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Sample records for acid mmaiii leads

  1. Rechargeable lead-acid batteries.

    1990-09-01

    Batteries used in medical equipment, like their counterparts in consumer products, attract little attention until they fail to function effectively. In some applications, such as in emergency medical devices, battery failure can have fatal consequences. While modern batteries are usually quite reliable, ECRI has received 53 written problem reports and countless verbal reports or questions related to battery problems in hospitals during the past five years. This large number of reports is due, at least in part, to the enormous quality of batteries used to operate or provide backup power in contemporary hospital equipment. As part of an ongoing evaluation of rehabilitation assistive equipment, ECRI has been studying the performance of 12 V rechargeable deep-cycle lead-acid batteries used in powered wheelchairs. During the course of this evaluation, it has become apparent that many professionals, both clinical and industrial, regard batteries as "black box" devices and know little about proper care and maintenance--and even less about battery selection and purchase. Because equipment performance and reliability can be strongly influenced by different battery models, an understanding of battery characteristics and how they affect performance is essential when selecting and purchasing batteries. The types of rechargeable batteries used most commonly in hospitals are lead-acid and nickel-cadmium (nicad), which we compare below; however, the guidance we provide in this article focuses on lead-acid batteries. While the examples given are for high-capacity 12 V deep-cycle batteries, similar analyses can be applied to smaller lead-acid batteries of different voltages. PMID:2211174

  2. Monomethylarsonous acid inhibited endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis in human skin fibroblasts

    Guo, Lei [Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403 (United States); Xiao, Yongsheng [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403 (United States); Wang, Yinsheng, E-mail: yinsheng.wang@ucr.edu [Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0403 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Human exposure to arsenic in drinking water is a widespread public health concern, and such exposure is known to be associated with many human diseases. The detailed molecular mechanisms about how arsenic species contribute to the adverse human health effects, however, remain incompletely understood. Monomethylarsonous acid [MMA(III)] is a highly toxic and stable metabolite of inorganic arsenic. To exploit the mechanisms through which MMA(III) exerts its cytotoxic effect, we adopted a quantitative proteomic approach, by coupling stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) with LC-MS/MS analysis, to examine the variation in the entire proteome of GM00637 human skin fibroblasts following acute MMA(III) exposure. Among the ∼ 6500 unique proteins quantified, ∼ 300 displayed significant changes in expression after exposure with 2 μM MMA(III) for 24 h. Subsequent analysis revealed the perturbation of de novo cholesterol biosynthesis, selenoprotein synthesis and Nrf2 pathways evoked by MMA(III) exposure. Particularly, MMA(III) treatment resulted in considerable down-regulation of several enzymes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. In addition, real-time PCR analysis showed reduced mRNA levels of select genes in this pathway. Furthermore, MMA(III) exposure contributed to a distinct decline in cellular cholesterol content and significant growth inhibition of multiple cell lines, both of which could be restored by supplementation of cholesterol to the culture media. Collectively, the present study demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of MMA(III) may arise, at least in part, from the down-regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis enzymes and the resultant decrease of cellular cholesterol content. - Highlights: • MMA(III)-induced perturbation of the entire proteome of GM00637 cells is studied. • Quantitative proteomic approach revealed alterations of multiple cellular pathways. • MMA(III) inhibits de novo cholesterol biosynthesis. • MMA(III

  3. Monomethylarsonous acid inhibited endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis in human skin fibroblasts

    Human exposure to arsenic in drinking water is a widespread public health concern, and such exposure is known to be associated with many human diseases. The detailed molecular mechanisms about how arsenic species contribute to the adverse human health effects, however, remain incompletely understood. Monomethylarsonous acid [MMA(III)] is a highly toxic and stable metabolite of inorganic arsenic. To exploit the mechanisms through which MMA(III) exerts its cytotoxic effect, we adopted a quantitative proteomic approach, by coupling stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) with LC-MS/MS analysis, to examine the variation in the entire proteome of GM00637 human skin fibroblasts following acute MMA(III) exposure. Among the ∼ 6500 unique proteins quantified, ∼ 300 displayed significant changes in expression after exposure with 2 μM MMA(III) for 24 h. Subsequent analysis revealed the perturbation of de novo cholesterol biosynthesis, selenoprotein synthesis and Nrf2 pathways evoked by MMA(III) exposure. Particularly, MMA(III) treatment resulted in considerable down-regulation of several enzymes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. In addition, real-time PCR analysis showed reduced mRNA levels of select genes in this pathway. Furthermore, MMA(III) exposure contributed to a distinct decline in cellular cholesterol content and significant growth inhibition of multiple cell lines, both of which could be restored by supplementation of cholesterol to the culture media. Collectively, the present study demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of MMA(III) may arise, at least in part, from the down-regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis enzymes and the resultant decrease of cellular cholesterol content. - Highlights: • MMA(III)-induced perturbation of the entire proteome of GM00637 cells is studied. • Quantitative proteomic approach revealed alterations of multiple cellular pathways. • MMA(III) inhibits de novo cholesterol biosynthesis. • MMA(III

  4. Arsenite and its metabolites, MMAIII and DMAIII, modify CYP3A4, PXR and RXR alpha expression in the small intestine of CYP3A4 transgenic mice

    Arsenic is an environmental pollutant that has been associated with an increased risk for the development of cancer and several other diseases through alterations of cellular homeostasis and hepatic function. Cytochrome P450 (P450) modification may be one of the factors contributing to these disorders. Several reports have established that exposure to arsenite modifies P450 expression by decreasing or increasing mRNA and protein levels. Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the predominant P450 expressed in the human liver and intestines, which is regulated mainly by the Pregnane X Receptor-Retinoid X Receptor alpha (PXR-RXR alpha) heterodimer, contributes to the metabolism of approximately half the drugs in clinical use today. The present study investigates the effect of sodium arsenite and its metabolites monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII) and dimethylarsinous acid (DMAIII) on CYP3A4, PXR, and RXR alpha expression in the small intestine of CYP3A4 transgenic mice. Sodium arsenite treatment increases mRNA, protein and CYP3A4 activity in a dose-dependent manner. However, the increase in protein expression was not as marked as compared to the increase in mRNA levels. Arsenite treatment induces the accumulation of Ub-protein conjugates, indicating that the activation of this mechanism may explain the differences observed between the mRNA and protein expression of CYP3A4 induction. Treatment with 0.05 mg/kg of DMAIII induces CYP3A4 in a similar way, while treatment with 0.05 mg/kg of MMAIII increases mostly mRNA, and to a lesser degree, CYP3A4 activity. Sodium arsenite and both its metabolites increase PXR mRNA, while only DMAIII induces RXR alpha expression. Overall, these results suggest that sodium arsenite and its metabolites induce CYP3A4 expression by increasing PXR expression in the small intestine of CYP3A4 transgenic mice.

  5. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) over-production and autocrine cell activation are key factors in monomethylarsonous acid [MMA(III)]-induced malignant transformation of urothelial cells

    Escudero-Lourdes, C., E-mail: cescuder@uaslp.mx [Centro de Investigación y Estudios de Posgrado (CIEP), Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Wu, T.; Camarillo, J.M.; Gandolfi, A.J. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona. Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The association between chronic human exposure to arsenicals and bladder cancer development is well recognized; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been fully determined. We propose that inflammatory responses can play a pathogenic role in arsenic-related bladder carcinogenesis. In previous studies, it was demonstrated that chronic exposure to 50 nM monomethylarsenous acid [MMA(III)] leads to malignant transformation of an immortalized model of urothelial cells (UROtsa), with only 3 mo of exposure necessary to trigger the transformation-related changes. In the three-month window of exposure, the cells over-expressed pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8), consistent with the sustained activation of NFKβ and AP1/c-jun, ERK2, and STAT3. IL-8 was over-expressed within hours after exposure to MMA(III), and sustained over-expression was observed during chronic exposure. In this study, we profiled IL-8 expression in UROtsa cells exposed to 50 nM MMA(III) for 1 to 5 mo. IL-8 expression was increased mainly in cells after 3 mo MMA(III) exposure, and its production was also found increased in tumors derived from these cells after heterotransplantation in SCID mice. UROtsa cells do express both receptors, CXCR1 and CXCR2, suggesting that autocrine cell activation could be important in cell transformation. Supporting this observation and consistent with IL-8 over-expression, CXCR1 internalization was significantly increased after three months of exposure to MMA(III). The expression of MMP-9, cyclin D1, bcl-2, and VGEF was significantly increased in cells exposed to MMA(III) for 3 mo, but these mitogen-activated kinases were significantly decreased after IL-8 gene silencing, together with a decrease in cell proliferation rate and in anchorage-independent colony formation. These results suggest a relevant role of IL-8 in MMA(III)-induced UROtsa cell transformation. -- Highlights: ► IL-8 is over-expressed in human MMA(III)-exposed urothelial

  6. Arsenic speciation and identification of monomethylarsonous acid and monomethylthioarsonic acid in a complex matrix.

    Yathavakilla, Santha Ketavarapu V; Fricke, Michael; Creed, Patricia A; Heitkemper, Douglas T; Shockey, Nohora V; Schwegel, Carol; Caruso, Joseph A; Creed, John T

    2008-02-01

    Anion-exchange chromatography was utilized for speciation of arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)), monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)), and the new As species monomethylthioarsonic acid (MMTA), using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (ICPMS) detection. MMA(III) and MMTA were identified for the first time in freeze-dried carrot samples that were collected over 25 years ago as part of a joint U.S. EPA, U.S. FDA, and USDA study on trace elements in agricultural crops. The discovery of MMA(III) and MMTA in terrestrial foods necessitated the analytical characterization of synthetic standards of both species, which were used for standard addition in carrot extracts. The negative ion mode, high-resolution electrospray mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS) data produced molecular ions of m/z 122.9418 and 154.9152 for MMA(III) and MMTA, respectively. However, ESI-MS was not sensitive enough to directly identify MMA(III) and MMTA in the carrot extracts. Therefore, to further substantiate the identification of MMA(III) and MMTA, two additional separations using an Ion-120 column were developed using the more sensitive ICPMS detection. The first separation used 20 mM tetramethylammonium hydroxide at pH 12.2 with MMA(III) eluting in less than 7 min. In the second separation, MMTA eluted at 11.2 min by utilizing 40 mM ammonium carbonate at pH 9.0. Oxidation of MMA(III) and MMTA to MMA(V) with hydrogen peroxide was observed for standards and carrot extracts alike. Several samples of carrots collected from local markets in 2006 were also analyzed and found to contain low levels of inorganic arsenic species. PMID:18181583

  7. Developments in lead-acid batteries: a lead producer's perspective

    Frost, P. C.

    Rapid progress is being made in many aspects of materials, design and construction for lead-acid batteries. Much of this work has taken place under the auspices of the Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC). From the general tone of the literature, it seems likely that several of these developments will be adopted in commercial products, and that there will be cross-fertilization between the emerging electric vehicle (EV) battery technology and the starting, lighting and ignition (SLI) battery. Given the impetus for improvement from several different factors, the development process appears to be accelerating. To those not intimately involved in the battery design and specification process, it is not clear which of the possible developments will make it from the laboratory to general commercial adoption. Some of the possible changes in materials, design and construction could have an impact on the recovery, recycling, smelting and refining of lead-acid batteries. Some of the possible developments are outlined and their possible impact is discussed. It is likely that negative effects may be minimized if battery developments are considered from other perspectives, largely based on the overall life-cycle, as early in the design phase of new products as possible. Three strategies for minimizing undesirable effects are advocated: first, improved communication between car manufacturers, battery manufacturers and lead producers second, use of life-cycle analysis (LCA) to identify and optimize all attributes of the product throughout its life-cycle third, concerted and coordinated action to deal with issues important to the industry once trends are identified.

  8. Lightweight, durable lead-acid batteries

    Lara-Curzio, Edgar; An, Ke; Kiggans, Jr., James O; Dudney, Nancy J; Contescu, Cristian I; Baker, Frederick S; Armstrong, Beth L

    2013-05-21

    A lightweight, durable lead-acid battery is disclosed. Alternative electrode materials and configurations are used to reduce weight, to increase material utilization and to extend service life. The electrode can include a current collector having a buffer layer in contact with the current collector and an electrochemically active material in contact with the buffer layer. In one form, the buffer layer includes a carbide, and the current collector includes carbon fibers having the buffer layer. The buffer layer can include a carbide and/or a noble metal selected from of gold, silver, tantalum, platinum, palladium and rhodium. When the electrode is to be used in a lead-acid battery, the electrochemically active material is selected from metallic lead (for a negative electrode) or lead peroxide (for a positive electrode).

  9. Lifetime modelling of lead acid batteries

    Bindner, H.; Cronin, T.; Lundsager, P.;

    2005-01-01

    , therefore, lead to uncertainty in the viability of the system in the long term. This report details the work undertaken to investigate and develop two different battery life prediction methodologies withspecific reference to their use in hybrid renewable energy systems. Alongside this, results from battery...... been part of the European Union Benchmarking research project (ENK6-CT-2001-80576), funded by theEuropean Union, the United States and Australian governments together with other European states and other public and private financing bodies. The project has concentrated on lead acid batteries as this...

  10. Valve-regulated lead/acid batteries

    Rand, D. A. J.; Holden, L. S.; May, G. J.; Newnham, R. H.; Peters, K.

    Given the growing importance of valve-regulated lead/acid technology in many existing and emerging market areas, an expert panel was assembled at the Sixth Asian Battery Conference to answer questions from delegates on various technical and operational aspects of such batteries. Key issues included: advantantages; performance and reliability; thermal runaway; and failure modes. The interaction between the audience and the panel was both vigorous and informative. Overwhelmingly, it was agreed that valve-regulated technology has come of age and offers a dynamic solution to many of the world's energy-storage requirements and opportunities.

  11. Valve-regulated lead-acid batteries

    Berndt, D.

    Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries with gelled electrolyte appeared as a niche market during the 1950s. During the 1970s, when glass-fiber felts became available as a further method to immobilize the electrolyte, the market for VRLA batteries expanded rapidly. The immobilized electrolyte offers a number of obvious advantages including the internal oxygen cycle which accommodates the overcharging current without chemical change within the cell. It also suppresses acid stratification and thus opens new fields of application. VRLA batteries, however, cannot be made completely sealed, but require a valve for gas escape, since hydrogen evolution and grid corrosion are unavoidable secondary reactions. These reactions result in water loss, and also must be balanced in order to ensure proper charging of both electrodes. Both secondary reactions have significant activation energies, and can reduce the service life of VRLA batteries, operated at elevated temperature. This effect can be aggravated by the comparatively high heat generation caused by the internal oxygen cycle during overcharging. Temperature control of VRLA batteries, therefore, is important in many applications.

  12. Lifetime modelling of lead acid batteries

    Bindner, H.; Cronin, T.; Lundsager, P.

    2005-04-01

    The performance and lifetime of energy storage in batteries are an important part of many renewable based energy systems. Not only do batteries impact on the system performance but they are also a significant expenditure when considering the whole life cycle costs. Poor prediction of lifetime can, therefore, lead to uncertainty in the viability of the system in the long term. This report details the work undertaken to investigate and develop two different battery life prediction methodologies with specific reference to their use in hybrid renewable energy systems. Alongside this, results from battery tests designed to exercise batteries in similar modes to those that they experience in hybrid systems have also been analysed. These have yielded battery specific parameters for use in the prediction software and the first results in the validation process of the software are also given. This work has been part of the European Union Benchmarking research project (ENK6-CT-2001-80576), funded by the European Union, the United States and Australian governments together with other European states and other public and private financing bodies. The project has concentrated on lead acid batteries as this technology is the most commonly used. Through this work the project partner institutions have intended to provide useful tools to improve the design capabilities of organizations, private and public, in remote power systems. (au)

  13. Sulphation in discharged lead-acid batteries

    Gibson, I.K.; Peters, K.

    1982-09-15

    The inability of lead-acid batteries to be efficiently recharged after prolonged storage in the discharged state has been studied. Experimental (three plate) cells have been fully discharged and stored for various periods (0, 4, 8, 24 weeks) prior to being recharged by a constant voltage schedule. In addition, the electrolyte of some of the cells stored for 24 weeks was replaced by water before the cells were recharged. Current/time profiles, ampere-hour input, and capacity after recharge data have been recorded for the recharges after each storage period. Samples of active material have also been examined by S.E.M. and chemical analysis. The results obtained confirmed that it becomes increasingly difficult to recharge as the period in store increases and that the crystal growth is greater on the positive PbO/sub 2/ electrode than on the negative electrode. The results also indicate that the increased size of the crystals may not be the complete cause of the inability to recharge.

  14. The lead and lead-acid battery industries during 2002 and 2007 in China

    In the past 15 years, the center of the international lead market has shifted to China. China has become the largest producer of raw and refined lead, plus the largest consumer. This paper reviews the status of the lead and lead-acid battery industries in China, including lead mining, lead refining, secondary lead production, the lead-acid battery industry, new opportunities for lead-acid batteries, and the environmental problems associated with lead and lead-acid batteries. The output of raw and refined lead has increased annually in China, and now accounts for more than 30% of the world total. As a result of a change in the Chinese government's policy regarding the export of lead, plus an increase in the price of lead, the profits of Chinese lead manufacturers were significantly reduced, the trade deficit of the Chinese lead industry increased, the operating rates of lead smelter enterprises greatly reduced, and some small enterprises were forced to shut down. At the present time, an increasing number of enterprises have begun to produce secondary lead, and the scale of production has expanded from tens of tons to tens of thousands of tons. In 2006, the output of secondary lead in China reached 700,000 tons, but outdated technology and equipment limited development of the secondary lead industry. Because of serious pollution problems, raw material shortages, and fierce price competition in the battery market, changes in the development of the lead-acid battery industry have been dramatic; approximately one thousand medium-sized and small lead-acid battery producers have been closed in the past 3 years. The output of large lead-acid battery enterprises has not been reduced, however, as a result of their manufacturing technology and equipment being comparable to those in other advanced industrial countries. In China, the flourishing development of electric bicycles, electric tricycles, and photovoltaic energy systems should provide ongoing opportunities for the

  15. Lead-acid battery technologies fundamentals, materials, and applications

    Jung, Joey; Zhang, Jiujun

    2015-01-01

    Lead-Acid Battery Technologies: Fundamentals, Materials, and Applications offers a systematic and state-of-the-art overview of the materials, system design, and related issues for the development of lead-acid rechargeable battery technologies. Featuring contributions from leading scientists and engineers in industry and academia, this book:Describes the underlying science involved in the operation of lead-acid batteriesHighlights advances in materials science and engineering for materials fabricationDelivers a detailed discussion of the mathematical modeling of lead-acid batteriesAnalyzes the

  16. Global gene expression changes in human urothelial cells exposed to low-level monomethylarsonous acid

    Highlights: ► Chronic exposure to 50 nM monomethylarsonous acid in UROtsa was investigated. ► At 3 months of exposure substantial changes were observed in gene expression. ► Notable changes occurred in mitogenic signaling, stress, immune and inflammatory responses. ► Gene expression changes correlate with phenotypic changes from previous studies. -- Abstract: Bladder cancer has been associated with chronic arsenic exposure. Monomethylarsonous acid [MMA(III)] is a metabolite of inorganic arsenic and has been shown to transform an immortalized urothelial cell line (UROtsa) at concentrations 20-fold less than arsenite. MMA(III) was used as a model arsenical to examine the mechanisms of arsenical-induced transformation of urothelium. A microarray analysis was performed to assess the transcriptional changes in UROtsa during the critical window of chronic 50 nM MMA(III) exposure that leads to transformation at 3 months of exposure. The analysis revealed only minor changes in gene expression at 1 and 2 months of exposure, contrasting with substantial changes observed at 3 months of exposure. The gene expression changes at 3 months were analyzed showing distinct alterations in biological processes and pathways such as a response to oxidative stress, enhanced cell proliferation, anti-apoptosis, MAPK signaling, as well as inflammation. Twelve genes selected as markers of these particular biological processes were used to validate the microarray and these genes showed a time-dependent changes at 1 and 2 months of exposure, with the most substantial changes occurring at 3 months of exposure. These results indicate that there is a strong association between the acquired phenotypic changes that occur with chronic MMA(III) exposure and the observed gene expression patterns that are indicative of a malignant transformation. Although the substantial changes that occur at 3 months of exposure may be a consequence of transformation, there are common occurrences of altered

  17. Lightweight lead acid batteries for hybrid electric vehicle applications

    Wallis, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    This report presents architectures, designs and chemistries for novel static soluble lead acid batteries, with the objective of producing a lightweight lead acid battery for improved specific energy. The demands for lightweight lead-acid batteries come from an expanding hybrid electric vehicle market demanding improved battery specific energy. There are several avenues for improving battery specific energy; the main two are improved active material utilisation efficiency and grid weight reduc...

  18. Protection of historical lead against acetic acid vapour

    Pecenová Z.; Kouřil M.

    2016-01-01

    Historical lead artefacts (small figurines, appliques, bull (metal seal) can be stored in depository and archives in inconvenient storage conditions. The wooden show-case or paper packagings release volatile organic compound to the air during their degradation. These acids, mainly acetic acid are very corrosive for lead. The thin layer of corrosion products which slows atmospheric corrosion is formed on lead surface in atmospheric condition. In presence of acetic acid vapour the voluminous co...

  19. Monomethylarsonous acid, but not inorganic arsenic, is a mitochondria-specific toxicant in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Pace, Clare; Banerjee, Tania Das; Welch, Barrett; Khalili, Roxana; Dagda, Ruben K; Angermann, Jeff

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic exposure has been implicated as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, metabolic disorders, and cancer, yet the role mitochondrial dysfunction plays in the cellular mechanisms of pathology is largely unknown. To investigate arsenic-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), we exposed rat aortic smooth muscle cells (A7r5) to inorganic arsenic (iAs(III)) and its metabolite monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)) and compared their effects on mitochondrial function and oxidative stress. Our results indicate that MMA(III) is significantly more toxic to mitochondria than iAs(III). Exposure of VSMCs to MMA(III), but not iAs(III), significantly decreased basal and maximal oxygen consumption rates and concomitantly increased compensatory extracellular acidification rates, a proxy for glycolysis. Treatment with MMA(III) significantly increased hydrogen peroxide and superoxide levels compared to iAs(III). Exposure to MMA(III) resulted in significant decreases in mitochondrial ATP, aberrant perinuclear clustering of mitochondria, and decreased mitochondrial content. Mechanistically, we observed that mitochondrial superoxide and hydrogen peroxide contribute to mitochondrial toxicity, as treatment of cells with MnTBAP (a mitochondrial superoxide dismutase mimetic) and catalase significantly reduced mitochondrial respiration deficits and cell death induced by both arsenic compounds. Overall, our data demonstrates that MMA(III) is a mitochondria-specific toxicant that elevates mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial sources of ROS. PMID:27327130

  20. Blood Lead Levels and Health Problems of Lead Acid Battery Workers in Bangladesh

    Sk. Akhtar Ahmad; Manzurul Haque Khan; Salamat Khandker; A. F. M. Sarwar; Nahid Yasmin; Faruquee, M H; Rabeya Yasmin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Use of lead acid battery (LAB) in Bangladesh has risen with sharp rise of motor vehicles. As result, manufacture of LAB is increasing. Most of the lead used by these industries comes from recycling of LAB. Workers in LAB industry are at risk of exposure lead and thus development of lead toxicity. Objective. The objective of this study was to measure the blood lead concentration and to assess the magnitude of health problems attributable to lead toxicity among the LAB manufacturi...

  1. Anodic corrosion of lead, tin and lead-tin alloys in sulphuric acid solutions. Doctoral thesis

    Salmi, K.

    1993-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of lead and tin and the effect of tin on the anodic behavior of lead in sulfuric acid solutions has been studied in relation to the corrosion of the positive grid of the lead acid battery. The release of soluble Pb(IV) species into sulfuric acid during the anodic polarization of lead has been mapped using the ring-disk electrode technique and their role in the electrochemistry of lead is discussed. Part of the tetravalent products formed on lead are reduced only at high negative potentials. The usefulness of the rotating ring-disk electrode for the determination of different soluble corrosion products has been demonstrated. Mechanisms for tin dissolution in different regions (open circuit, active dissolution and passive region) have been proposed. Ex situ surface analysis of the anodic layer formed on the tin electrode showed this to be mainly SnO.

  2. Research on Activators for Lead-Acid Batteries

    Sugawara, Michio; Kozawa, Akiya

    2008-01-01

    Abstract : The ITE Battery Research group has developed a new organic battery activator for new and used lead-acid batteries. Ten years of investigation have established the validity of the ITE activator that prolongs the useful life of lead-acid batteries. It has been shown that the specific gravity of spent batteries can be restored to the original level in automotive, motive power; uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) and stationary energy storage batteries. Our results show that the disca...

  3. Using lead-acid accumulators in hybrid electric vehicle regime

    Hejdiš, Roman

    2010-01-01

    The master´s thesis discuss characteristics of hybrid electric vehicles and lead-acid accumulators applied in car industry. It compares classic and alternative drive in cars, descibes classification of hybrid drives and its characteristics. Further work disscus lead-acid accumulators which focuses on VRLA accumulators applied in hybrid electric cars. Practical part contains a construction description of negative electrode and experiment, which studied influence of various amount addition of c...

  4. Durable Bipolar Plates For Lead/Acid Batteries

    Clough, Thomas J.; Pinsky, Naum

    1990-01-01

    New structure for positive faces of bipolar plates increases longevity of lead/acid batteries. Divides positive-electrode layer into many isolated segments so defects cannot spread across layer. Surfaces treated before assembly to promote adhesion. Ridges on body divide possible electrode into isolated squares, each typically 1 in. on side. Materials supporting electrochemically active components lightweight and resistant to acid.

  5. Effect of lead foam grid on performance of lead-acid battery

    DAI Chang-song; WANG Dian-long; HU Xin-guo; JIANG Zhao-hua; YAN Zhi-gang

    2005-01-01

    In order to increase the specific energy and specific power of a lead-acid battery, lead foam grid was prepared by electrodepositing Pb-Sn alloy on a copper foam substrate and used as negative current collector for a lead acid battery whose capacity was limited by the negative plate. Comparing the effect of the cast grid, under the same conditions, the mass of lead foam grid decreases by 35% , and the area of lead foam contacted with active material increases by about 20 times. Under 2 h rate discharge condition, with a high current (3.0 I2 ) e and low-temperature ( - 10 ℃, I2 ) discharge system, the lead foam grid markedly boosts the discharge performance of lead acid battery. It increases not only the negative electrode mass specific capacity by 27% ,37%and 29% ,but also the utilization efficiency of the negative active material by 5%. Compared with the negative electrode of cast grid, XRD and SEM results show that after 20 cycles at the state of charge, the sponge lead in the negative lead foam electrode has smaller crystals and less PbSO4 on its surface. Meanwhile, at the state of full discharge, the PbSO4 crystals are smaller and occur less on the surface of lead foam electrode. This indicates its active material reacts more uniformly.

  6. Protection of historical lead against acetic acid vapour

    Pecenová Z.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Historical lead artefacts (small figurines, appliques, bull (metal seal can be stored in depository and archives in inconvenient storage conditions. The wooden show-case or paper packagings release volatile organic compound to the air during their degradation. These acids, mainly acetic acid are very corrosive for lead. The thin layer of corrosion products which slows atmospheric corrosion is formed on lead surface in atmospheric condition. In presence of acetic acid vapour the voluminous corrosion products are formed and fall off the surface. These corrosion products do not have any protection ability. The lead could be protected against acid environment by layer of “metal soup” which is formed on surface after immersion in solution of salt of carboxylic acid for 24 hours. The solutions of acids (with vary long of carbon chain and their salts are examined. Longer carbon chain provides better efficiency convers layer. The disadvantages are low solubility of carboxylic acids in water and bad abrasion resistance of formed layer.

  7. Bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid vehicles

    Saakes, M.; Woortmeijer, R.; Schmal, D.

    Within the framework of the European project bipolar lead-acid power source (BILAPS), a new production route is being developed for the bipolar lead-acid battery. The performance targets are 500 W kg -1, 30 Wh kg -1 and 100 000 power-assist life cycles (PALCs). The operation voltage of the battery can be, according to the requirements, 12, 36 V or any other voltage. Tests with recently developed 4 and 12 V prototypes, each of 30 Ah capacity have demonstrated that the PALC can be operated using 10 C discharge and 9 C charge peaks. The tests show no overvoltage or undervoltage problems during three successive test periods of 16 h with 8 h rest in between. The temperature stabilizes during these tests at 40-45 °C using a thermal-management system. The bipolar lead acid battery is operated at an initial 50% state-of-charge. During the tests, the individual cell voltages display only very small differences. Tests are now in progress to improve further the battery-management system, which has been developed at the cell level, during the period no PALCs are run in order to improve the hybrid behaviour of the battery. The successful tests show the feasibility of operating the bipolar lead-acid battery in a hybrid mode. The costs of the system are estimated to be much lower than those for nickel-metal-hydride or Li-ion based high-power systems. An additional advantage of the lead-acid system is that recycling of lead-acid batteries is well established.

  8. Lead-acid battery model for hybrid energy storage

    BUTTERBACH,S; Vulturescu, Bogdan; FORGEZ, C; Coquery, Gérard; Friedrich, G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the design of hybrid energy storage for an electric waste collection vehicle. The hybrid storage is made of lead-acid batteries and supercapacitors. A detailed lead-acid model is proposed in order to take into account the charge of the battery during regenerative braking. The vehicle was simulated on an urban driving cycle for a full working day. The reduction of the consumed energy due to an increased recovery capacity is outlined in this paper as a main benefit of the ...

  9. Blood Lead Levels and Health Problems of Lead Acid Battery Workers in Bangladesh

    Sk. Akhtar Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Use of lead acid battery (LAB in Bangladesh has risen with sharp rise of motor vehicles. As result, manufacture of LAB is increasing. Most of the lead used by these industries comes from recycling of LAB. Workers in LAB industry are at risk of exposure lead and thus development of lead toxicity. Objective. The objective of this study was to measure the blood lead concentration and to assess the magnitude of health problems attributable to lead toxicity among the LAB manufacturing workers. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the workers of LAB manufacturing industries located in Dhaka city. Result. Mean blood lead level (BLL among the workers was found to be high. They were found to be suffering from a number of illnesses attributable to lead toxicity. The common illnesses were frequent headache, numbness of the limbs, colic pain, nausea, tremor, and lead line on the gum. High BLL was also found to be related to hypertension and anemia of the workers. Conclusion. High BLL and illnesses attributable to lead toxicity were prevalent amongst workers of the LAB manufacturing industries, and this requires attention especially in terms of occupational hygiene and safety.

  10. Lead/acid batteries in systems to improve power quality

    Taylor, P.; Butler, P.; Nerbun, W.

    Increasing dependence on computer technology is driving needs for extremely high-quality power to prevent loss of information, material, and workers' time that represent billions of dollars annually. This cost has motivated commercial and Federal research and development of energy storage systems that detect and respond to power-quality failures in milliseconds. Electrochemical batteries are among the storage media under investigation for these systems. Battery energy storage systems that employ either flooded lead/acid or valve-regulated lead/acid battery technologies are becoming commercially available to capture a share of this emerging market. Cooperative research and development between the US Department of Energy and private industry have led to installations of lead/acid-based battery energy storage systems to improve power quality at utility and industrial sites and commercial development of fully integrated, modular battery energy storage system products for power quality. One such system by AC Battery Corporation, called the PQ2000, is installed at a test site at Pacific Gas and Electric Company (San Ramon, CA, USA) and at a customer site at Oglethorpe Power Corporation (Tucker, GA, USA). The PQ2000 employs off-the-shelf power electronics in an integrated methodology to control the factors that affect the performance and service life of production-model, low-maintenance, flooded lead/acid batteries. This system, and other members of this first generation of lead/acid-based energy storage systems, will need to compete vigorously for a share of an expanding, yet very aggressive, power quality market.

  11. Design process for a sealed lead acid vehicle battery charger

    Rogers, Ian; Sanders, David; Onuh, Spencer

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a flexible modular design approach applied to the design of a sealed lead acid vehicle battery charger. The design process is separated into sub-processes and the design is then checked against available modules and knowledge. Potentially useful modules are then identified and used if possible. Other new modules are then created to complete the design. New products can be created from available modules if possible and this simplifies the design process and makes the proce...

  12. Preventive maintenance basis: Volume 24 -- Battery -- flooded lead-acid (lead-calcium, lead antimony, plante). Final report

    US nuclear power plants are implementing preventive maintenance (PM) tasks with little documented basis beyond fundamental vendor information to support the tasks or their intervals. The Preventive Maintenance Basis project provides utilities with the technical basis for PM tasks and task intervals associated with 40 specific components such as valves, electric motors, pumps, and HVAC equipment. This document provides a program of preventive maintenance tasks suitable for application to flooded lead-acid batteries. The PM tasks that are recommended provide a cost-effective way to intercept the causes and mechanisms that lead to degradation and failure. They can be used in conjunction with material from other sources, to develop a complete PM program or to improve an existing program. This document provides a program of preventive maintenance (PM) tasks suitable for application to flooded lead-acid batteries. The PM tasks that are recommended provide a cost-effective way to intercept the causes and mechanisms that lead to degradation and failure. They can be used, in conjunction with material from other sources, to develop a complete PM program or to improve an existing program. Users of this information will be utility managers, supervisors, system engineers, craft technicians, and training instructors responsible for developing, optimizing, or fine-tuning PM programs

  13. Prospects for lead-acid batteries in the new millenium

    Razelli, Eugenio

    The European lead-acid battery industry has been adversely affected by the collapse of the telecommunications and information technology expansion of the last several years and by general economic conditions in other sectors. This has had a substantial effect on the industrial battery market, particularly standby batteries, but the automotive business has been less affected. The industry has reacted to these continuing changes by consolidation and specialisation within the different sectors but this alone is insufficient to ensure future success. The industry faces significant challenges to improve efficiencies through better manufacturing systems, but the development of new products for both existing and future applications is the greater priority. Advanced automotive batteries for Powernet applications and for hybrid electric vehicles, new types of standby and traction batteries and improvements to automotive batteries can all be achieved with lead-acid technology. This is a system with enormous potential for further improvement building on current strengths. This is a challenge to which the industry must respond in order to underpin the lead-acid battery as the most important electrical energy storage system.

  14. Heat tolerance of automotive lead-acid batteries

    Albers, Joern

    Starter batteries have to withstand a quite large temperature range. In Europe, the battery temperature can be -30 °C in winter and may even exceed +60 °C in summer. In most modern cars, there is not much space left in the engine compartment to install the battery. So the mean battery temperature may be higher than it was some decades ago. In some car models, the battery is located in the passenger or luggage compartment, where ambient temperatures are more moderate. Temperature effects are discussed in detail. The consequences of high heat impact into the lead-acid battery may vary for different battery technologies: While grid corrosion is often a dominant factor for flooded lead-acid batteries, water loss may be an additional influence factor for valve-regulated lead-acid batteries. A model was set up that considers external and internal parameters to estimate the water loss of AGM batteries. Even under hot climate conditions, AGM batteries were found to be highly durable and superior to flooded batteries in many cases. Considering the real battery temperature for adjustment of charging voltage, negative effects can be reduced. Especially in micro-hybrid applications, AGM batteries cope with additional requirements much better than flooded batteries, and show less sensitivity to high temperatures than suspected sometimes.

  15. System for agitating the acid in a lead-acid battery

    Weintraub, Alvin; MacCormack, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    A system and method for agitating the acid in a large lead-sulfuric acid storage battery of the calcium type. An air-lift is utilized to provide the agitation. The air fed to the air-lift is humidified prior to being delivered to the air-lift.

  16. Electrochemical Studies of Lead Telluride Behavior in Acidic Nitrate Solutions

    Rudnik E.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemistry of lead telluride stationary electrode was studied in nitric acid solutions of pH 1.5-3.0. E-pH diagram for Pb-Te-H2O system was calculated. Results of cyclic voltammetry of Pb, Te and PbTe were discussed in correlation with thermodynamic predictions. Anodic dissolution of PbTe electrode at potential approx. -100÷50 mV (SCE resulted in tellurium formation, while above 300 mV TeO2 was mainly produced. The latter could dissolve to HTeO+2 under acidic electrolyte, but it was inhibited by increased pH of the bath.

  17. Manufacturing and operational issues with lead-acid batteries

    Rand, D. A. J.; Boden, D. P.; Lakshmi, C. S.; Nelson, R. F.; Prengaman, R. D.

    An expert panel replies to questions on lead-acid technology and performance asked by delegates to the Ninth Asian Battery Conference. The subjects are as follows. Grid alloys: effects of calcium and tin levels on microstructure, corrosion, mechanical and electrochemical properties; effect of alloy-fabrication process on mechanical strength and corrosion resistance; low dross-make during casting of lead-calcium-tin alloys; future of book-mould casting; effect of increasing levels of silver; stability of continuously processed grids at high temperature. Negative-plate expanders: function of lignosulfonates and barium sulfate; benefits of pre-blended expanders; optimum expander formulations. Valve-regulated batteries: effect of oxygen cycle; optimum methods for float charging; charging and deep-cycle lifetimes; reliability testing.

  18. Oxide for valve-regulated lead-acid batteries

    Lam, L. T.; Lim, O. V.; Haigh, N. P.; Rand, D. A. J.; Manders, J. E.; Rice, D. M.

    In order to meet the increasing demand for valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries, a new soft lead has been produced by Pasminco Metals. In this material, bismuth is increased to a level that produces a significant improvement in battery cycle life. By contrast, other common impurities, such as arsenic, cobalt, chromium, nickel, antimony and tellurium, that are known to be harmful to VRLA batteries are controlled to very low levels. A bismuth (Bi)-bearing oxide has been manufactured (Barton-pot method) from this soft lead and is characterized in terms of phase composition, particle size distribution, BET surface area, and reactivity. An investigation is also made of the rates of oxygen and hydrogen evolution on pasted electrodes prepared from the Bi-bearing oxide. For comparison, the characteristics and performance of a Bi-free (Barton-pot) oxide, which is manufactured in the USA, are also examined. Increasing the level of bismuth and lowering those of the other impurities in soft lead produces no unusual changes in either the physical or the chemical properties of the resulting Bi-bearing oxide compared with Bi-free oxide. This is very important because there is no need for battery manufacturers to change their paste formulae and paste-mixing procedures on switching to the new Bi-bearing oxide. There is little difference in the rates of oxygen and hydrogen evolution on pasted electrodes prepared from Bi-bearing or Bi-free oxides. On the other hand, these rates increase on the former electrodes when the levels of all the other impurities are made to exceed (by deliberately adding the impurities as oxide powders) the corresponding, specified values for the Bi-bearing oxide. The latter behaviour is particularly noticeable for hydrogen evolution, which is enhanced even further when a negative electrode prepared from Bi-bearing oxide is contaminated through the deposition of impurities added to the sulfuric acid solution. The effects of impurities in the positive

  19. Computer formation of sealed lead/acid batteries

    Mills, John A.

    The desire of many companies to enter the growing market of valve-regulated batteries (also known as sealed lead/acid) requires a higher level of control in virtually all the stages of manufacture. Formation charging and charge conditioning is a particular case in point. Whether the valve-regulated battery is of the starved-electrolyte or gelled-electrolyte type, the final stages of formation and charge conditioning require careful attention to control the cell voltage. Charge rates that exceed the oxygen-recombination rate will cause excess gassing and thus reduce the available electrolyte. This, in turn, reduces battery life and, in the case of gelled-electrolyte batteries, causes improper cracking of the gell and concomitant reduction in capacity, performance and life. Valve-regulated batteries require charging equipment that can automatically regulate charge/discharge current and voltage. Given the requirement for multiple steps of battery conditioning, computer control provides a totally effective way to control the voltage, current, time, ampere hours and charge/discharge functions without operator assistance.

  20. Modeling of the charge acceptance of lead-acid batteries

    Thele, M.; Schiffer, J.; Sauer, D.U. [Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage Systems Group, Institute for Power Electronics and Electrical Drives (ISEA), RWTH Aachen University, Jaegerstrasse 17-19, D-52066 Aachen (Germany); Karden, E.; Surewaard, E. [Ford Research Center Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    2007-05-25

    This paper presents a model for flooded and VRLA batteries that is parameterized by impedance spectroscopy and includes the overcharging effects to allow charge-acceptance simulations (e.g. for regenerative-braking drive-cycle profiles). The full dynamic behavior and the short-term charge/discharge history is taken into account. This is achieved by a detailed modeling of the sulfate crystal growth and modeling of the internal gas recombination cycle. The model is applicable in the full realistic temperature and current range of automotive applications. For model validation, several load profiles (covering the dynamics and the current range appearing in electrically assisted or hybrid cars) are examined and the charge-acceptance limiting effects are elaborately discussed. The validation measurements have been performed for different types of lead-acid batteries (flooded and VRLA). The model is therefore an important tool for the development of automotive power nets, but it also allows to analyze different charging strategies and energy gains which can be achieved during regenerative-braking. (author)

  1. A study on lead toxicity among the workers in an unorganized sector of lead-acid battery industry

    Partha Sarathy Naidana

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims of the study: (1-To study various manifestations of lead toxicity at different levels of exposure among the Lead-Acid battery workers and (2-To study various factors contributing to the toxicity of lead among the workers. Results: High amounts of lead were detected in the blood samples of the workers. The commonest lead related symptoms observed among the workers were malaise (32.1%, fatigue (25.9%, arthralgia (20.9%, abdominal colic (16% and headache (13.6%. Smoking found to be an important contributory factor in the lead related manifestations. An inverse association of practice of hygiene with mean blood lead value was observed among heavily exposed workers. A statistically significant difference was observed between heavily exposed and moderately exposed to lead regarding presence of pallor, malaise symptom, presence of one or more lead related symptoms, blood lead levels, haemoglobin values, etc. Conclusion: A majority of Lead-Acid battery workers (64.19% were highly exposed to lead by their nature of work. The prevalence of toxicity was more among the heavily exposed than the moderately exposed. Minimizing the exposure during the work is very important factor to protect the health of the workers.

  2. A low-cost lead-acid battery with high specific-energy

    S K Martha; B Hariprakash; S A Gaffoor; D C Trivedi; A K Shukla

    2006-01-01

    Lightweight grids for lead-acid battery grids have been prepared from acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) copolymer followed by coating with lead. Subsequently, the grids have been electrochemically coated with a conductive and corrosion-resistant layer of polyaniline. These grids are about 75% lighter than those employed in conventional lead-acid batteries. Commercial-grade 6V/3.5Ah (C20-rate) lead-acid batteries have been assembled and characterized employing positive and negative plates constituting these grids. The specific energy of such a lead-acid battery is about 50 Wh/kg. The batteries can withstand fast charge-discharge duty cycles.

  3. Distribution and integrated assessment of lead in an abandoned lead-acid battery site in Southwest China before redevelopment.

    Wang, Mei; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Zhuo; Li, Fasheng; Guo, Guanlin

    2016-06-01

    Lead-acid battery sites have contributed enormous amounts of lead to the environment, significantly affecting its global biogeochemical cycle and leaving the potential risks to human health. An abandoned lead-acid battery site prepared for redevelopment was selected in order to study the distribution of lead in soils, plants, rhizosphere soils and soil solutions. In total, 197 samples from 77 boreholes were collected and analyzed. Single extractions by acetic acid (HOAc) were conducted to assess the bioavailability and speciation of lead in soils for comparison with the parts of the plants that are aboveground. Health risks for future residential development were evaluated by the integrated exposure uptake biokinetic (IEUBK) model. The results indicated that lead concentrations in 83% of the soil samples exceeded the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for soil (350 mg/kg for Pb) and mainly occurred at depths between 0 and 1.5 m while accumulating at the surface of demolished construction waste and miscellaneous fill. Lead concentrations in soil solutions and HOAc extraction leachates were linked closely to the contents of aboveground Broussonetia papyrifera and Artemisia annua, two main types of local plants that were found at the site. The probability density of lead in blood (PbB) in excess of 10 µg/dL could overtake the 99% mark in the residential scenario. The findings provided a relatively integrated method to illustrate the onsite investigations and assessment for similar sites before remediation and future development from more comprehensive aspects. PMID:26921546

  4. Citric acid-assisted phytoextraction of lead: a field experiment.

    Freitas, Eriberto Vagner; Nascimento, Clístenes Williams; Souza, Adailson; Silva, Fernando Bruno

    2013-06-01

    Soil contamination with heavy metals has become a serious environmental problem that requires affordable strategies of remediation. This study was carried out to assess the performance of maize and vetiver in the phytoextraction of Pb from a soil contaminated by battery recycling activities. The species were planted with different spacings between rows (0.80, 0.65 and 0.50m). Citric acid (40mmolkg(-1)) was applied on each experimental plot on the 61st d of cultivation in order to solubilize the Pb and assist the phytoextraction. The results showed that the chelating agent promoted a 14-fold increase in the Pb concentration in maize shoots as compared to the control, which accumulated only 111mgkg(-1) of the metal. The citric acid induced a Pb concentration in vetiver shoots that was 7.2-6.7-fold higher than the control at both the 0.65 and 0.50m plant spacing, respectively. The use of citric acid increased substantially the uptake and translocation of Pb to the shoots, regardless of plant spacing. Citric acid was efficient in solubilizing Pb from the soil and inducing its uptake by both species. Environmentally-friendly and cost effective, commercial citric acid is recommended for assisting Pb-phytoextraction in the studied area. Due to the low natural solubility of Pb and a time frame needed of longer than 150yr to accomplish the clean-up, phytoextraction with no chelate assistance is not recommended for the area. PMID:23490185

  5. Recycling and management of waste lead-acid batteries: A mini-review.

    Li, Malan; Liu, Junsheng; Han, Wei

    2016-04-01

    As a result of the wide application of lead-acid batteries to be the power supplies for vehicles, their demand has rapidly increased owing to their low cost and high availability. Accordingly, the amount of waste lead-acid batteries has increased to new levels; therefore, the pollution caused by the waste lead-acid batteries has also significantly increased. Because lead is toxic to the environment and to humans, recycling and management of waste lead-acid batteries has become a significant challenge and is capturing much public attention. Various innovations have been recently proposed to recycle lead and lead-containing compounds from waste lead-acid batteries. In this mini-review article, different recycling techniques for waste lead-acid batteries are highlighted. The present state of such recycling and its future perspectives are also discussed. We hope that this mini-review can provide useful information on recovery and recycling of lead from waste lead-acid batteries in the field of solid waste treatment. PMID:26941209

  6. Serum Neuron-Specific Enolase, Biogenic Amino-Acids and Neurobehavioral Function in Lead-Exposed Workers from Lead-Acid Battery Manufacturing Process

    K Ravibabu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The interaction between serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE, biogenic amino-acids and neurobehavioral function with blood lead levels in workers exposed to lead form lead-acid battery manufacturing process was not studied.Objective: To evaluate serum NSE and biogenic amino-acids (dopamine and serotonin levels, and neurobehavioral performance among workers exposed to lead from lead-acid storage battery plant, and its relation with blood lead levels (BLLs.Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we performed biochemical and neurobehavioral function tests on 146 workers exposed to lead from lead-acid battery manufacturing process. BLLs were assessed by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Serum NSE, dopamine and serotonin were measured by ELISA. Neurobehavioral functions were assessed by CDC-recommended tests—simple reaction time (SRT, symbol digit substitution test (SDST, and serial digit learning test (SDLT.Results: There was a significant correlation (r 0.199, p<0.05 between SDST and BLL. SDLT and SRT had also a significant positive correlation (r 0.238, p<0.01. NSE had a negative correlation (r –0.194, p<0.05 with serotonin level. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that both SRT and SDST had positive significant associations with BLL. SRT also had a positive significant association with age.Conclusion: Serum NSE cannot be used as a marker for BLL. The only domain of neurobehavioral function tests that is affected by increased BLL in workers of lead-acid battery manufacturing process is that of the “attention and perception” (SDST.

  7. Lithocholic acid disrupts phospholipid and sphingolipid homeostasis leading to cholestasis

    Matsubara, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Naoki; Patterson, Andrew D.; Cho, Joo-Youn; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Frank J. Gonzalez

    2011-01-01

    Lithocholic acid (LCA) is an endogenous compound associated with hepatic toxicity during cholestasis. LCA exposure in mice resulted in decreased serum lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and sphingomyelin levels due to elevated lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT) and sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase (SMPD) expression. Global metabolome analysis indicated significant decreases in serum palmitoyl-, stearoyl-, oleoyl- and linoleoyl-LPC levels after LCA exposure. LCA treatment also resulted ...

  8. Oxygen evolution on alpha-lead dioxide electrodes in methanesulfonic acid

    Highlights: ► Oxygen evolution on α-PbO2 in methanesulfonic acid medium. ► The reaction kinetics is slower in MSA than in sulphuric acid. ► The hydrated lead dioxide layer affects the reaction kinetics. ► A high MSA concentration leads to lower O2 evolution. - Abstract: This work examines the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) taking place on α-PbO2 electrode in methanesulfonic acid (MSA) medium and in sulphuric acid as a comparison, by means of cyclic voltammetry (CVA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), for soluble lead acid flow battery applications. The influence of MSA concentration on OER is studied. EIS measurements highlighted the impact of the hydrated lead dioxide layer upon decreasing MSA or sulphuric acid concentration. The evolution of the Tafel curves plotted from EIS measurements and quasi-stationary currents while varying acid concentration was interpreted in the light of this hydrated layer which could enhance the electrocatalytic activity when it is thin, and on the contrary act as an electronic barrier when growing for low acid concentration. Both EIS and CVA revealed that OER on lead dioxide is less favoured in MSA than in sulphuric acid. It is finally concluded that a high-concentrated MSA electrolyte is better for lead acid flow battery application in terms of oxygen evolution.

  9. Application of diffraction techniques in studies of lead/acid battery performance

    The author presents a resume of the most significant contributions to lead/acid battery research made by X-ray, neutron, and electron diffraction techniques. In addition, those areas of research are defined which show the most promise in achieving improvements in the performance of the lead/acid battery. (Auth.)

  10. Research results from the Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium point the way to longer life and higher specific energy for lead/acid electric-vehicle batteries

    Moseley, P. T.

    Amidst the welter of publicity devoted to the newer battery chemistries, the remarkable progress made by lead/acid battery technologists in response to the needs of the emerging electric-vehicle market has tended to be overlooked. The flooded design of battery, launched by Gaston Planté around 1860, has given way to a valve-regulated variant which has a history dating only from the 1970s. The key parameters of this `maintenance free' battery have been improved markedly during the course of the development programme of the Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC), and it is likely that lead/acid will continue to feature strongly in motive-power applications as a result of its cost advantage and of its enhanced effectiveness.

  11. Association of Lead Exposure, Serum Uric Acid and Parameters of Renal Function in Nigerian Lead-Exposed Workers

    FS Wokoma

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of hyperuricemia and renal function impairment, especially in the absence of urate stone formation is strongly suggestive of lead nephropathy. The evaluation of this association is essential in areas where lead exposure is still prevalent and uncontrolled.Objective: To determine the relationship between serum uric acid and renal function indices in lead-exposed workers.Methods: A cross-sectional study of 190 adults with occupational lead exposure and 80 adults (comparison group, matched for age and sex was performed in Port Harcourt, South-south Nigeria. Blood lead was used as the biomarker of lead exposure while serum urea, serum creatinine, urine albumin (using urine albumin:creatinine ratio, estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR and serum uric acid were the renal function indices measured.Results: Occupationally lead-exposed subjects had a significantly (p = 0.008 higher mean±SD blood lead levels (50.37±24.58 μg/dL than the comparison group (41.40±26.85. The mean±SD serum urea (8.6±2.3 mg/dL, creatinine (1.0±0.2 mg/dL and serum uric acid (4.6±1.2 mg/dL were significantly (p < 0.01 higher in the study subjects than the comparison group (7.6±2.4, 0.9±0.2, and 3.9±1.1 mg/dL, respectively. The mean±SD creatinine clearance was significantly (p = 0.002 lower in the study subjects than the comparison group (98.9±21.3 vs. 108.2±25.2 mL/min/1.72 m2. Serum uric acid level correlated positively with serum creatinine (r = 0.134 and negatively with GFR (r = ‑0.151.Conclusion: People with occupational lead exposure are at risk of developing hyperuricemia and renal impairment.

  12. Manufacture and application of valve-regulated lead/acid batteries in China

    Wang, Z.

    This paper introduces the manufacture and application of valve-regulated lead/acid batteries in China. The contents cover the following topics: (i) background development; (ii) materials; (iii) manufacturing technology and equipment; (iv) application and market prospects.

  13. A mathematical model for the soluble lead-acid flow battery

    Shah, Akeel A.; Li, Xiaohong; Wills, Richard G.A.; Walsh, Frank C.

    2010-01-01

    The soluble lead-acid battery is a redox flow cell that uses a single reservoir to store the electrolyte and does not require a microporous separator or membrane, allowing a simpler design and a substantial reduction in cost. In this paper, a transient model for a reversible, lead-acid flow battery incorporating mass and charge transport and surface electrode reactions is developed. The charge–discharge behavior is complicated by the formation and subsequent oxidation of a complex oxide layer...

  14. Monitoring sealed automotive lead-acid batteries by sparse-impedance spectroscopy

    B Hariprakash; S K Martha; A K Shukla

    2003-10-01

    A reliable diagnostics of lead-acid batteries would become mandatory with the induction of an improved power net and the increase of electrically assisted features in future automobiles. Sparse-impedance spectroscopic technique described in this paper estimates the internal resistance of sealed automotive lead-acid batteries in the frequency range 10 Hz-10 kHz, usually produced by the alternators fitted in the automobiles. The state-of-health of the battery could be monitored from its internal resistance.

  15. Lead

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This is one of a series of reports made on industrial pollutants by the Expert Panel on Air Quality Standards to advise the United Kingdom Government on air quality standards. It describes the main sources of lead exposure, including the relative contribution of lead in the air and lead in the diet, and the methods by which it is measured in air. The Panel also considers the airborne concentrations recorded to date in the United Kingdom, ways in which lead is handled in by the body, and its toxic effects on people. The dominant source of airborne lead is petrol combustion. Other source include coal combustion, the production of non-ferrous metals and waste treatment and disposal. The justification of an air quality standard for lead is set down. The Panel recommends an air quality standard for lead in the United Kingdom of 0.25 {mu}g/m{sup 3} measured as an annual average. This is intended to protect young children, the group most vulnerable to impairment of brain function. 17 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Cost and design study for electric vehicle lead--acid batteries

    1977-01-01

    A design and cost study for electric-vehicle lead--acid batteries is presented; a research and development program leading to demonstration and testing of 20- to 30-kWh batteries is proposed. Both flat pasted and tubular positive electrodes are included. Detailed testing programs are set forth. 110 figures, 8 tables (RWR)

  17. Changing corporate culture within the European lead/acid battery industry

    Recent economic and political factors have had a strong influence on the lead/acid battery industry in both West and East Europe. Since the publication in 1989 by Batteries International and the Lead Development Association of a map of European battery factories, the number of battery companies has declined. By 1992, a significant shift had taken place in the share of the lead/acid battery market in Europe with the result that a few companies came to influence a major proportion of battery production and sales. The reasons for this relatively fast structural change are examined. Under the pressure from continuing internal and external forces, likely outcomes for battery business in Europe are proposed as the lead/acid industry changes to meet new challenges. (orig.)

  18. Residual learning rates in lead-acid batteries: Effects on emerging technologies

    The low price of lead-acid, the most popular battery, is often used in setting cost targets for emerging energy storage technologies. Future cost reductions in lead acid batteries could increase investment and time scales needed for emerging storage technologies to reach cost-parity. In this paper the first documented model of cost reductions for lead-acid batteries is developed. Regression to a standard experience curve using 1989–2012 data yield a poor fit, with R2 values of 0.17 for small batteries and 0.05 for larger systems. To address this problem, battery costs are separated into material and residual costs, and experience curves developed for residual costs. Depending on the year, residual costs account for 41–86% of total battery cost. Using running-time averages to address volatility in material costs, a 4-year time average experience curve for residual costs yield much higher R2, 0.78 for small and 0.74 for large lead-acid batteries. The learning rate for residual costs in lead-acid batteries is 20%, a discovery with policy implications. Neglecting to consider cost reductions in lead-acid batteries could result in failure of energy storage start-ups and public policy programs. Generalizing this result, learning in incumbent technologies must be understood to assess the potential of emerging ones. -- Highlights: •We analyze potential cost reductions in lead-acid batteries. •Modified experience curve for non-material costs gives good empirical fit. •Historical learning rate for non-material costs from 1985–2012 is 19–24%. •Progress in incumbent technology raises barrier to new entrants

  19. Dietary stearic acid leads to a reduction of visceral adipose tissue in athymic nude mice.

    Ming-Che Shen

    Full Text Available Stearic acid (C18:0 is a long chain dietary saturated fatty acid that has been shown to reduce metastatic tumor burden. Based on preliminary observations and the growing evidence that visceral fat is related to metastasis and decreased survival, we hypothesized that dietary stearic acid may reduce visceral fat. Athymic nude mice, which are used in models of human breast cancer metastasis, were fed a stearic acid, linoleic acid (safflower oil, or oleic acid (corn oil enriched diet or a low fat diet ad libitum. Total body weight did not differ significantly between dietary groups over the course of the experiment. However visceral fat was reduced by ∼70% in the stearic acid fed group compared to other diets. In contrast total body fat was only slightly reduced in the stearic acid diet fed mice when measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and quantitative magnetic resonance. Lean body mass was increased in the stearic acid fed group compared to all other groups by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary stearic acid significantly reduced serum glucose compared to all other diets and increased monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 compared to the low fat control. The low fat control diet had increased serum leptin compared to all other diets. To investigate possible mechanisms whereby stearic acid reduced visceral fat we used 3T3L1 fibroblasts/preadipocytes. Stearic acid had no direct effects on the process of differentiation or on the viability of mature adipocytes. However, unlike oleic acid and linoleic acid, stearic acid caused increased apoptosis (programmed cell death and cytotoxicity in preadipocytes. The apoptosis was, at least in part, due to increased caspase-3 activity and was associated with decreased cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 (cIAP2 and increased Bax gene expression. In conclusion, dietary stearic acid leads to dramatically reduced visceral fat likely by causing the apoptosis of preadipocytes.

  20. Dynamics of three organic acids (malic, acetic and succinic acid) in sunflower exposed to cadmium and lead.

    Niu, Zhixin; Li, Xiaodong; Sun, Lina; Sun, Tieheng

    2013-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) has been considered as a good candidate for bioaccumulation of heavy metals. In the present study, sunflower was used to enrich the cadmium and lead in sand culture during 90 days. Biomass, Cd and Pb uptake, three organic acids and pH in cultures were investigated. Results showed that the existence of Cd and Pb showed different interactions on the organic acids exudation. In single Cd treatments, malic and acetic acids in Cd10 showed an incremental tendency with time. In the mixed treatments of Cd and Pb, malic acids increased when 10 and 40 mg x L(-1) Cd were added into Pb50, but acetic acids in Pb50 were inhibited by Cd addition. The Cd10 supplied in Pb10 stimulated the secretion of malic and succinic acids. Moreover, the Cd or Pb uptake in sunflower showed various correlations with pH and some organic acids, which might be due to the fact that the Cd and Pb interfere with the organic acids secretion in rhizosphere of sunflower, and the changes of organic acids altered the form and bioavailability of Cd and Pb in cultures conversely. PMID:23819268

  1. Experiments Study on Charge Technology of Lead-Acid Electric Vehicle Batteries

    LI Wen; ZHANG Cheng-ning

    2008-01-01

    The basic theory of the fast charge and several charge methods are introduced. In order to heighten charge efficiency of valve-regulated lead-acid battery and shorten the charge time, five charge methods are investigated with experiments done on the Digatron BNT 400-050 test bench. Battery current, terminal voltage, capacity, energy and terminal pole temperature during battery experiment were recorded, and corresponding curves were depicted. Battery capacity-time ratio, energy efficiency and energy-temperature ratio are put forward to be the appraising criteria of lead-acid battery on electric vehicle (EV). According to the appraising criteria and the battery curves, multistage-current/negative-pulse charge method is recommended to charge lead-acid EV battery.

  2. Early results from a systems approach to improving the performance and lifetime of lead acid batteries

    Kellaway, M. J.; Jennings, P.; Stone, D.; Crowe, E.; Cooper, A.

    Lead acid batteries offer important advantages in respect of unit cost and ease of recycling. They also have good power and low temperature performance. However, for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) duty with their extreme rates and continuous PSoC operation, improvements are required to significantly extend service life. The Reliable Highly Optimised Lead Acid Battery (RHOLAB) project is taking a radical approach to the design of a lead acid HEV battery pack to address this issue, taking a systems approach to produce a complete pack that is attractive to vehicle manufacturers. This paper describes the project at an intermediate stage where some testing has been completed and the construction of the complete pack system is well under way.

  3. Lead-acid battery research and development—a vital key to winning new business

    Bullock, Kathryn R.

    Battery strings are operated in a partial-state-of-charge mode (PSoC) in several new and changing applications for lead-acid batteries, in which the battery is seldom, if ever, fully charged or discharged. The lead battery industry faces new challenges as additional failure modes become evident in these PSoC applications. Without overcharge, cell imbalances caused by variations in cell temperature will cause premature failures. Valve-regulated lead-acid batteries are especially susceptible because of the heat generated by oxygen recombination at the negative plate. Improved thermal properties are shown by a proprietary battery design that combines absorptive glass mat and gelled acid technologies. Well-designed power systems are also required to reduce cell-to-cell temperature variations and, thereby, increase battery life.

  4. An overview of the development of lead/acid traction batteries for electric vehicles in India

    Sivaramaiah, G.; Subramanian, V. R.

    Electric vehicles (EVs) made an entry into the Indian scene quite recently in the area of passenger transportation, milk floats and other similar applications. The industrial EV market, with various models of fork-lift trucks and platform trucks already in wide use all over India, is a better understood application of EV batteries. The lead/acid traction batteries available in India are not of high-energy density. The best available indigenous lead/acid traction battery has an energy density ( C/5 rate) of 30 W h kg -1 as against 39 W h kg -1 available abroad. This paper reviews the developmental efforts relating to lead/acid traction batteries for electric vehicle applications in India, such as prototype road vehicles, commercial vehicles, rail cars, and locomotives. Due to the need for environmental protection and recognition of exhaustible, finite supplies of petroleum fuel, the Indian government is presently taking active interest in EV projects.

  5. A Comparative Study of Lithium Ion to Lead Acid Batteries for use in UPS Applications

    Stan, Ana-Irina; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan;

    2014-01-01

    Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems have incorporated in their structure an electrochemical battery which allows for smooth power supply when a power failure occurs. In general, UPS systems are based on lead acid batteries; mainly a valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) battery. Recently, lithium...... ion batteries are getting more and more attention for their use in the back-up power systems and UPSs, because of their superior characteristics, which include increased safety and higher gravimetric and volumetric energy densities. This fact allows them to be smaller in size and weight less than VRLA......, lithium iron phosphate (LFP) and lithium titanate oxide (LTO) were compared with lead acid batteries, in terms of their basics characteristics (e.g. capacity, internal resistance) and their dependence on the operating conditions....

  6. Simultaneous Removal of Lindane, Lead and Cadmium from Soils by Rhamnolipids Combined with Citric Acid

    Jinzhong Wan; Die Meng; Tao Long; Rongrong Ying; Mao Ye; Shengtian Zhang; Qun Li; Yan Zhou; Yusuo Lin

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of rhamnolipids-citric acid mixed agents in simultaneous desorption of lindane and heavy metals from soils. The capacity of the mixed agents to solubilize lindane, lead and cadmium in aqueous solution was also explored. The results showed that the presence of citric acid greatly enhanced the solubilization of lindane and cadmium by rhamnolipids. A combined effect of the mixed agents on lindane and heavy metals removal from soils was observed. The maximu...

  7. Lead-acid battery use in the development of renewable energy systems in China

    Chang, Yu; Mao, Xianxian; Zhao, Yanfang; Feng, Shaoli; Chen, Hongyu; Finlow, David

    Policies and laws encouraging the development of renewable energy systems in China have led to rapid progress in the past 2 years, particularly in the solar cell (photovoltaic) industry. The development of the photovoltaic (PV) and wind power markets in China is outlined in this paper, with emphasis on the utilization of lead-acid batteries. The storage battery is a key component of PV/wind power systems, yet many deficiencies remain to be resolved. Some experimental results are presented, along with examples of potential applications of valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries, both the absorbed glass mat (AGM) and gelled types.

  8. The advanced lead-acid battery consortium—a worldwide cooperation brings rapid progress

    Moseley, Patrick T.

    The development of valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries has, in recent years, been carried forward rapidly through the collaborative efforts of a worldwide consortium of battery manufacturers and related elements of industry; the Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC). This group has set aside its competitive instincts in order to achieve acceptable goals in respect of those parameters that are key factors controlling the marketability of electric vehicles (EVs): cost, cycle life, specific energy, specific power and rate of recharge. This paper provides an overview of the principal themes of the ALABC research and development programme.

  9. Lead-acid battery use in the development of renewable energy systems in China

    Policies and laws encouraging the development of renewable energy systems in China have led to rapid progress in the past 2 years, particularly in the solar cell (photovoltaic) industry. The development of the photovoltaic (PV) and wind power markets in China is outlined in this paper, with emphasis on the utilization of lead-acid batteries. The storage battery is a key component of PV/wind power systems, yet many deficiencies remain to be resolved. Some experimental results are presented, along with examples of potential applications of valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries, both the absorbed glass mat (AGM) and gelled types. (author)

  10. Results of electric-vehicle propulsion system performance on three lead-acid battery systems

    Ewashinka, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Three types of state of the art 6 V lead acid batteries were tested. The cycle life of lead acid batteries as a function of the electric vehicle propulsion system design was determined. Cycle life, degradation rate and failure modes with different battery types (baseline versus state of the art tubular and thin plate batteries were compared. The effects of testing strings of three versus six series connected batteries on overall performance were investigated. All three types do not seem to have an economically feasible battery system for the propulsion systems. The tubular plate batteries on the load leveled profile attained 235 cycles with no signs of degradation and minimal capacity loss.

  11. NON-ISOTHERMAL MODELING AND SIMULATION FOR A SOLUBLE-LEAD ACID FLOW BATTERY

    Amir A-K. Omran; Hassan. Al-Fetlawi; Falah K. Matlub

    2015-01-01

    Non-isothermal two-dimensional transient model for a soluble lead-acid flow battery is developed, including the negative electrode, positive electrode and the flow space between them. The model based on a comprehensive description of mass, charge, energy and momentum transport and conservation, and is combined with a global kinetic model for reactions involving lead species. The influence of the applied current density, operating temperature, inlet electrolyte velocity and initial concentrati...

  12. Program to analyze the failure mode of lead-acid batteries

    Zuckerbrod, D.

    1986-03-01

    The electrical characteristics of large lead-acid cells from nuclear power plants were studied. The overall goal was to develop nondestructive tests to predict cell failure using this easily obtained information. Cell capacitance, internal resistance, reaction resistance for hydrogen evolution and cell capacity were measured on a lead-calcium cell in good condition. A high float voltage and low internal resistance were found to correlate with good cell capacity in cells selected from a set of six lead-antimony cells in poor condition.

  13. History and current status of valve-regulated lead/acid batteries in Japan

    Nakashima, Hiroto; Fuchida, Kyo

    The valve-regulated design of the sealed lead/acid battery (VRB), developed in the first half of the 1960s in Japan for use in portable television sets, has achieved successful market growth. This paper reviews the history of development of VRBs during the past thirty years, present production models, production quality, major applications, and technical problems.

  14. Performance characteristics of a gelled-electrolyte valve-regulated lead-acid battery

    S K Martha; B Hariprakash; S A Gaffoor; A K Shukla

    2003-08-01

    12 V/25 AH gelled-electrolyte valve-regulated lead-acid batteries have been assembled in-house and their performance studied in relation to the absorptive glass-microfibre valve-regulated and flooded-electrolyte counterparts at various discharge rates and temperatures between –40°C and 40°C. Although the performance of the gelled-electrolyte valve-regulated battery is similar to both the absorptive glass-microfibre valve-regulated and flooded-electrolyte lead-acid batteries at temperatures above 0°C, it is superior to both the flooded-electrolyte and absorptive glass-microfibre valve-regulated lead-acid batteries at temperatures between 0°C and -40°C. The latter characteristic is attractive for expanding the application regime of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries. The corrosion rate for the positive grids in the gelled-electrolyte is also lower than both the flooded-electrolyte and absorptive glass-microfibre configurations.

  15. Using Diagnostic Assessment to Help Teachers Understand the Chemistry of the Lead-Acid Battery

    Cheung, Derek

    2011-01-01

    Nineteen pre-service and in-service teachers taking a chemistry teaching methods course at a university in Hong Kong were asked to take a diagnostic assessment. It consisted of seven multiple-choice questions about the chemistry of the lead-acid battery. Analysis of the teachers' responses to the questions indicated that they had difficulty in…

  16. Studies of doped negative valve-regulated lead-acid battery electrodes

    Micka, Karel; Calábek, M.; Bača, P.; Křivák, P.; Lábus, R.; Bilko, R.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 191, č. 1 (2009), s. 154-158. ISSN 0378-7753 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : lead-acid * negative electrode * sulfation suppression Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.792, year: 2009

  17. Development and testing of a bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    Saakes, M.; Kluiters, E.; Schmal, D.; Mourad, S.; Have, P.T.J.H. ten

    1999-01-01

    An 80 V bipolar lead-acid battery was constructed and tested using hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) drive cycles. Drive cycles with a peak power of 6.7 kW, equal to 1/5 of the total power profile required for the HEV studied, were run successfully. Model calculations showed that the 80 V module constru

  18. Estimation of State of Charge of Lead Acid Battery using Radial Basis Function

    Sauradip, M; Sinha, SK; K Muthukumar

    2001-01-01

    A Radial Basis Function based learning system method has been proposed for estimation of State of Charge (SOC) of Lead Acid Battery. Coulomb metric method is used for SOC estimation with correction factor computed by Radial Basis Function Method. Radial basis function based technique is used for learning battery performance variation with time and other parameters. Experimental results are included.

  19. Contemporary Trends in Research and Development of Lead-Acid Batteries

    Micka, Karel

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2004), s. 932-933. ISSN 1432-8488 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/02/0794 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : lead-acid batteries * electric al system * trends Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 0.984, year: 2004

  20. Lipoic acid in combination with a chelator ameliorates lead-induced peroxidative damages in rat kidney

    Sivaprasad, R.; Nagaraj, M.; Varalakshmi, P. [Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Madras (Taramani), Chennai 600 113 (India)

    2002-08-01

    The deleterious effect of lead has been attributed to lead-induced oxidative stress with the consequence of lipid peroxidation. The present study was designed to investigate the combined effect of DL-{alpha}-lipoic acid (LA) and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) on lead-induced peroxidative damages in rat kidney. The increase in peroxidated lipids in lead-poisoned rats was accompanied by alterations in antioxidant defence systems. Lead acetate (Pb, 0.2%) was administered in drinking water for 5 weeks to induce lead toxicity. LA (25 mg/kg body weight per day i.p) and DMSA (20 mg/kg body weight per day i.p) were administered individually and also in combination during the sixth week. Nephrotoxic damage was evident from decreases in the activities of {gamma}-glutamyl transferase and N-acetyl {beta}-D-glucosaminidase, which were reversed upon combined treatment with LA and DMSA. Rats subjected to lead intoxication showed a decline in the thiol capacity of the cell, accompanied by high malondialdehyde levels along with lowered activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione metabolizing enzymes (glutathione reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutathione-S-transferase). Supplementation with LA as a sole agent showed considerable changes over oxidative stress parameters. The study has highlighted the combined effect of both drugs as being more effective in reversing oxidative damage by bringing about an improvement in the reductive status of the cell. (orig.)

  1. Carbon honeycomb grids for advanced lead-acid batteries. Part I: Proof of concept

    Kirchev, Angel; Kircheva, Nina; Perrin, Marion

    2011-10-01

    The carbon honeycomb grid is proposed as innovative solution for high energy density lead acid battery. The proof of concept is demonstrated, developing grids suitable for the small capacity, scale of valve-regulated lead acid batteries with 2.5-3 Ah plates. The manufacturing of the grids, includes fast, known and simple processes which can be rescaled for mass production with a minimum, investment costs. The most critical process of green composite carbonisation by heating in inert, atmosphere from 200 to 1000 °C takes about 5 h, guaranteeing the low cost of the grids. An AGM-VRLA, cell with prototype positive plate based on the lead-2% tin electroplated carbon honeycomb grid and, conventional negative plates is cycled demonstrating 191 deep cycles. The impedance spectroscopy, measurements indicate the grid performance remains acceptable despite the evolution of the corrosion, processes during the cycling.

  2. Using Acid Number as a Leading Indicator of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning System Performance

    Dennis Cartlidge; Hans Schellhase

    2003-07-31

    This report summarizes a literature review to assess the acidity characteristics of the older mineral oil and newer polyolester (POE) refrigeration systems as well as to evaluate acid measuring techniques used in other non-aqueous systems which may be applicable for refrigeration systems. Failure in the older chlorofluorocarbon/hydrochlorofluorocarbon (CFC/HCFC) / mineral oil systems was primarily due to thermal degradation of the refrigerant which resulted in the formation of hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids. These are strong mineral acids, which can, over time, severely corrode the system metals and lead to the formation of copper plating on iron surfaces. The oil lubricants used in the older systems were relatively stable and were not prone to hydrolytic degradation due to the low solubility of water in oil. The refrigerants in the newer hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)/POE systems are much more thermally stable than the older CFC/HCFC refrigerants and mineral acid formation is negligible. However, acidity is produced in the new systems by hydrolytic decomposition of the POE lubricants with water to produce the parent organic acids and alcohols used to prepare the POE. The individual acids can therefore vary but they are generally C5 to C9 carboxylic acids. Organic acids are much weaker and far less corrosive to metals than the mineral acids from the older systems but they can, over long time periods, react with metals to form carboxylic metal salts. The salts tend to accumulate in narrow areas such as capillary tubes, particularly if residual hydrocarbon processing chemicals are present in the system, which can lead to plugging. The rate of acid production from POEs varies on a number of factors including chemical structure, moisture levels, temperature, acid concentration and metals. The hydrolysis rate of reaction can be reduced by using driers to reduce the free water concentration and by using scavenging chemicals which react with the system acids. Total acid

  3. Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) polymorphism in lead exposed Bangladeshi children and its effect on urinary aminolevulinic acid (ALA)

    Tasmin, Saira, E-mail: rimzim1612@yahoo.com [Department of Human Ecology, School of International Health, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Furusawa, Hana [Department of Human Ecology, School of International Health, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Ahmad, Sk. Akhtar [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Bangladesh Institute of Health Sciences, 125/1, Darus Salam, Mirpur, Dhaka 1216 (Bangladesh); Faruquee, M.H. [Department of Public Health, State University of Bangladesh, 77 Satmasjid Road, Dhanmondi, Dhaka 1205 (Bangladesh); Watanabe, Chiho [Department of Human Ecology, School of International Health, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2015-01-15

    Background and objective: Lead has long been recognized as a harmful environmental pollutant. People in developing countries like Bangladesh still have a higher risk of lead exposure. Previous research has suggested that the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) genotype can modify lead toxicity and individual susceptibility. As children are more susceptible to lead-induced toxicity, this study investigated whether the ALAD genotype influenced urinary excretion of delta-aminolevulinic acid (U-ALA) among children exposed to environmental lead in Bangladesh. Methods: Subjects were elementary schoolchildren from a semi-urban industrialized area in Bangladesh. A total of 222 children were studied. Blood and urine were collected to determine ALAD genotypes, blood lead levels and urinary aminolevulinic acid (U-ALA). Results: The mean BPb level was 9.7 µg/dl for the study children. BPb was significantly positively correlated with hemoglobin (p<0.01). In total, allele frequency for ALAD 1 and 2 was 0.83 and 0.17 respectively. The mean U-ALA concentration was lower in ALAD1-2/2-2 carriers than ALAD1-1 carriers for boys (p=0.001). But for girls, U-ALA did not differ significantly by genotype (p=0.26). When U-ALA was compared by genotype at the same exposure level in a multiple linear regression analysis, boys who were ALAD1-2/2-2 carriers still had a lower level of U-ALA compared to ALAD1-1carriers. Conclusion: This study provides information about the influence of ALAD polymorphism and its association with U-ALA in Bangladeshi children. Our results indicate that the ALAD1-2/2-2 genotype may have a protective effect in terms of U-ALA for environmentally lead exposed boys. - Highlights: • High blood lead level for the environmentally exposed schoolchildren. • BPb was significantly correlated with U-ALA and Hb. • Effect of ALAD genotype on U-ALA is differed by sex. • Lower U-ALA in ALAD2 than ALAD1 carriers only for boys at same exposure.

  4. Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) polymorphism in lead exposed Bangladeshi children and its effect on urinary aminolevulinic acid (ALA)

    Background and objective: Lead has long been recognized as a harmful environmental pollutant. People in developing countries like Bangladesh still have a higher risk of lead exposure. Previous research has suggested that the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) genotype can modify lead toxicity and individual susceptibility. As children are more susceptible to lead-induced toxicity, this study investigated whether the ALAD genotype influenced urinary excretion of delta-aminolevulinic acid (U-ALA) among children exposed to environmental lead in Bangladesh. Methods: Subjects were elementary schoolchildren from a semi-urban industrialized area in Bangladesh. A total of 222 children were studied. Blood and urine were collected to determine ALAD genotypes, blood lead levels and urinary aminolevulinic acid (U-ALA). Results: The mean BPb level was 9.7 µg/dl for the study children. BPb was significantly positively correlated with hemoglobin (p<0.01). In total, allele frequency for ALAD 1 and 2 was 0.83 and 0.17 respectively. The mean U-ALA concentration was lower in ALAD1-2/2-2 carriers than ALAD1-1 carriers for boys (p=0.001). But for girls, U-ALA did not differ significantly by genotype (p=0.26). When U-ALA was compared by genotype at the same exposure level in a multiple linear regression analysis, boys who were ALAD1-2/2-2 carriers still had a lower level of U-ALA compared to ALAD1-1carriers. Conclusion: This study provides information about the influence of ALAD polymorphism and its association with U-ALA in Bangladeshi children. Our results indicate that the ALAD1-2/2-2 genotype may have a protective effect in terms of U-ALA for environmentally lead exposed boys. - Highlights: • High blood lead level for the environmentally exposed schoolchildren. • BPb was significantly correlated with U-ALA and Hb. • Effect of ALAD genotype on U-ALA is differed by sex. • Lower U-ALA in ALAD2 than ALAD1 carriers only for boys at same exposure

  5. Simultaneous Removal of Lindane, Lead and Cadmium from Soils by Rhamnolipids Combined with Citric Acid.

    Jinzhong Wan

    Full Text Available This study investigated the performance of rhamnolipids-citric acid mixed agents in simultaneous desorption of lindane and heavy metals from soils. The capacity of the mixed agents to solubilize lindane, lead and cadmium in aqueous solution was also explored. The results showed that the presence of citric acid greatly enhanced the solubilization of lindane and cadmium by rhamnolipids. A combined effect of the mixed agents on lindane and heavy metals removal from soils was observed. The maximum desorption ratios for lindane, cadmium and lead were 85.4%, 76.4% and 28.1%, respectively, for the mixed agents containing 1% rhamnolipidsand 0.1 mol/L citric acid. The results also suggest that the removal efficiencies of lead and cadmium were strongly related to their speciations in soils, and metals in the exchangeable and carbonate forms were easier to be removed. Our study suggests that the combining use of rhamnolipids and citric acid is a promising alternative to simultaneously remove organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals from soils.

  6. Recycling of spent lead/acid batteries. The case of Greece

    In this study, the application of modern recycling technologies in accordance with the European and Greek legislation, aiming at the recovery of lead, polypropylene and sulfuric acid from spent lead (Pb)/acid batteries, is presented. The present state of their disposal and exploitation is also depicted. The international situation is reviewed, the general trends are marked and the main technologies related to lead/acid battery treatment are reported. General recommendations are given regarding the collection of spent batteries and the installation of a recycling plant in Greece. A sensitivity analysis is carried out in order to define the most significant parameters affecting the viability of a recycling scheme. The present study proves that a possible installation of a Pb/acid batteries recycling process unit, treating 17 000 t/year (estimated total quantity) and situated in the industrial area of the greater Athens region, seems to be economically profitable. The already existing operation of small-scale battery recycling plants, common in small countries, should be discouraged as they demonstrate a rather not environmentally acceptable recycling operation

  7. Organic Acid Characteristics and Tolerance of Sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria L Nielsen to Lead

    Luluk Setyaningsih

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to find out the lead tolerance of sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria seedling based on growth performance, tolerance index, and secretion and accumulation of organic acids content. Seedlings were exposed to lead (Pb with the concentration of 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 5, and 10 mM in liquid nutrient culture for 4 days in order to investigate secretion and accumulation  of  oxalic, malic, and citric content, and for 15 days to examine growth performance and tolerance index. The result showed that tolerance index and growth performance of sengon seedling were insignificant (p > 0.05 to the rising of Pb concentration up to 1.5 mM with tolerance index at least 95%, and even caused an increase of fresh weight.  However, the tolerance index and growth of sengon  decreased significantly due to Pb exposure of 5 and 10 mM.  Among the three organic acids, citrate was most dominant as compared to malate and oxalate.  Secretion of citrate increased significantly (p < 0.05 with the rising concentration of Pb 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mM,  reaching to 0.464, 0.540, and 0.587 µg mℓ-1, respectively, or rising according linear line (r = 0.9, p < 0.5.  Citrate accumulation showed inconsistent pattern with the rising Pb exposure.  The result suggested that sengon seedling have a slightly tolerance to lead by secretion of organic acid especially citric acid.Keywords: lead, sengon, tolerance, organic acid, liquid nutrient culture

  8. Carbon honeycomb grids for advanced lead-acid batteries. Part III: Technology scale-up

    Kirchev, A.; Serra, L.; Dumenil, S.; Brichard, G.; Alias, M.; Jammet, B.; Vinit, L.

    2015-12-01

    The carbon honeycomb grid technology employs new carbon/carbon composites with ordered 3D structure instead of the classic lead-acid battery current collectors. The technology is laboratory scaled up from small size grids corresponding to electrodes with a capacity of 3 Ah to current collectors suitable for assembly of lead-acid batteries covering the majority of the typical lead-acid battery applications. Two series of 150 grids each (one positive and one negative) are manufactured using low-cost lab-scale equipment. They are further subjected to pasting with active materials and the resulting battery plates are assembled in 12 V AGM-VLRA battery mono-blocks for laboratory testing and outdoor demonstration in electric scooter replacing its original VRLAB pack. The obtained results demonstrate that the technology can replace successfully the state of the art negative grids with considerable benefits. The use of the carbon honeycomb grids as positive plate current collectors is limited by the anodic corrosion of the entire structure attacking both the carbon/carbon composite part and the electroplated lead-tin alloy coating.

  9. Recovery of Lead from Sulfide Concentrate after Mechanochemical Activation Using Nitric Acid

    A.G.Kholmogorov; O.N.Kononova; G.L.Pashkov; L.V.Shashina; V.P.Plekhanov; A.A.Sabetskiy

    2005-01-01

    Decomposition of lead sulfide concentrates in nitric acidic solutions after ferric (Ⅲ) nitrate addition and mechanical preparation has been investigated. It was found out that the decomposition can be achieved in HNO3 solution (>1.5 mol·L-1) at the temperature above 85℃. The leaching rate of lead can be increased by means of mechanochemical activation. The use of [Fe(NO3)3-HNO3-H2O] aqueous salt system allows the decomposition of lead sulfide concentrate at room temperature and in this case the concentration of HNO3 does not exceed 0.05-0.1 mol.L-1, The degree of lead recovery into solution from PbS concentrate reaches 99.3%-99.6c70 with the mechanochemical activation of this concentrate. The insoluble residues after the leaching contain SiO2, S0, FeCO3 and PbSO4.

  10. Recycling of used lead-acid batteries and recovery of the polypropylene content

    Martin, G. [BSB Recycling GmbH, Braubach (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    BSB Recycling GmbH in Braubach, a daughter of the Berzelius Metall GmbH, processes more than 75,000 t/a used lead-acid batteries. BSB is a site for battery recycling. At BSB the lead and the polypropylene content of the batteries are recovered. More than 95% of that battery-feed are recovered in products and intermediates. At BSB 39,000 t/a lead-alloys and 35,000 t/a of high quality Seculene {sup registered} PP granules are produced for the battery and automotive industry in the smelting plant and in the compounding plant. This is a substantial contribution to resource protection. With the BSB-technologies primary lead ores and petroleum are substituted. (orig.)

  11. Development of Lead Acid Battery in Submarine%潜艇用铅酸蓄电池综述

    徐峰

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the states of lead-acid battery. It points out the problems of lead-acid batteries in submarine. The development of lead-acid batteries in submarine is reviewed from the progress of lead-acid battery.%本文简要介绍了潜艇用铅酸蓄电池现状。指出了潜艇用铅酸蓄电池存在的问题,针对铅酸蓄电池的发展状况,展望了潜艇用铅酸蓄电池的发展方向。

  12. Effect of polysulfone concentration on the performance of membrane-assisted lead acid battery

    Ahmad Fauzi Ismail

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The application of lead acid battery in tropical countries normally faces the problem of water decomposition. This phenomenon is due to the factor of charge-discharge reaction in the battery and heat accumulation caused by hot tropical climate and heat generated from engine compartment. The objective of this study is to analyze the effect of polysulfone concentration on the performance of membrane-assisted lead-acid battery. Gas separation membranes, prepared through wet-dry phase inversion method and using various polysulfone concentrated formulations, were applied on the battery vent holes, for the purpose of preventing electrolyte from evaporating to the atmosphere. The best membrane, which retains the most electrolyte, will be chosen to be applied on the soon-to-be-developed “membrane-assisted maintenance- free battery”. This maintenance-free battery will need no topping up of deionized water every time the electrolyte level goes low.

  13. Study of the influence of carbon on the negative lead-acid battery electrodes

    Bača, Petr; Micka, Karel; Křivík, Petr; Tonar, Karel; Tošer, Pavel

    Experiments were made with negative lead-acid battery electrodes doped with different concentrations of powdered carbon. It turned out that the rate of formation decreased with the rising concentration of carbon added into the active material. During accelerated cycling in the PSoC regime, the cycle life showed a maximum at a concentration of carbon near 1%, whereas at lower or higher concentrations the cycle life was profoundly lower. A marked increase of the active mass resistance with the cycle number was recorded at carbon concentrations above 2%. Orientation experiments showed that compression of the lead-acid laboratory cells caused an increase of the cycle life of the negative electrode in the studied regime.

  14. Investigations of the factors causing performance losses of lead/acid traction batteries

    Kronberger, H.; Fabjan, Ch.; Gofas, N.

    A failure analysis is carried out with a lead/acid traction battery after a two-years' test run in an electric passenger car. A survey of the operational data, in combination with laboratory tests and chemical and physical analyses, reveals the main causes of battery damage and performance loss: insufficiencies of the charging procedure, inadequate maintainance (water-refilling system), antimony-contamination and loss of the active material due to grid corrosion and shedding of PbO 2.

  15. State of Health Estimation System for Lead-Acid Car Batteries Through Cranking Voltage Monitoring

    Hyun, Ji Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The work in this thesis is focused on the development and validation of an automotive battery monitoring system that estimates the health of a lead-acid battery during engine cranking and provides a low state of health (SOH) warning of potential battery failure. A reliable SOH estimation should assist users in preventing a sudden battery failure and planning for battery replacement in a timely manner. Most commercial battery health estimation systems use the impedance of a battery to est...

  16. Research, development and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979

    1980-06-01

    This report describes work performed from October 1, 1978 to September 30, 1979. The approach for development of both the Improved State-of-the-Art (ISOA) and Advanced lead-acid batteries is three pronged. This approach concentrates on simultaneous optimization of battery design, materials, and manufacturing processing. The 1979 fiscal year saw the achievement of significant progress in the program. Some of the major accomplishments of the year are outlined. 33 figures, 13 tables. (RWR)

  17. Identification of the dynamics of a lead acid battery by a diffusive model

    Garcia, G.; Bernussou, J.

    1998-11-01

    In this paper, some preliminary results on identification of diffusive models using input/output measurements are proposed. The idea consists in considering a finite dimensional approximation of the diffusive model and formulating an optimisation problem of a least square error type. To identify such a model, it is necessary to estimate a distribution {mu} which fully characterises the system dynamics. This distribution constitutes the unknown of the problem. These results are applied to the model identification of a lead acid battery. (author)

  18. Effects of pH, organic acids, and inorganic ions on lead desorption from soils

    The desorption characteristics of lead in two variable charge soils (one developed from Arenaceous rock (RAR) and the other derived from Quaternary red earths (REQ)) were studied, and the effects of pH value, organic acid, and competitive ions were examined. Desorption of Pb2+ decreased from nearly 100.0 to 20.0% within pH 1.0-4.0 in both soils, and then the decrease diminished at pH > 4.0. Organic ligands at relatively low concentrations (≤10-3 mol L-1) slightly inhibited Pb2+ desorption, but enhanced Pb2+ desorption at higher concentrations. In this study, citric acid or acetic acid at higher concentrations (>10-3 mol L-1) had the greatest improvement of Pb2+ desorption, followed by malic acid; and the smallest was oxalic acid. Desorption of the adsorbed Pb2+ increased greatly with increasing concentrations of added Cu2+ or Zn2+. Applied Cu2+ increased Pb2+ desorption more than Zn2+ at the same loading. - The adsorption-desorption process is a basic and important reaction in soils controlling Pb2+ mobility and bioavailability

  19. 78 FR 58574 - Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants

    2013-09-24

    ... COMMISSION Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power..., Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants.'' The guide... nuclear power plants. ADDRESSES: Please refer to Docket ID NRC-2013-0048 when contacting the NRC about...

  20. The possibility of using 5-aminolevulinic acid in lead phytoextraction process

    Zbigniew Jarosz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies conducted in the greenhouse involving a sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. grown in medium containing 200 mg Pb ∙ dm -3 which were designed to evaluate the impact of foliar nutrition with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA on the chemical composition of sunflower in reference to possible use of this plant in the process of induced phytoextraction. The study revealed from 4.8% to 34.1% increase in aboveground matter of sunflower which was sprayed by 5-ALA solution at concentrations of 0.01-0.1 ppm in comparison with plants grown in a medium containing 200 mg Pb ∙ dm -3 with no 5-ALA spraying. The sunflower leaves sprayed by 5-ALA solution contained from 3.78% to 27.1% more lead in comparison to plants not sprayed by this agent. As well as remarkable decrease in lead content from 17.4 to 33.4% was recorded in the roots of sunflower sprayed by 5-ALA solution. The lead content in plant shoots was independent from foliar application of 5-aminolevulinic acid

  1. Effect of ascorbic acid supplementation on nitric oxide metabolites and systolic blood pressure in rats exposed to lead

    Mohammad Amani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extended exposure to low levels of lead causes high blood pressure in human and laboratory animals. The mechanism is not completely recognized, but it is relatively implicated with generation of free radicals, oxidant agents such as ROS, and decrease of available nitric oxide (NO. In this study, we have demonstrated the effect of ascorbic acid as an antioxidant on nitric oxide metabolites and systolic blood pressure in rats exposed to low levels of lead. Materials and Methods: The adult male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g were divided into four groups: control, lead acetate (receiving 100 ppm lead acetate in drinking water, lead acetate plus ascorbic acid (receiving 100 ppm lead acetate and 1 g/l ascorbic acid in drinking water, and ascorbic acid (receiving 1 g/l ascorbic acid in drinking water groups. The animals were anesthetized with ketamin/xylazine (50 and 7 mg/kg, respectively, ip and systolic blood pressure was then measured from the tail of the animals by a sphygmomanometer. Nitric oxide levels in serum were measured indirectly by evaluation of its stable metabolites (total nitrite and nitrate (NOc. Results: After 8 and 12 weeks, systolic blood pressure in the lead acetate group was significantly elevated compared to the control group. Ascorbic acid supplementation could prevent the systolic blood pressure rise in the lead acetate plus ascorbic acid group and there was no significant difference relative to the control group. The serum NOc levels in lead acetate group significantly decreased in relation to the control group, but this reduction was not significantly different between the lead acetate plus ascorbic acid group and the control group. Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that ascorbic acid as an antioxidant prevents the lead induced hypertension. This effect may be mediated by inhibition of NOc oxidation and thereby increasing availability of NO.

  2. Research, development and demonstration of advanced lead-acid batteries for utility load leveling

    1983-08-01

    An advanced lead acid storage battery was developed to the preprototype cell and module design stage. Each module is equipped with a low cost tray, automatic watering system, and air-lift pumps for increased acid circulation in each cell. With the qualified alloy catastrophic positive grid corrosion will not limit cell cycle life. An accelerated shallow cycle regime at room ambient tested 60 cell designs for the active material shedding failure mode. It is found that an antishedding active material additive reduces positive active material shedding significantly and extend the cycle life of both the positive and the negative plate. Equations relating cell design to deep cycle life are developed from the factorial tests on the 60 cells.

  3. Lead-acid batteries for micro- and mild-hybrid applications

    Valenciano, J.; Fernández, M.; Trinidad, F.; Sanz, L.

    Car manufactures have announced the launch in coming months of vehicles with reduced emissions due to the introduction of new functions like stop-start and regenerative braking. Initial performance request of automotive lead-acid batteries are becoming more and more demanding and, in addition to this, cycle life with new accelerated ageing profiles are being proposed in order to determine the influence of the new functions on the expected battery life. This paper will show how different lead-acid battery technologies comply with these new demands, from an improved version of the conventional flooded SLI battery to the high performance of spiral wound valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery. Different approaches have been studied for improving conventional flooded batteries, i.e., either by the addition of new additives for reducing electrolyte stratification or by optimisation of the battery design to extend cycling life in partial state of charge conditions. With respect to VRLA technology, two different battery designs have been compared. Spiral wound design combines excellent power capability and cycle life under different depth of discharge (DoD) cycling conditions, but flat plate design outperform the latter in energy density due to better utilization of the space available in a prismatic enclosure. This latter design is more adequate for high end class vehicles with high electrical energy demand, whereas spiral wound is better suited for high power/long life demand of commercial vehicle. High temperature behaviour (75 °C) is rather poor for both designs due to water loss, and then VRLA batteries should preferably be located out of the engine compartment.

  4. Valve-regulated lead/acid batteries for SLI use in Japan

    Isoi, T.; Furukawa, H.

    Valve-regulated lead/acid batteries for automotive applications have been on the market in Japan for more than ten years. Initially, the batteries were used only for a small-size motorcycle. Today, however, they are widely employed in all sizes of motorcycles. In the meantime, VRLA batteries have also been used for agricultural machines, and even for some types of passenger cars. This paper provides an overview of the progress in the development and application of VRLA batteries for SLI (starting, lighting and ignition) use in Japan and discusses future expected trends.

  5. Development of ultra high power, valve-regulated lead-acid batteries for industrial applications

    Soria, M. Luisa; Valenciano, Jesús; Ojeda, Araceli

    There is a recent market trend towards industrial battery powered products that demand occasionally very high discharge rates. This fact is today solved by oversizing the battery or by using more expensive high power nickel-cadmium batteries. Within an EC funded project, ultra high power lead-acid batteries for UPS applications are being developed. The batteries are characterised by a thin electrode design linked to the use of novel separator materials to increase the battery life under floating and deep cycling conditions. Battery performance under different working conditions is presented, in comparison to standard products, and the battery improvements and failure mechanisms are also discussed.

  6. An averaging battery model for a lead-acid battery operating in an electric car

    Bozek, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    A battery model is developed based on time averaging the current or power, and is shown to be an effective means of predicting the performance of a lead acid battery. The effectiveness of this battery model was tested on battery discharge profiles expected during the operation of an electric vehicle following the various SAE J227a driving schedules. The averaging model predicts the performance of a battery that is periodically charged (regenerated) if the regeneration energy is assumed to be converted to retrievable electrochemical energy on a one-to-one basis.

  7. The European lead/acid industry and its future in the world market

    Sena da Silva, Pedro

    Since 1988, the European lead/acid battery industry has undergone extensive restructuring through mergers andacquisitions. Such developments have been commonly interpreted as a normal trend to optimize economies-of-scale in order to faceincreasing competition. Although this is one of the reasons for the concentration process, other aspects should be considered in order tounderstand and prepare the future of the battery industry. The automotive (SLI) and industrial battery sectors have different challenges andopportunities. Nevertheless, for the purpose of this study, the focus is essentially on the SLI business. Where appropriate,extrapolation will be made to the industrial battery business.

  8. Optimization of Charging Current and SOH Estimation for Lead Acid Batteries

    Amin Rezaei Pish Robat

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new model-based approach is used to optimize the charging current of lead acid batteries for use in hybrid electric. The used model is a dynamical nonlinear model and so steepest descent, as a nonlinear optimization technique, is used to design the desired current profile. To verify the results, Unscented Kalman Filter is used to estimate battery capacity as a criterion of the state of health of the battery. Simulation results show that in comparison with multi level charging current, the proposed approach improves the state of health of the battery, up to 2.5% in the first 100 charge/discharge cycle

  9. An ultracapacitor circuit for reducing sulfation in lead acid batteries for Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    The nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries used in most hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) provide satisfactory performance, but are quite expensive. In spite of their lower energy density, lead acid batteries would be much more economical except they are prone to sulfation in HEV applications. However, sulfation can be greatly reduced by a circuit that uses an ultracapacitor in conjunction with the battery. The resulting system will provide much cheaper energy storage if ultracapacitor prices can be reduced to levels predicted by some manufacturers. (author)

  10. Development of 36-V valve-regulated lead-acid battery

    Ohmae, T.; Hayashi, T.; Inoue, N.

    A 36-V valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery used in a 42-V power system has been developed for the Toyota Hybrid System-Mild (THS-M) vehicle to meet the large electrical power requirements of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and the increasing power demands on modern automobile electrical systems. The battery has a longer cycle-life in HEV use through the application of ultra high-density active-material and an anti-corrosive grid alloy for the positive plates, special additives for the negative plates, and absorbent glass mat with less contraction for the separators.

  11. A new lead-acid battery for high pulse power applications

    Rowlette, J. J.; Attia, A. I.

    1987-01-01

    The development of new electronically conductive materials which can withstand the environment of the positive plates has made possible the construction of a high pulse power sealed bipolar lead-acid battery. The new battery is described and its advantages over other electrochemical systems are outlined. Performance projections show that the peak specific power of the battery can be as high as 90 kW/kg, and that a specific power of 5 kW/kg can be sustained over several thousand pulses.

  12. Optical State-of-Change Monitor for Lead-Acid Batteries

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    1998-07-24

    A method and apparatus for determining the instantaneous state-of-charge of a battery in which change in composition with discharge manifests itself as a change in optical absorption. In a lead-acid battery, the sensor comprises a fiber optic system with an absorption cdl or, alternatively, an optical fiber woven into an absorbed-glass-mat battery. In a lithium-ion battery, the sensor comprises fiber optics for introducing light into the anode to monitor absorption when lithium ions are introduced.

  13. Reliability of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries for stationary applications.

    De Anda, Mindi Farber (Energetics Inc., Washington, DC); Butler, Paul Charles; Miller, Jennifer L (Energetics Inc., Washington, DC); Moseley, Patrick T. (International Lead Zinc Research Organization, Research Triangle Park, NC)

    2004-03-01

    A survey has been carried out to quantify the performance and life of over 700,000 valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) cells, which have been or are being used in stationary applications across the United States. The findings derived from this study have not identified any fundamental flaws of VRLA battery technology. There is evidence that some cell designs are more successful in float duty than others. A significant number of the VRLA cells covered by the survey were found to have provided satisfactory performance.

  14. Influence of Electroconductive Additives in the Positive Electrode Material on Morphology, Structure and Characteristics of the Lead-acid Batteries

    A.P. Kuzmenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of carbon black, red lead and polyaniline additives on the structure and functional characteristics of automotive lead-acid batteries has been studied. The mechanisms contributing to the formation both of lead dioxide by the introduction of these additives and of additional conductive nanostructured cross-linking channels in the case of polyaniline are described.

  15. Rapid dissolution of ZnO nanocrystals in acidic cancer microenvironment leading to preferential apoptosis

    Sasidharan, Abhilash; Chandran, Parwathy; Menon, Deepthy; Raman, Sreerekha; Nair, Shantikumar; Koyakutty, Manzoor

    2011-09-01

    The microenvironment of cancer plays a very critical role in the survival, proliferation and drug resistance of solid tumors. Here, we report an interesting, acidic cancer microenvironment-mediated dissolution-induced preferential toxicity of ZnO nanocrystals (NCs) against cancer cells while leaving primary cells unaffected. Irrespective of the size-scale (5 and 200 nm) and surface chemistry differences (silica, starch or polyethylene glycol coating), ZnO NCs exhibited multiple stress mechanisms against cancer cell lines (IC50 ~150 μM) while normal human primary cells (human dermal fibroblast, lymphocytes, human umbilical vein endothelial cells) remain less affected. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy studies revealed that ZnO NCs undergo rapid preferential dissolution in acidic (pH ~5-6) cancer microenvironment causing elevated ROS stress, mitochondrial superoxide formation, depolarization of mitochondrial membrane, and cell cycle arrest at S/G2 phase leading to apoptosis. In effect, by elucidating the unique toxicity mechanism of ZnO NCs, we show that ZnO NCs can destabilize cancer cells by utilizing its own hostile acidic microenvironment, which is otherwise critical for its survival.The microenvironment of cancer plays a very critical role in the survival, proliferation and drug resistance of solid tumors. Here, we report an interesting, acidic cancer microenvironment-mediated dissolution-induced preferential toxicity of ZnO nanocrystals (NCs) against cancer cells while leaving primary cells unaffected. Irrespective of the size-scale (5 and 200 nm) and surface chemistry differences (silica, starch or polyethylene glycol coating), ZnO NCs exhibited multiple stress mechanisms against cancer cell lines (IC50 ~150 μM) while normal human primary cells (human dermal fibroblast, lymphocytes, human umbilical vein endothelial cells) remain less affected. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy studies revealed that ZnO NCs undergo rapid preferential dissolution in

  16. Leaching of lead from zinc leach residue in acidic calcium chloride aqueous solution

    Wang, Le; Mu, Wen-ning; Shen, Hong-tao; Liu, Shao-ming; Zhai, Yu-chun

    2015-05-01

    A process with potentially reduced environmental impacts and occupational hazards of lead-bearing zinc plant residue was studied to achieve a higher recovery of lead via a cost-effective and environmentally friendly process. This paper describes an optimization study on the leaching of lead from zinc leach residue using acidic calcium chloride aqueous solution. Six main process conditions, i.e., the solution pH value, stirring rate, concentration of CaCl2 aqueous solution, liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, leaching temperature, and leaching time, were investigated. The microstructure and components of the residue and tailing were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). On the basis of experimental results, the optimum reaction conditions were determined to be a solution pH value of 1, a stirring rate of 500 r·min-1, a CaCl2 aqueous solution concentration of 400 g·L-1, a liquid-to-solid mass ratio of 7:1, a leaching temperature of 80°C, and a leaching time of 45 min. The leaching rate of lead under these conditions reached 93.79%, with an iron dissolution rate of 19.28%. Silica did not take part in the chemical reaction during the leaching process and was accumulated in the residue.

  17. Developments in absorptive glass mat separators for cycling applications and 36 V lead-acid batteries

    Toniazzo, V.; Lambert, U.

    The major markets for valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries are undergoing a radical upheaval. In particular, the telecommunications industry requires more reliable power supplies, and the familiar 12 V electrical system in cars will probably be soon replaced by a 36/42 V system, or by other electrical systems if part of the automotive market is taken over by hybrid electrical vehicles (HEVs). In order to meet these new challenges and enable VRLA batteries to provide a satisfactory life in float and cycling applications in the telecommunication field, or in the high-rate-partial-state-of-charge service required by both 36/42 V automobiles and HEVs, the lead-acid battery industry has to improve substantially the quality of present VRLA batteries based on absorptive glass mat (AGM) technology. Therefore, manufacturing steps and cell components have to be optimized, especially AGM separators as these are key components for better production yields and battery performance. This paper shows how the optimal segregation of the coarse and fine fibres in an AGM separator structure can improve greatly the properties of the material. The superior capillarity, springiness and mechanical properties of the 100% glass Amerglass multilayer separator compared with commercial monolayer counterparts with the same specific surface-area is highlighted.

  18. Electrochemical energy — progress towards a cleaner future: lead/acid batteries and the competition

    Appleby, A. J.

    Electric vehicles (EVs) with conventional architecture may be capable of a range of 72-80 km (45-50 miles) with a 35 Wh kg -1 lead/acid battery with a weight equal to 25% of that of the vehicle. An improved vehicle (such as the GM Impact) with lower energy utilization and architecture that allows greater battery weight may attain 160 km (100 miles). A battery corresponding to the mid-term goal of the US Advanced Battery Consortium in an Impact-type vehicle could allow 480 km (300 miles) range. It remains to be seen if this will be technically and economically attained. The EV is more likely to be made practical with the development of a satisfactory polymer-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cell, which will involve the same recharging logistics as those of a gasoline vehicle, with much improved energy efficiency. Considerable progress is still required, but one major problem, the amount of platinum catalyst required per vehicle, appears to have been overcome. A loading of 0.15 g/kW now appears to be feasible, so major production of such vehicles will allow platinum producers to keep pace. The advent of the PEM-fuel-cell/battery hybrid vehicle wiil open up a larger market for rechargeable bateries than that for vehicles which use traction batteries alone. Economics seem to point to the fact that such vehicles will use lead/acid batteries for the hybrid peak power and regenerative braking element.

  19. Temperature effects on sealed lead acid batteries and charging techniques to prolong cycle life.

    Hutchinson, Ronda

    2004-06-01

    Sealed lead acid cells are used in many projects in Sandia National Laboratories Department 2660 Telemetry and Instrumentation systems. The importance of these cells in battery packs for powering electronics to remotely conduct tests is significant. Since many tests are carried out in flight or launched, temperature is a major factor. It is also important that the battery packs are properly charged so that the test is completed before the pack cannot supply sufficient power. Department 2665 conducted research and studies to determine the effects of temperature on cycle time as well as charging techniques to maximize cycle life and cycle times on sealed lead acid cells. The studies proved that both temperature and charging techniques are very important for battery life to support successful field testing and expensive flight and launched tests. This report demonstrates the effects of temperature on cycle time for SLA cells as well as proper charging techniques to get the most life and cycle time out of SLA cells in battery packs.

  20. Development of cylindrical valve-regulated lead-acid cells for high-power applications

    Hisai, M.; Nakamura, K.; Hayashi, T.; Takahashi, K.; Tsubota, M. [Japan Storage Battery Co. Ltd., Kyoto (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Japan Storage Battery Co., Ltd. developed a cylindrical valve-regulated lead-acid cell named GS SPR10, for high power applications. It possesses much higher specific power (power density) than the conventional valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery, reaching 500 W per kg. When used on the operation under the partial state of charge (PSOC), similar to the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), its life cycle is superior. These achievements are explained by two innovations. The first innovation was the application of high compression to an element which consisted of two plates and one absorptive glass mat (AGM) separator which were wound in a spiral. The second innovation involved the development of the special negative active material for hybrid electric vehicle application. An additional advantage of this battery is that it is a single cell, so when it is used in battery packs, it is easy to select voltage and cell arrangement. While considering applications other than HEV, scientists continue to work on improvements. refs., tabs., figs.

  1. A multifunctional energy-storage system with high-power lead-acid batteries

    Wagner, R.; Schroeder, M.; Stephanblome, T.; Handschin, E.

    A multifunctional energy storage system is presented which is used to improve the utilization of renewable energy supplies. This system includes three different functions: (i) uninterruptible power supply (UPS); (ii) improvement of power quality; (iii) peak-load shaving. The UPS application has a long tradition and is used whenever a reliable power supply is needed. Additionally, nowadays, there is a growing demand for high quality power arising from an increase of system perturbation of electric grids. Peak-load shaving means in this case the use of renewable energy stored in a battery for high peak-load periods. For such a multifunctional application large lead-acid batteries with high power and good charge acceptance, as well as good cycle life are needed. OCSM batteries as with positive tubular plates and negative copper grids have been used successfully for a multitude of utility applications. This paper gives two examples where multifunctional energy storage systems have started operation recently in Germany. One system was installed in combination with a 1 MW solar plant in Herne and another one was installed in combination with a 2 MW wind farm in Bocholt. At each place, a 1.2 MW h (1 h-rate) lead-acid battery has been installed. The batteries consist of OCSM cells with the standard design but modified according to the special demand of a multifunctional application.

  2. Integrated li-ion ultracapacitor with lead acid battery for vehicular start-stop

    Manla, Emad

    Advancements in automobile manufacturing aim at improving the driving experience at every level possible. One improvement aspect is increasing gas efficiency via hybridization, which can be achieved by introducing a feature called start-stop. This feature automatically switches the internal combustion engine off when it idles and switches it back on when it is time to resume driving. This application has been proven to reduce the amount of gas consumption and emission of greenhouse effect gases in the atmosphere. However, the repeated cranking of the engine puts a large amount of stress on the lead acid battery required to perform the cranking, which effectively reduces its life span. This dissertation presents a hybrid energy storage system assembled from a lead acid battery and an ultracapacitor module connected in parallel. The Li-ion ultracapacitor was tested and modeled to predict its behavior when connected in a system requiring pulsed power such as the one proposed. Both test and simulation results show that the proposed hybrid design significantly reduces the cranking loading and stress on the battery. The ultracapacitor module can take the majority of the cranking current, effectively reducing the stress on the battery. The amount of cranking current provided by the ultracapacitor can be easily controlled via controlling the resistance of the cable connected directly between the ultracapacitor module and the car circuitry.

  3. State of available capacity estimation for lead-acid batteries in electric vehicles using neural network

    This paper reviews recent definitions of the state of charge (SOC) that are often used to estimate the battery residual available capacity (BRAC) for lead-acid batteries in electric vehicles (EVs) and identifies their shortcomings. Then, the state of available capacity (SOAC), instead of the SOC, is defined to denote the BRAC in EVs, which refers to the percentage of the battery available capacity (BAC) of the discharge current profile for the EV battery at the fully charged state. Based on the experimentation of different discharge current profiles, including theoretical current profiles and practical current profiles under EV driving cycles, the discharged and regenerative capacity distribution is proposed to describe discharge current profiles for the SOAC estimation. Because of the complexity and nonlinearity of the relationship between the SOAC and the capacity distribution at different temperatures, a neural network (NN) is applied to this SOAC estimation. Comparisons between the estimated SOACs by the NN and the calculated SOACs from the experimental data are used for verification. The results confirm that the proposed approach can provide an accurate and effective estimation of the BRAC for lead-acid batteries in EVs

  4. Spatially-resolved impedance of nonlinear inhomogeneous devices. Using the example of lead-acid batteries

    Kowal, Julia

    2010-07-01

    This thesis introduces a new parameterisation approach for spatially-resolved impedance-based models of nonlinear and inhomogeneous devices, such as batteries. Spatially-resolved models are necessary to correctly represent the behaviour of batteries in many applications such as conventional, electric or hybrid electric vehicles as well as systems with regenerative energy generation. Such models are needed e.g. for the investigation of fuel savings due to regenerative braking, which is limited by the charge acceptance of the battery. Especially lead-acid batteries, used in most micro-hybrid vehicles, show a strongly varying charge acceptance that depends on several factors, amongst others current distribution and acid stratification. Correct prediction of the charge acceptance is only possible with a spatially-resolved model. Another example is the lifetime prediction of batteries in large packs: Lifetime is closely related to temperature and temperature distribution can only be modelled with a sufficient accuracy by using a spatially-resolved model taking into account as well that also the local impedance depends on temperature. Very often, only the overall impedance of a cell or electrode can be measured and local measurements of the impedance are impossible. Therefore, a method was developed to calculate the local impedance from a cell or electrode impedance measurement taking into account current distribution, current or voltage dependencies and local differences in the equilibrium voltage. Another focus of this thesis is the physical and chemical interpretation of impedance spectra of positive and negative electrode of lead-acid batteries, especially the occurrence of inductive semicircles.

  5. Nanoparticles formed by complexation of poly-gamma-glutamic acid with lead ions

    The present investigation describes the preparation and characterization of novel biodegradable nanoparticles based on complexation of poly-gamma-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) with bivalent lead ion. The prepared nano-systems were stable in aqueous media at low pH, neutral and mild alkaline conditions. The particle size and the size of the complexes were identified by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements. It was found that the size of the complexes depended on the pH and concentrations of γ-PGA and lead ions. Particle sizes measured by TEM revealed that at low concentrations, nanosized particles were formed, however, at high concentrations of γ-PGA and lead ions, the formation of large aggregates with a broad size distribution was promoted. The size of individual particles was in the range of 40-100 nm measured by TEM. The results from the DLS measurements showed that the low and high pH values in mixtures with high concentrations of γ-PGA and Pb2+ ions favored the growth of large complexes. The γ-PGA nanoparticles, composed of a biodegradable biomaterial with high flocculating and heavy metal binding activity, may be useful for various water treatment applications

  6. Nanoparticles formed by complexation of poly-gamma-glutamic acid with lead ions

    Bodnar, Magdolna [Departments of Colloid and Environmental Chemistry, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen (Hungary); Kjoniksen, Anna-Lena [Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1033, Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway); Molnar, Reka M. [Departments of Colloid and Environmental Chemistry, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen (Hungary); Hartmann, John F. [ElizaNor Polymer LLC, Princeton Junction, NJ 08550 (United States); Daroczi, Lajos [Solid State Physics, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen (Hungary); Nystroem, Bo [Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1033, Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway); Borbely, Janos [Departments of Colloid and Environmental Chemistry, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen (Hungary); BBS Nanotechnology Ltd., P.O. Box 12, H-4225 Debrecen 16 (Hungary)], E-mail: jborbely@delfin.unideb.hu

    2008-05-30

    The present investigation describes the preparation and characterization of novel biodegradable nanoparticles based on complexation of poly-gamma-glutamic acid ({gamma}-PGA) with bivalent lead ion. The prepared nano-systems were stable in aqueous media at low pH, neutral and mild alkaline conditions. The particle size and the size of the complexes were identified by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements. It was found that the size of the complexes depended on the pH and concentrations of {gamma}-PGA and lead ions. Particle sizes measured by TEM revealed that at low concentrations, nanosized particles were formed, however, at high concentrations of {gamma}-PGA and lead ions, the formation of large aggregates with a broad size distribution was promoted. The size of individual particles was in the range of 40-100 nm measured by TEM. The results from the DLS measurements showed that the low and high pH values in mixtures with high concentrations of {gamma}-PGA and Pb{sup 2+} ions favored the growth of large complexes. The {gamma}-PGA nanoparticles, composed of a biodegradable biomaterial with high flocculating and heavy metal binding activity, may be useful for various water treatment applications.

  7. Leaching of lead slag component by sodium chloride and diluted nitric acid and synthesis of ultrafine lead oxide powders

    Shu, Yuehong; Ma, Cheng; Zhu, Longguan; Chen, Hongyu

    2015-05-01

    The compounds in lead slag are transformed into [PbCl4]2- in a mixed solution of HNO3 and NaCl, which is converted into PbC2O4 by the addition of sodium oxalate and polyethylene glycol dispersant. Novel lead oxides are prepared via a combustion-calcination process from lead oxalate precursor. Key properties of the new oxides, such as crystalline phases and morphology, have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that lead oxides synthesized at different calcination temperatures comprise mainly α-PbO and β-PbO phases. In battery testing, the results reveal that the α-PbO phase exhibits higher initial capacity as positive active material, discharging about 150 mAh g-1 at 20 mA g-1. While β-PbO yields a relatively improved cycle life, in 50 cycles, its capacity loss is 5%. Further work is being carried out with the aim to optimize the battery manufacturing process or to find out the optimum ratio of α-PbO to β-PbO in order to sustain high discharge capacity and acceptable cycle life.

  8. The protective role of ascorbic acid on hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in a rat model of maternal lead exposure.

    Sepehri, Hamid; Ganji, Farzaneh

    2016-07-01

    Oxidative stress is a major pathogenic mechanism of lead neurotoxicity. The antioxidant ascorbic acid protects hippocampal pyramidal neurons against cell death during congenital lead exposure; however, critical functions like synaptic transmission, integration, and plasticity depend on preservation of dendritic and somal morphology. This study was designed to examine if ascorbic acid also protects neuronal morphology during developmental lead exposure. Timed pregnant rats were divided into four treatment groups: (1) control, (2) 100mg/kg ascorbic acid once a day via gavage, (3) 0.05% lead acetate in drinking water, and (4) 0.05% lead+100mg/kg oral ascorbic acid. Brains of eight male pups (P25) per treatment group were processed for Golgi staining. Changes in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons' somal size were estimated by cross-sectional area and changes in dendritic arborization by Sholl's analysis. One-way ANOVA was used to compare results among treatment groups. Lead-exposed pups exhibited a significant decrease in somal size compared to controls (Pnear cell body (P<0.05) and a decreased total dendritic length in both apical and basal dendritic trees of CA1 neurons (P<0.05). Ascorbic acid significantly but only partially reversed the somal and dendritic damage caused by developmental lead exposure. Oxidative stress thus contributes to lead neurotoxicity but other pathogenic mechanisms are also involved. PMID:26783884

  9. Dietary medium chain fatty acid supplementation leads to reduced VLDL lipolysis and uptake rates in comparison to linoleic acid supplementation

    Schalkwijk, D.B. van; Pasman, W.J.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Verheij, E.R.; Rubingh, C.M.; Bochove, K. van; Vaes, W.H.J.; Adiels, M.; Freidig, A.P.; Graaf, A.A. de

    2014-01-01

    Dietary medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) and linoleic acid follow different metabolic routes, and linoleic acid activates PPAR receptors. Both these mechanisms may modify lipoprotein and fatty acid metabolism after dietary intervention. Our objective was to investigate how dietary MCFA and linoleic a

  10. A fractional order model for lead-acid battery crankability estimation

    Sabatier, J.; Cugnet, M.; Laruelle, S.; Grugeon, S.; Sahut, B.; Oustaloup, A.; Tarascon, J. M.

    2010-05-01

    With EV and HEV developments, battery monitoring systems have to meet the new requirements of car industry. This paper deals with one of them, the battery ability to start a vehicle, also called battery crankability. A fractional order model obtained by system identification is used to estimate the crankability of lead-acid batteries. Fractional order modelling permits an accurate simulation of the battery electrical behaviour with a low number of parameters. It is demonstrated that battery available power is correlated to the battery crankability and its resistance. Moreover, the high-frequency gain of the fractional model can be used to evaluate the battery resistance. Then, a battery crankability estimator using the battery resistance is proposed. Finally, this technique is validated with various battery experimental data measured on test rigs and vehicles.

  11. Lead-acid batteries for partial-state-of-charge applications

    Hariprakash, B.; Gaffoor, S. A.; Shukla, A. K.

    2 V/40 Ah valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) cells have been constructed with negative plates employing carbon black as well as an admixture of carbon black + fumed silica as additives in negative active material for partial-state-of-charge (PSoC) applications. Electrical performance of such cells is compared with conventional 2 V/40 Ah VRLA cells for PSoC operation. Active material utilization has been found to be higher for carbon-black + fumed-silica mixed negative plates while formation is faster for cells with carbon-black mixed negative plates. Both faradaic efficiency and percentage capacity delivered have been found to be higher for cells with carbon-black + fumed-silica mixed negative plates. However, a high self-discharge rate is observed for cells with carbon-black + fumed-silica mixed negative plates.

  12. Lead-acid batteries in micro-hybrid applications. Part II. Test proposal

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A.O. [BMW Group, 80788 Muenchen (Germany); Albers, J. [Johnson Controls Power Solutions EMEA, 30419 Hannover (Germany); Weirather-Koestner, D. [ZSW Ulm, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Kabza, H. [Universitaet Ulm, Institut fuer Energiewandlung und -speicherung, 89081 Ulm (Germany)

    2011-02-01

    In the first part of this work selected key parameters for applying lead-acid (LA) batteries in micro-hybrid power systems (MHPS) were investigated. Main results are integrated in an accelerated, comprehensive test proposal presented here. The test proposal aims at a realistic representation of the pSoC operation regime, which is described in Refs. The test is designed to be sensitive with respect to dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) at partially discharged state (critical for regenerative braking) and the internal resistance at high-rate discharge (critical for idling stop applications). First results are presented for up-to-date valve-regulated LA batteries with absorbent glass mat (AGM) separators. The batteries are close to the limits of the first proposal of pass/fail-criteria. Also flooded batteries were tested; the first out of ten units failed already. (author)

  13. Idling-stop vehicle road tests of advanced valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery

    Sawai, Ken; Ohmae, Takao; Suwaki, Hironori; Shiomi, Masaaki; Osumi, Shigeharu

    The results of road tests on valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in an idling-stop (stop and go) vehicle are reported. Idling-stop systems are simple systems to improve fuel economy of automobiles. They are expected to spread widely from an environmental perspective. Performances of a conventional flooded battery, a conventional VRLA battery, and an improved VRLA battery were compared in road tests with an idling-stop vehicle. It was found that the improved VRLA battery was suited to idling-stop applications because it had a smaller capacity loss than the conventional flooded battery during partial-state-of-charge (PSoC) operation. The positive grid was corroded in layers, unlike the usual grain boundary corrosion of SLI battery grid. It is because the corrosion proceeded mainly under PSoC conditions. The corrosion rate could be controlled by potential control of positive plates.

  14. Advanced design of valve-regulated lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    Lam, L. T.; Newnham, R. H.; Ozgun, H.; Fleming, F. A.

    A novel design of lead-acid battery has been developed for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The battery has current take-offs at both ends of each of the positive and negative plates. This feature markedly reduces battery operating temperatures, improves battery capacity, and extends cycle-life under HEV duty. The battery also performs well under partial-state-of-charge (PSoC)/fast-charge, electric-vehicle operation. The improvements in performance are attributed to more uniform utilization of the plate active-materials. The battery, combined with an internal-combustion engine and a new type of supercapacitor, will be used to power an HEV, which is being designed and constructed by an Australian industry-government consortium.

  15. Advanced design of valve-regulated lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    Lam, L.T.; Newnham, R.H.; Ozgun, H. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Fleming, F.A. [Hawker Energy Products, Warrensburg, MO (United States)

    2000-05-01

    A novel design of lead-acid battery has been developed for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The battery has current take-offs at both ends of each of the positive and negative plates. This feature markedly reduces battery operating temperatures, improves battery capacity, and extends cycle-life under HEV duty. The battery also performs well under partial-state-of-charge (PSoC)/fast-charge, electric-vehicle operation. The improvements in performance are attributed to more uniform utilization of the plate active materials. The battery, combined with an internal-combustion engine and a new type of supercapacitor, will be used to power an HEV, which is being designed and constructed by an Australian industry-government consortium. (orig.)

  16. Idling-stop vehicle road tests of advanced valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery

    Sawai, Ken; Ohmae, Takao; Suwaki, Hironori; Shiomi, Masaaki; Osumi, Shigeharu [Technical Development Division, Automotive Battery Business Unit, GS Yuasa Power Supply Ltd., Nishinosho, Kisshoin, Minami-ku, Kyoto (Japan)

    2007-11-22

    The results of road tests on valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in an idling-stop (stop and go) vehicle are reported. Idling-stop systems are simple systems to improve fuel economy of automobiles. They are expected to spread widely from an environmental perspective. Performances of a conventional flooded battery, a conventional VRLA battery, and an improved VRLA battery were compared in road tests with an idling-stop vehicle. It was found that the improved VRLA battery was suited to idling-stop applications because it had a smaller capacity loss than the conventional flooded battery during partial-state-of-charge (PSoC) operation. The positive grid was corroded in layers, unlike the usual grain boundary corrosion of SLI battery grid. It is because the corrosion proceeded mainly under PSoC conditions. The corrosion rate could be controlled by potential control of positive plates. (author)

  17. The partial state-of-charge cycle performance of lead-acid batteries

    Takeuchi, Taisuke; Sawai, Ken; Tsuboi, Yuichi; Shiota, Masashi; Ishimoto, Shinji; Hirai, Nobumitsu; Osumi, Shigeharu

    Negative plate lugs of flooded lead-acid battery were corroded during partial state-of-charge (PSoC) pattern cycle life tests simulated from stop and go vehicle driving. Potential step was applied to Pb-Ca-Sn alloy electrode at various potential and time regimes, and the electrode surface was observed by in situ electrochemical atomic force microscope (EC-AFM) to investigate the corrosion mechanisms during the potential step cycles. It was found out that the severe corrosion occurs when the oxidation of Pb to PbSO 4 and partial reduction of passive layer of PbSO 4 take turns many times. It was also found out that the periodic full charge, the optimization of the alloy composition, addition of the material that may make the reaction mechanism change to electrolyte were effective to suppress the corrosion rate.

  18. The partial state-of-charge cycle performance of lead-acid batteries

    Takeuchi, Taisuke; Tsuboi, Yuichi; Shiota, Masashi; Ishimoto, Shinji; Osumi, Shigeharu [GS Yuasa Power Supply Ltd., Kyoto (Japan); Sawai, Ken [GS Yuasa Corporation Ltd., Kyoto (Japan); Hirai, Nobumitsu [Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    2009-04-15

    Negative plate lugs of flooded lead-acid battery were corroded during partial state-of-charge (PSoC) pattern cycle life tests simulated from stop and go vehicle driving. Potential step was applied to Pb-Ca-Sn alloy electrode at various potential and time regimes, and the electrode surface was observed by in situ electrochemical atomic force microscope (EC-AFM) to investigate the corrosion mechanisms during the potential step cycles. It was found out that the severe corrosion occurs when the oxidation of Pb to PbSO{sub 4} and partial reduction of passive layer of PbSO{sub 4} take turns many times. It was also found out that the periodic full charge, the optimization of the alloy composition, addition of the material that may make the reaction mechanism change to electrolyte were effective to suppress the corrosion rate. (author)

  19. Lead-acid batteries for partial-state-of-charge applications

    Hariprakash, B. [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Gaffoor, S.A. [NED Energy Ltd., 6-3-1109/1 Navbharat Chambers, Raj Bhavan Road, Hyderabad 500 082 (India); Shukla, A.K. [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630 006 (India)

    2009-06-01

    2 V/40 Ah valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) cells have been constructed with negative plates employing carbon black as well as an admixture of carbon black + fumed silica as additives in negative active material for partial-state-of-charge (PSoC) applications. Electrical performance of such cells is compared with conventional 2 V/40 Ah VRLA cells for PSoC operation. Active material utilization has been found to be higher for carbon-black + fumed-silica mixed negative plates while formation is faster for cells with carbon-black mixed negative plates. Both faradaic efficiency and percentage capacity delivered have been found to be higher for cells with carbon-black + fumed-silica mixed negative plates. However, a high self-discharge rate is observed for cells with carbon-black + fumed-silica mixed negative plates. (author)

  20. Lead-acid batteries in micro-hybrid applications. Part II. Test proposal

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Albers, J.; Weirather-Koestner, D.; Kabza, H.

    In the first part of this work [1] selected key parameters for applying lead-acid (LA) batteries in micro-hybrid power systems (MHPS) were investigated. Main results are integrated in an accelerated, comprehensive test proposal presented here. The test proposal aims at a realistic representation of the pSoC operation regime, which is described in Refs. [1,6]. The test is designed to be sensitive with respect to dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) at partially discharged state (critical for regenerative braking) and the internal resistance at high-rate discharge (critical for idling stop applications). First results are presented for up-to-date valve-regulated LA batteries with absorbent glass mat (AGM) separators. The batteries are close to the limits of the first proposal of pass/fail-criteria. Also flooded batteries were tested; the first out of ten units failed already.

  1. Modified performance test of vented lead acid batteries for stationary applications

    The concept of a modified performance test for vented lead acid batteries in stationary applications has been developed by the IEEE Battery Working Group. The modified performance test is defined as a test in the ''as found'' condition of the battery capacity and its ability to provide a high rate, short duration load (usually the highest rate of the duty cycle) that will confirm the battery's ability to meet the critical period of the load duty cycle, in addition to determining its percentage of rated capacity. This paper will begin by reviewing performance and service test requirements and concerns associated with both types of tests. The paper will then discuss the rationale for developing a modified performance test along with the benefits that can be derived from performing a modified performance test in lieu of a capacity test and/or a service test. The paper will conclude with an example on how to apply a modified performance test and test acceptance criteria

  2. Techniques for jar formation of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries

    Weighall, M. J.

    The market for valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries is growing steadily and will be given a further boost as the market for 36-V batteries for the 42-V PowerNet develops over the next few years. The manufacture of VRLA batteries poses, however, a number of complex technical problems that are not experienced in the manufacture of conventional flooded batteries. For the large-scale manufacture of automotive batteries or other small VRLA batteries of 100 Ah or less, jar formation rather than plate formation and dry charge would seem to be a logical and economically sound decision. For this to be successful, however, a number of key issues need to be reviewed, starting with a detailed consideration of battery design. This paper reviews issues associated with the jar formation of VRLA batteries. Guidance is given concerning filling techniques (gravity or vacuum fill), the formation process, charging techniques, and formation algorithms. Battery design and separator optimisation is discussed. The properties of the separator, e.g. wicking rate, fibre composition, surface area and compression, may have a critical impact on acid filling and jar formation, and may partially determine the filling and formation conditions to be used. The control of temperature during formation is particularly important. Formation algorithms and temperature data are presented. Attention is drawn to the possible loss of plate-group compression during the formation process, and how this may be avoided.

  3. Investigation of Adsorption of Lead(II) onto a Montmorillonite Clay modified by Humic Acid

    This study investigated the adsorption of Pb(II) in aqueous solution onto humic acid (HA) surface. The adsorption of lead(II) ions was studied using montmorillonite clay as adsorbent in the presence of humic acid under fix pH condition. The effect of HA on the adsorption of Pb(II) onto montmorillonite depends on its concentration in the solution, i.e., metal adsorption decreases with increasing concentration of HA in the solution. The HA was found to enhance the metal adsorption capacity of mineral surfaces in ternary system. The adsorption for Pb(II) on HA was high and this may due to its strong affinity for carboxylic and phenolic groups of humic substances. Since Pb(II) is divalent cation so its adsorption may have consumed two carboxylic/phenolic groups of HA. The decrease in adsorption of Pb(II) in the presence of HA in a ternary system is may be due to the blocking of adsorptive surfaces and reduction of cation exchange capacity by the clay in the presence of HA through its polar adsorption on mineral surface. (author)

  4. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1982

    Bowman, D.E.

    1983-08-01

    Research programs on lead-acid batteries are reported that cover active materials utilization, active material integrity, and some technical support projects. Processing problems were encountered and corrected. Components and materials, a lead-plastic composite grid, cell designs, and deliverables are described. Cell testing is discussed, as well as battery subsystems, including fuel gage, thermal management, and electrolyte circulation. (LEW)

  5. Corrosion behavior of titanium in contact with lead in sulphuric acid anodizing bath

    Titanium, due to its improved corrosion resistance, is frequently used for making Heat Exchangers, Jigs and Fixtures required by Electroplating Industry for anodizing of different components. However, some serious problem may be encountered in practice if titanium comes in contact with others metals. The galvanic corrosion behavior of titanium alloy in contact with pure lead directly or indirectly (i.e., two samples placed apart in the test solution and connected with titanium wire) in standard 15 % sulphuric acid anodizing bath (test solution) has been studied by weight loss method. The Electrochemical Method (ASTM G5 ) was used to supplement weight loss results. The effect of concentration of test solution on corrosion rate was also studied and the behavior of protective oxide film formed on Ti surface discussed. The present study also touched another aspect, which plays an important part in galvanic corrosion i.e., the effect of cathode/anode area ratio. An unfavorable area ratio leading to localize attack is due to formation of a large cathode/small anodic corrosion cell. The cathodic behavior of Pb was also studied to justify corrosion of titanium although it is noble in the Galvanic Series as compared to Pb. Titanium in contact with lead exhibits anodic control and its dissolution as titanium sulphate in turns increases its corrosion rate. The study also revealed that the electrolyte attacks highly at regions very close to contact and also on the welding spots, where welding is done for fabrication of heat exchanger. This is because at this point protective films is less continuous as compared to the polished surface where the films is more continuous and thus more protective. (author)

  6. Influence of bismuth on the charging ability of negative plates in lead-acid batteries

    Lam, L. T.; Ceylan, H.; Haigh, N. P.; Manders, J. E.

    To examine the influence of bismuth on the charging ability of negative plates in lead-acid batteries, plates are made from three types of oxides: (i) leady oxide of high quality which contains virtually no bismuth (termed 'control oxide'); (ii) control oxide in which bismuth oxide is blended at bismuth levels from 0.01 to 0.12 wt.%; (iii) leady oxide produced from Pasminco VRLA Refined™ lead (0.05-0.06 wt.%Bi). An experimental tool—the 'conversion indicator'—is developed to assess the charging ability of the test negative plates when cycling under either zero percent state-of-charge (SoC)/full-charge or partial state-of-charge (PSoC) duty. Although the conversion indicator is not the true charging efficiency, the two parameters have a close relationship, namely, the higher the conversion indicator, the greater the charging efficiency. Little difference is found in the charging ability, irrespective of bismuth content and discharge rate, when the plates are subjected to zero percent SoC/full-charge duty; the conversion indicator lies in the range 81-84%. By contrast, there is a marked difference when the negative plates are subjected to PSoC duty, i.e. consecutive cycling through 90-60, 70-40, 80-40 and 90-40% SoC windows. Up to 0.06 wt.%Bi improves the charging ability, especially with a low and narrow PSoC window (40-70% SoC) of the type that will be experienced in 42 V powernet automobile and hybrid electric duties. To maximize this beneficial effect, bismuth must be distributed uniformly in the plates. This is best achieved by using VRLA Refined™ lead for oxide production.

  7. An integrated experimental-modeling approach to study the acid leaching behavior of lead from sub-micrometer lead silicate glass particles

    Highlights: • Generation of particles by laser ablation of lead silicate glass. • Collection of particles on filters and continuous acid leaching and ICP-MS monitoring. • Fitting of the lead leaching profile to a mathematical intraparticle diffusion model. • Extraction of individual leaching profiles for selected mono-dispersed size fractions. • Leaching kinetics is based on ion-exchange and correlated with particle size. -- Abstract: This work focuses on the development of a procedure to study the mechanism of leaching of lead from sub-micrometer lead glass particles using 0.3 mol l−1 HNO3 as a leachant. Glass particles with an effective size distribution range from 0.05 to 1.4 μm were generated by laser ablation (213 nm Nd:YAG laser) and collected on an inline 0.2 μm syringe filter. Subsequently, the glass particles on the filter were subjected to online leaching and continuous monitoring of lead (Pb-208) in the leachate by quadrupole ICP-MS. The lead leaching profile, aided by the particle size distribution information from cascade impaction, was numerically fitted to a mathematical model based on the glass intraparticle diffusion, liquid film distribution and thermodynamic glass-leachant distribution equilibrium. The findings of the modeling show that the rate-limiting step of leaching is the migration of lead from the core to the surface of the glass particle by an ion-exchange mechanism, governed by the apparent intraparticle lead diffusivity in glass which was calculated to be 3.1 × 10−18 m2 s−1. Lead leaching is illustrated in the form of graphs and animations of intraparticle lead release (in time and intraparticle position) from particles with sizes of 0.1 and 0.3 μm

  8. Sulfamic Acid-Catalyzed Lead Perovskite Formation for Solar Cell Fabrication on Glass or Plastic Substrates.

    Guo, Yunlong; Sato, Wataru; Shoyama, Kazutaka; Nakamura, Eiichi

    2016-04-27

    Lead perovskite materials such as methylammonium triiodoplumbate(II) (CH3NH3PbI3, PV) are promising materials for printable solar cell (SC) applications. The preparation of PV involves a series of energetically costly cleavages of the μ-iodo bridges via conversion of a mixture of PbI2 (PI) and methylammonium iodide (CH3NH3I, MAI) in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) into a precursor solution containing a polymeric strip of a plumbate(II) dimer [(MA(+))2(PbI3(-))2·(DMF)2]m, which then produces a perovskite film with loss of DMF upon spin-coating and heating of the substrate. We report here that the PI-to-PV conversion and the PV crystal growth to micrometer size can be accelerated by a small amount of zwitterionic sulfamic acid (NH3SO3, SA) and that sulfamic acid facilitates electron transfer to a neighboring electron-accepting layer in an SC device. As a result, an SC device on indium tin oxide (ITO)/glass made of a 320 nm thick PV film using 0.7 wt % SA showed a higher short-circuit current, open-circuit voltage, and fill factor and hence a 22.5% higher power conversion efficiency of 16.02% compared with the device made without SA. The power conversion efficiency value was reproducible (±0.3% for 25 devices), and the device showed very small hysteresis. The device without any encapsulation showed a respectable longevity on a shelf under nitrogen under ambient light. A flexible device similarly fabricated on ITO/poly(ethylene naphthalate) showed an efficiency of 12.4%. PMID:27054265

  9. PbO2/Pb2+ cycling in methanesulfonic acid and mechanisms associated for soluble lead-acid flow battery applications

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: Is this paper, the electrodeposition/electrodissolution cycling of lead dioxide (PbO2) is studied on vitreous carbon electrodes in lead methanesulfonate/methanesulfonic acid medium for a soluble lead acid flow battery application. The influence of the active species concentrations (Pb2+, H+) on the cyclability of lead dioxide (charge efficiency, lifetime of cycling, etc.) is assessed. The proton has a very adverse effect when its concentration is above 1 M. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) shows that the lead dioxide layer can be passivated at the end of reduction when the electrolyte is strongly acidic. Mass changes investigations carried out during PbO2 cycling with a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) confirm the presence of the solid-state reaction predicted in the literature. This side reaction suggests the formation of a non-stoichiometric PbOx compound with a poor solubility and a high electric resistance. The effect of the acid concentration as well as the current density on the formation of PbOx is assessed. The poor cyclability of PbO2 in high acidic media can be related to the accumulation of this resistive compound within the layer. Finally, considerations for an optimal operation of the battery are presented.

  10. CADMIUM AND LEAD STATUS IN CORN HYBRIDS GROWN ON ACID SOIL OF EASTERN CROATIA

    V. Kovačević

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty corn (Zea mays L. hybrids were grown under field conditions in the west part of Brodsko-posavska county in Eastern Croatia during 2000 and 2001 growing seasons. The field trial was conducted in four replicates. The ear-leaf at beginning of silking stage (the second decade of July was taken for chemical analysis from each plot. Mean soil sample was taken by auger to 30 cm of depth. The total amounts of Cd and Pb in corn leaves were measured by ICP-AES technique after their microwave digestion using concentrated HNO3+H2O2. Mobile fraction of these elements in soil was extracted by ammonium acetate-EDTA solution. The experimental field is acid hydromorphic soil (locality Malino with moderate levels of mobile fractions of calcium, magnesium and aluminum. Also, mobile fraction of cadmium and lead are tolerable for growing of health food. Weather conditions during the study differed from the long-term mean. Low rainfall quantities during 5-months period and the higher air-temperatures characterized the 2000 growing season. Excess of rainfall in June and September, their shortage in July and August, as well as high temperatures in August, are main characteristics of weather during the corn growing seasons in 2001. Mean concentrations of cadmium and lead in corn leaves in our investigations were 0.14 ppm Cd and 0.420 ppm Pb. These amounts are low and not dangerous for plants, because critical concentrations of Cd and Pb in plants ranged from 5 to 10 ppm Cd and 10-20 ppm Pb. Considerable differences of cadmium and lead status in the ear-leaf were found among tested corn hybrids. For example, genetically induced differences from 0.07 to 0.21 ppm Cd were found, while these values for Pb were from 0.241 to 0.569 ppm Pb. Especially low Cd concentrations were found in six corn hybrids (OsSK373, E9917/99, Bc278, OsSK2-191, OsSK382 and Clarica: mean 0.092 ppm Cd, while in three hybrids it was considerably higher, but acceptable from the aspect of plant

  11. Comparative study for "36 V" vehicle applications: advantages of lead-acid batteries

    Lailler, Patrick; Sarrau, Jean-François; Sarrazin, Christian

    From thermal engine equipped vehicles to completely electric ones, evolution of light weight vehicles in the future will take several steps in so far as there is no adequate battery or fuel cell presently available to power these vehicles for "on the road" driving. On the other hand, for city driving, vehicles can be improved a lot in terms of fuel efficiency as well as air pollution, if partly or totally electric propulsion can be developed, manufactured and marketed for appropriate applications. The 36-42 V battery is part of this orientation towards improving the efficiency of thermal vehicles in city driving, while keeping adequate autonomy on the roads. Actually, in city traffic, thermal engines are idle most of the time and stop periods represent a large part of the time spent "driving", using up fuel and polluting air for no use at all. The idea of stopping the engine during these periods, if appropriately managed, might potentially lead to a large improvement in fuel economy as well as air pollution reduction. The association of a higher voltage battery to an alternator-starter device in thermal vehicles, seems to be an interesting way towards that end. In this paper, we are presenting our results of a study we have just completed in relationship with RENAULT & VALEO, supported by the French Ministry of Industry, concerning a comparative evaluation of different automobile energy storage systems, and the definition of specifications as the final step of this study. The main conclusion is that lead-acid will still remain dominant in this role, since its operational cost versus efficiency is by far the lowest of every battery presently considered, more particularly in the less expensive car segments.

  12. Acidic environment leads to ROS-induced MAPK signaling in cancer cells.

    Anne Riemann

    Full Text Available Tumor micromilieu often shows pronounced acidosis forcing cells to adapt their phenotype towards enhanced tumorigenesis induced by altered cellular signalling and transcriptional regulation. In the presents study mechanisms and potential consequences of the crosstalk between extra- and intracellular pH (pH(e, pH(i and mitogen-activated-protein-kinases (ERK1/2, p38 was analyzed. Data were obtained mainly in AT1 R-3327 prostate carcinoma cells, but the principle importance was confirmed in 5 other cell types. Extracellular acidosis leads to a rapid and sustained decrease of pH(i in parallel to p38 phosphorylation in all cell types and to ERK1/2 phosphorylation in 3 of 6 cell types. Furthermore, p38 phosphorylation was elicited by sole intracellular lactacidosis at normal pH(e. Inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation during acidosis led to necrotic cell death. No evidence for the involvement of the kinases c-SRC, PKC, PKA, PI3K or EGFR nor changes in cell volume in acidosis-induced MAPK activation was obtained. However, our data reveal that acidosis enhances the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, probably originating from mitochondria, which subsequently trigger MAPK phosphorylation. Scavenging of ROS prevented acidosis-induced MAPK phosphorylation whereas addition of H(2O(2 enhanced it. Finally, acidosis increased phosphorylation of the transcription factor CREB via p38, leading to increased transcriptional activity of a CRE-reporter even 24 h after switching the cells back to a normal environmental milieu. Thus, an acidic tumor microenvironment can induce a longer lasting p38-CREB-medited change in the transcriptional program, which may maintain the altered phenotype even when the cells leave the tumor environment.

  13. Identification of lead acid battery parameters using kalman filtering in photovoltaic system

    The conventional methods of battery identification parameters consist in estimating the state of charge (SOC), and in establishing a command adapted to charge or to discharge the battery, based on electrical model developed with fixed parameters, These methods are inefficient. The causes of this ineffectiveness are different: In the first place model does not adapt itself with the battery (fixed parameters, lack of modulated parameters, a big non-linearity ...).Secondly, the impossibility for the developed algorithms, to adapt itself with the change of the battery's parameters. New models of identification are used by combining the conventional methods with adaptive and dynamic techniques. They already used in other domains where they have proved a good efficiency and a robustness. Taking into consideration the problems mentioned, and trying to resolve them, we have chosen among the various methods of estimation, Kalman filter (KF) known for its efficiency, in the field of tracking parameters. In this work we try tp represent new ideas, to identify battery parameters using KF method and make an experimental analysis of the performance of this method by using Lead Acid Battery, which is a part of a photovoltaic system (PV).(Author)

  14. Physical characterization and photoluminescence properties of thioglycolic acid-stabilized lead sulfide nanocrystals

    Lead sulfide (PbS) nanocrystals (NCs) were surfactant-free synthesized and stabilized with thioglycolic acid (TGA) by an environmentally friendly and controllable chemical route. Structural, surface morphological, optical and photoluminescence properties of the samples were studied using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), low-resolution transmission electron microscopy (LR-TEM), FT-IR spectroscopy, UV–visible spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy, respectively. The synthesized TGA-PbS NCs showed a well-defined cubic morphology and size monodispersity, as well as good dispersibility in aqueous solution. The optical and photoluminescence study showed that these NCs were very crystalline, size quantized and exhibited a single strong, narrow red emission band centered at λEm = 680 nm. Time evolution of the emission properties was analyzed after six, twelve and twenty four months. The results confirmed that the as-prepared product is photostable when it is kept under storage at 4 °C and has great potential for both biotechnological applications and analytical purposes. A probable chemical stabilization mechanism is proposed. - Highlights: • PbS NCs were synthesized and stabilized with TGA by a greener chemical route. • The TGA-PbS NCs exhibited a single strong, narrow red emission band at 680 nm. • The photostability property of the TGA-PbS NCs was monitored during 24 months. • A probable chemical stabilization mechanism is proposed

  15. New developments on valve-regulated lead-acid batteries for advanced automotive electrical systems

    Soria, M. L.; Hernández, J. C.; Valenciano, J.; Sánchez, A.; Trinidad, F.

    The development of novel electrical systems for low emission vehicles demands batteries with specific cycling performance, especially under partial state of charge (PSOC) conditions. Moreover, according to the powertrain design, battery high power capability is demanded or this function can be assumed by a supercapacitor or a flywheel. This paper deals with the development of AGM and gel valve-regulated lead-acid batteries for advanced automotive applications. AGM VRLA battery development was based on previous work for short autonomy high power UPS applications and on active material formulations with specific additives to improve battery life under high rate partial state of charge cycling conditions. The 18 Ah batteries showed excellent high rate capability (9 kW 10 s discharge peaks and 4 kW 5 s regenerative charge acceptance at 60% state of charge) and 110,000 power assist microcycles at 60% SOC and 2.5% DOD were fulfilled. Moreover, as preliminary work in the development of a cost-effective and reliable gel battery to be used in combination of a supercapacitor in a 42 V mild-hybrid powertrain, VRLA batteries with conventional gel formulations have been tested according to novel automotive cycling profiles, mainly moderate cycling under partial state of charge conditions and simulating load management in a stop and start working profile.

  16. Resolution in QCM Sensors for the Viscosity and Density of Liquids: Application to Lead Acid Batteries

    Jorge Marcos-Acevedo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In battery applications, particularly in automobiles, submarines and remote communications, the state of charge (SoC is needed in order to manage batteries efficiently. The most widely used physical parameter for this is electrolyte density. However, there is greater dependency between electrolyte viscosity and SoC than that seen for density and SoC. This paper presents a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM sensor for electrolyte density-viscosity product measurements in lead acid batteries. The sensor is calibrated in H2SO4 solutions in the battery electrolyte range to obtain sensitivity, noise and resolution. Also, real-time tests of charge and discharge are conducted placing the quartz crystal inside the battery. At the same time, the present theoretical “resolution limit” to measure the square root of the density-viscosity product ( of a liquid medium or best resolution achievable with a QCM oscillator is determined. Findings show that the resolution limit only depends on the characteristics of the liquid to be studied and not on frequency. The QCM resolution limit for  measurements worsens when the density-viscosity product of the liquid is increased, but it cannot be improved by elevating the work frequency.

  17. Evolution of internal resistance during formation of flooded lead-acid batteries

    White, Chris; Deveau, Justin; Swan, Lukas G.

    2016-09-01

    This study employs experimental techniques to measure the changing internal resistance of flooded, flat-plate lead-acid batteries during container formation, revealing a novel indicator of formation completeness. In order to measure internal resistance during formation, d.c. current pulses are superimposed over the constant formation current at set intervals, while change in voltage is measured. The resulting "pulsed" internal resistance is divided into ohmic and interfacial components by measuring the ohmic resistance with short d.c. pulses as well as with a.c. injection. Various constant-current container formations are carried out using different current levels, plate thicknesses, and pulsing techniques, yielding an array of resistance trends which are explained using Butler-Volmer kinetic theory. Ohmic and interfacial resistance trends are shown both theoretically and experimentally to eventually decay to a predictable steady-state value as the formation proceeds, suggesting that this internal resistance method can be used to detect the completion of the formation. The same principles are shown to apply to recharge cycles as well, but with potentially limited practical implications in comparison to formation.

  18. Field Operations Program Chevrolet S-10 (Lead-Acid) Accelerated Reliability Testing - Final Report

    J. Francfort (INEEL); J. Argueta; M. Wehrey (Southern California Edison); D. Karner; L. Tyree (Electric Transportation Applications)

    1999-07-01

    This report summarizes the Accelerated Reliability testing of five lead-acid battery-equipped Chevrolet S-10 electric vehicles by the US Department of Energy's Field Operations Program and the Program's testing partners, Electric Transportation Applications (ETA) and Southern California Edison (SCE). ETA and SCE operated the S-10s with the goal of placing 25,000 miles on each vehicle within 1 year, providing an accelerated life-cycle analysis. The testing was performed according to established and published test procedures. The S-10s' average ranges were highest during summer months; changes in ambient temperature from night to day and from season-to-season impacted range by as much as 10 miles. Drivers also noted that excessive use of power during acceleration also had a dramatic effect on vehicle range. The spirited performance of the S-10s created a great temptation to inexperienced electric vehicle drivers to ''have a good time'' and to fully utilize the S-10's acceleration capability. The price of injudicious use of power is greatly reduced range and a long-term reduction in battery life. The range using full-power accelerations followed by rapid deceleration in city driving has been 20 miles or less.

  19. The available capacity computation model based on artificial neural network for lead-acid batteries in electric vehicles

    Chan, C. C.; Lo, E. W. C.; Weixiang, Shen

    The available capacity computation model based on the artificial neural network (ANN) for lead-acid batteries in an electric vehicle (EV) is presented. Comparing with the methods based on the Peukert equation, which is often used for the calculation of the available capacity for lead-acid batteries in EVs, this model is more accurate. The results of the experiment have proven the accuracy of the proposed model; the computation values are in good agreement with experimental data, the associated error has been considered acceptable from an engineering point of view.

  20. Biosynthesis of monoterpenoids in higher plants. The biosynthetic pathway leading to the monoterpenoids from amino acids with a carbon-skeleton similar to mevalonic acid

    Tange, K. (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1981-09-01

    Radioisotopically labeled L-valine, DL-alanine, sodium acetate, and DL-mevalonic acid were incorporated into linalool by the intact plant of Cinnamomum camphora Sieb. var. linalooliferum Fujita and into geraniol and citronellol by that of Pelargonium roseum Bourbon. The uptake of leucine and valine resulted in the preferential location of the radioactivity on the 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate-derived moiety of these acyclic monoterpenoids, whereas the uptake of alanine resulted in the preferential location on the isopentenyl pyrophosphate-derived moiety, much as in the cases of mevalonic acid and sodium acetate. A biosynthetic pathway leading to the monoterpenoids from the amino acids is discussed.

  1. Adsorption of certain surface-active organic substances on lead, and their effect on hydrogen evolution kinetics in sulfuric acid

    Sherstobitova, I.N.; Iskhakov, R.N.

    1988-02-01

    The adsorption of tetrabutylammonium sulfate, n-butyl, n-amyl, isoamyl, n-hexyl alcohol, butyric acid, butylamine, antipyrine and diantipyrylmethane was measured by differential-capacitance at a frequency of 10 kHz at smooth lead electrodes under cathodic polarization. Isotherms were determined by logarithms. Parameters in the Frumkin equation for adsorption of certain organic substances on lead were also determined and tabulated.

  2. Features of the low-power charge controller of lead-acid current sources charged by solar batteries

    Influence of different factors on exploitations characteristics of solar photoelectric plant is investigated by field-performance data. A construction of charge controller of the lead-acid accumulator battery charging by means of solar battery is analyzed taking into account these factors. (authors)

  3. Quality Control of Lead-Acid Battery according to Its Condition Test for UPS Supplier and Manufacturers

    2014-01-01

    The risk of insufficient petroleum resources has forced human beings to emphasize the acquisition and storage of energy. To avoid such situation, this study tends to explore the effective management of lead-acid batteries for effective utilization conforming to the industrial requirements.

  4. Gene deletion of cytosolic ATP: citrate lyase leads to altered organic acid production in Aspergillus niger

    Meijer, Susan Lisette; Nielsen, Michael Lynge; Olsson, Lisbeth;

    2009-01-01

    factory platform for production of chemicals. Using molecular biology techniques, this study focused on metabolic engineering of A. niger to manipulate its organic acid production in the direction of succinic acid. The gene target for complete gene deletion was cytosolic ATP: citrate lyase (acl), which...

  5. Effects of Delta-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase Polymorphisms on Susceptibility to Lead in Han Subjects from Southwestern China

    Pin Sun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is to determine the distribution of the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD polymorphism among Han subjects of the Chinese population and to study whether the polymorphism in the ALAD gene modifies the toxicity of lead in lead-exposed workers. For this purpose we conducted a cross-sectional study on 156 Chinese workers who were exposed to lead in lead-acid battery and electric-flex manufacturing plants. The authors found that the allele frequencies of ALAD1 and ALAD2 were 0.9679 and 0.0321, respectively. Workers with the ALAD 1-1 genotype were associated with higher blood lead levels than those with the ALAD 1-2 genotype. Blood and urine lead levels were much higher in storage battery workers than in cable workers. The self-conscious symptom survey showed that the incidences of debilitation, amnesia and dreaminess were much higher in those had more than five years of tenure or contact with lead on the job within the ALAD 1-1 genotype subgroup. Laboratory examinations showed that serum iron and zinc levels in workers’ with the ALAD 1-2 genotype were higher than those with the ALAD 1-1 genotype, especially in storage-battery workers. Correlation analysis indicated that the blood lead level negatively correlated with serum calcium, iron and zinc level. The data of this study suggest that the ALAD gene polymorphism and serum ion levels may modify the kinetics of lead in blood. Therefore, the authors recommend that an adequate intake of dietary calcium, iron, and zinc or the calcium, iron, and zinc supplementation should be prescribed to Chinese lead exposed workers.

  6. Bio-toxicological supervision op workers exposed to lead poisoning hazard. Systematic examination of amino acids, in urine and plasma

    A bio-toxicological chart was established for the workers in a firm handling lead. The known facts concerning professional lead poisoning are outlined, after which the importance of lead work in a nuclear center is discussed. The work station of each man is described and the results of analyses made during atmospheric checks on the site are given with sampling techniques. Since the biological chart is centered on the chromatographic exploration of amino acids in blood and urine, the analytical technique used is described and the different technical modifications made to the standard technique reported. The results obtained on reference subjects are compared with those found in the specialized literature. The results found in lead workers are then presented in the form of histograms, which better illustrate the differences observed with respect to the reference subjects. An hematological and toxicological balance-sheet is drawn up and the correlation existing between the results of coproporphyrine, lead and delta-aminolevulinic acid analyses in urine is checked. Biological detection of lead-poisoning has the advantage of providing an early diagnosis, thus enabling the works doctor to forestall the effects of this professional disease before any clinical symptoms appear. (author)

  7. Gastric acid reduction leads to an alteration in lower intestinal microflora

    Kanno, Takayuki [Department of Gastroenterology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama-city, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan); Matsuki, Takahiro [Yakult Central Institute for Microbiological Research, Tokyo (Japan); Oka, Masashi; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi [Department of Gastroenterology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama-city, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan); Inada, Kenichi [First Department of Pathology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Aichi (Japan); Magari, Hirohito; Inoue, Izumi; Maekita, Takao; Ueda, Kazuki; Enomoto, Shotaro; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Yanaoka, Kimihiko; Tamai, Hideyuki [Department of Gastroenterology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama-city, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan); Akimoto, Shigeru [Department of Microbiology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama-city, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan); Nomoto, Koji; Tanaka, Ryuichiro [Yakult Central Institute for Microbiological Research, Tokyo (Japan); Ichinose, Masao, E-mail: ichinose@wakayama-med.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama-city, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan)

    2009-04-17

    To clarify the alterations in lower intestinal microflora induced by gastric acid reduction, the dynamics of 12 major genera or groups of bacteria comprising the microflora in feces and colonic contents were examined by quantitative real-time PCR in proton pump inhibitor-treated rats and in asymptomatic human subjects with hypochlorhydria. In both rat and human experiments, most genera or groups of intestinal microflora (facultative and obligate anaerobes) proliferated by gastric acid reduction, and marked and significant increases in the Lactobacilli group and Veillonella, oropharyngeal bacteria, were observed. In rats, potent gastric acid inhibition led to a marked and significant increase of intestinal bacteria, including the Bacteroidesfragilis group, while Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacterial species, remained at a constant level. These results strongly indicate that the gastric acid barrier not only controls the colonization and growth of oropharyngeal bacteria, but also regulates the population and composition of lower intestinal microflora.

  8. Gastric acid reduction leads to an alteration in lower intestinal microflora

    To clarify the alterations in lower intestinal microflora induced by gastric acid reduction, the dynamics of 12 major genera or groups of bacteria comprising the microflora in feces and colonic contents were examined by quantitative real-time PCR in proton pump inhibitor-treated rats and in asymptomatic human subjects with hypochlorhydria. In both rat and human experiments, most genera or groups of intestinal microflora (facultative and obligate anaerobes) proliferated by gastric acid reduction, and marked and significant increases in the Lactobacilli group and Veillonella, oropharyngeal bacteria, were observed. In rats, potent gastric acid inhibition led to a marked and significant increase of intestinal bacteria, including the Bacteroidesfragilis group, while Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacterial species, remained at a constant level. These results strongly indicate that the gastric acid barrier not only controls the colonization and growth of oropharyngeal bacteria, but also regulates the population and composition of lower intestinal microflora.

  9. Rhabdomyolysis-Associated Mutations in Human LPIN1 Lead to Loss of Phosphatidic Acid Phosphohydrolase Activity

    Schweitzer, George G.; Collier, Sara L.; Chen, Zhouji; Eaton, James M.; Connolly, Anne M; Bucelli, Robert C.; Pestronk, Alan; Harris, Thurl E.; Finck, Brian N

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is an acute syndrome due to extensive injury of skeletal muscle. Recurrent rhabdomyolysis is often caused by inborn errors in intermediary metabolism, and recent work has suggested that mutations in the human gene encoding lipin 1 (LPIN1) may be a common cause of recurrent rhabdomyolysis in children. Lipin 1 dephosphorylates phosphatidic acid to form diacylglycerol (phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase; PAP) and acts as a transcriptional regulatory protein to control metabolic ge...

  10. A Multi-Point Sensor Based on Optical Fiber for the Measurement of Electrolyte Density in Lead-Acid Batteries

    Cao-Paz, Ana M.; Marcos-Acevedo, Jorge; del Río-Vázquez, Alfredo; Martínez-Peñalver, Carlos; Lago-Ferreiro, Alfonso; Nogueiras-Meléndez, Andrés A.; Doval-Gandoy, Jesús

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a multi-point optical fiber-based sensor for the measurement of electrolyte density in lead-acid batteries. It is known that the battery charging process creates stratification, due to the different densities of sulphuric acid and water. In order to study this process, density measurements should be obtained at different depths. The sensor we describe in this paper, unlike traditional sensors, consists of several measurement points, allowing density measurements at different depths inside the battery. The obtained set of measurements helps in determining the charge (SoC) and state of health (SoH) of the battery. PMID:22319262

  11. Maternal fructose drives placental uric acid production leading to adverse fetal outcomes.

    Asghar, Zeenat A; Thompson, Alysha; Chi, Maggie; Cusumano, Andrew; Scheaffer, Suzanne; Al-Hammadi, Noor; Saben, Jessica L; Moley, Kelle H

    2016-01-01

    Maternal metabolic diseases increase offspring risk for low birth weight and cardiometabolic diseases in adulthood. Excess fructose consumption may confer metabolic risks for both women and their offspring. However, the direct consequences of fructose intake per se are unknown. We assessed the impact of a maternal high-fructose diet on the fetal-placental unit in mice in the absence of metabolic syndrome and determined the association between maternal serum fructose and placental uric acid levels in humans. In mice, maternal fructose consumption led to placental inefficiency, fetal growth restriction, elevated fetal serum glucose and triglyceride levels. In the placenta, fructose induced de novo uric acid synthesis by activating the activities of the enzymes AMP deaminase and xanthine oxidase. Moreover, the placentas had increased lipids and altered expression of genes that control oxidative stress. Treatment of mothers with the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol reduced placental uric acid levels, prevented placental inefficiency, and improved fetal weights and serum triglycerides. Finally, in 18 women delivering at term, maternal serum fructose levels significantly correlated with placental uric acid levels. These findings suggest that in mice, excess maternal fructose consumption impairs placental function via a xanthine oxidase/uric acid-dependent mechanism, and similar effects may occur in humans. PMID:27125896

  12. Methylene crosslinked calix[6]arene hexacaarboxylic acid resin: a highly efficient solid phase extractant for decontamination of lead bearing effluents.

    Adhikari, Birendra Babu; Gurung, Manju; Kawakita, Hidetaka; Jumina; Ohto, Keisuke

    2011-10-15

    Calixarene-based cation exchange resin has been developed by methylene crosslinking of calix[6]arene hexacarboxylic acid derivative and the resin has been exploited for solid phase extraction of some toxic heavy metal ions. The selectivity order of the resin towards some metal ions follows the order Pb(II) > Cu(II)> Zn(II), Ni(II), Co(II). The maximum lead ion binding capacity of the resin was found to be 1.30 mmol g(-1) resin. The loaded lead was quantitatively eluted with dilute acid solution regenerating the resin. Mutual separation of Pb(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) was achieved by using the column packed with the resin. PMID:21835544

  13. Organic acid enhanced electrodialytic extraction of lead from contaminated soil fines in suspension

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2007-01-01

    The implementation of soil washing technology for the treatment of heavy metal contaminated soils is limited by the toxicity and unwieldiness of the remaining heavy metal contaminated sludge. In this work, the feasibility of combining electrodialytic remediation with heterotrophic leaching for...... decontamination of the sludge was investigated. The ability of 11 organic acids to extract Pb from the fine fraction of contaminated soil (grains <63 mu m) was investigated, and application of the acids as enhancing reagents during electrodialytic remediation (EDR) of Pb-contaminated soil fines in suspension was...

  14. Design of acid-lead battery stage-of-charge detection system based on refractive index detection technology

    Chen, Junyao; Yang, Kecheng; Xia, Min; Li, Lei; Zeng, Xianjiang

    2015-10-01

    Based on optical total reflection critical Angle method, we have designed a refractive index measurement system. It adopted a divergent light source and a CCD camera as the occurrence and receiver of the signal. The divergent light source sent out a bunch of tapered beam, exposure to the interface of optical medium and sulfuric acid solution. Light intensity reflected from the interface could be detected by the CCD camera and then sent to the embedded system. In the DSP embedded system, we could obtain the critical edge position through the light intensity distribution curve and converted it to critical angle. Through experiment, we concluded the relation between liquid refractive index and the critical angle edge position. In this system, the detecting precision of the refractive index of sulfuric acid solution reached 10-4. Finally, through the conversion of the refractive index and density, we achieved high accuracy online measurement of electrolyte density in lead-acid battery.

  15. Assessment of high power HEV lead-acid battery advancements by comparative benchmarking with a European test procedure

    Conte, Mario; Pede, Giovanni; Sglavo, Vincenzo; Macerata, Diego

    The technical and practical suitability of lead-acid batteries for applications in vehicles with electrical drivetrains (battery-powered or hybrid electric) has been experimentally investigated in a variety of testing programmes. Under the direction and funding support of the Commission of the European Community, since early 1990s, the R&D Organisation EUCAR, a collaborative partnership of most European car manufacturers, has been conducting battery technological assessment projects, through bench tests carried out by different independent laboratories throughout Europe, using agreed test procedures. In this framework, ENEA acted as independent testing institute and tested, among others, three high power lead-acid batteries of various technologies (flat plate electrodes and spiral wound) for EV and HEV applications. In addition, different battery sizes and operating conditions have been tested at ENEA in a separate collaboration with ALTRA-IRISBUS. This paper intends to trace technological and performance improvements of high power lead-acid battery technology through the analysis of experimental data during parameter and life cycle tests, including the effects of battery sizes, charge/discharge profiles and testing procedures, with special emphasis on the reduction of the internal resistance and the variation of peak power and cycle life.

  16. Inhibition treatment of the corrosion of lead artefacts in atmospheric conditions and by acetic acid vapour: use of sodium decanoate

    The efficiency of linear sodium decanoate, CH3(CH2)8COONa (noted NaC10), as corrosion inhibitor of lead was determined by electrochemical techniques in two corrosive mediums: ASTM D1384 standard water and acetic acid-enriched solutions. Best results were obtained with 0.05 mol l-1 of NaC10 solution. In these conditions, the inhibition efficiency can be estimated of 99.9%. The corrosion inhibition effect was confirmed by cyclic atmospheric tests in a climatic chamber in two different conditions: water saturated vapour, and acid acetic enriched vapour simulating the atmosphere in the wooden displays in museums. Surface analyses by SEM and X-ray diffraction indicate that the metal protection is due to the formation of a protective layer mainly composed of lead decanoate Pb(C10)2 (metallic soap). This inhibition treatment was applied on objects of metallic cultural heritage: gallo-roman sarcophagus in lead. Electrochemical methods confirm the efficiency of treatment on archaeological materials. In conclusion, this inhibitor treatment seems to be very promising against the atmospheric corrosion and the corrosion by organic acid vapour in museums

  17. Low atmospheric nitrogen loads lead to grass encroachment in coastal dunes, but only on acid soils

    E. Remke; E. Brouwer; A. Kooijman; I. Blindow; J.G.M. Roelofs

    2009-01-01

    The impact of atmospheric N-deposition on succession from open sand to dry, lichen-rich, short grassland, and tall grass vegetation dominated by Carex arenaria was surveyed in 19 coastal dune sites along the Baltic Sea. Coastal dunes with acid or slightly calcareous sand reacted differently to atmos

  18. Acid-Promoted Hydrolysis of m-Cl-Phenyl Phosphorotriamidate leading to its Highly Basic Nature by Kinetic Means

    Harish Kumar Amb

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysis of m-Cl-Phenyl Phosphorotriamidate has been performed in the acid range, 0.01 to 7.0 M –HCl,in 12%AcoH-H2O (v/v at 98(±0.5oC. The continuous second-order rate rise with the absence of a rate maximum in the entire acid range is significant, leading to its highly basic nature. In this respect, it differs from other related(o-Cl-Ph-&p-Cl-Ph- members of the phosphorotriamidate group. The salt effect variable study leads to the presence and reactivity of the two major reactive species with the Neutral Species(I working in the entire acid range; while the Conjugate acid form(II was observed operating between 4.0-7.0 M HCl region only. Both uni-and bi-molecular mechanisms for the two reactive forms with P-N bond fission have been decided for the C-N-P ester. The hydrolysis is shown to be decreased by the action of the series of the nucleophilic reagents and I'shows the optimum effect here. Role of a chloro-group in the unusual meta position in each aryl matix during hydrolysis was particularly the important feature of this study.

  19. Nitrogen dioxide reducing ascorbic acid technologies in the ventilator circuit leads to uniform NO concentration during inspiration.

    Pezone, Matthew J; Wakim, Matthew G; Denton, Ryan J; Gamero, Lucas G; Roscigno, Robert F; Gilbert, Richard J; Lovich, Mark A

    2016-08-31

    Conventional inhaled NO systems deliver NO by synchronized injection or continuous NO flow in the ventilator circuitry. Such methods can lead to variable concentrations during inspiration that may differ from desired dosing. NO concentrations in these systems are generally monitored through electrochemical methods that are too slow to capture this nuance and potential dosing error. A novel technology that reduces NO2 into NO via low-resistance ascorbic-acid cartridges just prior to inhalation has recently been described. The gas volume of these cartridges may enhance gas mixing and reduce dosing inconsistency throughout inhalation. The impact of the ascorbic-acid cartridge technology on NO concentration during inspiration was characterized through rapid chemiluminescence detection during volume control ventilation, pressure control ventilation, synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation and continuous positive airway pressure using an in vitro lung model configured to simulate the complete uptake of NO. Two ascorbic acid cartridges in series provided uniform and consistent dosing during inspiration during all modes of ventilation. The use of one cartridge showed variable inspiratory concentration of NO at the largest tidal volumes, whereas the use of no ascorbic acid cartridge led to highly inconsistent NO inspiratory waveforms. The use of ascorbic acid cartridges also decreased breath-to-breath variation in SIMV and CPAP ventilation. The ascorbic-acid cartridges, which are designed to convert NO2 (either as substrate or resulting from NO oxidation during injection) into NO, also provide the benefit of minimizing the variation of inhaled NO concentration during inspiration. It is expected that the implementation of this method will lead to more consistent and predictable dosing. PMID:27264784

  20. The lead-acid battery industry in China: outlook for production and recycling.

    Tian, Xi; Wu, Yufeng; Gong, Yu; Zuo, Tieyong

    2015-11-01

    In 2013, more than four million (metric) tons (MT) of refined lead went into batteries in China, and 1.5 MT of scrap lead recycled from these batteries was reused in other secondary materials. The use of start-light-ignition (SLI), traction and energy storage batteries has spread in China in recent decades, with their proportions being 25.6%, 47.2% and 27.2%, respectively, in 2012. The total production of these batteries increased from 296,000 kVAh in 2001 to 205.23 MkVAh in 2013, with manufacturing located mainly in the middle and eastern provinces of the country. In this paper, we find that the market share of SLI batteries will decrease slightly, the share of traction batteries will continuously increase with the emergence of clean energy vehicles, and that of energy storage batteries will increase with the development of the wind energy and photovoltaic industries. Accounting for lead consumption in the main application industries, and the total social possession, it is calculated that used lead batteries could generate 2.4 MT of scrap lead in 2014, which is much higher than the 1.5 MT that was recycled in 2013. Thus, the current recycling rate is too low. It is suggested that while building large-scale recycling plants, small-scale plants should be banned or merged. PMID:26341636

  1. Rapid reduction of lead leachate from hazardous fly ash using microwave treatment with acid combination.

    Chou, Chih-Mei; Wang, Li-Pang; Kao, Jimmy C M; Lin, Kae-Long; Chang, Yu-Min

    2016-02-01

    The novelty of this study is to rapidly reduce hazardous lead leachates from solid waste using microwave digestion treatment, which is an energy-saving and low greenhouse gas emission technology. The article presents the reduction of toxic characteristic leaching procedure-extractable lead concentration in the municipal solid waste incineration fly ash by the microwave digestion treatment in HNO3/H2SO4 combination, and focuses on the effects of treatment time and temperature. The results obtained from this study indicated a significant reduction efficiency of toxic characteristic leaching procedure-extractable lead concentration and showed sufficient reduction in leaching levels to render the treated fly ash safe in lead compound leaching characteristics. The reduction efficiency of toxic characteristic leaching procedure-extractable lead concentration can reach 98% in 15 minutes of treatment time. This is equivalent to the original toxic characteristic leaching procedure-extractable lead concentration of 46.2 mg L(-1) in raw fly ash being reduced down to less than 1.0 mg L(-1). Based on the experimental data obtained in this study, a useful correlation between reduction efficiency and treatment conditions is proposed. For engineering applications, the necessary minimum treatment time is solved using a graphic illustration method, by which the minimum treatment time (t(min)) is obtained if the desired reduction efficiency (η) and treatment temperature (T) are known. The effects of treatment time and temperature are discussed. Some problems caused by the microwave digestion treatment method are also delineated in this article. PMID:26526019

  2. Lead recovery and glass microspheres synthesis from waste CRT funnel glasses through carbon thermal reduction enhanced acid leaching process.

    Mingfei, Xing; Yaping, Wang; Jun, Li; Hua, Xu

    2016-03-15

    In this study, a novel process for detoxification and reutilization of waste cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass was developed by carbon thermal reduction enhanced acid leaching process. The key to this process is removal of lead from the CRT funnel glass and synchronous preparation of glass microspheres. Carbon powder was used as an isolation agent and a reducing agent. Under the isolation of the carbon powder, the funnel glass powder was sintered into glass microspheres. In thermal reduction, PbO in the funnel glass was first reduced to elemental Pb by carbon monoxide and then located on the surface of glass microspheres which can be removed easily by acid leaching. Experimental results showed that temperature, carbon adding amount and holding time were the major parameters that controlled lead removal rate. The maximum lead removal rate was 94.80% and glass microspheres that measured 0.73-14.74μm were obtained successfully by setting the temperature, carbon adding amount and holding time at 1200°C, 10% and 30min, respectively. The prepared glass microspheres may be used as fillers in polymer materials and abrasive materials, among others. Accordingly, this study proposed a practical and economical process for detoxification and recycling of waste lead-containing glass. PMID:26642446

  3. Removal of lead ions from acid aqueous solutions using zeolite bearing tuff

    Golomeova, Mirjana; Zendelska, Afrodita; Golomeov, Blagoj; Krstev, Boris; Jakupi, Shaban

    2016-01-01

    Water pollution come from a number of different sources, and pollutants are divided up into various classes, such as organic pollutants, inorganic fertilizers, metals and radioactive isotopes. Organic pollutants are susceptible to biological degradation, unlike heavy metals which are not degrade into harmless products. Heavy metals are a common pollutant found in various industrial effluents. They are often encountered in mining operations and acid mine drainage. Because heavy metals are high...

  4. Random amino acid mutations and protein misfolding lead to Shannon limit in sequence-structure communication.

    Andreas Martin Lisewski

    Full Text Available The transmission of genomic information from coding sequence to protein structure during protein synthesis is subject to stochastic errors. To analyze transmission limits in the presence of spurious errors, Shannon's noisy channel theorem is applied to a communication channel between amino acid sequences and their structures established from a large-scale statistical analysis of protein atomic coordinates. While Shannon's theorem confirms that in close to native conformations information is transmitted with limited error probability, additional random errors in sequence (amino acid substitutions and in structure (structural defects trigger a decrease in communication capacity toward a Shannon limit at 0.010 bits per amino acid symbol at which communication breaks down. In several controls, simulated error rates above a critical threshold and models of unfolded structures always produce capacities below this limiting value. Thus an essential biological system can be realistically modeled as a digital communication channel that is (a sensitive to random errors and (b restricted by a Shannon error limit. This forms a novel basis for predictions consistent with observed rates of defective ribosomal products during protein synthesis, and with the estimated excess of mutual information in protein contact potentials.

  5. Significance of carbon additive in negative lead-acid battery electrodes

    Calábek, M.; Micka, Karel; Křivák, P.; Bača, P.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 158, č. 2 (2006), s. 864-867. ISSN 0378-7753 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : negative lead battery electrode * cycle life * graphite additive * titanium dioxide additive Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.521, year: 2006

  6. Study of the influence of carbon on the negative lead-acid battery electrodes

    Bača, P.; Micka, Karel; Křivík, P.; Tonar, K.; Tošer, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 196, č. 8 (2011), s. 3988-3992. ISSN 0378-7753 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : lead battery electrodes * doping with carbon * accelerated testing Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.951, year: 2011

  7. Contemporary Trends in Research and Development of Lead-Acid Batteries

    Micka, Karel

    Brno, 2003, s. 112-113. ISBN 80-214-2298-X. [International Conference on Advanced Batteries and Accumulators /4./. Brno (CZ), 15.06.2003-19.06.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/02/0794 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : lead accumulators * hybrid electric veficles Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  8. Rhabdomyolysis-Associated Mutations in Human LPIN1 Lead to Loss of Phosphatidic Acid Phosphohydrolase Activity.

    Schweitzer, George G; Collier, Sara L; Chen, Zhouji; Eaton, James M; Connolly, Anne M; Bucelli, Robert C; Pestronk, Alan; Harris, Thurl E; Finck, Brian N

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is an acute syndrome due to extensive injury of skeletal muscle. Recurrent rhabdomyolysis is often caused by inborn errors in intermediary metabolism, and recent work has suggested that mutations in the human gene encoding lipin 1 (LPIN1) may be a common cause of recurrent rhabdomyolysis in children. Lipin 1 dephosphorylates phosphatidic acid to form diacylglycerol (phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase; PAP) and acts as a transcriptional regulatory protein to control metabolic gene expression. Herein, a 3-year-old boy with severe recurrent rhabdomyolysis was determined to be a compound heterozygote for a novel c.1904T>C (p.Leu635Pro) substitution and a previously reported genomic deletion of exons 18-19 (E766-S838_del) in LPIN1. Western blotting with patient muscle biopsy lysates demonstrated a marked reduction in lipin 1 protein, while immunohistochemical staining for lipin 1 showed abnormal subcellular localization. We cloned cDNAs to express recombinant lipin 1 proteins harboring pathogenic mutations and showed that the E766-S838_del allele was not expressed at the RNA or protein level. Lipin 1 p.Leu635Pro was expressed, but the protein was less stable, was aggregated in the cytosol, and was targeted for proteosomal degradation. Another pathogenic single amino acid substitution, lipin 1 p.Arg725His, was well expressed and retained its transcriptional regulatory function. However, both p.Leu635Pro and p.Arg725His proteins were found to be deficient in PAP activity. Kinetic analyses demonstrated a loss of catalysis rather than diminished substrate binding. These data suggest that loss of lipin 1-mediated PAP activity may be involved in the pathogenesis of rhabdomyolysis in lipin 1 deficiency. PMID:25967228

  9. Enteric coating can lead to reduced antiplatelet effect of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid

    Fentz Haastrup, Peter; Grønlykke, Thor; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg

    2015-01-01

    Low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is widely used as antithrombotic prophylaxis. Enteric coated ASA has been developed in order to decrease the risk of gastrointestinal side effects. The consequences of enteric coating on pharmacokinetics and antiplatelet effect of ASA have not systematically been...... assessed. This MiniReview demonstrates that data from clinical trials indicate that enteric coating can reduce the antiplatelet effect of ASA compared to plain ASA. This is possibly due to decreased bioavailability of ASA caused by prolonged solvation and absorption of the enteric coated formulations...

  10. Al/Pb lightweight grids prepared by molten salt electroless plating for application in lead-acid batteries

    Hong, Bo; Jiang, Liangxing; Hao, Ketao; Liu, Fangyang; Yu, Xiaoying; Xue, Haitao; Li, Jie; Liu, Yexiang

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, a lightweight Pb plated Al (Al/Pb) grid was prepared by molten salt electroless plating. The SEM and bonding strength test show that the lead coating is deposited with a smooth surface and firm combination. CV test shows that the electrochemical properties of Al/Pb electrodes are stable. 2.0 V single-cell flooded lead-acid batteries with Al/Pb grids as negative collectors are assembled and the performances including 20 h capacity, rate capacity, cycle life, internal resistance are investigated. The results show that the cycle life of Al/Pb-grid cells is about 475 cycles and can meet the requirement of lead-acid batteries. Al/Pb grids are conducive to the refinement of PbSO4 grain, and thereby reduce the internal resistance of battery and advance the utilization of active mass. Moreover, weight of Al/Pb grid is only 55.4% of the conventional-grid. In this way, mass specific capacity of Al/Pb-grid negatives is 17.8% higher and the utilization of active mass is 6.5% higher than conventional-grid negatives.

  11. Distribution of soil arsenic species, lead and arsenic bound to humic acid molar mass fractions in a contaminated apple orchard

    Excessive application of lead arsenate pesticides in apple orchards during the early 1900s has led to the accumulation of lead and arsenic in these soils. Lead and arsenic bound to soil humic acids (HA) and soil arsenic species in a western Massachusetts apple orchard was investigated. The metal-humate binding profiles of Pb and As were analyzed with size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SEC-ICP-MS). It was observed that both Pb and As bind 'tightly' to soil HA molar mass fractions. The surface soils of the apple orchard contained a ratio of about 14:1 of water soluble As (V) to As (III), while mono-methyl (MMA) and di-methyl arsenic (DMA) were not detectable. The control soil contained comparatively very low levels of As (III) and As (V). The analysis of soil core samples demonstrated that As (III) and As (V) species are confined to the top 20 cm of the soil. - The distribution of arsenic species [i.e., As (III), As (V), and methylated arsenic species (DMA, MMA)] on the soil surface and in a depth profile as well as those associated with humic acids is discussed

  12. An in situ generated carbon as integrated conductive additive for hierarchical negative plate of lead-acid battery

    Saravanan, M.; Ganesan, M.; Ambalavanan, S.

    2014-04-01

    In this work, we report an in situ generated carbon from sugar as additive in the Negative Active Mass (NAM) which enhances the charge-discharge characteristics of the lead-acid cells. In situ formed sugar derived carbon (SDC) with leady oxide (LO) provides a conductive network and excellent protection against NAM irreversible lead sulfation. The effect of SDC and carbon black (CB) added negative plates are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), galvanostatic charge-discharge, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), respectively. The results show that subtle changes in the addition of carbon to NAM led to subsequent changes on the performance during partial-state-of-charge (PSoC) operations in lead-acid cells. Furthermore, SDC added cells exhibit remarkable improvement in the rate capability, active material utilization, cycle performance and charge acceptance compared to that of the conventional CB added cells. The impact of SDC with LO at various synthesis conditions on the electrochemical performance of the negative plate is studied systematically.

  13. Distribution of soil arsenic species, lead and arsenic bound to humic acid molar mass fractions in a contaminated apple orchard

    Newton, Kimberly [School of Natural Science, Hampshire College, 869 West Street, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States); Amarasiriwardena, Dulasiri [School of Natural Science, Hampshire College, 869 West Street, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States)]. E-mail: dula@hampshire.edu; Xing, Baoshan [Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2006-09-15

    Excessive application of lead arsenate pesticides in apple orchards during the early 1900s has led to the accumulation of lead and arsenic in these soils. Lead and arsenic bound to soil humic acids (HA) and soil arsenic species in a western Massachusetts apple orchard was investigated. The metal-humate binding profiles of Pb and As were analyzed with size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SEC-ICP-MS). It was observed that both Pb and As bind 'tightly' to soil HA molar mass fractions. The surface soils of the apple orchard contained a ratio of about 14:1 of water soluble As (V) to As (III), while mono-methyl (MMA) and di-methyl arsenic (DMA) were not detectable. The control soil contained comparatively very low levels of As (III) and As (V). The analysis of soil core samples demonstrated that As (III) and As (V) species are confined to the top 20 cm of the soil. - The distribution of arsenic species [i.e., As (III), As (V), and methylated arsenic species (DMA, MMA)] on the soil surface and in a depth profile as well as those associated with humic acids is discussed.

  14. Simulation of the current distribution in lead-acid batteries to investigate the dynamic charge acceptance in flooded SLI batteries

    Kowal, Julia; Schulte, Dominik; Sauer, Dirk Uwe [Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage Systems Group, Institute for Power Electronics and Electrical Drives (ISEA), RWTH Aachen University, 52066 Aachen (Germany); Karden, Eckhard [Ford Research and Advanced Engineering Europe, Aachen (Germany)

    2009-06-01

    Measurements show that the dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) of flooded SLI lead-acid batteries during micro-cycling in conventional and micro-hybrid vehicles is strongly dependent on the short-term history, such as previous charge or discharge, current rate, lowest state of charge in the last 24 h and more. Factors of 10 have been reported. Inhomogeneous current distribution, especially as a result of acid stratification, has been suggested to explain the DCA variability. This hypothesis was investigated by simulation of a two-dimensional macrohomogeneous model. It provides a spatial resolution of three elements in horizontal direction in each electrode and three elements in vertical direction. For an existing set of parameters, different current profiles were analyzed with regard to the current distribution during charging and discharging. In these simulations, a strong impact of the short-term history on current, charge and acid density distribution was found as well as a strong influence of micro-cycles on both charge distribution and acid stratification. (author)

  15. Active-material additives for high-rate lead/acid batteries: have there been any positive advances?

    McGregor, K.

    Low positive mass utilization poses a major problem for lead/acid batteries, particularly at high discharge rates, and is one of the major factors that limits the specific energy of the battery. The reasons for the incomplete discharge at high rates are generally ascribed to a combination of various polarization phenomena including: (i) poor acid transport from the bulk of the solution in the interior of the plate, and (ii) a continuous decrease in the conductivity of the plates due to formation of non-conductive PbSO 4. One approach to alleviating these problems is to improve the positive-plate porosity and/or conductivity by the incorporation of additives into the positive active-material. The purpose of this paper is to reew recent work with such additives, and to appraise their effectiveness towards raising battery performance.

  16. Electrochemical Investigation of Carbon as Additive to the Negative Electrode of Lead-Acid Battery

    Fernandez Matthew M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand of cycle life performance of Pb-acid batteries requires the improvement of the negative Pb electrode’s charge capacity. Electrochemical investigations were performed on Pb electrode and Pb+Carbon (Carbon black and Graphite electrodes to evaluate the ability of the additives to enhance the electrochemical faradaic reactions that occur during the cycle of Pb-acid battery negative electrode. The electrodes were characterized through Cyclic Voltammetry (CV, Potentiodynamic Polarization (PP, and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS. CV revealed that the addition of carbon on the Pb electrode increased anodic and cathodicreactions by tenfold. The kinetics of PbSO4 passivation measured through PPrevealed that the addition of Carbon on the Pb electrode accelerated the oxide formation by tenfold magnitude. The Nyquist plot measured through EIS suggest that the electrochemical mechanism and reaction kinetics is under charge-transfer. From the equivalent circuit and physical model, Pb+CB1 electrode has the lowest EIS parameters while Pb+G has the highest which is attributed to faster faradaic reaction.The Nyquist plot of the passivated Pb+CB1 electrode showed double semicircular shape. The first layer represents to the bulk passive PbSO4 layer and the second layer represents the Carbon+PbSO4 layer. The enhancements upon addition of carbon on the Pb electrode were attributed to the additive’s electrical conductivity and total surface area. The electrochemical active sites for the PbSO4 to nucleate and spread increases upon addition of electrical conductive and high surface area carbon additives.

  17. Phase transformations of high-purity PbI2 nanoparticles synthesized from lead-acid accumulator anodes

    Malevu, T. D.; Ocaya, R. O.; Tshabalala, K. G.

    2016-09-01

    High-purity hexagonal lead iodide nanoparticles have been synthesized from a depleted sealed lead acid battery anode. The synthesized product was found to consist of the rare 6R polytype form of PbI2 that is thought to have good potential in photovoltaic applications. We investigate the effects of annealing time and post-melting temperature on the structure and optical properties using 1.5418 Å CuKα radiation. Photoluminescence measurements were done under 150 W/221 nm wavelength xenon excitation. Phase transformation was observed through XRD peaks when annealing time increased from 0.5-5 h. The nanoparticle grain size and inter-planar distance appeared to be independent of annealing time. PL measurements show three broad peaks in a range of 400 nm to 700 nm that are attributed to excitonic, donor-acceptor pair and luminescence bands from the deep levels.

  18. Reductive smelting of spent lead-acid battery colloid sludge in a molten Na2CO3 salt

    Yu-jie Hu; Chao-bo Tang; Mo-tang Tang; Yong-ming Chen

    2015-01-01

    Lead extraction from spent lead–acid battery paste in a molten Na2CO3 salt containing ZnO as a sulfur-fixing agent was studied. Some influencing factors, including smelting temperature, reaction time, ZnO and salt dosages, were investigated in detail using single-factor experiments. The optimum conditions were determined as follows:T = 880°C;t = 60 min; Na2CO3/paste mass ratio = 2.8:1; and the ZnO dosage is equal to the stoichiometric requirement. Under the optimum conditions, the direct recovery rate of lead reached 98.14%. The re-sults suggested that increases in temperature and salt dosage improved the direct recovery rate of lead. XRD results and thermodynamic cal-culations indicated that the reaction approaches of lead and sulfur were PbSO4→Pb and PbSO4→ZnS, respectively. Sulfur was fixed in the form of ZnS, whereas the molten salt did not react with other components, serving only as a reaction medium.

  19. Dual effects of acetylsalicylic acid on ERK signaling and Mitf transcription lead to inhibition of melanogenesis.

    Nishio, Takashi; Usami, Mai; Awaji, Mizuki; Shinohara, Sumire; Sato, Kazuomi

    2016-01-01

    Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is widely used as an analgesic/antipyretic drug. It exhibits a wide range of biological effects, including preventative effects against heart attack and stroke, and the induction of apoptosis in various cancer cells. We previously found that ASA inhibits melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells. However, the mechanisms of how ASA down-regulates melanin synthesis remain unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of ASA on melanogenic pathways, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) transcription. ASA significantly inhibited melanin synthesis in a dose-dependent manner without oxidative stress and cell death. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the inhibitory effect of ASA might be due to the inhibition of Mitf gene transcription. Interestingly, ASA also induced ERK phosphorylation. Additionally, treatment with PD98059, a specific ERK phosphorylation inhibitor, abolished the anti-melanogenic effect of ASA. These results suggest that the depigmenting effect of ASA results from down-regulation of Mitf, which is induced by both the induction of ERK phosphorylation and the inhibition of Mitf transcription. PMID:26699907

  20. Radiation grafting of ionically crosslinked alginate/chitosan beads with acrylic acid for lead sorption

    Radiation-induced grafting of acrylic acid onto alginate/chitosan beads was performed in solution at a dose rate of 20.6 Gy/min of Co-60 gamma rays. The effect of absorbed dose on grafting yield was investigated. The characterization of the grafted and un-grafted beads was performed by FTIR spectroscopy and the swelling measurements at different pHs was studied. It is found that as the pH value increases the swelling degree increases up to pH 6 but with further increase in pH value the swelling decreases. Also, it is noticed that the grafting yield increased with increase the irradiation dose. Both un-grafted and grafted alginate/chitosan beads were examined as sorbents for the removal of Pb ions from aqueous solutions. The sorption behavior of the sorbents was examined through pH, and equilibrium measurements. Grafted alginate/chitosan beads presented higher sorption capacity for Pb ions than un-grafted beads. (author)

  1. Acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) deficiency leads to abnormal microglia behavior and disturbed retinal function

    Mutations in the acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) coding gene sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1 (SMPD1) cause Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) type A and B. Sphingomyelin storage in cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system cause hepatosplenomegaly and severe neurodegeneration in the brain of NPD patients. However, the effects of aSMase deficiency on retinal structure and microglial behavior have not been addressed in detail yet. Here, we demonstrate that retinas of aSMase−/− mice did not display overt neuronal degeneration but showed significantly reduced scotopic and photopic responses in electroretinography. In vivo fundus imaging of aSMase−/− mice showed many hyperreflective spots and staining for the retinal microglia marker Iba1 revealed massive proliferation of retinal microglia that had significantly enlarged somata. Nile red staining detected prominent phospholipid inclusions in microglia and lipid analysis showed significantly increased sphingomyelin levels in retinas of aSMase−/− mice. In conclusion, the aSMase-deficient mouse is the first example in which microglial lipid inclusions are directly related to a loss of retinal function. - Highlights: • aSMase-deficient mice show impaired retinal function and reactive microgliosis. • aSMase-deficient microglia express pro-inflammatory transcripts. • aSMase-deficient microglia proliferate and have increased cell body size. • In vivo imaging shows hyperreflective spots in the fundus of aSMase-deficient mice. • aSMase-deficient microglia accumulate sphingolipid-rich intracellular deposits

  2. Colorimetric detection of lead (II) based on silver nanoparticles capped with iminodiacetic acid

    We report on a colorimetric probe for the determination of Pb(II). It is based on the use of silver nanoparticles that have been functionalized with iminodiacetic acid (IDA-Ag NPs). The absorption spectrum and solution color of IDA-Ag NPs undergo dramatic changes on exposure to Pb(II) with a new absorption peak appearing at 650 nm and a concomitant color change from yellow to green. This is assumed to result from the aggregation of IDA-Ag NPs induced by Pb(II). Under optimum conditions, there is a linear relationship between the ratio of the absorbances at 650 and 396 nm, respectively, and the concentration of Pb(II) in the 0.4 to 8.0 μM concentration range, with a detection limit of 13 nM. The method was applied to the determination of Pb(II) in tap water and urea samples, and recoveries ranged from 93.7 % to 98.6 %. (author)

  3. Acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) deficiency leads to abnormal microglia behavior and disturbed retinal function

    Dannhausen, Katharina; Karlstetter, Marcus; Caramoy, Albert [Laboratory for Experimental Immunology of the Eye, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Volz, Cornelia; Jägle, Herbert [Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Liebisch, Gerhard [Institute for Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Utermöhlen, Olaf [Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene and Center for Molecular Medicine Cologne, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Langmann, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.langmann@uk-koeln.de [Laboratory for Experimental Immunology of the Eye, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany)

    2015-08-21

    Mutations in the acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) coding gene sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1 (SMPD1) cause Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) type A and B. Sphingomyelin storage in cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system cause hepatosplenomegaly and severe neurodegeneration in the brain of NPD patients. However, the effects of aSMase deficiency on retinal structure and microglial behavior have not been addressed in detail yet. Here, we demonstrate that retinas of aSMase{sup −/−} mice did not display overt neuronal degeneration but showed significantly reduced scotopic and photopic responses in electroretinography. In vivo fundus imaging of aSMase{sup −/−} mice showed many hyperreflective spots and staining for the retinal microglia marker Iba1 revealed massive proliferation of retinal microglia that had significantly enlarged somata. Nile red staining detected prominent phospholipid inclusions in microglia and lipid analysis showed significantly increased sphingomyelin levels in retinas of aSMase{sup −/−} mice. In conclusion, the aSMase-deficient mouse is the first example in which microglial lipid inclusions are directly related to a loss of retinal function. - Highlights: • aSMase-deficient mice show impaired retinal function and reactive microgliosis. • aSMase-deficient microglia express pro-inflammatory transcripts. • aSMase-deficient microglia proliferate and have increased cell body size. • In vivo imaging shows hyperreflective spots in the fundus of aSMase-deficient mice. • aSMase-deficient microglia accumulate sphingolipid-rich intracellular deposits.

  4. Understory vegetation leads to changes in soil acidity and in microbial communities 27 years after reforestation.

    Fu, Xiaoli; Yang, Fengting; Wang, Jianlei; Di, Yuebao; Dai, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Xinyu; Wang, Huimin

    2015-01-01

    Experiments with potted plants and removed understories have indicated that understory vegetation often affects the chemical and microbial properties of soil. In this study, we examined the mechanism and extent of the influence of understory vegetation on the chemical and microbial properties of soil in plantation forests. The relationships between the vegetational structure (diversity for different functional layers, aboveground biomass of understory vegetation, and species number) and soil properties (pH, microbial community structure, and levels of soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, and inorganic nitrogen) were analyzed across six reforestation types (three pure needleleaf forests, a needle-broadleaf mixed forest, a broadleaf forest, and a shrubland). Twenty-seven years after reforestation, soil pH significantly decreased by an average of 0.95 across reforestation types. Soil pH was positively correlated with the aboveground biomass of the understory. The levels of total, bacterial, and fungal phospholipid fatty acids, and the fungal:bacterial ratios were similar in the shrubland and the broadleaf forest. Both the aboveground biomass of the understory and the diversity of the tree layer positively influenced the fungal:bacterial ratio. Improving the aboveground biomass of the understory could alleviate soil acidification. An increase in the aboveground biomass of the understory, rather than in understory diversity, enhanced the functional traits of the soil microbial communities. The replacement of pure plantations with mixed-species stands, as well as the enhancement of understory recruitment, can improve the ecological functions of a plantation, as measured by the alleviation of soil acidification and increased fungal dominance. PMID:25261818

  5. Mechanistic insight into the nucleation and growth of oleic acid capped lead sulphide quantum dots.

    Shrestha, Aabhash; Spooner, Nigel A; Qiao, Shi Zhang; Dai, Sheng

    2016-05-18

    The quantum dots (QDs) of lead sulphide (PbS) are attractive near-infrared (NIR) active materials and have promising applications in a wide variety of applications. Till date many efforts have been made on optimizing its synthesis; however, current mechanistic understanding involving the nucleation and growth of these QDs has not reached the same level as that for other QDs. In this study, we present a detailed understanding on synthesis mechanism of PbS QDs so as to provide guidance for future QDs synthesis. The synthesis of PbS QDs is largely independent of classical nucleation process and the hot-injection of precursors may not be necessary for the successful synthesis of PbS QDs. The synthesis is basically a growth dominated process and is controlled by the Ostwald ripening of PbS QDs. In addition, reaction temperature and ligand are the key parameters for controlling QD growth. Temperature provides energy for overcoming activation barrier of QD growth while the ligands enhance QD growth via altering the environment for QD growth. Following the mechanism governing the synthesis of PbS QDs, we demonstrate that the size tuning of PbS QDs in ultra-small (synthesis. PMID:27156571

  6. Experimental Study on Acid Leaching of Lead Matte%铅冰铜盐酸浸出试验研究

    蒋朝金; 黄海飞; 杨跃新

    2015-01-01

    采用盐酸加入双氧水氧化浸出铅冰铜,使铅冰铜中的铜与铅、银、金等金属分离而分别回收,探索从铅冰铜高效、清洁回收有价金属的新工艺。通过试验,详细考察盐酸起始浓度、氧化剂的用量、液固比、反应温度、搅拌速度和浸出时间对铜浸出率的影响,得出铅冰铜酸性氧化浸出的最佳条件。%The oxidation leaching of lead matte by adding hydrogen peroxide under hydrochloric acid was carried out to separate and recycle the Cu,Pb,Ag,Au and other metals,so as to explore a new technology of high efficiency and clean recycling of valuable metals.Through the test,the effect of initial concentration of hydrochloric acid,oxidant dosage,liquid solid ratio,reaction temperature,stirring speed and leaching time was investigated in detail on the leaching rate of copper,and the optimum leaching condition of lead matte was achieved.

  7. Investigation of corrosion and stability of lead-brass alloy in acid and neutral solutions using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    Badawy, W.A.; El-Egamy, S.S.; Azab, A.S. [Univ. of Cairo, Giza (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-11-01

    The corrosion behavior of a lead-brass alloy (58% Cu, 1.8% Pb, and 42.2% Zn) was investigated in naturally aerated acid and neutral chloride and sulfate solutions under open-circuit and potentiostatic control conditions using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Corrosion under open-circuit conditions was caused mainly by the dissolved oxygen depolarizer, copper (I) chloride (CuCl) or copper (I) sulfate (Cu{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), together with some surface oxides, which were assumed to be corrosion products, leading to electrode passivation. Impedance spectra in the form of Nyquist plots consisted of depressed semicircles with different degrees of depression. These depressions increased with dilution of the electrolyte rather than with immersion time. This behavior was attributed partially to inhomogeneities and surface roughness. Data were analyzed in terms of the constant phase element model, which reduced to infinite Warburg diffusion in neutral solutions. At high cathodic overpotentials, reduction of hydrogen (H{sup +}) in acid media and of oxygen in neutral media seemed to be rate controlling. Potentiostatic polarization at potentials > {minus}0.5 V led to selective dissolution of zinc and accumulation of corrosion products. At potentials > {minus}0.2 V, pitting occurred.

  8. Predicting state of charge of lead-acid batteries for hybrid electric vehicles by extended Kalman filter

    This paper describes and introduces a new nonlinear predictor and a novel battery model for estimating the state of charge (SoC) of lead-acid batteries for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). Many problems occur for a traditional SoC indicator, such as offset, drift and long term state divergence, therefore this paper proposes a technique based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF) in order to overcome these problems. The underlying dynamic behavior of each cell is modeled using two capacitors (bulk and surface) and three resistors (terminal, surface and end). The SoC is determined from the voltage present on the bulk capacitor. In this new model, the value of the surface capacitor is constant, whereas the value of the bulk capacitor is not. Although the structure of the model, with two constant capacitors, has been previously reported for lithium-ion cells, this model can also be valid and reliable for lead-acid cells when used in conjunction with an EKF to estimate SoC (with a little variation). Measurements using real-time road data are used to compare the performance of conventional internal resistance (Rint) based methods for estimating SoC with those predicted from the proposed state estimation schemes. The results show that the proposed method is superior to the more traditional techniques, with accuracy in estimating the SoC within 3%

  9. Stannous sulfate as an electrolyte additive for lead acid battery made from a novel ultrafine leady oxide

    Wang, Qin; Liu, Jianwen; Yang, Danni; Yuan, Xiqing; Li, Lei; Zhu, Xinfeng; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Yucheng; Sun, Xiaojuan; Liang, Sha; Hu, Jingping; Kumar, R. Vasant; Yang, Jiakuan

    2015-07-01

    The effects of SnSO4 as an electrolyte additive on the microstructure of positive plate and electrochemical performance of lead acid battery made from a novel leady oxide are investigated. The novel leady oxide is synthesized through leaching of spent lead paste in citric acid solution. The novel leady oxides are used to prepare working electrode (WE) subjected to electrochemical cyclic voltammetry (CV) tests. Moreover, the novel leady oxides are used as active materials of positive plate assembled as a testing battery of 1.85 A h capacity. In CV tests, SEM/EDX results show that the major crystalline phase of the paste in WE after CV cycles is PbSO4. The larger column-shaped PbSO4 crystals easily generate in the paste of WE without an electrolyte additive of SnSO4. However, PbSO4 crystals significantly become smaller with the addition of SnSO4 in the electrolyte. In batteries testing, SEM results show that an electrolyte additive of SnSO4 could effectively decrease PbO2 particle size in the positive active materials of the teardown battery at the end of charging procedure. It is indicated that an electrolyte additive of SnSO4 could have a positive influence on restraining larger particles of irreversible sulfation in charge/discharge cycles of battery testing.

  10. Battery energy-storage systems — an emerging market for lead/acid batteries

    Cole, J. F.

    Although the concept of using batteries for lead levelling and peak shaving has been known for decades, only recently have these systems become commercially viable. Changes in the structure of the electric power supply industry have required these companies to seek more cost-effective ways of meeting the needs of their customers. Through experience gained, primarily in the USA, batteries have been shown to provide multiple benefits to electric utilities. Also, lower maintenance batteries, more reliable electrical systems, and the availability of methods to predict costs and benefits have made battery energy-storage systems more attractive. Technology-transfer efforts in the USA have resulted in a willingness of electric utilities to install a number of these systems for a variety of tasks, including load levelling, peak shaving, frequency regulation and spinning reserve. Additional systems are being planned for several additional locations for similar applications, plus transmission and distribution deferral and enhanced power quality. In the absence of US champions such as the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute, ILZRO is attempting to mount a technology-transfer programme to bring the benefits of battery energy-storage to European power suppliers. As a result of these efforts, a study group on battery energy-storage systems has been established with membership primarily in Germany and Austria. Also, a two-day workshop, prepared by the Electric Power Research Institute was held in Dublin. Participants included representatives of several European power suppliers. As a result, ESB National Grid of Ireland has embarked upon a detailed analysis of the costs and benefits of a battery energy-storage system in their network. Plans for the future include continuation of this technology-transfer effort, assistance in the Irish effort, and a possible approach to the European Commission for funding.

  11. The effects of lead on delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, growth, hemoglobin content, and reproduction in Daphnia magna.

    Berglind, R; Dave, G; Sjöbeck, M L

    1985-04-01

    The effects of continuous exposure to lead for various periods and recovery in clean water on delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) activity, hemoglobin content, growth, and reproduction were studied in Daphnia magna. Steady-state inhibition of ALA-D activity was reached within 2 days in 16, 64, and 256 micrograms Pb liter-1, but restoration in clean water was prolonged in relation to previous exposure. In spite of the inhibition of ALA-D activity hemoglobin content increased after 2 days in 16 and 24 micrograms Pb liter-1. Furthermore, hemoglobin content in previously exposed animals increased during recovery in clean water. Maximum hemoglobin content (2.9 times control value) was found after 2 days recovery of animals exposed to 64 micrograms Pb liter-1. These findings suggest that some enzyme(s) other than ALA-D in the biosynthetic pathway of hemoglobin formation is (are) more sensitive to lead. Growth, in contrast to reproduction, was stimulated by low concentrations of lead (less than 64 micrograms Pb liter-1), although in 256 micrograms Pb liter-1 growth was also significantly impaired. After 19 days the 16 and 50% reproductive impairment concentrations were less than or equal to 1 and 10 micrograms Pb liter-1, respectively. PMID:3987601

  12. [Distribution characteristics of lead in different particle size fractions of surface soil of a lead-acid battery factory contaminated site].

    Yue, Xi; Sun, Ti-chang; Huang, Jin-lou

    2013-09-01

    In this research, six topsoil samples (0-20 cm) were collected in the heavy-metal lead contaminated soil of one lead battery factory in south-west China as research object, which were later divided into seven particle size fractions, and analyzed for the lead concentration as well as the correlation between the lead concentration and the organic matter content. The result showed that five soil samples were contaminated with lead with different pollution levels, and there were two different trends in the changes of lead concentration as of the change of soil particle size. The lead concentration of the three samples from sewage treatment workshop, the workshop A and the workshop B, showed a first declining and then ascending trend with the decreasing particle size. The lead concentration of the soil samples of the packing workshop and the former production workshop A showed a decreasing trend when the particle size decreased. The lead concentration and the organic matter content showed a positive linear correlation (R2 = 0.8232). Soil organic matter has the ability of lead enrichment, and the ability declines with the decreasing particle size. Soil texture may be an important factor for the interaction between soil organic matter and lead distribution. PMID:24289023

  13. Lead in Missouri Streams: Monitoring Pollution from Mining with an Assay for Erythrocyte [delta]-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase (ALA-D) in Fish Blood

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The activity of the erythrocyte enzyme d-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) has long been used as a biomarker of lead exposure in humans and waterfowl and,...

  14. Implication of organic acids in the long-distance transport and the accumulation of lead in Sesuvium portulacastrum and Brassica juncea.

    Ghnaya, Tahar; Zaier, Hanen; Baioui, Raoudha; Sghaier, Souhir; Lucchini, Giorgio; Sacchi, Gian Attilio; Lutts, Stanley; Abdelly, Chedly

    2013-01-01

    The implication of organic acids in Pb translocation was studied in two species varying in shoot lead accumulation, Sesuvium portulacastrum and Brassica juncea. Citric, fumaric, malic and α-cetoglutaric acids were separated and determined by HPLC technique in shoots, roots and xylem saps of the both species grown in nutrient solutions added with 200 and 400 μM of Pb(II). The lead content of the xylem saps was determined by ICP-MS. Results showed that S. portulacastrum is more tolerant to Pb than B. juncea. Lead concentration in xylem sap of the S. portulacastrum was significantly greater than in that of B. juncea. For both species, a positive correlation was established between lead and citrate concentrations in xylem sap. However minor relationship was observed for fumaric, malic and α-cetoglutaric acids. In the shoots lead treatment also induced a significant increase in citric acid concentration. Both observations suggest the implication of citric acid in lead translocation and shoot accumulation in S. portulacastrum and B. juncea. The relatively high accumulation of citric acid in xylem sap and shoot of S. portulacastrum could explain its high potential to translocate and accumulate this metal in shoot suggesting their possible use to remediate Pb polluted soils. PMID:23026160

  15. Investigation of complexing of bismuth(3), iron(3), lead(2), manganese(2) and cadmium(2) ions with maleic and methacrylic acids copolymer

    Copolymers of maleic and methacrylic acids were synthesized by the method of heterogeneous copolymerization. Stability constants of Bi(3), Fe(3), Pb(2), Mn(2), Cd(2) complexes with copolymer were determined by the method of equilibrium dialysis. Possibility of using copolymer of maleic and methacrylic acids for masking of bismuth and iron ions when determining manganese, lead and cadmium, is concluded

  16. System dynamic model and charging control of lead-acid battery for stand-alone solar PV system

    Huang, B.J.

    2010-05-01

    The lead-acid battery which is widely used in stand-alone solar system is easily damaged by a poor charging control which causes overcharging. The battery charging control is thus usually designed to stop charging after the overcharge point. This will reduce the storage energy capacity and reduce the service time in electricity supply. The design of charging control system however requires a good understanding of the system dynamic behaviour of the battery first. In the present study, a first-order system dynamics model of lead-acid battery at different operating points near the overcharge voltage was derived experimentally, from which a charging control system based on PI algorithm was developed using PWM charging technique. The feedback control system for battery charging after the overcharge point (14 V) was designed to compromise between the set-point response and the disturbance rejection. The experimental results show that the control system can suppress the battery voltage overshoot within 0.1 V when the solar irradiation is suddenly changed from 337 to 843 W/m2. A long-term outdoor test for a solar LED lighting system shows that the battery voltage never exceeded 14.1 V for the set point 14 V and the control system can prevent the battery from overcharging. The test result also indicates that the control system is able to increase the charged energy by 78%, as compared to the case that the charging stops after the overcharge point (14 V). © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1980

    1981-03-01

    Work performed during Oct. 1, 1979 to Sept. 30, 1980 for the development of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion is described. During this report period many of the results frpm Globe Battery's design, materials and process development programs became evident in the achievement of the ISOA (Improved State of Art) specific energy, specific power, and energy efficiency goals while testing in progress also indicates that the cycle life goal can be met. These programs led to the establishment of a working pilot assembly line which produced the first twelve volt ISOA modules. Five of these modules were delivered to the National Battery Test Laboratory during the year for capacity, power and life testing, and assembly is in progress of three full battery systems for installation in vehicles. In the battery subsystem area, design of the acid circulation system for a ninety-six volt ISOA battery pack was completed and assembly of the first such system was initiated. Charger development has been slowed by problems encountered with reliability of some circuits but a prototype unit is being prepared which will meet the charging requirements of our ninety-six volt pack. This charger will be available during the 1981 fiscal year.

  18. Three-layered absorptive glass mat separator with membrane for application in valve-regulated lead-acid batteries

    Naidenov, V.; Pavlov, D.; Cherneva, M.

    During charge and discharge of the lead-acid cell equal amounts of H 2SO 4 participate in the reactions at the two types of plates (electrodes). However, the charge and discharge reactions at the positive plates involve also 2 mol of water per every mole of reacted PbO 2. Consequently, a concentration difference appears in the electrolyte between the two electrodes (horizontal stratification), which affects the reversibility of the processes at the two electrodes and thus the cycle life of the battery. The present paper proposes the use of a three-layered absorptive glass mat (AGM) separator, the middle layer playing the role of a membrane that divides (separates) the anodic and cathodic electrolyte spaces, and controls the exchange rates of H 2SO 4, H + ions, O 2 and H 2O flows between the two electrode spaces. To be able to perform this membrane function, the thinner middle AGM layer (0.2 mm) is processed with an appropriate polymeric emulsion to acquire balanced hydrophobic/hydrophilic properties, which sustain constant H 2SO 4 concentration in the two electrode spaces during cycling. Three types of polymeric emulsions have been used for treatment of the membrane: (a) polyvinylpyrollidonestyrene (MPVS), (b) polyvinylpyrrolidone "Luviskol" (MPVP), or (c) polytetrafluorethylene modified with Luviskol (MMAGM). It is established experimentally that the MMAGM membrane maintains equal acid concentration in the anodic and cathodic spaces (no horizontal stratification) during battery cycling and hence ensures longer cycle life performance.

  19. Ameliorative effects of ferulic Acid against lead acetate-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunctions and toxicity in prepubertal rat brain.

    Lalith Kumar, Venkareddy; Muralidhara

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiological evidence has shown higher susceptibility of Children to the adverse effects of lead (Pb) exposure. However, experimental studies on Pb-induced neurotoxicity in prepubertal (PP) rats are limited. The present study aimed to examine the propensity of ferulic acid (FA), a commonly occurring phenolic acid in staple foods (fruits, vegetables, cereals, coffee etc.) to abrogate Pb-induced toxicity. Initially, we characterized Pb-induced adverse effects among PP rats exposed to Pb acetate (1,000-3,000 ppm in drinking water) for 5 weeks in terms of locomotor phenotype, activity of 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in the blood, blood Pb levels and oxidative stress in brain regions. Further, the ameliorative effects of oral supplements of FA (25 mg/kg bw/day) were investigated in PP rats exposed to Pb (3,000 ppm). Pb intoxication increased the locomotor activity and FA supplements partially reversed the phenotype, while the reduced ALAD activity was also restored. FA significantly abrogated the enhanced oxidative stress in cerebellum (Cb) and hippocampus (Hc) as evidenced in terms of ROS generation, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls. Further, Pb-mediated perturbations in the glutathione levels and activity of enzymic antioxidants were also markedly restored. Furthermore, the protective effect of FA was discernible in striatum in terms of reduced oxidative stress, restored cholinergic activity and dopamine levels. Interestingly, reduced activity levels of mitochondrial complex I in Cb and enhanced levels in Hc among Pb-intoxicated rats were ameliorated by FA supplements. FA also decreased the number of damaged cells in cornu ammonis area CA1 and dentate gyrus as reflected by the histoarchitecture of Hc among Pb intoxicated rats. Collectively, our findings in the PP model allow us to hypothesize that ingestion of common phenolics such as FA may significantly alleviate the neurotoxic effects of Pb which may be largely attributed to its ability

  20. Constant and pulse power capabilities of lead-acid batteries made with thin metal film (TMF®) for different applications

    Bhardwaj, R. C.

    Conventional power sources are able to deliver high energy, but high-power demands can be met only with advanced electrochemical or heavy battery devices. BOLDER Technologies has developed a high-power cell (86 g, 1.0 A h, 2 V) based on patented Thin Metal Film (TMF®) Technology which is capable of delivering very high constant or pulse power for several applications. Six cells in a 0.5-1 kg pack are capable of delivering 1 to 1000 A with a stiff voltage plateau of 12 V for periods ranging from 1 h to a few milliseconds, respectively, and constant power not provided by any other battery chemistry. The BOLDER TMF® cells are made of thin lead foil and PbO active material, which gives enormous cost advantages compared with existing lead-acid batteries or with competing battery systems. This paper presents the high constant-power and pulse-power delivery characteristics of batteries made with TMF technology. The new concept of developing hybrid power sources with proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) or other battery types for electronic communication and turbine-starting applications is also discussed.

  1. β-lactam antibiotic-induced release of lipoteichoic acid from Staphylococcus aureus leads to activation of neutrophil granulocytes

    Hartung Thomas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes (PMN are phagocytes of the first line of antimicrobial defense. Previously we demonstrated that lipoteichoic acid (LTA from Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus directly activates neutrophil granulocytes. Others have reported that exposure of S. aureus to β-lactam antibiotics leads to LTA release. In the present study we addressed the question whether exposure of S. aureus to β-lactam antibiotics or antibiotics of other groups results in the generation of PMN-stimulating activity and whether this activity can be attributed to LTA. Methods S. aureus were exposed to flucloxacillin, a β-lactam antibiotic or to the protein synthesis-inhibitors erythromycin and gentamicin, or to ciprofloxacin, a gyrase inhibitor. Supernatants of the antibiotic-treated bacteria were assayed for their LTA content and for their effect on PMN functions. Results We observed that exposure of S. aureus to flucloxacillin and, to a lesser degree to ciprofloxacin, but not to erythromycin or gentamicin led to LTA release. Co-incubation of neutrophil granulocytes with LTA-containing supernatants led to PMN activation as assed by morphological changes, release of IL-8, delay of spontaneous apoptosis and enhanced phagocytic activity. Depletion of LTA from the supernatants markedly reduced their PMN-activating capacity. Conclusion The findings suggest that, via the activation of PMN, antibiotic-induced LTA release from S. aureus leads to enhanced antimicrobial activity of the innate immune defense mechanisms.

  2. A comparison of lead-acid and lithium-based battery behavior and capacity fade in off-grid renewable charging applications

    The effects of variable charging rates and incomplete charging in off-grid renewable energy applications are studied by comparing battery degradation rates and mechanisms in lead-acid, LCO (lithium cobalt oxide), LCO-NMC (LCO-lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide composite), and LFP (lithium iron phosphate) cells charged with wind-based charging protocols. Poor pulse charge acceptance, particularly for long pulses, contributes to incomplete charging and rapid degradation of lead-acid cells due to apparent high rates of sulphation and resistance growth. Partial charging and pulse charging, common lead-acid stressors in off-grid applications, are found to have little if any effect on degradation in the lithium-based cells when compared to constant current charging. These cells all last much longer than the lead-acid cells; the LFP batteries show the greatest longevity, with minimal capacity fade observed after over 1000 cycles. Pulse charge acceptance is found to depend on pulse length in lead-acid and LFP cells, but not in LCO and LCO-NMC cells. Excellent power performance and consistent voltage and power behavior during cycling suggest that LFP batteries are well-suited to withstand the stresses associated with off-grid renewable energy storage and have the potential to reduce system lifetime costs. - Highlights: • Degradation in lead-acid and Li-ion batteries compared in off-grid wind systems. • Lead-acid cells show poor pulse charge acceptance and rapid degradation. • Li-ion cells perform better with off-grid stressors like pulsed and partial charge. • Longevity of LFP (lithium iron phosphate) cells reduces their lifetime cost in off-grid renewable systems

  3. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1980

    1981-03-01

    The first development effort in improving lead-acid batteries fore electric vehicles was the improvement of electric vehicle batteries using flat pasted positive plates and the second was for a tubular long life positive plate. The investigation of 32 component variables based on a flat pasted positive plate configuration is described. The experiment tested 96 - six volt batteries for characterization at 0, 25, and 40/sup 0/C and for cycle life capability at the 3 hour discharge rate with a one cycle, to 80% DOD, per day regime. Four positive paste formulations were selected. Two commercially available microporous separators were used in conjunction with a layer of 0.076 mm thick glass mat. Two concentrations of battery grade sulfuric acid were included in the test to determine if an increase in concentration would improve the battery capacity sufficient to offset the added weight of the more concentrated solution. Two construction variations, 23 plate elements with outside negative plates and 23 plate elements with outside positive plates, were included. The second development effort was an experiment designed to study the relationship of 32 component variables based on a tubular positive plate configuration. 96-six volt batteries were tested at various discharge rates at 0, 25, and 40/sup 0/C along with cycle life testing at 80% DOD of the 3 hour rate. 75 batteries remain on cycle life testing with 17 batteries having in excess of 365 life cycles. Preliminary conclusions indicate: the tubular positive plate is far more capable of withstanding deep cycles than is the flat pasted plate; as presently designed 40 Whr/kg can not be achieved, since 37.7 Whr/kg was the best tubular data obtained; electrolyte circulation is impaired due to the tight element fit in the container; and a redesign is required to reduce the battery weight which will improve the Whr/kg value. This redesign is complete and new molds have been ordered.

  4. Hydrogen bonding asymmetric star-shape derivative of bile acid leads to supramolecular fibrillar aggregates that wrap into micrometer spheres.

    Myllymäki, Teemu T T; Nonappa; Yang, Hongjun; Liljeström, Ville; Kostiainen, Mauri A; Malho, Jani-Markus; Zhu, X X; Ikkala, Olli

    2016-09-14

    We report that star-shaped molecules with cholic acid cores asymmetrically grafted by low molecular weight polymers with hydrogen bonding end-groups undergo aggregation to nanofibers, which subsequently wrap into micrometer spherical aggregates with low density cores. Therein the facially amphiphilic cholic acid (CA) is functionalized by four flexible allyl glycidyl ether (AGE) side chains, which are terminated with hydrogen bonding 2-ureido-4[1H]pyrimidinone (UPy) end-groups as connected by hexyl spacers, denoted as CA(AGE6-C6H12-UPy)4. This wedge-shaped molecule is expected to allow the formation of a rich variety of solvent-dependent structures due to the complex interplay of interactions, enabled by its polar/nonpolar surface-active structure, the hydrophobicity of the CA in aqueous medium, and the possibility to control hydrogen bonding between UPy molecules by solvent selection. In DMSO, the surfactant-like CA(AGE6-C6H12-UPy)4 self-assembles into nanometer scale micelles, as expected due to its nonpolar CA apexes, solubilized AGE6-C6H12-UPy chains, and suppressed mutual hydrogen bonds between the UPys. Dialysis in water leads to nanofibers with lateral dimensions of 20-50 nm. This is explained by promoted aggregation as the hydrogen bonds between UPy molecules start to become activated, the reduced solvent dispersibility of the AGE-chains, and the hydrophobicity of CA. Finally, in pure water the nanofibers wrap into micrometer spheres having low density cores. In this case, strong complementary hydrogen bonds between UPy molecules of different molecules can form, thus promoting lateral interactions between the nanofibers, as allowed by the hydrophobic hexyl spacers. The wrapping is illustrated by transmission electron microscopy tomographic 3D reconstructions. More generally, we foresee hierarchically structured matter bridging the length scales from molecular to micrometer scale by sequentially triggering supramolecular interactions. PMID:27491728

  5. Determining soil enzyme activities for the assessment of fungi and citric acid-assisted phytoextraction under cadmium and lead contamination.

    Mao, Liang; Tang, Dong; Feng, Haiwei; Gao, Yang; Zhou, Pei; Xu, Lurong; Wang, Lumei

    2015-12-01

    Microorganism or chelate-assisted phytoextraction is an effective remediation tool for heavy metal polluted soil, but investigations into its impact on soil microbial activity are rarely reported. Consequently, cadmium (Cd)- and lead (Pb)-resistant fungi and citric acid (CA) were introduced to enhance phytoextraction by Solanum nigrum L. under varied Cd and Pb pollution levels in a greenhouse pot experiment. We then determined accumulation of Cd and Pb in S. nigrum and the soil enzyme activities of dehydrogenase, phosphatase, urease, catalase, sucrase, and amylase. Detrended canonical correspondence analysis (DCCA) was applied to assess the interactions between remediation strategies and soil enzyme activities. Results indicated that the addition of fungi, CA, or their combination enhanced the root biomass of S. nigrum, especially at the high-pollution level. The combined treatment of CA and fungi enhanced accumulation of Cd about 22-47 % and of Pb about 13-105 % in S. nigrum compared with the phytoextraction alone. However, S. nigrum was not shown to be a hyperaccumulator for Pb. Most enzyme activities were enhanced after remediation. The DCCA ordination graph showed increasing enzyme activity improvement by remediation in the order of phosphatase, amylase, catalase, dehydrogenase, and urease. Responses of soil enzyme activities were similar for both the addition of fungi and that of CA. In summary, results suggest that fungi and CA-assisted phytoextraction is a promising approach to restoring heavy metal polluted soil. PMID:26286803

  6. The Effect of Oil and Filer Contents on the Porosity of Lead Acid Battery Separators Produced From Polyethylene

    Zyad Rafa'a Zair

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation a high density polyethylene (HDPE was used as a substitute to polyvinylchloride in the production of lead acid battery separators. This has been achieved by preparing mixtures of different percentages of the feed materials which include a high density polyethylene (HDPE locally produced, filler materials such as silica and oils such as dioctylphthalate (DOP or paraffin which were added to the mixture to improve the final properties of the separator. The materials were compounded by two roll-mills under the same conditions. The following parameters are involved: 1- Studying the use of a high density polyethylene as a binder to film components with (15-30 wt.%. 2- Studying the use of finely divided silica sand with (25-45 wt.% as a medium to oil adsorption.- Studying the use of two type plasticizers (Paraffin or DOP with (35-55 wt. %. as a creative medium to films porosity.The best results of the feed materials in the mixture were selected so as to give the highest porosity using 15 wt. % PE, 30 wt. % filler, and 55 wt. % oil. It has been found that the films with DOP oil give higher porosity.

  7. Investigation and application of polysiloxane-based gel electrolyte in valve-regulated lead-acid battery

    Tang, Zheng; Wang, Jianming; Mao, Xian-xian; Shao, Haibo; Chen, Quanqi; Xu, Zhihua; Zhang, Jianqing

    Polysiloxane-based gel electrolyte (PBGE) is prepared and investigated as a new gel electrolyte for valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries. PBGE particles, characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), reveal good stability and their particle sizes are 30-50 nm. The initial cyclic properties of the absorptive glass mat (AGM)-PBGE and AGM-colloid silica gel electrolyte (CSGE) hybrid batteries are investigated by electrochemical techniques, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The addition of PBGE improves the utilization efficiency of positive active material (PAM) in AGM-PBGE hybrid batteries and thus enhances the batteries capacity compared with the AGM-CSGE reference batteries. Cyclic overdischarge tests show that the AGM-PBGE hybrid batteries have superior recharge and discharge during partial-state-of-charge (PSoC). It is also found that the greatly enhanced electrochemical performance of the AGM-PBGE batteries may be due to higher charge efficiency, good conductivity with lower internal resistance and the open three-dimensional network structure of the polyelectrolyte. The analysis results of SEM and XRD indicate that softening and shedding of positive active material are the main causes of failure for the two hybrid batteries.

  8. Investigation and application of polysiloxane-based gel electrolyte in valve-regulated lead-acid battery

    Tang, Zheng; Wang, Jianming; Shao, Haibo; Chen, Quanqi; Xu, Zhihua [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Mao, Xian-xian [Zhejiang Narada Power Source Co., Ltd., Hangzhou 310013 (China); Zhang, Jianqing [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Chinese State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Shenyang 110015 (China)

    2007-05-25

    Polysiloxane-based gel electrolyte (PBGE) is prepared and investigated as a new gel electrolyte for valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries. PBGE particles, characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), reveal good stability and their particle sizes are 30-50 nm. The initial cyclic properties of the absorptive glass mat (AGM)-PBGE and AGM-colloid silica gel electrolyte (CSGE) hybrid batteries are investigated by electrochemical techniques, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The addition of PBGE improves the utilization efficiency of positive active material (PAM) in AGM-PBGE hybrid batteries and thus enhances the batteries capacity compared with the AGM-CSGE reference batteries. Cyclic overdischarge tests show that the AGM-PBGE hybrid batteries have superior recharge and discharge during partial-state-of-charge (PSoC). It is also found that the greatly enhanced electrochemical performance of the AGM-PBGE batteries may be due to higher charge efficiency, good conductivity with lower internal resistance and the open three-dimensional network structure of the polyelectrolyte. The analysis results of SEM and XRD indicate that softening and shedding of positive active material are the main causes of failure for the two hybrid batteries. (author)

  9. Lead-acid and lithium-ion batteries for the Chinese electric bike market and implications on future technology advancement

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Burke, Andrew F.; Wei, Xuezhe

    China has been experiencing a rapid increase in battery-powered personal transportation since the late 1990s due to the strong growth of the electric bike and scooter (i.e. e-bike) market. Annual sales in China reached 17 million bikes year -1 in 2006. E-bike growth has been in part due to improvements in rechargeable valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery technology, the primary battery type for e-bikes. Further improvements in technology and a transition from VRLA to lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries will impact the future market growth of this transportation mode in China and abroad. Battery performance and cost for these two types are compared to assess the feasibility of a shift from VRLA to Li-ion battery e-bikes. The requirements for batteries used in e-bikes are assessed. A widespread shift from VRLA to Li-ion batteries seems improbable in the near future for the mass market given the cost premium relative to the performance advantages of Li-ion batteries. As both battery technologies gain more real-world use in e-bike applications, both will improve. Cell variability is a key problematic area to be addressed with VRLA technology. For Li-ion technology, safety and cost are the key problem areas which are being addressed through the use of new cathode materials.

  10. Effects of exogenous salicylic acid on growth and H2O2-metabolizing enzymes in rice seedlings under lead stress

    CHEN Jing; ZHU Cheng; LI Li-ping; SUN Zhong-yang; PAN Xue-bo

    2007-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) was an essential component of the plant resistance to pathogens and also plays an important role in mediating plant response to some abiotic stress. The possible effects of SA on the growth and H2O2-metabolizing enzymes in rice seedlings under lead stress were studied. When rice seedlings grown in nutrient solution containing Pb2+ (0, 0.05, 0.15, 0.25 mmol/L) for 18 d, the plant biomass as well as the chlorophyll content of leaves decreased with increased Pb concentration. The pretreatment with SA (treated with 0.1 mmol/L SA for 48 h before Pb stress) partially protected seedlings from Pb toxicity. The chlorophyll contents in leaves were significant higher in leaves of Pb-exposed with SA pre-treatment seedlings than in Pb-exposed plants at the same Pb intensity. SA pre-treated alone could significantly increase the length of shoot and root of seedlings but the vigour difference was not marked under long-term exposure to Pb toxicity. SA pre-treated influence the H2O2 level in leaves of seedlings by up-regulating the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and repressing the activity of catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) depending on the concentrations of Pb2+ in the growth medium. The results supported the conclusion that SA played a positive role in rice seedlings against Pb toxicity.

  11. Comparison of different approaches for lifetime prediction of electrochemical systems - Using lead-acid batteries as example

    Sauer, Dirk Uwe [Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage Systems Group, Institute for Power Electronics and Electrical Drives (ISEA), RWTH Aachen University, Jaegerstrasse 17/19, D-52066 Aachen (Germany); Wenzl, Heinz [Electrical Energy Storage Group, Institute of Electrical Power Engineering, Clausthal University of Technology and Beratung fuer Batterien und Energietechnik, Am Bergwaeldchen 27, D-37520 Osterode (Germany)

    2008-02-01

    Different approaches for lifetime prediction for electrochemical energy storage devices are discussed with respect to their general concepts. Examples for their implementation and advantages and disadvantages are given. The models are based on: (a) physical and chemical processes and their interaction as regards ageing effects; (b) weighting of the Ah throughput whenever the operating conditions deviate from the standard conditions used for determining the lifetime under laboratory conditions; (c) an event-oriented concept from mechanical engineering (Woehler curves) which is based on a pattern recognition approach to identify severe operating conditions. Examples and details are explained for lead-acid batteries. The approaches can be applied to other electrochemical technologies including fuel cells. However, it is beyond the scope of this paper, to describe the models in all mathematical details. The models are used in system design and identification of appropriate operating strategies and therefore they must have high computational speed to allow for a comparison of a large number of system variations. (author)

  12. Characterization of lead (Ⅱ)-containing activated carbon and its excellent performance of extending lead-acid battery cycle life for high-rate partial-state-of-charge operation

    Tong, Pengyang; Zhao, Ruirui; Zhang, Rongbo; Yi, Fenyun; Shi, Guang; Li, Aiju; Chen, Hongyu

    2015-07-01

    In this work, lead (Ⅱ)-containing activated carbon (Pb@C) is prepared as the additive of negative active mass (NAM), aiming to enhance the electrochemical characteristics of the lead-acid battery. The characters of the Pb@C materials and their electrochemical properties are characterized by XRD, SEM, back-scattering electron image (BESI) and electrochemical methods. The lead (Ⅱ) ions disperse well in the carbon bulk of the obtained Pb@C materials as observed, and these materials exhibit remarkable higher specific capacitance and higher hydrogen evolution over-potential compared with original carbons. Many 2 V lead-acid batteries are assembled manually in our lab, and then the batteries are disassembled after formation and high-rate-partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) cycling. Results manifest that the Pb@C additives exhibit high affinity to lead and act as a porous-skeleton in the formation process as well as under HRPSoC cycling conditions, leading to the small and fine formation of PbSO4 particles and accordingly higher active material utilization rate more than 50%, better cycling performance and charging acceptance. Besides, excellent cycle performances of these batteries have great relationship with the dazzling hydrogen evolution performance of Pb@C materials. A possible working mechanism is also proposed based on the testing data in this paper.

  13. 铅酸蓄电池工业清洁生产简述%Clean Production in Lead-Acid Battery Industry

    李石

    2012-01-01

    The paper summarized domestic clean production of lead-acid batteries,and related policies were briefed.The advanced technology and foreign regulations of clean production of lead-acid battery industry were also briefly introduced.Finally the advanced technology and management prospect of clean production in lead-acid battery industry were given.%文章就国内铅酸蓄电池工业清洁生产水平和相关环境保护政策进行简述,并介绍了国外铅酸蓄电池清洁生产的环保先进技术和法规,最后展望了我国铅酸蓄电池工业清洁生产先进技术和管理方向。

  14. 锑精炼除铅渣硝酸浸出回收铅的研究%Study on Lead Recovery from Lead Slag of Antimony Refining by Nitric Acid Leaching Process

    韦岩松; 盘有旺

    2013-01-01

    采用硝酸浸出的方法从锑精炼除铅渣中回收金属铅,考察了液固比、浸出温度和时间、硝酸浓度等对铅浸出率的影响.结果表明,适宜的浸出工艺为:液固比4、浸出温度80℃、浸出时间50 min、硝酸浓度7.0 mol/L.在此条件下,铅浸出率可以达到94%.%Lead was recovered from lead slag of antimony refining by nitric acid leaching process.The effects of ratio of liquid to solid (L/S),leaching temperature and time,and nitric acid concentration on lead leaching rate were investigated.The results show that the lead leaching rate is above 94% under the optimum conditions including L/S of 4,leaching temperature of 80 ℃,leaching time of 50 min,and nitric acid concentration of 7.0 mol/L.

  15. Protective effects of lipoic acid against oxidative stress induced by lead acetate and gamma-irradiation in the kidney and lung in albino rats

    Lipoic acid is widely used as antioxidant that protects tissues against a range of oxidative stress. The present study was designed to determine the protective effect of lipoic acid against oxidative organ damage induced by lead intoxication and/or gamma-irradiation. Rats were treated daily intrapritonealy (i. p.) with lipoic acid( 200 mg/kg/b.w.) for 15 consecutive days before lead acetate injection(30 mg/kg/b.w) i.p. for 5 days and/ or whole body. gamma-irradiation (3 Gy). Animals were sacrificed on the 3rd day post the last treatment. Histological examination of kidney and lung tissues through light microscope showed that lead acetate injection and/or exposure to gamma radiation has provoked severe architectural damage in both tissues as necrotic lesions, atrophoid glomerulei and degenerated proximal and distal convoluted tubules, severe bronchiole fibrosis, decreased ciliated bronchioles and dilated and widened pulmonary artery. Histological damage was associated with significant biochemical. changes as increase in lead, copper, iron, zinc and calcium levels in both kidney and lung tissues. Kidney and lung of rats treated with lipoic acid before lead intoxication and/or gamma-irradiation showed significant regenerated glomerulei structure, well-defined structure of proximal and distal convoluted tubules, regenerated ciliated bronchiole structure and improved pulmonary artery. Tissue regeneration was associated with significant decrease in Pb, Cu, Fe, Zn, and Ca levels in kidney and lung and prevented the accumulation of metals in these organs. It could be concluded that lipoic acid administration before lead and/or whole body gamma-irradiation might be capable to attenuate lead and/or gamma radiation induced organ injury and organ metals disruption

  16. Mechanisms leading to oligomers and SOA through aqueous photooxidation: insights from OH radical oxidation of acetic acid and methylglyoxal

    Y. Tan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous experiments have demonstrated that the aqueous OH radical oxidation of methylglyoxal produces low volatility products including pyruvate, oxalate and oligomers. These products are found predominantly in the particle phase in the atmosphere, suggesting that methylglyoxal is a precursor of secondary organic aerosol (SOA. Acetic acid plays a central role in the aqueous oxidation of methylglyoxal and it is a ubiquitous product of gas phase photochemistry, making it a potential "aqueous" SOA precursor in its own right. However, the fate of acetic acid upon aqueous-phase oxidation is not well understood. In this research, acetic acid (20 μM–10 mM was oxidized by OH radicals, and pyruvic acid and methylglyoxal experimental samples were analyzed using new analytical methods, in order to better understand the formation of SOA from acetic acid and methylglyoxal. Glyoxylic, glycolic, and oxalic acids formed from acetic acid and OH radicals. In contrast to the aqueous OH radical oxidation of methylglyoxal, the aqueous OH radical oxidation of acetic acid did not produce succinic acid and oligomers. This suggests that the methylgloxal-derived oligomers do not form through the acid catalyzed esterification pathway proposed previously. Using results from these experiments, radical mechanisms responsible for oligomer formation from methylglyoxal oxidation in clouds and wet aerosols are proposed. The importance of acetic acid/acetate as an SOA precursor is also discussed. We hypothesize that this and similar chemistry is central to the daytime formation of oligomers in wet aerosols.

  17. 难处理铅锌矿酸浸渣回收硫酸铅的工艺研究%Study on recovery lead sulfate from complex acid leaching residue of lead-zinc mine

    张传宝; 颜文斌; 徐辉; 高峰; 华骏

    2012-01-01

    The extraction process using sodium chloride and suliuric acid mixed solution, leaching lead from complex acid leaching residue of lead-zinc mine and preparing the lead sulfate by dilute leaching so lution. The influences of sodium chloride concentration,the liquid-solid ratio,time,temperature,acid concentration on lead leaching rate and diluted times,time on the lead sulfate precipitation was discussed. The results showed that the lead leaching rate of 82. 1% . when sodium chloride concentration of 330 g/L, sulfuric acid concentration of 1 mol/L,the liquid-solid ratio of 7: 1 at 95℃ for 1. 5 h, the purity of 99.1% products. The leaching solution in diluted times of 2.5 for standing time 7 h,lead sulfate precipitation rate was 93%. The lead recovery rate was 76% , it was improved by more than 30% compared with the traditional method.%采用氯化钠-硫酸混合溶液对铅锌矿难处理酸浸渣进行浸出,对浸出液稀释,制备硫酸铅,考察了氯化钠浓度、液固比、时间、温度和硫酸浓度等因素对酸浸渣的浸出影响和考察稀释倍数、时间等因素对沉淀硫酸铅的影响.结果表明,在氯化钠浓度为330 g/L,液固比为7:1,时间为1.5h,温度95℃,硫酸浓度为1mol/L的条件下,铅的浸出率为82.1%;在浸出液稀释倍数为2.5,静置时间7h的条件下,硫酸铅的沉淀率为93%,产品纯度为99.1%.铅的回收率为76%,比传统方法提高30%以上.

  18. Fatty Acid Incubation of Myotubues from Humans with Type 2 Diabetes Leads to Enhanced Release of Beta Oxidation Products Due to Impaired Fatty Acid Oxidation

    Wensaas, Andreas J; Rustan, Arild C; Just, Marlene;

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Increased availability of fatty acids is important for accumulation of intracellular lipids and development of insulin resistance in human myotubes. It is unknown whether different types of fatty acids like eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) influence these...... processes. Research Design and Methods: We examined fatty acid and glucose metabolism, and gene expression in cultured human skeletal muscle cells from control and T2D individuals after four days preincubation with EPA or TTA. Results: T2D myotubes exhibited reduced formation of CO(2) from palmitic acid (PA......), whereas release of beta-oxidation products was unchanged at baseline, but significantly increased with respect to control myotubes after preincubation with TTA and EPA. Preincubation with TTA enhanced both complete (CO(2)) and beta-oxidation of PA, whereas EPA increased only beta-oxidation significantly...

  19. Enhanced performance of starter lighting ignition type lead-acid batteries with carbon nanotubes as an additive to the active mass

    Marom, Rotem; Ziv, Baruch; Banerjee, Anjan; Cahana, Beni; Luski, Shalom; Aurbach, Doron

    2015-11-01

    Addition of various carbon materials into lead-acid battery electrodes was studied and examined in order to enhance the power density, improve cycle life and stability of both negative and positive electrodes in lead acid batteries. High electrical-conductivity, high-aspect ratio, good mechanical properties and chemical stability of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT, unmodified and mofified with carboxylic groups) position them as viable additives to enhance the electrodes' electrical conductivity, to mitigate the well-known sulfation failure mechanism and improve the physical integration of the electrodes. In this study, we investigated the incorporation-effect of carbon nanotubes (CNT) to the positive and the negative active materials in lead-acid battery prototypes in a configuration of flooded cells, as well as gelled cells. The cells were tested at 25% and 30% depth-of-discharge (DOD). The positive effect of the carbon nanotubes (CNT) utilization as additives to both positive and negative electrodes of lead-acid batteries was clearly demonstrated and is explained herein based on microscopic studies.

  20. Differential changes in serum uric acid concentrations in sibutramine promoted weight loss in diabetes: results from four weeks of the lead-in period of the SCOUT trial

    Andersson, Charlotte; Weeke, Peter; Brendorp, Bente;

    2009-01-01

    . METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from a four week single-blind lead-in period of the Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes (SCOUT) study were analyzed. 2584 patients (24%) had diabetes mellitus (DM) only, 1748 (16%) had cardiovascular disease (CVD) only and 6397 (60%) had both DM + CVD. Uric acid concentrations...

  1. 中国铅酸电池市场应用现状和未来展望%Lead-acid battery market application and future prospects in China

    王福鸾

    2014-01-01

    本文概述了近年来中国铅酸电池的市场应用现状。介绍了2011年以来,国家环境整治风暴对铅酸电池生产企业和行业发展所带来的影响。并展望了未来中国铅酸蓄电池应用市场增长点和产业发展趋势。还简述了一些有发展前景的先进铅酸电池技术。%This paper summarized the market application of lead-acid batteries in recent years in China. It’s reviewed the impact of national environmental remediation storm on lead-acid battery manufacturing enterprises and the development of the industry since 2011. The market growth and industrial development trends of lead-acid batteries in China were prospected and some kinds of promising advanced lead-acid battery technology were also brielfy described.

  2. Different low-molecular-mass organic acids specifically control leaching of arsenic and lead from contaminated soil

    Ash, Christopher; Tejnecký, Václav; Borůvka, Luboš; Drábek, Ondřej

    2016-04-01

    Low-molecular-mass organic acids (LMMOA) are of key importance for mobilisation and fate of metals in soil, by functioning as ligands that increase the amount of dissolved metal in solution or by dissociation of metal binding minerals. Column leaching experiments were performed on soil polluted with As and Pb, in order to determine the specificity of LMMOA related release for individual elements, at varying organic acid concentrations. Acetic, citric and oxalic acids were applied in 12 h leaching experiments over a concentration range (0.5-25 mM) to soil samples that represent organic and mineral horizons. The leaching of As followed the order: oxalic > citric > acetic acid in both soils. Arsenic leaching was attributed primarily to ligand-enhanced dissolution of mineral oxides followed by As released into solution, as shown by significant correlation between oxalic and citric acids and content of Al and Fe in leaching solutions. Results suggest that subsurface mineral soil layers are more vulnerable to As toxicity. Leaching of Pb from both soils followed the order: citric > oxalic > acetic acid. Mineral soil samples were shown to be more susceptible to leaching of Pb than samples characterised by a high content of organic matter. The leaching efficiency of citric acid was attributed to formation of stable complexes with Pb ions, which other acids are not capable of. Results obtained in the study are evidence that the extent of As and Pb leaching in contaminated surface and subsurface soil depends significantly on the types of carboxylic acid involved. The implications of the type of acid and the specific element that can be mobilised become increasingly significant where LMMOA concentrations are highest, such as in rhizosphere soil.

  3. Mechanisms leading to oligomers and SOA through aqueous photooxidation: insights from OH radical oxidation of acetic acid

    Y. Tan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous experiments have demonstrated that the aqueous OH radical oxidation of methylglyoxal produces low volatility products including oxalate and oligomers. These products are found predominantly in the particle phase in the atmosphere, suggesting that methylglyoxal is a precursor of secondary organic aerosol (SOA. Acetic acid is an important intermediate in aqueous methylglyoxal oxidation and a ubiquitous product of gas phase photochemistry, making it a potential "aqueous" SOA precursor in its own right. Altieri et al. (2008 proposed that acetic acid was the precursor of oligoesters observed in methylglyoxal oxidation. However, the fate of acetic acid upon aqueous-phase oxidation is not well understood. In this research, acetic acid at concentrations relevant to atmospheric waters (20 μM–10 mM was oxidized by OH radical. Products were analyzed by ion chromatography (IC, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS, and IC-ESI-MS. The formation of glyoxylic, glycolic, and oxalic acids were observed. In contrast to methylglyoxal oxidation, succinic acid and oligomers were not detected. Using results from these and methylglyoxal + OH radical experiments, radical mechanisms responsible for oligomer formation from methylglyoxal oxidation in clouds and wet aerosols are proposed. The importance of acetic acid/acetate as an SOA precursor is also discussed. We hypothesize that this and similar chemistry is central to the daytime formation of oligomers in wet aerosols.

  4. Relation of fatty acid composition in lead-exposed mallards to fat mobilization, lipid peroxidation and alkaline phosphatase activity

    Mateo, R.; Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    The increase of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in animal tissues has been proposed as a mechanism of Pb poisoning through lipid peroxidation or altered eicosanoids metabolism. We have studied fatty acid (FA) composition in liver and brain of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) feeding for three weeks on diets containing combinations of low or high levels of vitamin E (20 or 200 UI/kg) and Pb (0 or 2 g/kg). Saturated FA, n-6 PUFA and total concentrations of FA were higher in livers of Pb-exposed mallards, but not in their brains. The percentage of n-6 PUFA in liver and brain was slightly higher in Pb-exposed mallards. The increase of n-6 PUFA in liver was associated with increased triglycerides and cholesterol in plasma, thus could be in part attributed to feed refusal and fat mobilization. The hepatic ratios between adrenic acid (22:4 n-6) and arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) or between adrenic acid and linoleic acid (18:2 n-6) were higher in Pb exposed birds, supporting the existing hypothesis of increased fatty acid elongation by Pb. Among the possible consequences of increased n-6 PUFA concentration in tissues, we found increased lipid peroxidation in liver without important histopathological changes, and decreased plasma alkaline phosphatase activity that may reflect altered bone metabolism in birds.

  5. Trends for isolated amino acids and dipeptides: Conformation, divalent ion binding, and remarkable similarity of binding to calcium and lead

    Ropo, Matti; Baldauf, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    We derive structural and binding energy trends for twenty amino acids, their dipeptides, and their interactions with the divalent cations Ca$^{2+}$, Ba$^{2+}$, Sr$^{2+}$, Cd$^{2+}$, Pb$^{2+}$, and Hg$^{2+}$. The underlying data set consists of 45,892 first-principles predicted conformers with relative energies up to about 4 eV (about 400kJ/mol). We show that only very few distinct backbone structures of isolated amino acids and their dipeptides emerge as lowest-energy conformers. The isolated amino acids predominantly adopt structures that involve an acidic proton shared between the carboxy and amino function. Dipeptides adopt one of two intramolecular-hydrogen bonded conformations C$_5$ or equatorial C$_7$. Upon complexation with a divalent cation, the accessible conformational space shrinks and intramolecular hydrogen bonding is prevented due to strong electrostatic interaction of backbone and side chain functional groups with cations. Clear correlations emerge from the binding energies of the six divalent ...

  6. Effects of lead shot ingestion on delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, hemoglobin concentration, and serum chemistry in bald eagles

    Hoffman, D.J.; Pattee, O.H.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Mulhern, B.

    1981-01-01

    Lead shot ingestion by bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is considered to be widespread and has been implicated in the death of eagles in nature. It was recently demonstrated under experimental conditions that ingestion of as few as 10 lead shot resulted in death within 12 to 20 days. In the present study hematological responses to lead toxicity including red blood cell ALAD activity, hemoglobin concentration and 23 different blood serum chemistries were examined in five captive bald eagles that were unsuitable for rehabilitation and release. Eagles were dosed by force-feeding with 10 lead shot; they were redosed if regurgitation occurred. Red blood cell ALAD activity was inhibited by nearly 80% within 24 hours when mean blood lead concentration had increased to 0.8 parts per million (ppm). By the end of 1 week there was a significant decrease (20-25%) in hematocrit and hemoglobin, and the mean blood lead concentration was over 3 ppm. Within as little as 1-2 weeks after dosing, significant elevations in serum creatinine and serum alanine aminotransferase occurred, as well as a significant decrease in the ratio of serum aspartic aminotransferase to serum alanine aminotransferase. The mean blood lead concentration was over 5 ppm by the end of 2 weeks. These changes in serum chemistry may be indicative of kidney and liver alterations.

  7. Adsorption of lead(2) and cadmium(2) ions on the surface of a nitrocellulose membrane modified with denaturated deoxyribonucleic acid

    The adsorption of the lead(2) and cadmium(2) ions on the surface of the amperometric biosensor on the basis of the nitrocellulose membrane, modified with the denaturated DNA (d-DNA) is studied. It is established that by the combined adsorption of these ions, available in the mixture, the lead(2) ions are bound d-DNA molecules more efficiently in comparison with the cadmium(2) ions. The values of the constant of binding the lead(2) and cadmium(2) ions with the immobilized d-DNA constitute correspondingly (12.0±0.3)x105 M-1 and (0.6±0.2)x105 M-1

  8. The accurate determination of bismuth in lead concentrates and other non-ferrous materials by AAS after separation and preconcentration of the bismuth with mercaptoacetic acid.

    Howell, D J; Dohnt, B R

    1982-05-01

    A method for determining 0.0001% and upwards of bismuth in lead, zinc or copper concentrates, metals or alloys and other smelter residues is described. Bismuth is separated from lead, iron and gangue materials with mercaptoacetic acid after reduction of the iron with hydrazine. Large quantities of tin can be removed during the dissolution. An additional separation is made for materials high in copper and/or sulphate. The separated and concentrated bismuth is determined by atomic-absorption spectrometry using the Bi line at 223.1 nm. The proposed method also allows the simultaneous separation and determination of silver. PMID:18963145

  9. 1D coordination polymers formed by tetranuclear lead(II) building blocks with carboxylate ligands: In situ isomerization of itaconic acid

    The synthesis of two new lead(II) coordination polymers, [Pb2(mpic)4(H2O)]·0.5H2O (1) and [Pb2(phen)2(cit)(mes)]·2H2O (2) has been reported, where mpic=3-methyl picolinate, phen=o-phenanthroline, H2cit=citraconic acid, H2mes mesaconic acid. X-ray single crystal diffraction analyses showed that the complexes comprise topologically different 1D polymeric chains stabilized by weak interactions and both containing tetranuclear Pb4 units connected by carboxylate groups. In compound 1 3-methylpicolinic acid is formed in situ from 3-methyl piconitrile, and mesaconate and citraconate anions were surprisingly formed from itaconic acid during the synthesis of 2. The photoluminescence and thermal properties of the complexes have been studied. - Graphical abstract: Two new topologically different 1D coordination polymers formed by Pb4 clusters have been synthesized and characterized by X-ray analysis. The luminescence and thermal properties have been studied. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Both the complexes, made up of different ligands, forms topologycally different 1D polymeric chains containing Pb4 clusters. • The final structures are stabilized by weak interactions (H-bond, π∙∙∙π stacking). • In complex 1, the 3-methylpicolinic acid is generated in situ from 3-methyl piconitrile. • Mesaconate and citraconate anions are surprisingly formed in situ from itaconic acid during the synthesis of complex 2, indicating an exceptional transformation

  10. Cadmium, lead and zinc leaching from smelter fly ash in simple organic acids-Simulators of rhizospheric soil solutions

    Emissions from base-metal smelters are responsible for high contamination of the surrounding soils. Fly ash from a secondary Pb smelter was submitted to a batch leaching procedure (0.5-168 h) in 500 μM solutions of acetic, citric, or oxalic acids to simulate the release of toxic metals (Cd, Pb, Zn) in rhizosphere-like environments. Organic acids increased dissolution of fly ash by a factor of 1.3. Cadmium and Pb formed mobile chloro- and sulphate-complexes, whereas Zn partly present in a citrate (Zn-citrate-) complex is expected to be less mobile due to sorption onto the positively charged surfaces of hydrous ferric oxides (HFO) and organic matter (OM) in acidic soil.