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Sample records for acid methyl esters

  1. A Convenient Synthesis of Amino Acid Methyl Esters

    Yaowu Sha

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A series of amino acid methyl ester hydrochlorides were prepared in good toexcellent yields by the room temperature reaction of amino acids with methanol in thepresence of trimethylchlorosilane. This method is not only compatible with natural aminoacids, but also with other aromatic and aliphatic amino acids.

  2. Kapok oil methyl esters

    The increased need for biodiesel feedstocks has caused various vegetable oils to be examined for this purpose. In the present work, the methyl esters of kapok (Ceiba pentandra) oil were prepared. The essential fuel properties were comprehensively determined and evaluated in comparison to specifications in biodiesel standards and some prior results. The kinematic viscosity of kapok oil methyl esters was greater than expected, an observation traced to the elevated amounts of methyl esters with cyclic moieties. Overall, kapok oil is a potential biodiesel feedstock. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra of kapok methyl esters are reported. - Highlights: • Methyl esters of kapok oil generally acceptable as a biodiesel fuel. • Kapok oil methyl esters a fuel with elevated content of fatty acid methyl esters containing cyclic moieties. • Kinematic viscosity of kapok oil methyl esters elevated likely due to fatty ester methyl esters with cyclic moieties. • Discusses and compares present results with prior literature

  3. Sodium borohydride reduction of aromatic carboxylic acids via methyl esters

    Aamer Saeed; Zaman Ashraf

    2006-09-01

    A number of important aromatic carboxylic acids precursors, or intermediates in the syntheses of natural products, are converted into methyl esters and reduced to the corresponding primary alcohols using a sodium borohydride-THF-methanol system. The alcohols are obtained in 70-92% yields in 2-5 hours, in a pure state. This two-step procedure not only provides a better alternative to aluminum hydride reduction of acids but also allows the selective reduction of esters in presence of acids, amides, nitriles or nitro functions which are not affected under these conditions.

  4. Fatty acid methyl esters production: chemical process variables

    Paulo César Narváez Rincón

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of fatty acid methyl esters as basic oleochemicals over fatty acids, the seventies world energy crisis and the use of those oleochemicals as fuels, have increased research interest on fats and oils trans-esterification. In this document, a review about basic aspects, uses, process variables and problems associated to the production process of fatty acid methyl esters is presented. A global view of recent researches, most of them focused in finding a new catalyst with same activity as the alcohol-soluble hydroxides (NaOH, KOH, and suitable to be used in transforming fats and oils with high levels of free fatty acids and water avoiding separation problems and reducing process costs, is also discussed.

  5. NF EN 14103. July 2003. Fatty compounds derived products. Fatty acids methylic esters (FAME). Determination of the ester and methylic ester content of linoleic acid; NF EN 14103. Juillet 2003. Produits derives des corps gras. Esters methyliques d'acides gras (EMAG). Determination de la teneur en ester et en ester methylique de l'acide linolenique

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This European standard aims at determining the ester and methylic ester content of fatty acids methylic esters (FAME) used as pure bio-fuels or as constituent of a heating or diesel fuel. This method allows also to determine the methylic ester content of linoleic acid. It allows to verify that the ester content of FAMEs is greater than 90% (m/m) and that the linoleic acid content is comprised between 1% (m/m) and 15% (m/m). The method is applicable to FAMEs with methylic ester contents comprised between C14 and C24. (J.S.)

  6. Fatty acid methyl ester profiles of bat wing surface lipids.

    Pannkuk, Evan L; Fuller, Nathan W; Moore, Patrick R; Gilmore, David F; Savary, Brett J; Risch, Thomas S

    2014-11-01

    Sebocytes are specialized epithelial cells that rupture to secrete sebaceous lipids (sebum) across the mammalian integument. Sebum protects the integument from UV radiation, and maintains host microbial communities among other functions. Native glandular sebum is composed primarily of triacylglycerides (TAG) and wax esters (WE). Upon secretion (mature sebum), these lipids combine with minor cellular membrane components comprising total surface lipids. TAG and WE are further cleaved to smaller molecules through oxidation or host enzymatic digestion, resulting in a complex mixture of glycerolipids (e.g., TAG), sterols, unesterified fatty acids (FFA), WE, cholesteryl esters, and squalene comprising surface lipid. We are interested if fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling of bat surface lipid could predict species specificity to the cutaneous fungal disease, white nose syndrome (WNS). We collected sebaceous secretions from 13 bat spp. using Sebutape(®) and converted them to FAME with an acid catalyzed transesterification. We found that Sebutape(®) adhesive patches removed ~6× more total lipid than Sebutape(®) indicator strips. Juvenile eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis) had significantly higher 18:1 than adults, but 14:0, 16:1, and 20:0 were higher in adults. FAME profiles among several bat species were similar. We concluded that bat surface lipid FAME profiling does not provide a robust model predicting species susceptibility to WNS. However, these results provide baseline data that can be used for lipid roles in future ecological studies, such as life history, diet, or migration. PMID:25227993

  7. Acid esterification-alkaline transesterification process for methyl ester production from crude rubber seed oil.

    Thaiyasuit, Prachasanti; Pianthong, Kulachate; Worapun, Ittipon

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to examine methods and the most suitable conditions for producing methyl ester from crude rubber seed oil. An acid esterification-alkaline transesterification process is proposed. In the experiment, the 20% FFA of crude rubber seed oil could be reduced to 3% FFA by acid esterification. The product after esterified was then tranesterified by alkaline transesterification process. By this method, the maximum yield of methyl ester was 90% by mass. The overall consumption of methanol was 10.5:1 by molar ratio. The yielded methyl ester was tested for its fuel properties and met required standards. The major fatty acid methyl ester compositions were analyzed and constituted of methyl linoleate 41.57%, methyl oleate 24.87%, and methyl lonolenate 15.16%. Therefore, the cetane number of methyl ester could be estimated as 47.85, while the tested result of motor cetane number was 51.20. PMID:22277892

  8. Synthesis of new fatty acids amides from aminolysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs)

    Recent biochemical and pharmacological studies have led to the characterization of different fatty acid amides as a new family of biologically active lipids. Here, we describe the synthesis of new amides from C16:0, 18:0, 18:1 and 18:1, OH fatty acids (FFA) families with cyclic and acyclic amines and demonstrate for the first time that these compounds produce cytotoxic effects. Application of this method to the synthesis of fatty acid amides was performed using the esters aminolysis as a key step and various carboxylic amides were prepared in good yield from fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). (author)

  9. Determination of 4-Chloroindole-3-Acetic Acid Methyl Ester in Lathyrus Vicia and Pisum by Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen; Egsgaard, Helge; Larsen, Elfinn

    1980-01-01

    methyl ester isomers. The quantitative determination of 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid methyl ester in immature seeds of these three species was performed by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry using deuterium labelled 4-chloro-indole-3-acetic acid methyl ester as an internal standard. P. sativum...

  10. Pseudo catalytic transformation of volatile fatty acids into fatty acid methyl esters.

    Jung, Jong-Min; Cho, Jinwoo; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2016-03-01

    Instead of anaerobic digestion of biodegradable wastes for producing methane, this work introduced the transformation of acidogenesis products (VFAs) into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) to validate the feasible production of short-chained fatty alcohols via hydrogenation of FAMEs. In particular, among VFAs, this work mainly described the mechanistic explanations for transforming butyric acid into butyric acid methyl ester as a case study. Unlike the conventional esterification process (conversion efficiency of ∼94%), the newly introduced esterification under the presence of porous materials via the thermo-chemical process reached up to ∼99.5%. Furthermore, the newly introduced esterification via the thermo-chemical pathway in this work showed extremely high tolerance of impurities: the conversion efficiency under the presence of impurities reached up to ∼99±0.3%; thus, the inhibition behaviors attributed from the impurities used for the experimental work were negligible. PMID:26720136

  11. Fatty Acid Methyl Esters as Biosolvents of Epoxy Resins: A Physicochemical Study

    Medina-González, Yaocihuatl; De Caro, Pascale; Thiebaud-Roux, Sophie; Lacaze-Dufaure, Corinne

    2007-01-01

    The C8 to C18 fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) have been compared as solvents for two epoxy resin pre-polymers, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (DGEBA) and triglycidyl paminophenol ether (TGPA). It was found that the solubilization limits vary according to the ester and that methyl caprylate is the best solvent of both resins. To explain these solubility performances, physical and chemical properties of FAME were studied, such as the Hansen parameters, viscosity, binary diffusion coefficient and ...

  12. The occurrence of 2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzoic acid methyl ester in Securidaca longepedunculata Fresen root bark

    Lognay G.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of our ongoing search for natural fumigants from Senegalese plants, we have investigated Securicicidaca longepedunculata root barks and demonstrated that 2-hydroxy-benzoic acid methyl ester (methyl salicylate, I is responsible of their biocide effect against stored grain insects. A second unknown apparented product, II has been systematically observed in all analyzed samples. The present paper describes the identification of this molecule. The analytical investigations including GCMS, GLC and 1H-NMR. spectrometry led to the conclusion that II corresponds to the 2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzoic acid methyl ester.

  13. Synthesis and Characteristics of an Aspartame Analogue, L-Asparaginyl L-3-Phenyllactic Acid Methyl Ester

    Hu TAO; Da-Fu CUI; You-Shang ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    An aspartame analogue,L-asparaginyl L-3-phenyllactic acid methyl ester was synthesized with aspartic acid replaced by asparagine and peptide bond replaced by ester bond.The aspartic acid of aspartame could be replaced by asparagine as reported in the literature.In this analogue,the hydrogen ofamide group could still form a hydrogen bond with the oxygen of ester bond and the ester bond was isosteric with peptide bond.However,the product was not sweet,showing that the peptide bond could not be replaced by ester bond.The peptide C-N bond behaves as a double bond that is not free to rotate and the C,O,N and H atoms are in the same plane.The replacement of peptide bond by ester bond destroyed the unique conformation of peptide bond,resulting in the loss of sweet taste.

  14. Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters from Osage orange (Maclura pomifera) oil and evaluation as biodiesel

    Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared in high yield by transesterification of Osage orange (Maclura pomifera) oil. Extracted using supercritical CO2, the crude oil was initially treated with mineral acid and methanol to lower its content of free fatty acids, thus rendering it amenable to homogeneou...

  15. Determination of 4-Chloroindole-3-Acetic Acid Methyl Ester in Lathyrus Vicia and Pisum by Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen; Egsgaard, Helge; Larsen, Elfinn

    1980-01-01

    4-Chloroindole-3-acetic acid methyl ester was identified unequivocally in Lathyrus latifolius L., Vicia faba L. and Pisum sativum L. by thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The gas chromatographic system was able to separate underivatized chloroindole-3-acetic acid...... methyl ester isomers. The quantitative determination of 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid methyl ester in immature seeds of these three species was performed by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry using deuterium labelled 4-chloro-indole-3-acetic acid methyl ester as an internal standard. P. sativum...

  16. 40 CFR 721.4097 - 7-Oxabicyclo[4.1.0]heptane-3-carboxylic acid, methyl ester.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 7-Oxabicyclo heptane-3-carboxylic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4097 7-Oxabicyclo heptane-3-carboxylic acid, methyl ester. (a) Chemical...-oxabicyclo heptane-3-carboxylic acid, methyl ester (PMN P-98-101) is subject to reporting under this...

  17. Low-temperature phase behavior of fatty acid methyl esters by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)

    Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) mixtures have many uses including biodiesel, lubricants, metal-working fluids, surfactants, polymers, coatings, green solvents and phase-change materials. The physical properties of a FAME mixture depends on the fatty acid concentration (FAC) profile. Some products hav...

  18. Fatty acid methyl esters as reactive diluents in solvent-borne thermally cured coil-coatings

    Johansson, Katarina

    2006-01-01

    This work describes how a fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) derived from a vegetable oil can be introduced as reactive diluent in a solvent-borne thermally cured coil-coating system. The evaluated reactive diluent, rape seed methyl ester (RME), has been evaluated both in a fully formulated clear coat system and via model studies. A reactive diluent is a compound that acts as a solvent in the liquid paint, lowering the viscosity, and chemically reacts into the final film during cure. Introduction...

  19. 4-[(2-Hydroxy-4-pentadecyl-benzylidene-amino]-benzoic Acid Methyl Ester

    Gadada Naganagowda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A new Schiff base, 4-[(2-hydroxy-4-pentadecyl-benzylidene-amino]-benzoic acid methyl ester was synthesized and its UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and ESI-MS spectroscopic data are presented.

  20. Cold flow properties of fatty acid methyl esters: Additives versus diluents

    Biodiesel is typically composed of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) converted from agricultural lipids. Common feedstocks include soybean oil, canola oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, and palm oil. Recent debate on the conversion of edible oils into non-food products has created opportunities to deve...

  1. Potentiation of insulin release in response to amino acid methyl esters correlates to activation of islet glutamate dehydrogenase activity

    Kofod, Hans; Lernmark, A; Hedeskov, C J

    1986-01-01

    Column perifusion of mouse pancreatic islets was used to study the ability of amino acids and their methyl esters to influence insulin release and activate islet glutamate dehydrogenase activity. In the absence of L-glutamine, L-serine and the methyl ester of L-phenylalanine, but neither L-phenyl...

  2. Fatty Acid Methyl Esters of Melon Seed Oil: Characterisation for Potential Diesel Fuel Application

    Paul M. EJIKEME

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME, biodiesel, are alternative diesel fuels usually obtained from renewable sources, mainly, vegetable and animal oils through transesterification among other processes. Melon seed oil was extracted from melon seeds bought from a local market, degummed and alkali refined using standard methods. FAME of the oil was produced using methanol in the molar ration of 1:6, 1% sodium hydroxide catalyst at the reaction temperature of 60 deg C for the duration of 1h. Results obtained showed that the fatty acid methyl esters had a specific gravity of 0.8786, viscosity of 6.24 centistokes, pH of 7.23, heating value of 36.34 J/g and flash point of 148 deg C. The FAME yield was 87.35% under the reaction conditions that applied. The infrared spectra of both the refined oil and the methyl esters from it, showed peaks at 1721.3cm-1 and 1167.8cm-1 (C=O and C-O stretches large and medium absorbance's for oils and methyl esters. Generally, the fuel properties of the FAME compared with values obtained under the same conditions for conventional petroleum diesel that was sourced from a retail outlet; suggesting that biodiesel from MSO could be used alone or in blends with petrodiesel to power compression ignition (diesel engines.

  3. Quantification of methyl esters of fatty acids in the oil of Physalis minima by GC-MS

    Muhammad Nasimullah Qureshi; Fazal Wajid; Inayat-ur-Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate quantification of methyl esters of fatty acids in the oil extracted from Physalis minima (P. minima) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Methods: Oil was extracted from the shade dried plant with n-hexane through Soxhlet extraction. Fatty acids that present in the oil were derivatized to fatty acid methyl esters and analysed through gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Results: A total of nine fatty acids were detected in quantifiable amou...

  4. GC-MS ANALYSIS OF THE FATTY ACID METHYL ESTER IN JAPANESE QUAIL FAT

    Ion Dragalin; Olga Morarescu; Maria Sedcenco; Radu Marin Rosca

    2015-01-01

    The accumulated as production waste fat from Faraon quail breeds has been investigated for the first time by using GC-MS technique, preventively converting it via methanolysis to fatty acid methyl esters. The test results, regarding the content of unsaturated fatty acids having a favorable to human body cis-configuration (77.8%), confirm their nutritional value and the possibility of using this fat in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries.

  5. GC-MS ANALYSIS OF THE FATTY ACID METHYL ESTER IN JAPANESE QUAIL FAT

    Ion Dragalin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The accumulated as production waste fat from Faraon quail breeds has been investigated for the first time by using GC-MS technique, preventively converting it via methanolysis to fatty acid methyl esters. The test results, regarding the content of unsaturated fatty acids having a favorable to human body cis-configuration (77.8%, confirm their nutritional value and the possibility of using this fat in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries.

  6. Avocado and olive oil methyl esters

    Biodiesel, the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils, animal fats or other triacylglycerol-containing materials and an alternative to conventional petroleum-based diesel fuel, has been derived from a variety of feedstocks. Numerous feedstocks have been investigated as potential biodiesel sources, including commodity oils, however, the methyl esters of avocado and olive oil would likely be suitable as biodiesel fuel. In order to expand the database and comprehensive evaluation of the properties of vegetable oil esters, in this work the fuel-related properties of avocado and olive oil methyl esters, which exhibit similar fatty acid profiles including high oleic acid content, are determined. The cetane numbers of avocado oil methyl esters and olive oil methyl esters are relatively high, determined as 59.2 and 62.5, respectively, due to their elevated content of methyl oleate. Other properties are well within the ranges specified in biodiesel standards. The cloud points of both esters are slightly above 0 °C due to their content of saturated esters, especially methyl palmitate. Overall, avocado and olive oil yield methyl esters with fuel properties comparable to methyl esters from other commodity vegetable oils. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra of avocado and olive oil methyl esters are reported. -- Highlights: • Methyl esters of avocado and olive oil meet biodiesel fuel standards. • Provides comparison for methyl esters of other vegetable oils with high oleic content. • Discusses and compares present results with prior literature

  7. Efficient production of the Nylon 12 monomer ω-aminododecanoic acid methyl ester from renewable dodecanoic acid methyl ester with engineered Escherichia coli.

    Ladkau, Nadine; Assmann, Miriam; Schrewe, Manfred; Julsing, Mattijs K; Schmid, Andreas; Bühler, Bruno

    2016-07-01

    The expansion of microbial substrate and product scopes will be an important brick promoting future bioeconomy. In this study, an orthogonal pathway running in parallel to native metabolism and converting renewable dodecanoic acid methyl ester (DAME) via terminal alcohol and aldehyde to 12-aminododecanoic acid methyl ester (ADAME), a building block for the high-performance polymer Nylon 12, was engineered in Escherichia coli and optimized regarding substrate uptake, substrate requirements, host strain choice, flux, and product yield. Efficient DAME uptake was achieved by means of the hydrophobic outer membrane porin AlkL increasing maximum oxygenation and transamination activities 8.3 and 7.6-fold, respectively. An optimized coupling to the pyruvate node via a heterologous alanine dehydrogenase enabled efficient intracellular L-alanine supply, a prerequisite for self-sufficient whole-cell transaminase catalysis. Finally, the introduction of a respiratory chain-linked alcohol dehydrogenase enabled an increase in pathway flux, the minimization of undesired overoxidation to the respective carboxylic acid, and thus the efficient formation of ADAME as main product. The completely synthetic orthogonal pathway presented in this study sets the stage for Nylon 12 production from renewables. Its effective operation achieved via fine tuning the connectivity to native cell functionalities emphasizes the potential of this concept to expand microbial substrate and product scopes. PMID:26969251

  8. Gas chromatography-vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy for analysis of fatty acid methyl esters.

    Fan, Hui; Smuts, Jonathan; Bai, Ling; Walsh, Phillip; Armstrong, Daniel W; Schug, Kevin A

    2016-03-01

    A new vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) detector for gas chromatography was recently developed and applied to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. VUV detection features full spectral acquisition in a wavelength range of 115-240nm, where virtually all chemical species absorb. VUV absorption spectra of 37 FAMEs, including saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated types were recorded. Unsaturated FAMEs show significantly different gas phase absorption profiles than saturated ones, and these classes can be easily distinguished with the VUV detector. Another advantage includes differentiating cis/trans-isomeric FAMEs (e.g. oleic acid methyl ester and linoleic acid methyl ester isomers) and the ability to use VUV data analysis software for deconvolution of co-eluting signals. As a universal detector, VUV also provides high specificity, sensitivity, and a fast data acquisition rate, making it a powerful tool for fatty acid screening when combined with gas chromatography. The fatty acid profile of several food oil samples (olive, canola, vegetable, corn, sunflower and peanut oils) were analyzed in this study to demonstrate applicability to real world samples. PMID:26471553

  9. Preparation of sphingolipid fatty acid methyl esters for determination by gas-liquid chromatography.

    MacGee, J; Williams, M G

    1981-01-30

    Sphingolipid fatty acids are first converted to a mixture of free acids and their n-butyl esters by heating the specimen at 85 degree C in aqueous butanolic hydrogen chloride; the butyl esters are then saponified with methanolic potassium hydroxide. After acidification and extraction into hexane, the fatty acids are extracted into a very small volume of aqueous trimethyl(m-trifluorotolyl)ammonium hydroxide (TMTFTH), injection of an aliquot of the TMTFTH extract into the gas chromatograph yields the fatty acid methyl esters by pyrolytic methylation of the quaternary ammonium salts of the fatty acids. The preparation of a specimen ready for the gas--liquid chromatographic (GLC) analysis with quantitative recovery of the sphingolipid fatty acids can be accomplished in less than 2 h. By comparison, none of a number of well-accepted techniques for the release of sphingomyelin fatty acids by hydrolysis or methanolysis released the fatty acids quantitatively in less than 3 h, and all required additional manipulations before GLC analysis. PMID:7217267

  10. Thermally cured coil-coatings utilizing novel resins and fatty acid methyl esters as reactive diluents

    Johansson, Katarina

    2008-01-01

    Solvent-borne thermally cured coil-coating resins contain large amounts of volatile organic solvents in order to obtain suitable flow for film application. This work describes how the expensive and environmental hazardous volatile organic solvent content of a solvent-borne thermally cured polyester/melamine coil-coating system can be reduced by introduction of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) as reactive diluents and modification of the polyester binder resin. The evaluated reactive diluents,...

  11. A monolithic lipase reactor for biodiesel production by transesterification of triacylglycerides into fatty acid methyl esters

    Urban, Jiri; Svec, Frantisek; Fréchet, Jean M. J.

    2011-01-01

    An enzymatic reactor with lipase immobilized on a monolithic polymer support has been prepared and used to catalyze the transesterification of triacylglycerides into the fatty acid methyl esters commonly used for biodiesel. A design of experiments procedure was used to optimize the monolithic reactor with variables including control of the surface polarity of the monolith via variations in the length of the hydrocarbon chain in alkyl methacrylate monomer, time of grafting of 1-vinyl-4,4-dimet...

  12. Chromatographic analyses of fatty acid methyl esters by HPLC-UV and GC-FID

    Carvalho, Myller S.; Pinho, David M.M.; Suarez, Paulo A.Z., E-mail: psuarez@unb.br [Laboratorio de Materiais e Combustiveis, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Mendonca, Marcio A. [Faculdade de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinaria, Universidade de Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Resck, Ines S. [Laboratorio de Ressonancia Magnetica Nuclear, Universidade de Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    An analytical method using high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV) (method A) was used for simultaneous determination of total amounts of triacylglycerides, diacylglycerides, monoacylglycerides and fatty acid methyl esters in alcoholysis of different oil (cotton, canola, sunflower, corn and soybean) samples. Analyses were carried out at 40 deg C for 20 min using a gradient of methanol (MeOH) and 2-propanol-hexane 5:4 (v/v) (PrHex): 100% of MeOH in 0 min, 50% of MeOH and 50% of PrHex in 10 min maintained with isocratic elution for 10 min. Another HPLC-UV method (method B) with acetonitrile isocratic elution for 34 min was used to determine the fatty acid composition of oils analyzing their methyl ester derivatives. Contents were determined with satisfactory repeatability (relative standard deviation, RSD < 3%), linearity (r{sup 2} > 0.99) and sensitivity (limit of quantification). Method B was compared with an official gas chromatographic method with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) from American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS) in the determination of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) in biodiesel real samples. (author)

  13. Lipase immobilization and production of fatty acid methyl esters from canola oil using immobilized lipase

    Lipase enzyme from Aspergillus oryzae (EC 3.1.1.3) was immobilized onto a micro porous polymeric matrix which contains aldehyde functional groups and methyl esters of long chain fatty acids (biodiesel) were synthesized by transesterification of crude canola oil using immobilized lipase. Micro porous polymeric matrix was synthesized from styrene-divinylbenzene (STY-DVB) copolymers by using high internal phase emulsion technique and two different lipases, Lipozyme TL-100L® and Novozym 388®, were used for immobilization by both physical adsorption and covalent attachment. Biodiesel production was carried out with semi-continuous operation. Methanol was added into the reactor by three successive additions of 1:4 M equivalent of methanol to avoid enzyme inhibition. The transesterification reaction conditions were as follows: oil/alcohol molar ratio 1:4; temperature 40 oC and total reaction time 6 h. Lipozyme TL-100L® lipase provided the highest yield of fatty acid methyl esters as 92%. Operational stability was determined with immobilized lipase and it indicated that a small enzyme deactivation occurred after used repeatedly for 10 consecutive batches with each of 24 h. Since the process is yet effective and enzyme does not leak out from the polymer, the method can be proposed for industrial applications. -- Research highlights: → Lipozyme TL-100L and Novozym 388 were immobilized onto micro porous polymeric matrix by both physical adsorption and covalent linking. → Immobilized enzymes were used for synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters by transesterification of canola oil and methanol using semi-continuous operation system. → According to chromatographic analysis, Lipase Lipozyme TL-100L resulted in the highest yield of methyl ester as 92%.

  14. Coriander seed oil methyl esters as biodiesel fuel: Unique fatty acid composition and excellent oxidative stability

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) seed oil methyl esters were prepared and evaluated as an alternative biodiesel fuel and contained an unusual fatty acid hitherto unreported as the principle component in biodiesel fuels: petroselinic (6Z-octadecenoic; 68.5 wt%) acid. Most of the remaining fatty acid profile consisted of common 18 carbon constituents such as linoleic (9Z,12Z-octadeca-dienoic; 13.0 wt%), oleic (9Z-octadecenoic; 7.6 wt%) and stearic (octadecanoic; 3.1 wt%) acids. A standard transesterification procedure with methanol and sodium methoxide catalyst was used to provide C. sativum oil methyl esters (CSME). Acid-catalyzed pretreatment was necessary beforehand to reduce the acid value of the oil from 2.66 to 0.47 mg g-1. The derived cetane number, kinematic viscosity, and oxidative stability (Rancimat method) of CSME was 53.3, 4.21 mm2 s-1 (40 oC), and 14.6 h (110 oC). The cold filter plugging and pour points were -15 oC and -19 oC, respectively. Other properties such as acid value, free and total glycerol content, iodine value, as well as sulfur and phosphorous contents were acceptable according to the biodiesel standards ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. Also reported are lubricity, heat of combustion, and Gardner color, along with a comparison of CSME to soybean oil methyl esters (SME). CSME exhibited higher oxidative stability, superior low temperature properties, and lower iodine value than SME. In summary, CSME has excellent fuel properties as a result of its unique fatty acid composition.

  15. Chromium–tungsten–titanium mixed oxides solid catalyst for fatty acid methyl ester synthesis from palm fatty acid distillate

    Highlights: • Chromium–tungsten–titanium mixed oxides as solid catalyst. • Catalyst used for esterification of palm fatty acid distillate to methyl esters. • The maximum methyl ester content is 83%. • Catalyst has shown good activity and can be recycled for 4 times. - Abstract: Chromium–tungsten–titanium mixed oxides solid catalysts were prepared and evaluated in the esterification of palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) to produce fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). Esterification was conducted in a batch reactor at 110–200 °C temperature ranges. The catalysts were characterized by several techniques such as BET, TEM, FTIR, TGA, XRD, EDX and SEM. The treatment conditions during catalyst preparation, effect of reaction parameters, leaching of the active species and the recycled use of the catalyst were investigated. The catalyst with formula CrWTiO2 was found to be the most active with maximum FAME content of 83% obtained at best reaction conditions of 170 °C for 3 h, 2:1 (methanol to oil molar ratio) and 2 wt.% catalyst dosage. The catalyst can be recycled for 4 times. The results revealed CrWTiO2 good potentials for use in esterification of high acid value oil

  16. Isolation and characterization of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)-producing Streptomyces sp. S161 from sheep (Ovis aries) faeces.

    Lu, Y; Wang, J; Deng, Z; Wu, H; Deng, Q; Tan, H; Cao, L

    2013-09-01

    An actinomycete producing oil-like mixtures was isolated and characterized. The strain was isolated from sheep faeces and identified as Streptomyces sp. S161 based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The strain showed cellulase and xylanase activities. The (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of the mixtures showed that the mixtures were composed of fatty acid methyl esters (52·5), triglycerides (13·7) and monoglycerides (9·1) (mol.%). Based on the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, the fatty acid methyl esters were mainly composed of C14-C16 long-chain fatty acids. The results indicated that Streptomyces sp. S161 could produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) directly from starch. To our knowledge, this is the first isolated strain that can produce biodiesel (FAME) directly from starch. PMID:23692633

  17. A monolithic lipase reactor for biodiesel production by transesterification of triacylglycerides into fatty acid methyl esters

    Urban, Jiří T.

    2011-09-26

    An enzymatic reactor with lipase immobilized on a monolithic polymer support has been prepared and used to catalyze the transesterification of triacylglycerides into the fatty acid methyl esters commonly used for biodiesel. A design of experiments procedure was used to optimize the monolithic reactor with variables including control of the surface polarity of the monolith via variations in the length of the hydrocarbon chain in alkyl methacrylate monomer, time of grafting of 1-vinyl-4,4-dimethylazlactone used to activate the monolith, and time used for the immobilization of porcine lipase. Optimal conditions involved the use of a poly(stearyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolith, grafted first with vinylazlactone, then treated with lipase for 2h to carry out the immobilization of the enzyme. Best conditions for the transesterification of glyceryl tributyrate included a temperature of 37°C and a 10min residence time of the substrate in the bioreactor. The reactor did not lose its activity even after pumping through it a solution of substrate equaling 1,000 reactor volumes. This enzymatic reactor was also used for the transesterification of triacylglycerides from soybean oil to fatty acid methyl esters thus demonstrating the ability of the reactor to produce biodiesel. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Enzymatic Acylation of Anthocyanin Isolated from Black Rice with Methyl Aromatic Acid Ester as Donor: Stability of the Acylated Derivatives.

    Yan, Zheng; Li, Chunyang; Zhang, Lixia; Liu, Qin; Ou, Shiyi; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2016-02-10

    The enzymatic acylation of anthocyanin from black rice with aromatic acid methyl esters as acyl donors and Candida antarctica lipase B was carried out under reduced pressure. The highest conversion of 91% was obtained with benzoic acid methyl ester as acyl donor; cyanidin 3-(6″-benzoyl)-glucoside, cyanidin 3-(6″-salicyloyl)-glucoside, and cyanidin 3-(6″-cinnamoyl)-glucoside were successfully synthesized. This is the first report on the enzymatic acylation of anthocyanin from black rice with methyl aromatic esters as acyl donors and lipase as biocatalyst. Furthermore, the acylation with aromatic carboxylic acids enhanced both the thermostability and light resistivity of anthocyanin. In particular, cyanidin 3-(6″-cinnamoyl)-glucoside was the most stable among the three acylated anthocyanins synthesized. PMID:26766135

  19. RENEWABLE ENERGY CONTENT OF FATTY ACID METHYL ESTERS (FAME AND GLYCEROL

    Giuseppe Toscano

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME and glycerol produced by transesterification reaction contain atoms that in the reagents belong to methanol and, therefore, are not renewable. A method to evaluate the content of the renewable and non-renewable energetic fraction, released during their combustion, was 52 Fig. 2 - Correlation between EFNR and NCM of FAME. Fig. 3 - Correlation between NCM and NS. Fig. 4 - Correlations between EFNR and NS. 07_Toscano(541_47 26-01-2010 9:35 Pagina 52 developed using a thermochemical criteria, based on bond dissociation energies and the knowledge of the molecular structure of the reagents and the products. Results show that the fraction of non-renewable energy in the most diffused FAME is lower than 1% depending on the lengths of the carbonaceous methyl esters. Meanwhile, the energetic supply for the GL of this fraction is about 1.6%. The data reported in this document can be used to develop a criteria that corrects the fiscal mechanism aspects of some renewable energy products.

  20. Supported phosphate and carbonate salts for heterogeneous catalysis of triglycerides to fatty acid methyl esters

    Britton, Stephanie Lynne

    Fatty acid methyl esters made from vegetable oil, or biodiesel, have been identified as a substitute for diesel derived from crude oil. Biodiesel is currently made using a homogeneous base catalyst to perform the transesterification of triglycerides with methanol to generate fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). The use of a homogeneous catalyst necessitates additional purification of the product and byproducts before sale, and the catalyst is consumed and discarded. The development of a heterogeneous basic catalyst for the production of FAME is desirable. Tribasic phosphate salts and dibasic carbonate salts are active for the production of FAME but generally operate as homogeneous catalysts. Supporting these phosphate and carbonate salts on mesoporous MCM-41, microporous silica gel, and nonporous a-alumina proved successful to greater or lesser degrees depending on the identity of the support and pretreatment of the support. Although these salts were supported and were active for the production of FAME from canola oil, they proved to be operating as homogeneous catalysts due to leaching of the active species off the surface of the support. Further investigation of the active species present in the tribasic phosphate catalysts identified the active support as orthophosphate, and NMR studies revealed the phosphorus to be present as orthophosphate and diphosphate in varying proportions in each catalyst. Evaluation of the acid-washing support pretreatment process revealed that the exposure of the support to acid plays a large role in the development of activity on the surface of the catalyst, but manipulation of these parameters did not prevent leaching of the active site off the surface of the catalyst. Alternate methods of support pretreatment were no more effective in preventing leaching. Tribasic phosphate supported on silica gel is not effective as a heterogeneous catalyst for FAME production from triglycerides because of the lack of stability of the phosphate on the

  1. Study on the concentration of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters by urea complexation

    This study was done to obtain concentrated unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) by urea complexation from soybean derived FAME. Effects of urea-to-FAME ratio, 95% ethanol-to-FAME ratio, crystallization temperature and time on the purification of unsaturated FAME were investigated through single factor experiments. Optimum conditions to obtain maximum FAME yield of NUCF with the purity of unsaturated FAME greater than 98% were established using Box-Behnken design (BBD) method and response surface methodology (RSM). Under optimal conditions, the FAME yield was 58.08%, and the purity of unsaturated FAME was 98% at a urea-to-FAME ratio of 1.23, 95% ethanol-to-FAME ratio of 7 and crystallization temperature of 0 degree C. Verification results revealed that the predicted values were reasonably close to experimentally observed values of 56.93% and 98.01%. (author)

  2. Gas chromatography determination of fatty acid alkyl esters (methyl and ethyl in the presence of mono., di- and triglycerides

    Paulo César Narváez Rincón

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Determining fatty acid methyl or ethyl esters, in the presence of mono-, di- and tri glycerides, is very important when studying fatty compounds' methanolysis or ethanolysis, as well as for controlling the quality of petrochemical products. This work presents a useful technique for determining fatty acids methyl or ethyl esters by high temperature gas chromastography in the presence of mono-, di- and triglycerides. Samples were silylated with N, O-bis (trimethylsilyl trifluroacetamide (BSTFA and then passed throught a 12m HT5 column coated with a phenyl-polysiloxane-carborane film. Standard methyl and ethyl palmitate, methyl and ethyl oleate, DL-palmitin, dipalmitin, tripalmitin and triolein solutions were used for calibrating the technique, using tricaprin as internal standard. Retention times and response factors were also determined. The results were employed in following-up palm oil methanolysis and ethanolysis reactions.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester by In-Situ Transesterification in Capparis Deciduas Seed

    Prasad E FUNDE

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available (FAME Fatty acid methyl ester is made virgin or used vegetable oils (both edible and non-edible and animal fats. Fatty acid methyl ester operates in compression ignition engines like petro-diesel. Fatty acid methyl ester can be blended in any ratio with petroleum diesel fuels. It can be stored just like the petroleum diesel fuel. Petrodiesel can be replaced by biodiesel due to its superiority. It has various advantages. The seeds of Capparis deciduas are found to contain non-edible oil in the range of about 63.75 %. The percentage of biodiesel yield increases with concentration of KOH as a catalyst. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the cost effective new source of energy by single step reaction i.e. production of oil by combining extraction and reaction of extract with the mixture of alcohols. In this article the effect of catalyst concentration, time, water content and temperature on in-situ transesterification is studied to obtain optimum yield and Fatty acid methyl ester (Biodiesel Fuel characterization tests show the striking similarity of various physical & chemical properties and campers to ASTM standards.

  4. Determination of Total Lipids as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) by in situ Transesterification: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    Van Wychen, S.; Laurens, L. M. L.

    2013-12-01

    This procedure is based on a whole biomass transesterification of lipids to fatty acid methyl esters to represent an accurate reflection of the potential of microalgal biofuels. Lipids are present in many forms and play various roles within an algal cell, from cell membrane phospholipids to energy stored as triacylglycerols.

  5. Characterization of spirochetal isolates from arthropods collected in South Moravia, Czech Republic, using fatty acid methyl esters analysis

    Čechová, L.; Durnová, E.; Šikutová, Silvie; Halouzka, Jiří; Němec, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 808, č. 2 (2004), s. 249-254. ISSN 1570-0232 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/0726 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : spirochetes * arthropods * fatty acid methyl esters Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.176, year: 2004

  6. Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters from hazelnut, high-oleic peanut and walnut oils and evaluation as biodiesel

    Hazelnut, walnut and high-oleic peanut oils were converted into fatty acid methyl esters using catalytic sodium methoxide and evaluated as potential biodiesel fuels. These feedstocks were of interest due to their adaptability to marginal lands and their lipid production potentials (780-1780 L ha-1 y...

  7. Methyl esters (biodiesel) from and fatty acid profile of Gliricidia sepium seed oil

    Increasing the supply of biodiesel by defining and developing additional feedstocks is important to overcome the still limited amounts available of this alternative fuel. In this connection, the methyl esters of the seed oil of Gliricidia sepium were synthesized and the significant fuel-related prop...

  8. Characteristics of Oxidative Storage Stability of Canola Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Stabilised with Antioxidants

    Tirto Prakoso

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The storage effects on the oxidation characteristics of fatty acid methyl ester of canola oil (CME were investigated in this study. CME stabilised with two antioxidants, i.e. 2,6-di-tert-bytyl-p-cresol (BHT and 6,6-di-tert-butyl-2, 2’-methylendi-p-cresol (BPH, was stored at 20, 40 and 60°C. The oxidation stability data were measured by the Rancimat test method and it was found that both BHT and BPH addition increased the oxidation resistance of the CME. The results showed that when BPH or BHT was added at a concentration of 100 ppm, the oxidation induction period of the neat CME samples increased from 5.53 h to 6.93 h and 6.14 h, respectively. Comparing both antioxidants, BPH proved to be more effective in increasing the oxidation resistance when both antioxidants were added at the same concentration. Furthermore, the oxidation induction time decreased linearly with the storage time. It was shown that the oxidation occurred rapidly in the first 8 weeks of storage. Later, a kinetic study was undertaken and first-order kinetics were applied to explain the oxidation characteristics of the CME added with antioxidants. This kinetic study focused on exploiting the activation energy values obtained from the Arrhenius equations. Also, the oxidation effects on other quality parameters, including acid value, peroxide value, kinematic viscosity, and water content, were examined.

  9. Pretreatment of yellow grease for efficient production of fatty acid methyl esters

    Diaz-Felix, Walterio; Riley, Mark R.; Zimmt, Werner [Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Shantz Building, Room 403, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Kazz, Michael [Zelen Environmental, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel comprised of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) derived from vegetable oils or animal fats. Comparisons between biodiesel and petroleum-based diesel have shown biodiesel to be effective in reducing exhaust emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, particulate matter, and sulfur dioxide. While there are advantages of biodiesel over the traditional petroleum based diesel, biodiesel commercialization is limited by production cost that is dominated by the price of the feedstock (soybean oil). Yellow grease has the potential to be an effective feedstock with lower cost, but the chemical composition of these oils is variable depending on the source of collection and differs from that of virgin oil due to the presence of free fatty acids (FFA). Esterification has been previously demonstrated to reduce the FFA levels of YG; however, large quantities of methanol were required to drive the reaction to high yield. Methanol usage for processing and FFA content are the main factors affecting the economics of FAME production from YG. In this study, the relationship between composition and process variables was systematically studied. The effect of FFA ranging from 2% to 32% (w/w) was studied at three different molar ratios of methanol to FFA (4.5:1, 9:1, 18:1) and was found to have a non-linear relationship. Data obtained from this full factorial screening was used to develop a predictive statistical model to forecast the conversion based on initial FFA level and proportion of alcohol applied for esterification. (author)

  10. Ternary Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium for Systems of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester(Methyl Palmitate/Methyl Stearate)+Ethanol+Glycerol at Atmospheric Pressure

    夏淑倩; 罗慧娟; 马沛生

    2015-01-01

    Liquid-liquid equilibrium data of two ternary systems methyl palmitate+ethanol+glycerol and methyl stearate+ethanol+glycerol at(318.2 and 333.2)K and atmospheric pressure were measured. The values of distri-bution coefficient and selectivity were calculated, which indicates that glycerol can be separated from fatty acid ester by using ethanol as an extraction solvent. The consistency of the isothermal tie-line data were checked by the Othmer-Tobias equation. The correlation coefficients R2 are higher than 0.993,9 for all the fitted curves. The NRTL activity coefficient model was applied to the correlation of the measured tie-line data. The root mean square devia-tion(RMSD)values are less than 0.007 for all the systems, which shows a good predictive capability of this model for such systems.

  11. Prospects and potential of fatty acid methyl esters of some non-traditional seed oils for use as biodiesel in India

    Mohibbe Azam, M.; Waris, Amtul; Nahar, N.M. [Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur 342003 (India)

    2005-10-01

    Fatty acid profiles of seed oils of 75 plant species having 30% or more fixed oil in their seed/kernel were examined. Saponification number (SN), iodine value (IV) and cetane number (CN) of fatty acid methyl esters of oils were empirically determined and they varied from 169.2 to 312.5, 4.8 to 212 and 20.56 to 67.47, respectively. Fatty acid compositions, IV and CN were used to predict the quality of fatty acid methyl esters of oil for use as biodiesel. Fatty acid methyl ester of oils of 26 species including Azadirachta indica, Calophyllum inophyllum, Jatropha curcas and Pongamia pinnata were found most suitable for use as biodiesel and they meet the major specification of biodiesel standards of USA, Germany and European Standard Organization. The fatty acid methyl esters of another 11 species meet the specification of biodiesel standard of USA only. These selected plants have great potential for biodiesel. (author)

  12. Prospects and potential of fatty acid methyl esters of some non-traditional seed oils for use as biodiesel in India

    Fatty acid profiles of seed oils of 75 plant species having 30% or more fixed oil in their seed/kernel were examined. Saponification number (SN), iodine value (IV) and cetane number (CN) of fatty acid methyl esters of oils were empirically determined and they varied from 169.2 to 312.5, 4.8 to 212 and 20.56 to 67.47, respectively. Fatty acid compositions, IV and CN were used to predict the quality of fatty acid methyl esters of oil for use as biodiesel. Fatty acid methyl ester of oils of 26 species including Azadirachta indica, Calophyllum inophyllum, Jatropha curcas and Pongamia pinnata were found most suitable for use as biodiesel and they meet the major specification of biodiesel standards of USA, Germany and European Standard Organization. The fatty acid methyl esters of another 11 species meet the specification of biodiesel standard of USA only. These selected plants have great potential for biodiesel

  13. New eudesmenoic acid methyl esters from the seed oil of Jatropha curcas.

    Yang, Yuan-Feng; Liu, Jie-Qing; Li, Zhong-Rong; Li, Yan; Qiu, Ming-Hua

    2013-09-01

    Three new eudesmenoic acid methyl esters (1-3), as well as five known compounds, including three germacranolides (4-6) and two eudesmanolides (7 and 8), were isolated from the seed oil of Jatropha curcas. The new compounds were elucidated by means of spectroscopic methods, including extensive NMR spectra. In addition, the structure of 8 was confirmed by a single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Among the isolates, compounds 4-6 were the first reported from the genus Jatropha. Using MTS viability assay, the cytotoxicity of compounds 2-8 were evaluated against HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7, and SW480 human tumor cell lines. Compounds 4 and 5 showed remarkable cytotoxicity against all the tested cell lines with IC50 values from 0.5 to 3.5 μM, and the new compound 3 displayed selective cytotoxic activity against A-549 cell with an IC50 value of 7.24 μM, but slight cytotoxicity against HL-60 and MCF-7 with IC50 values of 23.77 and 22.37 μM, respectively. PMID:23811432

  14. Combustion characteristics of fatty acid methyl esters derived from recycled cooking oil

    Yo-ping Greg Wu; Ya-fen Lin; Chang-Tang Chang [National Ilan University, Ilan (Taiwan). Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2007-12-15

    The goal of this study is to find out the exhaust emissions differences produced by different kinds of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) derived from used cooking oils and animal fats, as well as the importance of the purification step in exhaust emissions production. A total of 120 L of waste vegetable oil and 30 L of waste frying oil were collected and converted into three batches of FAME. There were two batches of FAME produced from waste vegetable oil (B01 and B02), and one batch of FAME produced by mixing 2% of waste frying oil with waste vegetable oil (B03). The FAMEs used in this study had higher density, kinematic viscosity, and flash point, but a lower gross heating value, when compared to the premium diesel. The B01 engine produced higher CO formation and the diesel-fuelled engine produced higher CO than the B02 and B03 did for engine speeds higher than 1400 rpm. Most of the FAME fuels produced higher CO{sub 2} than the diesel fuel did. The FAME fuels emitted higher NOx and PM, but lower SO{sub 2}, than the diesel fuel. C{sub n}H{sub 2n+2}, diphenyl sulfone (C{sub 12}H{sub 10}O{sub 2}S), and diethyl phthalate (C{sub 12}H{sub 14}O{sub 4}) can be selected as the character index for the combustion of FAME. 26 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Electronic Structures and Optical Properties of Phenyl C71 Butyric Acid Methyl Esters

    Cai-Rong Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM has been adopted as electron acceptor materials in bulk heterojunction solar cells with relatively higher power conversion efficiency. The understanding of the mechanism and performance for the devices based upon PC71BM requires the information of conformations, electronic structures, optical properties, and so forth. Here, the geometries, IR and Raman, electronic structures, polarizabilities, and hyperpolarizabilities of PC71BM isomers are studied by using density functional theory (DFT; the absorption and excitation properties are investigated via time-dependent DFT with B3LYP, PBE0, and CAM-B3LYP functionals. The calculated results show that [6,6]PC71BM is more stable than [5,6]PC71BM due to the lower total energy. The vibrational modes of the isomers at IR and Raman peaks are quite similar. As to absorption properties, CAM-B3LYP functional is the suitable functional for describing the excitations of PC71BM because the calculated results with CAM-B3LYP functional agree well with that of the experiment. The analysis of transition configurations and molecular orbitals demonstrated that the transitions at the absorption maxima in UV/Vis region are localized π-π* transitions in fullerenes cages. Furthermore, the larger isotropic polarizability of PC71BM indicates that the response of PC71BM to applied external electric field is stronger than that of PC61BM, and therefore resulting into better nonlinear optical properties.

  16. Negative polarity of phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester adjacent to donor macromolecule domains

    Interfacial fields within organic photovoltaics influence the movement of free charge carriers, including exciton dissociation and recombination. Open circuit voltage (Voc) can also be dependent on the interfacial fields, in the event that they modulate the energy gap between donor HOMO and acceptor LUMO. A rise in the vacuum level of the acceptor will increase the gap and the Voc, which can be beneficial for device efficiency. Here, we measure the interfacial potential differences at donor-acceptor junctions using Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy, and quantify how much of the potential difference originates from physical contact between the donor and acceptor. We see a statistically significant and pervasive negative polarity on the phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) side of PCBM/donor junctions, which should also be present at the complex interfaces in bulk heterojunctions. This potential difference may originate from molecular dipoles, interfacial interactions with donor materials, and/or equilibrium charge transfer due to the higher work function and electron affinity of PCBM. We show that the contact between PCBM and poly(3-hexylthiophene) doubles the interfacial potential difference, a statistically significant difference. Control experiments determined that this potential difference was not due to charges trapped in the underlying substrate. The direction of the observed potential difference would lead to increased Voc, but would also pose a barrier to electrons being injected into the PCBM and make recombination more favorable. Our method may allow unique information to be obtained in new donor-acceptor junctions

  17. Quantification of methyl esters of fatty acids in the oil of Physalis minima by GC-MS

    Muhammad Nasimullah Qureshi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate quantification of methyl esters of fatty acids in the oil extracted from Physalis minima (P. minima using gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Methods: Oil was extracted from the shade dried plant with n-hexane through Soxhlet extraction. Fatty acids that present in the oil were derivatized to fatty acid methyl esters and analysed through gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Results: A total of nine fatty acids were detected in quantifiable amount in the oil. Both the saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids were identified. Palmitic acid was found in the highest concentration as 46.83%. Linoleic acid (ω-6 and linolenic acid (ω-3 were obtained in appreciable amount as 16.98% and 14.80% respectively among the unsaturated fatty acids in the oil under study. From the literature review, it appeared that fatty acids were determined for the first time in the oil of P. minima. Conclusions: Presence of these important fatty acids in high amount makes P. minima oil beneficial for health, which can be used in the preparation of phytopharmaceutical or pharmaceutical preparations. Moreover, the results of this study are useful for the phytopharmaceutical industries to establish their quality control profile.

  18. Quantiifcation of methyl esters of fatty acids in the oil of Physalis minima by GC-MS

    Muhammad Nasimullah Qureshi; Fazal Wajid; Inayat-ur-Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate quantification of methyl esters of fatty acids in the oil extracted from Physalis minima (P. minima) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Methods: Oil was extracted from the shade dried plant with n-hexane through Soxhlet extraction. Fatty acids that present in the oil were derivatized to fatty acid methyl esters and analysed through gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Results:A total of nine fatty acids were detected in quantifiable amount in the oil. Both the saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids were identified. Palmitic acid was found in the highest concentration as 46.83%. Linoleic acid (ω-6) and linolenic acid (ω-3) were obtained in appreciable amount as 16.98%and 14.80%respectively among the unsaturated fatty acids in the oil under study. From the literature review, it appeared that fatty acids were determined for the first time in the oil of P. minima. Conclusions: Presence of these important fatty acids in high amount makes P. minima oil beneficial for health, which can be used in the preparation of phytopharmaceutical or pharmaceutical preparations. Moreover, the results of this study are useful for the phytopharmaceutical industries to establish their quality control profile.

  19. Self-assembled structure of alkyloxy substituted benzoic acid methyl ester on HOPG:An STM study

    YUAN Qunhui; LU Jun; WAN Lijun; BAI Chunli

    2004-01-01

    Self-assembled structures of 3,4,5-tris-dodecy- loxy benzoic acid methyl ester (E12), 3,4,5-tris-tetradecy- loxy-benzoic acid methyl ester (E14) and their mixture (E12/E14) have been studied on HOPG by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Dimer-like patterns induced by dipole-dipole interaction are observed in E12 and E14 monolayers. The molecules form close-packed rows and interdigitate with the alkyl chains in adjacent molecules. The structural differences are proposed to be from the different length of substituted alkyl chains. Owing to similar adsorption energy, phase separation is observed in the E12 and E14 mixed adlayer with different domains.

  20. Simultaneous microwave extraction and synthesis of fatty acid methyl ester from the oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis

    Microbial lipids have the potential to substantially reduce the use of liquid fossil fuels, though one obstacle is the energy costs associated with the extraction and subsequent conversion into a biofuel. Here we report a one-step method to produce FAME (fatty acid methyl esters) from Rhodotorula glutinis by combining lipid extraction in a microwave reactor with acid-catalysed transesterification. The microwave did not alter the FAME profile and over 99% of the lipid was esterified when using 25 wt% H2SO4 over 20 min at 120 °C. On using higher loadings of catalyst, similar yields were achieved over 30 s. Equivalent amounts of FAME were recovered in 30 s using this method as with a 4 h Soxhlet extraction, run with the same solvent system. When water was present at less than a 1:1 ratio with methanol, the main product was FAME, above this the major products were FFA (free fatty acids). Under the best conditions, the energy required for the microwave was less than 20% of the energy content of the biodiesel produced. Increasing the temperature did not change the EROI (energy return on investment) substantially; however, longer reaction times used an equivalent amount of energy to the total energy content of the biodiesel. - Highlights: • The extraction and transesterification of yeast lipid were achieved using a microwave reactor. • The lipid was extracted from Rhodotorula glutinis within 30 s under all conditions. • Addition of 25 wt% H2SO4 catalyst converted 95% glycerides to FAME over 5 min. • Water could be tolerated up to 25 wt% without high FFA production. • The temperature of the microwave had less impact on EROI than the length of extraction

  1. S-(−)-10,11-Dihydroxyfarnesoic Acid Methyl Ester Inhibits Melanin Synthesis in Murine Melanocyte Cells

    Seung-Hwa Baek; Jun-Won Ahn; Sung-Hee Nam; Cheol-Sik Yoon; Jae-Cheon Shin; Sang-Han Lee

    2014-01-01

    The development of antimelanogenic agents is important for the prevention of serious aesthetic problems such as melasmas, freckles, age spots, and chloasmas. In the course of screening for melanin synthesis inhibitors, we found that the culture broth from an insect morphopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana CS1029, exhibits potent antimelanogenic activity. We isolated and purified an active metabolite and identified it as S-(−)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesoic acid methyl ester (dhFAME), an insect j...

  2. Regiospecific synthesis of new fatty N-acyl trihalomethylated pyrazoline derivatives from fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs)

    Beck, Paulo; Santos, Juliane M. dos; D' Oca, Marcelo G. M.; Piovesan, Luciana A., E-mail: lpiovesan@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (UFRS), RS (Brazil). Escola de Quimica e Alimentos; Kuhn, Bruna L.; Moreira, Dayse N.; Flores, Alex F.C.; Martins, Marcos A.P. [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2012-11-15

    A series of new fatty N-acyl trihalomethylated pyrazoline derivatives from fatty acid methyl esters was synthesized by the cyclo condensation of respective fatty hydrazides with 4-alkoxy- 1,1,1-trial omethyl-3-alquen-2-ones. Efficient and regiospecific cyclizations catalyzed by BF{sub 3}-MeOH gave the desired products in good to excellent yields and at high purity. (author)

  3. Unequivocal NMR assignments: O-methoxy-methyl esters derivatives of acid chromanones from Calophyllum brasiliense CAMB. (Guanandi).

    Caneppele, D; Vieira, P C; Dall'Oglio, E L; da Silva, L E; Sousa, P T

    2008-01-01

    The present work describes the fractionation of the crude hexane extract (EBHEX) from Calophyllum brasiliense (Clusiaceae) stem bark. Derivatization of DCM(2-9) fraction with diazomethane afforded the chromanones inophylloidic acid, isobrasiliensic acid, as well as, a mixture containing isobrasiliensic and brasiliensic acids, in the form of their more stable O-methoxy-methyl esters derivatives 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The isolation of 1 from C. brasiliense is described for the first time herein. The use of two-dimensional NMR methods ((1)H-COSY, HMQC, and HMBC) allowed the precise determination of (13)C and (1)H chemical shifts of compounds 1, 2, and 3. PMID:18626818

  4. A database of chromatographic properties and mass spectra of fatty acid methyl esters from omega-3 products.

    Wasta, Ziar; Mjøs, Svein A

    2013-07-19

    Fatty acids in products claimed to contain oils with the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were analyzed as fatty acid methyl esters by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using electron impact ionization. To cover the variation in products on the market, the 20 products that were studied in detail were selected from a larger sample set by statistical methodology. The samples were analyzed on two different stationary phases (polyethylene glycol and cyanopropyl) and the fatty acid methyl esters were identified by methodology that combines the mass spectra and retention indices into a single score value. More that 100 fatty acids had a chromatographic area above 0.1% of the total, in at least one product. Retention indices are reported as equivalent chain lengths, and overlap patterns on the two columns are discussed. Both columns were found suitable for analysis of major and nutritionally important fatty acids, but the large number of minor compounds that may act as interferents will be problematic if low limits of quantification are required in analyses of similar sample types. A database of mass spectral libraries and equivalent chain lengths of the detected compounds has been compiled and is available online. PMID:23773584

  5. Labdanolic acid methyl ester (LAME) exerts anti-inflammatory effects through inhibition of TAK-1 activation

    Cuadrado, Irene [Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense, Plaza Ramón y Cajal s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Cidre, Florencia; Herranz, Sandra [Unidad de Inflamación y Cáncer. Área de Biología Celular y Desarrollo. Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Estevez-Braun, Ana [Instituto Universitario de Bio-Orgánica “Antonio González”. Universidad de La Laguna. Avda. Astrofísico Fco. Sánchez 2. 38206. La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Instituto Canario de Investigaciones del Cáncer (ICIC) (Spain); Heras, Beatriz de las, E-mail: lasheras@farm.ucm.es [Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense, Plaza Ramón y Cajal s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Hortelano, Sonsoles, E-mail: shortelano@isciii.es [Unidad de Inflamación y Cáncer. Área de Biología Celular y Desarrollo. Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-01-01

    Labdane derivatives obtained from the diterpenoid labdanediol suppressed NO and PGE{sub 2} production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. However, mechanisms involved in these inhibitory effects are not elucidated. In this study, we investigated the signaling pathways involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of labdanolic acid methyl ester (LAME) in peritoneal macrophages and examined its therapeutic effect in a mouse endotoxic shock model. LAME reduced the production of NO and PGE{sub 2} in LPS-activated macrophages. This effect involved the inhibition of NOS-2 and COX-2 gene expression, acting at the transcription level. Examination of the effects of the diterpene on NF-κB signaling showed that LAME inhibits the phosphorylation of IκBα and IκBβ, preventing their degradation and the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit. Moreover, inhibition of MAPK signaling was also observed. A further experiment revealed that LAME inhibited the phosphorylation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), an upstream signaling molecule required for IKK and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation. Inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α and IP-10 were downregulated in the presence of this compound after stimulation with LPS. Additionally, LAME also improved survival in a mouse model of endotoxemia and reduced the circulatory levels of cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α). In conclusion, these results indicate that labdane diterpene LAME significantly attenuates the pro-inflammatory response induced by LPS both in vivo and in vitro. Highlights: ► LAME reduced the production of NO and PGE{sub 2} in LPS-activated macrophages. ► IL-6, TNF-α and IP-10 were also inhibited by LAME. ► Inhibition of TAK-1 activation is the mechanism involved in this process. ► LAME improved survival in a mouse model of endotoxemia. ► LAME reduced the circulatory levels of cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α).

  6. Labdanolic acid methyl ester (LAME) exerts anti-inflammatory effects through inhibition of TAK-1 activation

    Labdane derivatives obtained from the diterpenoid labdanediol suppressed NO and PGE2 production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. However, mechanisms involved in these inhibitory effects are not elucidated. In this study, we investigated the signaling pathways involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of labdanolic acid methyl ester (LAME) in peritoneal macrophages and examined its therapeutic effect in a mouse endotoxic shock model. LAME reduced the production of NO and PGE2 in LPS-activated macrophages. This effect involved the inhibition of NOS-2 and COX-2 gene expression, acting at the transcription level. Examination of the effects of the diterpene on NF-κB signaling showed that LAME inhibits the phosphorylation of IκBα and IκBβ, preventing their degradation and the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit. Moreover, inhibition of MAPK signaling was also observed. A further experiment revealed that LAME inhibited the phosphorylation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), an upstream signaling molecule required for IKK and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation. Inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α and IP-10 were downregulated in the presence of this compound after stimulation with LPS. Additionally, LAME also improved survival in a mouse model of endotoxemia and reduced the circulatory levels of cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α). In conclusion, these results indicate that labdane diterpene LAME significantly attenuates the pro-inflammatory response induced by LPS both in vivo and in vitro. Highlights: ► LAME reduced the production of NO and PGE2 in LPS-activated macrophages. ► IL-6, TNF-α and IP-10 were also inhibited by LAME. ► Inhibition of TAK-1 activation is the mechanism involved in this process. ► LAME improved survival in a mouse model of endotoxemia. ► LAME reduced the circulatory levels of cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α).

  7. NF EN 14213. - Heating fuels. - Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) - Requirements and test methods; NF EN 14213. - Fioul domestique. - Esters methyliques d'acides gras (EMAG). - Exigences et methodes d'essais

    NONE

    2004-04-01

    This standard specifies requirements and test methods for marketed and delivered fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) to be used as heating oil solely or as a blending component for the production of heating oil. At 100% concentration it is applicable to fuel for use in heating equipment designed or subsequently adapted to run on 100% FAME.

  8. Peak alignment and robust principal component analysis of gas chromatograms of fatty acid methyl esters and volatiles

    Frosch, Stina; Jørgensen, Bo

    2007-01-01

    Gas chromatograms of fatty acid methyl esters and of volatile lipid oxidation products from fish lipid extracts are analyzed by multivariate data analysis [principal component analysis (PCA)]. Peak alignment is necessary in order to include all sampled points of the chromatograms in the data set....... The ability of robust algorithms to deal with outlier problems, including both sample-wise and element-wise outliers, and the advantages and drawbacks of two robust PCA methods, robust PCA (ROBPCA) and robust singular value decomposition when analysing these GC data were investigated. The results show...

  9. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of 4-(4,6-dimethoxyl -pyrimidin-2-yl)-3-thiourea Carboxylic Acid Methyl Ester

    HUANG Jie; SONG Ji-Rong; REN Ying-Hui; XU Kang-Zhen; MA Hai-Xia

    2006-01-01

    The title compound 4-(4,6-dimethoxylpyrimidin-2-yl)-3-thiourea carboxylic acid methyl ester was synthesized by the reaction of 2-amino-4,6-dimethoxyl pyrimidine, potassium thiocyanate and methyl chloroformate in ethyl acetate. Single crystals suitable for X-ray measurement were obtained by recrystallization with the solvent of dimethyl formamide at the room temperature. The structure was characterized by elemental analysis and IR and determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. Crystallographic data: C9H12N4O4S, Mr = 272.29, monoclinic, space group C2/m with a = 1.6672(3), b = 0.66383(12), c = 1.1617(2) nm, β = 109.275(2)°, V = 1.2136(4) nm3, Dc = 1.490 g/cm3, μ = 0.281 mm-1, F(000) = 568, Z = 4, R1 = 0.0341and wR2 = 0.1042.

  10. Emissions from diesel engines using fatty acid methyl esters from different vegetable oils as blends and pure fuel

    Biodiesel is used as a neat fuel as well as in blends with mineral diesel fuel. Because of the limited availability of fossil resources, an increase of biogenic compounds in fuels is desired. To achieve this goal, next to rapeseed oil, other sustainably produced vegetable oils can be used as raw materials. These raw materials influence the fuel properties as well as the emissions. To investigate the environmental impact of the exhaust gas, it is necessary to determine regulated and non-regulated exhaust gas components. In detail, emissions of aldehydes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), as well as mutagenicity in the Ames test are of special interest. In this paper emission measurements on a Euro III engine OM 906 of Mercedes-Benz are presented. As fuel vegetable oil methyl esters from various sources and reference diesel fuel were used as well as blends of the vegetable oil methyl esters with diesel fuel. PAH were sampled according to VDI Guideline 3872. The sampling procedure of carbonyls was accomplished using DNPH cartridges coupled with potassium iodide cartridges. The carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions of the tested methyl esters show advantages over DF. The particle mass emissions of methyl esters were likewise lower than those of DF, only linseed oil methyl ester showed higher particle mass emissions. A disadvantage is the use of biodiesel with respect to emissions of nitrogen oxides. They increased depending on the type of methyl ester by 10% to 30%. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the results of mutagenicity tests correlate with those of the PM measurements, at which for palm oil methyl ester next to coconut oil methyl ester the lowest emissions were detected. From these results one can formulate a clear link between the iodine number of the ester and the emission behaviour. For blends of biodiesel and diesel fuel, emissions changed linearly with the proportion of biodiesel. However, especially in the non

  11. Emissions from diesel engines using fatty acid methyl esters from different vegetable oils as blends and pure fuel

    Schröder, O.; Munack, A.; Schaak, J.; Pabst, C.; Schmidt, L.; Bünger, J.; Krahl, J.

    2012-05-01

    Biodiesel is used as a neat fuel as well as in blends with mineral diesel fuel. Because of the limited availability of fossil resources, an increase of biogenic compounds in fuels is desired. To achieve this goal, next to rapeseed oil, other sustainably produced vegetable oils can be used as raw materials. These raw materials influence the fuel properties as well as the emissions. To investigate the environmental impact of the exhaust gas, it is necessary to determine regulated and non-regulated exhaust gas components. In detail, emissions of aldehydes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), as well as mutagenicity in the Ames test are of special interest. In this paper emission measurements on a Euro III engine OM 906 of Mercedes-Benz are presented. As fuel vegetable oil methyl esters from various sources and reference diesel fuel were used as well as blends of the vegetable oil methyl esters with diesel fuel. PAH were sampled according to VDI Guideline 3872. The sampling procedure of carbonyls was accomplished using DNPH cartridges coupled with potassium iodide cartridges. The carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions of the tested methyl esters show advantages over DF. The particle mass emissions of methyl esters were likewise lower than those of DF, only linseed oil methyl ester showed higher particle mass emissions. A disadvantage is the use of biodiesel with respect to emissions of nitrogen oxides. They increased depending on the type of methyl ester by 10% to 30%. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the results of mutagenicity tests correlate with those of the PM measurements, at which for palm oil methyl ester next to coconut oil methyl ester the lowest emissions were detected. From these results one can formulate a clear link between the iodine number of the ester and the emission behaviour. For blends of biodiesel and diesel fuel, emissions changed linearly with the proportion of biodiesel. However, especially in the non

  12. Environmentally friendly properties of vegetable oil methyl esters

    Gateau Paul

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements were carried out on Vegetable Oil Methyl Esters (VOME or FAME answering the most recent specifications. The products tested are RME (Rapeseed oil Methyl Ester, ERME (Erucic Rapeseed oil Methyl Esters, SME (Sunflower oil Methyl Esters, and HOSME (High Oleic Sunflower oil Methyl Esters. They contain more than 99.5% of fatty acid mono esters. The compositions are given. VOME are not volatile and they are not easily flammable. They are not soluble in water and they are biodegradable. According to the methods implemented for the determination of the German classification of substances hazardous to waters WGK, they are not toxic on mammals and unlike diesel fuel they are not toxic on fish, daphnia, algae and bacteria. The RME is not either toxic for shrimps. According to tests on rabbits, RME and SME are not irritating for the skin and the eyes. VOME display particularly attractive environmental properties.

  13. Configurational and conformational analysis of chiral molecules using IR and VCD spectroscopies: spiropentylcarboxylic acid methyl ester and spiropentyl acetate.

    Devlin, F J; Stephens, P J; Osterle, C; Wiberg, K B; Cheeseman, J R; Frisch, M J

    2002-11-15

    The chiral monosubstituted derivatives of spiropentane, spiropentylcarboxylic acid methyl ester, 1, and spiropentyl acetate, 2, have been synthesized in optically active form. Configurational and conformational analysis of 1 and 2 has been carried out using infrared (IR) and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopies. Analysis of the experimental IR and VCD spectra has been carried out using ab initio density functional theory (DFT). For both 1 and 2, DFT predicts two populated conformations. Comparison to experiment of the conformationally averaged IR and VCD spectra of 1 and 2, predicted using DFT, provides unequivocal evidence of the predicted conformations and yields the absolute configurations R(-)/S(+) for 1 and R(+)/S(-) for 2. These absolute configurations are consistent with the R(-)/S(+) absolute configuration of spiropentylcarboxylic acid, assigned previously via X-ray crystallography of its alpha-phenylethylammonium salt. PMID:12423137

  14. Photoinduced intramolecular charge-transfer reactions in 4-amino-3-methyl benzoic acid methyl ester: A fluorescence study in condensedphase and jet-cooled molecular beams

    Amrita Chakraborty; Samiran Kar; D N Nath; Nikhil Guchhait

    2007-03-01

    Photoinduced intramolecular charge-transfer reactions in 4-amino-3-methyl benzoic acid methyl ester (AMBME) have been investigated spectroscopically. AMBME, with its weak charge donor primary amino group, shows dual emission in polar solvents. Absorption and emission measurements in the condensed phase support the premise that the short wavelength emission band corresponds to local emission and the long wavelength emission band to the charge transfer emission. Laser-induced fluorescence excitation spectra show the presence of two low-energy conformers in jet-cooled molecular beams. Theoretical calculations using density functional theory help to determine structure, vibrational modes, potential energy surface, transition energy and oscillator strength for correlating experimental findings with theoretical results.

  15. Quantification of trace fatty acid methyl esters in diesel fuel by using multidimensional gas chromatography with electron and chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    Webster, R L; Rawson, P M; Evans, D J; Marriott, P J

    2016-07-01

    Measurement of contamination of marine and naval diesel fuels (arising from product mixing or adulteration) with biodiesel or fatty acid methyl esters can be problematic, especially at very low levels. A suitable solution for this task for trace amounts of individual fatty acid methyl esters with resolution and quantification can be achieved by using a multidimensional gas chromatographic approach with electron and chemical ionization mass spectrometric detection. A unique column set comprising a 100 m methyl-siloxane nonpolar first dimension column and high-temperature ionic liquid column in the second dimension enabled identification of individual fatty acid methyl esters at below the lowest concentrations required to be reported in a diesel fuel matrix. Detection limits for individual fatty acid methyl esters compounds ranged from 0.5 to 5.0 mg/L, with excellent linearity up to 5000 mg/L and repeatability of the method from 1.3 to 3.2%. The method was applied to the analysis of diesel fuel samples with suspected biodiesel contamination. Contamination at 568 mg/L was calculated for an unknown sample and interpretation of the results permitted the determination of a likely source of the contamination. PMID:27159197

  16. Organic memory using [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester: morphology, thickness and concentration dependence studies

    We report a simple memory device in which the fullerene-derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) mixed with inert polystyrene (PS) matrix is sandwiched between two aluminum (Al) electrodes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of PCBM:PS films showed well controlled morphology without forming any aggregates at low weight percentages (th) for switching from the high-impedance state to the low-impedance state, the voltage at maximum current density (Vmax) and the voltage at minimum current density (Vmin) in the NDR regime are constant within this thickness range. The current density ratio at Vmax and Vmin is more than or equal to 10, increasing with thickness. Furthermore, the current density is exponentially dependent on the longest tunneling jump between two PCBM molecules, suggesting a tunneling mechanism between individual PCBM molecules. This is further supported with temperature independent NDR down to 240 K

  17. Morphology characterization of phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester films via an electrohydrodynamic spraying route

    In this study, we fabricated a thin film layer of phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) fine particles using electrohydrodynamic (EHD) spray and evaluated the effects of the process parameters on the film morphology. After the PCBM was dissolved in dichloromethane, the solution was sprayed onto a substrate using the stable cone-jet mode of EHD spraying at various flow rates ranging from 5 to 15 μl/min and electric potentials ranging from 3 to 5 kV. The effects of the liquid flow rate, nozzle-plate distance, solute fraction, and electrical conductivity on the spray characteristics were investigated. The sizes of the PCBM particles deposited on the substrate were calculated using a scaling law and a mass balance equation, the results of which were in agreement with those obtained by scanning electron microscopy. A thin film was obtained with the structure of PCBM particles deposited without any void or agglomeration from the EHD spraying technique. The electrical conductivity of the PCBM solution was the dominant parameter in controlling the size of the PCBM particles. As the conductivity was increased to 2.4 × 10−3 S/m from 4.3 × 10−9 S/m, the particle size decreased from 6.7 μm to 320 nm. The size distribution measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer also supported the generation of nano-scale PCBM particles. The decrease of the particle size with increasing electrical conductivity may lead to a better morphology of PCBM films. - Highlights: • The phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester thin film was obtained by electrospray. • The morphology of film consisting of microparticles was investigated. • The particle size was controlled by adjusting experimental parameters. • The nanoparticle was obtained by increasing the solution conductivity. • The particle size distribution was studied using a scanning mobility particle sizer

  18. Methods of preparation of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME. Statistical assessment of the precision characteristics from a collaborative trial

    Pérez-Camino, M. C.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The official regulations for the control of the olive and olive pomace oils of the European Union (EU and International Olive Oil Council (IOOC include the determination of fatty acids in order to be applied to several purity criteria. The determination of fatty acids require the preparation of the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME for the subsequent analysis by gas chromatography with good precision and reproducibility. Among the methods used in the laboratories of both the industries and the official institutions looking after the olive oil control, the ones selected were: 1 cold methylation with methanolic potash and 2 hot methylation with sodium methylate followed by acidification with sulphuric acid in methanol and heating. A statistical assessment of the precision characteristics were performed on the determination of fatty acids using both methods by a collaborative trial following the directions included in the AOAC regulation (AOAC 1995. In oils with low acidities, the results obtained for both methylation methods were equivalent. However, the olivepomace oil sample (acidity 15.5% showed significative differences between the fatty acid compositions obtained using both methylation methods. Finally, the methylation with the acidic+basic method did not yield an increase of the trans-isomers of the fatty acids.Los métodos oficiales para el control del aceite de oliva y de orujo de oliva de la Unión Europea (UE y del Comité Oleícola Internacional (COI incluyen la determinación de ácidos grasos en la aplicación de varios criterios de pureza. La determinación de ácidos grasos requiere la preparación de los ésteres metílicos de los ácidos grasos (FAME y su posterior análisis mediante cromatografía de gases con una buena repetibilidad y reproducibilidad. Entre los muchos métodos usados por los laboratorios de la industria y de los organismos oficiales de control, se seleccionaron los siguientes: 1 metilación en frío con potasa

  19. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of 2-[(4-Methoxy- 6-methylthio-2-pyrimidinyl)aminocarbonyl-aminosulfonyl] Benzoic Acid Methyl Ester

    黄明智; 王晓光; 毛春晖; 黄路; 宋海斌

    2004-01-01

    The title compound 2-[(4-methoxy-6-methylthio-2-pyrimidinyl)aminocarbonyl-aminosulfonyl]benzoic acid methyl ester (C15H16N4O6S2,Mr = 412.44) was obtained by the reaction of (4-methoxy-6-methylthio-2-pyrimidinyl)amine with 2-methoxylcarbonylbenzene-sulfonylisocya-nate.The crystal is of monoclinic,space group P21/c with a =11.169(3),b = 9.508(3),c = 17.690(5)(A),β = 91.593(5)o,Z = 4,V = 1877.9(10)(A)3,Dc = 1.459 g/cm3,F(000) = 856,μ(MoKα) = 0.324 mm-1,R = 0.0690 and Wr = 0.1368 for 3301 observed reflections (I > 2((I)).The N(1)-H…N(3) and N(2)-H…O(4) hydrogen bonds can be observed.In the molecule the phenyl plane(I),pyrimi-din-2-yl-urea bridge plane(Ⅱ) and ester plane(Ⅲ) form three conjugated systems.

  20. NF EN 14104. July 2003. Fatty compounds derived products. Fatty acids methylic esters (FAME). Determination of the acid index; NF EN 14104. Juillet 2003. Produits derives des corps gras. Esters methyliques d'acides gras (EMAG). Determination de l'indice d'acide

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This European standard describes a titration method for the determination of the acid index of slightly colored fatty acids methylic esters (FAME). This method allows the determination of the acid index over a concentration range comprised between 0.10 mg of KOH/g and 1 mg of KOH/g. (J.S.)

  1. Pyrogenic transformation of Nannochloropsis oceanica into fatty acid methyl esters without oil extraction for estimating total lipid content.

    Kim, Jieun; Jung, Jong-Min; Lee, Jechan; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Choi, Tae O; Kim, Jae-Kon; Jeon, Young Jae; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2016-07-01

    This study fundamentally investigated the pseudo-catalytic transesterification of dried Nannochloropsis oceanica into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) without oil extraction, which was achieved in less than 5min via a thermo-chemical pathway. This study presented that the pseudo-catalytic transesterification reaction was achieved in the presence of silica and that its main driving force was identified as temperature: pores in silica provided the numerous reaction space like a micro-reactor, where the heterogeneous reaction was developed. The introduced FAME derivatization showed an extraordinarily high tolerance of impurities (i.e., pyrolytic products and various extractives). This study also explored the thermal cracking of FAMEs derived from N. oceanica: the thermal cracking of saturated FAMEs was invulnerable at temperatures lower than 400°C. Lastly, this study reported that N. oceanica contained 14.4wt.% of dried N. oceanica and that the introduced methylation technique could be applicable to many research fields sharing the transesterification platform. PMID:27082269

  2. Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME Succession in Different Substrates as Affected by the Co-Application of Three Pesticides.

    Alessandra Cardinali

    Full Text Available In intensive agriculture areas the use of pesticides can alter soil properties and microbial community structure with the risk of reducing soil quality.In this study the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs evolution has been studied in a factorial lab experiment combining five substrates (a soil, two aged composts and their mixtures treated with a co-application of three pesticides (azoxystrobin, chlorotoluron and epoxiconazole, with two extraction methods, and two incubation times (0 and 58 days. FAMEs extraction followed the microbial identification system (MIDI and ester-linked method (EL.The pesticides showed high persistence, as revealed by half-life (t1/2 values ranging from 168 to 298 days, which confirms their recalcitrance to degradation. However, t1/2 values were affected by substrate and compost age down to 8 days for chlorotoluron in S and up to 453 days for epoxiconazole in 12M. Fifty-six FAMEs were detected. Analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that the EL method detected a higher number of FAMEs and unique FAMEs than the MIDI one, whereas principal component analysis (PCA highlighted that the monosaturated 18:1ω9c and cyclopropane 19:0ω10c/19ω6 were the most significant FAMEs grouping by extraction method. The cyclopropyl to monoenoic acids ratio evidenced higher stress conditions when pesticides were applied to compost and compost+soil than solely soil, as well as with final time.Overall, FAMEs profiles showed the importance of the extraction method for both substrate and incubation time, the t1/2 values highlighted the effectiveness of solely soil and the less mature compost in reducing the persistence of pesticides.

  3. Mitigating crystallization of saturated FAMEs (fatty acid methyl esters) in biodiesel: 2. The phase behavior of 2-stearoyl diolein–methyl stearate binary system

    The phase behavior of a model binary system made of OSO (2-stearoyl diolein) and MeS (methyl stearate) was investigated with differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The study is part of a series of investigations of unconventional additives such as TAGs (triacylglycerols) and dimers of TAGs with a demonstrated potential to significantly alter the crystallization of biodiesel. The TAG (triacylglycerol) was found to be effective in depressing the crystallization onset of the FAME (fatty acid methyl ester) significantly even at low concentration. OSO was shown to affect the crystallization of the mixtures strongly, and to dramatically alter their polymorphism. The system's phase diagram involved marked transformation lines including eutectics and solid–solid transitions. The molecular interactions were evaluated using a simple thermodynamic model. A mechanism for disruption of crystallization was proposed to be dependent on the peculiar geometry of OSO: the “straight” stearic acid participates easily in the lamellar packing of the equally “straight” FAME, whilst its kinked oleic acids effectively halt additional saturated FAMEs from participating due to steric hindrances. The findings of the study indicate that judicious loadings of TAGs which would target biodiesel's saturated FAMEs will have a substantial beneficial effect on the low temperature performance of the fuel. - Highlights: • 2-Steroyl diolein/methyl stearate (OSO/MeS) binary system investigated comprehensively. • OSO/MeS mixtures presented very complex phase trajectories and behavior. • OSO alters crystallization at both nucleation and growth stages profoundly. • Mechanism for disruption of crystallization proposed and verified. • OSO and homologues formulations can be effectives cold flow additives for biodiesel

  4. Fuel properties of highly polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters: Prediction of fuel properties of algal biodiesel

    Biodiesel, defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats, can be derived from other triacylglycerol-containing feedstocks. Especially algae are being considered for this purpose due to their claimed high production potential. However, there are no comprehensive reports regarding...

  5. Accurate and Reliable Quantification of Total Microalgal Fuel Potential as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters by in situ Transesterfication

    Laurens, L. M. L.; Quinn, M.; Van Wychen, S.; Templeton, D. W.; Wolfrum, E. J.

    2012-04-01

    In the context of algal biofuels, lipids, or better aliphatic chains of the fatty acids, are perhaps the most important constituents of algal biomass. Accurate quantification of lipids and their respective fuel yield is crucial for comparison of algal strains and growth conditions and for process monitoring. As an alternative to traditional solvent-based lipid extraction procedures, we have developed a robust whole-biomass in situ transesterification procedure for quantification of algal lipids (as fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs) that (a) can be carried out on a small scale (using 4-7 mg of biomass), (b) is applicable to a range of different species, (c) consists of a single-step reaction, (d) is robust over a range of different temperature and time combinations, and (e) tolerant to at least 50% water in the biomass. Unlike gravimetric lipid quantification, which can over- or underestimate the lipid content, whole biomass transesterification reflects the true potential fuel yield of algal biomass. We report here on the comparison of the yield of FAMEs by using different catalysts and catalyst combinations, with the acid catalyst HCl providing a consistently high level of conversion of fatty acids with a precision of 1.9% relative standard deviation. We investigate the influence of reaction time, temperature, and biomass water content on the measured FAME content and profile for 4 different samples of algae (replete and deplete Chlorella vulgaris, replete Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and replete Nannochloropsis sp.). We conclude by demonstrating a full mass balance closure of all fatty acids around a traditional lipid extraction process.

  6. Accurate and reliable quantification of total microalgal fuel potential as fatty acid methyl esters by in situ transesterification

    Laurens, Lieve M.L.; Quinn, Matthew; Wychen, Stefanie van; Templeton, David W.; Wolfrum, Edward J. [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-04-15

    In the context of algal biofuels, lipids, or better aliphatic chains of the fatty acids, are perhaps the most important constituents of algal biomass. Accurate quantification of lipids and their respective fuel yield is crucial for comparison of algal strains and growth conditions and for process monitoring. As an alternative to traditional solvent-based lipid extraction procedures, we have developed a robust whole-biomass in situ transesterification procedure for quantification of algal lipids (as fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs) that (a) can be carried out on a small scale (using 4-7 mg of biomass), (b) is applicable to a range of different species, (c) consists of a single-step reaction, (d) is robust over a range of different temperature and time combinations, and (e) tolerant to at least 50% water in the biomass. Unlike gravimetric lipid quantification, which can over- or underestimate the lipid content, whole biomass transesterification reflects the true potential fuel yield of algal biomass. We report here on the comparison of the yield of FAMEs by using different catalysts and catalyst combinations, with the acid catalyst HCl providing a consistently high level of conversion of fatty acids with a precision of 1.9% relative standard deviation. We investigate the influence of reaction time, temperature, and biomass water content on the measured FAME content and profile for 4 different samples of algae (replete and deplete Chlorella vulgaris, replete Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and replete Nannochloropsis sp.). We conclude by demonstrating a full mass balance closure of all fatty acids around a traditional lipid extraction process. (orig.)

  7. Design and preliminary results of an NMR tube reactor to study the oxidative degradation of fatty acid methyl ester

    Biodiesel is the fatty acid alkyl esters produced by the transesterification of vegetable, animal or microbial lipids. After ethanol, it accounts for the largest proportion of global biofuel production. Yet, due to the level of polyunsaturation, biodiesel is also oxidatively unstable. When biodiesel oxidises the viscosity increases, which leads to reduced fuel performance and in extreme cases can lead to engine failure. To aid in understanding the process of this degradation a specialist NMR tube rig was designed to assess the oxidation of biodiesel. The NMR tube rig allowed the in situ1H NMR measurement of the sample while air was bubbled through at fixed intervals. The methyl esters of linolenic acid (18:3), linoleic acid (18:2) and oleic acid (18:1) were oxidised at 110 °C over a 24 h period. The decomposition of biodiesel is complex, and there is more than one mechanism involved in the degradation. Using this rig the onset of oxidation for 18:3 and 18:2 was found to be almost instantaneous. The rate of oxidation was found to be slightly less for 18:2 than 18:3 while the maximum rate was observed for 18:3 from the beginning of the oxidation, this was only observed after 280 min for 18:2. The oxidation of 18:1 started at approximately 500 min and, slowly degraded during the remaining reaction time. The formation of a number of secondary oxidation products such as aldehydes, ketones, alcohols and formates were also quantified. -- Highlights: ► A specialist NMR rig was designed to measure the oxidation of FAME in situ. ► Oxidation of 18:1, 18:2 and 18:3 was observed over 24 h at 110 °C. ► The maximum rate was found at the start of the reaction for 18:3. ► The rate was highest for 18:2 after 300 min but never reached a maximum for 18:1.

  8. Effect of Solvent Additives on the Solution Aggregation of Phenyl-C61-Butyl Acid Methyl Ester (PCBM)

    Tummala, Naga Rajesh

    2015-11-24

    High-boiling-point solvent additives, employed during the solution processing of active-layer formulations, impact the efficiency of bulk hetero-junction (BHJ) organic solar cells by influencing the morphological / topological features of the multicomponent thin film. Here, we aim at a better understanding of how these additives change the aggregation landscape in the casting solution prior to film deposition via a multi-scale computational study of the aggregation phenomena of phenyl-C61-butyric-acid methyl ester (PCBM) in various solutions. The energetic landscape of PCBM-solvent / solvent-additive intermolecular interactions is evaluated at the electronic-structure level through symmetry-adapted perturbation theory to determine the nature and strength of non-covalent forces important to aggregation. Molecular dynamics simulations highlight how the choice of solvent and solvent additives control the formation of molecular aggregates. Our results indicate that high-boiling-point solvent additives change the effective interactions among the PCBM and casting-solvent molecules and alter the equilibrium PCBM aggregate sizes in solution.

  9. Evaluation of the separation characteristics of application-specific (fatty acid methyl esters) open-tubular columns for gas chromatography.

    Kiridena, Waruna; Qian, Jing; Koziol, Wladyslaw W; Poole, Colin F

    2007-03-01

    The solvation parameter model is used to characterize the separation properties of the polar stationary phases EC-Wax and PAG with a poly(ethylene oxide) backbone (substituted with propylene oxide in the case of PAG) and the cyanopropyl-substituted polysilphenylene-siloxane stationary phase BPX90 at five equally spaced temperatures between 60 and 140 degrees C. The separation characteristics of these stationary phases are compared to four PEG and two poly(cyanopropylsiloxane) stationary phases (HP-20M, HP-Innowax, SolGel-Wax, DB-WAXetr, HP-88, and SP-2340) characterized in the same way. The database of system constants for these polar stationary phases is used to provide insight into the separation mechanism for fatty acid methyl esters and to determine selectivity differences that can be expected for generically similar stationary phase types. The discussion is not structured to indicate which stationary phase should be used for a particular separation but to provide a general framework to demonstrate the relationship between the retention mechanism and stationary phase chemistry. PMID:17461115

  10. Performance of a domestic cooking wick stove using fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from oil plants in Kenya

    Wagutu, Agatha W.; Chhabra, Sumesh C.; Lang' at-Thoruwa, Caroline C. [Department of Chemistry, Kenyatta University, P.O. Box 43844-0100, Nairobi (Kenya); Thoruwa, Thomas F.N. [Department of Energy Engineering, Kenyatta University, P.O. Box 43844, Nairobi (Kenya); Mahunnah, R.L.A. [University of Dar-es Salaam, Muhimbili College of Medicine, P.O. Box 53486, Dar-es Salaam (Tanzania)

    2010-08-15

    With depletion of solid biomass fuels and their rising costs in recent years, there has been a shift towards using kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) for domestic cooking in Kenya. However, the use of kerosene is associated with health and safety problems. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a clean, safe and sustainable liquid bio-fuel. Plant oil derivatives fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) present such a promising solution. This paper presents the performance of a wick stove using FAME fuels derived from oil plants: Jatropha curcus L. (Physic nut), Croton megalocarpus Hutch, Calodendrum capense (L.f.) Thunb., Cocos nucifera L. (coconut), soyabeans and sunflower. The FAME performance tests were based on the standard water-boiling tests (WBT) and compared with kerosene. Unlike kerosene all FAME fuels burned with odorless and non-pungent smell generating an average firepower of 1095 W with specific fuel consumption of 44.6 g L{sup -1} (55% higher than kerosene). The flash points of the FAME fuels obtained were typically much higher (2.3-3.3 times) than kerosene implying that they are much safer to use than kerosene. From the results obtained, it was concluded that the FAME fuels have potential to provide safe and sustainable cooking liquid fuel in developing countries. (author)

  11. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from castor oil: Production process assessment and synergistic effects in its properties

    Canoira, Laureano; Garcia Galean, Juan; Alcantara, Ramon [Department of Chemical Engineering and Fuels, ETS Ingenieros de Minas, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Rios Rosas 21, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Lapuerta, Magin; Garcia-Contreras, Reyes [Maquinas y Motores Termicos, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, Avda. Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from castor oil have been synthesized by methanolysis catalyzed by sodium methoxide and the optimal transesterification conditions have been found. However, some properties of the castor FAME render it unsuitable in pure state for its direct use as fuel in internal combustion engines. Thus, blends with reference diesel have been prepared and their properties have been evaluated. Among these properties, the oxidative stability of the blends shows a negative anti-synergistic effect, that is, all the blends have an induction period lower than the pure reference diesel and the pure castor FAME. On the contrary, the lubricity shows a positive synergistic effect, the wear scar of the blends being always lower than those of the pure components. The cold-filter plugging point of the blends shows also a singular effect, since the filterability remains identical to that of the reference diesel until around 50 vol% of castor FAME has been blended with it. The blends of castor FAME and reference diesel until approximately 40 vol% of castor FAME meet most of the specifications of the EN 590 standard. (author)

  12. Performance of a domestic cooking wick stove using fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from oil plants in Kenya

    With depletion of solid biomass fuels and their rising costs in recent years, there has been a shift towards using kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) for domestic cooking in Kenya. However, the use of kerosene is associated with health and safety problems. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a clean, safe and sustainable liquid bio-fuel. Plant oil derivatives fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) present such a promising solution. This paper presents the performance of a wick stove using FAME fuels derived from oil plants: Jatropha curcus L. (Physic nut), Croton megalocarpus Hutch, Calodendrum capense (L.f.) Thunb., Cocos nucifera L. (coconut), soyabeans and sunflower. The FAME performance tests were based on the standard water-boiling tests (WBT) and compared with kerosene. Unlike kerosene all FAME fuels burned with odorless and non-pungent smell generating an average firepower of 1095 W with specific fuel consumption of 44.6 g L-1 (55% higher than kerosene). The flash points of the FAME fuels obtained were typically much higher (2.3-3.3 times) than kerosene implying that they are much safer to use than kerosene. From the results obtained, it was concluded that the FAME fuels have potential to provide safe and sustainable cooking liquid fuel in developing countries.

  13. S-(−-10,11-Dihydroxyfarnesoic Acid Methyl Ester Inhibits Melanin Synthesis in Murine Melanocyte Cells

    Seung-Hwa Baek

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of antimelanogenic agents is important for the prevention of serious aesthetic problems such as melasmas, freckles, age spots, and chloasmas. In the course of screening for melanin synthesis inhibitors, we found that the culture broth from an insect morphopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana CS1029, exhibits potent antimelanogenic activity. We isolated and purified an active metabolite and identified it as S-(−-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesoic acid methyl ester (dhFAME, an insect juvenile hormone. To address whether dhFAME inhibits melanin synthesis, we first measured the size of the melanin biosynthesis inhibition zone caused by dhFAME. dhFAME also showed inhibitory activity against mushroom tyrosinase in Melan-a cells. Intracellular, dose-dependent tyrosinase inhibition activity was also confirmed by zymography. In addition, we showed that dhFAME strongly inhibits melanin synthesis in Melan-a cells. Furthermore, we compared levels of TYR, TRP-1, TRP-2, MITF, and MC1R mRNA expression by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and showed that treatment of Melan-a cells with 35 μM dhFAME led to an 11-fold decrease in TYR expression, a 6-fold decrease in TRP-2 expression, and a 5-fold decrease in MITF expression. Together, these results indicate that dhFAME is a potent inhibitor of melanin synthesis that can potentially be used for cosmetic biomaterial(s.

  14. An experimental study of gaseous exhaust emissions of diesel engine using blend of natural fatty acid methyl ester

    Vegetable oil form in Natural Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) has their own advantages: first of all they are available everywhere in the world. Secondly, they are renewable as the vegetables which produce oil seeds can be planted year after year. Thirdly, they are friendly with our environment, as they seldom contain sulphur element in them. This makes vegetable fuel studies become current among the various popular investigations. This study is attempt to optimization of using blend FAME on diesel engine by experimental laboratory. The investigation experimental project is comparison between using blend FAME and base diesel fuel. The engine experiment is conducted with YANMAR TF120M single cylinder four stroke diesel engine set-up at variable engine speed with constant load. The data have been taken at each point of engine speed during the stabilized engine-operating regime. Measurement of emissions parameters at difference engine speed conditions have generally indicated lower in emission NOx, but slightly higher on CO2 emission. The result also shown that the blends FAME are good in fuel consumption and potentially good substitute fuels for diesel engine

  15. Biocatalytic Resolution of Rac-α-Ethyl-2-Oxo-Pyrrolidineacetic Acid Methyl Ester by Immobilized Recombinant Bacillus cereus Esterase.

    Zheng, Jian-Yong; Liu, Yin-Yan; Luo, Wei-Feng; Zheng, Ren-Chao; Ying, Xiang-Xian; Wang, Zhao

    2016-04-01

    A new esterase-producing strain (Bacillus cereus WZZ001) which exhibiting high hydrolytic activity and excellent enantioselectivity on rac-α-ethyl-2-oxo-pyrrolidineacetic acid methyl ester (R, S-1) has been isolated from soil sample by our laboratory. In this study, the stereoselective hydrolysis of (R, S-1) was performed using the recombinant Bacillus cereus esterase which expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Under the optimized conditions of pH 8.0, 35 °C, and concentration of substrate 400 mM, a successful enzymatic resolution was achieved with an e.e. s of 99.5 % and conversion of 49 %. Immobilization considerably increased the reusability of the recombinant esterase; the immobilized enzyme showed excellent reusability during 6 cycles of repeated 2 h reactions at 35 °C. Thereby, it makes the recombinant B. cereus esterase a usable biocatalyst for industrial application. PMID:26695776

  16. Silane Reduction of 5-Hydroxy-6-methyl-pyridine-3,4-dicarboxylic Acid Diethyl Ester: Synthesis of Vitamin B6

    Andrew G. Gum

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Alternative methods for the synthesis of pyridoxine have been investigated. The key intermediate, 5-hydroxy-6-methyl-pyridine-3,4-dicarboxylic acid diethyl ester (5, was reduced with either a silane monomer (MeSiH(OEt2 or a polysiloxane (polymethylhydrosiloxane, PMHS to afford crude pyridoxine. An isolation technique utilizing a commercially available resin was devised, affording the desired product, vitamin B6, in an overall yield of 38-54 % and a purity of 76%.

  17. Synthesis of 11C labelled methyl esters: transesterification of enol esters versus BF3 catalysed esterification-a comparative study

    C-11 labelled methyl esters have been synthesized via the transesterification of enol esters in the presence of C-11 methanol and 1,3 dichlorodibutylstannoxane as catalyst. This method leaves functional groups intact and allows access to a wider variety of C-11 labelled methyl esters compared to the BF3 catalysed ester formation, which uses carboxylic acids and C-11 methanol as starting materials

  18. Thermodynamic properties of the methyl esters of p-hydroxy and p-methoxy benzoic acids

    Highlights: • Vapor pressures and energies of combustion of two methyl benzoates were measured. • Standard molar ΔH, ΔS and ΔG of sublimation and vaporization were derived. • Standard molar ΔH, ΔS and ΔG of formation in crystal and gas phases were calculated. • Gas phase ΔH of formation was also estimated by quantum chemical calculations. • ΔH of the intermolecular hydrogen bond O–H⋯O was estimated. - Abstract: The vapor pressures of crystalline and liquid phases of methyl p-hydroxybenzoate and of methyl p-methoxybenzoate were measured over the temperature ranges (338.9 to 423.7) K and (292.0 to 355.7) K respectively, using a static method based on diaphragm capacitance gauges. The vapor pressures of the crystalline phase of the former compound were also measured in the temperature range (323.1 to 345.2) K using a Knudsen mass-loss effusion technique. The results enabled the determination of the standard molar enthalpies, entropies and Gibbs free energies of sublimation and of vaporization, at T = 298.15 K, as well as phase diagram representations of the (p, T) experimental data, including the triple point. The temperatures and molar enthalpies of fusion of both compounds were determined using differential scanning calorimetry and were compared with the results indirectly derived from the vapor pressure measurements. The standard (p° = 105 Pa) molar enthalpies of formation, in the crystalline phase, at T = 298.15 K, of the compounds studied were derived from their standard massic energies of combustion measured by static-bomb combustion calorimetry. From the experimental results, the standard molar enthalpies of formation, in the gaseous phase at T = 298.15 K, were calculated and compared with the values estimated by employing quantum chemical computational calculations. A good agreement between experimental and theoretical results is observed. To analyze the thermodynamic stability of the two compounds studied, the standard Gibbs free

  19. Fractionation of fish oil fatty acid methyl esters by means of argentation and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and its utility in total fatty acid analysis

    Özcimder, M.; Hammers, W.E.

    1980-01-01

    The utility of reversed-phase and argentation high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as pre-fractionation methods in fatty acid analysis is discussed. Both HPLC modes were applied to cod liver oil fatty acid methyl esters. Apart from positional isomers, the fractions obtained by reversed-phas

  20. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substance, acrylic acid, sodium salt, co-polymer with acrylic acid, methyl ester, methacrylic acid, 2 hydroxypropylester, and acrylic acid cross-linked for use in active food contact materials

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the acrylic acid, sodium salt, co-polymer with acrylic acid, methyl ester, methacrylic acid, 2 hydroxypropylester, and acrylic acid cross-linked (CAS No. 117675-55-5, FCM Substance No 1022, to be used as liquid absorber in the form of fibres in absorbent pads for the packaging of fresh or frozen meat, poultry, and fish as well as fresh fruits and vegetables. The Panel considered that migration is not expected when the absorption capacity of the pads is not exceeded. Therefore no exposure from the consumption of the packed food is expected. The Panel also considered that none of these starting substances and the cross-linked polymer gives rise to concern for genotoxicity. Therefore the CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substance acrylic acid, sodium salt, co-polymer with acrylic acid, methyl ester, methacrylic acid, 2 hydroxypropylester, and acrylic acid cross-linked does not raise a safety concern when used as fibres in absorber pads for the packaging of fresh or frozen meat, poultry, fish, fruits and vegetables under conditions under which the absorption capacity of the pads is not exceeded and mechanical release of the fibres from the pads is excluded.

  1. Photophysics and morphology of poly (3-dodecylthienylenevinylene)-[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester composite

    A series of low band gap poly(3-dodecylthienylenevinylene) (PTV) with controlled morphological order have been synthesized and blended with the electron acceptor [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) for organic photovoltaic devices. Two polymers with the most and least side chain regioregularity were chosen in this work, namely the PTV010 and PTV55, respectively. Using photoluminescence, photo-induced absorption spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy, we find no direct evidence of photoinduced charge transfer between the two constituents, independent of the bulk-heterojunction morphology of the film, although the possibility of formation of P+/C60- charge transfer complex was not completely ruled out. The large exciton binding energy (Eb = 0.6 eV) in PTV inhibits the photoinduced electron transfer from PTV to PCBM. In addition, excitons formed on polymer chains suffer ultrafast (g state in both PTV010 and PTV55 cases, whereas excitons generated on PCBM molecules undergo energy transfer only to PTV55 in the blend film. Thus, the addition of PCBM increases the photoluminescence yield with respect to neat polymer yield. The efficiency of the energy transfer process is shown to depend on the degree of polymer and PCBM intermixing within the film, which in turn is governed by the polymer chain orders. The effect of such intermixing on the resulting kinetics of photo-induced excitations is also discussed. Our results show limited effect of polymer crystallinity of PTV to its excitonic properties, much the contrary of the case with poly (3-hexylthiophene) which has similar chemical structure with PTV.

  2. Fatty acid methyl ester profiles and nutritive values of 20 marine microalgae in Korea

    Sung-Suk; Suh; So; Jung; Kim; Jinik; Hwang; Mirye; Park; Taek-Kyun; Lee; Eui-Joon; Kil; Sukchan; Lee

    2015-01-01

    Objecive:To screen the fatty acid(FA) composition of 20 marine microalgae species,including seven Diophyceae,six Bacillariophyeae four Chlorophyceae,two Haptophyceae and one Raphidophyceae species.Methods:Microalgal cells cultured at the Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology were harvested during the late exponential growth phase and the FA composition analyzed.Results:The FA composition of microalgae was speciesspecific.For example,seven different species of Dinophyceae were composed primarily of C14:0,C16:0.C18:0.C20:4n-6.C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3.while C14:0.C16:0,C16:1.C18:0.C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3 were abundant FAs in six species of Bacillariophyceae.In addition,four Chlurophyceae,two Haptopkyeeae and one Raphidophyceae species all contained a high degree of C16:1 n-7[(9.2R-34.91)%and(34.48-35.04)%].C14:0[(13.34-25.96)%]and[(26.69-Z8.24)%],and C16:0[(5.89-29.15)%]and[(5.70-16.81)%].Several factors contribute to the nutritional value of microalgae.including the polyunsaturated FA content and n-3 to n-6 FA ratio,which could be used to assess the nutritional quality of microalgae.Conclusions:This study is the first comprehensive assessment of the FA composition and nutritional value of microalgae species in South Korea,and identifies the potential utility of FAs as species-specific biomarkers.

  3. Fatty acid methyl ester profiles and nutritive values of 20 marine microalgae in Korea

    Sung-Suk Suh; So Jung Kim; Jinik Hwang; Mirye Park; Taek-Kyun Lee; Eui-Joon Kil; Sukchan Lee

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To screen the fatty acid (FA) composition of 20 marine microalgae species, including sevenDiophyceae, sixBacillariophyceae, fourChlorophyceae, twoHaptophyceae and oneRaphidophyceae species.Methods: Microalgal cells cultured at the Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology were harvested during the late exponential growth phase and the FA composition analyzed.Results:The FA composition of microalgae was species-specific. For example, seven different species ofDinophyceae were composed primarily of C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C20:4n-6, C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3, while C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:0, C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3 were abundant FAs in six species ofBacillariophyceae. In addition, fourChlorophyceae, twoHaptophyceae and oneRaphidophyceae species all contained a high degree of C16:1n-7 [(9.28-34.91)% and (34.48-35.04)%], C14:0 [(13.34-25.96)%] and [(26.69-28.24)%], and C16:0 [(5.89-29.15)%] and [(5.70-16.81)%]. Several factors contribute to the nutritional value of microalgae, including the polyunsaturated FA content and n-3 to n-6 FA ratio, which could be used to assess the nutritional quality of microalgae.Conclusions:This study is the first comprehensive assessment of the FA composition and nutritional value of microalgae species in South Korea, and identifies the potential utility of FAs as species-specific biomarkers.

  4. Fast and simple method for determination of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) in biodiesel blends using X-ray spectrometry.

    Sitko, Rafal; Zawisza, Beata; Kowalewska, Zofia; Kocot, Karina; Polowniak, Marzena

    2011-09-30

    The determination of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) in diesel fuel blends is an important aspect of production and blending process as well as quality control of distribution operations. In this study, energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF) is used for the first time for determination of FAME in biodiesel blends. The principle of the method is based on intensity difference of X-ray radiation scattered from hydrocarbons and from FAME. The experiment shows that coherent and incoherent radiation, commonly applied for evaluation of the average atomic number of the sample with light matrix, cannot be applied for FAME determination. However, the application of scattered continuous radiation gives excellent correlation between FAME concentration and intensity of scattered radiation. The best results are obtained if continuum is collected in the range of energy between 10.5 and 15.0 keV for rhodium X-ray tube, operated at 35 kV. Linear relationship between the FAME concentration and the inverse of scattered continuous radiation is obtained with the correlation coefficients of 0.999. Standard deviation of measurement is ca. 0.46% (v/v) of FAME and detection limit is 1.2% (v/v) for 600 s counting time and 50% dead-time loss using Si-PIN detector. The investigation shows that crucial issue in determination of FAME in biodiesel blends using EDXRF spectrometer is the precision of measurements resulting from the counting statistics. Therefore, much better results (0.20% (v/v) standard deviation and 0.52% (v/v) detection limit) can be expected if higher intensity of primary radiation is applied and X-ray spectrum is collected by silicon drift detector of high input count rate. For concentration of FAME from 10 to 100% (v/v), the differences between reference method (Fourier transform infrared spectrometry) and the proposed method usually do not exceed 1% (v/v) of FAME. The proposed method is fast, simple and enables FAME determination in wide range of

  5. Thermo- and pH-sensitive gel membranes based on poly-(acryloyl-L-proline methyl ester)-graft-poly(acrylic acid) for selective permeation of metal ions

    Thermo- and pH-responsive gel membranes were synthesized by γ-ray grafting of pH-responsive poly(acrylic acid) (AAc) onto thermo-responsive polymer gel of acryloyl-L-proline methyl ester (A-ProOMe). The gel membranes of poly(A-ProOMe) with 15 mol% graft chains of AAc exhibited both thermo- and pH-responses. Under the condition (pH 6.0, 30 deg. C) in which the thermo-sensitive unit shrinks and the pH-sensitive unit swells, the selective permeation of Li ion over Co and Ni ions can be achieved

  6. Thermo- and pH-sensitive gel membranes based on poly-(acryloyl-L-proline methyl ester)-graft-poly(acrylic acid) for selective permeation of metal ions

    Hasegawa, Shin; Ohashi, Hitoshi; Maekawa, Yasunari; Katakai, Ryoichi; Yoshida, Masaru E-mail: katsu@taka.jaeri.go.jp

    2005-04-01

    Thermo- and pH-responsive gel membranes were synthesized by {gamma}-ray grafting of pH-responsive poly(acrylic acid) (AAc) onto thermo-responsive polymer gel of acryloyl-L-proline methyl ester (A-ProOMe). The gel membranes of poly(A-ProOMe) with 15 mol% graft chains of AAc exhibited both thermo- and pH-responses. Under the condition (pH 6.0, 30 deg. C) in which the thermo-sensitive unit shrinks and the pH-sensitive unit swells, the selective permeation of Li ion over Co and Ni ions can be achieved.

  7. Regioselective Nitration of Nα,N1-Bis(trifluoroacetyl)-L-Tryptophan Methyl Ester: Efficient Synthesis of 2-Nitro and 6-Nitro-N-Trifluoroacetyl-L-Tryptophan Methyl Ester

    Osborne, Andrew S.; Som, Phanneth; Metcalf, Jessica L.; Phillips, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    Nitration of Nα,N1-bis(trifluoroacetyl)-L-tryptophan methyl ester with HNO3 in acetic anhydride at 0° C provides Nα-trifluoroacetyl-2-nitro-L-tryptophan methyl ester in 67% yield, whereas nitration in trifluoroacetic acid at 0° C gives Nα-trifluoroacetyl-6-nitro-L-tryptophan methyl ester in 69% yield.

  8. Commercial- and whitewashing-grade limestone as a heterogeneous catalyst for synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters from used frying oil (UFO)

    Agrawal, Shweta; Singh, Bhaskar; Sharma, Yogesh C. [Banaras Hindu University, Department of Applied Chemistry, Institute of Technology, Varanasi (India); Frometa, Amado Enrique N. [Universidad Tecnologica de Izucar de Matamoros, Puebla (Mexico)

    2012-12-15

    Commercial-grade limestone used in whitewashing which is a low-cost material has been used as a catalyst for the synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters. The catalyst was characterized by differential thermal analysis/thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for the study of its physicochemical nature. The catalyst was calcined at 900 C for 2.5 h for the decomposition of calcium carbonate to calcium oxide. The catalyst was further activated by dissolving 1.5 wt% of catalyst in 30 ml methanol (7.5:1, methanol to used frying oil molar ratio) and stirred at 25 C for 1 h on a magnetic stirrer. The transesterification reaction was performed using calcium oxide as a catalyst and then with the ''activated calcium oxide.'' The conversion obtained was 94.4 % with calcium oxide and was found to be lower for the ''activated calcium oxide'' (i.e., 87.36 %). The conversion increased to 96.8 % on increasing the catalyst amount to 2.0 wt% in 5 h. A high yield (>95 %) of fatty acid methyl esters was observed when either calcium oxide or ''activated calcium oxide'' was taken as catalyst. The catalytic activity of calcium oxide obtained from low-grade limestone has been found to be comparable with the laboratory-grade CaO. (orig.)

  9. Sintesis Metil Ester Sulfonat Dari Asam Stearat Dan Metil Ester Sulfonat Dari Asam Oleat

    Samosir, Yustina

    2011-01-01

    The Synthesis of Methyl Ester Sulfonate (MES) from stearic acid and from oleic acid through the stages of esterification reaction, that are esterification from stearic acid and oleic acid that forms methyl ester stearic acid and methyl ester oleic acid next stage was sulfonating the two of methyl esters to form a methyl ester sulfonate stearic acid and methyl ester oleic acid sulfonate. Furthermore, both fatty acid methyl ester sulfonate is neutralized with NaOH to obtain sulfonate salt. ...

  10. Rhodotorula glutinis Phenylalanine/Tyrosine Ammonia Lyase Enzyme Catalyzed Synthesis of the Methyl Ester of para-Hydroxycinnamic Acid and its Potential Antibacterial Activity

    MacDonald, Marybeth C.; Arivalagan, Pugazhendhi; Barre, Douglas E.; MacInnis, Judith A.; D’Cunha, Godwin B.

    2016-01-01

    Biotransformation of L-tyrosine methyl ester (L-TM) to the methyl ester of para- hydroxycinnamic acid (p-HCAM) using Rhodotorula glutinis yeast phenylalanine/tyrosine ammonia lyase (PTAL; EC 4.3.1.26) enzyme was successfully demonstrated for the first time; progress of the reaction was followed by spectrophotometric determination at 315 nm. The following conditions were optimized for maximal formation of p-HCAM: pH (8.5), temperature (37°C), speed of agitation (50 rpm), enzyme concentration (0.080 μM), and substrate concentration (0.50 mM). Under these conditions, the yield of the reaction was ∼15% in 1 h incubation period and ∼63% after an overnight (∼18 h) incubation period. The product (p-HCAM) of the reaction of PTAL with L-TM was confirmed using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR) was carried out to rule out potential hydrolysis of p-HCAM during overnight incubation. Potential antibacterial activity of p-HCAM was tested against several strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. This study describes a synthetically useful transformation, and could have future clinical and industrial applications. PMID:27014206

  11. Noncatalytic transformation of the crude lipid of ChlorellaI vulgaris into fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) with charcoal via a thermo-chemical process.

    Kwon, Eilhann E; Jeon, Young Jae; Yi, Haakrho

    2013-02-01

    The noncatalytic transformation of the crude lipid of Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) into fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) via a thermo-chemical process was mainly investigated in this work. The crude lipid of C. vulgaris was recovered by means of solvent extraction from C. vulgaris cultivated in a raceway pond. The conventional catalyzed transesterification of crude lipid of C. vulgaris is notably inhibited by the impurities contained in the crude lipid of C. vulgaris. These impurities are inevitably derived from the solvent extraction process for C. vulgaris. However, this work presents the noncatalytic transesterification of microalgal lipid into FAME, which could be an alternative option. For example, the noncatalytic transformation of microalgal lipid into FAME provides evidence that the esterification of free fatty acids (FFAs) and the transesterification of triglycerides can be combined into a single step less susceptible to the impurities and with a high conversion efficiency (∼97%). PMID:23294646

  12. The vaporization enthalpies and vapor pressures of fatty acid methyl esters C18, C21 to C23, and C25 to C29 by correlation - gas chromatography

    Vapor pressures and vaporization enthalpies for methyl heptadecanoate and methyl heneicosanoate to methyl octacosanoate exclusive of methyl tricosanoate are evaluated as a function of temperature over the temperature range T = 298.15-450 K by correlation gas chromatography. The results are generated by an extrapolative process using literature values for methyl tetradecanoate to methyl eicosanoate as standards. Relationships for calculating vapor pressures of the title compounds from T = 298.15 to 450 K are provided. Experimental fusion enthalpies are also reported for the methyl esters from methyl hexadecanoate to methyl octacosanoate excluding methyl tridecanoate. Vaporization enthalpies and fusion enthalpies adjusted for temperature to T = 298.15 K are combined to provide sublimation enthalpies. The results are compared to available literature values. A rationale for the linear relationship observed between enthalpies of vaporization and enthalpies of transfer from solution to the vapor is also provided

  13. Characterization, quantitation and evolution of monoepoxy compounds formed in model systems of fatty acid methyl esters and monoacid triglycerides heated at high temperature

    Berdeaux, O.

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Monoepoxy compounds formed after heating methyl oleate and linoleate, triolein and trilinolein at 180°C for 5, 10 and 15 hours, were characterized and quantitated after derivatization to fatty acid methyl esters by using two base-catalyzed procedures. Structures were identified by GC-MS before and after hydrogénation. A complete recovery of the epoxy compounds was obtained by comparing results from methyl oleate and linoleate before and after transesterification, and good repeatability was also attained. Similar amounts of epoxides were found for methyl esters and triglycerides of the same degree of unsaturation, although formation was considerably greater for the less unsaturated substrates, methyl oleate and triolein, possibly due to the absence of remaining double bonds in the molecule which would involve a lower tendency to participate in further reactions. On other hand, independently of the degree of unsaturation of the model systems and of the period of heating, significantly higher amounts of trans isomers were formed. Finally from comparison between the amounts of epoxides and the level of polar fatty acids in samples, it was deduced that monoepoxy compounds were one of the major groups formed under the conditions used.

    En este estudio se identifican y cuantifican los compuestos epoxidados formados a partir de sistemas modelo de oleato y linoleato de metilo, trioleína y trilinoleína, calentados a 180°C durante 5,10 y 15 horas. La identificación se lleva a cabo mediante CG-EM en las muestras de esteres metílicos antes y después de someter a hidrogenación y para su cuantificación se utilizan dos procedimientos de transesterificación en medio alcalino. La comparación de las cantidades obtenidas, antes y después de la derivatización de los sistemas modelo de esteres metílicos, permitió deducir que la recuperación fue completa, obteniéndose también una excelente repetibilidad. Las cantidades de ep

  14. NF EN 14109. July 2003. Fatty compounds derived products. Fatty acids methylic esters (FAME). Determination of the potassium content by atomic absorption spectroscopy; NF EN 14109. Juillet 2003. Produits derives des corps gras. Esters methyliques d'acides gras (EMAG). Determination de la teneur en potassium par spectrometrie d'absorption atomique

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This European standard specifies a method of determination of sodium contents for concentrations equal or greater than 0.5 mg/kg. This method is applicable to fatty acids methylic esters (FAME) intended to be incorporated to mineral oils. This method involves dangerous compounds, operations and equipments which are not considered in the text of the standard. (J.S.)

  15. NF EN 14108. July 2003. Fatty compounds derived products. Fatty acids methylic esters (FAME). Determination of the sodium content by atomic absorption spectroscopy; NF EN 14108. Juillet 2003. Produits derives des corps gras. Esters methyliques d'acides gras (EMAG). Determination de la teneur en sodium par spectrometrie d'obsorption atomique

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This European standard specifies a method of determination of sodium contents for concentrations equal or greater than 1 mg/kg. This method is applicable to fatty acids methylic esters (FAME) intended to be incorporated to mineral oils. This method involves dangerous compounds, operations and equipments which are not considered in the text of the standard. (J.S.)

  16. Optimization of transesterification conditions for the production of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from Chinese tallow kernel oil with surfactant-coated lipase

    Gao, Yin-yu; Liu, Yuhuan; Lin, Xiangyang [Key Laboratory of Food Science, Ministry of Education, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); Chen, Wen-wei [College of Life Science, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Lei, Hanwu [Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States); Ruan, Roger [Key Laboratory of Food Science, Ministry of Education, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China)]|[Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108-6005 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Surfactant-coated lipase was used as a catalyst in preparing fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from Chinese tallow kernel oil from Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb. syn. Triadica sebifera (L.) small. FAME transesterification was analyzed using response surface methodology to find out the effect of the process variables on the esterification rate and to establish prediction models. Reaction temperature and time were found to be the main factors affecting the esterification rate with the presence of surfactant-coated lipase. Developed prediction models satisfactorily described the esterification rate as a function of reaction temperature, time, dosage of surfactant-coated lipase, ratio of methanol to oil, and water content. The FAME mainly contained fatty acid esters of C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3, determined by a gas chromatograph. The optimal esterification rate was 93.86%. The optimal conditions for the above esterification ratio were found to be a reaction time of 9.2 h, a reaction temperature of 49 C, dosage of surfactant-coated lipase of 18.5%, a ratio of methanol to oil of 3:1, and water content of 15.6%. Thus, by using the central composite design, it is possible to determine accurate values of the transesterification parameters where maximum production of FAME occurs using the surfactant-coated lipase as a transesterification catalyst. (author)

  17. Rosmarinic Acid and Its Methyl Ester as Antimicrobial Components of the Hydromethanolic Extract of Hyptis atrorubens Poit. (Lamiaceae

    Amin Abedini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary biological examination of four extracts of the leaves and stems of Hyptis atrorubens Poit. (Lamiaceae, a plant species used as an antimicrobial agent in Guadeloupe, allowed us to select the hydromethanolic extract of the stems for further studies. It was tested against 46 microorganisms in vitro. It was active against 29 microorganisms. The best antibacterial activity was found against bacteria, mostly Gram-positive ones. Bioautography enabled the isolation and identification of four antibacterial compounds from this plant: rosmarinic acid, methyl rosmarinate, isoquercetin, and hyperoside. The MIC and MBC values of these compounds and their combinations were determined against eight pathogenic bacteria. The best inhibitory and bactericidal activity was found for methyl rosmarinate (0.3 mg/mL. Nevertheless, the bactericidal power of rosmarinic acid was much faster in the time kill study. Synergistic effects were found when combining the active compounds. Finally, the inhibitory effects of the compounds were evaluated on the bacterial growth phases at two different temperatures. Our study demonstrated for the first time antimicrobial activity of Hyptis atrorubens with identification of the active compounds. It supports its traditional use in French West Indies. Although its active compounds need to be further evaluated in vivo, this work emphasizes plants as potent sources of new antimicrobial agents when resistance to antibiotics increases dramatically.

  18. Rosmarinic Acid and Its Methyl Ester as Antimicrobial Components of the Hydromethanolic Extract of Hyptis atrorubens Poit. (Lamiaceae).

    Abedini, Amin; Roumy, Vincent; Mahieux, Séverine; Biabiany, Murielle; Standaert-Vitse, Annie; Rivière, Céline; Sahpaz, Sevser; Bailleul, François; Neut, Christel; Hennebelle, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Primary biological examination of four extracts of the leaves and stems of Hyptis atrorubens Poit. (Lamiaceae), a plant species used as an antimicrobial agent in Guadeloupe, allowed us to select the hydromethanolic extract of the stems for further studies. It was tested against 46 microorganisms in vitro. It was active against 29 microorganisms. The best antibacterial activity was found against bacteria, mostly Gram-positive ones. Bioautography enabled the isolation and identification of four antibacterial compounds from this plant: rosmarinic acid, methyl rosmarinate, isoquercetin, and hyperoside. The MIC and MBC values of these compounds and their combinations were determined against eight pathogenic bacteria. The best inhibitory and bactericidal activity was found for methyl rosmarinate (0.3 mg/mL). Nevertheless, the bactericidal power of rosmarinic acid was much faster in the time kill study. Synergistic effects were found when combining the active compounds. Finally, the inhibitory effects of the compounds were evaluated on the bacterial growth phases at two different temperatures. Our study demonstrated for the first time antimicrobial activity of Hyptis atrorubens with identification of the active compounds. It supports its traditional use in French West Indies. Although its active compounds need to be further evaluated in vivo, this work emphasizes plants as potent sources of new antimicrobial agents when resistance to antibiotics increases dramatically. PMID:24348709

  19. Modeling of Open-Circuit Voltage of Phenyl-C61-Butyric Acid Methyl Ester-Like Based Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells.

    Ferreira, Rodrigo M; Batagin-Neto, Augusto; Lavarda, Francisco C

    2015-12-01

    New materials are currently being sought for use in active layers of bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells, and computational modeling plays an important role in this search. Although open circuit voltage (V(oc)) is one of the fundamental quantities that determine the efficiency of a solar cell, there is no consensus on the best way to estimate this magnitude for new materials from calculations of the electronic structure. In this paper, we compare ways of predicting V(oc) values employing a diverse group of blends and conclude that it is possible to have a good prediction tool for organic solar cells based on phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) acceptor molecules. PMID:26682440

  20. In vitro release control of ketoprofen from pH-sensitive gels consisting of poly(acryloyl- L-proline methyl ester) and saturated fatty acid sodium salts

    Negishi, M.; Hiroki, A.; Miyajima, M.; Yoshida, M.; Asano, M.; Katakai, R.

    1999-06-01

    The effect of saturated fatty acid sodium salts (C n), sodium laurate (C 12), sodium myristate (C 14), sodium palmitate (C 16), and sodium stearate (C 18), on the swelling of poly(acryloyl- L-proline methyl ester) (A-ProOMe) gel was investigated in different pH solutions. The C n-loaded gels collapsed in a buffer solution with pH 3.0, while they expanded in a buffer solution with pH 6.5. This effect was strongly influenced by the number of methylene units in C n, as the threshold for causing this sensitivity existed between C 12 and C 14. On the other hand, a pulsatile release of ketoprofen occurred when the gel was cycled in buffer solutions between pH 3.0 and pH 6.5. This behavior may be attributable to the surface-regulated mechanism.

  1. On the Inapplicability of Electron-Hopping Models for the Organic Semiconductor Phenyl-C61-butyric Acid Methyl Ester (PCBM).

    Gajdos, Fruzsina; Oberhofer, Harald; Dupuis, Michel; Blumberger, Jochen

    2013-03-21

    Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) is one of the most popular semiconductors in organic photovoltaic cells, but the electron-transport mechanism in the microcrystalline domains of this material as well as its preferred packing structure remain unclear. Here we use density functional theory to calculate electronic-coupling matrix elements, reorganization energies, and activation energies for available experimental and model crystal structures. We find that the picture of an excess electron hopping from one fullerene to another does not apply for any of the crystalline phases, rendering traditional rate equations inappropriate. We also find that the cohesive energy increases in the order body-centered-cubic < hexagonal < simple cubic < monoclinic < triclinic, independently of the type of dispersion correction used. Our results indicate that the coupled electron-ion dynamics needs to be solved explicitly to obtain a realistic description of charge transfer in this material. PMID:26291369

  2. Graphene composite for improvement in the conversion efficiency of flexible poly 3-hexyl-thiophene:[6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester polymer solar cells

    The solution of thin graphene-sheets obtained from a simple ultrasonic exfoliation process was found to chemically interact with [6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) molecules. The thinner graphene-sheets have significantly altered the positions of highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of PCBM, which is beneficial for the enhancement of the open circuit voltage of the solar cells. Flexible bulk heterojunction solar cells fabricated using poly 3-hexylthiophene (P3HT):PCBM-graphene exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 2.51%, which is a ∼2-fold increase as compared to those fabricated using P3HT:PCBM. Inclusion of graphene-sheets not only improved the open-circuit voltage but also enhanced the short-circuit current density owing to an improved electron transport

  3. The use of fatty acid methyl ester analysis (FAME) for the identification of heterotrophic bacteria present on three mural paintings showing severe damage by microorganisms.

    Heyrman, J; Mergaert, J; Denys, R; Swings, J

    1999-12-01

    Mural paintings in Carmona (Spain), Herberstein (Austria) and Greene (Germany), showing visible deterioration by microorganisms, were sampled to investigate the biodiversity of the heterotrophic bacteria present. Four hundred twenty-eight bacterial strains were isolated from which 385 were characterized by fatty acid methyl ester analysis (FAME). The isolates were grouped into 41 clusters on the basis of their FAME profiles, 20 isolates remained ungrouped. The majority (94%) of the isolates comprised the gram-positive bacteria and the main clusters were identified as Bacillus sp., Paenibacillus sp., Micrococcus sp., Arthrobacter sp. and Staphylococcus sp. Other clusters contain nocardioform actinomycetes and gram-negative bacteria, respectively. A cluster of the latter contained extreme halotolerant bacteria isolated in Herberstein. The FAME profiles of this cluster showed a high similarity with Halomonas. PMID:10564789

  4. Experimental (liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for ternary and quaternary mixtures of fatty acid methyl and ethyl esters (FAME/FAEE) from soybean oil

    Highlights: • Innovative technique for quantification of compounds involved in the biodiesel production. • Easy and quick determination from NIR combined with multivariate calibration. • Reliable LLE correlation and predictions can be attained from the technique. -- Abstract: This work is aimed at providing an easy and quick determination of the biodiesel products using near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) by combination with the multivariate calibration in the analysis of (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for ternary and quaternary mixtures containing soybean fatty acid methyl (FAME) and ethyl (FAEE) esters, glycerol, ethanol, methanol and water, at various temperatures. The mass balance for the compositions obtained for each phase was carried out so as to demonstrate the reliability of the models generated by the multivariate calibration. Two distinct phases are observed, a glycerol-rich and the other ester-rich, while ethanol is dissolved among the phases hence reducing the partial mutual miscibility between glycerol and ester. Through (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) results, systems containing FAEE at T = 318.15 K and 303.15 K (calibration using data obtained at temperature of 318.15 K), a good agreement is verified among the values determined using conventional and NIR technique for alcoholic phase (AP) or aqueous phase (WP) and biodiesel phase (BP). Likewise in the systems containing FAME at 318.15 K, 303.15 K and 333.15 K (calibration using data obtained at temperature of 318.15 K), the LLE results were reproduced at the upper and lower temperature to the tests of the reproducibility of the models generated by the multivariate calibration

  5. Technical performance of vegetable oil methyl esters with a high iodine number

    Prankl, H.; Woergetter, M.; Rathbauer, J. [Federal Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Wieselburg (Austria)

    1999-07-01

    The Federal Institute of Agricultural Engineering in Austria has been gaining more experience about the technical performance of biodiesel with a high iodine number. Long-term bench tests evaluated rape seed oil methyl ester, sunflower oil methyl ester and camelina oil methyl ester with an iodine number of 107 to 150. The oil viscosity was observed and the engine parts were inspected after each run. To demonstrate the suitability of a methyl ester with a high iodine number, a fleet of nine vehicles and one stationary engine was tested for one to three engine oil drain intervals. Camelina oil methyl ester, with a content of 37% linolenic acid (C18:3), was used. No unusual deposits were observed after dismantling the engines. (author)

  6. Application of Factorial Design of Experiments for the Continuous Hydrogenation of Enriched Castor Oil Methyl Esters

    Tulasi Sri Venkata Ramana Neeharika; Karna Narayana Prasanna Rani; Kasturi Venkata Sesha Adinarayana Rao; Thella Prathap Kumar; Rachapudi Badari Narayana Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Castor oil methyl esters contains nearly 90% ricinoleic acid (12-hydroxy-cis-9-octadecenoic acid). Hydrogen-ated castor oil methyl esters finds several applications in coating, lubricants formulations and pharmaceu-tical areas. The present study reports a fast, simple, efficient and continuous hydrogenation of enriched castor oil methyl ester (ECME) using 10% Pd/C catalyst at different pressures and temperatures. The range of process conditions for this study varied from 30-60 °C, 5-15 bar wi...

  7. NF EN 14214. - Automotive fuels. - Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) for diesel engines. - Requirements and test methods; NF EN 14214. - Carburants pour automobiles. - Esters methyliques d'acides gras (EMAG) pour moteurs Diesel. - Exigences et methodes d'essais

    NONE

    2004-04-01

    This standard specifies requirements and test methods for marketed and delivered fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) to be used either as automotive fuel for diesel engines, at 100% concentration, or as an extender for automotive fuel for diesel engines, in accordance with the requirements of EN 590. At 100% concentration it is applicable to fuel for use in diesel engine vehicles designed or subsequently adapted to run on 100% FAME.

  8. NF EN 14110. July 2003. Fatty compounds derived products. Fatty acids methylic esters (FAME). Determination of the methanol content; NF EN 14110. Juillet 2003. Produits derives des corps gras. Esters methyliques d'acides gras (EMAG). Determination de la teneur en methanol

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This European standard describes a method of methanol dosimetry in fatty acids methylic esters (FAME) which can be applied to gas-oil and domestic fuel oil. This method is applicable over a large spectrum of methanol concentrations comprised between 0.01% (m/m) and 0.5% (m/m). It is not applicable to FAME mixtures containing low boiling point compounds. (J.S.)

  9. Two-stage continuous process of methyl ester from high free fatty acid mixed crude palm oil using static mixer coupled with high-intensity of ultrasound

    Highlights: • Mixed crude palm oil was used in the two-step continuous process. • Two-step continuous process was performed using static mixer coupled with ultrasound. • The maximum obtained yield was 92.5 vol.% after the purification process. • The residence time less than 20 s was achieved in ultrasonic reactors. - Abstract: The two-stage continuous process of methyl ester from high free fatty acid (FFA) mixed crude palm oil (MCPO) was performed by using static mixer coupled with high-intensity of ultrasound. The 2 × 1000 W ultrasonic homogenizers were operated at 18 kHz frequency in the 2 × 100 mL continuous reactors. For the first-step, acid-catalyzed esterification was employed with 18 vol.% of methanol, 2.7 vol.% of sulfuric acid, 60 °C of temperature, and 20 L h−1 of MCPO flow rate, for reducing the acid value from 28 mg KOH g−1 to less than 2 mg KOH g−1. For the second-step, base-catalyzed transesterification was carried out under 18 vol.% of methanol, 8 g KOH L−1 of oil, and 20 L h−1 of esterified oil flow rate at 30 °C. The high yields of esterified oil and crude biodiesel were attained within the residence time of less than 20 s in the ultrasonic reactors. The yields of each stage process were: 103.3 vol.% of esterified oil, 105.4 vol.% of crude biodiesel, and 92.5 vol.% of biodiesel when compared with 100 vol.% MCPO. The quality of the biodiesel meets the specification of biodiesel standard in Thailand

  10. Traceable atomic force microscopy of high-quality solvent-free crystals of [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester

    Lazzerini, Giovanni Mattia; Yacoot, Andrew [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Paternò, Giuseppe Maria; Tregnago, Giulia; Cacialli, Franco [Department of Physics and Astronomy and London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Treat, Neil; Stingelin, Natalie [Department of Materials Science, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-01

    We report high-resolution, traceable atomic force microscopy measurements of high-quality, solvent-free single crystals of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). These were grown by drop-casting PCBM solutions onto the spectrosil substrates and by removing the residual solvent in a vacuum. A home-built atomic force microscope featuring a plane mirror differential optical interferometer, fiber-fed from a frequency-stabilized laser (emitting at 632.8 nm), was used to measure the crystals' height. The optical interferometer together with the stabilized laser provides traceability (via the laser wavelength) of the vertical measurements made with the atomic force microscope. We find that the crystals can conform to the surface topography, thanks to their height being significantly smaller compared to their lateral dimensions (namely, heights between about 50 nm and 140 nm, for the crystals analysed, vs. several tens of microns lateral dimensions). The vast majority of the crystals are flat, but an isolated, non-flat crystal provides insights into the growth mechanism and allows identification of “molecular terraces” whose height corresponds to one of the lattice constants of the single PCBM crystal (1.4 nm) as measured with X-ray diffraction.

  11. Side chain effect on electronic structure of spin-coated films of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester and its bis-adduct

    Highlights: ► Electronic structure of spin-coated films of PCBM and bis-PCBM was investigated. ► Ionization energy and electron affinity of bis-PCBM are smaller than those of PCBM. ► Electron donation from the side chain to C60-backbone raises the HOMO and LUMO. ► Open circuit voltages of PCBM-based solar cells relates to electron affinities. - Abstract: We investigated the electronic structure of spin-coated films of two soluble fullerenes; [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and its bis-adduct (bis-PCBM) using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, inverse photoemission spectroscopy and molecular orbital calculations. The ionization energy and electron affinity of spin-coated films of bis-PCBM were determined to be 6.01 eV and 3.4 eV, respectively. Analysis of electron density suggested the stronger electron donation from the two side chains to fullerene-backbone in a bis-PCBM molecule, compared with PCBM. The electron donation raises the energies of the frontier orbitals of bis-PCBM, which mainly consist of π-orbitals of fullerene-backbone. As a result, the ionization energy and electron affinity of bis-PCBM are smaller than those of PCBM. Moreover, we also concluded that the larger open circuit voltage observed for bis-PCBM based organic photovoltaics was explained by the higher-lying unoccupied molecular orbital of bis-PCBM

  12. Experimental designs for modeling retention patterns and separation efficiency in analysis of fatty acid methyl esters by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Skartland, Liv Kjersti; Mjøs, Svein A; Grung, Bjørn

    2011-09-23

    The retention behavior of components analyzed by chromatography varies with instrumental settings. Being able to predict how changes in these settings alter the elution pattern is useful, both with regards to component identification, as well as with regards to optimization of the chromatographic system. In this work, it is shown how experimental designs can be used for this purpose. Different experimental designs for response surface modeling of the separation of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) as function of chromatographic conditions in GC have been evaluated. Full factorial, central composite, Doehlert and Box-Behnken designs were applied. A mixture of 38 FAMEs was separated on a polar cyanopropyl substituted polysilphenylene-siloxane phase capillary column. The temperature gradient, the start temperature of the gradient, and the carrier gas velocity were varied in the experiments. The modeled responses, as functions of chromatographic conditions, were retention time, retention indices, peak widths, separation efficiency and resolution between selected peak pairs. The designs that allowed inclusion of quadratic terms among the predictors performed significantly better than factorial design. Box-Behnken design provided the best results for prediction of retention, but the differences between the central composite, Doehlert and Box-Behnken designs were small. Retention indices could be modeled with much better accuracy than retention times. However, because the errors of predicted tR of closely eluting peaks were highly correlated, models of resolution (Rs) that were based on retention time had errors in the same range as corresponding models based on ECL. PMID:21851946

  13. Effect of temperature and composition on density, viscosity and thermal conductivity of fatty acid methyl esters from soybean, castor and Jatropha curcas oils

    Highlights: ► Thermophysical properties of soybean, castor and Jatropha curcas oils and related systems. ► Effect of temperature and composition on density, viscosity and thermal conductivity of the systems studied. ► Density, dynamic viscosity and thermal conductivity data were correlated using empirical equations. -- Abstract: This work is focused on experimental determination of density, viscosity and thermal conductivity as a function of temperature and composition for fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from soybean, castor and Jatropha curcas oils. Results show that an increase in temperature, over the range of (273 to 363) K, resulted in a decrease of all properties studied. FAME from soybean and J. curcas oils presented similar rheological behaviour, while FAME from castor oil presented higher values for density and viscosity. Density, dynamic viscosity and thermal conductivity data for all systems obtained here were correlated using empirical equations with good agreement between experimental and calculated values. Experimental data presented here may be useful as a database for specification purposes and equipment design and plant operation in the biodiesel industry

  14. Dielectric relaxation dependent memory elements in pentacene/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester bi-layer field effect transistors

    We fabricate a pentacene/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) bi-layer field effect transistor (FET) featuring large hysteresis that can be used as memory elements. Intentional introduction of excess electron traps in a PCBM layer by exposure to air caused large hysteresis in the FET. The memory window, characterized by the threshold voltage difference, increased upon exposure to air and this is attributed to an increase in the number of electron trapping centers and (or) an increase in the dielectric relaxation time in the underlying PCBM layer. Decrease in the electron conduction in the PCBM close to the SiO2 gate dielectric upon exposure to air is consistent with the increase in the dielectric relaxation time, ensuring that the presence of large hysteresis in the FET originates from electron trapping at the PCBM not at the pentacene. - Highlights: • Charge trapping-induced memory effect was clarified using transistors. • The memory window can be enhanced by controlling charge trapping mechanism. • Memory transistors can be optimized by controlling dielectric relaxation time

  15. Synthesis, crystal structure and local anti-inflammatory activity of the L-phenylalanine methyl ester derivative of dexamethasone-derived cortienic acid

    Dobričić Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available L-phenylalanine methyl ester derivative of dexamethasone - derived cortienic acid (DF was synthesized and its crystal structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction method. The crystal system is orthorhombic with space group P212121 and cell constants a = 8.2969 (3 Å, b = 18.9358 (8 Å, c = 20.0904 (6 Å, V = 3156.4 (2 Å3 and Z = 4. Ring A of the steroid nucleus and phenyl ring in the 17β-side chain are almost planar. Rings B and C have a slightly distorted chair conformation, whereas ring D has an envelope conformation. The packing of DF is characterized by a network of intermolecular hydrogen bonds involving the O4 atom from one side of the steroid nucleus and O1 and F1 atoms from the other side as hydrogen bond acceptors. Apart from the intermolecular hydrogen bonds in the crystal packing, there are also numerous intramolecular hydrogen bonds of the N-H...O, C-H...O and C-H...F type. Local anti-inflammatory activity of DF was evaluated by use of croton oil-induced ear edema test. This derivative achieved maximal inhibition of ear edema at significantly lower concentration in comparison with dexamethasone. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172041, 172014 i 172035

  16. Traceable atomic force microscopy of high-quality solvent-free crystals of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester

    We report high-resolution, traceable atomic force microscopy measurements of high-quality, solvent-free single crystals of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). These were grown by drop-casting PCBM solutions onto the spectrosil substrates and by removing the residual solvent in a vacuum. A home-built atomic force microscope featuring a plane mirror differential optical interferometer, fiber-fed from a frequency-stabilized laser (emitting at 632.8 nm), was used to measure the crystals' height. The optical interferometer together with the stabilized laser provides traceability (via the laser wavelength) of the vertical measurements made with the atomic force microscope. We find that the crystals can conform to the surface topography, thanks to their height being significantly smaller compared to their lateral dimensions (namely, heights between about 50 nm and 140 nm, for the crystals analysed, vs. several tens of microns lateral dimensions). The vast majority of the crystals are flat, but an isolated, non-flat crystal provides insights into the growth mechanism and allows identification of “molecular terraces” whose height corresponds to one of the lattice constants of the single PCBM crystal (1.4 nm) as measured with X-ray diffraction

  17. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION O F SODIUM METHYL ESTER SULFONATE FOR CHEMICALLY-ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

    Babu, K.; N. K. Maurya; Mandal, A.; Saxena, V. K.

    2015-01-01

    AbstractAttention has been given to reduce the cost of surfactant by using castor oil as an alternative natural source of feedstock. A new surfactant, sodium methyl ester sulfonate (SMES) was synthesised using ricinoleic acid methyl ester, which is obtained from castor oil, for enhanced oil recovery in petroleum industries. The performance of SMES was studied by measuring the surface tension with and without sodium chloride and its thermal stability at reservoir temperature. SMES exhibited go...

  18. Organic Reference Materials for Hydrogen, Carbon, and Nitrogen Stable Isotope-Ratio Measurements: Caffeines, n-Alkanes, Fatty Acid Methyl Esters, Glycines, l-Valines, Polyethylenes, and Oils.

    Schimmelmann, Arndt; Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B; Brand, Willi A; Fong, Jon; Meier-Augenstein, Wolfram; Kemp, Helen F; Toman, Blaza; Ackermann, Annika; Assonov, Sergey; Aerts-Bijma, Anita T; Brejcha, Ramona; Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Darwish, Tamim; Elsner, Martin; Gehre, Matthias; Geilmann, Heike; Gröning, Manfred; Hélie, Jean-François; Herrero-Martín, Sara; Meijer, Harro A J; Sauer, Peter E; Sessions, Alex L; Werner, Roland A

    2016-04-19

    An international project developed, quality-tested, and determined isotope-δ values of 19 new organic reference materials (RMs) for hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen stable isotope-ratio measurements, in addition to analyzing pre-existing RMs NBS 22 (oil), IAEA-CH-7 (polyethylene foil), and IAEA-600 (caffeine). These new RMs enable users to normalize measurements of samples to isotope-δ scales. The RMs span a range of δ(2)HVSMOW-SLAP values from -210.8 to +397.0 mUr or ‰, for δ(13)CVPDB-LSVEC from -40.81 to +0.49 mUr and for δ(15)NAir from -5.21 to +61.53 mUr. Many of the new RMs are amenable to gas and liquid chromatography. The RMs include triads of isotopically contrasting caffeines, C16 n-alkanes, n-C20-fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), glycines, and l-valines, together with polyethylene powder and string, one n-C17-FAME, a vacuum oil (NBS 22a) to replace NBS 22 oil, and a (2)H-enriched vacuum oil. A total of 11 laboratories from 7 countries used multiple analytical approaches and instrumentation for 2-point isotopic normalization against international primary measurement standards. The use of reference waters in silver tubes allowed direct normalization of δ(2)H values of organic materials against isotopic reference waters following the principle of identical treatment. Bayesian statistical analysis yielded the mean values reported here. New RMs are numbered from USGS61 through USGS78, in addition to NBS 22a. Because of exchangeable hydrogen, amino acid RMs currently are recommended only for carbon- and nitrogen-isotope measurements. Some amino acids contain (13)C and carbon-bound organic (2)H-enrichments at different molecular sites to provide RMs for potential site-specific isotopic analysis in future studies. PMID:26974360

  19. Co-solvents transesterification of cotton seed oil into biodiesel: Effects of reaction conditions on quality of fatty acids methyl esters

    Highlights: • Using co-solvent systems reduce reaction time by 60%. • Only small volume of co-solvent is required to improve the process. • Greater than 90% yields were obtained within the first 10 min. • Physico-chemical and fuel properties of FAMEs were within standard limits. • Acetone was found to be the best co-solvent for the transesterification. - Abstract: Solvent Technology, is gaining the interest of researchers in improving transesterification process recently. Transesterification of cotton seed oil into biodiesel using different mixtures of methanol with Diethyl Ether (DEE), Dichlorobenzene (CBN) or Acetone (ACT) co-solvent systems was conducted. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) was used as the catalyst all through. The reaction conditions optimized include; the molar ratio of co-solvent in methanol, reaction temperature and time. The catalyst concentration was also optimized. The optimization was based on the percentage yields of Fatty Acids Methyl Esters (FAMEs) produced. In addition, the effects of co-solvent systems on physico-chemical properties (Acid value and fatty acids composition) and fuel properties (viscosity, density and calorific value) were investigated as well. The result obtained, indicated 10% (v/v) addition of co-solvents CBN and ACT in methanol was the optimal volume. The optimal reaction temperature was 55 °0C for 10 min when the catalyst concentration of 0.75% (w/w) weight of oil was used. Fuel properties were within the acceptable limit of ASTM and not significantly affected by the co-solvent systems except for the calorific value. It was concluded that the addition of co-solvent reduced the reaction time and improved some fuel properties of the biodiesel produced

  20. Methyl Esters for Tumor Drug Delivery

    José Portilla-Arias

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available New copolyesters derived from poly(β,L-malic acid have been designed to serve as nanoconjugate platforms in drug delivery. 25% and 50% methylated derivatives (coPMLA-Me25H75 and coPMLA-Me50H50 with absolute molecular weights of 32 600 Da and 33 100 Da, hydrodynamic diameters of 3.0 nm and 5.2 nm and zeta potential of −15 mV and −8.25 mV, respectively, were found to destabilize membranes of liposomes at pH 5.0 and pH 7.5 at concentrations above 0.05 mg/mL. The copolymers were soluble in PBS (half life of 40 hours and in human plasma (half life of 15 hours but they showed tendency to aggregate at high levels of methylation. Fluorescence-labeled copolymers were internalized into MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells with increased efficiency for the higher methylated copolymer. Viability of cultured brain and breast cancer cell lines indicated moderate toxicity that increased with methylation. The conclusion of the present work is that partially methylated poly(β,L-malic acid copolyesters are suitable as nanoconjugate platforms for drug delivery.

  1. Quantification of fatty acids as methyl esters and phospholipids in cheese samples after separation of triacylglycerides and phospholipids

    Determination of the individual fatty acid composition of neutral- and phospholipids as well as the phospholipid content of dairy food and other foodstuffs are important tasks in life sciences. For these purposes, a method was developed for the separation of lipids (standards of triolein and diacylphosphatidylcholines as well as three cheese samples) by solid-phase extraction using a self-packed column filled with partly deactivated silica. Non-halogenated solvents were used for the elution of the lipid classes. Cyclohexane/ethyl acetate (1:1, v/v) served for the elution of neutral lipids, while polar lipids were eluted with three solvents (ethyl acetate/methanol, methanol, and methanol/water) into one fraction. The separated lipid fractions were transesterified and the individual fatty acids were quantified by using gas chromatography coupled to electron ionization mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The recovery rate for standard phosphatidylcholines was ∼90% and cross-contamination from neutral lipids was negligible. The method was applied to cheese samples. Quantitative amounts of individual fatty acids in the phospholipid fraction were eq) were found to be representative for the average contribution of fatty acids to all classes of phospholipids in dairy products. Using this approach, the phospholipid content of lipids from mozzarella, camembert, and goat cream cheese was 0.60%, 1.42% and 0.79%, respectively

  2. Quantification of fatty acids as methyl esters and phospholipids in cheese samples after separation of triacylglycerides and phospholipids

    Hauff, Simone [University of Hohenheim, Institute of Food Chemistry, Garbenstrasse 28, D-70599 Stuttgart (Germany); Vetter, Walter [University of Hohenheim, Institute of Food Chemistry, Garbenstrasse 28, D-70599 Stuttgart (Germany)], E-mail: w-vetter@uni-hohenheim.de

    2009-03-23

    Determination of the individual fatty acid composition of neutral- and phospholipids as well as the phospholipid content of dairy food and other foodstuffs are important tasks in life sciences. For these purposes, a method was developed for the separation of lipids (standards of triolein and diacylphosphatidylcholines as well as three cheese samples) by solid-phase extraction using a self-packed column filled with partly deactivated silica. Non-halogenated solvents were used for the elution of the lipid classes. Cyclohexane/ethyl acetate (1:1, v/v) served for the elution of neutral lipids, while polar lipids were eluted with three solvents (ethyl acetate/methanol, methanol, and methanol/water) into one fraction. The separated lipid fractions were transesterified and the individual fatty acids were quantified by using gas chromatography coupled to electron ionization mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The recovery rate for standard phosphatidylcholines was {approx}90% and cross-contamination from neutral lipids was negligible. The method was applied to cheese samples. Quantitative amounts of individual fatty acids in the phospholipid fraction were <0.002-0.29% of total lipids from camembert, <0.002-0.12% of total lipids from mozzarella, and <0.002-0.18% of total lipids in a goat cream cheese. Differences in the fatty acid pattern of neutral and polar lipids were detected. The quantity of the fatty acids determined in the phospholipid fraction was divided by the factor 0.7 in order to convert the fatty acid content into the phospholipid content of the cheese samples. This factor is based on the contribution of 16:0 to dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). The resulting DPPC equivalents (DPPC{sub eq}) were found to be representative for the average contribution of fatty acids to all classes of phospholipids in dairy products. Using this approach, the phospholipid content of lipids from mozzarella, camembert, and goat cream cheese

  3. Quantum confinement-tunable ultrafast charge transfer at the PbS quantum dot and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester interface

    El-Ballouli, AlA'A O.

    2014-05-14

    Quantum dot (QD) solar cells have emerged as promising low-cost alternatives to existing photovoltaic technologies. Here, we investigate charge transfer and separation at PbS QDs and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) interfaces using a combination of femtosecond broadband transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy and steady-state photoluminescence quenching measurements. We analyzed ultrafast electron injection and charge separation at PbS QD/PCBM interfaces for four different QD sizes and as a function of PCBM concentration. The results reveal that the energy band alignment, tuned by the quantum size effect, is the key element for efficient electron injection and charge separation processes. More specifically, the steady-state and time-resolved data demonstrate that only small-sized PbS QDs with a bandgap larger than 1 eV can transfer electrons to PCBM upon light absorption. We show that these trends result from the formation of a type-II interface band alignment, as a consequence of the size distribution of the QDs. Transient absorption data indicate that electron injection from photoexcited PbS QDs to PCBM occurs within our temporal resolution of 120 fs for QDs with bandgaps that achieve type-II alignment, while virtually all signals observed in smaller bandgap QD samples result from large bandgap outliers in the size distribution. Taken together, our results clearly demonstrate that charge transfer rates at QD interfaces can be tuned by several orders of magnitude by engineering the QD size distribution. The work presented here will advance both the design and the understanding of QD interfaces for solar energy conversion. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  4. The Influence of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMEs) in the Biochemistry and the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase Activity of Culex quinquefasciatus Larvae.

    Silva, Lilian N D; Ribeiro-Neto, José A; Valadares, Jéssica M M; Costa, Mariana M; Lima, Luciana A R S; Grillo, Luciano A M; Cortes, Vanessa F; Santos, Herica L; Alves, Stênio N; Barbosa, Leandro A

    2016-08-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus is the main vector of lymphatic filariasis and combating this insect is of great importance to public health. There are reports of insects that are resistant to the products currently used to control this vector, and therefore, the search for new products has increased. In the present study, we have evaluated the effects of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) that showed larvicidal activity against C. quinquefasciatus, on glucose, total protein, and triacylglycerol contents and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in mosquito larvae. The exposure of the fourth instar larvae to the compounds caused a decrease in the total protein content and an increase in the activity of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Furthermore, the direct effect of FAMEs on cell membrane was assessed on purified pig kidney Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase membranes, erythrocyte ghost membranes, and larvae membrane preparation. No modifications on total phospholipids and cholesterol content were found after FAMEs 20 min treatment on larvae membrane preparation, but only 360 µg/mL FAME 2 was able to decrease total phospholipid of erythrocyte ghost membrane. Moreover, only 60 and 360 µg/mL FAME 3 caused an activation of purified Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, that was an opposite effect of FAMEs treatment in larvae membrane preparation, and caused an inhibition of the pump activity. These data together suggest that maybe FAMEs can modulate the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase on intact larvae for such mechanisms and not for a direct effect, one time that the direct effect of FAMEs in membrane preparation decreased the activity of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. The biochemical changes caused by the compounds were significant and may negatively influence the development and survival of C. quinquefasciatus larvae. PMID:26993642

  5. Combustion characteristics of the mustard methyl esters

    Mustard Methyl Esters (further bio diesel) and regular diesel fuel were tested in direct injection diesel engine. Analysis of experimental data was supported by an analysis of fuel injection and combustion characteristics. Engine fuelled with bio diesel had increased brake specific fuel consumption, reduced nitrogen oxides emission and smoke opacity, moderate increase in carbon monoxide emission with essentially unchanged unburned hydrocarbons emission. Increase in fuel consumption was attributed to lesser heating value of bio diesel and partially to decreased fuel conversion efficiency. Analysis of combustion characteristics revealed earlier start of injection and shorter ignition delay period of bio diesel. Resulting decrease in maximum rate of heat release and cylinder pressure was the most probable reason for reduced emission of nitrogen oxides. Analysis of combustion characteristics also showed that cetane index determined by ASTM Method D976 is not a proper measure of ignition quality of bio diesel. Conclusion was made on applicability of mustard oil as a source for commercial production of bio diesel in Pakistan. Potentialities of on improving combustion and emissions characteristics of diesel engine by reformulating bio diesel were discussed. (author)

  6. Determination of the antioxidant activity based on the content changes in fatty acid methyl esters in vegetable oils

    Housam Haj Hamdo; Zaid Al-Assaf; Warid Khayata

    2014-01-01

    Free radicals,which are generated in several biochemical reactions in the body,have been implicated as mediators of many diseases,including cancer,atherosclerosis and heart diseases.Although the endogenous antioxidants can scavenge these free radicals,they are often insufficient to maintain the in vivo redox balance.The antioxidant activity (AOA) was examined by addition of each tested antioxidants [alpha-tocopherol (a-T),beta-tocopherol (β-T),gamma-tocopherol (γ-T),delta-tocopherol (δ-T),butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA),2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT),and ascorbyle palmitate (AP)] to four types of different vegetable oils (sunflower oil,soybean oil,corn oil and olive oil).Moreover,content changes in fatty acids were then investigated every 3 months during the storage period.The results showed that the AOA was different among the tested antioxidants.The AOA for BHA was the most for different types of oil compared with other antioxidants,whereas the δ-T possessed the lowest AOA.

  7. NF EN 14106. July 2003. Fatty compounds derived products. Fatty acids methylic esters (FAME). Determination of the free glycerol content; NF EN 14106. Juillet 2003. Produits derives des corps gras. Esters methyliques d'acides gras (EMAG). Determination de la teneur en glycerol libre

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This European standard specifies a gas chromatography method of determination of the free glycerol content of fatty acids methylic esters (FAME) for concentrations comprised between 0.005% and 0.070%. The objective of this method is to evaluate the quality of the FAMEs in terms of trans-esterification of their by-products content, such as glycerol, which can change the fuel combustion properties. This method involves dangerous compounds, operations and equipments which are not considered in the text of the standard. (J.S.)

  8. Influence of Blending Canola, Palm, Soybean, and Sunflower Oil Methyl Esters on Fuel Properties of Bioiesel

    Single, binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures of canola (low erucic acid rapeseed), palm, soybean, and sunflower (high oleic acid) oil methyl esters (CME, PME, SME, and SFME, respectively) were prepared and important fuel properties measured, such as oil stability index (OSI), cold filter pluggin...

  9. Rape oil methyl ester (RME) and used cooking oil methyl ester (UOME) as alternative fuels

    Hohl, G.H. [Military Technology Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1995-12-31

    The author presents a review about the fleet tests carried out by the Austrian Armed Forces concerning the practical application of a vegetable oil, i.e Rape Oil Methyl Ester (RME) and Used Cooking Oil Methyl Ester (UOME) as alternative fuels for vehicles under military conditions, and reviews other research results carried out in Austria. As a result of over-production in Western European agriculture, the increase in crop yields has led to tremendous surpluses. Alternative agricultural products have been sought. One alternative can be seen in biological fuel production for tractors, whereby the farmer is able to produce his own fuel supply as was the case when he previously provided self-made feed for his horses. For the market introduction different activities were necessary. A considerable number of institutes and organizations including the Austrian Armed Forces have investigated, tested and developed these alternative fuels. The increasing disposal problems of used cooking oil have initiated considerations for its use. The recycling of this otherwise waste product, and its preparation for use as an alternative fuel to diesel oil, seems to be most promising.

  10. 一锅法合成4-甲基-5-咪唑甲酸乙酯工艺%The Preparation of 4-Methyl-5-imidazole-carboxylic Acid Ethyl Ester by One-pot Reaction

    朱驯; 魏运洋

    2012-01-01

    [Aims] The aim is to look for a new preparation method of 4-methyl-5-imidazole-carboxylic acid ethyl ester. [Methods] 4-Methyl-5-imidazole-carboxylic acid ethyl ester with versatility was prepared from 3-oxo-butyric acid ethyl ester, sulfuryl chloride and formamide by one-pot reaction. [Results] The effect on yield of the mole ratio of materials, reaction temperature, different solvent were discussed by experiments. We could receive the optimal reaction condition, the mole ratio of 3-oxo-butyric acid ethyl ester, sulfuryl chloride and formamide is 1:1:2 (in mol), the reaction temperature is 120 ℃, the solvent is dioxane. And the syntheses yield of 4-methyl-5-imidazole-carboxylic acid ethyl ester is 70% under this condition. [Conclusions] The new route is simple and the raw materials are easily obtained, which is suitable for industrial production.%[目的]寻找一条合成4-甲基-5-咪唑甲酸乙酯的新工艺路线。[方法]以乙酰乙酸乙酯、磺酰氯与甲酰胺为原料,采用一锅法合成一种用途广泛的多功能单体4-甲基-5-咪唑甲酸乙酯。[结果]通过实验,确定了一条合成4-甲基-5-咪唑甲酸乙酯的新工艺:以二氧六环为溶剂,环化时反应温度为120℃,反应时间为4 h,n(乙酰乙酸乙酯)∶n(磺酰氯)∶n(甲酰胺)为1∶1∶2,在该条件下,4-甲基-5-眯唑甲酸乙酯的产率为70%。[结论]该方法路线简单,原料易得,适合工业化生产。

  11. Effect of reaction temperature and time on neem methyl ester yield in a batch reactor

    Highlights: • Fatty acid profile and molecular mass of neem oil were determined. • Main effects of the factors and interaction were successfully quantified and compared. • Six (6) regression models were developed for methyl ester yield using NLREG software. • Results showed that the models can predict the methyl ester yield within 7% of experimental values. - Abstract: Experimental investigation of neem methyl ester yield in a batch reactor at different process conditions of temperature and reaction duration was carried out using a 2-factor, 5-level full factorial experimental design. Reaction temperature was varied between 40 °C and 60 °C, while reaction time was studied in the range of 30–120 min. The study, which was carried out using 1% w/w catalyst amount and alcohol to oil ratio of 6:1, showed that reaction temperature had a highly significant effect (p < 0.01) in comparison with reaction time, which had a significant effect (p < 0.05) on methyl ester yield. Six (6) empirical models were developed for the response variable of methyl ester yield using a non-linear regression analysis method, facilitated by NLREG version 6.3 software. Results showed that the mean predicted ester yield values and mean experimental values were not statistically different at the 95% confidence level, whereas the maximum deviation observed was 6.9%

  12. Effect of temperature stress on protein methyl esters

    Protein methyl esters have been implicated in a number of physiological processes. They have measured the effect of temperature stress on the levels of protein methyl esters in the mesophilic fungus Penicillium chrysogenum (PCPS) and the thermophilic fungus P. duponti (PD). PD and PCPS were incubated with [methyl-3H]methionine. The mycelia were collected by filtration, frozen in liquid nitrogen and ground to a fine powder. The nitrogen powder was extracted with either phosphate buffer or with SDS, glycerol, phosphate, 2-mercaptoethanol. Insoluble material was removed by centrifugation. The supernatants were assayed for protein methyl esters. The released [3H]methanol was extracted into toluene:isoamyl alcohol (3:2) and quantitated by liquid scintillation. The production of volatile methanol was confirmed by use of Conway diffusion cells. Soluble proteins accounted for about one-fourth of the total protein methyl ester extracted by SDS. In PCPS, the SDS extracted proteins have about three times the level of esterification of the soluble proteins whereas in PD there is little difference between soluble and SDS extracted protein. The level of protein esterification in PD is about one-tenth that observed in PCPS. Temperature stress caused large changes in the level of protein esterification. The data suggest protein methyl esters may contribute to the adaptation to environmental stress

  13. Preparation and characterization oF Ru-Sn/Al2O3 catalysts for the hydrogenation of fatty acid methyl esters

    Vanina A. Mazzieri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ru-Sn/Al2O3 catalysts with different Sn loadings were prepared by the coimpregnation method. Several characterization techniques such as TPR, pyridine TPD and catalytic tests for dehydrogenation and hydrogenolysis were used to evaluate and compare such catalysts. TPR results indicate that Sn is deposited both onto the support and as species strongly interacting with Ru. Such non selective deposition modifies the acid and metallic functions of the catalysts. Both total acidity and acid strength distribution are affected: total acidity decreases and new sites of lower acid strength are created. Both dehydrogenating and hydrogenolytic activities are strongly diminished by the addition of Sn. Results of catalytic tests for methyl oleate hydrogenation indicate that methyl stearate is the main product, with only minute amounts of oleyl alcohol produced, and that the addition of Sn diminishes the hydrogenation activity.

  14. Preparation and characterization of Ru-Sn/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts for the hydrogenation of fatty acid methyl esters

    Mazzieri, Vanina A.; Sad, Mario R.; Vera, Carlos R.; Pieck, Carlos L. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Santa Fe (Argentina). Universidad Nacional del Litoral. Inst. de Investigaciones en Catalisis y Petroquimica; Grau, Ricardo [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Santa Fe (Argentina). Universidad Nacional del Litoral. Inst. de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica

    2010-07-01

    Ru-Sn/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts with different Sn loadings were prepared by the coimpregnation method. Several characterization techniques such as TPR, pyridine TPD and catalytic tests for dehydrogenation and hydrogenolysis were used to evaluate and compare such catalysts. TPR results indicate that Sn is deposited both onto the support and as species strongly interacting with Ru. Such non selective deposition modifies the acid and metallic functions of the catalysts. Both total acidity and acid strength distribution are affected: total acidity decreases and new sites of lower acid strength are created. Both dehydrogenating and hydrogenolytic activities are strongly diminished by the addition of Sn. Results of catalytic tests for methyl oleate hydrogenation indicate that methyl stearate is the main product, with only minute amounts of oleyl alcohol produced, and that the addition of Sn diminishes the hydrogenation activity. (author)

  15. Thermo- and pH-sensitive gel membranes based on poly-(acryloyl- L-proline methyl ester)- graft-poly(acrylic acid) for selective permeation of metal ions

    Hasegawa, Shin; Ohashi, Hitoshi; Maekawa, Yasunari; Katakai, Ryoichi; Yoshida, Masaru

    2005-04-01

    Thermo- and pH-responsive gel membranes were synthesized by γ-ray grafting of pH-responsive poly(acrylic acid) (AAc) onto thermo-responsive polymer gel of acryloyl- L-proline methyl ester (A-ProOMe). The gel membranes of poly(A-ProOMe) with 15 mol% graft chains of AAc exhibited both thermo- and pH-responses. Under the condition (pH 6.0, 30°C) in which the thermo-sensitive unit shrinks and the pH-sensitive unit swells, the selective permeation of Li ion over Co and Ni ions can be achieved.

  16. Reaction of gallocyanine methyl ester with uranyl ions

    The reaction of gallocyanine methyl ester with uranyl ions was studied spectrophotometrically in slightly acid or neutral solutions of 40% (m/m) ethanol. A violet complex of UO2L2 is formed at pH>5. The conditional stability constants of the complex in the pH range 6-7.4 and the equilibrium constants of the coordination reaction were derived from the concentration curves and the continuous variations curves. The optimum conditions were sought for the spectrophotometric determination of uranium based on the occurrence of the UO2L2 complex. The relative standard deviation obtained for a uranium concentration of 106 μg.l-1 was ssub(r)=2.13%. (author)

  17. Reaction of gallocyanine methyl ester with uranyl ions

    Kotoucek, M.; Hrbkova, M. (Palackeho Univ., Olomouc (Czechoslovakia). Prirodovedecka Fakulta)

    1984-09-01

    The reaction of gallocyanine methyl ester with uranyl ions was studied spectrophotometrically in slightly acid or neutral solutions of 40% (m/m) ethanol. A violet complex of UO/sub 2/L/sub 2/ is formed at pH>5. The conditional stability constants of the complex in the pH range 6-7.4 and the equilibrium constants of the coordination reaction were derived from the concentration curves and the continuous variations curves. The optimum conditions were sought for the spectrophotometric determination of uranium based on the occurrence of the UO/sub 2/L/sub 2/ complex. The relative standard deviation obtained for a uranium concentration of 106 ..mu..g.l/sup -1/ was ssub(r)=2.13%.

  18. Synthesis of fatty acid methyl ester from the transesterification of high- and low-acid-content crude palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) and karanj oil (Pongamia pinnata) over a calcium-lanthanum-aluminum mixed-oxides catalyst.

    Syamsuddin, Y; Murat, M N; Hameed, B H

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from the high- and low-acid-content feedstock of crude palm oil (CPO) and karanj oil (KO) was conducted over CaO-La2O3-Al2O3 mixed-oxide catalyst. Various reaction parameters were investigated using a batch reactor to identify the best reaction condition that results in the highest FAME yield for each type of oil. The transesterification of CPO resulted in a 97.81% FAME yield with the process conditions of 170°C reaction temperature, 15:1 DMC-to-CPO molar ratio, 180min reaction time, and 10wt.% catalyst loading. The transesterification of KO resulted in a 96.77% FAME yield with the conditions of 150°C reaction temperature, 9:1 DMC-to-KO molar ratio, 180min reaction time, and 5wt.% catalyst loading. The properties of both products met the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standard requirements. The above results showed that the CaO-La2O3-Al2O3 mixed-oxide catalyst was suitable for high- and low-acid-content vegetable oil. PMID:27136612

  19. Enhanced power conversion efficiency in bulk heterojunction solar cell based on new polyazomethine with vinylene moieties and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester by adding 10-camphorsulfonic acid

    A polyazomethine (PPV-PAZ-DMB) containing vinylene and aliphatic side chains was synthesized by polycondensation method. The structure of polymer was characterized by means Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), proton and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (1H, 13C NMR) spectroscopy and the results show an agreement with the proposed structure. Photovoltaic properties of PPV-PAZ-DMB were studied by constructing bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells with the architecture ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PPV-PAZ-DMB:PCBM/Al, where ITO: indium tin oxide, PEDOT:PSS: poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate). Photovoltaic parameters were analyzed taking into account amount of [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) added to PPV-PAZ-DMB and presence of 10-camphorsulfonic acid (CSA) in active layer. With the weight ratio PPV-PAZ-DMB:PCBM of 1:3 and the presence of CSA, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the device reached 0.32% with open circuit voltage Voc = 0.47 V, short circuit current density Jsc = 2.91 mA/cm2 and fill factor (FF) 0.25 under simulated 100 mW/cm2 AM 1.5 G irradiation. It is showed that the PCE of device with CSA was 40 times higher than that of the device without CSA. Devices were additionally tested by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. An influence of CSA as a dopant on absorption wavelengths, energy gap and HOMO-LUMO levels was investigated

  20. Rapid Enzymatic Method for Pectin Methyl Esters Determination

    Lucyna Łękawska-Andrinopoulou; Vasiliou, Efstathios G.; Georgakopoulos, Dimitrios G.; Yialouris, Constantinos P.; Georgiou, Constantinos A.

    2013-01-01

    Pectin is a natural polysaccharide used in food and pharma industries. Pectin degree of methylation is an important parameter having significant influence on pectin applications. A rapid, fully automated, kinetic flow method for determination of pectin methyl esters has been developed. The method is based on a lab-made analyzer using the reverse flow-injection/stopped flow principle. Methanol is released from pectin by pectin methylesterase in the first mixing coil. Enzyme working solution is...

  1. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF LINSEED AND NEEM METHYL ESTERS AS BIODIESEL ON CI ENGINE

    V.DHANA RAJU; P.RAVINDRA KUMAR

    2012-01-01

    An experimental investigations were carried out on C.I.engine with Bio Diesel blends of Linseed Methyl Esters and Neem Oil Methyl Esters .The engine used for the experiments was single cylinder Four Stroke water cooled, constant speed diesel engine . Linseed Methyl ester (LSOME) and Neem oil methyl ester (NOME) are derived through transesterification process and parameters of transesterification were optimized. The blends of various proportions of the LSOME & NOME with diesel were prepared, a...

  2. 21 CFR 172.816 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 172.816 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.816 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) It is...

  3. 21 CFR 178.3600 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 178.3600... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3600 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester identified in § 172.816(a) of this chapter may be safely used as a...

  4. Carboxylic Acid Esters as Substrates of Cholinesterases

    Brestkin, A. P.; Rozengart, E. V.; Abduvakhabov, A. A.; Sadykov, A. A.

    1983-10-01

    Data on the kinetics of the hydrolysis of various carboxylic acid esters by two main types of cholinesterases — acetylcholinesterase from human erythrocytes and butyrylcholinesterase from horse blood serum — are surveyed. It is shown that the rate of enzyme hydrolysis depends significantly on the structure of the acyl part of the ester molecule, the nature of the ester heteroatom, the structure of the alcohol component, and particularly the structure of the onium group. Esters based on natural products are of special interest as specific substrates of these enzymes. The role of the productive and non-productive sorption of the substrates in enzyme catalysis is demonstrated. The bibliography includes 81 references.

  5. Binary diffusion coefficients of L-histidine methyl ester dihydrochloride in aqueous solutions

    Highlights: • Mutual diffusion coefficients of L-histidine methyl ester dihydrochloride in aqueous solutions. • Influence of the thermodynamic and kinetic factors on the variation of the mutual diffusion coefficients. • Estimation of the hydrodynamic radius of L-histidine methyl ester dihydrochloride. - Abstract: The Taylor dispersion technique has been used for measuring mutual diffusion coefficients of L-histidine methyl ester as its dihydrochloride at T = 298.15 K and finite concentrations from (0.001 to 0.100) mol · dm−3. On the basis of experimental mutual diffusion coefficients, the hydrodynamic radii, Rh, the diffusion coefficient at infinite dilution D0 and the dependence of thermodynamic factors, FT, on the concentration, have been estimated using the Onsager–Fuoss equation. Further insight on the diffusion has been obtained from 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy and DFT calculations, which suggest that the L-histidine methyl ester is present as its dication in acidic solution in a fully extended conformation, with considerable charge delocalization over the imidazolium ring. These experimental and computational results allow us to have a better understanding of the thermodynamic and kinetic behavior of this amino acid derivative in aqueous solutions

  6. Synthesis of Dipeptide Benzoylalanylglycine Methyl Ester and Corrosion Inhibitor Evaluation by Tafel Equation

    Corrosion is one of the major problems in petroleum mining and processing industry. The pipelines used to transport crude oil from reservoir to the processing installation were made from carbon steel that is susceptible towards corrosion. One of the best methods to prevent corrosion that occurred at the inner parts of carbon steel pipelines is to use organic corrosion inhibitor. One of the potent organic corrosion inhibitors is amino acids derivatives. In this study, dipeptide compound namely benzoylalanylglycine methyl ester and benzoylalanylglycine have been synthesized. The structure elucidation of the products was performed by IR, MS and NMR spectroscopy. The determination of corrosion inhibition activity utilized the Tafel method. The corrosion inhibition efficiency of glycine methyl ester, benzoyl alanine, dipeptide benzoylalanylglycine methyl ester and dipeptide benzoylalanylglycine were 63.34 %, 35.86 %, 68.40 % and 27.72 %, respectively. These results showed that the formation of dipeptide benzoylalanylglycine methyl ester, derived from carboxylic protected glycine and amine protected alanine, increased the corrosion inhibition activity due to the loss of acidity center in the structure of glycine and L-alanine that would induce the corrosive environment towards carbon steel. (author)

  7. ZrOCl2·8H2O:An Efifcient and Cheap Catalyst for Esteriifcation of Free Fatty Acids to Methyl Esters

    Cai Jie; Zhang Qiuyun; Huang Congmin; Zhou Kaizhi; Ma Peihua

    2014-01-01

    The esteriifcation of lauric acid with methanol could be efifciently catalyzed by ZrOCl2·8H2O, and this reaction was studied to develop a green method for biodiesel production. The inlfuencing factors, such as amount of catalyst, reac-tion time and molar ratio of acid to methanol, were investigated. The results indicated that the ZrOCl2·8H2O catalyst showed high catalytic activity, and gave a 97.0%methyl laurate conversion rate under the following optimized conditions, viz.:a lauric acid/methanol molar ratio of 1:10, a catalyst dosage of 4%, and a reaction duration of 2 h at methanol relfuxing tem-perature. The catalyst could be easily recovered while its activity could be well retained after three cycles. The ZrOCl2·8H2O catalyst also exhibited excellent catalytic activity for the esteriifcation of different free long-chain fatty acids (including non-edible oils with high acid value) with different short carbon chain alcohols. Therefore, the ZrOCl2·8H2O catalyst has good potential for the synthesis of biodiesel from low-cost feedstocks such as waste vegetable oils and non-edible oils.

  8. Oxidative stability and ignition quality of algae derived methyl esters containing varying levels of methyl eicosapentaenoate and methyl docosahexaenoate

    Bucy, Harrison

    Microalgae is currently receiving strong consideration as a potential biofuel feedstock to help meet the advanced biofuels mandate of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act because of its theoretically high yield (gallons/acre/year) in comparison to current terrestrial feedstocks. Additionally, microalgae also do not compete with food and can be cultivated with wastewater on non-arable land. Microalgae lipids can be converted into a variety of biofuels including fatty acid methyl esters (e.g. FAME biodiesel), renewable diesel, renewable gasoline, or jet fuel. For microalgae derived FAME, the fuel properties will be directly related to the fatty acid composition of the lipids produced by the given microalgae strain. Several microalgae species under consideration for wide scale cultivation, such as Nannochloropsis, produce lipids with fatty acid compositions containing substantially higher quantities of long chainpolyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in comparison to terrestrial feedstocks. It is expected that increased levels of LC-PUFA will be problematic in terms of meeting all of the current ASTM specifications for biodiesel. For example, it is known that oxidative stability and cetane number decrease with increasing levels of LC-PUFA. However, these same LC-PUFA fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA: C20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA: C22:6) are known to have high nutritional value thereby making separation of these compounds economically attractive. Given the uncertainty in the future value of these LC-PUFA compounds and the economic viability of the separation process, the goal of this study was to examine the oxidative stability and ignition quality of algae-based FAME with varying levels of EPA and DHA removal. Oxidative stability tests were conducted at a temperature of 110°C and airflow of 10 L/h using a Metrohm 743 Rancimat with automatic induction period determination following the EN 14112 Method from the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214

  9. 3-溴-4-羟基-5-甲氧基苯甲酸甲酯的合成%Synthesis of 3-bromo-4-hydroxy-5-methoxy-benzoic Acid Methyl Ester

    闫慧丽; 张立新; 张慧芳; 马甲民

    2011-01-01

    以香兰素为主要原料,经溴水溴代得溴代香兰素,再经氧化银氧化制取溴代香兰酸,最后与甲醇发生酯化反应,成功制得3-溴-4-羟基-5-甲氧基苯甲酸甲酯,总收率66.4%.各步反应的生成物提纯后经过1H-NMR、IR进行表征.%3-bromo4-hydroxy-5-methoxy-benzoic acid methyl ester in total yield of 66.4% is synthesized from vanillin via bromation by bromide, oxidation over silver oxide and esterification with methanol.The products from different steps are identified by 1H-NMR and IR.

  10. Constrained photophysics of partially and fully encapsulated charge transfer probe (E)-3-(4-Methylaminophenyl) acrylic acid methyl ester inside cyclodextrin nano-cavities: Evidence of cyclodextrins cavity dependent complex stoichiometry

    Ghosh, Shalini; Jana, Sankar; Guchhait, Nikhil

    2011-12-01

    The polarity sensitive intra-molecular charge transfer (ICT) emission from (E)-3-(4-Methylaminophenyl) acrylic acid methyl ester (MAPAME) is found to show distinct changes once introduced into the nano-cavities of cyclodextrins in aqueous environment. Movement of the molecule from the more polar aqueous environment to the less polar, hydrophobic cyclodextrin interior is marked by the blue shift of the CT emission band with simultaneous fluorescence intensity enhancement. The emission spectral changes on complexation with the α- and β-CD show different stoichiometries as observed from the Benesi-Hildebrand plots. Fluorescence anisotropy and lifetime measurements were performed to probe the different behaviors of MAPAME in aqueous α- and β-CD solutions.

  11. Graphene composite for improvement in the conversion efficiency of flexible poly 3-hexyl-thiophene:[6,6]-phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester polymer solar cells

    Chauhan, A. K., E-mail: akchau@barc.gov.in, E-mail: akc.barc@gmail.com; Gusain, Abhay; Jha, P.; Koiry, S. P.; Saxena, Vibha; Veerender, P.; Aswal, D. K.; Gupta, S. K. [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2014-03-31

    The solution of thin graphene-sheets obtained from a simple ultrasonic exfoliation process was found to chemically interact with [6,6]-phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) molecules. The thinner graphene-sheets have significantly altered the positions of highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of PCBM, which is beneficial for the enhancement of the open circuit voltage of the solar cells. Flexible bulk heterojunction solar cells fabricated using poly 3-hexylthiophene (P3HT):PCBM-graphene exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 2.51%, which is a ∼2-fold increase as compared to those fabricated using P3HT:PCBM. Inclusion of graphene-sheets not only improved the open-circuit voltage but also enhanced the short-circuit current density owing to an improved electron transport.

  12. Novel strategy of using methyl esters as slow release methanol source during lipase expression by mut+ Pichia pastoris X33.

    Arti Kumari

    Full Text Available One of the major issues with heterologous production of proteins in Pichia pastoris X33 under AOX1 promoter is repeated methanol induction. To obviate repeated methanol induction, methyl esters were used as a slow release source of methanol in lipase expressing mut+ recombinant. Experimental design was based on the strategy that in presence of lipase, methyl esters can be hydrolysed to release their products as methanol and fatty acid. Hence, upon break down of methyl esters by lipase, first methanol will be used as a carbon source and inducer. Then P. pastoris can switch over to fatty acid as a carbon source for multiplication and biomass maintenance till further induction by methyl esters. We validated this strategy using recombinant P. pastoris expressing Lip A, Lip C from Trichosporon asahii and Lip11 from Yarrowia lipolytica. We found that the optimum lipase yield under repeated methanol induction after 120 h was 32866 U/L, 28271 U/L and 21978 U/L for Lip C, Lip A and Lip 11 respectively. In addition, we found that a single dose of methyl ester supported higher production than repeated methanol induction. Among various methyl esters tested, methyl oleate (0.5% caused 1.2 fold higher yield for LipA and LipC and 1.4 fold for Lip11 after 120 h of induction. Sequential utilization of methanol and oleic acid by P. pastoris was observed and was supported by differential peroxisome proliferation studies by transmission electron microscopy. Our study identifies a novel strategy of using methyl esters as slow release methanol source during lipase expression.

  13. Novel strategy of using methyl esters as slow release methanol source during lipase expression by mut+ Pichia pastoris X33.

    Kumari, Arti; Gupta, Rani

    2014-01-01

    One of the major issues with heterologous production of proteins in Pichia pastoris X33 under AOX1 promoter is repeated methanol induction. To obviate repeated methanol induction, methyl esters were used as a slow release source of methanol in lipase expressing mut+ recombinant. Experimental design was based on the strategy that in presence of lipase, methyl esters can be hydrolysed to release their products as methanol and fatty acid. Hence, upon break down of methyl esters by lipase, first methanol will be used as a carbon source and inducer. Then P. pastoris can switch over to fatty acid as a carbon source for multiplication and biomass maintenance till further induction by methyl esters. We validated this strategy using recombinant P. pastoris expressing Lip A, Lip C from Trichosporon asahii and Lip11 from Yarrowia lipolytica. We found that the optimum lipase yield under repeated methanol induction after 120 h was 32866 U/L, 28271 U/L and 21978 U/L for Lip C, Lip A and Lip 11 respectively. In addition, we found that a single dose of methyl ester supported higher production than repeated methanol induction. Among various methyl esters tested, methyl oleate (0.5%) caused 1.2 fold higher yield for LipA and LipC and 1.4 fold for Lip11 after 120 h of induction. Sequential utilization of methanol and oleic acid by P. pastoris was observed and was supported by differential peroxisome proliferation studies by transmission electron microscopy. Our study identifies a novel strategy of using methyl esters as slow release methanol source during lipase expression. PMID:25170843

  14. Acrylic Acid and Esters Will Be Oversupply

    Zheng Chengwang

    2007-01-01

    @@ Drastic capacity growth The production capacity of acrylic acid in China has grown drastically in recent years. With the completion of the 80 thousand t/a acrylic acid and 130 thous and t/a acrylic ester project in Shenyang Paraffin Chemical Industrial Co., Ltd., (CCR2006,No. 31) the capacity of acrylic acid in China has reached 882 thousand t/a.

  15. Production and Characterization of Jatropha Oil Methyl Ester

    P. Venkateswara Rao, G. Srinivasa Rao

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is emerging as a promising substitute of an alternative fuel and has gained significant attention due to the predicted depletion of conventional fuels availability in near future and environmental pollution concern. Utilization of biodiesel produced from Jatropha oil by transesterification process is one of the most promising options to replace conventional fossil diesel fuel. The physical properties such as density, Kinematic viscosity, flash point, carbon residue, Pour point and Cetane number were found out for diesel, Jatropha oil and Jatropha Oil Methyl Ester (JOME produced in the laboratory. Properties obtained for the Jatropha oil methyl ester are very closely matched with the values of conventional diesel fuel and can be used without any modification in the existing diesel engine.

  16. Identification of rapeseed oil fatty acid esters in transesterification reactions by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry method

    Rapeseed oil transesterification with different alcohols - methyl, ethyl, n-propyl and isopropyl alcohol - has been carried out. Yields of fatty acid alkyl esters obtained from rapeseed oil were determined using the internal standard method. Results of interpretation of the obtained ester mass spectra are reported. The specimen of Latvian rape oil contains: 57.6% of oleic acid, 18.2% of linoleic acid, 8.2% linolenic acid, 3.3% palmitic acid, 2% of stearic acid and less than 1% of arachidic acid. Values of Kovats retention indices of the rapeseed oil fatty acid esters on the capillary columns DB-5 MS and DB-17 MS have been compared. More selective separation of fatty acid alkyl esters has been achieved on the stationary phase with higher content of phenyl groups (DB-17 MS). (authors)

  17. 21 CFR 573.660 - Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. 573.660 Section 573.660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.660 Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester. Methyl glucoside-coconut...

  18. NF EN 14107. July 2003. Fatty compounds derived products. Fatty acids methylic esters (FAME). Determination of the phosphorus content by high frequency induced plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP method); NF EN 14107. Juillet 2003. Produits derives des corps gras. Esters methyliques d'acides gras (EMAG). Determination de la teneur en phosphore par spectrometrie d'emission de plasma induit par haute frequence (methode ICP)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This European standard specifies a method of phosphorus content dosimetry in fatty acids methylic esters (FAME) using high frequency induced plasma emission spectroscopy and for concentrations comprised between 4 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg. The objective of this method is to evaluate the quality of the FAMEs in terms of trans-esterification of their by-products content, such as phosphorus, which can change the fuel combustion properties. This method involves dangerous compounds, operations and equipments which are not considered in the text of the standard. (J.S.)

  19. NF EN 14105. July 2003. Fatty compounds derived products. Fatty acids methylic esters (FAME). Determination of the free- and total-glycerol content and of the mono-, di-, and triglycerides content. Reference method; NF EN 14105. Juillet 2003. Produits derives des corps gras. Esters methyliques d'acides gras (EMAG). Determination de la teneur en glycerols libre et total et en mono-, di- et triglycerides. Methode de reference

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This European standard specifies a method of determination of the free glycerol and of the residual mono-, di-, and triglycerides content in fatty acids methylic esters (FAME) which will be incorporated in mineral oils. The total glycerol content is then determined from the obtained results. This method is adapted to colza, sunflower and soja oil FAMEs but not to copra or palm oil-based FAMEs because of the risk of peak superimposition. This method involves dangerous compounds, operations and equipments which are not considered in the text of the standard. (J.S.)

  20. Synthesis and hydrolysis resisting capacity of ethoxylated ricinoleic acid methyl esters%蓖麻油酸甲酯乙氧基化物的合成与耐酸耐碱性研究

    张谦; 孙永强; 王万绪; 智丽飞; Martino Di Serio; 刘伟

    2015-01-01

    Ethoxylated ricinoleic acid methyl esters (ECAME - 10)obtained directly from castor oil acid methyl esters by the use of a special homogeneous catalyst. The average ethylene oxide (EO)adduct number of ECAME - 10 was determined by saponification value,gas chromatography (GC)and 1 HNMR. The hydrolysis resisting capacity of ECAME - 10 was investigated under different pH value conditions. The appearance changes of ECAME - 10 solution under different storing time periods was tracked and photographed and surface tension of different stages of the solution at different stages was measured. Results showed that the hydrolysis resisting capacity of ECAME - 10 is rather strong. The hydrolysis rate of ECAME - 10 is below 40% in pH value range of 4 - 9 after eight weeks. Surface tension of solutions can be kept stable after the hydrolysis reaction.%在一定的温度和压力条件下,以及特制的均相催化剂作用下,直接由蓖麻油酸甲酯得到了产物蓖麻油酸甲酯乙氧基化物(ECAME -10)。通过皂化值、气相色谱(GC)和1 HNMR 测定了ECAME -10的平均环氧乙烷(EO)加合数,在不同pH条件下测定了ECAME -10的耐酸耐碱性,并跟踪拍摄了不同pH溶液不同阶段的外观照片,同时测定了不同阶段溶液的表面张力。结果显示:ECAME -10有较强的抗水解能力,当pH =4~9时,ECAME -10的水解较慢,8周后其水解率在40%以下;水解后的表面张力数据表明,水解后溶液的表面张力可保持稳定。

  1. 磺酸功能化离子液体催化不饱和脂肪酸甲酯的环氧化研究%Epoxidation of Unsaturated Fatty Acid Methyl Esters in the Presence of SO3H-functional Br(o)nsted Acidic Ionic Liquid as Catalyst

    蔡双飞; 王利生

    2011-01-01

    The epoxidation of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) by peroxyacetic acid generated in situ from hydrogen peroxide and acetic acid was studied in the presence of SO3H-functional Br(o)nsted acidic ionic liquid (IL) [C3SO3HMIM][HSO4] as catalyst. The effects of hydrogen peroxide/ethylenic unsaturation ratio, acetic acid concentration, IL concentration, recycling of the IL catalyst, and temperature on the conversion to oxirane were studied. The kinetics and thermodynamics of unsaturated FAMEs epoxidation and the kinetics of oxirane cleavage of the epoxidized FAMEs by acetic acid were also studied. The conversion of ethylenic unsaturation group to oxirane, the reaction rate of the conversion to oxirane, and the rate of hydrolysis (oxirane cleavage) were higher by using the IL catalyst.

  2. Synergetic Enhancement of Device Efficiency in Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl/[6,6]-phenyl C61 Butyric Acid Methyl Ester Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells by Glycerol Addition in the Active Layer

    Bobins Augustine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl(P3HT:[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC60BM is the widely used active layer for the bulk heterojunction solar cells. Annealing is essential for P3HT:PC60BM active layer, since it facilitates the creation of better network for the transfer of the charge carriers. However, the PC60BM in the active layer can crystallize excessively during annealing treatments and disrupt the favorable morphology by forming crystallites in micrometer ranges, thus reducing device efficiency. In this paper we used glycerol as an additive in the active layer. Due to high boiling point of glycerol, it makes slow drying of the active layer possible during the annealing. It thus gives enough time to both electron donor (P3HT and electron acceptor (PC60BM components of the active layer to self-organize and also restrict the crystal overgrowth of PC60BM. Further, the glycerol additive makes the active layer smoother, which may also improve adhesion between the electrode and the active layer. The devices with the pristine active layer showed a power conversion efficiency (PCE of about 2.1% and, with the addition of 30 vol% of glycerol in the active layer, the PCE value increased to 3%.

  3. Dimethyl carbonate-mediated lipid extraction and lipase-catalyzed in situ transesterification for simultaneous preparation of fatty acid methyl esters and glycerol carbonate from Chlorella sp. KR-1 biomass.

    Jo, Yoon Ju; Lee, Ok Kyung; Lee, Eun Yeol

    2014-04-01

    Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and glycerol carbonate were simultaneously prepared from Chlorella sp. KR-1 containing 40.9% (w/w) lipid using a reactive extraction method with dimethyl carbonate (DMC). DMC was used as lipid extraction agent, acyl acceptor for transesterification of the extracted triglycerides, substrate for glycerol carbonate synthesis from glycerol, and reaction medium for the solvent-free reaction system. For 1g of biomass, 367.31 mg of FAMEs and 16.73 mg of glycerol carbonate were obtained under the optimized conditions: DMC to biomass ratio of 10:1 (v/w), water content of 0.5% (v/v), and Novozyme 435 to biomass ratio of 20% (w/w) at 70°C for 24h. The amount of residual glycerol was only in the range of 1-2.5mg. Compared to conventional method, the cost of FAME production with the proposed technique could be reduced by combining lipid extraction with transesterification and omitting the extraction solvent recovery process. PMID:24583221

  4. Rosmarinic Acid Methyl Ester Inhibits LPS-Induced NO Production via Suppression of MyD88- Dependent and -Independent Pathways and Induction of HO-1 in RAW 264.7 Cells.

    So, Yangkang; Lee, Seung Young; Han, Ah-Reum; Kim, Jin-Baek; Jeong, Hye Gwang; Jin, Chang Hyun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of rosmarinic acid methyl ester (RAME) isolated from a mutant cultivar of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton. We found that RAME inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production, with an IC50 of 14.25 µM, in RAW 264.7 cells. RAME inhibited the LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interferon-β, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Moreover, RAME suppressed the activation of nuclear factor kappa B. These results suggest that the downregulation of iNOS expression by RAME was due to myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88)-dependent and -independent pathways. Furthermore, RAME induced the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) through activation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2. Treatment with tin protoporphyrin, an inhibitor of HO-1, reversed the RAME-induced suppression of NO production. Taken together, RAME isolated from P. frutescens inhibited NO production in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 cells through simultaneous induction of HO-1 and inhibition of MyD88-dependent and -independent pathways. PMID:27548124

  5. Density functional study of electronic, charge density, and chemical bonding properties of 9-methyl-3-Thiophen-2-YI-Thieno [3,2-e] [1, 2, 4] Thriazolo [4,3-c] pyrimidine-8-Carboxylic acid ethyl ester crystals

    Reshak, A. H.; Kamarudin, H.; Alahmed, Z. A.; Auluck, S.; Chyský, Jan

    2014-06-01

    A comprehensive theoretical density functional investigation of the electronic crystal structure, chemical bonding, and the electron charge densities of 9-Methyl-3-Thiophen-2-YI-Thieno [3, 2-e] [1, 2, 4] Thriazolo [4,3-c] Pyrimidine-8-Carboxylic Acid Ethyl Ester (C15H12N4O2S2) is performed. The density of states at Fermi level equal to 5.50 (3.45) states/Ry cell, and the calculated bare electronic specific heat coefficient is found to be 0.95 (0.59) mJ/mole-K2 for the local density approximation (Engel-Vosko generalized gradient approximation). The electronic charge density space distribution contours in (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) planes were calculated. We find that there are two independent molecules (A and B) in the asymmetric unit exhibit intramolecular C-H…O, C-H…N interactions. This intramolecular interaction is different in molecules A and B, where A molecule show C-H…O interaction while B molecule exhibit C-H…N interaction. We should emphasis that there is π-π interaction between the pyrimidine rings of the two neighbors B molecules gives extra strengths and stabilizations to the superamolecular structure. The calculated distance between the two neighbors pyrimidine rings found to be 3.345 Å, in good agreement with the measured one (3.424(1) Å).

  6. Evidence for excited state intramolecular charge transfer reaction in donor-acceptor molecule 5-(4-dimethylamino-phenyl)-penta-2,4-dienoic acid methyl ester: Experimental and quantum chemical approach

    Intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) reaction has been investigated in 5-(4-dimethylamino-phenyl)-penta-2,4-dienoic acid methyl ester (DPDAME) using spectroscopic techniques. The molecule DPDAME shows local emission in non-polar solvent and dual emission in polar solvents. Solvatochromic effects on the Stokes shifted emission band clearly demonstrate the charge transfer character of the excited state. Quantum chemical calculations have been performed at Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theoretical (DFT) levels to correlate the experimental findings. Potential energy curves (PECs) for the ICT reaction have been evaluated along the donor twist angle at DFT and time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) levels for the ground and excited states, respectively, using B3LYP hybrid functional and 6-31G** basis set. The solvent effects on the spectral properties have been explored theoretically at the same level with time dependent density functional theory-polarized continuum model (TDDFT-PCM) and the theoretical results are found to well substantiate the solvent polarity dependent Stokes shifted emission of DPDAME. Huge enhancement of dipole moment (Δμ=16.42 D) of the molecule following photoexcitation dictates the highly polar character of the excited state. Although elucidation of PECs does not exactly predict the operation of ICT according to twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) model in DPDAME, lowering of vertical transition energy as a function of the donor twist coordinate scripts the occurrence of red shifted emission as observed experimentally.

  7. L-leucine methyl ester stimulates insulin secretion and islet glutamate dehydrogenase

    Knudsen, P; Kofod, Hans; Lernmark, A;

    1983-01-01

    Column perifusion of collagenase-isolated mouse pancreatic islets was used to study the dynamics of insulin release in experiments lasting for several hours. The methyl esters of L-leucine and L-arginine were synthesized. Whereas L-arginine methyl ester (L-arginine OMe) had no effect, L-leucine O...

  8. Enzymatic synthesis and application of fatty acid ascorbyl esters

    Stojanović Marija M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid ascorbyl esters are liposoluble substances that possess good antioxidative properties. These compounds could be synthesized by using various acyl donors for acylation of vitamin C in reaction catalyzed by chemical means or lipases. Enzymatic process is preferred since it is regioselective, performed under mild reaction conditions, with the obtained product being environmentally friendly. Polar organic solvents, ionic liquids, and supercritical fluids has been successfully used as a reaction medium, since commonly used solvents with high Log P values are inapplicable due to ascorbic acid high polarity. Acylation of vitamin C using fatty acids, their methyl-, ethyl-, and vinyl esters, as well as triglycerides has been performed, whereas application of the activated acyl donors enabled higher molar conversions. In each case, majority of authors reported that using excessive amount of the acyl donor had positive effect on yield of product. Furthermore, several strategies have been employed for shifting the equilibrium towards the product by water content control. These include adjusting the initial water activity by pre-equilibration of reaction mixture, enzyme preparation with water vapor of saturated salt solutions, and the removal of formed water by the addition of molecular sieves or salt hydrate pairs. The aim of this article is to provide a brief overview of the procedures described so far for the lipase-catalyzed synthesis of fatty acid ascorbyl esters with emphasis on the potential application in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutics. Furthermore, it has been pointed out that the main obstacles for process commercialization are long reaction times, lack of adequate purification methods, and high costs of lipases. Thus, future challenges in this area are testing new catalysts, developing continuous processes for esters production, finding cheaper acyl donors and reaction mediums, as well as identifying standard procedures for

  9. 脂肪酸甲酯磺酸盐中二钠盐来源分析及改进%Source analysis of dio-sodium salt in fatty acid methyl ester sulfonate and amelioration

    蒋惠亮; 王相明

    2012-01-01

    实验考察了脂肪酸甲酯磺酸盐(MES)合成的各工序中α-磺基脂肪酸二钠(二钠盐)的变化量。其中再酯化阶段二钠盐减少最多,中和阶段二钠盐产生最多,这是由于再酯化阶段引入了部分甲醇以及中和阶段的强碱性环境和较高温度引起的。同时提出了各阶段的改进方法。经过优化实验,得到二钠盐含量最低时,各阶段最佳条件为:漂白温度75℃,再酯化时间6 h,甲醇与脂肪酸甲酯磺酸摩尔比30∶1,中和方式为以碳酸钠粉末干法中和。%The content ofdi-sodium salt ( DSS ) in every step of MES's synthesis was measured, the maximal decrease of DSS is in reesterification stage, the maximal increase of DSS is in neutralization stage. It could be resulted from the methanol introduction in reesterification stage, strong alkaline environment and higher temperature in neutralization stage. Meanwhile, improvement is also proposed for every stage in ameliorated method. By optimizing the experiment, the optimal condition for every stage was obtained as, bleaching temperature 75 ℃, reesterification time 6h, the mole ratio of methanol to fatty acid methyl ester sulfonic acid 30 : 1, neutralization pattern, dry neutralization by sodium carbonate powder when the content of di-sodium salt is the lowest.

  10. Affinity labelling enzymes with esters of aromatic sulfonic acids

    Wong, Show-Chu; Shaw, Elliott

    1977-01-01

    Novel esters of aromatic sulfonic acids are disclosed. The specific esters are nitrophenyl p- and m-amidinophenylmethanesulfonate. Also disclosed is a method for specific inactivation of the enzyme, thrombin, employing nitrophenyl p-amidinophenylmethanesulfonate.

  11. A comparative estimation of C.I. engine fuelled with methyl esters of punnai, neem and waste cooking oil

    D. Subramaniam, A. Murugesan, A. Avinashy

    2013-01-01

    In this experimental study, performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of methyl esters of Punnai, Neem, Waste Cooking Oil and their diesel blends in a C.I. engine was experimentally examined. For the study, Punnai oil methyl esters (POME), neem oil methyl esters (NOME), and Waste Cooking Oil Methyl Esters (WCOME) were prepared by tranesterification process. The Bio diesel-diesel blends were prepared by mixing 10%, 30%, 50%, and 70% of bio diesel with diesel. The effects of three m...

  12. Use of calcium oxide in palm oil methyl ester production

    Kulchanat Prasertsit

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducing an untreated calcium oxide (CaO as a solid heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from palm oil by transesterification was studied in this work. The four studied parameters were methanol to oil molar ratio, CaO catalyst concentration, reaction time, and water content. The results for palm oil show that when the water content is higher than 3%wt and the amount of CaO greater than 7%wt soap formation from saponification occurs. A higher methanol to oil molar ratio requires a higher amount of CaO catalyst to provide the higher product purity. The appropriate methanol to CaO catalyst ratio is about 1.56. Commercial grade CaO gives almost the same results as AR grade CaO. In addition, reusing commercial grade CaO for about 5 to 10 repetitions without catalyst regeneration drops the percentage of methyl ester purity approximately 5 to 10%, respectively.

  13. Mahua oil (Madhuca Indica seed oil) methyl ester as biodiesel-preparation and emission characteristics

    There is an increasing interest in many countries to search for suitable alternative fuels that are environment friendly. Although straight vegetable oils can be used in diesel engines, their high viscosities, low volatilities and poor cold flow properties have led to the investigation of various derivatives. Biodiesel is a fatty acid alkyl ester, which can be derived from any vegetable oil by transesterification. Biodiesel is a renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel. In this study, Mahua oil (Madhuca indica seed oil) was trans esterified with methanol using sodium hydroxide as catalyst to obtain mahua oil methyl ester. This biodiesel was tested in a single cylinder, four stroke, direct injection, constant speed, compression ignition diesel engine (Kirloskar) to evaluate the performance and emissions. (Author)

  14. Mahua oil (Madhuca Indica seed oil) methyl ester as biodiesel-preparation and emission characteristics

    Puhan, Sukumar; Vedaraman, N.; Ram, Boppana V.B. [Central Leather Research Inst., Chemical Engineering Div., Chennai (India); Sankarnarayanan, G.; Jeychandran, K. [Anna Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Chennai (India)

    2005-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in many countries to search for suitable alternative fuels that are environment friendly. Although straight vegetable oils can be used in diesel engines, their high viscosities, low volatilities and poor cold flow properties have led to the investigation of various derivatives. Biodiesel is a fatty acid alkyl ester, which can be derived from any vegetable oil by transesterification. Biodiesel is a renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel. In this study, Mahua oil (Madhuca indica seed oil) was trans esterified with methanol using sodium hydroxide as catalyst to obtain mahua oil methyl ester. This biodiesel was tested in a single cylinder, four stroke, direct injection, constant speed, compression ignition diesel engine (Kirloskar) to evaluate the performance and emissions. (Author)

  15. Identification of the double-bond position in fatty acid methyl esters by liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry

    Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Cvačka, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 1259, 12 Oct (2012), s. 244-250. ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0139 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : APCI * double-bond localisation * fatty acids Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.612, year: 2012

  16. Discrimination of Pulp Oil and Kernel Oil from Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense) by Fatty Acid Methyl Esters Fingerprinting, Using GC-FID and Multivariate Analysis

    Faria-Machado, A.F.; Tres, Alba; Ruth, Van S.M.; Antoniassi, Rosemar; Junqueira, N.T.V.; Lopes, P.S.N.; Bizzo, H.R.

    2015-01-01

    Pequi is an oleaginous fruit whose edible oil is composed mainly by saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. The biological and nutritional properties of pequi oil are dependent on its composition, which can change according to the oil source (pulp or kernel). There is little data in the scient

  17. Epoxidation of methyl esters derived from Jatropha oil: An optimization study

    Mushtaq, M.; Tan, I. M.; Nadeem, M.; Devi, C.; Lee, S. Y. C.; Sagir, M.; Radhid, U.

    2013-05-01

    The optimization of the epoxidation reaction of methyl esters obtained from Jatropha oil was appraised. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed for the experimental design. Four reaction variables namely hydrogen peroxide/ C=C mole ratio, formic acid/C=C mole ratio, reaction temperature and reaction time were evaluated. The optimum epoxidation conditions calculated by the quadratic model were 3.12 moles of hydrogen peroxide/C=C moles, 0.96 moles of formic acid/C=C moles, a reaction temperature of 70.0 degree centigrade and a reaction time of 277 minutes. A reaction optimized by the proposed process parameters provided a yield of 92.89 {+-} 1.29 wt.% with relatively improved reaction time. Hydrogen peroxide concentration and reaction temperature were found to be the most significant variables while reaction temperature and hydrogen peroxide showed strong interactions. The epoxidized methyl esters were analyzed using FT-IR, 1H NMR and {sup 1}3C NMR techniques. This study suggested relatively higher molar ratio of formic acid required than was proposed in the literature. (Author) 33 refs.

  18. Morphological and spectroscopic characterizations of inkjet-printed poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl): Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester blends for organic solar cell applications

    The most exploited active material for photovoltaic devices is the regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), p-type conjugated polymer, blended with [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), n-type material. The deposition methods and the induced morphology strongly influence the functionality of the active material and in turn the final charge generation performances of a photoactive layer. In the present work, we studied the influence of PCBM concentration on the morphological and spectroscopic properties of the inkjet printed P3HT:PCBM blends through atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy and transient absorption spectroscopy. The aim is to value the charge formation yield in the blends, prepared by inkjet technology, as function of the acceptor concentrations in correlation with morphology and intermixing of the two components. For the inkjet printed samples the blends composition that corresponds to the best intermixing between P3HT and PCBM and the higher charges formation yield should be between 20% and 45% in weight (wt)., differently for what has been found previously for spin-coated samples. Indeed, for inkjet prepared film, the 45 wt.% blend ratio leads to much bigger domains with respect to the spin-coated samples as shown from the AFM measurements. - Highlights: • Inkjet-printed P3HT:PCBM blends for organic solar cell applications • Coarser morphology of inkjet P3HT:PCBM films with respect to the spin-coated film • Inkjet P3HT:PCBM films showed charge formation maximum for PCBM wt.% lower than 45

  19. Purification and Characterization of a New Antifungal Compound 10-(2,2-dimethyl-cyclohexyl)-6,9-dihydroxy-4,9-dimethyl-dec-2-enoic Acid Methyl Ester from Streptomyces hydrogenans Strain DH16.

    Kaur, Talwinder; Kaur, Amarjeet; Sharma, Vishal; Manhas, Rajesh K

    2016-01-01

    In agriculture, biocontrol agents have been emerged as safe alternative to chemical pesticides where Streptomyces spp. and their metabolites constitute a great potential for their exploration as potent agents for controlling various fungal phytopathogens. The present study reports an antifungal compound purified from Streptomyces hydrogenans strain DH16, a soil isolate, using silica gel chromatography and semi preparative HPLC. The compound was characterized using various spectroscopic techniques (IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR) and named 10-(2,2-dimethyl-cyclohexyl)-6,9-dihydroxy-4,9-dimethyl-dec-2-enoic acid methyl ester (SH2). Compound (SH2) showed significant inhibitory activity against fungal phytopathogens and resulted in severe morphological aberrations in their structure. Minimal inhibitory and minimal fungicidal concentrations of the compound ranged from 6.25 to 25 μg/ml and 25 to 50 μg/ml, respectively. In vivo evaluation of the compound showed strong control efficacy against Alternaria brassicicola, a seed borne pathogen, on radish seeds. In comparison to mancozeb and carbendazim, the compound was more effective in controlling damping off disease. Additionally, it promoted plant growth with increased rate of seed germination, and displayed no phytotoxicity. The compound retained its antifungal activity after its exposure to temperature of 100°C and sunlight for 1 h. Furthermore, the compound (SH2) when tested for its biosafety was found to be non-cytotoxic, and non-mutagenic against Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains. This compound from S. hydrogenans strain DH16 has not been reported earlier, so this new compound can be developed as an ideal safe and superior biofungicide for the control of various fungal plant diseases. PMID:27446043

  20. Synthesis of stearic acid triethanolamine ester over solid acid catalysts

    Tao Geng; Qiu Xiao Li; Ya Jie Jiang; Wei Wang

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis of stearic acid triethanolamine ester over solid acid catalysts was investigated.The results showed that the catalytic activity and selectivity of zirconium sulfate supported on SBA-15(6)(pore diameter 6 nm)is better than that of commonly used hypophosphorous acid,zirconium sulfate supported on MCM-41 and zirconium sulfate supported on SBA-15(9)(pore diameter 9 nm).

  1. Thermal Decomposition of Methyl Esters in Biodiesel Fuel: Kinetics, Mechanisms and Products

    Chai, Ming

    Biodiesel continues to enjoy increasing popularity. However, recent studies on carbonyl compounds emissions from biodiesel fuel are inconclusive. Emissions of carbonyl compounds from petroleum diesel fuels were compared to emissions from pure biodiesel fuels and petroleum-biodiesel blends used in a non-road diesel generator. The concentration of total carbonyl compounds was the highest when the engine was idling. The carbonyl emissions, as well as ozone formation potential, from biodiesel fuel blends were higher than those emitted from petroleum diesel fuel. The sulfur content of diesel fuel and the source of biodiesel fuel were not found to have a significant impact on emissions of carbonyl compounds. Mechanism parameters of the thermal decomposition of biodiesel-range methyl esters were obtained from the results of thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The overall reaction orders are between 0.49 and 0.71 and the energies of activation are between 59.9 and 101.3 kJ/mole. Methyl esters in air have lower activation energies than those in nitrogen. Methyl linoleate has the lowest activation energy, followed by methyl oleate, and methyl stearate. The pyrolysis and oxidation of the three methyl esters were investigated using a semi-isothermal tubular flow reactor. The profiles of major products versus reaction temperature are presented. In the pyrolysis of methyl stearate, the primary reaction pathway is the decarboxylic reaction at the methyl ester functional group. Methyl oleate's products indicate more reactions on its carbon-carbon double bond. Methyl linoleate shows highest reactivity among the three methyl esters, and 87 products were detected. The oxidation of three methyl esters resulted in more products in all compound classes, and 55, 114, and 127 products were detected, respectively. The oxidation of methyl esters includes decarboxylation on ester group. The methyl ester's carbon chain could be oxidized as a hydrocarbon compound and form oxidized esters and

  2. Hydroxycinnamic acids are ester-linked directly to glucosyl moieties within the lignan macromolecule from flaxseed hulls

    Struijs, K.; Vincken, J.P.; Verhoef, R.P.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Gruppen, H.

    2008-01-01

    In flaxseed hulls, lignans are present in an oligomeric structure. Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), ester-linked to hydroxy-methyl-glutaric acid (HMGA), forms the backbone of this lignan macromolecule. The hydroxycinnamic acids p-coumaric acid glucoside (CouAG) and ferulic acid glucoside (FeA

  3. Performance and emission characteristics of a DI compression ignition engine operated on Honge, Jatropha and sesame oil methyl esters

    Banapurmath, N.R.; Tewari, P.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.V.B. College of Engineering and Technology, Vidyanagar, Poona-Bangalore Road, Hubli 580031 (India); Hosmath, R.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, K.L.E' s C.E.T., Belgaum (India)

    2008-09-15

    The high viscosity of vegetable oils leads to problem in pumping and spray characteristics. The inefficient mixing of vegetable oils with air contributes to incomplete combustion. The best way to use vegetable oils as fuel in compression ignition (CI) engines is to convert it into biodiesel. Biodiesel is a methyl or ethyl ester of fatty acids made from vegetable oils (both edible and non-edible) and animal fat. The main resources for biodiesel production can be non-edible oils obtained from plant species such as Pongamia pinnata (Honge oil), Jatropha curcas (Ratanjyot), Hevea brasiliensis (Rubber) and Calophyllum inophyllum (Nagchampa). Biodiesel can be used in its pure form or can be blended with diesel to form different blends. It can be used in CI engines with very little or no engine modifications. This is because it has properties similar to mineral diesel. This paper presents the results of investigations carried out on a single-cylinder, four-stroke, direct-injection, CI engine operated with methyl esters of Honge oil, Jatropha oil and sesame oil. Comparative measures of brake thermal efficiency, smoke opacity, HC, CO, NO{sub X}, ignition delay, combustion duration and heat release rates have been presented and discussed. Engine performance in terms of higher brake thermal efficiency and lower emissions (HC, CO, NO{sub X}) with sesame oil methyl ester operation was observed compared to methyl esters of Honge and Jatropha oil operation. (author)

  4. Methods of refining and producing isomerized fatty acid esters and fatty acids from natural oil feedstocks

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.; Beltran, Leslie V.; Kunz, Linda A.; Pals, Tessa M.; Quinn, Jordan R; Behrends, Jr., Raymond T.; Bernhardt, Randal J.

    2016-07-05

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing isomerized esters and acids. The methods comprise providing a C4-C18 unsaturated fatty ester or acid, and isomerizing the fatty acid ester or acid in the presence of heat or an isomerization catalyst to form an isomerized fatty ester or acid. In some embodiments, the methods comprise forming a dibasic ester or dibasic acid prior to the isomerizing step. In certain embodiments, the methods further comprise hydrolyzing the dibasic ester to form a dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin is formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having unsaturated esters.

  5. Production and Optimization of Oleic Acid Ethyl Ester Synthesis Using Lipase From Rice Bran (Oryza sativa L.) and Germinated Jatropha Seeds (Jatropha curcas L.) by Response Surface Methodology

    Indro Prastowo; Chusnul Hidayat; Pramudji Hastuti

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the fatty acid ethyl ester has been synthesized in place of fatty acid methyl ester since ethanol has been more renewable. In this research, oleic acid ethyl ester (OAEE) was synthesized using germinated jatropha seeds (Jatropha curcas.L) and rice bran (Oryza sativa) as source of lipase. The objective of the research was to optimize the synthesis conditions using Response Surface Methodology. Factors, such as crude enzyme concentration, molar ratio of oleic acid to ethanol, and the...

  6. The Effect of Prickly Poppy Methyl Ester Blends on Ci Engine Performance and Emission Characteristics

    P. Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of using Prickly poppy methyl ester as a fuel blend on Diesel engine (CI engine performance and exhaust emission. Approach: Short-term engine performance tests were conducted to evaluate and compare the use of various diesel fuel supplements at blend rations of 60/40, 70/30, 80/20, 90/10, in a standard, fully instrumented, four stroke, Direct Injection (DI, Kirlosker comet Diesel engine located at the authors’ laboratory. The prickly poppy oil with high free fatty acid is not used as edible oil, it can be considered as a potential source of non edible oil for utilization as a feed stock vegetable oil for bio diesel production. The prickly poppy oil was subjected to esterification and transesterification processes and the Prickly Poppy Methyl Ester (PPME obtained was tested as supplement. Results: The test showed that PPME blends with diesel could be conveniently used as a diesel substitute in a diesel engine. The test further showed increase in break thermal efficiency, brake power and reduction of specific fuel consumption for PPME and its blends with diesel generally, but the most significant conclusion from the study is that the 80% Diesel/20% PPME blend produced maximum values of the brake power, brake thermal efficiency and minimum values of the specific fuel consumption and also yielded minimum values of NOx, CO and HC emission. Conclusion: Using Prickly Poppy Methyl Ester (PPME as a bio fuel blend with Diesel shows an improvement in performance and significant reduction in exhaust emission for the generation of cleaner environment.

  7. Experimental Analysis of Performance of Diesel Engine Using Kusum Methyl Ester With Diethyl Ether as Additive

    Sandip S. Jawre,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The fossile fuels are widely used in diesel engine and continually depleting with increasing consumption and prices day by day. The fatty acid methyl ester has become an effective alternative to diesel. Various types of vegetable oil such as Jatropha, karanja, cottonseed, neem, sunflower, palm, mahuva, coconut etc. can be used as fuel in diesel engine. Kusum oil is one of the fuel used in present work. The viscosity of kusum oil is very high, so it was reduced by Transesterification process. This study presents effect of diethyl ether as additive to biodiesel of kusum (schliechera oleosa methyl ester on the performance and emission of diesel engine at different load and constant speed and two different injection pressure (170 and 190 bar. From literature it was observed that very few studies had been conducted on use of neat biodiesel and diethyl ether blends and use of kusum methyl ester (KME in diesel engine found to be very less as compared to different biodiesel. Hence this topic was taken under study. The fuels and its blends used are 100% diesel, B100 (100% KME, BD-1 (95% KME, 5% DEE, BD-2 (90% KME, 10% DEE, BD-3 (85% KME, 15% DEE respectively. It was observed that the performance of engine increases at high injection pres-sure. The results indicate that lower BSFC was observed with BD-3 as compared to B100, BD-1 and BD-2. Brake thermal efficiency of BD-3 decreased at 170 bar injection pressure but it increase at 190 bar. Drastic re-duction in smoke is observed with all blends at higher engine loads. DEE addition to biodiesel reflects better engine performance compared to neat biodiesel.

  8. 40 CFR 721.2950 - Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. 721... Substances § 721.2950 Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as carboxylic acid glycidyl...

  9. Enzymatic methylation of 23-29-kDa bovine retinal rod outer segment membrane proteins. Evidence for methyl ester formation at carboxyl-terminal cysteinyl residues

    A group of 23-29-kDa polypeptides in the membranes of bovine rod outer segments are substrates for S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methylation reactions. The bulk of the methyl group incorporation is in base-labile ester-like linkages, and does not appear to be due to the widespread D-aspartyl/L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase. To determine the site(s) of methylation, 3H-methylated proteins separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate were eluted and digested with papain, leucine aminopeptidase-M, and prolidase. After performic acid oxidation of the digest, a base-labile radioactive material was recovered that coeluted with a synthetic standard of cysteic acid methyl ester upon cation exchange and G-15 gel filtration chromatography, as well as in two thin-layer electrophoresis and two thin-layer chromatography systems. These results provide direct evidence for the methylation of the alpha-carboxyl group of a carboxyl-terminal cysteinyl residue, a modification that has been proposed for the 21-kDa Ha-ras product and other cellular proteins

  10. Effect of internal nozzle flow and thermo-physical properties on spray characteristics of methyl esters

    Highlights: • Nozzle flow and spray characteristics of methyl esters have been studied. • A new hybrid spray model was implemented into KIVA4 CFD code. • Nozzle flow simulation shows methyl stearate has less cavitation. • Methyl linoleate atomization is comparable with diesel atomization. • Methyl stearate has poor atomization compared to other methyl esters. - Abstract: In compression ignition engines, the quality of the spray atomization significantly affects the performance and emissions of the engine. The differences in thermo-physical properties of biodiesel have significant effect on both the internal nozzle flow and spray characteristics. In this study, the internal nozzle flow and spray characteristics of three major methyl esters found in various biodiesels, namely methyl oleate, methyl stearate, and methyl linoleate were studied as a representative of different biodiesels. A new hybrid spray model developed by coupling cavitation induced spray model with KHRT model in KIVA4 CFD code was used in this study. The model was validated against diesel spray characteristics obtained from the experiments conducted in house using constant volume spray chamber and good agreement was found. The internal flow simulations shows that methyl stearate cavitates the least followed by methyl oleate and linoleate. The spray simulations shows that spray tip penetration of methyl stearate is higher than other methyl esters and diesel because of its high viscosity and large droplet diameter. Methyl linoleate was found to atomize better than other esters and comparable to diesel. However at high ambient temperature, liquid length is highly dominated by both latent heat of vaporization and viscosity

  11. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF LINSEED AND NEEM METHYL ESTERS AS BIODIESEL ON CI ENGINE

    V.DHANA RAJU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigations were carried out on C.I.engine with Bio Diesel blends of Linseed Methyl Esters and Neem Oil Methyl Esters .The engine used for the experiments was single cylinder Four Stroke water cooled, constant speed diesel engine . Linseed Methyl ester (LSOME and Neem oil methyl ester (NOME are derived through transesterification process and parameters of transesterification were optimized. The blends of various proportions of the LSOME & NOME with diesel were prepared, analyzed and compared with diesel fuel,and comparison was made to suggest the better option among the bio diesel. Various Tests have been carried out to examine properties, performance of different blends (B05, B10, B15, and B20 of LSOME and NOME in comparison to diesel. From the experimental Results it is indicated that B20 have closer performance to diesel. However, its diesel blends showed reasonable efficiencies. From the experimental results it is observed that Linseed methyl ester gives better performance compared to Neem methyl esters and also the emissions and smoke for these diesel blends are less as compare to the pure diesel.

  12. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION O F SODIUM METHYL ESTER SULFONATE FOR CHEMICALLY-ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

    K. Babu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAttention has been given to reduce the cost of surfactant by using castor oil as an alternative natural source of feedstock. A new surfactant, sodium methyl ester sulfonate (SMES was synthesised using ricinoleic acid methyl ester, which is obtained from castor oil, for enhanced oil recovery in petroleum industries. The performance of SMES was studied by measuring the surface tension with and without sodium chloride and its thermal stability at reservoir temperature. SMES exhibited good surface activity, reducing the surface tension of surfactant solution up to 38.4 mN/m and 27.6 mN/m without and with NaCl, respectively. During the thermal analysis of SMES, a 31.2% mass loss was observed from 70 ˚C to 500 ˚C. The phase behavior of the cosurfactant/SMES-oil-water system plays a key role in interpreting the performance of enhanced oil recovery by microemulsion techniques. Flooding experiments were performed using a 0.5 pore volume of synthesized SMES solutions at three different concentrations. In each case chase water was used to maintain the pressure gradient. The additional recoveries in surfactant flooding were found to be 24.53%, 26.04% and 27.31% for 0.5, 0.6 and 0.7 mass% of surfactant solutions, respectively.

  13. Fuel properties of biodiesel from vegetable oils and oil mixtures. Influence of methyl esters distribution

    In this work, the quality of biodiesel produced by basic transesterification from several vegetable oils (soybean, rapeseed, sunflower, high oleic sunflower, Cynara Cardunculus L., Brassica Carinata and Jatropha Curca) cultivated in Extremadura has been studied in detail. The influence of raw material composition on properties such as density, viscosity, cetane number, higher heating value, iodine and saponification values and cold filter plugging point has been verified. Other biodiesel properties such as acid value, water content and flash and combustion points were more dependent on characteristics of production process. Biodiesel produced by rapeseed, sunflower and high oleic sunflower oils transesterification have been biofuels with better properties according to Norm EN 14214. Finally, it has been tested that it is possible to use oils mixtures in biodiesel production in order to improve the biodiesel quality. In addition, with the same process conditions and knowing properties of biodiesel from pure oils; for biodiesel from oils mixtures, its methyl esters content, and therefore properties dependent this content can be predicted from a simple mathematical equation proposed in this work. - Highlights: • Biodiesel quality produced by basic transesterification from vegetable oils. • We examine influences of methyl esters distribution on biodiesel properties. • Biofuels from soybean, sunflower and rapeseed oils were with better properties. • Oils mixtures improve biodiesel quality to fulfill Norm EN 14214. • An equation to predict properties of biodiesel from oil mixtures is proposed

  14. Hepatotoxicity, Nephrotoxicity and Oxidative Stress in Rat Testis Following Exposure to Haloxyfop-p-methyl Ester, an Aryloxyphenoxypropionate Herbicide

    Ebenezer Tunde Olayinka; Ayokanmi Ore

    2015-01-01

    Haloxyfop-p-methyl ester (HPME) ((R)-2-{4-[3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyloxy]phenoxy}propionic acid), is a selective aryloxyphenoxypropionate (AOPP) herbicide. It exerts phytotoxicity through inhibition of lipid metabolism and induction of oxidative stress in susceptible plants. This study investigated the toxicological potentials of HPME in rats. Twenty-four male Wistar rats (170–210 g) were randomized into four groups (I–IV). Group I (control) received 1 mL of distilled water, whil...

  15. 15th International Sunflower Conference Synthesis of new derivatives from vegetable sunflower oil methyl esters via epoxydation and oxirane opening

    Pages Xavier

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, epoxides have received increased attention because they are of interest both as end-products and as chemical intermediates; epoxidized oils, mainly High Oleic Sunflower Oil, and their ester derivatives have thus found important applications as plasticizers and additives for polyvinyl chloride (PVC. Epoxidized esters have been produced classically from High Oleic Sunflower Methyl Esters (HOSME using H2O2 and formic acid. The epoxidation reaches 90% on pilot scale (5kg. Epoxidized esters produced from HOSME have respectively hydroxyl values of 0, oxirane values of 5.2/4.5 and iodine values of 1.7/1.5. Cleavage trials of the oxirane group of the epoxidized esters with different reactants have been undertaken in order to produce on pilot scale new derivatives to be characterized and tested in different fields of application (lubrication, detergency and as chemical intermediates. Reaction of Epoxy-HOSME with an excess of oleic acid was conducted under atmospheric pressure without any catalyst and solvent. The oxirane opening leads to complete estolide formation: after neutralization, analytical controls (chemical values, GC and HPLC analysis indicate that the estolides are composed of a mixture of C36 (oleate of methyl hydroxystearate and C54 (di-oleate of methyl dihydroxystearate. Oxirane opening with alcohols (ethanol and octanol was preferentially performed by acid catalysis at 100°C under atmospheric pressure. Analytical controls show the formation of different etheralcohols and secondary products resulting from dehydration, transesterification and dimerization side-reactions. Cleavage reaction of Epoxy-HOSME with a primary amine (butylamine was conducted under pressure, at high temperature (180/200°C. Both transesterification and opening of the oxirane group occur under these conditions. Reaction products are composed of amides formed by transesterification and a mixture of fatty amines/imines obtained by ring opening as established

  16. Synthesis of (2R,3aR,8aR)-6-Chloro-3a-hydroxy-1,2,3,3a,8,8a- hexahydropyrrolo[2,3-b]indole-2-carboxylic Acid Methyl Ester by Reductive Cyclization

    HONG,Wen-Xu(洪文旭); YAO,Zhu-Jun(姚祝军)

    2004-01-01

    A synthesis of(2R,3aR,8aR)-6-chloro-3a-hydroxy-1,2,3,3a,8,8a-hexahydropyrrolo[2,3-b]indole-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester(1)was achieved.An aldol reaction with Garner aldehyde,a hydroxyl introduction by Davis reagent,and a reductive intramolecular ring-closure reaction were served as the key steps.This piece of work provides a new way to synthesize the analogues of hexahydropyrrolo[2,3-b]indole,starting from readily available chemical substrates and inexpensive reagents.

  17. A wide range kinetic modeling study of pyrolysis and oxidation of methyl butanoate and methyl decanoate. Note I: Lumped kinetic model of methyl butanoate and small methyl esters

    A lumped kinetic model of methyl butanoate pyrolysis and oxidation is presented and discussed in this work. The hierarchical approach first required the development and validation of sub-mechanisms of small esters such as methyl formate, methyl acrylate and methyl crotonate. A broad-ranging validation of the whole kinetic scheme of methyl butanoate oxidation was then carried out through comparisons with experimental data obtained in shock tube devices, plug flow and jet stirred reactors, rapid compression machines and premixed laminar flames. A detailed analysis of laminar flame speeds complements and extends this kinetic study. The lumped model predicts a wide range of experiments well, thus constituting a flexible and reliable kinetic scheme despite the reduced number of species involved. Moreover, this lumped approach and the proposed model lay the foundation for an extension to biodiesel fuel modeling.

  18. A comparative estimation of C.I. engine fuelled with methyl esters of punnai, neem and waste cooking oil

    D. Subramaniam, A. Murugesan, A. Avinashy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this experimental study, performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of methyl esters of Punnai, Neem, Waste Cooking Oil and their diesel blends in a C.I. engine was experimentally examined. For the study, Punnai oil methyl esters (POME, neem oil methyl esters (NOME, and Waste Cooking Oil Methyl Esters (WCOME were prepared by tranesterification process. The Bio diesel-diesel blends were prepared by mixing 10%, 30%, 50%, and 70% of bio diesel with diesel. The effects of three methyl esters and their diesel blends on engine performance, combustion, and exhaust emissions were examined at different engine loads. Experimental results concluded that up to 30% of methyl esters did not affect the performance, combustion, and emissions characteristics. On the other hand, above B30 (30% Bio diesel with 70% diesel a reduction in performance, combustion, and emission characteristics were clear from the study.

  19. A comparative estimation of C.I. engine fuelled with methyl esters of punnai, neem and waste cooking oil

    Subramaniam, D.; Avinash, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering - K.S.Rangasamy College of Technology –Tiruchengode, 637215 Tamil Nadu (India); Murugesan, A. [Department of Mechatronics Engineering - K.S.Rangasamy College of Technology – Tiruchengode, 637215 Tamil Nadu (India)

    2013-07-01

    In this experimental study, performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of methyl esters of Punnai, Neem, Waste Cooking Oil and their diesel blends in a C.I. engine was experimentally examined. For the study, Punnai oil methyl esters (POME), neem oil methyl esters (NOME), and Waste Cooking Oil Methyl Esters (WCOME) were prepared by tranesterification process. The Bio diesel-diesel blends were prepared by mixing 10%, 30%, 50%, and 70% of bio diesel with diesel. The effects of three methyl esters and their diesel blends on engine performance, combustion, and exhaust emissions were examined at different engine loads. Experimental results concluded that up to 30% of methyl esters did not affect the performance, combustion, and emissions characteristics. On the other hand, above B30 (30% Bio diesel with 70% diesel) a reduction in performance, combustion, and emission characteristics were clear from the study.

  20. Performance and emission evaluation of a diesel engine fueled with methyl esters of rubber seed oil

    Ramadhas, A.; Muraleedharan, C.; Jayaraj, S. [National Institute of Technology, Calicut (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-10-01

    Recent concerns over the environment, increasing fuel prices and scarcity of its supply have promoted the interest in development of the alternative sources for petroleum fuels. At present, biodiesel is commercially produced from the refined edible vegetable oils such as sunflower oil, palm oil and soybean oil, etc. by alkaline-catalyzed esterification process. This process is not suitable for production of biodiesel from many unrefined non-edible vegetable oils because of their high acid value. Hence, a two-step esterification method is developed to produce biodiesel from high FFA vegetable oils. The biodiesel production method consists of acid-catalyzed pretreatment followed by an alkaline-catalyzed transesterification. The important properties of methyl esters of rubber seed oil are compared with other esters and diesel. Pure rubber seed oil, diesel and biodiesel are used as fuels in the compression ignition engine and the performance and emission characteristics of the engine are analyzed. The lower blends of biodiesel increase the brake thermal efficiency and reduce the fuel consumption. The exhaust gas emissions are reduced with increase in biodiesel concentration. The experimental results proved that the use of biodiesel (produced from unrefined rubber seed oil) in compression ignition engines is a viable alternative to diesel. (author)

  1. Lubricity of bio-based lubricant derived from chemically modified jatropha methyl ester

    N.W.M. Zulkifli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have been undertaken with a view to using chemically modified vegetable oil as a bio-based lubricant. This research focused on tribological properties of trimethylolpropane (TMP ester, which is derived from renewable resource. This TMP ester was produced from jatropha methyl ester; it is biodegradable and has high lubricity properties. Two different conditions of lubrication are being investigated: extreme pressure and anti-wear. It was found that the TMP ester (Jatropha has better lubricity in terms of wear and friction compared to paraffin oil under extreme pressure conditions. TMP ester (Jatropha has similar characteristics to fully formulated lubricant (FFL, in terms of the coefficient of friction (CoF. In terms of the anti-wear condition, TMP ester (Jatropha has the lowest CoF; however it also has the high wear scar diameter. This is due to corrosion and chemical attack.

  2. {2-[1-(3-Methoxycarbonylmethyl-1H-indol-2-yl)-1-methyl-ethyl]-1H-indol-3-yl}-acetic Acid Methyl Ester Inhibited Hepatocellular Carcinoma Growth in Bel-7402 Cells and Its Resistant Variants by Activation of NOX4 and SIRT3.

    Li, Ye; Wang, Wenjing; Xu, Xiaoxue; Sun, Shiyue; Xu, Xiaoyu; Qu, Xian-jun

    2015-01-01

    {2-[1-(3-Methoxycarbonylmethyl-1H-indol-2-yl)-1-methyl-ethyl]-1H-indol-3-yl}-acetic acid methyl ester (MIAM) is a novel indole compound, which possessed high efficacy against many cancers xenografted in mice without obvious toxicity. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of MIAM on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) Bel-7402 cells and its resistant variants Bel-7402/5FU. MIAM inhibited the growth of HCC more potent in Bel-7402/5FU cells than its parent cells. MIAM increased cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, induced cell apoptosis, and arrested cell cycle in G0/G1 phase. MIAM might exert its action on Bel-7402/5FU cells through activation of NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4)/p22(phox), Sirtuin3 (SIRT3)/SOD2, and SIRT3/p53/p21(Waf1/Cip) pathways. MIAM might inhibit HCC growth through the modulation of SIRT3. When SIRT3 was silenced, the inhibitory effect of MIAM on Bel-7402/5FU was lowered, showing the characteristic of resistance against MIAM, whereas Bel-7402/5FU cells with high expression of SIRT3 by SIRT3 adenovirus infection demonstrated the high sensitivity to MIAM. These results suggested that MIAM might exert its action against Bel-7402/5FU growth through upregulation of SIRT3. We suggested that MIAM might be a promising candidate compound which could develop as a potent anticancer agent targeting NOX4 and SIRT3 activation. PMID:25961022

  3. {2-[1-(3-Methoxycarbonylmethyl-1H-indol-2-yl-1-methyl-ethyl]-1H-indol-3-yl}-acetic Acid Methyl Ester Inhibited Hepatocellular Carcinoma Growth in Bel-7402 Cells and Its Resistant Variants by Activation of NOX4 and SIRT3

    Ye Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available {2-[1-(3-Methoxycarbonylmethyl-1H-indol-2-yl-1-methyl-ethyl]-1H-indol-3-yl}-acetic acid methyl ester (MIAM is a novel indole compound, which possessed high efficacy against many cancers xenografted in mice without obvious toxicity. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of MIAM on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC Bel-7402 cells and its resistant variants Bel-7402/5FU. MIAM inhibited the growth of HCC more potent in Bel-7402/5FU cells than its parent cells. MIAM increased cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS levels, induced cell apoptosis, and arrested cell cycle in G0/G1 phase. MIAM might exert its action on Bel-7402/5FU cells through activation of NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4/p22, Sirtuin3 (SIRT3/SOD2, and SIRT3/p53/p21 pathways. MIAM might inhibit HCC growth through the modulation of SIRT3. When SIRT3 was silenced, the inhibitory effect of MIAM on Bel-7402/5FU was lowered, showing the characteristic of resistance against MIAM, whereas Bel-7402/5FU cells with high expression of SIRT3 by SIRT3 adenovirus infection demonstrated the high sensitivity to MIAM. These results suggested that MIAM might exert its action against Bel-7402/5FU growth through upregulation of SIRT3. We suggested that MIAM might be a promising candidate compound which could develop as a potent anticancer agent targeting NOX4 and SIRT3 activation.

  4. Expanding the modular ester fermentative pathways for combinatorial biosynthesis of esters from volatile organic acids.

    Layton, Donovan S; Trinh, Cong T

    2016-08-01

    Volatile organic acids are byproducts of fermentative metabolism, for example, anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass or organic wastes, and are often times undesired inhibiting cell growth and reducing directed formation of the desired products. Here, we devised a general framework for upgrading these volatile organic acids to high-value esters that can be used as flavors, fragrances, solvents, and biofuels. This framework employs the acid-to-ester modules, consisting of an AAT (alcohol acyltransferase) plus ACT (acyl CoA transferase) submodule and an alcohol submodule, for co-fermentation of sugars and organic acids to acyl CoAs and alcohols to form a combinatorial library of esters. By assembling these modules with the engineered Escherichia coli modular chassis cell, we developed microbial manufacturing platforms to perform the following functions: (i) rapid in vivo screening of novel AATs for their catalytic activities; (ii) expanding combinatorial biosynthesis of unique fermentative esters; and (iii) upgrading volatile organic acids to esters using single or mixed cell cultures. To demonstrate this framework, we screened for a set of five unique and divergent AATs from multiple species, and were able to determine their novel activities as well as produce a library of 12 out of the 13 expected esters from co-fermentation of sugars and (C2-C6) volatile organic acids. We envision the developed framework to be valuable for in vivo characterization of a repertoire of not-well-characterized natural AATs, expanding the combinatorial biosynthesis of fermentative esters, and upgrading volatile organic acids to high-value esters. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1764-1776. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26853081

  5. Process optimization for methyl ester production from waste cooking oil using activated carbon supported potassium fluoride

    Hameed, B.H.; Goh, C.S.; Chin, L.H. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2009-12-15

    This paper presents the transesterification of waste cooking palm oil (WCO) using activated carbon supported potassium fluoride catalyst. A central composite rotatable design was used to optimize the effect of molar ratio of methanol to oil, reaction period, catalyst loading and reaction temperature on the transesterification process. The reactor was pressurized up to 10 bar using nitrogen gas. All the variables were found to affect significantly the methyl ester yield where the most effective factors being the amount of catalyst and reaction temperature, followed by methanol to oil ratio. A quadratic polynomial equation was obtained for methyl ester yield by multiple regression analysis using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimum condition for transesterification of WCO to methyl ester was obtained at 3 wt.% amount of catalyst, 175 C temperature, 8.85 methanol to oil molar ratio and 1 h reaction time. At the optimum condition, the predicted methyl ester yield was 83.00 wt.%. The experimental value was well within the estimated value of the model. The catalyst showed good performance with a high yield of methyl ester and the separation of the catalyst from the liquid mixture is easy. (author)

  6. Stimulation of 125I-3-iodo-α-methyl-L-tyrosine uptake in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells by tyrosine esters

    Introduction: Transport of the amino acid analog 123I-3-iodo-α-methyl-L-tyrosine, which is used in clinical SPECT imaging, occurs mainly via L-type amino acid transporter type 1 (LAT1; an amino acid exchanger). As LAT1 is highly expressed in actively proliferating tumors, we made a preliminary investigation of the effects of amino acid esters on enhancement of 125I-3-iodo-α-methyl-L-tyrosine (IMT) uptake via LAT1 in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells. Methods: Because the sequence of the CHO-K1 LAT1 gene is not available, we confirmed LAT1 expression through IMT (18.5 kBq) uptake mechanisms using specific inhibitors. L-Gly, L-Ser, L-Leu, L-Phe, L-Met, L-Tyr, D-Tyr, L-Val and L-Lys ethyl/methyl esters were tested in combination with IMT. Time-course studies over a 3-h period were conducted, and the concentration dependence of L-Tyr ethyl and methyl esters (0.001 to 10 mM) in combination with IMT was also examined. For a proof of de-esterification of L- and D-Tyr ethyl and methyl esters in the cells (by enzymatic attack or other cause), the concentration of L- and D-Tyr was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography of the esters in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) and cell homogenates at 37 deg. C or under ice-cold conditions. Results: Inhibition tests suggested that LAT1 is involved in IMT uptake by CHO-K1 cells. Co-administration of 1 mM of L-Tyr ethyl or methyl ester with IMT produced the greatest enhancement. The de-esterification reaction was stereo selective and temperature dependent in the homogenate. De-esterification kinetics were very fast in the homogenate and very slow in the phosphate buffer. Conclusions: The L-Tyr ethyl or methyl esters were the most effective enhancers of IMT uptake into CHO-K1 cells and acted by trans-stimulation of the amino acid exchange function of LAT1. This result suggests that de-esterification in the cells may be caused by enzymatic attack. We will use IMT and L-Tyr ethyl or methyl esters to examine LAT1 function in tumor

  7. A Comparison Study: The New Extended Shelf Life Isopropyl Ester PMR Technology versus The Traditional Methyl Ester PMR Approach

    Alston, William B.; Scheiman, Daniel A.; Sivko, Gloria S.

    2005-01-01

    Polymerization of Monomeric Reactants (PMR) monomer solutions and carbon cloth prepregs of PMR II-50 and VCAP-75 were prepared using both the traditional limited shelf life methanol based PMR approach and a novel extended shelf life isopropanol based PMR approach. The methyl ester and isopropyl ester based PMR monomer solutions and PMR prepregs were aged for up to four years at freezer and room temperatures. The aging products formed were monitored using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The composite processing flow characteristics and volatile contents of the aged prepregs were also correlated versus room temperature storage time. Composite processing cycles were developed and six ply cloth laminates were fabricated with prepregs after various extended room temperature storage times. The composites were then evaluated for glass transition temperature (Tg), thermal decomposition temperature (Td), initial flexural strength (FS) and modulus (FM), long term (1000 hours at 316 C) thermal oxidative stability (TOS), and retention of FS and FM after 1000 hours aging at 316 C. The results for each ester system were comparable. Freezer storage was found to prevent the formation of aging products for both ester systems. Room temperature storage of the novel isopropyl ester system increased PMR monomer solution and PMR prepreg shelf life by at least an order of magnitude while maintaining composite properties.

  8. Density of Jatropha curcas Seed Oil and its Methyl Esters: Measurement and Estimations

    Veny, Harumi; Baroutian, Saeid; Aroua, Mohamed Kheireddine; Hasan, Masitah; Raman, Abdul Aziz; Sulaiman, Nik Meriam Nik

    2009-04-01

    Density data as a function of temperature have been measured for Jatropha curcas seed oil, as well as biodiesel jatropha methyl esters at temperatures from above their melting points to 90 ° C. The data obtained were used to validate the method proposed by Spencer and Danner using a modified Rackett equation. The experimental and estimated density values using the modified Rackett equation gave almost identical values with average absolute percent deviations less than 0.03% for the jatropha oil and 0.04% for the jatropha methyl esters. The Janarthanan empirical equation was also employed to predict jatropha biodiesel densities. This equation performed equally well with average absolute percent deviations within 0.05%. Two simple linear equations for densities of jatropha oil and its methyl esters are also proposed in this study.

  9. Possibilities of the use of camelina and mustard methyl esters and their mixtures with diesel as a fuel for compression ignition engines

    Marta Ambrosewicz-Walacik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of camelina and mustard methyl esters and their mixtures with diesel (in 95:5 and 80:20 proportion as fuels for compression ignition engines. Esters prepared with acid-base transesterification process methyl were characterized in terms of the lipid composition, kinematic viscosity at 40°C, density at 15°C, acid value, particulate matter content, sulphur content, flash point, cold filter plugging point and oxidative stability at 110°C. It has been shown that the majority of the analysed methyl esters discriminates, with the exception of the particulate matter content, meet the requirements of PN-EN 14214 (2012. In case of methyl ester and ON mixtures it has been found that the 5% addition of esters slightly contributed to the changes in physic-chemical properties, compared to diesel fuel, while 20% addition resulted in an increase of value of the tested discriminates. In general, it has been also found that the only discriminates disqualifying the usage of those samples as fuels for diesel engines was too high particulate matter content.

  10. Rare linking hydrogels based on acrylic acid and carbohydrate esters

    U. Akhmedov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The process of copolymerization of acrylic acid and esters poliallil sucrose; pentaerythritol and sorbitol, some of its laws are identified. The kinetic regularities of copolymerization and the optimum conditions of synthesis was established.

  11. The CGC enantiomer separation of 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters by using β-cyclodextrin derivatives as chiral stationary phases.

    Shi, Xueyan; Liu, Feipeng; Mao, Jianyou

    2016-03-17

    Chiral 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters are important intermediates in preparation of enantioenriched 2-arylpropionic acids type Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Enantiomer separation of 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters is crucial for evaluation of the asymmetric synthesis efficiency and the enantiomer excess of chiral 2-arylcarboxylic acid derivatives. The capillary gas chromatography (CGC) enantiomer separation of 17 pairs of 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters enantiomers was conducted by using seven different β-cyclodextrin derivatives (CDs) as chiral stationary phases. It was found that for the 7 pairs of 2-phenylpropionates enantiomers, CDs with both alkyl and acyl substituents especially 2,6-di-O-pentyl-3-O-butyryl-β-cyclodextrin exhibited better enantiomer separation abilities than the other CDs examined. For the 7 pairs of 2-(4-substituted phenyl)propionates enantiomers, 2,3,6-tri-O-methyl-β-cyclodextrin possessed better enantiomer separation abilities than the other CDs. Among the 3 pairs of 2-phenylbutyrates enantiomers examined, only methyl 2-phenylbutyrate enantiomers could be separated by three CDs among the 7 CDs tested, while enantiomers of ethyl 2-phenylbutyrate and isopropyl 2-phenylbutyrate couldn't be separated by any of the 7 CDs tested. Besides the structures of CDs, the structures of 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters including different ester moieties, substituents of phenyl, and different carboxylic acids moieties in 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters also affected the enantiomer separation results greatly. The CGC enantiomer separation results of 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters on different CDs are useful for solving the enantiomer separation problem of 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters. PMID:26920785

  12. Theoretical study of cocaine and ecgonine methyl ester in gas phase and in aqueous solution

    Rincón, David A.; Cordeiro, M. Natália D. S.; Mosquera, Ricardo A.; Borges, Fernanda

    2009-01-01

    The conformational preferences of cocaine and ecgonine methyl ester were determined through ab initio and density functional theory calculations. They share the same preferred orientation of the acetate group with a hydrogen bond between the amine and carbonyl groups, and s- cis conformation for the methoxyl group. The benzoyloxy group of cocaine defines a specific accessible conformational region. In solution the most stable conformers are stabilized by internal hydrogen bonds in contrast to the lesser stables, which are stabilized by solute/solvent interactions. Overall, these conformational features explain why ecgonine methyl ester is the principal metabolite of cocaine in a human environment.

  13. Oxidation stability of biofuel containing Camelina sativa oil methyl esters and its impact on energy and environmental indicators of diesel engine

    Highlights: ► We present the results of the engine tests when fueling with biodiesel containing Camelina sativa methyl esters. ► We examine dependence of the engine and environmental characteristics on storage of biodiesel fuel. ► Characteristics of fuel with C. sativa methyl esters after storage are presented. - Abstract: This report includes assessments of comparative studies on the physical, chemical, and motor properties of stored biofuels produced from Camelina sativa oil. The properties of biofuel containing C. sativa oil methyl esters (CMEs) were compared with the properties of fossil diesel fuel and standardized rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME) and fossil diesel fuel blends. To ensure compliance with the requirements for fatty acid methyl esters established by the EN 14214 standard, pure CMEs were blended with methyl esters of animal origin, the content of which accounted for 32% of the blend. Motor studies were carried out in the VALMET 320 DMG diesel engine while using fuel blends consisting of 30% of a mixture of C. sativa oil and pork lard methyl esters and 70% fossil diesel fuel. Environmental and energy indicators were compared with indicators related to RME and fossil diesel fuel. In the course of the experiments, it was established that when no anti-oxidant was used, the C. sativa oil and pork lard methyl ester mixtures met the requirements of the oxidation standard only during the first month of storage, whereas the physical properties did not change considerably during the whole storage period. Due to the properties of fuels containing C. sativa oil methyl esters, they can be used in cold climate areas in summertime. As a result of performing measurements of emissions of hazardous components, it was observed that throughout the storage period, the maximum reduction of CO reached 7–10%, whereas the decrease in HC was – 5–8% and that of NOx was approximately 4%. The most significant effect was detected in the case of smoke intensity

  14. Direct aerobic oxidation of primary alcohols to methyl esters catalyzed by a heterogeneous gold catalyst

    Nielsen, Inger Staunstrup; Taarning, Esben; Egeblad, Kresten;

    2007-01-01

    Methyl esters can be produced in high yield by oxidising methanolic solutions of primary alcohols with dioxygen over a heterogeneous gold catalyst. The versatility of this new methodology is demonstrated by the fact that alkylic, benzylic and allylic alcohols, as well as alcohols containing an...

  15. Stereoselective semi-hydrogenation and deuteration of a diacetylenic precursor of leukotriene B4 methyl ester

    [6,7,14,15-2H4]-Leukotriene B4 methyl ester was prepared by reduction with deuterium gas of a suitable precursor (deuterium incorporation > 90%). Several catalytic semi-hydrogenations were affected in order to determine the best conditions for the labeling step. (author)

  16. 蓖麻籽脂质提取与甲酯化衍生优化及其脂肪酸组成分析%Optimization of Castor Bean Lipid Extraction and Methyl Ester Derivation and Analysis of Fatty Acid Composition

    楼乔明; 杨文鸽; 徐大伦; 金淼; 吴东晓; 郑贤孟

    2012-01-01

    The effects on lipid extraction and methyl ester derivation of castor seeds were studied using different methods, and the fatty acid composition was also analyzed in this paper. The results indicated that significant differenees existed in the effects of different methods on the lipid extraction and methyl ester derivation(P <0. 05). The method of dichlormethane - methanol was effective in lipid extraction and the extraction level was 58. 25% , which had the great advantages of low toxicity, good solubility and complete extraction of lipids. Acid - alkali combined method had virtues of entire derivatization and less side effects, which could better reflect the fatty acid composition of castor seeds, and was a ideal method for the derivatization of castor seeds lipid. Meanwhile, castor oil mainly consisted of ricinoleic acid (76.43%~86. 50% ), linolic acid (4. 88%~6.27% ) and oleic acid (2.70%~4. 18%) , and also contained small amounts of palmitic acid, stearic acid, linolenic acid and dodecenoic acid.%采用不同方法对蓖麻籽的脂质提取和甲酯化衍生效果进行研究,并对其脂肪酸组成进行分析.结果表明:不同方法对蓖麻籽的脂质提取和衍生化效果存在显著差异(P<0.05);二氯甲烷-甲醇法的脂质提取率为58.25%,且具有低毒、溶解性强和提取完全的优点,是蓖麻籽脂质提取的有效方法;酸碱结合法具有衍生完全且副反应少等优点,能更好地反映蓖麻籽脂肪酸的真实组成,是蓖麻籽脂质甲酯化衍生的理想方法.同时蓖麻籽脂肪酸以蓖麻油酸(76.43%~86.50%)、亚油酸(4.88%~6.27%)和油酸(2.70%~4.18%)为主,并含有少量的棕榈酸、硬脂酸以及亚麻酸和二十碳烯酸.

  17. Conversion of Oleum papaveris seminis oil into methyl esters via esterification process: Optimization and kinetic study

    A.M. Syam; Rashid, U.; Yunus, R.; Hamid, H.A.; Al-Resayes, S. I.; Nehdi, I. A.; Al-Muhtaseb, A. H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an acid pre-treatment process and a kinetic study for the esterification reaction of Oleum papaveris seminis oil with methanol in the presence of amberlite 120 as a solid catalyst to convert the oil into methyl esters. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the reaction parameters, i.e. reaction time, percentage of the catalyst and volume ratio of methanol to oil. The results revealed that 0.87% w/w of catalyst concentration and 44.70% v/v of methanol t...

  18. Extraction, Methylation and Quantification of Fatty Acids in Fast Food Items and Its Health Implications

    Ayesha Wasti; Uzaira Rafique

    2013-01-01

    The research is designed to study the relationship of intake of fatty acids through fast food items, consumption trends and related health issues. Fried food products most commonly consumed at restaurants were selected. Food outlets of both branded and non-branded vendors were included in the study for comparison. Total fat content, Fatty acids and Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME’s) in food samples were determined experimentally using titrimetric and spectrophotometric methods. Fatty acids of...

  19. Solvent free hydroxylation of the methyl esters of Blighia unijugata seed oil in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium permanganate

    Adewuyi Adewale

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Extraction of oil from the seed of Blighia unijugata gave a yield of 50.82 ± 1.20% using hexane in a soxhlet extractor. The iodine and saponification values were 67.60 ± 0.80 g iodine/100 g and 239.20 ± 1.00 mg KOH/g respectively with C18:1 being the dominant fatty acid. Unsaturated methyl esters of Blighia unijugata which had been previously subjected to urea adduct complexation was used to synthesize methyl 9, 10-dihydroxyoctadecanoate via hydroxylation in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium permanganate (CTAP. The reaction was monitored and confirmed using FTIR and GC-MS. This study has revealed that oxidation reaction of mono unsaturated bonds using CTAP could be achieved under solvent free condition.

  20. Rheological behavior, chemical and physical characterization of soybean and cottonseed methyl esters submitted to thermal oxidation process

    Silva, Adriano Sant' ana; Silva, Flavio Luiz Honorato da; Lima, Ezenildo Emanuel de; Carvalho, Maria Wilma N.C. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (CCT/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia; Dantas, Hemeval Jales; Farias, Paulo de Almeida [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (CTRN/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Recursos Naturais

    2008-07-01

    In this study the effect of antioxidant terc-butylhydroxyanisol (BHA) on the oxidative stability of soybean and cottonseed methyl esters subjected to thermal degradation at 100 deg C was studied. Soybean and cottonseed methyl esters specific mass, dynamic viscosity and rheological behavior were evaluated. According to results, antioxidant degraded samples specific mass and dynamic viscosity did not showed alterations, remaining statistically equal. Soybean and cottonseed methyl esters showed a Newtonian rheological behavior and degraded samples without adding BHA showed rheological behavior alterations. (author)

  1. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.

    2016-06-14

    Methods and systems for making dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids using metathesis are generally disclosed. In some embodiments, the methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin ester with an internal olefin ester in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In some embodiments, the terminal olefin ester or the internal olefin ester are derived from a renewable feedstock, such as a natural oil feedstock. In some such embodiments, the natural oil feedstock, or a transesterified derivative thereof, is metathesized to make the terminal olefin ester or the internal olefin ester.

  2. Stereoselective Formation of Trisubstituted Vinyl Boronate Esters by the Acid-Mediated Elimination of α-Hydroxyboronate Esters

    Guan, Weiye; Michael, Alicia K.; McIntosh, Melissa L.; Koren-Selfridge, Liza; Scott, John P.; Clark, Timothy B.

    2014-01-01

    The copper-catalyzed diboration of ketones followed by an acid-catalyzed elimination leads to the formation of 1,1-disubstituted and trisubstituted vinyl boronate esters with moderate to good yields and selectivity. Addition of tosic acid to the crude diboration products provides the corresponding vinyl boronate esters upon elimination. The trisubstituted vinyl boronate esters are formed as the (Z)-olefin isomer, which was established by subjecting the products to a Suzuki–Miyaura coupling re...

  3. 40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

    2010-07-01

    ... neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory. 417.140 Section 417.140 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory § 417.140 Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic...

  4. Stable isotope determination of ester and ether methyl moieties in plant methoxyl groups.

    Greule, Markus; Keppler, Frank

    2011-12-01

    Plant methoxyl groups of lignin and pectin have both distinct stable hydrogen isotope (δ(2)H) and carbon isotope (δ(13)C) values that can be used for studying environmental processes and for investigating the origin and authenticity of biomaterials. Up to now, the reported methods have been applied only to determine isotope values of the bulk plant methoxyl pool. In this work, we have applied several methods to distinguish between stable isotope ratios of methoxyl groups of pectin and the bulk plant methoxyl pool. Our results demonstrate that by applying alkaline hydrolysis to specifically cleave off the ester methyl moiety (pectin-like), we can distinguish δ(2)H and δ(13)C values of the pectin methoxyl pool from the bulk methoxyl pool. No measureable isotope discrimination was observed either during sample preparation or during analytical measurement. Furthermore, using this method, no major isotope difference in either the hydrogen or carbon isotope signature of the methoxyl groups of plant pectin and bulk matter from plant species such as leaves from trees, apples, carrots and potatoes was noted. We show the methanol released during alkaline hydrolysis of plant material and subsequently treated with hydriodic acid to be an excellent procedure to measure specifically and precisely the δ(13)C and δ(2)H isotope values of plant pectin-like methoxyl groups. This method is particularly advantageous when plant matter with a low methoxyl content has to be analysed. PMID:22004278

  5. Solvent-free Synthesis of Long Chain Aliphatic Acid Methyl Esters in Br(o)nsted Acidic Ionic Liquids at Room Temperature%在Br(o)nsted酸性功能化离子液体中室温无溶剂合成长链脂肪酸甲酯

    李心忠; 林棋

    2009-01-01

    SO_3H-functionalized Br(o)nsted acidic ionic liquid:1-(4-sulfonic benzyl)-3-methyl-imidazolium hydrogen sulfate was synthesized and characterized.The synthesis of these ionic liquids by using N-methylimidazole,benzyl chloride,sulphuric acid,chlorosulfonic acid as the starting material via quaternarization,ion-exchange,and sulfonation reaction,their structures were confirmed by IR and 1HNMR.It was investigated that these ionic liquids could act as reaction media and the catalyst for the Fischer esterification of the long chain aliphatic acids with methanol.The optimum reaction conditions were:n(acids):n(methol):n(ionic liquids)=1:1:0.1,reaction temperature 25 ℃,reaction time 3~4.5 h,the isolated yields 84%~98%.This approach has advantages such as:it can be carried out smoothly at room temperature under solvent-free conditions,without heating and separating water,esters can be separated easily and high yields.The ionic liquid could be recovered easily and recycled three times without any significant loss in catalytic activity.%该文以N-甲基咪唑、苄基氯、硫酸、氯磺酸为原料,经季铵化、离子交换、磺化3步反应合成了磺酸型Br(o)nsted 酸性离子液体:1-(4-磺酸基苄基)-3-甲基-咪唑硫酸氢根盐,通过FTIR、1HNMR对其结构进行了确证.以其作为反应介质与催化剂,考察了C4~C16的直链脂肪酸与甲醇的Fischer酯化反应,确定了最佳反应条件:n(酸):n(醇):n(离子液体)=1:1:0.1,反应温度25 ℃、反应时间3~4.5 h,产率84%~98%,产物气相色谱纯度≥96%.该法无需加热、分水,产物分离简便,离子液体经真空除水后可重复使用,循环使用3次,催化活性保持不变.

  6. Combustion of jojoba methyl ester in an indirect injection diesel engine

    Selim, M.Y.E. [United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Radwan, M.S.; Elfeky, S.M.S. [Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt). Mechanical Power Engineering Dept.

    2003-07-01

    An experimental investigation has been carried out to examine for the first time the performance and combustion noise of an indirect injection diesel engine running with new fuel derived from pure jojoba oil, jojoba methyl ester, and its blends with gas oil. A Ricardo E6 compression swirl diesel engine was fully instrumented for the measurement of combustion pressure and its rise rate and other operating parameters. Test parameters included the percentage of jojoba methyl ester in the blend, engine speed, load, injection timing and engine compression ratio. Results showed that the new fuel derived from jojoba is generally comparable and a good replacement to gas oil in diesel engine at most engine operating conditions, in terms of performance parameters and combustion noise produced. (author)

  7. Performance evaluation of a diesel engine fueled with methyl ester of pongamia oil

    A. Haiter Lenin, K. Thyagarajan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study pongamia methyl ester was prepared by transesterification using potassium hydroxide (KOH as catalyst and was used as fuel in a four stroke, water cooled, single cylinder, direct injection diesel engine. Pongamia methyl ester fuel blends (75% and 100% were used for conducting the engine performance tests at varying loads (20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%. Tests were carried out over entire range of engine operation at varying conditions of load. The performance, combustion and emission characteristics were determined. Based on these, the parameters such as brake thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, exhaust gas temperature, emissions in exhaust such as CO, CO2, O2, HC and NOx were recorded. The results show that the blend of pongamia oil with diesel fuel can be used as an alternative fuel successfully in a diesel engine without any modification.

  8. The Pharmacological Activities of the Metabolites of N-[(Trimethylamineboryl)-Carbonyl]-L-Phenylalanine Methyl Ester

    Miller, M. C.III; Sood, A.; Spielvogel, B. F.; Shrewsbury, R. P.; Hall, I. H.

    1996-01-01

    The metabolites of N-[(trimethylamineboryl)-carbonyl]-L-phenylalanine methyl ester 1 proved to be active in a number of pharmacological screens where the parent had previously demonstrated potent activity. The proposed metabolites demonstrated significant activity as cytotoxic, hypolipidemic, and anti-inflammatory agents. In cytotoxicity screens several of the proposed metabolites afforded better activity than the parent compound against the growth of suspended and solid tumor cell lines. Eva...

  9. Combustion and Vibration Analysis of Idi- Diesel Engine Fuelled With Neat Preheated Jatropha Methyl Ester

    Y.Ashok Kumar Reddy; B. V. Appa Rao

    2014-01-01

    Experimentation is conducted on an IDI diesel engine and the results of combustion and vibration on IDI -Diesel engine fueled with the preheated Jatropha Methyl Ester (JME) are presented. The Present research trend is to replace conventional diesel by renewable alternative fuels in view of fast depletion of petroleum reserves and to reduce the exhaust emissions from the engines without altering the basic design of the engine. Due to moderately higher viscosity effects, the dir...

  10. Experimental investigation on a diesel engine using neem oil and its methyl ester

    Sivalakshmi S.; Balusamyb T.

    2011-01-01

    Fuel crisis and environmental concerns have led to look for alternative fuels of bio-origin sources such as vegetable oils, which can be produced from forests, vegetable oil crops and oil bearing biomass materials. Vegetable oils have energy content comparable to diesel fuel. The effect of neem oil (NeO) and its methyl ester (NOME) on a direct injected four stroke, single cylinder diesel engine combustion, performance and emission is investigated in this paper. The results show that at ...

  11. τ-regioselective addition of (-)-Nα -tert-butoxycarbonyl-L-histidine methyl ester to diethyl fumarate

    López-Larrubia, Pilar; García-Amo, María; Mayoral, Elena P.; Robert J. Gillies; Cerdán, Sebastián; Ballesteros, Paloma

    2004-01-01

    Addition of (-)-Nα-tert-butoxycarbonyl-L-histidine methyl ester to diethyl fumarate regioselectively yielded diethyl 2-[4-(2-methoxycarbonyl-2-tert-butoxycarbonylaminoethyl) imidazol-1-yl] succinate as a 1:1 mixture of diastereomers. These compounds were identified by NMR using (Eu(fod)3 as a stereospecific shift reagent, but were impossible to separate and characterise independently. Neutral hydrolysis of the mixture yielded the corresponding deprotected diastereomeric N τ-(2-ethoxycarbonyl-...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3800 - Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formaldehyde, condensated... Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. (a... generically as formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol,...

  13. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF METHYL ESTER OF COTTON SEED OIL BLEND WITH DIESEL ON CI ENGINE

    K. Vijayaraj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum based fuels worldwide have not only resulted in the rapid depletion of conventional energy sources, but have also caused severe air pollution. The search for an alternate fuel has led to many findings due to which a wide variety of alternative fuels are available at our disposal now. The existing studies have revealed the use of vegetable oils for engines as an alternative for diesel fuel. However, there is a limitation in using straight vegetable oils in diesel engines due to their high viscosity and low volatility. In the present work, neat cotton seed oil is converted into their respective methyl ester through transesterification process. Experiments were conducted using various blends of methyl ester of cotton seed oil with diesel in a single cylinder, four stroke vertical and air cooled Kirloskar diesel engine. The results showed higher brake thermal efficiency and lower brake specific fuel consumption for B25 when compared to other blends . There is an appreciable decrease in HC emission while the decrease in CO emission is marginal. However, there is an increase in the emission of NOx. Reduction in smoke emission is observed for B25 at all loads, particularly there is a marked decrease of 5.4% at full load when compared to diesel. It was observed that the combustion characteristics of the blends of methyl ester of cotton seed oil with diesel followed closely with that of the base line diesel.

  14. Study on the spray characteristics of methyl esters from waste cooking oil at elevated temperature

    Lin, Yung-Sung [Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, Da-Yeh University, 168 University Road, Dacun, Changhua 51591 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hsiuping Institute of Technology, No.11, Gongye Rd., Dali City, Taichung County 412-80 (China); Lin, Hai-Ping [Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, Da-Yeh University, 168 University Road, Dacun, Changhua 51591 (China)

    2010-09-15

    In Taiwan, millions of tons of waste cooking oil are produced each year, and less than 20% of it, about 150,000 ton/a, is reclaimed and reused. Most waste oil is flushed down the drain. Utilizing waste cooking oil to make biodiesel not only reduces engine exhaust gas pollution, but also replaces food-derived fuels, and reduces ecologic river pollution. This study employed two-stage transesterification to lower the high viscosity of waste oil, utilized emulsion to reduce the methyl ester NOx pollution, and used methanol to enhance the stability and viscosity of emulsified fuel. To further analyze spray characteristics of fuels, this experiment built a constant volume bomb under high temperature, used high speed photography to analyze spray tip penetration, spray angle, and the Sauter mean diameter (SMD) of fuel droplets, and compared the results with fossil diesel. The experimental results suggested that, two-stage transesterification can significantly lower waste oil viscosity to that which is close to fossil diesel viscosity. At a temperature above 300 C, waste cooking oil methyl esters had a water content of 20%, spray droplet characteristics were significantly improved, and NOx emission dropped significantly. The optimal fuel ratio suggested in this experiment was waste cooking oil methyl ester 74.5%, methanol 5%, water 20%, and composite surfactant Span-Tween 0.5%. (author)

  15. Encapsulating fatty acid esters of bioactive compounds in starch

    Lay Ma, Ursula Vanesa

    Interest in the use of many bioactive compounds in foods is growing in large part because of the apparent health benefits of these molecules. However, many of these compounds can be easily degraded during processing, storage, or their passage through the gastrointestinal tract before reaching the target site. In addition, they can be bitter, acrid, or astringent, which may negatively affect the sensory properties of the product. Encapsulation of these molecules may increase their stability during processing, storage, and in the gastrointestinal tract, while providing controlled release properties. The ability of amylose to form inclusion complexes and spherulites while entrapping certain compounds has been suggested as a potential method for encapsulation of certain molecules. However, complex formation and spherulitic crystallization are greatly affected by the type of inclusion molecules, type of starch, and processing conditions. The objectives of the present investigation were to: (a) study the effect of amylose, amylopectin, and intermediate material on spherulite formation and its microstructure; (b) investigate the formation of amylose and high amylose starch inclusion complexes with ascorbyl palmitate, retinyl palmitate, and phytosterol esters; (c) evaluate the ability of spherulites to form in the presence of fatty acid esters and to entrap ascorbyl palmitate, retinyl palmitate, and phytosterol esters; and (d) evaluate the effect of processing conditions on spherulite formation and fatty acid ester entrapment. Higher ratios of linear to branched molecules resulted in the formation of more and rounder spherulites with higher heat stability. In addition to the presence of branches, it appears that spherulitic crystallization is also affected by other factors, such as degree of branching, chain length, and chain length distribution. Amylose and Hylon VII starch formed inclusion complexes with fatty acid esters of ascorbic acid, retinol, or phytosterols

  16. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.

    2016-03-15

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.

  17. 21 CFR 175.260 - Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins... of polyester resins. Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins identified in this section... prescribed conditions: (a) For the purpose of this section, partial phosphoric acid esters of...

  18. Increased production of wax esters in transgenic tobacco plants by expression of a fatty acid reductase:wax synthase gene fusion.

    Aslan, Selcuk; Hofvander, Per; Dutta, Paresh; Sun, Chuanxin; Sitbon, Folke

    2015-12-01

    Wax esters are hydrophobic lipids consisting of a fatty acid moiety linked to a fatty alcohol with an ester bond. Plant-derived wax esters are today of particular concern for their potential as cost-effective and sustainable sources of lubricants. However, this aspect is hampered by the fact that the level of wax esters in plants generally is too low to allow commercial exploitation. To investigate whether wax ester biosynthesis can be increased in plants using transgenic approaches, we have here exploited a fusion between two bacterial genes together encoding a single wax ester-forming enzyme, and targeted the resulting protein to chloroplasts in stably transformed tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) plants. Compared to wild-type controls, transgenic plants showed both in leaves and stems a significant increase in the total level of wax esters, being eight-fold at the whole plant level. The profiles of fatty acid methyl ester and fatty alcohol in wax esters were related, and C16 and C18 molecules constituted predominant forms. Strong transformants displayed certain developmental aberrations, such as stunted growth and chlorotic leaves and stems. These negative effects were associated with an accumulation of fatty alcohols, suggesting that an adequate balance between formation and esterification of fatty alcohols is crucial for a high wax ester production. The results show that wax ester engineering in transgenic plants is feasible, and suggest that higher yields may become achieved in the near future. PMID:26138876

  19. Partial syntheses of some isomers of Gibberellin A, and Gibberellin A, methyl ester

    Fraga, Braulio M.; Gómez, Clemente D.; Melchor G. Hernández; De Paz, Emilio; Tellado, Fernando G.; Perales, Áurea

    1990-01-01

    The partial synthesis of an isomer of gibberellic acid meyhyl ester, with a lactone between C-6 and C-10 and an esterified acid group at C-19, is described. The overall yield from gibberellic acid was 46%. The preparation of 6-epi-GA. has also been carried out. Its structure was confirmed by an X-ray analysis of its 1B-iodo derivativo.

  20. Studies of a pyridino-crown ether-based chiral stationary phase on the enantioseparation of biogenic chiral aralkylamines and α-amino acid esters by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Lévai, Sándor; Németh, Tamás; Fődi, Tamás; Kupai, József; Tóth, Tünde; Huszthy, Péter; Balogh, György Tibor

    2015-11-10

    This paper reports the enantioseparation ability of a pyridino-18-crown-6 ether-based chiral stationary phase [(S,S)-CSP-1]. The enantiomeric discrimination of chiral stationary phase (S,S)-CSP-1 was evaluated by HPLC using the mixtures of enantiomers of various protonated primary aralkylamines [1-phenylethylamine hydrogen perchlorate (PEA), 2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-amine (1-aminoindan), 2,2'-(1,2-diaminoethane-1,2-diyl) diphenol (HPEN)] and perchlorate salts of α-amino acid esters [alanine benzyl ester (Ala-OBn), phenylalanine benzyl ester (Phe-OBn), phenylalanine methyl ester (Phe-OMe), phenylglycine methyl ester (PhGly-OMe), glutamic acid dibenzyl ester (Glu-diOBn), and valine benzyl ester (Val-OBn)]. The best enantioseparation was achieved in the case of PEA. The high enantioselectivity was rationalized by the strong π-π interaction of the extended π system of the aryl-substituted pyridine unit. PMID:26218505

  1. Metabolic pathway engineering for fatty acid ethyl ester production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using stable chromosomal integration.

    de Jong, Bouke Wim; Shi, Shuobo; Valle-Rodríguez, Juan Octavio; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-03-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters are fatty acid derived molecules similar to first generation biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters; FAMEs) which can be produced in a microbial cell factory. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a suitable candidate for microbial large scale and long term cultivations, which is the typical industrial production setting for biofuels. It is crucial to conserve the metabolic design of the cell factory during industrial cultivation conditions that require extensive propagation. Genetic modifications therefore have to be introduced in a stable manner. Here, several metabolic engineering strategies for improved production of fatty acid ethyl esters in S. cerevisiae were combined and the genes were stably expressed from the organisms' chromosomes. A wax ester synthase (ws2) was expressed in different yeast strains with an engineered acetyl-CoA and fatty acid metabolism. Thus, we compared expression of ws2 with and without overexpression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH2), acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALD6) and acetyl-CoA synthetase (acs SE (L641P) ) and further evaluated additional overexpression of a mutant version of acetyl-CoA decarboxylase (ACC1 (S1157A,S659A) ) and the acyl-CoA binding protein (ACB1). The combined engineering efforts of the implementation of ws2, ADH2, ALD6 and acs SE (L641P) , ACC1 (S1157A,S659A) and ACB1 in a S. cerevisiae strain lacking storage lipid formation (are1Δ, are2Δ, dga1Δ and lro1Δ) and β-oxidation (pox1Δ) resulted in a 4.1-fold improvement compared with sole expression of ws2 in S. cerevisiae. PMID:25422103

  2. Marinamide, a novel alkaloid and its methyl ester produced by the application of mixed fermentation technique to two mangrove endophytic fungi from the South China Sea

    ZHU Feng; LIN Yongcheng

    2006-01-01

    A novel 1-isoquinolone analog designated as marinamide (A) and its methyl ester (B), were produced by the application of mixed fermentation technique to two mangrove endophytic fungi (strains Nos. 1924 and 3893) from the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated by comprehensive spectra methods (mainly by 2D NMR) as 4- (2-pyrrolyl)-1-isoquinolone-3-carboxylic acid (A) and methyl 4-(2-pyrrolyl)-1-isoquinolone-3-carboxylate (B), respectively. Compounds A and B were not obtained when either strain was cultured individually under the same conditions. The results showed that the application of mixed fermentation technique maybe rep- resents a potentially important approach to discover novel metabolites.

  3. (Accumulation of methyl-deficient rat liver messenger ribonucleic acid on ethionine administration). Progress report. [Methyltransferase activity in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells and effects of phorbol ester on methyltransferase activity

    Borek, E.

    1980-01-01

    Enzyme fractions were isolated from Ehrlich ascites cells which introduced methyl groups into methyl deficient rat liver mRNA and unmethylated vaccinia mRNA. The methyl groups were incorporated at the 5' end into cap 1 structures by the viral enzyme, whereas both cap 0 and cap 1 structures were formed by the Ehrlich ascites cell enzymes. Preliminary results indicate the presence of adenine N/sup 6/-methyltransferase activity in Ehrlich ascites cells. These results indicate that mRNA deficient in 5'-cap methylation and in internal methylation of adenine accumulated in rats on exposure to ethionine. The methyl-deficient mRNA isolated from the liver of ethionine-fed rats differed in its translational properties from mRNA isolated from control animals. Preliminary experiments indicate that single topical application of 17n moles of TPA to mouse skin altered tRNA methyltransferases. The extent of methylation was increased over 2-fold in mouse skin treated with TPA for 48 hours. These changes have been observed as early as 12 hours following TPA treatment. In contrast, the application of initiating dose of DMBA had no effect on these enzymes. It should be emphasized that the changes in tRNA methyltransferases produced by TPA are not merely an increase of the concentration of the enzyme, rather that they represent alterations of specificity of a battery of enzymes. In turn the change in enzyme specificity can produce alterations in the structure of tRNA. (ERB)

  4. Benchmark Calculations for Bond Dissociation Enthalpies of Unsaturated Methyl Esters and the Bond Dissociation Enthalpies of Methyl Linolenate.

    Li, Xiaoyu; Xu, Xuefei; You, Xiaoqing; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-06-16

    It is important to determine an appropriate computational method for obtaining accurate thermochemical properties of large biodiesel molecules such as methyl linolenate. In this study, we use Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) and coupled cluster theory to calculate bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs) of seven fragment molecules of methyl linolenate, in particular, propene, methyl formate, cis-3-hexene, 1,4-pentadiene, 1-pentene, butane, and methyl butanoate. The results are compared to BDEs obtained from experiments and to Oyeyemi et al.'s multireference averaged coupled pair functional (MRACPF2) calculations. We found that with extrapolation to the complete basis set (CBS) limit, the BDEs derived from coupled cluster calculations with single, double, and triple excitations (CCSDT) and from CCSDT with a perturbative treatment of connected quadruple excitations, CCSDT(2)Q/CBS, are closer to the available experimental values than those obtained by MRACPF2 for propene and methyl formate. The CCSDT/CBS calculations were chosen as the reference for validating the DFT methods. Among the density functionals, we found that M08-HX has the best performance with a mean unsigned deviation (MUD) from CCSDT/CBS of only 1.0 kcal/mol, whereas the much more expensive MRACPF2 has an MUD of 1.1 kcal/mol. We then used the most successfully validated density functionals to calculate the BDEs of methyl linolenate and compared the results with the MRACPF2 BDEs. The present study identifies several Kohn-Sham exchange-correlation functionals that should be useful for modeling ester combustion, especially the M08-HX, M06-2X, M05-2X, M08-SO, and MPWB1K global-hybrid meta functionals, the M11 and MN12-SX range-separated-hybrid meta functionals, the ωB97 range-separated hybrid gradient approximation functional, and the SOGGA11-X global-hybrid gradient approximation functional. PMID:27191950

  5. Organising pneumonia associated with fumaric acid ester treatment for psoriasis.

    Deegan, Alexander Paul

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: We present the case of a 49-year old male who presented with dyspnoea, cough, weight loss, night sweats and general malaise. He had been on treatment with oral fumaric acid esters (FAE, Fumaderm(R); Biogen Idec GmbH, Ismaning, Germany) for 6 months. METHODS: Report of a case. RESULTS: His chest X-ray showed patchy infiltrates in the left upper lobe which failed to resolve under empiric antibiotic therapy. A computed tomography of thorax revealed bilateral, mostly peripheral foci of consolidation with air bronchograms. Transbronchial biopsies showed a pattern of organising pneumonia (OP). CONCLUSIONS: Therapy with oral prednisolone (40 mg\\/day) resulted in a rapid clinical and radiological improvement. An association of FAE and OP has not previously been reported. Please cite this paper as: Deegan AP, Kirby B, Rogers S, Crotty TB and McDonnell TJ. Organising pneumonia associated with fumaric acid ester treatment for psoriasis.

  6. Enzymatic synthesis and application of fatty acid ascorbyl esters

    Stojanović Marija M.; Carević Milica B.; Mihailović Mladen D.; Knežević-Jugović Zorica D.; Petrović Slobodan D.; Bezbradica Dejan I.

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid ascorbyl esters are liposoluble substances that possess good antioxidative properties. These compounds could be synthesized by using various acyl donors for acylation of vitamin C in reaction catalyzed by chemical means or lipases. Enzymatic process is preferred since it is regioselective, performed under mild reaction conditions, with the obtained product being environmentally friendly. Polar organic solvents, ionic liquids, and supercritical fluids has been successfully use...

  7. 4-Dimenthylaminopyridine or Acid-Catalyzed Synthesis of Esters: A Comparison

    van den Berg, Annemieke W. C.; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2006-01-01

    A set of highly atom-economic experiments was developed to highlight the differences between acid- and base-catalyzed ester syntheses and to introduce the principles of atom economy. The hydrochloric acid-catalyzed formation of an ester was compared with the 4-dimethylaminopyradine-catalyzed ester synthesis.

  8. Biodiesel: The Use of Vegetable Oils and Methyl Esters as Alternative Diesel Fuels

    Venkata Ramesh Mamilla

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available On the face of the upcoming energy crisis, vegetable oils have come up as a promisingsource of fuel. They are being studied widely because of their abundant availability,renewable nature and better performance when used in engines. Many vegetable oilshave been investigated in compression ignition engine by fuel modification or enginemodification. The vegetable oils have very high density and viscosity, so we have used themethyl ester of the oil to overcome these problems. Their use in form of methyl esters innon modified engines has given encouraging results.Vegetable oils and their derivatives are attractive as alternative fuels, fuel extenders, andan additive for compression ignition (diesel engines because they also enhance engineperformance. Worldwide there is interest in biodiesel as a renewable transportation fueland blending agent. Biodiesel has the potential to displace petroleum, lower net globalwarming gas emissions from the transportation sector and reduce the mass andcarcinogenicity of particulate matter emissions.

  9. Jojoba methyl ester as a diesel fuel substitute: Preparation and characterization

    Radwan, M.S.; Ismail, M.A.; Elfeky, S.M.S.; Abu-Elyazeed, O.S.M. [Mechanical Power Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering at Mattaria, University of Helwan, Masakin Elhelmia, Mattaria, Cairo 11718 (Egypt)

    2007-02-15

    The aim of the present work is to prepare jojoba methyl ester (JME) as a diesel fuel substitute. This was carried out experimentally and its chemical and physical properties were determined. Esterification method is used to produce methyl ester from raw jojoba oil. This method is optimized to produce the highest amount of fuel using a minimum amount of methyl alcohol. To achieve the above aim, a test rig for fuel production was developed. To measure the JME burning velocity a constant volume bomb was developed. The bomb was fully instrumented with a piezoelectric pressure transducer, charge amplifier, digital storage oscilloscope, A/D converter and a personal computer. Several grades of fuel were produced but, two grades only were selected and tested as an economical alternative fuel. The chemical and physical properties of these grades of fuel are measured as well as the laminar burning velocity. It is found that JME liquid fuel exhibited lower burning velocities than iso-octane. The new fuel is found to be suitable for compression ignition engine particularly in the indirect-injection ones, while for direct-injection, and high-speed engines fuel modifications are required. The new fuel is safe, has no sulphur content and reduces the engine wear as well as lengthens the lifetime of lubricating oil. (author)

  10. Use of hazelnut kernel oil methyl ester and its blends as alternative fuels in diesel engines

    Guemues, M.; Atmaca, M. [Marmara Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Mechanical Department

    2008-09-30

    Interest in vegetable oil as an alternative to diesel fuel in diesel engines has increased during the last few decades because reserves of petroleum fuel and its derivatives are diminishing rapidly, and because they have harmful effects on the environment. Numerous vegetable oil esters have been tried as alternatives to diesel fuel. Many researchers have reported that with the use of vegetable oil ester as a fuel in diesel engiens there is a decrease in harmful exhaust emissions and engine performance that is the equivalent of diesel fuel. Several studies have found that biodiesel emits far less of the most regulated pollutants than standard diesel fuel. Decreasing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions by using biodiesel contributes to reducing the greenhouse effect. Furthermore, diminishing carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and smoke density improves air quality. Essential oils that have been tested in diesel engines are soybean, sunflower, corn, safflower, cottonseed, and rapeseed, which are categorized as edible oils; however, some edible oils, such as neat hazelnut kernel oil, have not been comprehensively tested as alternative fuel in diesel engines. In this study, hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) kernel oil was evaluated as an alternative fuel in diesel engines. Firstly, the optimum transesteri.cation reaction conditions for hazelnut kernel oil, with respect to reaction temperature, volumetric ratio of reactants, and catalyst, were investigated. Secondly, an experimental investigation was carried out to examine performance and emissions of a direct injection diesel engine running on hazelnut kernel oil methyl ester and its blends with diesel fuel. Results showed that hazelnut kernel oil methyl ester and its blends with diesel fuel are generally comparable to diesel fuel, according to engine performance and emissions.

  11. Properties of a new gasoline oxygenate blend component: 3-Hydroxybutyrate methyl ester produced from bacterial poly-3-hydroxybutyrate

    Wang, Shen Yu.; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Ming Ming; Zhang, Xiao Jun [Multidisciplinary Research Center, Shantou University, Shantou 515063, Guangdong (China); Xu, Yu. [Oilcare Oil Test Laboratory of China National Analytical Center, 6th Floor, Building 34, No. 100, Xian Lie Zhong Road, Guangzhou 510000 (China); Chen, Guo-Qiang [Dept Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, School of Life Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-08-15

    3-Hydroxybutyrate methyl ester (HBME) was prepared from hydrolysis of bacterial poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) using methanol as an esterification agent in the presence of sulfuric acid. Physicochemical and fuel related properties of HBME were studied for the possibility of using HBME as a gasoline additive. When HBME was blended with 97 gasoline in volume ratios of 5%, 8.5%, 10%, 15% and 20%, respectively, it was found that HBME had similar or better properties as a fuel additive compared with ethanol in terms of oxygen content, dynamic viscosity, flash point and boiling point. The blending of HBME and gasoline showed only little difference compared with the 97 gasoline in terms of octane number (RON) and distillation ranges, especially for the HBME 8.5% and 10% blends, which demonstrated an over 93% combustion heat of gasoline with less than 5% reduction in RON. (author)

  12. Environmental effect of antioxidant additives on exhaust emission reduction in compression ignition engine fuelled with Annona methyl ester.

    Senthil, R; Silambarasan, R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to analyse the effect of antioxidant l-ascorbic acid on engine performance and emissions of a diesel engine fuelled with methyl ester of Annona oil (MEAO). The antioxidant is mixed in various concentrations (100-400 mg) with MEAO. Result shows that the antioxidant additive mixture (MEAO+LA200) is effective in control of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and hydrocarbon (HC) emission of MEAO-fuelled engine without doing any engine modification. In this study by using MEAO, the NOx emission is reduced by about 23.38% at full load while compared with neat diesel fuel. Likewise there is a reduction in carbon monoxide, smoke, and HC by about 48%, 28.57% and 29.71% at full load condition compared with neat diesel fuel. PMID:25704338

  13. Chemometric analysis of mass spectra of cis and trans fatty acid picolinyl esters

    Leth, Torben

    1997-01-01

    Capillary GC of fatty acid methyl esters with MS detection only yields information about the molecular weight of the compound. However, if picolinyl esters of fatty acids are analysed in this way it is possible to obtain more information about their structure, perhaps even the cis or trans...... a quadropole MS-detector. The mass spectra clearly show the molecular weight and the position of double bonds in the fatty acids, but whether the configuration is cis or trans is impossible to discern visually. However, with the use of principal component analysis, it is possible to distinguish...... between cis and trans fatty acids of C16:1, C18:1,n-9, C18:1,n-12, C18:2 and C22:1 in two- and three-dimensional score plots. With Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogy (SIMCA), it is possible to calculate models that can predict from the mass spectra of unknown fatty acids whether they are of the...

  14. Cotton methyl ester usage in a diesel engine equipped with insulated combustion chamber

    An important alternative for diesel fuel is methyl ester made of vegetable oils. Direct use these fuels without modification in diesel engines causes some damages on the parts of the engines and also, the viscosity of the methyl ester fuels is quite higher than that of diesel fuel (No. 2D) and their calorific value is lower. Therefore it is not possible to obtain more benefit. Coating combustion chamber parts with a ceramic material seems an effective solution for improving performance of these lower-quality fuels compared with No. 2D and also exhaust emission values. Since it allows to use higher combustion temperatures. In the present study, surfaces of cylinder head, piston, exhaust and inlet valve of a four-stroke, direct injection, single cylinder diesel engine were coated with molybdenum (Mo) by plasma spray method. Thus, thermal barrier characteristic was brought to these parts. Variances in performance and emission values of cotton methyl ester and 2D fuel mixtures were studied in the ceramic coated and uncoated engines under the same running conditions. Performance (up to 2.2-2.3% for engine power, up to 3.5-5.6% for specific fuel consumption) and emission values (up to 17-22% for CO, up to 5.2-10% for smoke) of the test fuels were improved in the coated engine compared with the uncoated engine. However, because the coated engine ran at higher temperatures compared with the uncoated engine, an increase (up to 6.5-7.4%) was seen in NOx emission in cases of all test fuels.

  15. Stereoselective formation of trisubstituted vinyl boronate esters by the acid-mediated elimination of α-hydroxyboronate esters.

    Guan, Weiye; Michael, Alicia K; McIntosh, Melissa L; Koren-Selfridge, Liza; Scott, John P; Clark, Timothy B

    2014-08-01

    The copper-catalyzed diboration of ketones followed by an acid-catalyzed elimination leads to the formation of 1,1-disubstituted and trisubstituted vinyl boronate esters with moderate to good yields and selectivity. Addition of tosic acid to the crude diboration products provides the corresponding vinyl boronate esters upon elimination. The trisubstituted vinyl boronate esters are formed as the (Z)-olefin isomer, which was established by subjecting the products to a Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction to obtain alkenes of known geometry. PMID:24915498

  16. Analysis of. gamma. -radiolysis products of aqueous solutions of esters of aliphatic amino acids by the PMR method

    Panin, V.I.; Sidorov, P.S.; Usatyi, A.F.

    1987-09-01

    The ..gamma..-radiolysis of aqueous solutions of methyl esters of aliphatic amino acids and peptides was investigated by the method of nuclear (proton) magnetic resonance (PMR). The resonance lines appearing in the PMR spectra of the irradiated systems were identified, and a conclusion was drawn about the molecular structure of the radiolysis products. The kinetics of the accumulation of radiolysis products was studied, and the values of their radiation yields were estimated.

  17. Deoxyribonucleic acid methylation in mycobacteria.

    R. Srivastava; Gopinathan, K P; Ramakrishnan, T.

    1981-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid modification in six strains of mycobacteria was investigated. The presence of 5-methylcytosine in the virulent strain Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and its absence in the avirulent strain M. tuberculosis H37Ra and other saprophytic, fast-growing mycobacteria appear to be the salient features. However, deoxyribonucleic acid from M. smegmatis SN2 lysogenized with the temperature phage I3 showed the presence of 5-methylcytosine. All of the strains had N6-methyladenine.

  18. Biodiesel With Optimized Fatty Ester Composition

    Biodiesel is largely composed of the mono-alkyl esters, usually methyl esters, of vegetable oils or animal fats with its fatty acid profile corresponding to that of the parent oil or fat. The different fatty esters have varying properties of relevance to biodiesel. The feedstock-dependent variatio...

  19. Metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids and their tartaric acid esters by Brettanomyces and Pediococcus in red wines.

    Caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids and their corresponding tartaric acid esters (caftaric, coutaric, and fertaric, respectively) are found in wines in varying concentrations. While Brettanomyces and Pediococcus can utilize the free acids, it is not known whether they can metabolize the correspon...

  20. Influence of poly(2-methoxy-5-(2’-ethyl)-hexyloxy-p-phenylene vinylene):(6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester blend ratio on the performance of inverted type organic solar cells based on Eosin-Y-coated ZnO nanorod arrays

    Ginting, Riski Titian [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Yap, Chi Chin, E-mail: ccyap@ukm.my [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Yahaya, Muhammad [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Salleh, Muhamad Mat [Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics (IMEN), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-06-01

    The influence of poly(2-methoxy-5-(2’-ethyl)-hexyloxy-p-phenylene vinylene) (MEH-PPV) and (6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) weight ratio on the photovoltaic performance of inverted type organic solar cell based on Eosin-Y-coated ZnO nanorods has been investigated. Experimental results showed that the photovoltaic performance improved with weight ratio of MEH-PPV:PCBM from 1:1 to 1:3 due to better percolation pathway for electron transport and enhanced infiltration of polymer blend into interspace of Eosin-Y-coated ZnO nanorods. However, the overall performance started to decrease at weight ratio of 1:4 due to the aggregation of PCBM clusters which results in poor polymer blend infiltration. The optimum device at weight ratio of 1:3 exhibited short circuit current density of 3.95 ± 0.10 mA cm{sup −2}, open circuit voltage of 0.53 ± 0.03 V, fill factor of 0.50 ± 0.03, and power conversion efficiency of 1.02 ± 0.07 %. - Highlights: • The device performance increased with donor:acceptor weight ratio up to 1:3. • Aggregation of fullerene-derivative led to poor infiltration at weight ratio of 1:4. • The optimum weight ratio was different from that of conventional device.

  1. Performance of spray deposited poly [N-9″-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4′,7′-di-2-thienyl-2′,1′, 3′-benzothiadiazole)]/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester blend active layer based bulk heterojunction organic solar cell devices

    Bulk heterojunction organic solar cell devices were fabricated using the spray deposited poly [N-9″-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4′,7′-di-2-thienyl-2′,1′, 3′-benzothiadiazole)]/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester blend active layer. The spray coating parameters such as spraying time, substrate-nozzle distance for the deposition of active layers were analyzed. Optical absorption of the active layers was analyzed using UV–visible spectral studies in the wavelength range from 300 to 800 nm. The surface morphology of the active layers deposited with different parameters was examined using atomic force microscopy. Surface morphology of the active layers deposited with the substrate-nozzle distance of 20 cm and for 20 s shows smooth morphology with peak-valley value of 4 nm. The devices fabricated using the selected active layer show overall power conversion efficiency of 1.08%. - Graphical abstract: Current–voltage (J–V) characteristics of spray deposited PCDTBT:PC61BM active layer based solar cell device under illumination of AM 1.5 G, 100 mW/cm2. Highlights: ► Organic solar cells were fabricated using a spray deposited PCDTBT:PC61BM active layer. ► The active layers deposited with spray conditions show flat morphology. ► Using the selected active layers power conversion efficiency of 1.08% is obtained.

  2. Experimental Autoignition of C4-C6 Saturated and Unsaturated Methyl and Ethyl Esters

    Bennadji, Hayet; Coniglio-Jaubert, Lucie; Billaud, Francis; Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique

    2009-01-01

    Autoignition delay times, ?, of methyl crotonate, methyl acrylate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl crotonate, and ethyl acrylate were studied in shock tube experiments. A series of mixtures diluted with argon, of varying fuel/oxygen equivalence ratios (?=0.25, 0.4, 1.0, and 2.0), were measured behind reflected shock waves over the temperature range of 1280-1930 K, pressure range of 7-9.65 atm, during which the logarithm of ? varies linearly as a function of the inverse temperature for all equivalence ratios. The ignition delay time decreases as temperature rises. The dependence of ? on temperature, and reactant concentrations is given in an empirical correlation. The results provide a database for the validation of small saturated and unsaturated esters kinetic mechanisms at elevated temperatures and pressure combustion.

  3. Two New Saccharide Fatty Acid Esters from the Fruit of Morinda citrifolia L. and Their ABTS Radical Scavenging Activities

    Hong-Cai Zhang; Yu Wang; Chun-Miao Yu; Dong-Hua Yu; Ping-Ping Chen; Shu-Min Liu

    2013-01-01

    Two n ew saccharide fatty acid esters (1) and (2), and six other compounds were isolated from the fruit of Morinda citrifolia L. (Rubiaceae) The structures were established as (2E)-oct-2-enoate-2-O-β-D - glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranoside(1), (2E)-2,6-dimethyl -6-hydroxyl-oct-2,7-dienoate-2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranoside(2), saccharumoside C(3), O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-O-β-D-glucopyranosides of 3-methyl-2-butenol(4), 3-methyl-but-2-en-1-yl β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→6)-β-D-glucopyranos...

  4. An experimental study on performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fuelled with tobacco seed oil methyl ester

    Tobacco seeds are a by product of tobacco leaves production. To the author's best knowledge, unlike tobacco leaves, tobacco seeds are not collected from fields and are not commercial products. However, tobacco seeds contain significant amounts of oil. Although tobacco seed oil is a non-edible vegetable oil, it can be utilized for biodiesel production as a new renewable alternative diesel engine fuel. In this study, an experimental study on the performance and exhaust emissions of a turbocharged indirect injection diesel engine fuelled with tobacco seed oil methyl ester was performed at full and partial loads. The results showed that the addition of tobacco seed oil methyl ester to the diesel fuel reduced CO and SO2 emissions while causing slightly higher NOx emissions. Meanwhile, it was found that the power and the efficiency increased slightly with the addition of tobacco seed oil methyl ester. (Author)

  5. Performance and emission analysis of cottonseed oil methyl ester in a diesel engine

    Aydin, Hueseyin [Department of Automotive, Faculty of Technical Education, Batman University, Batman 72060 (Turkey); Bayindir, Hasan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, 21280 (Turkey)

    2010-03-15

    In this study, performance and emissions of cottonseed oil methyl ester in a diesel engine was experimentally investigated. For the study, cottonseed oil methyl ester (CSOME) was added to diesel fuel, numbered D2, by volume of 5%(B5), 20%(B20), 50%(B50) and 75%(B75) as well as pure CSOME (B100). Fuels were tested in a single cylinder, direct injection, air cooled diesel engine. The effects of CSOME-diesel blends on engine performance and exhaust emissions were examined at various engine speeds and full loaded engine. The effect of B5, B20, B50, B75, B100 and D2 on the engine power, engine torque, bsfc's and exhaust gasses temperature were clarified by the performance tests. The influences of blends on CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and smoke opacity were investigated by emission tests. The experimental results showed that the use of the lower blends (B5) slightly increases the engine torque at medium and higher speeds in compression ignition engines. However, there were no significant differences in performance values of B5, B20 and diesel fuel. Also with the increase of the biodiesel in blends, the exhaust emissions were reduced. The experimental results showed that the lower contents of CSOME in the blends can partially be substituted for the diesel fuel without any modifications in diesel engines. (author)

  6. Combustion and Vibration Analysis of Idi- Diesel Engine Fuelled With Neat Preheated Jatropha Methyl Ester

    Y.Ashok Kumar Reddy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Experimentation is conducted on an IDI diesel engine and the results of combustion and vibration on IDI -Diesel engine fueled with the preheated Jatropha Methyl Ester (JME are presented. The Present research trend is to replace conventional diesel by renewable alternative fuels in view of fast depletion of petroleum reserves and to reduce the exhaust emissions from the engines without altering the basic design of the engine. Due to moderately higher viscosity effects, the direct use of biodiesel in C.I. engines is limited to 20% and the limitation is based on the NO emission also. In this work, the biodiesel is preheated using on line electronically controlled electrical preheating system before it enters into the injector. Experiments are conducted on a four stroke single cylinder IDI engine to find combustion and vibration characteristics of the engine with the preheated Jatropha Methyl Ester (JME heated to temperatures viz. 60,70,80,90 and 1000C. Normally thin oils due to heating may trigger fast burning leading to either detonation or knocking of the engine. This can be predicted by recording vibration on the cylinder head in different directions. The cylinder vibrations in the form of FFT and time waves have been analyzed to estimate the combustion propensity. Experiments are done using diesel, biodiesel and biodiesel at different preheated temperatures and for different engine loading conditions keeping the speed constant at 1500 rpm. Biodiesel preheated to 600C proved encouraging in all respects.

  7. Technical feasibility assessment of oleic sunflower methyl ester utilisation in Diesel bus engines

    This paper describes the results obtained while testing the technical feasibility of using oleic sunflower methyl ester (SME) blended with Diesel fuel in proportions up to 30% in an unmodified Diesel bus engine. Vegetable oils methyl esters blended with Diesel oil are commonly used in compression ignition engines. However, R and D background information on the practical use of traditional sunflower oil derivatives is sparse. The present results include evaluation of the engine performance and fuel consumption and gaseous concentrations (CO and NOx) in the exhaust gas. The exhaust gas opacity while using Diesel/SME blends and Diesel fuel was also compared. The collected data show that oleic SME utilisation did not lead to a deterioration of engine performance or to an increase in fuel consumption. Furthermore, significant increases of NOx and CO concentrations in the exhaust gas derived from SME utilisation were not detected. The smoke opacity was slightly reduced when SME was used in the proportion of 30%. The experimental testing seems to indicate that oleic SME is a suitable replacement for Diesel fuel and can be used safely in compression ignition engines in proportions as high as 30%. (Author)

  8. Technical feasibility assessment of oleic sunflower methyl ester utilisation in Diesel bus engines

    This paper describes the results obtained while testing the technical feasibility of using oleic sunflower methyl ester (SME) blended with Diesel fuel in proportions up to 30% in an unmodified Diesel bus engine. Vegetable oils methyl esters blended with Diesel oil are commonly used in compression ignition engines. However, R and D background information on the practical use of traditional sunflower oil derivatives is sparse. The present results include evaluation of the engine performance and fuel consumption and gaseous concentrations (CO and NOX) in the exhaust gas. The exhaust gas opacity while using Diesel/SME blends and Diesel fuel was also compared. The collected data show that oleic SME utilisation did not lead to a deterioration of engine performance or to an increase in fuel consumption. Furthermore, significant increases of NOX and CO concentrations in the exhaust gas derived from SME utilisation were not detected. The smoke opacity was slightly reduced when SME was used in the proportion of 30%. The experimental testing seems to indicate that oleic SME is a suitable replacement for Diesel fuel and can be used safely in compression ignition engines in proportions as high as 30%

  9. The Benzyl Ester Group of Amino Acid Monomers Enhances Substrate Affinity and Broadens the Substrate Specificity of the Enzyme Catalyst in Chemoenzymatic Copolymerization.

    Ageitos, Jose Manuel; Yazawa, Kenjiro; Tateishi, Ayaka; Tsuchiya, Kousuke; Numata, Keiji

    2016-01-11

    The chemoenzymatic polymerization of amino acid monomers by proteases involves a two-step reaction: the formation of a covalent acyl-intermediate complex between the protease and the carboxyl ester group of the monomer and the subsequent deacylation of the complex by aminolysis to form a peptide bond. Although the initiation with the ester group of the monomer is an important step, the influence of the ester group on the polymerization has not been studied in detail. Herein, we studied the effect of the ester groups (methyl, ethyl, benzyl, and tert-butyl esters) of alanine and glycine on the synthesis of peptides using papain as the catalyst. Alanine and glycine were selected as monomers because of their substantially different affinities toward papain. The efficiency of the polymerization of alanine and glycine benzyl esters was much greater than that of the other esters. The benzyl ester group therefore allowed papain to equally polymerize alanine and glycine, even though the affinity of alanine toward papain is substantially higher. The characterization of the copolymers of alanine and glycine in terms of the secondary structure and thermal properties revealed that the thermal stability of the peptides depends on the amino acid composition and resultant secondary structure. The current results indicate that the nature of the ester group drastically affects the polymerization efficiency and broadens the substrate specificity of the protease. PMID:26620763

  10. Preparation of stable 125I cyclic GMP tyrosine methyl ester suitable for 3',5' cyclic GMP radioimmunoassay by HPLC

    Determination of the concentration of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) by radioimmunoassay (RIA) depends upon the availability of suitable radiolabeled tracers and antibody to detect the product. Reverse phase chromatographic techniques can easily separate the reaction products of chloramine-T iodination of succinyl cGMP tyrosine methyl ester. The binding characteristics of the iodination reaction products to anti-cGMP antibody have been determined. Purified succinyl cyclic nucleotide 125I-tyrosine methyl ester binds to cGMP antisera identically as commercially available tracer. The tracer is stable for greater than three months

  11. Phthalic acid esters found in municipal organic waste

    Hartmann, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    Contamination of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) with xenobiotic compounds and their fate during anaerobic digestion was investigated. The phthalic acid ester di-(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) was identified as the main contaminant in OFMSW in concentrations more than half of...... bioavailability, which is enhanced at higher temperature and higher degradation of solid organic matter, to which the highly hydrophobic DEHP is adsorbed. The investigated reactor configuration with a thermophilic and a hyper-thermophilic treatment is, therefore, a good option for CD combining high rate...

  12. Simultaneous Determination of Salicylic Acid, Jasmonic Acid, Methyl Salicylate, and Methyl Jasmonate from Ulmus pumila Leaves by GC-MS

    Zhi-hong Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate are important phytohormones and defensive signaling compounds, so it is of great importance to determine their levels rapidly and accurately. The study uses Ulmus pumila leaves infected by Tetraneura akinire Sasaki at different stages as materials; after extraction with 80% methanol and ethyl acetate and purification with primary secondary amine (PSA and graphitized carbon blacks (GCB, the contents of signal compounds salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate were determined by GC-MS. The results showed that the level of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, methyl salicylate, and methyl jasmonate increased remarkably in U. pumila once infected by T. akinire Sasaki, but the maximums of these four compounds occurred at different times. Salicylic acid level reached the highest at the early stage, and jasmonic acid level went to the maximum in the middle stage; by contrast, change of content of methyl salicylate and methyl jasmonate was the quite opposite.

  13. Neural Tube Defects, Folic Acid and Methylation

    Henk J. Blom

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs are common complex congenital malformations resulting from failure of the neural tube closure during embryogenesis. It is established that folic acid supplementation decreases the prevalence of NTDs, which has led to national public health policies regarding folic acid. To date, animal studies have not provided sufficient information to establish the metabolic and/or genomic mechanism(s underlying human folic acid responsiveness in NTDs. However, several lines of evidence suggest that not only folates but also choline, B12 and methylation metabolisms are involved in NTDs. Decreased B12 vitamin and increased total choline or homocysteine in maternal blood have been shown to be associated with increased NTDs risk. Several polymorphisms of genes involved in these pathways have also been implicated in risk of development of NTDs. This raises the question whether supplementation with B12 vitamin, betaine or other methylation donors in addition to folic acid periconceptional supplementation will further reduce NTD risk. The objective of this article is to review the role of methylation metabolism in the onset of neural tube defects.

  14. Improved synthesis of amino acid and dipeptide chloromethyl esters using bromochloromethane

    Gomes, P; Santos, MI; Trigo, MJ; Castanheiro, R.; Moreira, R.

    2003-01-01

    Peptide chloromethyl esters are important compounds in prodrug synthesis. A simple, mild and efficient method for the synthesis of chloromethyl esters of N-blocked amino acids and dipeptides using exclusively bromochloromethane is reported. These N-blocked amino acid and dipeptide chloromethyl esters react readily with the carboxylic acid group of aspirin and with the sulfonamido group of the antimalarial sulfamethazine, to give the corresponding prodrugs.

  15. Absolute configuration and enantiomeric composition of partially resolved mandelic, atrolactic and lactic acids by {sup 1}H NMR of their (S)-2-methylbutyl esters

    Andrade, Francisco A. da C.; Mendes, Maricleide P. de L.; Fonseca, Neuracy C. da, E-mail: fandrade@ufba.br [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Organica

    2013-06-15

    The mandelic, atrolactic and lactic acid esters of the (S)-2-methyl-1-butanol were examined as diastereomeric derivatives for the stereochemical analysis of the mentioned acids by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) at 300 MHz. The diastereomeric esters showed distinctive signals in the methylenic absorption range (O-CH{sub 2}-CH) of the alcoholic moieties. By spectral analysis at this region, absolute configurations were attributed, chemical shifts of the correspondent pro-(R) and pro-(S) hydrogens from the methylene group of the alcohol moiety were assigned and enantiomeric compositions were determined for the original partially resolved acids. (author)

  16. Absolute configuration and enantiomeric composition of partially resolved mandelic, atrolactic and lactic acids by 1H NMR of their (S)-2-methylbutyl esters

    The mandelic, atrolactic and lactic acid esters of the (S)-2-methyl-1-butanol were examined as diastereomeric derivatives for the stereochemical analysis of the mentioned acids by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) at 300 MHz. The diastereomeric esters showed distinctive signals in the methylenic absorption range (O-CH2-CH) of the alcoholic moieties. By spectral analysis at this region, absolute configurations were attributed, chemical shifts of the correspondent pro-(R) and pro-(S) hydrogens from the methylene group of the alcohol moiety were assigned and enantiomeric compositions were determined for the original partially resolved acids. (author)

  17. Effects of β-cyclodextrins on the enzymatical hydrolysis of chiral dichlorprop methyl ester

    WEN Yue-zhong; ZHOU Shan-shan; FANG Zhao-hua; LIU Wei-ping

    2005-01-01

    The effect of β-cyclodextrins(β-CDs) on the enzymatical hydrolysis of chiral dichlorprop methyl ester (DCPPM) was studied.Four kinds of β-cyclodextrins(β-cyclodextrin, Partly methylated-CD( PM-β-CD), hydroxypropyl-cyclodextrin(HP-β-CD) and carboxymethylcyclodextrin(CM-β-CD) ) were used. Compared with 100% DCPPM in the absence of β-cyclodextrins, the activity of lipase decreased with the increase of β-cyclodextrin and PM-β-cyclodextrin. However, CM-β-cyclodextrin stimulated the lipase activity. The inhibition effect of β-cyclodextrin and PM-β-cyclodextrin on the hydrolysis of DCPPM is affected by many factors other than degree of the methylation blocking the active site of lipase. UV-Vis and Fourier transform infrared(FTIR) spectroscopy studies of the complexation of aqueous DCPPM with β-CDs provide fresh insight into the molecular structure of the complex and explain the effects of β-CDs on enzymatical hydrolysis of chiral DCPPM. Data showed that inclusion complexes had formed by complexation of the CM-β-CD with DCPPM and the solubility of DCPPM was increased in water, which leaded to the increased lipase activity.

  18. Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition by NG-Nitro-l-Arginine Methyl Ester Inhibits Tumor-Induced Angiogenesis in Mammary Tumors

    Jadeski, Lorraine C.; Lala, Peeyush K.

    1999-01-01

    Using a murine breast cancer model, we earlier found a positive correlation between the expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and tumor progression; treatment with inhibitors of NOS, NG-methyl-l-arginine (NMMA) and NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), had antitumor and antimetastatic effects that were partly attributed to reduced tumor cell invasiveness. In the present study, we used a novel in vivo model of tumor angiogenesis using subcutaneous implants of tumor cells suspended in ...

  19. Zeolite-catalysed preparation of alpha-hydroxy carboxylic acids and esters thereof

    2010-01-01

    A process for the production of lactic acid and 2-hydroxy-3-butenoic acid or esters thereof by conversion of glucose, fructose, sucrose, xylose and glycolaldehyde dissolved in a solvent in presence of a solid Lewis acidic catalyst.......A process for the production of lactic acid and 2-hydroxy-3-butenoic acid or esters thereof by conversion of glucose, fructose, sucrose, xylose and glycolaldehyde dissolved in a solvent in presence of a solid Lewis acidic catalyst....

  20. Recent advances in the analysis of the site-specific isotopic fractionation of metabolites such as fatty acids using anisotropic natural-abundance 2H NMR spectroscopy: application to conjugated linolenic methyl esters.

    Lesot, Philippe; Serhan, Zeinab; Billault, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    The full elucidation of the enzymatic mechanisms leading to polyunsaturated ω-3 to ω-5 fatty acids (PUFAs) occurring in plants or microorganisms by analyzing their site-specific isotopic fractionation profiles is a challenging task. Isotropic SNIF-NMR® method is an historical, powerful tool for the determination of ((2)H/(1)H) ratios. However, the absence of accessible isotopic data on the enantiotopic hydrogen sites (CH(2) groups) prevents the study of the enzymatic reaction stereoselectivity. Natural-abundance deuterium (NAD) 2D NMR experiment using chiral liquid crystals (CLC) as solvent is a new tool in this field, overcoming this limitation. In this work, we have explored various possibilities for optimizing the enantio-discrimination properties of CLC by changing the nature of the polypeptide and/or increasing the polarity of the organic co-solvents. We report also the first applications of TMU as co-solvent for preparing enantio-discriminating, homogenous polypeptide mesophases. The various experimental NAD NMR results recorded at an optimal sample temperature are discussed and compared in terms of number of discriminated (2)H sites and magnitude of spectral separation for different PUFAs such as the linoleic and linolenic acids. The comparison of all NMR results shows that optimal results are obtained when CLC mixtures made of poly-γ-benzyl-L-glutamate (PBLG) and high polarity co-solvents are used. As new challenging examples of applications, we report the preliminary analytical results obtained from two ω-5 conjugated linolenic acids: the α-eleostearic acid (9Z, 11E, 13E) and the punicic acid (9Z, 11E, 13Z). NMR data are discussed in terms of molecular orientational ordering parameters and isotopic distribution. PMID:21107978

  1. Toward More “Ideal” Polyketide Natural Product Synthesis: A Step-Economical Synthesis of Zincophorin Methyl Ester

    Harrison, Tyler; Ho, Stephen; Leighton, James L.

    2011-01-01

    A highly efficient and step-economical synthesis of zincophorin methyl ester has been achieved. The unprecedented step-economy of this zincophorin synthesis is principally due to an application of the tandem silylformylation-crotylsilylation/Tamao oxidation-diastereoselective tautomerization reaction that achieves in a single step what would typically require a significant multi-step sequence.

  2. Exhaust Emissions and Fuel Properties of Partially Hydrogenated Soybean Oil Methyl Esters Blended with Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel

    Important fuel properties and emissions characteristics of blends (20 vol%) of soybean oil methyl esters (SME) and partially hydrogenated SME (PHSME) in ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD) were determined and compared with neat ULSD. The following changes in physical properties were noticed for B20...

  3. Preliminary study of used cooking oil methyl ester as an alternative fuel for diesel engine

    An experimental work has been carried out to compare the power performance and exhaust emissions of UCOME with OD on unmodified direct injection, four stroke single cylinder and stationary Robin diesel engine. Used cooking oil was transesterified by using methanol that yields immiscible fraction of glycerol and methyl ester (biodiesel). UCOME was separated by gravity before conducting further testing on its physical, chemical and thermal properties in the laboratory. For fuel power performance analysis, fuel consumption, gross energy input, torque, brake power, BMEP and SFC of the engine were measured and calculated. The analysis showed that at high engine speeds, the engine performances with UCOME are comparable to that of OD. However, UCOME increases specific fuel consumption due to its high specific density. In term of exhaust emissions UCOME showed a net reduction in exhaust emissions of NOx as compared with those of OD. This study has given optimistic information to pave the direction for further research on diesel engine

  4. COMBUSTION ANALYSIS OF ALGAL OIL METHYL ESTER IN A DIRECT INJECTION COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE

    HARIRAM V.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Algal oil methyl ester was derived from microalgae (Spirulina sp. The microalga was cultivated in BG 11 media composition in a photobioreactor. Upon harvesting, the biomass was filtered and dried. The algal oil was obtained by a two step solvent extraction method using hexane and ether solvent. Cyclohexane was added to biomass to expel the remaining algal oil. By this method 92% of algal oil is obtained. Transesterification process was carried out to produce AOME by adding sodium hydroxide and methanol. The AOME was blended with straight diesel in 5%, 10% and 15% blend ratio. Combustion parameters were analyzed on a Kirloskar single cylinder direct injection compression ignition engine. The cylinder pressure characteristics, the rate of pressure rise, heat release analysis, performance and emissions were studied for straight diesel and the blends of AOME’s. AOME 15% blend exhibits significant variation in cylinder pressure and rate of heat release.

  5. Effects of Diary Scum Oil Methyl Ester on a DI Diesel Engine Performance and Emission

    Benson Varghese Babu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is recognized as a clean alternative fuel or as a fuel additive to reduce pollutant emission from CI engine and minimum cost so there is need for producing biodiesel other than from seed oil. In this study the diary waste scum were used as the raw material to produce biodiesel. Scum oil methyl ester (SOME is produced in laboratory by tranestrification process. The properties of SOME thus obtained are comparable with ASTM biodiesel standards. Experiments has been carried out to estimate the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder; four stroke diesel engine fuelled with scum biodiesel and its blends with standard diesel. Tests has been conducted using the fuel blends of 10%, 20%, 30% and 100% biodiesel with standard diesel, with an engine speed of 1500 rpm, fixed compression ratio 17.5 and at different loading conditions. The performance parameters elucidated includes brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, and exhaust gas temperature.

  6. Experimental Analysis and Energetic Evaluation for Mahua Oil Methyl Ester with Diethyl Ether

    Bhanu Pratap SINGH

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical method based on various existing process models has been developed for the performance evaluation of a compression ignition engine by using diesel and Mahua oil as an input fuel. Experimental evaluations of Mahua oil methyl ester/diesel along with diethyl ether were tested on a single cylinder naturally-aspirated indirect-injection diesel engine. The purpose of using diethyl ether with diesel/biodiesel is to control the emission from the diesel engine and to improve its performance. The effect of test fuels at different volumetric proportion and loads are also analyzed on the engine performance and emission. The comparisons of theoretical and experimental results are discussed. Engine performance characteristics predicted by this model are in closer approximation to that of experimental results. Engineering equation solver has been used to validate the model with the experimental results.

  7. Production of sunflower oil methyl esters by optimized alkali-catalyzed methanolysis

    Rashid, Umer; Anwar, Farooq; Ashraf, Samia [Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Moser, Bryan R. [United States Department of Agriculture, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Peoria, IL 61604 (United States); Agricultural Research Service, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Peoria, IL 61604 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    We report the optimization of sunflower oil methyl esters (SOME/biodiesel) production via alkaline catalyzed transesterification of crude sunflower oil and subsequent physical and chemical characterization. The optimum conditions elucidated for the methanolysis of sunflower oil were found to be: methanol/sunflower oil molar ratio, 6:1; reaction temperature, 60 C; and NaOH catalyst concentration, 1.00% (w/w). An optimum SOME yield of 97.1% was achieved. SOME were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). A number of fuel properties of SOME as measured according to accepted methods were found to satisfy nearly all prescribed ASTM D 6751 specifications, where applicable. The results of the present study indicated that SOME could be a potential alternative to other common biodiesels and petrodiesel. (author)

  8. Diesel engine emissions and performance from blends of karanja methyl ester and diesel

    This paper presents the results of investigations carried out in studying the fuel properties of karanja methyl ester (KME) and its blend with diesel from 20% to 80% by volume and in running a diesel engine with these fuels. Engine tests have been carried out with the aim of obtaining comparative measures of torque, power, specific fuel consumption and emissions such as CO, smoke density and NOx to evaluate and compute the behaviour of the diesel engine running on the above-mentioned fuels. The reduction in exhaust emissions together with increase in torque, brake power, brake thermal efficiency and reduction in brake-specific fuel consumption made the blends of karanja esterified oil (B20 and B40) a suitable alternative fuel for diesel and could help in controlling air pollution. (author)

  9. Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine

    N Shrivastava

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Fast depletion of fossil fuel resources forces the extensive research on the alternative fuels. Vegetable oils edible or non edible can be a better substitute for the petroleum diesel. Karanja, a non edible oil can be a potential source to replace the diesel fuel. To investigate the feasibility of Karanja oil as an alternative diesel fuel, its biodiesel was prepared through the transesterification process. The Biodiesel was then subjected to performance and emission tests in order to assess its actual performance, when used as a diesel engine fuel. The data generated for the 20, 50 and 100 percent blended biodiesel were compared with base line data generated for neat diesel fuel. Result showed that the Biodiesel and its blend showed lower thermal efficiency. Emission of Carbon monoxide, unburned Hydrocarbon and smoke was found to be reduced where as oxides of nitrogen was higher with biodiesel and its blends. Keywords: alternate Diesel fuel; Biodiesel; Karanja oil methyl ester; performance and emission

  10. 壳聚糖-聚乳酸及壳聚糖-聚(R)-3-羟基丁酸甲酯共混膜的制备及评价%Preparation and Evaluation of Blended Membrane Consisted of Chitosan and Polylactide or Poly(R)-3-Hydroxybutyric Acid Methyl Ester

    刘弋潞; 谭艳玲; 梁秋志

    2012-01-01

    The blended membrane consisted of chitosan and polylactide (PLA) or poly (R) -3-hydroxybutyric acid methyl ester (PHB) was prepared by the tape casting process. The tensile strength of chitosan-PLA (111, w/w) and chitosan-PHB (1 : \\,w/w) blended membrane were (25.39±1.63) and (23.49±0.43)Mpa with the water absorption rate of (32.65±2.41) % and (33.72±3.11) %, respectively. The degrading rate of the chitosan-PLA blended membrane immersed in the artificial tissue fluid for 45 d was (32.26±0.56) %. It indicated that the membrane could induce the new tissue to regenerate.%用流延法制备壳聚糖与聚乳酸或聚(R)-3-羟基丁酸甲酯共混膜.壳聚糖-聚乳酸(1∶1,w/w)和壳聚糖-聚(R)-3-羟基丁酸甲酯(1∶1,w/w)共混膜的抗拉强度为(25.39±1.63)和(23.49±0.43)MPa,吸水率为(32.65±2.41)%和(33.72±3.11)%.该壳聚糖-聚乳酸膜在人工组织液中浸泡45d后,降解率为(32.26±0.56)%,提示其可诱导新组织再生.

  11. Dissociation of castor oil-induced diarrhoea and intestinal mucosal injury in rat: effect of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester.

    Capasso, F; Mascolo, N; Izzo, A A; Gaginella, T S

    1994-01-01

    1. Castor oil (2 ml orally) produced diarrhoea in rats 1-7 h after challenge, which was associated with gross damage to the duodenal and jejunal mucosa. 2. The injury was accompanied by release of acid phosphatase into the gut lumen, indicating cellular injury. 3. Intraperitoneal injection of the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 2.5-50 mg kg-1 twice), prevented the diarrhoea. The dose of L-NAME (50 mg kg-1) completely blocked the diarrhoea but inc...

  12. Chromatographic, Spectrometric and NMR Characterization of a New Set of Glucuronic Acid Esters Synthesized by Lipase

    Michel Marlier

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An enzymatic synthesis was developed on a new set of D-glucuronic acid esters and particularly the tetradecyl-D-glucopyranosiduronate also named tetradecyl D-glucuronate. Chromatographic analyses revealed the presence of the ester as a mixture of anomeric forms for carbon chain lengths superior to 12. TOF/MS and MS/MS studies confirmed the synthesis of glucuronic acid ester. The NMR study also confirmed the structure of glucuronic acid esters and clearly revealed an anomeric (α/β ratio equivalent to 3/2

  13. Conversion of Oleum papaveris seminis oil into methyl esters via esterification process: Optimization and kinetic study

    Syam, A. M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an acid pre-treatment process and a kinetic study for the esterification reaction of Oleum papaveris seminis oil with methanol in the presence of amberlite 120 as a solid catalyst to convert the oil into methyl esters. Response surface methodology (RSM was applied to optimize the reaction parameters, i.e. reaction time, percentage of the catalyst and volume ratio of methanol to oil. The results revealed that 0.87% w/w of catalyst concentration and 44.70% v/v of methanol to oil ratio provided final free fatty acid (FFA contents of 0.60% w/w at 102.40 min of reaction time. It proved that the contribution of Amberlite 120 in the esterification of FFA was highly significant. The kinetics of the esterification in Oleum papaveris seminis oil with methanol in the presence of the amberlite 120 catalyst were also investigated to establish the reaction rate constant (k, reaction order, and activation energy. The study was performed under the optimized parameters at three reaction temperatures (50, 55, and 60 ºC. The value of k was in the range of 0.013 to 0.027 min-1. The first-order kinetics’ model was suitable for this irreversible FFA esterification with the activation energy of about 60.9 KJ·mol-1.En este artículo se presenta un proceso de pre-tratamiento con ácido, y un estudio cinético de la reacción de esterificación. Se utiliza Oleum papaveris seminis con metanol en presencia de Amberlite 120 como catalizador sólido para la formación de los ésteres metílicos. Se aplicó una metodología de superficie de respuesta (RSM para optimizar los parámetros de la reacción; es decir, tiempo de reacción, porcentaje de la relación de catalizador y volumen de metanol - aceite. Los resultados mostraron que el 0,87% w/w de la concentración de catalizador y 44,70% v/v de metanol en relación al aceite dan lugar a un contenido final de ácidos grasos libres (FFA de 0,60% w/w en 102,40 min de tiempo de reacción. Se demostr

  14. Synergetic deoxy reforming of cellulose and fatty acid esters for liquid hydrocarbon-rich oils.

    Wang, Chao; Sui, Jingjing; Lu, Weipeng; Li, Baopeng; Li, Guoxing; Ding, Yihong; Huang, Yong; Geng, Jianxin

    2015-11-01

    A series of liquid hydrocarbons (alkylbenzenes, alkanes, and alkenes) were obtained by a synergetic deoxy reforming (SDR) process of cellulose and linoleic acid methyl ester (LAME) at 350°C and 4-6MPa in a closed system without external source of hydrogen. The liquid product was obtained with a yield of 15wt% at a LAME/cellulose ratio of 0.2. In contrast, the direct deoxy reforming of cellulose produces oil that contains plenty of phenols and oxygen-containing compounds. Due to the insufficiency of water employed (30wt%), a radical reaction pathway was proposed. Quantum chemical calculations indicate that the radicals from LAME interfere with the reactions of the intermediate products from cellulose, being responsible for the removal of phenols and the formation of hydrocarbons. The SDR process offers an embryonic insight in an alternative technique for preparation of hydrocarbon fuels. PMID:26241841

  15. DESIGN AND SYNTHESIS OF 4-[2’-(5’- NITRO] IMIDAZOLYL BENZOYL (N-METHYL AMINO ACIDS AND PEPTIDES

    PARAMITA DAS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past two decades, a wide variety of bioactive peptides have been discovered. Condensation of heterocyclic moieties viz nicotinic acid, thiazole coumarin, quinolin, furan, imidazole etc. with amino acids and peptides resulted in compounds with potent biological activities. Many of the heterocyclic found to exhibit antifungal, antibacterial, cytotoxic, antineoplastic, insectisidal, antiinflammatory, anthelmintic, tyrosinase inhibitory and melanin production inhibitory activities. Metronidazole, serconidazole, flucanazole are well known marketed drugs. Introduction of D-amino acids and N-methylation of amino acids like tyrosine, valine, alanine etc enhanced antimicrobial activity. Hence an attempt is made towards the synthesis of 5-nitroimidazolyl-benzoic acid derivative of N-methylamino acids and peptide using solution phase technique of peptide synthesis. The method includes the introduction of tert-butyloxy carboxyl group (Boc to amino acids to protect the amino group forming Boc-amino acids .The protection of carboxyl group was done by converting the amino acids into corresponding methyl ester. The protected amino acids were coupled using diisopropylcarbodimide and triethylamine to get protected dipeptides. N-methylation was done by treating with methyl iodide and sodium hydride. The ester group was then removed by lithium hydroxide. The Boc(N-methyldipetide were coupled to amino acids or Boc(Nmethyl dipeptide were coupled to 4-[2-(5-nitroimidazoly]benzoic acids.

  16. Depigmenting Effect of Kojic Acid Esters in Hyperpigmented B16F1 Melanoma Cells

    Ahmad Firdaus B. Lajis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The depigmenting effect of kojic acid esters synthesized by the esterification of kojic acid using Rhizomucor miehei immobilized lipase was investigated in B16F1 melanoma cells. The depigmenting effect of kojic acid and kojic acid esters was evaluated by the inhibitory effect of melanin formation and tyrosinase activity on alpha-stimulating hormone- (α-MSH- induced melanin synthesis in B16F1 melanoma cells. The cellular tyrosinase inhibitory effect of kojic acid monooleate, kojic acid monolaurate, and kojic acid monopalmitate was found similar to kojic acid at nontoxic doses ranging from 1.95 to 62.5 μg/mL. However, kojic acid monopalmitate gave slightly higher inhibition to melanin formation compared to other inhibitors at doses ranging from 15.63 to 62.5 μg/mL. Kojic acid and kojic acid esters also show antioxidant activity that will enhance the depigmenting effect. The cytotoxicity of kojic acid esters in B16F1 melanoma cells was significantly lower than kojic acid at high doses, ranging from 125 and 500 μg/mL. Since kojic acid esters have lower cytotoxic effect than kojic acid, it is suggested that kojic acid esters can be used as alternatives for a safe skin whitening agent and potential depigmenting agents to treat hyperpigmentation.

  17. Determination of characteristic properties of low sulphur IGO (industrial gasoil) and FAME (fatty acid methyl ester) mixtures for application technology; Bestimmung anwendungstechnischer Eigenschaften von FAME (Fettsaeuremethylester) in Heizoel EL mittels einer Pruefapparatur

    Liska, M.; Rheinberg, O. van [Oel-Waerme-Inst. gGmbH, Aachen (Germany); Seehack, S.; Gruen, H.; Lucka, K.; Koehne, H. [Inst. fuer wirtschaftliche Oelheizung (IWO), Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    Hardware-in-the-loop test rigs have been assembled for the investigation of characteristic properties of mixtures of low-sulfur IGO and FAME for application technology. The aim of these test rigs is to differentiate alternative fuels regarding the operational reliability for the use in oil firing systems. Two out of three 20% (v/v) FAME mixtures proofed to be critical as malfunctions due to blockings and deposits occurred. The critical fuels furthermore showed a significant increase in water content, acid number and peroxide number. This shows interdependency between malfunction of burner components and a delectable change of fuel properties. Nonetheless the fuel analytics prior to testing could not be used to predict the fuel quality. An increase of component lifetime could be achieved by the change of the oil tube material from copper to stainless steel respectively the stabilization of the fuel by additives for those alternative fuels proven to be critical. (orig.)

  18. Effects of phthalic acid esters on the liver and thyroid

    The effects, over periods from 3 days to 9 months of administration, of diets containing di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate are very similar to those observed in rats administered diets containing hypolipidemic drugs such as clofibrate. Changes occur in a characteristic order commencing with alterations in the distribution of lipid within the liver, quickly followed by proliferation of hepatic peroxisomes and induction of the specialized P-450 isoenzyme(s) catalyzing omega oxidation of fatty acids. There follows a phase of mild liver damage indicated by changes in incorporation of 3H-thymidine into DNA, by induction of glucose-6-phosphatase activity and a loss of glycogen, eventually leading to the formation of enlarged lysosomes through autophagy and the accumulation of lipofuscin. Associated changes are found in the kidney and thyroid. The renal changes are limited to the proximal convoluted tubules and are generally similar to changes found in the liver. The effects on the thyroid are more marked. Although the levels of thyroxine in plasma fall to about half normal values, serum triiodothyronine remains close to normal values while the appearance of the thyroid varies, very marked hyperactivity being noted 7 days after commencement of treatment, this is less marked at 14 days, but even after 9 months treatment there is clear cut evidence for hyperactivity with colloid changes which indicate this has persisted for some time. The short-term in vivo hepatic effects of the three phthalate esters can be reproduced in hepatocytes in tissue culture. All three phthalate esters, as well as clofibrate, have early marked effects on the metabolism of fatty acids in isolated hepatocytes. A hypothesis is presented to explain the progress from these initial metabolic effects to the final formation of liver tumors

  19. Effects of phthalic acid esters on the liver and thyroid

    Hinton, R.H.; Mitchell, F.E.; Mann, A.; Chescoe, D.; Price, S.C.; Nunn, A.; Grasso, P.; Bridges, J.W.

    1986-12-01

    The effects, over periods from 3 days to 9 months of administration, of diets containing di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate are very similar to those observed in rats administered diets containing hypolipidemic drugs such as clofibrate. Changes occur in a characteristic order commencing with alterations in the distribution of lipid within the liver, quickly followed by proliferation of hepatic peroxisomes and induction of the specialized P-450 isoenzyme(s) catalyzing omega oxidation of fatty acids. There follows a phase of mild liver damage indicated by changes in incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine into DNA, by induction of glucose-6-phosphatase activity and a loss of glycogen, eventually leading to the formation of enlarged lysosomes through autophagy and the accumulation of lipofuscin. Associated changes are found in the kidney and thyroid. The renal changes are limited to the proximal convoluted tubules and are generally similar to changes found in the liver. The effects on the thyroid are more marked. Although the levels of thyroxine in plasma fall to about half normal values, serum triiodothyronine remains close to normal values while the appearance of the thyroid varies, very marked hyperactivity being noted 7 days after commencement of treatment, this is less marked at 14 days, but even after 9 months treatment there is clear cut evidence for hyperactivity with colloid changes which indicate this has persisted for some time. The short-term in vivo hepatic effects of the three phthalate esters can be reproduced in hepatocytes in tissue culture. All three phthalate esters, as well as clofibrate, have early marked effects on the metabolism of fatty acids in isolated hepatocytes. A hypothesis is presented to explain the progress from these initial metabolic effects to the final formation of liver tumors.

  20. Experimental Investigations on the Engine Performance and Characteristics of Compression Ignition (CI Engine Using Dual Bio – Fuel Methyl Ester As Alternate Fuel With Exhaust Gas Recirculation

    Inturi Vamsi,

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum products and resources are limited and their consumption is increasing very fast with globalization and high technology development since last decade. The emissions from the petroleum products polluting the environment considerably. Bio-fuels can be produced from diverse sources, which are subject to local geography, topology and climatology. Hence, every nation will have its own choice of a source. Duel bio-fuel represents an untapped resource of energy easily available in India. This study investigates the potential substitution of duel bio-fuel methyl ester blends for diesel as fuel for automobiles and other industrial purposes. This study is concerned with the analysis of the performance and emission characteristics of the duel bio-fuel methyl esters and comparing with petroleum diesel. The fuels used were neat methyl ester, diesel and different blends of the methyl ester with diesel. The tests were carried out on a 4.4 KW, single cylinder, direct injection, air-cooled diesel engine. The fuels used were neat duel bio-fuel methyl ester, diesel and different blends of the methyl ester with diesel. The experimental result shows that 20% of blend shows better performance with reduced pollution. This analysis shows that duel bio-fuel methyl ester and its blends are a potential substitute for diesel.

  1. Two New Saccharide Fatty Acid Esters from the Fruit of Morinda citrifolia L. and Their ABTS Radical Scavenging Activities

    Hong-Cai Zhang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Two n ew saccharide fatty acid esters (1 and (2, and six other compounds were isolated from the fruit of Morinda citrifolia L. (Rubiaceae The structures were established as (2E-oct-2-enoate-2-O-β-D - glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranoside(1, (2E-2,6-dimethyl -6-hydroxyl-oct-2,7-dienoate-2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranoside(2, saccharumoside C(3, O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6-O-β-D-glucopyranosides of 3-methyl-2-butenol(4, 3-methyl-but-2-en-1-yl β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→6-β-D-glucopyranoside(5, benzyl - glucopyranoside(6, Hexyl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(7, and caproic acid(8. Compound 1 and 2 showed moderate activity against ABTS (2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate radical in concentration of 0.1-3.2 mg/mL.

  2. N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor agonists

    Madsen, U; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Ebert, B;

    1996-01-01

    (R,S)-2-Amino-2-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)acetic acid [(R,S)-AMAA, 4] is a potent and selective agonist at the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) subtype of excitatory amino acid receptors. Using the Ugi "four-component condensation" method, the two diastereomers (2R)- and (2S)-2-[3-(benzylox...

  3. Study on extraction mechanism of scandium (III) with alkylphosphonic acid monoalkyl ester

    The extraction mechanism of Sc(III)from hydrochloric acid solutions with s-octylphosphonic acid mono-iso-octyl ester (PT-19), iso-propylphosphonic acid mono-(1-hexyl-4-ethyl) octyl ester(PT-2) and 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester(P507)in heptane is investigated. The extraction reaction of Sc(III) expressed by the equations of chemical reactions are given. The equilibrium constants and thermodynamic functions of extraction reactions are calculated. The IR and NMR spectra of the extraction complexes of Sc(III) are discussed as well

  4. Occurrence of fatty acid esters of 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD and glycidol in infant formula.

    Wöhrlin, Friederike; Fry, Hildburg; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Preiß-Weigert, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of fatty acid esters of monochloropropanediol (MCPD) and glycidol generated during the refinement process in vegetable fats and oils caused concerns about possible adverse health effects. As these fats are components of infant formula, the current investigation of the MCPD and glycidyl ester contents in infant formula was necessary to update the data for risk assessment purposes. For the analysis of 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD and glycidyl esters in infant formula, an existing method for fats and oils had to be modified and validated. The fat fraction containing MCPD and glycidyl esters was extracted from infant formula by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The extracted fat was then analysed according to an established method for fats and oils. Glycidyl esters are converted to monobrompropanediol (3-MBPD) esters, MCPD and 3-MBPD esters hydrolysed subsequently and after derivatisation detected by GC-MS. Seven different products of infant formula, covering two types and five lots each, altogether 70 samples, were bought in retail markets and analysed. In all samples, 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters could be detected. Both 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters' concentration levels were found to be lower in comparison with earlier investigations described in the literature. The occurrence of 2-MCPD esters in infant formula was investigated for the first time and revealed concentrations about half of 3-MCPD ester concentrations. PMID:26179516

  5. Orthogonal Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Pathway Improves Fatty Acid Ethyl Ester Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Eriksen, Dawn T; HamediRad, Mohammad; Yuan, Yongbo; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-07-17

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) are a form of biodiesel that can be microbially produced via a transesterification reaction of fatty acids with ethanol. The titer of microbially produced FAEEs can be greatly reduced by unbalanced metabolism and an insufficient supply of fatty acids, resulting in a commercially inviable process. Here, we report on a pathway engineering strategy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for enhancing the titer of microbially produced FAEEs by providing the cells with an orthogonal route for fatty acid synthesis. The fatty acids generated from this heterologous pathway would supply the FAEE production, safeguarding endogenous fatty acids for cellular metabolism and growth. We investigated the heterologous expression of a Type-I fatty acid synthase (FAS) from Brevibacterium ammoniagenes coupled with WS/DGAT, the wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme that catalyzes the transesterification reaction with ethanol. Strains harboring the orthologous fatty acid synthesis yielded a 6.3-fold increase in FAEE titer compared to strains without the heterologous FAS. Variations in fatty acid chain length and degree of saturation can affect the quality of the biodiesel; therefore, we also investigated the diversity of the fatty acid production profile of FAS enzymes from other Actinomyces organisms. PMID:25594225

  6. Thermodynamic analysis of a variable compression ratio diesel engine running with palm oil methyl ester

    Highlights: ► Energy and exergy analysis of palm oil methyl ester (POME) run diesel engine. ► Engine was run at various compression ratios (CRs) and injection timings (ITs). ► POME can recover around 26% of the energy supplied by the fuel. ► CR rise and IT change cause shaft energy per unit fuel supply to increase. ► CR of 18 and IT of 20°BTDC reduce more entropy generation. - Abstract: The present work is set to explore the effect of compression ratio (CR) and injection timing (IT) on energy and exergy potential of a palm oil methyl ester (POME) run diesel engine. Experiments are carried out in a single cylinder, direct injection, water cooled variable compression ratio diesel engine at a constant peed of 1500 rpm under a full load of 4.24 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). The study involves four different CRs of 16, 17, 17.5 and 18; and three different ITs of 20°, 23° and 28°BTDC. Here, the CR of 17.5 and IT of 23°BTDC are the standard ones. The energy analysis performed for the experimental data includes shaft power, energy input through fuel, output by cooling water and exhaust, uncounted loss per unit time. Side by side, the effects of varying CR and IT on peak pressure, peak heat release rate, brake thermal efficiency and exhaust gas temperature are also studied. The exergy analysis is carried out for availability input, shaft, cooling water and exhaust availability, availability destruction and entropy generation. It shows that higher values of CR increase the shaft availability and cooling water availability, however, they decrease the exhaust flow availability. The retardation and advancement of IT give similar results. The exergy analysis also shows that with the increase of CR, the injection retardation and advancement increase the shaft availability and exergy efficiency, while it reduces the exergy destruction. The entropy generation is also reduced for the similar CR and IT modifications.

  7. Noncytotoxic and Antitumour-Promoting Activities of Garcinia Acid Esters from Garcinia atroviridis Griff. ex T. Anders (Guttiferae)

    Abdul M. Ali; Nashriyah Mat; Lajis, Nordin H.; Mooi, Lim Y.; Mohidin Amran; Mackeen, Mukram M.

    2012-01-01

    The in vitro antitumour-promoting, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities of two ester derivatives of garcinia acid, that is, 2-(butoxycarbonylmethyl)-3-butoxycarbonyl-2-hydroxy-3-propanolide (1) and 1′,1′′-dibutyl methyl hydroxycitrate (2), that had been previously isolated from the fruits of Garcinia atroviridis Griff. ex T. Anders (Guttiferae), were examined. Based on the inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation, compound 1 (IC50: 70  μ M) showed much higher (8-fol...

  8. Metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids and esters by Brettanomyces in different red wines

    Depending on the cultivars and other factors, differing concentrations of hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids) and their corresponding tartaric acid esters (caftaric, coutaric, and fertaric acid, respectively) are found in red wines. Hydroxycinnamic acids are metabolized by...

  9. Hepatotoxicity, Nephrotoxicity and Oxidative Stress in Rat Testis Following Exposure to Haloxyfop-p-methyl Ester, an Aryloxyphenoxypropionate Herbicide

    Ebenezer Tunde Olayinka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Haloxyfop-p-methyl ester (HPME ((R-2-{4-[3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl-2-pyridyloxy]phenoxy}propionic acid, is a selective aryloxyphenoxypropionate (AOPP herbicide. It exerts phytotoxicity through inhibition of lipid metabolism and induction of oxidative stress in susceptible plants. This study investigated the toxicological potentials of HPME in rats. Twenty-four male Wistar rats (170–210 g were randomized into four groups (I–IV. Group I (control received 1 mL of distilled water, while animals in Groups II, III and IV received 6.75, 13.5 and 27 mg/kg body weight HPME, respectively, for 21 days. There was a significant (p < 0.05 increase in renal and hepatic function biomarkers (urea, creatinine, total bilirubin, ALP, ALT, AST in the plasma of treated animals compared to control. Levels of testicular antioxidants, ascorbic acid and glutathione, and activities of glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase were reduced significantly after 21 days of HPME administration in a dose-dependent manner. The testicular malondialdehyde level increased significantly in the HPME-treated rats relative to the control. A significant decrease in testicular lactate dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase and γ-glutamyl transferase was also observed in HPME-treated animals. Testicular histology revealed severe interstitial edema and sections of seminiferous tubules with necrotic and eroded germinal epithelium in the HPME-treated rats. Overall, data from this study suggest that HPME altered hepatic and renal function and induced oxidative stress and morphological changes in the testis of rats.

  10. Ecological audit of rape seed oil or rape methyl ester as a substitute for diesel fuel (ecological audit rape seed oil)

    The objective of this study is to answer the following central question: Is the environmental pollution burden resulting from the cultivation of rape and the use of rape seed oil or rape methyl ester to be rated less severe than that of the manufacture and use of diesel fuel, and should, therefore, farmland be used in Germany to grow rape for rape seed oil or rape methyl ester production as a substitute for diesel fuel? Firstly, the extent is investigated to which rape seed oil or rape methyl ester can contribute to cuts in emissions of climate-relevant trace gases as compared to diesel fuel from crude oil. Secondly, the environmental impact and hazards associated with the cultivation, transport and manufacture of rape seed oil or rape methyl ester (again as compared to diesel fuel) are investigated. The data analysed relate to the entire life cycle. (orig./UWA)

  11. Synergistic antiviral effect in vitro of azidothymidine and amphotericin B methyl ester in combination on HIV infection

    Hansen, J E; Nielsen, C; Svenningsen, A;

    1992-01-01

    The nucleoside analogue azidothymidine (AZT) and the methyl ester of amphotericin B (AME) were assayed for antiviral effect on HIV infection singly and in combination. Both compounds were effective in inhibiting HIV infection of MT-4 cells. At concentrations where either compound alone had no sig...... synergistic antiviral properties. Amphotericin B itself significantly reduced HIV infectivity in vitro and should not be used as an antifungal agent in cultures intended to propagate HIV....

  12. Influence of Compression Ratio on the Performance and Emission Characteristics of Annona Methyl Ester Operated DI Diesel Engine

    Senthil Ramalingam; Paramasivam Chinnaia; Silambarasan Rajendran

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to find the optimum performance and emission characteristics of single cylinder variable compression ratio (VCR) engine with different blends of Annona methyl ester (AME) as fuel. The performance parameters such as specific fuel consumption (SFC), brake thermal efficiency (BTE), and emission levels of HC, CO, Smoke, and NOx were compared with the diesel fuel. It is found that, at compression ratio of 17 : 1 for A20 blended fuel (20% AME + 80% Diesel) shows better performance a...

  13. Development of Bio-Based Paint by using Methyl Esters from Palm Oil for Corrosion Inhibitor

    Paint is used as a means of protection to prevent surfaces from being corroded over time. This research is focused on the development of a Bio-based paint made from palm oil methyl ester (POME) which originated from crude palm oil (CPO). New formulation paint has been developed to protect the pipeline from corrosion thus reducing the cost of the operation. Bio-based paint is made up of four components which are solvent, binder, additives, and pigment. The solvent in the bio-based paint is POME. The additives used are wetting and dispersing agent. The pigment used in the bio-based paint is TiO2. The formulation was developed by using a constant amount of additives and binder but varying the amount of POME at 10 ml, 15 ml, 20 ml, 25 ml and 30 ml with addition of water. The Standard Testing Methods for measuring the corrosion rate (ASTM G5-94(2011)) was carried out for each sample. In conclusion, it is proven that in the making of bio-based paint formulation for better corrosion inhibitor; the best amount of binder, additives and de-foam that should be used is 20 ml, 10 ml and 10 ml, respectively. (author)

  14. Performance evaluation of common rail direct injection (CRDI engine fuelled with Uppage Oil Methyl Ester (UOME

    D.N. Basavarajappa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available For economic and social development of any country energy is one of the most essential requirements. Continuously increasing price of crude petroleum fuels in the present days coupled with alarming emissions and stringent emission regulations has led to growing attention towards use of alternative fuels like vegetable oils, alcoholic and gaseous fuels for diesel engine applications. Use of such fuels can ease the burden on the economy by curtailing the fuel imports. Diesel engines are highly efficient and the main problems associated with them is their high smoke and NOx emissions. Hence there is an urgent need to promote the use of alternative fuels in place of high speed diesel (HSD as substitute. India has a large agriculture base that can be used as a feed stock to obtain newer fuel which is renewable and sustainable. Accordingly Uppage oil methyl ester (UOME biodiesel was selected as an alternative fuel. Use of biodiesels in diesel engines fitted with mechanical fuel injection systems has limitation on the injector opening pressure (300 bar. CRDI system can overcome this drawback by injecting fuel at very high pressures (1500-2500 bar and is most suitable for biodiesel fuels which are high viscous. This paper presents the performance and emission characteristics of a CRDI diesel engine fuelled with UOME biodiesel at different injection timings and injection pressures. From the experimental evidence it was revealed that UOME biodiesel yielded overall better performance with reduced emissions at retarded injection timing of -10° BTDC in CRDI mode of engine operation.

  15. Effect of exhaust gas recirculation on diesel engine nitrogen oxide reduction operating with jojoba methyl ester

    Saleh, H.E. [Mechanical Power Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mattaria, Helwan University, 9 k Eltaaweniat, Nasr Road, P.O. Box 11718, Cairo (Egypt)

    2009-10-15

    Jojoba methyl ester (JME) has been used as a renewable fuel in numerous studies evaluating its potential use in diesel engines. These studies showed that this fuel is good gas oil substitute but an increase in the nitrogenous oxides emissions was observed at all operating conditions. The aim of this study mainly was to quantify the efficiency of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) when using JME fuel in a fully instrumented, two-cylinder, naturally aspirated, four-stroke direct injection diesel engine. The tests were carried out in three sections. Firstly, the measured performance and exhaust emissions of the diesel engine operating with diesel fuel and JME at various speeds under full load are determined and compared. Secondly, tests were performed at constant speed with two loads to investigate the EGR effect on engine performance and exhaust emissions including nitrogenous oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC) and exhaust gas temperatures. Thirdly, the effect of cooled EGR with high ratio at full load on engine performance and emissions was examined. The results showed that EGR is an effective technique for reducing NO{sub x} emissions with JME fuel especially in light-duty diesel engines. With the application of the EGR method, the CO and HC concentration in the engine-out emissions increased. For all operating conditions, a better trade-off between HC, CO and NO{sub x} emissions can be attained within a limited EGR rate of 5-15% with very little economy penalty. (author)

  16. Effects of trout-oil methyl ester on a diesel engine performance and emission characteristics

    Highlights: ► Maximum engine power was obtained at 2400 rpm for all fuels. ► The maximum torque of engine was obtained at 1500 rpm for blend fuels. ► The BSFC of TOME’s blends became less. ► HC emissions were found to be lower for blends. ► NOx was obtained to decrease in particularly high engine loads. - Abstract: In this study, trout oil methyl ester fuel (TOME) was prepared by transesterification using potassium hydroxide as catalyst. The trout oil and its blends (B10, B20, B40 and B50) were tested in a single-cylinder natural aspirated indirect injection diesel engine. The tests showed significant changes in engine’s power and particularly torque as well as major improvements in the engine emission for B40 and B50 in general, except the increasing of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission due to high combustion temperature resulted by better combustion process. The brake specific fuel consumption of B50 fuel was almost the same as that of diesel fuel at the maximum torque and rated power conditions. Carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon emissions (HC) were reduced around on average 13% and 45%, respectively, in case of TOME compared to diesel

  17. Energy- and exergy analysis of rape seed oil methyl ester (RME) production under Swedish conditions

    Hovelius, K.; Hansson, P. [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering

    1999-10-01

    In this study the rape seed oil methyl ester (RME) production chain was analysed with respect to its energy- and exergy efficiencies. The differences between results from an ordinary energy analysis and an exergy analysis of the production were also quantified and discussed. The sensitivity of the results to changes in some of the most important input parameters were then analysed in order to find production strategies that increase the exergy efficiency. The study was applied to rape seed cultivation situated in southern Sweden. The rape seed oil was hot pressed in a large-scale plant, and the RME was esterified in the same factory as that in which the rape seed oil was pressed. Both direct and indirect energy and exergy flows used for RME production were included. The analysis showed that a large part of the energy and exergy used to produce RME was related to nitrogen fertilizers and diesel fuels. Another important conclusion was that the exergy efficiency of the production in general is higher than the energy efficiency. A third conclusion was that it is possible, by using alternative production strategies, to improve the exergy efficiency without decreasing the energy efficiency.

  18. INFLUENCE OF PALM METHYL ESTER (PME AS AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL IN MULTICYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE

    Mohd Hafizil M. Yasin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is one of the vegetable oil, which is converted to biodiesel through a transesterification process using methanol as the catalyst. Palm oil biodiesel or palm methyl ester (PME can be used in diesel engines without any modification, and can be blended with conventional diesel to produce different proportions of PME-diesel blend fuels. The physical properties of PME were evaluated experimentally and theoretically. The effect of using neat PME as fuel on engine performance and emissions was evaluated using a commercial four-cylinder four-stroke IDI diesel engine. The experimental results on an engine operated with PME exhibited higher brake specific fuel consumption in comparison with the conventional fuel. With respect to the in-cylinder pressure and heat release rate, these increased features by over 8.11% and 9.3% with PME compared to conventional diesel. The overall results show that PME surpassed the diesel combustion quality due to its psychochemical properties and higher oxygen content.

  19. Performance evaluation of a diesel engine fueled with methyl ester of castor seed oil

    G.DURGA DEVI

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engines are widely used as power sources in medium and heavy-duty applications because of their lower fuel consumption and lower emissions of carbon monoxide (CO and unburned hydrocarbons (HC compared with gasoline engines. Rudolf Diesel, the inventor ofthe diesel engine, ran an engine on groundnut oil at the Paris Exposition of 1900. Since then, vegetable oils have been used as fuels when petroleum supplies were expensive or difficult to obtain. With the increased availability of petroleum in the 1940s, research into vegetable oils decreased. Since the oil crisis of the 1970s research interest has expanded in the area of alternative fuels. The difficulties associated with using raw vegetable oils in diesel engines identified in the literature are injector coking, severe engine deposits, filter gumming problems, piston ring sticking, and injector coking and thickening of the lubricating oil. The highviscosity and low volatility of raw vegetable oils are generally considered to be the major drawbacks for their utilization as fuels in diesel engines. Castor methyl ester (CME blends showed performance characteristics close to diesel. Therefore castor methylester blends can be used in CI engines in rural area for meeting energy requirement in various agricultural operations such as irrigation, threshing, indistries etc.

  20. The use of Koroch seed oil methyl ester blends as fuel in a diesel engine

    An experimental investigation was carried out on a small direct injection (DI) diesel engine, fuelling the engine with 10% (B10), 20% (B20), 30% (B30) and 40% (B40) blending of Koroch seed oil methyl ester (KSOME) with diesel. The performance and combustion characteristics of the engine at various loads are compared and analyzed. The results showed higher brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and lower brake thermal efficiency (BTE) for the KSOME blends. The engine indicated power (IP) was more for the blends up to B30, but found to be reduced for the blend B40 when compared to that of diesel. The engine combustion parameters such as pressure crank angle diagram, peak pressure, time of occurrence of peak pressure, net heat-release rate, cumulative heat release, ignition delay and combustion duration were computed. The KSOME blends exhibited similar combustion trend with diesel. However, the blends showed an early start of combustion with shorter ignition delay period. The study reveals the suitability of KSOME blends up to B30 as fuel for a diesel engine mainly used in generating sets and the agricultural applications in India without any significant drop in engine performance.

  1. A study on the fuel injection and atomization characteristics of soybean oil methyl ester (SME)

    The spray atomization characteristics of an undiluted biodiesel fuel (soybean oil methyl ester, SME) in a diesel engine were investigated and compared with that of diesel fuel (ultra low sulfur diesel, ULSD). The experimental results were compared with numerical results predicted by the KIVA-3V code. The spray characteristics of the spray tip penetration, spray area, spray centroid and injection delay were analyzed using images obtained from a visualization system. The Sauter mean diameter (SMD) was analyzed using a droplet analyzer system to investigate the atomization characteristics. It was found that the peak injection rate increases and advances when the injection pressure increases due to the increase of the initial injection momentum. The injection rate of the SME, which has a higher density than diesel fuel, is higher than that of diesel fuel despite its low injection velocity. The high ambient pressure induces the shortening of spray tip penetration of the SME. Moreover, the predicted spray tip penetration pattern is similar to the pattern observed experimentally. The SMD of the SME decreases along the axial distance. The predicted local and overall SMD distribution patterns of diesel and SME fuels illustrate similar tendencies when compared with the experimental droplet size distribution patterns

  2. Exhaust gas assisted reforming of rapeseed methyl ester for reduced exhaust emissions of CI engines

    The nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions of compression ignition (CI) engines fueled with biodiesel are generally higher compared to conventional diesel fuelling. Previous research work in CI engines has shown that the partial replacement of hydrocarbon fuels by hydrogen combined with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) can reduce NOx and smoke emissions without significant changes to the engine efficiency. In the present study, the production of hydrogen-rich gas by catalytic exhaust gas assisted fuel reforming of rapeseed methyl ester (RME) has been investigated experimentally as a way to provide the required hydrogen for the reduction of biodiesel emissions. For comparison, tests with ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) were also performed. The reforming experiments were carried out in a mini reactor supplied with exhaust gas from a single cylinder CI engine. In all cases, the reactor inlet temperature was kept at 290-bar C which was chosen as a typical low exhaust gas temperature of diesel engines operating at part load. The engine operating condition (speed, load) was the same in all the tests and the reactor product gas was examined as a function of the reactor fuel flow rate and the composition of fuel and engine exhaust gas. Up to 17% hydrogen content of the reformer product was achieved and the results indicated that the main reactions in the reformer were the exothermic complete oxidation of part of the fuel and the endothermic steam reforming reaction. Reforming of RME produced more hydrogen with higher fuel conversion efficiency compared to ULSD reforming

  3. THE EFFECT OF KARANJA OIL METHYL ESTER ON KIRLOSKAR HA394DI DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND EXHAUST EMISSIONS

    Sharanappa K Godiganur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels are being investigated as potential substitutes for current high pollutant fuels obtained from the conventional sources. The primary problem associated with using straight vegetable oil as fuel in a compression ignition engine is caused by viscosity. The process of transesterifiction of vegetable oil with methyl alcohol provides a significant reduction in viscosity, thereby enhancing the physical properties of vegetable oil. The Kirloskar HA394 compression ignition, multi cylinder diesel engine does not require any modification to replace diesel by karanja methyl ester. Biodiesel can be used in its pure form or can be blended with diesel to form different blends. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the potential of karanja oil methyl ester and its blend with diesel from 20% to 80% by volume. Engine performance and exhaust emissions were investigated and compared with the ordinary diesel fuel in a diesel engine. The experimental results show that the engine power of the mixture is closed to the values obtained from diesel fuel and the amounts of exhaust emissions are lower than those of diesel fuel. Hence, it is seen that the blend of karanja ester and diesel fuel can be used as an alternative successfully in a diesel engine without any modification and in terms of emission parameters; it is an environmental friendly fuel

  4. Successful treatment of recalcitrant cutaneous sarcoidosis with fumaric acid esters

    Hanefeld Christoph

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease of unknown origin characterized by the formation of noncaseating granulomas, in particular in the lungs, lymph nodes, eyes, and skin. Systemic treatment for cutaneous sarcoidosis can be used for large disfiguring lesions, generalized involvement, or recalcitrant lesions that did not respond to topical therapy. Case presentations We report three patients with recalcitrant cutaneous sarcoidosis who were treated with oral fumaric acid esters (FAE. Three female patients presented with cutaneous sarcoidosis that have proved to be refractory to various therapies, including corticosteroids and chloroquine. We treated the patients with FAE in tablet form using two formulations differing in strength (Fumaderm® initial, Fumaderm®. Dosage of FAE was performed according to the standard therapy regimen for psoriasis patients. After treatment with FAE (4–12 months, a complete clearance of skin lesions was achieved in the three patients. The side effects observed in this trial correspond to the well-known spectrum of adverse effects of FAE (flush, minor gastrointestinal complaints, lymphopenia. Conclusions On the basis of our findings FAE therapy seems to be a safe and effective regimen for patients with recalcitrant cutaneous sarcoidosis. Nevertheless further investigations are necessary to confirm our preliminary results.

  5. ESR investigation of ester π-cation radicals in a freon matrix at low temperatures: evidence for unusual barriers to methyl group rotation and intramolecular bonding

    γ-Irradiation of dilute solutions of a number of esters in CFCl3 at 77 K is shown by ESR spectroscopy to produce the π-cation radicals of these molecules. The π-cations formed are those of the methyl and ethyl formates, acetates, and propionates. Larger esters containing propyl and butyl side chains are suggested to be unstable toward deprotonation at 77 K. Synthesis of deuterium-labeled compounds was employed to assign proton hyperfine couplings to specific sites in the π-cation radicals. The π-cations of the ethyl esters show unusually large couplings to the terminal methyl groups. In addition, large barriers to methyl group rotation are found for both the methyl and ethyl ester cation radicals. The large barriers suggest intermolecular bonding between the alkyl group and the carbonyl oxygen in the ester functional group. Such a hypothesis is supported by the finding of a torsional motion in the terminal methyl group of ethyl formate π-cation which has a ca. 1.7 kcal/mol activation energy barrier. It is suggested that a new intramolecular π*-bond is responsible for the formation of cyclic rings in the methyl- and ethyl-substituted ester cation radicals

  6. Oxidative stability of fatty acid alkyl esters: a review.

    Michal Angelovič

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate and to process the current literary knowledge of the physico-chemical properties of vegetable oil raw used for biodiesel production in terms of its qualitative stability. An object of investigation was oxidative stability of biodiesel. In the study, we focused on the qualitative physico-chemical properties of vegetable oils used for biodiesel production, oxidative degradation and its mechanisms, oxidation of lipids, mechanisms of autooxidation, effectivennes of different synthetic antioxidants in relation to oxidative stability of biodiesel and methods of oxidative stability determination. Knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of vegetable oil as raw material and the factors affecting these properties is critical for the production of quality biodiesel and its sustainability. According to the source of oilseed, variations in the chemical composition of the vegetable oil are expressed by variations in the molar ratio among different fatty acids in the structure. The relative ratio of fatty acids present in the raw material is kept relatively constant after the transesterification reaction. The quality of biodiesel physico-chemical properties is influenced by the chain length and the level of unsaturation of the produced fatty acid alkyl esters. A biodiesel is thermodynamically stable. Its instability primarily occurs from contact of oxygen present in the ambient air that is referred to as oxidative instability. For biodiesel is oxidation stability a general term. It is necessary to distinguish ‘storage stability' and ‘thermal stability', in relation to oxidative degradation, which may occur during extended periods of storage, transportation and end use. Fuel instability problems can be of two related types, short-term oxidative instability and long-term storage instability. Storage instability is defined in terms of solid formation, which can plug nozzles, filters, and degrade engine

  7. Synthesis and characterization of new biodegradable thermosensitive polyphosphazenes with lactic acid ester and methoxyethoxyethoxy side groups

    2010-01-01

    Two novel biodegradable thermosensitive polyphosphazenes with lactic acid ester and methoxyethoxyethoxy side groups were synthesized via the macromolecular substitution reactions of poly(dichlorophosphazene) with the sodium salt of lactic acid ester and sodium methoxyethoxyethoxide.Their structures were confirmed by ~(31)p NMR,~1H NMR,~(13)C NMR,IR,DSC,and elemental analysis.The lower critical solution temperature(LCST) behavior in water and in vitro degradation property of the polymers was investigated....

  8. An intelligent biopolymer gel with pendant L-proline methyl ester

    Linear poly(acryloyl-L-proline methyl ester, A-ProOMe), obtained by radiation-induced polymerization of its monomer in ethanol, exhibits a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) at 14degC. A-ProOMe was copolymerized with a minor amount of 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA) or 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), to obtain intelligent biopolymer gels for application in drug delivery systems. The poly(A-ProOMe/HPMA) gel was characterized by an initial rapid shrinkage at the surface in the swollen state, as resulting in formation of a rigid membrane barrier devoid of micropores. This gel is called a surface regulated matrix. In the case of poly(A-ProOMe/HEMA), no such a barrier formed, instead, the whole matrix shrunk without the disappearance of micropores. This gel is called a matrix pumping gel. Testosterone (T) was incorporated into the poly(A-ProOMe/HPMA) gel, and it was found that the daily dose of T released in vivo from this formulation remained constant at approximately 30 μg/day throughout an experimental period of 54 weeks. On the other hand, 9-β-D-arabinofuranosyladenine (Ara-A) was incorporated into the poly(A-ProOMe/HEMA) gel to evaluate the pulsatile drug release when cycled at 10 and 37degC. The in vitro release rate of Ara-A was found to be 11 ng/h at 10degC and 33 ng/h at 37degC. (author)

  9. Performance evaluation of common rail direct injection (CRDI engine fuelled with Uppage Oil Methyl Ester (UOME

    D.N. Basavarajappa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available For economic and social development of any country energy is one of the most essential requirements. Continuously increasing price of crude petroleum fuels in the present days coupled with alarming emissions and stringent emission regulations has led to growing attention towards use of alternative fuels like vegetable oils, alcoholic and gaseous fuels for diesel engine applications. Use of such fuels can ease the burden on the economy by curtailing the fuel imports. Diesel engines are highly efficient and the main problems associated with them is their high smoke and NOx emissions.  Hence there is an urgent need to promote the use of alternative fuels in place of high speed diesel (HSD as substitute. India has a large agriculture base that can be used as a feed stock to obtain newer fuel which is renewable and sustainable. Accordingly Uppage oil methyl ester (UOME biodiesel was selected as an alternative fuel. Use of biodiesels in diesel engines fitted with mechanical fuel injection systems has limitation on the injector opening pressure (300 bar. CRDI system can overcome this drawback by injecting fuel at very high pressures (1500-2500 bar and is most suitable for biodiesel fuels which are high viscous. This paper presents the performance and emission characteristics of a CRDI diesel engine fuelled with UOME biodiesel at different injection timings and injection pressures. From the experimental evidence it was revealed that UOME biodiesel yielded overall better performance with reduced emissions at retarded injection timing of -10° BTDC in CRDI mode of engine operation.

  10. Improvement of Kidney Apelin and Apelin Receptor in Nitro-L-Arginine-Methyl Ester Induced Rats

    S. Ali Akbar Mahmoody

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: We have investigated the effect of 8 weeks aerobic training (AT and Ferula gummosis supplement (FG on apelin and apelin receptor (APJ, nitric oxide (NO and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE of hypertensive rats. Materials and Methods: In a experimental study, 50 adult male wistar rats were classified into five groups; 1- AT, 2- FG, 3- combination of aerobic training + Ferula Gummosa supplement (TFG, 4- nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME, 5- shame (control groups (SH. The rats in the 1 to 4 groups received L-NAME (10 mg/kg, 6 times a week for 8 weeks. Also, the 1 and 3 groups experienced the training of 15 to 22 m/min for 25 to 64 minutes, 5 times a week for 8 weeks, whereas, the 2 and 3 groups received Ferula gummosis supplement (90 mg/kg, 6 times a week for 8 weeks. However, rats in 5 groups received NaCl solution. Results: At protocols resulted in a significant increase in apelin and APJ as compared to control and L-NAME groups. The TFG protocols resulted in a markedly increase in apelin, APJ and significantly decrease of ACE levels as compared to L-NAME group. Chronically administration of L-NAME resulted increased, ACE, and reduced the levels of apelin, APJ and NO, as compared to control group. Conclusion: The results in this study show that physical regular activity with and without herbal treatment induce amplification in apelin/APJ system and down-regulation blood pressure in L-NAME induced hypertension in the rat kidney tissue.

  11. Pemisahan dan Pemurnian Phthalic Acid Ester dari Minyak Nyamplung

    William Ekaputra Taifan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Minyak nyamplung dikenal sebagai minyak yang tidak dapat dikonsumsi. Oleh sebab itu, penelitian tentang minyak ini hanya fokus pada konversi minyak menjadi biodiesel. Pada penelitian ini, kami berusaha untuk memisahkan resin beracun dari fraksi metanol menggunakan ekstraksi pelarut diikuti kolom kromatografi. Resin beracun ini diidentifikasi sebagai phthalic acid ester (PAE. PAE ini biasanya digunakan sebagai zat aditif di industri polimer. Minyak nyamplung mengandung 1,8% PAE, yang masih jauh melebihi nilai ambang batas. Isolasi PAE dari minyak ini diharapkan dapt mengubah minyak yang tidak dapat dikonsumsi menjadi suplemen makanan yang bernilai. Proses isolasi PAE dimulai dengan memisahkan senyawa yang diinginkan dari lipid menggunakan ekstraksi pelarut bertingkat dengan metanol dan n-heksan. Analisa mass spectra dari fraksi pertama dan fraksi kedua metanol menunjukkan kandungan PAE sebesar 60% dan 6% pada tiap fraksi. Fraksi heksan tidak mengandung PAE. PAE yang terkandung pada fraksi metanol diisolasi lebih lanjut dari asam lemak menggunakan liquid column chromatography dengan n-heksan – etil asetat sebagai mobile phase. Bis- 2ethylhexyl phthalate diidentifikasi pada ketiga fraksi sesuai dengan hasil analisa GC-MS. Fraksi pertama diambil pada kondisi mobile phase 5% etil asetat, sedangkan fraksi kedua merupakan campuran 5% etil asetat dan 10% etil asetat. Fraksi ketiga diambil pada kondisi mobile phase 10% etil asetat mengandung PAE sebesar 98%. Fraksi keempat merupakan campuran 10% dan 15% mobile phase dan mengandung PAE sebesar 97%. Akhirnya, kandungan PAE pada fraksi metanol sebesar 58%. Dari hasil analisa, dapat disimpulkan bahwa mobile phase yang optimum untuk kromatografi adalah 10- 15% etil asetat dalam n-heksan.

  12. Concentration and stabilization of C₂₀-₂₂ n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid esters from the oil of Sardinella longiceps.

    Chakraborty, Kajal; Joseph, Deepu; Joseph, Dexy

    2016-05-15

    Methyl esters of C20-22n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from sardine oil triglycerides were concentrated to 86% purity with greater than 30% recovery by argentated chromatography. The synergistic effect of ethyl acetate fractions of seaweeds Kappaphycus alvarezii, Hypnea musciformis and Jania rubens used in 0.1:0.2:0.2 (%, w/w) ratio in arresting oxidative degradation of the n-3 PUFA methyl ester concentrate was demonstrated during accelerated storage. The induction time (6.8h) and antioxidant activity indices (>24) were greater for n-3 PUFA concentrates supplemented with seaweed extracts than antioxidants BHT and α-tocopherol (<5h and <17, respectively). Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy was employed to study the oxidative changes of fatty acid signals of PUFA concentrate during accelerated storage. Potential of seaweeds to improve the storage stability of C20-22n-3 fatty acid methyl esters was studied. This study has applications in development of food and pharmaceutical products. PMID:26776041

  13. Thermophysical properties of starch and whey protein composite prepared in presence of organic acid and esters

    Previously, we prepared starch and protein composite by reactive mixing in presence of various organic acids and found that use of these acid esters resulted in composites with good mechanical properties. In this study, concentration (% w/w) of acid citrates in the starch-protein composites were var...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10142 - Oxabicycloalkane carboxylic acid alkanediyl ester (generic).

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxabicycloalkane carboxylic acid... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10142 Oxabicycloalkane carboxylic acid alkanediyl... substance identified generically as oxabicycloalkane carboxylic acid alkanediyl ester (PMN P-06-199)...

  15. Selective synthesis of thiodiglycol dicarboxylic acid esters via -TsOH/C-catalysed direct esterification

    Dahong Jiang; Min Huang

    2012-09-01

    The esterification of thiodiglycol and long alkyl-chain carboxylic acids is reported. Reaction of thiodiglycol with carboxylic acid via -TsOH/C-catalysed direct esterification afforded thiodiglycol dicarboxylic acid esters in good yields and chemoselectivity. The use of immobilized -TsOH on activated carbon as catalyst is crucial for the transformation.

  16. Investigations of engine performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine with an oxidation catalyst. Use of rape seed oil methyl ester (RME); Untersuchung des Betriebs- und Abgasemissionsverhaltens eines Dieselmotors mit Oxidationskatalysator. Verwendung von Rapsoel-Methyl-Ester (RME)

    May, H.; Hattingen, U.; Theobald, J. [Kaiserslautern Univ. (Germany); Weidmann, K.; Koenig, A. [Volkswagen AG, (Germany)

    1998-02-01

    Investigations were carried out on a 1.9 ltr. turbocharged swirl-chamber diesel engine fuelled with three different qualities of Rape Seed Oil Methyl Ester (RME) at the University of Kaiserslautern. The RME fuels were supplied by different manufacturers. In comparison with the RME fuels a conventional, low sulphur (S<0.05 wt.%) diesel fuel was studied. (orig.) [Deutsch] An der Universitaet Kaiserslautern wurden an einem 1,9-l-Wirbelkammer-Turbodieselmotor Untersuchungen mit drei unterschiedlichen RME-Qualitaeten durchgefuehrt. Die RME-Kraftstoffe wurden von verschiedenen Herstellern geliefert. Zum Vergleich mit den RME-Kraftstoffen erfolgten Messungen mit einem konventionellen, schwefelarmen Dieselkraftstoff (S<0,05 Mas.-%). (orig.)

  17. PerformanceAndEmissionCharacteristicsOfAVariableCo mpressionRatio Diesel Engine Using Methyl Esters Of Mustard Biodiesel Blends

    K.Basavaraju

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The use ofbiodiesel inconventional diesel engines resultsinsubstantialreductionof unburnedhydrocarbon,carbon monoxideand particulatematters. The performance, emission and characteristics of a single cylinder four stroke variable compression ratio multi fuel engine when fueled with mustard oil methyl ester and its 10%, 20%, and blends with diesel (on a volume basis are investigated and compared with standard diesel. Bio diesel produced from mustard oil by transesterificationprocess has been used in this study. Experiment has been conducted a compressionratios of 14:1, 16:1and 18:1 The impact of compression ratio on fuel consumption, and exhaust gas emissions has been investigated and presented. Optimum compression ratio which gives best performance has been identified. The blends when used as fuel results in reduction of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxides emissions. It is concluded that mustard oil ester can be used as fuel in diesel engine by blending it with diesel fuel.

  18. 富勒烯衍生物苯基C71-丁酸甲酯的结构和电学性质第一性原理研究%First principles calculations of structure and the electronic properties of fullerene derivative phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester

    张竹霞; 赵彦亮; 闫新; 韩培德; 刘旭光; 郝玉英; 许并社

    2009-01-01

    Phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester ([70]PCBM) clusters are investigated by using the B3LYP method with 6-31G(d) basis set. The optimized results indicate that the addition of PCBM into the [6,6]-junction produces a closed methanofullerene which is thermodynamically stable product; and the addition into the [5,6]-junction results in an enlarged fullerene (an open fulleroid) which is a kinetically controlled product. The first adiabatic electron affinity for [70]PCBM is similar to that for C70. The energy gaps of [70]PCBM are reduced compared with those of C70. PCBM derivatives and show increased level of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of fullerenes. From the natural charge populations, it is found that adding PCBM unit onto the C70 cages does not change the charge populations remarkably; attaching a PCBM has no effect on the electronic structures of C70. The results of theoretical calculation suggest that PCBM is not involved in the process of photoelectric conversion but it plays a key role in adjusting the level of HOMO-LUMO for increasing photoelectric conversion efficiencies.%使用B3LYP/6-31G(d)方法对有机太阳电池中作为电子受体材料的富勒烯衍生物苯基C71-丁酸甲酯([70]PCBM)的同分异构体进行了计算.PCBM与C70通过六元环和六元环共用的CC双键加成得到的产物是热力学控制产物;通过五元环和六元环共用的C-C键加成得到的产物则是动力学控制产物.[70]PCBM与C70的第一绝热电子亲和势很接近.PCBM对前线轨道贡献很小,[70]PCBM的最高占据分子轨道和最低未占据分子轨道(LUMO)的电子云主要分布在C70笼上.PCBM提升了C70的LUMO能级水平,有利于提高太阳电池的光电转换效率.自然布居分析表明,PCBM与C70之间没有发生显著的电荷转移.所有的性质研究表明,PCBM基团并不涉及电池光电转换过程,但在调整C70能级水平提高光电转换效率中发挥了重要作用.

  19. Structure-activity relationships of vanillic acid ester analogs in inhibitory effect of antigen-mediated degranulation in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells.

    Ishimata, Nao; Ito, Hideyuki; Tai, Akihiro

    2016-08-01

    Methyl vanillate (1) showed strong degranulation inhibitory activity among vanillin derivatives tested. In order to find structure-activity relationships for developing anti-allergic agents with simple structures and potent activity, we synthesized several vanillic acid (VA) ester derivatives with C1-C4 and C8 alkyl chains and evaluated their degranulation inhibitory activities. The most active compound of VA ester derivatives was derivative 5 with a C4 straight alkyl chain, and derivative 5 exhibited approximately three-fold greater inhibitory activity than that of 1. Moreover, we designed 8 types of analogs based on 5, and we found that the minimum structure for potent degranulation inhibitory activity requires direct connection of the butyl ester moiety on the benzene ring and at least one hydroxyl group on the benzene ring. Butyl meta or para hydroxyl benzoate (10 or 11) has a simpler structure than that of 5 and exhibited more potent degranulation inhibitory activity than that of 5. PMID:27324979

  20. Construction of combustion models for rapeseed methyl ester bio-diesel fuel for internal combustion engine applications.

    Golovitchev, Valeri I; Yang, Junfeng

    2009-01-01

    Bio-diesel fuels are non-petroleum-based diesel fuels consisting of long chain alkyl esters produced by the transesterification of vegetable oils, that are intended for use (neat or blended with conventional fuels) in unmodified diesel engines. There have been few reports of studies proposing theoretical models for bio-diesel combustion simulations. In this study, we developed combustion models based on ones developed previously. We compiled the liquid fuel properties, and the existing detailed mechanism of methyl butanoate ester (MB, C(5)H(10)O(2)) oxidation was supplemented by sub-mechanisms for two proposed fuel constituent components, C(7)H(16) and C(7)H(8)O (and then, by mp2d, C(4)H(6)O(2) and propyne, C(3)H(4)) to represent the combustion model for rapeseed methyl ester described by the chemical formula, C(19)H(34)O(2) (or C(19)H(36)O(2)). The main fuel vapor thermal properties were taken as those of methyl palmitate C(19)H(36)O(2) in the NASA polynomial form of the Burcat database. The special global reaction was introduced to "crack" the main fuel into its constituent components. This general reaction included 309 species and 1472 reactions, including soot and NO(x) formation processes. The detailed combustion mechanism was validated using shock-tube ignition-delay data under diesel engine conditions. For constant volume and diesel engine (Volvo D12C) combustion modeling, this mechanism could be reduced to 88 species participating in 363 reactions. PMID:19409477

  1. Synthesis and Structural Characterization of 1- and 2-Substituted Indazoles: Ester and Carboxylic Acid Derivatives

    Isabel Bento; Teresa Duarte, M.; M. João M. Curto; Inês F. Antunes; Hélène Ramos; Fátima C. Teixeira

    2006-01-01

    A series of indazoles substituted at the N-1 and N-2 positions with ester-containing side chains -(CH2)nCO2R of different lengths (n = 0-6, 9, 10) are described.Nucleophilic substitution reactions on halo esters (X(CH2)nCO2R) by 1H-indazole inalkaline solution lead to mixtures of N-1 and N-2 isomers, in which the N-1 isomerpredominates. Basic hydrolysis of the ester derivatives allowed the synthesis of thecorresponding indazole carboxylic acids. All compounds were fully characterised bymultin...

  2. Enzymatic synthesis of oligo- and polysaccharide fatty acid esters

    Broek, van den L.A.M.; Boeriu, C.G.

    2013-01-01

    Amphiphilic oligo- and polysaccharides (e.g. polysaccharide alkyl or alkyl-aryl esters) form a new class of polymers with exceptional properties. They function as polymeric surfactants, whilst maintaining most of the properties of the starting polymeric material such as emulsifying, gelling, and fil

  3. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester in various food products and formulations.

    Fox, L; Anthony, G D; Lau, E P

    1976-09-01

    A simple, rapid, and specific high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) procedure is described for the analysis of the chemical sweetener L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester (aspartame). Using a strong cation exchange column and pressures less than 1000 psig, an analysis can be performed in less than 15 min. The technique has been applied to a wide range of food products and formulations. No interferences were found in the samples studied. Recoveries are quantitative, and the coefficients of variation for replicate analyses are less than or equal to 2.5%. PMID:965327

  4. Synthesis of [2H13]heptanoic acid via the desulfurization of methyl 3-chloro-5,6-dibromothieno[3,2,b]thiophene-2-carboxylate with nickel-aluminium alloy in NaOD-D2O solution

    [2H13]Heptanoic acid was synthesized as its methyl ester (deuterium content: 96%) with Ni-Al alloy in 10% NaOD-D2O via the desulfurization of methyl 3-chloro-5,6-dibromothieno[3,2,b]thiophene-2-carboxylate, which was derived from 4,5-dibromothiphene-2-carboaldehyde in two steps. (author)

  5. Myo-inositol esters of indole-3-acetic acid are endogenous components of Zea mays L. shoot tissue

    Chisnell, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol esters have been demonstrated to be endogenous components of etiolated Zea mays shoots tissue. This was accomplished by comparison of the putative compounds with authentic, synthetic esters. The properties compared were liquid and gas-liquid chromatographic retention times and the 70-ev mass spectral fragmentation pattern of the pentaacetyl derivative. The amount of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol esters in the shoots was determined to be 74 nanomoles per kilogram fresh weight as measured by isotope dilution, accounting for 19% of the ester indole-3-acetic acid of the shoot. This work is the first characterization of an ester conjugate of indole-3-acetate acid from vegetative shoot tissue using multiple chromatographic properties and mass spectral identification. The kernel and the seedling shoot both contain indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol esters, and these esters comprise approximately the same percentage of the total ester content of the kernel and of the shoot.

  6. Systematic evaluation of methyl ester bioisosteres in the context of developing alkenyldiarylmethanes (ADAMs) as non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) for anti-HIV-1 chemotherapy.

    Hoshi, Ayako; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Takayama, Jun; Xuan, Meiyan; Okazaki, Mari; Hartman, Tracy L; Buckheit, Robert W; Pannecouque, Christophe; Cushman, Mark

    2016-07-01

    The alkenyldiarylmethanes (ADAMs) are a class of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) targeting HIV-1. Four chemically and metabolically stabilized ADAMs incorporating N-methoxyimidoyl halide replacements of the methyl esters of the lead compound were previously reported. In this study, twenty-five new ADAMs were synthesized in order to investigate the biological consequences of installing nine different methyl ester bioisosteres at three different locations. Attempts to define a universal rank order of methyl ester bioisosteres and discover the 'best' one in terms of inhibitory activity versus HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) led to the realization that the potencies are critically dependent on the surrounding structure at each location, and therefore the definition of universal rank order is impossible. This investigation produced several new non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in which all three of the three methyl esters of the lead compound were replaced by methyl ester bioisosteres, resulting in compounds that are more potent as HIV-1 RT inhibitors and antiviral agents than the lead compound itself and are expected to also be more metabolically stable than the lead compound. PMID:27234889

  7. Associations between Serum Perfluoroalkyl Acids and LINE-1 DNA Methylation

    Watkins, Deborah J; Wellenius, Gregory A; Butler, Rondi A.; Bartell, Scott M; Fletcher, Tony; Kelsey, Karl T.

    2013-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are persistent, synthetic compounds that are used in a number of consumer products. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been associated with cardiovascular risk factors, and changes in gene expression and DNA methylation in animals and cellular systems. However, whether PFAA exposure is associated with LINE-1 DNA methylation, a potential marker of cardiovascular risk, in humans remains unknown. We sought to evaluate the cross-se...

  8. Novel Approach: Tungsten Oxide Nanoparticle as a Catalyst for Malonic Acid Ester Synthesis via Ozonolysis

    Bilal A. Wasmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malonic acid ester was synthesized via the one-step ozonolysis of palm olein. Malonic acid ester was spectroscopically characterized using gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. Tungsten oxide nanoparticles were used as the catalyst, which was characterized via X-ray powder diffraction (XRD and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM. Tungsten oxide provided several advantages as a catalyst for the esterification malonic acid such as simple operation for a precise ozonation method, an excellent yield of approximately 10%, short reaction times of 2 h, and reusability due to its recyclability.

  9. The oxidative stability of rapeseed oil methyl and ethyl esters - environment friendly alternative fuel

    The oxidative stability of rapeseed oil and bio diesel fuel RME and REE, produced from it, has been determined. The addition of antioxidant BHT essentially prolongs the utility term of oil and its esters. (authors)

  10. 40 CFR 721.7770 - Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt.

    2010-07-01

    ... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7770 Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid...) The chemical substance identified as alkyl phenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene)...

  11. Plasma Cholesterol Ester Fatty Acids: A New Biochemical Abnormality in Obstructive Jaundice

    Scriven, M. W.; Horrobin, D. F.; Puntis, M. C. A.

    1995-01-01

    Changes in fatty acid patterns may explain many of the observed abnormalities found in obstructive jaundice. This study looked at fatty acids in plasma cholesterol esters, in a group of patients with obstructive jaundice and a matched group of controls. Significant abnormalities were demonstrated, most importantly a fall in essential fatty acids, in the jaundiced group. Overall the saturation of this fraction, as assessed by double bond index, rose. The essential fatty acids ar...

  12. Energetic balance of castor oil methyl and ethyl esters; Balanco energetico de esteres metilicos e etilicos de oleo de mamona

    Almeida Neto, Jose Adolfo de; Cruz, Rosenira Serpa da; Alves, Jaenes Miranda; Pires, Monica de Moura; Robra, Sabine [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilheus BA (Brazil). Grupo Bioenergia e Meio Ambiente]. E-mails: jalmeida@uesc.br; Parente Junior, Expedito [Tecnologias Bioenergeticas Ltda. (TECBIO), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Fundacao Nucleo de Tecnologia Industrial (NUTEC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)]. E-mail: expeditojr@tecbio.com.br

    2004-07-01

    Castor oil (Ricinus communis L.) is one of the cultures chosen by the biodiesel federal and state programs to supply raw material for biodiesel production - a biofuel indicated as renewable and less pollutant than its fossil competitor. An energetic balance was performed based on LCA - Life Cycle Analysis principles and Input-Output Analysis, comparing the castor oil energy performance with others traditional cultures: colza (Brassica napus) in Europe and soybean (Glycine max) in the United States. Energy balance (O-I) was positive in both production ways (methyl and ethyl) independent of coproduct use allocation alternative. The relation Output-Input (O-I) calculated for castor oil biodiesel [1.3-2.9] was higher than the colza (1.2-1.9) and lower than the soybean (3.2--3.4), independent of the way and allocation of the used byproduct. Both indicators suggest the energy and environmental viability of the castor oil biodiesel, provided that high agricultural productivity (higher than 1.500 kg/ha year) can be guaranteed. The potentialization of the positive energetic and environmental effects depends on the adequate utilization of the coproducts and process residues, the improvement of the energy efficiency in the the castor oil and biodiesel processing and the implementation of efficient management in the use of the chemical inputs (specially the N), responsible for up 5% of the total energy input.

  13. Green Synthesis Process of Ibuprofen Methyl Ester%布洛芬甲酯的绿色合成工艺

    曹雅晴; 汤鲁宏

    2013-01-01

    An environmentally benign process has been established for the production of ibuprofen methyl ester,with ibuprofen and methanol as reactants,p-toluene sulfonic acid(PTSA) as catalyst,and glycerol as the adsorbent of water and the solvent of catalyst. The immiscibility of glycerol and ibuprofen methyl ester was exploited in this benign process. The chromatography was used to isolate the products. For the whole process, there was no discharge of effluent either during the process of synthesis or that of the purification. The reaction conditions have been optimized as follows; the optimal molar ratio of reactants was n( ibuprofen) -n( methanol) :n{ glycerol) = 1:10. 2:1. 4;the optimal amount of PTSA was 1 % of ibuprofen; the optimal reaction time was 4 h; and the optimum stirring speed was 300 r/min. Under the optimized conditions, the conversion rate could reach 97. 1 % , and the yield was more than 95%. Detected by LC/MS, the purity of ibuprofen methyl ester was 99. 9%.%以布洛芬和甲醇为原料,以对甲苯磺酸为催化剂,以甘油作为吸水剂和催化剂分离的溶剂,利用甘油与布洛芬甲酯可自动分层的特性,辅以柱色谱分离,建立了一种布洛芬甲酯的绿色合成工艺.整个工艺路线无三废产生.合成条件经正交实验优化,确定了最佳反应条件:反应体系的最佳组成为n(布洛芬)∶n(甲醇)∶n(甘油)=1∶10.2∶1.4,催化剂对甲苯磺酸的最佳添加量为布洛芬质量的1%,最佳转速为300 r/min,最佳反应时间为4h,在该条件下转化率可达97.1%,得率大于95.0%.经液相-质谱联用(LC/MS)检测,色谱纯度为99.9%.

  14. Thermodynamic analysis of fatty acid esterification for fatty acid alkyl esters production

    The development of renewable energy source alternatives has become a planet need because of the unavoidable fossil fuel scarcity and for that reason biodiesel production has attracted growing interest over the last decade. The reaction yield for obtaining fatty acid alkyl esters varies significantly according to the operating conditions such as temperature and the feed reactants ratio and thus investigation of the thermodynamics involved in such reactional systems may afford important knowledge on the effects of process variables on biodiesel production. The present work reports a thermodynamic analysis of fatty acid esterification reaction at low pressure. For this purpose, Gibbs free energy minimization was employed with UNIFAC and modified Wilson thermodynamic models through a nonlinear programming model implementation. The methodology employed is shown to reproduce the most relevant investigations involving experimental studies and thermodynamic analysis.

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Esters Derived from Ricinoleic Acid and Evaluation of their Low Temperature Property

    A series of ester compounds derived from ricinoleic acid to be used as bio lubricants base stock have been synthesized. The resulting products were confirmed by FTIR and NMR analyses. The synthesis was carried out in three stages: epoxidation of ricinoleic acid; synthesis of 10,12-dihydroxy-9-acyloxy stearic acid from epoxidized ricinoleic acid with various fatty acids and esterification of the acyloxy stearic acid products with octanol to yield octyl-10,12-dihydroxy-9-acyloxy stearate. The viscosities, flash points and pour points (PP) behavior of the products were measured. The resulting esters had an increased in molar weight and viscosity and decreased in pour points as compared to ricinoleic acid. (author)

  16. Performance, Emissions and Combustion Characteristics of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Fuelled with Blends of Jatropha Methyl Ester and Diesel

    Debasish Padhee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the energy requirements, there has been growing interest in alternative fuels like biodiesels, ethyl alcohol, biogas, hydrogen and producer gas to provide a suitable diesel substitute for internal combustion engines. An experimental investigation was performed to study the performance, emissions and combustion characteristics of diesel engine fuelled with blends of Jatropha methyl ester and diesel. In the present work three different fuel blends of Jatropha methyl ester (B10, B20, B40 and B100 were used. The increments in load on the engine increase the brake thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature and lowered the brake specific fuel consumption. The biodiesel blends produce lower carbon monoxide & unburned hydrocarbon emission and higher carbon dioxide & oxides of nitrogen than neat diesel fuel. From the results it was observed that the ignition delays decreased with increase in concentration of biodiesel in biodiesel blends with diesel. The combustion characteristics of single-fuel for biodiesel and diesel have similar combustion pressure and HRR patterns at different engine loads but it was observed that the peak cylinder pressure and heat release rate were lower for biodiesel blends compared to those of diesel fuel combustion.

  17. PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION STUDIES ON DI-DIESEL ENGINE FUELED WITH PONGAMIA METHYL ESTER INJECTION AND METHANOL CARBURETION

    HARIBABU, N.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The target of the present study is to clarify ignition characteristics, combustion process and knock limit of methanol premixture in a dual fuel diesel engine, and also to improve the trade-off between NOx and smoke markedly without deteriorating the high engine performance. Experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance and emission characteristics of direct injection diesel engine operating in duel fuel mode using Pongamia methyl ester injection and methanol carburetion. Methanol is introduced into the engine at different throttle openings along with intake air stream by a carburetor which is arranged at bifurcated air inlet. Pongamia methyl ester fuel was supplied to the engine by conventional fuel injection. The experimental results show that exhaust gas temperatures are moderate and there is better reduction of NOx, HC, CO and CO2 at methanol mass flow rate of 16.2 mg/s. Smoke level was observed to be low and comparable. Improved thermal efficiency of the engine was observed.

  18. Synthesis and Photodynamic Activities of Pyrazolyl and Cyclopropyl Derivatives of Purpurin-18 Methyl Ester and Purpurin-18-N-butylimide

    The synthesis of new pyrazolyl and cyclopropyl derivatives of purpurin-18 methyl ester and purpurin-18-N-butylimide 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b and 8 is described. The new compounds were characterized by NMR, UV-vis spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. UV-vis spectra of the new compounds showed long wavelength absorption of ranges 692 - 708 nm (λmax). Photodynamic effects of the chlorin derivatives 1a, 1b, 2a and 2b were investigated by WST-1 assay in A549 cells, and showed good photodynamic activities with high photocytotoxicity and low cytotoxicity in the dark. In comparison between pyrazolyl and cyclopropyl derivatives, purpurin-18 methyl ester compounds 1a and 1b showed comparable photocytotoxicity result of the cell viabilities, otherwise, pyrazolyl derivative of purpurin-18-N-butylimide 2a showed better cell viabilities than those of cyclopropyl derivative 2b. And cyclopropyl derivative of purpurin-18-N-butylimide 2b showed higher dark cytotoxicity than that of others

  19. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CASTOR AND JATROPHA OIL SOURCE AND ITS METHYL ESTER TEST ON THE DIESEL ENGINE

    DEVENDRA VASHIST,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Neat non-edible oils pose problems when subjected to use when used in the CI engines. These problems are attributed to high viscosity, low volatility and polyunsaturated character of these oils. Two non-edible sources of the oils were identified i.e jatropha and castor. The biodiesel was prepared from neat oils and blends preparedwith diesel. up till 20 percent of biodiesel. Produced blends were tested for their use as a substitute fuel for diesel in a single cylinder diesel engine at varying loads. The best engine operating condition based on lower brake specific fuel consumption and higher brake thermal efficiency were identified and compared. On the observed data for both the fuels, Chi square (2 statistical test was applied. The values calculated for 2 jatropha oil methyl ester (JOME = 0.0104 and 2 castor oil methyl ester (COME = 0.0524. The values concluded that there is no effect of fuel type on fuel consumption up till 20 percent biodiesel blended fuel.

  20. Unsaturated Fatty Acid Esters Metathesis Catalyzed by Silica Supported WMe5

    Riache, Nassima

    2015-11-14

    Metathesis of unsaturated fatty acid esters (FAEs) by silica supported multifunctional W-based catalyst is disclosed. This transformation represents a novel route towards unsaturated di-esters. Especially, the self-metathesis of ethyl undecylenate results almost exclusively on the homo-coupling product whereas with such catalyst, 1-decene gives ISOMET (isomerization and metathesis olefin) products. The olefin metathesis in the presence of esters is very selective without any secondary cross-metathesis products demonstrating that a high selective olefin metathesis could operate at 150 °C. Additionally, a cross-metathesis of unsaturated FAEs and α-olefins allowed the synthesis of the corresponding ester with longer hydrocarbon skeleton without isomerisation.

  1. Structure-activity relationship studies of new rifamycins containing l-amino acid esters as inhibitors of bacterial RNA polymerases.

    Czerwonka, Dominika; Domagalska, Joanna; Pyta, Krystian; Kubicka, Marcelina M; Pecyna, Paulina; Gajecka, Marzena; Przybylski, Piotr

    2016-06-30

    New rifamycins (1-12) combined with different l-amino acids, containing methyl, ethyl, tert-butyl and benzyl groups at the ester part, via amine linkage, were synthesized and their structures in solution were determined by spectroscopic FT-IR and 1D and 2D NMR methods as well as visualized by DFT calculations. Two types of rifamycin structures were detected in solution: a zwitterionic one with the transferred proton from O(8)H phenol to secondary N(38) atom and a pseudocyclic structure stabilized via formation of intramolecular H-bond within the protonated basic C(3)-substituent. The presence of these rifamycins' structures influenced physico-chemical (logP, solubility) parameters and antibacterial properties. The bulkiness at the ester substituent of new rifamycins containing aromatic l-amino acids was found to be an important factor, besides the solubility, to achieve relatively high antibacterial activity against reference S. epidermidis and reference S. aureus and MRSA strains (MICs 0.016-0.063 μg/mL), comparable to that of rifampicin. SAR for the novel derivatives was discussed in view of the calculated structures of rifamycin-RNAP complexes. PMID:27061985

  2. Low-temperature side-chain cleavage and decarboxylation of polythiophene esters by acid catalysis

    Søndergaard, Roar; Norrman, Kion; Krebs, Frederik C

    2012-01-01

    substituents have been examined by TGA‐MS using different sulphonic acids. A substantial lowering of the cleavage temperature is observed, and the ester cleavage can even be performed in situ on roll‐to‐roll‐coated films on polyethylene terephthalate (PET). © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A......Solubility switching of polymers is very useful in thin layer processing of conjugated polymers, as it allows for multilayer processing and increases the stability of the polymer. Acid catalyzed thermocleavage of ester groups from thiophene polymers carrying primary, secondary, and tertiary......: Polym Chem, 2012...

  3. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of straight-chain primary aliphatic alcohols/aldehydes/acids, acetals and esters with esters containing saturated alcohols and acetals containing saturated aldehydes (chemical group 1 when used as flavourings for all animal species

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical group 1 (CG 1 consists of straight-chain primary aliphatic alcohols/aldehydes/acids, acetals and esters with esters containing saturated alcohols and acetals containing saturated aldehydes of which 86 are currently authorised for use as flavours in food. The FEEDAP Panel was unable to perform an assessment of ethyl oleate because of its insufficient purity. The following compounds are considered to be safe for all animal species at the use level proposed for feed flavourings: formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, octanoic acid, decanoic acid, dodecanoic acid, tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, oleic acid, decanol, dodecanol, decyl acetate and dodecyl acetate. The remaining substances are considered safe for all animal species at 5 mg/kg complete feed (with a margin of safety between 1 and 120 and at 25 mg/kg complete feed (ethyl acetate and hexyl acetate, with a margin of safety between 2 and 6; and at 1 mg/kg complete feed for pigs and poultry and 1.5 mg/kg complete feed for all other species (ethylacrylate, ethyl hex-3-enoate, ethyl trans-2-butenoate, ethyl isobutyrate, ethyl isovalerate, butyl isovalerate, methyl isovalerate, hexyl isobutyrate, methyl 2-methyl butyrate, pentyl isovalerate, butyl 2-methyl butyrate, hexyl isovalerate, ethyl 2-methyl butyrate, hexyl 2-methyl butyrate and methyl 2-methylvalerate. No safety concern would arise for the consumer from the use of compounds belonging to CG 1 up to the highest safe level in feedingstuffs for all animal species. The FEEDAP Panel considers it prudent to treat all compounds under assessment as irritants to skin, eyes and respiratory tract and as skin sensitizers. No risk for the safety for the environment is foreseen. Since all 85 compounds are used in food as flavourings, no further demonstration of efficacy is necessary.

  4. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of 4-(4,6-Dimethoxylpyrimidin-2-yl)-3-thiourea Carboxylic Acid Ethyl Ester

    ZHANG Yang; HUANG Jie; SONG Ji-Rong; REN Ying-Hui; XU Kang-Zhen

    2008-01-01

    4-(4,6-Dimethoxyl-pyrimidin-2-yl)-3-thiourea carboxylic acid ethyl ester was synthesized by the reaction of 2-amino-4,6-dimethoxyl pyrimidine,potassium thiocyanate and methyl chloroformate in ethyl acetate.Single crystals suitable for X-ray measurement were obtained by recrystallization with the solvent of dimethyl formamidc at room temperature.The crystal structure was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis.Crystallographic data:C10H14N4O4S,Mr=286.31,monoclinic,space group C2/c with a=2.5309(3),b=0.67682(6),c=1.74237(19)nm,β=114.744(3)°,V=2.7106(5)nm3,Dc=1.403 g/cm3,μ=0.225mm-1,F(000)=1200,Z=8,R=0.0514 and wR=0.1529.

  5. Study on Synthesis, Characterization and Antiproliferative Activity of Novel Diisopropylphenyl Esters of Selected Fatty Acids.

    Reddy, Yasa Sathyam; Kaki, Shiva Shanker; Rao, Bala Bhaskara; Jain, Nishant; Vijayalakshmi, Penumarthy

    2016-01-01

    The present study describes the synthesis, characterization and evaluation of antiproliferative activity of novel diisopropylphenyl esters of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), valproic acid (VA), butyric acid (BA) and 2-ethylhexanoic acid (2-EHA). These esters were chemically synthesized by the esterification of fatty acids with 2,6-diisopropylphenol and 2,4-diisopropylphenol (propofol). The structure of new conjugates viz. propofol-(alpha-linolenic acid) (2,6P-ALA and 2,4P-ALA), propofol-valproic acid (2,6P-VA and 2,4P-VA), propofol-butyric acid (2,6P-BA and 2,4P-BA) and propofol-(2-ethylhexanoic acid) (2,6P2-EHA and 2,4P-2-EHA) were characterized by FT-IR, NMR ((1)H, (13)C) and mass spectral data. The synthesized conjugates having more lipophilic character were tested for antiproliferative in vitro studies on A549, MDA-MB-231, HeLa, Mia-Pa-Ca and HePG2 cancer cell lines. All the conjugates showed specific growth inhibition on studied cancer cell lines. Among the synthesized esters, the conjugates synthesized from BA, VA and 2-EHA exhibited prominent growth inhibition against A549, HeLa, Mia-Pa-Ca and HePG2 cancer cell lines. The preliminary results suggest that the entire novel conjugates possess antiproliferative properties that reduce the proliferation of cancer cells in vitro. PMID:26666272

  6. Molecular Basis of Prodrug Activation by Human Valacyclovirase, an [alpha]-Amino Acid Ester Hydrolase

    Lai, Longsheng; Xu, Zhaohui; Zhou, Jiahai; Lee, Kyung-Dall; Amidon, Gordon L. (Michigan)

    2008-07-08

    Chemical modification to improve biopharmaceutical properties, especially oral absorption and bioavailability, is a common strategy employed by pharmaceutical chemists. The approach often employs a simple structural modification and utilizes ubiquitous endogenous esterases as activation enzymes, although such enzymes are often unidentified. This report describes the crystal structure and specificity of a novel activating enzyme for valacyclovir and valganciclovir. Our structural insights show that human valacyclovirase has a unique binding mode and specificity for amino acid esters. Biochemical data demonstrate that the enzyme hydrolyzes esters of {alpha}-amino acids exclusively and displays a broad specificity spectrum for the aminoacyl moiety similar to tricorn-interacting aminopeptidase F1. Crystal structures of the enzyme, two mechanistic mutants, and a complex with a product analogue, when combined with biochemical analysis, reveal the key determinants for substrate recognition; that is, a flexible and mostly hydrophobic acyl pocket, a localized negative electrostatic potential, a large open leaving group-accommodating groove, and a pivotal acidic residue, Asp-123, after the nucleophile Ser-122. This is the first time that a residue immediately after the nucleophile has been found to have its side chain directed into the substrate binding pocket and play an essential role in substrate discrimination in serine hydrolases. These results as well as a phylogenetic analysis establish that the enzyme functions as a specific {alpha}-amino acid ester hydrolase. Valacyclovirase is a valuable target for amino acid ester prodrug-based oral drug delivery enhancement strategies.

  7. Synthesis and Structural Characterization of 1- and 2-Substituted Indazoles: Ester and Carboxylic Acid Derivatives

    Isabel Bento

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of indazoles substituted at the N-1 and N-2 positions with ester-containing side chains -(CH2nCO2R of different lengths (n = 0-6, 9, 10 are described.Nucleophilic substitution reactions on halo esters (X(CH2nCO2R by 1H-indazole inalkaline solution lead to mixtures of N-1 and N-2 isomers, in which the N-1 isomerpredominates. Basic hydrolysis of the ester derivatives allowed the synthesis of thecorresponding indazole carboxylic acids. All compounds were fully characterised bymultinuclear NMR and IR spectroscopies, MS spectrometry and elemental analysis; theNMR spectroscopic data were used for structural assignment of the N-1 and N-2 isomers.The molecular structure of indazol-2-yl-acetic acid (5b was determined by X-raydiffraction, which shows a supramolecular architecture involving O2-H...N1intermolecular hydrogen bonds.

  8. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AN ACID, BILE SALT-INDEPENDENT, RETINYL ESTER HYDROLASE FROM RAT LIVER MICROSOMES

    Previous work in this laboratory has revealed the presence of both acidic and neutral bile-salt independent retinyl ester hydrolase activities in rat liver homogenates. Here we present the purification, identification and characterization of an acid retinyl ester hydrolase activity from solubilized ...

  9. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  10. 75 FR 20785 - Polyglyceryl Phthalate Ester of Coconut Oil Fatty Acids; Exemption from the Requirement of a...

    2010-04-21

    ... . II. What Does this Correction Do? In the Federal Register of July 8, 2009, (74 FR 32456), EPA's... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Polyglyceryl Phthalate Ester of Coconut Oil Fatty Acids; Exemption from the..., concerning polyglyceryl phthalate ester of coconut oil fatty acids; exemption from the requirement of...

  11. [Primary research on anti-tumor activity of panaxadiol fatty acid esters].

    Zhang, Chun-Hong; Zhang, Lian-Xue; Li, Xiang-Gao; Gao, Yu-Gang; Liu, Ya-Jing

    2006-11-01

    For making use of Ginseng resources and finding new anti-tumor drugs, the anti-tumor activity of three kinds of new panaxadiol fatty acid ester derivates: 3beta-acetoxy panaxadiol (I), 3beta-palmitic acid aceloxy panaxadiol (II), 3beta-octadecanoic acid aceloxy panaxadiol (Ill) and panaxaiol were compared through the method of cell stain and counting. Tumor cell was Vero cell line. Positive control was 5-FU. Blank was RPM11640 culture medium. Negative control was RPM11640 culture medium and the solvent for subjected drugs. The result showed that compound I had the strongest anti-tumor activity, second was panaxadiol, II and III had the same and the weakest antitumor activity. Furthermore, the anti-tumor activities of panaxadiol fatty acid ester derivates showed positive correlation with subjects' concentrations, but no relationship with molecular weight of fatty acid. PMID:17228662

  12. Phosphoric acid esters cannot replace polyvinylphosphonic acid as phosphoprotein analogs in biomimetic remineralization of resin-bonded dentin

    Mai, Sui; Kim, Young Kyung; Toledano, Manuel; Breschi, Lorenzo; Ling, Jun Qi; PASHLEY David H.; Franklin R Tay

    2009-01-01

    Polyvinylphosphonic acid (PVPA), a biomimetic analog of phosphoproteins, is crucial for recruiting polyacrylic acid (PAA)-stabilized amorphous calcium phosphate nanoprecursors during biomimetic remineralization of dentin collagen matrices. This study tested the null hypothesis that phosphoric acid esters of methacrylates in dentin adhesives cannot replace PVPA during bimimetic remineralization of resin-dentin interfaces. Human dentin specimens were bonded with: I) XP Bond, an etch-and-rinse a...

  13. Synthesis and characterization of biodegradable polymer: Poly (ethene maleic acid ester-co-D,L-lactide acid)

    Mei Na Huang; Yan Feng Luo; Jia Chen; Yong Gang Li; Chun Hua Fu; Yuan Liang Wang

    2007-01-01

    A novel biodegradable polymer-poly (ethene maleic acid ester-co-D,L-lactide acid) was synthesized by copolymerizing lactide and prepolymer, which was prepared by the condensation of maleic anhydride and glycol, using p-toluene sulphonic acid as a catalyst, attempting to improve the hydrophilicity, increase flexibility and modulate the degradation rate. FTIR, 1H NMR, MALLS and DSC were employed to characterize these polymers.

  14. Enzymatic Synthesis of l-Ascorbyl Fatty Acid Esters Under Ultrasonic Irradiation and Comparison of Their Antioxidant Activity and Stability.

    Jiang, Chen; Lu, Yuyun; Li, Zhuo; Li, Cunzhi; Yan, Rian

    2016-06-01

    A series of novel l-ascorbyl fatty acid esters were synthesized by catalization of Novozym(®) 435 under ultrasonic irradiation and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectra, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Their properties especially antioxidant activity and stability were investigated. The results showed that the reducing power, the scavenging activity of hydroxyl radical and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical were decreased with the increase of the number of carbon atoms in fatty acid. The hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and reducing power of l-ascorbyl saturated fatty acid esters were better than that of tert-butylhydroquinone. The induction period in lipid oxidation of l-ascorbyl saturated fatty acid esters and tert-butylhydroquinone were longer than that of l-ascorbyl unsaturated fatty acid esters and l-ascorbic acid both in soybean oil and lard. Besides, the l-ascorbyl fatty acid esters showed different stabilities in different conditions by comparing with l-ascorbic acid, and the l-ascorbyl saturated fatty acid esters were more stable than l-ascorbyl unsaturated fatty acid esters in ethanol solution. PMID:27100741

  15. Evaluation of Mosquito Repellent Activity of Isolated Oleic Acid, Eicosyl Ester from Thalictrum javanicum.

    Gurunathan, Abinaya; Senguttuvan, Jamuna; Paulsamy, S

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the traditional use, the mosquito repellent property of Thalictrum javanicum and to confirm the predicted larvicidal activity of the isolated compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester from its aerial parts by PASS software, the present study was carried out using 4th instar stage larvae of the mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti (dengue vector) and Culex quinquefasciatus (filarial vector). Insecticidal susceptibility tests were conducted and the mortality rate was observed after 24 h exposure. The chitinase activity of isolated compound was assessed by using purified β-N-acetyl glucosaminidase (chitinase). Ecdysone 20-monooxygenase assay (radioimmuno assay) was made using the same larval stage of A. aegyptiand C. quinquefasciatus. The results were compared with the crude methanol extract of the whole plant. The isolated compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester was found to be the most effective larvicide against A. aegypti (LC50/24 h -8.51 ppm) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50/24 h - 12.5 ppm) than the crude methanol extract (LC50/24 h - 257.03 ppm and LC50/24 h - 281.83 ppm, respectively). The impact of oleic acid, eicosyl ester on reducing the activity of chitinase and ecdysone 20-monooxygenase was most prominent in both the target species, A. aegyptiand C. quinquefasciatus than the control. The results therefore suggest that the compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester from Thalictrum javanicum may be considered as a potent source of mosquito larvicidal property. PMID:27168688

  16. Evaluation of mosquito repellent activity of isolated oleic acid, eicosyl ester from Thalictrum javanicum

    Abinaya Gurunathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the traditional use, the mosquito repellent property of Thalictrum javanicumand to confirm the predicted larvicidal activity of the isolated compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester from its aerial parts by PASS software, the present study was carried out using 4th instar stage larvae of the mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti(dengue vector and Culex quinquefasciatus(filarial vector. Insecticidal susceptibility tests were conducted and the mortality rate was observed after 24 h exposure. The chitinase activity of isolated compound was assessed by using purified β-N-acetyl glucosaminidase (chitinase. Ecdysone 20-monooxygenase assay (radioimmuno assay was made using the same larval stage of A. aegyptiand C. quinquefasciatus. The results were compared with the crude methanol extract of the whole plant. The isolated compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester was found to be the most effective larvicide against A. aegypti (LC50/24 h -8.51 ppm and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50/24 h - 12.5 ppm than the crude methanol extract (LC50/24 h - 257.03 ppm and LC50/24 h - 281.83 ppm, respectively. The impact of oleic acid, eicosyl ester on reducing the activity of chitinase and ecdysone 20-monooxygenase was most prominent in both the target species, A. aegyptiand C. quinquefasciatusthan the control. The results therefore suggest that the compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester from Thalictrum javanicummay be considered as a potent source of mosquito larvicidal property.

  17. Synthesis and bioactivity of novel caffeic acid esters from Zuccagnia punctata.

    Ramachandra, M S; Subbaraju, G V

    2006-12-01

    Synthesis of novel caffeic acid esters (1 and 2) was accomplished starting from appropriately substituted benzaldehydes (3 and 9). While compound 2 exhibited potent anti-oxidative activity in both the nitroblue tetrazolium and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging models, compound 1 showed moderate 5-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity. PMID:17145655

  18. Reducing the viscosity of Jojoba Methyl Ester diesel fuel and effects on diesel engine performance and roughness

    Selim, Mohamed Y.E. [Mech. Eng. Dept., UAE University, Al-Ain, Abu Dhabi 17555 (United Arab Emirates)

    2009-07-15

    An experimental investigation has been carried out to test two approaches to reduce the viscosity of the Jojoba Methyl Ester (JME) diesel fuel. The first approach is the heating of the fuel to two temperatures of 50 and 70 C as compared to the base ambient temperature and to diesel fuel too. The second approach is adding one chemical which is considered by its own as alternative and renewable fuel which is Diethyl Ether (DEE). The viscosity has been reduced by both methods to close to diesel values. The performance of a diesel engine using those fuels has been tested in a variable compression research engine Ricardo E6 with the engine speed constant at 1200 rpm. The measured parameters included the exhaust gas temperature, the ignition delay period, the maximum pressure rise rate, maximum pressure, and indicated mean effective pressure and maximum heat release rate. The engine performance is presented and the effects of both approaches are scrutinized. (author)

  19. Chemometric analysis of mass spectra of cis and trans fatty acid picolinyl esters

    Leth, Torben

    1997-01-01

    configuration. Picolinyl esters of fatty acids are prepared by adding carbonyl-diimidazole, 3-hydroxy-methylpyridine and 4-pyrrolidin-o-pyridine to a solution of free fatty acids in dichloromethane. The picolinyl esters dissolved in heptane are then separated by capillary GC on a CP Sil 88 column equipped with...... between cis and trans fatty acids of C16:1, C18:1,n-9, C18:1,n-12, C18:2 and C22:1 in two- and three-dimensional score plots. With Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogy (SIMCA), it is possible to calculate models that can predict from the mass spectra of unknown fatty acids whether they are of the...

  20. Synthesis of 4-methoxybenzyl ester of monochloro pyrethrum acid%偏氯菊酸对甲氧基苄酯的合成研究

    陈震; 张昌军; 林晓辉

    2011-01-01

    Synthesis of a new ester of monochloro pyrethrum acid was reported. 4, 6, 6-Trichloro-3, 3-dimethyl-hexahoic acid methyl ester was synthesized from methyl 3,3-dimethyl pentenoate and chloroform initiated with ferrous chloride in a confined system. Followed by ring-closure, elimination, hydrolysis and acidification,3-(2-chloro-ethenyl)-2,2-dimethyl-cy-clopropanecarboxylic acid ( monochloro pyrethrum acid) was obtained. 4-Methoxybenzyl ester of monochloro pyrethrum acid was obtained by the reaction between sodium of monochloro pyrethrum acid and a quaternary ammonium salt. Three undocumented compounds were obtained. Using the method reported in ' Tetrahedron letter ', benzoyl peroxide or nitrile azo used as initiator and reaction under atmospheric pressure, target product was not obtained.%报道了一种新的拟除虫菊酯——偏氯菊酯的合成方法.以贲亭酸甲酯为原料,氯化亚铁作为引发剂在密闭体系中与氯仿加成后得到3,3-二甲基-4,6,6-三氯己酸甲酯,再成环、脱卤化氢,水解酸化后得到2,2-二甲基-3-(乙氯乙烯基)-环丙烷羧酸(偏氯菊酸),偏氯菊酸钠与季铵盐回流得到标题化合物.在合成中得到了3种未见文献报道的新化合物.而采用文献原有的方法,使用过氧化苯甲酰或偶氮异丁腈在常压下反应则没有获得目标产物.

  1. Preparation and Reactions of Amino Acid Ester Sulfones as New Remote Asymmetrical Induced Reagents

    ZHOU,Cheng-He; BAI,Xue; LI,Tan-Qing; WU,Jun; Alfred Hassner

    2004-01-01

    @@ The development of chiral auxiliary-controlled asymmetric synthesis has been receiving increasing interest in recent yearsfi,2] Various chiral auxiliary reagents have been observed[3] and a lot of results showed that variation of the chiral auxiliary could influence asymmetric induction. Recently, it has been reported the reaction of the aminated sulfones as a remote chiral auxiliary with α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds.[4] Here we would like to report the preparation of amino acid ester sulfones as new remote asymmetrical induced reagents and their reactions with α,β-unsaturated esters.

  2. Ubiquitin vinyl methyl ester binding orients the misaligned active site of the ubiquitin hydrolase UCHL1 into productive conformation

    Boudreaux, David A.; Maiti, Tushar K.; Davies, Christopher W.; Das, Chittaranjan (Purdue)

    2010-07-06

    Ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) is a Parkinson disease-associated, putative cysteine protease found abundantly and selectively expressed in neurons. The crystal structure of apo UCHL1 showed that the active-site residues are not aligned in a canonical form, with the nucleophilic cysteine being 7.7 {angstrom} from the general base histidine, an arrangement consistent with an inactive form of the enzyme. Here we report the crystal structures of the wild type and two Parkinson disease-associated variants of the enzyme, S18Y and I93M, bound to a ubiquitin-based suicide substrate, ubiquitin vinyl methyl ester. These structures reveal that ubiquitin vinyl methyl ester binds primarily at two sites on the enzyme, with its carboxy terminus at the active site and with its amino-terminal {beta}-hairpin at the distal site - a surface-exposed hydrophobic crevice 17 {angstrom} away from the active site. Binding at the distal site initiates a cascade of side-chain movements in the enzyme that starts at a highly conserved, surface-exposed phenylalanine and is relayed to the active site resulting in the reorientation and proximal placement of the general base within 4 {angstrom} of the catalytic cysteine, an arrangement found in productive cysteine proteases. Mutation of the distal-site, surface-exposed phenylalanine to alanine reduces ubiquitin binding and severely impairs the catalytic activity of the enzyme. These results suggest that the activity of UCHL1 may be regulated by its own substrate.

  3. Biodiesel production, characterization, diesel engine performance, and emission characteristics of methyl esters from Aphanamixis polystachya oil of Bangladesh

    Highlights: • Properties of methyl ester and its blends followed by engine performance and emission study. • The properties of APME and its blends are comparable with ASTM D6751 and ASTM D7467 standards. • APME5 and APME10 gave average reduction in torque, BP, CO and HC but increased BSFC and NO. • APME5 and APME10 can be used as a diesel fuel substitute with no engine modifications. - Abstract: This paper presents the prospect of biodiesel derived from Aphanamixis polystachya oil in diesel engine. The study deals with the physicochemical properties of A.polystachya methyl ester (APME) and its blends followed by evaluation of performance and emission characteristics of APME5 and APME10 in a multi-cylinder diesel engine. It has been observed that the properties of biodiesel and its blends are compatible with the ASTM D6751 and ASTM D7467 standards, respectively. It was found that, APME5 and APME10 showed an average 0.9% and 1.81% reduction in torque and 0.9% and 2.1% reduction in brake power (BP), and 0.87% and 1.78% increase in brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) compared to diesel. In the case of engine emissions, diesel blends of APME gave an average reduction in carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions compared to pure diesel. However, APME blends emitted higher levels of nitrous oxide compared to diesel. It was found that APME5 and APME10 could be used as a diesel fuel substitute without any engine modifications

  4. Circumvention of defective neutral amino acid transport in Hartnup disease using tryptophan ethyl ester.

    Jonas, A J; Butler, I J

    1989-01-01

    Tryptophan ethyl ester, a lipid-soluble tryptophan derivative, was used to bypass defective gastrointestinal neutral amino acid transport in a child with Hartnup disease. The child's baseline tryptophan concentrations in serum (20 +/- 6 microM) and cerebrospinal fluid (1.0 +/- 0.2 microM) were persistently less than 50% of normal values. Cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), a serotonin metabolite, was also less than 50% of normal (21 +/- 2 ng/ml). Serum tryptophan concentr...

  5. Catalytic Esterification of Methyl Alcohol with Acetic Acid

    2001-01-01

    Esterification of methyl alcohol with acetic acid catalysed by Amberlyst-15 (cation-exchange resin) was carried out in a batch reactor in the temperature ranging between 318-338 K, at atmospheric pressure. The reaction rate increased with increase in catalyst concentration and reaction temperature, but decreased with an increase in water concentration. Stirrer speed had virtually no effect on the rate under the experimental conditions. The rate data were correlated with a second-order kinetic model based on homogeneous reaction. The apparent activation energy was found to be 22.9kJ.mo1-1 for the formation of methyl acetate. The methyl acetate production was carried out aa batch and continuous in a packed bed restive distillation column with high purity methyl acetate produced.

  6. Circumvention of defective neutral amino acid transport in Hartnup disease using tryptophan ethyl ester.

    Jonas, A J; Butler, I J

    1989-07-01

    Tryptophan ethyl ester, a lipid-soluble tryptophan derivative, was used to bypass defective gastrointestinal neutral amino acid transport in a child with Hartnup disease. The child's baseline tryptophan concentrations in serum (20 +/- 6 microM) and cerebrospinal fluid (1.0 +/- 0.2 microM) were persistently less than 50% of normal values. Cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), a serotonin metabolite, was also less than 50% of normal (21 +/- 2 ng/ml). Serum tryptophan concentrations increased only modestly and briefly after an oral challenge with 200 mg/kg of oral L-tryptophan, reflecting the absorptive defect. An oral challenge with 200 mg/kg of tryptophan ethyl ester resulted in a prompt increase in serum tryptophan to a peak of 555 microM. Sustained treatment with 20 mg/kg q6h resulted in normalization of serum (66 +/- 15 microM) and cerebrospinal fluid tryptophan concentrations (mean = 2.3 microM). Cerebrospinal fluid 5-HIAA increased to more normal concentrations (mean = 33 ng/ml). No toxicity was observed over an 8-mo period of treatment, chronic diarrhea resolved, and body weight, which had remained unchanged for 7 mo before ester therapy, increased by approximately 26%. We concluded that tryptophan ethyl ester is effective at circumventing defective gastrointestinal neutral amino acid transport and may be useful in the treatment of Hartnup disease. PMID:2472426

  7. N-[11C]methylpiperidine esters as acetylcholinesterase substrates: an in vivo structure-reactivity study

    A series of simple esters incorporating the N-[11C]methylpiperidine structure were examined as in vivo substrates for acetylcholinesterase in mouse brain. 4-N-[11C]Methylpiperidinyl esters, including the acetate, propionate and isobutyrate esters, are good in vivo substrates for mammalian cholinesterases. Introduction of a methyl group at the 4-position of the 4-piperidinol esters, to form the ester of a teritary alcohol, effectively blocks enzymatic action. Methylation of 4- N-[11C]methylpiperidinyl propionate at the 3-position gives a derivative with increased in vivo reactivity toward acetylcholinesterase. Esters of piperidinecarboxylic acids (nipecotic, isonipecotic and pipecolinic acid ethyl esters) are not hydrolyzed by acetylcholinesterase in vivo, nor do they act as in vivo inhibitors of the enzyme. This study has identified simple methods to both increase and decrease the in vivo reactivity of piperidinyl esters toward acetylcholinesterase

  8. Enzymatic esterification of tapioca maltodextrin fatty acid ester.

    Udomrati, Sunsanee; Gohtani, Shoichi

    2014-01-01

    In this work new types of hydrophobically modified maltodextrin were prepared by enzyme-catalyzed reaction of maltodextrin and three fatty acids: decanoic acid (C-10), lauric acid (C-12) and palmitic acid (C-16). Lipase obtained from Thermomyces lanuginosus was found to be a useful biocatalyst in the maltodextrin esterification. Esterified maltodextrin with a degree of substitution (DS) 0.015-0.084 was prepared at the optimum conditions of 60 °C for 4 h. The DS was found to be at its highest when maltodextrin and fatty acids were taken in the ratio 1:0.5. The functional properties of these esterified maltodextrin were investigated. All esterified maltodextrin did not completely dissolve in water. Esterified maltodextrin at a concentration of 25% (w/w) exhibited Newtonian flow behavior similar to that of native maltodextrin. Esterified maltodextrin had a higher viscosity compare to native maltodextrin. X-ray diffraction pattern of esterified maltodextrin indicated crystallization of the fatty acid side chains. The thermal stability of esterified maltodextrin was checked by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Esterified maltodextrin was then used as an emulsifier to make n-hexadecane O/W emulsions. The emulsions were characterized according to their oil droplet characteristics and emulsification index. PMID:24274521

  9. Physiological and transcriptional characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered for production of fatty acid ethyl esters.

    de Jong, Bouke Wim; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-02-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has previously been engineered to become a cell factory for the production of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), molecules suitable for crude diesel replacement. To find new metabolic engineering targets for the improvement of FAEE cell factories, three different FAEE-producing strains of S. cerevisiae, constructed previously, were compared and characterized by quantification of key fluxes and genome-wide transcription analysis. From both the physiological and the transcriptional data, it was indicated that strain CB2I20, with high expression of a heterologous wax ester synthase gene (ws2) and strain BdJ15, containing disruptions of genes DGA1, LRO1, ARE1, ARE2 and POX1, which prevent the conversion of acyl-CoA to sterol esters, triacylglycerides and the degradation to acetyl-CoA, triggered oxidative stress that consequently influenced cellular growth. In the latter strain, stress was possibly triggered by disabling the buffering capacity of lipid droplets in encapsulating toxic fatty acids such as oleic acid. Additionally, it was indicated that there was an increased demand for NADPH required for the reduction steps in fatty acid biosynthesis. In conclusion, our analysis clearly shows that engineering of fatty acid biosynthesis results in transcriptional reprogramming and has a significant effect on overall cellular metabolism. PMID:26590613

  10. Isolation from Cussonia barteri of 1'-O-chlorogenoylchlorogenic acid and 1'-O-chlorogenoylneochlorogenic acid, a new type of quinic acid esters.

    Papajewski, S; Vogler, B; Conrad, J; Klaiber, I; Roos, G; Walter, C U; Süssmuth, R; Kraus, W

    2001-11-01

    1'-O-Chlorogenoylchlorogenic acid and 1'-O-chlorogenoylneochlorogenic acid, a new type of quinic acid esters, have been isolated, in addition to six known quinic acid esters, rutin, and a mixture of saponins, from the methanol extract of Cussonia barteri Seemann (Araliaceae) leaves collected in Cameroon. Structure determination was achieved by NMR, mass, IR, and UV spectroscopy. All compounds were tested for inhibitory activity on 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase-1, for antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Cladosporium cucumerinum, and for haemolytic activity. PMID:11731915

  11. Microbubble ultrasound contrast agent with three esters and carboxylic methyl cellulose as main shell materials: Its preparation and imaging evaluation

    杜永峰; 万明习; 周晓东

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study on the preparation process of a new surfactant-based microbubble ultrasound contrast agent and to evaluate its contrast effects in vivo. Methods: Microbubble ultrasound contrast agent with three ester surfactants and other additives as its shell materials was prepared by sonication. Sulfur hexafluoride was adopted as the inner gas of the microbubbles. New methods through the combination of optical microscope and some softwares were used to measure the size distribution and the concentration of the microbubbles. Some parameters such as the pH value of the phosphate buffer, quantity of the carboxylic methyl cellulose in the shell materials, selection of the ultrasound power and process time, were studied. Six hybirded dogs were used to verify the in vivo contrast imaging of the contrast agent using second harmonic power Doppler modality. Safety and persistent time of the agent inner animal body were also investigated. Results: Ultrasound contrast agent prepared in the experiment had an average microbubble diameter of 3.95 microns with concentration of 3.6×109 microbubbles per millilitre. Carboxylic methyl cellulose was found as an important shell material which had obviously effect on the microbubble stability and production even with a little quantity. The buffer pH value also had a key role on the microbubble formation and the final production. When the buffer pH value reached 7.4, there was no microbubble produced. Under the approximate microbubble production, process time could be shorten with the increasing ultrasound power. The obvious ultrasound contrast imaging effects were detected in the dog's heart chamber and liver as well as kidney using only one millilitre agent when diluted. The agent was found safe to the dogs. At the same time, persistent time of the agent was found over 20 min in the dog's body. Conclusion: The new ultrasound contrast agent prepared in the experiment has high microbubble production and concentration, narrow

  12. Synthesis, DFT and antimicrobial activity assays in vitro for novel cis/trans-but-2-enedioic acid esters

    Ma, Yan-Long; Zhou, Ru-Jin; Zeng, Xing-Ye; An, Ya-Xiong; Qiu, Song-Shan; Nie, Li-Jun

    2014-04-01

    Six novel cis/trans-but-2-enedioic acid esters had been synthesized to discover the new bioactive molecules that could kill food-related bacteria and fungi. Their structures were analyzed by melting point, LC-MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. 4-(Methoxycarbonyl) phenyl ethyl fumarate (6b) was also characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Their antimicrobial activities were evaluated in vitro by measuring the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). Compared with the single monomethyl fumarate and methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, these compounds had stronger antimicrobial activity against all the eight microorganisms. Among the antibacterial and antifungal compounds, 4-(methoxycarbonyl) phenyl methyl fumarate (6a) showed the best antimicrobial activity. The electronic properties of these compounds were calculated by the density functional theory (DFT) method with 6-31G (d, p) basis set. DFT studies indicated that molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) map, ELUMO, energy gap, electronegativity and electrophilicity index could be helpful to understand the various antimicrobial activities among these compounds. The antimicrobial activity of compound 6a was evaluated in vitro against Salmonellacholeraesuis subsp. choleraesuis, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae by time-kill, and it was found that compound 6a exhibited significant microbiocidal activity against the three microorganisms.

  13. Direct analysis of intact glycidyl fatty acid esters in edible oils using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    H. van Steenbergen; K. Hrnčiřík; A. Ermacora; S. de Koning; H.-G. Janssen

    2013-01-01

    Glycidyl esters (GE), fatty acid esters of glycidol, are process contaminants formed during edible oil processing. A novel direct method for the determination of intact GE in oils and fats based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is presented. The method consists of a simple extraction

  14. A convenient enantioselective decarboxylative aldol reaction to access chiral α-hydroxy esters using β-keto acids

    Zhiqiang Duan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We show a convenient decarboxylative aldol process using a scandium catalyst and a PYBOX ligand to generate a series of highly functionalized chiral α-hydroxy esters. The protocol tolerates a broad range of β-keto acids with inactivated aromatic and aliphatic α-keto esters. The possible mechanism is rationalized.

  15. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    2010-04-01

    ... fruits and vegetables Dehydrated fruit and vegetable juices Edible vegetable fat-water emulsions As... produce the intended physical or technical effect, and they may be used with shortening and edible fats... derived from tall oil fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.862. (b) They are used as...

  16. Highly efficient enzymatic synthesis of an ascorbyl unstaturated fatty acid ester with ecofriendly biomass-derived 2-methyltetrahydrofuran as cosolvent.

    Hu, Ying-Dan; Qin, Ye-Zhi; Li, Ning; Zong, Min-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Enzymatic synthesis of ascorbyl undecylenate, an unsaturated fatty acid ester of ascorbic acid, was reported with biomass-derived 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF) as the cosolvent. Of the immobilized lipases tested, Candida antarctica lipase B (CAL-B) showed the highest activity for enzymatic synthesis of ascorbyl undecylenate. Effect of reaction media on the enzymatic reaction was studied. The cosolvent mixture, t-butanol-MeTHF (1:4, v/v) proved to be the optimal medium, in which not only ascorbic acid had moderate solubility, but also CAL-B showed a high activity, thus addressing the major problem of the solvent conflict for dissolving substrate and keeping satisfactory enzyme activity. In addition, the enzyme was much more stable in MeTHF and t-butanol-MeTHF (1:4) than in previously widely used organic solvents, t-butanol, 2-methyl-2-butanol, and acetone. The much higher initial reaction rate in this cosolvent mixture may be rationalized by the much lower apparent activation energy of this enzymatic reaction (26.6 vs. 38.1-39.1 kJ/mol) and higher enzyme catalytic efficiency (Vmax /Km , 8.4 vs. 1.3-1.4 h(-1) ). Ascorbyl undecylenate was obtained with the yields of 84-89% and 6-regioselectivity of >99% in t-butanol-MeTHF (1:4) at supersaturated substrate concentrations (60 and 100 mM) after 5-8 h. PMID:24891225

  17. Recovery of sterols as fatty acid steryl esters from waste material after purification of tocopherols.

    Nagao, Toshihiro; Hirota, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Yomi; Kobayashi, Takashi; Kishimoto, Noriaki; Fujita, Tokio; Kitano, Motohiro; Shimada, Yuji

    2004-08-01

    Tocopherols are purified industrially from soybean oil deodorizer distillate by a process comprising distillation and ethanol fractionation. The waste material after ethanol fractionation (TC waste) contains 75% sterols, but a purification process has not yet been developed. We thus attempted to purify sterols by a process including a lipase-catalyzed reaction. Candida rugosa lipase efficiently esterified sterols in TC waste with oleic acid (OA). After studying several factors affecting esterification, the reaction conditions were determined as follows: ratio of TC waste/OA, 1:2 (wt/wt); water content, 30%; amount of lipase, 120 U/g-reaction mixture; temperature, 40 degrees C. Under these conditions, the degree of esterification reached 82.7% after 24 h. FA steryl esters (steryl esters) in the oil layer were purified successfully by short-path distillation (purity, 94.9%; recovery, 73.1%). When sterols in TC waste were esterified with FFA originating from olive, soybean, rapeseed, safflower, sunflower, and linseed oils, the FA compositions of the steryl esters differed somewhat from those of the original oils: The content of saturated FA was lower and that of unsaturated FA was higher. The m.p. of the steryl esters synthesized (21.7-36.5 degrees C) were remarkably low compared with those of the steryl esters purified from high-b.p. soybean oil deodorizer distillate substances (56.5 degrees C; JAOCS 80, 341-346, 2003). The low-m.p. steryl esters were soluble in rapeseed oil even at a final concentration of 10%. PMID:15638248

  18. Nickel-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of Redox-Active Esters with Boronic Acids.

    Wang, Jie; Qin, Tian; Chen, Tie-Gen; Wimmer, Laurin; Edwards, Jacob T; Cornella, Josep; Vokits, Benjamin; Shaw, Scott A; Baran, Phil S

    2016-08-01

    A transformation analogous in simplicity and functional group tolerance to the venerable Suzuki cross-coupling between alkyl-carboxylic acids and boronic acids is described. This Ni-catalyzed reaction relies upon the activation of alkyl carboxylic acids as their redox-active ester derivatives, specifically N-hydroxy-tetrachlorophthalimide (TCNHPI), and proceeds in a practical and scalable fashion. The inexpensive nature of the reaction components (NiCl2 ⋅6 H2 O-$9.5 mol(-1) , Et3 N) coupled to the virtually unlimited commercial catalog of available starting materials bodes well for its rapid adoption. PMID:27380912

  19. Fatty acid esters of phloridzin induce apoptosis of human liver cancer cells through altered gene expression.

    Sandhya V G Nair

    Full Text Available Phloridzin (phlorizin or phloretin 2'-O-glucoside is known for blocking intestinal glucose absorption. We have investigated the anticarcinogenic effect of phloridzin and its novel derivatives using human cancer cell lines. We have synthesised novel acylated derivatives of phloridzin with six different long chain fatty acids by regioselective enzymatic acylation using Candida Antarctica lipase B. The antiproliferative effects of the new compounds were investigated in comparison with the parent compounds, phloridzin, aglycone phloretin, the six free fatty acids and chemotherapeutic drugs (sorafenib, doxorubicin and daunorubicin using human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells, human breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells and acute monocytic leukemia THP-1 cells along with normal human and rat hepatocytes. The fatty acid esters of phloridzin inhibited significantly the growth of the two carcinoma and leukemia cells while similar treatment doses were not toxic to normal human or rat hepatocytes. The antiproliferative potency of fatty esters of phloridzin was comparable to the potency of the chemotherapeutic drugs. The fatty acid esters of phloridzin inhibited DNA topoisomerases IIα activity that might induce G0/G1 phase arrest, induced apoptosis via activation of caspase-3, and decreased ATP level and mitochondrial membrane potential in HepG2 cells. Based on the high selectivity on cancer cells, decosahexaenoic acid (DHA ester of phloridzin was selected for gene expression analysis using RT2PCR human cancer drug target array. Antiproliferative effect of DHA ester of phloridzin could be related to the down regulation of anti-apoptotic gene (BCL2, growth factor receptors (EBFR family, IGF1R/IGF2, PDGFR and its downstream signalling partners (PI3k/AKT/mTOR, Ras/Raf/MAPK, cell cycle machinery (CDKs, TERT, TOP2A, TOP2B as well as epigenetics regulators (HDACs. These results suggest that fatty esters of phloridzin have potential chemotherapeutic effects

  20. Isoquercitrin Esters with Mono- or Dicarboxylic Acids: Enzymatic Preparation and Properties

    Vavříková, Eva; Langschwager, Fanny; Jezova-Kalachova, Lubica; Křenková, Alena; Mikulová, Barbora; Kuzma, Marek; Křen, Vladimír; Valentová, Kateřina

    2016-01-01

    A series of isoquercitrin (quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside) esters with mono- or dicarboxylic acids was designed to modulate hydro- and lipophilicity and biological properties. Esterification of isoquercitrin was accomplished by direct chemoenzymatic reaction using Novozym 435 (lipase from Candida antarctica), which accepted C5- to C12-dicarboxylic acids; the shorter ones, such as oxalic (C2), malonic (C3), succinic (C4) and maleic (C4) acids were not substrates of the lipase. Lipophilicity of monocarboxylic acid derivatives, measured as log P, increased with the chain length. Esters with glutaric and adipic acids exhibited hydrophilicity, and the dodecanedioic acid hemiester was more lipophilic. All derivatives were less able to reduce Folin–Ciocalteau reagent (FCR) and scavenge DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) than isoquercitrin; ABTS (2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) radical-scavenging activity was comparable. Dodecanoate and palmitate were the least active in FCR and ABTS scavenging; dodecanoate and hemiglutarate were the strongest DPPH scavengers. In contrast, most derivatives were much better inhibitors of microsomal lipoperoxidation than isoquercitrin; butyrate and hexanoate were the most efficient. Anti-lipoperoxidant activity of monocarboxylic derivatives, except acetates, decreased with increasing aliphatic chain. The opposite trend was noted for dicarboxylic acid hemiesters, isoquercitrin hemidodecanedioate being the most active. Overall, IQ butyrate, hexanoate and hemidodecanedioate are the most promising candidates for further studies. PMID:27338349

  1. Isoquercitrin Esters with Mono- or Dicarboxylic Acids: Enzymatic Preparation and Properties

    Eva Vavříková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of isoquercitrin (quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside esters with mono- or dicarboxylic acids was designed to modulate hydro- and lipophilicity and biological properties. Esterification of isoquercitrin was accomplished by direct chemoenzymatic reaction using Novozym 435 (lipase from Candida antarctica, which accepted C5- to C12-dicarboxylic acids; the shorter ones, such as oxalic (C2, malonic (C3, succinic (C4 and maleic (C4 acids were not substrates of the lipase. Lipophilicity of monocarboxylic acid derivatives, measured as log P, increased with the chain length. Esters with glutaric and adipic acids exhibited hydrophilicity, and the dodecanedioic acid hemiester was more lipophilic. All derivatives were less able to reduce Folin–Ciocalteau reagent (FCR and scavenge DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl than isoquercitrin; ABTS (2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical-scavenging activity was comparable. Dodecanoate and palmitate were the least active in FCR and ABTS scavenging; dodecanoate and hemiglutarate were the strongest DPPH scavengers. In contrast, most derivatives were much better inhibitors of microsomal lipoperoxidation than isoquercitrin; butyrate and hexanoate were the most efficient. Anti-lipoperoxidant activity of monocarboxylic derivatives, except acetates, decreased with increasing aliphatic chain. The opposite trend was noted for dicarboxylic acid hemiesters, isoquercitrin hemidodecanedioate being the most active. Overall, IQ butyrate, hexanoate and hemidodecanedioate are the most promising candidates for further studies.

  2. Possible molecular targets for therapeutic applications of caffeic acid phenethyl ester in inflammation and cancer

    Ghulam Murtaza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Of the various derivatives of caffeic acid, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE is a hydrophobic, bioactive polyphenolic ester obtained from propolis extract. The objective in writing this review article was to summarize all published studies on therapeutics of CAPE in inflammation and cancer to extract direction for future research. The possible molecular targets for the action of CAPE, include various transcription factors such as nuclear factor-κB, tissue necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, cyclooxygenase-2, Nrf2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor of activated T cells, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, and signal transducers and activators of transcription. Based on the valuable data on its therapeutics in inflammation and cancer, clinical studies of CAPE should also be conducted to explore its toxicities, if any.

  3. N-(4-Methyl-2-nitrophenylsuccinamic acid

    Sabine Foro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C11H12N2O5, the conformation of the N—H bond in the amide segment is syn to the ortho-nitro group in the benzene ring. The amide C=O and the carboxyl C=O of the acid segment are syn to each other and both are anti to the H atoms on the adjacent –CH2 groups. Furthermore, the C=O and O—H bonds of the acid group are in syn positions with respect to each other. The dihedral angle between the benzene ring and the amide group is 36.1 (1°. The amide H atom shows bifurcated intramolecular hydrogen bonding with an O atom of the ortho-nitro group and an intermolecular hydrogen bond with the carbonyl O atom of another molecule. In the crystal, the N—H...O(C hydrogen bonds generate a chain running along the [100] direction. Inversion dimers are formed via a pair of O—H...O(C interactions, that form an eight-membered hydrogen-bonded ring involving the carboxyl group.

  4. VvMJE1 of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera) VvMES Methylesterase family encodes for Methyl Jasmonate Esterase and has a role in stress response

    The known members of the plant methyl esterase (MES) family catalyze hydrolysis of a C-O ester linkage of methyl esters of several phytohormones including indole-3-acetic acid, salicylic acid, and jasmonic acid. The genome of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) was found to contain 15 MES genes, designated V...

  5. Antibacterial properties of soap containing some fatty acid esters.

    Pandey, N K; Natraj, C V; Kalle, G P; Nambudiry, M E

    1985-02-01

    Synopsis Chemical microbial inhibitors compatible with formulations of soaps and deodorant perfumes are more effective if they are substantive to the skin. However, highly effective inhibitors are toxic and their substantivity on skin may accentuate the toxicity. Natural compounds such as short to medium chain fatty acids and their derivatives, which are known to be germicidal, offer a viable alternative to chemical inhibitors. We report here the synthesis of sodium 2-lauroyloxy propionate and an in vivo method to test its substantivity on skin following its incorporation in soaps. Among several compounds tested, sodium 2-lauroyloxy propionate was found to be highly substantive in soap formulation. PMID:19460009

  6. Evaluation of Mosquito Repellent Activity of Isolated Oleic Acid, Eicosyl Ester from Thalictrum javanicum

    Abinaya Gurunathan; Jamuna Senguttuvan; S Paulsamy

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the traditional use, the mosquito repellent property of Thalictrum javanicum and to confirm the predicted larvicidal activity of the isolated compound, oleic acid, eicosyl ester from its aerial parts by PASS software, the present study was carried out using 4th instar stage larvae of the mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti (dengue vector) and Culex quinquefasciatus (filarial vector). Insecticidal susceptibility tests were conducted and the mortality rate was observed after 24 h exposure. Th...

  7. Hydrolytic activity of -alkoxide/acetato-bridged binuclear Cu(II) complexes towards carboxylic acid ester

    Weidong Jiang; Bin Xu; Zhen Xiang; Shengtian Huang; Fuan Liu; Ying Wang

    2013-09-01

    Two -alkoxide/acetate-bridged small molecule binuclear copper(II) complexes were synthesized, and used to promote the hydrolysis of a classic carboxylic acid ester, -nitrophenyl picolinate (PNPP). Both binuclear complexes exhibited good hydrolytic reactivity, giving rise to . 15547- and 17462-fold acceleration over background value for PNPP hydrolysis at neutral conditions, respectively. For comparing, activities of the other two mononuclear analogues were evaluated, revealing that binuclear complexes show approximately 150- and 171-fold kinetic advantage over their mononuclear analogues.

  8. Bioactivity and Chemical Synthesis of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester and Its Derivatives

    Pengxuan Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE, as one of the main active ingredients of the natural product propolis, shows the unique biological activities such as anti-tumor, anti-oxidation, anti-inflammatory, immune regulation, and so on. These have attracted the attention of many researchers to explore the compound with potent biological activities. This review aims to summarize its bioactivities, synthetic methods and derivatives, which will be helpful for further study and development of CAPE and its derivatives.

  9. Regulatory Effects of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester on Neuroinflammation in Microglial Cells

    Cheng-Fang Tsai; Yueh-Hsiung Kuo; Wei-Lan Yeh; Caren Yu-Ju Wu; Hsiao-Yun Lin; Sheng-Wei Lai; Yu-Shu Liu; Ling-Hsuan Wu; Jheng-Kun Lu; Dah-Yuu Lu

    2015-01-01

    Microglial activation has been widely demonstrated to mediate inflammatory processes that are crucial in several neurodegenerative disorders. Pharmaceuticals that can deliver direct inhibitory effects on microglia are therefore considered as a potential strategy to counter balance neurodegenerative progression. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a natural phenol in honeybee propolis, is known to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties. Accordingly, the current ...

  10. Syntheses of Macrocyclic Amides from L-Amino Acid Esters by RCM

    2007-01-01

    A series of succinate-derived macrocyclic amides( 1 ) was synthesized via ring-closing metathesis (RCM) as the key step. The substrate included 12 to 15 members. The metathesis precursors were obtained from the amide coupling of tert-butyl 3-carboxyhex-5-enoate(2) with numerous side-chain alkenylated amino acid esters of general type(3)derived from L-lysine and L-ornithine.

  11. Some novel antimicrobial therapeutic agents for acetylcholinesterase inhibitors; synthesis of hydroxyquinoline ester involving amino acid

    Şakıyan, İffet; Aynacı, Elif; Arslan, Fatma; Öğütcü, Hatice; Sarı, Nurşen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the new effective agents candidate for treatment of the Alzheimer’s disease. So, a series of new and highly active acetylcholinesterase inhibitors derived from hydroxyquinoline ester containing amino acid were synthesized. Antibacterial activities of the molecules were studied by the well-diffusion method against Listeria monocytogenes 4b, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi H, Brucella abortus, Staphylococcus epidermis sp., ...

  12. Synthesis and Properties of Lactic Acid-based Cross-linked Poly(ester-amide)

    Yue Ying HE; Cong Ming XIAO

    2006-01-01

    A novel lactic acid-based cross-linked poly(ester-amide) (LCPEA) was synthesized. The gel fraction of the LCPEA could be modulated by the reaction conditions and it affected the mechanical and thermal properties of the LCPEA. The tensile strength, elastic modulus and bend strength of the LCPEA of 65% gel fraction were 4.65, 136.55 and 39.63 MPa, respectively. The thermal decomposition temperature (50 wt%) of the LCPEA was around 410 ℃.

  13. Surface components of chylomicrons from rats fed glyceryl or alkyl esters of fatty acids: minor components.

    Yang, L Y; Kuksis, A; Myher, J J; Pang, H

    1992-08-01

    The lipid class, fatty acid and molecular species composition of the minor polar surface components of rat lymph chylomicrons were determined during absorption of menhaden oil and corn oil or of the corresponding fatty acid ethyl esters. In addition to the previously reported minor polar lipids (sphingomyelin, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidic acid and lysophosphatidylcholine), we identified phosphatidylglycerol, dimethylphosphatidylethanolamine, ceramide and cholesteryl sulfate in the chylomicrons from both oil and ester feeding. The dietary fatty acids were found to be incorporated to a variable extent into the different phospholipid classes, the proportions of which remained the same during both types of feeding. No evidence was obtained for the presence of the minor glycerophospholipids characteristic of the lysosomal membranes (e.g., bis-phosphatidic, lysobisphosphatidic and semilysobis-phosphatidic acids), although special efforts were made to identify them. These results indicate that the chylomicrons arising from the monoacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid pathways of triacylglycerol biosynthesis become enveloped in closely similar monolayers of phospholipids. Hence, all triacylglycerols may be secreted from the villus cells via a common mechanism as suggested by the previously demonstrated convergence (at the 2-monoacylglycerol stage) of the monoacylglycerol and the phosphatidic acid pathways of mucosal triacylglycerol formation [Yang, Y.L., and Kuksis, A. (1991) J. Lipid Res. 32, 1173-1186]. PMID:1406072

  14. Stereospecific analysis of fatty acid esters of chloropropanediol isolated from fresh goat milk.

    Myher, J J; Kuksis, A; Marai, L; Cerbulis, J

    1986-05-01

    The fatty acid esters of chloropropanediol isolated from goat milk fat in small quantities were subjected to a stereospecific analysis via phospholipase C and phosphocholine esters as intermediates. Synthetic rac-1-chloro-2,3-dioleoyl-propanediol was prepared by standard methods and was used as a control. The stereospecific analyses were performed following a release of the fatty acids from the primary positions of each chloropropanediol diester with pancreatic lipase. The resulting X-1-chloro-2-acylpropanediols were then converted into the corresponding phosphocholine derivatives by a stepwise reaction with phosphorus oxychloride and choline chloride. The X-1-chloro-2-acyl-3-phosphocholinepropanediols were subjected to hydrolysis with phospholipase C (C. perfringens), which hydrolyzed 50% of the phosphatide within two min and the rest of it in two hr. From previous experience with glycerol esters, it was assumed that the more rapidly hydrolyzed molecules were the sn-1-chloro-2-acyl-propanediol derivatives and the more slowly hydrolyzed ones the sn-2-acyl-3-chloropropanediol derivatives. A hydrolysis with phospholipase A2 (Crotalus adamanteus) released 50% of the total fatty acid along with the corresponding lyso compound within 10 min, after which there was no further reaction. The hydrolysis products were assayed directly by gas liquid chromatography (GLC) or were isolated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) prior to quantitation by GLC. Both naturally occurring and synthetic chloropropanediol diesters behaved similarly on stereospecific analysis and were therefore concluded to be racemic. PMID:3724368

  15. Evaluation of iodination on the ethyl ester of poppy seed oil fatty acid by NAA method

    Evaluation of iodination on the ethyl ester of poppy seed oil fatty acid by NAA method. Poppy seed oil has been known for having unsaturated bonds. Therefore, the addition of iodine is expected to give a poly-iodo organic compound which can be used for roentgenography diagnosis. However, since the oil has a high viscosity which is not suitable for the mentioned purpose it must be changed into its simple ester prior to the iodination. It was observed that there was no significant change in the double bonds of the alkyl chain, and the reaction yield was also satisfactory. A preliminary experiment showed that direct iodination using I2 on the ethyl ester did not proceed well. Therefore a iodobromination of the ethyl ester was carried out followed by exchange reaction with I2 in chloroform. The evaluation using NAA method appeared to show that exchange reaction between Br in the iodobrominated compound and I in the I2 could proceed well. However, determination of the iodine content did not agree with that of the bromine. It might be caused by the instability of the compounds. It was also observed that I2 liberated from compounds diffused and penetrated the polyethylene material used for sample purse in the neutron activation. (author). 16 refs.; 4 figs

  16. Performance and emission characteristics of an agricultural diesel engine fueled with blends of Sal methyl esters and diesel

    Highlights: • Sal seed oil is unexplored biodiesel feedstock which is abundantly found in India. • Sal seed oil has good oxidation stability. • Performance and emission characteristics of the blends of Sal methyl esters with diesel evaluated. • At higher loads, CO, HC and smoke emissions of SME blends were lower than diesel. - Abstract: The present work deals with an underutilized vegetable oil; Sal seed oil (Shorea robusta) as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The production potential of Sal seed oil is very promising (1.5 million tons in a year) in India. The pressure filtered Sal seed oil was transesterified into Sal Methyl Ester (SME). The kinematic viscosity (5.89 cSt), density (0.8764 g/cc) and calorific value (39.65 MJ/kg) of the SME were well within the ASTM/EN standard limits. Various test fuels were prepared for the engine trials by blending 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of SME in diesel on volumetric basis and designated as SME10, SME20, SME30 and SME40 respectively. The BTE, in general, was found to be decreased with increased volume fraction of SME in the blends. At full load, BSEC for SME10, SME20, SME30 and SME40 were 13.6 MJ/kW h, 14.3 MJ/kW h, 14.7 MJ/kW h and 14.8 MJ/kW h respectively as compared to 13.9 MJ/kW h in case of diesel. At higher load conditions, CO, UHC and smoke emissions were found lower for all SME blends in comparison to neat diesel due to oxygenated nature of fuel. SME10, SME20, SME30 and SME40 showed 51 ppm, 44 ppm, 46 ppm and 48 ppm of UHC emissions respectively as compared to 60 ppm of diesel. The NOx emissions were found to be increased for SME based fuel in comparison to neat diesel operation. At peak load condition, SME10, SME20, SME30 and SME40 had NOx emissions of 612 ppm, 644 ppm, 689 ppm and 816 ppm as compared to 499 ppm for diesel. It may be concluded from the experimental investigations that Sal seed biodiesel is a potential alternative to diesel fuel for reducing dependence on crude petroleum derived fuels and

  17. Syntheses of carbon-11 labeled piperidine esters as potential in vivo substrates for acetylcholinesterase

    A series of carbon-11 labeled N-methylpiperidinyl esters were prepared as potential in vivo substrates for acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Target compounds were designed based on the structure of N-[11C]methylpiperidin-4-yl propionate, an ester currently used to measure AChE enzymatic activity in the human brain, to examine the structure-activity relationship for in vivo enzymatic hydrolysis. Changes in steric bulk and in the ester order ('reverse' esters) were made. Addition of methyl groups was made to both the acid side chain (synthesis of N-[11C]methylmethylpiperidin-4-yl isobutyrate) and to the piperidine ring (syntheses of N-[11C]methyl-4-methylpiperidin-4-yl propionate, N-[11C]methyl-4-methylpiperidin-4-yl acetate, and N-[11C]methyl-3-methylpiperidin-4-yl propionate). Alterations of the order of the ester heteroatoms was accomplished through syntheses of the N-[11C]methyl-2,3- and 4-piperidinecarboxylic acid ethyl esters. Finally, an additional piperidine-based ester (N-[11C]methylpiperidin-2-yl)methyl propionate was also prepared. All carbon-11-labeled esters were prepared by N-[11C]methylation reactions, using the desmethyl precursors and no-carrier-added [11C]methyltriflate, and were obtained in decay-corrected yields (not optimized) of 10-40% and high specific activities

  18. Pengaruh Katalis H2SO4 pada Reaksi Epoksidasi Metil Ester PFAD (Palm Fatty Acid Distillate)

    Sinaga, Mersi Suriani

    2010-01-01

    Ester epoksi selain sebagai pelunak juga dapat memperbaiki ketahanan komponen polivinil klorida (PVC) terhadap panas dan cahaya. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk merumuskan kondisi katalis yang sesuai bagi pembuatan senyawa epoksi metil ester PFAD dari senyawa metil ester PFAD. Metil ester PFAD terdiri dari ester lemak jenuh dan tidak jenuh., metode pemisahan kristalisasi dengan pelarut metanol untuk memisahkan ester lemak jenuh dari ester lemak tak jenuh, yang bertujuan meningkatkan kemamp...

  19. Synergistic cosolubilization of omega-3 fatty acid esters and CoQ10 in dilutable microemulsions.

    Deutch-Kolevzon, Rivka; Aserin, Abraham; Garti, Nissim

    2011-10-01

    Water-dilutable microemulsions were prepared and loaded with two types of omega-3 fatty acid esters (omega-3 ethyl esters, OEE; and omega-3 triacylglycerides, OTG), each separately and together with ubiquinone (CoQ(10)). The microemulsions showed high and synergistic loading capabilities. The linear fatty acid ester (OEE) solubilization capacity was greater than that of the bulky and robust OTG. The location of the guest molecules within the microemulsions at any dilution point were determined by electrical conductivity, viscosity, DSC, SAXS, cryo-TEM, SD-NMR, and DLS. We found that OEE molecules pack well within the surfactant tails to form reverse micelles that gradually, upon water dilution, invert into bicontinuous phase and finally into O/W droplets. The CoQ(10) increases the stabilization and solubilization of the omega-3 fatty acid esters because it functions as a kosmotropic agent in the micellar system. The hydrophobic and bulky OTG molecule strongly interferes with the tail packing and spaces them significantly - mainly in the low and medium range water dilutions. When added to the micellar system, CoQ(10) forms some reverse hexagonal mesophases. The inversion into direct micelles is more difficult in comparison to the OEE system and requires additional water dilution. The OTG with or without CoQ(10) destabilizes the structures and decreases the solubilization capacity since it acts as a chaotropic agent to the micellar system and as a kosmotropic agent to hexagonal packing. These results explain the differences in the behavior of these molecules with vehicles that solubilize them in aqueous phases. Temperature disorders the bicontinuous structures and reduces the supersaturation of the system containing OEE with CoQ(10); as a result CoQ(10) crystallization is retarded. PMID:21723268

  20. Development of Manufacturing Method of Highly Functional Material Gallic acid-CLA Ester Using Irradiation

    Increasing interest and current trends for natural materials with various health beneficial functions by radiation (RT)-biotechnology (BT) fusion by developed countries. However, the information and development of new functional materials using the RT-BT fusion technology is still limited. The target material developed and manufactured by RT-BT fusion technology may have a multi-functional effect on human health and it can be applied for pharmaceutical materials as well as functional food ingredient. The market of functional new materials has been grown dramatically and a multi-functional material manufactured by RT-BT fusion technology may have a great economic impact for both the domestic and overseas market. Development of GA-CLA ester by chemical synthetic method. Transformation of linoleic acid to conjugated linoleic acid by irradiation. Identification and confirmation of the biological functions including antioxidative, cancer cell proliferation inhibition, anti-microbial, enhancement of immune response and lipid metabolism of GA-CLA ester. Increase industrial applicability of the new materials. Development of GA-CLA ester by chemical synthetic method(2 patents submitted). Development of the optimum methodology of GA-CLA and its derivative, octadeca-9,12-dienyl-3,4,5-trihydroxy benzoate). Identification and confirmation of biological activities of GA-CLA. Extramural funding from the Ministry of Commerce, Industry, and Energy subjected by gallic acid-fatty acid derivatives (205,000,000 Won). Provides the basic data for successful project 'Development of cosmeceutical and cosmetics using gallic acid fatty acid derivatives' funded by Ministry of Commerce, Industry, and Energy and collaboration with the Technology-invested venture company, SunBiotech, Co. and problem-solving for industrial application. Complete the patent procedure and publish the results to international or domestic peer-reviewed journals

  1. Development of Manufacturing Method of Highly Functional Material Gallic acid-CLA Ester Using Irradiation

    Cho, C. H.; Byun, M. W.; Jeong, I. Y.; Kim, D. H

    2006-01-15

    Increasing interest and current trends for natural materials with various health beneficial functions by radiation (RT)-biotechnology (BT) fusion by developed countries. However, the information and development of new functional materials using the RT-BT fusion technology is still limited. The target material developed and manufactured by RT-BT fusion technology may have a multi-functional effect on human health and it can be applied for pharmaceutical materials as well as functional food ingredient. The market of functional new materials has been grown dramatically and a multi-functional material manufactured by RT-BT fusion technology may have a great economic impact for both the domestic and overseas market. Development of GA-CLA ester by chemical synthetic method. Transformation of linoleic acid to conjugated linoleic acid by irradiation. Identification and confirmation of the biological functions including antioxidative, cancer cell proliferation inhibition, anti-microbial, enhancement of immune response and lipid metabolism of GA-CLA ester. Increase industrial applicability of the new materials. Development of GA-CLA ester by chemical synthetic method(2 patents submitted). Development of the optimum methodology of GA-CLA and its derivative, octadeca-9,12-dienyl-3,4,5-trihydroxy benzoate). Identification and confirmation of biological activities of GA-CLA. Extramural funding from the Ministry of Commerce, Industry, and Energy subjected by gallic acid-fatty acid derivatives (205,000,000 Won). Provides the basic data for successful project 'Development of cosmeceutical and cosmetics using gallic acid fatty acid derivatives' funded by Ministry of Commerce, Industry, and Energy and collaboration with the Technology-invested venture company, SunBiotech, Co. and problem-solving for industrial application. Complete the patent procedure and publish the results to international or domestic peer-reviewed journals.

  2. Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of L-ascorbyl fatty acid esters and D-isoascorbyl fatty acid esters%脂肪酶催化合成L-抗坏血酸脂肪酸酯和D-异抗坏血酸脂肪酸酯

    郑大贵; 祝显虹; 余泗莲; 彭化南; 张小兰

    2012-01-01

    The lipase-catalyzed synthesis of L.-ascorbyl fatty acid esters and D-isoascorbyl fatty acid esters were studied by direct es-terification and transesterification,respectively. The structures of products were confirmed by IR,1H NMR,13C NMR and MS. It was found that the yield of the direct esterification were higher than that of the corresponding transesterification under the similar synthetic conditions. The raw material fatty acids and fatty acid methyl esters could be recycled and reused.%用固定化脂肪酶Lipozyme 435作催化剂,分别用直接酯化法和酯交换法合成L-抗坏血酸脂肪酸酯和D-异抗坏血酸脂肪酸酯.产物结构经IR、1HNMR、13CNMR和MS表征.结果表明,对于同一目标化合物,相似条件下,直接酯化法的效果优于酯交换法,原料脂肪酸和脂肪酸甲酯均可回收循环使用.

  3. CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC POLYMERS ⅩⅩⅢ SYNTHESIS AND ANTITUMOR ACTIVITY OF POLYPHOSPHATES CONTAINING BOTH NUCLEIC ACID BASE AND PHOSPHONOACETIC ACID ETHYL ESTER

    ZHUO Renxi; LIU Zhenghua; LI Li

    1989-01-01

    Eight new polyphosphates containing both nucleic acid base and phosphonoacetic acid ethyl ester were synthesized by the polycondensation of P, P- dichloride of phosphonoacetic acid ethyl ester with 1, 3-dihydroxyalkyl - 5 - fluorouracil, 1,3 - dihydroxyalkyl - uracil and 1, 3 - dihydroxyalkylthymine. These polyphosphates were tested against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma in mice. Polymer Ⅱa and Ⅱc exhibited excellent antitumor activity. Ⅱc also showed lower toxicity.

  4. Zum thermischen Verhalten einiger Kohlensäure[(methylphenylsilyl)methyl]ester-Derivate

    Tacke, Reinhold; Link, Matthias; Bentlage-Felten, Anke; Zilch, Harald

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis and the thermal behaviour of the (methylphenylsilyl)methyl carbonates \\(CH_3(C_6H_5)Si(H)CH_2OC(O)X (6: X = OCH_3; 7: X = Cl; 8: X = N(CH_3)_2)\\) is described. 8 rearranges in toluene solution at 100 °C quantitatively to give the carbam oyloxysilane \\(C_6H_5(CH_3)_2SiOC(O)N(CH_3)_2\\) (11), whereas neat 6 and 7 at 135 °C undergo quantitative formation of \\(C_6H_5(CH_3)_2SiOCH_3\\) (12) and \\(C_6H_5(CH_3)_2SiCl\\) (13), respectively. The formation of 12 and 13 is explained by a rear...

  5. Direct Colorimetric Detection of Hydrogen Peroxide Using 4-Nitrophenyl Boronic Acid or Its Pinacol Ester

    Gregory Su; Yibin Wei; Maolin Guo

    2011-01-01

    A colorimetric method for the direct determination of hydrogen peroxide in aqueous solution is described. H2O2 stoichiometrically converts 4-nitrophenyl boronic acid or 4-nitrophenyl boronic acid pinacol ester into 4-nitrophenol, which can be quantified by measuring the absorption at 400 nm in neutral or basic media. The reactions proceed fast under basic conditions and complete in 2 minutes to at pH 11 and 80?C. The linear range for the colorimetric method extends beyond 1.0 to 40 µM H2O2, a...

  6. NMR Studies of a New Binding Mode of the Amino Acid Esters by Porphyrinatozinc(Ⅱ)

    2001-01-01

    The binding mode of the amino acid ethyl esters(guest) by 5-(2-carboxylphenyl)-10,15,20-triphenylporphyrinatozinc(Ⅱ)(host 1) was studied by means of 1H NMR spectra. The binding mode is the hydrogen-bonding between the amino group of the guest and the carboxyl group of host 1 plus the coordination between the zinc atom of porphyrinatozinc(Ⅱ) and the carbonyl group of the guest. This is a novel binding mode of the metalloporphyrin to amino acid derivatives.

  7. Scalable preparation of high purity rutin fatty acid esters following enzymatic synthesis

    Lue, Bena-Marie; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing;

    2010-01-01

    Investigations into expanded uses of modified flavonoids are often limited by the availability of these high purity compounds. As such, a simple, effective and relatively fast method for isolation of gram quantities of both long and medium chain fatty acid esters of rutin following scaled......-up biosynthesis reactions was established. Acylation reactions of rutin and palmitic or lauric acids were efficient in systems containing dried acetone and molecular sieves, yielding from 70–77% bioconversion after 96 h. Thereafter, high purity isolates (>97%) were easily obtained in significant quantities...

  8. Integrated process of distillation with side reactors for synthesis of organic acid esters

    Panchal, Chandrakant B; Prindle, John C; Kolah, Aspri; Miller, Dennis J; Lira, Carl T

    2015-11-04

    An integrated process and system for synthesis of organic-acid esters is provided. The method of synthesizing combines reaction and distillation where an organic acid and alcohol composition are passed through a distillation chamber having a plurality of zones. Side reactors are used for drawing off portions of the composition and then recycling them to the distillation column for further purification. Water is removed from a pre-reactor prior to insertion into the distillation column. An integrated heat integration system is contained within the distillation column for further purification and optimizing efficiency in the obtaining of the final product.

  9. M1 and M3 muscarinic receptors may play a role in the neurotoxicity of anhydroecgonine methyl ester, a cocaine pyrolysis product

    Raphael Caio Tamborelli Garcia; Livia Mendonça Munhoz Dati; Larissa Helena Torres; Mariana Aguilera Alencar da Silva; Mariana Sayuri Berto Udo; Fernando Maurício Francis Abdalla; José Luiz da Costa; Renata Gorjão; Solange Castro Afeche; Mauricio Yonamine; Niswender, Colleen M.; P. Jeffrey Conn; Rosana Camarini; Maria Regina Lopes Sandoval; Tania Marcourakis

    2015-01-01

    The smoke of crack cocaine contains cocaine and its pyrolysis product, anhydroecgonine methyl ester (AEME). AEME possesses greater neurotoxic potential than cocaine and an additive effect when they are combined. Since atropine prevented AEME-induced neurotoxicity, it has been suggested that its toxic effects may involve the muscarinic cholinergic receptors (mAChRs). Our aim is to understand the interaction between AEME and mAChRs and how it can lead to neuronal death. Using a rat primary hipp...

  10. The effects of N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, sodium nitroprusside and noradrenaline on venous return in the anaesthetized cat.

    Bower, E. A.; Law, A. C.

    1993-01-01

    1. The vascular actions of N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), sodium nitroprusside and noradrenaline were investigated in cats under chloralose anaesthesia with controlled vascular tone and ventilation. Cardiac output, heart rate, vascular pressures and mean circulatory filling pressure (MCFP) were measured. Total peripheral resistance (TPR) and resistance to venous return (Rvr) were calculated from steady-state readings. 2. L-NAME (37 mumol kg-1, i.v.) administered to ten cats r...

  11. Thermo-responsive behavior of a methacryloyl-DL-alanine methyl ester polymer gel prepared by radiation-induced polymerization

    Loosely cross-linked poly(methacrloyl-DL-alanine methyl ester, MA-DL-AlaOMe) gels, which were prepared by radiation-induced polymerization, exhibited a reversible low-temperature swelling and high-temperature deswelling when cycled in water at different temperatures at 24-h intervals, in the range of 0 and 40oC. The thermo-response strongly depended upon irradiation condition. Increasing the irradiation dose resulted in a formation of lower molecular weight polymer owing to the scission of polymer chain, in which it gave a high swelling ability at low temperature, in contrast to a sluggish shrinkage at high temperature. On the other hand, no irradiation temperature affects the thermo-response of the gel. An important characteristic of the MA-DL-AlaOMe polymer gel is the formation of the membrane barrier at the surface with the rise in temperature, but it disappears in reswelling, to be termed ''surface-controlling on-off switch system''. Brillant blue FCF (BB) as a model compound was incorporated into the gel to evaluate the capability as a thermo-responsive carrier for application in drug delivery systems, and it was found that the reversibly surface-controlling on-off switch function responsible to temperature changes plays an important role in the pulsatile release of BB from the gel in vitro. (author)

  12. COMBUSTION, PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF DIESEL ENGINE WITH NEEM OIL METHYL ESTER AND ITS DIESEL BLENDS

    L. Prabhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel, an alternative fuel is derived from the fats of animals and plants. As energy demands increase and fossil fuels are limited, research is directed towards alternative renewable fuels. The main advantages of using this alternative fuel are its renewability, biodegradability and better quality of exhaust gases. It is technically competitive and environmentally friendly alternative to conventional petro-diesel fuel for use in Compression Ignition (CI engines. The use of biodiesel reduces the dependence on imported fossil fuels which continue to decrease in availability and affordability. An experimental investigation has been carried out to evaluate the combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine with the effect of using neem oil methyl ester and its diesel blends at different loads. The results showed that maximum cylinder pressure and maximum rate of heat release increased with the increase in bio diesel blends. The carbon monoxide (CO and smoke emissions were found significantly lower when operating on biodiesel-diesel blends, but Nitrogen Oxide (NOx emissions are found to be higher at full load.

  13. Apoptosis and autophagy induced by pyropheophorbide-α methyl ester-mediated photodynamic therapy in human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells.

    Huang, Qiu; Ou, Yun-Sheng; Tao, Yong; Yin, Hang; Tu, Ping-Hua

    2016-06-01

    Pyropheophorbide-α methyl ester (MPPa) was a second-generation photosensitizer with many potential applications. Here, we explored the impact of MPPa-mediated photodynamic therapy (MPPa-PDT) on the apoptosis and autophagy of human osteosarcoma (MG-63) cells as well as the relationships between apoptosis and autophagy of the cells, and investigated the related molecular mechanisms. We found that MPPa-PDT demonstrated the ability to inhibit MG-63 cell viability in an MPPa concentration- and light dose-dependent manner, and to induce apoptosis via the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Additionally, MPPa-PDT could also induce autophagy of MG-63 cell. Meanwhile, the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and the Jnk inhibitor SP600125 were found to inhibit the MPPa-PDT-induced autophagy, and NAC could also inhibit Jnk phosphorylation. Furthermore, pretreatment with the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine or chloroquine showed the potential in reducing the apoptosis rate induced by MPPa-PDT in MG-63 cells. Our results indicated that the mitochondrial pathway was involved in MPPa-PDT-induced apoptosis of MG-63 cells. Meanwhile the ROS-Jnk signaling pathway was involved in MPPa-PDT-induced autophagy, which further promoted the apoptosis in MG-63 cells. PMID:27108344

  14. Combustion characteristics of diesel engine using producer gas and blends of Jatropha methyl ester with diesel in mixed fuel mode

    Hifjur Raheman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation was performed to study the combustion characteristics of diesel engine fuelled with producer gas-biodiesel in dual fuel mode. Three different fuel blends of Jatropha methyl ester with high speed diesel (HSD (B10, B20 and B100 were used with producer gas obtained from the gasification of briquettes made from de-oiled Jatropha seed cake. The increments in load on the engine increased the brake thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature and lowered the brake specific energy consumption. The ignition delays in dual-fuel mode of operation for both the fuels were longer than for single-fuel mode of operation. Combustion pressure and heat release rate (HRR patterns at different engine loads were found to be similar for biodiesel and HSD. In dual-fuel mode, the peak pressure and HRR for producer gas–biodiesel dual-fuel were slightly lower than those of producer gas–diesel combustion at full load condition. Significantly lower NOx emissions were obtained under the dual fuel mode of operation for both pilot fuels compared to the single-fuel mode especially HSD under all test conditions.

  15. A study of production and characterization of Manketti (Ricinodendron rautonemii methyl ester and its blends as a potential biodiesel feedstock

    A.E. Atabani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, more than 350 oil-bearing crops are known as potential biodiesel feedstocks. This study reports on production and characterization of Manketti (Ricinodendron rautonemii methyl ester and its blends with diesel. The effect of Manketti biodiesel (B5 on engine and emissions performance was also investigated. The cloud, pour and cold filter plugging points of the produced biodiesel were measured at 1, 3 and 5 °C, respectively. However, the kinematic viscosity of the biodiesel generated was found to be 8.34 mm2/s which was higher than the limit described by ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. This can be attributed to the high kinematic viscosity of the parent oil (132.75 mm2/s. Nevertheless, blending with diesel improved this attribute. Moreover, it is observed that at all engine speeds, B5 produced lower brake power (1.18% and higher brake specific fuel consumption (2.26% compared to B0 (neat diesel. B5 increased the CO and HC emissions by 32.27% and 37.5%, respectively, compared to B0. However, B0 produced 5.26% higher NO emissions than B5.

  16. Engineering of chromosomal wax ester synthase integrated Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants for improved biosynthesis of fatty acid ethyl esters.

    Shi, Shuobo; Valle-Rodríguez, Juan Octavio; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, significant advances have been made to engineer robust microbes for overproducing biochemical products from renewable resources. These accomplishments have to a large extend been based on plasmid based methods. However, plasmid maintenance may cause a metabolic burden on the host cell and plasmid-based overexpression of genes can result in genetically unstable strains, which contributes to loss in productivity. Here, a chromosome engineering method based on delta integration was applied in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the production of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), which can be directly used as biodiesel and would be a possible substitute for conventional petroleum-based diesel. An integration construct was designed and integrated into chromosomal delta sequences by repetitive transformation, which resulted in 1-6 copies of the integration construct per genome. The corresponding FAEE production increased up to 34 mg/L, which is an about sixfold increase compared to the equivalent plasmid-based producer. The integrated cassette in the yeast genome was stably maintained in nonselective medium after deletion of RAD52 which is essential for efficient homologous recombination. To obtain a further increase of FAEE production, genes encoding endogenous acyl-CoA binding protein (ACB1) and a bacterial NADP(+)-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapN) were overexpressed in the final integration strain, which resulted in another 40% percent increase in FAEE production. Our integration strategy enables easy engineering of strains with adjustable gene copy numbers integrated into the genome and this allows for an easy evaluation of the effect of the gene copy number on pathway flux. It therefore represents a valuable tool for introducing and expressing a heterologous pathway in yeast. PMID:24752598

  17. PLASMID DNA DAMAGE CAUSED BY METHYLATED ARSENICALS, ASCORBIC ACID AND HUMAN LIVER FERRITIN

    PLASMID DNA DAMAGE CAOUSED BY METHYLATED ARSENICALS, ASCORBIC ACID AND HUMAN LIVER FERRITINABSTRACT Both dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)) and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA(III)) release iron from human liver ferritin (HLF) with or without the presence of ascorbic acid. ...

  18. Hydroxy Ketones Part XIII-Fries Rearrangement of the Phenyl Esters of Thiophene-2-Carboxylic Acid

    G. S. Saharia

    1971-04-01

    Full Text Available Fries migration of the esters of phenol, isomeric cresols and naphthols with thiophene-2-carboxylic acid has been investigated at 120 Degree C and 160 Degree C in absence of a solvent, with a view to study the behaviour of the sulphur atom in the thiophene ring towards an acid catalyst and its interference in the complex formation necessary for the migration. The isomeric ortho- and para-hydroxy ketones have been isolated employing chemical methods and each is characterised by the preparation of its 2:4-dinitrophenylhydrazone. The yields of the hydroxy ketones were poor and ranged from 4-8% in the case of para and from 9-18% in the case of ortho. Further, in all cases studied, above 50% of the ester was recovered unchanged. These suggest that the charge density at the sulphur atom is greater than at the phenoxyl oxygen atom as compared with similar migrations high and no unreached ester was encountered.

  19. Development and evaluation of optimized sucrose ester stabilized oleanolic acid nanosuspensions prepared by wet ball milling with design of experiments.

    Li, Wenji; Ng, Ka-yun; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop optimized sucrose ester (SE) stabilized oleanolic acid (OA) nanosuspensions (NS) for enhanced delivery via wet ball milling by design of experiments (DOE). In this study, SEOA NS batches were prepared by wet ball milling method. Mean particle sizes and polydispersity indices were determined using a nanosizer. The percent encapsulation efficiency, saturation solubility and in vitro dissolution rate were obtained with analyses using HPLC. Preparation methods were optimized by DOE using the Minitab software. The in vitro bioefficacy was obtained by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) measurements in A549 human non small cell lung cancer cell line. The in vivo pharmacokinetics profile was determined using LC-electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS/MS. The study produced spherical SEOA NS particles (ca. 100 nm in diameter) which were found to be able to increase OA saturation solubility considerably. Optimized SEOA-GBD NS (milled at 600 rpm for 3 h, sucrose monolaurate (SEL) : sucrose monopalmitate (SEP) at 9 : 1, w/w; SE : OA at 1 : 1, w/w) was found to be physically stable over 14 d at 4°C. The NS showed much higher dissolution rate, cytotoxicity and bioavailability when compared with the free drug. Thus, the prepared OA as SE stabilized NS particles by wet ball milling enhanced the saturation solubility, in vitro dissolution rate, bioefficacy and in vivo bioavailability of OA. The use of sugar esters may also be potentially applied to other hydrophobic drugs. PMID:24882406

  20. Features of separation on polymeric reversed phase for two classes of higher saturated fatty acids esters

    Deineka, V. I.; Lapshova, M. S.; Zakharenko, E. V.; Deineka, L. A.

    2013-11-01

    The principles of sorption on polymeric reversed phase (PRP) YMS C30 for members of the two classes of esters formed by higher saturated fatty acids, i.e., lutein diesters ( I) and triacylglycerols ( II), are investigated. It is shown that the logarithm of the retention factor increases nonlinearly with an increase of the length of the acid radical, although the retention on PRP is higher in the case of I and lower in the case of II, compared to their retention on traditional monomeric reversed phase (MRP) Kromasil-100 5C18; however, the equivalence of the contributions to the retention of I that correspond to an identical change in acids, does not depend on the length of the hydrocarbon radical of the second acid. It is noted that the Van't Hoff plot for PRP contains a curve break, indicating a change in the retention mechanism upon a rise in temperature.

  1. Dehydrogenative Cross-Coupling Reaction between N-Aryl α-Amino Acid Esters and Phenols or Phenol Derivative for Synthesis of α-Aryl α-Amino Acid Esters.

    Salman, Muhammad; Zhu, Zhi-Qiang; Huang, Zhi-Zhen

    2016-04-01

    A novel dehydrogenative cross-coupling (DCC) reaction between N-arylglycine esters and phenols or 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene was developed by copper catalysis using di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP) as an oxidant. Under optimized conditions, a range of N-arylglycine esters 1 underwent the DCC reaction smoothly with various phenols 2 or 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene 4 to give desired α-aryl α -amino acid esters 3 or 5, respectively, with high ortho regioselectivities in a moderate to excellent yield. A possible mechanism involving aromatic electrophilic substitution is proposed. PMID:26984111

  2. New radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids for cardiac studies

    The effects of 3-methyl-substitution on the heart retention and metabolism of 3-R,S-methyl-(BMIPP) and 3,3-dimethyl-(DMIPP) analogues of 15-(p-iodophenyl)-pentadecanoic acid (IPP) have been studied in rats. Methyl-substitution considerably increased the myocardial half-time values in fasted rats: IPP, 5 to 10 min; BMIPP, 30 to 45 min; DMIPP, 6 to 7 h. Because of the observed differences in the relative myocardial uptake and retention of these agents, an evaluation of the subcellular distribution profiles and the distribution of radioactivity within various lipid pools extracted from cell components was performed. Studies with DMIPP in fasted rats have shown high levels of the free fatty acid and only slow conversion to triglycerides. These data are in contrast to the rapid clearance of the straight chain IPP analogue and rapid incorporation into triglycerides. These data suggest that the prolonged myocardial retention observed with DMIPP in vivo may result from inhibition of β-oxidation. Subcellular distribution studies have shown predominate association of DMIPP and BMIPP with the mitochondrial and microsomal fractions, while IPP was primarily found in the cytoplasm. Because of the unique ''trapping'' properties and the high heart:blood ratios, [123I]DMIPP should be useful for evaluation of aberrations in regional myocardial uptake. 7 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  3. Self-assembly of long chain fatty acids: Effect of a methyl branch

    Liljeblad, Jonathan F. D.; Tyrode, Eric; Thormann, Esben;

    2014-01-01

    The morphology and molecular conformation of Langmuir-Blodgett deposited and floating monolayers of a selection of straight chain (eicosanoic acid, EA), iso (19-methyl eicosanoic acid, 19-MEA), and anteiso (18-methyl eicosanoic acid, 18-MEA) fatty acids have been investigated by Vibrational Sum F...

  4. Influence of fatty acid on lipase-catalyzed synthesis of ascorbyl esters and their free radical scavenging capacity.

    Stojanović, Marija; Carević, Milica; Mihailović, Mladen; Veličković, Dušan; Dimitrijević, Aleksandra; Milosavić, Nenad; Bezbradica, Dejan

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid (FA) ascorbyl esters are recently emerging food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical additives, which can be prepared in an eco-friendly way by using lipases as catalysts. Because they are amphiphilic molecules, which possess high free radical scavenging capacity, they can be applied as liposoluble antioxidants as well as emulsifiers and biosurfactants. In this study, the influence of a wide range of acyl donors on ester yield in lipase-catalyzed synthesis and ester antioxidant activity was examined. Among saturated acyl donors, higher yields and antioxidant activities of esters were achieved when short-chain FAs were used. Oleic acid gave the highest yield overall and its ester exhibited a high antioxidant activity. Optimization of experimental factors showed that the highest conversion (60.5%) in acetone was achieved with 5 g L(-1) of lipase, 50 mM of vitamin C, 10-fold molar excess of oleic acid, and 0.7 mL L(-1) of initial water. Obtained results showed that even short- and medium-chain ascorbyl esters could be synthesized with high yields and retained (or even exceeded) free radical scavenging capacity of l-ascorbic acid, indicating prospects of broadening their application in emulsions and liposomes. PMID:25224149

  5. Chemo-enzymatic epoxidation of olefins by carboxylic acid esters and hydrogen peroxide

    Ruesch gen. Klaas, M.; Warwel, S. [Inst. for Biochemistry and Technology of Lipids, H.P. Kaufmanm-Inst., Federal Centre for Cereal, Potato and Lipid Research, Muenster (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Ethylen and, recently, butadiene can be epoxidized directly with oxygen and for the epoxidation of propylene, the use of heterogeneous transition metals and organic peroxides (Halcon-Process) is the major player. But, beside from those notable exceptions, all other epoxidations, including large ones like the epoxidation of plant oils as PVC-stabilizers (about 200.000 t/year), are carried out with peroxy acids. Because mcpba is far to expensive for most applications, short chain peracids like peracetic acid are used. Being much less stable than mcpba and thus risky handled in large amounts and high concentrations, these peroxy acids were preferably prepared in-situ. However, conventional in-situ formation of peracids has the serious drawback, that a strong acid is necessary to catalyze peroxy acid formation from the carboxylic acid and hydrogen peroxide. The presence of a strong acid in the reaction mixture often results in decreased selectivity because of the formation of undesired by-products by opening of the oxirane ring. Therefore, we propose a new method for epoxidation based on the in-situ preparation of percarboxylic acids from carboxylic acid esters and hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by a commercial, immobilized lipase. (orig.)

  6. Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency: diagnosis and treatment of Wolman and Cholesteryl Ester Storage Diseases.

    Porto, Anthony F

    2014-09-01

    Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) is responsible for the hydrolysis of cholesterol esters and triglycerides. LAL is coded by the LIPA gene on chromosome 10q23.31. Its deficiency leads to two autosomal recessive disorders, Wolman disease (WD) and Cholesteryl Ester Storage Disease (CESD). WD has an estimated incidence of 1 in 500,000 live births and is the result of a complete loss of LAL and presents in infancy with vomiting, diarrhea, poor weight gain and hepatomegaly subsequently leading to death. CESD is the result of partial loss of LAL and its presentation is more variable. Patients may be asymptomatic or present with nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms, hepatomegaly, elevated transaminases and dystipidemia which may be confused with the diagnosis of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. CESD is currently underdiagnosed and has an estimated prevalence as high as I in 40,000 individuals. Radiologic findings in WD is calcification of the adrenal glands. Hepatomegaly is noted on CT scan in both WD and CESD. MRI may demonstrate accumulation of cholesterol esters and may be useful to study effects of potential medical therapies. The diagnosis of WD and CESD is based on LIPA gene sequencing and the measurement of LAL levels in peripheral blood leukocytes. Treatment of LAL deficiency is currently limited to control of cholesterol levels and to prevent premature atherosclerosis. Use of enzyme replacement therapy with recombinant human LAL in short-term studies has shown to be safe and effective. PMID:25345094

  7. Enantioselective Hydrolysis of Amino Acid Esters Promoted by Bis(β-cyclodextrin) Copper Complexes

    Xue, Shan-Shan; Zhao, Meng; Ke, Zhuo-Feng; Cheng, Bei-Chen; Su, Hua; Cao, Qian; Cao, Zhen-Kun; Wang, Jun; Ji, Liang-Nian; Mao, Zong-Wan

    2016-02-01

    It is challenging to create artificial catalysts that approach enzymes with regard to catalytic efficiency and selectivity. The enantioselective catalysis ranks the privileged characteristic of enzymatic transformations. Here, we report two pyridine-linked bis(β-cyclodextrin) (bisCD) copper(II) complexes that enantioselectively hydrolyse chiral esters. Hydrolytic kinetic resolution of three pairs of amino acid ester enantiomers (S1-S3) at neutral pH indicated that the “back-to-back” bisCD complex CuL1 favoured higher catalytic efficiency and more pronounced enantioselectivity than the “face-to-face” complex CuL2. The best enantioselectivity was observed for N-Boc-phenylalanine 4-nitrophenyl ester (S2) enantiomers promoted by CuL1, which exhibited an enantiomer selectivity of 15.7. We observed preferential hydrolysis of L-S2 by CuL1, even in racemic S2, through chiral high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). We demonstrated that the enantioselective hydrolysis was related to the cooperative roles of the intramolecular flanking chiral CD cavities with the coordinated copper ion, according to the results of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), inhibition experiments, rotating-frame nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (ROESY), and theoretical calculations. Although the catalytic parameters lag behind the level of enzymatic transformation, this study confirms the cooperative effect of the first and second coordination spheres of artificial catalysts in enantioselectivity and provides hints that may guide future explorations of enzyme mimics.

  8. Asymmetric transesterification of ibuprofen methyl ester catalyzed by Novozym 435%Novozym435催化布洛芬甲酯的不对称醇解反应

    徐景侠; 李立标; 孙建华

    2011-01-01

    目的 制备S(+)-布洛芬.方法 以布洛芬甲酯为原料,利用酶催化的 不对称转酯反应,将R(-)-布洛芬甲酯转化为R(-)-布洛芬丁酯,反应条件:布洛芬甲酯,10 g(100 mmol);Novozym 435,10 g;正丁醇,5.9 g(80 mmol);温度,39℃;时间,8~10 h.结果 不对称转酯反应的收率为83%,将得到的S(+)-布洛芬甲酯进行水解得S(+)-布洛芬,其收率为90%,光学纯为93%ee.结论 该本反应体系下,酶可以被回收利用,绿色经济,该方法有工业放大的潜力.%Aim To prepare S( + )-ibuprofen. Methods R( - )-ibuprofen methyl ester was transferred to R( - )-ibuprofen butyl ester catalyzed by enzyme. The reaction was performed as follows : Ibuprofen methyl ester, 10 g , 100 mmol; Novozym 435 , 10 g; 1-butanol, 5. 9 g,80 mmol;Temperature , 39℃ ; Time.8 - 10 h. Results The yield of asymmetric transesterification was 83% . The S( + )-ibuprofen methyl ester was then hydrolyzed. The yield of S( + )-ibuprofen with 93% ee was 90℃ . Conclusion The enzyme can be used repeatedly in these methods. The procedure has potential to be applied in industrial scale which was economic and environmental friendly.

  9. Noncytotoxic and Antitumour-Promoting Activities of Garcinia Acid Esters from Garcinia atroviridis Griff. ex T. Anders (Guttiferae

    Mukram M. Mackeen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro antitumour-promoting, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities of two ester derivatives of garcinia acid, that is, 2-(butoxycarbonylmethyl-3-butoxycarbonyl-2-hydroxy-3-propanolide (1 and 1′,1′′-dibutyl methyl hydroxycitrate (2, that had been previously isolated from the fruits of Garcinia atroviridis Griff. ex T. Anders (Guttiferae, were examined. Based on the inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA activation, compound 1 (IC50: 70 μM showed much higher (8-fold antitumour-promoting activity than compound 2 (IC50: 560 μM. In addition, both compounds were nontoxic towards CEM-SS (human T-lymphoblastic leukemia cells (CD50: >100 μM, Raji (human B-lymphoblastoid cells (CD50: >600 μM, and brine shrimp (LD50: >300 μM. Although the antitumour-promoting activity of compound 1 is moderate compared with the known antitumour promoter genistein, its non-toxicity suggests the potential of compound 1 and related structures as chemopreventive agents. The weak antioxidant activity displayed by both compounds also suggested that the primary antitumour-promoting mechanism of compound 1 did not involve oxidative-stress quenching.

  10. Amino acid esters substituted phosphorylated emtricitabine and didanosine derivatives as antiviral and anticancer agents.

    Sekhar, Kuruva Chandra; Janardhan, Avilala; Kumar, Yellapu Nanda; Narasimha, Golla; Raju, Chamarthi Naga; Ghosh, S K

    2014-07-01

    Owing to the promising antiviral activity of amino acid ester-substituted phosphorylated nucleosides in the present study, a series of phosphorylated derivatives of emtricitabine and didanosine substituted with bioactive amino acid esters at P-atom were synthesized. Initially, molecular docking studies were screened to predict their molecular interactions with hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of Newcastle disease virus and E2 protein of human papillomavirus. The title compounds were screened for their antiviral ability against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) by their in ovo study in embryonated chicken eggs. Compounds 5g and 9c exposed well mode of interactions with HN protein and also exhibited potential growth of NDV inhibition. The remaining compounds exhibited better growth of NDV inhibition than their parent molecules, i.e., emtricitabine (FTC) and didanosine (ddI). In addition, the in vitro anticancer activity of all the title compounds were screenedagainst HeLa cell lines at 10 and 100 μg/mL concentrations. The compounds 5g and 9c showed an effective anticancer activity than that of the remaining title compounds with IC50 values of 40 and 60 μg/mL, respectively. The present in silico and in ovo antiviral and in vitro anticancer results of the title compounds are suggesting that the amino acid ester-substituted phosphorylated FTC and ddI derivatives, especially 5g and 9c, can be used as NDV inhibitors and anticancer agents for the control and management of viral diseases with cancerous condition. PMID:24789416

  11. Valyl benzyl ester chloride

    Grzegorz Dutkiewicz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound (systematic name: 1-benzyloxy-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-aminium chloride, C12H18NO2+·Cl−, the ester group is approximately planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.040 (2 Å from the least-squares plane, and makes a dihedral angle of 28.92 (16° with the phenyl ring. The crystal structure is organized by N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds which join the two components into a chain along the b axis. Pairs of chains arranged antiparallel are interconnected by further N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming eight-membered rings. Similar packing modes have been observed in a number of amino acid ester halides with a short unit-cell parameter of ca 5.5 Å along the direction in which the chains run.

  12. Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition by NG-Nitro-l-Arginine Methyl Ester Inhibits Tumor-Induced Angiogenesis in Mammary Tumors

    Jadeski, Lorraine C.; Lala, Peeyush K.

    1999-01-01

    Using a murine breast cancer model, we earlier found a positive correlation between the expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and tumor progression; treatment with inhibitors of NOS, NG-methyl-l-arginine (NMMA) and NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), had antitumor and antimetastatic effects that were partly attributed to reduced tumor cell invasiveness. In the present study, we used a novel in vivo model of tumor angiogenesis using subcutaneous implants of tumor cells suspended in growth factor-reduced Matrigel to examine the angiogenic role of NO in a highly metastatic murine mammary adenocarcinoma cell line. This cell line, C3L5, expresses endothelial (e) NOS in vitro and in vivo, and inducible (i) NOS in vitro on stimulation with lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ. Female C3H/HeJ mice received subcutaneous implants of growth factor-reduced Matrigel inclusive of C3L5 cells on one side, and on the contralateral side, Matrigel alone; L-NAME and D-NAME (inactive enantiomer) were subsequently administered for 14 days using osmotic minipumps. Immediately after sacrifice, implants were removed and processed for immunolocalization of eNOS and iNOS proteins, and measurement of angiogenesis. Neovascularization was quantified in sections stained with Masson’s trichrome or immunostained for the endothelial cell specific CD31 antigen. While most tumor cells and endothelial cells expressed immunoreactive eNOS protein, iNOS was localized in endothelial cells and some macrophages within the tumor-inclusive implants. Measurable angiogenesis occurred only in implants containing tumor cells. Irrespective of the method of quantification used, tumor-induced neovascularization was significantly reduced in L-NAME-treated mice relative to those treated with D-NAME. The quantity of stromal tissue was lower, but the quantity of necrotic tissue higher in L-NAME relative to D-NAME-treated animals. The total mass of viable tissue (ie, stroma and tumor cells) was lower in L

  13. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester as a Protective Agent against Nephrotoxicity and/or Oxidative Kidney Damage: A Detailed Systematic Review

    Sumeyya Akyol; Veli Ugurcu; Aynur Altuntas; Rukiye Hasgul; Ozlem Cakmak; Omer Akyol

    2014-01-01

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of propolis, has been attracting the attention of different medical and pharmaceutical disciplines in recent years because of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, cytotoxic, antiviral, antifungal, and antineoplastic properties. One of the most studied organs for the effects of CAPE is the kidney, particularly in the capacity of this ester to decrease the nephrotoxicity induced by several drugs and the oxidative injury ...

  14. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester protects lung alveolar epithelial cellsfrom cigarette smoke-induced damage

    BARLAS, FIRAT BARIŞ; ERDOGAN, SUAT

    2015-01-01

    Background/aim: To evaluate the influence of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on cigarette smoke (CS)-induced cell damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation in human alveolar epithelial cells. Materials and methods: A549 alveolar epithelial cells were divided into control, CS exposure, CAPE, and CS+CAPE treatment groups. Undiluted CS-exposed medium (100%) and three dilutions (50%, 25%, and 10%) of CS-exposed media were applied to cultured A549 cells, which were analyzed after 3 h of inc...

  15. Synthesis and Antitumor Activity of Amino Acid Ester Derivatives Containing 5-Fluorouracil

    Jing Xiong

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of amino acid ester derivatives containing 5-fluorouracil were synthesized using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC•HCl and N-hydroxybenzotriazole (HOBt as a coupling agent. The structures of the products were assigned by NMR, MS, IR etc. The in vitro antitumor activity tests against leukaemia HL-60 and liver cancer BEL-7402 indicated that (R-ethyl 2-(2-(5-fluoro-2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-1(2H-ylacetamido-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl propanoate showed more inhibitory effect against BEL-7402 than 5-FU.

  16. Microbial dynamics in anaerobic enrichment cultures degrading di-n-butyl phthalic acid ester

    Trably, Eric; Batstone, Damien J.; Christensen, Nina;

    2008-01-01

    enrichment cultures degrading phthalic acid esters under methanogenic conditions. A selection pressure was applied by adding DBP at 10 and 200 mg L(-1) in semi-continuous anaerobic reactors. The microbial dynamics were monitored using single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). While only limited abiotic...... microorganism described previously as an anaerobic benzaldehyde degrader. Within the archaeal community, there was a shift between two different species of the genus Methanosaeta sp., indicating a highly specific impact of DBP or degradation products on archaeal species. RNA-directed probes were designed from...

  17. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Arylspiroborate Salts Derived from Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester

    Martin J. G. Hébert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two novel boron compounds containing caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE derivatives have been prepared and characterized fully. These new compounds and CAPE have been investigated for potential antioxidant and antimicrobial properties and their ability to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase and whether chelation to boron improves their biological activity. Sodium salt 4 was generally more active than ammonium salt 5 in the biological assays and surpassed the radical scavenging ability of CAPE. Compounds 4 and 5 were more active than CAPE and Zileuton in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. These results clearly show the effectiveness of the synthesized salts as transporter of CAPE.

  18. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Biological Activities of Novel Anthranilic(Isophthalic) Acid Esters

    YAN Tao; YU Guan-ping; LIU Peng-fei; XIONG Li-xia; YU Shu-jing; LI Zheng-ming

    2012-01-01

    In search of environmentally benign insecticides with high activity,low toxicity and low resistance,a series of novel anthranilic(isophthalic) acid esters was designed and synthesized based on the structure of ryanodine modulating agent.All the compounds were characterized by 1H NMR spectra,elemental analysis or high resolution mass spectrometry(HRMS).The preliminary results of biological activity assessment indicate that some of the title compounds exhibit certain but unremarkable insecticidal activity against Mythimna separata Walker at 200 mg/L and fungicidal activities against five funguses at 50 mg/L.

  19. Chan-Evans-Lam Amination of Boronic Acid Pinacol (BPin) Esters: Overcoming the Aryl Amine Problem.

    Vantourout, Julien C; Law, Robert P; Isidro-Llobet, Albert; Atkinson, Stephen J; Watson, Allan J B

    2016-05-01

    The Chan-Evans-Lam reaction is a valuable C-N bond forming process. However, aryl boronic acid pinacol (BPin) ester reagents can be difficult coupling partners that often deliver low yields, in particular in reactions with aryl amines. Herein, we report effective reaction conditions for the Chan-Evans-Lam amination of aryl BPin with alkyl and aryl amines. A mixed MeCN/EtOH solvent system was found to enable effective C-N bond formation using aryl amines while EtOH is not required for the coupling of alkyl amines. PMID:27045570

  20. Can propolis and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE be promising agents against cyclophosphamide toxicity?

    Sumeyya Akyol

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a mixture having hundreds of polyphenols including caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE. They have been using in several medical conditions/diseases in both in vitro and in vivo experimental setup. Cyclophosphamide has been used to treat a broad of malignancies including Hodgkin's and non-Hodgking's lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Ewing's sarcoma, breast cancer, testicular cancer, etc. It may cause several side effects after treatment. In this mini review, the protective effects of propolis and CAPE were compared each other in terms of effectiveness against cyclophosphamide-induced injuries. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2016; 5(1.000: 105-107

  1. Synthesis ,Structure and Biological Activities of Some Novel Anthranilic Acid Esters Containing N-Pyridyl-pyrazole

    DONG,Weili; XU,Junying; XIONG,Lixia; LIU,Xinghai; LI,Zhengming

    2009-01-01

    In search of environmentally benign insecticides with high activity,low toxicity and low residue,a novel series of anthranilic acid esters containing N-pyridylpyrazole were designed and synthesized.All of the compounds were characterized and confirmed by IR,1H NMR,MS and elemental analysis.The single crystal structure of 14d was determined by X-ray diffraction.The bioassay tests showed that the synthesized compounds exhibited good insecti-tidal activities against Mythimna separata Walker and Culex pipiens pallens.

  2. Equilibrium partitioning of drug molecules between aqueous and amino acid ester-based ionic liquids

    Highlights: ► Partition coefficients of twelve drug molecules in ILs have been determined. ► The possible mechanism has been investigated from 13C NMR measurements. ► Hydrophobic π–π interaction is the main driving force for the partitioning of drug molecules. -- Abstract: In this work, a series of novel room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) have been synthesized with cheap, naturally α-amino acid ester as cations and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide as anion. The glass transition temperature and thermal decomposition temperature of these ILs, partition coefficients of some coumarins and purine alkaloids between water and the amino acid ester-based ILs at T = 298.15 K, and Gibbs energy, enthalpy and entropy changes for the transfer of caffeine and 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin from water to [LeuC2][Tf2N] have been determined. It is shown that these ILs are highly effective materials for the extraction of drug compounds like coumarin, 4-hydroxycoumarin, 7-hydroxycoumarin, 3-aminocoumarin, coumarin-3-carboxylic acid, 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin, 6,7-dihydroxy-4-methylcoumarin, caffeine, theobromine, theophylline, inosine, and 2,6-diaminopurine. The partition process is driven by enthalpy term, and partition coefficients of the drug molecules increase with the increase of hydrophobicity of both the drug molecules and the ILs. Furthermore, the possible partition mechanism has been investigated from 13C NMR measurements

  3. Breast Cancer Genetic and Molecular Subtype Impacts Response to Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters.

    Chen, Ching Hui; Fabian, Carol; Hursting, Stephen; deGraffenried, Linda A

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have correlated frequent omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid consumption with a lower risk for breast cancer; however, recent prospective studies have been less conclusive. Efforts in the preventive setting have focused on the use of n-3 fatty acids, and the pharmaceutical ethyl esters (EE) of these natural compounds, for high-risk patient populations. Limited understanding of specific mechanisms by which these agents function has hampered identification of the cancer subtype(s) that would gain the greatest therapeutic benefit. In this study, we investigated the in vitro effects of n-3 EEs in four distinct breast cancer subtypes and explored how they affect not only breast cancer cell survival but also modulate the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma signaling pathways. Similar to the high variance in response observed in human studies, we found that the effectiveness of n-3 EEs depends on the molecular characteristics of the MCF-7, CAMA-1, MDA-MB-231, and SKBR3 breast cancer cell lines and is closely associated with the suppression of NF-κB. These data strongly suggest that the use of n-3 fatty acids and their pharmaceutical ether esters in the prevention and therapeutic setting should be guided by specific tumor characteristics. PMID:27367296

  4. Radioimmunoassay for anileridine, meperidine, and other N-substituted phenylpiperidine carboxylic acid esters

    Van Vunakis, H.; Freeman, D.S.; Gjika, H.B.

    1975-10-01

    Antibodies that bind an /sup 125/I-tyramyl derivative of N-succinylanileridine have been produced in animals immunized with N-succinylanileridine-hemocyanin conjugate. Several congeners and metabolites have been tested as competitors of this antigen-antibody reaction. The concentrations (in picomoles) required for 50 percent inhibition have been found to be: anileridine (0.2), meperidine (3.5), piminodine (3.8), diphenoxylate (20.5), normeperidine (20.0), meperidine acid (45,000) and anileridine acid (3,400). Although ester hydrolysis results in changes in inhibiting capacities on the order of 10/sup 4/, major structural changes in the substituent on the nitrogen of the piperidine ring are not readily recognized by the antibody. This radioimmunoassay can be used to study a variety of N-substituted phenylpiperidine carboxylic acid esters by relating the results to the standard curve obtained for the drug under investigation. For all practical purposes, alphaprodine, morphine and methadone do not interfere with the assay.

  5. Radioimmunoassay for anileridine, meperidine, and other N-substituted phenylpiperidine carboxylic acid esters

    Antibodies that bind an 125I-tyramyl derivative of N-succinylanileridine have been produced in animals immunized with N-succinylanileridine-hemocyanin conjugate. Several congeners and metabolites have been tested as competitors of this antigen-antibody reaction. The concentrations (in picomoles) required for 50 percent inhibition have been found to be: anileridine (0.2), meperidine (3.5), piminodine (3.8), diphenoxylate (20.5), normeperidine (20.0), meperidine acid (45,000) and anileridine acid (3,400). Although ester hydrolysis results in changes in inhibiting capacities on the order of 104, major structural changes in the substituent on the nitrogen of the piperidine ring are not readily recognized by the antibody. This radioimmunoassay can be used to study a variety of N-substituted phenylpiperidine carboxylic acid esters by relating the results to the standard curve obtained for the drug under investigation. For all practical purposes, alphaprodine, morphine and methadone do not interfere with the assay

  6. Lipases and whole cell biotransformations of 2-hydroxy-2-(ethoxyphenylphosphinyl)acetic acid and its ester.

    Majewska, Paulina; Serafin, Monika; Klimek-Ochab, Magdalena; Brzezińska-Rodak, Małgorzata; Żymańczyk-Duda, Ewa

    2016-06-01

    A wide spectrum of commercially available lipases and microbial whole cells catalysts were tested for biotransformations of 2-hydroxy-2-(ethoxyphenylphosphinyl)acetic acid 1 and its butyryl ester. The best results were achieved for biocatalytic hydrolysis of ester: 2-butyryloxy-2-(ethoxyphenylphosphinyl)acetic acid 2 performed by lipase from Candida cylindracea, what gave optically active products with 85% enantiomeric excess, 50% conversion degree and enantioselectivity 32.9 for one pair of enantiomers. Also enzymatic systems of Penicillium minioluteum and Fusarium oxysporum were able to hydrolyze tested compound with high enantiomeric excess (68-93% ee), enantioselectivity (44 for one pair of enantiomers) and conversion degree about 50-55%. Enzymatic acylation of hydroxyphosphinate was successful in case when porcine pancreas lipase was used. After 4days of biotransformation the conversion reaches 45% but the enantiomeric enrichment of the isomers mixture do not exceed 43%. Obtained chiral compounds are valuable derivatizing agents for spectroscopic (NMR) evaluation of enantiomeric excess for particular compounds (e.g. amino acids). PMID:26989983

  7. Adjusting the operating characteristics to improve the performance of an emulsified palm oil methyl ester run diesel engine

    Highlights: ► The oxygenated biodiesel has a lower calorific value and emits higher NOX than diesel. ► The objective is to study the water in palm oil biodiesel emulsion in a diesel engine. ► The tests are performed at higher compression ratio and retarded injection timing. ► The results obtained are compared with a POME run diesel engine. ► Higher efficiency, lower ignition delay and emissions are the outcomes. - Abstract: The popularity of emulsified fuels as alternative to diesel is cumulative. The water in diesel emulsion is the most practiced one. The presence of water in emulsion and its micro-explosion reduces emissions. However, the emulsified biodiesel is not properly explored. The reason may be due to its lesser calorific value that does not augment efficiency. Alongside oxygenated biodiesel generally emits higher NOX than diesel. Therefore, the present investigation targets at finding the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of emulsified biodiesel in a diesel engine at an elevated compression ratio (CR) and retarded injection timing (IT). This is because; at this CR–IT combination emulsified fuel will be injected at the warmer environment, mechanically created inside the cylinder. The objective is to achieve a faster combustion, lower ignition delay (ID), improved performance and emission characteristics. The biodiesel used in this work is the palm oil methyl ester (POME). The prepared two-phase water in POME (WIP) emulsion is tested in a variable compression ratio (VCR) diesel engine at CR = 18 and IT = 20°BTDC. The results obtained are then compared with the POME run engine data under the same CR and IT specifications. Additionally, experiments have also been conducted in the same engine at CR = 17.5 and IT = 23°BTDC to compare its results with those of WIP and POME run engines

  8. A limited LCA comparing large- and small-scale production of rape methyl ester (RME) under Swedish conditions

    Bernesson, S.; Nilsson, D.; Hansson, P.A. [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Biometry and Engineering

    2004-06-01

    Production of rape methyl ester (RME) can be carried out with different systems solutions, in which the choice of system is usually related to the scale of the production. The purpose of this study was to analyse whether the use of a small-scale RME production system reduced the environmental load in comparison to a medium- and a large-scale system. To fulfil this purpose, a limited LCA, including air-emissions and energy requirements, was carried out for the three plant sizes. For small plants and physical allocation, the global warming potential was 40.3 g CO{sub 2}-eq/MJ{sub fuel}, the acidification potential 236 mg SO{sub 2}-eq/MJ{sub fuel}, the eutrophication potential 39.1 mg PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}eq/MJ{sub fuel}, the photochemical oxidant creation potential 3.29 mg C{sub 2}H{sub 4}-eq/MJ{sub fuel} and the energy requirement 295 kJ/MJ{sub fuel}. It was shown that the differences in environmental impact and energy requirement between small-, medium- and large-scale systems were small or even negligible. The higher oil extraction efficiency and the more efficient use of machinery and buildings in the large-scale system were, to a certain degree, outweighed by the longer transport distances. The dominating production step was the cultivation, in which production of fertilisers, soil emissions and tractive power made major contributions to the environmental load. The results were, however, largely dependent on the method used for allocation of the environmental burden between the RME and the by-products meal and glycerine. This indicates that when different biofuels or production strategies are to be compared, it is important that the results are calculated with the same allocation strategies and system limitations. (author)

  9. Use of Ni-Zn ferrites doped with Cu as catalyst in the transesterification of soybean oil to methyl esters

    Joelda Dantas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to evaluate the performance of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 ferrite doped with 0.1 and 0.4 mol of Cu as a catalyst for the transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel, using methanol. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption and scanning electron microscopy. The reaction was performed for 2 hours at a temperature of 160 °C, using 10 g of soybean oil, a molar ratio of oil: alcohol of 1:20, and 4% (w/w of catalyst. The product of the reaction was characterized by gas chromatography, which confirmed conversion to methyl esters. The diffraction patterns showed the presence only of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 ferrite phase with a crystallite size of 29 nm. The samples doped with 0.1 and 0.4 mol of Cu showed a surface area and particle size of 22.17 m²g- 1 and 50.47 nm; and 23.49 m²g- 1 and 47.64 nm, respectively. The morphology of both samples consisted of brittle block-shaped agglomerates with a wide particle size distribution. A comparative analysis of the two catalysts indicated that the catalyst doped with 0.4 mol of Cu showed the better performance, with a conversion rate of 50.25%, while the catalyst doped with 0.1 mol of Cu showed 42.71% conversion.

  10. The use of radioactive cysteine methyl ester for labeling glycosylated molecules oxidized by periodate or neuraminidase plus galactose oxidase

    Treatment of rat lymph node cells with periodate or neuraminidase plus galactose oxidase initiates blast transformation and cell division of T lymphocytes. Either treatment introduces aldehyde functions onto glycosylated molecules of the plasma membrane. Reduction of the aldehydes with borohydride leads to a concentration-dependent inhibition of the mitogenic response. Cysteine methyl ester (Cys(Me], which can form a stable thiazolidine adduct with aldehydes, also inhibits mitogenesis in a concentration-dependent manner. Maximum inhibition is achieved at Cys(Me) concentrations about 10-fold lower than those required for borohydride (0.4 and 5 mM, respectively). [35S]Cys(Me) has been synthesized and compared with [3H]borohydride as a labeling reagent for molecules on the plasma membrane oxidized by periodate or neuraminidase plus galactose oxidase. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of labeled whole cell lysates or of crude membrane fractions prepared from labeled cells revealed that the same oxidized molecules are specifically labeled with both reagents. Homogenates of cells labeled with either radioactive reagent were fractionated by differential and isopycnic centrifugation. The fractions were analyzed for radioactivity and for a number of marker constituents localized in various subcellular organelles. Following treatment with either reagent, the radioactivity that was covalently incorporated into macromolecules was primarily associated with sedimentable components that distributed among the fractions like plasma membrane markers. When compared with [3H]borohydride, Cys(Me) offers several advantages as a surface labeling reagent for glycosylated plasma membrane molecules, chiefly the possibility of preparing reagents labeled with isotopes other than tritium, including those like 35S, which are much stronger radioactive emitters

  11. Use of Ni-Zn ferrites doped with Cu as catalyst in the transesterification of soybean oil to methyl esters

    Dantas, Joelda; Santos, Jakeline Raiane D.; Cunha, Rodrigo Bruno L.; Costa, Ana Cristina F.M., E-mail: joeldadantas@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (LabSMaC/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais. Lab. de Sintese de Materiais Ceramicos; Kiminami, Ruth Herta G.A. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenhria de Materiais

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the performance of Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite doped with 0.1 and 0.4 mol of Cu as a catalyst for the transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel, using methanol. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption and scanning electron microscopy. The reaction was performed for 2 hours at a temperature of 160 Degree-Sign C, using 10 g of soybean oil, a molar ratio of oil: alcohol of 1:20, and 4% (w/w) of catalyst. The product of the reaction was characterized by gas chromatography, which confirmed conversion to methyl esters. The diffraction patterns showed the presence only of Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite phase with a crystallite size of 29 nm. The samples doped with 0.1 and 0.4 mol of Cu showed a surface area and particle size of 22.17 {sup m2}g{sup -1} and 50.47 nm; and 23.49 m{sup 2}g{sup -1} and 47.64 nm, respectively. The morphology of both samples consisted of brittle block-shaped agglomerates with a wide particle size distribution. A comparative analysis of the two catalysts indicated that the catalyst doped with 0.4 mol of Cu showed the better performance, with a conversion rate of 50.25%, while the catalyst doped with 0.1 mol of Cu showed 42.71% conversion. (author)

  12. Bioreversible Derivatives of Phenol. 2. Reactivity of Carbonate Esters with Fatty Acid-like Structures Towards Hydrolysis in Aqueous Solutions

    Claus Larsen

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of model phenol carbonate ester prodrugs encompassing derivatives with fatty acid-like structures were synthesized and their stability as a function of pH (range 0.4 – 12.5 at 37°C in aqueous buffer solutions investigated. The hydrolysis rates in aqueous solutions differed widely, depending on the selected pro-moieties (alkyl and aryl substituents. The observed reactivity differences could be rationalized by the inductive and steric properties of the substituent groups when taking into account that the mechanism of hydrolysis may change when the type of pro-moiety is altered, e.g. n-alkyl vs. t-butyl. Hydrolysis of the phenolic carbonate ester 2-(phenoxycarbonyloxy-acetic acid was increased due to intramolecular catalysis, as compared to the derivatives synthesized from ω-hydroxy carboxylic acids with longer alkyl chains. The carbonate esters appear to be less reactive towards specific acid and base catalyzed hydrolysis than phenyl acetate. The results underline that it is unrealistic to expect that phenolic carbonate ester prodrugs can be utilized in ready to use aqueous formulations. The stability of the carbonate ester derivatives with fatty acid-like structures, expected to interact with the plasma protein human serum albumin, proved sufficient for further in vitro and in vivo evaluation of the potential of utilizing HSA binding in combination with the prodrug approach for optimization of drug pharmacokinetics.

  13. Research on Particle Size of Organic Semiconductor Materials Poly(3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-Phenyl-C60-butyric Acid Methyl Ester in Chlorobenzene Solution%有机半导体材料聚(3-己基噻吩)及[6,6]-苯基-C60丁酸甲酯在氯苯溶液中粒径研究

    李晨希; 董兵超; 李萌; 王金淼; 蔡雯君; 牛贺莹; 马恒

    2014-01-01

    The mixture of organic semiconductor electron donor poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and acceptor [6,6]-phenyl-C60-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) is dissolved in chlorobenzene for measuring the solute particle diameter. By comparing the performance of solar cells and the surface morphology of the active layer, the dispersion law of the mixed solutes in chlorobenzene is analyzed. The influence of temperature and concentration on particle size, furthermore, the impact of particle size on device performance are discussed. The results show that most of the particle sizes in the solution are populated at about 4000 nm, and both the concentration and the temperature of the solution have a significant effect on the particle size of the solution. For low concentration solution, the particle sizes are greatly influenced by temperature. On the contrary, the effect of temperature on the particle size in the solution concentration is less apparent when the concentration becomes higher. When the solution concentration reaches 12.67 mg/mL, it has a preferably dispersion and optimal fill factor. When the concentration reaches 19.00 mg/mL, the solar cell made by the solution shows a well property on power conversion efficiency and short-circuits current.%以聚(3-己基噻吩)(P3HT)为电子给体,[6,6]-苯基-C60丁酸甲酯(PCBM)为电子受体材料,制备了不同浓度活性层材料(P3HT:PCBM)的聚合物太阳能电池.通过对比电池性能参数,活性层表面形貌,进一步分析了氯苯溶剂中有机半导体材料的分散规律,并讨论了溶液温度和浓度对溶质粒径的影响,以及粒径大小对器件性能的影响.结果表明,溶液中溶质直径在4000 nm左右的粒子占有较大比例,溶液的浓度和温度对溶液中粒子的粒径有明显的影响,浓度较低时,溶质粒径受温度影响较大.相反,温度对高浓度溶液中的溶质粒径的影响作用减小.溶液浓度为12.67 mg/mL 时,分散效果最好,具有最

  14. QSTR studies regarding the ECOSAR toxicity of benzene-carboxylic acid' esters to fathead minnow fish (Pimephales promelas).

    Tarko, Laszlo; Putz, Mihai V; Ionascu, Cosmin; Putz, Ana-Maria

    2014-01-01

    The present work employs 152 benzene-carboxylic acid' esters having computed the toxicity within the range [2.251, 10.222] for fathead minnow fish (Pimephales promelas). Calibration set includes many pairs having very similar chemical structure, size, shape and hydrophilicity, but very different value of ECOSAR toxicity or vice versa. The QSTR study, which uses all esters as calibration set, emphasized a large percent (16.2%) of outliers. In this QSTR study most of the estimated values of toxicity for outliers are much lower than ECOSAR toxicity. The LogP and some aromaticity descriptors are predictors. The best QSTR for esters having low value (toxicity and the best QSTR for esters having high value (> 5.5) of ECOSAR toxicity are obtained when the number of outliers is very small. These QSTRs are different enough and highlight opposite influences of certain descriptors on toxicity. The results emphasize two possibilities: (a) the esters having low value of ECOSAR toxicity and the esters having high value of ECOSAR toxicity are included in two different classes from the point of view of structure-toxicity relationship and/or (b) many high values of ECOSAR toxicity are wrong. By comparison, a QSTR using experimental values of toxicity against rats for 37 benzene-carboxylic esters included in the same database gives good correlation experimental/computed values of toxicity, the number of outliers is null and the result of validation test is good. PMID:24724900

  15. Synthesis and characterization of vegetable oil derived esters: evaluation for their diesel additive properties.

    Dmytryshyn, S L; Dalai, A K; Chaudhari, S T; Mishra, H K; Reaney, M J

    2004-03-01

    Trans-esterification of four vegetable oils; canola oil, greenseed canola oil from heat-damaged seeds, processed waste fryer grease and unprocessed waste fryer grease, was carried out using methanol, and KOH as catalyst. The methyl esters of the corresponding oils were separated from the crude glycerol, purified, and characterized by various methods to evaluate their densities, viscosities, iodine values, acid numbers, cloud points, pour points and gross heat of combustion, fatty acid and lipid compositions, lubricity properties, and thermal properties. The fatty acid composition suggests that 80-85% of the ester was from unsaturated acids. Substantial decrease in density and viscosity of the methyl esters compared to their corresponding oils suggested that the oils were in their mono or di glyceride form. The lubricity of the methyl esters, when blended at 1 vol% treat rate with ISOPAR M reference fuel, showed that the canola methyl ester enhanced the fuel's lubricity number. From the analyses performed, it was determined that the ester with the most potential for being an additive or a substitute for diesel fuel is the canola methyl ester, whose physical and chemical characteristics are similar to diesel fuel. PMID:14643986

  16. The amphiphilic alkyl ester derivatives of l-ascorbic acid induce reorganization of phospholipid vesicles.

    Giudice, Francesca; Ambroggio, Ernesto E; Mottola, Milagro; Fanani, Maria Laura

    2016-09-01

    l-ascorbic acid alkyl esters (ASCn) are lipophilic forms of vitamin C, which maintain some of its antioxidant power. Those properties make this drug family attractive to be used in pharmacological preparations protecting other redox-sensible drugs or designed to reduce possible toxic oxidative processes. In this work, we tested the ability of l-ascorbic acid alkyl esters (ASCn) to modulate the structure, permeability, and rheological properties of phospholipid bilayers. The ASCn studied here (ASC16, ASC14, and ASC12) alter the structural integrity as well as the rheological properties of phospholipid membranes without showing any evident detergent activity. ASC14 appeared as the most efficient drug in destabilize the membrane structure of nano- and micro-size phospholipid liposomes inducing vesicle content leakage and shape elongation on giant unilamellar vesicles. It also was the most potent enhancer of membrane microviscosity and surface water structuring. Only ASC16 induced the formation of drug-enriched condensed domains after its incorporation into the lipid bilayer, while ASC12 appeared as the less membrane-disturbing compound, likely because of its poor, and more superficial, partition into the membrane. We also found that incorporation of ASCn into the lipid bilayers enhanced the reduction of membrane components, compared with soluble vitamin C. Our study shows that ASCn compounds, which vary in the length of the acyl chain, show different effects on phospholipid vesicles used as biomembrane models. Those variances may account for subtly differences in the effectiveness on their pharmacological applications. PMID:27342371

  17. Ultrasound assisted synthesis of isopropyl esters from palm fatty acid distillate.

    Deshmane, Vishwanath G; Gogate, Parag R; Pandit, Aniruddha B

    2009-03-01

    Esterification is one of the most preferred synthesis routes for organic esters which are most frequently used as plasticizers, solvents and perfumery and flavour chemicals. The present work deals with acid catalyzed synthesis of isopropyl esters from palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) in the presence of ultrasonic irradiations operating at 25kHz frequency and 1kW of supplied power. Effect of different operating parameters such as molar ratio of reactants, catalyst quantity and operating temperature has been studied with an aim of optimization. It has been observed that ultrasound enhances the rate of reaction and the extent of equilibrium conversion. The optimum parameters for this process have been found to be 1:5 molar ratio of PFAD to isopropanol, catalyst concentration of 5% of PFAD and 60 degrees C reaction temperature. Maximum conversion levels of about 80% have been obtained in 6h of reaction time under these optimized conditions. Analysis of the kinetic data indicates that the reaction follows first order reversible path. PMID:18977682

  18. A preliminary study on anti-radiation effects of two cinnamic paeonol ester compounds

    Objective: To study the anti-radiation effect of two cinnamic paeonol ester compounds. Method: The index like white blood cell count, platelet count,bone marrow nucleated cells count, DNA and other organ index on ICR mice were observed to investigate the anti-radiation effect of the two compounds in high, medial and low dosages. Results: Compared to the control group, the increase of DNA content in marrow,the number of splenic nodules, splenic index and thymus index have been observed in group of 4-methyl cinnamic acid paeonol ester and 4-fluoro cinnamic acid paeonol ester. Conclusion: 4-methyl cinnamic acid paeonol ester and 4-fluoro cinnamic acid paeonol ester both have the protection effect against radiation damage. (authors)

  19. Synthesis of [5,6-13C2, 1-14C]olivetolic acid, methyl [1'-13C]olivetolate and [5,6-13C2, 1-14C]cannabigerolic acid

    Potential advanced intermediates in the biosynthesis of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the major psychoactive principle of marijuana, have been synthesized labeled with two contiguous 13C atoms and 14C. Methyl [5,6-13C2, 1-14C]olivetolate was prepared from lithium [13C2]acetylide and dimethyl [2-14C]malonate. Reaction with geranyl bromide afforded methyl [5,6-13C2, 1-14C]cannabigerolate, and hydrolysis of these methyl esters with lithium propyl mercaptide yielded the corresponding labeled acids. The 13C-13C couplings observable in the 13C NMR spectra of these 13C-enriched compounds and their synthetic precursors are recorded. Methyl [1'-14C]olivetolate was prepared from 13CO2 to confirm assignments of the 13C chemical shifts in the pentyl side chain of these compounds. (author)

  20. Molecular recognition of isomeric protonated amino acid esters monitored by ESI-mass spectrometry

    Andrea Liesenfeld

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Two new 9,9’-spirobifluorene-derived crown ethers were prepared and used to recognise constitutionally isomeric amino acid derivatives. The performance of the receptors was evaluated by ESI-mass spectrometry using the isomer labelled guest method (ILGM. This method revealed the preferred binding of L-norleucine and L-leucine compared to L-isoleucine for both receptors. Furthermore, non-covalent isotope effects demonstrate the relevance of dispersive interactions for the overall binding event. These effects also provide hints for the relative spatial orientation of the guest molecules within the host–guest complex, and thereby prove the importance of the spirobifluorene moiety for the observed binding of the protonated amino acid esters.