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Sample records for acid nda 22-562

  1. THE TREATMENT OF SALICYLIC ACID MANUFACTURING WASTEWATER BY HYPERCROSSLINKED POLYMERIC ADSORBENT (NDA-100)

    2002-01-01

    The treatment of salicylic acid manufacturing wastewater by NDA-100 resin wasinvestigated. The sorption intensity of phenol was found to be strongly dependent on pH of theaqueous phase. Equilibrium adsorption data fit to both Langmuir and Freundlich models. Thecolumn adsorption showed thatthis process was suitable for the treatment of salicylic acidmanufacturing wastewater About 99.9% CODcr removal was obtained under the optimal operatingconditions. The resin could be completely regenerated with 1 BV8%(w/w) NaOH+2BV H2O, therecovery of 98.9% of the substance was reached. This process makes it possible to recover thevaluable material from the wastewater and to improve the effluent water quality.

  2. Analysis of Amino Acids in a Single Human Red Blood Cell by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis with Intracellular NDA derivatization and Electrochemical Detection

    2002-01-01

    A novel method for detcrmination of amino acids in individual human red blood cells has been dcveloped. In this method, the derivatization reagents (NDA and CN-) are introduced into living cells by clcctroporation. After completion of derivatization, the amino acids in a single cell is determined by capillary zone electrophoresis with end-column ampcrometric detection.

  3. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for pantothenic acid

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for pantothenic acid. Pantothenic acid is a water-soluble vitamin, which is a component of coenzyme A (CoA) and acyl-carrier proteins. Pantothenic...... insufficient evidence available to derive an Average Requirement and a Population Reference Intake, an Adequate Intake (AI) is proposed. The setting of AIs is based on observed pantothenic acid intakes with a mixed diet and the apparent absence of signs of deficiency in the EU, suggesting that current intake...... the pantothenic acid intake of exclusively breast-fed infants aged zero to six months, using allometric scaling and reference body weight for each age group, in order to account for the role of pantothenic acid in energy metabolism. The AI for children and adolescents is set at 4 and 5 mg...

  4. Versatile neutron NDA

    DeVolpi, A.

    1995-07-01

    Non-destructive analysis (NDA) of bulk samples is a major tool in international safeguards and domestic MC&A. Yet, enhancements are needed to reduce inspection time, financial cost, and radiation exposure-while improving reliability and accuracy-particularly for mixtures of fissile and fertile isotopes. Perhaps the greatest remaining direction for NDA improvement is the development of a single controllable neutron source that would add versatility and capability. One of the primary prospects is a switchable radioactive neutron source (SRNS) that has been under advanced-concept development at Argonne with DOE funding. The SRNS would be in a sealed capsule that can be remotely switched on and off, or pulsed at a controllable rate. Li({alpha}, n) or Be({alpha}, n) reactions could give a choice of sub-threshold or hard-spectrum neutrons at yields ranging from 10{sup 4}/s to more than 10{sup 8}s. The SRNS would provide improved capabilities for (1) simultaneous or alternating interrogation with fast and slow neutrons, (2) detection of the first few seconds of delayed neutrons, (3) measurements in the presence of high neutron and/or gamma background, and (4) inspection of heterogeneous materials. When the neutrons are switched off, the source would be portable with vastly reduced shielding. Proof-of-concept with a single switchable plate has been established under laboratory conditions.

  5. ARIES NDA Robot operators' manual

    The ARIES NDA Robot is an automation device for servicing the material movements for a suite of Non-destructive assay (NDA) instruments. This suite of instruments includes a calorimeter, a gamma isotopic system, a segmented gamma scanner (SGS), and a neutron coincidence counter (NCC). Objects moved by the robot include sample cans, standard cans, and instrument plugs. The robot computer has an RS-232 connection with the NDA Host computer, which coordinates robot movements and instrument measurements. The instruments are expected to perform measurements under the direction of the Host without operator intervention. This user's manual describes system startup, using the main menu, manual operation, and error recovery

  6. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol

    Tetens, Inge

    formulate a DRV for the intake of total cis-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); not to set specific values for the n-3/n-6 ratio; to set an Adequate Intake (AI) of 4 E% for linoleic acid (LA); not to set any DRV for arachidonic acid; not to set an UL for total or any of the n-6 PUFA; to set an AI for alpha...... gradually be reduced from 40 E% in the 6-12 month period to 35-40 E% in the 2nd and 3rd year of life. For specific fatty acids the following is proposed: saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans fatty acid intake should be as low as possible; not to set any DRV for cis-monounsaturated fatty acids; not to......-linolenic acid (ALA) of 0.5 E%; not to set an UL for ALA; to set an AI of 250 mg for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for adults; to set an AI of 100 mg DHA for infants (>6 months) and young children...

  7. European Food Safety Authority; Outcome of the Public consultation on the Draft Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Dietetic products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans

    Tetens, Inge

    On 2 July 2009, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) endorsed a draft Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats to be released for public consultation. This Scientific Report summarises the comments received through the public consultation and outlines how these...... availability of more recent data, the nomenclature used, the use of a non-European food composition data base, the impact of genetic factors in modulating the absorption, metabolism and health effects of different fatty acids, the definition of “nutritionally adequate diet”, the use of Dietary Reference Values...... in the labelling of foods, the translation of advice into food-based dietary guidelines, nutrient goals and recommendations, certain risk management issues, and to Dietary Reference Values of fats, individual fatty acids, and cholesterol. All the public comments received that related to the remit of...

  8. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, D-biotin and pumpkin seed oil and maintenance of normal hair pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    Tetens, Inge

    2012-01-01

    Following two applications from Nutrilinks Sarl, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, D-biotin and pumpkin seed oil (Cucurbita pepo L.) and maintenance of normal hair. The Panel considers that t...

  9. Non destructive assay (NDA) techniques

    In the IAEA Safeguards System the basic verification method used is nuclear material accountancy, with containment and surveillance as important complementary measures. If nuclear material accountancy is to be effective, IAEA inspectors have to make independent measurements to verify declared material quantities. Most of the equipment available to the inspectors is designed to measure gamma rays and/or neutrons emitted by various nuclear materials. Equipment is also available to measure the gross weight of an item containing nuclear material. These types of measurement techniques are generally grouped under the title of nondestructive assay (NDA). The paper describes the NDA techniques and instruments used to verify the total amount of nuclear material held at a nuclear facility. (author)

  10. NDA National Graduate Programme 'nucleargraduates'

    The aim of this paper is to outline the NDA National Graduate Programme (nuclear graduates). The NDA has a remit under the Energy Act (2004) 'to maintain and develop the skills for decommissioning and nuclear clean-up'. Although current research is now being reviewed, there is significant evidence to suggest that the age profile in the Site Licence Companies is skewed towards older workers and there is likely to be a skill shortage in 3-5 years. As nuclear clean-up is a national issue; skill shortages also become a national issue in a very real sense. In addition, evidence suggests that the industry needs to be constantly challenged in order to achieve its targets for decommissioning. The NDA has a unique position under the Act. It is both a strategic overseer and direct employer. To this end the 'National Graduate Programme' is aligned to both the NDA's previous succession plans and the needs of the industry. Industry needs leadership that challenges the status quo and moves the UK nuclear industry to become best in class; Industry needs a dedicated to programme to address skills shortages and difficult to recruit areas such as, but not exclusively, estimators, schedulers, contract managers, site engineers, decommissioning technicians, safety monitors; The NDA has indicated a 'commercial and politically savvy' cohort is required to meet its own internal challenges and to ensure sustainability in its own workforce, and to be sensitive to the needs of customers and suppliers alike; Need to create a more diversified workforce in the nuclear industry and also plan for new skills evolving from research and development breakthroughs; Need to ensure that Tier 1, 2, 3 and 4 contractors invest in the leadership and skills for the future. World Class - delivery will be benchmarked against UK based multinational companies who operate in a global graduate attraction and development marketplace. The graduates targeted will be from leading institutions and will have a blend of

  11. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion related to the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA)

    Tetens, Inge

    2012-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) of the n-3 LCPUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). Available data are insufficient to establish a UL for n-3 LCPUFA (individually or combined) for any population group. At observed intake levels, consumption of n-3 LCPUFA has not been associated with ...

  12. Elements of nondestructive assay (NDA) technology

    A thorough introduction to nondestructive assay methods and instruments as they are applied to nuclear safeguards is presented. The general principles and major applications of NDA are discussed and situations in which NDA is particularly useful for nuclear safeguards purposes are described. Various passive and active γ-ray and neutron methods are examined and assay situations particularly suited to γ-ray techniques, or to neutron techniques are identified. The role of calorimetry in the NDA of plutonium-bearing materials is also discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of various NDA methods for different types of nuclear materials are mentioned

  13. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion related to the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) of the n-3 LCPUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA......). Available data are insufficient to establish a UL for n-3 LCPUFA (individually or combined) for any population group. At observed intake levels, consumption of n-3 LCPUFA has not been associated with adverse effects in healthy children or adults. Long-term supplemental intakes of EPA and DHA combined up to...... about 5 g/day do not appear to increase the risk of spontaneous bleeding episodes or bleeding complications, or affect glucose homeostasis immune function or lipid peroxidation, provided the oxidative stability of the n-3 LCPUFAs is guaranteed. Supplemental intakes of EPA and DHA combined at doses of 2...

  14. Methodology for NDA performance assessment

    In the framework of the RandD programme of the Joint Research Centre of the Commission of the European Communities, a considerable effort is being dedicated to performance assessment of NDA techniques taking account of field conditions. By taking account of field conditions is meant measurement samples of the size encountered in practice and training which allows inspectors to design cost efficient verification plans for the real situations encountered in the field. Special laboratory facilities referred to as PERLA are being constructed for this purpose. These facilities will be used for measurement experiments and for training. In this paper, performance assessment is discussed under the headings of measurement capability and in-field effectiveness. Considerable emphasis is given to the role of method specific measurement error models. The authors outline the advantages of giving statistical error models a sounder basis in the physical phenomenology of the measurement method

  15. LASL: U. S. ERDA NDA training program

    In order to transfer NDA technology from the instrument development laboratory to plants in the nuclear fuel cycle, a training program was established at LASL which is available to all qualified users (both government and private) of NDA equipment for fissionable material. The curriculum consists of a one-week course in basic passive γ and neutron assay, emphasizing portable instrumentation, and a more advanced 1-week course in high-resolution γ-ray assay

  16. Design and fabrication of NDA standards

    The Plutonium Facility, TA-55, at Los Alamos National Laboratory is currently producing NDA calibration standards used by various laboratories in the DOE complex. These NIST traceable standards have been produced to calibrate NDA instruments for accountability measurements used for resolving shipper/receiver differences, and for accountability in process residues and process waste. Standards are needed to calibrate various NDA (Non-destructive Assay) instruments such as neutron coincidence counters, gamma-ray counters, and calorimeters. These instruments measure various ranges of nuclear material being produced in the DOE nuclear community. Los Alamos National Laboratory has taken a lead role in fabrication of uranium and plutonium standards, along with other actinides such as neptunium and americium. These standards have been fabricated for several laboratories within the complex. This paper will summarize previous publications detailing the careful planning encompassing components such as precise weighing, destructive analysis, and the use of post fabrication NDA measurements to confirm that the standards meet all preliminary expectations before use in instrument calibration. The paper will also describe the specialized containers, diluents, and the various amount of nuclear materials needed to accommodate the calibration ranges of the instruments

  17. Adsorption selectivity of salicylic acid and 5-sulfosalicylic acid onto hypercrosslinked polymeric adsorbents

    LIU Fuqiang; XIA Mingfang; FEI Zhenghao; CHEN Jinlong; LI Aimin

    2007-01-01

    Both bottle-point and column-feeding experiments involving different solutes and sorbents were carried out to investigate the adsorption selectivity and separation performance of salicylic acid and 5-sulfosalicylic acid.Their adsorption isotherms onto such hypercrosslinked polymeric adsorbents as NDA-100 and NDA-99 could be well described by the Freundlich equations whose characteristics describe extrathermic and favorable adsorption processes.The adsorption towards NDA-100 mainly depended on the π-π interaction,while that towards NDA-99 was extremely influenced by the static-electric interaction.Additionally,the adsorptive capacity of salicylic acid on NDA-99 decreased while it increased on NDA-100 with the presence of 5-sulfosalicylic acid in the adsorptive environment as the competitive component.Comparatively,the adsorption capacity of 5-sulfosalicylic acid decreased on both resins with salicylic acid as the competitive component.In fact,the difference in the interaction between adsorbent and adsorbate resulted in the straight antagonism on the effective adsorption sites on the adsorbent.In conclusion,the adsorption selectivity of salicylic acid onto NDA-100 was obviously larger than that onto NDA-99 with the existence of 5-sulfosalicylic acid in the adsorptive environment.A satisfactory separation and recovery of tested solutes in aqueous phase could be foreseeably achieved by the sequencing adsorption technique involving NDA-100 as well as NDA-99.

  18. SINGLE AND BINARY ADSORPTION PERFORMANCE OF SALICYLIC ACID AND 5-SULFOSALICYLIC ACID ONTO HYPERCROSSLINKED POLYMERIC ADSORBENTS

    Fu-qiang Liu; Jin-long Chen; Quan-xing Zhang; Xiu-mei Cheng; Jun-jie Ge; Ai-min Li

    2005-01-01

    Single and binary adsorption behaviors of salicylic acid and 5-sulfosalicylic acid onto hypercrosslinked polymeric adsorbents, i.e. NDA-101 and NDA-99 were investigated. The Freundlich model can successfully describe all the adsorption isotherms tested, which indicates a favorable and exothermic adsorption process. The adsorption of salicylic acid relies on π-π interaction, while the electrostatic interaction further influences the adsorption of 5-sulfosalicylic acid onto NDA-99. The adsorptive capacity of salicylic acid on NDA-99 decreases but increases on NDA-101 with 5-sulfosalicylic acid as the background component in a binary solute system. The amount of 5-sulfosalicylic acid adsorbed was decreased with the increase in initial concentration of salicylic acid on both adsorbents. The competition for the adsorption sites is considered to be predominant in the solid-to-liquid interaction process. The adsorption selectivity of salicylic acid onto NDA-101 is higher than onto NDA-99 by more than an order of magnitude. Thus, combination technique involving NDA-101 followed by NDA-99 can be effectively applied to separate and recover salicylic acid and 5-sulfosalicylic acid from wastewater.

  19. Los Alamos safeguards program overview and NDA in safeguards

    Keepin, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    Over the years the Los Alamos safeguards program has developed, tested, and implemented a broad range of passive and active nondestructive analysis (NDA) instruments (based on gamma and x-ray detection and neutron counting) that are now widely employed in safeguarding nuclear materials of all forms. Here very briefly, the major categories of gamma ray and neutron based NDA techniques, give some representative examples of NDA instruments currently in use, and cite a few notable instances of state-of-the-art NDA technique development. Historical aspects and a broad overview of the safeguards program are also presented.

  20. Los Alamos safeguards program overview and NDA in safeguards

    Over the years the Los Alamos safeguards program has developed, tested, and implemented a broad range of passive and active nondestructive analysis (NDA) instruments (based on gamma and x-ray detection and neutron counting) that are now widely employed in safeguarding nuclear materials of all forms. Here very briefly, the major categories of gamma ray and neutron based NDA techniques, give some representative examples of NDA instruments currently in use, and cite a few notable instances of state-of-the-art NDA technique development. Historical aspects and a broad overview of the safeguards program are also presented

  1. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergi es (NDA) ; Scientific Opinion - Statement on the safety of the “conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) - rich oils” Clarinol ® and Tonalin TG 80 as Novel Food ingredients

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to update its opinions on the safety of the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-rich oils Clarinol® and Tonalin® TG 80 as Novel Food ingredients in the light of additional information...

  2. NDA issues with RFETS vitrified waste forms

    Hurd, J.; Veazey, G.

    1998-12-31

    A study was conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for the purpose of determining the feasibility of using a segmented gamma scanner (SGS) to accurately perform non-destructive analysis (NDA) on certain Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) vitrified waste samples. This study was performed on a full-scale vitrified ash sample prepared at LANL according to a procedure similar to that anticipated to be used at RFETS. This sample was composed of a borosilicate-based glass frit, blended with ash to produce a Pu content of {approximately}1 wt %. The glass frit was taken to a degree of melting necessary to achieve a full encapsulation of the ash material. The NDA study performed on this sample showed that SGSs with either {1/2}- or 2-inch collimation can achieve an accuracy better than 6 % relative to calorimetry and {gamma}-ray isotopics. This accuracy is achievable, after application of appropriate bias corrections, for transmissions of about {1/2} % through the waste form and counting times of less than 30 minutes. These results are valid for ash material and graphite fines with the same degree of plutonium particle size, homogeneity, sample density, and sample geometry as the waste form used to obtain the results in this study. A drum-sized thermal neutron counter (TNC) was also included in the study to provide an alternative in the event the SGS failed to meet the required level of accuracy. The preliminary indications are that this method will also achieve the required accuracy with counting times of {approximately}30 minutes and appropriate application of bias corrections. The bias corrections can be avoided in all cases if the instruments are calibrated on standards matching the items.

  3. Development of Uranium Works Reference Sample for NDA Measurement

    2011-01-01

    The works reference sample usually used in NDA instruments calibration, methods research and samples quantitative analysis. It is also can be applied in quality control as instruments performance checking and maintenance. In this work,

  4. NDA SYSTEM RESPONSE MODELING AND ITS APPLICATION

    Vinson, D.

    2010-03-01

    is of the form of uranyl fluoride that will become hydrated on exposure to moisture in air when the systems are no longer buffered. The deposit geometry and thickness is uncertain and variable. However, a reasonable assessment of the level of material holdup in this equipment is necessary to support decommissioning efforts. The assessment of nuclear material holdup in process equipment is a complex process that requires integration of process knowledge, nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements, and computer modeling to maximize capabilities and minimize uncertainty. The current report is focused on the use of computer modeling and simulation of NDA measurements.

  5. Süt ineği rasyonlarında 2-Hydroxy-4-(Methylthio) Butanoic Acid'in İzopropil Esteri (HMBi)nin kullanılması

    ÇAĞLAYAN, Alper

    2011-01-01

    Bu araştırma, süt ineği rasyonuna metiyonine ikame ettiği düşünülen 2-Hydroxy-4-(Methylthio) Butanoic acid'in izopropil esterinin ilave edilmesi sonucunda süt verimi, süt parametreri, rumen uçucu yağ asiti içeriği ve bazı kan parametreleri üzerine etkilerini araştırmak amacı ile yapılmıştırAraştırmaya sağılan gün sayısı, süt verimi ve laktasyon sayısı açısından birbirine yakın 10'ar inekten oluşan 3 grup oluşturacak şekilde 30 hayvan ile başlanmış ve deneme 8 hafta sürdür...

  6. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and contribution to normal cognitive function (ID 532) and maintenance of

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and contribution to normal cognitive function and maintenance of normal bone. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of...... (EPA) in fish oil. The Panel considers that the food constituents, DHA, EPA and GLA, are sufficiently characterised....... Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituents that are the subjects of the health claims are “omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids (GLA)”, “gamma-linolenic acid + eicosapentaenoic acid (GLA+EPA)”, and “evening primrose oil...

  7. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for manganese

    Tetens, Inge

    2013-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for manganese. Manganese is an essential dietary mineral which is a component of a number of metalloenzymes involved in amino acid, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. A specific manganese deficiency syndrome has not been described in humans. The body is able to adapt to a wide range of manganese intakes by regulating both efficiency of absorpt...

  8. Televizyon Reklamlarında Simge ve Fenomen

    Yanar, Işık

    2004-01-01

    Çalışmada televizyon reklamlarında kullanılan simge ve fenomenlerin pazarlama kriterleri açısında önemi incelenmiştir. Simge ve fenomen kavramlarının etkisinin reklamcılık açısından nasıl kullanıldığı ortaya konulmuştur. Televizyon reklamlarında kullanılan simge ve fenomen gerek reklamcılık faaliyetinde bulunan şirketler gerekse de bu reklamı üreten şirketler açısından nasıl kullanıldığı açıklanmıştır. Bir ürünün tanıtımında ve hedef kitleye ulaştırılmasında kullanılan ileti biçimlerinde sim...

  9. Fabricating defensible reference standards for the NDA lab

    Nondestructive analysis (NDA) is performed at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant in support of the enriched uranium operations. Process materials are analyzed using gamma ray- and neutron-based instruments including segmented gamma scanners, solution assay systems, and an active well coincidence counter. Process wastes are also discarded based on results of these measurements. Good analytical practice, as well as applicable regulations, mandates that these analytical methods be calibrated using reference materials traceable to the national standards base. Reference standards for NDA instruments are not commercially available owing to the large quantities of special nuclear materials involved. Instead, representative materials are selected from each process stream, then thoroughly characterized by methods that are traceable to the national standards base. This paper discusses the process materials to be analyzed, reference materials selected for calibrating each NDA instrument, and details of their characterization and fabrication into working calibrations standards. Example calibration curves are also presented. 4 figs

  10. Fabricating defensible reference standards for the NDA lab

    Ceo, R.N.; May, P.K. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States)

    1997-11-01

    Nondestructive analysis (NDA) is performed at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant in support of the enriched uranium operations. Process materials are analyzed using gamma ray- and neutron-based instruments including segmented gamma scanners, solution assay systems, and an active well coincidence counter. Process wastes are also discarded based on results of these measurements. Good analytical practice, as well as applicable regulations, mandates that these analytical methods be calibrated using reference materials traceable to the national standards base. Reference standards for NDA instruments are not commercially available owing to the large quantities of special nuclear materials involved. Instead, representative materials are selected from each process stream, then thoroughly characterized by methods that are traceable to the national standards base. This paper discusses the process materials to be analyzed, reference materials selected for calibrating each NDA instrument, and details of their characterization and fabrication into working calibrations standards. Example calibration curves are also presented. 4 figs.

  11. NDA [nondestructive assay] training for new IAEA inspectors at Los Alamos

    The history of the evolution of nondestructive assay (NDA) training for international inspectors at Los Alamos is described. The current NDA training course for International Atomic Energy Agency inspectors is presented in terms of structure, content, and rationale. Results of inspector measurement exercises are given along with projections for future developments in NDA inspector training. 3 refs

  12. A potential plant-derived antifungal acetylenic acid mediates its activity by interfering with fatty acid homeostasis

    6-Nonadecynoic acid (6-NDA), a plant-derived acetylenic acid, exhibits strong inhibitory activity against the human fungal pathogens Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. In the present study, transcriptional profiling coupled with mutant and biochemical analyses...

  13. An NDA system for automated inline weapons component dismantlement

    Sampson, T.E.; Cremers, T.L.; Martz, J.C.; Dworzak, W.R.

    1993-08-01

    The Automated Retirement and Integrated Extraction System (ARMS) is a new development and demonstration glove-box line planned for installation at TA-55. The mission of ARIES is development of advanced technologies for disassembly of retired plutonium weapons components. ARIES is subdivided into the following subsystems: Receiving (airlock to system controlled atmosphere), Disassembly (parts are separated into hemishells), Plutonium Consolidation, Americium Removal, Decontamination (removal of trace plutonium from nonplutonium parts), and Nondestructive Assay (NDA). The ARIES NDA subsystem consists of four computer-based NDA instruments (calorimeter, gamma-ray isotopic system, segmented gamma scanner, and an active/passive neutron multiplicity counter); a robot to load and unload the instruments; and a host computer to sense and control the instrument status, schedule measurements, archive the results of the assays, and direct the activities of the robot. The NDA subsystem will be fully integrated into the ARIES process line and will provide assays of nuclear material that are inherently safer and more efficient than nonautomated systems.

  14. Performance values for non destructive assay (NDA) techniques applied to safeguards: the 2002 evaluation by the ESARDA NDA Working Group

    The first evaluation of NDA performance values undertaken by the ESARDA Working Group for Standards and Non Destructive Assay Techniques (WGNDA) was published in 1993. Almost 10 years later the Working Group decided to review those values, to report about improvements and to issue new performance values for techniques which were not applied in the early nineties, or were at that time only emerging. Non-Destructive Assay techniques have become more and more important in recent years, and they are used to a large extent in nuclear material accountancy and control both by operators and control authorities. As a consequence, the performance evaluation for NDA techniques is of particular relevance to safeguards authorities in optimising Safeguards operations and reducing costs. Performance values are important also for NMAC regulators, to define detection levels, limits for anomalies, goal quantities and to negotiate basic audit rules. This paper presents the latest evaluation of ESARDA Performance Values (EPVs) for the most common NDA techniques currently used for the assay of nuclear materials for Safeguards purposes. The main topics covered by the document are: techniques for plutonium bearing materials: PuO2 and MOX; techniques for U-bearing materials; techniques for U and Pu in liquid form; techniques for spent fuel assay. This issue of the performance values is the result of specific international round robin exercises, field measurements and ad hoc experiments, evaluated and discussed in the ESARDA NDA Working Group. (author)

  15. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies ), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to the combination of artichoke leaf dry extract standardised in caffeoylquinic acids, monacolin K in red yeast ric e, sugar - cane derived, policosanols, OPC from French maritime pine bark, garlic dry extract standardised in allicin, d - α - tocopheryl hydrogen succinate , riboflavin and inositol hexanicotinate in Limicol ® and reduction of blood LDL - cholesterol concentrations pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    Tetens, Inge

    claim related to the combination of artichoke leaf dry extract standardised in caffeoylquinic acids, monacolin K in red yeast rice, sugar-cane derived policosanols, OPC from French maritime pine bark, garlic dry extract standardised in allicin, d-α-tocopheryl hydrogen succinate, riboflavin and inositol...... ingredients in Limicol® on blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the consumption of the combination of artichoke leaf dry extract standardised in caffeoylquinic acids, monacolin K in red yeast rice, sugar-cane derived......Following an application from Laboratoire Lescuyer, submitted pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health...

  16. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to linoleic acid (LA) in combination with gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and reduction of ocular dryness (ID 4274) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to linoleic acid (LA) in combination with gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and reduction of ocular dryness. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from...... Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food that is the subject of the health claims is linoleic acid in combination with gamma-linolenic acid. The Panel considers that the food constituents, linoleic acid and gamma-linolenic acid, are sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “ocular...... physiological effect. No references were provided from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim. On the basis of the data presented, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of linoleic acid in combination...

  17. NDA techniques applied to a major transfer of nuclear material

    Pu-containing materials of varied compositions have been transferred from what had been their various storage places for up to 25 years to a more central storage place. There was a requirement for independent NDA measurements to check that the material being transferred corresponded with the values recorded when the materials were first stored. The methodology devised for doing this operation is described together with the ways in which the various difficulties were dealt with

  18. Spent Fuel NDA Research Path for the Sweden Encapsulation-Repository

    Tobin, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (Sweden); Trellue, Holly R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Liljenfeldt, Henrik [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (Sweden)

    2015-01-22

    This set of slides provides a description of research performed to date on spent fuel NDA: Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel Project, and NDA analysis and research planned for CLINK. The general purpose is strengthening the technical toolkit of safeguard inspectors. Data mining is being applied to determine the optimal mathematical structure to match the complexity of spent fuel NDA signals and to enable a range of quantities to be estimated.

  19. JAEA − JRC collaboration on the development of active neutron NDA techniques

    KURETA M.; Koizumi, M.; OHZU A.; Furutaka, K.; Tsuchiya, H.; SEYA M.; Harada, H.; ABOUSAHL Said; HEYSE JAN; Kopecky, Stefan; MONDELAERS Willy; PEDERSEN Bent; SCHILLEBEECKX Peter

    2015-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency in collaboration with the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission started a program titled “Development of active neutron NDA techniques”. The program aims at developing an innovative non-destructive analysis (NDA) system for various applications in the field of nuclear safety, security and safeguards. A Non Destructive Analysis (NDA) system is proposed that is based on a combination of different active neutron interrogation techniques, i.e. DDA (Di...

  20. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2015. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for cobalamin (vitamin B12)

    Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for cobalamin (vitamin B12). The Panel considers that the approach based on a combination of biomarkers of cobalamin status, i.e. serum cobalamin, holotranscobalamin (holoTC), methylmalonic acid (MMA) and plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), is the most suitable approach to derive DRVs for cobalamin. The Panel notes the uncertainties with re...

  1. Quality assurance in the enriched uranium operations NDA facility

    The Nondestructive Analysis (NDA) Facility at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has characterized process wastes for Enriched Uranium Operations since 1978. Since that time, over 50,000 items have been analyzed. Analysis results are used to determine whether or not recovery of uranium from process wastes is economically feasible. Our instrument complement includes one large segmented gamma scanner (SGS), two smaller SGS, two solution assay systems (SAS), and Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC). The large SGS is used for analyzing High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters ant 208-L drums filled with combustible contaminated waste. The smaller SGS are used to analyze 4-L containers of ash and leached residues. The SAS are used to analyze 125 ml bottles of aqueous or organic waste solutions that may contain uranium. The gamma-based NDA techniques are used to identify which process wastes can be discarded, and which must be recycled. The AWCC is used to analyze high-density materials which are not amenable to gamma-ray analysis. 1 ref., 4 figs

  2. Development of reference materials for SNF NDA systems

    The Department of Energy has over 200 different fuel types which will be placed in a geologic repository for ultimate disposal. At the present time, DOE EM is responsible for assuring safe existing conditions, achieving interim storage, and preparing for final disposition. Each task is governed by regulations which dictate a certain degree of knowledge regarding the contents and condition of the fuel. This knowledge and other associated characteristics are referred to as data needs. It is the stance of DOE EM, that personnel and economic resources are not available to obtain the necessary data to characterize such individual fuel type for final disposal documentation purposes. In addition, it is beyond the need of DOE to do so. This report describes the effort to classify the 200+ fuel types into a subset of fuel types for the purpose of non-destructive analysis (NDA) measurement system development and demonstration testing in support of the DOE National Spent Nuclear Fuel (NSNFP) Program. The fuel types have been grouped into 37 groups based on fuel composition, fuel form, assembly size, enrichment, and other characteristics which affect NDA measurements (e.g., neutron poisons)

  3. Quality assurance in the enriched uranium operations NDA facility

    May, P.K.; Ceo, R.N. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The Nondestructive Analysis (NDA) Facility at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has characterized process wastes for Enriched Uranium Operations since 1978. Since that time, over 50,000 items have been analyzed. Analysis results are used to determine whether or not recovery of uranium from process wastes is economically feasible. Our instrument complement includes one large segmented gamma scanner (SGS), two smaller SGS, two solution assay systems (SAS), and Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC). The large SGS is used for analyzing High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters ant 208-L drums filled with combustible contaminated waste. The smaller SGS are used to analyze 4-L containers of ash and leached residues. The SAS are used to analyze 125 ml bottles of aqueous or organic waste solutions that may contain uranium. The gamma-based NDA techniques are used to identify which process wastes can be discarded, and which must be recycled. The AWCC is used to analyze high-density materials which are not amenable to gamma-ray analysis. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  4. Development of reference materials for SNF NDA systems

    Klann, R. T.

    2000-02-29

    The Department of Energy has over 200 different fuel types which will be placed in a geologic repository for ultimate disposal. At the present time, DOE EM is responsible for assuring safe existing conditions, achieving interim storage, and preparing for final disposition. Each task is governed by regulations which dictate a certain degree of knowledge regarding the contents and condition of the fuel. This knowledge and other associated characteristics are referred to as data needs. It is the stance of DOE EM, that personnel and economic resources are not available to obtain the necessary data to characterize such individual fuel type for final disposal documentation purposes. In addition, it is beyond the need of DOE to do so. This report describes the effort to classify the 200+ fuel types into a subset of fuel types for the purpose of non-destructive analysis (NDA) measurement system development and demonstration testing in support of the DOE National Spent Nuclear Fuel (NSNFP) Program. The fuel types have been grouped into 37 groups based on fuel composition, fuel form, assembly size, enrichment, and other characteristics which affect NDA measurements (e.g., neutron poisons).

  5. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for niacin

    Tetens, Inge

    adults of 1.3 mg NE/MJ (5.5 mg NE/1 000 kcal) adopted by the Scientific Committee for Food (1993), based on data on urinary excretion of niacin metabolites as an endpoint. The Population Reference Intake (PRI) of 1.6 mg NE/MJ (6.6 mg NE/1 000 kcal) is derived from the AR assuming a coefficient of......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for niacin. Niacin is a generic term for nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. Niacin can be synthesised in the human body from the indispensable amino...... acid tryptophan. Approximately 60 mg of tryptophan yields 1 mg of niacin defined as 1 mg niacin equivalent (NE). Long-term inadequate intake of tryptophan and niacin can lead to the development of pellagra. In the absence of new scientific data, the Panel endorses the Average Requirement (AR) for...

  6. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the extension of use for DHA and EPA-rich algal oil from Schizochytrium sp. as a Novel Food ingredient

    Tetens, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on an extension of use for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-rich algal oil from Schizochytrium sp. as a novel food ingredient (NFI) in the context of Regulation (EC) No 258/97. The NFI is already authorised for use in a range of foodstuffs at specified maximum levels. The applicant requests an extension of use ...

  7. Development plan of Pu NDA system using ZnS ceramic scintillator

    Alternative techniques to neutron detection by He-3 for nuclear security and safeguards systems are necessary to be developed since He-3 shortage is serious. With support of Japanese government (the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, and Technology), we have started an R and D project of Pu NDA system using ZnS ceramic scintillator. Here we present development plan, production of a new type of ZnS ceramic scintillator experimentally and basic design of a PCAS alternative Pu NDA system. We are planning the demonstration tests using the alternative NDA system comparing with the current PCAS in which the He-3 counters are installed. (author)

  8. Standard guide for the selection, training and qualification of nondestructive assay (NDA) personnel

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 This guide contains good practices for the selection, training, qualification, and professional development of personnel performing analysis, calibration, physical measurements, or data review using nondestructive assay equipment, methods, results, or techniques. The guide also covers NDA personnel involved with NDA equipment setup, selection, diagnosis, troubleshooting, or repair. Selection, training, and qualification programs based on this guide are intended to provide assurance that NDA personnel are qualified to perform their jobs competently. This guide presents a series of options but does not recommend a specific course of action.

  9. RUMINATIONS ON NDA MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTY COMPARED TO DA UNCERTAINTY

    Salaymeh, S.; Ashley, W.; Jeffcoat, R.

    2010-06-17

    It is difficult to overestimate the importance that physical measurements performed with nondestructive assay instruments play throughout the nuclear fuel cycle. They underpin decision making in many areas and support: criticality safety, radiation protection, process control, safeguards, facility compliance, and waste measurements. No physical measurement is complete or indeed meaningful, without a defensible and appropriate accompanying statement of uncertainties and how they combine to define the confidence in the results. The uncertainty budget should also be broken down in sufficient detail suitable for subsequent uses to which the nondestructive assay (NDA) results will be applied. Creating an uncertainty budget and estimating the total measurement uncertainty can often be an involved process, especially for non routine situations. This is because data interpretation often involves complex algorithms and logic combined in a highly intertwined way. The methods often call on a multitude of input data subject to human oversight. These characteristics can be confusing and pose a barrier to developing and understanding between experts and data consumers. ASTM subcommittee C26-10 recognized this problem in the context of how to summarize and express precision and bias performance across the range of standards and guides it maintains. In order to create a unified approach consistent with modern practice and embracing the continuous improvement philosophy a consensus arose to prepare a procedure covering the estimation and reporting of uncertainties in non destructive assay of nuclear materials. This paper outlines the needs analysis, objectives and on-going development efforts. In addition to emphasizing some of the unique challenges and opportunities facing the NDA community we hope this article will encourage dialog and sharing of best practice and furthermore motivate developers to revisit the treatment of measurement uncertainty.

  10. Ruminations On NDA Measurement Uncertainty Compared TO DA Uncertainty

    It is difficult to overestimate the importance that physical measurements performed with nondestructive assay instruments play throughout the nuclear fuel cycle. They underpin decision making in many areas and support: criticality safety, radiation protection, process control, safeguards, facility compliance, and waste measurements. No physical measurement is complete or indeed meaningful, without a defensible and appropriate accompanying statement of uncertainties and how they combine to define the confidence in the results. The uncertainty budget should also be broken down in sufficient detail suitable for subsequent uses to which the nondestructive assay (NDA) results will be applied. Creating an uncertainty budget and estimating the total measurement uncertainty can often be an involved process, especially for non routine situations. This is because data interpretation often involves complex algorithms and logic combined in a highly intertwined way. The methods often call on a multitude of input data subject to human oversight. These characteristics can be confusing and pose a barrier to developing and understanding between experts and data consumers. ASTM subcommittee C26-10 recognized this problem in the context of how to summarize and express precision and bias performance across the range of standards and guides it maintains. In order to create a unified approach consistent with modern practice and embracing the continuous improvement philosophy a consensus arose to prepare a procedure covering the estimation and reporting of uncertainties in non destructive assay of nuclear materials. This paper outlines the needs analysis, objectives and on-going development efforts. In addition to emphasizing some of the unique challenges and opportunities facing the NDA community we hope this article will encourage dialog and sharing of best practice and furthermore motivate developers to revisit the treatment of measurement uncertainty.

  11. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to hyaluronic acid and protection of the skin against dehydration pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    Tetens, Inge

    scientific substantiation of a health claim related to hyaluronic acid and protection of the skin against dehydration. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim, hyaluronic acid, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, protection of the skin against dehydration, is a beneficial...... hyaluronic acid and protection of the skin against dehydration....

  12. Review and Ranking of NDA Techniques to Determine Plutonium Content in Spent Fuel

    A number of efforts are under way to improve nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) safeguard applications. These efforts have largely focused on advancing individual NDA approaches to assay plutonium content. Although significant improvements have been made in NDA techniques, relatively little work has been done to thoroughly and systematically compare the methods. A comparative review of the relative strengths and weaknesses of current NDA techniques brings a new perspective to guide future research. To gauge the practicality and effectiveness of the various relevant NDA approaches, criteria have been developed from two broad categories: functionality and operability. The functionality category includes accuracy estimates, measurement time, plutonium verification capabilities, and assembly or fuel rod assay. Since SNF composition changes with operational history and cooling times, the viability of certain NDA approaches will also change over time. While active interrogation approaches will benefit from reduced background radiation, passive assays will lose the information contained in short-lived isotopes. Therefore, the expected assay accuracy as a function of time is considered. The operability category attempts to gauge the challenges associated with the application of different NDA techniques. This category examines the NDA deploy-ability, measurement capabilities and constraints in spent fuel pools, required on-site facilities, NDA technique synergies, and the extent to which the measurements are obtrusive to the facility. Each topic listed in the categories will be given a numerical score used to rank the different NDA approaches. While the combined numerical score of each technique is informative, the individual-topic scoring will allow for a more-tailored ranking approach. Since the needs and tools of the International Atomic Energy Agency differ from those of a recycling facility, the best assay technique may change with users

  13. Impact of NDA Uncertainites on NCS at the K-25 Site

    Kevin Kimball (NISYS Corp.), Ian Gauld (ORNL)

    2008-05-29

    The K-25 Building at the East Tennessee Technology Park is relying on the use of Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) methods for characterizing hold-up materials in process equipment. The characterization data is used for many purposes including mass estimates for nuclear criticality safety (NCS) and waste disposition. This paper addresses the sensitivity of certain parameters in the NDA process to overall mass measurement results.

  14. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for manganese

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for manganese. Manganese is an essential dietary mineral which is a component of a number of metalloenzymes involved in amino acid, lipid and...... manganese intake or status and data on manganese intakes versus health outcomes are not available for DRVs for manganese. As there is insufficient evidence available to derive an average requirement or a population reference intake, an Adequate Intake (AI) is proposed. Mean intakes of manganese in adults in......, which reflects the wide range of manganese intakes that appear to be adequate for this age group. The AI for children and adolescents is based on extrapolation from the adult AI using isometric scaling and reference body weights of the respective age groups....

  15. Uncertainty analysis of NDA waste measurements using computer simulations

    Uncertainty assessments for nondestructive radioassay (NDA) systems for nuclear waste are complicated by factors extraneous to the measurement systems themselves. Most notably, characteristics of the waste matrix (e.g., homogeneity) and radioactive source material (e.g., particle size distribution) can have great effects on measured mass values. Under these circumstances, characterizing the waste population is as important as understanding the measurement system in obtaining realistic uncertainty values. When extraneous waste characteristics affect measurement results, the uncertainty results are waste-type specific. The goal becomes to assess the expected bias and precision for the measurement of a randomly selected item from the waste population of interest. Standard propagation-of-errors methods for uncertainty analysis can be very difficult to implement in the presence of significant extraneous effects on the measurement system. An alternative approach that naturally includes the extraneous effects is as follows: (1) Draw a random sample of items from the population of interest; (2) Measure the items using the NDA system of interest; (3) Establish the true quantity being measured using a gold standard technique; and (4) Estimate bias by deriving a statistical regression model comparing the measurements on the system of interest to the gold standard values; similar regression techniques for modeling the standard deviation of the difference values gives the estimated precision. Actual implementation of this method is often impractical. For example, a true gold standard confirmation measurement may not exist. A more tractable implementation is obtained by developing numerical models for both the waste material and the measurement system. A random sample of simulated waste containers generated by the waste population model serves as input to the measurement system model. This approach has been developed and successfully applied to assessing the quantity of

  16. Reduction of geometry and matrix effects by fast coincidence NDA

    Fast coincidence techniques based on detection of fissions are often used to passively or actively assay SNM. Several commercial instruments based on these techniques have been available since the early Seventies: ISAS, ISAF, and Random Driver. These techniques offer high sensitivities to SMM. They are applicable to small, as well as large size containers, e.g., 55 gallon drums. Like other NDA techniques, geometrical and matrix effects can have large contributions to the measurement error. However, algebraic combinations of coincidence multiplicities can be formed which are relatively independent of detection efficiency, yet proportional to the amount of nuclear material being assayed. Considering these combinations, in addition to the coincidence rates alone as fission signatures, has the demonstrable advantage that the assay results are comparatively independent of sample geometry or even matrix. Systematic measurements to assess the degree of reduction of matrix and geometrical effects and its limitation were recently completed. The measurement results show that coincidence ratios, and most specifically, twoto three-fold ratio, reduce matrix and geometrical effects. The effect of polyethylene and sand on the standard signal was reduced by a factor of two to three. Spatial effects were reduced by 50-80%. Non-linearity, i.e., variation in signal per gram U, for a soft neutron spectrum was reduced by 20-30%, with small loss of sensitivity

  17. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, D-biotin and pumpkin seed oil and maintenance of normal hair pursuant to Article 13(5) of

    Tetens, Inge

    claim related to a combination of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, D-biotin and pumpkin seed oil (Cucurbita pepo L.) and maintenance of normal hair. The Panel considers that the specified combination is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effects are “contributes to reduce......, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, D-biotin and pumpkin seed oil (Cucurbita pepo L.) and maintenance of normal hair....

  18. Trial plan for advanced NDA system of uranium wastes. Introduction of active neutron method applied to NDA system

    We developed uranium mass assay systems (NWAS) for 200-litter wastes drums applied passive neutron measurements by Non-destructive Assay (NDA) method and applied for the actual wastes drums generated in the uranium refinement conversion plant or uranium enrichment plant in Ningyo-Toge. The neutron measurement methodology of U-234(α,n) reaction using He-3 proportional counters accomplished certain results, however also included some problems that the neutron penetration rates are depend upon matrices or density in wastes drums and required so much counting time. Therefore it had been difficult to determine uranium mass against 'unknown objects'. For the purpose of solving problems active neutron measurements appears promising, we are now challenging to improve our equipments, which are composed of neutron generator, He-3 proportional counters, and 50cm of concrete structure as reflector and shielding. The uranium mass are determined by counting secondary neutrons generated from nuclear fissions. This active neutron measurements methodology will be achieved good performances with higher sensitivities and accuracies. It is extremely expected to contribute in the fields of safeguards works. (author)

  19. Beaming Structures of Jupiter's Decametric Radiation from LWA1, NDA, and URAN2 Simultaneous Observations

    Imai, M.; Lecacheux, A.; Higgins, C. A.; Clarke, T.; Panchenko, M.; Brazhenko, A. I.; Frantsuzenko, A. V.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Imai, K.

    2015-12-01

    From December 2014 to March 2015, Jupiter's decametric (DAM) radio observations were carried out by using simultaneously three powerful low-frequency radio telescopes: Long Wavelength Array One (LWA1), Socorro, USA; Nançay Decameter Array (NDA), Nançay, France; and URAN2 telescope, Poltava, Ukraine. Baselines are 10000, 8600, and 2400 kilometers for LWA1-URAN2, NDA-LWA1, and URAN2-NDA, respectively. One Io-B and two Io-A emissions were simultaneously observed. Using cross-correlation analysis of obtained spectrograms, it was found that, as a function of lag time in a pair of two stations, Io-B (mainly S-bursts) and Io-A (L-bursts) show different kinds of cross-correlation coefficients, with sharp and broad peaks, respectively. By measuring lag times between LWA1-URAN2, NDA-LWA1, and URAN2-NDA pairs, it can be tested if either flashlight- or beacon-like beaming is emanated from Jupiter. Measurements of beaming width are also analyzed. Most probable beaming scenarios for Io-B and -A events are suggested.

  20. IAEA experience with authentication of in-plant NDA instrumentation

    The paper discusses IAEA experience with permanently installed measuring equipment, i.e. in-plant NDA instrumentation, which often has advantages over portable equipment, such as improved accuracy, automated sample handling and data collection, and capacity for higher throughput. In some cases, in-plant equipment is the only means of making a field measurement. However, the use of in-plant equipment requires an additional set of inspector procedures to ensure that the instrument is working correctly and has not been tampered with. This process of verifying instrument performance is called authentication. General guidelines for approaches to authentication have been studied and formulated by an IAEA Advisory Group Meeting held in November 1981. Procedures for specific instruments have been developed in some cases with the help of national support programmes. The field application of authentication is accomplished by incorporating specific actions into inspection procedures. Results are written down as part of the working papers and included in the final inspection report. For quantitative checks such as measurement of a working standard the results are sent along with the inspection measurements to the Agency for inclusion in the safeguards data base. The in-plant equipment may be owned by the facility, a State, a safeguards organization or the Agency. In each case, the use of the in-plant equipment will necessitate additional interactions between facility operator and inspector, in order to judge the impact on plant operation, and understand what is being measured and what can go wrong. The paper discusses the IAEA's experience gained in the field application of authentication procedures for instrument systems such as weighing and volume measuring devices, rod scanners, neutron activation systems and K-edge densitometers

  1. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to calcium and potassium and maintenance of normal acid-base balance (ID 400, 407) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to calcium and potassium and maintenance of normal acid-base balance. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from...... stakeholders. The food constituents that are the subject of the health claims are calcium and potassium. The Panel considers that calcium and potassium are sufficiently characterised. The claimed effects are “calcium contributes to acid/base balance within metabolism” and “mineral/potassium: key function......-base balance is a beneficial physiological effect. The Panel notes that no evidence has been provided showing that the dietary intake of calcium and potassium affects normal acid-base balance in the general healthy population. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established...

  2. TREATMENT AND RESOURCE REUSE OF 1,2,4-ACID PRODUCING EFFLUENT WITH MACROPOROUS POLYMERIC ADSORBENT

    2002-01-01

    The treatment and resource reuse of 1,2,4-acid producing wastewater by self-mademacroporous adsorption resin ND,A-107 was studied in this paper. Optimum adsorption anddesorption process parameters were acquired by systematically study. The polymeric resin NDA-10 7indicated good adsorption & desorption of 1,2, 4-acid in the wastewater. The removal efficiency of1,2,4-acid, CODer is about 78%, 72% respectively. It is evident that this adsorption process is anefficient treatment method for 1,2,4-acid producing wastewater. At the same time, the accumulationand resource reuse of l,2, 4-acid can be realized in this process.

  3. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to acetic acid and maintenance of normal blood pressure (ID 1447) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to acetic acid and maintenance of normal blood pressure. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders...... Panel considers that maintenance of normal blood pressure is a beneficial physiological effect. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that although one animal study showed an effect of acetic acid administration on systolic blood pressure, results from two human intervention studies are...

  4. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate monohydrate (HMB) alone or in combination with α-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) and reduction of muscle tissue damage during exercise (ID 1577

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate monohydrate (HMB) alone or in combination with α-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) and reduction of muscle tissue damage during exercise, increase in lean body mass, increase in muscle strength, increase in endurance performance, skeletal muscle tissue repair and...... that is the subject of the health claims is HMB, either alone or in combination with KIC. The Panel considers that HMB either alone or in combination with KIC is sufficiently characterised....

  5. Alkol Fermantasyonu Sırasında Oluşan Aroma Maddeleri

    ERTEN, Hüseyin; CANBAŞ, Ahmet

    2003-01-01

    Aroma maddeleri alkollü içkilerin kimyasal ve duyusal özellikleri üzerinde etkili olurlar. Aroma maddelerinin önemli bir kısmı alkol fermentasyonu sırasında maya tarafından oluşturulur. Bu maddelerden başhcaları yüksek alkoller, esterler, organik asitler ve karbonil bileşikleridir. Bu makalede, alkol fermentasyonu sırasında maya tarafından oluşturulan aroma maddelerinin üretim mekanizmaları ele alınmıştır.  

  6. ML-oriented NDA carrier synchronization for general rotationally symmetric signal constellations

    Moeneclaey, Marc; Dejonghe, Geert

    1994-08-01

    In this contribution we point out that the nondecision-aided (NDA) carrier synchronizer, maximizing the low E(sub s)/N(sub o) limit of the likelihood function averaged over a general 2(pi) /N-rotationally symmetric signal constellation, reduces to the familiar timing-aided Nth power synchronizer. Whereas in the case of M-PSK the tracking error variance of this NDA ML synchronizer is known to converge to the Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) with increasing E(sub s)/N(sub o), we show that for other rotationally symmetric constellations (such as QAM) the tracking error variance is substantially larger than the CRB.

  7. Integration of NDA instruments into the Savannah River Plant computer network

    The Safeguards Systems Group at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is collaborating with several other national laboratories in designing an integrated, state-of-the-art nondestructive assay (NDA) system for a new facility being constructed at the Savannah River Plant. We have focused our efforts on the development of an Instrument Control Computer (ICC) that will perform interfacing and communication tasks among small computers controlling NDA instruments in the Sample Assay Room and Feed Assay Room, the host computer for the process control system, and an existing nuclear materials accounting computer. Solution sample scheduling, feed-material sample verification, and other ICC functions will be described in detail. 4 references, 5 figures

  8. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to sugar-free chewing gum sweetened with xylitol and plaque acid neutralisation (ID 485), maintenance of tooth mineralisation (ID 486, 562, 1181), reduction of dental

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to sugar-free chewing gum sweetened with xylitol and plaque acid neutralisation, maintenance of tooth mineralisation, reduction of dental plaque, and defence against pathogens in the middle ear. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in...... the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food that is the subject of the health claims is sugar-free chewing gum sweetened with xylitol. The Panel considers that sugar-free chewing gum sweetened with...

  9. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to partially hydrolysed guar gum (PHGG) and decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 788), changes in short chain fatty acid (SCFA

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to partially hydrolysed guar gum and decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms, changes in short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production and/or pH in the gastro-intestinal tract, changes in bowel function, and reduction of gastro-intestinal discomfort. The...... scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claims is partially...

  10. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to sodium and potassium salts of citric acid and maintenance of normal bone (ID 330) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to sodium and potassium salts of citric acid and maintenance of normal bone. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly...... weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that the results from the two human intervention studies provided which investigated the effects of potassium citrate on bone mineral density in post-menopausal women are conflicting, and that the adequately powered intervention study of longer duration...

  11. Total measurement uncertainty for NDA for SNM in process materials and waste

    Non-Destructive Assay for safeguards and waste applications requires accurate determination of the Pu and U content of the samples. NDA systems must be designed to handle a variety of sample sizes, chemical forms, isotopics and matrices, all of which complicate the analysis of the measurement data. Canberra has evaluated regulatory requirements and nuclear material types worldwide to identify a standard set of NDA instruments that address these diversified applications. As these systems are becoming more common, the need for verification and certification of their performance for various sample types increases. Performance data for most of Canberra's safeguards and waste have been published in recent years. Canberra has combined all of these data into a composite evaluation of the total measurement uncertainty (TMU). This paper includes a summary of these TMU and each of the components that produce this overall uncertainty for two standard NDA systems: Waste Drum Assay Systems and the Waste Assay Scanner. This approach for determining the TMU for an assay has been accepted by the US Department of Energy and the approach has been implemented in Canberra's standard neutron and gamma NDA software. Also, the major contributors to the TMU have been identified and new assay techniques have been identified to detect and minimize the TMU. (author)

  12. A rapid NDA method (NWCC) for determination of Pu content in MOX powders

    A NDA method based on coincidence neutron counting has been used for the determination of Pu content in mixed UO2-PuO2 powders of known isotopic compositions. Pu in MOX powders could be determined quickly with a precision of ±2.5%. (author). 3 refs., 2 tabs

  13. The impacts of standardized information management processes on NDA and NDE waste characterization systems

    The evolution of standards-based information management has not fully penetrated nondestructive assay and nondestructive examination operating platforms. Interoperability concepts, which are fundamental to successful information management architecture and structure, are sweeping the markets and redefining the computing industries. The need for the federal government to improve its effectiveness from an informed position has invoked Information Management (IM) concepts into the federal government's strategies and policies. These strategies and policies are becoming regulatory mandates which are to be imposed contractually, directly delegating responsibility to the contractors to ensure compliance. Participants in the waste clean-up arena will need to ensure that their analyses systems and reporting practices fulfill these emerging life-cycle information management requirements, both to meet the customer's need and to protect themselves from legal liability. The challenge today faced by the NDA/NDE industry is to adopt these IM concepts, and utilize them in the assay systems and structures. The robust systems developed to perform the NDA/NDE analyses must be equally robust to address these regulatory and contractual mandates. The greatest impact of the regulations in the NDA/NDE arena will be to actually standardize and produce standards-based analyses reports that include integration capability with all the elements of NDA/NDE processes and be interchangeable with all other ancillary processes

  14. A comparison of fluorescamine and naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde fluorogenic reagents for microplate-based detection of amino acids.

    Bantan-Polak, T; Kassai, M; Grant, K B

    2001-10-15

    The use of appropriate fluorometric derivatization procedures is of considerable importance for accurate determination of amino acids in biological samples and in metal-assisted peptide hydrolysis reactions. It is especially critical for the relative fluorescence intensities (RFI) of equal amounts of amino acids to be as similar as possible. While fluorescamine and naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde (NDA) have proven to be excellent fluorogenic reagents for amino acid detection, the effects of various factors such as organic solvent, buffer, and pH have never been rigorously evaluated with respect to normalizing the relative fluorescence intensities of individual amino acids. To this end, here we describe optimized fluorescamine and NDA derivatization reactions that enhance the accuracy of microplate-based detection of amino acids. For both fluorescamine and NDA, we have shown that the RFI values of 16 of 19 amino acids are greater than 70%. Although determination of tryptophan is problematic, this difficulty is overcome by the addition of beta-cyclodextrin to the NDA reaction. In principle, the optimized fluorescamine and NDA microplate procedures reported here can be utilized as complementary techniques for the detection of 19 of 20 naturally occurring amino acids. PMID:11673879

  15. 2006-2007 tralleis kazılarında ele geçen amphoralar

    Baylan, Saadet

    2008-01-01

    Karia kenti olan Tralleis, antik dönemde Batı Anadolu'da önemli bir yere sahipti. Hellenistik ve Roma Döneminde heykeltıraşlıktan başka, seramik alanında da öne çıktığı, yapılan çalışmalar ve ele geçen buluntulardan anlaşılmaktadır. Kentin Sigillata üretimi yaptığı antik kaynaklarda geçmektedir. Kazı çalışmalarındaki buluntular ile yapılan çalışmalar bunu kanıtlar niteliktedir. Şimdiye kadar detaylı bir şekilde incelenmeyen Tralleis amphoraları hakkında detaylı bilgiler edilmeye çalışılmıştır...

  16. Sermaye Piyasasında Vergilendirme ve Sermaye Piyasası Oluşumuna Etkileri

    Çömen, Fatih

    2006-01-01

    Çalışmada sermaye piyasalarının gelişiminde vergilendirmenin rolü ve önemi incelenmiştir. Öncelikle sermaye piyasası hakkında kavramsal bilgilere yer verildikten sonra, vergilendirmenin sermeye piyasası oluşumu üzerindeki etkilerinin değerlendirilmesi için, tasarruflar, sermaye oluşumu ve sermaye piyasası gelişim süreci üzerindeki etkileri ele alınmıştır. Sermaye piyasaları ve vergilendirilme şekilleri arasındaki kuramsal bağın yanında Türkiye’ de sermaye piyasalarının gelişimi ve vergilendir...

  17. NDA technology for uranium resource evaluation. Progress report, January 1--June 30, 1978

    Evans, M.L. (comp.)

    1979-01-01

    Work performed during the time period from January 1, 1978 to June 30, 1978, on the contract for NDA Technology for Uranium Resource Evaluation in Group Q-1 is described. The work has focused on gamma-ray calculations and computer code modifications in support of borehole logging measurements and surface gamma-ray surveys. Experimental effort has concentrated on improvements in uranium fission neutron detection efficiency.

  18. NDA technology for uranium resource evaluation. Progress report, January 1--June 30, 1978

    Work performed during the time period from January 1, 1978 to June 30, 1978, on the contract for NDA Technology for Uranium Resource Evaluation in Group Q-1 is described. The work has focused on gamma-ray calculations and computer code modifications in support of borehole logging measurements and surface gamma-ray surveys. Experimental effort has concentrated on improvements in uranium fission neutron detection efficiency

  19. Survey of DOE NDA practices for CH-Tru waste certification--illustrated with a greater than 10,000 drum NDA data base

    We have compiled a greater than 10,000 CH-TRU waste drum data base from seven DOE sites which have utilized such multiple NDA measurements within the past few years. Most of these nondestructive assay (NDA) technique assay result comparisons have been performed on well-characterized, segregated waste categories such as cemented sludges, combustibles, metals, graphite residues, glasses, etc., with well-known plutonium isotopic compositions. Waste segregation and categorization practices vary from one DOE site to another. Perhaps the most systematic approach has been in use for several years at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), operated by Rockwell International, and located near Golden, Colorado. Most of the drum assays in our data base result from assays of RFP wastes, with comparisons available between the original RFP assays and PAN assays performed independently at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Solid Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) facility. Most of the RFP assays were performed with hyperpure germanium (HPGe)-based SGS assay units. However, at least one very important waste category, processed first-stage sludges, is assayed at RFP using a sludge batch-sampling procedure, prior to filling of the waste drums. 5 refs., 5 figs

  20. A preliminary evaluation of certain NDA techniques for RH-TRU characterization

    Hartwell, J.K.; Yoon, W.Y.; Peterson, H.K.

    1996-12-31

    This report presents the results of modeling efforts to evaluate selected NDA assay methods for RH-TRU waste characterization. The target waste stream was Content Code 104/107 113-liter waste drums that comprise the majority of the INEL`s RH-TRU waste inventory. Two NDA techniques are treated in detail. One primary NDA technique examined is gamma-ray spectrometry to determine the drum fission and activation product content, and fuel sample inventory calculations using the ORIGEN code to predict the total drum inventory. A heavily shielded and strongly collimated HPGE spectrometer system was designed using MCNP modeling. Detection limits and expected precision of this approach were estimated by a combination of Monte Carlo modeling and synthetic gamma-ray spectrum generation. This technique may allow the radionuclide content of these wastes to be determined with relative standard deviations of 20 to 55% depending on the drum matrix and radionuclide. The INEL Passive/Active Neutron (PAN) assay system is the second primary technique considered. A shielded overpack for the 113-liter CC104/107 RH-TRU drums was designed to shield the PAN detectors from excessive gamma radiation. MCNP modeling suggests PAN detection limits of about 0.06 g {sup 235}U and 0.04 g {sup 239}Pu during active assays.

  1. Reprocessed uranium experience and UK options for NDA and Springfields Fuels Limited

    The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) is the owner of over 20 000 t U of uranium arising from the reprocessing of Magnox fuel, known in the United Kingdom (UK) as Magnox Depleted Uranium (MD U). This material is stored in the form of uranium trioxide (UO3) at the NDA’s Capenhurst site. The NDA Strategy, published in March 2006, indicated that solutions to deal with MD U would be sought and that NDA would engage with the UK Government and UK Stakeholders to consider the most appropriate management strategies for uranic material. Springfields Fuels Limited (SFL), currently operated by Westinghouse, has recycled over 15 000 t U of MD U reprocessed uranium though its manufacturing facilities in production campaigns between the 1970s and the early 1990s. UO3 was converted to uranium tetrafluoride (UF4) in reduction and hydrofluorination kilns before being converted to uranium hexafluoride in the now decommissioned UF6 plants. Following enrichment, the UF6 was converted to uranium dioxide (UO2) via the integrated dry route kiln process and manufactured into fuel assemblies for the UK’s advanced gas-cooled reactors (AGR), operated by British Energy (BE). SFL has also demonstrated conversion of limited quantities of oxide reprocessed product. The paper provides details of reprocessed uranium stocks in the UK, NDA’s stakeholder engagement and reviews SFL’s experience from recycling uranium at Springfields which can help contribute to finding optimal solutions for UK reprocessed uranium issues. (author)

  2. A preliminary evaluation of certain NDA techniques for RH-TRU characterization

    This report presents the results of modeling efforts to evaluate selected NDA assay methods for RH-TRU waste characterization. The target waste stream was Content Code 104/107 113-liter waste drums that comprise the majority of the INEL's RH-TRU waste inventory. Two NDA techniques are treated in detail. One primary NDA technique examined is gamma-ray spectrometry to determine the drum fission and activation product content, and fuel sample inventory calculations using the ORIGEN code to predict the total drum inventory. A heavily shielded and strongly collimated HPGE spectrometer system was designed using MCNP modeling. Detection limits and expected precision of this approach were estimated by a combination of Monte Carlo modeling and synthetic gamma-ray spectrum generation. This technique may allow the radionuclide content of these wastes to be determined with relative standard deviations of 20 to 55% depending on the drum matrix and radionuclide. The INEL Passive/Active Neutron (PAN) assay system is the second primary technique considered. A shielded overpack for the 113-liter CC104/107 RH-TRU drums was designed to shield the PAN detectors from excessive gamma radiation. MCNP modeling suggests PAN detection limits of about 0.06 g 235U and 0.04 g 239Pu during active assays

  3. Analysis of historical delta values for IAEA/LANL NDA training courses

    Geist, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Santi, Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bonner, Elisa [FORMER N-4 STUDENT

    2009-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) supports the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) by providing training for IAEA inspectors in neutron and gamma-ray Nondestructive Assay (NDA) of nuclear material. Since 1980, all new IAEA inspectors attend this two week course at LANL gaining hands-on experience in the application of NDA techniques, procedures and analysis to measure plutonium and uranium nuclear material standards with well known pedigrees. As part of the course the inspectors conduct an inventory verification exercise. This exercise provides inspectors the opportunity to test their abilities in performing verification measurements using the various NDA techniques. For an inspector, the verification of an item is nominally based on whether the measured assay value agrees with the declared value to within three times the historical delta value. The historical delta value represents the average difference between measured and declared values from previous measurements taken on similar material with the same measurement technology. If the measurement falls outside a limit of three times the historical delta value, the declaration is not verified. This paper uses measurement data from five years of IAEA courses to calculate a historical delta for five non-destructive assay methods: Gamma-ray Enrichment, Gamma-ray Plutonium Isotopics, Passive Neutron Coincidence Counting, Active Neutron Coincidence Counting and the Neutron Coincidence Collar. These historical deltas provide information as to the precision and accuracy of these measurement techniques under realistic conditions.

  4. A preliminary evaluation of certain NDA techniques for RH-TRU characterization

    Hartwell, J.K.; Yoon, W.Y.; Peterson, H.K. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents the results of modeling efforts to evaluate selected NDA assay methods for RH-TRU waste characterization. The target waste stream was Content Code 104/107 113-liter waste drums that comprise the majority of the INEL`s RH-TRU waste inventory. Two NDA techniques are treated in detail. One primary NDA technique examined is gamma-ray spectrometry to determine the drum fission and activation product content, and fuel sample inventory calculations using the ORIGEN code to predict the total drum inventory. A heavily shielded and strongly collimated HPGe spectrometer system was designed using MCNP modeling. Detection limits and expected precision of this approach were estimated by a combination of Monte Carlo modeling and synthetic gamma-ray spectrum generation. This technique may allow the radionuclide content of these wastes to be determined with relative standard deviations of 20 to 50% depending on the drum matrix and radionuclide. The INEL Passive/Active Neutron (PAN) assay system is the second primary technique considered. A shielded overpack for the 113-liter CC104/107 RH-TRU drums was designed to shield the PAN detectors from excessive gamma radiation. MCNP modeling suggests PAN detection limits of about 0.06 g {sup 235}U and 0.04 g {sup 239}Pu during active assays. 12 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Conceptual designs of NDA instruments for the NRTA system at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    Li, T.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Menlove, H.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Safeguards Science and Technology Group] [and others

    1996-09-01

    The authors are studying conceptual designs of selected nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments for the near-real-time accounting system at the rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) of Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL). The JNFL RRP is a large-scale commercial reprocessing facility for spent fuel from boiling-water and pressurized-water reactors. The facility comprises two major components: the main process area to separate and produce purified plutonium nitrate and uranyl nitrate from irradiated reactor spent fuels, and the co-denitration process area to combine and convert the plutonium nitrate and uranyl nitrate into mixed oxide (MOX). The selected NDA instruments for conceptual design studies are the MOX-product canister counter, holdup measurement systems for calcination and reduction furnaces and for blenders in the co-denitration process, the isotope dilution gamma-ray spectrometer for the spent fuel dissolver solution, and unattended verification systems. For more effective and practical safeguards and material control and accounting at RRP, the authors are also studying the conceptual design for the UO{sub 3} large-barrel counter. This paper discusses the state-of-the-art NDA conceptual design and research and development activities for the above instruments.

  6. NDA PDP Program PuO2 increased particle size specification and design

    Provisions in the National TRU Program Quality Assurance Program Plan require an assessment of performance for nondestructive waste assay (NDA) systems employed in the program. This requirement is in part fulfilled through the use of Performance Demonstration programs. In order to optimize the quality and quantity of information acquired during a given Performance Demonstration Program cycle, the assessment employed is to be carefully specified and designed. The assessment must yield measurement system performance data meaningful with respect to NDA system capability to accommodate attributes of interest known to occur in actual waste forms. The design and specification of the increased particle size PuO2 PDP working reference materials (WRMs) is directed at providing a straightforward mechanism to assess waste NDA system capability to account for biases introduced by large PuO2 particles. The increased particle size PuO2 PDP WRM design addresses actual waste form attributes associated with PuO2 particle size and distributions thereof, the issue of a known and stable WRM configuration and equally important appropriate certification and tractability considerations

  7. Optimization of the Nano-Dust Analyzer (NDA) for operation under solar UV illumination

    O`Brien, L.; Grün, E.; Sternovsky, Z.

    2015-12-01

    The performance of the Nano-Dust Analyzer (NDA) instrument is analyzed for close pointing to the Sun, finding the optimal field-of-view (FOV), arrangement of internal baffles and measurement requirements. The laboratory version of the NDA instrument was recently developed (O'Brien et al., 2014) for the detection and elemental composition analysis of nano-dust particles. These particles are generated near the Sun by the collisional breakup of interplanetary dust particles (IDP), and delivered to Earth's orbit through interaction with the magnetic field of the expanding solar wind plasma. NDA is operating on the basis of impact ionization of the particle and collecting the generated ions in a time-of-flight fashion. The challenge in the measurement is that nano-dust particles arrive from a direction close to that of the Sun and thus the instrument is exposed to intense ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The performed optical ray-tracing analysis shows that it is possible to suppress the number of UV photons scattering into NDA's ion detector to levels that allow both high signal-to-noise ratio measurements, and long-term instrument operation. Analysis results show that by avoiding direct illumination of the target, the photon flux reaching the detector is reduced by a factor of about 103. Furthermore, by avoiding the target and also implementing a low-reflective coating, as well as an optimized instrument geometry consisting of an internal baffle system and a conical detector housing, the photon flux can be reduced by a factor of 106, bringing it well below the operation requirement. The instrument's FOV is optimized for the detection of nano-dust particles, while excluding the Sun. With the Sun in the FOV, the instrument can operate with reduced sensitivity and for a limited duration. The NDA instrument is suitable for future space missions to provide the unambiguous detection of nano-dust particles, to understand the conditions in the inner heliosphere and its temporal

  8. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the extension of use for DHA and EPA-rich algal oil from Schizochytrium sp. as a Novel Food ingredient

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on an extension of use for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-rich algal oil from Schizochytrium sp. as a novel food...... ingredient (NFI) in the context of Regulation (EC) No 258/97. The NFI is already authorised for use in a range of foodstuffs at specified maximum levels. The applicant requests an extension of use of the NFI in food supplements up to a maximum DHA and EPA content of 3 g per daily dose for the adult...... population, excluding pregnant and lactating women. In a previous opinion on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of EPA, DHA and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), the Panel concluded that supplemental intake of EPA and DHA combined at doses up to 5 g/day, does not give rise to safety concerns for adults. Based on...

  9. Master plan for the development of ZnS scintillation neutron detectors for NDA

    Alternative techniques to neutron detection by He-3 for safeguards and nuclear security systems are necessary to be developed since He-3 gas shortage is serious. With support of Japanese government (MEXT), we have started an R and D project of ZnS ceramic scintillation neutron detectors for non-destructive assay (NDA) of Pu in Fresh MOX fuel and other types of nuclear material for a use of safeguards verification. Here we present master plan of the R and D project and feasibility study on neutron absorption probability in our scintillator by using Monte Carlo code. (author)

  10. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on bovine lactoferrin

    Tetens, Inge

    2012-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to carry out the additional assessment for ‘lactoferrin’ as a food ingredient in the context of Regulation (EC) No 258/97 taking into account the comments and objections of a scientific nature raised by Member States. Bovine lactoferrin (bLF) is a protein that occurs naturally in cow’s milk. The applicant intends to market bLF that is isolated from cheese whey and ski...

  11. Demir (III) varlığında trombosit gama-glutamil transferazının prooksidan etkisi

    Azize Şener; Özge Çevik; Derya Özsavcı; Gülderen Yanıkkaya-Demirel

    2011-01-01

    Gama-glutamiltransferaz (GGT), indirgenmiş glutatyonun (GSH) metabolizmasında önemli rol oynayan bir membran enzimidir. GSH'ın katabolizması sırasında, GGT aktivitesi sonucu güçlü demir redükleyici etkisi olan tiyol dipeptid sisteinilglisin oluşur. Son araştırmalar artmış serum GGT aktivitesinin oksidatif stresin bir göstergesi olarak kullanılabileceğini göstermektedir. GGT aktivitesi trombositlerde de bulunur. Redoks reaksiyonları trombosit fonksiyonlarını değiştirebilir. Ancak, trombositler...

  12. Participant Perceptions on the Nature of Stakeholder Dialogue Carried out by the United Kingdom's Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA)

    The author comments the results of a research which concentrated on the dialogue used to engage participants to bi-annual stakeholder meetings with nuclear site community representatives held by the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), and on a concept of fairness. The author notably compares the findings from a questionnaire issued in November 2006 to those of a questionnaire issued in May 2008 in order to assess any change in stakeholder perception (frustration, agreement, will of control, and so on). The author discusses the stakeholder-led approach, the links between the engagement process and NDA strategy, and the perceived deliberative characteristic of the dialogue

  13. A concept for quantitative NDA measurements of advanced reprocessing product materials

    As new reprocessing methods for spent nuclear fuel are developed, such as the uranium extraction (UREX) process, methods using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques must also be developed to allow for quantitative measurements of product materials. Currently developed NDA techniques cannot directly quantify materials containing U, Np, Pu, and Am. This research investigates the ability to quantify these actinides in an oxide form using neutron multiplicity measurements. This technique assumes that the isotopic composition of the sample is known, either through gamma spectroscopy or other means. This measurement technique is based on performing three different neutron measurements and analyzing their neutron multiplicity response. The first is a passive measurement of the product material to determine the effective plutonium-240 (240Pueff) content, self multiplication (M), and alpha-neutron reaction rate (α). The second is an active, AmLi (α, n) source, measurement of the product material to determine the effective 235U content. The third is an active, AmB (α, n) source, measurement of the product material to determine the effective 237Np content. The quantity of Am in the sample can be determined from α. Simulated results using Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) version 2.6 will illustrate the viability of this technique and its practical limitations. (author)

  14. Meyve Ağaçlarında Yeni Bir Uygulama: Merkezkaç Terbiye Sistemi

    Lauri, Pierre-Eric

    2013-01-01

    Terbiye sistemi seçimi, verim, meyve kalitesi ve karlılık açısından oldukça önemlidir. Son yıllarda elma ağaçlarının terbiyesinde büyük gelişmeler kaydedilmiştir. Bu yeniliklerden birisi olan merkezkaç terbiye sistemi, 2000’li yılların başında Fransa’da geliştirilmiştir. Bu sistemin temelini SolAxe terbiye sistemi oluşturmuştur. Bu sistemin getirdiği en büyük yenilik suni spur öldürme tekniğidir. Bu teknik daha çok ağacın iç kısmında ve düşük kalitede meyve oluşturma potansiyeline sahip olduğ...

  15. Fast critical assembly safeguards: NDA methods for highly enriched uranium. Summary report, October 1978-September 1979

    Nondestructive assay (NDA) methods, principally passive gamma measurements and active neutron interrogation, have been studied for their safeguards effectiveness and programmatic impact as tools for making inventories of highly enriched uranium fast critical assembly fuel plates. It was concluded that no NDA method is the sole answer to the safeguards problem, that each of those emphasized here has its place in an integrated safeguards system, and that each has minimum facility impact. It was found that the 185-keV area, as determined with a NaI detector, was independent of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) plate irradiation history, though the random neutron driver methods used here did not permit accurate assay of irradiated plates. Containment procedures most effective for accurate assaying were considered, and a particular geometry is recommended for active interrogation by a random driver. A model, pertinent to that geometry, which relates the effects of multiplication and self-absorption, is described. Probabilities of failing to detect that plates are missing are examined

  16. Field trial experiences of remote monitoring system for unattended mode NDA in PFPF

    The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) have developed a Remote Monitoring System (RMS) for unattended mode Nondestructive Assay (NDA) at the Plutonium Fuel Production Facility (PFPF). The principal objective of this development is to improve the efficiency of safeguards activities for both the operator and the inspectorates, and to improve transparency of nuclear material management. In June 1999, with the cooperation of the IAEA and JSGO, the RMS was installed for field trial at the plutonium storage area in PFPF. At the beginning of the field trial, the RMS encountered reliability problems in both hardware and software. At this point, these difficulties have been mostly overcome by steady, progressive improvements in hardware and by upgrading of software and troubleshooting procedures. The RMS has successfully taken data for more than 13 consecutive months from the May 2001. Reliable remote transmission of NDA data has been demonstrated under realistic operational conditions. This paper describes the outline and status of the PFPF RMS based on the experience gained in the field trial. Future plans for implementing remote monitoring under the international safeguards regime are also discussed. (author)

  17. Labraunda (Labranda) kutsal alanında Hekatomnid gücün sergilenmesi

    ÜRETEN, Hüseyin

    2005-01-01

    Küçük Asya'nın güneybatısındaki İ.Ö.4 .yüzyıla ait olan Labraunda kutsal alanı boyu çok yüksek olmayan tek bir bina projesi şeklindeydi. Adak yazıtlarının sunduğu bilgilerden en önemli yapılardan yedi tanesinin İ.Ö. 352 yılında ölen Maussollos ya da 8 yıl sonra İ.Ö. 344 yılında ölen küçük erkek kardeşi İdrieus tarafından inşa edilmiş olduğunu öğreniyoruz.. Biri Maussollos diğeri İdrieus tarafından yaptırılan iki farklı bina projesinden söz edilmektedir. Bu İki kardeş Karia k...

  18. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for protein

    Tetens, Inge

    This opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) deals with the setting of Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for protein. The Panel concludes that a Population Reference Intake (PRI) can be derived from nitrogen balance studies. Several health outcomes possibly...

  19. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2015. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for magnesium

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for magnesium. The Panel considers that Average Requirements (ARs) and Population Reference Intakes (PRIs) for magnesium cannot be derived for...

  20. Structure of neodymium tris-acetylacetonate with dimethylsulfoxide [NdA3Dmso(H2O)]·Dmso

    Crystal structure of adduct of neodymium tris-acetylacetonate with dimethylsulfoxide was investigated. The adduct [NdA3Dmso(H2O)]. Dmso is crystallized in monclinic syngony. One of two Dmso molecules and water molecule enter the inner coordination sphere of the complex

  1. Yoğurt Üretimi ve Depolama Sırasında Organik Asitlerin Belirlenmesi

    Akalın, A.Sibel; Kınık, Özer; Gönç, Sıddık

    1998-01-01

    Laboratuvar koşullarında yoğurt üretimi esnasında inkübasyonun 1., 2., ve 3. saatleri ile yoğurdun 4 oC’de 14 gün boyunca depolanması sırasında örneklerdeki organik asitler HPLC (yüksek performanslı sıvı kromatografisi) ile tespit edilmiştir. Ayrıca yoğurt örneklerinin asitlik ve pH değerleri ile depolama sırasındaki duyusal özellikleri belirlenmiştir. Yoğurt yapımı ve muhafazası sırasında pH’nın düştüğü ve bu arada organik asitlerden laktik, asetik ve propionik asitlerin arttığı, arotik ...

  2. Sampling and verification methods for the uncertainty analysis of NDA and NDE waste characterization systems

    Use of nondestructive assay (NDA) and evaluation (NDE) systems in critical waste characterization requires a realistic assessment of the uncertainty in the measurements. The stated uncertainty must include potential effects of a variety of complicating external factors on the expected bias and precision. These factors include material heterogeneity (matrix effects), fluctuating background levels, and other variable operating conditions. Uncertainty figures from application of error propagation methods to data from controlled laboratory experiments using standard test materials can grossly underestimate the expected error. This paper reviews the standard error propagation method of uncertainty analysis, discusses some of its limitations, and presents an alternative approach based on sampling and verification. Examples of application of sampling and verification methods to measurement systems at INEL are described

  3. Development of NDA reactivity measurement method to determine the fissile contents for spent fuel

    NDA reactivity measurement method was developed and simulated for the possible use in determination of fissile content and its reactivity characteristics of spent fuel material. This is necessary and practical for the purpose of safeguards implementation and timely control of process line under the condition of very high radiation environment. The neutron detector response due to induced fission from fissile material in spent fuel is calculated by using the MCNP model. The effects of detector response on fissile content, burnup and initial enrichment of fuel are investigated. It shows that the detector response of spent fuel contained 239Pu and fission products is slightly higher than that of flesh fuel with coresponding 235U enrichment

  4. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dihydrocapsiate

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the safety of a synthetic dihydrocapsiate (DHC) as a food ingredient in the context of Regulation (EC) No 258/97 taking into account the...... foods of various categories at concentration levels varying from 8 to 2050 mg per kg. Considering the proposed uses the mean intake of synthetic DHC was estimated to be around 12 – 13 mg/day (8.1 mg/day for pre-school children); the 97.5th percentile intakes of adults and the elderly were estimated to...... comments and objections of a scientific nature raised by Member States. Dihydrocapsiate belongs to a group known as capsinoids which have been shown to occur naturally in a number of chilli and sweet peppers. The applicant intends to market DHC to food manufacturers as an ingredient for incorporation into...

  5. Tam Zamanında Üretim Sisteminin Servis Sistemlerine Uygulanabilirliği

    Baykoç, Ö. Faruk; ABACI, Seda; DUYAR, Mine

    2013-01-01

    Tam zamanında üretim sistemi (JIT) çoğu araştırmacılar için ilgi odağı olmuştur. JIT felsefesinin üretim sistemleri üzerindeki etkilerini araştıran çok sayıda çalışma olmasına rağmen, servis sistemleri üzerindeki uygulamalarına yönelik araştırmalar oldukça azdır. Bu çalışmada JIT’in servis sistemlerine uygulanabilirliğini araştırmak için uluslararası bir fast-food zinciri olan Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) da bir uygulama yapılmıştır. Mevcut sistem analiz edildikten sonra alternatif bir sistem...

  6. Gamma ray NDA assay system for total plutonium and isotopics in plutonium product solutions

    A LASL-designed gamma-ray NDA instrument for assay of total plutonium and isotopics of product solutions at Tokai-Mura is currently installed and operating. The instrument is, optimally, a densitometer that uses radioisotopic sources for total plutonium measurements at the K absorption edge. The measured transmissions of additional gamma-ray lines from the same radioisotopic sources are used to correct for self-attenuation of passive gamma rays from plutonium. The corrected passive data give the plutonium isotopic content of freshly separated to moderately aged solutions. This off-line instrument is fully automated under computer control, with the exception of sample positioning, and operates routinely in a mode designed for measurement control. A one-half percent precision in total plutonium concentration is achieved with a 15-minute measurement

  7. NDA method for recovered UF6 from hold-up in enrichment process (3)

    With renewal of centrifuges in Rokkasho Enrichment Plant uranium fluoride recovered from spent centrifuges has been stored in special cylinders heterogeneously together with iodine fluoride which was used to release adherent uranium. For material accountancy of these cylinders we have introduced UCAS (Uranium Cylinder Assay System) which is a passive neutron basis NDA (Non Destructive Assay) developed jointly with Los Alamos National Laboratory because normal destructive assay for material accountancy cannot be applied to them due to lack of representativeness in sampling. Though evaluation in last year suggested that iodine fluoride makes not so significant impact on neutron measurement, quantitative performance has not been confirmed because isotopic composition used for the evaluation was derived from gamma ray measurement which was ill affected by iodine fluoride. In this year we have since introduced a new mass spectrometer available for such a mixture and modified calibration coefficients of UCAS. Consequently quantitative performance was confirmed and UCAS was applied to PIT (Physical Inventory Taking). (author)

  8. HABERMAS’IN İLETİŞİMSEL EYLEM KURAMI’NDA HUKUK

    Deflem, Mathieu; Yükselbaba, Ülker

    2014-01-01

    Reform: TRUBEK and HABERMAS v. Law and Economics and the Law Reform Commission’, Dalhousie Law Journal 11, 1988; pp. 639-662), hukuki yorum , hukuki toplulukta profersoyen roller , ve yasama analazi ve anayasal düzenlemeler . HABERMAS’ın kuramının Latin Amerika’da etkisi, bkz.: BOTERO, ANDRÉS. ‘Aproximación al pensar filosófico de HABERMAS’, Revista Holística Jurídica: Facultad de Derecho USB. 2 (2003) ; pp. 7-36. Botero yakında HABERMAS’ın Latin Amerika’da etkisi üzerine başka bir eleşt...

  9. Gıdaların kurutulmasında ultrases kullanımı

    Tüfekçi, Senem; Sami Gökhan ÖZKAL

    2015-01-01

    Gıda muhafaza yöntemleri arasında gıdadaki mevcut su oranını bozulmaya imkân vermeyecek şekilde azaltması, kesin ve ucuz bir muhafaza olanağı sunması açısından kurutmanın yeri ayrıcalıklıdır. İnsan kulağının işitebileceğinin üzerinde frekansa sahip ses dalgaları ultrases olarak adlandırılır. Kurutma öncesi önişlem olarak veya kurutma ile eş zamanlı bir şekilde uygulanan ultrases, ürünün kuruma performansı üzerine etkili olmaktadır. Ultrases enerjisinin farklı kurutma teknikleriyle kombine old...

  10. Bazal ganglion kalsifikasyonu olan 13 yaşında bir olgu

    E, Bayram; Y, Tokgöz; Y, Topçu; S, Berktaş; G, Akıncı; N, Arslan; S, Hız

    2012-01-01

    Nöro-görüntüleme tekniklerinin giderek artan kullanımı nedeniyle, bazal ganglion kalsifikasyonunun saptanma sıklığı da artmaktadır. Bazal ganglion kalsifikasyonunun etiyolojisinde enfeksiyöz hastalıklar, otozomal resesif ya da dominant geçişli genetik hastalıklar, çölyak hastalığı, anoksi, karbonmonoksit inhalasyonu ve kafa travması gibi nedenler bulunmaktadır. Bu makalede globus pallidus düzeyinde bilateral bazal ganglion kalsifikasyonu saptanan 13 yaşında kız olgu, nadir görülmesi ve bazal ...

  11. Two new coordination polymers constructed by naphthalene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid and 2,4-diamino-6-methyl-triazine

    Li, Yamin; Xiao, Changyu; Zhang, Xudong; Xu, Yanhui; Li, Junrui; Lun, Huijie; Chen, Qi

    2013-08-01

    Two new transition metal coordination complexes, {[MnO(nda)](H2dmt)(H2O)}n (1), [Ag5(nda)2.5(dmt)]n (2), (H2nda=naphthalene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid, dmt=2,4-diamine-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazine) have been hydrothermally synthesized by the reactions of H2nda and dmt with the homologous MnCl2·4H2O and AgNO3, respectively, and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, IR spectra, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The compound 1 exhibits a 3D network comprising 1D metal chain {MnO(CO2)2}n connected by the ligand nda2-, featuring a four-connected uninodal diamond -like topology. In compound 2, it is firstly observed that decanuclear silver units as secondary building units to construct 3D network by the ligands dmt and nda2-, with a rare 2-nodal (3,8)-connected tfz-d topology ({43}2{46.618.84}). The interactions within each Mn(II)-Mn(II) pair of compound 1 are antiferromagnetic (g=2.07, J=-1.42(1) cm-1, zj‧=-0.73(2) cm-1). In addition, compound 2 exhibits photoluminescent property at about 472 nm (λex=394 nm).

  12. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) ; Guidance on the scientific requirements for health claims related to physical performance

    Tetens, Inge

    The Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) to draft guidance on scientific requirements for health claims related to physical performance. This guidance has been drawn from scientific opinions of the NDA Panel on such health...... acceptable. Rather, it presents examples drawn from evaluations already carried out in order to illustrate the approach of the Panel, as well as some examples which are currently under consideration within ongoing evaluations. A draft of this guidance document, endorsed by the NDA Panel on 24 November 2011...

  13. Analysis of Amino Acids in a Single Human Red Blood Cell by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis with Intracellular NDA—derivatization and Electrochemical Detection

    QianDONG; XiaoLeiWANG; 等

    2002-01-01

    A novel method for determination of amino acids in individual red blood cells has been developed. In this method, the derivatization reagents (NDA and CN-) are introduced into living cells by electroporation. After completion of derivatization,the amino acids in a single cell is determined by capillary zone electrophoresis with end-column amperometric detection.

  14. Müzik Uygulamalarında Tablet Bilgisayar (iPad) Kullanımı

    Önder, Osman; Yıldız, Gökay

    2015-01-01

    Bu çalışmada, müzik uygulamalarında tablet bilgisayar (iPad) kullanımına ilişkin bilgilere ve iPad ile müzik yapmada kullanılan donanımlar ile farklı kategorilerdeki belli başlı müzik yazılımlarına (uygulamalar) yer vermek amaçlanmıştır. Araştırma için gerekli verilerin toplanmasında kaynak taraması modeli kullanılmıştır. Çalışmada, iPad ile müzik yapmak için kullanılan donanımlar (ses/MIDI arabirimleri, mikrofonlar, MIDI klavyeler, dock istasyonları, mikserler, DJ kontrol üniteleri, iPad uyu...

  15. Samsun ve Çevresinde 2000-2005 Yılları Arasında Amniyosentez Sitogenetik Analiz

    N. Kara; ÖKTEN, G.; GÜNEŞ, S.Ö.; KOÇAK, İ.; YİĞİT, S.; TURAL, Ş.; Taşkin, E.; PINARLI, F.A.

    2009-01-01

    Bu çalışmada, Samsun ve çevresinde 2000-2005 yılları arasında amniyosentez endikasyon-ları ve endikasyon tespit edilen gebe kadınlardaki sitogenetik analiz sonuçlarının sunulması amaçlanmıştır. Amniyosentez endikasyonu olan, biyokimyasal risk yüksekliği (>1/250), ileri anne yaşı (>35 yaş), aile öyküsünde genetik hastalık, anormal ultrasonografi bulguları ve bunların kombinasyonları nedeniyle gelen 530 gebe kadından, gebeliğin 16-20. haftaları arasında alınan amniyon sıvısı örnekleri konvan...

  16. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013 . Scientific opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fluoride

    Tetens, Inge

    2013-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for fluoride, which are provided as Adequate Intake (AI) from all sources, including non-dietary sources. Fluoride is not an essential nutrient. Therefore, no Average Requirement for the performance of essential physiological functions can be defined. Nevertheless, the Panel considered that the setting of an AI is appropriate because of the be...

  17. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary reference values for water

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the setting of dietary reference values for water for specific age groups. Adequate Intakes (AI) have been defined derived from a combination of observed intakes in population groups with desirable osmolarity values of urine and desirable water volumes per energy unit consumed. The reference values for total water intake include water from drinking water, beverages of all kind, and from food moistur...

  18. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for protein

    Tetens, Inge

    2012-01-01

    This opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) deals with the setting of Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for protein. The Panel concludes that a Population Reference Intake (PRI) can be derived from nitrogen balance studies. Several health outcomes possibly associated with protein intake were also considered but data were found to be insufficient to establish DRVs. For healthy adults of both sexes, the average requirement (AR) is 0.66 g protein/kg body weig...

  19. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on establishing Food-Based Dietary Guidelines

    Tetens, Inge

    2010-01-01

    This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) provides guidance on the translation of nutrient based dietary advice into guidance, intended for the European population as a whole, on the contribution of different foods or food groups to an overall diet that would help to maintain good health through optimal nutrition (food-based dietary guidelines). The main focus of this Opinion is put on the scientific process of developing food-based dietary guidelines...

  20. Jung Işığında Heba Heba In The Light Of Jung

    Esra SAZYEK

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hasan Ali Toptaş, is one of the important authors of Turkishliterature, in his novel called Heba discusses inward looking personalityof Ziya, who lives in the same childish purity during his life consistingof all periods of childhood, military service, marriage and death. Due tothis property, he lives world of dreams and fantasies rather than reeltime. 16 years after he lost his wife and unborn son as casualties inbomb attack, Yazıköy where he breaks away from the crowd of the cityand settle in here, feeds his this side. Thus, the hours passing in thenature, turn into a worship. However, whole peace of Ziya, who hasfound what he seeks in Yazıköy, ends by killing of Kenan. This periodwhen everything has became complicated, is followed by killing of himas being lynched because of the gossips about him.When you reread the novel focusing on a wasted life, of whichtragic events are finished by death in the light of Jungian psychology, itturns into a story of award to reach immortality obtained after thesorrows felt.Experiences of Ziya in Yazıköy resembling Heaven until he isdismissed, realize on the cusp of a magical environment is surroundedby dreams and fantasies. Appearance of unconscious plane by means ofsymbolical contents in dreams indicates that Yazıköy representsunconscious world beyond being a geographic and travelling from thecity to natural follows a way from conscious towards unconscious.Exploring of Ziya moving in unknown darkness of unconsciousthe inner treasure in the deepest, requires passing the each phase fromsurface towards center with a different figure of unconscious named as"archetype" by Jung.In this study, dimensions of period in question will be discussedin terms of Jungian psychology; trails of his thoughts will be examinedin detail by its aspects are reflected on contextual dimension of thenovel. Türk edebiyatının önemli yazarlarından olan Hasan Ali Toptaş, Heba adlı romanında çocukluk, askerlik, evlilik

  1. Numerical Overview and perspectives of the numerical simulation of NDA instruments for safeguards application

    Numerical simulation of the transport of neutron and gamma has been used for measurement instrument design for decades. Improvement of the simulation codes combined with an increase in computer capability has led to the possibility of numerical calibration of instruments or interpretation of field measurements. This technique has become common practice in the nuclear industry and is being introduced in Safeguards. Typical examples are total neutron or coincidence neutron counters where availability of representative reference material may be difficult. In such cases, the main objectives for using numerical simulation are savings in manpower, money and time. The use of simulation for the direct interpretation of measurements is also an important issue. In some cases, like assay of nuclear material holdup in large and complex equipment, experimental calibration might be practically impossible and numerical calibration the only way to achieve quantitative results. In any case, the main issue is the validation of the simulation model, which remains based on reference materials. The point here is that reference materials do not have to be physically similar to assayed objects and therefore have larger availability and lower costs. In the future, advanced use of simulation could lead to a different approach of NDA referred to as finger printing. At present the concept of finger printing is limited to follow-up of NDA signatures and the demonstration that no change occurred. Simulation could help predicting the initial fingerprint and also its normal evolution due to decay. With prediction capability the concept of finger printing could be extended. One of the applications of this concept could be the verification of spent fuel casks by neutron measurements. Results of spent fuel individual verification could be used to verify input data used for the simulation of casks in order to predict neutron flux outside of the cask. In the field of gamma spectrometry, present use

  2. Aristoteles'in etik görüşü bağlamında ötanazi

    Gök, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Ötanazi etik alanda ama özellikle tıp etiği alanında sıklıkla tartışılan önemli sorunlarından biridir. Ne var ki tartışma genellikle felsefi etikten kopuk olarak sürdürülmektedir. Oysa sorun etik (felsefi etik) alandan uzaklaşmadan yapılması durumunda, insan ve değer felsefesinin, etiğin ötanazi tartışmalarına ışık tutacağı söylenebilir. Bu tezde amaçlanan, ötanaziye Aristoteles’in etik görüşü bağlamında bakıldığında, bu bakışın, ötanazide ortaya çıkan kimi sorunların çözümünde...

  3. Expectations for managing contaminated ground and groundwater: developing a common view of NDA and regulators - 16252

    The management of contaminated ground and groundwater is a notable contributor to dealing with the challenge we face in cleaning up the legacy of the UK's civil nuclear industry in a safe, cost-effective and environmentally responsible manner. To facilitate this mission, the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority, Environmental Regulators and Safety Regulators are working together to develop common expectations for the management of contaminated ground and groundwater arising on and extending off nuclear licensed sites in the UK. The aims of this work are to: - set out shared expectations for land quality management, explaining any differing expectations where consensus is difficult; - interpret expectations to ensure they are clear and implementable, facilitating planning of programmes and deliverables; - provide a framework for dialogue against which progress in land quality management can be mapped; - promote positive action to manage land quality in a proportionate and sustainable manner to achieve consistent standards; and, - identify whether areas of the regulatory framework or NDA contractual requirements warrant review and propose improvements for consideration, as appropriate. This paper outlines the process currently ongoing to identify the best way of achieving these aims in a manner that avoids compromising the respective statutory obligations, duties and functions of each party. (author)

  4. O sujeito n(da saúde coletiva e pós-modernismo

    Francisco Antônio de Castro Lacaz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerando a influência que a abordagem pós-modernista tem exercido na produção acadêmica da medicina social e da saúde coletiva nos últimos anos, quando a referência de autores como Foucault é marcante, busca-se dialogar com tal produção particularmente em função do descentramento do homem como sujeito da história; da importância assumida por categorias como discurso, gênero, etnia e sexualidade, em conseqüência da busca de novas identidades e da fragmentação da realidade introduzida por aquela abordagem, em contrapartida com a idéia de totalidade proposta pela abordagem marxista. O que se busca é resgatar a idéia de sujeito, atualizando a noção e o conceito de classe social, considerando a realidade mundial em que a globalização é o modelo que se impõe e que deve ser enfrentado a partir de uma estratégia que supere a realidade fragmentada do olhar pós-modernista e recoloque em cena as classes sociais atualizadas para um capitalismo globalizado, como o sujeito do pensamento social n(da saúde coletiva.

  5. Lanthanide extraction with 2,5-dimethyl-2-hydroxyhexanoic acid

    This research is concerned with the solvent extraction into chloroform of the lanthanides, using 2,5-dimethyl-2-hydroxyhexanoic acid (DMHHA). This acid is the first α-hydroxy aliphatic acid to be studied as an extracting agent for the lanthanides. The chloroform-water DMHHA partition constant was determined to be 1.0 (at 0.1 M ionic strength and 250C). The acid dimerizes in chloroform with a constant of 56. The light lanthanides can be extracted into chloroform by forming complexes with the DMHHA anions. The extracted metal species is highly aggregated. This extraction has a solubility limit which increases with the addition of unionized acid. The resultant extract is also highly aggregated. At unionized acid-to-metal ratios greater than one, extractions first occur followed by the slow precipitation of the lanthanide. At the tracer level, neodymium is extracted primarily as NdA3(HA)5 and (NdA3)2(HA)/sub q/. Very small amounts of (NdA3)2 and other metal aggregates are also present. The heavy lanthanides do not extract from solutions of DMHHA and its potassium salt, but form aqueous emulsions and precipitates. In the presence of the organic soluble tetrabutylammonium ion the heavy lanthanides can be extracted, presumably as ion pairs. The stability constants of the light lanthanides and DMHHA were determined. The separation factors obtained from DMHHA extractions of the light lanthanides were also investigated and found to be comparable to those obtained employing normal aliphatic carboxylic acid

  6. Tekstil Atık Sularında Bulunan Boyarmaddelerin Renginin Enzimler ile Giderilmesi Kinetiği

    Kuddis Büyükakıllı

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Endüstrinin her alanında olduğu gibi atıksu arıtma sistemlerinde de enzim kullanımı gittikçe artan bir şekilde yaygınlaşmaktadır. Enzim reaksiyonları mevcut ortam koşullarına çok duyarlı olduğundan, tepkime kinetiği de çok özel bir önem kazanmaktadır. Enzimler ile ilgili olan kinetik parametreler şunlardır: enzimatik reaksiyonların hızı üzerine scaklık ve pH'm etkileri, substrat ve enzim konsantrasyonlarının etkileri, Michaelis-Menten bağıntısı, ilk hız, Michaelis-Menten sabiti, maksimum hız, katalitik hız sabiti, özgül substrat konsantrasyonu, katalitik (kinetik verim, fizyolojik verim ve kimyasal oksijen uzaklaştırılması. Bu çalışmada özellikle enzimler ve atıksularda bulunan tekstil boyarmaddeleri arasındaki reaksiyon kinetiği incelenmiştir. Atık sulardaki biyokimyasal proseslerin tasarlanması sırasında yapılacak hesaplamalar için gerekli olan tüm parametreler bir arada değerlendirilmiştir. Enzimatik renk giderimi yapılan tekstil terbiye işletmeleri renkli atık sularında bulunan kinetik değerler karşılaştırılarak, araştırmacılar için derli toplu bir kaynak oluşturulmuştur.

  7. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for carbohydrates and dietary fibre

    Tetens, Inge

    This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the establishment of Dietary Reference Values for carbohydrates and dietary fibre. Nutritionally, two broad categories of carbohydrates can be differentiated: “glycaemic carbohydrates”, i.e. carbohydrates...... digested and absorbed in the human small intestine, and „dietary fibre‟, non-digestible carbohydrates passing to the large intestine. In this Opinion, dietary fibre is defined as non-digestible carbohydrates plus lignin. The absolute dietary requirement for glycaemic carbohydrates is not precisely known...

  8. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for chromium

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) considered the evidence for setting Dietary Reference Values for chromium. Trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) has been postulated to be necessary for the efficacy of insulin in regulating the...... Requirement and no Population Reference Intake for chromium can be defined. Several studies assessed the effect of chromium supplementation on glucose and/or lipid metabolism. In the only study for which information on total chromium intake was available, there was no difference in parameters of glucose...

  9. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on bovine lactoferrin:EFSA-Q-2010-01269

    Tetens, Inge

    2012-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to carry out the additional assessment of ‘lactoferrin’ as a food ingredient in the context of Regulation (EC) No 258/97 taking into account the comments and objections of a scientific nature raised by Member States. Bovine lactoferrin (bLF) is a protein that occurs naturally in cow’s milk. The applicant intends to market bLF as an ingredient for food supplements, inf...

  10. 3,4-konumlarında alkoksi grupları ve eterik zincirler bulunduran tiyofen monomerlerinin sentezi ve polimerleştirilmesi

    AYKAN, Melis

    2015-01-01

    Bu tez çalışmasında, 3 ve 4 konumlarında, alkoksi (-OR) ve eterik yan zincirler bulunduran tiyofen türevlerinin sentezi ve elektrokimyasal olarak polimerleştirilmeleri incelenmiştir. Araştırma kapsamında yürütülen çalışmalarda ilk basamak, dietil 3,4-dihidroksitiyofen-2,5-dikarboksilatın, farklı alkil halojenür bileşikleri ve trietilen glikolün tosillenmiş türeviyle olan nükleofilik sübstitüsyon reaksiyonlarını içermektedir. Gerçekleştirilen bu çalışmaların sonucunda, 3,4-konumlarınd...

  11. Yabancı dil olarak Türkçe alanında öğretmen eğitimi ve dil hakkında bilgi

    ÇETİN, Betül

    2015-01-01

    Yabancı dil olarak Türkçe öğretimi alanında bir lisans programının olmaması ve alanın bir uzmanlık olarak ele alınmaması nedeniyle yabancı dil olarak Türkçe öğretimi gerçekleştirecek olan öğretmen/okutmanlar için öğretmen eğitimi programları düzenlenmesi önem taşımaktadır.Bu çalışmada yabancı dil olarak Türkçe öğretecek öğretmen/okutmanlara yönelik bir öğretmen eğitimi programının dil hakkında bilgiler ile ilgili bölümü için bir içerik önerisi sunulmaktadır. Öğretmenlik bilgisi, yaba...

  12. Demir (III) varlığında trombosit gama-glutamil transferazının pro-oksidan etkisi

    Şener, Azize; Çevik, Özge; Özsavcı, Derya; Yanıkkaya Demirel, Gülderen

    2011-01-01

    Gama-glutamiltransferaz (GGT), indirgenmiş glutatyonun (GSH) metabolizmasında önemli rol oynayan bir membran enzimidir. GSH'ın katabolizması sırasında, GGT aktivitesi sonucu güçlü demir redükleyici etkisi olan tiyol dipeptid sisteinilglisin oluşur. Son araştırmalar artmış serum GGT aktivitesinin oksidatif stresin bir göstergesi olarak kullanılabileceğini göstermektedir. GGT aktivitesi trombositlerde de bulunur. Redoks reaksiyonları trombosit fonksiyonlarını değiştirebilir. Ancak, trombositler...

  13. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) ; Guidance on the scientific requirements for health claims related to bone, joints, skin and oral health

    Tetens, Inge

    The Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) has been asked by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) to draft guidance on the scientific requirements for health claims related to bone, joints, skin, and oral health. This guidance has been drawn from scientific opinions of the....../outcome measures which are acceptable. Rather, it presents examples drawn from evaluations already carried out to illustrate the approach of the Panel, as well as some examples which are currently under consideration within ongoing evaluations. A draft of this guidance document, endorsed by the NDA Panel on 25...

  14. Turunçgil Sularında Acılık Öğesi Olarak Naringin

    ALTAN, Ali

    1983-01-01

    Çeşitli turunçgil suyu ürünlerinde işleme sırasında ya da sonradan oluşan, hoşa gitmeyen, acı bir tadla karşılaşılmaktadır. Bu acılık meyvenin işlenmesi sırasında hatalı işlemlerden kaynaklandığı gibi işlenen meyveye de bağlı olabilmektedir. Acı bir meyve olan turunç (citrus aurantium)’tan elde edilen meyve suyu da acıdır. Sofralık olarak beğeni ile tüketilen Washington navel portakallarından elde edilen meyve suyu, meyvenin sıkılmasından birkaç saat sonra belirgin bir şekilde acılaşmaktad...

  15. Yönetimde yeni yönelimler bağlamında lider yöneticilik

    Deliveli, Ömür

    2010-01-01

    Günümüzde değişen çağa uyum sağlayabilmek, yönetim örgütlerinin en önemli zorunluluğu haline gelmiş ve bu zorunluluk bütün yönetim örgütlerinin işleyişini, yapısını ve yöneticiden beklenen rolleri değiştirmiştir. Buna bağlı olarak günümüz yönetim yaklaşımlarında, yönetici değil daha çok lider yöneticiden beklenen olumlu davranışlar vurgulanmaya başlamıştır. Bu çalışmanın amacı; yeni yönelimler bağlamında ideal lider yöneticiyi tanımlayabilmek, ideal lider yönetici davranışlarını ve özellikler...

  16. Heimavinnsla bænda : draumsýn eða raunverulegur möguleiki?

    Ingi Hafliði Guðjónsson

    2011-01-01

    Þessi ritgerð fjallar um möguleika sem eru fyrir hendi til að þróa og koma á fót bænda-mörkuðum hér á Íslandi eins og tíðkast víða erlendis. Hugmyndin er fengin frá bresku samtökunum FARMA sem eru regnhlífarsamtök beinsöluaðila í Bretlandi og hafa átt einna stærstan þátt í því að koma slíku á fót þar á undanförnum 30 árum. Íslensku samtökin Beint frá býli hafa það að markmiði að auka heimavinnslu og beinsölu bænda. Ætlunin með þessari ritgerð er að skoða hvernig Beint frá býli gæti komi...

  17. Synchronizing Progression of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Cells from Prophase through Mitosis and into S Phase with nda3-KM311 Arrest Release.

    Hagan, Iain M; Grallert, Agnes; Simanis, Viesturs

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe how the rapid reversibility of the nda3-KM311 cold-sensitive β-tubulin mutation was optimized by Mitsuhiro Yanagida's laboratory to synchronize mitotic progression in an entire cell population. The inability to form microtubules following the loss of β-tubulin function at 20°C triggers the spindle assembly checkpoint, which arrests mitotic progression. Restoration of β-tubulin function by rewarming to 30°C (or higher) releases the arrest, generating a highly synchronous progression through mitosis. The viability of nda3-KM311 strains at 30°C makes it feasible to generate double mutants between nda3-KM311 and any temperature-sensitive mutant that can also grow at 30°C. These double mutants can be used in reciprocal shift analyses, in which cold-induced early mitotic arrest is relieved by a shift to 36°C, which then inactivates the product of the second mutant gene. The addition of microtubule depolymerizing drugs before the return to 36°C will maintain checkpoint signaling at 36°C transiently, permitting analysis of the impact of temperature-sensitive mutations on checkpoint function. Silencing the checkpoint of nda3-KM311-arrested cells at 20°C through chemical inhibition of aurora kinase is a powerful way to study checkpoint recovery pathways and mitotic exit without anaphase. PMID:27480719

  18. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Panel on Dietetic Products Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for iodine

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for iodine, which are provided as Adequate Intake (AI). Iodine is essential for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Through these hormones, iodine...

  19. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allerg ies (NDA) ; Guidance on the scientific requirements for health claims related to appetite ratings, weight management, and blood glucose concentrations

    Tetens, Inge

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) asked the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) to draft guidance on scientific requirements for health claims related to appetite ratings, weight management, and blood glucose concentrations. This guidance has been drawn from scientific...

  20. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the essential composition of infant and follow-on formulae

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the essential composition of infant and follow-on formula. This opinion reviews the opinion provided by the Scientific Committee on Food...

  1. TREATMENT OF WASTEWATER FROM PRODUCTION PROCESS OF 2,3—ACID

    FENGWenguo; SUXing; 等

    1999-01-01

    Wastewater from production process of 2,3-acid was treated by adsorption using macroporous resin NDA-708.After only one-step treatment by resin adsorption,removal efficiency of three kinds of naphthalene chemicals was above 99%;removal eficiency of CODcr was above 96%.Under proper operating condition,desorptionefficiency was around 100%.The running records of the industrial facility showed that the naphthlene chemicals in desorption effluent could be reused without obvious influence on the quality of the product.

  2. EXPRESSIONS FROM REZMÎ DİVAN REZMÎ DİVANI’NDA DEYİMLER

    Mehmet GÜRBÜZ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Expressions and proverbs are language structures which received production of savings from past to today imagination and memory of society. Poets benefit from these possibilities of language to enhance their definitions on their poems and to make interest or to be clear and understandable abstract dreams which they have into brains more or less. Expressions were already formed with art understanding has an important role at this preference.Expressions are in Divan of Safiye Sultanzade Mehmet Rezmî who lived second half of 17th century and first quarter of 18th century and use of these expressions will be tackled in our study. Remzi was a poet who used usually elements belong to Ottoman’s society daily life and concerning daily life expressions, phrases. Because he had sophisticated identity, was a member of Ottoman Empire, took education in palace and assigned during his life, it is noticeable that he used deeply concerning life elements in this way. Deyimler ve atasözleri, toplum hafızasının ve muhayyilesinin geçmişten günümüze elde ettiği birikiminin üretimi olan dil yapılarıdır. Şairler, şiirlerinde anlatımı güçlendirmek ve ilgi çekici bir hale getirmek ya da kurdukları soyut hayâlleri daha açık ve anlaşılır kılmak amacıyla dilin bu ifade imkânlarından az ya da çok mutlaka yararlanırlar. Deyimlerin zaten sanatlı bir anlayışla meydana getirilmiş olması bu tercihte önemli bir yer tutmuştur. Çalışmada 17. yüzyılın ikinci yarısı ile 18. yüzyılın ilk çeyreğinde yaşamış Safiye Sultanzade Mehmet Rezmî’nin Divanı’nda yer alan deyimlerle bu deyimlerin kullanımı ele alınacaktır. Rezmî, Osmanlı toplumunun gündelik hayatına ait unsurları ve günlük diline ilişkin deyimleri, tabirleri sıklıkla kullanmış bir şairdir. Çok yönlü sanatçı bir kimliğe sahip olan şairin Osmanlı hanedanına mensup olması, sarayda eğitim görüp bütün hayatı boyunca sarayda görevler alm

  3. Türk Eğitim Sisteminin Yapısal Özellikleri Bağlamında 1980 Sonrasında Türkiye’de Eğitim İktidar İlişkileri

    Şimşek, Selçuk

    2012-01-01

    Bilgi, düşünsel düzeyde girdi ve çıktı olma özelliğine sahip olan anlamlı bir birikim olarak tanımlanabilir. Bilgi ile doğrudan bağlantılı bir süreç olarak gerçekleştirilen eğitim ise, sistemli veya sistemsiz olarak muhataplarında gözlenebilir düşünce ve eylem farklılıklarının temelini oluşturan ve altyapılarını kuran bilgi hareketliliğidir. Bilginin, bizatihi sahip olduğu ve bilgi sahiplerinin doğrudan elde ettiği iktidar olgusu ise, en genel anlamda fiziksel veya psikolojik bir etki olarak ...

  4. Two new coordination polymers constructed by naphthalene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid and 2,4-diamino-6-methyl-triazine

    Two new transition metal coordination complexes, ([MnO(nda)](H2dmt)(H2O))n (1), [Ag5(nda)2.5(dmt)]n (2), (H2nda=naphthalene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid, dmt=2,4-diamine-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazine) have been hydrothermally synthesized by the reactions of H2nda and dmt with the homologous MnCl2·4H2O and AgNO3, respectively, and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, IR spectra, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The compound 1 exhibits a 3D network comprising 1D metal chain (MnO(CO2)2)n connected by the ligand nda2−, featuring a four-connected uninodal diamond -like topology. In compound 2, it is firstly observed that decanuclear silver units as secondary building units to construct 3D network by the ligands dmt and nda2−, with a rare 2-nodal (3,8)-connected tfz-d topology ((43)2(46.618.84)). The interactions within each Mn(II)—Mn(II) pair of compound 1 are antiferromagnetic (g=2.07, J=−1.42(1) cm−1, zj′=−0.73(2) cm−1). In addition, compound 2 exhibits photoluminescent property at about 472 nm (λex=394 nm). - Graphical abstract: Two new transition metal coordination complexes 1–2 have been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, IR spectra, elemental analysis thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Highlights: • The compound 1 exhibits a 3D network with four-connected uninodal diamond-like topology. • The first 3D network of 2 with a rare tfz-d topology consists of decanuclear silver clusters as secondary building units. • The magnetic measurement indicates the compound 1 shows antiferromagnetic interactions. • The photoluminescent property of 2 has been measured

  5. Shakespeare'den Kierkegaard'a : varoluşçuluk ışığında "Hamlet"

    Tekinay, Aslı

    2001-01-01

    Shakespeare'in "Hamlet" oyunu varoluşçuluk felsefesi bağlamında yorumlanabilir. Danimarka'da, kendisini Sartre'in 'boşluk' ('void') olarak nitelendirdigi türde bir ortamda bulan Hamlet, çürümüş bir dünyada mücadele veren modern Avru-pa'lı insan kavramının bir örneği olarak algılanabilir. Hamlet 'bulantısını' ('nausea') yenmeye, insanları maskelerinden ve yanıltıcı görünümlerinden arındırmaya çabalarken Kierkegaard'in betimlediği üç yaşam evresinden geçer:estetik, ahlaki, ve dini. Bu evreler k...

  6. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for biotin

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for biotin. Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin which serves as a co-factor for several carboxylases that play critical roles in the synthesis of...... and cannot be used for deriving DRVs for biotin. As there is insufficient evidence available to derive an Average Requirement and a Population Reference Intake, an Adequate Intake (AI) is proposed. The setting of AIs is based on observed biotin intakes with a mixed diet and the apparent absence of...... through breast milk. For infants over six months, an AI of 6 µg/day is proposed by extrapolating from the biotin intake of exclusively breastfed infants aged zero to six months, using allometric scaling and reference body weight for each age group, in order to account for the role of biotin in energy...

  7. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on principles for deriving and applying Dietary Reference Values

    Tetens, Inge

    This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the general principles for development and application of Dietary Reference Values (DRVs). These quantitative reference values for nutrient intakes for healthy individuals and populations are based on...... health criteria. Derived from DRVs, nutrients goals and recommendations take into account other criteria such as food composition or dietary habits, and may be used for assessment and planning of diets. It is proposed to derive the following DRVs: 1) Population Reference Intakes (PRI), 2) Average...... Requirement (AR), 3) Lower Threshold Intake (LTI), 4) Adequate Intake (AI), 5) Reference Intake ranges for macronutrients (RI). Nutrient requirements differ with age, sex and physiological condition. The Panel proposes to define the age ranges used for each nutrient on a case-by-case basis depending on the...

  8. Meme kanseri hücre soylarında beta katenin ve proliferasyon ilişkisi

    Karan, Aslı

    2006-01-01

    Bu çalısmada meme kanseri hücre soyları MDA-MB 231, MCF-7 ve T47D hücrelerinde katenin ve fosfo katenin ekspresyonu immünositokimyasal olarak incelendi. MDA-MB 231 hücrelerinde nükleer lokalizasyonlu katenin ekspresyonu saptandı. Fosfo katenin ekspresyonu bazı hücrelerin nukleus ve nukleusa yakın bölgelerinde izlendi. MCF-7 hücrelerinde katenin ekspresyonu hücre membranında lokalize idi, fosfo katenin ekspresyonu ise gözlenmedi. T47D hücrelerinde katenin ekspre...

  9. İncir (Ficus carica cv. "Bursa siyahı") fidanlarında farklı uygulamaların bodurlaştırma üzerine etkisi

    Hekimci, Bilge

    2014-01-01

    Bursa Siyahı incir çeşidi fidanlarında farklı uygulamaların bodurlaştırma üzerine etkisini belirlemek amacıyla planlanan deneme, 2012-2013 yılları arasında Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Bahçe Bitkileri Bölümü'ne ait arazide yürütülmüştür. İncir fidanlarında suni bodurluk yaratmak amacıyla; kontrol uygulaması yanında, bir giberellik asit inhibitörü olan Prohexadione-calcium (Pro-Ca) 125 ve 250 ppm dozunda olacak şekilde kullanılmıştır. Bunun yanı sıra, toprak seviyesi ile 30o'li...

  10. Ulusal Televizyon Kanallarında Engelli Hakları Rights Of Persons With Disabilities On National Television Channels

    Ömer Faruk SÖNMEZ

    2013-09-01

    adequately include rights of persons with disabilities. Demokratik bir toplumun en önemli göstergesi o toplumu oluşturan tüm bireylerin eşit haklara sahip olması ve bu haklardan etkin bir biçimde yararlanmasıdır. Ancak demokratik bir toplum olma yolunda ağır adımlarla ilerleyen ülkemizde engelli vatandaşlar eğitim, sağlık, çalışma vb. haklardan engelli olmayan diğer vatandaşlara göre etkin bir biçimde yararlanamamaktadır. Engelli vatandaşlarımızın bu haklardan etkin bir biçimde yararlanabilmeleri için toplumsal bir duyarlılığa ve siyasi sorumluluğa ihtiyaç vardır. Bu noktada bilgilendirme, farkındalık ve kamuoyu oluşturma gücü olan görsel medyanın çok önemli bir görevi ve sorumluluğu vardır. Bu araştırma ulusal televizyon kanallarının bu görev ve sorumluluğu ne kadar yerine getirdiklerini ortaya koymayı amaçlamaktadır. Ayrıca ulusal televizyon kanallarında, engelli haklarının ayrıntılı bir biçimde ele alındığı Birleşmiş Milletler tarafından hazırlanmış olan "Engellilerin Haklarına Dair Sözleşme"'de yer alan engelli haklarına yer verilme durumu da bu araştırmanın amaçları arasındadır. Betimsel tarama modelinde yürütülen araştırmanın veri kaynağı medya takip merkezinden temin edilmiştir. 48 ulusal televizyon kanalının 2012 yılı içinde yaptığı engelliler ve engelli hakları ile ilgili yayınların analizinde betimsel analiz kullanılmıştır. Analiz sonuçlarına göre ulusal televizyon kanallarında engelliler ve engelli hakları ile ilgili yapılan yayınların sayısı, süresi ve çeşidi açısından yetersiz olduğu; yapılan yayınlar içerisinde en fazla “çalışma ve istihdam hakkı” ile ilgili yayınların olduğu; engelliler ile ilgili yayınların daha çok “Dünya Engelliler Haftası” nın içinde olduğu Mayıs ayında ve “Dünya Engelliler Günü” nün içinde olduğu Aralık ayında yapıldığı; engelli hakları ile ilgili haberlerin ise daha

  11. Ekonomi Bilimi Dalında 1994 Nobel Ödülü John F. Nash, John C. Harsanyi Ve Reinhard Selten’e Verildi (Gerhard Illing)

    Çeviren/Trans: Nejla GÜLTEKİN

    1995-01-01

    1994 yılında, John von Neumann ve Oskar Margentern "The Theory of Game and Economic Behavior" (Oyun Teorisi ve Ekonomik Davranış) adlı eserleri ile stratejik karar verme durumlarının matematiksel analizini içeren oyun teorisini iktisat bilimine kazandırdılar. 50 yıl sonra 11 Ekim 1994'de oyun teorisiyle ilgilenen üç bilim adamı, John F. Nash, John C. Harsanyi ve Reinhard Selten, kooperatİf olmayan oyun teorisindeki dengenin temel analizleri ile ekonomi bilimi dalında Nobel ödülüne layık görül...

  12. Ekolojinin kabuklu ve kabuksuz çekirdek kabak (Cucurbita pepo L.) hatlarında tohum verimi ve çerezlik kalitesine etkisi

    ERMİŞ, Sıtkı

    2010-01-01

       Bu araştırma, 2007 ve 2010 yılları arasında ıslah çalışması sonucu seçilen 5 kabuklu ve 2 kabuksuz çekirdek kabağı hattında ekolojinin kabak çekirdeği verimi ve elde edilen çekirdeklerin çerezlik değeri ile kimyasal bileşimi üzerine etkisini incelemek amacıyla yapılmıştır. Ülkemizde çekirdek kabağı yetiştiriciliğinin yaygın olarak yapıldığı Trakya Bölgesi’ni temsilen Kırklareli, İç Anadolu Bölgesi’ni temsilen de Nevşehir ve Ankara lokasyonları seçilmiştir.

  13. Erken (28-37. Gebelik Haftaları Arasında) Doğumlarda Mediko-Sosyal Risk Faktörlerinin İncelenmesi

    Kopal, Şükran; Acar, Ali; Girişgin, Ünzile; ÇAPAR, Metin; Akyürek, Cemalettin

    2009-01-01

    SüleymanDemirel Üniversitesi TIP FAKÜLTESİ DERGİSİ: 1999 Eylül; 6(3) Erken (28-37. Gebelik Haftaları Arasında) Doğumlarda Mediko-Sosyal Risk Faktörlerinin İncelenmesi Şükran Kopal, Ali Acar, Ünzile Girişgin, Metin Çapar, Cemalettin Akyürek Özet Bu çalışmada Selçuk Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Hastanesi Kadın Hastalıkları ve Doğum Kliniği 'nde 1995-96 yılları arasında gözlenen erken doğum vakalarına ilişkin mediko-sosyal risk faktörleri incelendi. 1995-19...

  14. TEOG kapsamında uygulanan matematik alt testi ile matematik mazeret alt testinin istatistiksel eşitliğinin sınanması

    Özkan, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

          Bu çalışmada 2013-2014 eğitim-öğretim yılı I. yarıyılında MEB tarafından yapılan ve Temel Eğitimden Ortaöğretime Geçiş Sistemi (TEOG) kapsamında uygulanan Merkezi Ortak Sınavlar (MOS)’dan Matematik ve Matematik mazeret alt testlerinden elde edilen puanların Klasik Test Kuramı (KTK)’ne dayalı test eşitleme yöntemlerinden doğrusal ve eşit yüzdelikli eşitleme yöntemleri kullanılarak eşitlenmesi ve bu yöntemlerden en uygun olanının belirlenmesi a...

  15. Patates Hasat Makinalarında Yumru Zedelenmelerinin Değerlendirilmesi ve Çözüm Önerileri

    GÜLER, İbrahim Ethem

    2013-01-01

    ÖZET : Tarımsal üretimde hasat işlemi tüm üretim aşamaları içerisinde dikkat edilmesi gereken en zor aşamalardan birisidir. Patates hasadı da bu anlamda ürün verimini, yumru kalitesini, pazarlama düzeyini ve yumru depolanabilirliğini etkileyen en önemli aşamadır. Patates tarımında ürün verimi ve kalitesi hasat esnasında artmayabilir, ancak uygun olmayan ve dikkatsiz uygulamalar kesin olarak ürün kalitesini, verimini ve ekonomi...

  16. Aldous Huxley'nin Crome Yellow ve Evelyn Waugh'nun Decline and Fall isimli romanlarında karakterlerin yitik-kahraman olarak incelenmesi

    BAKŞİ NAYLOR, Olgahan

    2009-01-01

    ?Aldous Huxley'nin Crome Yellow ve Evelyn Waugh'nun Decline and Fall İsimli Romanlarında Karakterlerin Yitik-kahraman Olarak İncelenmesi? adlı bu çalışmada karakterler ?yitik-kahraman? bağlamında incelenmiştir. Her iki bölümde de ?yitik-kahraman? iki farklı bakış açısından ele alınmıştır. Birinci Bölümde Aldous Huxley'nin Crome Yellow (1921) isimli romanındaki karakterler iki farklı karakter grubuna bölünerek incelenmişlerdir. Birinci gruptaki karakterlerin ?salt akıl? ile hare...

  17. Random Forests Yöntemi ve Sağlık Alanında Bir Uygulama

    Muhammet AKMAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Amaç: Veri madenciliği, genel olarak tanımlayıcı ve tahmin edici olmak üzere iki ana başlıkta incelenmektedir. Özellikle tıp alanında veri madenciliği daha çok tahmin edici yönüyle kullanılmaktadır. Bu çalışmada, ağaç tabanlı veri madenciliği yöntemlerinden birisi olan Random Forests (RF yönteminin incelenmesi ve sağlık alanından elde edilen bir veri seti üzerine uygulaması yapılarak sonuçlarının tartışılması amaçlanmıştır. Gereç ve Yöntemler: RF yönteminde, karar ormanını oluşturan karar ağaçları orijinal veri setinden bootstrap yöntemiyle seçilen farklı örneklerden oluşturulmaktadır. Her karar ağacında veri setindeki tüm değişkenlerden rastgele seçilen az sayıda değişken kullanılmaktadır. Her ağaç bir sınıf için oy vermektedir ve orman sınıflayıcısı bütün ağaçların verdiği oyları toplayarak bir sınıf için son tahminini yapmaktadır. Yöntemin uygulanması amacıyla Diş hekimliği alanından elde edilen bir veri seti kullanılmıştır. Bulgular: Toplam 43 tane demografik, dental ve serolojik özelliklere ait veriler kullanılarak RF yöntemi ile %95.4 oranında başarılı bir sınıflandırma yapılmıştır. Bu karar ormanının hata oranı ise %3.33 olarak bulunmuştur. Aynı veri seti için Bagging ve CART yöntemi ile de sınıflama yapılmış ve Bagging yöntemi ile hata oranı %5.4, CART yöntemi ile %8.75 olarak bulunmuştur. Sonuç: RF yöntemi ile veri setindeki değişken sayısı ve örnek sayısı ne kadar çok olursa olsun genellikle hata oranı düşük sınıflamalar yapılmaktadır. Hata oranının düşüklüğü ise bir topluluk yöntemi olmasından kaynaklanmaktadır. Özelikle çok sayıda değişkenin olduğu DNA veri seti gibi binlerce gen arasından önemli olanları tespit etmek için kullanılabilir.

  18. In situ object counting system (ISOCSi3TM) technique: A cost-effective tool for NDA verification in IAEA Safeguards

    Nuclear material measurements using the ISOCS technique are playing an increasing role in IAEA verification activities. The ISOCS capabilities include: a high sensitivity to the presence of U and Pu; the ability to detect very small amounts of material; and the ability to measure items of different shapes and sizes. In addition, the numerical absolute efficiency calibration of a germanium detector used in the technique does not require any calibration standards or reference materials. The ISOCS modelling software performs an absolute efficiency calibration for items with various container shapes, container wall materials, material compositions, material fill-heights, U/Pu weight fractions and even heterogeneously distributed emitting materials. In a number of cases, some key parameters, such as the matrix density and U/Pu weight fraction, can be determined in addition to the emitting material mass and isotopic composition. These capabilities provide a verification solution suitable for a majority of cases where quantitative and isotopic analysis should be performed. Taking into account these advantages, the technique becomes a cost-effective solution for nuclear material non-destructive assay (NDA) verification. At present, the IAEA uses the ISOCS for a wide range of applications including the quantitative analysis of U scrap materials, U/Pu contaminated solid wastes, U fuel elements, U hold-up materials. Additionally, the ISOCS is also applied to some specific verification cases such as the measurement of PuBe neutron sources and the quantification of fission products in solid wastes. In reprocessing facilities with U/Pu waste compaction or facilities with item re-batching, the continuity-of-knowledge can be assured by applying either video surveillance systems together with seals (requiring attaching/detaching and verification activities for each seal) or verification of operator declarations using quantitative measurements for items selected on a random basis

  19. Çevre etiği bağlamında Anadolu sığla ormanları

    ÜRKER, Okan

    2014-01-01

    Doğal kaynak/varlık kullanımı ve yönetiminde toplumsal taleplerin hangi koşullar altında şekillendiğinin ve yönlendirildiğinin tespit edilmesi, buna ilişkin etik talebin ortaya çıkma süreçlerinin izlenmesi, bu bağlamda kamu vicdanının ve kamu yararının oluşmasında ve farklı şekillerde algılanmasında ve içselleştirilmesinde hukuk, politika gibi araçların nasıl kullanıldığının gösterilmesi, tüm bu süreçlerin çevre etiği açısından değerlendirilmesi ve sonucunda toplumsal faydanın ‘doğa ...

  20. NECSA'S Need to Establish a Nuclear Forensics Specific NDA Facility for On-Site Categorization of Seized Nuclear Materials

    The increase of nuclear material that are out of regulatory control is becoming a serious concern and threat and thereby continuously seeking urgent interventions and counteractions from the international community aspiring effective control over all nuclear material and peaceful uses of nuclear technologies globally. In South Africa the nuclear forensics initiative approach and its execution have been adopted, established and managed by the South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (NECSA) to support the country's nuclear safeguards system and nuclear security investigations plan to fight against the illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials. On this nuclear forensics initiative approach adopted by Necsa, the development and later execution of a Non-Destructive Analyses (NDA) facility capability for quick categorization of any seized nuclear material by law-enforcement agencies is currently envisaged as a critical initiative to comprehend nuclear forensics Laboratory analytical or characterization techniques. The main objective for this NDA facility is planned to be used for performing nuclear material screening process for material categorization purposes to generate information and results which will be open to law enforcement agencies for prosecution processes and also for the safeguards reporting to the IAEA (ITDB). The NDA technique is therefore found to be a critical tool needed at NECSA as an Early-Checking-Point or first-line material check point for all seized nuclear materials in determining some characteristics of the materials and collection of data without having to destroy or changing the morphology of the material. (author)

  1. Sağlık Yüksekokulu Öğrencilerinin İletişim Alanında Temel Yetkinliklerinin Değerlendirilmesi

    GÜNGÖR TAVŞANLI, Nurgül; GÜROL ARSLAN, Gülşah; TAŞPINAR, Ayten

    2012-01-01

    ÖZ Amaç: Araştırma Celal Bayar Üniversitesi Sağlık Yüksekokulu Hemşirelik ve Ebelik öğrencilerinin iletişim alanında temel yetkinliklerini değerlendirmek amacıyla yapılmıştır. Yöntem: Araştırmanın örneklemini, Celal Bayar Üniversitesi Sağlık Yüksekokulu'nda öğrenim gören, araştırmaya katılmayı kabul 275 öğrenci oluşturmuştur. Verilerin toplanmasında sosyodemografik özellikler soru formu ve Çevik (2007) tara­fından geliştirilmiş olan İletişim Barometresi kullanılmıştır. Değerlendirmede ...

  2. Beaming structures of Jupiter's decametric common S-bursts observed from LWA1, NDA, and URAN2 radio telescopes

    Imai, Masafumi; Clarke, Tracy E; Higgins, Charles A; Panchenko, Mykhaylo; Dowell, Jayce; Imai, Kazumasa; Brazhenko, Anatolii I; Frantsuzenko, Anatolii V; Konovalenko, Alexandr A

    2016-01-01

    On 2015 February 21, simultaneous observations of Jupiter's decametric radio emission between 10 and 33 MHz were carried out using three powerful low-frequency radio telescopes: Long Wavelength Array Station One (LWA1) in USA; Nan\\c{c}ay Decameter Array (NDA) in France; and URAN2 telescope in Ukraine. We measure lag times of short-bursts (S-bursts) for 105-minutes of data over effective baselines up to 8460 km by using cross-correlation analysis of the spectrograms from each instrument. Of particular interest is the measurement of the beaming thickness of S-bursts, testing if either flashlight- or beacon-like beaming is emanating from Jupiter. We find that the lag times for all pairs drift slightly as time elapses, in agreement with expectations from the flashlight-like beaming model. This leads to a new constraint of the minimum beaming thickness of 2.66". Also, we find that most of the analyzed data abound with S-bursts, whose occurrence probability peaks at 17-18 MHz.

  3. Development of an NDA system for high-level waste from the Chernobyl new safe confinement construction site

    Lee, Sang-yoon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Browne, Michael C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rael, Carlos D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carroll, Colin J [SONALYST INC.; Sunshine, Alexander [NA-243; Novikov, Alexander [CHNPP; Lebedev, Evgeny [CHNPP

    2010-01-01

    In early 2009, preliminary excavation work has begun in preparation for the construction of the New Safe Confinement (NSC) at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in Ukraine. The NSC is the structure that will replace the present containment structure and will confine the radioactive remains of the ChNPP Unit-4 reactor for the next 100 years. It is expected that special nuclear material (SNM) that was ejected from the Unit-4 reactor during the accident in 1986 could be uncovered and would therefore need to be safeguarded. ChNPP requested the assistance of the United States Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) with developing a new non-destructive assay (NDA) system that is capable of assaying radioactive debris stored in 55-gallon drums. The design of the system has to be tailored to the unique circumstances and work processes at the NSC construction site and the ChNPP. This paper describes the Chernobyl Drum Assay System (CDAS), the solution devised by Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sonalysts Inc., and the ChNPP, under NNSA's International Safeguards and Engagement Program (INSEP). The neutron counter measures the spontaneous fission neutrons from the {sup 238}U, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 244}Cm in a waste drum and estimates the mass contents of the SNMs in the drum by using of isotopic compositions determined by fuel burnup. The preliminary evaluation on overall measurement uncertainty shows that the system meets design performance requirements imposed by the facility.

  4. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to L-carnitine and faster recovery from muscle fatigue after exercise (ID 738, 1492, 1493), skeletal muscle tissue repair (ID 738, 1492, 1493), increase in endurance, capacity (ID 4305, 4684), maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations (ID 1494, 4684), contribution to normal spermatogenesis (ID 1822), “energy metabolism” (ID 1821), and increasing L-carnitine concentrations and/or decreasing free fatty acids in blood during pregnancy (ID 1495) pursuant to

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to L-carnitine and faster recovery from muscle fatigue after exercise, skeletal muscle tissue repair, increase in endurance capacity, maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations, contribution to normal spermatogenesis, “energy metabolism”, and increasing L......-carnitine concentrations and/or decreasing free fatty acids in blood during pregnancy. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The...

  5. Tip II diyabetli periodontitis hastalarında periodontal tedavinin ağız kokusuna etkisi

    Hafize Sezer

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Phase 1 periodontal therapy on oral malodour levels in Type 2 DM patients with chronic periodontitis. Out of fifty patients, 24 females and 26 males, were included in the study. Thirty of them were in test group (TG and the rest were in control group (CG. Test group received Phase 1 periodontal therapy, however, control group received neither periodontal therapy nor oral hygiene instructions. Clinical evaluation of the patients consisted of; Plaque index (PI, Gingival index (GI, probing depth (PD and oral malodour (HMV evaluations. At the end of the study, clinical parameters of the test group, decreased PI, GI, PD, and HLM values(P<0.05. However, in the

    control group, changes on PI, GI and HDM values were statistically insignificant (p>0.05, but the increase on PD value were statistically significant. Also, however none of the values changed statistically in control group. Within the limits of this study, conclude that periodontal therapy in Type II DM patients with chronic periodontitis has favourable effects on halitozis .

     

    ÖZET

    Bu araştırmada, Tip II diyabetli kronik periodontitis hastalarında başlangıç periodontal tedavisinin halitozis(ağız kokusu değerine etkisi amaçlandı. Çalışmaya 24’ü kadın, 26’sı erkek toplam 50 birey katıldı. Bu hastaların 30’u tedavi, 20’si kontrol grubuna dahil edildi. Tedavi grubuna başlangıç periodontal tedavisi, diğer kontrol grubuna ise çalışma süresince hiçbir tedavi ya da oral hijyen eğitiminde bulunulmadı. Hastaların klinik olarak değerlendirilmesinde plak indeksi (Pİ, gingival indeks (Gİ, sondalama cep derinliği (SCD ve ağız kokusu (HMD ölçümleri yapıldı. Bu işlemler başlangıç ve tedavi sonrası 3.ayda tekrarlandı. Çalışma sonucunda tedavi grubunda klinik parametrelerden Pİ, Gİ, SCD ve HMD ortalama değerlerinde azalma istatistiksel olarak anlaml

  6. THE “KIZILELMA” IN NEW TURKISH LITERATURE YENİ TÜRK EDEBİYATI’NDA “KIZILELMA”

    Abdullah HARMANCI

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available It is seen that the “Kızılelma” motif that found an area of use in different genres of our traditional literature continues to make new senses in the Modern Turkish Literature with the pens of authors and poets such as Ziya Gökalp, Aka Gündüz, Ömer Seyfettin, Nihal Atsız, Niyazi Yıldırım Gençosmanoğlu, Dilaver Cebeci, Ragıp Şevki Yeşim, Mim Kemal Öke, Halil Delice. In our article, it’s attempted to introduce and assess these works and discussed new senses made by “Kızılelma” in our traditional and modern literature. Geleneksel edebiyatımızın farklı türlerinde kullanım alanı bulan “Kızılelma” motifinin, Yeni Türk Edebiyatında, Ziya Gökalp, Aka Gündüz, Ömer Seyfettin, Nihal Atsız, Niyazi Yıldırım Gençosmanoğlu, Dilaver Cebeci, Ragıp Şevki Yeşim, Mim Kemal Öke, Halil Delice gibi şair ve yazarların kaleminde yeni anlamlar kazanmaya devam ettiği görülmektedir. Makalemizde bu eserler tanıtılmaya ve değerlendirilmeye gayret edilmiş, “Kızılelma”nın geleneksel ve modern edebiyatımız içerisinde kazandığı anlamlar üzeride durulmuştur.

  7. Off-line NDA measurement of actinides in reprocessing solution using hybrid K-edge/K-XRF densitometer

    A versatile, nondestructive assay (NDA) system of a hybrid K-edge/K-XRF facility adapted to a glove box facility has been developed at RCL, IGCAR for the analysis of U and Pu in process solutions obtained from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels. This paper describes i) The development of a hybrid K-edge/K-XRF facility adapted to a glove box system ii) The results obtained using conditioner solution of burn up 155 GWd/t with a dose of 20 R/h and iii) Comparison of the results with the parallel analyses of the same by Isotope dilution mass spectrometry. The hybrid K-edge cum K-XRF densitometer is ideally suited for dissolver solutions as well as U and Pu product solutions from reprocessing plant. This method can be useful in the analysis of mixed solution of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) without chemical separation. To assay solutions with high radiation background, the hybrid K-edge/K-XRF system is designed and fabricated inside a glove box with adequate shielding from both source X-rays and the sample radiation. The theory and preliminary experiments are described elsewhere. Around 5 mL of the conditioner solution (burn up of 155 GWd/t with a dose of 20 R/h) was taken in a poly propylene vial placed concentrically in to another poly propylene vial. The concentration was estimated by K-edge densitometry with X-ray tube operated with 150 kV and 1 mA and counting period of 3000s. Background correction was obtained with the X-ray tube in OFF condition. The solution was analysed parallelly using isotopic dilution mass spectrometry

  8. Derin Dentin Çürüğü Tedavilerinde Kavite Tabanında Yumuşak Dentin Bırakılarak Yapılan İndirekt Kuaffaj ve Kalsiyumhidroksit Altında Yumuşak Dentin Tabakasının Remineralizasyonu (Elektron mikroskobu ile in vivo araştırma)

    Koray, Fatma

    2013-01-01

    ÖZETDentin çürüğü olan ve konum anomalisi nedeniyle çekimleri gereken akıl dişlerine, kavite tabanında yumuşak dentin bırakılarak, kalsiyumhidroksit ile indirekt kuaffaj uygulandı. Üç hafta sonra dişler çekildi ve kavite tabanında bırakılan yumuşak dentin katmanındaki değişiklikler transmisyon elektron mikroskobu ile incelendi. Mikromorfolojik bulgular, sağlıklı dentinin ve çürük dentinde yumuşama bölgesinin ultrastrüktürel özellikleri ile karşılaştırıldı ve çürük olayı, diğer bir deyişle dem...

  9. Determining plutonium mass in spent fuel with non-destructive assay techniques - NGSU research overview and update on 6 NDA techniques

    Tobin, Stephen J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Conlin, Jeremy L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Evans, Louise G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hu, Jianwei [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Blanc, Pauline C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lafleur, Adrienne M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schear, Melissa A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Croft, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fensin, Michael L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Freeman, Corey R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Koehler, William E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mozin, V [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandoval, N P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lee, T H [KAERI; Cambell, L W [PNNL; Cheatham, J R [ORNL; Gesh, C J [PNNL; Hunt, A [IDAHO STATE UNIV; Ludewigt, B A [LBNL; Smith, L E [PNNL; Sterbentz, J [INL

    2010-09-15

    This poster is one of two complementary posters. The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) of the U.S. DOE has initiated a multi-lab/university collaboration to quantify the plutonium (Pu) mass in, and detect the diversion of pins from, spent nuclear fuel assemblies with non-destructive assay (NDA). This research effort has the goal of quantifying the capability of 14 NDA techniques as well as training a future generation of safeguards practitioners. By November of 2010, we will be 1.5 years into the first phase (2.5 years) of work. This first phase involves primarily Monte Carlo modelling while the second phase (also 2.5 years) will focus on experimental work. The goal of phase one is to quantify the detection capability of the various techniques for the benefit of safeguard technology developers, regulators, and policy makers as well as to determine what integrated techniques merit experimental work, We are considering a wide range of possible technologies since our research horizon is longer term than the focus of most regulator bodies. The capability of all of the NDA techniques will be determined for a library of 64 17 x 17 PWR assemblies [burnups (15, 30, 45, 60 GWd/tU), initial enrichments (2, 3, 4, 5%) and cooling times (1, 5, 20, 80 years)]. The burnup and cooling time were simulated with each fuel pin being comprised of four radial regions. In this paper an overview of the purpose will be given as well as a technical update on the following 6 neutron techniques: {sup 252}Cf Interrogation with Prompt Neutron Detection, Delayed Neutrons, Differential Die-Away, Differential Die-Away Self-Interrogation, Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity, Self-Integration Neutron Resonance Densitometry. The technical update will quantify the anticipated performance of each technique for the 64 assemblies of the spent fuel library.

  10. Osteoporoz Tanısında Kullanılan Kemik Mineral Yoğunluğu Ölçüm Yöntemleri

    Akpolat, Veysi Akpolat

    2008-01-01

    Bu derlemede, osteoporoz tanısında kullanılan kemik mineral yoğunluğu (KMY) ölçüm yöntemleri (Dual Energy X-ray Absorbtiometry (DXA), Single Photon Absorbtiometry (SPA), Dual Photon Absorbtiometry (DPA), Quantitative Computerised Tomography (QCT), Speed Of Sound (SOS) ve Broad Band Ultrasonic Attenuation (BUA) parametrelerini içeren ultrasonik ölçüm, Single Energy X-ray Absorbtiometry (SXA), özellikleri ve kullanım endikasyonları karşılaştırmalı olarak sunulmuştur.

  11. Transfüzyonla ilgili akut akciğer hasarında yüksek doz intravenöz metilprednizolon tedavisi

    Bolaman, Zahit; Camcı, Celalettin; Sönmez, Hulki Meltem; Öge, Ayşin; Kadıköylü, Gürhan; Şentürk, Taşkın

    2000-01-01

    Transfüzyonla ilgili akut akciğer hasarı plazma içeren kan ürünlerinin transfüzyonu sonrası görülebilmektedir. Bu yazımızda kronik idiopatik trombositopenisi olan bayan hastada taze kan transfüzyonunu takiben oluşan akut akciğer hasarında yüksek doz intravenöz metilprednizolon (YDıVMP) kullanılımını rapor etmekteyiz.

  12. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2015. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for vitamin E as α-tocopherol

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for vitamin E. In this Opinion, the Panel considers vitamin E as α-tocopherol only. The Panel considers that Average Requirements (ARs) and...... Population Reference Intakes (PRIs) for vitamin E (as α-tocopherol) cannot be derived for adults, infants and children, and therefore defines Adequate Intakes (AIs), based on observed intakes in healthy populations with no apparent α‑tocopherol deficiency in the EU. This approach considers the range of...

  13. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014 . Scientific Opinion on the safety of vitamin D - enriched UV - treated baker‘s yeast .

    Tetens, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the safety of “UV-treated baker’s yeast” (Lallemand SAS) as a novel food ingredient in the context of Regulation (EC) No 258/97, taking into account the comments and objections of a scientific nature raised by Member States. The novel food ingredient (NFI) is baker’s yeast treated with UV irradiation to induce the conversion of ergos...

  14. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014 . Scientific Opinion on the safety of vitamin D - enriched UV - treated baker‘s yeast

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the safety of “UV-treated baker’s yeast” (Lallemand SAS) as a novel food ingredient in the context of Regulation (EC) No 258/97, taking...... combined intake estimates for these two food categories for “all subjects” and “consumers only”. The source for the production of the NFI is Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an organism with a long history of safe food use. Even if the NFI is used at the maximum intended use levels, which deliver 5 µg vitamin D...

  15. Altın ve Amalgamların Muhtelif Değişkenler Karşısında Gösterdikleri Galvanismus, in Vitro Bir Çalışma

    OKTAY, Cengiz

    2013-01-01

    SONUÇ ve ÖZET :Bu araştırmada farklı elektrik potansiyelindeki 22 ayar altın ve ince grenli veya folie amalgamlar arasında değişlik PH'larda, değişik amalgam civa oranlarında, değişik karıştırma zamanlarında geçen süre ile teşekkül eden galvanik akım potansiyel farkları in vitro olarak tetkik edilmiştir. Bu tetkiklerde gözlenen tandanslar :Tandanslar % 95 güvenirlik ile verilmiştir. Bu tandanslar ince grenli solila amalgamı için :1 — Geçen zaman galvanik akımı negatif yönde etkilemektedir.2...

  16. Ankara Ekolojik Şartlarında Farklı Ekim Zamanlarının Ketencik (Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz) Bitkisinin Verim Ve Verim Unsurları Üzerine Etkisi

    Katar, Duran; Arslan, Yusuf; Subaşı, İlhan

    2013-01-01

    ÖZET : Bu çalışma, Ankara ekolojik koşullarında 2010 ve 2011 yıllarında farklı ekim zamanın ketencik (Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz) bitkisinin bitki boyu (cm), bin tohum ağırlığı (g), dekara tohum verimi (kg/da) ve yağ oranı (%) üzerine etkisini belirlemek amacıyla yapılmıştır. Deneme Tesadüf Blokları deneme desenine göre üç tekerrürlü olarak kurulmuştur. Bitki boyunda (cm), bin tohum ağırlığında (g), dekara tohum veriminde (kg/da) ve yağ oranı ...

  17. Improvement of analytical activities with DA and NDA measurements in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant

    problems for authentication of the measurement system was the determination of reference material of the Pu in liquid state because of its evaporation and radiolysis properties. Thus we investigated a solid type Pu reference material in glass matrix that can be expected to obtain a long term stability. With over ten years experience of using the vitrified reference material, we have been confirming its effectiveness and stability from large number of measurements in actual verification activities for product of Pu nitrate during reprocessing and PIVs. As mentioned above Pu product is basically measured by KED for safeguarding in the analytical laboratory but DA sample for off-site analysis is also taken in random selection basis or in case of outlier of KED measurement. To achieve the reproducibility of sample treatment in a glove box before shipping at a few mg level of aliquot, a robotized system for the automatic preparation of Pu nitrate solution has been developed and applied. A six-axis industrial robot is mounted at the center of a glove box floor and other equipments, such as analytical balance and autoburette, are placed at the circumference. The robot arm weighs an inspection sample in a flask, adds nitric acid to dilute the sample to permissible concentration for the shipment and takes an aliquot in a vial. This system has also a function of sample preparation for IDMS analysis, which is used for operator's declaration of Pu product concentration. The performance has been compared with that of talented-operator. As a result the robotization would make us possible to treat safeguards sample with a high degree of accuracy. In accordance with safeguards criteria being undertaken, much attention has focused on Pu amount in high actively liquid waste (HALW). A spectrophotometric determination method for plutonium in HALW has been developed for safeguards verification analysis. The method offers reduced sample preparation and lower analysis time compared to

  18. Safkan Arap atlarında gelişimsel ortopedik hastalıkların (developmental orthopaedic diseases-DOD) nedenlerinin belirlenmesi

    2012-01-01

    Bu çalışmada, Tigem Anadolu Tarım İşletmesinde tay satışlarında büyük ekonomik kayıplara neden olan gelişimsel ortopedik hastalıklar ve kemik lezyonlarının tanısı için, işletmedeki safkan Arap taylarında bu lezyonların varlığının araştırılması ve yaygınlığının belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır.

    Çalışma materyalini, Tigem Anadolu Tarım İşletmesinde bir sezonda doğan 50 safkan Arap tayları oluşturdu. Tayların; doğum sonrası 3’er aylık periyotlarla fiziksel muayene, radyoloji...

  19. Amino acids

    Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . Amino acids and proteins are the building blocks of life. When proteins are digested or broken down, amino acids are left. The human body uses amino acids ...

  20. Nef‛î Divanında Gönül Heart in the Dȋvȃn of Nef‛ȋ’

    Münire Nurefşan KAPAL

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Heart is one of the most common subject which place at Turkish Classical Literature of poetry’s Divan. The concept not only of Classical Literature, but also Folk Literature and oral culture among the topics deal with a lot of culture. İf there are love and lover in the beyit, heart of the lover absolutely take place in the world of the word at the same time. The poet who lived in the first half of the seventeeth century and found fame as a teacher of ode Nef‛î has included the concepts and comparisons in his Dîvân. The word, there are more than in the ghazals. The poet who wrote poetry in general, for the Sultan and statesmen, using exaggerated and a style full of praise; but in his ghazals he writes classic ghazal style and tells as to be in love and enthusiastic words. In his Dîvân, there is no mystical maning of this word. Heart which deal with a variety of interest of the meaning is extased, in love and a mirror showing the beauty lover. In this article, detail definitions of heart concept with various sources will be analyzed together with meanings of words and evaluated by statistical methods. Gönül, klasik edebiyat şairlerinin, divanlarında en çok rastlanan ve işlenen konularından biridir. Kavram sedece klasik edebiyatın değil, halk edebiyatının ve sözlü kültür sahasının da çok işlediği konular arasındadır. Aşk ve âşıklık söz konusu olduğu zaman elbette âşığın gönlü de beyitlerin kelime dünyasında hemen yerini alır. Bu itibarla hangi klasik edebiyat şairinin divanına bakılsa, hemen hemen hepsinde gönül kavramına ait mecazlar ve mazmunlar bulunduğu görülür. XVII. yüzyılın ilk yarısında yaşamış ve bir kaside üstadı olarak şöhret bulmuş olan şair Nef‛î, divanında gönülle ilgili kavram ve benzetmelere yer vermiştir. Kelime, geçiş sıklığı itbariyle daha çok gazellerde yer alır. Kasidelerini genel olarak padişah ve devlet adamlarına ithafen yazan ve m

  1. Kentsel Sit Alanları'nda yapılan uygulamalar: Bursa Reyhan Bölgesi üzerinde bir inceleme

    Ebru Özeke

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada. Kentsel Sit Alanları'nda. koruma kararları doğrultusunda veya bunların dışında yapılan, diğer bir deyişle, yasal olan veya olmayan uygulamalar Bursa Reyhan Bölgesi örneği üzerinde değerlendirilecek, bu bölgeyi, giderek de tüm kentsel sit alanlarını tehdit eden ve sıklıkla karşılaşılan çeşitli sorunlar ortaya konarak çözüm önerileri geliştirilecektir. Çalışmaya konu olan bölge, Bursa'nın tarihî kent merkezinde yer alan, geleneksel ticaret merkezine çok yakın, hatta bir ölçüde onun uzantısı olduğu halde konut kullanımının da yaygın olduğu bir alandır. 1989 yılında Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi tarafından hazırlanan Bursa Merkez (Reyhan- Hanlar Bölgesi- Kayhan koruma geliştirme projesinde Reyhan Mahallesi için amaç. bu mahalleyi çevre standartları yüksek, tarihî değerleri korunmuş, yapılaşması sağlıklı ve gerekli altyapı donatısı sağlanmış bir konut mahallesine dönüştürmek olarak belirlenmiştir. Bölgedeki uygulamalar, tescilli binalara yapılan müdahaleler, tescilli yapılara bitişik parsellerde inşa edilen yeni yapılar ve tescilli yapılardan bağımsız parsellerde inşa edilen yeni yapılar olarak üç kategoride toplanabilir.

  2. DİVAN OF BENDİ MUSTAFA BABA LITERARY GENRES AND STYLES /BENDİ MUSTAFA BABA DİVANI’NDA EDEBÎ TÜR VE TARZLAR

    Hatice ÇELİK

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Classical Turkish literature of the world of meaning of literary works, which is the kind of style and the microstructure of the text, is one of the items. It is about what works and what that work on the subject of which corresponds poet-writer / type; Topics discussed how the process / work of making sense of style by setting the city and society relationship with the poet, the era in which he lived in the era posture and live and obtain information about the literary tastes. XIX. century poet, about the life and literary personality, except the Bendi Mustafa Baba Divan, no we cannot get information, when considered in terms of types and styles, it was seen as a representative of the poet's religious-mystical Turkish literature. Klasik Türk edebiyatı metinlerinin anlam dünyasını oluşturan edebî eserlerin tür ve tarzları metnin içyapı öğelerindendir. Eserin ne ile ilgili olduğu ve şairde-nâsirde neye tekabül ettiği yani eserin konusunu / türünü; ele alınan konunun nasıl işlendiğini / tarzını belirleyerek eseri anlamlandırmada şairin kendiyle ve toplumla ilişkisi, yaşadığı çağdaki duruşu ve yaşadığı çağın edebî zevki hakkında bilgi edinilmektedir. XIX. yüzyıl şairlerinden olan, hayatı ve edebî kişiliği hakkında, divanı dışında, hiçbir bilgiye ulaşamadığımız Bendi Mustafa Baba’nın Divan’ı; tür ve tarzlar açısından değerlendirildiğinde, şairin dinî-tasavvufi Türk edebiyatının bir temsilcisi olduğu görülmüştür.

  3. Aydın Söke ovasında yoğun sulu tarım yapılan bazı pilot alanlardaki yeraltı sularının kirlilik durumlarının belirlenmesi

    ÖZTÜRK, Serap

    2009-01-01

    Aydın ilinin yakla ık 450 bin dekar araziye sahip Söke Ovası'nda 25.000 hektarında sulu tarım olarak pamuk ve mısır tarımı yapılmaktadır. Bu çalı mada, tarımsal üretim uygulamalarında a ırı gübre kullanımına ba lı olarak yeraltı sularında meydana gelen kirlili in ara tırılması amaçlanmı tır. Söke Ovasında örneklemenin yapılaca ı pilot alanlar belirlenmi ve 24 adet kuyudan sulamanın yo un olarak yapıldı ı ve ba langıcı olan Haziran ayında ve sulamanın sonu olan A ustos ayında su ö...

  4. Gebeliğin hipertansif hastalıklarında serum ürik asit seviyelerinin önemi

    YILMAZ, Ufuk; PEKER, Hakan; ZATİ, Adalet; BAŞTÜRK, Şeyma; ALTUNTAŞ, Leyla; Karateke, Ateş

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Our purpose was to evaluate if uric acid levels at hypertensive diseases of pregnancy has clinical utility on severity of preeclampsia and perinatal prognosis. Material - Method: 267 patients whose serum uric acid levels have been measured during 3rd trimester of pregnancy were involved in our study. These patients have been examined under four groups. These groups were; control (n=110), mild preeclampsia (n=68), severe preeclampsia (n=72) and chronic hypertension (n=17). Average s...

  5. Two new coordination polymers constructed by naphthalene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid and 2,4-diamino-6-methyl-triazine

    Li, Yamin, E-mail: liyamin@henu.edu.cn [Institute of Molecular and Crystal Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China); Xiao, Changyu [Institute of Molecular and Crystal Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China); Zhang, Xudong [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Xu, Yanhui [Department of Medical Imaging, Bethune Medical Non-Commissioned Officer' s, College, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050081 (China); Li, Junrui; Lun, Huijie; Chen, Qi [Institute of Molecular and Crystal Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China)

    2013-08-15

    Two new transition metal coordination complexes, ([MnO(nda)](H{sub 2}dmt)(H{sub 2}O)){sub n} (1), [Ag{sub 5}(nda){sub 2.5}(dmt)]{sub n} (2), (H{sub 2}nda=naphthalene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid, dmt=2,4-diamine-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazine) have been hydrothermally synthesized by the reactions of H{sub 2}nda and dmt with the homologous MnCl{sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O and AgNO{sub 3}, respectively, and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, IR spectra, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The compound 1 exhibits a 3D network comprising 1D metal chain (MnO(CO{sub 2}){sub 2}){sub n} connected by the ligand nda{sup 2−}, featuring a four-connected uninodal diamond -like topology. In compound 2, it is firstly observed that decanuclear silver units as secondary building units to construct 3D network by the ligands dmt and nda{sup 2−}, with a rare 2-nodal (3,8)-connected tfz-d topology ((4{sup 3}){sub 2}(4{sup 6}.6{sup 18}.8{sup 4})). The interactions within each Mn(II)—Mn(II) pair of compound 1 are antiferromagnetic (g=2.07, J=−1.42(1) cm{sup −1}, zj′=−0.73(2) cm{sup −1}). In addition, compound 2 exhibits photoluminescent property at about 472 nm (λ{sub ex}=394 nm). - Graphical abstract: Two new transition metal coordination complexes 1–2 have been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, IR spectra, elemental analysis thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Highlights: • The compound 1 exhibits a 3D network with four-connected uninodal diamond-like topology. • The first 3D network of 2 with a rare tfz-d topology consists of decanuclear silver clusters as secondary building units. • The magnetic measurement indicates the compound 1 shows antiferromagnetic interactions. • The photoluminescent property of 2 has been measured.

  6. 1920 Öncesinde Rus Azerbaycan’ında Milli Kimliğin Yükselişi ve Edebi Dil Politikası

    SWİETOCHOWSKİ, Tadeusz

    2003-01-01

    Bu makale birbirleriyle bağlantılı üç konu üzerinde yoğunlaşmıştır: Siyasi bağımsızlıktan yoksun bir halkın edebi dil meselesi; geleneksel bir toplumda modern iletişimin yükselişi ve Rus Azerbaycan \\\\'ındaki Müslüman halkın milli kimliğinin gelişmesi. Kronolojik saha, Rus istilasının canlandığı 19. asır ortalarında ortaya çıkan entelektüel modernleşmenin başlangıcından, 1920\\\\'de Sovyet Azerbaycan Cumhuriyeti\\\\'nin kurulmasına kadar olan bir devreyi ihtiva eder. Münakaşa, zamanın milli hareke...

  7. Tam zamanında üretim sistemi (tzü) / maliyetleme: Türkiye örneği (literatür taraması)

    Duman, Haluk; Arsu, Talip; APAK, İbrahim

    2014-01-01

    Günümüz rekabet ortamında müşteri odaklı üretim anlayışına bağlı olarak ürünün özellikleri ve fiyatları piyasada oluşmaktadır. Gerek müşterilerin beklentilerini karşılayabilmek, gerekse istenilen satış ve kar hacmine ulaşabilmek için işletmelerin farklılaştırma veya maliyetlere odaklanma stratejilerini benimsemeleri gerekmektedir. Maliyet avantajı sağlamak isteyen işletme, bazı maliyet kalemlerinde kesintiye gitmek zorunda kalacaktır. Temel maliyet kalemlerinden olan stok maliyetlerinin önemi...

  8. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013 . Scientific O pinion on Dietary Reference Values for molybdenum

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for molybdenum. Molybdenum is efficiently and rapidly absorbed at a wide range of intakes, and the body is able to maintain homeostasis through the...... is possible that humans may be able to achieve molybdenum balance at even lower intakes. Data on molybdenum intakes and health outcomes were unavailable for the setting of DRVs for molybdenum. As the evidence required to derive an Average Requirement and a Population Reference Intake was considered...... suggested that the adult AI also applies to pregnant and lactating women. An AI is also proposed for infants from seven months and for children based on extrapolation from the adult AI using isometric scaling and the reference body weights of the respective age groups. © European Food Safety Authority, 2013...

  9. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for vitamin C

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for vitamin C. The Panel concludes that an Average Requirement (AR) can be derived from indicators of vitamin C status, as well as a Population...... Reference Intake (PRI) assuming a coefficient of variation (CV) of 10 %. Several health outcomes possibly associated with vitamin C intake were also considered but data were found to be insufficient to establish DRVs. For healthy adults, the AR is determined from the quantity of vitamin C that balances...... is extrapolated from the AR for men on the basis of differences in reference body weight, and an AR of 80 mg/day and a PRI of 95 mg/day are proposed. For infants aged 7-11 months, the Panel has decided to retain the PRI of 20 mg/day set by the SCF (1993), as no suitable evidence has emerged since the...

  10. Basında Yer Alan Namus Cinayetlerinin Sosyolojik Analizi /
    A Sociological Analysis of Honor Killings Reported by the Mass Media

    İNCİ, Ülkü Hayriye

    2013-01-01

    Öz Erkek egemen toplumlarda kadına yönelik şiddetin kısmi bir kabul gördüğü bilinmektedir. Kadına yönelik şiddetin özel bir şekli de namus cinayetleridir. Son zamanlarda ulusal medyada kendisine oldukça fazla yer bulan namus cinayetleri, sosyolojik çalışmalarda da kendisine yer bulmaya başlamıştır. Bu çalışma, Türkiye’de son zamanlarda oldukça sık tartışılan namus cinayetlerinin sosyal ve kültürel hayattaki durumunu tartışmaya açmaktadır. Çalışma basında yer alan namus cinayetleri ile sını...

  11. Fren Balatalarında Uzun Boyutlu Karbon Elyaf Kullanımının Araştırılması

    Malak, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Bu çalışmada; takviye malzemesi olarak kullanılan karbon elyaf farklı boyutlarda ve farklı kütlesel miktarlarda balata kompozisyonunda kullanılmış ve karbon elyaf katkılı balatalar üretilmiştir. Üretilen balataların, disk fren test cihazında sürtünme testleri yapılmış ve elde edilen verilerle zamana bağlı sürtünme katsayısı-sıcaklık grafikleri oluşturularak sürtünme tarama belirleme testi (Friction Assessment and Screening Test-FAST) ile performansları değerlendirilmiştir. Üretilen numuneleri...

  12. Ispanakta Buzdolabında Bekletme, Pişirme ve Dondurmanın Nitrat ve Nitrit İçeriğine Etkisi

    Ayaz, Aylin; Yurttagül, Mine

    2013-01-01

    Bu araştırma, Ankara toptancı halinde satışa sunulan ıspanaklara (n: 24) uygulanan farklı işlemlerin; yıkama, buzdolabında bekletme (açık ve kapalı ortamda), pişirme (susuz, suda ve ön haşlama) ve dondurarak depolamanın (-18 oC’de 6 ay depolama) nitrat ve nitrit içeriklerine etkisini belirlemek amacıyla yapılmıştır. Ispanakların nitrat ve nitrit değerleri spektrofotometrik yöntemle analiz edilmiştir. Araştırma sonucunda; nitrat suda çözünen bir bileşik olduğu için yıkama ile miktarının bir ...

  13. Dental florozisin beyazlatılmasında kullanılan bir Office Bleaching metaryalinin pulpa ve periapikal dokular üzerindeki yan etkilerinin incelenmesi

    Keçeci, Ayşe Diljin; Özdemir, Feyza

    2009-01-01

    Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi TIP FAKÜLTESİ DERGİSİ: 2008 Mart; 15 (2) Dental florozisin beyazlatılmasında kullanılan bir Office Bleaching metaryalinin pulpa ve periapikal dokular üzerindeki yan etkilerinin incelenmesi Ayşe Diljin Keçeci Feyza Özdemir Özet Amaç: Önemli düzeyde estetik, hatta psikolojik problemlere yol açan dental florozise bağlı renklenmelerin tedavisinde estetiği kazandırırken dişe en az zarar verecek bir tedavi yönteminin seçilmesi amaçlanmalıdır. Gü...

  14. Rusya’da din psikolojisi çalışmalarında ben ötesi yaklaşım

    FAKHRUTDİNOV, Ayrat

    2012-01-01

    Rus toplumunda günümüzde “Tanrının alaca çağı” yaşanmaktadır. Yani topumun ne doğru ahlaki, ne milli adetleri vardır. Bu nedenle aktüel maneviyat araştırmalarına ciddi anlamda ihtiyaç vardır.252

    Bize göre Ben Ötesi Yaklaşım ve Din Psikolojisi maneviyat alanında bilimsel çalışmalardır ama Rusya’daki uzmanların bu konudaki görüşleri farklıdır. ...

  15. İngiliz ve Amerikan savaş romanında yabancılaşma: Ernest Hemingway ve Graham Greene

    AKDOĞAN, Melis

    2013-01-01

    İngiliz ve Amerikan Savaş Romanında Yabancılaşma: Ernest Hemingway ve Graham Greene başlıklı bu çalışmanın başlıca amacı, Ernest Hemingway ve Graham Greene'in, 19. ve 20. yüzyılda evrensel bir hal alan savaşın bireyleri ve toplumları yabancılaşma açısından etkileyişini For Whom The Bell Tolls ve The Quiet American eserlerinde nasıl yansıttıklarını incelemektir. Tezde her iki yazarın da savaşın evrenselliğini vurgulayış şekilleri ve savaşın toplumlar ve bireyler üzerindeki...

  16. Antikoagülan İlaçların Güvenli Kullanımında Hemşirenin Sorumlulukları

    Duru Aşiret, Güler; Özdemir, Leyla

    2015-01-01

    Yaşam süresinin uzaması ve yeni tedavi seçeneklerinin geliştirilmesi ile kronik hastalıklarve bu hastalıkların tedavisinde kullanılan ilaç sayısında artış olmuştur. Antikoagülanlarkullanım sıklığı, süresi ve yan etki potansiyeli açısından kronik hastalıkların tedavisindeözel bir yere ve öneme sahiptir. Kanama, hematom, trombositopeni gibi hayati önem taşıyanyan etkileri olan antikoagülan ilaç kullanan bireylerin özellikle sağlık personeli tarafındandeğerlendirilmesi gerekmektedir. Hemşireler ...

  17. The Story of The Story or a Plane Metafiction Ayışığında Çalışkur

    Nilüfer İLHAN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important features of human telling, literary Works an aesthetic one undergoes a transformation through distillation. This aesthetic each term occurs in a different style to the needs of the living age. Since the beginning of the story in the literary genres in the different methods of expression seems to be a kind of renewed. The story began writing in the 1940’s and 1980’s continued to write until the Republican period Haldun Taner of storys narration techniques is one that is rich. Story in the book with the same title was released in 1954 by the Ayışığında Çalışkur story narration of the modern tecnique of the upper metafiction iplemented. With this tecnique the author, story understanding and criticism against him, revealed .

  18. İnsan plazmasında risperidon ve aktif metaboliti 9-hidroksirisperidonun miktar tayini ve yöntem validasyonu

    DEMİRAY, Gökçe

    2008-01-01

    Bu çalışmada atipik nöroleptik ilaçlar arasında önemli bir yere sahip olanrisperidonun ve aktif metaboliti 9-hidroksirisperidonun (paliperidon) insanplazmasından kantitatif tayini için basit ve duyarlı HPLC-MS miktar tayinyönteminin geliştirilmesi ve yöntemin valide edilmesi amaçlanmıştır.İnsan plazmasından sıvı-sıvı ekstraksiyon yöntemiyle risperidon ve aktifmetaboliti 9-hidroksirisperidon ekstre edilmiştir ve kantitatif miktar tayinleri içinHPLC-MS sistemi pozitif iyon ve SIM modun...

  19. Amlodipin ve rosuvastatin'in karışımlarında LC-MS/MS ile aynı anda miktar tayinleri

    CAN, Esat

    2014-01-01

    Amlodipin ve Rosuvastatin'in Karışımlarında LC-MS/MS ile Aynı Anda Miktar Tayinleri Yapılan literatür araştırmaları sonucunda AML ve ROS etken maddesinin birarada tayinine ilişkin herhangi bir LC-MS/MS çalışmasına rastlanmamıştır. Bu nedenle bu çalışmada bu iki maddenin eşzamanlı tayinine ilişkin basit, hızlı, kesinliği yüksek, tayin edilebilir sınırı düşük bir LC-MS/MS yöntemi geliştirilmesi ve geliştirilen bu yöntemin tabletlere ve idrar numunelerine uygulanması amaçlan...

  20. Polisiye Roman Temsilcisi Ümit Deniz’in Romanlarında Cinayet Kurgusu The Murder Plot in The Novels of Umit Deniz

    Nurullah ULUTAŞ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Crime fiction, a genre that arose in modern times, deals with the social depression of the bourgeoisie class, which grew bigger in parallel with urbanization. In this genre, the social depression experienced by the modern individual is handled from a crime-centered point of view. The criminal is presented as an afflicted person who suffers from adaptation problems in society. The fact that murder takes a lot of space in these novels turns the concept of death into something ordinary in the minds of modern individuals. This style is carried into fiction through the richness of the rational analytical thinking in Western novels and attracts a large number of readers. The essential elements being mystery, intrigue, tension, crime and murder, the reader is kept alert and interested to follow the sequence of events. The aim of this study is to examine Umit Deniz’s method of creating a murder plot and in the light of the author’s seven novels to look into the psychological impact of murder on society. The techniques that the author makes use of in his writing process are also examined in order to shed light on the difference between crime fiction in Turkish Literature and crime fiction in the West. The main characters, murder plots, modern and traditional patterns, the use of inverted sentences, the fictional means that the author uses in order to keep the story flowing, are reviewed from a technical and theoritical point of view. The plot and any defects therein are criticized from a text-centered point of view. Modern zamanlara özgü bir tür olan polisiye roman, kentleşme ile gelişmeye başlayan burjuvazinin sosyal bunalımlarını suç merkezli olarak ele alır. Suçlunun topluma uyumsuz kişiler olarak yansıtıldığı bu romanlarda, cinayetlere fazla yer verilmesi, modern insan zihninde ölümün sıradanlaşmasına yol açar. Batı romanında rasyonel analitik düşünme zenginliği ile kurguya taşınan bu tarz, geniş okur

  1. 8.Sınıf Öğrencilerinin Yazılarında Ve Ders Kitaplarında Kullanılan Batı Kökenli Sözcüklerin Karşılaştırılması / İzmir İli

    Bozdemir, Nuriye

    2008-01-01

    Bu çalışmada; İzmir Merkezindeki ilköğretim 8. sınıf öğrencilerinin yazılarında geçen batı kökenli kelimelerin kazanımında 6. ve 7. sınıf ders kitaplarının etkisini ortaya koymak amaçlanmıştır. Araştırmada sosyo-ekonomik düzey, (öğrencinin bilgisayar sahibi olması, sosyal imkanlar, oturdukları semtler gibi faktörler) cinsiyet, anne baba mesleği, eve giren ortalama kazanç ve kardeş sayısı gibi faktörlerin de batı kökenli kelime kullanımına etkisi incelenmiştir. Araştırma örne...

  2. İlköğretim Okullarında Görev Yapan Kadın Öğretmenlerin Performanslarının Arttırılmasında Okul Yöneticilerinin Etkililiği (Afyonkarahisar İli Örneği)

    Koca, Teslime

    2010-01-01

    Bu çalışma ile ilköğretim okullarında görev yapan kadın öğretmenlerin performanslarının arttırılmasında okul yöneticilerinin etkililiği’nin yönetici ve öğretmen görüşlerine göre belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Ayrıca bu çalışmada medeni durum, görev türü, hizmet yılı ve çocuk sayısı gibi bazı değişkenlerin katılımcılar üzerindeki etkisi incelenmiştir. Bu araştırmaya Afyonkarahisar ilinde bulunan ve 59 ilköğretim okulunda görev yapan bayan öğretmen, müdür ve müdür yardımcılarından oluşan toplam...

  3. Acid Rain.

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  4. Neodymium(III) Complexes of Dialkylphosphoric and Dialkylphosphonic Acids Relevant to Liquid-Liquid Extraction Systems

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Krause, Jeanette A.; Sweet, Lucas E.

    2016-01-27

    The complexes formed during the extraction of neodymium(III) into hydrophobic solvents containing acidic organophosphorus extractants were probed by single-crystal X-ray diffractometry, visible spectrophotometry, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The crystal structure of the compound Nd(DMP)3 (1, DMP = dimethyl phosphate) revealed a polymeric arrangement in which each Nd(III) center is surrounded by six DMP oxygen atoms in a pseudo-octahedral environment. Adjacent Nd(III) ions are bridged by (MeO)2POO– anions, forming the polymeric network. The diffuse reflectance visible spectrum of 1 is nearly identical to that of the solid that is formed when an n-dodecane solution of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HA) is saturated with Nd(III), indicating a similar coordination environment around the Nd center in the NdA3 solid. The visible spectrum of the HA solution fully loaded with Nd(III) is very similar to that of the NdA3 material, both displaying hypersensitive bands characteristic of an pseudo-octahedral coordination environment around Nd. These spectral characteristics persisted across a wide range of organic Nd concentrations, suggesting that the pseudo-octahedral coordination environment is maintained from dilute to saturated conditions.

  5. Neodymium(III) Complexes of Dialkylphosphoric and Dialkylphosphonic Acids Relevant to Liquid-Liquid Extraction Systems.

    Lumetta, Gregg J; Sinkov, Sergey I; Krause, Jeanette A; Sweet, Lucas E

    2016-02-15

    The complexes formed during the extraction of neodymium(III) into hydrophobic solvents containing acidic organophosphorus extractants were probed by single-crystal X-ray diffractometry, visible spectrophotometry, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The crystal structure of the compound Nd(DMP)3 (1, DMP = dimethyl phosphate) revealed a polymeric arrangement in which each Nd(III) center is surrounded by six DMP oxygen atoms in a pseudo-octahedral environment. Adjacent Nd(III) ions are bridged by (MeO)2POO(-) anions, forming the polymeric network. The diffuse reflectance visible spectrum of 1 is nearly identical to that of the solid that is formed when an n-dodecane solution of di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HA) is saturated with Nd(III), indicating a similar coordination environment around the Nd center in the NdA3 solid. The visible spectrum of the HA solution fully loaded with Nd(III) is very similar to that of the NdA3 material, both displaying hypersensitive bands characteristic of an pseudo-octahedral coordination environment around Nd. These spectral characteristics persisted across a wide range of organic Nd concentrations, suggesting that the pseudo-octahedral coordination environment is maintained from dilute to saturated conditions. PMID:26815878

  6. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for pantothenic acid

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs for pantothenic acid. Pantothenic acid is a water-soluble vitamin, which is a component of coenzyme A (CoA and acyl-carrier proteins. Pantothenic acid is ubiquitous and deficiency is rare. There are no suitable biomarkers that can be used to derive the requirement for pantothenic acid. Data available on pantothenic acid intakes and health consequences are very limited and cannot be used to derive DRVs for pantothenic acid. As there is insufficient evidence available to derive an Average Requirement and a Population Reference Intake, an Adequate Intake (AI is proposed. The setting of AIs is based on observed pantothenic acid intakes with a mixed diet and the apparent absence of signs of deficiency in the EU, suggesting that current intake levels are adequate. The AI for adults is set at 5 mg/day. The AI for adults also applies to pregnant women. For lactating women, an AI of 7 mg/day is proposed, to compensate for pantothenic acid losses through breast milk. For infants over six months, an AI of 3 mg/day is proposed by extrapolating from the pantothenic acid intake of exclusively breast-fed infants aged zero to six months, using allometric scaling and reference body weight for each age group, in order to account for the role of pantothenic acid in energy metabolism. The AI for children and adolescents is set at 4 and 5 mg/day, respectively, based on observed intakes in the EU.

  7. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to “non - fermentable ” carbohydrates and maintenance of tooth mineralisation by decreasing tooth demineralisation pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Roquette Frères, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the s...... not lower plaque pH below 5.7 during and up to 30 minutes after consumption, and does not lead to dental erosion. © European Food Safety Authority, 2013...... scientific substantiation of a health claim related to Nutriose® which should replace “fermentable carbohydrates” in foods or beverages in order to obtain the claimed effect, i.e. maintenance of tooth mineralisation by reducing tooth demineralisation. From the information provided, the Panel noted that the......” carbohydrates in foods or beverages in order to obtain the claimed effect. The Panel considers that maintaining tooth mineralisation by reducing tooth demineralisation resulting from acid production in plaque caused by the fermentation of carbohydrates is a beneficial physiological effect. The Panel concludes...

  8. Esrâr Dede Divanı’nda Renkler Colours In Dıvan Of Esrâr Dede

    Mahmut KAPLAN

    2013-03-01

    compliance with their frequency of usage in the work.The article has been completed with a general evaluation. Esrâr Dede, klasik şiirimizin önemli simalarından biridir. Mevlevîliğe intisap ettikten sonra şiire başlamış, önemli eserler meydana getirmiştir. Şeyh Galib’in dostluğunu kazanmıştır. Şairin divanı dışında tezkiresi ve lügati bulunmaktadır. Esrar Dede, duygu ve düşüncelerini anlatmak için renk ifade eden kelimeleri sık kullanmıştır. Renk kelimeleri kültürel mirasın da önemli taşıyıcılarıdır. Varlıkları tasvir ve tarifte kullanılan renkler toplumun bazı metinlerde sembolik anlamlar da kazanır. Türkçede bazı renklerin yön bildirdiği bilinmektedir. Renkler bazen duyguları anlatmak için kullanılır, kişinin ruh hallerini ifade ederler. Tabiat manzaralarını tasvir etmek için renkler şairlerin elindeki en önemli araçlardır. Şair, tabiatı renk kelimeleri ile gözler önüne serer, renkler vasıtasıyla duygu ve düşüncelerini sembolik ifadelerle dile getirir. Kasidelerin nesiplerinde yapılan tasvirlerde renklerin önemli görevleri vardır. Çoğu gazelleri âşıkane olan Esrar Dede de duygu ve düşüncelerini anlatmak için renk sıfatlarına başvurmuştur. Esrar Dede Divanı’nda özellikle siyah ve kırmızı hâkim renkler olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Bu renkler varlıkları tasvir etmek ve tasavvufî bir takım durumları anlatmak için kullanılmıştır. Kara, genel olarak gece, saç ve karanlık tasvirlerinde karşımıza çıkar. Ayrıca kara baht, talihsizlik gibi durumları tasvir etmede bu renge başvurulur. Kırmızı, gül, şafak, kan, dudak tasvirlerinde karşımıza çıkar. Bu iki temel renk dışında beyaz, sarı, yeşil ve tasavvufî durumları ifade eden renksizlik, bî-renklik şairin kullandığı renkler arasında yer almıştır. Esrar Dede’nin bir Mevlevî olduğu göz önüne alındığında renklerin onun şiirinde ne kadar önemli olduğu anlaşılır. Bu

  9. Kubad-abad Sarayında Bulunan Kemer ve Askı Tokaları Belt and Buckle Straps Found in Kubad-abad Palace

    Alptekin YAVAŞ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Anatolian Seljuk Period is one of the underregognized periods of Turkish Art of Metal. Our knowledge concerning this period is limited to some objects, such as incense and candle holders made from percious metals. In this article, belts and hunger buckles are first promoted as wares of daily use in Medieval Turkish Period. The last 30 years-long excavations in Kubad-Abad Palace located in Beyşehir district of Konya, one of the best preserved palaces of the Anatolian Seljuk Period, made available to retrieve number of different objects asantiques giving insights into the Medieval times. Kubad-Abad is locatedon an alluvium plain on the south-western shores of Konya-BeyşehirLake, at the foot of the Anamas Mountain. It surrounds the Bronze Agemound. It is a large city-palace that stretches from the lake shore – evenfrom the islands in the lake – to the Anamas Mountain and holds tensof constructions. The metal findings of the palace famous with itsworldwide known tiles hold a very rich repertoire. The belts and hungerbuckles as poorly known finds provide solid evidence with regards torecognition of the wares of daily use in Seljuks. The nature of belt andbuckle straps pertain to the Medieval Turkish period has not beenattempted in detail so far. Among these, one-side written bordurehunger buckle is a rare object in the Anatolian Seljuk Period andpossibly belongs to sultan and his family circle. Anadolu Selçuklu dönemi, Türk Maden Sanatının en az bilinen dönemlerinden biridir. Bu döneme ilişkin veriler kıymetli metallerden yapılmış şamdan, buhurdan gibi objelerle sınırlıdır. Bu çalışmada Ortaçağ Türk Dönemi Kazıları arasında ilk kez gündelik kullanım eşyalarından kemer ve askı tokaları tanıtılacaktır. Anadolu Selçuklu döneminin günümüze en iyi durumda ulaşabilmiş saraylarından biri olan Konya-Beyşehir ilçesindeki Kubad-Abad Sarayında yaklaşık 30 yıldır süren kazı çalışmaları ile Orta

  10. 12 Mart Romanlarında Kadın Tanımlamaları The Caharacterization Of Women In The March Twelfth Novels

    Ahmet ALVER

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that between 1970 and 1980 more than 5,000 people died in politically motivated violence in Turkey. The ‘March 12th novels’ is a retroactive umbrella term used to describe the works of fiction written this period. Their inspiration is the events surrounding the March 12th military intervention; the military takeover, the battle between revolutionary left wing activists and nationalists, and the political and social fallout of the intervention. It is during this period of persecution and oppression that the March 12th novels were written and they provide an invaluable source for anyone wanting to understand the effects of the persecution and atrocities committed by the state on its people.This article examines the characterization of women in 1970s Turkey through number of March 12 novels written by particularly female novelists. It studies the characterization of revolutionary women; their treatment by wider society, and the price they paid for being revolutionary. Along with revolutionary women, the article also focuses other examples of female figures such as bourgeois women who are presented as perfect consumers willing to accept subjugation to the patriarchy in exchange for material wealth, whilst, on the other hand, rural women are presented as ignorant and almost bestial creatures who view the female body as nothing more than a vehicle for reproduction and the satisfaction of men.This article in particular has focused upon works such as 47”liler (The Generation of ’47 written by Füruzan, Şafak (The Dawn by Sevgi Soysal, Bir Düğün Gecesi (A Wedding Night by Adalet Ağaoğlu and Yarın Yarın (Tomorrow Tomorrow by Pınar Kür. Türkiye’de, 1970 ve 1980 yılları arasında, siyasi sebeplerle meydana gelen şiddet olaylarında değişik kaynaklara göre sağ ve sol görüşlü 5.000 dolayında vatan evladının hayatını kaybettiği tahmin edilmektedir. 12 Mart 1971 askeri müdahalesinin öncesi ve sonrasında

  11. Post menopozal bir kadında pyometra ile presente olan pelvik tüberküloz

    G, Balık; I, Ustuner; M, Ural U; Y, Bayoglu Tekin; M, Kagitci; H, Gucer; S, Guvendag Guven E

    2014-01-01

    A 63-years-old postmenopausal woman was admitted to the gynecology clinic with vaginal discharge, abdominal pain, and pyrexia. Ultrasonography revealed evidence of pyometra. Serum CA-125 and CA 19-9 levels were elevated. Endometrial biopsy revealed no malignant cells or acid-fast bacilli. We performed total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Histological examination revealed caseous granulomatous inflammation. The diagnosis of genital tuberculosis was made and antituberculosis...

  12. Ergen Havzası'nda yetiştirilen ayçiçek bitkisinde (Helianthus annuus L.) bazı eser element içeriklerinin ICP-OES ile tayini

    Yörük, Ozan

    2008-01-01

    Bu çalışma, Ergene Havzasında yetiştirilen ayçiçek bitkisinde (Helianthus annuus L.) ve bitkinin yetiştiği topraklarda copper, iron, manganese, zinc, lead ve cadmium içeriklerinin incelenmesi amacıyla planlanmıştır. Ergene Havzasındaki kirlenmeyi, inorganik çevre kirliliği parametreleri arasında ilk sırayı alan eser elementler açısından belirleyebilmek için, temsili örnekler mümkün olduğunca karasteristik bölgelerden seçildi. Bu amaçla 5 ana istasyona bağlı 24 istasyondan 72 adet çevre örneği...

  13. Sürdürülebilir Rekabet Üstünlüğünün Sağlanmasında İnovasyonun Üretim Maliyetlerine Etkisi ve Ampirik Bir Uygulama

    Akıncı, Adil

    2011-01-01

    Günümüzün hızlı değişen dünyasında, küresel rekabetin her geçen gün arttığı ekonomik ortamda işletmelerin ayakta kalabilmesi, rekabette söz sahibi olabilmeleri ve sürdürülebilir rekabet üstünlüğü elde edebilmeleri, işletmelerin rekabet avantajı yaratabilme yeteneklerine ve işletmenin inovatif faaliyetleri sonucu rakiplerine karşı üstünlük sağlayabileceği avantajlara bağlı olarak gelişmektedir. Rekabet ortamında üstünlük elde etmek isteyen işletmeler maliyet stratejisi, ...

  14. Primer Açık Açılı Glokom Olgularında ve Normal Olgularda Serum Trigliserid, Total Kolesterol ve Yüksek Yoğunluklu Lipoprotein Seviyeleri

    Sönmez, Kenan; Mensiz, Ercan; Türker, Hasan Hayati; Bardak, Yavuz; Özertürk, Yusuf

    2009-01-01

    SüleymanDemirel Üniversitesi TIP FAKÜLTESİ DERGİSİ: 1999 Mart; 6(1) Primer Açık Açılı Glokom Olgularında ve Normal Olgularda Serum Trigliserid, Total Kolesterol ve Yüksek Yoğunluklu Lipoprotein Seviyeleri Kenan Sönmez , Ercan Mensiz, Hasan Hayati Türker , Yavuz Bardak, Yusuf Özertürk Özet Bu çalışmada yüksek dansiteli lipoprotein (YDL), total kolesterol (TK) ve trigliserid (TG) düzeylerinin primer açık açılı glokom (PAAG) olgularında risk faktörü olup olmad...

  15. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific and technical guidance for the preparation and presentation of applications pursuant to Article 6 Paragraph 11 of Directive 2000/13/EC, as amended

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on Scientific and technical guidance for the preparation and presentation of applications pursuant to Article 6 Paragraph 11 of Directive 2000....... It presents a common format for the organisation of the information to be provided and outlines the information and scientific data which must be included in the application, the hierarchy of different types of data and study designs, reflecting the relative strength of evidence which may be obtained...... endorsed by the NDA Panel on 11 July 2013, and was released for public consultation from 26 July 2013 to 13 September 2013....

  16. Eleştirel medya okuryazarlığı kapsamında çocuk odaklı haber ve programlar üzerine bir değerlendirme

    Arslan, Hicabi

    2014-01-01

    Medya okuryazarlığının erken yaşlardan itibaren başlayarak hayat boyu geliştirilecek bir beceri olması, verilecek eğitimin de okul öncesinden başlayarak yetişkin eğitime uzanan bir sürece yayılmasını gerekli kılmaktadır. Bu nedenle eğitim kurumlarında, çocuklara, toplumla uyum içinde yaşaması ve toplumun ona sağladığı fırsatlardan yararlanabilmesi için gerekli temel davranışların kazandırılması hedeflenmektedir. Uluslararası Gazeteciler Federasyonu’nun (FIJ) 2003 yılında yayınladığı “Medya...

  17. Crohn Hastalığında Aktivite Tayininde Dinamik Kontrastlı ve Difüzyon Ağırlıklı İncelemelerin Konvansiyonel Manyetik Rezonans Enterografiye Katkısı

    ERDOĞAN, Seçil Telli; YENCİLEK, Esin; KILIÇOĞLU, Gamze; Aksoy, Direnç Özlem; KOÇHAN, Koray; ŞİMŞEK, Mehmet Masum

    2014-01-01

    Amaç: Bu çalışmanın amacı Crohn hastalığında manyetik rezonans enterografide dinamik kontrastlı ve difüzyon ağırlıklı incelemelerin kullanılmasının aktif inflame segmentlerin belirlenmesine katkısını değerlendirmektir. Materyal ve Metot: Kliniğimizde manyetik rezonans enterografi ve devamında gastroenteroloji kliniğinde kolonoskopi yapılmış hastaların görüntüleri ve dosyaları retrospektif olarak değerlendirildi. Histopatolojik olarak aktif Crohn hastalığı tanısı almış 15 ha...

  18. Primer Açık Açılı Glokom Olgularında Topikal Timolol ve Betaksolol Kullanımının Serum Lipoprotein Düzeyleri Üzerine Etkisi

    Türker, Hasan Hayati; Mensiz, Ercan; Kenan SÖNMEZ; Bardak, Yavuz; ÖZERTÜRK, Yusuf

    2009-01-01

    SüleymanDemirel Üniversitesi TIP FAKÜLTESİ DERGİSİ: 1999 Mart; 6(1) Primer Açık Açılı Glokom Olgularında Topikal Timolol ve Betaksolol Kullanımının Serum Lipoprotein Düzeyleri Üzerine Etkisi Hasan Hayati Türker, Ercan Mensiz, Kenan Sönmez, Yavuz Bardak, Yusuf Özertürk Özet Primer açık açılı glokom (PAAG) olgularında Timolol ve Betaksolol'ün serum total kolesterol (TK), Mgliserid (TG), yüksek dansiteli lipoprotein (YDL), düşük dansiteli lipoprotein (D...

  19. Aydın koşullarında ikinci ürün mısırın su tüketimi

    Dağdelen, Necdet; GÜRBÜZ, Talih

    2008-01-01

    Aydın kosullarında 2003 ve 2004 yılları arasında yürütülen bu çalısmada, yüzey sulama (kapalı karıklarda göllendirme) yöntemi ile sulanan mısır bitkisinin 10’ar günlük dönemler için ölçülen su tüketimi degerleri 6 ayrı yöntemle (FAO 56 Penman-Monteith (FAO56-PM);1996 Kimberley Penman (1996-KPEN); Orjinal Penman (PEN-ORJ); Penman (FAO 24 modifikasyonu) (FAO24-PN); Radyasyon (FAO modifikasyonu) (FAO24-RD) ve Hargreaves (HAR) tahmin edilen degerler ile karsılastırılmıstır. Bu yolla ...

  20. Aydın ovası koşullarında yüzey sulama yöntemi ile sulanan pamuğun su tüketimi

    Dağdelen, Necdet; Yılmaz, Ersel; Durdu, Ö. Faruk

    2005-01-01

    Aydın ovası kosullarında 2003 ve 2004 yılları arasında yürütülen bu çalısmada, yüzey sulama (kapalı karıklarda göllendirme) yöntemi ile sulanan pamuk bitkisinin 10'ar günlük dönemler için ölçülen su tüketimi degerleri 8 ayrı yöntemle (FAO 56 Penman-Monteith (FAO56-PM);1996 Kimberley Penman (1996-KPEN); Orjinal Penman (PEN-ORJ); Penman (FAO 24 modifikasyonu) (FAO24-PN); Radyasyon (FAO modifikasyonu) (FAO24-RD); Blaney-Criddle (FAO modifikasyonu) (FAO24-BC); Hargreaves (HAR); Priest...

  1. Bazı Yemişen Taksonlarında (Crataegus monogyna Jacq., Crataegus x sinaica Boiss.) Ekim Zamanının Çimlenme Oranına Etkisi

    Hazin Cemal GÜLTEKİN; Yildiz, Dilek; Ayşe DELİGÖZ; DİVRİK, Alime; Ümmühan Gülşan GÜLTEKİN; Musa GENÇ

    2009-01-01

    Çalısmada, Crataegus x sinaica Boiss. ve Crataegus monogyna Jacq. tohumlarında ekim zamanının çimlenme yüzdesine etkileri arastırılmıstır. Bu amaçla, C. x sinaica meyveleri, Isparta Orman Bölge Müdürlügü sınırları içinde yer alan Sütçüler-Tota Orman İşletme Sefliğinden, C. monogyna meyveleri ise Egirdir-Asagıgökdere İşletme Sefliginden toplanmıstır. Her bir türden 20'ser adet birey seçilmis ve araştırma materyali meyveler, bu bireylerden 15-20 Eylül 2003 tarihleri arasında toplanmıstır. Tohum...

  2. Aydın ve İzmir illeri bezelye üretim alanlarında görülen bakteriyel hastalıkların saptanması

    Ertan, Duygu

    2012-01-01

    Bu çalışma, İzmir ilinin Torbalı, Tire, Ödemiş ilçelerindeki ve Aydın ilinin Nazilli, Çine, Buharkent ilçelerindeki bezelye ekiliş alanlarında bezelye bakteriyel hastalıkların varlığının belirlenmesi ve Pseudomonas syringae pv. pisi (Psp) ırklarının saptanması amacıyla ele alınmıştır. 2009-2010 yıllarında İzmir ilinde 40, Aydın ilinde 15 tarladan gövde, yaprak ve kapsüllerinde suda haşlanma, kahverengileşme ve yelpaze şeklinde nekrotik lezyonlar gösteren bezelye bitki örnekleri toplanmıştır. ...

  3. Isıl sistem tasarımlarında ekonomik yalıtım kalınlıklarının ekserji ekonomik yöntemle belirlenmesi

    Oymak, Murat

    2007-01-01

    Dünyadaki enerji kaynakları, her gün artan enerji talebi nedeniyle hızla tükenmektedir. Yapılan arastırmalara göre dünyadaki enerji tüketiminin su anki seyri ile devam etmesi halinde 2020 yılında sahip oldugumuz fosil yakıt kaynaklarının yarısının tükenmis olacagı öngörülmektedir. Bu nedenle, günlük yasantımızın her safhasında enerjinin daha verimli kullanımını saglayan önlemler alınmalıdır. statistiki verilere göre ülkemizde kullanılan enerjinin % 30-35'i konutlarda tüketilmektedir. Konutlar...

  4. Human albümin replasmanının karaciğer alıcılarında serum albümin düzeyine etkisi

    M, Uyar; C, Bor; L, Acar; K, Demirağ

    2013-01-01

    Amaç: Karaciğer transplant hastalarında düşük serum albumin düzeylerinin kötü prognoz belirtisi olduğu ve bu hastalarda erken postoperatif dönemde ciddi hipoalbüminemi gelişebileceği bildirilmiştir. Yoğun bakımımızda serum albumin düzeyi 3.0 g.dL-1 altında belirlenen karaciğer alıcılarına rutin olarak human albumin replasmanı uygulamaktadır. Çalışmamızın amacı karaciğer transplantasyonu uygulanan hastalarda postoperatif devrede uygulanan albumin replasmanı stratejisinin retrospektif olarak de...

  5. İneklerde kronik endometritis olgularında Lotagen®, EucaComp® ve PGF2uygulamalarının fertilite parametreleri üzerindeki etkilerinin arastırılması

    Kaya, Duygu

    2008-01-01

    Bu çalısmada kronik endometritis olgularında geleneksel tedavi biçimi olan PGF2α ve antiseptik özellikli Lotagen® kullanımının yanında, fitoterapötik bir ilaç olan EucaComp®’un farklı endometritis derecelerindeki tedavi etkinliginin arastırılması ve aynı zamanda endometritisin tanısı ve derecelendirmesinde kullanılan tanı yöntemlerinin uygulanabilirliginin ortaya konulması amaçlanmıstır.

    Çalısmanın hayvan materyalini, postpartum 28-35. günlerden itibaren periyodik p...

  6. Turistik ürün çeşitlendirme kapsamında kırsal turizm ve kırsal turizm işletmeciliği: Şirince örneği

    Çolak, Okan

    2009-01-01

    Dünyadaki hızlı ekonomik, siyasal ve teknolojik gelismelere paralel olarak, turizm sektörünün sagladıgı faydaların fark edilmesiyle ülkeler arasında rekabet artmıs, degisen istek ve ihtiyaçlar dogrultusunda uluslararası turizm hareketlerinde degismeler yasanmıs ve seyahat sırasında macera arayan, çevreye duyarlı, farklı kültürleri merak eden, farklı turistik ürünleri tercih eden yeni bir turist profili ortaya çıkmıstır. Gelisen bu yeni turistik talebe baglı olarak yeni turistik...

  7. Yabancı Dil Öğretimine ‘Eylemsellik’ Bağlamında Öğrenen Odaklı Bakış

    Birkan Kargı

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Yabancı dil öğretiminde istendik başarıya ulaşılamamasının nedenleri arasında uygulanan klasik yöntemlerin yanında seçili metinlerin öğrenenlerin yaratıcılığına ve öğrenilenlerin içselleştirilmesine yeterince olanak vermemeleri önemli yer tutmaktadır. Bu sorunun giderilmesi ve dil öğreniminde başarının arttırılabilmesinde özellikle 1960’dan sonra belirginleşen okuru önemseyen ‘alımlama estetiği’ önemli rol oynamıştır. Zira bu yeni anlayış yabancı dil öğretimini de etkilemiş ve öğrenen merkezli alternatif yöntemlerin doğmasına ve gelişimine dayanak oluşturmuştur. Öğrenen merkezli alternatif yöntemler ve seçilen yaşama dair sorunları içeren yazınsallar öğrenenlerin yaratıcılığını artırdığı için öğrenilenlerin kalıcı hale gelmesini de etkinleştirmiştir. Yaşamı öğretim ortamına taşıyan özgün metinlerle yardımıyla öğrenciler hem kendi dünyaları, hem de yaşamdan oluşturduğu ekin bilgileri aracılığıyla yarattıkları imgeleri eyleme dönüştürürler ve eğitim çıktılarını gerçekleştirirler. Bu çözümlemelerde psikodaram ve sosyodrama yaklaşımları ile üretime dayalı alternatif yöntemler arasında öğrenenin (öğrencinin etkileşimini, yaratıcılığını, doğaçlama yetisini ve eylemselligini önceleyen koşutluklar bulunduğu görülür. Psiko ve sosyodrama etkisiyle örülmüş alternatif  ‘terapik yaklaşımlar ve yöntemler’ öğrencinin metinle diyaloga girmesini, beklenti ufkunu ve estetik algısını geliştirmesini kolaylaştırır. Yeni bilgiler “eylemsellik” sayesinde yaşantı ürünü haline dönüşür ve kalıcılıkları sağlanır. Bu çalışmada ayrıca dil öğretiminde ötelenen duyup-anlama ve konuşma becerilerinin eksikliğinin teatral teknik yansımalarını içeren kukla ve maske oyunları ile nasıl giderilebileceği ortaya konmuştur.

  8. Tarih Ders Kitaplarında “Öteki” Kurgusu: 1930’lı Yıllar Üzerine Bir Değerlendirme

    Tercan Yıldırım

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available People in every historical period through the similarities and differences with others, have had an identity. This identity is the most important function of holding on daily life and social values has been to facilitate adaptation. In this process actually looking to find sameness "that be different from others" is restricted to its assumptions. Needed a robust and consistent identification of these differences creates a field. Here the individual, to define itself is not what is based on what is not. In it usually collects almost all negative values on the "other" is needed. Bu çalışma Doç. Dr. Ahmet Şimşek’in danışmanlığında hazırlanan ve Marmara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü Tarih Eğitimi Bilim Dalında doktora tezi olarak kabul edilen “II. Meşruitiyetten Günümüze Lise Tarih Ders Kitaplarında Türk Kimliğinin İnşası” başlıklı çalışmanın bir kısmından üretilmiştir. * Selçuk Ecza 50. Yıl Ortaokulu, İstanbul, Türkiye, E-posta: tercan_y@hotmail.comThe nation-state of history teaching in the social memory that you want to include the value of all kinds, positive and negative judgments about the others quite planned and programmed image is transferred to the students liked the way citizens are targeted. In this study, high school history textbooks in the 1930s "other" how fiction and which is considered to have been built for the purpose. The method of the research based on qualitative content and document analysis. The "other" category “Ottoman past”, “internal and external enemies” over the main themes were examined. Related findings of Ottoman past are based upon the sub-themes such as emphasis on Turkishness, the sultans' personal characteristics, betrayal rhetoric, caliphate, ulema class, the quality of education, corrupted layout, freedom of women. Related findings with the category of internal enemies were examined upon the Sultan and Istanbul Government, retrogressives

  9. Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) Uncertainties Impact on Physical Inventory Difference (ID) and Material Balance Determination: Sources of Error, Precision/Accuracy, and ID/Propagation of Error (POV)

    Wendelberger, James G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-10

    These are slides from a presentation made by a researcher from Los Alamos National Laboratory. The following topics are covered: sources of error for NDA gamma measurements, precision and accuracy are two important characteristics of measurements, four items processed in a material balance area during the inventory time period, inventory difference and propagation of variance, sum in quadrature, and overview of the ID/POV process.

  10. İkinci Dünya Savaşı Sonrasında Sovyet Tehdidi Karşısında Kalan Türkiye'nin Batı İle İşbirliği Yapma Süreci After the Second World War Against the Soviet Threat in Western Turkey to Cooperate With the Remaining Process

    Osman YALÇIN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Second World War began on the ashes of First World War.Unresolved problems were the main reason that caused The SecondWorld War. Turkey did not bow to pressures and started a new period oftime giving a National Combat. However, Second World War causedimportant problems for Turkey too. Import and export rates decreased.As soon as Second World War was over, although both sides laidtheir arms, Turkey had to keep 1.700.000 armed soldiers. Economicalproblems and being threatened by Soviets were quite important problemareas. In this situation, Turkey tried to find different ways to improve itsrelations with Western countries. American aid was received to meet therequirements of Turkish Army. American aid is known as TrumanDoctrine and Marshal Aid. Turkey which was included into this aid wassupported in this extent. As a result of this support, weapon systems were bought very cheap. After a while, substitute parts of those weapon systems created important cost.Turkey, took pain over being active member of international organizations, too. Being a member of United Nations, Turkey sent troops Korean War and attended the war there. Turkish army showed great bravery. After this success and determination, Turkey strengthened its position in international area being a NATO member. As a result of this situation, Turkey both took itself secure position against Soviet threat and has become a country which gives important support to peace since 1950s. Latest examples of this are Bosnian War, Kosovo Expedition and Afghanistan Expedition. İkinci Dünya Savaşı, Birinci Dünya Savaşı’nın külleri üzerinde başlamıştır. Çözümsüz kalan uluslar arası sorunlar bu savaşın en önemli nedeni olmuştur. Türkiye Batılı devletlerin dayatmalarına boyun eğmemiş ve Milli Mücadele vererek yeni bir dönem başlatmıştır. Ne var ki, 2. Dünya Savaşı Türkiye için de önemli sorunlara neden olmuştur. Savaş yıllarında ithalat ve ihracat miktarı d

  11. Folic Acid

    ... found naturally in some foods, including leafy vegetables, citrus fruits, beans (legumes), and whole grains. Folic acid ... mcg of folic acid every day for good health. But older adults need to be sure they ...

  12. Torus mandibularis varlığında kısmi dişsiz bir hastanın protetik rehabilitasyonu: olgu sunumu

    Arife Dogan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The torus mandibularis is the one of the most common intraoral exostoses. It is often bilateral, occurs at the canin to premolar region on the lingual aspect of the mandible. It has been reported that the factors such as genetic and environmental factors, masticator hiperfunction, nutrition, race and ethnic groups might play role in occurence of them. Such type of bony protuberances may present many challenges when fabricating a removable partial or complete

    dentures. In this case report, after a general knowledge about mandibular tori, the prosthetic rehabilitation of a partially edentulous patient had bilaterally mandibular tori has been presented.

    ÖZET

    Torus mandibularis ağız içinde en sık görülen eksostoz türlerinden biridir. Genellikle, mandibulanın lingual yüzeyinde, kanin ve premolar bölgesinde yerleşim göstermesiyle karakterizedir. Etyolojisinde kalıtım, çevresel faktörler, artmış çiğneme fonksiyonu, beslenme, ırk ve etnik grup farklılıklarının etkili olduğu düşünülmektedir. Bu tür kemik büyümeleri hareketli parsiyel veya tam protez yapımında güçlüklere neden olabilir. Bu olgu sunumunda kısmi dişsiz ve çift taraflı mandibular torusa sahip bir hastanın protetik tedavisi bildirilmiş ve toruslar hakkında genel bilgi verilmiştir.

    Anahtar sözcükler: Torus mandibularis, kısmi dişsiz hasta

  13. Çerezlik ayçiçeği (Helianthus annuus L.) populasyonlarında dane özellikleri ve özellikler arası ilişkiler

    Polatlı, Orçun

    2013-01-01

    Bu çalışma bazı çerezlik ayçiçeği (Helianthus annuus L.) populasyonlarında verim ve agronomik özelliklerin belirlenmesi ve özellikleri arasındaki ilişkilerin saptanması amacıyla yapılmıştır. 2011 üretim yılında ETAE (Ege Tarımsal Araştırma Enstitüsü) deneme tarlasında yürütülmüştür. Araştırma materyali olarak F3-4 kademesinde olan tekrarlamalı seleksiyonlarla geliştirilmiş 4 çerezlik ileri populasyondan rastgele seçilmiş 20?şer bitki kullanılmıştır. Araştırmada; tabla çapı, bitki boyu, dane b...

  14. NDA techniques for spent fuel verification and radiation monitoring. Report on activities 6a and 6b of Task JNT C799 (SAGOR). Finnish support programme to the IAEA safeguards

    Tarvainen, M. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland); Levai, F. [Technical Univ., Budabest (Hungary); Valentine, T.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Abhold, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Moran, B. [USNRC, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-08-01

    A variety of NDA methods exist for measurement of spent fuel at various stages of the disposition process. Each of the methods has weaknesses and strengths that make them applicable to one or more stages in disposition. Both passive and active methods are, under favorable conditions, capable of providing either a mapping of an assembly to identify missing fuel pins or a measurement of the fissile content and some are capable of providing a mapping of a canister to identify missing assemblies or a measurement of the fissile content. However, a spent fuel measurement system capable of making routine partial defect tests of spent fuel assemblies is missing. The active NDA methods, in particular, the active neutron methods, hold the most promise for providing quantitative measurements on fuel assemblies and canisters. Application of NDA methods to shielded casks may not be practical or even possible due to the extent of radiation attenuation by the shielding materials, and none of these methods are considered to have potential for quantitative measurements once the spent fuel cask has been placed in a repository. The most practical approach to spent fuel verification is to confirm the characteristics of the spent fuel prior to loading in a canister or cask at the conditioning facility. Fissile material tracking systems in addition to containment and surveillance methods have the capability to assure continuity of the verified knowledge of the sample from loading of the canisters to final disposal and closing of the repository. (orig.). 49 refs.

  15. Türk sağlık reformları kapsamında sağlıkta dönüşüm programının incelenmesi

    Önder, Burçak

    2013-01-01

    2002 yılında erken genel seçimler sonucu ülkenin siyasi yapısı yeniden şekillenmiş, Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi (AKP) tek başına iktidara gelerek göreve başlamış ve sonrasında açıkladığı acil eylem planı ile sağlık sektöründe ciddi değişiklikler yapacağının haberini vermiştir. 58. Hükümet’in Acil Eylem Planı’nın kapsamında 205 faaliyet bulunmaktadır. Bu faaliyetlerin temel başlıkları; kamu reformu, ekonomik dönüşüm programı, demokratikleşme ve hukuk reformu, sosyal politikalardır. Özellikle...

  16. Kompozit rezinlerin polimerizasyonları esnasında pulpa odasındaki ısı değişimlerinin in vitro değerlendirilmesi

    MÜJDECİ, Arzu; YEŞİLYURT, Ayşe; GÖKAY, Osman

    2005-01-01

    Bu in vitro çalışmanın amacı, kompozit rezin polimerizasyonu esnasında pulpa odasında oluşabilecek ısı değişikliklerini değerlendirmektir.40 adet çekilmiş maxiller santral insan dişi kullanıldı. Dişlerin vestibul yüzeylerine 5 mm çapında, 2 mm yüksekliğinde standart kaviteleraçıldı, dişler rasgele 4 gruba ayrıldı. Dişlerin kökleri mine-sement birleşiminden yaklaşık olarak 4 mm aşağıda olacak şekilde kesildi, pulpa dokusu headström eğeler ile uzaklaştırıldı. Her dişin pulpa odasına digital ter...

  17. İki uçlu mizaç bozukluğu hastalarında anksiyete bozukluğu ekhastalığı ve yaşam kalitesi

    Toprak, Ebru; Yavuz, Burcu

    2011-01-01

    Amaç: İki Uçlu Mizaç Bozukluğu’nda (İUMB) eşlik eden hastalıkları değerlendiren çalışmaların çoğu, anksiyete bozukluğu (AB) ekhastalığının tanı, tedavi ve hastalık sürecini büyük oranda etkilediğini göstermektedir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, kliniğimize başvuran İUMB hastalarında AB yaygınlığını belirleyerek, ekhastalığın hastaların klinik özellikleri ve yaşam kalitesi bakımından karşılaştırmaktır. Yöntem: Çalışmaya 2010 yılı 0cak ve Mayıs ayları arasında, Şişli Etfal Eğitim ve Araştırma Hastane...

  18. NDA techniques for spent fuel verification and radiation monitoring. Report on activities 6a and 6b of Task JNT C799 (SAGOR). Finnish support programme to the IAEA safeguards

    A variety of NDA methods exist for measurement of spent fuel at various stages of the disposition process. Each of the methods has weaknesses and strengths that make them applicable to one or more stages in disposition. Both passive and active methods are, under favorable conditions, capable of providing either a mapping of an assembly to identify missing fuel pins or a measurement of the fissile content and some are capable of providing a mapping of a canister to identify missing assemblies or a measurement of the fissile content. However, a spent fuel measurement system capable of making routine partial defect tests of spent fuel assemblies is missing. The active NDA methods, in particular, the active neutron methods, hold the most promise for providing quantitative measurements on fuel assemblies and canisters. Application of NDA methods to shielded casks may not be practical or even possible due to the extent of radiation attenuation by the shielding materials, and none of these methods are considered to have potential for quantitative measurements once the spent fuel cask has been placed in a repository. The most practical approach to spent fuel verification is to confirm the characteristics of the spent fuel prior to loading in a canister or cask at the conditioning facility. Fissile material tracking systems in addition to containment and surveillance methods have the capability to assure continuity of the verified knowledge of the sample from loading of the canisters to final disposal and closing of the repository. (orig.)

  19. OĞULOTU (Melissa officinalis L.)’NDA FARKLI BİTKİ SIKLIĞI ve AZOT DOZLARININ VERİM ve VERİM ÖZELLİKLERİNE ETKİSİ

    KATAR, Duran

    2004-01-01

    Bu araştırma 2001, 2002 ve 2003 yıllarında Ankara Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Tarla Bitkileri Bölümü deneme tarlasında yürütülmüştür. Çalışmada materyal olarak kullanılan oğulotu (Melissa officinalis L.) tohumları Tarla Bitkileri Bölümü deneme tarlasında yetiştirilen bitkilerden elde edilmiştir. Araştırmada; dört dikim sıklığı (40 x 30 cm, 40 x 40 cm, 50 x 30 cm ve 50 x 40 cm) ve dört farklı azot dozunun ( 0 kg/da, 4 kg/da, 8 kg/da ve 12 kg/da); bitki boyu, yeşil herba verimi, drog herba ve...

  20. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013 . Scientific Opinion on Rooster Combs Extract

    Tetens, Inge

    hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulphate A and dermatan sulphate. The applicant intends to add RCE to a number of dairy products with a recommended maximum intake of 80 mg RCE per portion and per day. The target population is the general population, with the exception of pregnant women, children and people with...... adverse reactions to sodium hyaluronate and/or avian protein. In the high intake scenario for “consumers only”, the highest daily intake would occur in adults in Belgium (0.788 g). The highest intake scenario for “all subjects” was estimated for adolescents in Denmark (0.427 g/day). The Panel notes that...

  1. Genel anestezi altında elektrokonvülsif tedavi uygulanımında verapamil ve esmolol kullanımının nöbet süresi ve hemodinamik parametreler üzerine etkileri

    Demirel, Sanem

    2007-01-01

    Çalışmamızda, genel anestezi altında yapılan elektrokonvülsif tedavide, verapamil ve esmololün nöbet süresi ve hemodinamik parametreler üzerine olan etkilerini araştırmayı amaçladık. Çalışmaya alınan 24 olguya, haftada 3 kez sırasıyla her ilaç grubuna girecek şekilde iki hafta boyunca elektrokonvülsif tedavi uygulaması yapıldı. Her üç grubun da anestezi hazırlık odasına giriş kalp tepe atımı, sistolik ve diyastolik arteryel basınçları ve periferik oksijen satürasyonu değerleri ölçülerek kayde...

  2. Buğday Hasadında Kullanılan Klasik ve Yolucu Hasat Başlıklarının Türkiye Koşullarında Performans Karşılaştırması

    Say, Sait Muharrem

    2012-01-01

    Bu çalışmada, klasik biçerdöver başlığıyla tahıl hasadına alternatif olabilecek yolucu başlığın buğday hasadında teknik ve işletmecilik yönünden karşılaştırılması hedeflenmiştir. Bu amaçla, her iki başlıkla hasada ait dane kaybı, gerçek tarla kapasitesi ve yakıt tüketimi değerleri belirlenmiştir. Tarla denemeleri, hasat başlığı (klasik ve yolucu), biçerdöver ilerleme hızı (5, 7 ve 9 km/h) ve ürün dane neminin (% 11 ve % 16)...

  3. Isparta Ekolojik Koşullarında Farklı Olgunlaşma Grubuna Giren Bazı Patates (Solanum tuberosum L. Çeşitlerinin Verim ve Kalite Özelliklerinin Belirlenmesi

    Arif ŞANLI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bu araştırma, farklı olgunlaşma grubuna giren bazı patates çeşitlerinin Isparta ekolojik koşullarında verim ve kalite özelliklerinin belirlenmesi amacıyla 2008 ve 2009 yıllarında Isparta Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi deneme alanlarında yürütülmüştür. İki yıllık ortalama verilere göre, araştırmada kullanılan patates çeşitlerinde bitki boyunun 49.0-77.1 cm, ana sap sayısının 2.8-4.1 adet, ocak başına yumru sayısının 6.3-9.2 adet/ocak, pazarlanabilir yumru veriminin 1099-5525 kg/da, küçük yumru veriminin 335-934 kg/da, ocak veriminin 533-1630 kg/ocak ve dekara yumru veriminin 1707-5901 kg/da arasında değişim gösterdiği belirlenmiştir. Çalışmada, en yüksek yumru verimleri erkenci özellikteki Florice (5901 kg/da ve Safran (4110 kg/da çeşitlerinden, en düşük ise orta erkenci özellikteki Aurea (1707 kg/da çeşidinden elde edilmiştir. Çeşitlerin kalite özellikleri arasında da önemli varyasyonlar belirlenmiş olup, kuru madde oranı, cips verimi ve cips rengi değerlerinin genellikle sanayilik, protein oranının ise sofralık çeşitlerde daha yüksek değerlere sahip olduğu tespit edilmiştir.

  4. Bazı Yemişen Taksonlarında (Crataegus monogyna Jacq., Crataegus x sinaica Boiss. Ekim Zamanının Çimlenme Oranına Etkisi

    Hazin Cemal GÜLTEKİN

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Çalısmada, Crataegus x sinaica Boiss. ve Crataegus monogyna Jacq. tohumlarında ekim zamanının çimlenme yüzdesine etkileri arastırılmıstır. Bu amaçla, C. x sinaica meyveleri, Isparta Orman Bölge Müdürlügü sınırları içinde yer alan Sütçüler-Tota Orman İşletme Sefliğinden, C. monogyna meyveleri ise Egirdir-Asagıgökdere İşletme Sefliginden toplanmıstır. Her bir türden 20'ser adet birey seçilmis ve araştırma materyali meyveler, bu bireylerden 15-20 Eylül 2003 tarihleri arasında toplanmıstır. Tohumlar 5 farklı tarihte (03 Ekim 2003, 03 Kasım 2003, 03 Aralık 2003, 03 Ocak 2004 ve 03 Subat 2004 ekilmiştir. Ekim zamanları esas alındıgında, C. monogyna ve C. x sinaica tohumlarının çimlenme oranları arasında anlamlı (P<0.001 farklılıklar ortaya çıkmıstır. Buna göre; C. monogyna ve C. x sinaica türlerinde en yüksek çimlenme oranı (% 60,3 ve % 70,6 03 Ekim 2003 tarihli ekim isleminde saglanmıstır. En düsük çimlenme yüzdesi ise her iki tür için 03 Subat 2004 tarihinde yapılan ekimlerde elde edilmistir. Buna göre, çalısmamıza konu yemisen türlerinde tohumların eylül ayında toplanması ve toplanır toplanmaz ekilmesi önerilir. Aksi takdirde, soguk katlama zorunludur.

  5. Üniversite öğrencileri arasında zorbalık ve zorbalığın psikolojik sorunlarla ilişkisi

    ÖZKAL, Uğur Ümmiye

    2011-01-01

    Bu  araştırmada üniversite öğrencilerinin sınıf düzeyi ve cinsiyete göre  zorbalığa uğramalarının farklılaşıp farklılaşmadığını incelemek ve zorbalığın  psikolojik sorunlarla olan ilişkisini araştırmak amaçlanmıştır.
    Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu 2010-2011 öğretim yılında Ankara’daki bir devlet üniversitesinin sosyal bilimlerle ilgilifakültelerinde okumakta olan 453 öğrenci oluşturmuştur. Katılımcıların yaşortalaması 20.59 (s=1.80) ve yaşranjı 18-2...

  6. Trakya meşe ormanlarında artım ve büyüme ilişkileri

    Gafura Aylak Özdemir; Ömer Saraçoğlu

    2016-01-01

    Trakya meşe ormanlarında artım ve büyüme ilişkileriÖzet: Bu çalışmada, Trakya meşe ormanlarının farklı yaş, sıklık ve yetişme ortamlarındaki artım ve büyüme ilişkileri incelenmiştir. Bu amaçla alınan 101 örnek alandan sağlanan veriler yardımıyla çift girişli ağaç hacim tablosu, bonitet (Yetişme ortamı verimliliği) tablosu ve sıklığa bağlı hasılat tablosu oluşturulmuştur. Sıklığa bağlı hasılat tablosu MS Excel 2010 programının VBA makro özelliğinden yararlanılarak programlanmıştır. Böylece bil...

  7. Nâbî'nin Münşeâtında Biyografik Bilgiler Biographical Accounts In Nabi’s Munsheat

    Halil İbrahim HAKSEVER

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An eminent representative of erudite poetry, Nabi is compiled several prosal and poetic works. Born in Edessa, he had been to Istanbul before living for a long time in Aleppo. He turned back toIstanbul and died there at the age of 70. He has been remembered for afamous and wise poet. Among his works, his Munsheaat, whichincludes monobiographical accounts about his life, is a significant book.His letters mostly written to his friends especially in Aleppo gives usbrief accounts and clues about literary aspects of his personality.Analysis of these letter helps us to have knowledge about his relationswith the bureaucracy elites around him and the civil servants on theone hand; his expectations, his appointments, difficult life conditions helived in. In these letters, there are some remarks about the problemsrelated to official institutions of his time, civil unrest in some regions.There are also mention of some of his appointments, official duties,psychological problems he suffered from, his endeavours to send hisworks to the officials and friends. In this article, using the publishedversion of the Munsheat, we will try to quote and analyze some parts ofthese letters. We will also quote and discuss some passages giving usinformation about Nabi, his ideas and observations. Hikemî şiirin büyük temsilcisi Nabî, manzum mensur birçok eserin sahibidir. Urfa’da başlayan hayatı İstanbul’da devam etmiş, çeşitli memuriyetlerde bulunmuş, uzun yıllar Halep’te yaşamıştır.Uzun gurbet hayatından sonra tekrar İstanbul���a dönmüş, yetmiş yaşını aşmış olarak itibarlı, şöhretli, hikmetli bir şair kimliğiyle hayata veda etmiştir.Yazdığı eserler arasında, hayatına dair kendi kaleminden aktarma bilgiler bulunan Münşeatı önemlidir. Daha çok İstanbul dışında -özellikle Halep’te- iken dost ve tanıdıklarına yazdığı çeşitli konulardaki mektupları, Nabi’nin sosyal ve edebî hayatına dair k

  8. Türk Boylarında Ozan-Âşık Sanatı Ve Onun Millî Hususiyetleri

    Pirsultanu, Sednik

    2014-01-01

    Ta eski zamanlardan beri Türk boyları arasında şifahî söz yaratıcıları, halk nağmekârları, söz musikî ifâcıiari; şaman, varsak, sayacı, ozan ve benzeri adlarla tanınmıştır. Onlardan bize yadigâr olarak şaman duaları, sayacı sözler, varsağı-koşmalar, türküler, varsağı-gaytağı oyun havaları kaldığı halde, ozanın ayrı ayrı sözü-şiiri, kopuz adlı çalgı âleti ve «Kitab-ı Dede Korkut» gibi ölmez bir epos-destam kalmıştır.Ozanlar ozanı Korkut Ata, bazen tarihî şahsiyet, bazen efsanevî veya bediî tip...

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     Bu araştırmanın amacı, başlıca meyve sularında raf ömrü süresince antioksidan aktivite ve diğer kalite kriterlerindeki değişimin incelenmesidir. Araştırma materyali; tüketim düzeyine bağlı olarak 1/1 karton kutuda aseptik dolum tekniği ile üretilen portakal suyu, elma suyu, üzüm suyu, nar suyu, şeftali nektarı, vişne nektarı ve kayısı nektarından oluşmaktadır. Meyve suyu örnekleri 4°C ve 20°C’de olmak üzere 2 farklı sıcaklıkta depolanmış ve örnekler kalite parametreleri açı...

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