the interaction between job mobility and entry wage differentials using German administrative data. The results sug...

  20. Sunk Costs and Risk-Based Barriers to Entry

    Robert S. Pindyck

    2009-01-01

    In merger analysis and other antitrust settings, risk is often cited as a potential barrier to entry. But there is little consensus as to the kinds of risk that matter - systematic versus non-systematic and industry-wide versus firm-specific - and the mechanisms through which they affect entry. I show how and to what extent different kinds of risk magnify the deterrent effect of exogenous sunk costs of entry, and thereby affect industry dynamics, concentration, and equilibrium market prices. ...

  1. The Internationalization of Chinese Firms: Entry Mode Choice

    Zhang, Xu

    2010-01-01

    Chinese firms and other emerging markets firms aim to select a favourable entry mode to start or expand their international business, thus this is significant issue for research. This study demonstrates that the Chinese firms’ choice of entry mode is determined by internal-factors, external-factors and transaction cost factors. This is illustrated through the investigation of a case study of the Haier Group’s choice of entry mode and internationalization. Therefore, four processes of choice o...

  2. Strategic Orientation and Order of Market Entry of Food Firms

    Rasoul Ghollamzadeh; Mehdi Ghanavati

    2011-01-01

    One of the strategic launch decisions is the order of market entry. Adoption of a suitable competitive strategy is dependent on firm's decision on market entry earlier or later than competitors. This research aims to analyze the relationship between order of market entry and firms’ strategic orientation. For this purpose, three strategies have been defined as cost leadership strategy, innovation differentiation strategy and marketing differentiation strategy. In this study, the essential ques...

  3. Strategic Orientation and Order of Market Entry of Food Firms

    rasoul ghollamzadeh; mahdi ghanavati

    2011-01-01

    Abstract One of the strategic launch decisions is the order of market entry. Adoption of a suitable competitive strategy is dependent on firm's decision on market entry earlier or later than competitors. This research aims to analyze the relationship between order of market entry and firms’ strategic orientation. For this purpose, three strategies have been defined as cost leadership strategy, innovation differentiation strategy and marketing differentiation strategy. In this study, the es...

  4. Pharmaceutical Use Following Generic Entry: Paying Less and Buying Less

    Huckfeldt, Peter J; Christopher R. Knittel

    2011-01-01

    We study the effects of generic entry on prices and utilization using both event study models that exploit the differential timing of generic entry across drug molecules and cast studies. Our analysis examines drugs treating hypertension, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, and depression using price and utilization data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. We find that utilization of drug molecules starts decreasing in the two years prior to generic entry and continues to decrease in...

  5. Free Entry and Social Inefficiency under Co-opetition

    Hattori, Keisuke; Yoshikawa, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the social desirability of free entry in the co-opetition model in which firms compete in a homogeneous product market while sharing common property resources that affect market size or consumers' willingness to pay for products. We show that free entry leads to socially excessive or insufficient entry into the market in the case of non-commitment co-opetition, depending on the magnitude of "business stealing" and "common property" effects of entry. On the other hand, in the ca...

  6. A novel peptide that inhibits HIV-1 entry

    YU Yong; HUANG Xiaoxing; WANG Qiong; YANG Yaling; TIAN Po; ZHANG Wentao

    2004-01-01

    @@ The global epidemic of HIV infection, the cause of AIDS, has created an urgent need for novel classes of antiretroviral agent. Besides reverse transcriptase and protease, the viral entry process provides new anti-HIV-1 targets. A new generation of antiviral drugs intended to block HIV entry into host cells is now under develop- ment[1]. These compounds are generally referred to as fusion or entry inhibitor. Several HIV-1 entry inhibitors that target CD4-gp120 interactions, co-receptor function, and gp41-mediated membrane fusion are in different stages of clinical development[2].

  7. Protease inhibitors targeting coronavirus and filovirus entry.

    Zhou, Yanchen; Vedantham, Punitha; Lu, Kai; Agudelo, Juliet; Carrion, Ricardo; Nunneley, Jerritt W; Barnard, Dale; Pöhlmann, Stefan; McKerrow, James H; Renslo, Adam R; Simmons, Graham

    2015-04-01

    In order to gain entry into cells, diverse viruses, including Ebola virus, SARS-coronavirus and the emerging MERS-coronavirus, depend on activation of their envelope glycoproteins by host cell proteases. The respective enzymes are thus excellent targets for antiviral intervention. In cell culture, activation of Ebola virus, as well as SARS- and MERS-coronavirus can be accomplished by the endosomal cysteine proteases, cathepsin L (CTSL) and cathepsin B (CTSB). In addition, SARS- and MERS-coronavirus can use serine proteases localized at the cell surface, for their activation. However, it is currently unclear which protease(s) facilitate viral spread in the infected host. We report here that the cysteine protease inhibitor K11777, ((2S)-N-[(1E,3S)-1-(benzenesulfonyl)-5-phenylpent-1-en-3-yl]-2-{[(E)-4-methylpiperazine-1-carbonyl]amino}-3-phenylpropanamide) and closely-related vinylsulfones act as broad-spectrum antivirals by targeting cathepsin-mediated cell entry. K11777 is already in advanced stages of development for a number of parasitic diseases, such as Chagas disease, and has proven to be safe and effective in a range of animal models. K11777 inhibition of SARS-CoV and Ebola virus entry was observed in the sub-nanomolar range. In order to assess whether cysteine or serine proteases promote viral spread in the host, we compared the antiviral activity of an optimized K11777-derivative with that of camostat, an inhibitor of TMPRSS2 and related serine proteases. Employing a pathogenic animal model of SARS-CoV infection, we demonstrated that viral spread and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV is driven by serine rather than cysteine proteases and can be effectively prevented by camostat. Camostat has been clinically used to treat chronic pancreatitis, and thus represents an exciting potential therapeutic for respiratory coronavirus infections. Our results indicate that camostat, or similar serine protease inhibitors, might be an effective option for treatment of SARS and

  8. Quality of data entry using single entry, double entry and automated forms processing--an example based on a study of patient-reported outcomes.

    Aksel Paulsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The clinical and scientific usage of patient-reported outcome measures is increasing in the health services. Often paper forms are used. Manual double entry of data is defined as the definitive gold standard for transferring data to an electronic format, but the process is laborious. Automated forms processing may be an alternative, but further validation is warranted. METHODS: 200 patients were randomly selected from a cohort of 5777 patients who had previously answered two different questionnaires. The questionnaires were scanned using an automated forms processing technique, as well as processed by single and double manual data entry, using the EpiData Entry data entry program. The main outcome measure was the proportion of correctly entered numbers at question, form and study level. RESULTS: Manual double-key data entry (error proportion per 1000 fields = 0.046 (95% CI: 0.001-0.258 performed better than single-key data entry (error proportion per 1000 fields = 0.370 (95% CI: 0.160-0.729, (p = 0.020. There was no statistical difference between Optical Mark Recognition (error proportion per 1000 fields = 0.046 (95% CI: 0.001-0.258 and double-key data entry (p = 1.000. With the Intelligent Character Recognition method, there was no statistical difference compared to single-key data entry (error proportion per 1000 fields = 6.734 (95% CI: 0.817-24.113, (p = 0.656, as well as double-key data entry (error proportion per 1000 fields = 3.367 (95% CI: 0.085-18.616, (p = 0.319. CONCLUSIONS: Automated forms processing is a valid alternative to double manual data entry for highly structured forms containing only check boxes, numerical codes and no dates. Automated forms processing can be superior to single manual data entry through a data entry program, depending on the method chosen.

  9. HIV Nuclear Entry: Clearing the Fog.

    Shah, Vaibhav B; Aiken, Christopher

    2010-05-01

    HIV-1 and other lentiviruses have the unusual capability of infecting nondividing cells, but the mechanism by which they cross an intact nuclear membrane is mysterious. Recent work, including a new study (Lee, K.; Ambrose, Z.; Martin, T.D.; Oztop, I.; Mulky, A.; Julias, J.G.; Vandergraaff, N.; Baumann, J.G.; Wang, R.; Yuen, W. et al. Flexible use of nuclear import pathways by HIV-1. Cell Host Microbe2010, 7, 221-233) confirms that the viral capsid plays a key role in HIV-1 nuclear entry in both dividing and nondividing cells. The identification of mutations in the viral capsid that alter the virus's dependence on host cell nucleoporins represents an important advance in this poorly understood stage of the virus life cycle. PMID:21994675

  10. HIV Nuclear Entry: Clearing the Fog

    Vaibhav B. Shah

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 and other lentiviruses have the unusual capability of infecting nondividing cells, but the mechanism by which they cross an intact nuclear membrane is mysterious. Recent work, including a new study (Lee, K.; Ambrose, Z.; Martin, T.D.; Oztop, I.; Mulky, A.; Julias, J.G.; Vandergraaff, N.; Baumann, J.G.; Wang, R.; Yuen, W. et al. Flexible use of nuclear import pathways by HIV-1. Cell Host Microbe 2010,7, 221-233 confirms that the viral capsid plays a key role in HIV-1 nuclear entry in both dividing and nondividing cells. The identification of mutations in the viral capsid that alter the virus’s dependence on host cell nucleoporins represents an important advance in this poorly understood stage of the virus life cycle.

  11. HIV Nuclear Entry: Clearing the Fog

    Shah, Vaibhav B.; Aiken, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    HIV-1 and other lentiviruses have the unusual capability of infecting nondividing cells, but the mechanism by which they cross an intact nuclear membrane is mysterious. Recent work, including a new study (Lee, K.; Ambrose, Z.; Martin, T.D.; Oztop, I.; Mulky, A.; Julias, J.G.; Vandergraaff, N.; Baumann, J.G.; Wang, R.; Yuen, W. et al. Flexible use of nuclear import pathways by HIV-1. Cell Host Microbe 2010, 7, 221–233) confirms that the viral capsid plays a key role in HIV-1 nuclear entry in both dividing and nondividing cells. The identification of mutations in the viral capsid that alter the virus’s dependence on host cell nucleoporins represents an important advance in this poorly understood stage of the virus life cycle. PMID:21994675

  12. Financial Performance of Entry Mode Decisions

    Boyd, Britta; Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie; Hollensen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    : To determine the relationship between the choice of entry mode and export performance, measured in terms of financial outcome. Drawing from transaction cost theory the authors develop and test a model where different factors affect the level of control chosen by the parent company. This study contributes...... were the most significant factors for the choice of intermediate modes. The results also show that high control modes can positively affect the bottom line profit through higher market investments and better implementation of cross border strategies. Finally, further research suggestions...... and implications are provided for companies willing to invest more into foreign markets in order to achieve a higher degree of control and better financial results....

  13. Observability analysis of Mars entry integrated navigation

    Wang, Liansheng; Xia, Yuanqing

    2015-09-01

    This paper studies three schemes of Mars entry navigation: inertial measurement unit (IMU) based dead reckoning (DR), IMU/orbiter based integrated navigation, and IMU/orbiter/Mars surface beacon (MSB) based integrated navigation. We demonstrate through simulations that first scheme, IMU based DR, produces substantially large state estimation errors. Although these errors are reduced by adding two Mars orbiters, the system is only barely observable. However, by adding two MSBs in above configuration, the position and velocity estimation errors are reduced to the scope of 10 m and 0.5 m/s respectively and the navigation system becomes completely observable. Finally, the estimability of states is investigated; it is observed that velocity variables or velocity variables linear combinations can be estimated better than position variables.

  14. Coupling approaches used in atmospheric entry models

    Gritsevich, M. I.

    2012-09-01

    While a planet orbits the Sun, it is subject to impact by smaller objects, ranging from tiny dust particles and space debris to much larger asteroids and comets. Such collisions have taken place frequently over geological time and played an important role in the evolution of planets and the development of life on the Earth. Though the search for near-Earth objects addresses one of the main points of the Asteroid and Comet Hazard, one should not underestimate the useful information to be gleaned from smaller atmospheric encounters, known as meteors or fireballs. Not only do these events help determine the linkages between meteorites and their parent bodies; due to their relative regularity they provide a good statistical basis for analysis. For successful cases with found meteorites, the detailed atmospheric path record is an excellent tool to test and improve existing entry models assuring the robustness of their implementation. There are many more important scientific questions meteoroids help us to answer, among them: Where do these objects come from, what are their origins, physical properties and chemical composition? What are the shapes and bulk densities of the space objects which fully ablate in an atmosphere and do not reach the planetary surface? Which values are directly measured and which are initially assumed as input to various models? How to couple both fragmentation and ablation effects in the model, taking real size distribution of fragments into account? How to specify and speed up the recovery of a recently fallen meteorites, not letting weathering to affect samples too much? How big is the pre-atmospheric projectile to terminal body ratio in terms of their mass/volume? Which exact parameters beside initial mass define this ratio? More generally, how entering object affects Earth's atmosphere and (if applicable) Earth's surface? How to predict these impact consequences based on atmospheric trajectory data? How to describe atmospheric entry

  15. The Curious Case of Arenavirus Entry, and Its Inhibition

    Joanne York

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arenaviruses comprise a diverse family of enveloped negative-strand RNA viruses that are endemic to specific rodent hosts worldwide. Several arenaviruses cause severe hemorrhagic fevers in humans, including Junín and Machupo viruses in South America and Lassa fever virus in western Africa. Arenavirus entry into the host cell is mediated by the envelope glycoprotein complex, GPC. The virion is endocytosed on binding to a cell-surface receptor, and membrane fusion is initiated in response to physiological acidification of the endosome. As with other class I virus fusion proteins, GPC-mediated membrane fusion is promoted through a regulated sequence of conformational changes leading to formation of the classical postfusion trimer-of-hairpins structure. GPC is, however, unique among the class I fusion proteins in that the mature complex retains a stable signal peptide (SSP as a third subunit, in addition to the canonical receptor-binding and fusion proteins. We will review the curious properties of the tripartite GPC complex and describe evidence that SSP interacts with the fusion subunit to modulate pH-induced activation of membrane fusion. This unusual solution to maintaining the metastable prefusion state of GPC on the virion and activating the class I fusion cascade at acidic pH provides novel targets for antiviral intervention.

  16. The Hemagglutinin of Bat-Associated Influenza Viruses Is Activated by TMPRSS2 for pH-Dependent Entry into Bat but Not Human Cells.

    Hoffmann, Markus; Krüger, Nadine; Zmora, Pawel; Wrensch, Florian; Herrler, Georg; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    New World bats have recently been discovered to harbor influenza A virus (FLUAV)-related viruses, termed bat-associated influenza A-like viruses (batFLUAV). The internal proteins of batFLUAV are functional in mammalian cells. In contrast, no biological functionality could be demonstrated for the surface proteins, hemagglutinin (HA)-like (HAL) and neuraminidase (NA)-like (NAL), and these proteins need to be replaced by their human counterparts to allow spread of batFLUAV in human cells. Here, we employed rhabdoviral vectors to study the role of HAL and NAL in viral entry. Vectors pseudotyped with batFLUAV-HAL and -NAL were able to enter bat cells but not cells from other mammalian species. Host cell entry was mediated by HAL and was dependent on prior proteolytic activation of HAL and endosomal low pH. In contrast, sialic acids were dispensable for HAL-driven entry. Finally, the type II transmembrane serine protease TMPRSS2 was able to activate HAL for cell entry indicating that batFLUAV can utilize human proteases for HAL activation. Collectively, these results identify viral and cellular factors governing host cell entry driven by batFLUAV surface proteins. They suggest that the absence of a functional receptor precludes entry of batFLUAV into human cells while other prerequisites for entry, HAL activation and protonation, are met in target cells of human origin. PMID:27028521

  17. 19 CFR 10.100 - Entry, examination, and tariff status.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry, examination, and tariff status. 10.100... United States Government Importations § 10.100 Entry, examination, and tariff status. Except as otherwise....00.60, 9808.00.70, or other subheadings in the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (19...

  18. 31 CFR 357.0 - Book-entry systems.

    2010-07-01

    ... regulations governing TreasuryDirect are found at 31 CFR part 363. (b) Transferability between TRADES and... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Book-entry systems. 357.0 Section 357..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY TREASURY BONDS,...

  19. Re-Entry: Managing Cross-Cultural Transitions.

    Adler, Nancy J.

    1981-01-01

    Studied the re-entry process of corporate and governmental employees (N=200) returning to Canada after working overseas. Research found re-entry into the original culture was a more difficult transition than moving to the foreign culture. Home-country managers tended to exhibit xenophobia in assessing the potential and actual effectiveness of…

  20. 7 CFR 1499.8 - Entry and handling of commodities.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Entry and handling of commodities. 1499.8 Section 1499.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT....8 Entry and handling of commodities. (a) The participant shall make all necessary arrangements...

  1. 7 CFR 1599.8 - Entry and handling of commodities.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Entry and handling of commodities. 1599.8 Section... PROGRAM § 1599.8 Entry and handling of commodities. (a) The participant shall make all necessary arrangements for receiving the donated commodities in the targeted country, including obtaining...

  2. Return on Investment Point of Service Computerized Provider Charge Entry

    Kiepek, Wendy; FitzHenry, Fern; Shultz, Edward K.

    2003-01-01

    Provider charge entry systems offer many benefits to users and organizations. At Vanderbilt University Medical Center, a web-based provider charge entry system promises to deliver benefits in reducing days in accounts receivable, reducing labor required for claims and edit processing, and implementing business rules that deliver both strategic and financial benefits.

  3. 27 CFR 478.23 - Right of entry and examination.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Right of entry and... Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 478.23 Right of entry and examination. (a) Except as provided in... of a criminal investigation of a person or persons other than the licensee, (2) For...

  4. Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and Landing System Overview

    Steltzner, Adam D.; San Martin, A. Miguel; Rivellini, Tomasso P.; Chen, Allen

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory project recently places the Curiosity rove on the surface of Mars. With the success of the landing system, the performance envelope of entry, descent and landing capabilities has been extended over the previous state of the art. This paper will present an overview to the MSL entry, descent and landing system design and preliminary flight performance results.

  5. 50 CFR 91.22 - Display of contest entries.

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Display of contest entries. 91.22 Section... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING AND CONSERVATION STAMP CONTEST Procedures for Administering the Contest § 91.22 Display of contest entries. The Federal Duck Stamp Office assigns all...

  6. 50 CFR 91.17 - Property insurance for contest entries.

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Property insurance for contest entries. 91... INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING AND CONSERVATION STAMP CONTEST Procedures for Entering the Contest § 91.17 Property insurance for contest entries. Each contestant...

  7. 14 CFR 375.24 - Entry and clearance.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Entry and clearance. 375.24 Section 375.24 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Rules Generally Applicable § 375.24 Entry and clearance. All...

  8. 19 CFR 141.68 - Time of entry.

    2010-04-01

    ... Mexico of goods imported into the United States under a duty-deferral program defined in § 181.53 of this chapter. When merchandise in a U.S. duty-deferral program is withdrawn for exportation to Canada or Mexico or for entry into a duty-deferral program in Canada or Mexico, the date of entry is the date...

  9. 50 CFR 679.83 - Rockfish Program entry level fishery.

    2010-10-01

    ... deep water species fishery complex halibut PSC is available. (v) Halibut PSC allocations—longline gear vessels. Halibut PSC from longline gear vessels in the rockfish entry level fishery shall be accounted... seasonal apportionment, the rockfish entry level fishery for longline gear vessels will be closed...

  10. 19 CFR 146.64 - Entry for warehouse.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry for warehouse. 146.64 Section 146.64 Customs... (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES Transfer of Merchandise From a Zone § 146.64 Entry for warehouse. (a) Foreign... status may not be entered for warehouse from a zone. Merchandise in nonprivileged foreign...

  11. Technological Asymmetry Among Foreign Investors and Mode of Entry

    Javorcik, Beata S.; Saggi, Kamal

    2004-01-01

    How does the preferred entry mode of foreign investors depend on their technological capability relative to that of their rivals? The authors develop a simple model of entry mode choice and evaluate its main testable implication using data on foreign investors in Eastern European countries and the successor states of the former Soviet Union. The model considers competition between two asy...

  12. The Importance of Prior Probabilities for Entry Page Search

    Kraaij, W.; Westerveld, T.H.W.; Hiemstra, D.

    2002-01-01

    An important class of searches on the world-wide-web has the goal to find an entry page (homepage) of an organisation. Entry page search is quite different from Ad Hoc search. Indeed a plain Ad Hoc system performs disappointingly. We explored three non-content features of web pages: page length, num

  13. 50 CFR 660.340 - Limited entry permit appeals.

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limited entry permit appeals. 660.340... Groundfish Fisheries § 660.340 Limited entry permit appeals. (a) Decisions on appeals of initial decisions... appeal may be accompanied by a request that the Regional Administrator seek a recommendation from...

  14. Strategic advantage and the optimal exercise of entry options

    E.C. Perotti; S. Rossetto

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the timing and the valuation of strategic investment aimed at enhancing entry opportunities in related market segments. As demand is uncertain, entry options should be exercised at the optimal time, trading off the market share gain against the option to wait until more information is

  15. 40 CFR 89.506 - Right of entry and access.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Right of entry and access. 89.506 Section 89.506 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Enforcement Auditing § 89.506 Right of entry and access. (a) To allow the Administrator to determine whether...

  16. 40 CFR 90.506 - Right of entry and access.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Right of entry and access. 90.506 Section 90.506 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Enforcement Auditing § 90.506 Right of entry and access. (a) To allow the Administrator to determine whether...

  17. 18 CFR 33.5 - Proposed accounting entries.

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proposed accounting... § 33.5 Proposed accounting entries. If the applicant is required to maintain its books of account in... present proposed accounting entries showing the effect of the transaction with sufficient detail...

  18. The Impact of Single Versus Dual Data Entry on Accuracy of Relational Database Information

    Willem Meeuwisse

    1999-06-01

    Conclusions: Although the single entry system was statistically different from the dual entry system, the percent accuracy remained high and the errors did not cluster in one specific field. Given the doubling of entry costs with a dual entry system, it is recommended that a single entry system be used for the CISIR.

  19. Strategic Orientation and Order of Market Entry of Food Firms

    rasoul ghollamzadeh

    2011-12-01

    One of the strategic launch decisions is the order of market entry. Adoption of a suitable competitive strategy is dependent on firm's decision on market entry earlier or later than competitors. This research aims to analyze the relationship between order of market entry and firms’ strategic orientation. For this purpose, three strategies have been defined as cost leadership strategy, innovation differentiation strategy and marketing differentiation strategy. In this study, the essential question is whether firms use a different strategy based on their order of market entry? The proposed model has been examined on a sample of 102 manufacturing companies in the food industry using Structural Equation Modeling based on the methodology of Partial Least Squares (PLS. Findings indicate a direct influence of order of market entry on adopting a particular strategy by the firms, so that pioneer companies tend more to use differentiation strategy at two levels of marketing and innovation, while cost leadership is more common among followers.

  20. Extended High-Gain Observer for Mars Entry Guidance

    Pingyuan Cui

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available To deliver a Mars entry vehicle to the prescribed parachute deployment point, active entry guidance is essential. This paper addresses the problem of Mars atmospheric entry guidance through drag tracking method with extended high gain observer. First, an extended high gain observer combined with feedback linearization is applied in drag tracking for Mars entry longitudinal guidance.  The observer estimates the drag and drag rate for drag tracking, estimates the perturbation due to model uncertainty and disturbance, and compensate for the perturbation by canceling its estimate. Then, bank reversal is adopted in the lateral plane to reduce the cross-range error. Finally, Mars entry simulation is performed to assess the performance of the adaptive guidance law. The results demonstrate that the proposed guidance law exhibits good performance.

  1. Strategic Orientation and Order of Market Entry of Food Firms

    Rasoul Ghollamzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the strategic launch decisions is the order of market entry. Adoption of a suitable competitive strategy is dependent on firm's decision on market entry earlier or later than competitors. This research aims to analyze the relationship between order of market entry and firms’ strategic orientation. For this purpose, three strategies have been defined as cost leadership strategy, innovation differentiation strategy and marketing differentiation strategy. In this study, the essential question is whether firms use a different strategy based on their order of market entry? The proposed model has been examined on a sample of 102 manufacturing companies in the food industry using Structural Equation Modeling based on the methodology of Partial Least Squares (PLS. Findings indicate a direct influence of order of market entry on adopting a particular strategy by the firms, so that pioneer companies tend more to use differentiation strategy at two levels of marketing and innovation, while cost leadership is more common among followers.

  2. Form, its meaning, and dictionary entries

    Violetta Koseska-Toszewa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Form, its meaning, and dictionary entriesAs we know, a language form is a unit which plays a specific form in the language, e.g. a semantic or syntactical one. We establish the function of a form based on its use (occurrence, i.e. its relation with the meanings of other forms in speech or in a text. The meaning of a form is the value of its function. In the traditional grammar, form is opposed to its meaning. However, various grammar schools have big problems with distinguishingbetween a form and its function. For example, the present tense form has a number of basic temporal meanings in Bulgarian as well as in Polish and Russian, and in none of those languages this is only the present time, (see past, future and habituality expressed using the present tense form. It is a big mistake not to distinguish between the meanings of article in article languages. For example, in Bulgarian the same form of article canexpress both uniqueness and universality (or, respectively: definiteness and indefiniteness. In the quoted book (Koseska-Toszewa 1982, I put forward a hypothesis on the development of the meaning of Bulgarian article. In my opinion, initially the article expressed uniqueness of an element (object, and then started to express also uniqueness of a set, which later, due to equalling two completely different semantically-logical structures, i.e. structures with universal and unique quantification, lead to a homonymy and to the article expressing also universality, i.e. indefiniteness. Similarly in English, French, Rumanian or Albanian, where the same form of article can express either uniqueness or universality. This proves that the above homonymy is of a general rather than typological (e.g. Balkan character. Naturally, in the above languages the definite article form can also express uniqueness of an object or a set, so it also expresses definiteness. Ambiguity of the definite article form is a phenomenon exceeding the

  3. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus uses a novel endocytic pathway for infectious entry via late endosomes

    The endocytic entry of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) into host cells was compared to the entry of viruses known to exploit clathrin or caveolae/raft-dependent pathways. Pharmacological inhibitors, expression of pathway-specific dominant-negative constructs, and siRNA silencing of clathrin together with electron and light microscopy provided evidence that although a minority population followed a classical clathrin-mediated mechanism of entry, the majority of these enveloped RNA viruses used a novel endocytic route to late endosomes. The pathway was clathrin, dynamin-2, actin, Arf6, flotillin-1, caveolae, and lipid raft independent but required membrane cholesterol. Unaffected by perturbation of Rab5 or Rab7 and apparently without passing through Rab5/EEA1-positive early endosomes, the viruses reached late endosomes and underwent acid-induced penetration. This membrane trafficking route between the plasma membrane and late endosomes may function in the turnover of a select group of surface glycoproteins such as the dystroglycan complex, which serves as the receptor of LCMV

  4. Fuel cells selected entries from the encyclopedia of sustainability science and technology

    Kreuer, Klaus-Dieter

    2012-01-01

    The expected end of the "oil age" will lead to increasing focus and reliance on alternative energy conversion devices, among which fuel cells have the potential to play an important role.  Not only can phosphoric acid and solid oxide fuel cells already efficiently convert today's fossil fuels, including methane, into electricity, but other types of fuel cells, such as polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, have the potential to become the cornerstones of a possible future hydrogen economy. Featuring 21 peer-reviewed entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology, Fuel

  5. Inflatable Emergency Atmospheric-Entry Vehicles

    Jones, Jack; Hall, Jeffrey; Wu, Jiunn Jeng

    2004-01-01

    In response to the loss of seven astronauts in the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster, large, lightweight, inflatable atmospheric- entry vehicles have been proposed as means of emergency descent and landing for persons who must abandon a spacecraft that is about to reenter the atmosphere and has been determined to be unable to land safely. Such a vehicle would act as an atmospheric decelerator at supersonic speed in the upper atmosphere, and a smaller, central astronaut pod could then separate at lower altitudes and parachute separately to Earth. Astronaut-rescue systems that have been considered previously have been massive, and the cost of designing them has exceeded the cost of fabrication of a space shuttle. In contrast, an inflatable emergency-landing vehicle according to the proposal would have a mass between 100 and 200 kg, could be stored in a volume of approximately 0.2 to 0.4 cu m, and could likely be designed and built much less expensively. When fully inflated, the escape vehicle behaves as a large balloon parachute, or ballute. Due to very low mass-per-surface area, a large radius, and a large coefficient of drag, ballutes decelerate at much higher altitudes and with much lower heating rates than the space shuttle. Although the space shuttle atmospheric reentry results in surface temperatures of about 1,600 C, ballutes can be designed for maximum temperatures below 600 C. This allows ballutes to be fabricated with lightweight ZYLON(Registered TradeMark) or polybenzoxazole (PBO), or equivalent.

  6. Communications Blackout Predictions for Atmospheric Entry of Mars Science Laboratory

    Morabito, David D.; Edquist, Karl

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is expected to be a long-range, long-duration science laboratory rover on the Martian surface. MSL will provide a significant milestone that paves the way for future landed missions to Mars. NASA is studying options to launch MSL as early as 2009. MSL will be the first mission to demonstrate the new technology of 'smart landers', which include precision landing and hazard avoidance in order to -land at scientifically interesting sites that would otherwise be unreachable. There are three elements to the spacecraft; carrier (cruise stage), entry vehicle, and rover. The rover will have an X-band direct-to-Earth (DTE) link as well as a UHF proximity link. There is also a possibility of an X-band proximity link. Given the importance of collecting critical event telemetry data during atmospheric entry, it is important to understand the ability of a signal link to be maintained, especially during the period near peak convective heating. The received telemetry during entry (or played back later) will allow for the performance of the Entry-Descent-Landing technologies to be assessed. These technologies include guided entry for precision landing, hazard avoidance, a new sky-crane landing system and powered descent. MSL will undergo an entry profile that may result in a potential communications blackout caused by ionized plasma for short periods near peak heating. The vehicle will use UHF and possibly X-band during the entry phase. The purpose of this report is to quantify or bound the likelihood of any such blackout at UHF frequencies (401 MHz) and X-band frequencies (8.4 GHz). Two entry trajectory scenarios were evaluated: a stressful entry trajectory to quantify an upper-bound for any possible blackout period, and a nominal likely trajectory to quantify likelihood of blackout for such cases.

  7. Comparable stocks, boundedly rational stock markets and IPO entry rates.

    Jay Chok

    Full Text Available In this study, we examine how initial public offerings (IPO entry rates are affected when stock markets are boundedly rational and IPO firms infer information from their counterparts in the market. We hypothesize a curvilinear relationship between the number of comparable stocks and initial public offerings (IPO entry rates into the NASDAQ Stock Exchange. Furthermore, we argue that trading volume and changes in stock returns partially mediates the relationship between the number of comparable stocks and IPO entry rates. The statistical evidence provides strong support for the hypotheses.

  8. Entry Attitude Controller for the Mars Science Laboratory

    Brugarolas, Paul B.; SanMartin, A. Miguel; Wong, Edward C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the preliminary concept for the RCS 3-axis attitude controller for the exo-atmospheric and guided entry phases of the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descend and Landing. The entry controller is formulated as three independent channels in the control frame, which is nominally aligned with the stability frame. Each channel has a feedfoward and a feedback. The feedforward path enables fast response to large bank commands. The feedback path stabilizes the vehicle angle of attack and sideslip around its trim position, and tracks bank commands. The feedback path has a PD/D structure with deadbands that minimizes fuel usage. The performance of this design is demonstrated via simulation.

  9. Physics-Based Modeling of Meteor Entry and Breakup

    Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Agrawal, Parul; Allen, Gary A., Jr.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Brandis, Aaron M.; Chen, Yih-Kang; Jaffe, Richard L.; Palmer, Grant E.; Saunders, David A.; Stern, Eric C.; Tauber, Michael E.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2015-01-01

    A new research effort at NASA Ames Research Center has been initiated in Planetary Defense, which integrates the disciplines of planetary science, atmospheric entry physics, and physics-based risk assessment. This paper describes work within the new program and is focused on meteor entry and breakup.Over the last six decades significant effort was expended in the US and in Europe to understand meteor entry including ablation, fragmentation and airburst (if any) for various types of meteors ranging from stony to iron spectral types. These efforts have produced primarily empirical mathematical models based on observations. Weaknesses of these models, apart from their empiricism, are reliance on idealized shapes (spheres, cylinders, etc.) and simplified models for thermal response of meteoritic materials to aerodynamic and radiative heating. Furthermore, the fragmentation and energy release of meteors (airburst) is poorly understood.On the other hand, flight of human-made atmospheric entry capsules is well understood. The capsules and their requisite heatshields are designed and margined to survive entry. However, the highest speed Earth entry for capsules is 13 kms (Stardust). Furthermore, Earth entry capsules have never exceeded diameters of 5 m, nor have their peak aerothermal environments exceeded 0.3 atm and 1 kW/sq cm. The aims of the current work are: (i) to define the aerothermal environments for objects with entry velocities from 13 to 20 kms; (ii) to explore various hypotheses of fragmentation and airburst of stony meteors in the near term; (iii) to explore the possibility of performing relevant ground-based tests to verify candidate hypotheses; and (iv) to quantify the energy released in airbursts. The results of the new simulations will be used to anchor said risk assessment analyses. With these aims in mind, state-of-the-art entry capsule design tools are being extended for meteor entries. We describe: (i) applications of current simulation tools to

  10. Entry of Ebola Virus is an Asynchronous Process.

    Reynard, Olivier; Volchkov, Viktor E

    2015-10-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) is responsible for a severe fever with a high mortality rate. The diverse nature of the attachment of the virus to the cell surface, the initial step of virus entry, raises questions concerning the kinetics of the virus internalization process. We investigated EBOV entry kinetics using the activity of a particular monoclonal antibody that neutralizes virus infectivity. We demonstrate that inoculation of cells with EBOV results in an asynchronous entry process, as revealed by the ability of the virus to remain in a cell-bound state for an extended period of time before it is internalized. PMID:25941332

  11. Japanese subsidiaries in the European Union: Entry modes and performance

    David Tanganelli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Japanese Foreign Direct Investment (FDI in the European Union and its performance were analysed in this work. Three different FDI or entry modes used by Japanese companies to enter the European market were compared, and the presence of a relationship between the selected entry mode and the performance of the subsidiary was investigated. We found that more than half of the Japanese investments in Europe took the form of new ventures, approximately 40% were joint ventures and less than 6% were acquisitions. We found that no specific entry mode performed better than another.

  12. RITD - Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth

    Heilimo, Jyri; Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergey; Koryanov, Vsevolod; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Haukka, Harri; Finchenko, Valery; Martynov, Maxim; Ostresko, Boris; Ponomarenko, Andrey; Kazakovtsev, Viktor; Martin, Susanna; Siili, Tero

    2014-05-01

    A new generation of inflatable Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) for Mars has been developed. It is used in both the initial atmospheric entry and atmospheric descent before the semi-hard impact of the penetrator into Martian surface. The EDLS applicability to Earth's atmosphere is studied by the EU/RITD [1] project. Project focuses to the analysis and tests of the transonic behaviour of this compact and light weight payload entry system at the Earth re-entry. 1. EDLS for Earth The dynamical stability of the craft is analysed, concentrating on the most critical part of the atmospheric re-entry, the transonic phase. In Martian atmosphere the MetNet vehicle stability during the transonic phase is understood. However, in the more dense Earth's atmosphere, the transonic phase is shorter and turbulence more violent. Therefore, the EDLS has to be sufficiently dynamically stable to overcome the forces tending to deflect the craft from its nominal trajectory and attitude. The preliminary design of the inflatable EDLS for Earth will be commenced once the scaling of the re-entry system and the dynamical stability analysis have been performed. The RITD-project concentrates on mission and applications achievable with the current MetNet-type (i.e. 'Mini-1' category) of lander, and on requirements posed by other type Earth re-entry concepts. 2. Entry Angle Determination for Mini-1 - lander For successful Earth landing, the suitable re-entry angle and velocity with specific descent vehicle (DV) mass and heat flux parameters need to be determined. These key parameters in determining the Earth re-entry for DV are: qmax (kW/m2): maximal specific heat flux, Q (MJ/m2): specific integral heat flux to DV front shield, m (kg): descent vehicle (DV) mass, V (m/s): re-entry velocity and Θ (deg.): flight-path angle at Earth re-entry For Earth re-entry, the calculation results in the optimal value of entry velocity for MetNet ('Mini-1' category) -type lander, with mass of 22kg, being

  13. Higher Entry Threshold of the Secondary Lead Industry

    2012-01-01

    <正>According to news posted on the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology’s website on September 5,the MIIT and the Ministry of Environmental Protection recently jointly issued the Entry Conditions of the Secondary

  14. Multidisciplinary Design Under Uncertainty for Entry Vehicles Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The physical difficulty of designing entry vehicles originates from the large degree of coupling between the various disciplines involved in the design. Every...

  15. Entry ramps in the Nagel-Schreckenberg model

    Pedersen, Morten Monrad; Ruhoff, Peder Thusgaard

    This paper describes a way of including entry ramps in the Nagel-Schreckenberg traffic model. The idea is to place what are called shadow cars on a highway next to cars on entry ramps, which enables the drivers to take ramp cars into account. The model is shown to capture important real-life traf......This paper describes a way of including entry ramps in the Nagel-Schreckenberg traffic model. The idea is to place what are called shadow cars on a highway next to cars on entry ramps, which enables the drivers to take ramp cars into account. The model is shown to capture important real......-life traffic phenomena that have not been included in previous models. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the desirable properties of the Nagel-Schreckenberg model are retained....

  16. Entry and Exit Dynamics of Nascent Business Owners

    Rocha, Vera; Carneiro, Anabela; Varum, Celeste

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a comprehensive study on the dynamics of nascent business owners using a unique longitudinal matched employer–employee dataset. We follow over 157,000 individuals who leave paid employment and become business owners during the period 1992–2007. The contributions of this paper are...... twofold. First, we analyze both entry and exit, identifying and characterizing different profiles of individuals leaving paid employment to become business owners, and distinguishing exits by dissolution from exits by ownership transfer. Second, we provide new evidence on how particular experiences in the...... labor market and entry modes shape the post-entry dynamics of nascent business owners. By differentiating between different entry and exit routes, this paper provides new evidence on different human capital patterns among nascent business owners and on key determinants of entrepreneurial survival. Our...

  17. Entry Vehicle Control System Design for the Mars Smart Lander

    Calhoun, Philip C.; Queen, Eric M.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center, in cooperation with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, participated in a preliminary design study of the Entry, Descent and Landing phase for the Mars Smart Lander Project. This concept utilizes advances in Guidance, Navigation and Control technology to significantly reduce uncertainty in the vehicle landed location on the Mars surface. A candidate entry vehicle controller based on the Reaction Control System controller for the Apollo Lunar Excursion Module digital autopilot is proposed for use in the entry vehicle attitude control. A slight modification to the phase plane controller is used to reduce jet-firing chattering while maintaining good control response for the Martian entry probe application. The controller performance is demonstrated in a six-degree-of-freedom simulation with representative aerodynamics.

  18. Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth

    Heilimo, J.; Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Koryanov, V.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Haukka, H.; Finchenko, V.; Martynov, M.; Ostresko, B.; Ponomarenko, A.; Kazakovtsev, V.; Arruego, I.; Martin, S.; Siili, T.

    2013-09-01

    In 2001 - 2011 an inflatable Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) for Martian atmosphere was developed by FMI and the MetNet team. This MetNet Mars Lander EDLS is used in both the initial deceleration during atmospheric entry and in the final deceleration before the semi-hard impact of the penetrator to Martian surface. The EDLS design is ingenious and its applicability to Earth's atmosphere is studied in the on-going project. In particular, the behavior of the system in the critical transonic aerodynamic (from hypersonic to subsonic) regime will be investigated. This project targets to analyze and test the transonic behavior of this compact and light weight payload entry system to Earth's atmosphere [1]. Scaling and adaptation for terrestrial atmospheric conditions, instead of a completely new design, is a favorable approach for providing a new re-entry vehicle for terrestrial space applications.

  19. Advanced Metal Rubber Sensors for Hypersonic Decelerator Entry Systems Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NanoSonic proposes to design and develop light-weight, low-modulus, and durable Metal Rubber™ sensors for aeroelastic analysis of Hypersonic Decelerator Entry...

  20. 7 CFR 319.37-14 - Ports of entry.

    2010-01-01

    ... offered for importation at any Customs designated port of entry indicated in 19 CFR 101.3(b)(1..., Building G, Linden, NJ 07036. New York Jamaica (JFK) Plant Inspection Station, 230-59 International...

  1. 19 CFR 122.26 - Entry and clearance.

    2010-04-01

    ... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.26 Entry and clearance. Private aircraft, as defined... information as set forth in § 122.22(c), and grants electronic clearance via electronic mail or telephone....

  2. The state-of-the-art port of entry workshop

    Godfrey, B.

    1995-05-01

    The increased demand for freight movements through international ports of entry and the signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) have increased freight traffic at border ports of entry. The State-of-the-Art Port of Entry Workshop initiated a dialogue among technologists and stakeholders to explore the potential uses of technology at border crossings and to set development priorities. International ports of entry are both information and labor intensive, and there are many promising technologies that could be used to provide timely information and optimize inspection resources. Participants universally held that integration of technologies and operations is critical to improving port services. A series of Next Steps was developed to address stakeholder issues and national priorities, such as the National Transportation Policy and National Drug Policy. This report documents the views of the various stakeholders and technologists present at the workshop and outlines future directions of study.

  3. VVER-1000 fresh fuel and CPS control rods entry control

    Procedures and documentation used for the entry control of fresh fuel and CPS control rods in the Kozloduy NPP are described. Entry control includes: tests of the control equipment; inspection of the containers with the fuel casks; the Nuclear fuel group instructions , supervised by the controlling physicist. There are two types of fresh fuel control - entry control and technical certification of the fuel after the storage term has inspired. The results from the tests show that mechanical damages of the casks in case of violation of the transportation conditions show as changes in the form and disposition of the casks and is easily found by external observation of the casks and inspection of the passability of the assembly. In some cases additional inspections are made. The entry control is completed by the issuance of a permission for operation

  4. Barriers to entry : abolishing the barriers to understanding

    Keppler, Jan Horst

    2009-01-01

    BARRIERS TO ENTRY: ABOLISHING THE BARRIERS TO UNDERSTANDING by Jan-Horst Keppler Professor of economics Université Paris – Dauphine, LEDa, and Université Paris I Panthéon-Sorbonne, PHARE Port.: (+33 6) 77 81 37 46; Email: . Abstract The concept of a barrier to entry has been discussed least since Bain (1956) with important contributions by Spence (1977), Dixit (1980) or Milgrom and Roberts (1982). The more recent discussion is synth...

  5. When is entry deterrence the wiser strategy for a firm?

    Kazuhiro Ohnishi

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the idea that if an incumbent firm deviates from short-term profit maximization behavior and deters the entry of a potential entrant at the expense of higher profit, then its own mid-/long-term profit maximization is achieved. The paper confirms the importance of the entry-deterrence behavior of the incumbent firm by using numerical examples of learning by doing.

  6. Career Entry and Success After Tertiary Vocational Education

    Regula Geel; Uschi Backes-Gellner

    2011-01-01

    Using the Swiss Graduate Survey, we study how the type of tertiary education an individual chooses (i.e., vocational or academic) influences career entry and labor market success after graduation. Our results show that vocational graduates face less risky career entry than academic graduates. Considering endogenous educational choice by using parental education as an instrument, we find higher returns for vocational tertiary education. In the longer term, initial educational type effects disa...

  7. Design features of an automated entry control system

    Features of an entry control system designed to automatically control access to nuclear facilities is described. Control independent of variable human factors is stressed, but security force action is required for assessment and response as a result of an alarm. A design based on a distributed processing capability is utilized. Flexibility and generality are emphasized in an effort to maximize applicability to the entry-control problem faced by nuclear facilities upgrading security as a result of the Safeguards Program

  8. Predicting Entry of Swedish Wholesale Firms into Local Markets

    Håkansson, Johan; Macuchova, Zuzana; Rudholm, Niklas

    2013-01-01

    Applying microeconomic theory, we develop a forecasting model for firm entry into local markets and test this model using data from the Swedish wholesale industry. The empirical analysis is based on directly estimating the profit function of wholesale firms. As in previous entry studies, profits are assumed to depend on firm- and location-specific factors, and the profit equation is estimated using panel data econometric techniques. Using the residuals from the profit equation estimations, we...

  9. The Decision-Maker and Export Entry and Expansion

    Stan D Reid

    1981-01-01

    This paper examines the varied empirical findings of the relationship between firm, individual characteristics, and foreign entry expansion behavior. The results support the view that activity is neither exclusively determined by structural or managerial factors and is really the result of interaction between both types of variables. The paper proposes that foreign entry and expansion can best be understood as an adoption of innovation-type behavior.© 1981 JIBS. Journal of International Busin...

  10. Do cost-sharing and entry deregulation curb pharmaceutical Innovation?

    Grossmann, Volker

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the role of both cost-sharing schemes in health insurance systems and entry regulation for pharmaceutical R&D expenditure, drug prices, aggregate productivity, and income. The analysis suggests that both an increase in the coinsurance rate and stricter price regulations adversely affect R&D spending in the pharmaceutical sector. In contrast, entry deregulation may lead to quality-improvements of pharmaceuticals, despite reducing price-setting power of pharmaceutical compan...

  11. Institutions, resources and entry strategies in emerging economies.

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Estrin, Saul; Bhaumik, Sumon Kumar; Peng, Mike W.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the impact of market-supporting institutions on business strategies by analyzing the entry strategies of foreign investors entering emerging economies. We apply and advance the institutions-based view of strategy by integrating it with resource-based considerations. In particular, we show how resource-seeking strategies are pursued using different entry modes in different institutional contexts. Alternative modes of entry— greenfield, acquisition, and joint venture (JV)—allo...

  12. Stagnation Point Radiative Heating Relations for Venus Entry

    Tauber, Michael E.; Palmer, Grant E.; Prabhu, Dinesh K.

    2012-01-01

    Improved analytic expressions for calculating the stagnation point radiative heating during entry into the atmosphere of Venus have been developed. These analytic expressions can be incorporated into entry trajectory simulation codes. Together with analytical expressions for convective heating at the stagnation point, the time-integrated total heat load at the stagnation point is used in determining the thickness of protective material required, and hence the mass of the fore body heatshield of uniform thickness.

  13. ExoMars entry, descent and landing science

    Ferri, F; Lewis, S R; Withers, P.; Aboudan, A.; Bettanini, C.; Colombatti, G.; Debei, S.; Golombek, M.; Harri, A. M.; Komatsu, G.; Leese, M. R.; T. Mäkinen; Müller-Wodarg, I.; Ori, G. G.; M. R. Patel

    2011-01-01

    The entry, descent and landing of ExoMars offer a rare (once-per-mission) opportunity to perform in situ investigation of the martian environment over a wide altitude range. Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) measurements can provide essential data for atmospheric scientific investigations. We intend to perform atmospheric science measurements by exploiting data from EDLS engineering sensors and exploiting their readings beyond the expected engineering information.

  14. Mars Precision Entry Vehicle Guidance Using Internal Moving Mass Actuators

    Atkins, Brad Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Many landing sites of scientific interest on Mars including most of the Southern Hemisphere at elevations above 2km Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter reference are inaccessible due to current limitations in precision entry guidance and payload deceleration. Precision guidance and large payload deceleration is challenging due to the thin Martian atmosphere, large changes in free stream conditions during entry, and aerothermal and aerodynamic instability concerns associated with control systems with...

  15. Influenza A Virus Entry Inhibitors Targeting the Hemagglutinin

    Shuwen Liu; Jie Yang; Xintian Shen; Minmin Li

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) has caused seasonal influenza epidemics and influenza pandemics, which resulted in serious threat to public health and socioeconomic impacts. Until now, only 5 drugs belong to two categories are used for prophylaxis and treatment of IAV infection. Hemagglutinin (HA), the envelope glycoprotein of IAV, plays a critical role in viral binding, fusion and entry. Therefore, HA is an attractive target for developing anti‑IAV drugs to block the entry step of IAV infection. Her...

  16. The choice of foreign entry modes in a control perspective

    Boyd, Britta; Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie; Hollensen, Svend

    The aim of this article is to investigate the choice of entry modes for international markets in a control perspective. A survey from The Confederation of Danish Industry with 234 Danish small- and medium sized enterprises served as a data base. The entry modes are categorized into three groups...... turnover. The factors: personal networks and the interruption of the international activities were the most significant factors for the choice of intermediate mode (joint ventures and strategic alliances)....

  17. Scale Scale Economies in Nonprofit Provision, Technology Adoption and Entry

    Scharf, Kimberley

    2011-01-01

    We study competition between nonprofit providers that supply a collective service through increasing-returns-to-scale technologies under conditions of free entry. When providers adopt a not-for-profit mission, the absence of a residual claimant can impede entry, protecting the position of an inefficient incumbent. Moreover, when providers supply goods that are at least partly public in nature, they may be unable to sustain the adoption of more efficient technologies that feature fixed costs, ...

  18. Tying and entry deterrence in vertically differentiated markets

    Eugen Kovac

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes tying and bundling as an entry deterrence tool. It shows that a multi-product firm can defend its monopoly position in one market via tying even when it does not have market power in another market. This is shown on a model with two complementary goods, each of which is vertically differentiated and in which consumers’ preferences for the goods are positively correlated. Some possible ways of defending against entry deterrence, and implications for competition policy, are ...

  19. INSTITUTIONAL DETERMINANTS OF MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS' ENTRY MODE CHOICE IN TURKEY

    ,

    2012-01-01

    There are a wide range of factors that affect multinational corporations (MNCs) when they decide how to enter into a new market. In this study, the factors that shape MNCs' entry mode decisions are investigated in institutional economics framework. Two different theories on institutions, namely Institutional Theory and New Institutional Economics, are utilized. Using 2293 entries into Turkey, we found that investment freedom, intellectual property rights protection and corruption have signifi...

  20. Determinants of MNC's entry mode strategies in China

    Wang, Shuang

    2011-01-01

    Since the economic reform launched in 1980s, massive institutional change hastaken place in China and resulted in an increasingly liberalized governmentregulations toward business operations, which to a certain extent set foreign MNCsfree to pursue their preferred entry mode strategies. This paper analyzes how threeMNCs that are operating in China, evaluate the influences and significances of thefactors on their entry mode strategies since they first came to China. The empiricalresults show t...

  1. Foreign Market Entry Mode Choice: Hard - And Soft Services

    Majkgård, A; D. D. Sharma

    1999-01-01

    Research from service firms show that one group of studies suggest that entry mode choices by manufacturing firms are generalizable to service firms. Results from another group of studies contradict that view. In this paper we classify services in hard services and soft services, hard services are grouped with manufacturing firms in terms of foreign market entry mode choices. The data consists of 362 international ,^er\\ ice firms The findings shows that hard services do not significantly diff...

  2. Modes of Foreign Entry: A Transaction Cost Analysis and Propositions

    Erin Anderson; Hubert Gatignon

    1986-01-01

    A “frontier issue” in international marketing is the appropriate choice of entry mode in foreign markets. The objective of this paper is to offer a transaction cost framework for investigating the entry mode decision. This framework provides 1) a theoretical basis for systematically interrelating the literature into propositions, 2) propositions about interactions which resolve the apparently contradictory arguments advanced to date. Specifically, the paper:Illustrates the feasibility of clus...

  3. Choice of market entry mode, Case study: Kadant Johnson

    Nepomilueva, Daria

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT KYMENLAAKSON AMMATTIKORKEAKOULU University of Applied Sciences International Business Nepomilueva, Daria CHOICE OF MARKET ENTRY MODE, CASE STUDY: KADANT JOHNSON Bachelor’s Thesis 64 pages + 3 pages of appendices Supervisor Peter Zashev, D. Sc. (Econ.) June 2010 Keywords internationalization, market entry mode, rotary joint This thesis describes the factors that should be considered in a company’s internationalization process. It gives information on di...

  4. An Analysis of Entry Modes In The Chinese Car Industry

    Hu, Liu

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decades, economic globalization is irresistible in the present world. In 2001, China accessed into World Trade Organization (WTO), forcing Chinese companies to reposition them to meet the challenges from oversea companies. Especially, Chinese car industry will suffer a lot. To serve customers outside the existing domestic market, a firm needs to choose the best mode of entry into the foreign industry. The choice of the appropriate entry mode for a particular foreign market is of...

  5. FDI In India : Determinents Of Entry Modes In India

    Jain, Gaurav

    2003-01-01

    Although cultural distance between countries have gained a lot of attention in the FDI literature but impact on cultural distance on entry mode has recently been extensively researched, after Kogut and Singh introduced the simple measure to calculate cultural distance between the countries. This dissertation tests the proposition that do cultural distance, Sector, or Nationality affect the entry mode strategies of multinational firms when they enter foreign countries. I focus my study by conc...

  6. The entry price threshold in EU agriculture: deterrent or barrier?

    Santeramo, Fabio Gaetano; Cioffi, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The paper investigates the effects of the entry price scheme for fresh fruit and vegetables. The analysis is conducted on the European prices of tomatoes, lemons and apples for some of the main competing countries on the European domestic markets: Morocco, Argentina, Turkey and China. The econometric analysis is based on testing and estimating a switching vector autoregressive model with endogenous threshold entry price level. The model shows the isolation effects and the accumulation of Sta...

  7. Finnish market entry planning of franchising Kungfu catering

    Liu, Yun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to carry out a market entry planning by franchising Kungfu catering in Finland. Kungfu catering was a typical Chinese fast food restaurant, of which there was a gap in Finnish fast food market. McDonald’s and Hesburger were succesful examples of franchise business, experiences of those 2 restaurants were used for reference to create a suitable franchise strategy for Kungfu Finland. Finnish market entry planning of Kungfu Finland has been explained from several a...

  8. Entry of Wal-Mart Supercenters and Supermarkets’ Profit Margins

    Xiaoou Liu; Rigoberto A. Lopez

    2011-01-01

    This article quantifies the impact of Wal-Mart Supercenters on supermarkets’ profitability via a two-stage dynamic entry game, using method of simulated moments and milk scanner data from Dallas/Fort Worth supermarkets. The empirical findings show that the entry of Wal-Mart Supercenters accounts for about an average 50% decrease in milk profit margins for incumbent supermarkets. Effects of scale are found to be more significant for Wal-Mart Supercenters than for incumbent supermarkets, granti...

  9. Exploiting Herpes Simplex Virus Entry for Novel Therapeutics

    Deepak Shukla

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Herpes Simplex virus (HSV is associated with a variety of diseases such as genital herpes and numerous ocular diseases. At the global level, high prevalence of individuals who are seropositive for HSV, combined with its inconspicuous infection, remains a cause for major concern. At the molecular level, HSV entry into a host cell involves multiple steps, primarily the interaction of viral glycoproteins with various cell surface receptors, many of which have alternate substitutes. The molecular complexity of the virus to enter a cell is also enhanced by the existence of different modes of viral entry. The availability of many entry receptors, along with a variety of entry mechanisms, has resulted in a virus that is capable of infecting virtually all cell types. While HSV uses a wide repertoire of viral and host factors in establishing infection, current therapeutics aimed against the virus are not as diversified. In this particular review, we will focus on the initial entry of the virus into the cell, while highlighting potential novel therapeutics that can control this process. Virus entry is a decisive step and effective therapeutics can translate to less virus replication, reduced cell death, and detrimental symptoms.

  10. Using analytic network process for evaluating mobile text entry methods.

    Ocampo, Lanndon A; Seva, Rosemary R

    2016-01-01

    This paper highlights a preference evaluation methodology for text entry methods in a touch keyboard smartphone using analytic network process (ANP). Evaluation of text entry methods in literature mainly considers speed and accuracy. This study presents an alternative means for selecting text entry method that considers user preference. A case study was carried out with a group of experts who were asked to develop a selection decision model of five text entry methods. The decision problem is flexible enough to reflect interdependencies of decision elements that are necessary in describing real-life conditions. Results showed that QWERTY method is more preferred than other text entry methods while arrangement of keys is the most preferred criterion in characterizing a sound method. Sensitivity analysis using simulation of normally distributed random numbers under fairly large perturbation reported the foregoing results reliable enough to reflect robust judgment. The main contribution of this paper is the introduction of a multi-criteria decision approach in the preference evaluation of text entry methods. PMID:26360215

  11. Limited Entry Fixed Gear 2009-10 (Collect cost and earning data from the Limited Entry (LE) fixed gear fleet)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Design and implement collection of economic data from the limited entry groundfish fixed gear fleet. Work includes identifying the survey population, developing a...

  12. 75 FR 82202 - Utilization of Global Entry Kiosks by NEXUS and SENTRI Participants

    2010-12-29

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Utilization of Global Entry Kiosks by NEXUS and SENTRI... entry for pre-approved travelers. Through the utilization of automated kiosks, the Global Entry pilot... these programs currently in good standing to utilize Global Entry kiosks as part of their NEXUS...

  13. 50 CFR 660.231 - Limited entry fixed gear sablefish primary fishery.

    2010-10-01

    ... primary fishery. This section applies to the sablefish primary season for the limited entry fixed gear fishery north of 36° N. lat. Limited entry and open access fixed gear sablefish fishing outside of the... primary season for the limited entry fixed gear fishery, unless at least one limited entry permit...

  14. 19 CFR 144.42 - Combined entry for rewarehouse and withdrawal for consumption.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Combined entry for rewarehouse and withdrawal for... Rewarehouse Entries § 144.42 Combined entry for rewarehouse and withdrawal for consumption. (a) Applicability... of the merchandise immediately upon arrival at destination, he may make a combined entry...

  15. 19 CFR 141.84 - Photocopies of invoice for separate entries of same shipment.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Photocopies of invoice for separate entries of... HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Invoices § 141.84 Photocopies of invoice for separate entries of same shipment. (a) Entries at one port. If by reason...

  16. Potential for Integrating Entry Guidance into the Multi-Disciplinary Entry Vehicle Optimization Environment

    D'souza, Sarah N.; Kinney, David J.; Garcia, Joseph A.; Sarigul-Klijn, Nesrin

    2014-01-01

    The state-of-the-art in vehicle design decouples flight feasible trajectory generation from the optimization process of an entry spacecraft shape. The disadvantage to this decoupled process is seen when a particular aeroshell does not meet in-flight requirements when integrated into Guidance, Navigation, and Control simulations. It is postulated that the integration of a guidance algorithm into the design process will provide a real-time, rapid trajectory generation technique to enhance the robustness of vehicle design solutions. The potential benefit of this integration is a reduction in design cycles (possible cost savings) and increased accuracy in the aerothermal environment (possible mass savings). This work examines two aspects: 1) the performance of a reference tracking guidance algorithm for five different geometries with the same reference trajectory and 2) the potential of mass savings from improved aerothermal predictions. An Apollo Derived Guidance (ADG) algorithm is used in this study. The baseline geometry and five test case geometries were flown using the same baseline trajectory. The guided trajectory results are compared to separate trajectories determined in a vehicle optimization study conducted for NASA's Mars Entry, Descent, and Landing System Analysis. This study revealed several aspects regarding the potential gains and required developments for integrating a guidance algorithm into the vehicle optimization environment. First, the generation of flight feasible trajectories is only as good as the robustness of the guidance algorithm. The set of dispersed geometries modelled aerodynamic dispersions that ranged from +/-1% to +/-17% and a single extreme case was modelled where the aerodynamics were approximately 80% less than the baseline geometry. The ADG, as expected, was able to guide the vehicle into the aeroshell separation box at the target location for dispersions up to 17%, but failed for the 80% dispersion cases. Finally, the results

  17. Quality of data entry using single entry, double entry and automated forms processing--an example based on a study of patient-reported outcomes

    Paulsen, Aksel; Overgaard, Søren; Lauritsen, Jens Martin

    2012-01-01

    The clinical and scientific usage of patient-reported outcome measures is increasing in the health services. Often paper forms are used. Manual double entry of data is defined as the definitive gold standard for transferring data to an electronic format, but the process is laborious. Automated...

  18. Neural stem cell-derived exosomes mediate viral entry

    Sims B

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Brian Sims,1,2,* Linlin Gu,3,* Alexandre Krendelchtchikov,3 Qiana L Matthews3,4 1Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, 2Department of Cell, Developmental, and Integrative Biology, 3Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, 4Center for AIDS Research, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Viruses enter host cells through interactions of viral ligands with cellular receptors. Viruses can also enter cells in a receptor-independent fashion. Mechanisms regarding the receptor-independent viral entry into cells have not been fully elucidated. Exosomal trafficking between cells may offer a mechanism by which viruses can enter cells.Methods: To investigate the role of exosomes on cellular viral entry, we employed neural stem cell-derived exosomes and adenovirus type 5 (Ad5 for the proof-of-principle study. Results: Exosomes significantly enhanced Ad5 entry in Coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR-deficient cells, in which Ad5 only had very limited entry. The exosomes were shown to contain T-cell immunoglobulin mucin protein 4 (TIM-4, which binds phosphatidylserine. Treatment with anti-TIM-4 antibody significantly blocked the exosome-mediated Ad5 entry.Conclusion: Neural stem cell-derived exosomes mediated significant cellular entry of Ad5 in a receptor-independent fashion. This mediation may be hampered by an antibody specifically targeting TIM-4 on exosomes. This set of results will benefit further elucidation of virus/exosome pathways, which would contribute to reducing natural viral infection by developing therapeutic agents or vaccines. Keywords: neural stem cell-derived exosomes, adenovirus type 5, TIM-4, viral entry, phospholipids

  19. A Novel Keyless Entry System Using Visible Light Communication

    Kuniyoshi Okuda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A major conventional car key is the mechanical key. When users inserted the key into a cylinder mechanical key and turn, users can unlock. The mechanical key may be able to be worn away for physical contact. And it may be impossible to use. Further the mechanical key may be damaged or destroyed by mischief. So a keyless entry system has been developed. The keyless entry system locks and unlocks using the infrared ray and radio waves communication. The keyless entry system does not require physical contacts. Therefore, the possibilities of damage due to mischief and be worn away are fell. However, the transmission ranges of infrared ray and radio waves communication are not clear. Submitting data might be tapped to the malicious people. If the information is tapped, then you have theft of the car and the risk of car break. We propose a keyless entry system using visible light communication in order to solve this problem. Visible light communication transmits signal using blinking light. Thus the transmission range is clear. The user can transmit the information only to the aimed place. Therefore, the usability is improved. We measure the durations of "take out the remote control", "put the aim" and "takes to unlock key" in order to evaluate the usability in the experiment. We also compared with the infrared ray communication and examined the superiority. Usability is improved in the experimental results, and usability is better than conventional keyless entry system.

  20. Influence of interplanetary trajectory selection on Mars atmospheric entry velocity

    Striepe, Scott A.; Braun, Robert D.; Powell, Richard W.; Fowler, Wallace T.

    1993-01-01

    Many current manned Mars mission studies are using low lift-to-drag ratio (L/D) vehicles to aerobrake at both Mars and Earth. The use of these low L/D vehicles could limit the allowable velocity at the atmospheric interface. This paper will demonstrate that if entry velocity constraints are incorporated into the interplanetary analysis of aerobraking Mars missions, many opportunities can be achieved for a small increase in initial mass in low-Earth orbit (IMLEO). These opportunities result from varying the initial launch date and the encounter dates and possibly using a powered Venus swingby on either the inbound or outbound transfer. This paper demonstrates this technique by using three atmospheric entry velocity ranges at Mars arrival (6.0-8.5, 6.4-8.1, and 7.2-7.3 km/s), unconstrained Mars entry velocities, and an Earth return entry velocity below 14 km/s. The results indicate that, by carefully selecting the interplanetary trajectory, an optimum IMLEO mission can be found for even highly restrictive entry velocity missions in practically all of the 15 yr studied.

  1. Dopamine receptor activation increases HIV entry into primary human macrophages.

    Peter J Gaskill

    Full Text Available Macrophages are the primary cell type infected with HIV in the central nervous system, and infection of these cells is a major component in the development of neuropathogenesis and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Within the brains of drug abusers, macrophages are exposed to increased levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that mediates the addictive and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. In this study we examined the effects of dopamine on HIV entry into primary human macrophages. Exposure to dopamine during infection increased the entry of R5 tropic HIV into macrophages, irrespective of the concentration of the viral inoculum. The entry pathway affected was CCR5 dependent, as antagonizing CCR5 with the small molecule inhibitor TAK779 completely blocked entry. The effect was dose-dependent and had a steep threshold, only occurring above 108 M dopamine. The dopamine-mediated increase in entry required dopamine receptor activation, as it was abrogated by the pan-dopamine receptor antagonist flupenthixol, and could be mediated through both subtypes of dopamine receptors. These findings indicate that the effects of dopamine on macrophages may have a significant impact on HIV pathogenesis. They also suggest that drug-induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which drugs of abuse with distinct modes of action exacerbate neuroinflammation and contribute to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in infected drug abusers.

  2. BST2/Tetherin enhances entry of human cytomegalovirus.

    Kasinath Viswanathan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Interferon-induced BST2/Tetherin prevents budding of vpu-deficient HIV-1 by tethering mature viral particles to the plasma membrane. BST2 also inhibits release of other enveloped viruses including Ebola virus and Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV, indicating that BST2 is a broadly acting antiviral host protein. Unexpectedly however, recovery of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV from supernatants of BST2-expressing human fibroblasts was increased rather than decreased. Furthermore, BST2 seemed to enhance viral entry into cells since more virion proteins were released into BST2-expressing cells and subsequent viral gene expression was elevated. A significant increase in viral entry was also observed upon induction of endogenous BST2 during differentiation of the pro-monocytic cell line THP-1. Moreover, treatment of primary human monocytes with siRNA to BST2 reduced HCMV infection, suggesting that BST2 facilitates entry of HCMV into cells expressing high levels of BST2 either constitutively or in response to exogenous stimuli. Since BST2 is present in HCMV particles we propose that HCMV entry is enhanced via a reverse-tethering mechanism with BST2 in the viral envelope interacting with BST2 in the target cell membrane. Our data suggest that HCMV not only counteracts the well-established function of BST2 as inhibitor of viral egress but also employs this anti-viral protein to gain entry into BST2-expressing hematopoietic cells, a process that might play a role in hematogenous dissemination of HCMV.

  3. Entry Trajectory Issues for the Stardust Sample Return Capsule

    Desai, Prasun N.; Mitcheltree, Robert A.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil

    1999-01-01

    The Stardust mission was successfully launched on February 7, 1999. It will be the first mission to return samples from a comet. The sample return capsule, which is passively controlled during the fastest Earth entry ever, will land by parachute in Utah. The present study describes the analysis of the entry, descent, and landing of the returning sample capsule utilizing the final, launch configuration capsule mass properties. The effects of two aerodynamic instabilities are revealed (one in the high altitude free molecular regime and the other in the transonic/subsonic flow regime). These instabilities could lead to unacceptably large excursions in the angle-of-attack near peak heating and main parachute deployment, respectively. To reduce the excursions resulting from the high altitude instability, the entry spin rate of the capsule is increased. To stabilize the excursions from the transonic/subsonic instability, a drogue chute with deployment triggered by a gravity-switch and timer is added prior to main parachute deployment. A Monte Carlo dispersion analysis of the modified entry (from which the impact of off-nominal conditions during the entry is ascertained) predicts that the capsule attitude excursions near peak heating and drogue chute deployment are within Stardust mission limits. Additionally, the size of the resulting 3-sigma landing ellipse is 60.8 km in downrange by 19.9 km in crossrange, which is within the Utah Test and Training Range boundaries.

  4. Entry Dispersion Analysis for the Stardust Comet Sample Return Capsule

    Desai, Prasun N.; Mitcheltree, Robert A.; Cheatwood, F. Mcneil

    1997-01-01

    Stardust will be the first mission to return samples from beyond the Earth-Moon system. The sample return capsule, which is passively controlled during the fastest Earth entry ever, will land by parachute in Utah. The present study analyzes the entry, descent, and landing of the returning sample capsule. The effects of two aerodynamic instabilities are revealed (one in the high altitude free molecular regime and the other in the transonic/subsonic flow regime). These instabilities could lead to unacceptably large excursions in the angle-of-attack near peak heating and main parachute deployment, respectively. To reduce the excursions resulting from the high altitude instability, the entry spin rate of the capsule is increased. To stabilize the excursions from the transonic/subsonic instability, a drogue chute with deployment triggered by an accelerometer and timer is added prior to main parachute deployment. A Monte Carlo dispersion analysis of the modified entry (from which the impact of off-nominal conditions during the entry is ascertained) shows that the capsule attitude excursions near peak heating and drogue chute deployment are within Stardust program limits. Additionally, the size of the resulting 3-sigma landing ellipse is 83.5 km in downrange by 29.2 km in crossrange, which is within the Utah Test and Training Range boundaries.

  5. Entry, Descent, and Landing Performance of the Mars Phoenix Lander

    Desai, Prasun N.; Prince, Jill L.; Wueen, Eric M.; Cruz, Juan R.; Grover, Myron R.

    2008-01-01

    On May 25, 2008, the Mars Phoenix Lander successfully landed on the northern arctic plains of Mars. An overview of a preliminary reconstruction analysis performed on each entry, descent, and landing phase to assess the performance of Phoenix as it descended is presented and a comparison to pre-entry predictions is provided. The landing occurred 21 km further downrange than the predicted landing location. Analysis of the flight data revealed that the primary cause of Phoenix s downrange landing was a higher trim total angle of attack during the hypersonic phase of the entry, which resulted in Phoenix flying a slightly lifting trajectory. The cause of this higher trim attitude is not known at this time. Parachute deployment was 6.4 s later than prediction. This later deployment time was within the variations expected and is consistent with a lifting trajectory. The parachute deployment and inflation process occurred as expected with no anomalies identified. The subsequent parachute descent and powered terminal landing also behaved as expected. A preliminary reconstruction of the landing day atmospheric density profile was found to be lower than the best apriori prediction, ranging from a few percent less to a maximum of 8%. A comparison of the flight reconstructed trajectory parameters shows that the actual Phoenix entry, descent, and landing was close to pre-entry predictions. This reconstruction investigation is currently ongoing and the results to date are in the process of being refined.

  6. Decoding protein networks during virus entry by quantitative proteomics.

    Gerold, Gisa; Bruening, Janina; Pietschmann, Thomas

    2016-06-15

    Virus entry into host cells relies on interactions between viral and host structures including lipids, carbohydrates and proteins. Particularly, protein-protein interactions between viral surface proteins and host proteins as well as secondary host protein-protein interactions play a pivotal role in coordinating virus binding and uptake. These interactions are dynamic and frequently involve multiprotein complexes. In the past decade mass spectrometry based proteomics methods have reached sensitivities and high throughput compatibilities of genomics methods and now allow the reliable quantitation of proteins in complex samples from limited material. As proteomics provides essential information on the biologically active entity namely the protein, including its posttranslational modifications and its interactions with other proteins, it is an indispensable method in the virologist's toolbox. Here we review protein interactions during virus entry and compare classical biochemical methods to study entry with novel technically advanced quantitative proteomics techniques. We highlight the value of quantitative proteomics in mapping functional virus entry networks, discuss the benefits and limitations and illustrate how the methodology will help resolve unsettled questions in virus entry research in the future. PMID:26365680

  7. Past, present, and future of entry inhibitors as HIV microbicides.

    Gibson, Richard M; Arts, Eric J

    2012-01-01

    Preventing the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the main goal of numerous studies trying to develop an effective vaccine and microbicide agents. Here we review the use of antiretroviral drugs to inhibit viral entry as potential HIV microbicides. After the failure of nonoxynol-9 microbicide strategies shifted towards the use of compounds creating a physical barrier to virus attachment (e.g., surfactants) or inhibit the virus in the vaginal milieu (e.g., polyanions). These early, non-specific inhibitors showed promise in both in vitro and in vivo(non-human primates) studies but provided only modest protection from HIV transmission in clinical efficacy trials. The next generation of HIV entry microbicides was based on specifically blocking virus from entering host cells by targeting CD4 attachment, gp120 binding, and virus-cell membrane fusion events. Although protection from an SIV-HIV hybrid was evident in non-human primates treated and challenged in the vaginal cavity, none of these compounds have advanced to clinical trials as a microbicide. Here we will discuss the reasons for these failures, including the selection of drug resistant HIV variants, which raises questions as to the future of broadly effective microbicides based on HIV entry inhibitors. The outcome of continued research and potential efficacy trials on the next generation of entry inhibitors might reveal whether or not an effective entry microbicide can be developed. PMID:22264042

  8. Rhadinovirus host entry by co-operative infection.

    Clara Lawler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhadinoviruses establish chronic infections of clinical and economic importance. Several show respiratory transmission and cause lung pathologies. We used Murid Herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4 to understand how rhadinovirus lung infection might work. A primary epithelial or B cell infection often is assumed. MuHV-4 targeted instead alveolar macrophages, and their depletion reduced markedly host entry. While host entry was efficient, alveolar macrophages lacked heparan - an important rhadinovirus binding target - and were infected poorly ex vivo. In situ analysis revealed that virions bound initially not to macrophages but to heparan⁺ type 1 alveolar epithelial cells (AECs. Although epithelial cell lines endocytose MuHV-4 readily in vitro, AECs did not. Rather bound virions were acquired by macrophages; epithelial infection occurred only later. Thus, host entry was co-operative - virion binding to epithelial cells licensed macrophage infection, and this in turn licensed AEC infection. An antibody block of epithelial cell binding failed to block host entry: opsonization provided merely another route to macrophages. By contrast an antibody block of membrane fusion was effective. Therefore co-operative infection extended viral tropism beyond the normal paradigm of a target cell infected readily in vitro; and macrophage involvement in host entry required neutralization to act down-stream of cell binding.

  9. Structural and mechanistic studies of measles virus illuminate paramyxovirus entry.

    Richard K Plemper

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Measles virus (MeV, a member of the paramyxovirus family of enveloped RNA viruses and one of the most infectious viral pathogens identified, accounts for major pediatric morbidity and mortality worldwide although coordinated efforts to achieve global measles control are in place. Target cell entry is mediated by two viral envelope glycoproteins, the attachment (H and fusion (F proteins, which form a complex that achieves merger of the envelope with target cell membranes. Despite continually expanding knowledge of the entry strategies employed by enveloped viruses, our molecular insight into the organization of functional paramyxovirus fusion complexes and the mechanisms by which the receptor binding by the attachment protein triggers the required conformational rearrangements of the fusion protein remain incomplete. Recently reported crystal structures of the MeV attachment protein in complex with its cellular receptors CD46 or SLAM and newly developed functional assays have now illuminated some of the fundamental principles that govern cell entry by this archetype member of the paramyxovirus family. Here, we review these advances in our molecular understanding of MeV entry in the context of diverse entry strategies employed by other members of the paramyxovirus family.

  10. The V domain of dog PVRL4 (nectin-4) mediates canine distemper virus entry and virus cell-to-cell spread

    The entry of canine distemper virus (CDV) is a multistep process that involves the attachment of CDV hemagglutinin (H) to its cellular receptor, followed by fusion between virus and cell membranes. Our laboratory recently identified PVRL4 (nectin-4) to be the epithelial receptor for measles and canine distemper viruses. In this study, we demonstrate that the V domain of PVRL4 is critical for CDV entry and virus cell-to-cell spread. Furthermore, four key amino acid residues within the V domain of dog PVRL4 and two within the CDV hemagglutinin were shown to be essential for receptor-mediated virus entry. - Highlights: • PVRL4 (nectin-4) is the epithelial cell receptor for measles and canine distemper viruses. • V domain of PVRL4 is critical for CDV entry, cell-to-cell spread, and syncytia formation. • Chimeric PVRL1 backbone substituted with the V domain of PVRL4 can function as a receptor. • Amino acids (F132/P133/A134/G135) within the V domain are essential for PVRL4 receptor activity. • Amino acids (P493/Y539) within CDV H protein are essential for PVRL4 receptor interaction

  11. The V domain of dog PVRL4 (nectin-4) mediates canine distemper virus entry and virus cell-to-cell spread

    Delpeut, Sebastien; Noyce, Ryan S. [The Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 1X5 (Canada); IWK Health Centre, Canadian Center for Vaccinology, Goldbloom Pavilion, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 1X5 (Canada); Richardson, Christopher D., E-mail: chris.richardson@dal.ca [The Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 1X5 (Canada); IWK Health Centre, Canadian Center for Vaccinology, Goldbloom Pavilion, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 1X5 (Canada); The Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2014-04-15

    The entry of canine distemper virus (CDV) is a multistep process that involves the attachment of CDV hemagglutinin (H) to its cellular receptor, followed by fusion between virus and cell membranes. Our laboratory recently identified PVRL4 (nectin-4) to be the epithelial receptor for measles and canine distemper viruses. In this study, we demonstrate that the V domain of PVRL4 is critical for CDV entry and virus cell-to-cell spread. Furthermore, four key amino acid residues within the V domain of dog PVRL4 and two within the CDV hemagglutinin were shown to be essential for receptor-mediated virus entry. - Highlights: • PVRL4 (nectin-4) is the epithelial cell receptor for measles and canine distemper viruses. • V domain of PVRL4 is critical for CDV entry, cell-to-cell spread, and syncytia formation. • Chimeric PVRL1 backbone substituted with the V domain of PVRL4 can function as a receptor. • Amino acids (F132/P133/A134/G135) within the V domain are essential for PVRL4 receptor activity. • Amino acids (P493/Y539) within CDV H protein are essential for PVRL4 receptor interaction.

  12. Pentacyclic triterpenes grafted on CD cores to interfere with influenza virus entry: A dramatic multivalent effect.

    Xiao, Sulong; Si, Longlong; Tian, Zhenyu; Jiao, Pingxuan; Fan, Zibo; Meng, Kun; Zhou, Xiaoshu; Wang, Han; Xu, Renyang; Han, Xu; Fu, Ge; Zhang, Yongmin; Zhang, Lihe; Zhou, Demin

    2016-02-01

    Multivalent effect plays an important role in biological processes, particularly in the specific recognition of virus with its host cell during the first step of infection. Here we report the synthesis of multivalent pentacyclic triterpene grafted on cyclodextrin core and potency of against influenza entry activity. Nine star-shaped compounds containing six, seven and eight pentacyclic triterpene pharmacophore on cyclodextrin scaffold were prepared by way of copper-catalyzed azide-alkyl cycloaddition reaction under microwave activation. Some of the multimers exhibited much potent antiviral activity against H1N1 virus (A/WSN/33), even equivalent or superior to oseltamivir. The most active compound 31, a heptavalent oleanolic acid-β-cyclodextrin conjugate, shows an up to 125-fold potency enhancement by its IC50 value over the corresponding monovalent conjugate and oleanolic acid, disclosing a clear multivalent effect. Further studies show that three compounds 31-33 exhibited broad spectrum inhibitory activity against other two human influenza A/JX/312 (H3N2) and A/HN/1222 (H3N2) viruses with the IC50 values at 2.47-14.90 μM. Most importantly, we found that compound 31, one of the best representative conjugate, binds tightly to the viral envelope hemagglutinin with a dissociation constant of KD = 2.08 μM, disrupting the interaction of hemagglutinin with the sialic acid receptor and thus the attachment of viruses to host cells. Our study might establish a strategy for the design of new pharmaceutical agents based on multivalency so as to block influenza virus entry into host cells. PMID:26686050

  13. Dengue Virus Entry as Target for Antiviral Therapy

    Marijke M. F. Alen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV infections are expanding worldwide and, because of the lack of a vaccine, the search for antiviral products is imperative. Four serotypes of DENV are described and they all cause a similar disease outcome. It would be interesting to develop an antiviral product that can interact with all four serotypes, prevent host cell infection and subsequent immune activation. DENV entry is thus an interesting target for antiviral therapy. DENV enters the host cell through receptor-mediated endocytosis. Several cellular receptors have been proposed, and DC-SIGN, present on dendritic cells, is considered as the most important DENV receptor until now. Because DENV entry is a target for antiviral therapy, various classes of compounds have been investigated to inhibit this process. In this paper, an overview is given of all the putative DENV receptors, and the most promising DENV entry inhibitors are discussed.

  14. Towards a Market Entry Framework for Digital Payment Platforms

    Kazan, Erol; Damsgaard, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a framework to understand and explain the design and configuration of digital payment platforms and how these platforms create conditions for market entries. By embracing the theoretical lens of platform envelopment, we employed a multiple and comparative-case study in a...... European setting by using our framework as an analytical lens to assess market-entry conditions. We found that digital payment platforms have acquired market entry capabilities, which is achieved through strategic platform design (i.e., platform development and service distribution) and technology design...... (i.e., issuing evolutionary and revolutionary payment instruments). The studied cases reveal that digital platforms leverage payment services as a mean to bridge and converge core and adjacent platform markets. In so doing, platform envelopment strengthens firms’ market position in their respective...

  15. Pesticides re-entry dermal exposure of workers in greenhouses.

    Caffarelli, V; Conte, E; Correnti, A; Gatti, R; Musmeci, F; Morali, G; Spagnoli, G; Tranfo, G; Triolo, L; Vita, M; Zappa, G

    2004-01-01

    This research has the aim to evaluate the risk of pesticide dermal exposure for workers in greenhouses. We considered the following crops: tomato, cucumber and strawberry, largely spread in Bracciano lake district. The pesticides monitored were: tetradifon on strawberry: metalaxyl, azoxystrobin and fenarimol on cucumber; acrinathrin, azoxystrobin and chlorpyrifos ethyl on tomato. The dermal exposure was evaluated by Dislodgeable Foliar Residue (DFR) measurements employing transfer coefficients got from literature. For risk evaluation, we have compared the dermal exposures with Acceptable Operator Exposure Levels (AOEL). The re-entry time were obtained intercepting the dose decay curves with AOEL values. The re-entry times result higher than two days in the cases of chlorpyrifos on tomato (re-entry time: 3 days), azoxystrobin on tomato (4 days), and tetradifon on strawberry (8 days). The need of measuring specific transfer coefficients is pointed out. PMID:15756864

  16. RITD - Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth

    Haukka, H.; Heilimo, J.; Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Koryanov, V.; Arruego, I.; Schmidt, W.; Finchenko, V.; Martynov, M.; Ponomarenko, A.; Kazakovtsev, V.; Martin, S.

    2015-10-01

    We have developed an atmospheric re-entry and descent system concept based on inflatable hypersonic decelerator techniques that were originally developed for Mars. The ultimate goal of this EU-funded RITD-project (Re-entry: Inflatable Technology Development) was to assess the benefits of this technology when deploying small payloads from low Earth orbits to the surface of the Earth with modest costs. The principal goal was to assess and develop a preliminary EDLS design for the entire relevant range of aerodynamic regimes expected to be encountered in Earth's atmosphere during entry, descent and landing. Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and even Lunar applications envisaged include the use of the EDLS approach in returning payloads of 4-8 kg down to the surface.

  17. Tannin inhibits HIV-1 entry by targeting gp41

    Lin L(U); Shu-wen LIU; Shi-bo JIANG; Shu-guang WU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the mechanism by which tannin inhibits HIV-1 entry into target cells. METHODS: The inhibitory activity of tannin on HIV-1 replication and entry was detected by p24 production and HIV-1-mediated cell fusion, respectively. The inhibitory activity on the gp41 six-helix bundle formation was determined by an improved sandwich ELISA. RESULTS: Tannins from different sources showed potent inhibitory activity on HIV-1 replication,HIV-1-mediated cell fusion, and the gp4 six-helix bundle formation. CONCLUSION: Tannin inhibits HIV-1 entry into target cells by interfering with the gp41 six-helix bundle formation, thus blocking HIV-1 fusion with the target cell.

  18. Entry into the electricity market: Uncertainty, competition, and mothballing options

    The present paper analyzes the entry strategies into the electricity market of two firms that have power plants under price uncertainty and competition. We consider the symmetric and asymmetric two firms, which have either a thermal power plant or a nuclear power plant. The differences between the thermal power plant and the nuclear power plant, such as the cost structure and operational flexibility are modeled. The threshold values of market entry are calculated for each firm with either the thermal power plant or the nuclear power plant as the leader or the follower. We show the dependence of cost structures on entry thresholds of the leader and the follower into the electricity market. For various market and cost conditions, the diagrams of the leader are also shown

  19. Please comply: the water entry of soft spheres

    Belden, Jesse; Hurd, Randy; Fanning, Tate; Jandron, Michael; Rekos, John; Bower, Allan; Truscott, Tadd

    2015-11-01

    The typical phenomena associated with sphere water impact are significantly altered when the sphere material is highly compliant rather than rigid. We describe the water impact physics of homogenous and hollow elastic spheres. The homogeneous spheres undergo large oscillatory deformations throughout entry that carve nested disturbances into the normally smooth air cavity, altering cavity shape and pinch off. Using an analytical model, we relate the maximum sphere deformation to the material properties and impact velocity. This characteristic deformation is used to reconcile the differences between cavities formed by compliant and rigid spheres. In addition to the nested disturbances seen with the homogeneous spheres, we observe azimuthal irregularities on the cavity during water entry of hollow elastic spheres. Based on experiments and finite-element modeling, we suggest that these disturbances are initiated by vibration mode shapes excited in the hollow spheres upon impact. For all sphere types, we compare the forces throughout water entry to the rigid sphere case.

  20. Influenza A Virus Entry Inhibitors Targeting the Hemagglutinin

    Shuwen Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus (IAV has caused seasonal influenza epidemics and influenza pandemics, which resulted in serious threat to public health and socioeconomic impacts. Until now, only 5 drugs belong to two categories are used for prophylaxis and treatment of IAV infection. Hemagglutinin (HA, the envelope glycoprotein of IAV, plays a critical role in viral binding, fusion and entry. Therefore, HA is an attractive target for developing anti‑IAV drugs to block the entry step of IAV infection. Here we reviewed the recent progress in the study of conformational changes of HA during viral fusion process and the development of HA-based IAV entry inhibitors, which may provide a new choice for controlling future influenza pandemics.

  1. Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System Modeling, Calibration, and Error Analysis

    Karlgaard, Christopher D.; VanNorman, John; Siemers, Paul M.; Schoenenberger, Mark; Munk, Michelle M.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI)/Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System (MEADS) project installed seven pressure ports through the MSL Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) heatshield to measure heatshield surface pressures during entry. These measured surface pressures are used to generate estimates of atmospheric quantities based on modeled surface pressure distributions. In particular, the quantities to be estimated from the MEADS pressure measurements include the dynamic pressure, angle of attack, and angle of sideslip. This report describes the calibration of the pressure transducers utilized to reconstruct the atmospheric data and associated uncertainty models, pressure modeling and uncertainty analysis, and system performance results. The results indicate that the MEADS pressure measurement system hardware meets the project requirements.

  2. Features of Human Herpesvirus-6A and -6B Entry

    Takahiro Maeki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6 is a T lymphotropic herpesvirus belonging to the Betaherpesvirinae subfamily. HHV-6 was long classified into variants A and B (HHV-6A and HHV-6B; however, recently, HHV-6A and HHV-6B were reclassified as different species. The process of herpesvirus entry into target cells is complicated, and in the case of HHV-6A and HHV-6B, the detailed mechanism remains to be elucidated, although both viruses are known to enter cells via endocytosis. In this paper, (1 findings about the cellular receptor and its ligand for HHV-6A and HHV-6B are summarized, and (2 a schematic model of HHV-6A’s replication cycle, including its entry, is presented. In addition, (3 reports showing the importance of lipids in both the HHV-6A envelope and target-cell membrane for viral entry are reviewed, and (4 glycoproteins involved in cell fusion are discussed.

  3. Fluctuations of Matrix Entries of Regular Functions of Wigner Matrices

    Pizzo, Alessandro; Renfrew, David; Soshnikov, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    We study the fluctuations of the matrix entries of regular functions of Wigner random matrices in the limit when the matrix size goes to infinity. In the case of the Gaussian ensembles (GOE and GUE) this problem was considered by A. Lytova and L. Pastur (J. Stat. Phys. 134:147-159, 2009). Our results are valid provided the off-diagonal matrix entries have finite fourth moment, the diagonal matrix entries have finite second moment, and the test functions have four continuous derivatives in a neighborhood of the support of the Wigner semicircle law. Moreover, if the marginal distributions satisfy the Poincaré inequality our results are valid for Lipschitz continuous test functions.

  4. DCl Transport through Dodecyl Sulfate Films on Salty Glycerol: Effects of Seawater Ions on Gas Entry.

    Shaloski, Michael A; Sobyra, Thomas B; Nathanson, Gilbert M

    2015-12-17

    Gas-liquid scattering experiments were employed to measure the entry and dissociation of the acidic gas DCl into salty glycerol coated with dodecyl sulfate ions (DS(-) = CH3(CH2)11OSO3(-)). Five sets of salty solutions were examined: 0.25 and 0.5 M NaCl, 0.25 M MgCl2, 0.25 M CaCl2, and artificial sea salt. DS(-) bulk concentrations were varied from 0 to 11 mM, generating DS(-) surface coverages of up to 34% of a compact monolayer, as determined by surface tension and argon scattering measurements. DS(-) surface segregation is enhanced by the dissolved salts in the order MgCl2 ≈ CaCl2 > sea salt > NaCl. We find that DCl penetration through the dodecyl chains decreases at first gradually and then sharply as more chains segregate to the surface, dropping from 70% entry on bare glycerol to 11% for DS(-) surface concentrations of 1.8 × 10(14) cm(-2). When plotted against DS(-) surface concentration, the DCl entry probabilities fall within a single band for all solutions. These observations imply that the monovalent Na(+) and divalent Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions do not bind differently enough to the ROSO3(-) headgroup to significantly alter the diffusive passage of DCl molecules through the dodecyl chains at the same DS(-) chain density. The chief difference among the salts is the greater propensity for the divalent salts to expel the soluble ionic surfactant to the surface. PMID:26317681

  5. Genome-wide RNAi screen reveals a role for the ESCRT complex in rotavirus cell entry.

    Silva-Ayala, Daniela; López, Tomás; Gutiérrez, Michelle; Perrimon, Norbert; López, Susana; Arias, Carlos F

    2013-06-18

    Rotavirus (RV) is the major cause of childhood gastroenteritis worldwide. This study presents a functional genome-scale analysis of cellular proteins and pathways relevant for RV infection using RNAi. Among the 522 proteins selected in the screen for their ability to affect viral infectivity, an enriched group that participates in endocytic processes was identified. Within these proteins, subunits of the vacuolar ATPase, small GTPases, actinin 4, and, of special interest, components of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery were found. Here we provide evidence for a role of the ESCRT complex in the entry of simian and human RV strains in both monkey and human epithelial cells. In addition, the ESCRT-associated ATPase VPS4A and phospholipid lysobisphosphatidic acid, both crucial for the formation of intralumenal vesicles in multivesicular bodies, were also found to be required for cell entry. Interestingly, it seems that regardless of the molecules that rhesus RV and human RV strains use for cell-surface attachment and the distinct endocytic pathway used, all these viruses converge in early endosomes and use multivesicular bodies for cell entry. Furthermore, the small GTPases RHOA and CDC42, which regulate different types of clathrin-independent endocytosis, as well as early endosomal antigen 1 (EEA1), were found to be involved in this process. This work reports the direct involvement of the ESCRT machinery in the life cycle of a nonenveloped virus and highlights the complex mechanism that these viruses use to enter cells. It also illustrates the efficiency of high-throughput RNAi screenings as genetic tools for comprehensively studying the interaction between viruses and their host cells. PMID:23733942

  6. Physician support of HPV vaccination school-entry requirements.

    Califano, Sophia; Calo, William A; Weinberger, Morris; Gilkey, Melissa B; Brewer, Noel T

    2016-06-01

    School-entry requirements in the US have led to high coverage for several vaccines, but few states and jurisdictions have adopted these policies for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. Because physicians play a key role in advocating for vaccination policies, we assessed physician support of requiring HPV vaccine for school entry and correlates of this support. Participants were a national sample of 775 physicians who provide primary care, including vaccines, to adolescents. Physicians completed an online survey in 2014 that assessed their support for school-entry requirements for HPV vaccination of 11 and 12 y olds. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess correlates of support for these requirements. The majority of physicians (74%) supported some form of school-entry requirements, with or without opt-out provisions. When opt-out provisions were not specified, 47% agreed that laws requiring HPV vaccination for school attendance were a "good idea." Physicians more often agreed with requirements, without opt-out provisions, if they: had more years in practice (OR=1.49; 95% CI: 1.09-2.04), gave higher quality HPV vaccine recommendations (OR=2.06; 95% CI: 1.45-2.93), believed that having requirements for Tdap, but not HPV, vaccination undermined its importance (OR=3.33; 95% CI: 2.26-4.9), and believed HPV vaccination was as or more important than other adolescent vaccinations (OR=2.30; 95% CI: 1.65-3.18). In conclusion, we found that many physicians supported school-entry requirements for HPV vaccination. More research is needed to investigate the extent to which opt-out provisions might weaken or strengthen physician support of HPV vaccination school-entry requirements. PMID:26900726

  7. Entry of soil gas and radon into houses

    Entry of soil gas and radon into houses has been investigated by experiments conducted at radon test structures and numerical or analytical modelling. The numerical model solves the steady-state equations for Darcy flow of soil-gas and combined diffusive and advective transport of radon. Model calculations were compared with results from field experiments conducted at Risoe National Laboratory, and it was found that there was good agreement between measured and modelled pressure coupling and radon concentration profiles. Discrepancies regarding absolute values of soil-gas entry rates and radon concentrations were observed. The numerical model has been used to study the importance of soil and building related factors on radon entry rates into slab-on-grade houses. It was found that, for a house with a 3 mm perimeter crack along the floor-wall joint, the entry was mainly determined by the soil permeability and building related factors such as house depressurization and presence of a capillary breaking layer of gravel below the slab. In a house with a bare soil floor, the diffusivity of the soil was found to be of principal importance for the entry rate even for moderate permeabilities. An analytical model was developed for the purpose of studying soil-gas entry rates into houses in response to non-static driving forces. It is based on the analogy between a 'buried drain' and a basement house with a perimeter crack. The structure was depressurized sinusoidally in time and the frequency dependent pressure couplings were measured. There was fairly good agreement between theoretical and experimental results. (LN) (26 tabs., 30 ills., 66 refs.)

  8. Developing international market entry strategy for cultural tourism of Turkey

    Faruk Alaeddinoğlu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this paper are to examine potential international markets for culture tourism of Turkey and to determine a mode of entry strategy for it. The structure of this paper includes screening, identification, and selection stage based on applied various analysis, techniques, methods, and statistics. The major findings here suggest that South Korea and Canada are two possible foreign markets to penetrate. After deeply analysis of South Korea and Canada outbound tourism market, opening overseas tourism promotion office and applying agency are recommended as an appropriate mode of entry strategy for them, respectively. In this regard, practical implications are also mentioned for Destination Marketing Organisation of Turkey.

  9. Geometry of Weyl theory for Jacobi matrices with matrix entries

    Schulz-Baldes, Hermann

    2008-01-01

    A Jacobi matrix with matrix entries is a self-adjoint block tridiagonal matrix with invertible blocks on the off-diagonals. The Weyl surface describing the dependence of Green's matrix on the boundary conditions is interpreted as the set of maximally isotropic subspace of a quadratic from given by the Wronskian. Analysis of the possibly degenerate limit quadratic form leads to the limit point/limit surface theory of maximal symmetric extensions for semi-infinite Jacobi matrices with matrix entries with arbitrary deficiency indices. The resolvent of the extensions is explicitly calculated.

  10. Journal entries facilitating preprofessional scientific literacy and mutualistic symbiotic relationships

    Vander Vliet, Valerie J.

    This study explored journal writing as an alternative assessment to promote the development of pre-professional scientific literacy and mutualistic symbiotic relationships between teaching and learning, instruction and assessment, and students and teachers. The larger context of this study is an action reaction project of the attempted transformation of a traditional first year undergraduate pre-professional biology class to sociocultural constructivist principles. The participants were commuter and residential, full and part-time students ranging in age from 18 to 27 and 18/21 were female. The backgrounds of the students varied considerably, ranging from low to upper middle income, including students of Black and Asian heritage. The setting was a medium-sized Midwestern university. The instructor has twenty years of experience teaching Biology at the college level. The data were analyzed using the constant comparative method and the development of grounded theory. The journal entries were analyzed as to their function and form in relationship to the development of multiple aspects of pre-professional scientific literacy. The perceptions of the students as to the significance of the use of journal entries were also determined through the analysis of their use of journal entries in their portfolios and statements in surveys and portfolios. The analysis revealed that journal entries promoted multiple aspects of pre-professional scientific literacy in both students and the instructor and facilitated the development of mutualistic symbiotic relationships between teaching and learning, instruction and assessment, and students and teachers. The function analysis revealed that the journal entries fulfilled the functions intended for the development of multiple aspects of pre-professional scientific literacy. The complexity of journal writing emerged from the form analysis, which revealed the multiple form elements inherent in journal entries. Students perceived journal

  11. Entry and Prices: Evidence from the Chilean Supermarket Industry

    Loreto Lira; Rosario Rivero; Rodrigo Vergara

    2005-01-01

    One of the most significant developments in the last couple of decades in the retail industry has been the emergence of large supermarkets (hypermarkets). The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect on prices of the entry of a large supermarket into a given location. We use a panel with data from fifteen cities in Chile for the period 1998:I – 2004:IV. The dependent variable is the price of a bundle of 52 food products in each city relative to Santiago. We find that the entry of a ...

  12. Self-sterilization of bodies during outer planet entry

    Hoffman, A. R.; Jaworski, W.; Taylor, D. M.

    1974-01-01

    A body encountering the atmosphere of an outer planet is subjected to heat loads which could result in high temperature conditions that render terrestrial organisms on or within the body nonviable. To determine whether an irregularly shaped entering body, consisting of several different materials, would be sterilized during inadvertent entry at high velocity, the thermal response of a typical outer planet spacecraft instrument was studied. The results indicate that the Teflon insulated cable and electronic circuit boards may not experience sterilizing temperatures during a Jupiter, Saturn, or Titan entry. Another conclusion of the study is that small plastic particles entering Saturn from outer space have wider survival corridors than do those at Jupiter.

  13. Competition, syndication, and entry in the venture capital market

    Hong, Suting

    2013-01-01

    There are two ways for a venture capital (VC) firm to enter a new market: initiate a new deal or form a syndicate with an incumbent. Both types of entry are extensively observed in the data. In this paper, I examine (i) the causes of syndication between entrant and incumbent VC firms, (ii) the impact of entry on VC contract terms and survival rates of VC-backed start-up companies, and (iii) the effect of syndication between entrant and incumbent VC firms on the competition in the VC market an...

  14. Equine rhinitis A virus and its low pH empty particle: clues towards an aphthovirus entry mechanism?

    Tobias J Tuthill

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV is closely related to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV, belonging to the genus Aphthovirus of the Picornaviridae. How picornaviruses introduce their RNA genome into the cytoplasm of the host cell to initiate replication is unclear since they have no lipid envelope to facilitate fusion with cellular membranes. It has been thought that the dissociation of the FMDV particle into pentameric subunits at acidic pH is the mechanism for genome release during cell entry, but this raises the problem of how transfer across the endosome membrane of the genome might be facilitated. In contrast, most other picornaviruses form 'altered' particle intermediates (not reported for aphthoviruses thought to induce membrane pores through which the genome can be transferred. Here we show that ERAV, like FMDV, dissociates into pentamers at mildly acidic pH but demonstrate that dissociation is preceded by the transient formation of empty 80S particles which have released their genome and may represent novel biologically relevant intermediates in the aphthovirus cell entry process. The crystal structures of the native ERAV virus and a low pH form have been determined via highly efficient crystallization and data collection strategies, required due to low virus yields. ERAV is closely similar to FMDV for VP2, VP3 and part of VP4 but VP1 diverges, to give a particle with a pitted surface, as seen in cardioviruses. The low pH particle has internal structure consistent with it representing a pre-dissociation cell entry intermediate. These results suggest a unified mechanism of picornavirus cell entry.

  15. An Efficient Procedure for Esterification of Aryloxyacetic Acid and Arylthioacetic Acid Catalyzed by Silica Sulfuric Acid

    LI,Hong-Ya; LI,Ji-Tai; LI,Hui-Zhang

    2004-01-01

    @@ Aryloxyacetate and arylthioacetate are wildly used in herbicides, plant regulator and insecticides. Recently, Wille et al. have reported that methyl aryloxyacetate is an efficient agent to prevent and treat allergic contact dermatitis.[1] The most popular synthesis is by heating sodium phenoxide (mercaptide) with ethyl chloroacetate in DMF,[2] or by the esterification of acid with alcohol using concentrated H2SO4 as catalyst.[3] In this paper, synthesis of aryloxyacetate and aryl thioacetate from aryloxyacetic acid and arylthioacetic acid respectively in ether catalyzed by silica sulfuric acid in 83%~94% yields is described. The catalyst is reused for 3 times without significant loss of activity (Entry 4). Compared with common procedures, the present procedure possesses the advantages of the operational simplicity, short reaction time,less-corrosion, high yield and reusable catalyst.

  16. 15 CFR 2011.103 - Entry into the United States.

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Entry into the United States. 2011.103 Section 2011.103 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS...

  17. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars.

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204 Section 2011.204 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS...

  18. Assessing welfare impact of entry into power market

    This paper calculates the welfare impact of a new entrant based on the location of entry in the Korean electricity market. We use two different models. One is the optimal fuel mix model to estimate the effect of a new entry in the long run. The other is the variable cost minimization model to assess the contribution of an existing installed private generator in the short run. A specific private generator, which has a cost advantage, saves a substantial amount of system-wide variable costs. We show that the right location for a new entrant can save power generation costs significantly, even if a new entrant does not have a cost advantage. - Highlights: • This paper calculates the welfare impact of a new entrant based on the location of entry. • We use two different models to estimate the entry effect. • The minimum and maximum cost savings of a new entrant are about 0.3% and 0.84% of total generation cost. • Even if a new entrant has no cost advantage, its choice of location could save money

  19. Orbiter Entry Aerothermodynamics Practical Engineering and Applied Research

    Campbell, Charles H.

    2009-01-01

    The contents include: 1) Organization of the Orbiter Entry Aeroheating Working Group; 2) Overview of the Principal RTF Aeroheating Tools Utilized for Tile Damage Assessment; 3) Description of the Integrated Tile Damage Assessment Team Analyses Process; 4) Space Shuttle Flight Support Process; and 5) JSC Applied Aerosciences and CFD Branch Applied Research Interests.

  20. Powdery Mildew Resistance in 268 Entries of Hordeum vulgare

    Jiang, W.M.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Torp, J

    1984-01-01

    A collection of 24 'Spontaneum' barley [H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum] entries and one comprising 244 Ethiopian barleys [H. vulgare ssp. vulgare] were tested for resistance to 4 powdery mildew [used by Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei] cultures that carried genes for virulence corresponding to most of...

  1. Content and Strategy in the Entry-Level Advertising Portfolio.

    Slayden, David; Broyles, Sheri J.; Kendrick, Alice

    1998-01-01

    Surveys creative directors at advertising agencies nationwide regarding their preferences for contents and strategies in the portfolios of entry-level copywriters and art directors. Reports results in terms of content and approaches, number of campaigns and pieces, subjects of ads selected, importance of presentation, importance of concept over…

  2. SME's perceptions regarding strategic and structural entry barriers

    Lutz, Clemens; Kemp, Ron; Dijkstra, S. Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Extant literature discusses a large number of different entry barriers that may hamper market efficiency or entrepreneurial activity. In practice several of these barriers cohere and stem from the same root. Factor analysis is used to identify the underlying dimensions of these barriers. 7

  3. 46 CFR 14.305 - Entries in continuous discharge book.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Entries in continuous discharge book. 14.305 Section 14.305 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN SHIPMENT... discharge book. If the merchant mariner holds a continuous discharge book, the master or individual...

  4. Online Adaptive Vector Quantization with Variable Size Codebook Entries.

    Constantinescu, Cornel; Storer, James A.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a new image compression algorithm that employs some of the most successful approaches to adaptive lossless compression to perform adaptive online (single pass) vector quantization with variable size codebook entries. Results of tests of the algorithm's effectiveness on standard test images are given. (12 references) (KRN)

  5. 9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animals refused entry. 93.806 Section 93.806 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION...

  6. Spectral averaging techniques for Jacobi matrices with matrix entries

    Sadel, Christian

    2009-01-01

    A Jacobi matrix with matrix entries is a self-adjoint block tridiagonal matrix with invertible blocks on the off-diagonals. Averaging over boundary conditions leads to explicit formulas for the averaged spectral measure which can potentially be useful for spectral analysis. Furthermore another variant of spectral averaging over coupling constants for these operators is presented.

  7. Remote job entry (RJE) for VAX/VMS user guide

    Samuelson, N.H.; Brown, C.D.

    1981-11-01

    At Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, a group of CDC computers handle large computational (batch) jobs. Some DEC VAX systems have been connected to the CDC systems to provide pre- and postprocessing of batch jobs. To facilitate running jobs on the CDC systems, members of Division 2644 created a Remote Job Entry (RJE) system. This document describes procedures for using that system.

  8. Integrated alarm annunciation and entry control systems -- Survey results

    Clever, J.J.; Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.; Juarros, L.E.; Quintana, G.R.

    1993-10-01

    This report provides the results and analyses of a detailed survey undertaken in Summer 1993 to address integrated intrusion detection alarm annunciation and entry control system issues. This survey was undertaken as a first attempt toward beginning to answer questions about integrated systems and commercial capabilities to meet or partially meet US Department of Energy (DOE) site needs.

  9. Public University Entry in Ghana: Is It Equitable?

    Yusif, Hadrat; Yussof, Ishak; Osman, Zulkifly

    2013-01-01

    Public universities in Ghana are highly subsidised by the central government and account for about 80 per cent of university students in the country. Yet issues of fairness in terms of entry into the public university system have so far hardly been addressed. To find out whether participation in public university education is equitable, the…

  10. 27 CFR 27.208 - Liquor bottles denied entry.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquor bottles denied... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Requirements for Liquor Bottles § 27.208 Liquor bottles denied entry. Filled liquor bottles, not conforming to...

  11. 27 CFR 26.318 - Liquor bottles denied entry.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquor bottles denied... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Requirements for Liquor Bottles § 26.318 Liquor bottles denied entry. Filled liquor bottles not conforming...

  12. COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF STRATEGIES ON ENTRY TO FOREIGN MARKET

    A. S. Morozova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A company must have distinctly described alternatives for taking strategically correct decisions. For this reason the purpose of the paper is to provide comparative characteristics and systematize strategies on entry to foreign market. It is necessary to select the required criteria and carry out multi-criterion analysis in order to arrange systematization and comparative characteristics of  numerous institutional forms being established within the framework of export, cooperation or integration, main strategies on entry to foreign market. The paper contains an analysis and systematization prepared in accordance with the following criteria: strategic purpose of entry to foreign market, time factor in respect of entry to foreign market, distribution of  company’s business-cycle stages among countries, level of investments, form of investments, distribution of investment and management level among countries, risk level, market involvement, legal grounds for foreign activity, status of a subject entering foreign market. The paper makes it possible to give comparative characteristics of the analyzed strategies.

  13. Wigner law for matrices with dependent entries - a perturbative approach

    Krajewski, T; Vu, D L

    2016-01-01

    We show that Wigner semi-circle law holds for Hermitian matrices with dependent entries, provided the deviation of the cumulants from the normalised Gaussian case obeys a simple power law bound in the size of the matrix. To establish this result, we use replicas interpreted as a zero-dimensional quantum field theoretical model whose effective potential obey a renormalisation group equation.

  14. College Students' Expectations for Entry-Level Broadcast Positions.

    Funkhouser, Edward; Savage, Arthur L., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Investigates whether entry-level, college-educated broadcast employees have job expectations that broadcast managers do not understand. Indicates that students' desire for rapid professional advancement has increased between 1979 and 1980. Revealed that managers accurately perceived the rank order students assigned to the 20 outcomes, but…

  15. Risk Factors for Mosquito House Entry in the Lao PDR

    Hiscox, A.F.; Khammanithong, P.; Kaul, S.; Sananikhom, P.; Luthi, R.; Hill, N.; Brey, P.T.; Lindsay, S.W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Construction of the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project and flooding of a 450 km2 area of mountain plateau in south-central Lao PDR resulted in the resettlement of 6,300 people to newly built homes. We examined whether new houses would have altered risk of house entry by mosquitoes compared

  16. The Challenge of Mars EDL (Entry, Descent, and Landing)

    Sostaric, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the some of the challenges of Martian atmospheric entry, descent and landing (EDL) on the surface of Mars. It reviews some of the technological difficulties, and some solutions that are being developed for future unmanned missions with larger payloads than previous landers, and ultimately human spacecraft landing.

  17. Does competitive entry structurally change key marketing metrics?

    Kornelis, Marcel; Dekimpe, Marnik G.; Leeflang, Peter S. H.

    2008-01-01

    To what extent does competitive entry create a structural change in key marketing metrics? New players mayjust be a temporal nuisance to incumbents, but could also fundamentally change the latter's performance evolution, or induce them to permanently alter their spending levels and/or pricing decisi

  18. Does competitive entry structurally change key marketing metrics?

    Kornelis, M.; Dekimpe, de M.G.; Leeflang, P.S.H.

    2008-01-01

    To what extent does competitive entry create a structural change in keymarketingmetrics? New players may just be a temporal nuisance to incumbents, but could also fundamentally change the latter's performance evolution, or induce them to permanently alter their spending levels and/or pricing decisio

  19. Entry Level Systems Analysts: What Does the Industry Want?

    Donna M. Grant

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the skill sets necessary for entry level systems analysts. Towards this end, the study combines two sources of data, namely, a content analysis of 200 systems analysts’ online job advertisements and a survey of 20 senior Information Systems (IS professionals. Based on Chi-square tests, the results reveal that most employers prefer entry level systems analysts with an undergraduate Computer Science degree. Furthermore, most of the employers prefer entry level systems analysts to have some years of experience as well as industry certifications. The results also reveal that there is a higher preference for entry level systems analysts who have non-technical and people skills (e.g., problem solving and oral communication. The empirical results from this study will inform IS educators as they develop future systems analysts. Additionally, the results will be useful to the aspiring systems analysts who need to make sure that they have the necessary job skills before graduating and entering the labor market.

  20. Integrated alarm annunciation and entry control systems -- Survey results

    This report provides the results and analyses of a detailed survey undertaken in Summer 1993 to address integrated intrusion detection alarm annunciation and entry control system issues. This survey was undertaken as a first attempt toward beginning to answer questions about integrated systems and commercial capabilities to meet or partially meet US Department of Energy (DOE) site needs